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THE JOURNAL 

OK Tllli 

9irt]^afo logical ^ssonation, 

ESTABLISHED 1843, 



ENCOURAGEMENT AND PROSECUTION OF RESEARCHES 

INTO THE ARTS AND MONUMENTS OF THE 

EARLY AND MIDDLE AGES. 



VOL. XXXIV. 




Jon: 

PRINTED FOR THE ASSOCIATION. 



MDCCCLXXVItl. 



1^: 



9)^"^^ 



'1' H E JOURNAL 

OF TUB 

2Sntisl) 

ESTABLISHED 1843, 



ENCOURAGEMENT AND PROSECUTION OF RESEARCHES 

INTO THE ARTS AND MONUMENTS OF THE 

EARLY AND MIDDLE AGES. 



18 78. 



Ho lit! on : 

PRINTED FOR THE ASSOCIATION. 



iCOCCCI.XXVUI. 



LONDON ■. 
X. EICHAKDS, 37, GKEAT C^UEliN STREET, W.C. 




CONTENTS. 



Prospectus ...... 

List of Congresses ..... 

Rules of the Association . , . . 
Officers and Council for the Session 1877-8 
List of Associates ..... 
Honorary Correspondents and Foreign Members 
Local Members of Council 



PAGB 

i 

ii 
iii 
vi 

vii 

xviii 

xix 



Welsh Converts of St. Paul. By J. W. Grover ... 1 

The Roman House at Icklingham. By H. Prigg , . .12 

The Early Heraldry of the Abbey Church of St. Alban's, now 

St. Alban's Cathedral. By the Rev. Charles Boutell, M.A. 16 

A Group of Cumbrian Megaliths. By C. W. Dymoxd . . 31 

On Brittany and Britain. By J. S. Phene, LL.D., F.S.A. . . 37 

On a Sculptured Effigy in the East Wall of Bathampton Church. 

By the Rev. Prebendary ScARTH, M.A., F.S.A., V.P. . .119 

The ancient Cross at Coplestone near Creditou, By R. E. Way . 122 

St. Christopher. By H. S. Cumixg, V.P., F.S. A. Scot. . . 127 

Pen-y-Gaer, chiefly in connection with Caractacus, and other 
British Remains in North Wales. By T. F. Dillon Croker, 

F.S.A 139 

Yullc Crucis Abbey. By E. P. Loftus Brock, F.S.A., Honorary 

Secretary . . . . . . . . . . lio 

Notes on the Castles of Harlech and Criccieth. By F. G. West- 

MACOTT Chapman lo9 

Wrexham. By B. Ferri;y . . . . . . . IGS 



\y contemts. 

PAGE 

On a Painting of the Thirteenth Century, in the National Gallery. 

By J. iCPlaxc:ie, V. P., Somerset Herald . . . .171 

On Joseph of Arimathea. By H. S. Cuming . . . .182 

Newdigate, South Surrey. By the Rev. S. M. Mayhew, V.P. . 187 

On Stone Moulds for Religious Signacula. By H. S. Cumins g . 219 



230 



On some curious Reservations in Leases granted by the Bishops of 
Hereford. By C. H. Compton 

On an Unexplored Roman Villa at Itchen Abbas. By the Rev. 

C. Collier, F.S.A 233 

Notes on the Past Session. By T. Morgan, F.S.A., Honorary 

Treasurer ......... 241 

On supposed Crucifixion Nails. By H. Prigg .... 2-1:9 

Ancient Stockade recently discovered at Carlisle. By R. S. Fer- 
guson, F.S.A 260 

The Measurements of Ptolemy and of the Antonine Itinerary, 
applied to the Southern Counties of England. By Gordon 
M. Hills 271 

On an Exultet of the Twelfth Century. By E. M. Thompson, 

Assistant Keeper of the MSS. in the British Museum . . 321 

Folk-Medicine. By W. G. Black 327 

The Abbeys of Winchcombe, Hayles, Cirencester, and Hales Owen. 

By the Rev. M. E. C. Walcott, B.D., F.S.A., etc. . . 333 

Ancient Sculpture discovered in Breadsall Church, near Derby. By 

A. Wallis 348 

Notes on Interlaced Crosses. By J. Romilly Allen, C.E. . . 352 

Medals commemorative of Events in British History. By G. G. 

Adams, F.S.A 360 

On Siegburg Stoneware. By H. S. Cuming .... 369 

Results of the recent Exploration of the Roman Station at South 

Shields. By the Rev. R. E. Hooppell, M.xV., LL.D. . . .373 

On the Compotus Rolls of the Manor of Oundle in the Possession 

of the Association. By I. H. Jkayes 384 

Original Documents in the Possession of T. F. Halsej', Esq., M.P. 

By W. DE Gray Birch, F.R.S.L., Hon. Secretary . .391 

Notes on Welsh Archeeology. By Professor J. Rhys of Oxford . 42-5 



CONTENTS. 

The Roman Station at Cacrgwrle. V>y W. T. Watkix 

The ancient Laws and Statutes of \Valcs. By C. H. Compton 

Notes on an ancient lloman Fort near the Pass of Aberglaslyn. 
By J. W. Grover 

The Cistercian Abbeys of Cymmer and Basingwerk, with Notes on 
the Holy Wells of ^Yales. By E. P. L. Brock . 

Mistletoe. By H. S. Cuming 

The Palmyrene Monument discovered at South Shields. By 
W. DE Gray Birch 

Notes on the Wisbech and Cambridge Congress. By T. Morgan, 
F.S.A., Hon. Treasurer ....... 



PAGE 

431 

436 

460 

463 

480 

489 
506 



Proceedings of the Congress at Llangollen . 

Proceedings of the Association at evening meetings 

Presents to the Association 109, 112, 114, 124, 225, 

Elections of Associates 112, 114, 132, 213, 218, 2 

Annual General Meeting 

Election of Officers 

Treasurer's Pteport 

Balance Sheet . 

Secretai-ies' Report 

Biographical Memoirs 

Anti(|uarian Intelligence 

Index 



88, 195, 307 

109, 218, 501 

32,246,256,501 

25, 232, 246, 501 

236 

239 

236 

240 

237 

262 

135, 2G5, 415, 528 

. 534 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



1. 
2. 

3. 
4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10, 
13. 

16. 
17, 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
2G. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 



OrouncI Plan of the Roman House at Icklingham 

Plan of a Stone Circle and Menhir, called " Long Meg and 
her Daughters", near Little Salkeld 

A Stone Circle near Keswick 



A Stone Circle on Eskdale Moors, and another at Swinside 
near Broughton .... 



Menhir near Dol 
lodhan Moran, an Ii-ish ornament 
Breton Embroidered Collar 
Breton Domestic Architecture 
Objects in the Arthurian district of Avalon, Brittany 
11, 12. Sculpture at Penmarch Church 

Seal of the Church of St. Thomas, Bristol 
lo. Valle Crucis Abbey .... 

Mural Painting of St. Christopher at Newdigate 
18, Roman Pavements at Itchen Abbas 

Coplestone Cross 

Celt from Kale's Bridge 

Celt from Digby Fen 

Flint Arrow-Head from Chatteris 

Flint Arrow-Head fi'om Bourn . 
■ Tattershall Castle 

Tower of South Kyme 

Measurements of Ptolemy in the Southern Count 

" Exultet" Roll .... 

" Pieta" discovered at Breadsall Church 

Interlaced Crosses .... 

Crosses ill Peiu-ith Churchyard 



PAGE 

12 



33 
33 



35 

37 
39 
39 

40 
48 
66, 67 
115 
146, 148 
192 
234 
242 
265 
266 
267 
267 
267 
268 
320 
322 
350 
354 
358 



CONTENTS. 



Vll 



PAGE 

31. British Historical Medals 366 

32. Discoveries on the site of the Roman station, South Shields 378 

33. Cymmcr Abbey. (Jroundriau ...... 464 

34. Regina monument, Soutli Sliields ..... 490 

35. Inscription of tlie above ....... 492 

36. Roman Pavement at Itchen Abbas ..... 504 

37. Egyptian Amulet of Bessa ...... 504 



18 78. 



Irifolj 5liTliiiealagiral lanarratron. 



The British Arch^ological Association was founded in 1843, to in- 
vestigate, preserve, and illustrate all ancient monuments of the history, 
manners, customs, and arts of our forefathers, in furtherance of the 
principles on which the Society of Antiquaries of London was estab- 
lished ; and to aid the objects of that Institution by rendering avail- 
able resources which had not been drawn upon, and which, indeed, 
did not come within the scope of any antiquarian or literary society. 
The means by which the Association proposed to effect this object are : 

1. By holding communication with Correspondents throughout the 
kingdom, and with provincial Antiquarian Societies, as well as by 
intercourse with similar Associations in foreign countries, 

2. By holding frequent and regular Meetings for the consideration 
and discussion of communications made by the Associates, or received 
from Correspondents. 

3. By promoting careful observation and preservation of antiquities 
discovered in the progress of public works, such as railways, sewers, 
foundations of buildings, etc. 

4. By encouraging individuals or associations in making researches 
and excavations, and affording them suggestions and co-operation. 

5. By opposing and preventing, as far as may be practicable, all 
injuries with which Ancient National Monuments of every description 
may from time to time be threatened. 

G. By using every endeavour to spread abroad a correct taste for 
Archaeology, and a just appreciation of jMonuments of Ancient Art, so 
as ultimately to secure a general interest in their preservation. 

7. By collecting accurate drawings, plans, and descriptions, of 
Ancient National Monuments, and, by means of Correspondeuts, pre- 
serving authentic memorials of all antiquities which may from time to 
time be brought to light. 

8. By establishing a Jonrnal devoted exclusively to the objects of 
the Association, as a menus of spreading antiquarian information and 
maintaining a constant communication with all persons interested in 
such pursuits. 

0. By holding Annual Congresses in different parts of the country, 
to examine into their special antiquities, to promote an interest in 
them, and thereby conduce to their preservation. 

1878 a 



11 

Thirteen public Meetings are held from JSTovember to June, on the 
first and third Wednesdays in the month, during the session, at eight 
o'clock in the evening, for the reading and discussion of papers, and for 
the inspection of all objects of antiquity forwarded to the Council. To 
these Meetings Members have the privilege of introducing their friends. 

Persons desirous of becoming Members, or of promoting in any way 
the objects of the Association, are requested to apply either personally 
or by letter to the Secretaries ; or to the Treasurer, Thomas Morgan, 
Esq., Hill Side House, Palace Road, Streatham Hill, S.W., to whom 
subscriptions by Post Office Order or otherwise, should be transmitted. 

The payment of One Guinea annually is required of the Associates, 
or Ten Guineas as a Life Subscription, by which the Subscribers are 
entitled to a copy of the quarterly Jb?iniaZ as published, and permitted 
to receive the publications of the Association at a reduced price. 

Associates are required to pay an entrance fee of One Guinea, except 
in the cases set forth on p. iv. The annual payments are due in advance. 



Congresses have been already held at 



1844 


Canterbury 


1845 


Winchester 


1846 


Gloucester 

Warwick . . f 


1847 


1848 Worcester . . 1 


1849 


Chester . -J 


1850 Manchester & Lancaster 


1851 


Derby . 


1852 


Newark 


1853 


Rochester . . ) 


1854 


Chepstow . . ) 


1855 


LsLE OF Wight . ) 


1856 Bridgwater and Bath ^ 


1857 


Norwich 


1858 


Salisbury 


1859 


Newbury 


1860 


Shrewsbury 


1861 


Exeter . 


1862 


Leicester 


1863 


Leeds 


1864 


Ipswich . 


1865 


Durham 


1866 


Hastings 


1867 


Ludlow 


1868 


Cirencester 


1869 


St. Alban's 


1870 


Hereford 


1871 


Weymouth 


1872 


Wolverhampton 


1873 


Sheffield 


1874 


Bristol . 


1875 


P^vesham 


1876 


Bodmin and Penzance 


1877 


Llangollen 



Under the Presidency of 



Lord Alb. D. Conyngham, K.C.H., 
F.R.S., F.SA. 



J. Heywood, Esq., M.P., F.R.S.,F.S.A. 
Sir Oswald Moseley, Bt., D.C.L. 
The Duke of Newcastle 

Ralph Bernal, Esq., M.A. 

The Earl of Perth and Melfort 

The Earl of Albemarle, F.S.A. 
The Marquis of Ailesbury 
The Earl of Carnarvon 
Beriah Botfield, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. 
Sir Stafford H. Northcote, Bt., 

M.P., M.A, C.B. 
John Lee, Esq., LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A. 
Lord Houghton, M.A., D.C.L. 
George Tomline, Esq., M.P., F.S.A. 
The Duke of Cleveland 
The Earl of Chichester 
Sir C. H. Rouse Boughton, Bt. 
Earl Bathurst 
Lord Lytton 

CiiANDos Wren Hoskyns, Esq., M.P, 
SirW. Coles Medlycott, Bt., D.C.L. 
The Earl of Dartmouth 
The Duke of Norfolk, E.M. 
KiRKMAN D. Hodgson, Esq., M.P. 
The Marquis of Hertford 
The Earl of Mount-Edgcumbe 
Sir Watkin W. Wynn, Bart., M.P. 



Ill 

Essays relating to the History and Antiquities of these several places 
will be found in the volumes of the Journal. The Journals already 
published are sold at the following prices, and may be had of the 
Treasurer and other officers of the Association : 

Vol. I, £2 to the Members. 

The subsequent volumes, £1 : 1 to Members; £1 : 11 : 6 to the 
public. 

The special volumes of Transactions of the Congresses held at 
Winchester and at Gloucester are charged to the public, £1:11:0; 
to the Members, £1:1. 

In addition to the Journal, published regulaily every quarter, it has 
been found necessary to publish occasionally another work entitled 
Collectanea Arcliceologica. It embraces papers whose length is too 
great for a periodical journal, and such as require more extensive 
illustration than can be given in an octavo form. It is, therefore, put 
forth in quarto, uniform with the Arclioeologia of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, and sold to the public at 15s. each Part, but may be had by 
the Associates at 10s. 

An Index for the first thirty volumes of the Journal has been pre- 
pared by Walter de Gray Birch, F.R.S.L., Honoraiy Secretary. Pre- 
sent pi'ice to Associates, 10s. 6cZ. ; to the public, 15s. Subscribers' 
names received by the Treasurer. 

Public Meetings held on Wednesday evenings, at IS^o. 32, Sackville 
Street, Piccadilly, at 8 o'clock precisely. 

The Meetings for Session 1877-78 are as follow :— 1877, Nov. 21, 
Dec. 5. 1878, January 2, 16; Feb. 6, 20; March G, 20; April 3, 17 ; 
May 1 (Annual General Meeting, 4.30 p.m.), 15 ; June 5. 

Visitors will be admitted by order from membei-s ; or by signing 
their names, and those of the members by whom they are introduced. 
The Council Meetings are held at Sackville Street on the same day as 
the Public Meetings, at half-past i o'clock precisely. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION.^ 

The British Archaeological Association shall consist of patrons, asso- 
ciates, correspoudeuts, and honorary foreign members. 

1. The Patrons,* — a class confined to the peers of the United Kingdom, and 
nobility. 



1 The rules, as settled in March ]846, are here reprinted by order of the 
Council. The variations made since that date are introduced, and indicated by 
notes. 

* Patrons were omitted in 1850 from the list of Members, and have since been 
nominated locally for the Congresses only. 



IV 

2. The Associates, — such as shall be approved of and elected by the Council ; 

and who, upon the payment of one guinea as an entrance fee (except when 
the intending Associate is already a member of the Society of Antiquaries, 
of the Royal Archaeological Institute, or of the Society of Biblical Archse- 
ology, in which case the entrance fee is remitted), and a sum of not less 
than one guinea annually, or ten guineas as a life subscription, shall become 
entitled'to receive a copy of the quarterly Journal published by the Asso- 
ciation, to attend all meetings, vote in the election of Officers and Com- 
mittee, and admit one visitor to each of the public meetings. 

3. The Honorary Correspondents, — a class embracing all interested in the 

investigation and preservation of antiquities ; to be qualified only for 
election on the reconnnendation of the President or Patron, or of two 
members of the Council, or of four Associates. 

4. The Honorary Foreign Members shall be confined to illustrious and learned 

foreigners who may have distinguished themselves in antiquarian pursuits. 

ADMIN ISTKATIOX. 

To conduct the affairs of the Association there shall be annually elected a Pre- 
sident, fifteen' Vice-Presidents, a Treasurer, two Secretaries, and a Secre- 
tary for Foreign Correspondence ; who, with eighteen^ other Associates, 
one of whom shall be the Honorary Curator, shall constitute the Council. 
The past Presidents shall be ex officio Vice-Presidents for life, with the 
same status and privileges as the elected Vice-Presidents, and take prece- 
dence in the order of service. 

ELECTION OF OFFICERS AND COUNCIL. 

1. The election of Officers and Council shall be on the first AVednesday^ in 
JMay in each year, and be conducted by ballot, Avhich shall continue open 
during one hour. Every Associate balloting shall deliver his name to the 
President or presiding officer ; and afterwarils put his list, filled up, into 
the balloting box. 'J"he presiding officer shall nominate two scrutators, 
who, with one or more of the Secretaries, shall examine the lists, and 
leport thereon to the General Meeting. 

OF THE I'EESI DENTS AND VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

1. The President shall take the chair at all meetings of the Society. He shall 

regulate the discussions, and enforce the laws of the Society. 

2. In the absence of the President, the chair will be taken by one of the Vice- 

Presidents, or some officer or member of Council. 

3. The President shall, in addition to his own vote, have a casting vote when 

the suffrages are equal. 

OF THE TREASURER. 

The Treasurer shall hold the finances of the Society, discharge all debts pre- 
viously presented to, and approved of by, the Council ; and having had 
his accounts audited by two membeis elected at the previous Annual 
Meeting, shall lay them before the Annual Meeting. 



' Till 1848 six Vice-Presidents, then the number enlarged to eight, in 1864 
to ten, and in 1875 to the present number. In 1868 past Presidents made per- 
manent Vice-Presidents. 

"^ Formerly seventeen, but altered in 1875 to the present number. 

* In the earlier years the elections were in March. After 1852 till 1862, the 
Annual General Meetings were held in April. Subseiiucntly they have been 
lield in May. 



OF THE SECRETARIES. 

1. The Secretaries shall attend all meetings of the Association, transmit notices 

to the members, and read the letters and papers communicated to the 
Association. 

2. The Secretary for Foreign Correspondence shall conduct all business or 

correspondence connected with the foreign societies, or members residing 
abroad. 

OF THE COUNCIL. 

1. The Council shall superintend and regulate the proceedings of the Associa- 

tion, and elect the members, whose names are to be read over at the public 
meetings. 

2. The Council shall meet on the days' on which the ordinary meetings of the 

Association are held, or as often as the business of the Association shall 
require; and five shall be deemed a sufficient number to transact business. 

3. An extraordinary meeting of the Council maybe held at any time by order 

of the President, or by a requisition signed by five of its members, stating 
the purpose thereof, addressed to the Secretaries, who shall issue notices of 
such meeting to every member. 

4. 'J'he Council shall fill up any vacancy that may occur in any of the offices 

or among its own members. 

5. The Chairman, or his representative, of local committees established in dif- 

ferent parts of the country, and in connection with the Association, shall, 
upon election by the Council, be entitled to attend the meetings of the 
Council and the public meetings. 

6. The Council shall submit a rejiort of its proceedings to the Annual Meeting. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

1. The Association shall meet on the third Wednesday in November, the 

first AVednesday in December, the first and third Wednesdays in the 
months from January to iNIay, and the second Wednesday in June, at 
8 o'clock in the evejiing precisely,- for the purpose of inspecting and con- 
versing upon the various objects of antiquity transmitted to the Associa- 
tion, and such other business as the Council may appoint. 

2. An extraordinary general meeting of the Association may at any time be 

convened by order of the President, or by a requisition signed by twenty 
xvlembers, stating the object of the proposed meeting, addressed to the 
Secretaries, who shall issue notices accordingly. 

3. A general public meeting, or Congress, shall be held annually in such town 

or place in the United Kingdom as shall be considered most advisable by 
the Council, to which Associates, Correspondents, and others, shall be 
admitted by ticket, upon the payment of one guinea, whicli shall entitle 
the bearer, and also a lady, to be present at all meetings, either for the 
reading of papers, the exhibition of antiquities, the holding of conver- 
sazioni^ or the making of excursions to examine any objects of antiquarian 
interest. 



' In the earlier years the Council meetings and ordinary meetings were not 
held in connection. 

- At first the meetings were more numerous, as many as eighteen meetings 
being held in the year ; and the rule, as it originally stood, appointed twenty- 
four meetings. Up to 1867 the evening meetings were held at half-past eight. 



VI 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL FOE THE SESSION 1877-8. 



Presilicnt. 
SIR WATKIN WILLIAMS WYNN, Bart., M.P. 

Ex officio — The Duke of Norfolk, E.M. ; The Duke of Cleveland, K.G.; 
The Marquis of Hertford; The Earl of Carnarvon, D.C.L., LL.D.; 
The Earl of Dartmouth ; The Earl of Effingham ; The Earl of 
Mount-Edgcumbe; The Lord Houghton, D.C.L. ; Sir Chas. H. Rouse 
BouGUTON, Bart.; Sir W. C. Medlycott, Bart., D.C.L. ; James Het- 
wooD, F.R.S., F.S.A. ; Kirkman D. Hodgson, M.P,; George Tomline, 
M.P., F.S.A. 



Sir H. W. Peek, Bart., M.P. 
H. Syer Cuming, F.S.A. Scot. 
John Evans, F.R.S., F.S.A. 
A. W. Franks, M.A., F.S.A. 
George Godwin, F.R.S., F.S.A. 
Rev. S. M. Mayhew, M.A., F.R.G.S. 



J. 0. H. Phillipps, F.R.S., F.S.A. 
J. R. Planche, Somerset Herald 
Rev. Prebendary Scarth, i\I.A. 
Rev.W. Sparrow Simpson, I).D.,F.S. A. 
C. Roach Smith, F.S.A. 
John Walter, M.P. 



SCtcastirrr. 

Thomas Morgan, F.S A., Hillside House, Palace Road, Streatham 

Hill, S.W. 

Sccrrtarifs. 
Walter de Gray Birch, F.R.S.L., British Museum, W.C. 
E. P. LoFTUs Brock, F.S.A., 37 Bedford Place, W.C. 

Secretary for JForeign Corrcspantimce. 



Curator nnU librarian. 
George R. WiacHT, F.S.A., Junior Athenseum, Piccadilly, W. 

5IDraitg!)tsman, 
G. F. Temsy/ood, F.S.A., Caton Lodge, Putne}'. 



Council. 



George G. Adams, F.S.A. 

George Ade 

TiioMAS Blashill 

Cecil Brent, F.S.A. 

George E. Cokayne, F.S.A., 

caster Herald 
William Henry Cope 
T. F. Dillon Croker, F.S.A. 
R. Horman Fisheb 



F. J. Tuairlwall. 



Lan- 



J. W. Grover, F.S.A. 
John M. Hoavard, Q.C. 
J. S. PHENfi, LL.D., F.S.A. 
J. W. Previte 

E. M. Thompson 

Rev. Alexander Taylor, M.A. 
Stephen I. Tucker, Rouge Croix. 

F. A. Waite, M.A., F.S.A. 
J. Whitmoue. 



auUitors. 



Wentworth Huyshe. 



Vll 



33ntisifj ^rfljaeologifal gii^i^ociation. 



LIST OF ASSOCIATES. 

1878. 



The ]iast-P residents marJced * are permanent Vice-Presidents. 
The letter L. denotes Life-Members. 

SIR W. W. WYNN, Bart., M.P., 
Presidext. 

Armstrong, Sir William, Newcastle-on-Tyne 

St. Asaph, the Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of, Palace, St. Asaph 

Ace, Rev. D., D.D., Laiighton Rectory, near Gainsborough 

Adams, George G., F.S.A., 126 Sloaue Street, S.W. 
L. Ade, George, 161 Westbourne Terrace, W. 

Adlam, Win., F.S.A., The Manor House, Chew Magna, Bristol 
L. Aldani, Wilham, Frickley Hall, Doncaster 
L. Alger, John 

Allan, R. H., Blackwell, Darlington 

Allen, J. Romilly, A.I.C.E., 34 James Street, Buckingham Gate, S.W. 
L. Allen, W. E. 

Allott, Alfred, Norfolk Street, Sheffield 
L. Ames, Reginald, M.A.; care of J. C. Stogdon, 18 Clement's Inn, W.C. 
L. Amherst, W. A. T., Didlington Park, Brandon, Xorfjlk 

Andrews, Charles, Farnham, Sui-rey 
L. Arden, Joseph, F.S.A., 1 Clifford's Inn, E.C. 

Ashby, Thomas, Staines, Middlesex 

Athenjsum Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 

Atkinson, C, Crabtree Lodge, Sheffield 

Aubertiu, Edmund 

L. Bateman, Lord, Carlton Club 

Bradford, the Right Hon, the Earl of, 43 Belgrave Square, and 
Castle Bromwich, Birmingham 
L. Boughton, Sir Charles Rouse, Bart., Vice-President* Downton Hall, 

Ludlow 
L. Bridgman, Hon. and Rev. Geo. T. Orlando, M.A., The Hall, Wigan 
Broke-Middleton, Vice-Admiral Sir George, Bart., C.B., Shnib- 
land Park, Ipswich 
L. Brown, Sir John, Endcliffe Hall, Sheffield 

Bain, J. (for the Public Library of Victoria), 1 Haymarket, London 
Baily, Walker, 9 Champion Park, Denmark Hill, S.E. 



Vlll LIST OF ASSOCIATES. 

Baker, Rev. Preb. Talbot R. B., Preston Vicarage, Weymouth 
Baker, W. , Sneycl Park Villa, Sneyd Park, Bristol 
Ball, W. Edmund, LL.B., Library, Gray's Inn, W.C. 
L. Barclay, J. H.,''Hill Court, Eden-Bridge 
Barnes, James R. 

Barrett, Henry, 12 York Buildings, Adelphi, W.C. 
Barrow, Miss, 23 Frederick Street, Gray's Inn Road 
Barrow, William Hodgson, 35 Westbourne Terrace, W. 
Bate, Charles James, ThornclifFe, Malvern 
Bateman, W. H., 90 Cannon Street, E.G. 
L. Bayly, Robert, Torr Grove, Plymouth 
Belk, Thomas, Hartlepool 
Bentley, Rev. W. de, Bengeworth, Evesham 
L. Benyon, Richard, M.P., 17 Grosvenor Squai-e, W. 
L. Berrey, George, The Park, Nottingham 
Be van, W. 

Bickley, F., British Museum 
Birch, Walter de Gray, F.H.S.h. ,IIo7i. Secretary, British Museum, and 

9 South Hill Park Gardens, Hampstead 
Black, W. G., 1 Alfred Terrace, Hillhead, Glasgow 
Bland, Ven. Archdeacon, Durham 

Blane, Rev. Henry, M.A., Folkton Rectory, Ganton, York 
L. Blane, Thomas Law, 25 Dover Street, S. W. 
Blashill, Thomas, 10 Old Jewry Chambers, E.G. 
Bloxam, Matthew H., F.S.A., Rugby 
Bly, J. H., Vauxhall, Great Yarmouth 
Bonnor, George, F.S.A., 42 Queen's Gate Terrace, S.W. 
Borlase, William Copeland, M.A., F.S.A., Laregan, Penzance 
Bowyer, Rev. F. W. Atkins, M.A., Macaulay's Road,Clapham Common 
Boyson, Ambrose P., East Hill, Wandsworth 
Bradney, Joseph Alfred, Sutton Court, Hereford 
L. Brag<>e, William, F.S.A., Shirle Hill, Hampstead Road, Birmingham 
Braid, Charles, Essa Cottage, Saltash 

Bramble, Colonel James R., Woodside, Leigh Wood, Clifton, Bristol 
Branson, C. A., Hatherleigh, Sheffield 
Bravender, John, The Nursery, Cirencester 
Breese, Edward, F.S.A., Morva Lodge, Portmadoc, N. Wales 
Brent, Cecil, F.S.A., 37 Palace Grove, Bromley, Kent 
Brent, John, F.S.A., Canterbury 
Brent, Francis, 19 Clarendon Place, Plymouth 
L. Brinton, John, Moor House, Stourport 

Brock, E. P. Loftus, F.S.A., Hon. Secretary, 37 Bedford Place, Russell 
Square 
L. Brooke, Thomas, F.S.A., Armitage Bridge, Huddersfield 
L. Brown, A. M., 269 Camden Road, N. 

Brunt, E., Havelock Place, Hanlcy, Staffordshire 

Brushfield, T. N., M.D., Asylum, Brookwood, Woking, Surrey 

Bulwcr, Rev. James, M.A., Hunworth Rectory, Thetford 

Bunbury, II. M., IMarlston House, Newbury 

Burbidge, John, Little Dawley, Hayes, Middlesex 

Burges, Rev. Dr. J. Hart, Rectory, Devizes 

Burgess, Alfred, F.S.A., 87 Harcourt Terrace, West Brompton 



LIST OF ASSOCIATES. IX 

Burgess, J. Tom, F.S.A., Worcester 
Burgess, William J., Shenfield House, Brentwood, Essex 
Buriattc, F. R. R. I. de, 5 Burton Street, W.C. 
Burlingham, Charles, Bridge House, Evesham 
Burne, Miss, Summerhill House, Newport, Salop 

Cleveland, His Grace the Duke of,K.G., Vice-Presichnt* Raby Castle 
L. CARNATtvoN, RiGHT HoN. THE Earl OF, Vice- President * Highclere, 

Hants 
l. Crewe, Sir John Harper, Bart., Calke Abbey, Derbyshire 

Carey, Sir P. Stafford, Candie, Guernsey 

Cdnliffe, Sir Robert, Bart., Acton Park, Wi-exham 

Cowper, Hon. H. F., M.P., 4 St. James's Square, S.W. 

Campbell, C. Minton, Stoke-on-Trent 

Canu, William, Exeter 

Cape, George A., 8 Old Jewry, E.G. 

Carmichael, C. H. E., M.A., F.R.S.L., M.A.I., F.L.A.S., New Univer- 
sity Club, St. James's Street ; 46a Coleshill Street, S.W. 

Challis, J. H., Reform Club, S.W. 

Chapman, Thomas, 37 Treguuter Road, West Brompton 

Chester, Frederick J., The Elms, Clapham Common 

Clagett, Mrs. Horatio, 17 Lowndes Street, S.W. 

Clarke, J. R., The Library, Hull 

Close, Thomas, F.S.A., Nottingham 

Cockeram, William, 50 South Street, Dorchester 
L. Cocks, Reginald Thistlethwayte, 43 Charing Cross, S.W. 

Cokayne, Andreas Edward, Congleton, Cheshire 
L. Cokayne, George Edward, F.S.A., Lancaster Herald, Heralds' College, 
Doctor's Commons, E.G. 

Cole, T. H., 1 Linton Terrace, Hastings 
L. Coleman, F. S., Trevanger, Hamlet Road, Upper Norwood, S.E. 
L. Colfox, Thomas, Bridport 

Collier, Rev. C, F.S.A., Training College, \Vinchester 

Collins, William, M.D., 1 Albert Terrace, Regent's Park 

Compton, C. H., The Chase, Clapham Pai-k, S.W. 

Cooke, James H., F.S.A., Berkeley, Gloucestershire 

Cooper, Basil Henry, B.A., 68 Fonthill Road, N. 

Cope, Arthur, 8 King's Road, Bedford Row, W.C. 

Cope, William Henry, 12 Gloucester Road, Regent's Park 
L. Cosens, Fred. W., 27 Queen's Gate, S.W. 
L. Cotton, Henry Perry, 84 Regent's Park Road, N.W. 

Coulthart, J. Ross, Croft House, Ashton-under-Lyno 

Cox, J. C, Chevin House, Belper 

Cramer, F. L., 36 Sutherland Place, Westbourne Park, W. 

Creswell, Rev. Samuel Francis, D.D., F.R.A.S., F.R.G.S., Priucipal of 
the High School, Dublin 

Crickmay, G. R., St. Thomas Street, Weymouth 

Crighton, Hugh Ford 

Croker, T. F. Dillon, F.S.A., 9 Pelliam Place, Brompton 

Crossley, Jas., F.S.A., 2 Cavendish Place, Chorlton-on-Medlock, Man- 
chester 
L. Culley, Frederick W. H., Bradcstone, Blofield, Norwich 

1878 l 



X LIST OF ASSOCIATES. 

Ctiming, H. Syer,F.S.A.Scot., Vice-President, 63 Kennington Park Koad 

Curaming, Rev. Alfred H. 

Cunliffe, J. H., Acton Park, Wrexham 

Curteis, Rev. Thomas S., Sevenoaks, Kent 

Cutler, G. 0., F.R.S.L., Brimgrove, Sheffield 

L. Dartmouth, Right Hon. the ExVRl of, Vice-President,* Patshull, 
Wolverhampton 
DuciE, Right Hon. tbe Earl of, F.R.S., 16 Portman Square ; Tort- 
worth Court, Falfield, Gloucester ; and Sarsden, Chipping Norton, 
Oxon. 
L. Durham, the Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of, Bishop Auckland, 
Durham 
Dillon, Lady, The Vicarage, Goole, Yorkshire 
L. Davis, J. E., 5 Brick Court, Temple, London 

Davis, Rev. James, Moor Court, Kingion, Herefordshire 
Day, Robert, F.S.A., M.R.I.A., Rock View; Montenotte, Cork 
Denbigh, the Mayor of, Denbigh 
L. Derham, Walter, M.A., LL.M., Henleaze Park, Westbury-on-Trym 
Digby, G. Wingfield, Sherborne Castle, Dorset 
Dixon, H. J., Stumperlow Hall, Sheffield 
Dobson, Frederick, Castle Grove, Nottingham 
Dunning, S., 27 Parliament Street, S.W. 
Durdon, Henry, Blandford, Dorset 
Dymond, C. W., Penallt, Weston-super-Mare 

Effingham, Right Hon. the Earl of, Vice-President, Teesmore, 

Bicester, and 57 Eaton Place 
Edisbury, J. F., Belgrave House, Wrexham 
Edmonds, James, 67 Baker Street, Portman Square 
Edwards, G. W., 2 Sea Wall Villa, Sneyd Park, Bristol 
Ellery, R. G., Conservative Club, S.W. 
Ellis, Henry, British Museum 

Ellison, Michael, Beech Hill, Norfolk Park, Sheffield 
Emmet, Major, 51 Finchley Road, N.W. 
English, A. W., J.P., Wisbech 
Evans, John, F.R.S., F.S.A., Vice-President, Hemel Hempstead 

L. FoRSTER, Right Hon. William Edward, M.P., Burley, near Otley 

Fairburn, John, Broomhall Park, Sheffield 

Falconer, Thomas, Usk 
L. Farrer, James, Ingleborongh, Lancaster 

Fawcett, Josej)h, 16 St. James's Row, Sheffield 
L. Ferguson, Robert, Morton, Carlisle 

Ferry, Edmund B., 56 Inverness Terrace, Bayswater 

Finch, Rev. Thomas, B.A., Morpeth 

Finch, Rev. T. R , Stafford 

Firth, Mark, Oakbrook House, Sheffield 

Fisher, R. Horman, 13 Durham Terrace, Westbourne Park, W. 
L. Fisher, W., Norton Grange, Sheffield 

Fitch, Robert, F.S.A., Norwich 

Fitzgerald, Rev. Frederick, M.A., Rectory, Brasted, Sevenoaks 



LIST OF ASSOCIATES. XI 

Franks, Augustus W., M.A., F.R.S., Director of tJoe Society of Anti- 
quaries, British Museum 
L. Fraser, Patrick Allen, Hospital Field, Arbroath, N.B. 
Frettou, W. G., 88 Little Park Street, Coventry 

L. Gaiusford, T. R., Whiteley Wood Hall, Sheffield 

Gardner, J. E., 453, West Strand ; Park House, St. John's Wood 
Park, N.W. 

Glasgow, the Mitchell Library, Ingram Street, Glasgow 

Glover, F. K., The Chestnuts, Beckenhani 

Godwin, G, F.R.S., F.S.A., Vke-P resident, 6 Cromwell Place, South 
Kensington 

Gow, Mrs. George, Shropham Vicarage, Thetford 

Green, W. W., 13 Cotham Road, Bristol 
L. Greenhalgh, Thos., Thorneydike, Sharpies, near Bolton 

Greenshields, J. B., Kerse, Lesmahago, Lanarkshire 

Griffiths, Rev. Edward, Bury St. Edmund's 

Grover, J. W., F.S.A., 9 Victoria Chambers, Victoria Street, S.W. 

Grueber, Herbert Appold, British Museum 
L. Gurney, Daniel, F.S.A., North Runcton, Norfolk 
L. Gurney, John Henry, Northrepps Hall, Norwich 

Hertford, the Most Hon. the Marquess of, Vice-President* 13 Con- 
naught Place, W. 

Houghton, Lord, M.A., D.C.L., Vice-President* Fryston Hall, Ferry- 
bridge, Yorkshire 

Hammond, Charles, E., Newmarket 

Hancock, Henry, F.R.C.S., Standen, Chute Standen, Andover 

Hannah, Robert, Craven House, Queen's Elm, Brompton 

Harker, John, M.D., King Street, Lancaster 
L. Harrison, William, F.S.A., F.G.S., M.R.S. Antiq. du Nord, Salmes- 
bury Hall, Preston, Lancashire ; Conservative Club, St. James's ; 
R.T.Y.C, Albemarle Street 

Hardman, W., LL.D., Cadbury House, Congresbury, Bristol 
L. Harpley, Matthew, Royal Horse Guards Blue, Regent's Park Barracks 

Hart, C., Harborne Hall, Birmingham 

Haslam, Frederick 

Hawkins, George 

Hellier, Capt. T. B. Shaw (care of A. Laurie, Esq., 10 Charles Street, 
St. James's Square) 

Henderson, Wm., Ashford Court, Ludlow, Salop 

Henfrey, Henry W., 20 Pembroke Road, Kensington 
L. Heywood, Jas., F.R.S., F.S.A., Vice-President* 2G Palace Gardens, 
Kensington 

Heywood, Samuel, 171 Stanhope Street, Hampstead Road 

Hibbert, Frederick D., Buckwell Manor House, Bicester, Oxon 

Hicklin, B., Holly House, Dorking, Surrey 

Hills, Cai)t. Graham H., R.N., -4 Beutley Road, Princes Park, Liverpool 

Hills, Gordon M., 17 Redclift'e (Jardens, Brompton 

Hobson, J., Tapton Ehiis, Sheftield 

Hodgson, Rev. J. F., Stahidrop, Durham 

Hodgson, Kirkmau Daniel, M.P., Vice-President^^ 67 Brook Street 



XU LIST OF ASSOCIATES. 

Holderness, Robt. F. 

Holford, R. J., M.P., Westonbirt, Tetbury, Gloucestershire 

Holland, Samuel, M.P., Cilgwyn, Carmarthenshire 

Holt, Hemy, R, ) g ^. ,^ ^^^^ Clapham Park 

Holt, Walter Lockhart, j 

Horner, W. S., 7 Aldgate 
L. Horsfall, Richard, Waterhouse Street, Halifax 

Hovendon, Thomas Henry, 181 Bishopsgate Street Without 
L. Howard, John M., Q.C., 6 Pump Court, Temple, E.G. 

Howlett, Richard, 2 Thii'sk Villas, Spring Hill, Bromley, Kent 
L. Hudd, Alfred K, 96 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol 

Hughes, A. R., Kinnel Park, Abergele, North Wales 
L. Hughes, James, 328 Camden Road, N.W. 
L. Hughes, Thomas, F.S.A., 1 Grove Terrace, Chester 

Humphrey, Miss 

Hunter, Edward, The Glebe, Lee, Blackheath 

Hunter, Michael, Greystones, near Sheffield 

Huyshe, Went worth, Auditor, 51 Hans Place, S.W. 

Irvine, J. T.,30 Chichester Road, Kingston Cross, Landport, Portsmouth 

L. Jarvis, Sir Lewis Wincopp, Middleton Tower, near King's Lynn 
L. Jackson, Rev. J. E., M.A., F.S.A., Leigh Delamere, Chippenham 
L. Jackson, Rev. William, M.A., F.S.A., Pen-Wartha, Weston-super- 
Mare, and 7 Park Villas, St. Giles's Road East, Oxford 

James, J. H., 3 Grenville Street, W.C. 
L. James, Rev. Thomas, F.S.A., Netherthong Vicarage. Huddersfield 

Jebb, Rev. Canon, D.D., Peterstow, Ross 

Jehu, Richard, 21 Cloudesley Street, Islington, N. 

Jeayes, I. H., British Museum, W.C. 

Jenner, Henry, British Museum, W.C. 

Jennings, Robert, East Park Terrace, Southampton 
L. Jessop, Thomas, Endcliffe Grange, Sheffield 

Jewitt, Llewellyn, F.S.A., The Hall, Winster, Matlock 

Jobbins, Mrs., 23 Abingdon Street, Westminster 

Jones, R. W., Maindee, Newport, South Wo,les 

Jones, Morris Charles, F.S.A., 20 Abercromby Square, Liverpool 

Jones, John, 95 Piccadilly, S.W. 
L. Josephs, Capt. H., 16 Queen Square, Bloomsbury, W.C. 

Kendrick, James, M.D., Warrington, Lancashire 

Kerslake, Thos., 14 West Park, Bristol 
L. Kerr, Mrs. Alexander 

Kenrick, James 

Kettcl, H., 6 Champion Place, Coldharbour Lane, Camberwell 
L. Kircliofer, Professor Theodor, 12 Kronprinz Strasse, Stuttgart 

King, Richard, J., The Liincs, Crcditon, Devon 

King, William Poole, Avonside, Clifton Down, Bristol 

Knight, C. J., U Argyll Street, W. 

Knight, W. H., 4 St. James's Square, Cheltenham 

Lami'sox, Lady, 80 Eaton Square, S.W. 



LTST OF ASSOCIATES. XUl 

Lach-Szyrma, Rev. W. S., M.A., St. Peter's, Newlyn, Penzance 

Lacey, John Turk,Quintiii House, Cambridge Gardens, North Kensing- 
ton, W. 

Lacy, ('. J., Jun., Bcnibridge House, Haverstock Hill, N.W. 
L. Lambert, George, 10 Coventry Street, S.W. 
L. Lane, Colonel Henry, Bexhill, Hastings 

Lang, Robert, Langford Lodge, Clifton, Bristol 

Laverton, ¥., Cornwallis Terrace, Bristol 

Leach, John, High Street, Wisbech 
L. Leader, John Daniel, F.S.A., Oakburn, Broomhall Park, Sheffield 

Leader, R., Moor End, Sheffield 

Le Kenx, J. H., 64 Sadler Street, Durham 

Lewis, Rev. G. B., M.A., Rectory, Kemsing, Sevenoaks 

Library of the Corporation of London, Guildhall, E.C. 

Lloyd, E. Evan, Plas Newton, Chester 

Lloyd, Miss, Bryngwyn, Llangollen 
L. Long, Mrs. Plater, Derringstou House, Barham, Canterbury 
L. Long, Jeremiah, 50 Marine Parade, Brighton 

Long, William, M.A., F.S.A., West Hay, Wrington, Bristol 

Lord, J. Courtenay, 4-5 Calthorpe Road, Edgbaston, Birmingliam 
L. Louttit, S. H., 110 Cannon Street, E.C. 

Lukis, Rev. W. Ceilings, M.A., F.S.A., Wath Rectory, near Ripon 

Luxmore, Coryndon, H., F.S.A., 18 St. John's Wood Park, N.W. 

Lynam, C, Stoke-upon-Trent 

MosTYN, Lord, Mostyn Hall, Flintshire 
L. Mount Edgcumbe, Earl of, President, Mount Edgcumbe, Devonport 
L. Medlicott, Sir William Coles, Bart., D.C.L., Vice-President* Ven 

House, Sherborne, Dorset 
L. Mackeson, Edward, 13 Hyde Park Square 

McCaul, Rev. John, LL.D., President of the LTniversity, Toronto ; care 
of ]\Ir. Allen, 12 Tavistock Row, Covent Garden 

Macnaghten, Steuart, Bittern Manor House, near Southampton 

Mainwaring, Townshend, Galtfaenan, Rhyl 

Mallet, General Barou de, 19 Carlton Terrace, Southampton 

Manchester Free Libraries, Manchester 
L. Mappin, F. J., Thornbury, Ranmooi', Sheffield 

Margoliouth, Rev. M., D.D., Vicarage, Little Linford, Bucks 
L. Marshall, Arthur, Headingley, Leeds 

Marshall, W. G., Colnoy Hatch 
L. Marshall, William Calder, R.A., 115 p:bury Street, S.W. 

Martin, Critchley, 3 Portland Place, W. 

Martin, Theodore, C.B., 31 Onslow Square, S.W. 
L. Matthew, James, 27 York Terrace, Regent's Park 

Mauleverer, Miss Anne, The Hall, Armagh, Ireland 

Mayer, J., F.S.A., Vice-President, Pennant House, Bebington, Cheshire 

Mayhew, Rev. Samuel Martin, ]\I.A., Vice-President, St. Paul's Vicar- 
age, Bcrmondsey, 33 New Kent Road, S.E. 
L. Mcrriman, IMrs., Tottenham 

Merriman, Robert William, INLarlborough 

INlilligan, James, jun., 30 North John Street, Liverpool 
L, Milner, Rev. John, Beech Hurst, Hayward's Heath 



XIV LIST OF ASSOCIATES. 

Mitchell, R. W., for Army and Navy Club, St. James's Square 
L. Money, Walter, Herborough House, Newbury 

Moore, George, M.D., Hartlepool 

Moore, John, West Coker, Yeovil 
1;. Moore, J. Braraley, Langley Lodge, Gerard's Cross 
L. Moore, Thomas, Ashdell Grove, Sheffield 

Morgan, Rev. Ernest K. B., St. John's, Sevenoaks 

Morgan, Albert C. F., Hill Side House, Palace Road, Streatham Hill 

Morgan, Thomas, F.S.A., Hon. Treasurer, Hill Side House, Palace 
Road, Streatham Hill 

Mould, J. T., 1 Onslow Crescent, South Kensington 
L. Mullings, John, Cirencester 

Mullins, J. D. Esq., Birmingham Free Libraries, Birmingham 
L. Murton, James, Silverdale, near Carnforth 

Myers, Walter, 21 Gloucester Crescent, Hyde Park 

L. Norfolk, His Grace the Duke of, E.M., Vice-President* Arundel 
Castle and St. James's Square 
NoRTHWiCK, Lord, Northwick Park, Moreton-in-the-Marsh 
L. New, Herbert, Hon. Secretary of the Association at the Evesham Con- 
gress, Green Hill, Evesham 
Newbold, John, Sharrow Bank, Sheffield 
Nicholls, J. F., Chief Librarian, Free Library, Bristol 
Norman, George AVard, Bromley, Kent 

OusELEY, Rev. Sir F. Gore, Bart., St. Michael's, Tenbury 
Ogle, Bertram, Albion Chambers, 15 Kirk Gate, Newark 
Oliver, Lionel, Heacham, King's Lynn 
Osborne, Samuel, Clyde Steel Works, Sheffield 

L. Powi^i, THE Earl of, 45 Berkeley Square 

L. Peek, Sir Henry W., Bart., M.P., Wimbledon House 

Patrick, George, Dalliam Villa, Southfields, Wandsworth 

Peabody Institute, Baltimore, U.S. ; care of Mr. C. G. Allen, 12 Tavi- 
stock Row, Covent Garden 

Pearce, Charles, 49 WinqDole Street, Cavendish Square 
L. Peile, Rev. Thomas W., D.D., 37 St. John's Wood Park, N.W. 

Peel, Edmund, Bryn-y-pys, Ruabon 
L. Pemberton, R. L., The Barnes, Sunderland 

Peter, Richard, Toivn Clerk, Launceston 

Pettigrew, Rev. Samuel T., M.A. 

Phene, John S., F.S.A, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., 5 Carlton Terrace, Oakley 
Street, S.W. 
L. Phillipps, James 0. Halliwell, F.R.S., F.S.A., Vice-President, 11 Tre- 
gunter Road, West Brompton 

Phipson, R. M., F.S.A., Norwich 
L. Pickersgill, Frederick R., R.A., Burlington House, S.W. 

Pidgeon, Charles, Reading 

Pidgeon, Henry Clarke, 39 Fitzroy Road, Regent's Park 
L. Planche, James R., Somerset Herald, Vice-Pres., Heralds' College, E.G. 

Poole, C. H., Pailton, Rugby 

Prance, Courtenay C, Hatherley Court, Cheltenham 



LIST OF ASSOCIATES. XV 

Previte, Joseph W., 13 Church Terrace, Lee 
Price, F. C, 86 Leighton Road, Kentish Town 
Price, J., 36 Great Russell Street, W.C. 
Prichard, Rev. Hugh, Dinam, Gaerwen, Anglesey 
Prigg, Henry, Bury St. Edmund's 

L. RiPON, THE Most Hon. the Maequis of, 1 Carlton Gardens 
L. Rae, John, F.S.A., 9 Mincing Lane, E.G. 

Rawlings, W, J., Downes, Hayle, Cornwall 

Raymond, W., Thomas 

Rayson, S., 32 Sackville Street, Piccadilly 

Reynolds, John, The Manor House, Redland, Bristol 

Reveley, H. J., Bryn-y-givin, Dolgelly 
L. Richards, Thomas, Great Queen Street, W.C. 

L. Ridgway, Rev. James, B.D., F.S.A., Hon. Canon of Christ Church, 
21 Beaumont Street, Oxford 

Riley, Henry Thomas, M.A., Hainault House, The Crescent, Croydon 

Rocke, John, Clungunford House, Aston-on-Clun, Shropshire 

Rodd, William Henry, Leskinnick, Penzance 
L. Roe, Charles Fox, F.S.A., Litchurch, Derby 

Romer, Colonel R. W., Bryncemlyn, Dolgelly 

Roofe, W., Craven Cottage, Wandsworth, S.W. 

Rooke, William Foster, M.D., Belvedere House, Scarborough 

Rowe, J. Brooking, F.S.A., 16 Lockyer Street, Plymouth 

Russell, Miss, Ashiesteel, Galashiels, N.B. 

Rylands, John Paul, Highfields, Thelwall, Cheshire 

Rylands, W. Harry, Highfields, Thelwall, Cheshire 

Scarth, Rev. Preb. H. M., M.A., Vice-President, Rectory, Wrington, Bath 

Scrivener, A., Hanley, Staffordshire 

Seobohra, H., Oak Lee, Collegiate Crescent, Sheffield 

Sheldon, Thomas George, Congleton, Cheshire 

Sheraton, Henry, 1 Highfield North, Rock Ferry, Birkenhead 

Sherratt, Thomas, 10 Basinghall Street 

Shute, Arthur, 1 Rumford Place, Liverpool 

Sich, William Thrale, Chiswick 

Simion, L., Berlin ; care of Asher & Co., 13 Bedford St., Covent Garden 

Sims, Richard, British Museum 
L. Smith, C. Roach, F.S.A., Vice-President^ Strood, Rochester 

Smith, J. R., 36 Soho Square 

Smith, W. G., 15 Mildmay Grove, N. 

Smith, Miss, Tudor House, Southfield, Wandsworth 
L. Simpson, Rev. W. Sparrow, D.D., F.S.A., Vict-P resident, 119 Kcn- 

ningion Park Road 
L. Spurr, Frederick James, 2 Royal Villas, Scarborough 

Stacye, Rev. Thomas 
L. Stacye, Rev. John Eveyln, M.A,, Shrewsbury Hospital, Sheffield 

Stephenson, George Robt., 24 Great George Street, Westminster 

Stevens, Joseph, St. Mary Bourne, Hants 

Stock er. Dr., Peckham House, Pcckham 

Swayne, Henry J. F., The Island, Wilton, near Salisbmy 

Tabberer, Benjamin, 10 Coleman Street, E.G. 



XVI LIST OF ASSOCIATES. 

L. Talbot, C. H., Lacock Abbey, Chippenham 

Taylor, Rev. Alexander, M.A., Chaplain of Gray's Inn 

Taylor, John, Bristol Museum and Library 

Taylor, R. Mascie, Tynllwjni, Corwen, North Wales 
L. Templer, James G., Lindridge, near Teignmouth 

Teniswood, Charles, B.A., Caton Lodge, Putney 

Teniswood, George F., F.S. A., Draughtsman, Caton Lodge, Upper Rich- 
mond Road, Putney 

Thairlwall, F. J., Atiditor, 169 Gloucester Road, Regent's Park 

Thomas, H., Bristol 

Thompson, Arthur, St. Nicholas Square, Hereford 

Thompson, Edw. M., Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts, British Museum 

Thompson, William, Gloucester Road, Weymouth 

Thorneycroft, Colonel, Tettenhall, Wolverhampton 

Thorpe, George, 21 Eastcheap, E.G. 

Thruston, C. F., Talgarth Hall, Machynlleth 

Tilson, Lushington, Oxford and Cambridge Club, S.W. 

Tomline, George, F.S.A., Vice-President* 1 Carlton House Terrace 

Todd, Miss, Hough Green, Chester 

Tovey, Charles, 2 Royal York Crescent, Bristol 

Trappes, T. Byrnand, Stanley House^ Clitheroe 

Tuck, George, Post Office, Bloomsbury 

Tucker, Stephen I., Rouge Croix Pursuivant, Heralds' College, E.C. 

Tuke, William Murray, Saffron Walden, Essex 

Turner, Charles H., Probate Court, Exeter 

Turner, John, Ioa Wilton Street, S.W. 

Vaughan, John Lingard, Heaton Norris, Stockport 

Vickers, T. E., Bolsover, Pitsraoor, Sheffield 

Viles, Edward, Pendyre Hall, Codsall Wood, Wolverhampton 

Villiers, Right Hon. C. P. Villiers, M.P., F.R.S., Richmond, Surrey 

Vincent, Samuel, Gervaise, Farncombe Road, Worthing 

Westminster, The Duke of, K.G., Eaton Hall, Cheshire 

Warwick, Right Hon. the Earl of, Warwick Castle 
L. Winchester, Right Rev. the Lord Bishop op, Farnham Castle, Surrey 

Woods, Sir Albert, Y.^.k., Garter King of Arms, Heralds' College, E.C. 

Wace, Henry T., F.S. A., Shrewsbury 

Waite, F. A., F.S. A., Auditor, 3 Gordon Place, Tavistock Square 
L. Wake, Bernard, Abbey Field, Sheffield 

Walker, E. L., 131 Piccadilly, S.W. 

Walker, Mrs. Severn, Severn Lodge, Malvern Wells 

Walker, Robt. Percy, Ventnor Place, Tettenhall Road, Wolverhampton 

Wallis, Alfred, Friar Gate, Derby 

Walter, John, M.P., Vice-President, 40 Upper Grovesnor Street, and 
Bearwood, Wokingham 

Whalley, George H., M.P., Plas Madoc, Ruabon 

Ward, E. M., R.A., Burlington House, S.W. 

Ward, H., Rodbarton, Penkridge, Staffordshire 

Warne, Cliarlcs, F.S.A., 45 Brunswick Road, Brighton 

Warner, G. F., M.A., British Museimi 

Wasborough, H. S., 7 Gloster Row, Clifton, Bristol 



LIST OF ASSOCIATES. XVU 

.Wagstaff, William, (the late), Plas-yn-Vivod, Llangollen 

Way, R. E., Sidney Villa, Mervyn Road, Brixton 

Webster, John D., 21 Church Street, Sheffield 

West, Major Cornwallis, Lord Lieutenant of Denbigh, Ruthin Castle 

Westlake, Nathaniel Herbert J., The Goodyears, Hcndon 

Weston, J. D., Dorset House, Clifton Down, Bristol 

Whitmore, John, 124 Sloane Street, S.W. 

Wilding, William, Montgomery 

Williams, Rev. Canon, Rhydycroeseu, Oswestry 

Williams, T. C, Denbigh 

Wilson, Edward, Brunswick House, Sheffield 

Wilson, Charles M., More Hall, Bolsterstone, near Sheffield 

Wilson, George, Banner Cross, Sheffield 

Wilson, Rev. John Edward, 39 Royal Avenue, Chelsea 

Winn, Rowland, M.P., Nostel Priory, near Wakefield 

Wise, Thomas, M.D., Thornton, Beulah Hill, Upper Norwood 
L. Wood, Richard, Plumpton Hall, Bamford, near Rochdale 
L. Wood, Richard Henry, F.S.A., F.R.G.S., Penrhos House, Rugby 

Woodhouse, Dr. G. J., Ranelagh Lodge, Fulham 
L. Wright, G. R., F.S.A., lion. Curator and Librarian, Junior Atheneeum 
Club 

Wyatt, Rev. C. F., M.A., Broughton Rectory, Banbury 

Wynn, C. W., Ruo:, Corwen 

Wyon, Alfred B., F.R.G.S., 2 Langham Charabei^, Portland Place, W. 

L. York, His Grace the Lord Archbishop of, Bishopthorpe 

Yorke, Major-Gen., Plas Newydd, Llangollen 

Yorke, Simon, Errdig, Wrexham 

Yoll, Corbet Parry, Plas-yn-Yale, Corwen 
L. Yates, Richard, F.S.A., Beddington, Surrey 

Yewd, William, 12 Serjeants' Inn, E.G. 

Yorkshire Philosophical Society, York 



1878 



XVlll 



i^ouorarp Correspontients anD JTom'gn iHembers, 



Ardant, Monsieur Maurice, Limoges 

Birch, Samuel, LL.D., President of the Society of Biblical Archceology ; 

Keeper of the Egyptian and Oriental Antiquities, British Museum 
Bond, Edw. A., President of the Palceographical Society ; Keeper of the 

Manuscripts, British Museum 
Bover, Don Joaquin Maria, Minorca 
Bradshaw, H., M.A., University Librarian, Cambridge 
Brassai, Professor Samuel, Klausenberg, Transylvania 
Cara, Siguor Gaetano, Cagliari 
Carrara, Professor, Spalatro 

Cassaquy, Monsieur Poncin, Seraings-sur-Meuse, near Liege 
Cesnola, General Luigi Palma di, New York 
Chabas, Professor, Chalon-sur-Saone 
Chalon, INI. Reuier, President of the Royal Numismatic Society of Belgium, 

Brussels 
Coste, Monsieur, Marseilles 

Courval, Le Vicomte de, au Chateau de Pinon, near Chavignon 
Coxe, Rev. H. O., M.A., Librarian of the Bodleian, Oxford 
Dassy, Monsieur, Marseilles 
Delisle, Monsieur Leopold, Hon. F.S.A., Paris 
Delgado, Don Antonio, Madrid 
Durand, Monsieur Antoine, Calais 
Dubosc, Monsieur, St.-Lo, Normandy 
Dupont, INIonsieur Gustave, Caen 
Dupont, Monsieur Lecointre, Hon. F.S.A., Poitiers 
Fillon, Monsieur Benjamin, Foutenay-le-Comte 
Formaville, Monsieur H. de, Caen 
Habel, Herr Schierstein, Biberich 

Hardy, Sir Thomas Duffus, D.C.L., Deputy Keeper of the Public Records 
Hefner von Alteneck, Herr von, Munich 
Hildebrandt, Herr Hans, Stockholm 

Jones, John Winter, V.P.S.A., Principal Librarian, British Museum 
Klein, Professor, Maintz 
Kbhne, Baron Beriihard, St. Petersburg 
Lenoir, Monsieur Albert, Paris 
Lenormant, Professor, Paris 
Lepsius, Professor R., Geheimrath, Berlin 
Lindenschmidt, Dr. Ludwig, Maintz 
Longpericr, M. Adrien de, Paris 
Michel, Francisque, Paris 
Nilsson, Professor, Lund 
Reichcnsiierger, Monsieur, Treves 
Richard, Monsieur Ad., Montpellier 
De Rossi, Commendatore, Rome 



XIX 

Schliemann, Dr. H., Athens 

Da Silva, Chevalier J., Lisbon 

Spano, The Canon Giovanni, Cagliari 

Squier, E. G., Hon. F.S.A., New York 

Stephens, Professor, Copenhagen 

Vassallo, Dr. Cesare, Malta 

Wright, AV. Aldis, M.A., Cambridge 

Worsaae, His Excellency J. J., Hon. F.S.A., Copenhagen 

Yates, Giles Fulda, Albany, New York. 



Local i^embers of tlje Council. 

Berkshire W. Money, Herborough House, Newbury 

^^^Count"^ ^^^ \ '^- Reynolds, The Manor House, Redland, Bristol 

Cheshire Joseph ISIayer, F.S.A., Bebington, Vice-President 

^ ( Eev. W. S. Lach-Szyrma, M.A., St. Peter's, Newlyn, 
( Penzance 

Derbyshire Alfred Wallis, 88 Friar Gate, Derby 

Dea'on F. Brent, 19 Clarendon Place, Plymouth 

Durham J, H. Le Keux, 64 Sadler Street, Durham 

Guernsey Sir P. Stafford Carey, Candle, Guernsey 

Hampshire Dr. J. Stevens, St. Mary Bourne, Hants 

Kent John Brent, F.S.A., Canterbury 

Lancashire James Kendrick, M.D., Warrington 

Montgomeryshire M. C. Jones, F.S.A., 20 Abercromby Square, Liverpool 

Norfolk W, A. T. Amherst, Didlington Park, Brandon, Norfolk 

Oxfordshire Rev. James Ridgway, M.A., F.S.A., Culham 

Shropshire W. Henderson, Ashford Court, Ludlow, Salop 

Somersetshire ... Colonel James R. Bramble, Clifton 

Suffolk H. Prigg, Bury St. Edmund's 

QTTUDirTr V^- '^- Brushfield, M.D., Asylum, Brookwood. Woking 

^^^^^^ JB. Hicklin, Holly House, Dorking 

WAR^VICKSHIRE I ^^- "• Bloxam, F.S.A., Rugby 
WARWICKSHIRE ... j j .j.^^^^ Burgess, F.S.A., Worcester 

Wiltshire H, J. F. Swayne, The Island, Wilton, near Salisbury 

Worcestershire... H. New, Green Hill, Evesham 

Yorkshire [ ^^^- "^^- ^- ^"^^^' ^^■^•' ^•^•^•' Rectory, Wath, Ripon 
; J. D. Leader, F.S.A., Oakburn, Broomhall Park, Shef- 
field. 



XX 



PtMications Exchanged with 

The Society of Antiquaries of London, Burlington House, London 

The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Royal Institution, Prince's Street, 
Edinburgh 

The Royal Archseological Institute, New Burlington Street 

The Cambrian Archseological Association, 37 Great Queen Street 

The Royal Dublin Society, Kildare Street, Dublin 

The Royal Historical and Archseological Association of Ireland. — Rev. J. Graves, 
Innisnag, Stoneyford, Kilkenny 

The Somersetshire Society of Antiquaries, Taunton 

The Sussex Archseological Society. — Care of H, Campkin, Reform Club 

The Powys-Land Club.— Care of M. C. Jones, 20 Abercromby Sq., Liverpool 

The Kent Archseological Society. — Care of the Rev. Canon Scott-Robertson, 
Sittingbourne. 



THE JOURNAL 



BrtttsI) atrdjaeolocjital dissociation. 



MAECH 1878. 



WELSH CONVERTS OF ST. PAUL. 

BY J. W. GROVEB. 

Those who have had the good fortune to visit Rome will 
remember with delight the majestic basilica church of 
S. Maria Maggiore, the largest, and I may add noblest, of 
the eighty churches which are said to be dedicated to the 
Virgin in the Eternal City. A few steps from this splendid 
fane, in the direction of the Quattro Fontane, bring the pil- 
grim to the church of S. Pudenziana, which tradition asserts 
to be the most ancient Christian building in Rome. To a 
Welshman it certainly must be the most interesting, for it 
was founded by the daughter of that beautiful and accom- 
plished Welsh lady, Claudia RufRna, who was, it is said, the 
near relative of the fiimous Prince of Wales, Caradog. 

As I am not usins; the word Welsh in its more extended 
application, but am confining it to its modern acceptation, 
it is necessary that I should parenthetically observe that the 
Saxon and Teutonic races generally applied the name indis- 
criminately to the former proprietors of these islands, who 
were not of Teutonic race. The Saxon Chronicle, for 
instance, describes the inhabitants of the Sussex town of 
Pevensey as Welsh ; and the Saxon word "Woelisc" meant 
simply a foreigner. All England, before the Saxon invasion, 
was the land of the Welshmim, although history generally 
adopts the Roman name of Britons. The Welsh of those 
times, it is well known, should be more correctly described 
as Cymry. 

The church of S. Pudenziana is said to stand on the site 

1S78 1 



2 WELSH CONVERTS OF ST. PAUL. 

of the house of the Roman officer Pudens ; and here tradi- 
tion asserts that he and his beautiful wife Claudia euter- 
tained St. Peter and St. Paul. The present mosaics in the 
tribune are of the fourth century probably, and represent 
Christ with St. Praxedis and St. Pudeiiziana and the apostles; 
and above them the emblems of the evangelists, on either 
side of the cross. They are said to be the oldest Christian 
remains in Rome. At the extremity of the aisle is an altar 
with the relics of the table at which, according to Romish 
legends, St. Peter is said to have first read Mass. The 

• • 1 • 1 T 

question of St. Peter's presence in Rome is one which i 
cannot venture to discuss here. All that can be said is that 
we have no Scriptural authority on the subject ; but we 
have indubitable evidence of St. Paul's presence in the 
Eternal City ; and amongst other converts, in his second 
Epistle to Timothy he mentions Claudia and Linus and 
Pudens. The question now is, who were these sainted per- 
sons so named 1 Can we identify them in any way by the 
record of real history, apart from those triads and ecclesias- 
tical traditions on which the antiquary does not like to lean 
too heavily 1 And my object in this paper is to put for- 
%vard the evidences wdiich learned men have collected on 
the subject, rather than to broach any theory of my own. 

A glance at the page of Roman story in the days of St. 
Paul. Claudius was on the throne, and he sends his legions 
into Britain to conquer the land, — a task which the redoubt- 
able Julius, his predecessor, had not been able to accom- 
plish about a hundred years before. Some say he came 
himself, and although he did not stay very long, his lieu- 
tenants prosecuted the campaign with true Roman energy 
and pluck. It must, however, have been but an unequal 
fight at best. On the one side were science and general- 
ship, commanding well-disciplined steel-clad cuirassiers and 
heavy-armed legionary infantry ; on the other, patriotism 
and enthusiasm, and a half-armed mob of skin-clad warriors, 
attacking with enthusiasm, and then flying panic-stricken 
at the first resistance. 

According to the Welsh Triad, No. 17, all the Britons, 
" from king to vassal, enlisted under the banner of the 
valiant Caradog, at the call of their country, against foes 
and depredation". Caradog, we are told by the same 
authority, was the son of Bran, Prince of the Silures, or 




WELSH CONVERTS OF ST. PAUL. 

inhabitants of South Wales, — a race which seem to have 
resisted the Romans more vaUantly than any other. For 
nine years did the undaunted Prince of Wales hold his own. 
His story will be read and re-read with fond affection by 
every inhabitant of these islands, and by every lover of free- 
dom, and a touching story it is. Defeat, and chains, and 
slavery, were the fote of the gallant Welshman. His last 
battle was fouglit, it is supposed, near Brandon Camp, on 
the Teme. " this is the day", said he, " and this is the 
battle which will prove either the beginning of recovered 
liberty or of endless slavery." The battle was, indeed, lost ; 
but by the merciful ordinance of Providence the victory 
really was won by the conquered Briton, for it led to his 
journey to Rome; and tradition tells us that inconsequence 
of the visit of his family to that city, Christianity was first 
introduced into Britain. His dignified bearing in the pre- 
sence of Claudius and Agrippina are such well known facts 
in history that I will merely allude to them. He made a 
speech which Tacitus has handed down to admiring poste- 
rity, and the Emperor generously forgave the conquered 
warrior, and caused his fetters to be removed, and also set 
at liberty his wife, his daughter, and his brother. 

Now Archdeacon Wihiams in his Ecclesiastical History 
of the Cymry, quoting from the Welsh genealogy of the 
saints, p. 58, identifies the Claudia of St. Paul's Second 
Epistle to Timothy with Eurgain or Eigen, the daughter of 
Caractacus ; but in another place he seems to make her the 
daughter of Cooidunus, and the niece of the great British 
chief The tradition in the Romish Church seems to be 
that she was his sister. From the various concurrent testi- 
mony, it may be accepted that she was his near relation ; 
and it can be well understood, from the custom of the times, 
that she adopted the Roman name of Claudia out of respect 
to the emperor, who had generously spared her and her 
noble kinsman. 

The story is told in Sir Richard Phillips' Million of Facts^ 
thus. The British lady Claudia, to whom Martial addressed 
two or three of his epigrams, and others to Linus and 
Pudens, is supposed to be the very Claudia mentioned with 
Linus and Pudens in St. Paul's Second Epistle to Timothy. 
She is believed by Cambrian writers to be of the family of 

' Loudou, lb3J ; 8vo, p. 872. 



4 WELSH CONVERTS OF ST. PAUL, 

Caractacus, and perhaps the Jirst British Christian. In 51 
Caractacus was overcome. In 62 Paul was at Rome, and 
was murdered by Nero in 67. In 90 Martial died aged 75. 
Her Cambrian name, as translated, would be Gladys Ruffyth, 
for Martial addresses her husband as Pudens and Rufus on 
their marriage ; and he also addresses two or three of his 
epigrams to Linus, proving the connection of the three. 

Dr. Lingard, in his History of England, seems also to 
accept the story. We have certain evidence from St. Paul's 
Epistle to the Romans, not later than two or three years 
after the arrival of the Welsh captives at Rome, that there 
were Christian converts in that city ; and amongst them 
one " Rufus". It is also said that, according to the chrono- 
logy of Eusebius and Jerome, St. Paul himself was in Rome 
as early as the year 56, when it was still possible that the 
great British chief was there himself 

The Welsh Triads differ somewhat from the version of 
Tacitus, for they make out that Bran, a great Welsh prince, 
was the father of Caractacus, and was detained at P^ome as a 
hostage for his son for seven years. Prince Bran was a 
bard ; and whilst in the city he seems strictly to have 
adhered to the principles of his order, in the free investiga- 
tion of matters which contributed to the attainment of truth 
and wisdom. 

Archdeacon Wilhams^ says that " the sound morality and 
sublime mysteries of the Gospel recommended themselves 
preeminently to his reason and faith. He might have 
learned them even from the lips of the Apostle himself". 
The fact of Bran's conversion is recorded thus in Triad 1 8 : 
" That Bran brought the faith in Christ first into this island 
from Rome, where he had been in prison." Again, in 
Triad 35 : " Bran, the blessed son of Llyr Llediath, who 
first brought the faith in Christ to the nation of the Cymry 
from Rome, where he had been seven years as a hostage for 
his son Caradog." 

The Welsh genealogy of the saint of the Isle of Britain 
agrees with the Triads in attributing the first introduction 
of Christianity to Bran : " Bran, the son of Llyr Llediath, 
was the first of the nation of the Cymry that embraced the 
faith in Christ." Another copy says : " Bran was the first 
who brought the Christian faith to this Qountry." For 

' Cymry, p. 53. 



WELSH CONVERTS OF ST. PAUL. 5 

these intercstinf^ documents we are indebted to the bards ; 
but we have the high evidence of the early reception of the 
Gospel in Britain from Theodoret, Eusebius, and Gildas. 
The two former refer the event to apostolic times, and the 
latter fixes the date before the year 61, when Boadicea was 
defeated by the Eomans. What makes this subject of 
special interest to us at this Congress is that " Castell Dinas 
Bran" takes its name from Prince Bran, who was said to 
have founded it ; and as he was the first Welsh Christian, 
and no doubt a friend of St. Paul, we must look with espe- 
cial reverence on his ancient domicile. Harlech Castle was 
called by the Welsh Twr Bronwen, after Bronwen, a Welsh 
lady, who w^as said to be the sister of Prince Bran. A 
farmhouse in Glamorganshire called Trevran is pointed 
out by tradition as the place where Prince Bran used to 
reside. Not far from it is the church of Hid, which is re- 
garded as the oldest church in Britain. 

I hope I shall not be held responsible for all the quotations I 
maymake from the ancient Welsh MSS. It isw^ell known that 
they require much caution ; but they have a certain value, 
and, like tradition, are collateral evidence, which is only of 
service when there is other testimony of a more authentic 
character to beoin with. These MSS. state that four other 
missionaries accompanied Prince Bran from Eome to Wales. 
One of them is called " Arwystli", and is spoken of as a 
man " of Italy", and is traditionally identified^ with the 
Aristobulus of St. Paul; the other three are called "men 
of Israel", but their names have a much more Welsh than 
Jewish ring ; they are Hid, Cyndav, and Mawan. The 
church of Llan Hid is said to have taken its name from one 
of these illustrious missionaries, wdio seem to have paid all 
their attention to Wales, the country of their chief. Indeed 
one of the Triads especially claims for Wales priority in 
accepting the Gospel. Thus it says : " Three ways in which 
a Cymro is primarily above every other nation in the Isle 
of Britain — primary as a native, primary as regards social 
rights, and primary in respect of Christianity." 

With respect to the three last named A\'elsh missionaries, 
we cannot certainly be assured that they were friends and 
direct converts of St. Paul ; but if there really w^re such 
people, and they came from Rome as Christians when the 

^ Cymry, p. ^b. 



6 WELSH CONVERTS OF ST. PAUL. 

Apostle was preaching there, it is scarcely possible they can 
have missed hearing and knowing him. The legend is that 
they were sent over by Claudia, or as she is called by her 
native friends, Eurgain. 

Of Aristobulus (the Arwystli), the first of these mission- 
aries, there is a most remarkable independent confirmation 
of the legend as to his being indeed confirmed Bishop of 
the Britons by St. Paul himself ; and it is given at length 
in Usher,^ and is from the Greek menology — a production, 
I believe, of the Byzantine Empire ; and such confirmation 
of the Welsh tradition by Greek writers, with whom there 
could be no collusion, seems to fix with reasonable historical 
certainty the first Welsh bishop as Aristobulus, the convert 
of St. Paul mentioned in the Epistle to the Romans, ch. xvi, 
v. 10. Usher also quotes a similar statement from Doro- 
theus, Bishop of Tyre, to the efi'ect that Aristobulus was 
made Bishop of Britain. 

We will now return to Claudia herself. She is the great 
centre light of our picture, for she at least is no myth, but 
an undoubted once-living beautiful Christian lady ; and 
probably a Welsh one too. Of her friendship with St. Paul 
and Martial we can speak with reasonable historical assur- 
ance. St. Paul, and Martial ! how can I couple two such 
discordant names 1 That after eighteen centuries both are 
yet known as the friends of the beautiful Claudia, is about 
all that can be said to be common between them, yet both 
were in Rome at the same time ; the one an obscure 
prisoner, bound with a chain to a Roman soldier ; a tent- 
maker by trade ; sent from a far distant province on an 
obscure charge to the great Court of Appeal, before Caesar 
himself ; the other the gay licentious young Spanish bar- 
rister, too much given to versification to succeed at the bar, 
rich and powerful, the friend of several emperors, from 
whom honours flowed as the reward of poetic homage. 
The one destined to revolutionise the moral and social 
government of mankind, and to die the death of a sanctified 
martyr and apostle ; the other doomed to retire from the 
brilliant pageantry of Imperial Rome to his native land, a 
poverty-stricken and broken old man. To the first the 
grandest and most majestic of Christian churches of the 
great commercial centre of the world has been dedicated, 

' Britain. Ecdes. Antiq., p. 9. 



WELSH CONVERTS OF ST. PAUL. 7 

the other has left his name only on a volume on the dusty 
shelves of the Latin scholar's li1)rary. ]\lartial, it seems, had 
a special attachment to Claudia and her husband Rufus 
Pudens. His first ode to her, book iv, epig. 13, begins — 

" Claudia Rufe meo nubit peregrina Pudenti, 
Macte esto tsedis Hymena?e tuis. 
Tarn bene rara suo miscentur cinnaraa nardo, 
]\Iassica Thajsa^is tarn bene vina favis." 

Which may be freely rendered — 

My Pudens, with the stranger Claudia wed. 
Demands thy torch, Hymen, light to shed. 
Then rare cinnamon with spikenard join, 
And mix Thuesean sweets with Massick wine. 

Another ode, book ii, epig. 54, says she is a Briton. 

" Claudia cceruleis cum sit Ruffina Britannis 
Edita ; cur Latise pectora plebis habet ! 
Quale decus formse, Romanam credere matres, 
Italides possunt Atthides esse suam." 

Which may be rendered generally — 

From painted Britons how was Claudia born ! 
The fair barbarian how do arts adorn ! 
When Roman charms a Grecian soul commend, 
Athens and Rome may well for her contend. 

In these we have Claudia and Rufus Pudens identified ; 
and it is singular that the poet, in speaking of the latter, 
uses a rarely applied Roman word, " sanctus" or sainted, 
which seems to show the cliaracter of the man who was 
worthy to be one of the earliest converts to Christianity. 
It mio;ht be contended that the names of Claudia and 
Pudens, being common amongst the Romans, might apply 
to other persons ; but when we add the third, of Linus, 
which was a very uncommon name, it seems to fix the 
identification. JMartial, in no less than four of his epigrams, 
alludes to Linus,^ and from these it would appear that he 
was a schoolmaster. 

There seems to be some little difi"erence of opinion as to 
who was the first Pope after St. Peter, supposing him to 
have been one. Some say Clement, others Linus. " We 
know", says the Rev. C. H. Bromby, Principal of the 
Normal College at Cheltenham, in his little work on the 

Lib. ii, Epig. 38; lib. v, Epig. 12 ; lib. iv, Epig. 66 ; and lib. ii, Epig. 54. 



8 WELSH CONVERTS OF ST. PAUL. 

Liturgy and Church History, " tbat Linus was a Briton, 
Clement tells us he was the son of Claudia". If Linus was 
indeed half a Welshman, then it is evident the Church of 
Wales owes less to Eome for its origin than Eome to Wales. 
This, too, is the argument of a learned Welshman, Thomas 
Jones, who, in the year 1678, wrote a singular book, entitled 
The Heart and its Right Sovereign, or Rome no Mother 
Chui'ch to England. I have read that when Cardinal 
Wiseman was elected to that dignity in the Romish Church, 
as is customary on the election of an ecclesiastic to that 
office, he adopted as his patron saint Pudens, the husband 
of the Welsh Claudia, A good deal of curious legendary 
lore has surrounded the name of St. Pudens, the husband 
of our heroine. He was said to have been a senator of 
Rome, as well as an officer in the army. His house seems 
to have been the headquarters of the early converts of the 
apostles in Rome, and his daughters, St. Praxedis and St. 
Pudenziana, according to Dr. Maitland, ministered to the 
suffering Christians during the Antonine persecutions. 

One of the famous portraits of our Saviour in Rome, 
which is exhibited on Easter Day in the Monastery of St. 
Praxedis, is said to have been given by St. Peter to the 
senator Pudens. The story goes that it was sketched by 
that apostle, for the daughters of Pudens, one evening at 
supper, in the house of Claudia, on the napkin of Praxedis. 
It was encased in silver by Pope Innocent III.^ The Quar- 
terly Review,^ speaking of St. Paul, says : " His Pudens, who 
saluted Timotliy, was not impossibly the courtier of a Sussex 
viceroy, as his Claudia may have been the fairest of Sussex 
virgins". In vol. 97 of that distinguished publication there 
is a description of a curious inscription to one Pudens, which 
was discovered at Chichester in the early part of the last 
century, and which states that a certain temple to Neptune 
and Minerva was erected on ground presented by Pudens, 
the son of Pudentinus. It also alludes to Cogidunus, 
who was a native prince who was entrusted by the Romans 
with the o;overnmcnt of South Britain. 

As I have before mentioned, Claudia is said by some 
authorities to have been the daughter of this prince ; and 
the inscription is certainly very curious, to say the least of 
it. We gather from it, however, that Pudens must have 

' See Qxharterly Review, No. 246, p. 503. ^ No. 223, p. 39. 



WELSH CONVKRTS OF ST. PATIL. -9 

been a pagan at the time of its erection. Finally, I may 
mention that in the martyrologies of the Roman Cliurch six 
children are assigned to Pudens and Claudia, viz., three 
sons and three daughters, who were all distinguished saints 
and martyrs. The sons were, according to this authority, 
Linus and Timotheus and Novatus ; and the daughters, 
Praxedis, Potentiana, and Pudenziana. The first became 
either the second or the third Bishop or Pope of Rome. 
Timotheus is said to have become an apostle to the Britons, 
and to have finally suffered martj'rdom at Rome. The 
daughters exercised saintly virtues in the Catacombs. At 
the venerable age of ninety, the beautiful Claudia is said to 
have died, and was buried at her husband's estate in Umbria. 
Of Pudens, we learn from JMartial that he died young. 

It would not be rioht if I were not to mention that some 
objections have been raised to the story of Claudia and Pudens 
on the ground of a want of coincidence in the dates of the 
visits of St. Paul and JMartial to Rome. Without enterino- into 
a long story or controversy on this subject here, I will briefly 
mention that Messrs. Conybeare and Howson, the learned 
authors of the celebrated Life and Epistles of St. Paul, at 
p. 780 of that work, say, after reviewing the Cjuestion of 
dates, " the Claudia and Pudens of Martial may be the same 
with the Claudia and Pudens who are seen as the friends of 
St. Paul". 

There is one other early Christian lady to whom a Welsh 
nationality is often assigned. Her llomanised name was 
Pompouia Grsecina, and she was the wife of Aulus Plautius, 
the general who was sent to conquer Britain by Claudius. 
Her story is given in the 32nd section of the 13th book of 
the Annals of Tacitus ; and it is from the peculiar manner 
in which her name is associated with the ovation given to 
her husband in Rome that her British origin is surmised. 
She was accused of embracing the rites of " a foreign super- 
stition", which is generally understood in Tacitus to refer to 
Christianity ; and although slie seems to have escaped from 
actual persecution, although she underwent a trial, she 
passed the remainder of her life, during a period of forty 
)'cars, in mourning and sorrow. As a Christian she can 
hardly have helped being acquainted with St. Paul himself 
during his stay in Rome, although from the date of her trial 
it is possible that she was not actually one of his converts. 

1878 2 



10 WELSH CONVEETS OF ST. PAUL. 

There is something peciiharly interesting in all that 
relates to the days of that great apostle of the Gentiles ; 
and his intercourse with the little Welsh colony in Rome 
must, I think, ever have a peculiar chnrm to the inhabitants 
of our island. We can, without a great stretch of imagina- 
tion, picture to ourselves the scene in the house of the 
Senator Pudcns, where the venerable bard Bran, the Prince 
of Wales, and the beautiful Welsh Claudia, heard the voice 
of him who made Felix tremble, and almost persuaded 
Agrippa himself to be a Christian. Is there a modern 
believer who would not wish to know more of him ; what 
w^as he like 1 Bosio describes an early painting of " Paulus 
Pastor Apostolos" in the cemetery of Priscilla, near Rome. 
He stands there depicted with outstretched arms in the act 
of prayer ; he is surrounded with the nimbus ; his dress is 
that of a traveller, the tunic and pallium being short, the 
feet sandalled, perhaps to indicate his many journeyings. 
In the Ecclesiastical History of Nicephorus we have a 
description of his personal appearance. Here it is. "In 
person he was small, only 4 ft. 6 in. high" ; as Chrysostom 
remarks, " short, yet tall enough to reach to heaven". He 
also stooped a little, besides which he had a weakness of 
the eyes — a common complaint in those times — which 
dimmed his otherwise penetrating look. His complexion 
was fair, his eyebrows bushy, and rather prominent ; his 
nose was longish, and well formed and aquiliiie ; his beard 
was thick and dark, showing a few grey hairs ; his forehead 
high and commanding, with a head slightly bald ; his coun- 
tenance was grave. Such, we are told, was St. Paul. 

In conclusion, I must allude to the suggestion which has 
at various times been made, that he visited Britain in person; 
and I am sorry to say that, after looking over the evidences 
on the subject, I am bound to say that they are not such as 
to justify the statement that he did come. Clemens 
Romanus, who was his personal friend, does say that he 
preached the Gospel "to the utmost bounds of the west"; and 
although that expression has been shown by many writers 
to refer to Britain, it may, with equal force, apply to Spain, 
where we know he intended to go, from what he tells us 
himself. 

St. Jerome, about 300 years after the apostle's death, 
certainly does say that St. Paul, after his imprisonment, 



WELSH CONVERTS OF ST. PAUL. 1 1 

having been in Spain, went from ocean to ocean, and 
preached the Gospel in the " western parts", which would 
seem to give some colour to the tradition, for the writer 
does distinguish between Spain and the western parts ; 
but this may have been a mere flourish of rhetoric. 

The most weighty authority on the subject is Theodoret, 
who was Bishop of Antioch. He sa3^s distinctly, " Our 
fishermen, publicans, and the tent maker brought the laws 
of the Gospel to all mankind, and persuaded not only the 
Romans and those belonging to them, but also the Britons, 
to receive the laws of Him that was crucified". And else- 
where he says, " Afterwards Paul passed over Italy and 
came to Spain, and to the islands lying in the sea beyond 
it he brought in the aid of the Gospel". This statement 
would carry weight had Theodoret lived nearer to the times 
of which he spoke. As it was, he referred to events which 
ha2:)pened more than 400 years before. 

Speaking generally, the early fathers, such as Iren;:eus, 
Tertullian, Chrysostom, Eusebius, and others, do ascribe the 
introduction of Christianity into Britain to the apostles 
themselves, and their stones have been followed by monk- 
ish writers ; but it is scarcely possible to attach much im- 
portance to what may be only flourishes of rhetoric. I 
have endeavoured to sift the chaff from the wheat, and to 
show that there does seem to be some real historical 
evidence for St. Paul's acquaintance with the little Welsh 
colon}'" in Rome, and of the consequent early introduction 
of faith into our island through the family of Caradog, that 
famous prince of Wales. 



1^ 



THE ROxMAN HOUSE AT ICKLINGHAM. 

BV HENitY PKIQG, ESQ. 

At the meeting of the Association held on March 21, 1877, 
I had the honour of announcing the discovery of the sub- 
structure of a Roman building in the field known as " The 
Horselands", Icklingham All Saints, Suffolk. Since then I 
have caused excavations to be made upon the site, the 
result of which I now beg to report. 

I commenced work early in April, close to the ground 
disturbed in Mr. Martin's digging, referred to in my first 
report, and in a few feet came upon a solid wall, 2 feet 
thick, composed of flint rubble with bonding courses of red 
tiles. This was intact to a height of from 2 feet to 2 feet 
6 inches, and proved to be an external wall enclosing a 
quadrangular space 25 feet north-east by south-west, by 
1 7 feet in width : the western termination, it would appear, 
of a rano-e of buildinojs of some size and character. Further 
excavation proved this apartment to have been entered 
from the centre of its eastern side, and to have been heated 
throughout by a hypocaust, the furnace of which was found 
in the northern wall. No portion of the pavement of this 
apartment remained m situ ; and although the places occu- 
pied by each could be traced, only a small number of the 
■pilcB of the hypocaust, that once supported the floor, remained 
in perfect condition. These were 18 ins. high, and placed 
in rows at intervals of from 12 to 15 ins., with a similar 
space between each pillar. They were constructed of tiles 
1^ inch thick, set in mortar. Those in the southern half of 
the basement (for a low wall in part divided the hot 
chamber into equal portions) were 9 ins. square, and those 
in the compartment nearest the furnace 12 ins. by 9. On 
these were placed originally the large thick tiles upon which 
the plaster floor was laid, and portions of both were found 
duriu(»" the excavation amonost the debris that filled the 

o o 

walls. The pillars themselves stood upon a coarse concrete 
floor of lime and pounded tile, which was covered with soot 
and wood-ashes, and in which now and then sundry bones 
of animals and a few coins turned up. 



GROUND Plan 

OF THE 

ROMAN HOUSE 
ICKLINGHAM, SUFFOLK, 

EXCAVATED. APRIL 1877. 




ROMAN HOUSE AT ICKLINGHAM. 13 

At eoch end of the south-eastern wall of the main build- 
ing, aud projecting therefrom, was an apartment of small 
size. That at the east corner was only 6 ft. 4 ins. by 

5 ft. 4 ins., and had walls of the same thickness and construc- 
tion as the larger room, but covered internally with a fine 
plaster. Its floor also consisted of plaster based upon a con- 
crete, 18 ins. thick, of lime and large flint stones. 

Adjoining this, in the angle formed with the wall of the 
main building, was room No. 4, likewise rectangular, and 
measuring 7 ft. by 5 ft. 3 ins. It had been paved with tiles 
1.5 ins. by lOi, bedded upon a concrete of extreme hard- 
ness. The walls of this apartment were 17 ins. thick, as 
were those also of the room at the southern angle. No. 3. 
The internal dimensions of this were 7 ft. 6 ins. long by 

6 ft. 4 ins. wide. It was found to be filled to a depth of 
over 3 ft. with dark unctuous earth, in which were bones 
and fragments of pottery. Between this chamber and what 
is considered to have been the entrance to the large room 
was a short length of thick walling running parallel with 
the wall of the latter at a distance of 3 ft,, and connected 
with it by a narrow wall of slight construction. This in its 
turn partially supported a projecting ledge, 4 ft. long by 
1 ft. in width, on which was a flooring of fine cement. The 
space enclosed by the two walls had originally been paved 
with tiles, and was possibly a passage-way into apartment 
No. 3. Upon the northern corner of the thick wall was 
found a little heap of thirt}^ third brass Roman coins and a 
fragment of a reeded vessel of glass. 

From the eastern walls of the projecting rooms at the 
angles, walls ran connecting this portion of the building 
with others further to the east, but, followed for a few feet, 
they were found to have been demolished, nor in the course 
of the present excavations could their continuations be hit 
upon. Trial trenches, dug in the intervening 35 ft., showed 
only a stratum of compact chalk and gravel at 18 ins. below 
the surface throughout ; and, owing to the field being 
planted with barley, no further excavations were made in 
this direction. 1 hope, however, arrangements may be made 
to plan the remainder of the villa, or whatever it may prove 
to be, at some future time, for there is little doubt that 
other remains are to be found further in the field. So far 
as one can judge from the portion alreaily explored, the 



14 ROMAN HOUSE AT ICKLINGHAM. 

general plan of the building was that of a parallelogram, 
directed north-west and south-east, having its principal 
apartments at the ends, and the minor ones grouped around 
a central courtyard. 

In one feature only does this building differ from those 
explored elsewhere in Great Britain, the plans of which are 
known to me ; and that is the position and construction of 
the furnace of the hypocaust, which it will be seen by the 
plan projects into the building. It is constructed of tiles 
and cement, and is 18 ins. in width at the bottom, and 22 
at a height of 9 ins. above it. Its length within the build- 
ing is 3 ft. 6 ins. As the height of the topmost tiles coin- 
cides with those of the perfect j)ilce of the hypocaust, and 
there is no appearance of the formation of an arch, I am 
inclined to believe the roof was formed of large tiles, frag- 
ments 3 ins. thick being found near by. Without the wall 
was the prefurnium, constructed, as usual, of fragments of 
limestone, chalk, and mortar. 

In more than one place, but notably at the south-east 
corner of the hypocaust, flue-tiles set up on end, in pairs, 
and filled with cement, did duty for the tile-piers ; and the 
corner itself was paved with red tiles, and filled to the floor- 
level with a shapeless mass of clunch and mortar. I can 
only imagine this to have been a rude repair of the floor, 
the support of which hereabouts may have given way. 

It is very evident, from the state of the remains, that the 
building, after its abandonment, was subjected to a consider- 
able spoliation, for the tiles with which all the corners of 
the main room had been turned were carefully removed, 
and the mortar from them left in a heap at the angles. The 
tiles of the j9?7cp, not injured by the fire, were removed in 
the same way, as were those from the floor of room No. 4. 
There was also a marked absence of materials of the super- 
structure. The period of the dismantling of the building is 
indicated, I think, by the coins found in the soot of the 
south-east corner of the hypocaust, and would point to the 
latter half of the fifth century, they being all minimi, — 
diminutive coins of the type of those of the tyrant emperors. 

Fragments of various kinds of pottery, and a number of 
bones of animals, were found during the progress of the 
excavations, but not the quantity usuafly found. The animal 
remains include those of the horse, ox, goat, pig, fox, and 



ROMAN HOUSE AT ICKLTNGHAM. 15 

hare ; many shells of a large but superior kind of oyster, 
and of the common hedgesnail [helix aspersa) ; and one 
fragment of a pearl- mussel. 

With the exception of three iron holdfasts, some nails, 
and an iron axe-head of a t}pe decidedly Saxon,^ which 
was possibly lost by a workman employed in dismantling 
the building, nothing in the way of metal was found save 
the coins. These were all small brass, and, with few ex- 
ceptions, were much oxidised. The most important were a 
Magnia Urhica — rev., a female standing, supporting with 
the left hand a shield and sceptre, and in the right a helmet; 
legend, venvs victkix, with s xxi in exergue^ — from the 
little heap found upon the wall ; and a Carausius of the 
ordinary pax avg. type, found in room No. 4. 

^ For form of the axe, see Hewitt's Ancient Armour, Plate 7, No. 6 ; or Ilorce 
Ferales, Plate 27, No. 17. Curiously, the last example was found at Ickling- 
hain. 

- Type 12, Cohen, 2Ied. Inqer.., t. v, p. 368. 



16 



THE 

EARLY HERALDRY OF THE ABBEY CHURCH OF 
ST. ALBAN, NOW ST. ALBANY CATHEDRAL. 

BY THE REV. CHARLES BOaTELL, M.A. 

While, as a treasury of historical architecture, second to no 
edifice in England in its riches of early heraldry, the vener- 
able and grand church at St. Alban's, now crowned with 
the highest dignity, may justly claim to hold equal rank 
with its sister Cathedrals of Canterbury and York (and, 
indeed, as of old the head of the Abbey of the British proto- 
•martyr disputed precedence with the abbot of royal West- 
minster), the abbey church of St. Alban may almost hesitate 
to recognise an heraldic superior even in the queen of our 
national churches. 

The singularly interesting and very beautiful photograph 
of an important portion of the painted flat ceiHng of the 
choir of St. Alban's Cathedral, exhibited at the last meeting 
of the Association by Mr. Grover (and afterwards, by that 
gentleman's courtesy and kindness, entrusted to my care, 
with the view to my preparing some notice of it to accom- 
pany its second appearance in this room on the present 
occasion), necessarily directed attention to the assemblage 
of shields of arms displayed in the photograph in question. 
But the time of the last meeting was too fully engaged with 
other considerations of great interest to admit any inquiries 
connected with the St. Alban's heraldic ceiling, and accord- 
ingly I ventured to suggest that Mr. Grover's photograph 
might consistently be brought, in a regular manner, before 
the notice of the Association this evening. My long fami- 
liarity with the noble old church at St. Alban's, coupled 
with the fact that upwards of thirty years ago it was my 
good fortune to be one of the founders and one of the first 
Honorary Secretaries of the St. Alban's Architectural Soci- 
ety, will be accepted, 1 trust, in justification of my having 
taken upon myself to address to the British Archaeological 
Association some observations upon the early heraldry of 
the youngest of our cathedrals. 



HERALDllY OF THE ABBEY CHUKCJH OF ST. ALBAN. 17 

The St. All);m's early heniklry may be divided into four 
principal groups : 1. The first comprises the shields of arms 
and other insionia that constitute integral parts or decora- 
tive accessories of the architecture of the edifice itself ; but 
not including either the remains of early stained glass in 
the windows, or the blazonry of the roofs. 2. To the second 
group may be assigned the heraldry that still lingers in 
early stained glass in some of the windows. 3. The collec- 
tions of armorial shields and devices that are blazoned upon 
the roofs form the third group. And 4. In the fourth group 
is included all the heraldry of the early monuments. If to 
these four a fifth group, of a kindred character, were to be 
added, it would comprehend the heraldry of the more 
modern monuments, of modern glass in the windows, and 
of a numerous series of monumental hatchments preserved 
on the north wall near the west end of the north aisle of 
the nave. 

I propose now to treat almost exclusively of the third 
of these groups, the one that contains the heraldry of the 
St. Alban's roofs, with brief references only to the other 
three groups ; and thus I leave a detailed consideration of 
the heraldry of those three groups to be brought on some 
other occasion before the Association. 

In order to avoid repetition, and at the same time simply 
to do an act of justice, I may here remark on the long array 
of armorial insignia carved in relief in different parts of the 
building, that, almost without an exception, they have been 
both designed and executed with a boldness, spirit, and 
freedom, with a richness and a delicacy also, and a loving 
feeling for true heraldic art, which, indeed, leave nothing 
to be desired. This prevailing excellence is in no degree 
affected by the foreign heraldic influence palpable in the 
insignia scattered in rich profusion throughout the chantry 
of Abbot Thomas Ramryge, about a.d. 1500. 

St. Alban's Cathedral, of which the extreme length on the 
exterior is 547 feet 9 inches, in its present state consists of 
nave with north and south aisles ; transept without aisles ; 
central tower ; choir and presbytery, or feretory, to which 
the recovered shrine of St. Alban — one genuine "restora- 
tion" in recent architectural proceedings to be mentioned 
with unqualified satisfaction — so happily has l)een restored ; 
an eastern aisle, or ambulatory, extending from north to 

1878 3' 



18 THE EARLY HERALDRY 

soutli to the full width of the choir and its aisles ; and 
Lady Chapel. 

The heraldry of the roofs of this nolile building is dis- 
played upon, and in connection with, the vaulting of the 
feretory and of the three hays of the choir to the east of 
the line of the transept, and on the painted flat ceilings of 
the transept and the nave. 

Upon the wall above the great eastern arch, under the 
tower, at the crossing of the transept, looking towards the 
east, three shields of ample size are blazoned in their tinc- 
tures. The central shield, charged w^th the arms of the 
Abbe)^ azure, a saltire or, is ensigned wdth a very large cap 
of crimson rising from an ermine band ; and to the dexter 
and the sinister of this shield, as if discharging the duty of 
its supporters, a lamb with a red cross pennon and a golden 
eagle, both of them nimbed, are represented. The shield to 
the south of the lamb bears gulesi, three open crowns, two 
and one, or; and the shield to the north of the eagle is 
quartcrhj giiles and or, four lions rampant counterchanged. 
In connection with these shields and their accessories, four 
lines of rhyming Latin declare, "Ubicunque vides sit pictus 
ut agnus et ales". There may be recognised the work of 
John, sixth of that name. Abbot of St. Alban's. The sixth 
John of the forty abbots of St. Alban's was John de Wheat- 
HAMSTEDE, A.D. 1421-60, SO designated, as it would seem, 
from the place of his birth, AVheathampstead — a large and 
populous village, situated on the river Lea, five miles due 
north of the city of St. Alban's.^ The Agnus Dei and the 

' In the north transept of the interesting church at Wheathamstead, recently 
"restored", is preserved a monumental brass to Hugh BosTOCKaud Makgahet 
Macry his wife, the parents of Abbot John de Wheatharastede, as an inscrip- 
tion, still perfect, at the feet of the two engraven effigies records in the metrical 
fashion of the fifteenth century. This brass, which is not dated, but may be 
assigned to about 1440, retains above the head of the eifigy of the lady a shield 
of; anus, which bears three bats, their wivgs expanded, tico and one. The in- 
scription, which may be assumed to have been written by the abbot himself, is 
as follows : — 

" nic pater hie mater . soror hie jacet . hie quoqv'. frater 
Pastoris i>ecorum Prothomartiris angligenarum 
Bostok lingo patri . Macry margareta qu . matri 
Konien erat . simile genitus trahit a genitore 
Ilinc qui pertransis . rogo femina vir j)uer an sis 
Vt periter recubaut. in pace precare quiescant." 

The second line contains what from other sources appears to have been a 
favourite form of expression with the abbot when speaking of himself. From 
this inscription we learn the family name of Abbot John to have been Bostock, 



OF THE ABBEY CHURCH OF ST. ALBAN". 19 

eagle, respeclively emblems of St. John the Baptist and St. 
John tlie Apostle and Evangelist, were assumed by abl^ot John 
de Wheathamstede to symbolise his own Christian name, 
and in like manner to be suiroestive of his temtorial name ; 
for his arms the abljot bore — guks, a chevron between three 
clusters of as many ears ofivheat, or, with the appropriate 
motto, VALLES : HABUNDABUNT. This shield, in many in- 
stances supported by two angels and ensigned with a mitre, 
frequently appears in the eastern parts of the church. Nor 
is the abbot's badge absent — a cluster of three ears of wheat, 
having their stalks so arranged that they form a monogram 
of the letters i.w. — the initials of the abbot's names. The 
clusters of the three wheat-ears in the armorial shield are 
tied together in the same manner. Kepeated again and again, 
and associated with an abundance of beautifully illuminated 
foliao-e, the lamb and the eaole of John de Wheathamstede 
appear upon the choir and feretory vaulting ; itself a work 
of rich design, attributed to abbot John, and most skilfully 
executed in wood ; and the gilding and colour are almost 
as brilliant and fresh as when the good abbot stood and 
watched the completion of his designs. Upon the wall at 
the east end of the feretory, and immediately below this 
vaulting, two large shields ensigned with crowns are painted. 
One is oi France, modern, and England quarterly ; and the 
other of the Confessor. 

At a later period, twelve groups of armorial shields, ap- 
parently formed of wood, and having their charges duly 
blazoned in their proper tinctures, were placed immediately 
above the vaulting shafts of the choir and feretory, and so 
arranged as to spread out like the opening of fan-tracery. 
Of the fifty-two shields that form these groups, I must 
be content now to mention only those of Butler, Grimston, 
Cecil, Howard, Beauclerk Duke of St. Alban's, Newburgh, 

while the name of the village, still famous for its productive corn lands, in 
which his parents and nearest relatives were buried, and where he himselt in 
all probability passed his early years, explains his designation of De Whkat- 
HAMSTEDE, with the vjheat eari of his armorial shield and his l);ulge, and his 
happily allusive motto. At Wheathamstede the family name of the abbot's 
mother is still preserved in the title Macri,e)id, which distinguishes an estate 
and a manor house of a superior order. In another brass, adjoining that of 
Hugo and Margaret Bostock in Wheathamstead Church, the shield with the 
three bats again appears, with the engraven ethgies of Joun and Elizabeth 
Hetwortii. It is worthy of note that the predecessor of John de Wheatham- 
stede in the abbacy of St. Alban's was William de Heywoiith, afterwards 
Bishop of Lichtield. 



20 THE EARLY HEEALDRY 

aDrl BeauchaTnp of Warwick ; Berkeley, Capel, and Eussell. 
The last two shields are those of the see of Canterbury, and 
the royal arras of the Stuarts, differenced with a silver label 
of three points ; the shield apparently of James Francis 
Edward Stuart, so well known as the " Chevalier St. George", 
son of James II, who was born in 1688. In the archi- 
episcopal shield the insignia of Canterbury impale — argent, 
on a chevron, between three crosses j^cittces, gules, as many 
martlets of the field. Thus this is the shield of William 
Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury from 1678 to 1691; 
and, accordingly, these shields may be assumed to have been 
blazoned and placed in their present positions during the 
period of that prelate's primacy. 

I pass now from the easternmost portion of the main 
building of the cathedral to its western extremity. The 
structural nave, that is, the entire range of the church, from 
the transept towards the west, extends to no less than 
thirteen bays. Of these bays, however; the three that are 
nearest to the transept are included in the choir ; and it is 
exclusively to these three bays that Mr. Grover's photo- 
graph refers. The inner roof of all these thirteen bays is 
a flat ceihng of wood ; and a similar ceiling also covers the 
entire range of the transept. The whole of this flat ceiling 
is painted, and the execution of the whole is assigned to the 
thirty-third abbot, John de Wheathamstede, of whom I 
have already spoken at some length. 

In connection with the western portion of the nave, and 
in addition to the painted decorations of the ceiling on each 
side, sixteen small figures of angels have been introduced, 
carrying shields of arms. On the south side, commencing 
from the west end, the shields carried by the fourth and the 
eighth angel respectively bear, — gules, betiveen three roses 
argent, the initials i.w. ; and, azure, 07i a bend argent, a bird 
rising sable; dimidiating, argent, a cross gules. On the north 
side there are, borne by the first, fourth, fifth, seventh, 
eleventh, fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth angels, the 
eight shields following : — 1. Azure, the monogram IHC 
argent. 2. Per pale gules and, argent, a cross botonce, per 
cross counter clianged. 3. Gules, three open crowns, tivo 
and one, or. 4. Gules, the letter m, crowned. 5. Gules, a 
cross argent. 6. Azure, a saltire or, for the abbey of St. 
Alban. 7. Argent, five bleeding wounds in saltii^e gides. 



OF THE ABBEY CHURCH OF ST. ALBAN. 21 

8. Argent, a cross gules. Commencing from the west end, 
the flat ceiling over each of the ten bays is divided into 
two rows of rectangular cusped panels ; and each of these 
panels contains, in white upon a dark ground, the mono- 
gram IHC, with eight small lions passant, which form an 
orle around the letters. Proceeding eastwards, the three 
bays, included by the St. Cuthbert's screen in the choir, 
(that intervene between the ten just named, that have the 
monograms, and the transept) upon their flat ceiling display 
the armorial insignia shown in Mr. Grover's photograph. 
This ceiling is divided into eleven rows of rectangular panels, 
six panels being in each row. With the exception of the 
two central panels of the entire composition, these panels 
display alternately a shield of arms and the monogram ihc. 
Each shield is held by an angel, above whose head is a scroll, 
inscribed with a brief text, or some pious ejaculation, or 
some declaration of faith ; while below each shield a corres- 
ponding scroll sets forth to whom the armorial blazon 
belongs. Each monogram, written in ribbon letters in white, 
on a dark field, is inclosed within a circular wreath or orle ; 
and at each angle of the panel there is a cluster of three ivy 
leaves, with tendrils extended to environ the wreath. At 
each angle also of every one of these panels a small carved 
boss is placed on the dividing lines. 

The inscription beneath each shield commences with the 
word " scutum", and the following is the series of these in- 
scriptions in their consecutive order, commencing with the 
north-easternmost panel, the first shown in the photo- 
graph : — 

1. " Scutum s'ci Edmundi regis." Azure, three open 
crowns or. 

2. " Scutu s'ci Albani martyrls." Azure, a saltire or. 

3. "Scutu s'ci Ofl"' mercii regis." Gules,. t\\VQ(i open 
crowns or. 

4. " Scutum s'ci Georgii." Argent, a cross (/ides. 

5. " Scutum s'ci Edwardi regis." Azure, between five 
martlets, a cross fleurie or. 

6. " Scutii s'ci Lodrici regis fra." Azure, three fleurs de 
lys, two and one or. 

7. " Scutum imperatoris Romano." Argent, an eagle with_ 
two heads displayed, sable. 

8. "Scutu." 



22 THE EARLY HERALDRY 

9. " Scutu imperatoris Constantino." Gules, a cross 
moline or, cantoning four bezants, eacti charged with a plain 
cross ofthejield. 

10. "Scutu regis Hispanie." Quarterly, Castile and 
Leon. 

11. "Scutu regis Anglic." Quarterly, England and 
France ancient. 

12. " Scutu regis Portugaul." Within a bordure of Castile, 
gules, charged with eight castles or, argent, three escutcheons 
azure, each charged with six plates, two, two, and two, 

13. "Scutum regis Sardie." Azure, thiQQ men's heads 
bearded ajf route ppr., crowned or. 

14. "Scutum regis Cyprie." Argent, \\ivqq bars azure, 
over all a lion rampant gules, crowned and collared or. 

15. " Scutum reo;is de Man." Gules, thxee. human les^s 
couped at the thigh, conjoined in triangle argent. 

16. "Scutum iidei." Gules, the device emblematic of 
the Holy Trinity. 

17. "Scutum Saluationis." Shield charged with the 
emblems of the Passion. 

18. "Scutum regis Arragon." Paly of eight, or and 
gules. 

19. "Scutu regis Iherusalem." Argent, di. cvoss potent 
between four plain crosses or. 

20. " Scutu regis Danie." Or, three lions passant in pale 
azure. 

21. "Scutu ducis Bretaign." Ermine. 

22. " Scutum regis Boemie." Quarterly, one and four, an 
eagle with one head displayed sahle ; two and three, argent, 
a lion rampant, queue fourchee gules (shield and supporter 
in a circle). 

23. " Scutum dn'i thome filii regis." Quarterly, England 
and France ancient ; a label of three points ; the whole 
wdthin a bordure (shield and supporter within a circle). 

24. "Scutu resjis Cicilie." France ancient, with a label 
gules. 

25. " Scutu regis Hungari." Barrulee argent and gules. 

26. " Scutum regis Francie." ^2?(7-e, semce de lys o>*. 

27. " Scutu ducis Lancastrie." Quarterly, England and 
France ancient ; a label of three points ermine. 

28. " Scutum HeYci pi's [Henrici principis] Wallie." 
Quarterly, England and France ancient ; a label of three 
points argeyit. 



OF THE ABBEY CHURCH OF ST, ALBAN. 23 

29. "Scutum duci' Eboraci." Quarterly, England and 
France ancient ; a label of three points anjcnt, charged on 
each point with as many torteaux. 

30. "Scutum regis Norwa." Argent, a lion rampant 
gules, holding in bis paws a battleaxe. 

31. " Scutum regis Nau[arr]e." 6riJc3s, an escarbuncle o?'. 

32. "Scutum regis Scotie."^ Or, a lion rampant within 
a double tressure gules. 

Before I proceed to offer any remarks upon the shields 
that form this series, I here may briefly state that the flat 
ceiling of the transept is enriched in a similar manner with 
armorial blazonry. To the south of the crossing there are 
twenty-six shields, including those of the University of 
Oxford, Offa, St. Edward, Cliester, the University of Cam- 
bridge, De Vere, De Neville, De Clare, and other great 
media3val families ; and one very interesting shield, appa- 
rently of John Beaufort, before 1397. It is cheque argent 
and azure, a bend gules, charged ivith three lions of Eng- 
land, instead of |jer ]xde of the same tinctures, and it is 
without the lahel of France. The corresponding shields to 
the north of the crossing, twenty-three in number, include 
those of Neville (diff"erenced), Beaufort (after 1397), Sey- 
mour, Clinton, Hastings, Ferrers, Percy, Powys, and others. 
For a more full notice I must leave these shields for some 
future occasion. Such also must be the case with the noble 
shields of England, France ancient, St. Edward, and St. 
Edmund, executed in relief, probably about a.d. 1315, in 
the spandrels of the main arcade of the nave, on its soutb 
side, commencing w'ith the fourth bay from the transept. 
The lions here are full of life and energy, and closely re- 
semble their illustrious kinsmen of the Percy shrine at 
Beverley, and of the Black Prince's shield at Canterbury ; 
the fleurs de lys, also, appear with extreme elegance and 
grace of form and proportion. 

I pass over, too, the chantries of Humphrey, Duke of Glou- 
cester a.d. 1435 ; of the great abbot John de Wheatham- 
stede, who died in 14 (JO (whose chantry unquestionably 
was constructed by himself) ; and of the thirty-seventh in 
the long roll of the abbots of St. Alban's, Thomas Ramryge, 

' The roll of the time of Henry III, published with Mr. Walford's learned 
and valiiiible notes in the Archwolopia, \o\. xxxix, gives for eight of these 
sixteen soverci<riis the same arms, namely, Germany, France, i>pain, Arragon, 
Sicil//, Navarre, Scotland, and Man. 



24 THE EARLY HERALDRY 

who ruled over the abbey of the proto- martyr from 1484 to 
1524 ; each one of these chantries, and with them the great 
screen at the east end of the choir, are rich in heraldry of the 
greatest interest. But I pause for a minute to notice briefly 
the remains of heraldic glass of two periods (in addition to 
many excellent stained quarries) that still linger in three of 
the larg-e two-lioht windows in the north aisle of the nave. 
These windows, which commence with the third from the 
transept, and follow each other in succession westwards, are 
alike in the design of their tracery, which lozenge contains 
a fleur de lys, like the quarters of France in the shield of 
the Black Prince at Canterbury. 2. The same, differenced, 
with a plain silver label, Black Prince. 3. The same, 
differenced, with a silver label of three points, charged on 
each point with a canton gules, Lionel, D. Clarence. 4. 
The same, differenced, with a silver label of three points, 
charged on each point with tlu^ee ermine sj^ots, two and one, 
John of Ghent. The plain silver label of the Black Prince 
needs no comment. 

Prince Lionel, third son of Edward III, born 1338, died 
1368, in 1352 married Elizabeth de Burgh, heiress of Ulster, 
and coheiress of the De Clares; and in 1362 was created 
Duke of Clarence, having previously been Earl of Ulster. 
ypon the monument of Bishop Burghersh, who died in 
1340, in Lincoln Cathedral, a shield, assigned by Mr. Wal- 
ford in a very able paper to Prince Lionel, is charged with 
France (ancient) and England differenced, with a label 
charged on each point with a cross. The arms of Ulster are, 
or, a cross gules. The red cantons, reputed to have been 
borne by the De Clares before their well known clievrons, 
Prince lionel apparently substituted for his crosses on his 
elevation to the Clarence dukedom. I shall have to refer to 
this label with the cantons presently. 

I now return to the heraldry of the ceiling of the three 
bays represented in Mr. Grover's photograph. More than 
one subject for curious and interesting inquiry may be sug- 
gested in connection with the selection of shields of arms, 
and their aggroupment contains three large cusped quatre- 
foils. The two lower quatrefoils in each of these windows 
display the allusive Agnus Dei and golden eagle of Abbot 
John de Wheathamstede. In the uppermost quatrefoil of each 
window is a large shield, supported by, a single figure of an 



OF THE ABBEY CHURCH OF ST. ALBAN. 25 

angel, who stands beliind the shield, vested in an amice and 
an alb. In the easternmost window the upper shield bears 
the arms of the ahhey, impaling argent, on a bend sable, 
three eaglets displayed or, the insignia of abbot Thomas 
Delamere (one of Wheathamstede's predecessors), as is 
shown in the well known monumental brass of that splendid 
prelate. The roll of arms, tenij). Edward II, gives to Sir 
John de la Mare argent, on a bend azm^e, three eagles oA 
The abbot appears to have differenced this coat by substi- 
tuting sable for azure in the bend. The corresponding 
shield in the next window^ bears or, tivo bars gules, and is 
without any impalement. In the third window the arms of 
the abbey again appear, and they are within a bordure gides, 
charged tvith eight mitres argent. I am not able to assign 
these two shields with any degree of certainty, but I may 
state that Abbot Wheathamstede's immediate predecessors 
were John de la Moote and William Heyworth. The whole 
of the glass in these shields is beautifully diapered. 

The second of these same windows, in each of its two 
lights, has two shields of an earlier date than the glass in the 
tracery. At what period they may have been placed in 
their present position's, or from whence they may have been 
brought to occupy those positions, I am unable to determine. 
These four shields are — 1. France {ancient) and England 
quarterly, the field of the first and fourth quarters diapered 
in lozenges, so that each two form historical and highly 
honoured decorative accessories of sacred edifices of eminent 
rank in the palmy days of Gothic architecture. The span- 
drels of the wall arcade of Henry the Third's and Edward 
the First's aisles at Westminster display a remarkable early 
series of such shields. Here, more than a century and a 
half later, we have another series well worthy of considera- 
tion, on the ceiling, in close connection with the corres- 
ponding portion of the edifice at St. Alban's. 

In their History of the Architecture of the Abbey Church 
of St. Alban, by JMessrs. J. C. Buckler and C. A. Buckler, 
published in 184G, those gentlemen wrote as follows: — 
" The ceiling of the nave and transepts has been rudely 
repainted in modern times, in imitation of the ancient 
pattern"^ — a statement this, which I have read more than 
once with considerable surprise, since it must be pronounced. 

1 P. 33. 
1878 4 



26 THE EARLY HERALDRY 

entirely inconsistent with the fact ; and yet the Messrs. 
Buckler were architects of no common ability. They wrote, 
however, from a decidedly Roman Catholic point of view. 
The late Dr. Nicholson, the rector of the abbey church, my 
much valued and lamented friend, in his valuable notes on 
the " Abbey Church of St. Alban,"^ says, " Abbot Whea- 
thamstede new ceiled and painted the nave," including 
under the term " nave" the entire range of the edifice to 
the westward of the transept. The shields upon the ceiling 
of the transept may be shown, I think, to have been painted 
early in the sixteenth century ; but to the munificence of 
Abbot de Wheathamstede certainly may be assigned the 
ceiling of the ten bays of the nave to the west of the three 
of the photograph, with all its painting as we now see it. 
The heraldry of the three bays now specially before us I 
expect will show itself to be a work somewhat earlier than 
the abbacy of De Wheathamstede, which, as will be remem- 
bered, commenced in 1420 and ended in 1460. 

With the shield of St. Alban himself at the head of this 
series of shields are associated those of St. Edmund, St. 
Edward, and St. George — an alliance which calls to remem- 
brance the statement of the chronicles of Carlaverack ; how, 
after that fortress had fallen in 1300, the victorious Edward 
caused the banners of the same three national patron saints 
to be displayed from the walls. The saintly title here as- 
signed to the Mercian king OfFa, the original founder of the 
abbey of St. Alban in 795, with his armorial shield differing 
from that of St. Edmund only in having the field gules 
instead of azure (now the arms of the see of Ely), will not 
fail to be regarded with interest. Still more singular is the 
shield assigned to St. Louis of Erance, well known as France 
modern, from having three fieurs de lys only, in place of the 
field being semee of the famous Erench device. Louis IX, 
Saint Louis, reigned from 1226 to 1270, and was a con- 
temporary of our Henry III throughout his reign ; and, as 
his successors for a century continued to do, he bore France 
ancient, azure, semee de lys or. Charles V (1364-1380) 
was the last kiiig of Erance who blazoned this shield upon 
his counter seal, as his successor Charles VI (1380-1422) 
was the first who displayed upon his counter seal France 
modern. It is scarcely necessary for me to observe that in 

' Second edition, 1856, p. •60. 



OF THE ABBEY CHURCH OF ST. ALBAN. 27 

1340 our Edward III quartered France ancient and Enrj- 
land ; and that this shield, so quartet-ed, continued to be 
the royal arms of England, till Henry IV, early in his reign 
(c. 1406), substituted on his shield in the first and fourth 
quarters France modern for France ancient, following the 
example of the French king de facto. The shields of the 
kings of England and France, now before us, arc alike in 
bearing France ancient. France ancient, in like manner, 
is quartered in the shields of the four English princes of the 
blood royal that also are shown in Mr. Grover's photograph. 
It is further remarkable that in all these English shields the 
three lions of Enoland are marshalled in the first and fourth 
quarters, the fleurs de lys of France appearing in the second 
and third quarters ; so reversing the customary usage. 
Eichard II sometimes gave this precedence to the English 
lions, but such marshalling was rather the exception than 
the rule. 

The shields of the four English princes are specially in- 
teresting, and they appear to assign the part of the ceiling 
now under consideration, in which they occur, to the reign 
of Henry IV (189.9-1413), and indeed to the early part of 
it. As I have just said, these shields quarter France 
ancient. One of them is declared to be the shield of "Henry, 
Prince of Wales," who must have been Prince Henry, eldest 
son of Henry IV ; himself afterwards Henry V. A second 
shield is assigned to the " Lord Thomas, the son of the 
king," who must have been Thomas, second son of Henry IV, 
born in 1389, and consequently ten years old at his father's 
accession. This prince, who was killed in battle in Anjou 
in 1421, when created Duke of Clarence, in 1411, charged 
his ermine label with a canton gides on each point. The 
label here is without the cantons, and indeed it is quite 
plain, while the shield of the young prince, who evidently 
had not yet been advanced to his dukedom, is further dif- 
ferenced with a narrow silver hordure. Shields are not 
assigned to the Princes John and Humphrey, the other sons 
of Henry IV (afterwards Dukes of Bedford and Gloucester), 
doubtless from their still being in early youth when the 
shields were blazoned upon the St. Alban's ceiling. 

The two other shields are declared to be those of the 
Dukes of Lancaster and York. Of these, the former dif- 
ferenced with a label of tluee points ermine, first borne by 



28 THE EARLY HERALDRY 

John of Ghent, on his advancement to the earldom of Rich- 
mond in 1342, on the death of John de Dreux, Count of Brit- 
tany and Earl of Richmond. This label of Bi^ittany and 
Richmond John of Ghent retained after he had been created 
Duke of Lancaster in 1362, leaving the early label of France 
of the Earls of Lancaster to be assumed afterwards by his 
son Henry of Bolingbroke, who in due time became the first 
sovereign of the House of Lancaster. Since, on the acces- 
sion of Henry IV to the throne, the dukedom of Lancaster 
had become merged in the Crown, this shield of "the 
Duke of Lancaster" must have been designed either to be 
commemorative of the king's father, " time honoured Lan- 
caster", who died February 3, 139.9, or to represent the 
kino- himself as the head of the House of Lancaster. I have 
already noticed a shield of Lancaster in the earlier glass of 
the abbey nave, in which the label has the ermine spots two 
and one. Here, on the roof, the ermine label has the spots 
placed palewise. This shield of the Duke of York may be 
assigned either to the first duke of that house, the uncle of 
Henry IV, Edmund, fifth son of Edward III, who was 
created Duke of York in 1385, and died in 1402 ; or to the 
second duke, eldest son of the first duke, Edward, who suc- 
ceeded to the dukedom in 1402, and was killed at Agincourt 
in 1415, The St. Alban's shield shows very plainly the 
three torteaux upon each point of the label of York, which 
label was borne by the first duke before his advancement to 
his dukedom, and is blazoned on his garter plate. The 
source from whence this label of York was derived is still 
open for further inquiry and research, though I am inclined 
to consider it to have descended from the shield of Wake of 
Lydel. Had time permitted, I should have been glad now 
to have invited attention, in connection with the label of 
York, to the remarkable label (engraved in facsimile in the 
third edition of my heraldry) upon the shield placed below 
one of the statuettes on the south side of the monument of 
Edward III at Westminster; which label, on each of its three 
points, has a billet (or canton) gules, intej'posed betiveen two 
torteaux, thus leaving it apparently an open question 
whether it is a label of Clarence or of York. 

In the Henry III roll the arms of the Byzantine Greek 
emperor, Manuel II, the successor to John Ralseologus, who 
reigned from 1391 to 1425, twenty-eight years before the 



OF THE ABBEY CHURCH OF ST. ALBAX. 2,9 

Greek empire was brouglit to an end by the capture of Con- 
stantinople by the Turks, are given as, — gules, crusuly d'or, 
un c7'ois iDcissant d'or, a 4 rondels d'or, en les 4 quarters 
et in ciiescun rondell iin croisee. Isabel, youngest sister of 
Henry 111, married the Emperor Frederick II. The promi- 
nent position assigned to the shield of the King of Spain, 
quartering Castile and Leon, is easily to be understood, 
when it is remembered that the queen of Edward I was a 
princess of Castile and Leon ; that two sons of Edward III 
married two daughters of Pedro, King of Castile and Leon ; 
and that the Princess Joan, second daughter of Edward III, 
was betrothed to Alphonso, also king of the same realms ; 
and, further, that Catherine of Lancaster, third sister of 
Henry IV, married another Castilian king, Henry III. 

Philippa of Lancaster, eldest sister of Henry IV, married 
John I, King of Portugal. As early as 1216 the arms of 
Portugal were, — argent, Jive escutcheons in cross, each 
charged luith as many plates in saltire ; and this shield was 
blazoned within a hordure gules, charged with eight castles 
or, on the marriage of Alphonso III with Beatrice of Castile 
in 1256. The shield upon the roof has been incorrectly 
blazoned, evidently through some misapprehension on the 
part of the English herald painter. The queen of Pdchard II 
was Anne of Bohemia. The queen of Henry IV himself 
was Joan of Navarre, 

Blanche and Phihppa of Lancaster, daughters of Henry IV, 
married, the one a Kuig of Arragon, and the other a King 
of Denmark and Norway. Alliances between the royal 
houses of England and the kings of Scotland and the dukes 
of Brittany were close and frequent ; and the arms of Sar- 
dinia, Cyprus, Sicily, and Hungary also may be shown to 
have had a claim to the places and the association in which 
they aj)pear. 

The arms of Brittany here are blazoned as ermine only, 
as they appear impaled with France and England on the 
monument of Edward III, andsnot with the full blazon, — • 
chequee, or and azure, a canton ermine, the whole ivithin a 
hordure gules (roll Henry III), the bordure afterwards 
charged ivith lioncels of England. A different blazon is 
given for the arms of Hungary, Bohemia, and of Cyprus, in 
the roll of Henry III. In that roll also the arms of Den- 
mark are blazoned, — cVor un beau ff gules, and the arms of 
Norway, gulez un chivall cVor selle. 



30 THE EARLY HERALDRY, ETC. 

The sliields of " the faith" and of " salvation," often found 
in early architecture and on monuments, speak for them- 
selves. Upon the St. Alban's ceiling, between these insignia, 
is painted, under a rich canopy, a figure of our Lord en- 
throned, holding in His left hand a globe, and with His 
right hand giving benediction after the Latin manner. It 
will be seen that the crossed stole on the breast of this 
dignified figure is very distinctly shown. There is also a 
second figure, seated under a less elaborate canopy upon 
a throne, of a youthful personage, having a peculiar square 
head dress and nimbed, who is ofiering adoration to our Lord. 
Possibly it may have been designed to represent the British 
proto-martyr, Alban himself. 

The shield of the crusader kings of Jerusalem, placed im- 
mediately below the figure last named, appears in the photo- 
graph, remarkable for the sharpness of the outline of the 
charges, the cross potent between four plain crosses, o?i a 
silver field. 

I venture to consider these shields and the accompanying 
monograms to have been executed some few years before 
John de Wheathamstede became abbot, and commenced his 
own unquestionable heraldic and other decoration of the 
roofs of his abbey church. I may add that, while there are 
no decided Lancastrian insignia displayed in De Wheatham- 
stede's own chantry in that beautiful structure, the rayed 
Eose of York appears more than once. 



31 



A GEOUP OF CUMBRIAN MEGALITHS. 

BY C. W. DYMOND, ESQ. 

" These antiquities are so exceedingly old that no bookes doe reach 
them, sc. that there is no way to retrive them but by comparative 
antiquitie, wliich I have writt upon the spott from the monuments 
themselves." — John Aubrey. 

The four plans^ wliich illustrate tins short paper have been 
selected for publication as representing the most important 
megalithic antiquities in the county, and as the only ones 
connected with that part of England in my possession which 
have been accurately surveyed. At the same time, they are 
remarkable as exhibiting most of the distinctive peculiarities 
which characterise various classes of these remains in Britain. 
For instance, we have — 1st, a fine specimen — taking rank 
as the fourth in England — of the great stone-circle, with the 
added feature of a gateway or rudimentary avenue, and an 
external menhir ; 2nd, an excellent example of the smaller 
circle, with stones in close order, and with a perfect entrance 
gateway ; 3rd, an instance of a circle, partly in open and 
partly in close order, with some sepulchral indications, and 
with an inclosed chamber on the eastern side ; 4th, a typical 
specimen of an irregularly inclosed cemetery, with no marked 
peripheral feature. 

To the memoranda written on the plans I will add the 
following particulars : — 

Long Meg and her Daughters. — The earliest published 
account of these remains is that of Camden, who made a 
survey of Cumberland in 1599. He says : — 

"At Little Salkeld there is a circle of stones, seventy-seven in num- 
ber, each ton foot high : and before these, at the entrance, is a single 
one by itself, fifteen foot high. This the common people call Loiuj 
Megg, and the rest her daughters : and within the circle are two heaps 
of stones, under which they say there are dead bodies bury'd." 

A little later we find Aubrey writing of the same at about 
the middle of the seventeenth century. His information, 

1 Of Lon<r ;\Icg and her Daughters, the circles at Swinside and Keswick, aud 
the priucipal circle on Eskdalc Moor. 



32 A GROUP OF CUMBRIAN MEGALITHS. 

he says, was derived " from Mr. Hugh Tod, Fellow of Uni- 
versity College in Oxford, a Westmorland man," and runs 
thus : — 

" In little Salkeld in Westmorland are stones in an orbicular figure 
about seventie in number which are called Long Meg and her daughters, 

Long Meg is about yards : and about fifteen yards distant from 

the rest." And, in a note, he adds : " Quaere Mr. Robinson the minister 
there, about the Giants bone, and Body found there. The Body is in 
the middle of the orbicular stones." ^ 

The same writer has the following, which can hardly have 
referred to anything but the same object of antiquity, whose 
distance from Kirk Oswald is only about three miles ; 
though, if it be a description of this circle, most of the parti- 
culars are greatly exaggerated : — 

" From S"" Will. Dugdale Clarenceaux : but 'tis not entred in his 
Visitation of Cumberland ; but was forgot by his servant." " In Cum- 
berland neer Kirk-Oswald is a Circle of stones of about two hundred 
in number, of severall Tunnes. The Diameter of this Circle is about 
the diameter (he guesses) of the Thames from the Heralds-Office, which 
by Mr. J. Ogilby's Mappe of London is [880J foot. In the middle are 
two Tumuli, or Barrowes of Cobble-stones, nine or ten foot high."^ 

If this be a description of the circle in question, we must 
reduce the diameter from that guessed at 880 ft. (I have 
supplied the hiatus by measuring on a modern plan of 
London) to the real, average one of 332 ft. ; and, if the 
alleged number of stones (200) be reduced in the same pro- 
portion, we shall have 75, which agrees very closely with 
the evidently much more accurate account in the former 
description, that the number of stones was about 70. The 
statement as to the two tumuli or barrows seems to harmon- 
ize with the report about the giant's bone and body, and also 
with what is stated by Camden. 

All traces of these two cairns have long since been obli- 
terated by cultivation. The number of stones is now 69, 
exclusive of several rather large fragments lying by the 
roadside ; so that it looks as though but few, if any, have 
been entirely removed since Aubrey's date. At the same 
time, there can be no doubt, after rej)orts which I heard on 
the spot as to the depredations of former occupiers of the 
ground, that the sizes of many of the stones must have been 

' From Part I, Momimenta Britannica, MS., in the Bodleian, a copy from 
which has been kindly lent me by our associate, Mr. Long. 
= Ibid. 



PLAN 

O F A 

STONE CIRCLE and MENHIR, 

CALLED 

LONG MEG AND HER DAUGHTERS," 

NEAR 

LITTLE SALKELD, 
CUMBERLAND. 



n 


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MEMORANDA. 

Thi^ P/,i,i i.i ulotferi I'roit, a „ cxc^ii ret fr > nstrii iiir iit. 

nl 6tirreii . The iiitjfritfttc 6'ari ii^-3 tvene frtfeen ntHi a. 

f>ft.(ntrt/n- <ointtfw.ss. The, torn/ titvia-fioii of the nte- 

dle nnj a,srtrtaiiiecl to he 23 = °//' 

'I'Jiose, stout,! ivlitrit rettLtxi ii n-eef are fi /leri ■ ft ivti/, 

hJtrr/c on f/ie u/mi : ttr-fsfrntv ones cue sfiultlctJ <i ltd 

Itite-sltettitJ . T/t<:<f fctffeTli4rtyr o-r,i«,n(/y f,ee7ijO(/ts- 

located, ctiirf , for in tt iii' yen rs , lime ireil Sr</i/rc/edto 

so irttic/v c/estmrtrve, n'o/eitre , — /la i-i it<r, ttittt/ n co^n - 

o 
fia ratrvety mcfittuertoof, /ireii ivn itioii /y 6rokr^t - icr> 

fnr ivaHiiiir a iicf road. - rnaferialj ,— f/ta t it td JSeUoni 

yossib/e. 1 1, t/te case ofa,tyni-<,.ft,-n.teStane.ta.%a.ynitA 

„„i, cfeoire af a.rs i, ret „ re „/,„/, n„s fltc tirtse. a„J n/ttir 

tistaoJ ; /.III l,/l,it,-iri- t/if.f ,;,,, hr 

Jitnfed iy ,1 .iiiin// CIOS.S 

The a^ie,. loiid i,/,ir/t ,'., /.-rseets t/te ,„^Urit /,„/t«f'/,e 
y,f,j^ta/ilh H^as tnriiteriy h.ii it.fed o,c //iri.est side 6,/ a. 
Iicdo-e. - Sfiict^rttfAed- ,ijj, _ on t/te jif< of,v/,ieh he f^a 
nrt/tree /aioe frrtoments ofthe^sfniies ..f f/,t ortl^t'naf 
iMirk. These, heinfr-cie/entlt, nts„me distaiKc Iron, f/te, , 
o.if-iiial olnce, are nnt sAeitn upon t/te ///nn 

Th, 






-/„,,J. ,f, 



'/tej,/ 



her a f stones -f/tat rent'ain , i nr/nd, n^^-^f.onf Afef^' 
but nut ti.r/injtn^ t/te .fm^U .ftpite in fron t of A'l ■/■,orf/,e 
V, t.t 6/), of It/,,',/, Zyare frect^ 



ten /s /v f/n 







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27 / 



LONG MEC 



/)t <> )l 

lYorl/t out,/ Soitt/i,, 50.S fet> 



SCALE OF ORIGINAL 



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I INCH . <0 FCIT. 



E.,21'iS*f,tr, I87S. 




VIEW OF I.ONC MCG. 

(LOOKINC S.tV.) 
rItOMA SK tTCH 



IVI £M O RAN OA . 

ruetalt'tk: ill Hie direction of'tlit- miti/txr. Thij fast ijt a. 
niotiohtft of hard ltd sajultstorir n hich , it is 6tl leyrel , 
n^.!hr„,i^ht either frcL the hanks of the Ede,Tt./i m, 
MH:.crrro„. r.ea-^o.il,,^ Fel/,.oi, 1 he ff, rthers.de of f fie 
rirer, in *he Same direction . d/f the other . (tones are of 
a vert/ /mrd joorjuhyri tic rfiifeire.. 7'he ror/c of the .life is 
a red sands tone of the Permian grrono; SntJrna// .rfmta 
of.auDarentlif, the .fanie- hind as those used in the cir- 
f'e. are foil n.d afmeist evert^where on the Surface, and 
ni-A! ioth huilt ryiten.tirety into the tretJ/s, and mud for 
revairin^ the rvadjS oye.r a tarere area in the Ityca/tti/ 

Z/vjr«.r remain of a ririir- enihankntent.frotn JOtaft 
nttJe , and. H4>iv, at Hie most . rtfeii mc/ie.t hio-h . ftrrrn- 
in^- the Seat oftrherirc/e. c.tiferioUy of the »e.tfern ha/f. 

V'/ie.te /teniatn.r stand on nritrly the hio-hest uart of 
CLr>/<ite<w.eietatrd alotit S,yO fert nhoie ttn- Ml riTiind- 
tno- valteifS. The site dies from f.otio-Me^, n/iir/, is 
ererted at the lligrhest nnrt. ttnvard stone A'^ J . li /',r ,r 
the a-ronnd is aAont 20f* loiter 



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tnefostd in a ri n^ of J/ .tfo n ej, forrrte r/t/ roi '^iTifA a inoiind 



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A GROUP OF CUMBRIAN MEGALITHS. 33 

greatly reduced ; and, probably, some have been overthrown 
in comparatively recent times. Among the largest of the 
prostrate stones there are two measuring respectively 1 ft. 
by 8 ft. 8 ins., and 9 ft. 11 ins. by 8 ft. 6 ins. A sufficient 
number remain erect to show that this pcristalith was an 
irregular oval, the departure from continuity being very 
manifest on the northern side, especially about the stones 
numbered 24, 25, and 26. It may, however, be well to note 
here that No. 25 is so much inclined as to make it difficult to 
decide whether it should be called prostrate or erect ; and, 
thus, it may possibly not be in situ ; though, even with this 
angle removed, No. 24 is still considerably out of the line of 
the curve. For the information of those who set a high 
value on such facts, it may be well to mention that the eastern 
face of Long Meg — the only one that is distinctly flat — 
points 26|° W. of N. The spacing of the stones seems to be 
a mean between the open order and the close ; and, if we 
supply seven evident gaps with one stone each, we shall 
obtain an average distance, from centre to centre of the suc- 
cessive stones, of a little over 14 ft. As to the aspect of the 
gateway, it points nearly S.W., and slightly up-hill, in con- 
trast to the majority of examples which I have examined, 
and which usually look toward a valley with a stream. 

SwiNsiDK Circle. — This is a very good example of a 
circle built in close order, for it is probable that, when 
perfect, all the stones nearly touched one another. The gate- 
way points slightly down-hill. But few of the stones seem 
to have been removed— probably because plenty of materials 
for walling and road mending could be collected from the 
neighbouring hill-side. It is curious that a rowan tree has 
sprung up in a rift in stone No. 2, which has been rent 
asunder by its growth. The occurrence of such a tree in 
such a place has been seized upon by the advocates of the 
Druid-theory, who view it as a veritable relic of the cult 
which they associate with these structures. The falling of 
all the stones but one (and that a doubtful one) inward is 
a rather singular circumstance, for which I do not quite know 
how to account. 

Keswick Circle.— It has generally been the fashion to 

class this with the temples of the prehistoric ages. The 

magnificence of its site, and the existence of a rectangular 

inclosure on the eastern side, — wlii(-h has been thouiiht to 
1878 5 '^ 



34 A GROUP OF CUMBRIAN MEGALITHS. 

be an adytum, foreshadowing the chancel of the Christian 
church, — have lent strength to the idea. In the present crude 
state of our knowledge on this subject, it is, however, better 
to refrain from using any technical terms which involve 
the advocacy of premature theories, and to confine ourselves 
to such as are simply descriptive of that w^hich meets the 
eye. Nothing now remains to show for what purpose this 
chamber was constructed. If it once contained a barrow, 
it is singular that all traces of this should hav^e disappeared, 
while the shallow trench of what appears to have been 
another barrow still remains within the circle. Had there 
been no such indications existing in the second case, it might, 
with more show of reason, have been conjectured that 
barrows might have occupied any part of the area, and that 
they have since vanished. The existence, however, of the 
relics of this one barrow^ (if such they are), while giving to 
this circle a quasi sepulchral character, affords an argument 
rather against than in favour of the former existence of others. 
I have described the principal features of this peristalith 
on the plan ; and therefore proceed to notice here one or two 
which involve the element of speculation. On reference to 
the plan, it will be observed that the circumscribed area 
narrows up toward the north, and there, exactly bisected by 
the meridian of its centre, occurs an opening, nearly 11 ft. 
wide, flanked by two fine stones, set, with the smaller ones 
which adjoin them, in a peculiarly symmetrical position. 
This gives it the appearance of having been intended for a 
gateway. As possibly throwing light upon this point, it is 
noteworthy that the very remarkable, but little known, com- 
pound circle at Gunnerskeld, near Shap, which consists of 
two concentric rings of prostrate stones — giving the impres- 
sion that they were never erect — is also, at the north point, 
distinguished by a 'pylon formed by a pair of very fine 
monoliths — the only standing stones of any consequence in 
the work. This gateway looks out along the low flat ridge 
on which the circle is found, parallel to the stream which 
flows north, hard by on the eastern side. Eeturning to our 
plan, and noticing the transverse position of stone No. 26, 
the question arises. May not this also have been one jamb 
of a gateway of which the other may have been stone No. 27 
(if that has fallen), or, more probably, a missing one between 
Nos. 26 and 25 ? Its position, as to the points of the com- 



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A GROUP OF CUMBRIAN MEGALITHS. 35 

pass, would be almost identical with that of the gateway of 
the Swinside circle. A slight peculiarity, common to both 
the circles at Keswick and at Long Meg, may be noticed in 
the breach of continuity made by No. 49 (missing stone) of 
the former, and No. 25 of the latter — each at about the same 
part of the circumference. 

EsKDALE Circle.- — -This, though the finest, is only one of 
several similar remains on the same moor. About one hun- 
dred yards W. are two smaller rings in an imperfect state, 
each about 50 ft. in diameter, and each inclosing one 
barrow. A quarter of a mile W.N.W. on Low Longrigg 
are two others ; one apparently perfect, about 50 ft. in 
diameter, consisting of nine stones, and inclosing one 
barrow ; the other imperfect, with diameters of about 75 ft. 
and 65 ft., and inclosing two barrows. A number of 
ancient " dykes", each consisting of a slight ditch and em- 
bankment, intersect the moor near these remains. An 
imaginary plan of this circle appears in Dr. Fergusson's 
Rude Stone Structures. Li addition to a conventional re- 
presentation of the existing stones, it shows an outer con- 
centric circle of megaliths, fourteen in number, and an 
inner, nearly rectangular inclosure fencing-in the eastern 
barrow. There is no evidence on the ground to show that 
such an outer ring ever existed ; nor is it likely that, placed 
as these remains are, out of the way of risks of molestation, 
such evidences, if there were any, would have disappeared. 
One small erect stone stands as an outlier to the N.W. ; 
and three or four others, equally small, lie prostrate on 
the surfiice, or partly sunk into the ground, on the N., E., 
W., and S.E. sides. That is all. Not the slightest trace 
of a barrow-inclosure can be found, though 1 carefully 
sought for it by probing. The eastern barrow was being- 
opened at the time of my first visit in ISGG, though the 
exploring party were not then on the spot. 

Now I think a comparison of the four examples herein 
described will lead to the conviction that, though they have 
an outward similarity of arrangement, they may not all 
have been devoted to the same purposes. The character of 
the last mentioned is, I think, purely sepulchral. There is 
a careless irregularity in the ranging of the peripheral stones, 
which gives the impression of being sufficient for purposes 
of separation, while little congruous with the dignity of a 



36 A GROUP OF CUMBRIAN MEGALITHS. 

structure intended for ceremonial uses. Much of the area 
is occupied by the barrows ; while, hard by, we find four 
other similar iuclosures, also devoted to sepulture. Who 
can resist the conviction that, in this case, but one end was 
to be answered — that of consecrated interment 1 

There is, I believe, no record of any barrow having been 
observed within or near the Swinside circle. The ruins are 
those of a bold and carefully constructed peristalith. The 
stones were ranged nearly on a true circle, well founded on 
a dry site in a rammed stone bed, and placed, for the most 
part, in juxtaposition — often, indeed, so close that it is pos- 
sible there would have been no convenient access to the 
interior, except through the gateway. Hence, in this case, a 
necessity for this feature, which evidently was considered an 
important one, and must have been designed to give cere- 
monial access to the sacred inclosure. Perhaps this is one 
of the best examples we have of a structure which, accord- 
ing to our ideas, would be eminently suited to be a liypae- 
thral temple ; and I suggest that, in the absence of evidence 
to the contrary, this may have been the chief purpose for 
which the Swinside circle was erected. 

The importance of a gateway is much enhanced when we 
find it, either in its simple form, a characteristic feature of 
an open stone peristalith, as in the case of Long Meg, or 
extended into a short avenue, as at Stanton Drew, or into 
a long one, as at Callernish, and in other English and conti- 
nental examples. In all these, the inference is irresistible, 
that the recognised mode of enterin(]j and issuinsj from these 
inclosures — which were open on every side — was by the pre- 
scribed avenue ; and hence we arrive, by an easy step, at 
the conclusion that processional services were a common 
feature of their use. Whether these were connected with 
religious, political, judicial, or sepulchral objects, or with all 
of them, we know far too little of the customs of our remote 
ancestors to decide. Sufiice it for the present, then, to say 
that, for anything we know to the contrary, some of these 
structures may have been temples, primarily ; courts of judi- 
cature, secondarily ; sometimes memorial buildings, thirdly ; 
and, thus consecrated, the great may have sought to take 
their last sleep around, and even within their pale, as, in later 
times the remains of the departed came to be laid in the 
church-yard ; and, in special instances, within the walls of 
the buikling itself 



37 



ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 

BY JOHN S. PHENfi, LL.D., F.8.A. 

HE subject before us is so vast, the 
several sections of it so deeply 
interesting, and that interest so 
varied, that a course of papers, 
rather than a single one, might 
well be given upon either its mo- 
dern aspect and condition ; the 
close commercial connection be- 
tween continental and insular 
Britain in ancient as well as mo- 
dern times; the quaint, curious, 
but always highly picturesque, 
costumes of the former, — and 
with regard to the women, exqui- 
sitely clean adornments ; the rich 
yet often fanciful and flamboyant 
decorations of the churches, many 
of which are of great antiquity 
and interest; the romantic and 
magnificent chateaux and strong- 
holds, which attest a kindred military spirit and power in the 
two Bretagnes; the intense love of liberty and independence, 
again equally characteristic ; the naval supremacy of each, 
which succumbed once, and once only, and that to Roman 
power ; the almost incredible monuments of antiquity, — 
incredible to those who have not visited the continental 
Bretngne; and the traditions and legendary lore, so rich 
that at one time they formed the staple of the courtly lite- 
rature of Europe; and beyond these, many other points of 
importance which serve to invest that outlying, and vast 
promontory of France with real interest to the insular 
Briton. 

We can but glance at some of these, taking certain salient 
points, and thus, perhaps, securing rather more than the 
usual amount of interest in ;iny present who may look on 




MeiJiir, nearly 40 feet in lenf^tb, 
near Dol. 



38 ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 

archaeology as a somewhat dry subject; but which once fol- 
lowed wall be found to have a charm distinct and yet inse- 
parable from itself, like that which many a sportsman finds 
who often comes to experience a greater pleasure in the 
exquisite scenes he has to visit than in the craft itself 

The first thing that strikes a Briton in visiting Brittany 
is, that he is not quite abroad. The faces are not French, 
nor the manners, nor the dresses. The language is a very 
British-French when you get into the country ; the frequent 
recurrence of such prefixes as Pen, Tre, Cam, Car, make you 
feel yourself in Cornwall, Wales, or Scotland. But just as 
you have come to the conclusion that it will be well to 
brush up your Gaelic, if you know any, and, perhaps, hav- 
ing received no reply to sundry interrogations in French, 
you difiidently put one more, which is intended to be final, 
you are startled with the response, "t/e ne parle j:>a^* 
Gaelic", and at once begin to wonder what language they 
do speak. The explanation of tliis is, that what we call 
French, they call Gaelic, while their own language is Breton. 

It need hardly be mentioned here that it has been held 
by a large class of antiquaries that Brith, and hence Pict, 
means painted. The people to whom these terms were 
applied were represented as painting themselves in brilliant 
colours, blue being predominant ; and the same fancy, more 
particularly on the south and west coasts, is still exhibited 
in the brilliant parti-coloured dresses of the men, who are, 
at the same time, most picturesquely attired, blue being 
still in the ascendant ; and we learn from Caesar that the 
Pictones inhabited the western coasts of the Continent as 
far south as Northern Aquitania, and also infereutially from 
Mr. Skene, as far north as extreme Arg3-llshire. 

Not less picturesque, and of course infinitely more grace- 
ful in appearance, are the female classes of the south and 
west Bretons in the less frequented districts ; the features 
of dress and character, physique and purity, being much less 
distinguishable near the great ports and towns. Hence, 
many who visit Bretagne see little or nothing of the Bretons, 
still less of their distinctive manners, and often positively 
nothing of their really wonderful antiquities, or, satisfied 
with a glimpse of the great monument at Carnac, imagine 
they have seen its treasures. 

The costumes are various and strictly local, that of le 



ON BRITTANY ANT) BRITAIN. 3.9 

Van'netais being one of the most picturesque, followed by 
that of FinisUh'c, le Cornouaillias (pro Cornwallia), Ic 
Leonard, le Tregorois, and others, while the black costume 
of the peasants of Thegonnec often sobers the brighter 
colourino^ of the crowds. 




lodhan Moran. 




Slight Embroidery, alwnys on a Richly embroidered, in pold and crimson, 

"dark, sombre ground'. (1) on a light, often a sky-blue groimd, form- 

ing colours of rainbow. 

The first expression of real admiration by my party — a 
spontaneous and universal expression — was at a female 

' In the vicinity of Penmarc'h a collar covering the breast, as if suspended 
from the neck, almost identical with the size and design of the Irish lodhan 
Moran. even to detail, is embroidered in very brilliant colours, the greater 
quantity being bright gold and crimson on a light, bright, and often sky-blue 
ground, on the vest of all the men ; and equally remarkable is the fact that a 
slight device, without the gold, is embroidered on the other lapcl, always on a 
sombre ground, the vest being double-breasted, so that the wearer can assume 
the golden or the darkened form at will. The bright device comes from the 
left "or heart- side, and buttons to the right, the dark on the contrary side. 
The lodhan Moran, a golden collar, said to have been worn by the Keltic 
priests while sitting in judgment, is reported traditionally to have been influ- 
enced by truth or falsehood, just or unjust verdicts, by attaching itself firmly 
to the neck till justice was done. Perhaps the Penmarc'h collar explains 



40 



ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 



water carrier at Auray ; her whole aspect was classical, not 
the least feature of it being the grace of unconsciousness in 
the giver of this delight. The picture was oriental, Greek, 
Etruscan, Spanish, or the beautiful Milesian Irish of the 
far West ; all or any of these, for they are all varieties of 
the same genus of caryatides, if I may so express it. At 
Vannes and Auray, and there only throughout Brittany, are 
the articles of pottery to be found of that exquisite contour 
so loved by the art-educated eye ; and the water carriers of 
those places seem most suited to such graceful burdens. I 
have here one from Redon not nearly so graceful, for the 
beauty of form fades as you recede from Vannes. 

Starting from Nantes, the route from Vannes, indeed 
from Redon to Quimperle, is one alternation of rich and 
picturesque archaeology. To-day you stop at a quaint town 
with wooden houses of black oak, whose gables at every 




Quaiut domestic Arcliitocturo. 

turn seem actually resting against fraternal gables oppo- 
site ; to-morrow you are on a wild moor, whose heather 

this. The judge, wearing his collar of gold, surrounded by a senate whose 
confirmation was required to a sentence, and wearing only the semblance of 
the collar, the reversing or veiling the emblem might be a token of satisfac- 
tion with the verdict, authorising the judge to dismiss the court ; while the 
retention of its brighter side might indicate masonically, and without betray- 
ing him to the accused or the public, that they still sat for a revision or 
reversal of the sentence. The judge (perhaps the only one facing the public) 
would thus be obliged to remain, and would assert that he must have further 
evidence, without which he could not remove his collar, the lodhan Morau. 



ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 41 

hides innumerable souterrains ; another clay brings you to 
the fiat sandy shores of Quiberon, covered with monoliths 
and dolmens — the whole land teems with them. You traverse 
the serpentine avenues of Carnac, once seven miles in 
length or more, and which now, in spite of the various 
clearings, you may trace as far ; and then, wandering beneath 
the machicoulis of the Vannetain towers and fortifications, 
drive along a via sacra, having the enormous chambers of 
the dead warriors of ancient Bretagne on each side, till you 
descend at the magnificent necropolis of Lochmariaquer, 
where, as the tide often commands it, you wait for a Charon 
by the name of Morven, who, in the sable grey before sun- 
rise, wafts you over turbid currents to the land of Gavr 
Inis, where iEneas-like you descend to the regions of 
Hades, and see, figuratively, the abodes of the blessed, the 
sombre chambers of the doomed, the scenes and implements 
of punishment, and the mystic and unknown emblems of 
a departed race. Emerging into day, and into a sunshine 
that blinds you after tlie grey of the dawn in which you 
entered, a splendid view engages your attention ; the smiling 
village of Arzon, with its lofty spire, on the opposite coast, 
with, further to the south, the Galgal of Port Navalo, and 
eastward, in the same direction, the gigantic tumulus of 
Tumiac, the varied archipelago of the Morbihan, and the 
sea coast to the west, the whole enlivened by the song of 
the boatman, as the current hurries him past, succeeded by 
boat after boat and song after song. These, with the sounds 
of reapers, singing birds, and laving waters, give you a new 
taste for life ; and, ferried again to the shore, you start for 
the fine cathedral and art collections of Quimper ; its good 
hotel {de VE'pce), Breton-costumed attendants, and romantic 
rambles. Then to ancient cities, now areas of debris, the 
wondrous coasts and bays of the west, each spot of vantage 

The public seeing no cause for this, and finding him reverse or modify his own 
judgment without conferring Avith his senate, would attribute to the collar the 
conduct of the judge. This would be not dissimilar to judgment by ostra- 
cism, of the Greeks, or by turning the thumb, which condemned the gladiators 
to death. As the name lodan Moran is asserted to have a Chaldee origin, it 
may have been borrowed from a sacred fount. A double, i.e., perhaps this style 
of, vest is referred to as Egyptian, and as peculiar to the male population. 
(Ilerod., bk. ii, ch. 3G.) The circular temples of the Kelt;v would facilitate 
such a silent compliance or non-compliance with a verdict, as I have suggested. 
It seems such ornaments are referred to in Isaiah iii, 18; Judges viii, 21 ; 
although the translation diflcrs. These would not be Jewish ornaments, but 
decorations of the natives of Syria or Phoenicia. 

1878 6 



42 ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 

marked by a stupendous monolith, till in the He d'Oues- 
sant you rest among a primitive people, who boast that to 
them the golden age still exists, and which may be called 
one of the Fortunate Islands of the West. 

In pursuing a very careful survey of the antiquities of 
Brittany, I had the great advantage of personal intercourse 
with and assistance from two eminent antiquaries,^ Mons. 
Le Men, Archiviste of Quimper, in Finistere, and Mons. 
J. Geslin de Bourgogne, Conseiller de Prefecture of Saint 
Brieuc, in the Cotes du Nord ; while information on the 
heraldry and noblesse, and the old seigneuries of the country, 
was kindly given me by Mons. Kobert Surcouf, Sous Prefet 
in the Cotes du Nord. I cannot speak too highly of the 
kindness of these gentlemen, or the trouble they took to 
assist in my pursuits, while their complete knowledge of 
the antiquities of the country reduced my labours very 
much. 

Before going to real work, let me point out some matters 
of every day interest. As, for instance, when you find your 
Breton baker's bill delivered in the shape of so many notches, 
for so many loaves, on a divided stick, in form like that of 
the old exchequer tally, of which I have one here, kindly 
lent me by my friend Captain Clode to compare with the 
baker's stick of Bretagne, the two agreeing with the old 
Welsh stick of writing, and also with Ezekiel's two sticks, 
on which he was ordered to write and join them together 
into one stick. The Phoenicians are the first people histo- 
rically brought under our notice in connection with these 
lands. 

The Phcenicians. — In making any inquiry concerning 
these people, which must always be difficult, from their 
remote antiquity, we must remember that all that has come 
down to us through the Latins has an air of perversion, from 
national jealousy and bitter rivalry, the very term "Punic" 
being one of contempt, indicating falsity. As an instance, 
I cannot cite a better case than that which endeavours to 
throw ridicule over Carthage, even from its foundation. 
The absurd narrative, so gravely given by Maurus Hono- 

' I have been fortunate enough to continue this intercourse, and have had 
the additional advantage of receiving most valuable information from Dr. Clos- 
raadeuc of Vannes, and inspecting many ancient documents in the archives of 
various towns. 



ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 43 

ratus Scrvius in his elaborate edition of Virgil, of the 
dimensions of that city having been determined by o, fraud 
of Queen Dido, through her cutting in thin strips a bull's 
hide, and surrounding a large area of land, when she had 
obtained leave only to possess as much as the hide would 
contain or cover, fails by the gravamen of its own falsity. 
That a fugitive seeking hospitable reception should have 
repaid a welcome in such a manner is incredible, still more 
is it so that the Uticans would have submitted to it. Like 
all myths, however, it no doubt covers a fact ; and I think 
it has never been pointed out what a poetical idea a more 
probable reading reveals.^ 

The Phoenicians carried their gods with them. Their 
chief deity was Astarte ; she was a personification of the 
moon, and was represented in the same guise as lo and Isis, 
two deities both closely connected with Phoenician tradi- 
tion, i.e., in the skin of a white and horned cow,~ the horns 
embleming the cusps of the moon. The Greeks hated the 
Phoenicians as much as the Romans did ; and the story, 
which first came through a Greek channel, destroyed the 
whole legend, for they represented the hide in question as 
an ox's hide ; the Latins improved on this by further satire, 
and called it a hulVs hide.^ But Dido was well received 

1 While time or period is undoubtedly the more comprehensive meaning, 
yet the measuring the circumference of land by strips of a cow's hide is also 
a custom much more ancient than the date of the foundation of Carthage. 
There is a trace of this in Japan : 1,800 square feet of land is called one tan; 
9,000 square yards is called one cho, closely allied to the Armorican Keltic 
kere, shoe-leather. In the llif/vedas (i, '20, 3 ; i, 161, 7 ; and iv, 36, 4), spring 
is represented as resuscitated from a dead cow's hide. This is clearly the 
measure of time. On the other hand, it is Indras, or the Sun, that is repre- 
sented as the Bull, and is so called in his different characteristic n&mcs {Rig., 
iv, 35, 6), though the Moon is sometimes indicated by the masculine in the 
RigveJas. In the Mahii Bharata the cow's hide {gocarman) is the covering of 
the god Vishnu, and, cut into strips and fastened together, was used in India 
to measure the circumference of laud. But according to ^l^iliau, the Phoenicians 
made the one sacred, while the other was merely a custom. Thus at Gadeira 
they had altars to the year and the month. Vide Tre/^l irpovuias. Eustathius 
quotes from this. Ad Dionysius Feriegefes, 451 ; Aug. Civ. Dei, 4, 11, 16, 20. 
It is even said Dido claimed to hold by time, or by night and day, in Demoti. 
Frag., p. 23 ; but in eastern symbolism, night and day, — the bright and dark 
moon for a month, summer and winter for a year, would have the same symbol. 

'■^ ^Murray, Manual of M>jthology, p. 210 ; Fosbrook, p. 156. 

3 Sauchouiatho represents Astarte as placing on her own head a bull's head 
as an indication of her own sovereignty ; but this is exceptional, and indicates 
her taking supremacy as queen of heaven, being the first of his sisters whom 
Cronus married while a virgin, and daughter of Ouranus (heaven). It would 
be the disk above the crescent, or an eclipse of the sun. The disk above the 
crescent is seen above Taurus in the zodiac, at Tcnt^ris. It is probably in this 
form that the moon is described as a heavenly bull and cow. (Grihyaau, i, 14.) 



44 ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 

and much honoured, and her request appears to have been, 
" Let me possess as much earth as this hide — the cow's skin 
which covered her goddess — will contain." Assuming there 
was a double meaning in Dido's words, it was a meaning 
she knew they would reverence, for the sake of Isis, if not 
for Astarte, for the skin in each case covered the moon or 
month, the horned moon being the object of worship. The 
request was equivalent to this, "As much land as my fol- 
lowers can enclose while the moon is horned." The month 
also was worshipped.^ 

But, as Astarte represented the moon, why refer to only 
a portion of the month \ Because Astarte only represented 
the horned moon f and we find in the religion of the neigh- 
bouring Egyptians that their great sun-god Horus (also 
horned as' the descendant of the sun, Osiris, and of the 
heavens or the moon, Isis) was only Horus, the sun-god, 
during part of his course.^ So in the Indian poems, with 
which the Phoenicians would have come in contact, the cow 
represents time as only a portion of the year, month, or day.* 
In this case the cow is Aurora or spring, which dies at even 
or in the autumn. So Astarte was only the moon during 
part of her course {i.e), while the moon was horned. 

The moon, strictly horned for about fourteen days, would 
assimilate to that condition a day or two before and after 
the full phase, i.e., about three weeks ; and it seems Dido's 
followers w^alled in about a stadium or furlong a day ; a 
very probable amount, the whole being twenty-two stadia.^ 

All the statements of the Phoenicians were treated with 
like contempt, so that even the conscientious Herodotus is 
led into an error of judgment in his following the custom 
of throwing doubt on their assertions. Thus, on the Phoeni- 
cian account of their sail round Africa, while he admits the 
voyage as a proof that Lybia was seabound, he throws dis- 
credit,'' so far at least as to their " having the sun on their 
right hand" is concerned, whereas to us this proves their 
truthfulness. 

' Eustathius quotes ^lian to this effect, supra, p. 43, n. 1 . 

2 It was at the change, or renewing of the horns, that the Ilebrews held 
festivals. 

3 Macrohius. In reality the name, not the person, was changed. 

■• In the Rigvedas, the luminous cow {i.e., day or spring) comes to rescue 
from evil sleep, which he is taking with the black cows {i.e., night or winter), 
a warrior (the sun). (Rigv., viii, 47, 14.) 

* M. II. Servius, edition of Virgil. » Herod., book iv, ch. 42. 



ON BRITTANY A^D BRITAIN. 45 

I liavc thus introduced the Phoenicians under the unusual 
garb of truthfuhicss — an aspect I believe to be a correct 
one, if for no other reason, because we do not find them 
quarrelling with or cheating the Britons, while in the case 
of the Greeks, so far as the first provocation, by the removal 
of lo is concerned, they were in an unavoidable difficulty.^ 
But there are other reasons. Brave and daring men, 
whether warriors by sea or land, have at all times had as 
one of their grand characteristics an open recklessness of 
the consequences of avoiding falsehood and deceit. It is 
clear they have no use for those commodities ; there is too 
much of the rough and ready about real sailors to leave 
room for deceit and falsehood. 

But these people in particular belonged, if not to the 
Persian nation by direct descent, at least to a bund,^ of 
which that nation, forming the head, held truth to be the 
grandest principle of action. Herodotus states that, up to 
the age of twenty, the Persian youth were instructed in 
three things only — the use of the bow, horsemanship, and 
a strict regard to truth.^ The Egyptians, also closely allied 
with the Phoenicians, had their gods of truth and their 
temples of truth.^ Moreover, Dido's name of Elisa— a 
poetical contraction from Elizabeth,'^ a revered name in 
Hebrew-Phoenicia, quoted as having been the name of 
Aaron's wife, and subsequently of the mother of John the 
Baptist,*' as frequently translated, commemorates her keep- 
ing her oath of fidelity, even to the memory of her husband. 
Was it possible then that she could openly have practised 
fraud and falsehood V Having placed these people in their 
right position, I venture now to lay before you some points 
which serve to connect several widely located bodies in the 
same family, and in result to bring us back to Bretagne. 

' Herod., bk. i, ch. 5. It should be borne iu mind that the extensive, in 
fact monopolising, traffic of the Phoenicians enabled thcra to fix their own 
prices on all commodities, which, considering the risk of adventure and the dis- 
tance of purchasers, were perhaps not unreasonable. Those who dealt with 
them accused them of extortion without having means to estimate the risk. 

2 Ilerod., bk. i, ch. 4. ^ Ibid., bk. i, ch. 13G. ■» Cooper, Uorus myth. 

* Dr. Adam Littleton. 

« Ibid.. yijy^X, Deus juramenti. 

*■ Some, indeed, consider Dido to be Astarte herself, as they were both wor- 
shipped by the Carthaginians. "Quamdiu Carthago invicta fuit pro dea culta 
est" (Justin, 18, G); and IMovers {Plicen., i, Gl(>)classes Juno, Diana, and Venus, 
on the same scale of worship as the deity of Carthage ; add to this, " Urbc fuit 
media sacrum genitoris Elissie mauibus" (Silius It., 1, yl). 



46 ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 

It will be admitted on all hands that the Phoenicians 
were the most enterprising people of ancient times. Another 
people alike extensive in their pursuits, and only one other, 
existed, the Malays ; but they were in the southern hemi- 
sphere, and apparently never came north. It is not a matter 
of opinion but of historical fact, tabulated alike by Hero- 
dotus^ and Diodorus Siculus,^ that, when all the eastern 
countries were summoned by Xerxes to muster their navies, 
the Phoenicians were found to have one hundred war ships 
in excess of the next maritnne power, that of Egypt ; and a 
fleet in all equal to one-fourth of the collective navies, in- 
cluding those of all the smaller states. Herodotus further 
informs us that the Phoenicians were the hest mariners.^ 
I have already quoted his statement that they had sailed 
round Africa,^ in which he admitted they had proved Africa 
to be surrounded by the sea, such voyage being made up- 
wards of two thousand years before that by any other Euro- 
pean nation.^ I say other European, for the Phoenicians 
accKmatised themselves in Europe ; but, beyond this, it is 
not improbable that both Columbus and Vasquez de Gama 
were descendants of some Phoenician colonisers, Kolurabos 
being a Greek or Phoenician word for a swimmer, while 
Gameo for Gama signifies one taken into alliance by 
marriage, and therefore both suitable names for immigrants. 

There is distinct evidence that the locality of the pillars 
of Hercules, while forming the boundary of the Phoceans 
and other adventurers, was with them merely a grand 
station ; and that their great trade was with Britain, and 
the Cassiterides or British Isles. Their jealousy is marked 
by Strabo's account that a Roman ship-master, endeavour- 
ing to follow one of their ships, to learn the locality of the 
secret sources of their wealth, the Phoenician mariner ran 
his ship on the rocks and destroyed it, but he received the 
full value of his loss from the state to luhich he belonged. 
With thk jealousy so strongly marked, and with the supre- 
macy of the ocean in their hands, I will ask, not if it is 
probable, but possible that they would have allowed another 

• Ilerod., bk. vii, ch. 89 et seq. "^ Dio. Sic, bk. xi, ch. 1. 

3 Herod., bk. vii, ch. 96. "* Ibid., bk. iv, ch. 42, 44. 

^ Prideaux. 2,100 years before discovery of Cape of Good Hope by Vasquez 
de Gama in 1497. It is clear that no doubt existed in the minds of the ancients 
as to this voyage being effected, as Sataspes was ordered by Xerxes to repeat 
the voyage. (Ilerod., bk. iv, ch. 43.) 



ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 47 

rival naval power to establish itself and trade with Britain 
in their own coveted article of commerce, and actually to 
intervene between them and it 1 This for my sequel. 

Herodotus clearly intimates that the Baltic^ was known 
to these people, who appear to have traded there for amber, 
which Strabo also mentions as an article of commerce. 
AVe find that the Phoenicians traversed land as well as 
sea when they had an object to attain ; thus they came 
from the Red Sea to Phoenicia.^ Darius sent an exploring 
party of Greek sailors, who, crossing the country,^ built 
their ships on the river Indus, and then navigated to the 
ocean and up the Red Sea. These were Greeks of Caria, 
in Asia Minor, and really, geographically, more Phcenicians 
than Greeks.^ On the Euxine w^ere people whom I shall 
describe further on, and who are found bearing a name not 
unlike that of the Phoenicians, for it can be shown that 
the ^h or </>, which I find in a curious but anonymous 
Keltic work set down as indicating the Phoenician serpent,^ 
this </) was certainly connected with that district, for not 
only does it appear on the Moabite stone, but Herodotus 
informs us that the people known in Macedonia as the 
Bryges, on passing over into and settling in Asia, were at 
once called the Phryges or Phrygians.** The equivalents of 
the h and v have also a certain mutability in Hebrew, and 

' Herod., bk. iii, ch. 115. He mentions a river flowing into the northern 
SM, from which amber comes, and attributes the name " Eridanus" to Greek 
origin. The Phoenicians alone could have reached so far ; no doubt as the 
result of finding amber, with the people of the Cassiterides, to which he refers 
in the same sentence. This river is considered to be a tributary of the Vistula, 
the mouth being near Dantzic. But these waters were anteriorly known as 
Sinus Venedicus ; clearly, therefore, pertaining to the Venedi or Veneti, d and 
t being mutativcs, and still so retained there : e.g., Lat. tu, Germ, du, thou. I 
do not assume the people here to have been Phceuioian,but that a trade-station 
was established. This would give the name to the locality, and those concerned 
in procuring the amber, and retailing to the natives the Phoenician merchan- 
dise obtained in exchange, would be identified by a name of the same import 
without changing their nationality or language in any way. 

2 Herod., bk. i, ch. 1; bk. vii, ch. 89. 

3 Ibid., bk. iv, ch. 44. Rollin, Prideaux, and others, seem to have misread 
this. Herodotus places the whole initiative with Scylax of Cariandia, who, 
having to prosecute the voyage with the other Carians, no doubt constructed 
or directed the construction of the shii)S made for this special investigation, 
they being both shipl)uilders and sailors, neither of which the Persians were. 

* Mr. Cox, in his Mytholo(jy of the Aryan Notions, p. 230, vol. i, states, "no 
distinction of race is denoted by the names whether of lonians or Phoenicians". 

^ Native Steamboat Companion, p. 190. Eph or Ev, by transposition of the 
vowel-sound, becomes Phe, (p. Ev or P>a was a word of adoration to the ser- 
pent god. The sound would be reversed by the Welsh Britons. Vide n. 3, p. 48. 

« Herod., bk. vii. ch. 7."?. 



48 ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 

may have acquired this in Phoenicia. Had we the sources of 
migration, it would be found that geography and philology 
have as close a relationship as chemistry and geology. We 
here find the h and </> are mutative, but with the Cymru the 
h and v and 6 and/* are also mutative, as in the Welsh hara 
and vara for bread, and the mountains Gabenna or Ceven- 
nes in Gaulish, while in the very locality we are considering 
we have the bay called equally Biscay and Viscaya.^ I need- 
hardly point out how much the ^ and the digamma or / 
represented each other in different dialects. But the Bryges 
passed over to the Galli, or people of Galatia, who had, it 
appears, a common custom of mutation of these consonants 
with our modern Welsh, the descendants of the Cymru. 
This seems a strong indication of the geographical locality 
of the people who came to the west of Europe, and were 
known as the Kimbric branch of the Gauls. I will not rest 
on the similarity of the names Phoenicia and Venetia,^ 
although the Latins, by dropping the h, thus making Poeni, 
hence Punic, showed that out of Phcenicia even the Phoeni- 
cians lost the ph or ^.^ The reason of this is at once appa- 
rent ; the Latins had no equivalent to the Greek ^, and 
the adjustment of the p and h had not yet taken place. 
This is evident from our own language, which, having a 
large element of Latin, has not a single word in it beginning 
with the ph from phacoid, appertaining to lentils, to phyto, 
a plant, and its followers (and the same argument applies 
to French and German) ; but every such word is Greek, 
and the initials borrowed from the Greek cf). 

The Phoenicians have the credit of inventing letters, but 
even their earliest or Kadmean alphabet had not the <!>} It 

' The modern Greeks pronounce the letter ^ (b), v. 

2 The modern Greeks often put t{" to represent the difference between c 
and t ; the Italians, the z only in the latter word. Difference of quantity 
would seem at once to counterbalance anything that might be claimed from 
the similarity of the names ; but when wo find quantity often quite ignored by 
the modern Greeks (from the language being debased, if that argument be pre- 
ferred), there is nothing surprising in the '^barbarians", whether Phoenician 
or Gaelic, adopting phonically a false quantity also, which in the case of a pro- 
per name would then be so written. 8ir G. F. Bowcn, an extensive traveller 
in the Levant, shews, after a careful study of comparative treatises by various 
professors, that the classical English reader also uses false quantities, as in 
Miltiades, and the " short syllables of Bio. and avKoixiu-nv'''' in the first two lines 
of the Iliad. 

3 In Erse, h is always a secondary form of/. In Welsh, h is the primitive, 
and/ the secondary. '{Qiiavterly Review for 18:3(), Sept., on Dr. C. J. Prichard's 
Comparison of Dialects. This again points to the Welsh as Galli of Galicia. 

* Astle. 



ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 49 

appears to mc therefore that the people I have referred to on 
the Euxine, the Henetans or Venetans, or rather the Heneti 
or Vcneti, retained the earlier name. The Greeks had no 
actual letter li, nor indeed v, the sound indicated by </> was 
clearly that of a double letter, which they seem to have 
acquired in the Baltic, where the double u or v [uu or vv), 
still often pronounced by the Scandinavians and Teutons v, 
was first used. On their return they had to coin a letter to 
meet this sound in Phoenicia, hence ^} 

I will take a stronger, because a historical course. Ad- 
joining the people to whom I have referred as living on the 
Euxine, and who were called Heneti, were the people of 
Colchos,^ whose customs were the same as the PhcDenician 
and Egyptian, and whose products bore a name likening 
them to those of either Sidon or Sardis, the one in, the other 
near, Phoenicia. The Greeks stole the daughter of the kinsj 
of this people, and, on the king sending to demand repara- 
tion, the Greeks replied, "We shall make none, as the carry- 
ing off of lo has not been atoned."^ But lo was taken away 
by the Phoenicians. The Greeks therefore thought they 
were justified in looking on these people, the Colchians, the 
Heneti, and their neighbours as the same as the Phoeni- 
cians, as shown in this retaliation. There are certain con- 
structions in Phoenicia which are found equally abundantly 
in the Euxine, in the country of Colchos, showing that the 
same custom was in use among the Colchians and Phoeni- 
cians, tending strongly to their identity as of one origin.^ 

The Persians looked on these various nations of Asia 
Minor as one body, and Mr. A. S. Murray, of the British 
Museum, gives the race of Agenor as spreading over Phoe- 
nicia, Cilicia, and on to Thebes in Greece. If it be thought 
I am trespassing by identifying more than one nation of 
Asia Minor with the Phoenicians, it must be borne in mind 
that in the time of Homer, Greece was equally divided. 
There were Danaans, Argivcs,etc., but no name classing them 

' It is from their geographical positions, pursuits, and traditional emigra- 
tions, that I identify them with the Phoenicians. Still it must be borne in 
mind that <p was originally expressed by the Greeks, who had no letter for 
it, by the labial ir followed by the aspirate, and it was the aspirate that dis- 
tinguished the Ileneti. The difference between the Heneti and Veneti is not 
so apparent, t and )3 are mutative, so are i3 and v, and <p is really an aspirated v. 
Ptolemy writes it Oiiveroi, for the Venetians. See Gaule Romaine, p. 290. 

• Herod., bk. ii, ch. 104, 105. Sardonian or Sidonian ? ^ Ibid., bk. i, ch. 2. 

* See map in Rude Stone Monuments^ by James Fcrgusson, D.C.L., F.Il.S. 

1878 7 



50 ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 

nationally or generally as Greeks. The above and the Pelasgi 
seem to have been the ancestors of all the people of Asia 
Minor and Thrace ; and it would be difficult to shew a dif- 
ferent origin to the occupants of the islands, or, as it seems, 
to various nations of the Greeks ; in fact, the lonians seem 
to have first excelled in naval exploration, and were fol- 
lowed by the Phoenicians; or perhaps the latter were 
encrno-ed on the east of Arabia at that time, and by their 
superior experience took the lead on their coming into the 
Mediterranean. I need hardly touch on the opinions of 
Mons. Bertrand or the Baron de Bonstetten, that the dol- 
men builders came from the Baltic to Britain and Brittany, 
and so on to the Mediterranean, because, as Dr. James Fer- 
gusson has pointed out, it involves the question of superior 
navigators, and we know that the Phoenicians stood alone 
in that position ; and we have also historical commercial 
evidence that it was they who visited the Baltic, and not 
the people of the Baltic them. Indeed, there were no people 
but the Phoenicians from whom information as to the Baltic, 
its amber, and its river Eridanus, could have been obtained 
except the Phoenicians. 

If, then, we may assume the Heneti to l^e of this people, 
and the evidence is strong, it perhaps clears up a point 
never yet explained, viz., where the Phoenicians came from. 
Given the position in the Euxine, it is just the spot for an 
exploring people to have done that on their own account ; 
and which, indeed, agrees with their traditions, which, 
from their own boasted achievements, probably led Pharaoh 
Necho to despatch them on their celebrated voyage round 
Africa ; and subsequently Darius to send sailors overland 
to the Indus, and so up" the Red Sea. I mean they were 
probably the first who navigated down the Persian Gulf 
and up the Pvcd Sea by the very plan subsequently adopted 
by Darius, viz., going overland ; working up the river Halys 
first south, then east, till they approached the Euphrates, 
and crossing overland to that river, and down it to the 
Persian Gulf. They seem to have passed through rather 
than emigrated from the Persian Gulf, or they would have 
brought the Accadian letters. There they would hear of 
sounds being represented by signs ; and the idea being 
given, so ingenious a people woukl readily adapt signs or 
letters to words. The course of the Bryges indicates a 



ON BRITTANY AND BPdTAIN. 51 

stream of migration southwards, as also of the Pclasgi from 
Epirus. 

I find several references to these people, the Heneti, 
coming with Antenor to Northern Italy ; and Dr. Littleton, 
quoting Livy, says the names Heneti and Veneti referred 
to the same people ; that the Heneti and Trojans became 
mixed, and the word Veneti embraced the whole of those 
who built Padua and settled around. If so, as a large number 
of recruits would join the Phoenicians, I think there is suf- 
ficient evidence to shew that the Veneti of the Morbihan 
were Phoenicians :^ indeed, they might almost be geoc/ra- 
phically distinguished ; for whether we take the Veneti of 
the Baltic, the Heneti of the Euxine, the Venedotfe of North 
Wales, the Veneti of Bretagne, the Poeni of Carthage, the 
Phoenici of the Sinus Persicus mentioned by Hesychius, 
those of Hyamia in the Peloponnesus, or the more modern 
occupants of Venice, and all Phoenician colonies, we find 
the same maritime geographical features so strongly com- 
mented on by Csesar, by means of which they baffled for a 
long time the Roman arms at Carthage and in the Morbi- 
han, and which necessitated the same mode of approach by 

• The diiBculty arising from quantity is reduced when the collaterals are 
noticed. Thus ^olvi^, a Phoenician, red, crimson, seems related to (poiv6s, blood- 
red ; <p6voi, murder ; ttoh'tj, blood-money ; (pevw (Liddle and Scott's Lex.); and 
may possibly have relation to the root ohs, astonishment at something unusual 
or vast ; and so oji-tj and olvl^w, Lat. xuius, alone or separate, ^e'lo; is found as 
a root not actually in use. 13ut here we have a diiferent quantity ; and as the 
name seems to have been given by the Greeks altogether as a sobriquet, pro- 
bably intended to unite the natural colour of the men, as it includes the colour 
from that of a bay horse, or, as we should say, " sandy" (II. 23, 454), to that 
of flame, or like flame, as in (polviaaa <pK6^ (Pindar, P. i, 45), with the act of 
murder. Homer identifies them as kidnappers, etc. It may have been so 
changed from the usual name of these 2)eople, by a witty turn, to accommodate 
these meanings; opposites, or double, or multiplicity of meanings being aimed 
at. That it simply meant red, without any apparent reason, except that as 
mariners they were sunburnt, as Mr. Kenrick thinks ; or was only compli- 
mentary to the people coming from the cast, or region of Aurora, as Mr. Cox 
indicates, 1 cannot agree with, though I would accept these as among its many 
meanings. The Greeks had a taste for this sort of satire : thus those Phoeni- 
cians who worked the soil, as at the demarcation of Carthage, when they 
applied their labour to building bridges, received tha sobriquet of Gephyreans; 
and as a commemoration of the contempt implied, amongst other reasons, the 
abuse at the bridge became a popular proverb. (Herod., book v, 57, 58 ; 
Ilesych, Pint.) ^oiviKes seems to be a witticism as used. All words compounded 
of <pul indicate movement, physical or mental : vUn, fighting, conquering, 
hence blood-stained ; and really equivalent to our term red rover, which would 
describe them exactly. In the same way the Greeks nicknamed another roving 
people by a term that described alike their complexion and habits, Ue\ap-yoi, 
or Pelasgi, which means equally storks and dark-haired people with fair skins. 







52 ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 

Alexander at Tyre, Scipio at Carthage, and Csesar in Brit- 
tany. They were, in short, great colonisers. They were 
like the modern Hebrews — found in every market ; had 
command of the precious metals in the same way ; held a 
rehgion from which more recent nations — the Greeks and 
Latins — in a great part drew theirs ; and resembled them 
in all but their physique and maritime pursuits. 

Their connection with the Vandals and Ostrogoths, an 
opinion which has eminent supporters, was that arising from 
positio7i and alliance in the turmoil of later times ; but 
their retirement to Venice shews they had no part with, but 
rather sought a refuge from, those nations. 

The letter h, in south-west of England Gaelic, becomes 
often ch or k ; in Scotch Gaelic it is not recognised, though 
a high authority states that it is made up for, as the High- 
landers place it before every voivel In short, h has been a 
stambling-block from all time. The Greeks indicated the 
aspirate merely by a comma (') to the right, and the soft 
sound by the reverse, just as the French turn the bard c 
into the soft by the cedilla (f). There was no way, there- 
fore, to express the </> but by the /, in this country, in early 
times ; and I find in the small Keltic work I have men- 
tioned, the Fingalians described as Pheni, and Loch Fyne as 
Loch Pheni, while the larger cromlechs and lithic arrange- 
ments in Ireland are called, locally, Leaha na Feine, which, 
it is stated by Fosbroke, signifies the beds of the Phoeni or 
Carthaginians. 

No satisfactory definition has yet been given as to the 
meaning of the term ''recC\ implied by the name. Herod- 
otus attributes it to their coming from the Ked Sea, others 
to the Tyrian dye, others from their extracting red from a 
particular fish; but I believe it to have been personal. 
Some have attributed it to the red hand, from their slaugh- 
tering the inhabitants of the coasts. If so, this would have 
strengthened the personal view. Colour, which still_ exer- 
cises no slight influence, was with the ancients an object of 
reverence, and gave the indicative names to nations, Mr. 
Cox, in his Aryan myths, describes the word Ionian^ as 
meaning violet, while (f)otvLKr) was certainly red. The first 
clearly means the deep blue of heaven at midday, hence 
leading to Helenes or sun-children ; while ^oivUe refers to 

J G. W. Cox, M.A , vol. i, p. 230. 



ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 53 

the rosy hue seen towards the east at dawn.^ Mr. Cox sees 
no difference ; but had it been this alone, they would have 
changed it on going to the west, just as the lonians became 
Helenes, children of the sun ; and Graikoi, or Greeks, people 
of the grey west, or sun-setting. It therefore seems to 
denote the personal colour also. 

We have seen that the Phoenicians worshipped the white, 
horned cow. In Indian mythology the cow and Aurora arc 
one.^ Here are both the Phoenician colour and worship. 
The horses of the two Agvinau, i.e., the two twilights, are 
described as ambrosial, with golden wings which waken the 
Aurora. Ambrosia is described as the luminous, sun-lit 
wave, the yellowish milk of the heavenly cow,^ and as the 
yellow honey : hence ambrosial hair is golden hair. Such 
hair was then probably the distinguishing feature of these 
people. I have found it myself abundantly in the Troad. 
Collating, then, the facts that the goddess from whom 
^neas was supposed to have descended was always de- 
scribed as " fair" and " rosy", and her hair as ambrosial and 
delicate ; and the miraculously golden or fiery appearance 
of the locks of the boy liilus during the sack of Troy, Vir- 
gil's beautiful poetic fiction having, of course, some mean- 
ing well recognised in his day by tradition ; and being a 
compliment to Caesar's race, who, from this fact, would 
appear to have had fair or golden hair ; the name Ca?sar 
being derived, as some think, from his hair. Arthur's hair, 
described as gleaming with the splendour of the golden 
locks or rays of Phoebus ; the name given by the Greeks, 
as well by Strabo as tierodotus, to the Heneti of the Euxine, 
or some people close to them, who were termed the White 
Syrians, together with the white or fair-haired cow as their 
goddess ; and those among the Gauls, mentioned by Dio- 
dorus Siculus, who wore their red hair thrown back, and 
long ; Diodorus and Cresar not discriminating the races in 
AVestern Gaul, except by name, any more than the Persians 
did in Syria and Lesser Asia, where we find the white 
Syrians, or Cappadocians at least, adjoining the Galli, — a 
people of Galatia, a locality, apparently, from which some of 
the Gaelic western emiOTations orisfinated. From all these 
evidences it seems to me that they were of that brave, 
daring, light-haired race still seen in the north, a good type 

' G. W. Cox, M.A., vol. i, p. 237. - Riffv., x, 67, 3. ' Vcdic hymns. 



54 ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 

of which is exhibited in a noble house which the Keltic 
people to this day distinguish by the title Mor. Their 
nationality has been merged in the country, and the wisdom, 
shrewdness, maritime supremacy, and commercial enter- 
prise, of the Phoenicians have settled amongst us, and are 
our principal national characteristics at the present day. 

The national stories of a people often mark their migra- 
tory course as definitely as the most graphic features, and 
when Antenor and his fugitive followers settled in southern 
Europe, they brought with them, of course, their national 
myths and tales, which acquired a poetic beauty in Ger- 
many, the fair-haired Germans at once adopting them. 
Thus the rosy maid, Aurora, is told by her stepdame, Night, 
to pasture the cow (the moon). If she tends her well, the 
cow spins gold and silver from its horns for the maiden, 
who appears in the morning on the mountains with the 
gold and silver yarn^ (or hair), and in the gold and silver 
robes given her by the good cow : in short, Aurora clothed 
with the rays of the sun and moon at rising. This is pure 
Phoenician. So much for the East. The West is introduced 
by a violent effort.^ Night kills the cow (the moon sets) ; 
the fair girl Aurora sows the bones of the cow in the gar- 
den, and from them springs an apple-tree bearing gold and 
silver apples, by plucking one of which, and giving it to a 
prince, he marries her (the sun, of course). The Phoenician 
story would not be complete without the Hesperides ; but 
the mode of introducing the subject is original.^ We have 
all this in Brittany. The churches are crammed with dis- 
taffs of the blessed yarn, which is woven in the wedding- 
clothes ; and from the bones of dragons sown in the sea 
have sprung up innumerable blessings. Nor is it only 
there. The colours are the same now geographically. We 
still speak of Turkey red, Venetian red, Venice blue ; and 
the glorious British flag, on its white Saxon field, is com- 
posed of those colours. 

But we have more than legend. I have made drawings 

' One of the stories of Santo Stefano di Calcinaia. 

2 In Babylonian myth the seraph or serpent (night) receives the bull or sun, 
Ser-apis (grave of the bull). Bunscn, paper, July 31, 1877, Biblical Arckceo- 
loyi/. 

^ Also the stories and ceremony of burning Frau Ilolle, in Thuringia, on the 
Berchten-Nacht, the night preceding the Epiphany. Here Bcrchta is " the 
luminous cow", and Ilolda, or Ilolle, the dark witch. Both .spin. Berchta, like 
the cow, spins silver and gold ; the other, tiie dark weft of night. 



ON BlUTTANY AND BRITAIN. 55 

and casts of an astronomical stone, — a planetarium, in 
short ; and from the local tombs have been obtained purely 
Phoenician or Astarteian relics.^ The peculiar carvings of 
the sun-face and the moon on celts are found, and I believe 
found only, in Europe, on the high-road of these people 
from Marseilles to Vannes, viz., at Puy, at Clermont Fer- 
rand, and at Vannes, while there is sculpture clearly Car- 
thaginian or Sicilian in the celebrated figure at Quinipili. 
It is apparent that in the simple article of the celt we 
have examples of a rude and also of a polished people 
holding the same religious ftiith. The celts at Vannes, 
found in the larger tumuli, are finished pieces of lapidary 
work ; jade and chalcedony attest their value, and their 
exquisite proportion and delicacy an oriental refinement. 
On coarser ones are rude carvings of the solar and human 
visage, of a Nubian cast of countenance, belonging appa- 
rently to a people I shall presently refer to. On one of 
these the moon indicates Astarte. On the sculptured figure 
we have a luna-fillet, and on the terra-cotta a series of luna- 
figures round the sun. Astarte was the heavens ; and this 
figure is clothed with heaven as a robe. Astarte was a pro- 
tector of commerce,^ and she is here shewn guiding and 
protecting a youth clad in the garments of peace or com- 
merce. The carvings on the celts appear peculiar to the 
people I shall presently refer to, and also to the Malays, as 
on the crease. 

From this point I shall assume that the Heneti, Veneti, 
or Venetans, of Bretagne were descendants of some of the 
earliest colonists of the people subsequently taking the ini- 
tial V in Scandinavia, and the <& or Ph in Palestine and Syria. 
The Phoenicians were really leaders and commanders, their 
crews and colonists being impressed from all they met with. 
It is sufiicient for the argument that these were colonists led 
by, and acting with and for, the Phoenicians. Just as many 

' Parallel with the legends runs an imitation of the great Indian sacrifice 
of the white horse, the Aswaiuedha. In Sicily, Dionysius sacrificed annually a 
white horse (Strabo); and we find the horse sacred in Brittany and Britain (the 
white horse). The Avhole district of the great stone of miracle (Breton, Men 
Marz) is sacred to St. Eloi (0710$ "EA/as of the modern, "haios of the ancient 
Greeks); and in this district of the former worship of the sun, as the presence 
of this saint shews, on his day of worship all the horses in his district still 
make a grand procession, which is terminated by innumerable feux tie joie, 
bonfires. See infra, Penmarc'h. 

* Murray's 3/i/ths, p.. 84. 



56 ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 

of the Roman legions had no Romans in them except the 
commanders. 

It will, perhaps, bring the matter into a condensed form to 
recall the fact that the earliest nations we have knowledge 
of were the Chaldseans, Syrians, Phrenicians, and Egyptians, 
and that they all bordered on each other ; and thus, no 
doubt, had a lingua franca language in common; for Hero- 
dotus, at the outset of his history, says the Phoenicians 
transported the produce of Egypt and Assyria to Greece. 
These nations are recorded to have been all of the same 
stock ; and if so, their great distinguishing features arose 
from their localisation and the pursuits which such localisa- 
tion engendered. Thus the Syrians would be pastoral, the 
Phcenicians mercantile, the Egyptians constructive and 
artistic, and the Chaldasans, from some cause or other, astro- 
nomical ; and from the latter would then have emanated 
the primitive solar myth to which the mythologies of all 
the others can be traced, and from which the later ones of 
Greece and Rome were clearly constructed. 

I find this idea supported by the character of their re- 
spective writings ; the Chalda3an or Babylonian, and even 
the antecedent Accadian, the original of this writing and of 
sun-worship, being of arrows or arrow-heads or rays ; the 
arrow being used to indicate the sun's rays, and so described 
by Greek and other writers ; and the Cymru claim to this 
day the three rays as indicating that the knowledge of lan- 
guage came down from heaven ; that of the settled Egypt- 
ians being formed of the plants and animals located on the 
Nile, which they venerated ; the Syrian being apparently 
the expression of a pastoral people, — to quote alepli stand- 
ing for an ox, gimel for a camel, heth for a field, and so on ; 
but which at once lost such special signification when used 
commercially by the Phoenicians, though re-read by students 
of to-day.^ The visible indications of their mythologies 
bear this out exactly. Thus the sun of the Chaldseans is 

> There is a hieroglyphic writing of this kind still existing in Brittany, and 
retained to within the last few centuries. It consists of various figures which 
are in reality emblems standing for signatures, and known as mariners' and 
merchants' marks, on floors and walls of churches at Penmarc'h and elsewhere 
in Brittany, as at St. Marie at Mcne Horn, and on documents in archives at 
Quiraper, which explain in a measure the marks on the stones in chambers at 
Locmariaquer ; so far, at least, as to shew that the designers used them to 
convey a meaning, though the clue to it is now difficult and obscure. 



ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 57 

represented by Assliur as an arclier, clearly the original of 
Apollo ; the sun of the Egyptians by the orb clothed with 
the wings of the Ibis ; Osiris' incarnation by the bull Apis ; 
the moon of the Syrians and Phrenicians by the white- 
horned cow, lo or Astarte, the cow answering to the pastoral 
Syrians, the moon to the guiders of ships, or mariners, — a 
fact that smoothes down very much of what was considered 
important by former antiquaries in the arkite myth, and 
yet shews that there was some ground for admitting this 
species of naval freemasonry. 

The Bretons are still identically the same. With no 
manufactures but those for their own use, yet those pro- 
ducing excellent articles ; in other respects divided simply 
into a marine and a pastoral population, they keep them- 
selves exclusive, and aloof from general intercourse, though 
kind, affable, and highly interesting. 

One word more on the Phoenicians. The tau was an object 
of reverence with them. Alexander crucified a multitude 
at Tyre to degrade this figure, the tbree-mcmbered cross. 
We find it prominent on the dress of Astarte in the terra- 
cotta, and on the forehead of the figure at Quinipily, and in 
a great variety of decorated forms on the sculptured cham- 
bers of Locmariaquer. It is of a gigantic size on the ceiling 
or roof-stone of " the Table of the Merchants". This emblem 
was one of the forms indicating Osiris; and tradition being 
a most persistent thing, I have no doubt that as Astarte 
was the protector of merchants, this was the Exchange, or 
place where contracts were made. If we may assume as 
much as this, the explanation is clear. They would have to 
swear truth and fidelity in the valuable trusts confided to 
their care. Such oaths to be taken here, either in the 
chamber or over it, either by pointing heavenwards to the 
emblem invoked ; or what to them would be still more 
solemn, the great oath, By Him who lies buried at Philre. 

The Veneti. — Caesar^ informs us that the Vcncti had great 
influence, — more, indeed, than any other nation along the 
whole sea-coast ; because, he says, they had not only a very 
great number of ships in which it was their custom to sail 
to Britain, but by this means they surpassed the other 
nations in nautical knowledge and experience. He describes 
well the dangerous sea and open coast ; the risks of which, 

' De Bello Gallico, L. iii, c. 8. 
1878 8 



58 ON BHITTANY AND BRITAIN. 

toc^ether with tlie scarcity of ports, gave such power to the 
Venetians that they were enabled to hold as tinhutaries 
almost all those who entered into traffic with them. 

In this passage we have evidently the secret of their 
wealth on that otherwise unproductive coast where they 
were located ; doubtless from the Morbihan,^ even in their 
day, offering to vessels of small draught and size as complete 
a natural defence as any in the world ; while its terribly 
rapid currents, sandy shoals, and winding channels, would 
have caused destruction to any not bearing a native pilot. 
Diodorus Siculus refers to the traffic in British metal, it 
being carried to an island on the British coast by carts at 
low tide, and then conveyed by merchants to France (Gaul), 
and through France to the mouth of the Ehone, evidently 
towards the great market of Rome. 

With the statement of Csesar before us, it seems clear 
that the Veneti were these transporters of this article of 
commerce, and even perhaps the land- carrying merchants 
to Marseilles. Be the latter point as it may, though quite 
consonant with the marketing customs of the ancient Phoe- 
nicians, the more interesting point to us is this, that the 
British seas were from the earliest history commanded by 
Breton or British fleets, and that Britons were the carriers 
of the world then as they are still. 

AVe learn further, from Csesar's statements, that these 
people, though apparently distinct from the Gaelic nations 
around them, were in communication with all the coast- 

' Mons. Ernest Desjardins, in his valuable work on the Geographie de la 
Oaule Romaine, very correctly points out the geological as well as geographi- 
cal fact that the sea of the Morbihan did not exist as it now is in the days of 
Cjesar. I have myself compared many of the soundings with those on the 
hydrographical chart designed by Al. Edmond Bassac, and from these and 
very careful observations made during several successive years I can attest 
the probability of this statement. But allowing it all the merit of correctness, 
it is evident, even from M. Desjardins' own map (Plate x of vol. i), that there 
must have been, even in Caesar's time, many intricate channels and even dan- 
gerous shoals. His own soundings go to indicate that the lie mix Moines^ lie 
(TArz, He Longue, and Gavr' Inis, were islands, all of them being, to a great 
extent, surrounded by deep channels scooped out by the fresh water outlets of 
the district ; and he places the grand port of Venetia at Locmariaquer, which 
is a considerable distance inside the mouth of the Morbihan ; so that, although 
the vast tract of water we now see did not then exist, there was sufficient, so 
far as the security of their port was concerned, to agree with Ctesar's descrip- 
tion, that estuaries separated the passes by land, and that the approach by sea 
was difficult {Bel Gal., L. iii, c. 9): "■' Pededria esse itinera concisa wstuariis, 
navigationem impeditam propter inscieiitiam locorum paucitatemque portuum 
sciebant.^^ 



ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 59 

tribes, and able to bind them, by their influence, into a 
confederacy against Csesar.^ They were, therefore, well 
acquainted with the curious religious customs of the Sam- 
nites in the Isle de Batz, at the mouth of the Loire,^ refer- 
red to by Strabo and Ptolemy of Alexandria ; or may, 
indeed, have instituted them as agreeing with the orio-inal 
mysteries of Samothrace; while on the north their influence 
included, as we still further learn from Ctesar, the Lexovii, 
and so on eastward up to the Morini ; so that they embraced 
in their maritime alliance, when in conjunction with Aqui- 
tania, the whole of what is now the French sea-board, even 
including, it would seem, that in the Mediterranean, and 
also that of Belgium. And as he goes on to say they sent 
for auxiliaries from Britain, they would, by friendly com- 
pact, have exerted the same influence over the people of 
this country also ; and not improbably southward, along 
the Atlantic coast, eveii to Gibraltar itself. 

The ]\Iouini are placed by ancient geographers as far east 
as the Khine, so that all the commerce of the Channel was 
under these fleets ; and as the Veneti were too enterprisino- 
a people to permit much competition, and, as Caesar states, 
held all the traders as tributaries^ (for we fail to find any 
excepted), it is not too much to assume tha^ the whole 
metallic commerce of Britain was in their hands, as their 
collective influence would be the great guarantee for security 
of goods to merchants of the staple article, whom Ca3sar 
mentions. So much, even in modern history, turns on the 
destruction of their fleet by the Romans, that I must devote 
a few words to this remarkable naval fight. Before do'mo' so, 
however, I must pause here to relate the most striking tra- 
dition of this locality, if not of the whole of Bretagne,° that 
of King Grallon and La Ville d'Is. It will be apparent that 
we have arrived at the secret of the capahilitij of these 
people to erect the wondrous monuments, the very frag- 
ments of which startle the modern traveller ; thouo-h no°, 

' L. iii, c. 9. 

^ Or, as M. Desjardins suggests, L'lle Noirmoutier, more to the south. The 
locality would uot affect this question. 

^ " Quos tenent ipsi, omnes fere, qui eo mari uti cousuerant, habent vecti- 
gales." (L. iii, c. 8.) 

* Extracted from a collection, Des Traditions, Mosurs, Coutnmes, Chansons, 
Leijendes, Ballades, de la Bretagne. Paris, 1872. Also see a very interesting 
work by Mous. Le Mens, Archiviste de Quimper, on the beautiful cathedral of 
that city. 



60 ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN, 

perhaps, altogetlier, yet at those ideas which led them so to 
devote their strength ; but the two are inseparable. 

The same characteristics at once appear which distin- 
guished the Egyptians and the people of Tyre, viz., an exhi- 
bition of wealth and power by gigantic solidity and pon- 
derous construction ; and while little beyond the unw^ieldy 
monoliths remain to attest the fact, these are so emphatic in 
expression that there is no room for doubting magnijicent 
settlements, ivealth, and civilisation. The Ville dTs is repre- 
sented to have been a superb and beautiful city. Indeed, 
the grand means of their communication with the wealth 
and philosophy of Greece and Rome was through their own 
great port, for centuries prior to our era a seat of learning 
and science, Massilia, now Marseilles. 

These remains have, in short, no analogue for ponderosity 
of hthic chambers and monoliths, except the chamber for 
the shrine of Latona at Butos, formed out of a single block 
which, according to Savary's quotations, took several thou- 
sand workmen three years to convey to its destination, and 
except the obelisks of Egypt. As the sojourning people in 
Egypt were made to provide the labour for her vast erec- 
tions, so the tributaries to the Veneti from all parts, as 
Csesar describes them, would by act or impost have helped 
to a magnificence, the very grandeur of which was displayed 
in utility, for these vast monoliths acted as landmarks by 
day to their ships, and many a one as a pharos by night, if 
we may judge from the statement of Orosius, who in the 
fifth century described such a pharos, of Phoenician con- 
struction, at Corunna^ in Spain, which was reputed in his 
day to have been erected to aid Phoenician ships on their 
passage to Britain. 

I have made a careful examination of all the larger 
monoliths in Brittany, from the mouth of the Loire west- 
ward, and thence round the coast to Mont St. Michel in 
Normandy, and found in every case that the great menhirs 
occupied sites well seen from the sea, and were superseded in 
almost every case by a modern phare — pliarosw lighthouse. 
In many cases there were two, which came into line with the 

' This is strongly corroborated by the names of such localities. It is said 
Coruiiiia takes its name from this very column ; and the present lofty pharos 
is still called the " Tower of Hercules". In Brittany we have " Za Torche", 
at Peumarc'h ; and "La Clarte'\ near Trcgastcl, etc., etc. 



ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 61 

most dangerous rocks, being thus capable of acting as 
beacons both by day and night. I examined, at Biindisi in 
Italy, the two vast columns which terminate the Via Appia. 
They had projections upon them for ascending to fix lights, 
some of which still exist on the remainino; column. We 
appear to have no actual record of the fact, but the natives 
of Brindisi affirm that these columns were used as fire- 
beacous ; and iu Brittany I found, in the mural decorations 
of a chateau, such a column represented with fire burning 
on the summit, and continually kept alive by an attendant. 
Nor are we witliout existing examples of monoliths as 
vast, and still erect, in the Basque provinces of the north 
of Spain, as at San Michel in Arrichinaga, while my own 
residence, for two summers, on the Spanish and Portuguese 
coasts, enables me to attest examples of dolmens of the 
same character as those of Brittany, which are found along 
tlie whole coast of the Atlantic from France to Gibraltar. 
Amongst others, those of Cintra and Evora, or Ebora, where 
we have not only the mutative h and v again, but identity 
of Gaelic or Phoenician names ; the Evora of Portugal, and 
the Ebora of our city of York, being the same name. 

On the fall of this great power, the earthen tumuli only 
in part protected the abodes of the dead. Can we imagine, 
then, that the constructions of the mighty men, all of whom 
were sold by Cj3esar into slavery after the senate were, with- 
out exception, put to death, would have been respected '\ 
What these constructions were, it is not easy to arrive at. 
I have endeavoured to restore Locmariaquer from examples 
still intact, and to give a tent as shewn on the sculptured 
stones of Gavr' Inis ; but what the grander constructions 
were, it is useless to conjecture. All their possessions were 
surrendered to Ctesar ; and the remains of the mighty 
works of Carnac and Locmariaquer, the salt-sown and pul- 
verised foundations of Penmarc'h, and the husfe fragjments 
of what appears to have been a stupendous pier or break- 
water at the extreme point in the Bay of Douarnenez, attest 
great commercial traffic in the hands of the Veneti. The 
ruins of these evidence that inundation oi destruction which 
seems poeticised in the tradition of the Ville d'ls, shewing 
that the mighty general swept away the great and wealthy 
even beyond the furthest promontory, — a view that tlie 
very destructive Christianity of Bretagne would have con- 



62 ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 

sidered exactly suited to the deserts of their pagan ances- 
tors. I look on the date of this legend,— the fifth century, 
as of no consequence, the tradition being one that would 
certainly have been appropriated by the Christianity of the 
middle ages. Mons. Emile Souvestre, commenting on the 
massive art-remains found in the sea on the north of the 
promontory of the Corisopiti, which tradition asserts were 
sunk there through a terrible catastrophe, and consequent 
submergence, says, "C'est ten de ces miJle i^rohUmes que le 
jKfsse semble proposer par ironie a la science du present!' 
The wonder is not apparent with Caesar's statement before 
us. It appears probable that the llthic constructions of the 
temples, that were not worth transportation, were removed 
by the Eoman ships, and they and their remembrance sunk 
in the depths of the sea. There is no geological evi- 
dence of such a convulsion, but the reverse. Knowing, 
as we do, the custom of ancient warfare to raze cities to the 
ground, and with the reasons Caesar puts forth for the most 
unsparing measures, what more probable than that the first 
acts of the new slaves were the dismantling their own build- 
ings, and sinking them in the ocean, under Eoman super- 
vision ? Caesar distinctly states that they surrendered 
themselves and all their possessions to him. Any personal 
observer will admit that the remains of the Morbihan, indeed 
of the whole of Brittany, exhibit but a faint outline of former 
Avorks ; and these have only come down to us in conse- 
quence of the enormous labour their destruction would have 
entailed.^ The above would quite accord with the later 

' This faint outline of former works it has been my endeavour, for some 
years past, to trace out. While for the purposes of geographical science it is 
impossible not to admire M. Desjardins' work on Gaule Romaine, I cannot con- 
scientiously agree with his archEeological views ; e.ff., it matters not, for most 
arguments, whether the female Saranites, or by any name which he pre- 
fers to designate them, occupied the lie de Batz or the lie Noirmoutier ; but 
tradition, being a very persistent thing, the Pierre Longue in the Bourg de 
Batz (for it is no longer an island), which has retained around it for centuries 
remnants and traditions of mysterious rites, seems to indicate that locality. 
Again, I think he takes too confined a view of the Roman operations. CaBsar 
sent three legions among the Unelli, the Curiosolitce, and the Lexovii ; and 
while he thus kept their military in check would, it appears to me, attack the 
towns of those people. Now it is exactly in those localities that oppida are 
found on promontories and peninsulas, with guarded approaches from the 
land, and having in them remains of dolmens, etc. I have visited a number of 
these round the coast, from Cap Sizun to the north coast. Many are very 
remarkable, that at Kermorvan, near Le Conquet, having still the mound cast 
up against the citadel by the besiegers, and answering minutely to Caesar's 
description. These tactics went on a long time before the fleet came up. 



ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 63 

Breton habits, for I find all the obnoxious things, dragons, 
and others, were thrown into the sea, — not a few dragons, by 
the way, — just as the crosses at lona were at a later date. 

If the foregoing be admitted as probable, the good ohl 
King Gralon would represent the primitive happiness of 
the inhabitants ; his dissolute daughter, Dahut, the money- 
seeking, and no doubt licentious, Phoenicians, who holdino-, 
as they literally did, by a golden chain the silver key of the 
waters, by their injudicious rupture with the Eoman army 
flooded the land with death and destruction ; and who, in 
the person of the Princess Ahes, King Gralon was ordered 
to deliver to the demanding waters. In other w^ords, the 
people had to surrender the wealthy settlers all along the 
coast, up to the Point du Eaz, to the torrent of Pioman 
punishment. The purple or Tyrian cushions on which Ahes 
reclined, covered with massive golden ornaments and ori- 
ental pearls, as figured by the brilliant pen of Mons. Eaoul 
Ferrere, seem to me to convey this allegorical meaning of 
an otherwise unexplained and inexplicable story, which 
throughout bears, not only by Ferrere 's, but by Souvestre's 
depicting also, a purely oriental impress. 

The name of the Princess Abes, which was Dahut, appears 
to have been local, and, as far as I have been able to ascer- 
tain, is composed of the w^ords da7\ an oak, and hut or liutli, 
affliction. Taking the account allegorically, therefore, Gra- 
lon, the king, w^ould represent the original possessors of the 
country ; and his luxurious and gold-covered daughter, the 
subsequent intruder who appropriated his wealth and intro- 
duced a new religion. Beguiled in folly by a distinguished 
and powerful youth (the Roman general), she despoils Gra- 
lon of his silver key, and, as a consequence, of his city. His 
life is saved, i.e., he still lives in the country ; but she is 
ordered by the voice of the gods to be surrendered to the 
waves, which by her instrumentality have flooded the land. 
Taking Gralon as the figure of power under the original 

When C'JBsar speaks of the islands of the Veiieti he refers to the whole coast 
in the waters of which their fleets were, and on which they levied their tribute. 
The very tradition of King Grallon bears out traditionally the water encom- 
passed towns of the west. It is reniarkalile that in Isaiah xxix, .3, we find a 
description of attack adopted by Phoenicians, identical with that used by Ctcsar 
and others against Pha'nician oppida. It would seem, therefore, that Caesar 
adopted the tactics of the locality against the Veneti : such tactics, in short, 
as became imperative from their geographical positions, and which probably 
were first used by Phoeuicians. 



64 ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 

Druidic religion, Dahut was, indeed, the affliction and 
despoiler of their emblem, the oak.^ 

The word Is is frequent in our own insular shores, in the 
neighbourhood of ancient Phoenician traffic, as Is-ca, the 
river Ex ; Is-car Legio, Caerleon in Monmouthshire, on the 
Usk ; Is-chalis, Ilchester ; Is-urium, Aldborough in York- ' 
shire ; Is-amnium, now Portmuck in Ireland ; and the Is- 
ctis or Ictis, which has somehow or other contracted that 
extraordinary v or vv which the Phoenicians also seem to 
have contracted in these parts, and which, therefore, has 
been. called Vectis or Wight. It has clearly been mistaken 
for an island nearer the river Is, while that near the Lizard, 
or L'ls-ard^ (the exalted Is), answers the description exactly. 
Whichever it was, as Diodorus Siculus states, it was the 
great emporium for tin. It might as readily have been 
called L'Isle d'ls as the city we are speaking of La Ville 
d'ls; for the Phoenicians, who appear to have tirst imported 
tin from the coast of India (which bears out my previous 
suggestion that they went there first from Asia Minor, and, 
no doubt, by their merchandize suggested its conquest to 
Darius), found it there called kastira in Sanscrit, the Arabic 
being Jcasdtr, i.e., the shining : hence, when they found it 
in the British islands, they named them Kassiterides, from 
hastira. Hence it was also, probably, that some authors 
looked on the Britannic islands as the Fortunate Islands of 
the Hyperboreans, applying the meaning (briglitness) to the 
islands rather than to their produce. But the white and 
shining — and the Greeks so used tin for plating their shields 
and greaves, and not as a solid metal, nor in bronze alone — ■ 
the white and shining were the special features of their 
goddess, whether by the name of Astarte, Isis, or lo, to 
whom they would attribute their success, and, therefore, to 
whom they would consecrate their treasure procured from 
such distant sources, and under the beneficent shining of 
whom they would secure safe voyages by taking their 

1 Her title, Ahcs, seems Phocnico-IIebrew, as Ahiiz, the meaning of the latter 
name (possessor), would exactly apply to her. 

2 So long ago as eight centuries before our era, the Pha3nicians were accused 
of kidnapping, and taking to foreign lands, Jewish youths {vide Joel, Amos, 
etc.). This accounts for the early settlement of Jews at Marazion, the strong 
and ancient Jewish element in Wales, the local traditions of Jews formerly 
working the tin-mines of Cornwall {Romances., etc., of the West of Emilaiid by 
R. Hunt, Ei-q., F.R.S., p. 82), etc., without having recourse to the extreme 
ideas lately promulgated in reference to their early settlement in Britain. 



ON BRITT.^NY AND BRITAIN. 65 

marine /?<?? a- observations/ The abstraction of the silver key 
from Grallon, wliich involved his destruction, is clearly the 
removal of the silver emblem or object of his former sway, 
the silver}' goddess, the moon, which, suspended round his 
neck, recalls the lodan Moran. 

Dropping the k from hastira, we have at once the Greek 
aster {aaTrip), a luminary or illustrious person, from which 
the transition to Astarte is facile. But Isis and Astarte 
were one. I therefore look on the word Is, not only in 
Britain, but in Brittany, and its multiplied application 
wherever these people went, as Il-is-sus in Attica ; Is-ara, 
or Is-ere, in Savoy ; Is-auria in Asia Minor ; the Sinus Is- 
sicus, close to Phoenicia itself, — in short, throughout the 
Phoenician settlements, — as closely allied with the Is-iaci or 
priests of Isis. Is-apis,^ in Umbria, the locality I have already 
pointed out as visited by the Heneti or Yeneti, gives us at 
once the key, by the names of two of the Egyptian deities, 
while the derivations of Ex, Ouse, Ox, Is, Es (flowing 
water), as in our own rivers Isis and Tham-es, all from one 
source ; together with the river Isis in the Euxine ; a 
river Isis in South Germany, where the Heneti migrated 
to; and the Is, near Babylon itself; point to the same con- 
clusion ; and for that source I find no more prolmble orioin 
than the name of that deity of the ancients, under whose 
influence, then as now, the rivers seemed to burst with 
abundance in this country ; in a less degree, it is true, but 
in the same way as the Nile did under the Isis or moon of 
Egypt. At all events it seems a better way of viewing it 
in these matter-of-fact times, than by giving any place to 
the enormous and terrible Red Demon who is gravely 
asserted to have been seen by the whole population of 
Quimper, lay and clerical, descending on the leaden tower 
of the church in that town, and enveloping it in flame,— a 
legend which is mixed up with the legend of the Ville d'ls, 

' Astronomy was quite sufficiently advanced in Babylon to justify such a 
statement. I am informed that in the engineering works executed at St. 
Nazaire an object was found amongst some neolithic implements which led 
the finder to suppose it was a prehistoric chronometer. As it did not come 
under my personal observation when there, I can form no opinion. Homer, in 
the eighth book of the Odyssey, api)arently refers to the use of the compass in 
ships moving, without the aid of the usual means, as easily in darkness and 
cloud as in day ; and Fuller gives the Phoenicians credit for using the magnet. 
The excavations at St. Nazaire are referred to in the Revue Archeologique de 
Paris. Mars, Avril, et Mai, 1877. 

"^ Strabo and Ptolemy use the popular abbreviation, " Sapis". 
1878 *^ 



66 



ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 



though it is not quite apparent why, except that on a close 
examination ot the entry by the cure, this demon appears 
to have been the Phoenix. He describes it (a grudge against 
the Phoenicians) as a large bird in the midst of the flames. 

• • n T • 

I assume, then, that the mysteries of Osiris and isis were 
celebrated in, perhaps, the once vast city of Penmarch, the 
horse being always connected with the sun and moon, and 
the head of a sacred animal always assumed in such wor- 
ship by the Egyptians ; and as Penmarc'h means the horse's 
head, and the city was named from a vast, natural resem- 
blance to a horse's head, which still exists, no spot could have 
been more strongly indicative to Phoenicians of a site for such 
worship. The great parish church of St. Nonna, at Penmarc'h, 
has part of its square tower decorated with well-sculptured 
horses' heads, — not as fanciful gurgoyles, but in positions 





Horses' Heads, facing N. and S., in granite. 
Tower of Penmarc'h Church. 



simply decorative. Inside and outside, the church has ela- 
borately sculptured ships with all details of sails, etc.; and 





l'^5:;==i? 



Ship, in granite, on the external face of a 
wall of Penmarc'h Church. 



Votive Boats on the inner face of walls 
of Penmarc'h Chui'ch. 



the extensive stone flooring is, as I have already pointed out, 
covered with emblematic and votive marks made by mer- 



ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 



67 



chants and captains from the coast, as ftir down as Gibral- 
tar, who thus suppHcated the powers of the pkice on their 
adventures. The horse's head asserted to have been found 
by the followers of Dido in excavating for her new city, 
Carthage, was said to be a sign of good omen.^ The Phoeni- 
cians being on this coast, and the acknowledged sanctity of 
the horse's head by the ancients, seem to explain why this 
spot was selected by merchants for propitiating adverse 
deities for the safe conduct of their ships. The mysterious 




Votive Marks by Mariners, etc., from the coast of Spain. Size, from 1 foot to 3 feet each. 

meanings connected with the horse's head are so tremendous, 
and yet so applicable, that they agree at once with all the 
other associations of the locality. The horse's head^ is a 
Helenic emblem, and was adopted by the Germans probably 
from Trojan introduction. It had ccpially solemn purposes 
as the heads in the Hindoo myths. To quote one sentence: 
"He who enters into the head finds death and hell : he who 
comes out of it rises again to new life." The mysteries of 
Isis and Osiris were purely those of the dead : the passing 
onward to the western or Fortunate Isles, always an emblem 
of a new and happy existence. 

All the surroundings support the idea of such worship as 
well on the islands, e.g., on the He des Sorcieres with its 
mysterious monuments,'' as on the promontory terminating 

' Virgil, yEn., li, 443. 

- Handbnck der Deutschen Mythologie, p. 375, etc. 

* Although, as I have stated above, the large menliirs appear to have served 
the useful purpose of the modern lighthouse, yet those acquainted with Phoe- 



68 ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 

in the Point du Raz. The Egyptians carried their dead west- 
ward, over water, to their final resting-place. The priests 
of this locality, Druids or Phoenicians, conveyed the bodies of 
their sacred ones from the promontory westward to the He 
(ie>Sem, which the wild waves only occasionally allowed them 
to visit. The dead were frequently delayed in the Bale des 
Trepasses, which leads to the supposition that some process 
of temporary preservation or embalming must have been 
practised in a semi-Egyptian fashion. Here we find, in 
local tradition, the classical and Egyptian Hades completely 
revived ; the souls of the dead wandering along the shores 
of the beautiful but sometimes terrible bay, in various con- 
ditions of distress, waiting for the boat of Charon to waft 
them over. 

The above traditions seem to be a peculiar Keltic way of 
representing history, for we find collected into a single spot 
in Britain all these traditions and their accompanying 
features, with the substitution of another but still royal cul- 
prit, whose sin of causing inundation by a foreign army 
was identical. 

The grand Eoman power sweeping away the great ones 
of the British priesthood, and with them, of course, the 
nobles on the Isle of Mona, does not stand alone. The Bay 
of Cardigan (the Venedotia we have referred to) matches 
that of Douarnenez in its traditionary remains of a cause- 
way upon a scale so vast that it is said to have reached 
from Harlech to the opposite promontory. Mysterious 
legends are connected with this place, — a king not being 
overcome, as Canute was, by the waves of the sea, but mas- 
tering them, his followers having made his regal chair of 
wax, which floated on the waves as they approached, 
attained thus supremacy over the native chiefs,- — a legend 
savouring strongly of the floating Phoenicians.^ Certain it 
is that a remarkable dyke, in a great parb natural, but 
which, it is affirmed, has large remains of art upon it, like 
that near the Poi7it du Raz, goes from the shore in the 

nician rites will at once see that this fact made them emblematic ; and some 
ceremonies of an occult religion are secretly ])ractised to this day by the 
peasants, as at the mammilloidal menhir at Kerloas, Finistere. (M. de Fre- 
minville.) 

' This legend is preserved in the old Welsh laws referring to the kings of 
the line of Dyfi. See Mr. W. F. Skene on the Four Ancient Books of Wales, 
vol. i, p. 64. 



ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 69 

direction of the western promontory.^ The tradition is that 
the country secured by this dyke was inundated through a 
countryman who, having charge of the sluices, neglected to 
close them ; that of the Ville d'l^, that King Grallon was 
robbed by his daughter Dahut of the silver key suspended 
round his neck by a golden chain, which he used personally 
each montlr to lock and unlock the sluices tow^ards the 
ocean. The parallel does not stop here, for, leaving the 
extreme point of the western promontory, the Druids used 
to convey their holy dead to Bardsey Island for sepulture.^ 
The same cause of delay, from the boisterous ocean, often 
prevents now in each case, as it prevented then, intercourse 
with the shore ; and a hospice still exists near Yr Eifl 
Mountain, where the wayfarer to the sacred cemetery of the 
Druids has refreshment without cost. 

The natural physical features are curiously the same. In 
Brittany there is the triple-peaked mountain, Mene-Hom, 
the extreme western spur of Les Montagues Noires, looking 
down upon the scene. The three peaks of this highly cele- 
brated mountain of Druidic ceremonies are decorated, two 
with dolmens, and the other with a great enceinte of earth 
known as Castel-Douar. Near Pwllheli, the also triple- 
peaked mountain, Yr Eifl,— the extreme western spur of the 
Snowdou range, — looks down on a precisely similar scene, 
wanting only the story of the Princess Ahes's evil deeds ; 
but in lieu of it is supplied the terrible catastrophe (though 
without the Red Demon) that overtook Vortigeru, who was 
destroyed here in a deluge of fire from heaven, for invit- 
ing the stranger (Saxon in this case) to the land. The three 
peaks of this also highly celebrated mountain of Druidical 
occupation are decorated,- — the two minor peaks with lesser 
monuments, the grand one wath a British city, the most 
perfect in this country. It is not probable that all these 
])arallc]s could be the result of accident. I have collected a 
great variety upon other traditions. The customs of the 

' That this, as well as that near the Point du Raz, were adapted to the pur- 
jioses of breakwaters by the Phoenicians, to form harbours, is probable ; that 
they enclosed these vast bays is simply jjopular wonderland. 

- Clearly the lunar influence on the tides. 

" This custom seems to have had its origin in Ceylon, and was apparently 
brought thence to Delos by the Phoenicians, but was quite misunderstood by 
the Greeks. Parallel with it runs another, at Adam's Peak in Ceylon, in Greece, 
Brittany, and Wales ; persons healed by the waters of holy wells, etc., leave, 
attached to some object in the vicinity, votive pieces of rag or cloth to the 
local deity or saint. 



70 ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 

people of the coasts of Bretagne are as much identified here 
as the physical features visible to the eye are parallel. 

In my paper on King Arthur, before another Society, I 
have shewn the similarity of traditions on that subject in 
Brittany and Britain. I cannot repeat them here ; but the 
foregoing form striking addenda to the Arthurian parallels. 
Still, as it is almost impossible to pass over that portion of 
the subject, I submit one or two illustrations of the grand 
Arthurian district between Treguier, with its rich yet pecu- 
liar cathedral, and St. Pol- de-Leon, including the reputed 
place of his birth, the site of the present chdteau of Kerduel, 
the seat of the Marquis de Champagni ; and of his burial in 
the Isle of Avalon, where the remarkable dolmen sur- 
rounded with an extra or royal enclosure, or peristalith, exists. 
It is one of three grand dolmens, the others being at He Melio 
and Tregastel, i.e., three castles, — a name which I have no 
doubt originated in these three dolmens, all of which were 
once on semi-insulated territories such as Csesar describes. 

We have not in Wales the tradition of wealth or licen- 
tiousness which marks the tale of Brittany, and the reason 
is clear. Although the Phcenicians traded with, and no 
doubt, where it answered their purposes, colonised our 
shores, they must have done so to a much less extent than 
on their own highway between Marseilles and Vannes : 
hence their remains are not so stupendous. The British 
religion was not of Phoenician origin, though the Phoenician 
features were introduced into it at a later date. It was the 
fact of the primitive religion of Britain being less affected 
by contact with differing opinions, from its insular seclu- 
sion, that led to the Gauls sending their youths here for 
religious instruction.^ The religion of the Gauls assimilated 
to that of the Britons ; but the religion of the people we 
have been considering did not ; and if my arguments 
appear fallacious to any on the point of nationality between 
the Phoenicians and Venetians, I must point out that we 
have, in the remains in Brittany, a stronger argument than 
any of the preceding, viz , the remains of Phoenician wor- 
ship and custom on a magnificent scale ; while the greater 
monuments of Britain, though megalithic, are quite dis- 
tinct;- and even those in Ireland, as exampled by the 

' De Bella Gollico, L. vi, c. 13. 

= Since the date of this reading I have made still more minute searches in 
Brittany, and have found temples agreeing in so many local points with one 



ON BRITTANY AND BEITAIN. 



tumuli of tlic Boync, thouoh distinct from those of Britain, 
are of the Greek and Milesian t3-pes ; while those of Brit- 
tany alone give either the solidity, scale, or character, 
of structures l)y the Phcenico-Egyptian labourers, who at 
once recognised the syenite of Brittany. But this oj^ens a 
tremendous question. I do not put it absolutely ; but so 
far as my observations enabled me to form a conclusion, 
based, I must point out, on personal survey, and not on a 
geological study of the case from books, the largest mono- 
liths of the south coast must, I think, have been brought 
across the country from the Cotes dii Noixl or Finistere, or 
floated, with great tediousness, along the coast. 

No granitic material in Britain, nor, as far as I could find, 
in Southern Brittany, would produce such. It is beyond 
question that the great menhirs of Belle He en Mer, one of 
which is of quartz, must have been conveyed there, as no 
source from which to obtain them is on the island. When 
a monolith was wanted, some years ago, as a monument to 
the late Prince Consort, it was found wrpossihle to procure 
a British one of the desired length ; but Messrs. Freeman 
of Cornwall said that for £.5,000 they would place one of 
rather more than half the required length on the pier at 
Truro, but would not undertake to convey it to London for 
£20,000.^ That such dimensions could not be procured in 
this country may appear to mihtate with the foregoing so 
far as the size of monuments goes ; but my answer is, that 
the style as well as the dimensions differ, and that tha 
works, as at Avebury and Stonehenge, are totally unlike 
anything in Brittany, as those in Brittany are unlike those 
in this country, except in some remarkable and highly inte- 
resting instances, as, for example, the great hill of Silbury 
overlooking the great lithic temple of Avebury, which has its 
analogue in the tumulus of Turaiac, overlooking the tombs 
and temples of Loemariaquer and the distant" heights of 
Carnac. Nor can this be accidental, as in every case of such 
stone avenues, or serpentine stone ways, — Carnacs, in 
short, — a grand spot of observation is at hand.- 

or two of the most remarkable of the primitive sites in Greece, that I propose 
to make them the subject of a special puhlication. 

' This information was given me by one of the most scientific geologists of 
Cornwall. 

2 See note on mcgalithic monuments of Brittany, supnl. I have since found 
also two grand examples assimilating in form, the one to Stonehenge, the other 
to the Botallek monuments. l)ut they form .solitary except ion.s. 



72 ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 

And now a few words on the destruction of this great 
people. We cannot pass abruptly to so grand a naval action 
without one glance at their still erect monuments which, 
from their remote distance, the wave of battle spared. The 
huge pedestals for their pharoi {(jxipoc), monoliths 40 and 
50 ft. high, as at Locmariaquer, Dol, Plouneour-Trez, where is 
the Men Marz, or Stone of Miracle; and at Kerloas, where 
the electric, fractured fragment is still nearly 40 feet high; 
each of the two latter -being described as " le symhole d'lme 
des grandes divinites Celtiques', are sufficiently impressive. 
That they were surmounted by frameworks for lights of per- 
haps 20 additional feet, is not improbable, as many are now 
surmounted by crosses, some of which, like that near Dol, are 
very lofty. They are all worked uniformly to apices, appa- 
rently to receive the bases of external frameworks placed 
over them after erection. It may be thought one so far in- 
land as that near Dol could not be used for such a purpose ; 
but I ascertained that Mont St. Michel was visible from the 
top of it, and it appears to me to have been so placed as to 
be seen from a part of the coast, or neighbouring estuaries, 
from which Mont Dol would screen, or else compete with, 
St. Michel. That these objects, on which their lives and 
commerce depended, were also worshipped, probably as the 
Egyptian Neph in his character of Khem, I make no doubt. 
Indeed, at Kerloas in Finistere, rites are described by Mons. 
de Freminville as still existing, which could have no other 
meaning ; and in the He de Batz, near the Loire,^ made 
singular, not alone from the worship being peculiar, but 
by its being exclusively directed by priestesses who per- 
mitted no man to enter the island under pain of death, 
the general ceremonies have been preserved to the present 
time, and were till recently practised with probably no 
more modern meaning than attaches to the now fast dying 
out Maypole dances in England. In the sixth century, at 
the Council of Tours, the Church censured the people of 
Armorica for the worship of the upright stones in Brittany.*^ 

' Desjardins thinks the island was further south, but also quotes an author 
to show that several of these islands were occupied by the same people. 

^ There is a statue at Quinipili, brought from one of the most romantically 
placed old sites of worship, evidently of Phoenician work, and so traditionally 
admitted. To it the same rites were performed. The priests have had it 
thrdwn down repeatedly, but it is always found restored. The peasants have 
now, it appears, compromised with the priests, and agree to perform no rites 
if the statue is unmolested. The appearance of these stone olijects of worship 
have their counterparts in Sardinia, a great Phoenician settlement. 



/ 



ON BRITTANY AND BRITAI^T. 




These monoliths help idc to one more coast-station which 
I purposely omitted, to avoid crowdini^ my su1)jcct or restin^^ 
on a similarity of names, — often a fallacious measure ; but 
in the Baltic, close by the Vcnedi whom I have mentioned, 
are found the Vindili, one of the titles of a tribe of whom 
was the Pharodeni. If Herodotus w\as right in stating that 
the name of the river Eridanus indicated a Greek origin, we 
may conclude the same in this case; and whether the term 
refers to the dress of the people, or their lighthouses, the 
same Greek word {^apo<i), being used for both, it is clearly 
Greek or Phoenician ; and as fashions were not in vogue in 
those days, I think we may put it down to the lighthouses, 
the locality being one where they would be much needed, 
and the geography agreeing exactly with that ahvays 
selected by the Phccnician colonists ; the more usual term 
for such people being Phctjitce. The Pharusii, who occupied 
a colonial station of the Phoeuiciaus, opposite the Canary 
Islands, evidently derived their name from the pharos. 

The Fight.— I sliall only dwell, for the sake of brevity, ou 
such points of the naval engagement between the Romans 
and Veneti as throw light on our subject. The whole of 
Aquitania remained neutral, as Crassns appears to have 
been sent to w\age war there without cause, after the success 
over the Veneti. ' Two tribes, however, submitted to Ctesar's 
demand for building ships in the Liger or Loire, of course 
according to the Roman model. ^ 

It is apparent that but for this split in the Gallic nation, 
Caesar could not have succeeded, as he would have been 
entirely without a fleet, and his land attempts on the oppida 
of the Veneti had signally failed. The ocean was untried 
to Roman arms, and to have brought ships from the Medi- 
terranean without a single friendly port on the whole coast, 
without local pilots, and in unknown seas, would have been 
disastrous. It appears that in addition to the ships built 
in the Liger, he ordered those of Aquitania to be supplied 
also,'' rather by coercion than desire on the part of the sup- 
pliers. Dio. Cassius says that Decimus Brutus, who acted 
as admiral, brought galleys from the Mediterranean,* though 

» Bel. Gal., L. iii, c. 11, 20. Crcsar dealt with them by anticipation, but 
they do uot seem to have rebelled till aroused by the hostile attitude of 
p. Orassus. 

'^ lie pointedly refers to the rowers, L. iii, c. 9. 

'■' L. iii,c. 11. * Dio. Cas., xxxix,40. Probably as models for the builders. 
1878 10 



74 ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 

I do not find this in Csesar; but it was such ships, whether 
the actual galleys of Eome, or imitations of them alone 
from the Loire, that, through panic created by their power 
of rowing, turned the fortune of the day against the Veneti, 
as they subsequently did against Britain.^ But for this the 
Komans would have had little chance of success. 

The Phoenicians as well as the Veneti w^ere sailors par 
excellence, the Romans, warriors in rowed galleys; the winds 
fLiiling, the Veneti were at the mercy of the rowers. Caesar 
admits that the ships of the Veneti w^ere of the highest class 
of build ; constructed entirely of oak, and formed to endure 
any force and violence whatever. "Haves totmfactce ex ro- 
hore, ad quamvis vim et contumeliam joeiferendam."^ Planks 
were fastened by iron spikes as thick as a man's thumb, 
the anchors had iron chains instead of cables, and the lofty- 
poops were formed to bear the force of the waves. Till the 
introduction of the ironclads, this description would have 
suited the British navy dowm to the present age. In short, 
the first instructors in British shipbuilding were Phoenicians. 

We now, however, come to a singular feature which 
strongly bears out my previous position, by proving the 
antiquity of this colony of sailors. In the first place Csesar 
was as unprepared to find such ships, as the Veneti were to 
see Roman galleys on the Atlantic. From this it is clear 
that the ancient Phoenician maritime trafiic had been quite 
abandoned in the Mediterranean ; and this is explained by 
Diodorus of Sicily's account of the tin being conveyed on 
horses throuoh France to the mouth of the Rhone. If so, 
we should be taken back to the style of the old Phoenician 
ships, of which, except as to the long war-ships and the 
round merchant- ships, 1 believe we have no exact descrip- 
tion ; but that they w^ere of good build we may be certain. 
It is simply incredible that so vast a maritime power, which 
struggled to exist at every one of its ports successively, 
would not have retained its original maritime commerce in 
a place where it had no enemies to contend with, and which 
had been throuixhout the grand source of Phoenician wealth. 
But Csesar says the sails of the Venetian ships were made 
of skins^ and thin-dressed leather. Perhaps many of the 
old classical stories of bulls and dragons and dolphins carry- 
ing away persons, as Europa, the musician Arion, etc., may 

" De Ik/. Gal, L. iv, 25. * L. iii, 13. ' Bel. Gal., L. iii, 13. 



ON BRITTANY AND BIUTATN. 75 

be made one step UK^rc simple if we imagine the material 
stretched to catch tlic wind, as being the hide or skin of 
such animal merely dried. A vessel would be a vessel, and 
nothing more ; but liere were ensign, name, and figure- 
head, all in one. Nay, the horse Arion itself, which carried 
Hercules in his travels, and which was the reputed offspring 
of Neptune, as well as the car of Demeter, drawn by ser- 
pents, her ensign, were very probably so understood.^ 

In the Breton ballad of Gwenchlan we read of the victo- 
rious white horse of the sea, "/e hlanc cheval cle 7ner", which 
represents a sea-roving Breton prince ; and going back to 
the Carthaginians we find a probably similar application of 
skins of animals, for when Agathocles attacked them by 
land (not their ships), they spread leathern hides on the 
forecastles of their ships, — a custom, says Diodorus, w^hich 
they always adopted when misfortune seemed to threaten 
the Carthaginian commonwealth ; i.e., they lowered wliat in 
former times constituted their sails and colours, in humilia- 
tion to their deity ; which, with a nation of sailors, was equi- 
valent to saying "our God of the winds is against us", which 
brings us back to the helpless navy of the Veneti, when 
their skin sails w^ere useless. It will be apparent that the 
preparation of these sails would be an all-important matter. 

In the Corisopiti," who were clearly not a distinct tribe, 
but a section of the Veneti, who no doubt occupied the 
beautifully silvan districts near Quimperle, surrounded by 
the grand coast scenes, even to the extreme of the Point 
du Baz, and which name has been shown by French writers 
to have been from the Cori-oppida, we have, I think, 
clearly the tanning towns and sailmaking towns of the 

• In the Florentine Museum is an antique model of a vessel with wings for 
sails, the prow is a swan's neck. The Pharusii, a Phoenician colony, dressed iu 
the skins of serpents. 

"^ III the Carlulaire cle V Ahhaye de Reclon, en Bretngne (par M. Aurelien de 
Cour.son, mdccclxiii. Eclaircissement xiv. Des Curiosolites de Cesar et des 
CorUomtes de la notice des Provinces, f. ccclx), in commenting on "cede elrange 
snbstitution^\ words applied to the various arguments for asserting and proving 
that the word " Corisopites" is an error in writing for " Curiosolites", "sous uii 
nom mal ecrit", it is shown that such a view presents a grave difficulty, "des 
documents d'luie incontestable valeur attestent que, dds nne epot/ne trh-reculee., 
les eveqnes de Kemper }>ort<iient le titre de Corinopitcnses episcopi. Pou7-quol ce 
titrCy si Corisopitum li'avait pas e.visle ?" says he. Old Bertrand d'Argentr6 
made, in 1588, the assertion that Corisopitum was the country of the ^' Curio- 
solitce de Cesar, Cariosolitcc de /V^?ie", and others have followed his suggestion ; 
but he appears to have given this merely as a matter of conjecture of his own. 
Compare Tacitus with Cocsar, Agricole, xi. 



76 ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 

Veneti. The name is Latin, from corium, a sidn or hide, 
and oppidum, a town, and would have been given by the 
Romans to places where they found this peculiar art carried 
on ; and I need hardly point out that, while being a source 
of great wealth, where everything depended on the sailing 
of tlieir ships, these places would not have been overlooked 
but destroyed by Csesar when surrendered to him. 

The name Cori or Coris has been called in Breton Keris, 
and some have thought the Latin Cori to be taken from 
Keris, but it seems probable it was the reverse, if Keris is, 
as asserted to mean, " low", for not only is it quite local in 
that sense, but not, I think, improbably subsequently ap- 
plied on the reduction of the oppida to their foundations, 
or the low levels at w^hich the tan pits were placed. " Cori" 
runs through all Gallic dialects, and from the ancient Cis- 
Alpine, or Phoenico- Asiatic Galli, the Latin w^ord really may 
have been derived. In Breton, Z;ere stands for the material; 
Jcerear being a cordonnier,^ or shoemaker ; carrai in Welsh 
being a thong ; and ccdrt, in northern Gallic, tan. The word 
tan, in Japanese, stands for a certain area of land measured 
by strips of leather ; and cho or Jco for another. Tanning is 
still the great trade near Quimperle. 

In the hides so cured we have probably the ordinary tent 
coverings of the people, as shown in the sculptures at Gavr' 
Inis ; and the cordage for tents and ships, and for the re- 
moval of the monoliths, which inflated skins would have 
floated. The iron ship-cables show these people had a good 
knowledge of the powers of tension. This manufacture ex- 
hibits a high condition of art civilisation, while the fisheries 
of the Bay of Douarnenez and the North Sea, so like those 
of Tyre, Venice, and Massilia, give an additional link in the 
nationality. Although the Romans had subsequent settle- 
ments here, it by no means follows that the coins, and 
Samian and other pottery, found in the district were all 
brought by them, as the trade of the Veneti with the Medi- 
terranean would have introduced to this wealthy people all 
the luxuries of Rome and Carthage. 

The fleet, as a matter of course, and as is seen from 
Csesar's subsequent difficulty in procuring ships, he having 
to send to Spain for the matiirials,- must have been entirely 
dcjstroyed"^ by the Romans, as the allied states would not 

» Williams. 2 Bel. Gal, L. v, 1. =* Ibid., L. iii, lO. 



ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 77 

have been allowed to reclaim tlieir ships taken in hostile 
arms, and the most momentous results to this country were 
soon apparent. The Ubii probably sent him ships for Britain. 

I cannot leave this naval battle without entering my 
protest to the opinion given by the late Emperor Napoleon, 
founded, it is true, on the statement of a most reliable 
writer, Strabo, but who was in this case merely WTiting his 
opinion on history, while Csesar wrote history. Csesar gives 
the most urgent reasons for pressing war and immediate 
war on the Yeneti, which he had clearly not premeditated, 
for he was, as he tells us, devoting his attention to quite 
other directions, Illyricum to the east, and the Alpine passes 
to the north of Rome, when news reached him from Crassus 
of the insults offered by the Veneti and other states to the 
military tribunes sent to negotiate for the purchase of corn 
and provisions. Notwithstanding this he refers to diffi- 
culties which were fully appreciated by him, and ad 's, "In 
spite of these many things urged to the war ; the open 
insult to and detention of the Roman knights, rebellion 
raised after surrendering, revolt after hostages wtre given, 
the confederacy of so many states, but principally if these 
were overlooked, lest other nations should think they could 
offend with impunity, and the confederacy ogainst Rome 
spread."^ These reasons want no argument, the case was 
simply imperative to retain Roman power, yet Strabo, who 
was not on the scene, expresses a belief, in which the late 
Emperor appeared to concur, that Caesar pre-intended this 
matter, whereas it was one of hurry, or the fleet would have 
been built in the Mediterranean long before, and suitably 
constructed, to oppose the more lofty ships of the Veneti ; 
the reverse of which constituted a defect which mio-ht have 
ended in disaster to the Romans, according to Caesar's own 
account, but for the dropping of the wind rendering the fleet 
of the Veneti powerless to resist the Roman galleys. 

The late Emperor certainly saves himself, by saying, " If 
we may believe Strabo". But the latter must clearly be 
supposed to state it as an opinion rather than a fact, for he 
had no data but Ctesar's, and that was quite contrary to his 
views. If indeed such positive statements as these, on 
grounds so solid, are to be set aside, and that without other 
evidence, we may as well throw C;esar aside altogether. 

' JJel. OaL, L. iii, in. 



78 ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 

It is seldom we find so terse a writer, and seldom indeed 
any actor having sucli powerful reasons for action, the very 
risk he ran proving the urgency of the case. But further 
on, when he describes his reasons for invading Britain, we 
find, as an exception to the style of his commentaries, a 
string of statements, not one of which is a necessity, nor is 
there" one which bears the probability of its being the real 
reason for that invasion,^ yet, so far as I can find, none of 
these have ever been questioned. 

One point of great interest to us arises from Caesar's 
history of this war, for it proves (Pliny to the contrary 
thereof, notwithstanding, who also misled the late Emperor) 
that Britain had a fleet of admirably constructed ships just 
upon two thousand years ago. I do not pretend that the 
so called Gaulish Britons had ; indeed I very much doubt 
the higher classes of priests and nobles Caesar mentions 
having been Gauls, though the presence of the Belgae and 
other Gaulish tribes gave an appearance of occupation by 
those nations ; and that, too, where Caesar first came in 
contact with them, and so led him to class them all as one. 
But I repudiate the idea as staunchly as any Breton, noble 
or peasant, of to-day would repudiate it in his own country. 
Though neither to the priests or nobles would I assign the 
possession of such a fleet, but to nationalised colonies of 
merchants, as much Britons in that sense as the settled 
Saxons, Normans, or Danes, or as the Hebrews of to-day 
settled amongst us and born in our land are Britons. 

To arrive at this we must look at Caesar grammatically. 
He says, " They collect in Venetia as many ships as possi- 
ble, 'naves in Venetiaiiv .... quam plurimas possunt 
co<^unt.'" They rally to themselves as confederates for 
that war, the Osismii, Lexovii, the Nannetes, the Ambiliati, 
the Morini, the Diablintes, and the Manapii, all the tribes 
of^^the coasts (the Corisopiti, it is observable, are not re- 
ferred to, showing that they were not a distinct tribe), and, 
he adds, they send /or- auxiliaries from Britain. 

But it will be found that all these coast allies were pos- 
sessors of ships, though no doubt in a very inferior rank to 
the Veneti, for Caesar says, " They excel the rest of the coast 
states in nautical affairs", and he himself borrowed the ships 
of the Pictones and Santoni. 

> Bel Gal., L. iv, 20. '•'. Bd. Oal., L. iii, 9. 



ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 79 

The accusative, "in Venctiam," says an able commen- 
tator,^ implies that they (the ships) were brought to the 
country of the Veneti from other quarters ; those of the 
Veneti would of course form the nucleus of the navy, those 
other quarters clearly being the allied states ; and though 
it is usual for Csesar to use the word auxilia, in the sense 
of auxiliary forces {i.e.), military, simply because all his 
previous wars were not naval, yet, as it is clear that the 
Veneti neither made nor intended to make a military stand, 
but simply to fortify their land positions, and decamp from 
them when untenable, it follows that there would be no 
exception in the case of the Britons, who only differed from 
the rest by their country being beyond the sea, so that these 
auxiliaries, like the others, were naval. 

Moreover, as all the ships were at once collected into the 
Venetian waters on this cleejjhj urgent occasion, it is most 
improbable that they would send aivay a fleet to bring such 
auxiliaries ; and, as it is clear, from their universal custom, 
that the Phoenicians would have tested the productive capa- 
bilities of Ireland and the Welsh coasts, the probability of 
there being colonies, or British Venetians with their mari- 
time habits and well built ships, is almost beyond question. 
Veuedotia, a name for North Wales, seems to indicate this. 
Thus there is every reason to assume that the British auxi- 
liaries were British Phoenician sailors, and came in British 
ships. 

1 do not think we have heard the last of the Veneti, when 
they were sold into slavery. They were men of courage, 
daring, and ability, and would have been most valuable 
slaves to their purchasers. It was a custom often to repose 
confidence and trust in slaves of such a stamp ; and, as the 
bulk would be carried to Pome, except those purchased for 
release by neighbouring states, that is the locality, if ||^^', 
where they would reappear. The most natural thing A\^ld 
be that they would renew communications with such 
remnants of their nation as remained, as well on the coast 
of Africa as in northern Italy. To understand this more 
completely we must examine their highways of commerce 
and travel, and trace their nationality by their still existing 
monuments.^ We know that they had such highways, from 
the minute description by Diodorus Siculus, already men- 

' Dr. Chas. Anlhon. * See map in Dr. Fergusson's Rude Stone Monuments. 



80 ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 

tionecl, of the route for the transit of British tin. And 
when he further states that it took horses, on which the tin 
was packed, thirty days to convey it to the mouth of the 
Rhone, after being landed from Britain, we shall see that the 
course must have been an overland road, and not, as would 
otherwise have been supposed, by river traffic. AVith this 
before us, we see clearly the meaning of the broad road 
through Gaul,^ marked by rude stone monuments. We see, 
moreover, a direct communication with the Carthagenians, 
and hence that the Veneti were in direct communication 
with the PhcBnicians ; nay, more, that the same features, 
whether of the Phoenician, Milesian, or Druidic (for want of 
a more distinguishing name) style of constructions (the works 
of people all, no doubt, in direct or indirect intercourse with 
each other), mark in the most graphic way the courses and 
colonies of such people. So that, in addition to like geogra- 
phical localities, indicating the same defensive tactics, the 
same evidence of mercantile pursuit, and the same maritime 
and religious customs, we have identical constructions, 
which are not thrown broadcast over the globe, as general- 
ists imagine, but in spots where only such persons went, 
and hence such monuments are evidence of the location of 
these people. To give one example for all. The Phoeni- 
cians, although in constant communication with the Greeks 
and the Romans, were antagonistic to both. What do we 
find 1 Well, hardly any evidence of such monuments in 
Greece or Italy, by comparison with these routes ; but 
wherever we trace any of the nations I have enumerated as 
having a similar name, or commercial intercourse without 
warlike antagonism, there are these monuments, from India 
to the Baltic. 

The Veneti would be quite at ease with their former cor- 
respondents at Marseilles, although these would now be 
treating with Roman officials ; and it is to the powerful 
influence of such men within Rome as slaves plotting with 
her enemies, the Goths and Visigoths, that her ruin must 
be attributed. The enslaved of Carthage and Bretagne, and 
the Tyrian fugitives dispersed by Alexander, revenging 
themselves (without honour, for they were slaves, and, as 
such, rebels in arms) on the destroyers of their cities and 
traffic, produced its result. The outcome of all the turmoil 

1 Sec map iu Plate at eud. 



ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 81 

was the establishment of a second Carthage, a second Vene- 
tian fleet, and a restored commerce of Tyre in the Adriatic, 
Ly the modern Venice, and in Tyre itself.^ 

But if such a powerful element were really seething in 
Home, would there not have been some concession in that 
remarkable way Eome had of softening the offences she 
offered by her arms, complimenting the vanquished by pro- 
viding a pedestal in the Pantheon for their native deities ? 
AVell, about this time a new goddess came on the scene, 
one in name, attributes, and accompaniments (except as to 
some cloudy relationships of an anachronistic kind) in every 
way agreeing with the people we are treating of; not under 
her old names, which would have revived ancient animo- 
sities, but under the altered name of the very people in 
question. The goddess Venelia, a goddess of the ivincls and 
leaves, a species of Tritonis, represented with a dolphin ; 
but the lake Tritonis was closely connected with these 
people, as other customs shew ; and from it came also one 
of the titles of Minerva, " Tritonia". Venelia was said to 
be the wife of Faunus ; but Fauna was often represented as 
Fatua, and from her we have got the Fatin or Fays, — an 
expression you cannot travel a day in the Morbihan with- 
out hearing, under the title of its dolmens and allees cou- 
vertes, as grottes aiix Fees. Here, then, it seems we have a 
deity bearing the name and characteristics of Venetia, to 
wit, the goddess Venelia. 

The accounts which trace a portion of these people from, 
or rather assert that those of them who settled on the Danube 
before going to Venice came from, Scandinavia, are, no 
doubt, so far correct. What I contend for is, their previous 
settlement in Scandinavia and the Baltic, from Asia, by way 
of the Atlantic; and their being led there by trade with the 
British Isles, the Cassiterides. 

Ccesar's Invasion of Britain. — The greatest point in the 

' Tyre was saved, in the twelfth century, principally by the energy of the 
Venetians of Venice, and was restored by them to an almost pristine glory. 
They obtained from Baldwin II a third part of its dependent territory, the 
right of being governed by their own magistrates, and tried by their own tri- 
bunals, and various commercial privileges throughout the extent of the king- 
dom of Jerusalem. Venice was at that time the greatest European holder in 
Greece and Ionia ; but having obtained her prime wish, in her possession of 
Tyre, ceased to aid the Crusades, turning all her thoughts to the restoration 
of Tyrian commerce in true Phoenician fashion, being in possession of all the 
old Phoenician ports in the Levant. (Wilken, Gesch. der Kreuz, 2, 496; 7, 370.) 
1878 11 



82 ON BKITTANY AND BRITAIN. 

history of Britain is the invasion by the Romans, as from 
it — although the higher classes were certainly not the rude 
barbarians some have supposed — emanated the foundation 
of that civilised progress in law, arts, and arms, that has 
kept this country in advance of other European powers for 
a lengthened period. Upon a careful review, this great 
event appears not to have been one of j)remeditated effort, 
but of almost accidental circumstance. To arrive at this, a 
very brief statement of the preceding acts of Csesar is neces- 
sary, and it will be found that the events in Bretagne la 
Petite really precipitated this all-important event in Bre- 
tagne la Grande. 

After the destruction of the Venetian and allied fleets in 
the Bay of Quiberon,^ CViesar, suffering heavy loss in his 
cavalry from the cruel artifice and bad faith of the Germans,^ 
demanded that the refugees of those people who had acted so 
treacherously should be surrendered by the Sigambri f and 
this not being done, as well as for other reasons, he deter- 
mined to cross the Rhine,"* and chastise the offending people 
and their protectors. To accomplish this he spared neither 
trouble nor expense. He built a bridge over the Rhine in 
a masterly way, crossed, destroyed some deserted cottages 
and fields of corn^ of his enemies, threatened the Suevi, 
and then, although he was trifled with by the Sigambri, and 
the Suevi had ranged themselves in battle array, turned 
back, destroyed his splendid piece of engineering,*^ and 
started for Britain without provocation, having made no 
peace ; and preparing to leave with an enemy, the Morini,' 
in his rear. Is there any parallel to this in Caesar's acts '{ 
Had it been any other than Csesar, would not the retreat, 
after all the engineering and labour, have been attributed 
to cowardice f In Caesar it seems, at first sight, a sort of 

' I find myself obliged, from my own practical observations, to hold to this 
view, in spite of the clever though rather limited local surveys on which 
M. Desjardins has formed an opinion in favour of St. Nazaire. 

2 De Bel. Gal., L. iv, c. 12. ^ Ibid., c. 16. " Ibid., c. 17, 18. 

» Ibid., c. 19. " Ibid. 

'■ Bel. Gal., L. iv, c. 20. He had ordered his fleet and made all his arrange- 
ments prior to receiving ambassadors from the Morini, which event, he admits, 
occurred most fortunately for him, as he did not ivish to leave an enemy be- 
hind him ; and further admits that, with his purpose as to Britain, he had no 
prospect of carrying on war with them, — '■'■Hoc sibi satis opportune Ccesar acci- 
flisse arhitratus, quod neqne post tercjum liostem relinquere volebat, neque belli 
(/erendi . . . .fo.cultate7n habehaV (c 22). 

^ An eminent critic actually uses these words, " His true motive for retreat- 



ON BKITTANY AND BKITAIN. 83 

madness. All his reasons, so cogent with respect to other 
warlike acts, betray in this case a weakness which shews 
that they were mere masks to screen the real cause of his 
retreat. He even departs so far from his usual calmness as 
to call destroying some deserted corn and huts, vengeance 
on the Sigambri for murdering his bravest knights ; and 
speaks of leaving the enemy in his rear as a trifle compared 
to his going to Britain, showing that all depended on the 
moment. Csesar was a logician and a pleader,^ and could 
have seen no comparison in the ofifence of a people sending 
aid to their continental allies, and the murderous treachery 
under which he had lost so lately some of his noblest 
knights, and seen the Eoman cavalry put to a shameful rout; 
yet he turns, like an enraged and wounded tiger, from 
his proper enemy that was in array against him, the Suevi 
having determined to give him battle," and unprepared 
with proper ships, and at the end of the season, risking the 
customary storms, and throwing away every consideration, 
he set sail for Britain. He had nothing to guard against 
from Britain, for even the auxiliaries could not now be sent 
thence to the Gauls, as the ships were destroyed f and to 
build more, and that suddenly, would have been to court 
the hostility of Rome, so lately able to sweep the seas of 
their navy. 

But Ca3sar w^as no madman, except in his lavish personal 
expenditure ; yet great as that was, he would hardly have 
risked defeat of the Roman arms to accomplish the only 
reason ever advanced at Rome for this hurried and unpre- 
pared expedition, that of desiring to dedicate some British 
pearls' to his very great, great grandmother, Venus.^ Dion. 

iug was the fear entertained by him of the Suevi." This, in face of his under- 
taking a still more dangerous expedition, is absurd. Cajsar had no sense of 
fear, and his engineering works over the Rhine shew that he intended to make 
a great effort for the chastisement of those who harboured his enemies. Had 
it been fear, he would have retreated into winter quarters. 

' Valerius Maximus, viii, ix ; Tacitus, JJialotjue on the Orators^ 34; Plu- 
tarch ; Cajsar, 3 ; Ascouius, Commentaries on the Oration, ''In To(ja Candida", 
pp. 84, 89, e.l. Orelli, etc. 

'■^ Be Bel. Gal., L. iv, c. xix, "77tc Romanorum advenltun ex-pectare atqiie ibi 
decertare const it ?tzssf . " 

* Ibid., L. iii, c. 16. 

* " Britanniam petisse spe mai-garitarum, qnarum ampUtndinem conferen- 
tem, interdum sua manu exeqisse pandas." (Suetonius.) 

^ He carried this explanation to the extent, as we learn from Pliny, of pre- 
senting a breastplate decorated with British pearls ("ex Britannicis margari- 
tls factum") to that goddess, from whom he claimed descent. (L. ix, c. 57.) 



84 ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 

Cassius, Plutarch, and all the great writers of his age, agree 
in urging that the conquest of Britain could bring advan- 
tage ueiSier to the general nor the empire;^ and in express- 
ing wonder at his intention, at a time, too, when he ought 
to'liave been closing his military movements for the season 
instead of extending them. All his contemporary and the 
subsequent writers ' credit him only with self-glorification. 
There must, then, have been some powerful and sudden 
reason for this. Plutarch records that Cato^ expressed him- 
self so strongly in the senate against Cfesar, in consequence 
of his action towards the Germans, that it amounted to a 
charge of dishonour. The news must have reached Csesar 
just about the time of his having crossed the Phine, and so 
powerful an attack would have led him seriously to review 
his late action with the Germans. In that action one fact 
stands prominently forward, viz., a barbarous horde of 
savages unprotected by any defensive armour, and only 
partially clothed, and that with the skins of beasts, and not 
even having bridles, etc., to their horses,^ had slaughtered 
many of his best and completely armed knights, and put 
the whole of his remaining horse into a panic and disgrace- 
ful flight. 

Was it possible that, while mentally reviewing the action, 
this could have escaped him. " If my horse, in their com- 
plete armour, were worsted by these unprotected men, eight 
hundred of whom put to death or flight jive thousand fully 
armed Roman cavalry,^ what would have been the position 
of the Roman horse, had they been as unprovided with de- 
fensive armour as the Barbarians were V' He would then, of 
course, review his resources for carrying on the war in 
Germany and Gaul, and these would necessarily include his 
commissariat and supply of arms. At this point he would 
be astounded to find what would probably not even then 
have occurred to him, but for the necessity of guarding 
himself against Cato's censure, and but for the late disas- 
trous fight. lie had stopped the supply for making de- 
fensive "brazen armour for the Roman legions, by the de- 
struction of the British and Venetian fleets. He must have 

1 Dio. Cassio, Hist. Rom., s. 53. Plutarch. 

* Cajsar informs us of a personal hatred towards himself by Cato, but that 
might not have made his accusations the less dangerous. {Bel. Civ., L. i, 4.) 
» Bel. (Jul., L. iv, c. ] , 2. * Ibid., L. iv, c. 12. 



ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 85 

perceived, indeed, in this review, that he Lad destroyed a 
commerce that could only be immediately resuscitated by an 
expedition to Britain. 

Strabo, unaware of this difficulty, which Caesar, having 
provided against the dearth, was too prudent ever to reveal, 
pointedly says that by his going to Britain he really effectetl 
'' nothimj"^ in particular ; but continues, "he brought over 
hostages, slaves, and much other hooty".'^ It is difficult to 
imagine what this booty was, if it were not the coveted 
metal, which the Britons would be quite willing to supply 
him with, and which was really the only article they had 
that was valuable to the Eomans. Strabo points out also 
that he quickly returned,^ showing some other object than 
conquest. 

The dearth of British tin in the Roman market would, 
in short, have produced a panic equal to what a dearth of 
that wliicli still facetiously goes by that name would pr(v 
(luce to-day on the Stock Exchange ; and the difficulty had 
to be met at once, and at every hazard. 

It must be admitted that this article was of all import- 
ant value to Rome for purposes of warfare,^ and conse- 
quently that it could not have been dispensed with during 
the interval between the destruction of Carthage and the 
invasion of Britain by Caesar (i.e.) about a century ; and 
the Romans clearly had not the traffic prior to the destruc- 
tion of the Yeneti. It has been already shown, from their 
jealousy of the Romans, that the Phoenicians would never 
have allowed a rival naval power to supplant them in their 
trade in British tin. They had no enemies on the Atlantic 
seaboard ; nor could a power gradually growing up have 
dared to oppose, much less altogether supersede them. 

Strabo informs us that the Fhccniciaus alone carried on 
the traffic in British tin before the Romans did.^ This im- 

' Strab., Geogr., L. iv, p. 278. ^ im^ 

^ L. iv, p. 278, Strab., Oeogr. 

* I fiud it stated that bronze, i.e., an amalgam of which tin was a compo- 
nent part, was used in the construction of ships l>y the Romans ; and this is 
probably the real explanation of Otesar sending to Spain for the necessary 
materials for completing the ships in a warlike manner. '' Ea (jue sunt usui ad 
ormandas naves, e.v Ilispania apportari j>ibet." {Del. Gal., L.v,c. 1.) ''Arman- 
das"" here, generally translated equipping, probably has only the primary 
meaning, armed ; rostra, the i)eaks, being often formed of bronze ; and to ob- 
tain this it was now necessary to send to the former depots of Gadeira and 
elsewhere on the coast of Spain, tin not being ]irocural)le from liritain. 

* It is clear that the traffic was conducted by the Phoenicians alone, also that 



86 ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 

mediately identifies the Venetians of Brittany with the 
Phoenicians, as it is clear the Veneti carried on this trade 
after the Phoenicians, so called, of the Mediterranean were 
subdued. Nor does his information stand alone, but agrees 
also with the statements by Posidonius and Diodorus Siculus, 
as to the continental travel by which British tin was con- 
veyed to Massilia, as already pointed out. Hence its entire 
suspension by the act of Gsesar was clear, not only from the 
destruction of the Veneti, but also because all the channel 
fleet were destroyed ; for he expressly says, " This battle 
concluded the war with the wJiole sea coast, for all (mariners) 
both in the flower of youth and even of advanced age, all, 
indeed, possessed of any discretion (maritime knowledge) 
or rank were in the battle ; and that, whatever naval forces 
they had anyivhei^e were lost,^ all being collected into the 
one locality". 

Short of Caesar's visiting Britain, therefore, and indeed 
providing a new fleet for transport, which it is evident he 
did, much time, energy, and new methods of transport would 
be necessary to restore the traftic. Once that far-seeing- 
mind was concentrated on the subject, what a spirit of 
interest, apart from the exigency of the case, must have 
arisen in him ! On this point, the source of British tin, 

it was formerly by way of Gadeira ; by that route, in short, up to the time of 
the suppression of Phoenician power in the Mediterranean. The tin traffic, no 
doubt, originally extended no further than where Spanish tin was procurable, 
until, by visiting the Cassiterides, it was found with little labour in the hands 
of the Britons. The persistency of the Roman endeavours to find out the Phoe- 
nician source of tin (Strabo, ibid.), and the suppression of Phoenician ships, no 
doubt led to the institution of overland traffic after the British tin had reached 
Gaul. Strabo has, it seems, confused an expedition by Publius Crassus, a lieu- 
tenant of C. J. Caesar's (see De Bel. Gal., L. iii, c. 1), for an expedition by the 
same person to the Cassiterides. But whether P. Crassus went there or not, 
Strabo intimates that he was the first who procured the information for the 
Romans. He says the passage was longer than to Britain, i.e., than to 
where Csesar landed, as the latter clearly did not at first know the position in 
Britain where the tin was found. The course of traffic carried on by the 
Romans after the destruction of the Veneti, was l)y the Seine and Rhone, the 
overland part lying only between these rivers (Strabo, Geo., L. iv, p. 261), 
whereas the original overland traffic was by a thirty days' horse-road to Mas- 
silia, before the Roman traffic as stated by Diodorus Siculus, who apparently 
here refers to the time before the new traffic was established. Travelling by 
land thirty days, the burdens were conveyed on horses to the mouth of the river 
Rhone. The Romans had not the power of safe conduct by either of these 
routes previous to the destruction of the Veneti, the only state in Gaul found 
to be trading with Britain. Nor was there traffic by the Rhine, from its 
proximity to the Germans, who, Caisar says, habitually devastated the whole 
districts around them. 

' De Bel. Gal., L. iii, c. 16. 



ON BRITTANY AND BRITAIN. 87 

Rome had been ever baffled by the Phoenicians. No new 
barbarian fleet must be allowed to restore or take up this 
traffic. Rome must be no longer subject to foreigners for 
this all-important article : the commerce must be Roman, 
and recommenced in Roman ships. But apart from Rome, 
what would not be his personal interest 1 Every sportsman, 
every true traveller, every enthusiastic unraveller of the 
secrets of nature by the aid of science, will at once appre- 
ciate the charm of the pursuit, in which the apparent rash- 
ness became an unavoidable element ; and in which, to a 
mind hke Ctesar's, success was a thing that must be achieved. 

The conquest of Britain, or the possession of hostages 
sufficient to insure tribute of a kind most easily paid by the 
Britons, and most welcome to the Romans, was thus impe- 
rative ; and that at once, and while its naval force was 
paralysed ; for had the Britons discovered that Rome was 
dependent on them for armour, they could have dictated 
their own terms, if supported by naval armament. 

It is an interesting fact to record, that the metallic pro- 
ducts of the British empire have governed the world at all 
times, and alike in peace and war. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE. 

INTERESTING OBJECTS IN THE ARTHURIAN DISTRICT OF AVAT.ON, 
BRITTANY. 

1.1. Menhir sculptured in a serpentine form, in the neighbourhood of Tre- 
jrastel. 

2. Rude Menhir in the direction of St. Michcl-cn-Greve. 

3. Spire of St. Michcl-en-Greve. Date, U;i4. 

4. Reticulated Sculpture, in granite, in the porch of the ancient Cathedral of 

Treguier. Edifice, thirteenth century; porch, fifteenth. 
6. Kerdueli Breton, Karzuel. Chapel of CluUeau of the Marquis de Cham- 
pagni, built on the reputed castle where King Arthur was born, and 
held his court. 

6. Remarkable Dolmen with double pcristalith, forming an enclosed court 

surrounding the tomb of King Arthur. 

7. Map showing (though much reduced) the ancient route from the Cassite- 

rides and Cornwall, through Erotagne, to Massilia (Diodorus) ; and 
that from the Isle of Wight, by the Seine and Rhone (Straho). The 
first has mcgalithic monuments, like those of Africa, the whole way. 



33ritts!i) arcl)aeal0gical ^issoriation. 



THIRTY-FOURTH ANNUAL MEETING, 
LLANGOLLEN, 1877, 

AUGUST 27th to SEPTEMBER 3rd, inclusive. 



PATRON. 

H.R.H. THE PRINCE OF WALES, K.G. 



VICE-PATRONS. 

THE LORD BISHOP OF ST. ASAPH. 

MAJOR CORNWALLIS WEST, LORD-LIEUTENANT OF DENBIGH. 

H. R. HUGHES, LORD-LIEUTENANT OF FLINTSHIRE. 



PRESIDENT. 

SIK WATKIN WILLIAMS WYNN, BAKT., M.P. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



The Duke op Norfolk, E.M. 

The Duke of Cleveland, K.G. 

The Duke of Westminster, K.G. 

The Marquis of Hertford. 

The Earl Bathurst. 

The Earl of Carnarvon, D.C.L. 

The Earl of Dartmouth. 

The Earl of Effingham. 

The Earl of Warwick. 

The Earl of Mount-Edgcumbe. 

The Earl of Dudley. 

The Lord Hanmer. 

The Lord Harlech. 

The Lord Mostyn. 

The Lord A. Edwin Hill Trevor 

The Lord Houghton, D.C.L., P.S.A. 

The Hon. Charles Wynn. 

Sir C. H. Rouse Boughton, Bait. 

Sir W.Coles Medlycott, Bt., D.C.L. 

Sir Robert Cunliffe, Bart. 

Sir H. W. Peek, Bart., M.P. 

Sir Albert Woods, F.S.A., Garter 

King of Arms. 
H. Syer Cuming, F. S.A.Scot. 



The Mayor of Denbigh. 
John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., V.P.S.A. 
J. Lloyd FitzHugh. 
George Godwin, F.R.S., F.S.A. 
James Heywood, F.R.S., F.S.A. 
Kirkman D. Hodgson, M.P. 
Samuel Holland, M.P. 
Edward Evan Lloyd. 
Morgan Lloyd, Q.C, MP. 
Townshend Mainwaring. 
Theodore Martin, C.B., LL.D. 
Rev. S. M. Mayhew, M.A. 
G. Osborne Morgan, M.P. 
Edmund Peel. 
R. N. Philipps, LL.D., F.S.A. 
J. O. Halliwell Phillipps, F.R.S. 
,T. R. Planchk, Somerset Herald. 
R. J. Lloyd Price. 
H J. Reveley. 
Colonel R. W. Romer. 
Henry Robertson, M.P. 
Rev. Prebendary H.M.Scarth,M.A, 
Rev. W. Sparrow Simpson, D.D., 
F.S.A. 



89 



VICE-PRESIDENTS (continued). 



C. EoACH Smith, F.S.A. 
Charles Frkderick Thruston. 
George Tomline, F.S.A. 
Colonel 'I'ottenham. 
William Waqstapf. 
G. H. Whalley. M.F. 
The Mayor op Wrexham. 



Rev. Roi'.ert Williams, M.A. 

C. Watkin Williams Wynn, M.P. 

VV. W. E. Wynne, M.A , F.S.A. 

W. Corbet Yale. 

Lieut -General Yorke. 

Simon Y'^okke, 



LOCAL COMMITTEE. 
Theodore Martin, C.B., LL.D., Chairman. 



.T. R. Barnes. 

T. T.Barton. 

Captain Best, Hon. Local Secretary. 

Edward Breese, F.S.A. 

J. C. Edwards. 

S. Gregson ¥-Ei.ij,Hon.Local Secretary. 

Samuel Hughes. 

Thomas Hughes. 

William Jones. 

C. S. Mainwaring. 



Thomas Nicholas. 
T. Hughes Parry. 
Charles Richards. 
E. Roberts. 
Humphrey Roberts. 
Gedues Smith. 
R. Mascie Taylor. 
J. S. Tanqueray. 
Major Tottenham. 



GENERAL COUNCIL. 



G. G. Adams, F.S.A. 
George Ade. 
T. Blashill. 
Cecil Brent, F.S.A. 
George G. Cokayne, F.S.A., Lan- 
caster Herald. 
William Henry Cope. 
T. F. Dillon Croker, F.S.A. 
R. HoRMAN Fisher. 



J. W. Grover, C.E. 

J. Turk Lacey. 

J. S. PHENit, LL.D., F.S.A. 

J. W. Previt^. 

E. Maunde Thompson. 
Rev. Alex. Taylor, M.A. 
Stephen I. Tuckeh, Rouge Croix. 

F. A. Waite, M.A., F.S.A. 
John Whitmore. 



With the Officers and Local Committee, 



Hon. Treasurur— Thomas Morgan, F.S.A., Hill-Side House, Palace Road, 
Streatbam HiU, London, S.W. 

„ ( W. DE Gray Birch, F.R.S.L., British Museum, and 9 South Hill 

Uon. \ p^^.]. Qj^i.(jgng^ Hampstead. 

becretaries ^ ^ p Lop^yg Brock, F S.A., 37 Bedford Place, Russell Square, 
Bloomsbury. 

Hon. Local Secretaries — Capt. Best, Plas-yn-Vivod, Llangollen; S. Gregson 
Fell, Walton House, Llangfollen. 

Honorary Curator, Librarian, and Excursion Secretary —G. R. Wright, F.S.A., 
Junior Athena;um Club, Piccadilly, W. 



1878 



12 



90 



IProceetiincjs of dje Conofrfss* 



Monday, August 27, 1877. 



The Annual Congress of tlie Association cominenced on Monday the 
27tli of August, under the presidency of Sir Watkin Williams Wynn, 
Bart., M.P., of Wynnstay. From an early hour in the morning the 
heavy clouds betokened rain ; but as the day advanced the sun broke 
forth in summer rays, giving delusive promise of fine weather, and 
revealing for a brief moment the surpassing beauty and loveliness of 
the scenery which girdles the town. Towards the afternoon the rain 
began to fall in copious showers, and it was soon too evident that all 
hopes of more sunshine on that day were vain. Despite, however, the 
unpropitious weather, the number of visitors increased, and at half- 
past five, the hour of the opening meeting, a large and representative 
company assembled in the County Hall, among whom were noticed 
Lord Harlech ; General Yorke ; Rev. D. Howell, Vicar of Wrexham ; 
Mr. Osborne Morgan, M.P., and Mrs. Morgan ; Mr. Torke and party; 
Mr. J. F. Edisbury, Wrexham ; Colonel Cluffe ; Colonel Tottenham ; 
Professor McKenny Hughes ; Mr. W. W. Wynne, P.S.A. ; Mr. J. S. 
Tanqueray ; Mr. M. H. Bloxam, F.S.A. ; Mr. Thomas Morgan, F.S.A., 
Hon. I'reasurer to the Association ; Mr. Walter de Gray Birch, F.R.S.L., 
of the British Museum, and Mr. E. P. L. Brock, F.S.A,, Hon. Secre- 
taries; Mr. G. G. Adams, F.S.A.; Mr. Cecil Brent, F.S.A.; Mr. W. 
H. Cope ; Mr. R. Horman Fisher ; Mr. Stephen I. Tucker, Bouge Croix ; 
Mr. Lambert, F.S.A. ; Mr. Merriman ; Rev. Moses Margoliouth, M.A. ; 
Mr. G. R. Wright, F.S.A. ; Sir R. and Lady Canlifie ; Mr. Whalley, 
M.P. ; Mr. Theodore Martin; and Mr. Matthews. A number of ladies 
were also present. 

Mr. Theodore Martin, C.B., Chairman of the Local Committee, took 
the chair, and said : " ]\[r. President, ladies, and gentlemen, — A very 
pleasant duty has devolved upon me, that of giving you a welcome to 
our locality, I give it most heartily. The residents of this neighbour- 
hood have long looked forward with much anxiety to your selecting 
this as the scene of one of those pleasant and instructive gatherings 
you have organised for so many ycai'S ; and the tidings that you had 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 91 

fixed upon the town of Lliuigollen as tlic centre of your operations for 
the week was received by all my friends, as well as by myself, with 
the liveliest satisfaction. I hope that the arrangements which the 
Committee, whom I so very inadequately represent, have made for 
your reception here will be found satisfactory. I could have wished 
that the weather had been kinder to you on the first day of your 
appearance here. Wales, like other froward beauties, has frowns' and 
tears for her admirers ; but as smiles are sweeter after tears, so I hope 
you will have reason to be grateful for this little incident of the bad 
weather which has awaited you on 3'our first visit to this part of the 
Px'incipality, I see by the programme you have sketched out that you 
have a vevj busy week before you, in the course of which you will see 
much that is extremely beautiful, and much that is very interesting ; 
and we who live in the locality expect much instruction from the result 
of your researches. For myself, I wish I were a good antiquainan. I 
confess it with some shame, that I know much more of the antiquities 
of other countries than of my own. The scanty leisure for such 
researches, which has been given to me, has been expended in very 
different directions. I cannot, therefore, address you with any words 
of instruction, because most of you know much more about the subjects 
which will be canvassed in the course of this week than I myself do. 
We, however, who live here shall look forward to reaping the benefit 
of those researches, and gaining instruction about many of the scenes 
of interest, with the external features of which we are already familiar. 
There is here a fine old castle, and also a magnificent ruin. There are 
numbers of relics of antiquity, about which unfortunately I have not 
been able to obtain much accm-ate information. I trust that after the 
able and learned researches of gentlemen here, in reference to these 
antiquities, I shall for the future not be merely in the position of 

'An idler in the land, 
Who can enjoy what others understand'; 

but that I shall have a more accurate knowledge of those features of 
our district than I have hitherto been able to acquire. I see that in 
the course of the afternoon you are to pay a visit to a spot which at 
one time attracted no small amount of attention in England. In days 
when this region was not very easily reached, almost everybody of any 
distinction, whether male or female, was in the habit of making a pil- 
grimage to the abode of the old ladies known as ' The Maids of Llan- 
gollen'. They were remarkable women, and collected about them a 
great many remarkable things. I understand that many of the objects 
of more permanent value are still to be seen there ; and under the 
guidance of General Yorke you will, I doubt not, spend a pleasant 
time in that very interesting spot. I again, on behalf of mj' brethren 



92 PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 

of the Committee, and most strongly on behalf of myself, proffer yoa 
a most cordial welcome here. I hope that when you go away from us 
\'ou will carry away with you. associations which will enrich all your 
recollections of the beautiful locality traversed by the sacred Deva, and 
that even in after years you will think with pleasure of what the week 
now begun will have brought under your immediate notice." 

Sir Watkin Williams Wynn, Bart, President of the Association, who 
was received with loud cheers, said : " Ladies and gentlemen, — I have 
been i-equested to take the chair to-day. I am afraid I am not a good 
archEeologist, though in other ways I have had the advantage of seeing 
a great deal of this neighbourhood. You will be curious to see different 
descriptions of fortresses which have sprung up in the eai-liest times. 
There are to be found near here several ancient British stations. There 
is one belonging to my friend there. Lord Harlech, which you will see 
close to Oswestry. You will also see a castle at Oswestry of later 
date. When you go to Chirk you will see a fortress which was very 
much injured in the wars of Cromwell, but is now restored, and changed 
from a place of war to a very comfortable gentleman's house. As you 
start off for the source of the Dee, you will see the verj'- old Castle of 
Carndochan, under which was left a gold mine, of which I can show 
you some products ; and near which was found a gold torque, which 
unfortunately is at the South Kensington Museum, but I will try and 
have it sent here before you leave. At Wattstay, near where I live, 
you will see the curious old Wat's Dyke. You will also see Castell 
Dinas Bran, which is also a very early fortress ; and Valle Crucis 
Abbey, which was founded in the thirteenth century by Madog ap 
Gruffydd Maelor. Maelor itself is a very extraordinary place. It is a 
hundred of Flintshire, although separated eight or nine miles from any 
other part of the county. Madog ap Gruffydd Maelor was persuaded 
by the Cistercian monks of the thirteenth century to build Valle 
Crucis Abbey. An old friend of mine has told me that those monks 
not only performed their religious duties, but also took care of them- 
selves. They had possession of my lake of Bala ; and when they could 
not get a sufficient supply of fish out of the river here, they got it 
from the lake. He also tells me that they were very remarkable for 
their love of crvrw da. They had a great many songs, and in one of 
them each stanza ends with ' Come and drink the Abbot's ale.' When 
you go to Bangor Tscoed, you will find there the site of one of the 
earliest monastic buildings. It is curious that although there are very 
few remains of the ancient buildings, the name of "port", i.e., gate, 
is applied to certain farms there, thus showing where the gates of 
the town formerly stood. It is, I believe, supposed that 1,200 monks 
who lived there were murdered by the Saxons. The church which 
was formerly the monastic church has been altered and improved and 



PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE CONGRESS. 93 

restored until hardly any of the old building is left. It is supposed 
that the monks all dwelt in small buildings round the church, which 
have been swept away by time. Round there, within a distance of 
two or three miles, are some old remains of British encampments, one 
called Castletown, in Cheshire ; another, called the Old Castle, close to 
the boundaries of Maelor and Cheshire ; and a third, called Bryn-y- 
pys. These ancient tumuli are, I am afraid, more often visited for 
the purposes of sport than for the pursuit of the science of archaeo- 
logy. I might also draw your attention to the supposed residences of 
Owain Glyndwr. I have always heard that he resided where a tumulus 
now is at Sycharth, on a farm of mine very near the most southerly 
part of this county. There is close by it a small farm called Penti*e- 
cwn ; and there, where the kennels are, close by the side of the hill, 
the district all goes by the name of Park Sycharth. This tends to 
show that there was once a very fine house there, but it is all swept 
away. Some of you, I believe, are going to Llangedwyn, to see a house 
of the date of the beginning of the last century, an older mansion 
belonging to the Vaughans having been destroyed about that time. It 
is very near where Owain Glyndwr's castle was ; and if any of you 
are inclined to see what remains there are, I shall be, of course, happy 
to give you the facility of doing so. With so many learned antiqua- 
rians before you, I shall not venture to enter upon the subject of 
archaeology. I will only say that I trust that when you have arrived 
at the close of your visit to Llangollen, you will not regret having 
come here, but that you will find in the exploration of ancient places 
of this neighbourhood that which will i^epay you for the trouble you 
have taken." 

Mr. T. Morgan, F.S.A.,said he must congratulate them upon having 
the advantage of a gentleman like the honourable Baronet of Wynn- 
stay to preside over them upon that occasion. Their President had 
sketched out a good programme for them, and there was little doubt 
that when they went to Llangedwyn they would find that Sir Watkin's 
good ale would outrival the old abbot's, and that they should all 
receive a cordial reception. 

Mr. G. R. Wright, F.S.A., the Hon. Congress Secretary, explained 
that through the kind invitation of their President, an additional day, 
Tuesday the 4th of September, had been fixed upon for a visit to Llan- 
gedwyn, via Oswestry. It was proposed that on their way they should, 
by the permission of Lord Harlech, visit Old Oswestry, where there 
was an exceedingly fine British fort with a triple vallum. 

The company then proceeded to Plas Newydd, a cottage ornee situated 
on a hillside, about half a mile from the town, and were conducted 
over the house and grounds by General Yorke. The general explained 
the points of interest attaching to the place, contrasting its former 



94 PROOEEDTNGS OF THE CONGRESS. 

desolation with its present appearance and complete restoration by 
himself. During his remarks, General Yorke referred to the homage 
paid to the " ladies of Llangollen" by all classes. It was here that 
Lady Eleanor Butler and the Hon. Miss Ponsonby, known as the 
"ladies of Llangollen", lived during the close of the last and earlier 
years of the present century, in retirement from their friends. The 
elder Mathews describes them as dressed like men, with starched 
neckcloths, black beaver hats over crop heads of hair, and the 
portraits bear out this character. With many eccentricities of dress 
and manner the ladies appeared to have earned the goodwill of all, 
and were frequently visited by members of the aristocracy on their 
way to and from Ireland, as the London and Holyhead road ran 
through Llangollen till Telford's day. Lady Butler died in 1829, 
aged 91, and Miss Ponsonby two years afterwards, aged 76 ; and both 
together, with a faithful servant, Mary Carroll, rest under one tomb 
in Llangollen churchyard, mai'ked by a triangular pillar. The ladies 
had been disappointed in love, and had made a vow never to sleep out 
of Plas Newydd. On one occasion, however, they were on a visit at 
Wynnstay, and the weather was so rough that they could not be per- 
mitted to return, and the ladies resolved, therefore, to sit up through- 
out the night. 

The front of the house is covered with open woodwork, which 
gives it the appearance of a framed house, so common in Kent and 
in many of the north midland counties. The windows and porch 
are enriched with the spoils of many a carved bedstead, old oak 
chests, and, in more than one instance, part of some ecclesiastical 
fittings have been pressed into service. The staircase and many of 
the rooms are gloomy, from the prevalence of this dark oak carv- 
ing, which is put over every point of advantage in the most incon- 
gruous manner. The carvings have evidently been collected from 
old English chests, church doors, and pews, and mansions, with some 
choice specimens of Hindoo, Cingalese, and Chinese workmanship. 
The walls and ceilings of the low, dark little rooms are veneered and 
wainscoted with their unique collection of woodwork. In some of the 
rooms are portraits of Lady Eleanor Butler and Miss Ponsonby. In 
the principal room is some sculpture in marble and ivory, and wood- 
turning, executed by General Yorke, also a number of relics of the 
ladies, and other curiosities ; and the windows of the house are filled 
with ancient Flemish and other stained glass. Some of the cups, 
miniatures, and articles of vertu are peculiar and interesting. The 
visit, however, was not productive of any great result, for, apart from 
the rococo style of the collections, there was nothing more archa3ological 
to be seen than a few miniature portraits of some beauties of the Stuart 
period, and the oak and ivory carvings already mentioned. In the 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 95 

grounds is the fragment of a carved tombstone, probably of tlie twelfth 
century ; but the attention of the meeting was not specially directed 
to it, on account of the heavy rain which was falling at the time. It 
is possible that it originally came from the abbey of Yalle Crucis, or 
once covered the remains of the head of one of the many religious 
houses that are in the immediate vicinity. In the garden in the front 
of the house are two octagonal fifteenth-century fonts, said, in like 
manner, to come, the one from Llangollen parish church and the 
other from Valle Crucis Abbey, the latter statement must be received 
with much caution. Probably the most interesting relic in the grounds 
is the weather-worn shaft of the market cross of Chester, which was 
conveyed here many years ago. It is of red sandstone, perfectly plain. 

A vote of thanks was heartily accorded to General Yorke for his 
courtesy and kindness. 

In the evening a public dinner, admirably provided by Mrs. Edwards 
of the Hand Hotel, took place in the Assembly Room, which was bril- 
liantly decorated for the occasion, under the immediate superintend- 
ence of Captain Best and Mr. Gregson Fell. The drop-scene, repre- 
senting a view of Llangollen, painted, and presented to the town by 
Mr. T. S. Robins some years ago, was erected at the back of the plat- 
form, the front of which was adorned with a choice collection of ferns 
and ornamental foliage plants from Plas-yn-Vivod. The walls were 
also hung with numerous flags and various devices, representing the 
royal tribes of Wales. The chair was occupied by the President. 

After dinner the President, in proposing the toast of " The Queen", 
expressed a hope that her Majesty might ere long be induced to seek 
the benefit of the mountain air without the fatigue of a long journey 
to Scotland, by paying a visit to her loyal Welsh subjects. 

In proposing the health of the Prince of Wales, as Patron of that 
Congress, and of the Princess of Wales and the other members of the 
royal family. Sir Watkin said he wished His Royal Highness had been 
amongst them ; but all they could do was to regret his absence. 

The President, in proposing the toast of " The Army and Navy", 
coupled the toast with the name of General Yorke, who had so kindly 
received them that day, and said that he (Sir W^itkin) recollected 
having been taken, when a child, to see the " ladies of Llangollen". 

General Yorke, in responding to the toast, referred to the quartering 
at Wrexham Barracks of that gallant regiment, the 2:>rd Royal Welsh 
Fusiliers, and said it was the achievements of that noble regiment in 
the Peninsular war which led him to make up his mind to join the 
army. 

Captain Best also responded to the toast on behalf of the Navy. 

Mr. Osborne Morgan, M.P., in proposing the toast of " Prosperity 
to the British Archaiologlcal Association", said it was their privilege, 



96 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 

upon occasions like that, to be able to throw politics to the wind ; and 
he believed he was speaking the sentiments of his hon. friend and col- 
league, as well as his own, when he said that they wished to be Liberal 
in their reception of that society and Conservative in their veneration 
for those ancient monuments, for the elucidation of which they looked 
to its members. A bill had been before the House of Commons, in 
which he was sure they all took a deep interest — the bill of his valued 
friend Sir John Lubbock, for the preservation of ancient monuments — 
for which he (Mr. Osborne Morgan) was partly i^esponsible, and which 
he hoped, if Mr. Parnell and Mi\ Biggar would allow it, would next 
session become the law of the land. In the course of the debate upon 
that bill, he had the misfortune to hear a noble lord decry archseology 
as a barren and useless study, and denounce their forefathers, the 
ancient Britons, as savages, who lived upon grain, and who went about 
dressed in a light airy costume of blue paint. He believed that the 
answer to all these silly theories was that nothing which concerns the 
history of our own land, however remote, ought to be a matter of in- 
difference to us. Those lines of Wordsworth, beginning " The child is 
father to the man", were quite as true of the nation as the individual. 
He hoped he might congratulate them — he was sure he might con- 
gratulate Llangollen — upon the choice they had made in coming there. 
He believed they would find that neighbourhood a rich mine of archaeo- 
logical wealth. Perhaps (continued Mr, Osborne Morgan) you will 
pardon me for saying that to us, the inhabitants of the land you are 
about to explore, this country has more than an arch Geological interest. 
We honour it as the home where our forefathers made their last stand 
against Saxon invasion. You are proud, justly proud, of your Anglo- 
Saxon descent; you are proud, justly proud, of the strength of will 
and firmness of purpose which has enabled you to conquer and colonise 
one-half of the civilised world. Allow us to be proud of our ancestors, 
the ancient Britons, and of their virtues, though they were virtues of a 
somewhat sterner and ruder kind — a generous thirst for freedom, and 
an undying love for their country. It may not be out of place to 
remind an assembly, which is so largely composed of ladies, that the 
ancient Briton was a worshipper of the fair sex. I do not mean to 
say that he appreciated women's rights in the sense in which Miss 
Lydia Becker would have us appreciate them. But we have it on the 
highest authority — that of Tacitus — that the ancient Briton felt an 
almost mysterious reverence for female loveliness — a reverence which 
I could wish to see reproduced amongst some of his supposed descend- 
ants. After quoting some lines from an old poem on the subject, Mr. 
Osborne Morgan said he was sure he could appeal to at least one-half 
of his audience in support of his contention — that the men of whom 
such things could be said could not be very far sunk in the social scale. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 97 

I hope (he continued) that when you visit some of the scenes in which 
our ancestors carried on their great struggle against your ancestors, 
we shall prove that there is some truth in that old Greek proverb, 
that the sternest foes are those who make the best friends ; and that 
we shall be able to give you, though in an entirely different sense, as 
warm a welcome as our ancestors gave your ancestors on the heights 
of Castell Dinas Bran. In conclusion, Mr. Morgan said he had to 
couple the toast with the name of the distinguished and learned trea- 
surer of the Association, Mr. Thomas Morgan. 

Mr. Morgan, having I'esponded to the toast. 

Professor Hughes, in a graceful and humorous speech, proposed the 
health of " The Ladies". 

The toast of " The President" was then proposed by Mr. Osborne 
Morgan, and was enthusiastically received. 

Sir Watkin, having responded, the company separated soon after 
ten o'clock. 

Tuesday, August 28th. 

This morning there were a few breaks in the leaden clouds, a few- 
bright gleams of sunshine, which lighted up the valley and gave us a 
sign of rainbows in most unlooked-for places. Early in the morning, 
undeterred by the continuous rain, the members of the Association 
and their friends ascended the steep of Dinas Bran Castle soon after 
nine o'clock, to inspect the ruins on the summit, situated at an altitude 
of 1,000 ft. above the level of the sea. From this high point of obser- 
vation the scene around is magnificent. Encircled by a mountainous 
range of historic hills, the visitor sees Llangollen far down in the valley, 
and the echoes of its happy modern life seem to break upon his ear. 
Above, he finds nothing but the bleak and dim traces of ages long passed 
away. By way of encouraging the exploring mind, a few ladies bravely 
accompanied the archaeologists. There Avae much speculation as we 
went up as to the derivation of the distinctive name " Bran", some 
holding that it was the name of the original chieftain, who caused his 
stronghold to be built like an eagle's nest on a lofty crag, others that 
it was simply the fort of the Raven, whilst others incHned to the idea 
of Brennus, who has been associated with so many " Brans" and Bran- 
dons. The castle consists of a number of walls and arches, roughly 
masoned, of slates quarried from the surrounding moat, and arranged 
around a central oblong space. All the freestone dressings have been 
taken away for building purposes, and therefore no mouldings exist to 
suggest a date, but the characteristic pointed archways, each with the 
spandrel of a lower curtain wall appearing through the head of the 
arch, appears to give authority for fixing the period of erection within 
the thirteenth century. The long dark vaulted passage yet remains in 
187S 13 



98 PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 

a nearly perfect state, and the stones in whicli the grooves for the draw- 
bridge and portcullis were cut are still set in the wall outside. After 
a short pause, the sound of the horn summoned the company to a 
sheltered nook in the ruins, where a paper was read by Mr. E. P. Loftus 
Brock, F.S.A. 

Mr. Brock, in describing Dinas Bran, said : The history of this castle 
cannot be considered except in relation to its local surroundings, since 
we find that it is but one of a series which appear to have been always 
in close connection, the one to the other. Chirk Castle, at the distance 
of but a few miles, is evidently a supporting fortress to this, and this 
to Chirk, while higher up the valley, at Corwen, is another fortified 
post, remaining in its oi'iginal condition, and not obliterated by a 
building of antiquity, it is true, but of moderate age, in relation to the 
original occupation of the site. There are also other old castle works 
of remote antiquity, which more or less support these more important 
fortifications of the valley of the Dee. It will be observed that Dinas 
Bran and the Corwen " Gaer" are on the Welsh side of the Dee, while 
Chirk Castle stands as an outpost at a certain distance on the south 
side of it. All, however, have the peculiarity so common in similar 
places of strength in the principality, of commanding a view down the 
valleys, so important for defensive purposes. Very little is known of 
the founder. I am disposed to ascribe very high antiquity to the occu- 
pation of the site by an earthen or rude stone enclosing wall, with an 
external ditch, probably of but little larger area than that now occu- 
pied by the ruined castle, which is of thirteenth century work. We 
must, however, dismiss from our minds the old tradition that this was 
the abode of the Brennus, who made successful war with the Gaulish 
armies against the then youthful city of Rome. This is not capable of 
proof, and must be rejected from the domain of history. Nevertheless, 
the story is worthy of a passing word, since it points to some indica- 
tion of the remote foundation of the fortress. We need not either 
occupy ourselves with consideration of the derivation of the name from 
bryn (a hill) ; almost all castles were founded on a hill, and the latter 
would be no distinction. Bran (a crow) is perhaps nearer ; and I can 
attest to the truth of Mr. Tregellas' statement, that the ruins are still 
called *' Crow Castle". However, I am inclined to agree with Pen- 
nant, that the little streamlet, now all but dry, and called the Bran, 
gives us the most probable derivation of the name. The stream is now 
but a hollow bed, but its appearance after a winter's storm is that of 
a well marked watercourse. Mr. Tregellas has attached to a capital 
description of the ruins a carefully executed plan of the whole site. 
The walls enclose a parallelogram 290 ft. from east to west, and 133 ft. 
within the walls, with an extension on the east side in addition. The 
entrance has been at the north corner, where the bases of two semi- 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 99 

circular towers can be clearly traced. This position is remarkable, 
and the more so when we consider the skilful way in wbicli the ap- 
proaching path was carried in an ascending spiral form, from the base, 
up the steep conical bill (about 1,000 ft. above the sea level) on which 
the castle stands. Before the invention of artillery this ascent must 
have been one of certain death. Indeed there is no record of this castle 
ever having been taken by an enemy. The approach, after passing 
through the entrance, vphich once, doubtless, had its drawbridge across 
the moat, its portcullis, and firmly barred gates, is a long passage, 
arched over with a barrel vault, which still stands firm, but rent and 
ragged with the storms of more than sis hundred years. The 
vault is pierced with three circular holes through to what was the floor 
above. These were, doubtless, for throwing deadly projectiles upon 
an enemy beneath, supposing that the portcullis and gate had been 
forced. This passage is probably only one of two, for it appears, by 
the jambs still remaining, that the approach had the peculiarity of two 
parallel passages and two entrances. The keep, if such a term can be 
applied to a building of the age of this, was in the projection already 
spoken of. It was probably a massive square tower, divided from the 
main enclosing walls by an inner block of buildings, which appear to 
have extended from a bold semi-circular tower, pi'ojecting from about 
the centre of the south wall. This is square on the inner face, and a 
large hall appears to have extended from it on the east side. There 
are several large gaps in the ragged masonry on the south side, looking 
into the ditch, but little or nothing is left to indicate their form, since 
they have been robbed of their freestone dressings. There are indica- 
tions of a chimney on the south-west corner, but a peculiarity of this 
part of the building is the staircase between the thickness of the walls 
on the east side, beside the connecting tower. Beneath the stairs is 
a deep trap or well, now of but little danger, since the stairs are open 
to the light of day, but a serious obstacle to approach when, as was 
probably the case, the stairs were only lighted artificially. Mr. Tre- 
gellas indicates a deep hollow, very apparent, within the site, on the east 
of the enclosure. This was probably the base of some demolished 
building, and it is to be regretted that it has never been cleared out. 
Two wells have been spoken of, and there are the usual stories of sub- 
terranean passages of great length and extent. Many memorials of 
the later owners of this castle are on record. It was the seat of the 
lords of Yale. The founder of Valle Crucis Abbey resided here. 
Later, in the time of Henry III, it was the sorrowful rcti-eat of its 
master from his subjects, furious at his having made common cause 
with the English, the enemies of the soil, through the instigation, 
perhaps, of his English wife. There may be some truth for the sup- 
position that he died of grief and shame, since there is the record in 



100 PROCEEDINGS OP THE CONGRESS. 

the Brut-y-Tijivysocjion, that he died on the 7th December 1269, and 
on the same day died Madog the Little. They He buried in the ruined 
abbey, in the valley below the castle. Pennant relates the sad history 
of the fatherless children thus left to the teaching and tender mercies 
of their English guardians. lie evidences the truth of the old legend, 
that they were drowned by them beneath Holt Bridge, and couples it 
with the legend of small fairies being seen sometimes by belated travel- 
lers hovering over the spot where the deed of evil was done. I must 
refer to Pennant also for the more pleasant record of the fair Myfanwy 
Vechan, and for the beautiful poem composed by her despairing lover. 
The castle at present, as well as that of Chirk, belongs to Mr. R. Myd- 
dleton Biddulph. The rough material of the walls forbids our being 
able, with very great certainty, to assign the date of their erection, 
nevertheless, it may not be amiss to indicate that the mode of construc- 
tion — a rough slaty stone, with dressings of capital freestone — agree 
almost exactly with that of Valle Crucis Abbey. It is reasonable to 
suppose that Madoc ap Griffith Maelor, either before or after the 
foundation of that abbey, would have thought of the rebuilding of the 
castle. We know his wars with the English and common prudence 
would suggest that his own castle should be as strong as skill could 
make it. The peculiar rectangular arrangement of the plan is unlike 
the English type or castles of a little later date, which favours the sup- 
position that it was derived from a different source ; but it must be 
borne in mind that the so-called Edwardian castles owe much of their 
peculiarities to those of France of contemporary date. Mr. Tregellas 
adduces evidence of a castle here having been burnt in the tenth 
century. Before reading his description, I had noticed that most of 
the mortar of the walls now standing is mixed with small fragments 
of burnt slate. Are these the debris of the fire ? The moat, which is 
around three sides only, is much filled with particles of the stone, and 
should be cleared. In the Llangollen Temporary Museum is a curious 
stone reel of great antiquity. It was found here. 

A burial place is known to exist between the base of the hill and 
Llangollen, and faint traces still remain of earthworks, supporting 
those of the castle, of great antiquity, on several of the adjacent hills, 
as well as on the side of tlie approach from the town. These have had 
no connection with the works of the niedioeval castle, and are of much 
greater age. Some of these indications go to show that the original 
entrance was on the west side, instead of on the east, as at present.^ 

' I am indebted to the Rev. E. Ilenhmd, Prebendary of Lichfield, for an 
extract from the family records of tSir G. Meyrick, that Bleddyu ap Cynfyn, 
Prince of Wales, 10.53-73, had his principal fortress in Powys-land, at Oastell 
Diuas Bran ; also, from the same source, for the following note so character- 
istic of Welsh family records. The reference to tlie name of the Castle (Bran) 
favours Mr. Tregellas' supposition ; but can all Welsh heraldry be depended 
upon for its real antiquity '? " In 1212, when the county was threatened with 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 101 

At 12.30 the company proceeded by train to Wrexliam Church, 
where other friends joined them. The graceful and octagonal turrets 
and the groups of pinnacles by which its lofty tower is crowned, and 
its cathedral-like size, being much admired. As it stands, it is a 
magniticent specimen of the Perpendicular type of chui'ch, and the 
carved and panelled roofs over nave and aisles, octagonal piers, with- 
out break or mouldings, and spacious windows, each contribute a share 
to the effect of the church. This ancient and venerable edifice contains 
monuments and effigies of great antiquity ; and, before the reading of 
the paper on the church, these were described in turn by Mr. Bloxam 
and Mr. E. W. Wynne, especial notice being drawn to the chancel 
arch, originally the east window of the nave, and even yet showing the 
remains of open tracery towards the top. The south aisle has been by 
some erroneously attributed to the age of Elizabeth, and the tradition 
of the brass eagle, which forms a reading desk, having been brought 
from Valle Crucis, to which abbey the church formerly belonged, was 
seriously disputed by Mr. Brock. Perhaps the most interesting feature 
here was the effigy of a late sixteenth -century bishop, in pre- and post- 
reformation vestments — an almost unique circumstance in the history 
of English monumental costume, that of Archbishop Grindal at Croy- 
don being compared with it by Mr. Bloxam, as will be noticed further 
on, who also pointed out the peculiarities of an early fresco in the 
north porch. 

A paper on Wrexham Church had been prepared by Mr. Ferry of 
London, the architect for the restorations, but, in his absence, Mr. G. 
G. Adams read it. The church, he said, was rebuilt, with the excep- 
tion of the tower, in the reign of Edward IV. The plan consists of 
nave, north and south aisles, and chancel. It is remarkable as one of 
the very few choirs of the Perpendicular period having a chanCel with 
an apse. It originally terminated with a square end, where the chancel 
arch proves, by the remains of its ancient tracery, the old east window 
to have been. The present roof to the apse is of a later period than 
the walls ; it was probably intended to be groined. The windows and 
sedilia are handsome. The nave consists of six bays, and is separated 
from the north and south aisles by octangular pillars, carrying hand- 
some and boldly-chamfered arches of two orders. These are singularly 
tine in proportion. The north and south aisles have good Perpen- 

an English iuvasiou, Cydafael, lord of Cydcwain, seized a firebrand, with which 
he ran from mouatain to mountain, and collected the people and repelled the 
invaders ; for which service his kinsman, Llewelyn the Great, granted him a 
coat of arms, viz., sal>le (to indicate the night), three firebrands or, fired pro- 
per. The ■Meyricks of Bodorgau (his direct descendants) still bear this coat, 
with certain augmentations since granted, together with a crest, viz., a castle 
«;•//., surmounted by a chough (or bran) proper, holding in his dexter claw a 
ileur-de-lys f/ir., in allusion to Castel Dinas Bran, where Cydafael, who there 
distinguished himself, held his court." 



102 PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 

dicular windows of four-centred arches, and are roofed in the usual low- 
pitched manner ; they have been subject, unfortunately, to modern in- 
novations. The clerestory and aisles are of later date than the arcade 
itself, which latter probably formed part of the earlier chancel, said to 
have been burnt in 1457. Corbels of the earlier church are still re- 
maining on the spandrel walls of the nave, considerably below the stone 
brackets of the present roof. The effect of the earlier church, with its 
pointed roof, must, in the lecturer's judgment, have been far superior 
to that of the present building. Further improvements are said to 
have been made in the time of Bishop Birkhead, 1513-18. A subse- 
quent Bishop Parfew or Wharton resided much of his time here, and 
endeavoured to procure a license to remove his see or cathedral church 
to Wrexham, of which Leland wrote about the same time, that it had 
a " goodlie churche collegiate, one of the fairest in N"orth Wales", but 
there were no prebends attached to it. In EHzabeth's reign the church 
was enlarged, by the addition of the south aisle, the roof of which is 
said to have been formed out of the timber of a gallery, which ran along 
the north side. During the Commonwealth it was desecrated by 
being used as a prison, or a stable according to some authorities. The 
piscina of the Puleston chapel yet exists at the east end of the north 
aisle. The external architecture of the church is of the usual Perpen- 
dicular type, having roofs of low pitch, the clerestory and aisle walls 
being surmounted by embattled parapets, separated by buttresses and 
pinnacles. Inside the porch, at the west end of the north aisle, is the 
eflBgy of a mailed knight, probably removed from the earlier church. 
The revestry under the apse, approached by a winding stone staircase, 
is somewhat novel. No doubt it was caused by the fall of the ground 
at the east end, to which this undercroft gives external height. The 
great feature of this church is the western tower, justly celebrated for 
its beautiful proportions and details. It is styled one of the " Seven 
Wonders of Wales". When it was commenced is not known, but it 
was completed in 1506. Amongst the numerous examples of grand 
Perpendicular towers which abound in Somersetshire, there are none 
to be compared with that of St. Giles's, Wrexham, for massiveness 
and good proportions. The defect in the Somersetshire and Gloucester- 
shire towers is the overhanging character of the perforated parapets 
and pinnacles, giving them a light and somewhat insecure effect. This 
is obviated in the composition of St. Giles's tower, where the graduated 
angular buttresses rise and unite with the octangular turrets at the 
four corners of the summit in a graceful and beautiful manner. The 
manner in which the lower stage is covered by traceried panelling, in 
low relief, somewhat detracts from the simple massiveness which should 
belong to the foundation of such a lofty structure ; and it is doubtful 
if the faces of the buttresses would not have been better without the 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 103 

panelling. TLo subsidiary buttresses dividing the sides of the tower 
containing niches still furnished with slates, are not successfully- 
arranged. There are few towers which can boast such a number of 
niches still filled with unmutilated statues as that which you have 
just been examining. 

Mr. Loftus Brock drew attention to the splendid brass eagle lectern, 
which he was glad to point out, by its insci'iption and date, 1527, as prior 
to the dissolution. It was made for and presented to this church, and 
not (as popular tradition asserted) brought from Yalle Crucis Abbey. 

Mr. H. Bloxam, F.S.A., next addressed the company from Bishop 
Bellot's monument, on the south side of the chancel. He said there 
were only two monuments in the church of which he need take notice, 
therefore he would not detain them long. One was a monumental 
effigy, hardly discernible, in the porch, and the other was a very much 
abrased effigy, beside which he stood, yet it was a very peculiar effigy, 
and there were only two others similar to it that he had found through- 
out his explorations, and he had visited every cathedral. This was the 
effigy of Hugh Ballot, Bishop of Bangor, and afterwards Bishop of 
Chester, who died in 1596. One peculiarity of this monument was that 
it had some bearing on the vestarian controversy of three hundred 
years ago, and which had been again aroused in these days. They 
might remember the celebrated vestarian controversy that arose in the 
reign of Elizabeth, in 1564. The effigy represented the bishop, clad 
partly in the pre-Reformation vestments, in rochet, chimere, and lawn 
sleeves, which were properly called vestments, but over that he wore 
the academical habit of a Doctor of Divinity of Cambridge. He also 
wore a fur or ermine tippet, falling down behind the shoulders, and 
round the neck a short ruff. There were only two other effigies simi- 
larly clad. One was that of Archbishop Grindal, in Croydon Church, 
which was destroyed by fire a short time ago, the other that of Bishop 
Carey, in Exeter Cathedral ; and if they referred to Speede's Coiiidics 
of England they would find among the illustrations a doctor of divinity 
exactly so depicted. These were the only three episcopal effigies, re- 
presented partly in vestments and partly in the academical habit. 
There was, in the porch, a recumbent effigy of a knight, bareheaded, 
with curling locks on either side of the face. The armour was not 
well defined, but there was a shield in front of the body. This was 
peculiar to the effigies of Welsh knights ; for, whilst effigies of English 
knights of the fourteenth century had the shield on the right of the 
body, the Welsh effigies generally had the shield in front of the body, 
and covering it, as they saw there. The right hand grasped the hilt 
of a sword. He (Mr. Bloxam) first visited that church forty-four years 
ago, in passing through Wrexham, and saw that effigy for the first 
time. He was solemnly assured by the person who showed him over 



104 PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 

the church that it was the effigy of Owen Glyndwr ; and when he 
ventured to observe that Owen Glyndwr must have been an extra- 
ordinary long-lived man, inasmuch as this effigy belonged to the four- 
teenth century, the attendant looked at him with an air of incredulity. 
Before leaving, attention was drawn to the date of the niche and 
canopy at the end of the south aisle. It is of fourteenth century work, 
and a relic in situ of the former church . 

Having partaken of luncheon in the County Hall, Wrexham, the 
company was conveyed in carriages to Gresford Church, there to hear 
a description of the historical features of the edifice by the Rector, 
Arch deacon Wickham, who was followed by Mr. Brock and Mr. Bloxam, 
both of whom touched on the subject in their usually able and lucid 
style. This interesting church is said to have been founded by " Ithyl, 
son of Eunydd, son of Gwenllian, daughter of Rhys ap Marchan, styled 
the heiress of Dyffryn Clwyd." The church also contains some other 
very interesting old monuments. One of these is the effigy of a war- 
rior of the fourteenth century, with the legend on his shield of, " Hie 
jacet Madoc ap Llewelin ap Griffin." He died in 1331. The knight's 
armour differs remarkably from English armour. It appears to be 
composed of square-headed studs. At this church the beautiful stained 
glass over the altar, a pictorial representation of the " Te Deum Lauda- 
raus", and the equally fine glass in the east window of the north aisle, 
dated 1498, was much admired. 

Mr. Brock drew attention to the elaborate screens, and pointed out 
to the meeting very evident traces of the earlier roof, as seen by the 
arrangement of the stones in the west wall of the nave, in which is 
indicated also a small window, now blocked up. It was grievous to 
see here the mutilated state of the earliest register and churchwardens' 
account books, both of which are in a very dilapidated state of bind- 
ing, and have their leaves loose. It is to be hoped that the visit of the 
Association, whose chief end is the preservation of ancient relics, to 
this church may result in the i-escue of these two MSS. from the fate 
which is impending over them unless quickly and judiciously repaired ; 
for it is to be borne in mind that while five pounds will save a register 
from decay, that sum of money so laid out will be of more benefit to 
the community than five hundred pounds laid out in new pews and 
modern tilework. 

The church was chiefly rebuilt in the Perpendicular style. The mass 
of pinnacles and statues upon the top of the lofty tower give a rich 
appearance, but are too nearly of one height to be altogether satisfac- 
tory. The panelled work below, and the buttresses, with niches still 
occupied by statues, add greatly to the efi'ect, and, with the long, un- 
broken ranges of clerestory and aisles, surmounted by embattled para- 
pets, make Gresford noteworthy amongst the fine churches of the 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 105 

immediate vicinity. At the cast end of the churchyard is an enormous 
yew tree of great girth, and presumably of very remote antiquity. On 
entering the church, the fine proportions and unbroken lines of nave, 
chancel, and aisles, are at once apparent, and the eye rests on the 
carved woodwork and stained glass. The roof is in one span, and 
affords an example of a flat yet effective treatment of the ceiled surface 
by breaking it up into panels, the squareness of the intersections of 
principals and crossbeams being taken off by cross-shaped applied 
ornaments in oak, having prolonged foliated extremities. The chancel 
is divided from the nave by a large screen of oak, and both this and 
the parcloses striking off the east ends of the aisles into chapels, are 
very elaborately, and indeed delicately carved, with free, pierced para- 
pets. The five columns supporting the arcades are not, as at Wrex- 
ham, plain octagons, but deeply fluted so as to form clustered shafts, — 
a treatment indicative of a much earlier period of erection for these 
piers. The windows of the aisle-chapels and the great east window 
contain some ancient stained glass ; that in the last-named window 
was repaired, and completed where destroyed, with great skill by 
Clayton and Bell a few years since, when the church underwent restor- 
ation at the hands of Mr. G. E. Street, R.A. This window, which is 
of great size and widih, is divided into seven lights by perpendicular 
mullions of the Perpendicular period. The superior half contains 
representations of the Trinity and the Virgin INfary enthroned ; the 
lower portion is occupied by angelic and saintly figures arranged in 
groups of three to a light in five tiers, a portion of the " Te Deum" 
being inscribed under each. These are supposed to have reference to 
the dedication of the church, which is to All Saints. In the repre- 
sentation of these half-length figures, more than a hundred in number, 
a great deal of neai^ly clear glass has been employed for the faces and 
drapery. While this throws up the richer tints of the upper part, the 
result is not altogether pleasing, as the normal relative positions of 
light and shade are thus reversed. Still, as a whole, Gresford east 
window is a fine specimen of glass-painting, to be borne in mind when 
designing in fifteenth centurj' st3-le. Beneath the chancel is an under- 
croft, now \itilised for the storage of hot water apparatus. 

Mr. Loftus Brock gave an address in the church. When they drove 
up to it (he said) they were no doubt prepared to find, within, a fine 
example of one period of work, the fifteenth centuiy ; but a little closer 
inspection had already revealed that in this edifice they had preserved 
records in stone of the common history of a church, — a small structure 
built at a remote period, gradually enlarged, and at last almost replaced 
by a much grander building. As they looked at the tower-arch, they 
could see distinct traces in the masonry of the steeple-pointed gable of 
a smaller building, re-used as the inner wall of the tower. The tower 
1878 14 



106 PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 

arch below exhibited another change of style, and showed that the 
base of the tower was built as it stands, about 1350. Then the south 
aisles were thrown out, and the west window of the south aisle had 
still beautiful flowing tracery of the fourteenth century, and the arcades 
are of the same date. About a hundred years (perhaps rather more) 
afterwards, all these aisle-windows, except that south-west one before 
noticed, were taken out and replaced by large four-light ones, the old 
mouldings and buttresses being left as witnesses of the change. Why 
good windows, only a century or so old, should be removed to make 
way for others of a different shape, is one of the problems of church 
histoiy. In order to separate a ritual chancel from the nave, the very 
fine screen was subsequently raised, and the aisle-ends were converted 
into chantry-chapels, that on the south being known as the Trevor, 
the north one as the Madox chapel. The great east window, dating 
from the fifteenth century, was one of the most magnificent in the 
kingdom ; those in the chapels were very fine, although defective 
specimens of Perpendicular work ; and in the small tracery lights of 
the aisle windows — the greater part of which had been now filled with 
modern glass — might be seen other fragments of old work. The peal 
of twelve bells in the tower were another of the " Seven Wonders of 
Wales". j\lr. Bloxam then explained the monuments in the church. 
The most important is a sadly-battered figure of a knight in chain 
armour, placed in a recess in the south aisle. An inscription, now 
almost effaced, is said to have recorded it as that of Madoc, illegitimate 
son of Llewelyn ap Griffith, who aspired to the princedom of ISTorth 
Wales, and died in 1351, A mural monument of marble in the Trevor 
chapel, at the end of the same aisle, is divided into thi'ee compart- 
ments. In the centre is a slab, stating in Welsh that it is to the 
memory of one Trevor Trevellyn, lord lieutenant under Henry VIII, 
and that he died in 1589, The end compartments are occupied, the 
one by a sculptural head and bust, the other by the feet, as if of a re- 
cumbent figure, partially concealed by the insci'ibed stone. Under the 
tower arch are two images of a priest and female saint, said to have 
been brought from a church eight or ten miles away. 

After recording their thanks to Ai'chdeacon Wickham, for the visit 
they had made to his church, the party continued their journey through 
some beautiful country to Caergwrle — a village on the banks of the 
Alyn, in the parish of Hope or Estyn. Here, on the top of a steep 
and lofty hill, from which grand views of Chester and other parts of 
the country were obtained, are the massive remains of a mediaeval 
castle of roughly squared stones, laid with the peculiarity of junction 
of small thin stones for their beds, said to have been built on the site 
of a Roman station, that of the " Giant Legion", which exists, so some 
philologists aver, in the present name " Caergurle", the " gur" of that 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 107 

word signifying "giant", and the termination " le" "legion". There 
are no remains of Roman masonry in the present walls — an opinion 
pronounced by ^lessrs. Brock and King, after a careful survey of them ; 
but the site is believed to have been originally a walled Roman cas- 
trum, repaired, added to, and altered in mediajval ages. Nothing now 
remains of the Roman work, the existing ruins being of the thirteenth 
century, but of very massive style, and in many parts quite inacces- 
sible. Some excavations might be conducted on this site with good 
promise of success. At the top of the castle Mr. Edisbury read a 
description of it, and pointed out that the site was undoubtedly that of 
a Roman building, or probably an earlier British one, pavements, 
hypocausts, many Roman coins, and other evidences of Roman occu- 
pation having been discovered, from early in the seventeenth century 
to the present time. Moreover, evidences of Roman smelting works 
abound in the district, and many roads of the same jDeople lead to 
and from Caergurle. 

At the Assembly Room in the evening, which was well filled by the 
members and townspeople, to whom facilities for attending had been 
given, R. Horman-Fisher, Esq., in the chair, the following papers were 
read and commented on. Mr. Thomas Morgan, F.S.A., Hon. Treasurer, 
read a paper of an historical character on " North Wales, as shown on 
a Map of the Thirteenth Century", in which he showed how much 
light was thrown on the history both of England and Wales by a map 
drawn in the reign of Edward I, and contemporary chronicles. This 
paper will be found printed in the Journal hereafter. 

Sir Watkin Wynn kindly placed at the disposal of the Association 
his ancient muniments. Mr. W. de Gray Birch, F.R.S.L., of the 
British Museum, Hon. Sec, went over to Wynnstay to select the most 
valuable and interesting among them. These were exhibited at the 
evening meeting on Tuesday, August 28. Among them were a fine 
charter, with seal of King John, two with fine seals of King Henry III, 
and one with a seal of Llewelyn, Prince of North Wales, and about 
twenty early deeds of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, connected 
with the abbeys of Valle Crucis, Strata Marcella, Dore, Cymmer, 
Conway, and the other numerous Cistercian abbeys which are in the 
immediate neighbourhood. Mr. Birch pointed out that Wales was pecu- 
liarly the home of the Cistercians, who were attracted by the rugged 
wildness of the scenerj^, and the opportunities it afforded to carry out 
their austere vows. In the 12th century nearly 100 houses of this order 
were founded, and the 13th century found them progressing ; but the 
date of their foundations was not known until he was fortunate enough 
to discover in the British Museum a document showing the dates of the 
foundation of every Cistercian abbey in Europe. This document^ is 

' See Journal, xxvi, pp. 281-299, 352 369. 



108 PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 

useful alike to historians and to nrcliitects. Mr. Birch also described 
at some length the palaeography of the charters, their interest center- 
ing in the fact that they have, nearly all of them, the date of the year 
in which they were written. The writing of many is very beautiful. 
One of them is dated by the regnal year of Richard I — an almost 
unique circumstance in Welsh manuscripts of the period. Mr. Birch 
also showed a fine fourteenth century copy in Welsh of the laws of 
Howel Dda, the great Welsh law giver. This MS. contains at the 
end some curious Welsh verses in a later handwriting. A book of 
painted arms, mostly fabulous, with the Salesbury pedigree, was also 
described, and some remarks upon it were made by Mr. S. I. Tucker, 
Rouge Croix. 

Mr. J. Tom Burgess, F.S.A., read a paper on " Ofia, and Offa's 
Dyke", opening by remarking on the numerous footprints of our fore- 
fathers which remain on the hill tops and in the valleys of the land — 
the only witnesses of a past which has no written history, and on the 
fact that these rude earthwoi^ks and rough mound-and-dyke fortresses 
have proved more substantial and permanent memorials than more 
finished types of architecture. He considered it a mistake to ascribe 
all mounds and hill defences to an invader, for the early chieftain 
would naturally take the strongest and most secure position in a 
district, and one from which he could best defend his territory from 
enemies. Passing on to his more immediate subject, Mr. Burgess 
related Ofia's life history, and showed the course of the dyke attributed 
to him, which can yet be traced pretty completely across one hundred 
miles of border country, from Chepstow-on-Wye to near the estuary 
of the Dee. Parallel to this, at the northern end, was another similar 
ditch and mound, known as Wat's Dyke, and separated from Offa's 
sometimes by five hundred yards, at others by an interval of three 
miles. These converged towards the sites of Roman cities on their 
route, whereas Offa reigned but a century antecedent to Alfred the 
Great, and ages after the Roman occupation. The lecturer, therefore, 
argued at considerable length that the dykes were probably parts of 
the great system of military entrenchments, thrown up, as is well 
known, in all parts of England, but nearly effaced in cultivated districts. 
Offa probably repaired and strengthened the western dyke on the 
Marches, and subsequent generations gave him the credit of having 
designed the work. This paper will be printed hereafter. 



109 



^profpctitngs of t!je xlssociatioiu 



Wednesday, 2nd January 1878. 

Thos. Morgan, Esq., F.S.A., Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The election of tlie following associate was announced : H. R. Hughes, 
Lord Lieutenant of Flintshire, Kiunel Park, Abergele, North Wales. 

The following presents were received, and thanks ordered to be 
returned to the donors : 

To C. Boacli Smith, Esq., V.P., F.S.A., for a work " On the Mayer Col- 
lection in the Liverpool Museum, considered as an Educational 
Possession", by C. T, Gatty. Privately printed. Liverpool, 
1877. 8vo. 

To the Society, for " The Archaeological Journal", vol. xxxiv. No. 133. 
1877. 
„ „ for the "Archteologia Cambrensis", October 1877. Fourth 
Series. No. 32. 

Sketches of the ancient cross with interlaced patterns, at Cople- 
stone, near Crediton, were exhibited by Mr. R. S. May ; and of the 
ancient cross at Llandougli, near Penartb, by Mr. Stothard. These will 
form the subjects of separate notices hereafter. 

Mr. Loftus Brock, F.S.A., Hon. Secretary, exhibited several portions 
of Roman red ware for decoration of wall-surfaces, probably internally. 
When whole, they were about 18 inches square. They are Ij inch 
thick, and have rough clay stubs on their surface for facility of fixing. 
The whole surfaces are covered with wavy lines. They were found in 
Newgate Street, on the north side, during excavations for the new 
shops now being erected east from the termination of the area opened 
in 1875, when the curious arched passage recorded in vol. xxxi, pp. 7G 
and 210, was found. Two mediaeval walls, 3 feet thick, and about 
8 feet apart, traversed the whole of the site, almost, but not quite, 
parallel to Newgate, etc. The tiles were found in excavations else- 
where on the site ; and it was worthy of note that the mortar still 
adhering to them was precisely similar to that observed in the pasj 



'V. 






110 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

in 1876, having soft rents of unslacked chalk lime, and no pounded 
Roman brick. 

Mr. G. R. Wright, P.S.A., described the result of a visit made by 
some members of the Association and himself to the Roman villa at 
Abinger, reported at the last meeting. This paper will be recorded, 
with a plan of the remains, at a future time. 

An animated discussion followed, in which several members took 
part. Attention was called to Mr. Roach Smith's remarks in his paper 
on " Stone Street",^ with respect to the probable presence of Roman 
remains near Dorking. It was resolved that all efforts should be 
devoted to the continuance of the researches ; and Mr. T. H. Farrar, 
of Abinger Hall, was specially thanked for the excavations already 
effected. 

Mr. Thos. Blashill exhibited a small silver Venetian coin, bearing 
date 1501, found within the church of Much Dew, Herefordshire, 
during its restoration. Also two small white glazed earthenware pots, 
for toilette purposes, of sixteenth century date, recently found in 
Cheapside. He exhibited also, as a warning to archaeologists, a forged 
" antique" of cast lead— the work of the well known firm of " Billy and 
Charley". The article, however, is not of recent fabrication, and the 
hope was expressed that the firm's operations were at an end. 

Mr. J. W. Grover, C.E., then read a paper on " The recently dis- 
covered Roman Fort at the entrance of the Aberglaslyn Pass, North 
Wales". This will be inserted in the Journal at a future time. 

An extended discussion followed, and the importance of considering 
each discovery, in relation to otlier ancient remains in its locality, was 
pointed out by more than one speaker. 

In the unavoidable absence of Mr. W. G. Black of Glasgow, his 
paper on " Folk Medicine", was read by Mr. Thos. Blashill. It will 
be printed hereafter. 

A lengthy and animated discussion followed, in which many mem- 
bers took part. The chairman called attention to the proposed esta- 
bhshment of the Folk Lore Society, with which they would all sympa- 
thise and, in welcoming the presence of Mr. G. Laurence Gomme, 
the Honorary Secretary of the new Society, called upon him to make 
some observations with respect to its aim and objects. 

Mr. G. L. Gomme said that he was there by the courtesy of their 
Secretary, Mr. Loftus Brock, and, in reply to the kind invitation of 
their Chairman to say a few words upon Mr. Black's paper, he would 
wish to observe that the subject treated of by Mr. Black was one de- 
serving of all attention from students of history. He did not wish to 
enter into further details; but he thought that the paper clearly 
illustrated the great need there was of a society to take up the 

' Journal, 1877. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. Ill 

subject of Folk Lore as its special function. Mr. Black had professedly 
glanced only at the outline of his subject, very well entitled " Folk 
Medicine", but he had glanced at it in such a manner as to show 
something of the immense range of materials to be dealt with. It was 
not only for the amusing portion of folk lore that the Folk Lore Society 
was being started, it was for its historical and archaeological value. 
Folk lore might well be classed under the now famous term of Mr. E. 
B. Tylor — a survival. It represented, under the shadow of its capa- 
cious and insignificant name, what had survived to us in the present 
age of the mythology of our primitive ancestors, and even of some of 
their customs, which had the full force of law. We had to seek in our 
folk lore what the Greeks could find in Homer ; what the Northmen 
could find in the Eddas and Sagas ; what the Finns could find in the 
Kalewalla. It told us of an epoch in Bi'itish history when Britons 
were the barbarians and savages of the Roman civilised world. It was 
for the preservation of these valuable historical memorials that the 
Folk Lore Society had been formed, mainly through the endeavours 
of Mr. Thoms, Mr. Ralston, and others. In conclusion, he had to 
thank the British Archseological Society for their kindness in welcom- 
ing the formation of the new Folk Lore Society. It was a generous 
kindness, made in the spirit of true historical study. 

These remarks were listened to with considerable interest, and much 
good will and hearty good wishes were expressed for the success of the 
new society, which would be cordially welcomed by this Association. 

A paper " On the recently discovered Sculpture in Breadsall Church, 
Derby", by Mr. Alfred Wallis, was then read, in the absence of the 
author, by Mr. Loftus Brock. In the discussion at its conclusion, Mr. 
Brock pointed out that the perfect condition of the sculpture might be 
considered as evidence that its removal was in no way the work of 
fanaticism. In this case it would have been demolished, and not com- 
mitted with care to the earth for preservation. He reviewed the 
authorities under which images were removed systematically from 
churches, the first being the injunctions of Edward VI (1547), under 
which all images " abused with pilgrimage, or ofiering of anything 
made thereunto, or shall be hereafter censed hereunto", were to be 
taken down and destroyed, but by "none other private person". Other 
images were to remain, and the clergy were to admonish " these 
parishioners that images serve for no other purpose but to be a remem- 
brance which images, if they do abuse for any other intent, they 

commit idolatry in the same..." 

No class of images are excepted in the visitation of Edward VI 
(Cranmer's) of the diocese of Canterbury. The articles of visitation 
by Queen Elizabeth (1559) also enjoin an entire removal, " Item, 
whether in their churches and chappels all images, shrines, all tables, 



112 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

candlesticks, trindals, and rolls of wax, pictures, paintings, and all 
other memorials of feigned and false miracles, pilgrimages, idolatry, 
and superstition be removed, abolished, and destroyed." 

Some passages of the homily "Against Peril of Idolatry", referred 
to in the 35th article (1562), were also glanced at, to show the mind 
of the Church of England on the subject. The sculpture just disco- 
vered, therefore, might have been passed over in 1547, although it 
may be doubtful ; but it would have been included in the enactments 
of 1559. The costume had been shown to Mr. J. R, Planche, V.P., 
who had expressed his belief that it was of the middle of the twelfth 
century. The style of the sculpture, however, appeared about two 
centuries later, and there may be nothing in its execution to show that 
it was not the work of a local artist. Rare as ancient sculpture may 
be in England, there ai"e many examples, both of better design and 
execution than the interesting specimen under review. 

Mr. Geo. R. Wright, E.S.A., in announcing the recent death of Mr. 
Thomas Wright, M.A., F.S.A., one of the founders of this Association, 
bore grateful testimony to the valuable services which the latter had 
rendered, and of the great loss the Association had suffered. 

The usual votes of thanks to the exhibitors, the contributors, and 
readers of papers, etc., and to the chairman, closed the proceedings. 



Wednesday, 16th January 1878. 
H. S. Cuming, Esq., V.P., F.S.A. Scot., in the Chair. 

The following Associates were duly elected : 

E. Brunt, Havelock Place, Hanley 

James Fisher Edisbury, M.P.S., Belgrave House, Wrexham 
A. Scrivener, Hanley. 
The following Local Members of Council were elected : 
W. Henderson for Salop 
B. Hicklin for Surrey 
J. H. Le Keux for Durham. 
Thanks were ordered to be conveyed to the donors of the following 
presents to the library : 

To the Society, for "Archseologia Cantiana", Transactions of the Kent 
Arcliajological Association, vol. xi. 1877. 
„ „ for " Report of the Council of the Art Union of London" 

for 1877. 
Mr. R. E. Way exhibited a silver badge found in the Old Kent Road, 
at the corner of East Lane ; and a shilling of Queen Elizabeth, found 
in the same locality. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 1 1 3 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock, P.S.A., Hon. Secretary, exhibited an extensive 
series of early Greek fictilia, comprising many curious and rare forms 
of cyatlii, aryballi, cylikcs, spouted cups, pomegranates, ladles, etc. 

The Chairman described some of these at length, and conti-asted 
them with some similar objects formerly exhibited before the Associa- 
tion. 

Mr. W. H. Cope exhibited a German cup mounted with silver, and 
two rare vessels of blue and white glass, also of German origin, one 
bearing the date 1590. 

The Chairman read a paper on " Mistletoe", which will be printed 
hereafter. In the discussion which ensued, Messrs. Way, Birch, 
Blashill, and Phene, took pari. 

Mr. T. Morgan, F.S. A., Hon. Treasurer, read a paper on the" Recent 
Discoveries at Hissarlik." 

Dr. Phene, who exhibited a large collection of archaeological objects 
from the region illustrated by Mr. Morgan's paper, said : " The only 
point on which I join issue with the Treasurer is his last remark, that 
the paper is not one strictly on British archaeology. I venture to 
think it is, though T admit not in an absolutely direct way. But I 
think a careful observer, when he compares the whorls found all over 
the British islands with those found so abundantly at Troy ; when he 
sees the same patterns on the pottery, notably in the case of the frag- 
ments of lai'ge terra-cotta vases now at South Kensington, and num- 
bered 1376 and 1377 (though not figured in Dr. Schliemann's Troy), 
which are almost counterparts of British devices, — the latter (1377) 
bearing th? same device as that found on the Marquis of Lothian's large 
urn exhibited here by me some time ago, and which is a piece of pot- 
tery of the same dimensions as that I am referring to ; when he sees 
the same moulds for casting bronze celts, and the same devices in the 
stone celts as are found in the British isles, — can hardly fail to admit 
a strong chain of graphic though unwritten history, which points 
clearly to an early colonisation of these islands from the East, and 
is therefore British. 

" In the same way I beg to draw attention to a very expressive link 
between the Troad and the royal residence of Agamemnon, Mycenae. 
Dr. Schliemann figures, in his work on the latter place, a silver and a 
gold cup of the same device, that of rings in a gradually diminishing 
circumference. These I was fortunate enough to see at Athens, where 
I made a rough sketch. In making some excavations into the lowest 
stratum of the diggings at Hissarlik, I extracted a piece of plain black 
pottery, part of a cup of the same dimensions, and of the same design 
as the gold and silver cups found at Mycona3. Tiie presence of this 
terra-cotta cup at Hissarlik, the finding of which was recorded by me 
in the British Architect, April 27th, 1877, which indicates that this was 
1S78 15 



114 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

a Trojan pattern, and tends to the identity of the precious cups found 
at Mycenaj, as possibly parts of the rich spoil brought away by the 
triumphant Greeks. 

" I have the pleasure of submitting for your inspection a large num- 
ber of archaic objects from the Troad and from Mycenae, as well as 
from Sparta, Messene, and other islands in the Archipelago. They 
include stones for the crushing of grain, whorls, and stone implements, 
various pottery, a bronze lamp, and one specimen of glass, from His- 
sarlik ; portions of bronze and pottery from ]\tycen8e ; encaustic and 
enamelled terra-cotta from Ephesus and the island of Patmos ; old 
Samian ware from Samos, with more modern from Delos ; a variety 
of sacred animals in terra-cotta, probably Phoenician, from Samothrace 
and other islands ; portions of decorative marble sculptiire from the 
former Temple of Ceres in Paros, and from the Temple of Apollo in 
Delos ; archaic vases of great antiquity and elegance of design from 
Corinth ; and some good terra-cottas of the human countenance from 
Sparta, etc. 

" With the exception of the point of difference I have already refer- 
red to, I entirely concur in the expressions in the paper just read, 
which displays great care in arrangement, and gives us, in fine, a brief 
but useful summary of the finds at Hissarlik." 

The Chairman, Mr. Cope, the Rev. A. Taylor, and Mr. Brock, took 
part in the discussion which followed. 



Wednesday, 6th February. 
H. S. Cuming, Esq., E.S.A. Scot., in the Chair. 
The election of the following members was duly announced : 

J. Romilly Allen, A.I.C.E., 34 James Street, Buckingham Gate 
Reginald Thistlethwayte Cocks, 43 Charing Cross. 
Thanks were ordered to be returned to the donors of the presents 
mentioned below : 

To the Society, for " Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire 
and Cheshire", 29th Session. 3rd Series, vol. v. Liverpool, 
1877. 8vo. 
To the Editor, for "Ulm Oberschwaben Korrespondenzblatt", No. 12. 
To F. L. Scotcher of Holywell, for three Lithograph Drawings : 1, Inside 
of St. Winifred's Well, Flintshire; 2, Basingwerk Abbey; 
3, Holywell Town. 
To Miss Eolertson of Llangollen, for Drawings of two Sculptured Stones 
at Llangollen. 



rROOEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATfON. 



115 



Mr. J. Reynolds, of Bristol, forwarded for exhibition four very finely 
enamelled candlesticks belonging to the church of St. Thomas at Bris- 
tol, and an impression of the seal of the church. 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock read the following notes by Mr. Reynolds upon 
these interesting objects : 

" Through the kindness of the vicar and wardens of the church of 
St. Thomas in Bristol, I have the pleasure of offering for your inspec- 
tion four of the most interesting examples of mediseval metal-work I 
have ever seen. I consider them to be a set, — four altar-taperstands, 
blue enamel upon copper, and of Limoges manufacture of the thirteenth 
century. I have shown them constantly to antiquaries visiting Bristol, 
all of whom thought them a set unequalled ; while one or two consi- 
dered them to be English copies of Limoges, and if so, still more valu- 
able and rare. 

" We do not know from any real authority to what church they 
belonged, but judging from the fact that we find them in the strong 
room of our church of St. Thomas, and knowing that they have been 
familiar to all the vestrymen within memory, we may assume that 
they originally belonged to the high altar of our church ; and we can 
imagine that some good burgher of St. Thomas having made a fair 
bai'gain in France or the Low Countries with his wool, thought he 
could not testify his gratitude better than by buying the beautiful 
objects you have now before you, and depositing the same upon the 
high altar of the church in his native parish. But this and all other 
considerations as to their manufacture and age, I must now leave to 
your learned Society. 

" I also send for your inspection our Vestry seal, 'a post-Reformation 
seal dated 1566\ and will pass to a few observations which I hope I 
may be allowed to make on two dedications 
of our church. You will notice that the seal 
bears the inscription, thomas . the . apostel 
. OF . lESV . CHRIST . 1566. The early histories 
of Bristol have stated the dedication of our 
church to be St. Thomas the Martyr. These 
early histories, although most complete, are 
not infallible ; and I therefore thought, before 
committing myself on the question of the 
dedication, I would personally look over the 
deeds. With the assistance of my friend Mr. 
Ta3dor I spent some hours in inspecting those 
belonging to our church, and found the dedication was originally 
St. Thomas the Martyr. We have numerous entries in the name of 
the Martyr, viz. in the 15th and 18th of Henry VI, also in the 33rd of 
Henry VI and the 10th of Edward IV. In the 31st of Henry VI 




116 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ASSOCIATION. 

' Martyr' is erased, and also in 16th Henry VI the same word is can- 
celled, while in the 24th Elizabeth we find St, Thomas the Martyr, and 
in the 20th Elizabeth, St. Thomas the Apostle. Lord Chief Justice 
Campbell, in his Lives of tJie Chancellors, p. 95, tells us why tlie name 
of Martyr was obliterated : ' Henry VIII, when he wished to throw off 
the authority of the Pope, thinking that as long as the name of 
St. Thomas should remain in the calendar, men would be stimulated 
by his example to brave the ecclesiastical authority of the sovereign, 
instructed his attorney-general to file a quo loarranto information 
against him for usurping the oflBce of a saint, and he was formally cited 
to appear in court to answer the charge. Judgment of ouster would 
have passed against him by default, had not the King, to show his 
impartiality and great regard for the due administration of justice, 
assigned him counsel at the public expense. The cause being called, 
and the attorney-general and the advocate for the accused being fully 
heard, with such proofs as wei^e offered on both sides, sentence was 
pronounced, that Thomas, sometime Archbishop of Canterbury, had 
been guilty of contumacy, treason, and rebellion ; that his bones should 
be publicly burnt, to admonish the living of their duty by the punish- 
ment of the dead ; and that the offerings made at his shrine should be 
forfeited to the crown.' A proclamation followed, stating that, ' Foras- 
much as it now clearly appeared that Thomas Becket had been killed 
in a riot excited by his own obstinacy and intemperate language, and 
had been afterwards canonised by the Bishop of Rome as the champion 
of his usurped authority, the King's Majesty thought it expedient to- 
declare to his loving subjects that he was no saint, but rather a rebel 
and traitor to his Prince, and therefore strictly charged and commanded 
that he should not be esteemed or called a saint ; that all images and 
pictures of him should be destroyed, the festivals in his honour be 
abolished, and his name and remembrance be erased out of all books, 
under pain of His Majesty's indignation, and imprisonment at His 
Grace's pleasure.'" 

Mr. Brock said the four candlesticks are identical in workmanship 
and execution, two being 12i ins. high and alike in pattern, and the twa 
othei's are 6f ins. high, almost identical. All are formed of a copper 
ground, which has been gilt, and covered with elaborate patterns, 
filled in with champleve enamel. The sockets are of much later date,, 
of latten, and they probably have superseded the old spike termina- 
tions. They have otherwise suffered by repair by no expert hand, the 
large box of one of the latter candlesticks being misplaced. The 
patterns are for the most part geometrical, with conventional foliage, 
but the tripod bases have quaint figures alike on all three sides, those 
to the two larger candlesticks being a mermaid, with tail and paws, 
defending herself with sword and shield against the attacks of a griffin. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. Il7 

The bases of the smaller ones have patterns of two eagle-like birds, 
with long tails and wings, confronting one another. The colours are 
for the most part deep blue, with a spai-ing introduction of white, 
yellow, green, light blue, and red dots, in imitation probably of jewels. 
The patterns indicate the date to be early in the thirteenth century, 
and the workmanship is probably Limoges rather than Germ.an. 

Mr. Brock exhibited from recent London excavations an amphora, 
a lagena, and a mediaeval candlestick of somewhat unusual shape. 

The Chairman described a silver chased tobacco box and a lady's 
companion of silver, of late seventeenth century work, exhibited by Mr. 
S. L Tucker, Bouge Croix. 

Mr. C. Roach Smith, V.P., F.S.A., exhibited, from Mr. E. A. 
Burneys, of Her Majesty's Dockyard, a drawing of a remarkable 
pewter or leaden circular vessel, which has recently been dredged up 
from the banks of the river Medway, off Gas House Point, Rochester. 
It is 11| ins. in diameter, with upright sides 5| ins. deep internally to 
its fiat bottom. There is a lip or ring of ins. wide above, strengthened 
externally by fourteen flanges, double where the handles have been. 
The handles have disappeared, but the traces indicate that they were 
of iron. The flanges, which are irregular in position, divide the sides 
with twelve panels, and the latter are ornamented with elegant patterns 
of conventional foliage of late Norman character, cut out of the thick- 
ness of the metal. Mr. Roach Smith expressed no opinion with 
respect to the age of the vessel, but called attention to a somewhat 
similar one which was recovered off Felixstowe. It was pointed out 
that its form was not unlike Roman work, but that the character of 
the decoration w^as not conclusive with respect to its age. 

The Rev. S. M. Mayhew exhibited a collection of antiquities found 
(genei-ally) in London, of much interest and rarity, ranging between its 
earliest history and the seventeenth century. 1, Celtic: — A beaded 
bronze ornament, 2 ins. square ; 2, a bronze fibula, resembling a 
butteifly, with wings expanded and head displaj'ed ; 3, two needles, 
the smaller with a " clip", for " taking up" a thread ; 4, a bone instru- 
ment, with double point, 5 ins. long and polished. Roman: — 5, The 
bronze stem of a lingnla, 5 ins. ; 6, a very elegant fibula, 2 ins. in 
length, of bronze and niello, cruciform ; 7, a very beautiful and perfect 
handbell, round in form, 74 ins. in circumference, of golden bronze, 
finely patinated ; 8, a pair of lamp trimmers (eraunctorium), 7 ins. iu 
length, of golden bronze, the squared and richly ornamented shafts 
are prolonged into thickened wires, bent to receive the thumb and 
finger ; 0, a pilum of iron, 6 ins., the point of which has been blunted 
by a heavy blow ; 10, two vianuhria of curved bone, one in likeness of 
the Egyptian hawk. Egyptian: — 11, Two beads of imitative lapis 
lazuli, and a third of selunite; 12, a finger ring of bronze, vesica- 



118 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

shaped and nearly 1|- ins. in length ; the centre is of blue enamel, with 
green leaves and golden flowers, the edging or exterior setting has 
been thirteen crystals, of which three remain in situ. This rare and 
beautiful specimen of ancient jewellery is ascribed by Mr. Cuming, 
V.P., to Egyptian art, and for London is unique; 13, a coin bearing 
the bust of the Saviour between the letters ic xc ; and on the reverse, 
+ IHSUS CHRISTUS BASILEON BASILEUS. This coin of the lower empire 
was found near St. John's Gate, Clerkenwell, and gave rise to an 
interesting discussion, the Chairman referring it to a.d, 969, and 
considering it to be one of the earliest numismatic repi-esentations 
of our Lord ; Mr. W. de Gray Birch thinking it might rather have 
belonged to Sicily ; and Mr. Tucker, Boiige Croix, saying, fi-om the 
place of its finding, it might have been brought to Britain by some 
returned pilgrim ; 14, a Cologne jug {gres Flamand), adorned with 
white annulets on blue ground. A Vitro di Trina drinking horn of 
German art, seventeenth century. This specimen is 19 ins. in the 
curve, and fitted with a metal cover; 15, a very lovely specimen of 
Venetian art, in a cup and saucer of imitative red jasper, perfect in 
every respect and rare ; 16, a finger ring, set with twelve small aqua 
marina stones of silver, and about the era of Elizabeth. 

Mr. C. H. Lusmore sent for exhibition a remarkable and exceed- 
ingly interesting group of objects obtained in Spain, all of them 
wrought of steel, and several displaying considerable taste in design 
and excellence of finish. The following is a brief description of the 
most notable : Long, square-barrelled padlock, of the Moorish era of 
Spanish history, consti'ucted on the same principle as the African and 
Chinese padlocks described in this Journal, xii, p. 118. Padlock with 
somewhat vesica-shaped bai'rel, with lateral buttresses to receive the 
ends of the shackle. The key exhibits a strong Moorish influence in 
design. The broad plate forming the handle may be compared with 
the example from Egypt, engraved in this Journal, xii, PI. 13, fig. 1. 
Globular padlock with hinged shackle. Padlocks of this type were in 
use for two or three centuries. The present specimen may be assigned 
to the sixteenth century. In the Cuming collection are specimens of 
similar fashion, found in London. Lock-escutcheon from the front 
of a large cofier, or the door of an armoire, 5| inches high, and 
nearly 3| ins. at its extreme width, the keyhole being full 2 ins. in 
height. It represents the double-headed eagle of Germany, the broad 
crown resting on the head of each bird. It was fixed to the woodwork 
by five pegs or screws. Temp. Car. I (1516-1556). Lock from the 
front of a casket ; the flat plate decorated with elegant scroll applique 
work, parcel gilt. Date, sixteenth century. Lock from the door of a 
cabinet, decorated with engraved and applique work, parcel gilt. Date, 
sixteenth century. Four variously sized girdle-swivels with round and 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 119 

ovate bows, on which to suspend keys, pouches, etc. They are all 
more or less ornate in design. Teinp. Philip III (1598-1621). Pair of 
snuffers with ovate bows and heart-shaped box, on the under side of 
which is stamped the letter I ensigned with a crown. Second half of 
sixteenth century. For an account of snuffers, see Journal, xxv, p. 74. 
Pair of nutcrackers of singular aspect, tastefully decorated with 
engraved scrolls, etc. The broad, flat, crushing portion is cut out to 
receive two-sized nuts ; the upper and smaller opening being straight- 
sided ; the lower and larger one representing a flaming heart, with 
the pointed base curved sideways. The bowed handles are closed with 
a clasp, in the manner of the old sugar-nippers ; and on one is incised 
the name Zorres. Date, circa 1600. Two spurs closely resembling 
each other, but not a pair. They have perforated, jointed shanks, 
with rather short, up-turned necks ; the rowel of one having ten rays, 
the other six rays. Date, sixteenth century. Lock of a gun, for 
either pyrites or flint. The hammer represents a dragon's head, the 
tightening screw having a strong ring at top. On the plate is engraved 
the name of the maker of the piece, Armangver. Date, seventeenth 
century. Hook of sword-carriage, the broad front pierced, chiselled, 
and parcel-gilt. Date, second half of seventeenth century. The car- 
riages of the French and English court-swords of the first half of the 
eighteenth century were provided with hooks of similar character to 
the foregoing. There is a steel hook of an English sword-carriage in 
the Cuming collection, but the chains have been removed. 

Mr. W. de G. Birch, P.R.S.L., Hon. Secretary, read the following- 
notes : 

On a Sculptured Effigy in the East Wall of the Chancel 
OF Bathampton Church, near Bath. 

BY THE REV. PREBENDARY 8CARTH, M.A., F.S.A. 

In the " Proceedings" of the British Archaeological Association for 
1857, p. 149, will be found an account of an ancient efEgy in the wall 
of the church of Bathampton, near Bath, on the outside, under the 
chancel-window. The church was visited by the Association on the 
occasion of their Meeting at Bridgwater and Bath. The figure, which 
is in a niche, is described by Colliuson in his History of Somerset as 
that of a lady ; but it was pronounced by very competent authoi'ity on 
that occasion to be the effigy of a Norman bishop of early date, the 
eleventh century. The design and execution of the sculpture are rude ; 
but the monument is stated to be " of gi'cat antiquity and curiosity, 
and deserving to be engraved and recorded". After a lapse of twenty 
years this has at length been done by the Somerset Arcluvological and 
Natural History Society. This Society visited the church in the 
summer of 187G, when attention was called to this memorial, and an 



120 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

account of the opinions then expressed will be found in vol. xxii, p. 48, 
of the " Proceedings". 

I have the pleasure to forward an excellent drawing of the effigy, 
which has since been executed, and is now engraved in the " Proceed- 
ings", with an account of the discussion which took place, when the 
old opinion was re visaed. To the record of this a long note has been 
added, written by Bishop Clifford of Clifton, who contends that the 
effigy cannot be that of a I^orman bishop, as stated by the present 
Somerset Herald ; but it is that of a female of still earlier date, carved 
on a stone belonging to a Roman tomb ; similar in treatment to the 
sculpture now in the British Museum, which was found at Wellow, a 
drawing of which is given in Aqiice Solis, or Notices of Roman Bath, 
p. 114. The Bishop considers that there is much resemblance in the 
treatment of the dresses of the females, and that the supposed pastoral 
staff in the right hand of the effigy is only a sistrum. This opinion as 
to the staff, however, he has withdrawn in a note contained in the 
Errata of the " Proceedings". 

I send herewith a copy of the engraving, and also the account given 
in the volume, with the note of Bishop Clifford, as I think the subject 
both interesting and important, and that it is very desirable that any 
doubt should be cleared up. I cannot myself say that any exists in 
my own mind ; but that I regard it as a very ancient effigy of a Nor- 
man bishop, unhappily much mutilated, but giving a very good repre- 
sentation of the ecclesiastical dress of that date. For illustration sake 
I here send a brief statement of the ecclesiastical vestments, compared 
with those worn by the Jewish high priest. 

Ancie7ii Ecclpsiastical Vestments. — These were — 1. The long and close 
"coat", "tunic" or "vesture", called from its colour (as a minis- 
terial garment) the "alb". 2. The broad "border" of this coat is 
often of the richest materials, which developed ecclesiastically into the 
" orarium" (probably from ova, a bordei-) or "stole". 3. The girdle, 
combining easily with the "stole". 4. The "garment" or "robe", 
ecclesiastically the "chasuble" or "casula", covering the tunic down 
to the knees, and so allowing the ends of the " border" (or " stole") 
to appeal'. These were the ordinary vestments in daily common use 
in the East and West, see Palmer's Orujines Liturgicce., vol. ii, App. ; 
Uirectorium Avglicamim, see on " Eucharistic Vestments" ; Rev. James 
Skinner, Flea for Ritaal (Masters) ; Guardian, January 17 and 24, 1866 ; 
Dean of Westminster's speech in Convocation, February 9, 1866, see 
also Archibald Freeman's RUes and Ritual, p. 64 and 65, who says, 
" There is no reason for doubting that they are, as to their form, no 
other than the everyday garments of the ancient world in east and 
west, such as they existed in the time of our Lord, and for many ages 
before." 



proci:edixgs of the association. 121 

Garments of the Iligh Priest, see Exod. xxviii. — There was — 1, The 
ephod, which was a rich under garment. 2. The long " embroidered 
coat or tunic of fine linen" (v. 39). 3. Curious girdle of the ephod 
(which seems to have girded both ephod and tunic). 4. The com- 
bination of the shoulderpieces and breastplates, which were among the 
most peculiar insignia of the High Priesthood, the name of the twelve 
tribes being engraven in costliest gems, both on the shoulderpieces and 
breastplate, as a means of making "memorial" of the people before 
God (vv. 9-30). 5. The outer garment or robe of the ephod (v. 31), 
all blue, of circular form, with a " hole in the top of it, in the midst 
thereof", to pass it over the head. 6. The miti'e of fine linen (v. 39), 
and upon it, on the forehead, the " plate of pure gold" (TrcraXou). St. John 
at Ephesus wore the TreraXou or plate of gold as a priest. See Eusebius 
H. Eccl. iii, 31, who cites Polycrates, Bishop of Ephesus (a.d. 198). 
Epiphanius says the same of St. James, Bishop of Jerusalem, De 
Heresi, 78. Eusebius (c. 320) addresses the priests on " wearing the 
long garment, the crown, and the priestly robe."^ 

It will be seen that in the effigy there is shown the cassock, reaching 
lowest, the albe, the stole, and, above all, the chasuble, which is short 
and has long sleeves, and though the headdress or mitre cannot be 
distinctly made out, yet the iiifuke or vittce are very clear. I am not 
aware of any sculpture on a Roman tomb which at all corresponds to 
that now exhibited. Such rude memorials of English ecclesiastics are 
indeed rare, and it may be difficult to point out another which pre- 
cisely agrees with the present ;- but the correspondence to medieval 
ecclesiastical dress is much closer than to that of any heathen sculp- 
ture. I have thought it right to call the attention of the Society to 
this effigy, and to the opinions expressed regarding it, because to their 
former visit it owes much of the interest which has been awakened, 
and what I believe to be the true interpretation of the sculpture. 
Henceforth I trust it is likely to be preserved with more care, and re- 
garded with more interest than it has hitherto been. 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock exhibited some drawings by 'Sh: J. T. Irvine, 
illustrative of this effigy. 

Mr. Stothard exhibited a water-colour drawing of a cross of elabo- 
rate carving at Llandough, in Glamorganshire, figured by Professor 
Westwood in his Lnpidarium. Mr. Stothard's notes will be given 
hereafter. 

Mr. R. E. Way exhibited a drawing of an ancient cross, and Ihe 
paper, as follows, descriptive of this relic was read by Mr. Brock. 

' H. E., p. 307. 

* I think I have observed one in Exeter Cathedral, but I have no work at 
hand to which I can refer. 

1878 16 



122 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

The Ancient Cross at Coplestone, near Ceediton, Devon. 

BY R. E. WAY. 

This venerable cross or monolith stands in the hamlet of Cople- 
stone, about five miles from Crediton, on the Barnstaple Road, between 
four crossways, and at the junction of five parishes. It is a granite 
pillar, 10 ft. 6 ins. in height, 2 ft. square at the base, but diminishing 
a little gradually from base to summit. At the top is a square hole, 
in which, undoubtedly, a cross was fixed. The sides are rudely orna- 
mented with saltier-shaped crosses, interlaced work of great beauty ; 
and near the top, on the south-east side, is a niche (cut most probably 
after the cross was removed from the top, to receive the figure of some 
saint) ; while on the north-east side is a figure of a man on horseback, 
with two rude figures below embracing each other, which Mr. Roach 
Smith thinks denotes the salutation, " Greet one another with an holy 
kiss", thus bearing the stamp of early Christian thought. A chapel 
once stood near the cross. This cross is the most remarkable in the 
county, and antiquarians have been much puzzled as to its origin. 
The interlaced work is identical with many examples in Ireland, and it 
closely resembles the ancient Saxon crosses at Sandbach, Cheshire, and 
Ilkley, Yorkshire ; and is almost a counterpart of one of the patterns 
found on the pillar at Forres, Morayshire, Scotland, known as Sueno's 
Stone. It is undoubtedly Saxon, and not later than the ninth or tenth 
centuries. 

History is silent as to when these early crosses were erected. Some 
are strongly of the opinion that the crosses in the West of England 
might be attributed to the influence of the earliest preachers who 
came from Ireland. At any rate, the similarity between this example 
and Irish crosses is very striking. Cross-roads also were held pecu- 
liarly sacred in early times, and crosses might have been originally 
designed as guides to direct the pilgrim to the different churches. 
Crosses also marked civil and ecclesiastical limits, and probably served 
also for stations, resting places, or oratories, where prayer was said or 
a verse sung when the bounds were visited in processions. 

Memorial and boundary crosses were in very eaily use as marking 
the boundaries of lordships, parishes, or lands given to monasteries, 
and some think this cross might have been set up for that purpose. 
There is an ancient deed at the Record Office of the time of King 
Edgar. It is a charter or deed of grant made by that king to one of 
his Thanes, Alfhere, in the year 974. The property granted consists of 
three hides of land at Nymed, in Devonshire, now forming the site of 
three villages called Nymct, near Crediton. The deed also mentions 
the land which the reverend prie.st Brihtric gave, for the relief of his 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 123 

soul, to a monastery in Crydianton, adjoining the land of the Thane. 
After stating the position of the land it expresses a prayer that 
"anyone who shall take it away or diminish it may be stricken with a 
perpetual curse, and perish everlastingly with the devil, unless he 
makes atonement." 

Now, as this cross stands at the boundary of the parish of Crediton, 
and near one of the villages of Nymet, it might have been erected at 
the period the Saxon charter refers to, by Alfhere, the Thane, or by 
the monks of Crediton, to mark the limits of their respective lands. 
But if it is a memorial cross, which I believe it to be, then we must 
assign it to the time of King Edward the Elder or Athelstan, 901 to 
940 A.D., for it is recorded that Putta, the second Bishop of Devon, 
who held his see at Bishop's Tawton, while on a journey to Crediton, 
to visit the king (or Uffa, Earl of Devon), was slain by some of the 
Earl's followei's. On what part of the journey between Bishop's Taw- 
ton and Crediton this occurred it does not appear ; but as this cross 
stands on that very route, the sculpture agreeing with the period, and 
the emblems also proving it to be a Christian- relic, 1 think we may 
fairly assume that the figure on horseback on the north-east side was 
intended to represent Bishop Putta on that eventful journe}-, and most 
probably marks the spot where the bishop lost his life ; and that it was 
set up no doubt by a succeeding prelate. 

Some years ago Sir Heury Drydeu made a careful examination of 
this cross, and took a plaster-cast of it. The drawing I lay before you 
was copied from that cast, and kindly presented to me last week by 
Sir Henry. He thinks one of the compartments the most elaborate 
piece of interlaced work with which he is acquainted. It is at the left 
hand bottom corner, and composed of three bands. 

Mr. Brock read a paper by Mr. J. Romilly Allen on " Rubbings 
from Sculptured Crosses", which will be printed on a future occasion. 
The paper was copiously illustrated by a large variety of rubbings col- 
lected by the author of the paper from various examples throughout 
England. 

Mr. Allen described some of these at length aftervrards, and Mr. 
Stothard and Mr. Cuming took part in the discussion which ensued. 
Mr. Birch suggested that dated MSS. containing forms of interlaced 
patterns identical with those found on many of these crosses would 
furnish the clue to a veiy close approximation of the date of these 
ancient monuments. 

Mr. S. 1. Tucker, Rouge Croix, proposed a vote of congratulation to 
Prof. Erasmus Wilson on the safe arrival of Cleopatra's Needle in 
London. This was seconded b)- the Rev. S. M. Mayhew, and carried 
enthusiastically. 



124 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Wednesday, February 20th. 
H. S. Cuming, Esq., F.S. A.Scot., V.P., in the Chair. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned to the several donors for the 
following contributions to the library : 

To the Society, for " Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scot- 
land", vol. xi. Part II, 1876; vol. xii. Part I, 1877. 4to. Edin- 
burgh. 
„ ,, " Transactions of the Historical Society of Lancashire and 
Cheshire", 29th Session. Third Series, vol. v. Session, 187G, 
1877. Liverpool. 

To C. £. Smith, V.P., F.S. A., for a Treatise, " De 1' Architecture Reli- 
giense en France au xix^ Siecle." Par M. Lecointre-Dupont, 
President de la Societe des Antiquaires de F Quest. And for a 
Paper entitled " Fragment d'un Compte de Notre-Dame de Sois- 
sons, 1276." From the " Bibliotheque de I'Ecole de Chartres", 
t. xxxviii. 

Mr. E. P. L, Brock, F.S. A., Hon. Sec, announced that the Mayor 
and Corporation of Wisbech had invited the Association to hold a 
Congress in their ancient borough, and that the Council of the British 
ArchaBological Association had great pleasure in accepting the invita- 
tion. Full particulars as to the time of holding this Congress, the 
excursions, and other matters, would be duly announced to the asso- 
ciates. (See cover of JbttniaL) 

The Chairman exhibited a mediaeval silver ring, sent for the purpose 
by Mr. Mould, containing a representation of the crucifixion of the 
Saviour. He also exhibited an engraved portrait of Joseph Pellerin, 
cetat. ninety-eight. 

Mr. W. de G. Birch, F.R.S.L., Ho7i. Sec, exhibited a steel cross in 
the possession of Mr. Luxmore. This cross has an oval medallion in 
brass, inlaid at the junction of the arms with the upright limbs. On one 
side of this medallion is a representation of the immaculate conception 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary ; on the reverse, a holy cup between two 
angels, with the date of 1020 in the exergue. The cross is covered 
with roughly stamped letters comprising the following inscription in 
Spanish, which sufficiently explains its object and use : IHS alavado 

SEA EL s[ANTi]s[i]mO SACRAMIE[n]T0 MARIA SANTISIMA CONCEVIDA SIN 
PECADO ORIGINAL. INRI. INDIG[n]a SOROR LUISA DE LA ASCENSION ESCLAVA 
DE MI DULCISSIMO IHS MARIA. 

Mr. 11. Jenuer referred the origin of this medallion to the mystical 
account of the Virgin given in the Revelation of St. John. 

Mr, Worthington Smith, F.L.S., exhibited two hundred and fifty 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 125 

worked flints of neolithic age, which he had recently found in the 
neighbourhood of Dunstable. The objects included scrapers, borers, 
knives, cores, flakes, etc. Mr. Smith stated that the open, cultivated 
fields had afforded the majority of the specimens; but that he had met 
with a considerable number upon the hills where the ground had been 
disturbed by moles, rats, and rabbits. 

The Chaii-man and the Rev. S. M. Mayhew testified to the interest- 
ing nature of this exhibition. 

Mr. R. E. Way exhibited a medallion of Ignatius Loyola, with an 
uncei'tain bust in profile on the reverse. 

Mr. Brock exhibited two late Celtic urns of dark-coloured earthen- 
ware, and a Roman jug of rare form and colour, from London excava- 
tions. One of these Celtic vessels indicated traces of pounded flint 
incorporated with the terra-cotta. Both of them had their bases some- 
what convex. 

The Rev. S. M. Mayhew, M.A., in the discussion which ensued, 
alluded to the mention of similarly compounded pottery in the Epistles 
of St. Paul. 

The Rev. S. M. Mayhew, placing upon the table a number of in- 
teresting objects, said, " Three epochs are here distinctly represented, 
although the comparatively modern third may not strictly fulfil the 
conditions of archaeological exhibition. 

"1st. An oval dish of Wedgwood's Queen's ware, escalloped and 
painted in colours, with a transcript of a picture of world renown, 
Paul Potter's * Young Bull'. Wedgwood ware is sometimes seen 
adorned with small groups of flowers or fruit, from the pencils of the 
Dresden artists brought to England by i\Ir. Wedgwood ; but a speci- 
men such as that now exhibited may well be pronounced of the choicest 
and rarest. 

"2nd. An oval dish (1-5 ins.) of Savona pottery, in the fashion of 
Palissy, adorned in colour, accurate drawing, and exact modelling, 
with ferns, oak leaves, and ivy. On the border the butterfly spreads 
its wings, and the snail makes progress from leaf to leaf. A coiled 
and ' spotted snail' lifts its head, and the bright green lizard darts 
upon its prey. Cai-elessly scattered are marine and freshwater shells. 
Within lie a group of fish, perfect in form, life-like in colour, the prin- 
cipal being a young pike, accurately modelled after nature. The 
period of this work of art is probably the close, or nearl}^ so, of the last 
century. 

"3rd. A cup (9 ins. high) of opal glass, tulip shaped, richly gilded 
and beautifully hand-finished, with a wreath of ribbon, grapes, leaves, 
and Cupids. An Italian element doubtless appears in the treatment 
of the stem and general form, but the gilding and painting assign it 
rather to France, and the celebrated artist Pavon. 



126 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

" 4tli. A tankard of German stone ware, cir. a.d. 1600, moulded in 
three divisions, with a hunting subject, ' The Sportsman's Burial'. 
The fox, with service book, heads the procession, attended by the hare, 
as cross bearer ; the wild boar carries a mattock, four stags support the 
coffin, whereon sit an owl and a weepmg squirrel. The hunting horn 
and knife are laid on the lid, and following, with heads and ears de- 
pressed, are horse and hounds, amongst a numerous retinue of phea- 
sants, rabbits, little pigs, and a greyhound. The legend above is, 

'IHM 1ST AVOBL, UNS 1ST BESSEE.' " 

The Chairman offered a commendatory criticism on this part of the 
exhibition. 

" The second portion consisted in some fine vessels of pewter, cir. 
A.D. 1620, lately exhumed near Newgate Street. 

"LA paten, with corded edge, and the initials ' w.D.w.' The 
mark being a rose on its stem, and the letters ' C.S.' 

" 2. An upright vessel, circular, with a square projecting beak, 5 ins. 
by 5 ins. in diameter. The shape is a novelty, and, discussion arising, 
it was generally detei'mined as an article for kitchen purposes. A fine 
seventeenth century spoon was found with the above, and a porringer 
of pewter of an earlier date, ornamented with fleurs-de-lys as handles 
(from Bishopsgate) was associated in the exhibition. 

" The 3rd Division contained some choice specimens of Roman glass 
from the City, notably a large cylindrical bottle, similar to some from 
the Troad ; a perfume bottle of large size, and dark green glass, coated 
or spotted with a friable enamel, to resemble a jasper. With these 
were found two metallic vessels for suspension. The first, a bowl of 
yellow metal, with dentated edge, which had been used as a lamp. 
Some unctuous substance still remained within when brought to light. 
The other, a vessel 6 ins. in diameter, of thin bronze, upright walls, 
and a turnover edge, with two iron ears and a small plate of bronze 
rivetted within to stop a flaw. In company, the cover of a cinerary 
urn was also discovered. The larger portion of a rai-e poculum, of 
light blue glass (3 ins. by 3^- ins.), dented, and ornamented with lines 
of raised enamel, found with a very fine Upchurch urn within the 
boundaries of the Roman wall, closed the exhibition ; the exhibitor 
asking whether, from these intramural interments, some arguments for 
the gradual spread of Roman Loudon, northward and north-westward, 
might not be gathered ?" 

Mr. Horman Fisher exhibited two examples of the Couteau de Chasse, 
one of which is believed to have belonged to Admiral Blake ; but Mr. 
Cuming considered the date to be somewhat earlier. 

The Chairman then read the following paper: — 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 127 

Saint Chkistopher, 

BY H. SYEB CUMING, ESQ., F.S.A. SCOT., V.P. 

Few legends in the midclle ages were more popular than that of St. 
Christopher, and few effigies more familiar to the eyes of the populace 
chan that of the gigantic Canaanite, who, before his convci'sion, was 
called Reprobus. The leading incidents of his exciting story have 
already been narrated in our Jotmial (in, 85), so that it is needless to 
repeat thein here, except so far as they may elucidate and bear directly 
on the representations of the saint, to which reference will now be 
made. When we think of the many advantages which flowed from the 
act of gazing on the likeness of holy Christopher, we cease to wonder 
at the frequency of his presence in sacred buildings, and in the form 
of signacula or tokens to be worn about the person, in the manner of 
Chaucer's yeoman, who had — 

"A Christofre on his brest of silver schene". 
Pewter signs of the saint, of fourteenth and fifteenth century date, have 
been found in London ; and I exhibit an oval medal of brass of the 
seventeenth century, on which he is portrayed, with the nude infant 
on his left shoulder, and holding in his right hand the miraculous 
foliferous staff; and to prevent doubt as to who is intended, the piece 
is inscribed s. christofanvs. On the reverse of the medal is a figure 
of s. ROSALIA. Sir Thomas Browne, in his Vulgar Errors (v. 16), tells 
us, " St. Christopher, before his martyrdom, requested of God that 
wherever his body was, the place should be free from pestilence, 
mischiefs, and infection ;" and therefore his picture or portrait was 
usually placed in public ways, and at the entrance of towns and 
churches, according to the received distich — 

" Christophorura videas, postero tutus eris". 

In the porch of St. Mark's, Venice, is a bust in mosaic of St. Chris- 
topher, accompanied by the subjoined couplet : — 

" Christophori Sancti speciem quicuraque tuetur 
Illo namque die nullo languore tenetur." 
(Whosoever sees the likeness of St. Christopher 
Shall that day feel no weariness.) 

And in the same spirit speak the lines beneath the famous old wood- 
cut of the saint, dated 1423 — 

" Christofori faciem die quacumque tueris 
Illo neinpe die morte mala uon morieris." 
(The day that you see Christopher's face, 
That day shall you not die an evil death.) 

Erasmus, in his Praise of FoUij, records the popular belief that if 
persons paid their devotions to St. Christopher in the early morning 



128 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



tliey were secui'e from death tlirougliout the day ; and in his Colloquy 
on a Soldier's Life he alludes to the custom of soldiers drawing on their 
tents with charcoal the image of St. Christopher, doubtless with the 
hope of securing his protection. And in connection with military 
matters, it may here be mentioned that St. George and St. Christopher 
stand vis-a-vis on the magnificent sword blade engraved by Albert 
Durer (1495), and of which a copy is given in Meyrick's Ancient 
Armour, pi. cii ; and in the same work (pi. Ixx) is a breastplate of the 
time of Ehzabeth, on which is engraved a graceful figure of the saint, 
with the nude Saviour on his right shoulder. Under the head of 
Kelioers, Naogeorgus, or rather his translator, Barnabe Googe, tells us 
in the Popish Kingdom, 1570 (fol. 99) — 

" Saint Nicolas keepes the mariners from daunger and diseas, 
That beaten are with boystrous waves, and tost in dreadfull seas. 
Great Chrystopher, that painted is with body big and tall. 
Doth even the same, who doth preserve and keepe his servants all 
From fearefull terrours of the night, and makes them well to rest ; 
By whom they also all their life with divers joyes are blest." 

The most striking scenes in the career of St. Christopher were fre- 
quently crowded into one picture, as in that at Shorwell Church, Isle 
of Wio-ht, but the crowning feat of his eventful life was the grand 
motive of every design, namely, his bearing the child Jesus through the 
river on his shoulder, and guided by the light of the lantern, held by 
the venerable hermit, who had previously illumined his mind regarding 
Divine truth and salvation. Delineations of the acts and deeds of St. 
Christopher must have once been abundant on the walls of our churches, 
as traces of them have been met with in fifteen different counties, and 
in over double that number of edifices, as the subjoined list will show : 

Berkshire : 

St. Lawrence, Reading 
Cheshire : 

Gawsworth 
Devonshire : 

Collumpton 

Whim pie 
Dorsetsh ire : 

Mel combe-Horsey 
Essex : 

Feering' 
Hampshire : 

East Meon 

Shorwell, I. of Wight.^ 
i St. John^ 

Winchester ( St. Law- 
( rence 
Hertfordshire : 

Watford' 



Kent : 


Siifolk : 


Canterbury Cathedral 


Belton 


Rochester Cathedral 


Fritton 


Lincolnshire : 


St. James, South Elm- 


Barkston 


ham 


Norfolk: 


Stirrey: 


Brisley* 


Croydon^ 


Crostwight 


Newdigate 


Drayton 


Sussex : 


Fritton 


Stedham 


r St. Ethel- 


Wiltshire: 


Norwich { drcd 


Ditteridge 


(St. Giles 


Salisbury, Ilungerford 


Sedgeford 


Chapel 


Stow Bardolph 


Somerford Keynes 


Wells 


Wilsford 


Wimbotsham 




Oxfordshire : [bury 




Horley Church, Ban- 





' Journal, ii, p. 190. ^ lb., iii, 85. 

= lb., iii, 324. 



» lb., X, 80. " lb., iv, 71. 

« lb., ii, 144. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 120 

Copies of the frescoes at Shorwell, Isle of Wight, St. John's, Win- 
chester, and Newdigate, Surrey, have already been exhibited to the 
Association, and I would now submit for inspection a sketch by Mr. 
Watling of the painting of St. Christopher on the north' wall of the 
nave of Fritton Church, Suffolk. This effective picture appears to 
have been executed in the fifteenth century, and presents some rather 
peculiar features that call for special comment. The effigy is, as 
usual, of gigantic proportions ; the novelties occur in the details. The 
overwhelming majointy of the figures of St. Christopher that I have 
inspected have been bareheaded, but this one at Fritton wears a cap, 
which might well jiass for a royal crown. The upper pai't is of a red 
colour, the turned up and spreading rim yellow. The fresco on the 
south wall of Sedgeford Church, Norfolk, also represents the saint with, 
a crown-like cap, but of a different fashion than the one under I'eview. 
The lusty giant is clothed in a long-sleeved tunic, which descends but 
little below the hips, and fits closely about the waist, and varies alto- 
gether in mode from the flowing drapery with which he is commonly 
vested. It seems to be of various hues — blue, white, red, and brown. 
The saint grasps the upper part of a long stout staff with his right 
hand, and this said staff is a very odd-looking affair. Its ornamented 
globose head may be compared with that of the rugged stem held b}' 
Christopher on a sepulchral brass, dated 1499, in St. Mary's Church, 
Week or Wyke, Hants, but the base is of rare, if not unique form, 
being made like the forked tail of a fish, and certainly never intended 
as a representation of the I'oot of a tree, as is the case in the fresco at 
Shorwell, and in the wood block of 1423. Turning from Christopher 
to the Holy Infant he upholds on his left shoulder, we shall be at once 
struck by the large size of the nimbus suiTounding the Diviue head. 
The field of this nimbus is blue, the cross, with its broad ends, brown. 
The child's robe is green. In its left hand is the royal oi-b, and the 
right is raised in the act of benediction. Floating in the blue river are 
several large red fish, that seem to play round the legs of the hero. 
The background of the picture is sprinkled with ermine spots and 
quatrefoils, and it seems to be surrounded by a border of meanders. 
There is a boldness and action about the whole design that renders it 
of peculiar interest, and distinguishes it from others of its class. 

Attention has just been pointed to the crown-shaped cap of St. 
Christopher in the fifteenth century fresco at Sedgeford Church, Nor- 
folk, but this is not the onl}^ curious feature in the picture which 
merits remark. The long and slender staff held in the right hand of 
the giant is surmounted by a cross, and instead of an infant of normal 
type being seated on his shoulder, a triple-headed child, or rather a 
group of tri-une children are pressed to his left breast. This group is 
clearly symbolic of the Blessed Trinity, the third member of whicli was 

1878 17 



130 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

occasionally, from the tenth to the sixteenth centuries, represented in 
the human form. There is an engraving of this extraordinary fresco 
in the Gentlemen'' s Magazine for April 1843, p. 381. 

Beyond the mural paintings above enumerated, the story of St. 
Christopher is shown in the stained glass vpindovvs at All Saints, North 
Street, York ; Cossey Hall Chapel, Norfolk ; and at West Wickham 
Church, Kent. In the latter instance, the giant appears as a decrepit 
old man, and lacking all the sprightly air and muscular vigour mani- 
fested in the Fritton limning. 

Although the sculptor has not been as busy as the painter in illus- 
trating the legend of St. Christopher, he has not been quite idle. A 
vei'y curious and early carved stone image of the saint was discovered 
long since in Norwich Castle, and of which there is an engraving in 
the ArcJiceologia, vol. xii, pi. 25. He also appears in bas-relief in a 
niche in Colchester Castle.^ Christopher, wading through the water 
with his sacred burden on his shoulder, occurs among the bas-reliefs 
on the tomb of Henry VII at Westminster. But the most renowned 
statue of our great hero is the one of wood, formerly standing at the 
western entrance of the church of Notre Dame at Paris, and which 
was wrought at the cost of Antoiue des Essars in 1413, and was in 
1785 removed from its old resting place. Erasmus, in his Pilgrimage 
for Religion's Salce, makes Menedemus declare he has " seen Christo- 
pher at Paris, who is not merely a waggon's load, or a colossus, but 
just equal to a mountain". And the same author speaks again of this 
wooden giant in his Colloquy called The SMpvjreck^ when describing 
how one of the passengers promised St. Christopher " a wax image as 
great as himself" should he escape death. Other gifts than waxen 
images were occasionally brought to Christopher, for we read in the 
World of Wonders, 1607, p. 308, that a cork was ofi'ered to the saint 
in Tourain for the cure of " a certain sore which useth to be in the end 
of men's fingers, the white flaw", or, as it is now called, whitlow. 

In the Roman church the festival of St. Christopher falls on July 25, 
and in our Journal (ii, 144) is printed a Latin hymn, composed in his 
lionour. The baneberry or herb Christopher (Actcea Spicata) is sacred 
to the saint in question. And it is well to note here that there is an 
old conceit that the dory bears the marks of his finger and thumb, he 
having caught such a fish when wading through an arm of the sea. 

A few churches in England are dedicated to St. Christopher — viz., 
Aylisbeare, Devonshire ; Baunton, Gloucestershire ; Willingate Doe, 
Essex ; and Winfrith-Newbuigh, Dorsetshire. And until the year 
1781 there was an old church of St. Christopher in Threadneedle 
Street, which was then taken down to make room for the Bank of 
England. 

' See Buckler's Colchester Cubtle and Romixn Building, 1877, p. 53. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 131 

St. Christopher was adopted as a house sign in the middle ages. 
Stow enumerates the " Christopher" among the " many fair inns for 
receipt of travellers" on the east side of the High Street, Southwark. 
Taylor, the water poet, mentions the same sign at Eton, and there is 
a like one at Bath at the present day. St. Christopher has from old 
time been the. patron of Brunswick, and he gives name to one of the 
Caribbee Islands, vulgarly called St. Kitt's. 

But, after all, who was this famous St. Christopher of whom we hear 
so much ? He who was so greatly honoured, so frequently invoked, 
so devoutly worshipped, and whose protection was so eagerly sought 
against pestilence, sudden and non-natural death, shipwreck, and 
terrors of the night, fatigue, and other human ills, and by those who 
engaged in country sports, hunting, fishing, etc. The Legenda Aurea 
describes this mighty warrior as twelve cubits high, and possessed of 
Herculean strength. There are circumstantial details of his resolve to 
serve the most powerful master he could tind ; of his employment, first 
by a heathen and then a Christian monarch ; of his interview and 
journey with the prince of darkness ; of his meeting with a wayside 
cross of wood ; of his conversion to the true faith by an aged hermit ; 
of his labours of bearing, not only pilgrims, but the very Saviour of 
the world across the turbulent river ; and finally his martyrdom by 
decollation in Lycia about the year 250, and the preservation of a 
portion of his beard at Wittenberg, on the Elbe.^ There are hosts of 
efiigies of the gigantic Canaanite ; his name and fame have spread over 
the whole earth, and are familiar to every ear. It seems almost cruel 
to shatter a treasured idol, to destroy an admirable story, so complete 
in all its parts ; but if truth and justice may prevail, the legend of St. 
Christopher must be pronounced a mere myth, an allegory, a pious 
fable, a pure invention, baseless as the wildest dream that ever entered 
into a frenzied brain, and as illusive and unsubstantial as an Eastern 
mirage. 

Mr. Brock, Mr. Birch, the Rev. S. M. Mayhew, and Mr. H. Jenner, 
took part in the discussion which ensued. 

Mr. Birch read a report upon the " Corapotus Rolls of the Manor of 
Oundle", in the possession of the Association. This report will be 
printed at a future opportunity. Mr. Birch also read Mr. W. C. Dy- 
mond's paper on "A Group of Cumbrian Megaliths", and exhibited the 
very carefully executed plans with which the paper was illustrated. 
The paper, with accompanying Plates, has been printed in the current 
number of the Journal, at pp. ol-3G. 

' Oent. Mag., Pec. 1839, p. 559. 



132 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Wednesday, March 6th. 
H. S. Cuming, Esq., F.S.A. Scot., V.P., in the Chaik, 

Mr. W. G. Smith, 15 Mildmay Grove, was duly elected an associate. 
Thanks were ordered by the Council to be returned to the Society 
for the " Archceologia Carabrensis", January 1878, 4th Series, No. 33. 
Mr. Henry Prigg, of Bury St. Edmund's, forwarded for exhibition 
the following objects: — 1. A Saxon bronze, gilt, square-headed fibula, 
6 inches long. In form and design it resembles the examples found by 
the Hon, R, C. Neville in the Saxon cemetery at Great Wilbraham, 
Cambs., and more especially that figured No, ]58, Plate 10, Saxon 
Obsequies. The absence of grotesque masks, so common in the larger 
Saxon cruciform and square-headed fibulge, together with the introduc- 
tion of the triangle, parallelogram, and cable-ornament in the speci- 
men exhibited, indicates a somewhat late date. The angles of the 
head of this fibula, together with the lateral and terminal project- 
ments, were formerly covered with thin plates of silver. Two only 
now remain. The head is further ornamented with arrow-head and 
circular punchings. 

2, A richly gilt fragment of late Saxon bronze work. It may have 
been a portion of a girdle-fastening, or even of a book-clasp. The 
character of the ornament exhibits an advance upon that of the fibula, 
flowers of a simple form being prominent features in the design. 

3, The lower part of a key-shaped ornament of a rather more elabo- 
rate form than those usually found in the East Anglian cemeteries. It 
was formerly gilt. 

Six portions of the metal frames of gypsires. 

A circular plaque of speculum-metal, 2| inches in diameter, bearing 
in relief the busts of Charles I and his Queen, and around the legend, 

* CAR , ET , WAR . D , G , ANGL , FRANC . ET , HIBER . RR. 

An imperfect wheel-dagger. The blade is 10 ins. long, and lozenge- 
shaped in section. The guard is of brass, and 2 ins, in diameter. 

Mr. R. E. Way exhibited a variety of remains exhumed from the 
site of Tintern Abbej^ Among them several tiles of remarkable fabric, 
fine design, and bold outline, resembling in many respects those from 
Keynsham Abbey, exhibited not long ago to the Association. They 
were referred to the middle of the fourteenth century, 

Mr. C, H. Luxmore exhibited a group of ornamental iron work, of 
highly enriched design and rare character, obtained in Spain, with 
many other choice relics. The following brief notice will give a sHght 
idea of the interesting nature of the specimens submitted : — Crochet, 
10 ins. long, composed of leaves, spreading from a rather broad stem. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 133 

each incised vein terminating in a punched ball. The contour and 
graceful curves and undulations displayed in this remarkable object is 
truly admirable ; date, middle of the fourteenth century. On the stem 
is attached a label, of which the subjoined is a copy : " [Uno] de los 
remates de las rejas de la casa de los Maldonados titulada casa de las 
conchas en Sala Mexicana Epoca de los Reyes Catolicos". The objects 
•which follow are all of the sixteenth century, and fine examples of 
ajyplique embellishments. Ancient arched ci'own of Spain, extreme 
measurement, height, 4j ins., width, 7|- ins. Mr. Luxmore believes 
that this i-oyal emblem formed the front portion of a crest or gallery, 
surrounding the top edge of a clock, but it is more likely to be an 
ornament from the cover of a large book, of about the year 1500. 
Plaque, about 5 ins. square, perforated with an elaborate arabesque 
pattern, which, as well as the above crown, has been gilt. It is pro- 
bably from the cover of a book, of circa 1500. Large plaque, once 
probably rivetted on to the front of a massive coffer. Its motive is a 
bold scroll pattern, with a sort of pelta-shaped device at top, the 
central portion of which terminates in a cross. Shield-formed plaque, 
the perforations being of a more elaborate and delicate description 
than the last. It is ensigned with an open crown or coronet. This 
elegant plaque, in all likelihood, was employed as a lock-escutcheon 
of a large cabinet or armoire. Lock-escutcheon from a great coffer, 
apparently in the form of a Gothic M, the large keyhole having an s on 
either side, the letters standing for Santa Maria. The monogram, if 
it be one, is ensigned with a rather fanciful open crown. Lock-escut- 
cheon, from a royal coffer or cabinet. It is of bold repousse and 
engraved work, and represents the two-headed Imperial eagle ensigned 
with an arched crown. It is of smaller size than the example submitted 
by Mr. Luxmore at the last meeting, but is of much richer character. 
Lock-escutcheon, representing the pot of three lilies, so frequently 
shown in pictures of the Salutation. This strictly religious motive 
would indicate that the escutcheon was fixed to some piece of eccle- 
siastical furniture. Lock-escutcheon of a casket, of bold yet graceful 
scroll pattern. The opening for the key is remarkably narrow and 
pointed at top and bottom. This is the latest object in the group, and 
must be assigned to the end of the sixteentli century. 

The Rev. S. M. Mayhew, V.P., exhibited the following London 
finds: — Nearly half of a very fine mortarium of Saraian ware, about 
8j ins. in diameter at the rim, with a lion-head spout, from Walbrook. 
Mortaria of similar character are mentioned in this Journal, vii, 8G, 
xix, 130. Ancient candle holder of oolitic stone, 3| ins. high. It is 
octangular, and shaped somewhat like a dice box, but broader at the 
base than at the top, from the Temple. For notice of stone caudle- 
holders see Journal, xxii, 105. Bottle of highly-fired, reddish-brown 



134 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

earthenware, covered with a yellowish green glare, 3| ins. high ; date 
(apparently) fourteenth century ; Bishopsgate Street. Candlestick of 
brass, 11 ins. high, the base full 4| ins. in diameter. It is of rather 
graceful proportions, and is furnished with a slider and knob for raising 
the candle ; date, seventeenth century. Discovered on the site of St. 
Mildred's Church, Poultry. Square lantern, with three panes of glass, 
the folding frame richly stamped. It is of Nuremburg latten of the 
seventeenth century. This pretty example may be compared with 
others described in our Jommal, xxix, 70. 

Mr. E. P. Loftus Brock, F.S.A., exhibited several relics also from 
Old London. Among these was a jug glazed green on yellow house- 
ware, of late thirteenth century date, Norman-like in form. It is 
14 ins. high, and is ornamented with fleurs-de-lys, arranged in a row 
around the upper part, while the bowl of the vessel has another row of 
projecting ornaments, in the form of cockleshells. It was found last 
autumn in Mincing Lane, with many examples of Roman pottery ot 
good form, coins of Domitian, Antoninus Pius, etc. Mr. Brock also 
produced some fragments of a Roman tessellated pavement, found the 
day previously close to the church of St. Clement, Eastcheap. It was 
part of a border of small neatly-laid tesserae, formed of squared frag- 
ments of hard Roman brick. 

Mr. Birch exhibited a series of early charters, in the possession of 
T. F. Halsey, Esq., M.P., who had kindly placed them at his service 
for this purpose. The account of them will be pinnted on a future 
occasion. 

Mr. W. Smith, F.L.S., exhibited a further series of prehistoric 
objects, found at Dunstable, consisting principally of flint picks, chisels, 
adzes, scrapers, and agricultural implements, with a Roman lamp of 
some interest. 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock exhibited a water-coloured drawing of a variety 
of ancient relics from British dwellings, of which the following is a 
list : — A bone knife, needle, bodkins, etc., holed pottery, a sandstone 
rubbing stone and flint muUer ; lip of a large cowry, cut from the shell, 
and used perhaps as a rasp or polisher ; a chalk whoi'l — a clay weight 
apparently — piece of a very rude sandstone vessel of some kind ; a 
strike-a-light, a whetstone, also two iron arrow heads, from a Roman 
encampment. 

Mr. J. Romilly Allen, C.E., read a paper on "Interlaced Crosses", 
which will be printed on a future occasion. Mr. Brock, Mr. Birch, 
Mr. Morgan, and Mr. Grover took part in the discussion which 
ensued. 

The Chairman read a paper on " Olden Money Bags", and exhibited 
several specimens in illustration of his remarks. 

The Rev. Alexander Taylor testified to several of the interesting 
facts which the author had introduced into his papers. 



135 



Antiquarian Intelligence. 

These paragraphs of antiquarian intelligence are prepared and con- 
densed from miscellaneous communications made to the Secre- 
taries ; and it is earnestly requested that Associates will forward, 
as early as possible, notices of recent discoveries, which may be 
of archaeological interest, coming to their cognizance. 

Notes on the Churches of Kent, hy the late Sir Stephen Ghjnne, Bart, 
(London : John Murray. 1877.) — There is probably no county in Eng- 
land so rich in fine and varied churches as is Kent. Its two cathedrals, 
the great churches of Northfleet, Chartham, Hawkhurst, St. Margaret 
at Cliffe, Hythe, New Romney, Wingham, Ash, and Eastry ; the exqui- 
site little Romanesque gem at Barfi'eston, the beautiful Late First-pointed 
church of Stone (said to be by the architect of Westminster Abbey), 
and many others, present features interesting alike to ecclesiologist, 
antiquary, or artist, and the present volume will be of the greatest use 
as a guide to their peculiarities. According to the preface, the late Sir 
Stephen Glynne made notes on upwards of 5,530 churches, and, of 
these, 312 are included in this volume. The notes are concise to a 
degree. Every peculiarity is jotted down, but few words being wasted 
in the process, and there can be but few noteworthy features in the 
churches surveyed by him which he suffered to escape his eye. Under 
each heading a full description is given of the ground plan, style or 
styles, form of tower or spire, of pillars, arches, windows, and of font, 
together with notes of monuments, brasses, inscriptions, hagioscopes, 
fragments of rood lofts, or other peculiarities. As the notes range 
over a period of more than forty years (ending with 1874), many of 
the churches were caught in their unrestored state, and records are 
therefore preserved of many things now lost. The author's views on 
restoration may be easily gathered from the fact that the one church 
to which he gives unqualified praise in that respect is that of Preston- 
next- Wingham (restored in 1857), of which he says, "This church 
presents quite a model of successful restoration, in the true spirit of 
what should be applied to a village church, without unnecessary re- 
building or the application of unsuitable ornamentation, in contraven- 
tion of the original character and prevailing style of the country". 
And anyone who has seen that church will readily agree with him, and 
will recognise there as complete a return as possible to the state thereof 
before the days when the " renaissance", the " reformation", and other 



136 ANTIQUARIAN INTELLIGENCE. 

abominations began to work their wicked will npon the churches of 
England. With the preservation of " churchwarden" architecture and 
post-Gothic work generally. Sir Stephen Glynne had evidently but little 
sympathy. He clearly belonged to the school represented by the 
Ecclesiological Society, with which everything before Middle Pointed 
(or "Decorated") was but a struggle after as yet unattained good, 
namely, Middle Pointed perfection, and Third Pointed (or " Perpen- 
dicular") was but a decline and falling away from righteousness, while 
anything after that was " ugly modern work". But these his opinions 
are by no means obtrusive, and facts, carefully recorded, with but few 
comments, fill the book. It is a pity that some sort of order was not 
preserved in the arrangement of the notes. The churches might have 
been arranged in order of the dates of the author's visits, thereby form- 
ing some sort of diary of his ecclesiological views, or under some 
geographical disposition, thereby showing the prevalence of styles in 
various districts, and in many cases enabling a reader to form valuable 
compai'isons. As it is, there is no oi'der whatever, and a gazetteer and 
map of Kent are necessary for a real study of the notes. The editor, 
whose initials " W. H. G." are not difficult to decipher, has had the 
valuable assistance of Archdeacon Harrison and Canon Robertson in 
preparing the volume for the press, and they have both added supple- 
mentary notes of restorations, etc. The illustrations are excellent, 
particularly those of Stone, Brabourne, and Hawkhurst ; and the only 
fault to be found with them is that they are so few in number. It is 
a pity that Sir Stephen Glynne omitted certain churches. Thus he 
might have easily visited Wickham and Ickham during the same ex- 
pedition as that which took him to Wingham or Littleborne, and the 
ruins of Reculver ought certainly to have been noticed, being within 
an easy walk of several places noted by him. Perhaps his notes of 
those churches have been lost. It is curious that he does not appear 
to have seen the singular depression of the chancel of Adisham, nor 
the early tvooden pillars between the nave and south aisle of Wingham, 
both of which might have found a place among the noteworthy features 
of these churches ; and indeed he is often less correct in such appa- 
rently easily-noticed points than in minuter details of mouldings and 
capitals. The good people of Prcston-noxt- Wingham, for instance, 
have doubtless never noticed that the porch door has toothed mould- 
ings, and would no doubt be astonished to hear that the chancel arch 
stood upon " quasi pilasters, having moulded imjiosts with chamfered 
angles", and (except pei'haps the bricklayer and the cai'penter) would 
wonder what he meant ; but they would be very well able to tell him 
that there was only one square-headed window in the north aisle, and 
that the priest's door is 'pointed, and not trefoiled, as well as one or two 
other facts that he has mistaken. In this' respect we can only judge 



ANTIQUARIAN INTELLIGENCE. VC/> .. _J^ 

from his notes of a church which we know intimately as to wEat'may 
be the case in those of other churches. But, for all that, the book is 
most useful, and it would be obviously unfair to criticise, as a finished 
production brought out under the author's own eyes, these notes pub- 
lished by others three years after those eyes have, to the great loss of 
ecclesiology, been closed in death. 

Eepairs at Denligh Castle. — The work of propping up the ancient 
ruins proceeds with regularity. A buttress has been built against the 
eastern side of the great front entrance-arch. Immediately underneath, 
and resting upon the old drawbridge hinge-stones, have been built 
two massive piei-s. These run up to the top and support the mass of 
overhanging material which is behind the arch, and not supported by 
it. The piers are built of rubble-work ; that is, stones partly dressed, 
and not faced smooth like the old building stones ; so that, though of 
necessity they are close to, and seem at first sight to be part of, the 
building, they can be easily distinguished from the ancient work. 
There are also openings in the mass in two or three places, so that the 
line of the old work can be distinctly seen. As is known to many, this 
great entrance-gateway is composed of a series of bold arches. The 
outer or ornamental one is left in all its grandeur ; but in order to 
secure the massive stone framework above, which contains, as is sup- 
posed, the figure of the Earl of Leicester, it has been necessary to re- 
pair and repin the two inner arches, and that has been very skilfully 
done. One of these arches had lost the keystones, and had a great 
hole above it that was comparatively easy to repair ; but the other 
retained several of the top stones, including the keystone, while it had 
lost nearly all the stones on either side. To insert stones on the right 
side and left of an arch, without disturbing the top stones or the 
foundation stones, must be seen to be a task ; but when it is added that 
formerly drawbridge-chains and weights used to go up and down 
through portions of this arch, the difficulty is increased. These 
holes for the drawbridge-weights were some 12 inches wide by 18 to 
20 inches long, and the arch, which cut across them in a stooping 
direction, would be not more than 2 feet in width ; but this seemingly 
difiicult task has been very cleverly accomplished. Over the top of the 
ancient keep, where the flagstaff is hoisted, it is intended to rail round 
a space, and provide an easy ascent, for from thence a most magnifi- 
cent view of the vale down to Rhyl can be obtained. The other work 
consists of pillars in a few places on the western side, to support the 
dangerous places, and make them safe at every point. It is intended 
to remove the vegetation which now covers some of the walls, and to 
plaster over the tops with tar or asphalt, so as to prevent the grass 
from growing. 

17* 



138 ANTIQUARIAN INTELLIGENCE. 

The Folk-Lore Society, for Collecting and Printing Belies of Popular 
Antiquities. — That there is a wide-spread and growing interest in our 
popular antiquities, and an increasing desire to preserve the fast-fading 
relics of our popular fictions and traditions, legendary ballads, local 
proverbial sayings, superstitions, and old customs, is manifest from the 
number of provincial newspapers in which a " Folk-Lore column" now 
forms a prominent feature. The suggestion, which has of late been 
strongly urged, that the want of a common centre where these scat- 
tered materials may be brought together, sifted, arranged, and the 
most important printed for future use, should be met by the formation 
of a society established for this purpose, is about to be canned into 
effect by the Folk-Lore Society, founded on the principle so success- 
fully adopted by the Camden and similar Societies. 

The Folk-Lore Society will gather together the folk-lore articles 
scattered throughout English literature, and such communications on 
the same subject as may be forwarded direct to the Society, and select 
therefrom articles of special interest for publication by the Society ; 
and as opportunities arise, it will print such accounts of the folk-lore 
of the colonies, and also of other countries, as may serve to illustrate 
and explain that of our own. As the Society increases, and its means 
further develope, it is intended to extend the field of its labours so as 
to include the collection and publication of the folk-lore of aboriginal 
peoples. It is well known that much of this exists in manuscript 
wholly unavailable to the student, and only awaiting the means of pub- 
lication. Every publication of the Society will be under careful revi- 
sion, and arrangements will be made to insure, as far as possible, the 
genuineness of all matter admitted into the archives of the Society. 
Mr. Thorns has kindly consented to act as the Director of the Society 
pro tern. The annual subscription is one guinea, payable on the 1st of 
January, which will entitle members to receive the publications of the 
Society. Any ladies or gentlemen desirous of joining the Society are 
requested to communicate with the Honorary Secretary, Mr. G. Lau- 
rence Gomme, 26 Merthyr Terrace, Castelnau, Barnes, S.W. 



THE JOURNAL 



Biittsl) ^rdjatolocjical aissociation. 



JUNE 1878, 



PEN-Y-GAER, CHIEFLY IN CONNECTION WITH 

CARACTACUS, AND OTHER BRITISH 

REMAINS IN NORTH WALES. 

BY T. F. DILLON CROKER, ESQ., F.S.A. 

Since our Confess this year is held in the famous Vale of 
Llangollen, I have been desirous to select a subject for a 
short paper on some point of interest connected with North 
Wales, and it has occurred to me that something might be 
said in reference to Pen-y-Gaer (" the summit of the fort"), 
near Cerrig-y-Druidion {" the stones of the brave"), about 
twenty miles from this spot. 

When passing the remains in question, the mind natu- 
rally reverts to the stirring incidents relating to the con- 
quest of Caractacus (or Caradoc) by the Romans, and the 
betrayal of that brave old British king by Cartismandua. 
I regret to say that about the actual ruin _^;er se, I find the 
facts to be gathered are, like the ruin itself, not consider- 
able. The most important reference that I have found 
occurs in a little volume entitled Remarks iqjon North 
Wales, being tlw Result of Sixteen Tours throiujli tliat part 
of the Principality, by W. Hutton, F.A,S,S. (Birmingham, 
1803). The writer thus describes these remains: "Upon 
the first hill east of the village of Cerrig-y-Druidion, and 
distant one mile, is Pen Gwcryn, where the antiquary will 
be pleased with the small remains of a castle belonging to 
the celebrated Caractacus. As the traveller approaches the 
top of the hill, which is of easy ascent, he first comes to a 
trench about 36 feet wide. A small part of the soil having 

1878 18 



140 PEN-Y-GAER AND OTBER BRITISH 

been tlirown up on the outside, constitutes a mound 3 feet 
high ; but the greater part being discharged on the inner 
side, forms a rampart about 15 feet from the bottom of the 
trench. This rampart encircles the upper part of the hill, 
rather of an oval form; is everywhere visible, in some places 
nearly perfect, and encloses six or seven acres. 

"Ascending 60 or 70 feet more, he next meets with the 
foundation of the wall, about 6 feet thick, which forms the 
upper area, running regular with the trench below, and 
enclosing four or five acres. From the thickness of the 
wall, now level with the ground, we may reasonably con- 
clude it ran 12 or 14 feet high. As one part of the area is 
higher than the other, it points out the exact spot where 
the castle stood, nothing of which remains. The whole is a 
pasture. The situation is on a considerable hill, but not a 
mountain. The prospects are extensive, but barren, and its 
affinity to Ccrrig-y-Druidion proves that the Prince and the 
priests were upon friendly terms.'' 

I have been unable to discover any reference to the 
British King by any British historian of the period, except- 
ing a comparatively unimportant allusion to him in the 
Triads ; therefore I trust I may be pardoned should I fly 
off somewhat from the subject, and refer rather more to the 
events in connection with the fortress than to the fortress 
itself ; and further, that I may be allowed to shelter myself 
by one or two brief quotations. 

In the year 47 we find the south-eastern part of Britain 
had been subjugated by the Roman invaders; but the Ordo- 
vices and Silures, inhabitants of North and South Wales, 
always famous for their bravery (witness their gallant bear- 
ing at Alma in our own time), still held Cambria ; and 
although, as I have stated, the Komans were the possessors 
of a great portion of Britain, the Roman power under the 
Emperor Claudius was not shining with the same brilliancy 
as formerly. Hume tells us that " the other Britons, under 
the command of Caractacus or Caradog, still maintained an 
obstinate resistance, and the Romans made little progress 
against them till Ostorius Scapula w^as sent over to com- 
mand the Roman armies. Under this commander Roman 
camps were established on the Avon and Severn ; the Iceni 
were reduced after a desperate and brilliant struggle, and 
the league of the Brigantes were surprised and dispersed by 



REMAINS IN NORTH WALES. 141 

the rcipid march of Ostorius, and the Roman eagles per- 
vaded the greater part of Britain. But the Silures and 
Ordovices still held out." 

Upon referring to Williams' Cymry we are told that "In 
a convention of the country and neighbouring country, 
under all the limits of the nation of the Cymry, Caradog, 
the son of Bran, was invested with the martial sovereignty 
of all the Isle of Britain, that he might oppose the invasion 
of the Eomans. All the Britons, from king to vassal, en- 
listed under his banner, at the call of the country, against 
foe and depredation." After nine years' desperate fighting, 
Caractacus was compelled to retreat towards North Wales, 
the country of the Ordovices, when a decisive battle was 
fought, and Caractacus was defeated, although at the same 
time it must be fully understood that Cambria itself still 
remained in the hands of the British. The exact spot of 
this great battle has alwaj-s been a subject of controversy; 
and is likely to remain so, there being nothing to enable us 
to decide its precise position. Tacitus says in his Annals 
(No. xii), speaking of Caractacus, that " he posted himself 
on a spot to which the approaches were as advantageous to 
his own troops as they were perplexing to us. He then 
threw up, on the more accessible parts of the highest hills, 
a rampart of stones, below and in front of which was a river 
difficult to ford. Picked men showed themselves before the 
ramparts." However, the Roman arms prevailed, and Carac- 
tacus, after bravely defending his country for nine years, 
was compelled to fly. 

Pen-y-Gaer was at this time occupied by Cartismandua, 
Queen of the Brigantes, the inhabitants of the country lying 
between the Huml)er and the Tyne. To Pen-y-Gaer Carac- 
tacus fled, demanding sanctuary of his stepmother, the 
Queen, for himself and his family. Cartismandua is said to 
have hated her stepson, and being anxious to ingratiate 
herself with the conquerors, she most treacherously ordered 
the royal fugitives to be put in chains, and she subsequently 
delivered them up to the Romans : 

" The cry is heard, the long, loud wail, 

O'er Hood and plain, o'er hill and dale : 

It is the heai-t of Cymru bleeds 

For fallen sons and treacherous deeds. 

Dismay dwells in Caradoc's halls ; 

The royal minstrel doleful calls 
Forth from his harp a strain his own sad heart appals." 



142 PEN-Y-GAER AND OTHER BRITISH 

Had the brave but unfortunate British King not fled to 
Pen-y-Gaer, he might possibly have been ignominiously 
slain, and history would have lost one of her brightest 
pages. I allude to the memorable speech made by the 
prisoner before his conqueror, the Emperor Claudius, at 
Kome, and the magnanimous conduct of the latter. The full 
account of this will be found in Hoare's Giraldus, p. 105. 
AVith the true generosity of a great nature, Claudius imme- 
diately released Caractacus and all the members of his 
family, and thus added to his crown perhaps its brightest 
jewel, the quality of mercy. Caractacus is stated to have 
said, when viewing Rome, " Is it possible tliat the Eomans, 
who possess such splendid palaces at home, can envy me 
my humble cottage in Britain V 

" And then his thoughts would wander back to those 
Old days when in Glamorgan, as a boy. 
He gazed upon the peaceful mountain herd. 
And never dream'd of bloody times to come, 
And treachery at Carlismandua's hand ; 
Or when he watch'd, near prond Eryri's brow, 
Some liungry eagle circling round her prey, 
Ne'er saw foreshadowed in that airy flight 
The Roman eagles destined to swoop down 
Triumphant o'er the country of his birth," 

These lines occur in a fragmentary poem entitled Caractacus. 

There is an amount of interest attached to the stay of 
Caractacus in Rome, in connection with the history of 
Christianity. Caractacus and his family were at Rome at 
the same time as St. Paul, and tradition asserts that two of 
the relatives of the British King (a daughter and her hus- 
band) were Christian converts, and that they are identified 
with the Claudia and Pudens mentioned in St. Paul's 2nd 
Epistle to Timothy, chapter iv, verse 2 1 . 

We are informed by the author of a most interesting 
w^ork entitled Welsh Sketches, chiejly Ecclesiastical (in the 
first Series), that " Caractacus had another daughter, Eur- 
gain, who formed a college of twelve religious persons, called 
after her own name, ' Cor Eurgain. She was married to 
Sarllog, lord of Caer Sarllog, the present Old Sarum.'' It 
has been conjectured by some writers on the subject, that 
Bran, the father of Caractacus, was the first to introduce 
Christianity into this country. 

Claudia, previously referred to, must have possessed the 



REMAINS IN NOllTH WALES. 143 

proverbial beauty of the Welsh women of the present day, 
for we find the poet Martial Valerius addressing her in the 
following complimentary lines •} 

" Claudia coeruleis cum sit Rufina Britannis 
Edita, cur Latiae pectora plebis habet. 
Quale decus forma? ? Romanam credere matrcs 
Italides possunt, Attliides esse suam."- 

Such British remains as those I have alluded to are the 
only remnants we have in connection with many heroes and 
incidents of the past. Wales is particularly rich in these 
remains, although many, so far as I have been able to dis- 
cover, have received but little attention at the hands of the 
archaeologist. Almost every mountain range in Wales, from 
Snowdon to Plinlimmon, contains some evidences of the 
British aborigines. It would occupy too much time to en- 
large upon the subject on the present occasion ; but I would 
point, en passant, to Dinas Emrys, Dinas Ddinlle, Dinas 
Dinorthen, and the surrounding neighbourhood, Dinas Din- 
orwic, Dinas Mawr, and many others. Dinas Emrys, on a 
rock at the end of Llyn-y-Ddinas, it may be remembered, 
is said to have been the place to which Vortigern retired 
after he had trusted the " treacherous Saxons, and accepted 
the hand of Rowena". Mr. Timbs tells us that "the fatal 
feast had taken place on Salisbury Plain, and Hengist's 
awful words, ' Take your swords', had been followed by the 
massacre of three hundred and sixty British nobles ; and 
their imprudent, weak Prince, who had suffered himself to 
be lured by beauty, had been dragged captive to a dungeon 
till he yielded to all the demands of the victors. Sullen, 
but yet not quite subdued, Vortigern summoned to his aid 
all the sages of his kingdom, and by their advice com- 
menced the construction of a fortress in Nant Gwynant, 
which was to secure him against attacks, and make him 
independent of his foes." 

And this subject wouM bring us to the incidents of the 
legend of the birth of JMerlin (or IMerddyn), etc. Indeed 
the remains of Dinas Emrys would form the subject of a 
most interesting paper. Dinas Ddinlle overlooks the sea, 

• Lib. i, Epiijram .'iS. 

2 Although born among the blue-eyed Britons, how fully has Claudia Rufiua 
the intelligence of the Roman people ! What beauty is hers ! The matrons 
of Italy might take her for a KomaQ ] those of Attica for uu Athenian. 



144 PEN-Y-GAER, ETC. 

and is said to have been connected with Segontium (Caer- 
narfon) during the occupation of the Romans, although it 
bears evident traces of British origin, and has a double range 
of escarpments. Near Llyn Padarn are the remains of 
Dinas Dinorwic and Dinas Mawr, and in the immediate 
neighbourhood are several highly interesting Druidic and 
other ruins. A few miles on the road from Caernarfon to 
Pwllheli is the British fortress of Dinorthen, and many other 
British traces on the surrounding heights. There are the 
remains of an ancient British fort called Castell Corndochon, 
on the summit of a crag not far from Llanuwchllyn — re- 
specting which no historical facts appear to be known, and 
there is an eminence near Caer Gai where there has been a 
fort belonging to Cai Hir ap Cymyr, or, according to 
Spenser's Faerie Queen, Timon, the foster father of King 
Arthur. Several Roman coins have at various times been 
duo- up in the neighbourhood, but little more is known rela- 
tive to Caer Gai, except that we read in Vaughan's sketch 
of the history of Merionethshire that a stone was found with 
the inscription, " Hie jacet Salvianus Bursocavi filius Cupe- 
tian." And so I might continue enlarging on the British 
remains in which this country is so rich, but I have merely 
mentioned the foregoing to show what a vast field of re- 
search may be explored by those anxious to push their 
archaeological inquiries. 

The remains at Pen-y-Gaer should, I consider, not be 
overlooked, since they are indisputably connected, as I have 
endeavoured to show, with the history of Britain, and I have 
no doubt that if they were to be investigated, many points 
of archseological interest might be discovered. They may 
be seen from the road near Cerrig-y-Druidion, standing on 
the brow of a hill to the east of the Holyhead road. Cerrig- 
y-Druidion is a place in itself full of interest and antiqua- 
rian curiosities, and is referred to at some length by Cam- 
den. I have spoken of the site of Cartismandua's fortress 
as Pen-y-Gaer, that being the name put down in the Ord- 
nance Survey, but it is known in the neighbourhood as 
FeiKjwerwyn. It would be well could some of my archoeo- 
loo-ical friends spare time to visit the spot, and investigate 
thoroughly a place which must always be of interest to the 
lovers of history and archaeology. 



145 



VALLE CEUCIS ABBEY. 

BY E. P. LOFTUS BKOCK, F.S.A., HON. SECKETARY. 

The charming valley siuTonnded with pleasant hills which 
shut out the world beyond, the hardly audible ripple of the 
flowing streamlet, and the absence of any prospect save of 
the enclosing hills, alike tell us that this is the site of a 
monastery for monks of the Cistercian order. They would 
alone be almost sufficient to record it, were the voice of his- 
tory silent, and the ruins before us untraceable. Scenes of 
loveliness like this, upon which nature has bestowed so many 
charms, indeed breathe of peace and contentment; and we 
cannot but be sensible of their magic influence, which is 
enhanced by the thoughts of the white-robed monks wander- 
ing through the Gothic arches of their sacred home during 
the long period of the past. Let us hope that their lives 
were full of peace, and give all praise to this devoted order 
of reformed monks, whose influence tuned many minds 
powerfully for good at the period of their foundation, and 
for lonsr afterwards. 

The picture has a sadder and a sterner aspect which we 
must not forget. These monks were bound by their vow 
to rules which, to the temper of our day at least, seem to 
be of terrible and needless severity ; and it is painful to 
think that the men whose hves were passed within these 
walls, and whose bones still lie beyond them, spent their 
days amid the awful silence enforced by the monastic rule. 
They met at the frugal meal, they walked beside each other 
in the cloister, they worked together in the field, and slept 
in the dormitory ; but no words were to pass their lips, no 
words of encouragement from the elder to the youno-er, — 
none of sympathy. In the church alone were their voices 
raised in the service of their simple ritual, and in ordinary 
conversation for one single half-hour on the Sunday, and in 
the common parlour. At other times a monk could only 
speak by permission, and in the presence of the abbot. The 
naturally uneventful succession of lives thus spent, century 
after century, doubtless occasioned the scanty record of the 
history of monastic houses, for they had none ; and I need 



146 VALLE CRUCIS ABBEY. 

not remind such an audience as this of the number of those 
of which we have Httle more record than that of their 
foundation and their dissohition. 

The foundation of Valle Crucis and its date even have 
been subjects of much doubt. Sir W. Dugdale, on the 
authority of Leland/ rightly ascribed the foundation to 
Madoc ap Griffith Maylor, Prince of Powys, but could only 
assume that this was about a.d. 1200. We are indebted 
to our associate Mr. Morris C. Jones, the active Hon. Sec. 
of the Powys- Land Club, for a discovery of no small import- 
ance with reference to the history of the abbey. By a 
process of close reasoning, he has demonstrated that one of 
the charters supposed by Dugdale to have referred to 
another building, in reality is the foundation charter of this 
abbey, granted by Madoc.^ We learn by this discovery 
that Valle Crucis was an offshoot from the less celebrated 
but parent abbey of Strada Marcella, and that a few monks 
of that house were the first occupants here. Philip is 
spoken of as being then the Prior, showing that before the 
granting of the charter much preliminary work had been 
done. We may accordingly with confidence consider him 
as the first Prior, and place him at the commencement of 
the scanty list of those whose names have been recorded. 

The foundation charter is undated, and we are therefore 
left no nearer to the verification of Dugdale's guess, while 
Mr. Jones is led in support of his argument to devote much 
of his reasoning to prove that this spot was known then, 
and later, by the old sounding title of Llan Egvvistle. It 
may be worth while here to say that one of the latest seals 
of the abbey, extant in the Herald's Office, of a date early in 
the sixteenth century, has this name on its legend, thus in- 
dicatinsf that even at this late date Valle Crucis was known 
by its original name. 

It is my pleasing duty to adduce evidence, as my contri- 
l)Ution to the history of this house, which will effectively 
determine, not only the date of the foundation, but the 
original name of the locality ; and while it confirms Dug- 
dale's suggestion, it strengthens Mr. Jones' argument. Mr. 

' Collectanea, vol. ii, p. 303. 

' This is discussed in a paper in vol. i of Archceologin Cambrensis,one of the 
goodly volumes of the Cambrian Archaeological Association, a society to which 
all antiquaries arc deeply indebted for more than thirty years' active and pro- 
fitable work. 




r 



VALLE CRUCIS ABBEY. 147 

W. (le G. Birch, in 1870, published in the pngos of our 
Journal, for the first time, two^ manuscripts in the British 
Museum, which had not previously been noticed. The 
first is remarkable as being probably a contemporary tran- 
script from some central registry of the foundation of, 
perhaps, almost all the houses of the Cistercian order 
throughout Europe. The second is another transcript, 
in many respects confirmatory of the first, and of a date 
apparently towards the close of the first half of the 
thirteenth century. The second has this entry under the 
date 1199, "De'Valle Crucis in Cambria", but the first 
list, under the date 1200, "V Kal. Februarii. Abbatia do 
Valle Crucis". We thus obtain not only the date of the year, 
but the actual day of the month. Interesting as are these 
entries, I am able to adduce a third. The old Welsh 
chronicle, the Brut y Tywysocjion, has been published by 
the Record Commission, and is one of the not least import- 
ant of their volumes. It is therefore readily accessible, 
and the more so from the translation which accompanies 
it, by the Rev. J. Williams ab Ithel. Nevertheless, it is 
not frequently quoted in evidence of Welsh history, teem- 
ing as it does with notices of almost contemporary events 
and references to buildings ; and I have some belief that, 
except to scholars, it is not so generally known in the 
Principality as it deserves to be. Under date of the year 
A.D. 1200 there is the following record: "The same year 
Madog, son of GrufFudd JMaelor, founded the monastery of 
Llancgwistle, near the old cross in Yale." We have in this 
important entry not only the year, but the earliest record 
of the old name Llancgwistle, but direct reference to the 
old cross (Eliseg's Pillai-), whence comes the modern name 
of the Vale of the Cross. I may add that the discrepancy 
between the two above-named dates, 1199 and 1200, is 
readily accounted for. We have seen that at the period of 
the orantino[ of j\Iadoo:'s charter, the work of the founda- 
tion had already gone so far that the prior of the new com- 
munity was actually elected. The first date is probably 
that of his election, which would naturally determine the 
foundation. The second is probably the missing date of 
Madoo's charter. 

O 

» MS. Cotton., Faustina B. vii, fol. 36 ; MS. Cotton., Vespasian A. vi, f. 54b. 
1878 19 



148 . VALLE CEUCIS ABBEY. 

The buildings of the Abbey afford a perfect model, so far 
as they remaiD, of the arrarigements of a Cistercian 
house, and we will survey these in order ; but it may be as 
well to announce that, since no complete plan of these 
remains has yet been published, the Council of this Associa- 
tion has determined to have engraved one which was care- 
fully prepared by the late Mr. J. C. Buckler, and which exists 
amongst many other papers of considerable interest which 
he bequeathed to the British Museum. 

The church is of the usual cruciform type, an aisleless 
presbytery, transepts with two chapels forming an eastern 
aisle to each. There has been a low scpiare tower over the 
crossing, and a nave of six bays, with two side aisles. The 
extreme length is 1 65 ft. ; length of transepts, from north 
to south, 98 ft; width of nave and aisles, 67 ft. 6 ins.; 
width of chancel, 30 ft. ; and of transepts, 30 ft.^ It will 
be seen that the east and west gables are all but perfect, 
and that the north and part of the south Vk\T,lls of the 
chancel remain. Also those of the south transept, with 
part of the vaulting of its two chapels, while there is left 
the lower portion of the walls of the north transept, and of 
the north aisle of the nave. The south wall of the nave is 
almost perfect, but is hidden by the luxuriant ivy, which 
here and elsewhere adds so greatly to the beauty of the 
building in its state of ruin. 

The bases of the nave piers are traceable, thanks to the 
careful clearance of the ruins by Viscount Dungannon and 
Mr. Wynne in 1854. The east end and the transepts are 
designed in a severe style of First Pointed architecture, and 
the peculiar pilaster buttresses of the exterior are more 
curious than beautiful. The treatment certainly indicates 
some local influence, but whether we should consider it 
as derivable from Dublin, as a late writer suggests, or 
as evidence of a AVelsh school of architecture, is open 
to question. The Principality is full of peculiar treat- 
ment of architectural detail, both of early and of late 
work, which seems to aflbrd evidence that the old Welsh 
builders were not content to copy the styles prevalent in 
England, but impressed upon them their own peculiar 
treatment. The lofty eastern lancets spring from a bevel, 

' The arrangement of the plan in squares of 30 feet, less thickness of walls, 
is very apparent. 



^ 


^^- 




^ 

C 


r- 


f-^' - 


-1. - 
> 






^l;^- 






«y nuwffr 



TraxMtL by CJ'aXmxr. 





ibyWC-ButkUr-. 






VALLE CRUCIS ABBEY. 149 

which must always have been, for the size of the church, 
remarkably small iii relation to the pavement ; and there 
is just a trace of a moulded arched label over the two 
upper lancets. This arch probably indicated the line of 
the presbytery ceiling, whether of arched boarding or of 
vaultino^. 

The external corbel table around the presbytery and 
transept walls is bold and peculiar, and is of two patterns. 
The shafts internally afford some evidence pro])ably of an 
intention of vaulting the ceiling, which was never carried 
out, and the sloping line of stone, visible inside and out in 
the wall, just east of the tower, seems to be indicative that 
the west end of the chancel was once covered by a hipped 
roof. This could only be prior to the erection of the 
central tower. The other sloping line crossing it is that of 
the roof of the Sacristan's passage to the little slit window. 
This slit, on the south side, is from a curious little room and 
passage, commencing at the back of the monks' clormitor}'-. 
A great many guesses have been made to determine the 
use of this passage, and the loophole, probably from its re- 
semblance to the position of the abbot's oriel in St. Bartho- 
lomew's, London, has been called the abbot's closet. It is, 
however, that for the sacristan, from which he would watch 
the perpetual lamp of the sanctuary at night. The high 
altar has not stood touching the east wall, but away from 
it, as at Fountain's Abbey and many other places. The 
aumbry in the south wall has a semicircular arch, and has 
been double. The bases of the four altars of the transept 
chapels are very apparent, and they have been covered with 
arcading. They are attached, as is usual in these positions, 
to the east wall. The intermediate arches dividino- the 
chapels have probably been filled in only to a certain 
height, to allow of the picturesque effect of the vaulting 
seen through them being preserved. Each of these altars 
is furnished with a piscina. The northern altar of the 
north transept has a detached pillar piscina, the others 
have lockers in the wall in several instances, and the 
elegant and early carving of the brackets of the piscina will 
be observed with interest. There are two floor drains to 
the north-east chapel. The remaining arches of the tran- 
septs are designed in a very severe style, and the capitals 
are a tradition of some of earlier date, 'i'ho three orders 



150 VALLE CRUCIS ABBEY. 

of the arches are simple rectangles, without even a chamfer, 
but the effect is excellent. 

We may, in the sheltered stonework of these chapels, 
observe that the whole surface of the wrought stone has 
been covered with a film of plastering, upon which coloured 
decorations are still traceable here and there. This use of 
colour was forbidden in Cistercian houses ; and I am, for 
one, glad to think that in some cases their rules were some- 
times more honoured in their breach than in their observ- 
ance. Tlie same is observable at Old Cleeve Abbej. These 
traces of colour have not, I believe, hitherto been noticed ; 
and another feature of interest may have some attention 
directed to it, — many of the stones have masons' marks. I 
collected readily a large number of different examples, 
besides others slightly different, or reversed, and they de- 
serve comparison with those which have been noted in other 
buildings elsewhere. They appear only in the stonework 
of the transepts, chancel, and nave-piers, and I have not 
been able to find any in the west wall of the nave, or in the 
monastic buildings, except in the position which will be 
noted hereafter. 

The doorway for the passage of the monks from their 
dormitory into the church, for the services of matin vigils, 
remains in the south transept, but the stairs are gone. 
From there being no trace of them, they were probably of 
wood. 

There is in the south wall of the south chapel a recess, 
low down, for a tomb. It is arched, and with a pediment 
over, the latter having large crockets. The whole is greatly 
decayed ; but the architectural style is so much later than 
that of the chapel, that we cainiot admit the local tradition 
of this being the tomb of the founder. The recess, which 
has been filled in with open, arched, panelling, and small 
shafts in the north-west angle of the presbytery, is probably 
the right position to be assigned to this. 

The remains of the piers of the central tower are of much 
interest. Those on the south side, which remain, indicate 
the systematic way in which the shafts of the bearing arches 
were carried on corbels (which are of much beauty) in order 
to allow the whole of the wall-surface of the piers to be free 
for the monks' stalls. The cracks, which are apparent, 
indicate trouble for the safety of the central tower; and we 



VALLE CRUCIS ABBEY. 151 

find that here, as at Funiess and elsewhere, the old builders 
had to take vigorous measures to keep it standing. 

The eastern bay of the nave has been wailed up witli 
solid masonry. To afford greater support, the west window 
of the transept has been removed, and its space built up ; 
and several other works of buttressing are very evident, 
including a curious reduction of the width of the east arch 
into the south transept. These works are of interest, for 
they show that the old architects did sometimes carry up 
their work \Yith too little regard for their foundations ; and 
sweeping blame to modern ones is as unfair as universal 
praise to the older craftsmen. 

The efforts here to save the tower were successful ; for if 
we are to take Churchyard's poem literally, the tower was 
still erect above the ruined building in the days of Eliza- 
beth ; but we have no evidence whether or not it fell later, 
or was demolished. There is a very charming piece of early 
carving below the corbel w^hich supported the south-east 
arch of the tower. 

A little peculiarity of style in the base of the north tran- 
sept door is worth observing. It has many circular mould- 
ings rather than shafts. This is usual in Wales ; but here 
they spring, not from bases, but from a line of foliage. 

The ritual choir probably extended originally more wcst- 
wardly into the nave than appears by the present founda- 
tions of the rood-loft, and its staircase against the western 
pier of the central tower. This appears to mark a contrac- 
tion of its space. No trace, except part of the northern 
wall, remains of the ritual choir; and this and the rood-loft 
are probably of the date of the works for the support of the 
tower. The base of a nave-altar still remains on the south 
side. 

The broad piers of the nave arc the only remains of the 
nave-arcade ; but the recent excavations have brought to 
light several fragments of capitals plainly shaped rather 
than carved. These are stacked along the base of the side 
walls, and we may have no difficulty in concluding that 
they are the remains of those of the nave-piers. 

There is evidence of the existence of a clerestory, for one 
deeply splayed jamb and part of the sill, with a string-course, 
of one window remains in the west pier of the central 
tower. Wc learn by it the heights, and that the clerestory 



152 VALLE CRUCIS ABBEY. 

windows were single lancets. They were rebated for glass. 
One corbel, for a principal of the nave-roof, also remains, 
proving, as might be expected, that the nave had a timber 
roof. 

The tablet fixed in the south wall, with its inscription, 
dated 1852, is an interesting record of the excavations, and 
our praise is due to the executors of this work, not only for 
the result which has made these ruins, apart from their 
picturesque beauty, amongst the most interesting for study 
in the United Kingdom, but for the tablet itself The date 
of any such work as this, fixed on the building itself, affords 
valuable evidence of its history, and the practice should be 
held up for imitation. The west front was repaired by 
Sir Gilbert Scott in 1872. 

The charming west front has three windows of similar 
pattern, the central one being somewhat higher, each having 
a muUion and a foliated circle ;^ and the western entrance 
is formed by a doorway of much beauty. The gable has a 
small rose-window ; and above this is the well known in- 
scription carved in bold, projecting Gothic letters, now 
somewhat worn ; but they can still be made out when the 
sun helps us by a slight shadow. It records that this part 
of the work was performed by Abbot Adam.^ The gable 
and rose-window are of later date, as is evidenced by the 
inner arch, designed originally to enclose the three windows 
internally, v/hich has never been completed. The stone- 
work is also different workmanship internally ; and we may 
conclude, from the insertion, that Abbot Adam is comme- 
morated l)y his successor rather than by himself The deep 
splays of the windows add greatly to the amount of light 
derived from them, and the telling design of the mouldings 
is worthy of careful study. There is no useless work 
bestowed, while the effect from what cannot be called ela- 
borate execution is most excellent, and unlike much modern 
work, where the effect is frittered away from the useless but 
costly multiplication of mouldings. 

'J'here is a staircase in the south angle of tlie nave. 
Whether or not this was only for access to the roofs, etc., or 

* The mullion of the central window is gone. 

* ADAM ABBAS FECIT HOC OPUS 1 PACE; aiid in a line above the enr? of this 
part of the inscription, as if the writer had found that there was not room 
enough for his lettering, qui esc at ame. 



VALLE CRUCIS ABBEY. 153 

to the monastic buildings always abutting upon the west 
end of the church, it is impossible to say, for there is no 
evidence remaining. It is probal)le that it did, as at Old 
Cleeve Abbey ; but we are not able to throw light as to 
whether the building was a "Domus Conversorum", or guest- 
house, since it has disappeared entirely, and nothing has 
yet been done to throw light upon the subject by endea- 
vouring to find the foundations. 

Taking the conventual buildings in order, we find the 
whole of those occupying the east side of the cloister quad- 
rangle remaining. They are in a line with the south tran- 
sept The north side is occupied by the south wall of the 
church, against which a farm-shed has been built. The 
buildings of the south side have disappeared, and a small 
modern house is erected at the west corner. The west side 
is also vacant. 

Next to the south transept is the slype, still retaining its 
circular barrel-vault, and having its arch of opening from 
the cloister of a very early type. The carving of its capitals 
shows, however, that it is of the same date as the presby- 
tery. The bands of torus-mouldings are very common in 
early work in Wales, but more frequently without the capi- 
tals. Next is the chapter house, vaulted in nine square 
compartments; next, still going southwards, was the entrance 
to the cemetery, to the east ;^ and beyond this still, the 
common parlour. 

Over all these buildings extends the monks' dormitory, a 
spacious building, GO feet long and 22 feet wide, and which 
we approach by the monks' day-stairs, which still remain. 
Sufficient of the floor remains to indicate that it was paved 
with flags, above the vaulting of the rooms beneath. It is 
liohted bv a series of small sino-lc-lioht, trefoiled windows 
with wave-mouldings. It will be noticed that the neatly 
jointed stonework of the walls has never been plastered. 
The cold stone paving and the unplastered walls must have 
been sufficiently uncomfortable for the occupants ; but it is 
satisfactory to find that two arrangements are apparent, 
showing that something was done for their well-being, — all 
the windows are rebated for glass, to exclude the elements, 

' The Rev. Preb. Walcott has shown that the monks' graves were partially 
dug, and kept so. The aspect of these from the dormitory overlooking them, 
must have been deplorably cheerless. 



154 VALLE CEUCIS ABBEY. 

and there is the unusual luxury of a fireplace ; but then 
this building is of later date than the church.^ The fire- 
place has a chimney of elegant design externally. 

At the south end of the dormitory is a small apartment 
opening from it, and which has been covered with a pent- 
house roof, apart from, and abutting upon, the south gable 
of the dormitory. It is probably the sleeping apartment of 
the custodian of the dormitory rather than the abbot ; and 
its small niche commanding a view of it, shows that the 
room was in some way designed for the oversight of the 
dormitory. At Old Cleeve a building in a similar position 
is considered by the Rev. Mackenzie E. Walcott to have 
been the novices' dormitory. From its small dimensions it 
is hardly likely that it could have served a similar purpose 
here. 

At the back of the dormitory fireplace is a narrow room, 
parallel with the former. It is probably the muniment- 
room ; while I would assign to the sacristan another small 
apartment at right angles, since it communicated by a 
passage over the vaulting of the south transept chapels with 
the slit window before alluded to. The cloister-space has 
no traces of the cloister-buildings ; but from the position of 
the corbels for the roof-timbers, etc., and from the absence 
of remains, it is probable that here, as in many cases else- 
where, they were formed of wood. 

It has sometimes been stated that all the buildings are 
of the same date ; but a small amount of inspection will 
assure us that the east end of the church is the oldest, — say 
of a date within the first twenty years following that of 
the foundation ; the transepts a little later ; and the west 
front, as represented by its style, is about 1260.^ The 
o-round-floor of the conventual buildino;s is of the same date 
as the transepts ; the slype possibly older, but with the 
insertion of much later work ; but the dormitory floor above 
is at least one hundred and fifty years later than the found- 
ation, since we cannot assign an earlier date than the middle 
of the fourteenth century. The square-headed doorways 
have the same flowing mouldings as the windows. At this 

' At Old Cleeve is a fireplace, but the windows have never been glazed. 

^ I give the date of the style. It is prol)ahle, however, that it was executed 
in harmony with the design somewhat later. The gable above and the rose- 
window are later still. 



VALLE CRUCIS ABBEY. 155 

time the arches and flowing tracery of the chapter house 
were aclJed into the okler openings, as well as the whole of 
the internal arches and vaulting.^ The western lancet of the 
south transept is filled in with tracery of fifteenth century 
date, into the older opening. 

There are traces of the use of stonework of earlier date 
than that of the buildings. The fireplace in the muniment- 
room has an inscription which has often been given, which 
shows that it w^as once part of a tombstone, and the carving 
is of great beauty. The sill of the little unglazed niche 
looking from the room at the end of the dormitory into it, 
has been part of an incised slab ; and there is another with 
an early cross, forming the roof, just within the door of the 
day-stairs. 

The present rough roof of the dormitory is modern ; but 
the water-tables in the south transept gable show that it is 
of the same pitch as the original one. The door in the south 
side of the refectory is an unusual feature. It was probably 
for hoisting up the trusses of straw for the monks' beds, and 
for the passage of articles w^hich could not be brought up 
the narrow^ day-stairs. 

The brothers Buck give two views, which show the 
aspect of the ruins in 1742, and I am glad to say that they 
have altered but very little since. They have, however, in 
some respects. A five-light window is shown in the south 
transept gable. The foundations of the buildings on the 
south side of the cloister were in existence, and are partly 
shown. Several rectangular apartments are indicated, and 
it is probable that the refectory extended north and south. 
These features no longer remain, but just a trace of a wall 
at right angles to the day room, going west, may be 
observed amongst the farm appliances at this corner, and 
also an angle buttress. All the w^alls are constructed of 
thin dark blue slaty stone, with dressings of reddish free- 
stone. All of great durability and excellent workmanship. 

' These arches have continuous wave-mouldinp;s from base to apex of vault- 
ing, a peculiarity observable in many W^elsh buildings, notably in the nave- 
arches of St. Asaph. It occurs also in later work in the Chester churches. The 
junction of newer to older work is very apparent at the east side of the chapter 
house, and above it. The cemetery j)assage has an arch of First Pointed work 
enclosed in a later one, while the later Avails of the muniment-room have 
blocked up some of the corbel-table and the arches of the dormitory, themselves 
later than their substructure, as we have already seen. 

1878 20 



156 VALLE CRUCIS ABBEY. 

The main windows of the chnrcli are not rebated for glass, 
and it is probable that they were fitted in with stained 
glass, secured to the iron stanchion bars, which have been 
numerous, and wedged into the stonework. Since these 
would not be furnished with open casements, the ventila- 
tion of the building has been assisted by several small 
square apertures — the original putlog holes of the builders, 
but which are formed quite through the walls. They are 
so numerous that we must conclude that many were de- 
signedly made, as well as those which had been formed for 
the putlogs. The income of Valle Crucis at the dissolution 
was £188 clear, and £214 : 3 : 5 gross, and the largest of 
any Cistercian house in Wales ; that of the parent abbey of 
Ystrad Marchel was only £64:14: 2. The surrender was^ 
in the twenty-sixth Henry VIII, and was thus among the 
lesser monasteries. AVe have references to various bene- 
factors who were buried here. The Brut y Tyioysogion 
records that in 1269, "the 7th day of the month of Decem- 
ber, Grufl&dd, son of Madog, lord of Maelor, and Madog the 
Little, his brother, died, and were buried at Llanegwistle". 
He was lord of Dinas Bran. 

The recent excavations revealed a few geometrical tiles, 
but in such small numbers as to afford an additional 
evidence of the scarcity of this class of decoration in the 
churches of the Principality. They were probably im- 
ported, since the same patterns have been met with at 
Strata Florida Abbey, and at Acton Brumall, in Shropshire. 
It is a peculiarity attendant upon the demolition of Welsh 
abbeys that any feature of importance in the neighbouring 
churches is spoken of by local tradition as being a portion 
of the destroyed building re-used. This occurs with respect 
to every abbey, and we hear that the roof of Llangollen 
Church came from Valle Crucis ; but this is very unlikely,, 
since the slope of the roofs is so different, and the roof 
appears to have been made for its position. The lectern is 
at Wrexham Church, so we hear, but it bears a date 1528, 
and a record that it is the gift of a donor who is men- 
tioned. The elaborate candelabra of the fourteenth century 
is snid to be at the church of Llanarmon, in Yale, where is 
also the effigy of Grufi'udd ap Llewelyn ap Ynyn, brother 
to Llewelyn, Bishop of St. Asaph, who was buried at Valle 
Crucis. Another tomb, that of leva ap Mercdydd, is said 



VALLE CRXJOIS ABBEY. 157 

to be at Bryn Eglwys ; and another, a fragment, at an old 
house at Pengwern, near Llangollen, is that of Gronwy ap 
lorwerth. 

The list of the priors is very incomplete, but since there 
are several notices of others, which have not yet been added, 
it may be as well to note the following, which affords perhaps 
the most complete list yet attempted : — 

Philip, first abbot. His name appears, and he. is styled 
abbot in what Mr. Morris C. Jones has shown to be the 
foundation charter. 

Adam (Vras). He was the builder of the west front, 
but probably it was designed at an earlier period. ]\Ir. W. 
W. E. Wynne, F.S.A., of Peniarth, has ascertained that he 
was living in the middle of the fourteenth century, and it 
may therefore be probable that there were two abbots of 
this name. 

Madoc. 

David,^ abbot about 1450. 

Sion (John) ap Davydd (probably his successor). 

David ap lorwerth, afterwards Bishop of St. David's in 
1500. 

Owen, afterwards Bishop of St. Asaph. 

John Lloid. He is spoken of in the v^ill of David ap 
]\reredith of Llauarmon, proved 21st April, 1548.^ The 

' Notwithstanding the rigor of the Cistercian rule, this abbot appears to have 
obej-ed the dictates of his hospitable nature. Archceoloijia Camlrensis, vol. 
1849, recites part of a poem by Gjtto'r Glvnn, commencing as follows : 

" The Abbot of Valle Crucis will make 
Our laud altogether an entire feast. 
At his own charge shall 

Wine and meat be free", etc. 

This must have been for guests, for Cistercian monks partook of neither, and 
only of meat at a later period. Another poem by the same hand {Arch. Cumb., 
i, p. 2G) speaks of the 

" Much drinking and various 
Victuals. 

In the Palace of Eiigwistle several dishes. 
There is old liquor to make us merry, 
Pale and dark metheglin. 

AVe shall have bragget and sharp ale from the pi2)cs, 
Wine and nuts. 

We shall have a thousand apples for desert, 
And grace, honour, and dignity." 

lie made additions to the buildings, and to the abbot's bouse. The ti 
the transept-window is probably his work. 

^ See Arch. Camb. of lb7(5, p. 227. X V>''' S.' ■< 



158 VALLE CRUCIS ABBEY. 

date renders it very improbable that Sioii ap Davydd and 
John Lloid were the same persons. 

John Derham, given by Bishop Tanner, with the date 
1536, but the house was dissolved in 1535.^ 

John Hearne, last abbot. He retired with a pension of 
£23 per annum. ^ 

There is a record in the Book of Visitors to the English 
College at Rome of the arrival of Richard Bromley, a monk 
of Valle Crucis, as a pilgrim^ in 1504. He was charged, 
doubtless, with some mission, since by the Cistercian rule 
no monk could perform a journey to Rome without being 
accompanied by a bishop of his order. The right rendering 
of the arms of the abbey has been given by Mr. T. W. 
King, York Herald, from MSS. in the Heralds' Office, of 
a date just prior to the Reformation, in the volume of 
the Archceologia Camhrensis for 1849 (p. 24), and need 
not be repeated here ; but reference may be made to the 
fact that various renderings with certain changes exist. 
The same has been observed with respect to the arms of 
Llanthony Abbey. The old name, Llan Egwistle, points to 
the existence here of a church long prior to the foundation 
of the monastery, but, for the sake of brevity, I must omit 
all notice of the tradition with respect to it, and also of the 
old cross, Eliseg's pillar. The fishpond remains almost 
perfect due east of the church. A lovely view of the ruin 
is obtained from this position. The cemetery is known to 
have been in its usual place, east of the conventual build- 
ings. A spring of clear water now flows close to the door of 
the monks' day-room, but no use is made of it. I have been 
unable to find any masons' marks on the stonework of the 
conventual buildings. The exceptions already alluded to 
may now be noted, but they can hardly be masons' marks. 
The fylfut cross is neatly cut, exactly central, and therefore 
designedly, over a small loop window in the monks' day 
stairs, and also over the larger opening close to it. I am 
unable to offer any explanation of the occurrence of this 
mysterious sign in these peculiar and prominent positions. 

' I give these names separately, but they may refer to the same person. 
* Given in Collect. Top. et Genealog., ii, p. 255. 



Note. — The reference on p. 146 to the paper in the A rc/ueoloff la Camlrcnsls 
should be to vol. xii, not to vol. i. 



159 



NOTES ON THE CASTLES OF HARLECH AND 
CKICCIETH. 

BY F. G. AVESTMACOTT CHAPMAN, ESQ. 

The Castles of Harlech and Criccietli, which may be termed 
sister fortresses, each standing on the summit of a rock on 
either side of the Traeth j\Li\vr and the Traeth Bach, in 
Cardigan Bay, may certainly be considered two of the most 
interesting relics of the great past in the historic land of 
the Cymry. The earliest history of these ancient strong- 
holds is unfortunately not easily traced, although there can 
be but little doubt, if any, as to their British origin. 

The noble ruins of Harlech Castle, in the county of Meri- 
oneth, crown a rocky eminence, the base of which was 
formerly washed by the sea ; but at the present time stands 
some little distance from the shore, upon that large tract of 
reclaimed land known as Morfa Harlech, hi some old 
maps the name of this place may be found written Hardd- 
Jecli, the appellation being evidently a compound formed 
from the Cymreig words hardd (towering) and lUch (a flat 
stone or slate). There does not appear to be any record of 
this position having been held by the Romans ; but we may 
assume that Harlech had at least been visited by them, 
both from the fact of the Roman station of Segontium 
(Caernarfon) being only tw^enty-nine miles distant, and also 
from the number of Roman coins which have been from 
time to time discovered in the neighbourhood. 

The original building, which occupied the site of the pre- 
sent ruin, is said to have been erected, during the third 
century, by Bronwen (fair-bosomed), who dw^elt here, and 
gave her own name to the edifice, calling it" T\vr Bronwen". 
The tomb of Bronwen, where a square cistj'aen was disco- 
vered, is still pointed out at Llantrissant in Anglesey, where 
she was buried, having died from the effects of a blow 
received from her husband, Matholwch, King of Ireland. 
This incident may be found described in the 51st I'riad. 
The Castle thus having been founded by the unfortunate 
Bronwen, appears about a.d. 550 to have assumed larger 



160 NOTES ON THE CASTLES 

and more important proportions, when it came into tlie pos- 
session of a British Prince, Maelgwyn Gwynedd : 

" In Ai'tliur's days of ancient date, 
When Cambria's chiefs elected 
Her Maelgwyn to the regal seat, 
Were Harlech's towers erected." 

In the time of Anarawd, who flourished about the latter end 
of the ninth century, it became the property of Collwyn ap 
Tanso, the founder of one of the fifteen tribes of North 
Wales, lord of Eifionydd, Ardudwy, and a portion of Lleyn. 
At the same time the name of the fortress was changed to 
that of its new owner, and was known as Caer Collwyn. 
Pennant, in speaking of Collwyn, says : " He resided some 
time in a square tower of the ancient fortress, whose remains 
are very apparent, as are part of the old walls, which the 
more modern, in certain places, are seen to rest upon/' 

I have been able to discover but little matter of historic 
interest from the time of Collwyn to that of Edward I, in 
whose reign the present Castle was erected, a.d. 1282. The 
architect was Henry de Elfreton, who also designed the 
more celebrated castles at Caernarfon and Conway. In 
1283, De Wonkeslow was appointed Constable of Harlech 
with a salary of £100 a year. This Constable, it would 
seem, was considered to have been overpaid for his appoint- 
ment, as we find the amount afterwards reduced to£26 :13:4, 
though probably the apparently unlucky Constable took 
means, vi et arrais, to compensate for the loss by raids upon 
the defenceless Welsh people who may have been unfortu- 
nate enough to dwell within his reach, with no chance of 
redress from such a King as the first Edward : as may be 
instanced by the result of Llywelyn's reply to the "Articles 
sent from the Archbishop of Canterbury to be intimated to 
Llywelyn, Prince of Wales, and the People of the same 
Country." The particulars of these "Articles" are to be 
found in AVarrington (the Appendix). The reply is too long 
to repeat at length ; but I may be pardoned for a trifling 
digression from my subject, if I quote a sliort extract as an 
cvidcDce of the injustice shown to the Welsh by Edward I 
and his advisers. "A certain (Welsh) noble passing on the 
King's highway, with his wife, in the King's peace, met 
certain English labourers and masons... ..who attempted by 



OF HARLECH AND CRICCIETH. 161 

force to take away his wife from him ; and while he de- 
fended her as well as he could, one of them killed the wife ; 
and he who killed her, with his fellows, was taken ; and 
when the kindred of her which was slain required law at 
the Justice of Chester's hands for their kinswoman, they 
were put in prison, and the murderers ivere delivered." 
This was only one of the many unjust acts towards the 
Cymry, perpetrated under a monarch on whom some of our 
modern historians have been pleased to bestow the title of 
"the English Justinian". It is true that eventually, and 
after Dafydd, the last of the Welsh princes, had been most 
barbarously executed at Shrewsbury, as Hume puts it, " for 
defending by arms the liberties of his native country", Ed- 
ward, with a certain display of ostentation, made some 50- 
ccdled concessions to the Welsh ; but it must be remem- 
bered that it is very easy to be magnanimous to those from 
whom we have obtained all that we have desired. 

In 1404 Harlech was taken by Owen Glyndwr at the 
same time that he conquered Aberystwyth ; both of which 
Castles were held by him for a period of four years, when 
they were taken possession of by Prince Henry. 

In 1460, after Henry VI had been defeated at the battle 
of Northampton, and had been taken prisoner by "that 
proud setter up and puller down of kings", the Earl of 
Warwick, the Queen, ^largaret of Anjou, fled from Coven- 
try, and took up her residence in Harlech Castle, one tower 
of which still bears her name. Here for a time the " she- 
wolf of France", as Shakespeare terms her, remained pre- 
vious to her expedition into Scotland, where, assisted by 
the northern barons, she collected an army of 20,000 men, 
and with them gained her celebrated victory over the Duke 
of York at Wakefield, where, it will be remembered, the 
Duke was slain, and his head having been severed from his 
body by the command of the Queen, and ornamented with 
a paper crown, was placed over the gates of York : 

" OflT with his head, and set it on York o-atos. 
That York may overlook the town of York." 

TJie most memorable of the many vicissitudes of what 
Fielding terms the pastime of monarchs — war, through 
which the Castle of Harlech has passed, is, perhaps, tlie 
famous defence made by the brave little garrison under 



162 NOTES ON THE CASTLES 

Dafydd ap Ifan ap EiDion, who was as much " distinguished 
as a soldier of valor as for goodly personage and great 
stature". He was, however, at length obliged to surrender 
to the troops of Edward IV, after gallantly holding out for 
nearly nine years. A bard of the same period thus sang to 
the fidelity of this hero : 

" Ne'er yet was truer to his cause 
Than he who holds the ashen spear; 
For Einion, Hke the cuckoo's throat, 
Knows only one unvaried note." 

The Wars of the Eoses were in full activity, England and 
Wales had bitterly learnt " what dire effects from civil 
discord flow". Edward the Fourth had, in his twentieth 
year, ascended the throne of England, and, from the sur- 
roundings of bloodshed, with all the attendant barbarities 
of civil w^ar, in which he had been reared, possessed, like 
his brother, neither pity, love, nor fear. " His hardness of 
heart and severity of character rendered him impregnable 
to all those movements of compassion which might relax 
his vigour in the prosecution of the most bloody revenge 
upon his enemies. The scaffold, as well as the field, inces- 
santly streamed with the noblest blood of England, spilt in 
the quarrel between the two contending families, whose 
animosity was now become implacable." (Hume.) Harlech 
w^as faithful to the Red Eose. Edward IV w\as in posses- 
sion of all parts of the kingdom, except a few castles in 
Northumberland and the Castle of Harlech — the latter 
holding out against all attempts to subdue it, in a manner 
the remembrance of which must always remain as one of 
the many instances of Welsh bravery, fidelity, and endur- 
ance. The almost inaccessible position of the Castle (the 
side towards the sea requiring but little attention) doubt- 
less assisted the defenders. The king at last, in 1468, found 
it necessary to send into North Wales a large army, under 
the command of WilKam Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, re- 
solved upon conquering this stronghold. With incredible 
difficulty, we are told, he marched his men over the heart 
of the British Alps, and the faithful Castle was invested. 
The earl, findino- that he could not succeed as he had anti- 
cipated, appointed his brother. Sir Eichard, wdio, like 
Dafydd ap Einion, was a man of large stature and of great 
military knowledge, to lead the attack. 



OF HARLEOfI AND CRICCIETH. 163 

"Sir Richard came, his legion led, 
To bid tlie chief surrender ; 
For well he knew that Einion's son 
Was Harlech's brave defender." 

When Dafydd ap Ifan was first summoned to surrender, 
he replied, " I held a fortress in France till all the old 
women in Wales heard of it, and now I intend to hold 
Harlech till all the old women in France hear of it." 

At length, however, the Castle was reduced by that 
powerful auxiliary to the invader — famine, and on the 
14th April, 1468, was surrendered at discretion. Accord- 
ing to a MS. chronicle in the library of St. Peter's College, 
Cambridge, "Sir Kichard Tuustal, Sir Henry Bellingham, 
Sir William Stokes, with about fifty other gentlemen, were 
taken prisoners and committed to the Tower of London." 

Sir Kichard Herbert had promised, as a condition of the 
surrender, the life of the gallant defender Dafydd, but the 
king, barbarous and ungrateful, at first refused to ratify the 
promise given by Sir Richard ; but he, more generous, 
nobly replied, "Then, by God, I will put Dafydd and his 
garrison into Harlech again, and your highness may fetch 
him out again by any one who can ; and if you demand 
my life for his, take it !" Edward relented, and yielded to 
Sir Kichard Herbert's request to spare the life of Dafydd, 
but Sir Kichard received no other reward whatever for his 
services to the king. 

A bard of the time thus complimented Herbert in the 
verse : — 

" Gwrol tragwrol, trugarog wrol, 

Ni fu drugarog na fai dragwrol." 
("The manly mind, the truly brave. 
Loves mercy, and delights to save.") 

The poet Gay uses similar lines in the dedication of his 
Fahle><. 

Some of the atrocities committed under the orders of 
Edward IV are referred to in Wynne's interesting History 
of the Gwydir Family — 

" In Hardlech every house 
Was basely set on fire ; 
But poor Nant Conway suffered more. 
For thei'o the flames burnt higher. 
'T was in the year of our Lord 
Fourteen hundred sixty-eight 
187S 21 



164 NOTES ON THE CASTLES 

That these unhappy towns of Wales 
Met with such wretched fate." 

I may here mention that the grand old Welsh melody, 
known as the " March of the Men of Harlech", dates from 
this most memorable siege ; also the malediction, sometimes 
still used, of " Yn Harlech y bo chwi !" (May you be in 
Harlech !) 

The following is a list of the principal defenders on the 
occasion : — Dafydd ap Ifan ap Einion, Gruif. Fychan ap 
Ifan ap Einion, Siancyn ap lorwerth ap Einion, Gr. ap Ifan 
ap Einion, Tho. ap Ifan ap Einion, John Hanmer, Dafydd 
ap Ifan ap Owen o Bo wis, Rhinallt ap Gryff. ap Bleddyn of 
Tower near Mold, Mawris ap Dafydd ap Jeffre, Dafydd ap 
Einion ap Ifan Rhymus, Howel ap Morgan ap lorth Goch, 
Ednyfed ap Morgan, Thomas ap JMorgan, John Tudur Clerc, 
Gr. ap Ifan ap lorwerth, Senior. 

During the struggle between the Royalists and the Par- 
liamentarians, Harlech Castle was held sometimes by the 
former and sometimes by the latter. Eventually it was 
surrendered on honourable terms to Lieutenant-General 
Mytton, March 30, 1647, having had the honour of being 
the last Castle in North Wales that held out for King 
Charles I. At the time of this surrender, the garrison, ac- 
cording to Whitelock's Memorials, numbered only twenty- 
eight men. 

The view of this ancient strono-hold from the sea is said 
to resemble the famous Eastern Castle of Belgrade. The 
plan of the building is quadrangular, each side being rather 
more than 200 ft. in length, with a round tower at each 
corner, surmounted by lighter towers. On the land side 
are the remains of a deep fosse, over which was formerly a 
drawbridge to the entrance, situated between two hi2;h 
towers. This entrance was rendered additionally secure by 
three portcullises. According to a survey made in the reigri 
of Henry VIII, there were at that time two drawbridges 
towards the sea, with outworks leading to the marsh. 

In 1692 a golden torque was dug up in a garden near 
the Castle, and is to be seen in the interesting collection of 
antiquities of Lord Mostyn, at Mostyn Hall. 

The castle at Criccicth, like that at Harlech, appears to 
have been of British origin, and is stated to be the most 
ancient Welsh castle, but by whom it was erected is un- 



OF HARLECH AND CRICOIETH. 165 

known. An eminent bard and antiquary, the late Mr. Ellis 
Owens of Cefnymeusydd, in a paper written in 180.9, thus 
speaks of this ruin : "From the architecture it may be pro- 
nounced of a British origin, but it is said that it was built 
by King John (about 1:Z00) except the two towers at its 
entrance, which were built by Edward I." The statement 
that those towers were built by Edward L is open to question, 
as we find that inside they correspond with the other re- 
maining towers, and are, like them, square, so the proba- 
bilit}^ is that Edward merely gave them a circular kind of 
veneer, and, beyond this, had nothing, or very little to do 
with the architecture of the Castle of Criccieth, which is 
undoubtedly of an earlier period than the castles of Caer- 
narfon, Conway, and the principal remains at Harlech. 
Moreover, the workmanship of the exteriors of these towers 
differs considerably from that of the inteiiors, which fact 
strengthens the supposition that they were merely cased in 
the time of Edward. The castle was surrounded by a 
double fosse and vallum, which may still readily be traced. 

Mr. Eowlands, in his Mona Antiqua Restauvata/moXwAQ^ 
Criccieth amongst the castles which he assumed to have 
been founded before the sixth century. It does not appear 
to have been at any time a very extensive building, but, if 
only from its position, must have been a formidable defence 
in the brave days of old. 

About the year 1220 Llywelyn ap lorwerth gave to 
Ednyfed Fychan the lordship of Criccieth for his services 
in the battles of the Marches. " Mynydd Ednyfed being 
in the lordship of Criccieth," says the late Ellis Owens, " was 
probably called after his name to the present day." 

In 1239 Criccieth Castle was the prison of Gruffydd 
ap Llywelyn, who was confined there by his half-brother 
Dafydd. 

When Edward I obtained possession of this fortress, we 
find it recorded that he appointctl William de Leybourn 
(or Laybonon) the constable, with a salary of £100 a year, 
out of which he was to maintain a garrison of " thirty stout 
men, a chaplain, surgeon, carpenter, and mason. ' 

During the reign of Edward III Criccieth became the 
residence of Sir Ilowel-y-Fwyall of Bron-y-foel, a descend- 
ant of Collwyn ap 1 ango (referred to in my notes on Har- 
lech). " This valiant officer attended the Black Trinee in 



166 NOTES ON THE CASTLES 

the battle of Poictiers, where, with only a poleaxe, he per- 
formed such brave and heroic acts that the prince bestowed 
on him the honour of knighthood, and allowed him to take 
for his arms a ^^oleaxe argent, hetween three jieurs-de-lys, 
and to add to his name y-Fwyall (of the axe). And, 
further, to perpetuate the memory of his great services, the 
prince ordered, at the expense of the Crown, that a mess of 
meat should be every day served up before the axe with 
which he had performed the wonderful feats." The king 
knighted him on the battlefield, and also gave him for life 
the rents of the Dee mills at Chester, with the appointment 
of constable of Criccieth. According to Meyrick, he com- 
manded a reserve corps of Welshmen at Creci, where he also 
materially accelerated the victory by his seasonable advance 
and valorous incursion on the French lines. 

The mess, alluded to above, having been brought before 
the constable, was distributed to the poor of Criccieth. This 
custom was continued after the death of the gallant Sir 
Howel, " for the repose of his soul", and was not abolished 
until the reign of Elizabeth. There were " eight yeomen 
attendants, called yeomen of the Crown, who received eight- 
pence a day constant wages" for acting as a guard to the 
mess. In the Harl. MSS., No. 2,298, p. 348, we find the 
following note : — " Sir Howel-y-Fwyall, or Sir Howel Pole- 
axe, from his constant fio-htino; with that warlike instru- 
ment. It is said he dismounted the French king, cutting 
off his horse's head at one blow with his battleaxe, and took 
the French king prisoner ; as a trophy of which victory, it 
is said that he bore the arms of France, with a battleaxe in 
bend sinister, argent." 

lolo Goch thus refers to the incident I have just quoted : — 

*' Pan rodedd y ffrwyn yn mlien 

Breiihin Ffniingc." 
(When on the head of royal France 
A bridle strong he placed.) 

In the above brief notes I have endeavoured to embrace 
the most important historic events in connection with the 
castles of Harlech and Criccieth — events which arc for the 
most part intimately woven into the united histories of Eng- 
land and Wales, and which at the same time are memorials 
of honour, fidelity, bravery, and loyalty in the original pos- 
sessors of this country. Indeed loyalty has always formed 






OF HARLECH AMU CKICCIETH 

no small part of the Welsh character, whether as \^^ets:J 
to their own early British sovereigns or to subseqt 
monarchs. As they were in the olden times so are they 
now, and I cannot conclude this Paper better than with a 
short but powerful quotation from Harding's prize essay in 
the Cymmrodorion : " The page which closes the annals of 
the British race is disfigured by no cowardice, disgraced by 

no corruption, stained by no treason And if, politically 

speaking, Wales be indeed no more, yet poetry and tradi- 
tion, in preserving from oblivion the records of her once 
vigorous existence, and the tragic story of her fall, have 
kept alive a national spirit, which the lapse of centuries of 
foreign dominion has failed materially to weaken. The 
chord struck by her slaughtered bards yet vibrates in the 
breasts of their countrymen They still speak her lan- 
guage, cherish her customs, and fondly cling to her soil." 
United to England, they have given their loyalty to the 
English throne — a " loyalty which, in changing its object, 
has lost none of that fond and fearless devotion which has 
in all times so brilliantly illuminated the chequered pages 
of their history." 



168 
WREXHAM. 

BY BENJAMIN FERREY, ESQ., F.S.A. 

This church is dedicated, according to some authorities, to 
St. Giles ; but according to others, to St. Silios ; and was 
rebuilt, with the exception of the tower, in the reign of 
Edward IV. The plan consists of nave, north and south 
aisles, and chancel ; and it is remarkable in having an apse, 
as there are very few examples of parish churches having 
chancels with apses in the Perpendicular period. The church 
originally terminated with a square end, where the chnncel- 
arch proves, by the remains of its ancient tracery, the old 
east window to have been. The present roof to the apse is 
of a later period than the walls. There is every probability 
that it was intended to be groined. The windows and 
sedilia are handsome. 

The nave consists of six bays, and is separated from the 
north and south aisles by octangular pillars carrying hand- 
some and bohily chamfered arches of two orders. These 
are singularly fine in proportion. The north and south aisles 
have good Perpendicular windows of four-centred arches, 
and are roofed in the usual low-pitched manner. They have 
been subject, unfortunately, to modern innovations. The 
clerestory and the aisles are of later date than the arcade 
itself. The latter formed, probably, part of the earlier 
chancel said to have been burnt in 1457; and in order to 
promote the building of it, an indulgence of forty days, for 
five years, was granted by the Pope. The corbels of the 
early church are still remaining on the spandril-walls of the 
nave, considerably below the stone brackets of the present 
roof ; and the eflfect of the earlier church, with its pointed 
roof, must have been far superior to that of the present 
building. Further improvements are said to have been 
made in the time of Bishop Birkhead, 1513-18; but it is 
not on record of what these works consisted. A subsequent 
Bishop, Parfevv or Wharton, resided much of his time here, 
and endeavoured to procure a license to remove his see 
or cathedral church to this place, of which Leland wrote 
about the same time, " Wrexham hath a goodlie churche 
collegiate, and one of the fairest of North Wales ; but there 
longeth no prebends to it." 



WREXHAM. 1G9 

In Queen Elizabeth's reign the church was enlarged by 
the addition of the south aisle, the roof of which is said to 
have been formed out of the timber of a gallery which ran 
along the north side. During the Commonwealth it was 
desecrated by being made into a prison, according to Browne 
Willis, and into a stable according to others. A peal of ten 
bells was set up in 172G. 

At the east end of the north aisle was the chapel of the 
Pulestons of Hafod y Wern, with its altar, niches, and pis- 
cina. The last named still survives. At the south-east 
angle, the chantry chapel of the family of Llwyn Onn, with 
its altar, shrines, and piscina, at one time stood. They are 
said to have been the first to respond to the call for re- 
building the chancel, and their teams are reported to have 
carried the first loads of stone. There is nothing remark- 
able in the architecture of the exterior of the body of the 
church. It is of the usual Perpendicular type, having roofs 
of low pitch ; the clerestory and aisle- walls surmounted by 
embattled parapets separated by buttresses and pinnacles. 
There is, however, a good porch at the west end of the north 
aisle, having a niche and statue of the Blessed Virgin. 
Inside the porch there is an effigy of a mailed knight, which 
was probably removed from the earlier church which once 
stood on the site of the existing building. There is some 
beautiful metal-work, forming a sort of cresting to the low 
chancel-screen, which is well worth attention, and also a 
fine brass lectern. The revestry under the apse, approached 
by a winding stone staircase, is somewhat novel. No doubt 
it was caused by the fall of the ground at the east end, to 
which this undercroft gives external height. There are 
some remains of ancient painting on the wall over the 
chancel-arch, which have been carefully preserved. 

The great feature of the church is the western tower, 
justly celebrated for its beautiful proportions and details. 
It is styled one of the "seven wonders of Wales". When it 
was commenced is unknown, but it was completed in 1506. 
Among the numerous examples of grand Perpendicular 
towers which abound in Somei-sctshire, there are none to be 
compared with the tower of St. Giles, Wrexham, for mass- 
iveness and good proportions. In the excellent work upon 
the towers of England, published in 1854 by Mr, Wicks 
the architect (which contains an admirable view of this 



170 WREXHAM. 

tower), it will be seen, by comparing it with the tower of 
St. Mary's, Taunton, built about the same time, how supe- 
rior this one is. Mr. E. A. Freeman, the author of the let- 
terpress in the abovementioned w^ork, observes : " The 
famous tower at Wrexham has, in its general effect, a cer- 
tain approach to the Taunton type. Its several stages of 
double windows, and the open turrets at the angles, suggest 
an affinity with St. Mary's in that town. The shape of the 
turrets, octagonal instead of square, may be considered an 
improvement." The defect in the Somersetshire and Glou- 
cestershire tow^ers is the overhanging character of the per- 
forated parapets and pinnacles, giving them a light and 
somewhat insecure effect. This is obviated in the compo- 
sition of St. Giles' tower, where the graduated, angular but- 
tresses rise and unite with the octangular turrets at the 
four corners of the summit in a truly graceful and beautiful 
manner. It may, perhaps, be noticed that the manner in 
which the lower stage is covered by traceried panelling in 
low relief, somewhat detracts from the simple massiveness 
which should belong to the foundation of such a lofty struc- 
ture, and it is doubtful whether the faces of the buttresses 
would not have been better without the panelling. The 
subsidiary buttresses dividing the sides of the tower, con- 
taining niches still furnished with statues, are most success- 
fully arranged. There are very few towers which can boast 
of such a number of niches still filled with unmutilated 
figures. I should mention that the tower is handsomely 
groined with fan-tracery. 

In a paper which I wrote many years since, upon the 
Somersetshire towers, I made some remarks to the follow- 
ing effect : The tower of St. Mary's, Taunton, is a remark- 
able example ; but the effect of the arrangement above 
referred to is not always successful, for skilful as the com- 
bination of parts may be in design, a repetition of pierced 
pinnacles and open parapets presents too fragile an appear- 
ance for its purpose. 

Such construction in stone is rather unnatural ; hence all 
these crested terminations arc found to be disfigured by 
iron ties, etc., that have been applied at different times to 
secure them from the destructive efiects of high winds. 

lam indebted to the aC\mivn.h]c Ilistori/ of the Diocese of 
St. Ascqih, by the Rev. D. R. Thomas, for some of the his- 
torical information. 



171 



ON A TAINTING OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY 
IN THE NATIONAL GALLERY. 

BY J. R. PLANCIIE, ESQ., SOMERSET UERALD, V.P. 

Theee is a remarkable painting of the fifteenth century, 
numbered 385, in the National Gallery, Trafalgar Square, 
which, presenting some exceedingly curious features in the 
militar}^ equipment of the knights and men-at-arms depicted 
in it, attracted my attention some years ago, and has from 
time to time deeply engaged my consideration. Mr. Wor- 
num's Catalogue,^ revised by Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, late 
President of the Royal Academy, informs us that it is the 
work of Paolo di Dono, "commonly called, from his love of 
painting birds, Paolo Uccello"; that it is one of the four 
battle-pieces originally painted for the Bartolini family in 
Gualfonda, and was ultimately purchased at Florence, from 
the Lombardi-Baldi collection, in 1857. The subject is said 
by the same authorities to be the battle of St. Egidio, fought 
July 7, 141G, in which Carlo Malatesta, Lord of Rimini, and 
his nephew Galeazzo, were taken prisoners by Braccio do 
Montone. It is painted in lemiiera, on wood, and is 6 feet 
high by 10 feet wide. I have the pleasure of exhibiting to 
the meeting a very accurate copy on a reduced scale, Init 
sufficiently large to enable us to study the minutest details 
of the armour and weapons, and am therefore fortunately 
in a position to aff'ord you ocular demonstration of the 
points which have induced me to doubt the accuracy of the 
official description. 

That description, founded upon the annals of IMuratori, 
the Chronicon Foroliviense, and other Italian authorities, 
is as follows : " This battle took place on a plain between 
Sant Egidio and the Tiber, on the road to Assisi, and Mala- 
testa was captured during a repose in the fight, when his 
men went down to the river to drink." The observation 
in the Catalogue is that, " from the fragments of arms, etc., 
strewed upon the ground, the battle has been already 
fought ; and the incident represented appears to be an 

' 8vo. London, 1859. 
1875 22 



172 A PAINTING OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY 

attempt at a rescue, wliicli suspicion is strengthened by the 
fact that Malatesta is marching under a strange standard. 
Of the many armed knights on horseback represented, only 
four are engaged ; but all except Malatesta and his nephew 
have their faces concealed by their vizors. The young 
Galeazzo, not yet a knight, carries his hascinet in his hand." 

So far the Catalogue, which, as it is stated to have been 
revised by Sir Charles Eastlake, we must consider that the 
late accomplished President of the Royal Academy vouched 
for the accuracy of the description, if he did not furnish 
the information I have quoted ; and consequently it is with 
some diffidence that I venture to Cjuestion the inference 
drawn from the position, action, and habiliments, of the 
personages represented in this remarkable painting, which 
certainly conveys to me an impression diametrically opposed 
to it. That fiohtino; has been o-oino: on is evident, I admit, 
from the splintered lances, the fragments of armour, the 
fallen shields, and the prostrate body beneath the feet of 
the horses ; but that the principal figure in the composition 
represents Carlo Malatesta, or that of the youth behind him 
his nephew Galeazzo, I cannot bring myself to believe. So 
far from there being the slightest indication of their having 
been taken prisoners, the elder personage appears to be 
riding at the head of his troops, under his own standard, 
and baton in hand, either directing; or endeavourino; to arrest 
the attack which three knights are making upon a single 
warrior, who is defending himself gallantly with a martel de 
fer, or horseman's hammer, against the formidable weapons 
of his assailants ; the lance of one and the sword of another 
having passed under the oval palette or gusset of plate 
which protects the left arm-pit, but apparently without 
wounding him. 

if the personage in the centre of the picture is indeed 
the captive Malatesta, where is the victorious Braccio de 
Montone 1 And who is the over-matched warrior so fiercely 
beset ? Unfortunately I am unable at present to identify, 
from the shields, crests, and armorial surcoats of the knights, 
the standard or the trumpet-banners, any of the combat- 
ants ; but as ftir as neo-ative evidence o'oes, no Malatesta 
can he amongst them, as the well known coat of that family, 
''vert, three human faces or", does not appear anywhere. 
Beneath each of the principal figures (for I consider the 



IN THE NATIONAL GALLERY. 173 

hard-pressed knight to be as important an individual as the 
supposed Mahitesta), there is on the ground, between the 
feet of their horses, a shield of arms, neither of the warriors 
bearing their shields. The one beneath the central person- 
age displays quarterly, argent and gules, a border counter- 
changed. The other, beneath the assaulted knight, is also 
quarterly, 1st and 4th vert, 2nd and 3rd or, barry piley 
gxdes ; and his helmet is surmounted by a crest which has 
the semblance of a rose. But whether the object conjoined 
with it is intended for a roseleaf or a bird's wing, it would 
be difficult to determine. 

Now it was by do means unusual for mediaeval artists to 
distinguish the principal persons in an historical composi- 
tion by placing their armorial bearings as close to them as 
possible ; and it is therefore an important question whe- 
ther we are to regard these two shields as simply indi- 
cating, in conjunction with the shattered staves and frag- 
ments of armour, the effect of a contiicfc, or as special identi- 
fications of the persons above them. In the latter case 
neither the attacking nor the attacked can be Malatesta. 
The standard affords us still less information, for on it 
appear only two wreath's or garlands, one of which would 
seem simply sketched in, and not coloured ; the other being 
now black, but originally most likely green. The field is 
white, with an edging or bordure of red and black ; the 
trumpet-banners of an unusual magnitude, the trumpets 
themselves being of immense length, present no armorial 
insignia, and therefore the valuable aid which heraldry 
generally affords us in such circumstances is unfortunately 
wanting. 

We are therefore reduced to form our opinions from the 
study of the picture itself I have already expressed mine 
on the subject of Malatesta ; and the statement in the Cata- 
logue that the youth immediately behind the principal 
figure represents his nephew Galeazzo, who being " not yet 
a knight, carries his bascinet in his hand"', can only raise a 
smile from any one acquainted with mediaeval customs. 
The youth, whoever he may be intended for, is the esquire 
of the knight he follows, and is bearing, not his own basci- 
net, but that of his lord, who wears a turban-shaped head- 
dress of the fifteenth century. 

A fortunate accident has place«l in my hands a piint cut 



174 A PAINTING OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTUHY 

out of an illustrated Freucli journal, which purports to have 
been engraved from a painting in the now dispersed Cam- 
pana collection, and which is at present in the Louvre. It 
is simply inscribed " Musee Campana, — Une Bataille, — Tab- 
leau de Paolo Uccello." In it we have unmistakably the 
same personage with his remarkable turban-shaped head- 
dress, baton in hand, under his standard, in the midst of 
his knights, all in the same description of armour, and with 
similar extraordinary crests to those in the picture in the 
National Gallery; the foremost with their lances levelled, 
and in the act of charging some opponents who are not in- 
cluded in the composition. Surely we have here a copy of 
another of the four battlepieces painted for the Bartolini 
family, mentioned in the Catalogue of the National Gallery, 
but of which the subjects are not specified. There are no 
armorial shields in this second picture, but the standard 
displays a more comprehensible bearing than we find on the 
former one. The upper portion appears to be intended for 
what in heraldry is called vairy ; and the lower is charged 
with some animal, probably a unicorn, couchant on a mound 
or in fern-leaves. A trumpet-banner also has on a bend 
four shields ; but the charges upon them are too minute, in 
this reduced copy, to be discernible, and the absence of 
colour renders identification still more hopeless. 

By a singular coincidence, shortly after I had lighted 
upon this engraving, I was informed that two more battle- 
pieces attributed to Uccello were in London, and to be seen 
at the house of Mr. George Simonds, the sculptor, in Buck- 
ingham Palace Poad, completing, as I presume,^ the number 
said to have been painted by Paolo for the Bartolini family. 
It will be readily imagined that I took the earliest opportu- 
nity of calling on Mr. Simonds, hj whom I was received 
with the greatest courtesy, and allowed to inspect the pic- 
tures, and also a photograph of one of them taken in Pome 
(where the present proprietor of the pictures resides) pre- 
viously to their being despatched to London. By the kind- 
ness of ]\Ir. Simonds I am enabled to exhibit them to the 
meeting this evening. 

The subjects of these interesting paintings, which are 

' I have since, however, discovered that there is a battle-piece attributed to 
Uccello in the Ufizzi Palace at Florence, and of which there is an eni!;raving in 
the l^ritish Museum, possessing stronger claims to be considered one of the 
lour specially alluded to. 



IN THE NATIONAL (iALLERY. 175 

respectively al)Out 7 feet long by 2 feet high, are, according 
to the Atlienamn of the 22n(l of July last, — 1, the battle of 
Anghiai'i, between the jMilanese and the Florentines, June 
2iJth, 1440; that famous coml)at which jMachiavelli describes 
as resulting in the loss of one man, who was trampled to 
death ; the other picture representing the taking of Pisa by 
the Florentines, Oct. .9, 1406. "The writer of this notice 
observes that the foreshortening is in a peculiar mode, the 
sharpness of the outlines, the flatness of the modelling (espe- 
cially of the carnations), the manner of treating the back- 
ground and accessories, the action of the horses, and above 
all the characteristic mode of touching the hair of the pecu- 
liar sort of face affected here and in the battle of St. Egidio, 
leave little doubt of the genuineness of these remarkable 
pictures." 

J have quoted this notice verbatim et literatim, as printed, 
and have no pretensions to connoisseurship wdiicli would 
justify me in questioning the accuracy of the judgment, or 
of the language in w^hich it is conveyed. My object in call- 
ing your attention to these pictures is not to discuss their 
merits as works of art, but as an antiquary wdio has devoted 
some years to the study of civil and military costume, to 
point out to 3'ou some features in the equipment of the 
knights in the picture in the National Gallery, and also in 
the one formerly in the Campana collection, which I am 
utterly at a loss to reconcile with the date attributed to the 
death of Paolo di Dono, which, according to the latest 
authorities, occurred in 1479, at the age of eighty-three.^ 

If born at Florence in 139G-7, he would have been nine- 
teen at the time the battle of St. Eoidio was fouoht, and 
consequently old enough to have a perfect recollection of 
the principal combatants, and could not be ignorant of their 
respective coat-armour, or at least would have had no diffi- 
culty in ascertaining it for his purpose. Painters of the 
middle ages, though they invariably depicted historical per- 
sonages of any period in the costume of their own time, 
neither indulging their imagination, nor troubling them- 
selves to avoid anachronisms (a negligence for which anti- 
quaries have reason to be deeply grateful), were neverthe- 
less remarkably particular in all heraldic accessories ; and 
when representing Julius Ca'-snr in the armour of the four- 

' G;iyc, Cortegijio incdito d'AttL<ii\ vol. i. p. 141. 



176 A PAINTING OF THE FIFTEENTB CENTURY 

teentli century, would be careful to distinguish his troops by 
the display of the eagle of the Roman empire, though probably 
in the form that it was borne by the house of Hapsburg. 
Now in the picture of what is called the battle of St. Egidio, 
in the National Gallery, the armour is of a character un- 
known to me in any part of Europe previous to the reputed 
death of Uccello in 1479. Granting that, like Titian, he 
painted at the age of eighty, he never could, as far as our 
present knowledge extends, have seen helmets of the form 
we find in the paintings attributed to him. The earliest 
reliable representation of them as yet discovered occurs in 
the splendidly illuminated MS. of the " Deploration de 
Genes", by Jean des Marets, describing the war of Louis XII 
of France with the revolted Genoese in 1507, and which 
appears to be the identical copy presented to Anne de 
Kretagne, the Queen of Louis, by the author. This MS. 
must necessarily be of a later date than the events repre- 
sented, and therefore, at the earliest, of the time of our 
Henry VII, upwards of one hundred years after the siege 
of Pisa, one of the subjects attributed to the pencil of 
Uccello, and between twenty and thirty subsequent to his 
death. 

In two of the miniatures of the aforesaid MS., engraved 
in Montfaucon's Monarchie Frangaise, Plates 196 and 197, 
the first representing the departure of Louis from Alexan- 
dria de la Paille, and the second the French forces attack- 
iug the Genoese forts, a helmet with a disk or rondelle at 
the back is frequently depicted. The engravings arc very 
poor, and the original drawings cannot be relied upon for 
linear accuracy or minutioe of detail. The King is repre- 
sented in a headpiece partaking more of the character of a 
casquet than a helmet. It has an umbril, but neither vizor 
nor beaver. A disk or rondelle, however, is clearly indi- 
cated behind it. Nearly all the knights and men-at-arms 
are depicted in close helmets with vizors and rondelles ; 
and as the backs of the majority are towards us, if they 
had been drawn larger or more carefully, we might have 
derived some satisfactory information respecting the pur- 
port of this curious feature, which has never yet been satis- 
factorily ascertained. Our present business with it, how- 
ever, is only to point out that this disk or rondelle, which 
Sir JSamuel Mcyrick considered one, of the distinguishing 



IN THE NATIONAL GALLERY. 177 

features of the species of liejulpieec termed an " armet'' in 
the early portion of the reign of Henry VJII, is repeatedly 
depicted in the pictures attributed to Paolo Uccello, who 
died, we are told, in the reign of our Edward IV. 

The question consequently arises, were helmets of this 
description known in Italy before 1479 ? Or are the paint- 
inors attributed to Paolo di Dono the work of some later 
artist ? That this is not a trivial question will, I think, be 
admitted by every antiquary, nor can it be looked upon 
with indifference by any one interested in the history of 
art. ]\L Yiollet le Due, who considers the close helmet to 
have been invented circa 1435, describes one with a disk 
{"rondeUe ou volef) in the Musee d'Artillerie at Paris, and 
adds, "cet armet date des dernieres annees du quinzieme 
siecle", an opinion which is fully borne out by the absence, 
as I have observed, of any such a headpiece in painting or 
sculpture of an earlier period. The helmet of the splendid 
suit of armour presented, according to tradition, by the 
Emperor IMaximilian I to King Henry VIII on his marriage 
with Catharine of Araoon, and now in the Tower of Lon- 
don, had originally one of the disks affixed to it ; but, alas ! 
like the gauntlets of the same suit, it lias gone the way of 
other articles of value and rarity in that long uncared-for 
collection. In the picture at Hampton Court, of the meet- 
ing of Francis I and Henry VIII at the " Field of the Cloth 
of Gold", the disk is also represented, and in the reign of 
the latter sovereign it disappears. 

With the exception, therefore, of the MS. of the "Deplo- 
ration de Genes'"', 1507, and the painting at Hampton Court 
just mentioned, we have no pictorial authority by which to 
test the date of the battle-piece in the National Gallery 
ascribed to Paolo di Dono, and the helmet of the suit in the 
Tower, which undoubtedly was made for Henry Xiil be- 
tween 14th Nov. 1501 and 3rd June 150.0, is the only 
known example extant of which the date can be authenti- 
cated ; while, on the other hand, no specimen exists which 
can be attributed to an earlier period, nor is any one of 
that fashion represented in painting or sculpture here or on 
the Continent previous to the sixteenth century, — twenty 
years at least after the presumed decease of Paolo Uccello. 

It must surely be considered surprising that in all the 
numberless illuminated MSS. of the tifioenth century, no 



178 A PAINTING OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY 

single instance slioukl have been discovered by Strutt, by 
Stothard, by Meyrick, by Hewitt, in our country, by Hoef- 
ner, WiUemin, Demmin, Viollet le Due, Quicherat, or any 
of the eminent foreign antiquaries who have devoted them- 
selves to the study of this branch of archaeology. But such 
is the fact ; and the picture in question has been twenty 
years in our National Gallery, apparently, without awaken- 
ing the curiosity of any artist or antiquary, myself alone 
excepted. 

Let us now consider the four paintings I have brought 
to your notice, chronologically, as regards the events they 
are said to represent. The first is the siege of Pisa by the 
Florentines in 1406, at which time Uccello was, according 
to one account, eleven years old. At what age he painted 
the picture is not suggested. A monogram appears in a 
corner of it, which is not discernible in the photographs 
taken of the picture at Eome, and which, by the kindness 
of Mr. Simonds and Miss Kate Field, I now exhibit to the 
meeting. It is a P and a V combined, the Y of course stand- 
ing for a U; and it is of consequence to ascertain whether 
such was the usual sio;nature of Uccello. There is no date. 
T should not, however, think it was an early work. Amongst 
the innumerable figures, some extremely small, I have with 
ditiiculty discovered one or two helmets apparently with 
disks at the back ; but no other lieadpiece whatever that I 
could venture to date later than 1450, a period when Paolo 
would have been in the plenitude of his powers. What little 
civil costume is discernible corresponds fairly with that of 
the military. The painter has paid great attention to the 
heraldic j)ortion of his subject. The standard of Florence 
is conspicuous, and the shields of numerous knights are 
resplendent with coat-armour by which they might be iden- 
tified. 

Ilie second picture is that said to represent the battle of 
St. Egidio in 1416, and which I have already described. 
Although historically but ten years later in date, the charac- 
ter of the costume is widely different, but similar in eveiy 
respect to that depicted in the third work, formerly in the 
Musee Campana, and now in the Louvre, the subject of 
which appears to have been unknown, as it is simply en- 
titled "Unc P)ataille. Tableau de Paolo Uccello." 

In tliis third picture we have the. peculiar helmets with 



IN THE NATIONAL CALLEEY. 179 

the disk, and the cxtraoi-diiiaiy, I might say preposterourf, 
crests which distinguish the preceding one. The leader, iii 
his turban-sliaped head-dress, is ahiiost a facsimile of the 
personage erroneously described as a prisoner in the former. 
Were he not on a black horse in lieu of a white one, we 
might imagine the subject to be another incident of the 
same combat : at all events it requires no great knowledge 
of art to feel satisfied that the two paintings are by the 
hand of the same master. 

Equally certain we may be that the fourth picture, called 
"The Battle of Anghiari", fought in 1440, between the 
Milanese under the famous leader Niccolo Piccinino, and 
the Florentines led by Micheletto Altendado, is by the same 
hand that painted the taking of Pisa. In size, style, draw- 
ing, and costume, it is as obviously a companion picture of 
the first as the third is of the second. The question in my 
mind is whether they are all four by Uccello ; and if so, is 
the one in the National Gallery correctly entitled 1 All 
four events occurred during Uccello's lifetime : the earliest 
when he was in the twelfth year of his age, the last when 
he was forty-four. Now in the two evidently companion 
pictures we have here before us, there is nothing to raise a 
doubt about the subjects. A monogram, said to be that of 
the painter, is distinctly visible, as I have stated, in " The 
Takino; of Pisa", and the well-known Icanino^ tower identifies 
the locality. Kespecting " The tJattle of Anghiari" I have 
only to observe an apparent contradiction it presents to the 
remarkable statement of Machiavelli, that althouo-h the con- 
nict lasted four hours " there was but one man slain, and 
he not by any wound or honourable exploit, but falling 
from his horse he was trodden to death". ^ In the picture 
there are at least three prostrate warriors clearly distinguish- 
able in the foreground, while curiously enough, in the pic- 
ture called " The Battle of St. Egidio" one solitary indivi- 
dual is seen lying dead under the feet of the horses. How- 
ever, I attach no weight to this apparent discrepancy. The 
names of the towns, Anghiari and Borgo, spelt " Elborgho", 
mentioned in the account of the battle, appear over the 
battlements. The fleur-de-lys of Florence and the guivre 
of the Viscouti clearly designate the contending forces ; 
and there is also the brido^e where, accordini]: to the histo- 

' History of Florence. Folio. Load., IGT'). Book 5. 
1S78 23 



180 A PAINTING OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY 

rian, the principal struggle took place. Other standards and 
armorial ensigns may be identified ; and as I have already 
stated, I can detect no anachronisms in the costume, unless 
the disks (if they be disks) are to be so accounted. Such, 
however, is not the case with the other pair of battle-pieces. 
If such helmets and crests were known in Italy previous to 
the death of Paolo Uccello in 1479, all Italian paintings and 
monuments I have seen attributed with anything like 
authority to that date must be untrustworthy. That they 
did exist some thirty years later there is abundant proof. 
Uccello could not have imagined them. AVe cannot escape, 
therefore, from coming to one of the following conclusions : 
firstly, that the various dates of birth and death of Paolo 
Uccello are all erroneous ; and secondly, that the picture 
called " The Battle of St. Egidio", in the National Gallery, 
and its companion which was in the Musee Campana, were 
never painted by that master. 

Of Paolo di Dono our knowledge is very unsatisfactory. 
Bryan, in his Dictionary of Painter's and Engravers, ignores 
the name of " di Dono", and describes him as Paulo Mazzo- 
chi, called "Uccello", and says he was born in 1849, forty- 
seven years earlier than the period assigned to him by Gaye 
and Vassari, and died in 1432, which would make him 
eighty-three, the age accorded to him by the latter writers 
from widely diff"erent dates. He is said by Zani, who denies 
that he was of the family of Mazzochi, to have signed his 
pictures " Pauli Uccelli opus", and such is the inscription on 
the pedestal of the colossal equestrian figure of John Hawk- 
wood, the famous English free lance, who died in the 
Florentine service in 1393 ; at which period, according to 
Bryan, Paolo would have been forty-four, and consequently 
Hawkwood's contemporary; whereas, if Gaye is correct in 
his dates, Paolo was not born till three or four years after 
the death of Hawkwood, and therefore could not have 
painted that picture even from memory ; and if really his 
work, it must have been designed from imagination. Accord- 
ing to Bryan also he would have been fifty-six at the time 
of the siege of Pisa, his painting of which has the mono- 
gram upon it, "P. v.", not "Pauli Uccelli opus", said to be 
his usual signature.^ On the other hand, if he died in 1432, 

' No dependence can be placed on this monogram, which is suspected to 
have been a comparatively modern addition. 



IN THE NATIONAL GALLERY. 181 

he could not, of course, have painted " The Battle of Anghi- 
ari", fought in 1440. 

I am no connoisseur. I do not pretend to pronounce an 
opinion on either the merits or the style of a painter ; but 
I am deeply interested in the study of costume, and more 
anxious to learn than ambitious to teach, I have vainly 
endeavoured to reconcile the discrepancies which have 
struck me in the examination of these pictures, which at 
all events are undoubtedly genuine w^orks of the fifteenth 
century by whomsoever painted ; and trust the Association 
will not consider that I have unnecessarily occupied its 
time in calling its attention to the archaeological importance 
of the subject. 



182 



ON JOSEPH OF ARIMATHEA. 

BY H. SYER CUMING, ESQ., F.S.A. SCOT., V.P. 

The early life of Joseph of Arimathea is an utter blank, and 
fact and fiction are so interwoven and blended in the legend 
regarding his later years, that it would be a hopeless task 
to strive to disentano-le the one from the other. The brief 
historic notice of the saint in Holy Scripture has been am- 
plified in the spurious Gospel of Nicodemus, alias the Acts 
of Pilate, composed by the Manichees in the third century; 
and monkish writers have so garnished and overspread 
these two ancient narratives with fable, that tradition has 
lost much of its strength and value ; but in spite of all this 
our interest in the man grows with iucreasinsj acres. 

St. Joseph is mentioned by all the four Evangelists, and 
from their records we gather that he was a native of Ramah 
or Arimathea, " a city of the Jews", that he was a person of 
wealth and honour, a Jewish senator, one of the Sanhedrim, 
and yet a secret convert to Christianity. We further learn 
that he had caused a sepulchre to be hewn in a rock in a 
garden near Mount Calvary, and that on the evening of the 
crucifixion of Our Lord he boldly went to Pontius Pilate, 
the Roman governor of Judsea, and craved the body of the 
Divine Martyr ; and on his request being granted, he, with 
Nicodemus, another Jewish senator, remov^ed the sacred 
corpse from the rood, and "wound it in linen clothes with 
spices", and " laid it in his own new tomb", and " rolled a 
great stone to the door of the sepulchre, and departed." 
And this is all that the inspired scribes tell us of this great 
and good and loving follower of Jesus. But where Scrip- 
ture terminates, tradition takes up and carries on the story. 
AVe are told, and we may accept it as a fact, that after the 
death of the Redeemer, Joseph of Arimathea openly joined 
the disciples, and thus evoked the hatred of his country- 
men, and jeopardised his life. 

With a view of securing bis safety, and at the same time 
spreading the light of the Gospel, Joseph quitted Palestine, 
and turned his steps towards Europe. Travelling into Gaul 
he there met St. Philip the Apostle, who instigated his 



ON JOSErH OF AlilMATHEA. 1 S3 

friend to pass over to Britain. It was a call from Heaven, 
and could not be resisted, so Joseph, with eleven faithful 
companions, among whom was Simon Zelotes, took ship for 
our island, then regarded as one of the utmost bounds of 
the west. The voyage was prosperous, the desired home 
was soon in sight, and reaching the Isle of Avalon, the little 
band landed at a place marked on old maps as the " Sea 
Wall", and where a tree grew known in after times as the 
"Oak of Avalon." Joseph and his companions, exhausted 
with fatigue, rested themselves at a hill on the south-west 
side of what is now the town of Glastonbury, and which 
received the title of" Weary-all-Hill", abbreviated in modern 
days into Wearial, AVerrall, and Wirrall Hill ; and here, on 
Christmas Day, Joseph of Arimathea took possession of the 
land, and consecrated it to the service of God by striking 
his walking-staff into the earth, which, from a dry hawthorn 
stick, quickly changed into a florescent tree, which for six- 
teen hundred years and more is reported to have budded 
and blossomed at each succeeding anniversary of the nati- 
vity of Our Lord, until some irreligious vagabond belonging 
to the Parliamentarian army hacked down the time-honoured 
and time-hallowed exotic. The venerable stump or root, 
however, remained visible as late as the year 1750, about 
which period a memorial-stone was fixed on the ground, 
bearing this brief record : 

I. A 

A.D 

XXXI. 

But though the parent tree was annihilated, it left behind 
it a goodly brood in and al)0ut Glastonbury ; and if their 
budding and blossoming be not so regular as of yore, they 
still put forth their florets towards the close of December ; 
and in January 1858 Mr. J. H. Payne of Bridgwater sub- 
mitted to the Association a twig of tiie "holy thorn" in full 
blossom, which he had plucked on the previous Christmas 
Eve.^ Those wlio have never seen the living hawthorn may, 
perhaps, derive some plcasnre by gazing on the withered 
slip 1 exhibit, which was kindly presented to me by our 
Vice-President the Pev. S. M. Mayhew, who on Sept. 17ili, 
1872, plucked it from one of the ancient trees still extant 
at Glastonbury. It may here be observed that the " Si'iNA 

' See Jonni'il, xiv, p. 201). 



184 ON JOSEPH OF ARIMATHEA. 

Sancta" appears on the Glastonbury penny tokens, and 
that the tree is called by botanists Cratcegus oxyacantha. 

At the time of St. Joseph's arrival in Britain the country 
was governed by a sovereign named Arviragus, who is stated 
to have shown great favour to the missionaries, and granted 
permission to the leader to build a chapel on the western 
side of Inis Avalon. John Hardyng, in his Chronicle of 
England unto the Reign of Edward IV (^rst printed by 
Grafton in 1543), tells us — 

"Joseph converied this King Arviragus, 
By his prechyng, to knowe ye lawe divine, 
And baptized hym as write bath Nennius, 
The chronicler in Britain tongue full fyne, 
(And to Cliriste lawe made him enclyne,) 
And gave him then a sbelde of silver white, 
A cross end long and overthwart full perfect. 
These armes were used tbrough all Brytaine 
For a common signe eche mane to know his nacion 
From enemies, which now we call certaine, 
St. Georges armes by Nenyus information. 
And thus this armes by Joseph's creacion, 
Full long afore St. George was generate 
Were worshipt here of mykell elder date." 

It seems to "be pretty well agreed that Arviragus, or Pra- 
sutagus as he is called by Hector Boetius, reigned from a.d. 
45 to 73, and Holinshed fixes Joseph's arrival in Britain to 
about the year 52. But whatever the period may have 
been, his mission was most successful, his converts nume- 
rous, and from the Avalonian hills streamed forth the 
glorious rays of Gospel light far and wide over the country. 
At length death overtook the good old man, and reverential 
hands laid his precious remains near the eastern extremity 
of the chapel he had caused to he erected, and which was 
the germ of that afterwards ever-famous Abbey of Glaston- 
bury, and where the shrine of Joseph of Arimathea proved 
a grand attraction to the devout pilgrims, as did also his 
holy well, of which the remains were discovered in 1825.^ 

The festival of Joseph of Arimathea was appointed to be 
kept in the Western Church on March 1 7, and in the Eastern 
on July 31; but in neither does the saint seem to have 
received the amount of homage and respect which we might 
fairly have expected ; and had it not been for the crafty 

» See Gent. Mag., 1825, p. 449. 



ON JOSEPH OF ARIMATHEA. 185 

old monks of Glastonbury making capital out of his name, 
his connection with Britain would probably locg ere this 
have passed from most men's minds. But it is worthy of 
note that the English bishops at the Council of Basle, held 
in the year 1434, claimed precedency of those of Castile in 
Spain on the ground of " Britaine's conversion by Joseph of 
Arimathea"/ 

Joseph of Arimathea is of necessity a conspicuous person- 
age in the group attending the descent from the cross by 
Albert Durer and a host of other mediaeval artists, and also 
at the intombment, but single figures of the holy mission- 
ary are rarely seen. Thanks, however, to the kindness of 
Mr, Watling I am able to lay before you sketches of two 
most interesting effigies of the saint, one being sculptured, 
the other painted, and both belonging to Suffolk churches. 
That wrought by the chisel stands in a niche of the Perpen- 
dicular period [circa 1450-60), on the roof of Earl-Stonham 
Church. The statue is bearded, wears a flattish cap, and 
sleeved tunic buttoned at the neck, and open in front, 
showing an under- frock. Resting on the palm of his right 
hand is a pyxis, or covered box of spices, which in shape 
closely resembles some of the old butter-glasses. His left 
hand held the miraculous hawthorn-staff, which is reported 
to have been broken away by some fanatic during the Com- 
monwealth, who also did other wilful damage to this curious 
image. 

The second sketch is, perhaps, of still higher interest than 
the foregoing. It is a copy of the painted glass in the 
upper tracery of the north window of the church at South 
Cove, apparently executed about the middle of the fifteenth 
century. The saint is here of most venerable aspect, with 
snowy beard flowing on his bosom. He has a tall red cap, 
recalling the Turkish fez ; a white mantle or tunic with 
enormously wide sleeves edged with gold, and with a sort 
of tippet round the neck, with long pointed ends bound 
with rich orphreys. The under-garment reaches to the 
naked feet, and is of a deep plum or purple colour. Balanced 
on the right palm is a golden cup or bowl, and the left 
hand rests on the top of the wondrous staff which has put 
forth its leaves. Behind the head is a broad golden nimbus 
with a white trcssure. The figure stands on a tesselated 

' See Fuller's Church History, b. iv. 



186 ON JOSEPH OF ARIMATHEA. 

pavement. The field of the picture is hatched or trellised 
all over ; and on either side of the effigy, at the lower part, 
are large and graceful golden leaves. 

I have been told, but cannot verify the statement, that 
other representations of Joseph of Arimathea occur at Bec- 
cles and Clare ; but 1 know not whether they be painted or 
sculptured. 

The history and effigies of Joseph of Arimathea have 
hitherto received such scant attention from archaeologists, 
that I have ventured to bring these few remarks before the 
Association, hoping thereby to awaken an interest in such 
matters, and induce others to pursue the subject, and fur- 
nish more ample details respecting the holy man and his 
mementoes than are at present at my command ; and 
gladly, too, would we learn something of his eleven brave 
and pious compeers, of whom not the faintest relic or memo- 
rial seems to exist. Their very names, save that of Simon 
Zelotes, are unrecorded, their individual actions forgotten. 
But of this we may be sure, that each, like their noble 
leader, played his part well and faithfully, and is reaping a 
rich reward in Heaven, and to whom we may justly apply 
the fervid verse of Montgomery, and say — 

" Tliese through fiery trials trod, 
These from great affliction came ; 
Now before the throne of God, 
Seal'd with His eternal name, 
Clad in raiment pure and white ; 
Victoz--palm8 in every hand, 
Through their great Redeemer's might 
More than conquerors they stand." 



1S7 



NEWDIGATE, SOUTH SURREY. 

BY THE liEV. S. M. MAYHEW, V.P., ETC. 

Sirs, will yon Ijccomc travellers with me to a district little 
known, but rich in interest ? And should your visit be in 
time of spring, you will see the far-stretching meadows 
sheeted in gold, dappled with pasque flowers, snow flakes 
trembliner on the tender o^reen, and as "the evenino; shades 
prevail", the melody of nightingales in wood and thicket will 
make the twilight vocal ; or in summer, stillness brooding 
on a fruitful land, broken by jangling team bells from deep 
lanes ; or in scented autumn, flashing from moss grown 
orchards the scarlet and crimson of its ripened fruits, and 
along the hornbeam hedges, a file fire of red and gold ; or 
winter, with his trailing garments white, tinged by purple 
and indisjo from the hills, ofttime wearinof aconite and the 
pale primrose, and ever merry with wassail and Christmas 
song; or penetrating by honeysuckled lanes, or climbing hills 
through fields of sounding corn, or meditating by the old 
dear church, wherein for seven hundred years the "rude 
forefathers of the hamlet" prayed, and around which they 
sleep. I promise no ramble shall be profitless, no antiqua- 
rian story without interest. Appointed to the charge of this 
district by the late Bishop of Winchester, the Right Rev. Dr. 
Sumner, I soon found much noteworthy in place and people ; 
the contrast to London was strongly marked, the centre of 
activity had been left for the life-dial standing as it stood 
some hundred years before. Lying between the Holm- 
wood, Leigh, Rusper, and Capel, it possessed within its 
boundaries thirteen miles of road, yet could only be reached 
by one narrow winding way, fenced by luxuriant hedge 
growths, shadowing oaks, and broken here and there by a 
moss-grown cottage, — a way rough enough in summer, al- 
most impracticable in winter time. A population so secluded 
from the great world must needs retain many local marks 
and customs, reflecting more or less the modus of the 
ancient village life of England ; and many of these true- 
hearted hard-handed sons, alike of toil and soil, could trace 
their simple histories back one hundred and fifty or two 

1878 24 



188 NEWDIGATE, SOUTH SURREY. 

hundred and fifty years. Indeed, the unclouded memory 
of many aged persons would bring a long past age clearly 
before you, in more than one case, connecting our own age 
by three lives, and in one most remarkable, by four, with the 
times of Charles I and the last Edward. On the scattered 
farms the wayfarer was sure of a welcome, and lodging if 
needs be ; the home-made rushlight burned on the oaken 
table, and the spindle and distaff were to be found with 
busy fingers when master and hind, mistress and maid, 
sat companionably by the great wide fire. AVheat was 
strewn before the bride, rosemary upon the cofiin ; the 
sermon, priests', and passing bells were tolled, and the 
custom of a full peal for burials had just ceased. Christ- 
mas was introduced by carollers and wassaillers; the Christ- 
mas song, for years out of mind, having been handed down 
in one family from father to son, the line ending in two 
aged and devoted brothers, who at the ages of seventy-eight 
and eighty, sang to me some of their ancient carols ; and 
soon after, when one was called, the survivor refusing 
comfort, pined and sorrowed, and passed to that land 
wherein " the weary are at rest". I speak of the customs 
of the peasantry ; but if it were to pass without remark, in 
my judgment a deep ingratitude and foul stain would dis- 
figure this paper by omission of mention of the memory 
of the late Eev. John Broadwood of Lyne, who carefully 
collected the words and music of these old-world carols. 
He was one jealous of innovation on the cherished country 
life, by poor and rich alike known, — the courtly, the 
loved, benevolent, and mourned, a true old English gentle- 
man. The district is singularly free from superstition, 
though not in the old days from smuggling. The pack horses 
from the Sussex coast, making straight inland, pursued 
three tracks, the outermost by Leith Hill, north-west ; by 
Leigh and Holmesdale, east ; and through Newdigate to the 
North Downs. Many are the tales, singular and true, of 
night adventure, and the costly presents of teas, silks, and 
liquor left at the house door, in the barn, or in the church — 
a reward for an illegally pressed team, restored when the 
" run" had been completed. 

It is pleasant to recall the traditions of a people who 
made our residence amongst them happy; forgive the recital, 
and let us turn to other subjects. The geology of the 



KEWDIGATE, SOUTH SURREY. 189 

district is WcalJen, and the clay and green sand vary in 
depth from 40 ft. to 600 ft., as at Ockley. The upper 
strata contain beds of paudina — carbonised wood and reeds, 
with great bones of extinct mammals. The vegetation, 
chiefly oak, in its glory about May 17. These oaks, I take 
it, may be the scions of the old forest stock which stretched 
from the sea to the North Downs, of which one gigantic re- 
mainder stands, or stood, at Ewood, once a hunting seat of 
the Dukes of Norfolk, under whose shadow, singularly 
enough, lived and died a centenarian, leaving seventy-one 
lineal descendants. Here, wherein the wolf kennelled and 
the wild boar found his lair, the Roman built his iron 
furnace, and left the slag mingled with bits of Samian and 
coin, the advantages of a wooded country and pleasures of 
venerie may have brought about an early settlement and 
residence. The boundaries of the parish are mentioned in 
Domesday, and its apparent history begins as a manor of 
Earl Warren and Surrey, granted by Earl Hamelin in the 
reign of Henry I to the church of St. Mary Overies, South- 
wark. In the reign of Edward I, John de Montfort exer- 
cised the rig-ht of free warren. The name of William 
Hersee appears as a proprietor in the reign of Edward II. 
The Earls of Warwick held an interest in these estates till 
1377, when they were sold to Sir Baldwin Frevill and Sir 
Thomas Boteler. At what time the Newdigates obtained 
the manor is not known, but documents prove possession 
in the time of John. From 1377 to 161^, a complete series 
of their wills exist, and, in the reign of Henry the Third, 
John de Newdigate possessed twenty acres of land by grant, 
called Lamputt's Fields. The Newdigates resided at the 
manor house, built on the shoulder of the southern hills, 
still existino; as Manor Farm, but retainino; few features of 
the old residence ; but this landscape on which the builders 
looked remains ; the winding grassy way, the upland above 
the house, where the noon of summer stillness is broken 
by the plover's cr}^ ; and westward stretch in long lines of 
groen and hazy Ijlue, rolling billows of matchless verdure, 
breaking on the picturesque heights over Ewhurst and Eudg- 
wick ; and down below glimmer in the sunlight, the grey 
old church and rectory. The original house was quad- 
rangular, with a fountain and extensive stabling. The 
principal characteristics passed away about one hundred 



190 NEWDIGATE, SOUTH SURREY. 

years since. Unfortunately we have few memorials of this 
ancient family. Thomas Newdigate de Newdegate directs 
the burial of his ody in the mortuary chapel of St. Mai- 
garet, within Newdigate churchyard. He gives twelvepence 
to the mother church of Winchester, and twelvepence for 
the high altar of the church of St. Peter, Newdigate, also 
bequeathing one-third of his goods to Alice, his wife. This 
lady died in 1489, and gave 6s. 8cl. for a missal for the 
church at Newdigate, 7s. for a porch, and twelvepence to 
repair the bells. Thomas their son dying 1516, by will was 
buried in the mortuary chapel, and directs an obit to be 
said for twenty years. His son died in 1521 ; he also was 
buried in the mortuary chapel, and directs an obit to be said 
for ten years by five priests yearly, every time to say five 
masses, for the souls of Thomas, his father, and friends, and 
each priest for his service to have sixpence. The mortuary 
chapel was pulled down by one of the last of the Newdi- 
gates. The property remained with the family until 1636, 
when it was sold to John Budgen of Dorking. 

Leaving Manor Farm and its associations by shady lanes, 
where great wild apple trees in spring time spread against the 
glowing sky a firmament of stars,by windingfootwaysthrough 
fields of scented corn, we come to Cudworth, a moated 
manor house, shut in by yews, and elms, and ancient 
orchards, and wild luxuriance of rose, and many a garden 
flower. Cudworth appears as a manor in the time of Ed- 
ward J, then held by Walter de Payle, of the abbot of Chert- 
sey. It came afterwards into the possession of the Newdi- 
gates, by whom it was sold in 1636. The house, though 
much altered, retains many original peculiarities ; around it 
is the quadrangular moat, flanked on the west by fish pre- 
serves, now dry. A bridge crosses into the tangled garden, 
and Cudworth, with its Perpendicular windows and old 
ruddy brick, is before you. The hall is now the " living 
room" of the house, with the great wide fireplace sadly con- 
tracted. In the corridor above, however, and apartments, 
many encaustic tiles remain in their places, together with 
mutilated memoranda of taste and elegance, and through 
the latticed panes fall the slow waving shadows of the great 
trees ; the blackbird sings merrily in the garden ; but more 
in consonance is the perpetual cry of the restless rooks, har- 
monising so well with the pictures of the past. Let us return 



NEWDIGATE, SOUTH SURREY. 191 

on onr steps to the church. According to Dngdale, the gift 
of Newithgatc to the priory of St. Mary Overics by Earl 
Hamelin was confirmed by Richard Toclive, Bishop of Win- 
chester. The chapel of St. Margaret, so often mentioned in 
the wills of the Newdigates, was given at the same time. 
The priory of St. Mary's also obtained, in the reign of Ed- 
ward 11, a license of appropriation, the value being £9 per 
annum. It was not, however, carried into effect, and on 
the dissolution of religious houses, it came to the Crown. 
In the reign of Edward I the value was twenty marks. 

The church, standing on high ground in the angle formed 
by two roads, and dedicated to St. Peter, is a structure of 
mixed architecture, consisting of chancel, nave, belfry, porch, 
and south aisle, wherein also was the chapel of Cudworth. The 
building dates from the reign of Henry II, and appears, as 
in other instances, to have expanded as the population in- 
creased. The measurement within the walls, across from 
north to south, was about 28 ft. by 40 ft., from which the 
chancel tending east may have been another 20 ft. by 18 ft. 
Was! I write a, memoir, not an autohiograpliy of the church; 
its recollections alone remain. Well, this chancel, its east 
window a triple, with lancet-headed lights, flanked north 
and south with two lon^ narrow round-headed windows, 
was the original building, with the priest's door and a 
small double window of a later period. The walls, nearly 
a yard in thickness, were raised of chert and sandstone from 
Leith Hill, and chalk from the North Downs. A wall equally 
massive closed the original structure to the west, though 
this was afterwards pierced, on the enlargements of the 
church, by an archway 9 ft. by 6 ft., with two recessed 
seats, leading into the main aisle of the nave. No record 
exists of the enlaroements. The south aisle was divided 
from the nave by two large well-proportioned arches of fine 
stone from Merstham quarries, springing from a low massive 
and moulded central pillar; the three windows of the nave 
being of two or three lights, with deeply-moulded trefoil 
heads, a larger Perpendicular window (north) having been 
inserted at a later period. Across the west end, and com- 
municating with the belfry, was a gallery of oak, curiously 
carved, and bearing the inscription that " This gallerie was 
buildcd by Henry Nicholson, gent., 1G27." The belfry was 
a celebrated structure, and extraordinary specimen of the 



192 NEWDIGATE, SOUTH SURREY. 

builder's art. With no foundation beyond massive logs of 
chestnut, and supported by fo.ur massive uprights, an intri- 
cate tower and spire went up 72 feet, surmounted by a 
cock, externally shingled ; witinn hung a ring of six bells, 
making a sweet and melodious music — so sweet, as heard 
over the fields, a floating tangled cloud of sound, a cloud 
of compensating colour. The porch south was compara- 
tively modern — a.d. 1703 — the year, however, of the great 
storm. So stood the dear old church, but oh ! the white- 
wash and neglect ! A partial restoration brought to light 
many memorials of the pious care of a past age. On re- 
moving the whitewash, the transverse beams and cornices of 
the nave appeared of sound black oak, and the walls painted a 
splashed crimson, with a running bordering for the windows. 
The great centre pillar had been also coloured crimson, and 
in the stone were engraved twenty-two Greek and Latin 
crosses. Between the great Perpendicular window in the 
north wall and the angle of the chancel, a running pattern 
of foliage covered the wall, forming a framing for holy 
portraits, many of which had been destroyed. The two 
preserved, and now presented to you, may have represented 
" The Salutation.'' 

Again, below these, on the very stones, appeared ecclesi- 
astical figures in priestly garments. The mullions and re- 
veals of the north window had been spotted with fleurs-de- 
lys and the Tudor rose, as represented in the annexed 
drawing ; and beyond, westward, was uncovered the magni- 
ficent fresco of St. Christopher (or, as a dear friend delighted 
to call it, "Sir Christopher"). The presented drawing will 
give you some idea of its beauty, its extent being about 
10 by 12 feet. The red cross of St. George on the pen- 
nants of the ships may, with the forms of naval architecture, 
mark the time of Henry V as its era. 

This fresco is well worthy of study, differing so widely 
from wall-paintings in general. The superiority of style, 
colour, and design, marks it the work of an artist. The face 
of the infant Christ is peculiarly engaging, and a majestic 
repose ennobles the form. Christopher is altogether the 
giant, and with upturned, wonder-filled visage looks upon 
Him Whom he bears. The saint is assisted in his passage 
by the stem of a tree having leafy branches ; and on the 
east side appears a monk. The infant Saviour is clothed 




^T. pHf^lSTOPHER, 



fnoM 



INTINQ DrSCOVBKED IN J^IbwDIQATB pHURCH, pURI^tV 
NOW DBS1R.OVBO. 



# 



KEWDIGATE, SOUTH SURREY. 193 

in a Ions: garment of red, with a rich, emLroidcrcd col- 
lar ; his hair auburn, his fiugers raised m benediction, 
his left hand bearing a golden orb and elevated cross, with 
a nimbus about his head. St. Christopher is in ample- 
sleeved coat, embroidered, with a girdle about his loins ; 
his legs are bare ; from his shoulders falls a purple cloak 
fastened by a golden brooch of three discs; a coloured fillet 
encircles his head, tied in a knot on the right ear; a nimbus 
also shines around his head. Three ships and a boat are on 
the w\^ter, and on the western side is a man fishing. A por- 
tion of this noble painting had been destroyed in a former 
nge. It was reserved for the year 1876 to complete its 
destruction. Another fresco was found on the south wall of 
Cudworth Chapel, but could not be uncovered. 

The windows shone with the arms of the Norfolks, the 
\YaiTens, and the Newdigates. Few remnants of glass tell 
their story now. One shield alone glows redly in summer's 
sunset, — the shield of the old Newdigates (gules, three 
bears' paws erect), awhile flinging its radiance on their tomb 
beneath, but soon leaving it to silence and shadows. From 
the tomb the brasses have been despoiled, two shields, 
and one full-length armed figure. A fine hagioscope, 3 ft. 
by 6 ft. ; a trefoiled piscina ; a church chest of a log of oak, 
dug out, and a slab for cover withal, and its three locks ; 
together with a few well-worn tesselated tiles, — comprise 
the remaining memorials of St. Peter's, Newdigate. 

The mortuary chapel stood in the north-east corner of the 
churchyard, and a number of German and English coins 
had been found in the south-west. Could the "church ale" 
have been held here 'i Happy memories of place and people ! 
To me the church and its services are closely connected 
with the memory of my old clerk, Stephen Tidy, — a 
character — descended from a family traceable in the Eegis- 
ters for more than two hundred years. In his way a learned 
man ; the depository of family history, folk-lore, and legend, 
and who, "with spectacles on nose", and voice to the last 
sonorous, long led the responses in the Sunday services. 

With a few extracts from the Eegisters this paper will 
conclude, leaving unsaid and unnoticed many mentionable 
things. The Eegisters of the parish commence, — baptisms, 
15G0; marriages, 1565; burials, 1590. They contain few 
notices of national importance, though many of local interest. 



194 NEWDIGATE, SOUTH SURREY. 

" King Charles y® 2nd was crown'd at Westminster, St. 
George's Day, April 23, a.d. 1661, whom God grant long- 
to reigne." Evidently the entry of a staunch Eoyalist. 

PhilHpa, daughter of George Brown, Esq., and of Lady 
Elizabeth, his wife, was born at Betchworth Castle Septem- 
ber 7, and baptised September 11, a.d. 1661. 1650, without 
a settled minister at Capel 1620, Mr. Eichard Newdigate 
was buried, the last. 

Erom October 1669 to May 13, 1673, no entries of mar- 
riages appear: 1584 appears to have been a fatal year. 
Sixteen burials are recorded, whereas in 1665 there were 
but six, and in 1666 but three. A registry of Dissenters 
was made 1696-7. A female child of Thomas Ede, a Dis- 
senter, born July 8, 1696 ; no notices of the Union, civil 
war, death of Charles, the plague, etc., but of Briefs. 

In Newdigate, March 5, 1670, was collected y® sum of 
£5:6:4 upon a briefe for the redemption of a great number 
of slaves, taken by Turkish pyrates. John Salt, curate. 

Newdigate, July 25, 1686, was collected the sum of 6s. 
upon a briefe, for the relief of the French Protestants. 
William Hurst. This marks the revocation of the edict of 
Nantes. 

Newdigate, August 5, 1686, was collected lO^d. upon 
a brief for repairs of the parish church of Eynsworth, Hun- 
tingdonshire. 

May 18, 1690. Collected in y^ parish church of Newdi- 
gate, on a brief, for a fire in East Smithfield, in Middlesex, 
y® sum of 8s. 3d. 

1691. Collected in y*" parish of Newdigate, from house 
to house, upon a second briefe for y'^ Irish Protestants, y° 
sum of 8s. 

Let me testify that on the occasion of the national col- 
lection for the sufferers by the Indian Mutiny, Newdigate 
did its duty, well and truly. 



195 



IProcfetiintjs of t!]e CTor.grfss, 

{Continued from p. 108.) 



Wednesday, August 29, 1877. 



Soon after 10 o'clock the members set out in considerable force and 
higher spirits than ever, enjoying a very pleasant drive over the 
celebrated road to Holyhead, which here runs through the valley of 
the Dee, and presents some of the most lovely scenery possible. This 
day was set apart for the examination of the Dyke, and pei'haps it 
was as well that the members had heard the description of it on Tues- 
day night, for the excursion party failed to strike upon it at the point 
where Mr, Burgess was waiting to unfold some remarkable evidences 
he had discovered in connection with its construction and uses. 

The first halt was made about two miles from Chirk Castle, the 
residence of Mr. R. Myddelton Biddulph, at a part of the road which 
was intersected by the well-known Clwyd Offa, or OfFa's Dyke, — a line 
of demarcation more probably than one of defence, — extending from 
the neighbourhood of Newmarket, in Flintshire, and traversing the 
counties of Flint, Denbigh, Shropshire, Radnor, Hereford, and ]\Ion- 
mouth, till it reaches Beachley at the mouth of the river Wye. This 
Dyke, according to popular belief, was constructed during the eighth 
century by Offa, King of Mercia, and Pennant says " was long con- 
founded with Wat's Dyke, to which it is equal in depth, though not in 
length, running parallel to it for many miles." 

At this place Mr. E. P. Loftus Brock, F.S.A., at the request of the 
company, led them along a portion of the ditch on the left hand side 
of the main road, and observed, among other things, on the analogy 
between the Roman Wall from Carlisle to Newcastle, and the earthen 
vallum and fosse they were then walking througii. On the Welsh 
side the indentation of the ditch is always noticed, and the mound 
on the English, thus indicating that it was made by the latter. As 
in the Roman work, so at this place, there are supporting forts of 
small size, with, in many cases, Saxon names ; and as we have several 
indications of OfFa's fondness for Roman models, the work before the 

1878 25 



190 PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 

pai'ty might safely, be considered, be ass'igned to OfFa, and an imita- 
tion of the great bulwark of stone already referred to. Apai-t from the 
evidences yet remaining, we also possess several notices of Offa's D3'ke 
in the early Welsh chronicles ; and open to doubt as some of them 
may be, they all refer to Oifa as the constructor. The Dyke was 
traced by the party to the edge of a steep hill descending sharply to 
the river Dee, within sight of the railway viaduct, which made a pro- 
minent feature in the lovely landscape. It then suddenly stopped, 
thus affording evidence of the use of natural boundaries, as has often 
been noticed elsewhere, such as a good river, for defence as well as for 
defining separate territories. Nothing of Offa,'s Dyke now remains to 
mark the formidable work which kept the sturdy Welshmen at bay, but 
a hedge and ditch, which must be often cleared by the Wynnstay 
hunters without the least diflSculty. At the Wrexham Temporary 
Museum, among the objects collected a few years ago, were some 
Roman remains found beneath the line of Offa's Dyke, which had evi- 
dently been laid in later times above these more ancient deposits. 

After an agreeable walk back to the Holyhead road, and a hurried 
look at the Dyke on the other side, the company proceeded to Chirk 
Park, and partly walking and driving reached the Castle, where they 
were met by Mr. Somerville, the agent of Mr. Biddulph, in the absence 
of that gentleman. They first inspected the servants' hall, where 
there is a large collection of muskets and other miscellaneous appa- 
ratus, which were used in the civil wars, and a number of other 
curious relics of the time of the Commonwealth. The muskets, 
Mr. Bloxam informed us, were fired from a rest from the centre of 
a column, and surrounded by pikes to keep off cavalry. It will be 
remembered that the famous Sir Thomas Myddelton, then owner of 
the Castle, played a prominent part in the civil wars. When member 
for Denbigh, he at first sided with the King, but afterwards went 
over to the other side ; and the King having seized the Castle in hia 
absence, in 1642, Sir Thomas Myddelton was appointed to the com- 
mand of the Parliamentary forces in Wales. At Welshpool, in con- 
junction with General Mytton, he defeated and shattered Prince 
Rupert's regiment of horse, and took Powis Castle, which was then a 
great Royalist stronghold. We are told that " by one of the whimsi- 
cal chances of the times", Sir Thomas Myddelton, with the Puritan 
army, besieged his own house, and could not take it. Among the 
relics of olden times in the servants' hall, are some old halberds, some 
curious armour, a wide-brimmed Puritan hat and hat-case, and an enor- 
mous " black-jack", 22 inches in height and 30 inches in diameter, 
probably of the time of Elizabeth ; and some singular square-toed boots 
which Mr. Brock thought were of the time of William 111, and might 
have suggested the nickname of " Old Square Toes". The main 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 107 

features of the Castle are now Elizabethan, though it was originally an 
Edwardian structure. In the courtyard is a stone inserted in a still 
later portion of the building, of the date of 163G, with the inscription, 
*' This new building, with the tower, was built all in one year by 
Thomas Myddleton, Knight." In going through the state rooms the 
visitors examined with the utmost interest the treasures of art and 
antiquity which they contain. While looking at the portraits in the 
saloon, which ai'e principally of the time of the Charleses, Mr. Bloxam 
stated that after devoting a great deal of care and attention to the 
subject, and examining many documents, he had arrived at the 
conclusion that the Duke of Monmouth was the legitimate son of 
Charles II. He had a great deal of evidence to show that the 
King was actually married to Lucy Walters, otherwise Mrs. Barlow. 
Amongst the things which attracted the special attention of the 
visitors was a cabinet, one of the finest in England, said to have cost 
£10,000, and given by Charles II to Sir Thomas Myddelton. The 
pictures painted on the cabinet, of the miracles of Christ, are ascribed 
to Rubens. The visitors were shown Charles I's bedroom ; but the 
bed in which the King slept has been removed to another part of the 
Castle. 

On their return to the courtyard, Mr. Loftus Brock made some 
observations upon the architecture of the Castle. He said he certainly 
had not expected to find Chirk Castle such a magnificent specimen of 
old work as it was. The exterior differed very little from the views of 
the last century repi'esentiug it. Many I'emarks had been made with 
respect to the extreme lowness and massive character of the towers, 
and also with respect to their being of a comparatively modern period. 
There was but little of the exterior of the Castle much older than the 
time of Elizabeth, while the windows on one side were clearly of the 
date assigned to them over the doorway leading into the domestic 
apartments, viz. 1036. They could, therefore, readily imagine that the 
Castle was in capital order for the siege, which they had all read of 
with so much interest. A careful examination of the Castle, however, 
rewarded them by indicating many relics of a building of much greater 
antiquity. On one side, the approach and the little doorways leading 
to it were all indicative of an Edwardian castle of the date of some- 
where about 1350, probably a little earlier. The round towers there 
told their own history. They Avei-e relics of the Edwardian castle, 
with many architectural features of the time of Elizabeth, and with the 
additions still later to which he had referred. The domestic chapel 
had, indeed, been a gem of its kind. It was one of the most interest- 
ing domestic chapels he had seen for a long time. It had a Decorated 
window with very good tracery ; and there was a window on the north 
side of the same character, very pure in style, and now built against 



198 PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 

by more modern work. There was also a Perpendicular window on 
the south side with very characteristic tracery. They had, thei'efore, 
within the chapel architectural relics of an earlier period than would 
appear upon a cursory inspection. It was filled with the peculiar fit- 
tings of a domestic chapel of the time of Charles I, and was on that 
account even deserving* of a careful examination. There was a screen 
of that period, which was by no means a rood-screen, for it never had 
a crucifix. The pulpit, reading-desk, and other ecclesiastical fittings, 
were within the chancel-screen. The Communion-Table was note- 
worthy. It was not placed as was usual in the Caroline period, but 
was made in the form of an altar. The fittings, however, were in a 
very dilapidated condition, and he trusted the suggestion might be 
conveyed to Mr. Myddelton Biddulph that something should be done 
to rescue the chapel from its present state of decay. 

Mr. Bloxam said that some of the fittings in the chapel were of the 
eai'ly part of the last century. 

Mr. Brock said these were so dilapidated that it was difficult to say 
what they were. 

Mr. Talbot said he wished to point out, with regard to a portion of 
the building assigned to 1636, that the present finish was not original, 
but that a parapet had been added. The fourteenth century wall of 
the Castle appeared to have been abruptly broken. The very fine old 
entrance-gateway, with two arches near the outer arch, was also, he 
supposed, of the fourteenth century. 

Mr. S. I. Tucker, Bouge Croix, said he thought that a portion of the 
Castle, assigned to the seventeenth century, was of an older date, and 
in this he was confirmed by Mr. Brock. 

Before leaving, many of the visitors ascended the watch-tower and 
ramparts, which are reached by a flight of stone steps, and from which 
a magnificent view of the surrounding country is obtained. It is said 
that seventeen counties can be seen from this " point of 'vantage", but 
that is, of course, an exaggeration. 

Leaving the Castle, the party drove through the finely wooded park 
to the Hand Hotel, where an excellent luncheon was awaiting them in 
the schoolroom. After luncheon they drove back over Pont Cyssellthe, 
a bi-idge over the Dee at Cefn, similar to, but smaller than, the bridge 
at Llangollen, through Llangollen to visit Valle Crucis Abbey and 
Eliseg's Pillar. 

After an examination of these very beautiful and well-kept remains, 
Mr. W. W. E. Wynne, M.A., F.S.A., gave an interesting narrative of 
how the late Lord Dungannon and himself excavated an enormous 
mass of earth from the interior of the nave, and thus revealed the entire 
ground-plan of the church, bringing to light many a hidden monu- 
ment and tomb. Among them was one having an inscription of a very 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 199 

early date on the lid, in memory of a member of the Trevor family, to 
whom the Abbey belonged. Tlie stone is most carefully and reve- 
rentl}^ cared for to this day by Miss Lloyd, the guardian of the precious 
remains of this far-famed and most interesting building. 

Mr. E. P. Loftus Brock then proceeded to read a very elaborate and 
well-prepared history of the Abbey, the delivery of which was fre- 
quently greeted with merited applause. This paper will be found 
printed above, at pp. 145-158. 

Mr. Wynne of Peniarth said that his late friend Lord Dungannon, 
and himself, had the building excavated. There was not a single tomb- 
stone visible before that work was begun, except that in the upper 
part of the Monastery, now forming the top of a chimneypiece. The 
name on the stone was certainly not Welsh. With regard to the 
name of the Abbey, he thought it was sometimes called the Abbey of 
Llanegwestl, and sometimes that of Valle Crucis. In an arbitratory 
award to settle a dispute between some chieftains and the Monas- 
tery, now in his possession, it was called Valle Crucis. The award 
was dated 1247. On the west wall was an inscription in memory of 
Abbot Adam ; and there was the record of an abbot of that name in 
the fifth year of Edward III, and again in the seventeenth year of the 
same King. He supposed that the part of the church was finished 
after his death, as the words "Qwiesca^ anima'^ are found. Some 
Perpendicular work was introduced in the wall of the south transept, 
where there was a very good window of that style. The date on one 
of the tombstones was 1290, which was the earliest dated tombstone 
he ever heard of. Mr. Bloxam could tell them whether there was any 
earlier. 

Mr. Bloxam said there were one or two of earlier date, but that was 
one of the very earliest. 

Mr. Wynne said it was the tomb of a relative of the founder's family, 
the lords of Dinas Bran. It was protected by a movable cover, so that 
it might not be injured by people walking over it. In excavating it they 
found an immense number of human bones and one entire skeleton, 
which they had re-buried. These Cistercians did not appear to have 
adhered very strictly to their rules of discipline. One of the abbots 
bad a bard who wrote a great number of poems, and in one of these, 
addressed to a friend, he invited him to "come and drink the abbot's 
ale." They found in the Abbey a great mass of rubbish, which was, 
no doubt, the debris of the central tower. 

Mr. Brock said he thought they ought not to separate without ex- 
pressing their deep sense of the obligation under which all archjBolo- 
gists lay to j\Ir. Wynne. They owed to him almost all thp beauty of 
that church. Mr. Wynne found it a heap of rubbish, and he had left 
it one of the most interesting objects of study in the Principality. He 




200 PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 

hoped that some of the owners of similar buildings would take a lesson 
from Mr. Wynne. By charging a fee for admission they might not 
only obtain a fund sufficient to keep up the building, but also to employ 
some one to take charge of it. 

Mr. Wynne said he was very much obliged for the remarks which 
had been made. The credit for the work, though partly due to him, 
was much more due to the late Lord Dungannon, who took a strong 
interest in everything that related to the antiquities of his country, 
and especially to the restoration of churches. Lord Dungannon pro- 
posed the restoration, and he (Mr. Wynne) gladly helped him in cai^ry- 
ing it out. 

Mr. Bloxam then made a few remai'ks upon the monuments of the 
church. He said it was extremely rare to find sepulchi^al effigies of 
abbots. He only knew two, and they were both of the fourteenth 
century. In Stoneleigh Abbey was a very curious MS., written by an 
abbot of the fourteenth century, called Acta Ahhahim. One of the 
abbots appeared to have been regarded as a very simple-minded man, 
and it was remarked of him that the disposal of money was not in his 
way. The chronicle also said of an abbot, that the only good thing he 
did in his life was to rebuild the refectory. With regard to the 
domestic buildings, what was said to be the monks' dormitory was, 
he thought, the abbot's lodgings. With reference to the double 
piscina in that church, the only writer who had given an explanation 
of it was a learned French ecclesiologist, who said that the one side 
was used for the water with which the priest performed his ablutions 
previous to the sacrifice of the mass, and the other for the water with 
which the chalice was rinsed. Mr. Bloxam's remarks were inter- 
rupted by the pressure of time, and the party then proceeded to Eliseg's 
Pillar. 

Mr. Bloxam had prepared a paper on the subject, from which he 
read some extracts, after expressing his regret that the elucidation of 
the subject had not been undertaken upon the occasion by a Welsh 
antiquary. That pillar was perhaps the earliest inscribed lapidary 
pedigree in this country, and carried them back several generations. 
Of the numerous inscribed post -Roman memorial stones in this 
country, extending from the sixth to the ninth century, the pillar of 
EHseg is the most remarkable. These memorial or inscribed sepulchral 
stones are mostly rude and unshapen monoliths, with the inscriptions 
irregularly incised in misformed letters, altogether dissimilar to the 
regular-formed and sculptured sepulchral monuments and altars of the 
Roman era, with their well-cut inscriptions. Those of the post-Roman 
period, that is, of the Britons after the Romans, are ofttimes inscribed 
in a corrupted and false latinity, sometimes in a few w^ords only, not 
disposed horizontally, but vertically, and in many cases they merely 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 201 

contain tlie name of the person commemoratecl, and of liis father, as 
that on the Margam mountain, the Bodvor stone, commonly called the 
Maen Llythyrog. " I can (continued Mr. Bloxam) find no mention of 
this monument in Leland,or the earlier editions of Camden, neither of 
whom appear to have seen it, or had any knowledge of it. As far as I 
have been able to ascertain, it was first noticed by Archbishop Ussher, 
about the middle of the seventeenth century. He transmitted an 
account of his discovery to Dr. Gerai'd Langbaine, a learned divine of 
those days. The pillar was thrown down during the civil wars and 
broken into two pieces. Mr. Robert Vaughan of Hengwrt, a cele- 
brated Welsh antiquary, saw it in this state in 1662, and took a copy, 
which Mr. Edward Llwyd transcribed, and sent in 1692 to the learned 
Dr. Mill, the principal of Edmund Hall, Oxford. Mr. Llwyd also in- 
serted the inscription in his Welsh Itinerary. It there consisted of 
thirty-one lines. In 1779, Mr, Lloyd of Trevor Hall^ erected the 
upper part of the column, containing sixteen lines of inscription on its 
ancient base, which he placed upon a rough tumulus, and set it up 
where it now stands. The remaining portion of the column has long 
since disappeared." For these facts he was indebted to Owen and 
Blakeway's History of Shreivshury, published in 1825. After quoting 
Pennant, Mr. Bloxam gave the inscription from Mr. Yaughan's copy, 
and a translation of it. The following is the first portion of the inscrip- 
tion, which is in minuscule, or so-called Irish letters. The translation 
is as given in the ArcJiceologia Camhrensis : — 

" Concenn filius Catteli, Catteli 
filius Brohcmail, Brohmail filius 
Eliseg, Eliseg filius Guoillauc. 
Concenn itaque pronepos Eliseg 
edificavit huuc lapidem proavo 
suo Eliseg." 

(" Concenn, the son of Catteli ; Catteli, the son of Brochmail ; Broch- 
mail, the son of Eliseg ; Eliseg, the son of Guoillauc ; Concenn, there- 
fore the great-grandson of Eliseg, erected this stone to the memory of 
his great-grandfather, Eliseg.") With regard to the age of the monu- 
ment, Mr. Bloxam said: "It is a late, perhaps the latest lapidary in- 
scription of the kind we have. It may be of the eighth century, but 
how comes it to be so unlike in form the rude and unworked monoliths 
on which the other lapidary inscriptions are graven. I believe it to have 
been originally a Roman column from some Roman building, perhaps 
brought there from Deva, Chester, perhaps from Uriconium, Wroxeter. 
It has the peculiar entasis or swelling of classic art. It is not repre- 
sented so in the various engravings that appear of it, and I cannot 
find that any photograpli has been taken of it. The inscription is not 
legible, but if a cast was taken of it, it is possible that some portion 



202 PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 

might be made out by artificial light and shade. An engraving of this 
pillar appears in the History of Slirewshunj ; another, after a drawing 
by Dr. Parker, is given in the Gentleman'' s Magazine for April 1809 ; and 
a third appears in Pennant's Tours in Wales, published in 1810. Pen- 
nant treats of it as follows : — It is said that the stone, when complete, 
was 12 ft. high. It is now reduced to 6 ft. 8 ins. The remainder of 
the capital is 18 ins. long. It stood upon a square pedestal, still lying 
on the ground. The breadth of it is 5 ft. 3 ins., and the thickness 
18 ins. Within these few years, says Pennant, the tumulus was 
opened, and the relics and certain bones were found thex*e, placed as 
usual in those days between some flat stones." 

Mr. Brock mentioned a curious story about a skull, which was found 
when the excavations were made there, having been gilded and then 
re-interred. 

The evening meeting began soon after 8, the chair being taken by 
the Right Rev. N^. J. Merriman, D.D., Bishop of Graham's Town. After 
a short introductory address by the Chairman, philological archaeology 
was discoursed to the members by Professor Rhys of Oxford, whose 
paper on the mythology of the neighbourhood was received with great 
delight, and will be printed hereafter ; and by Dr. Margoliouth, whose 
endeavours to trace an affinity between the Cymri and the Israelites 
were not so readily acquiesced in. Analysis of Oriental archaeological 
fragments, now in the British Museum, led him, he said, to conclude 
that the term hjmro, " priest of an idolatrous system", was closely 
allied to the name Omri, the notorious king of Israel, who consum- 
mated the idolatrous system among the ten tribes who seceded from 
the house of Jacob. This paper will also appear in a future Journal. 

At the close of Dr. Margoliouth's paper. Professor Rhys proceeded 
in a vigorous manner to demolish the ingenious theory which the rev. 
doctor had, with a great expenditure of labour and learning, constructed. 
He said that he (the professor) did not know much about the Semitic 
languages, but, from a Celtic point of view, the whole thing was a 
mistake. The word " Kymry" was perfectly capable of analysis, ac- 
cording to the rules of Welsh philology, and they had no occasion to 
go to the Hebrew or any other language for an explanation of it. Pro- 
fessor Rhys then explained the derivation of the word, which originally 
meant " compatriot", hym being the same prefix as com in the Latin. 
As the word was perfectly explicable as a Welsh word, why should 
they go to the Hebrew ? It was a long way off. The learned doctor 
seemed to suppose that Gael and Kymry were synonymous. They 
were nothing of the kind. It was useless to compare a Welsh word of 
the present day with the Hebi-ew. The mutations of consonants and 
the gradual change known as pliouetic decay must be taken into 
account. Welsh words of four syllables, found on ancient inscribed 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 203 

stones, were in the present clay reduced to two syllables. Dr. Mar- 
goHouth had drawn his picture without any perspective. Any number 
of theories might be constructed from the superficial resemblance of 
words in different languages. 

Dr. Margoliouth, who was received with cheers, made a short 
reply. 

Dr. Phene described a visit he had paid to the objects exhumed by 
Dr. Schliemann at Mycenje, and characterised them as the greatest 
archaeological results of the age ; at the same time, he was disposed to 
disagree with some of the theories which had been advanced with 
resrard to the identification and age of the remains. 



Thursday, August oOtii, 1877. 

The members and visitors left Llangollen in carriages at ten o'clock 
for Corwen. The morning was bright, with a rather sharp though 
pleasant breeze, and, with the exception of one or two showers, the 
weather continued fine throughout the day. As they left Llangollen, 
they entered the delightful valley of Glyndyfrdwy, so largely associated 
with the history and traditions of the great chieftain Owain Glyndwr. 
On the way, the visitors alighted at an ancient farmhouse, to look at a 
table which is said to have come from Owain Glyndwr's house. The 
table, which is a very primitive piece of furniture, has been at some 
time cut in two. Mr. Bloxam was inclined to think that both the 
house and the table were not older than the first half of the seven- 
teenth century, though a splayed and deeply-recessed window in one of 
the rooms seems of much eai'lier date. 

The visitors also inspected a tumulus, near which Mr. Bloxam and 
other authorities said was in all probability a small British military 
outpost or watch-tower. 

On their reaching, at Sychnant, the supposed site of one of the I'esi- 
dences of Owain Glyndwr, where there is a tumulus about 30 ft. high 
by the roadside, near the seventh mile stone from Llangollen, and called 
"Glyndwr's Mount", Mr. G. R. Wright, F.S.A., the Excursion Secre- 
tary, read a paper containing an interesting historical sketch of Owain 
Glyndwr. Mr. Wright said that from that neighbourhood the great 
chieftain used to view his territory, for fi-om one point he could, it is 
said, see forty square miles of his patrimony. A celebrated poet, lolo 
Goch, had given a gloomy description of Glyndwr's palace, but whether 
there or at Sycharth, at which he frequently enjoyed the great chief- 
tain's hospitality, was not certain. They might probably allow some- 
what for the poetic licence of the bard when he compared the house 

187S 26 



204 PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 

to Westminster Abbey. It appeared to have had a gatehouse and 
moat. Within its walls were nine halls, each furnished with a ward- 
robe, which has to modern antiquarians more than one signification, 
though Pennant thought the word applied to the clothes of the ad- 
herents of this great prince of Wales. Near the house, on a verdant 
bank, was a wooden house, supported on posts and covered with tiles. 
It contained four apartments, each divided into two, for the use of the 
guests. Here was a church of a cruciform shape, with several chapel- 
ries. The seat was surrounded with every convenience for good living. 
There was a warren, and of course a pigeon-house, a mill, orchard, and 
a vineyard. Fishponds, filled with pike and gwyniads, which were 
brought from Bala lake ; a heronry for spoi't, and to supply the palace 
with game. The bard dwelt feelingly on the wine, the ale so 
sparkling, and the broad so white ; and, as he descanted on the 
cook, he did not forget the kitchen. Two dates wei"e given as that 
of Owain's birth, — 1354 and 1349, both during Edward Ill's long 
reign of fifty yeai-s, the former being the generally received date. 
After looking at a tumulus close by, just above the Dee, and covered 
with trees, the archjBologists returned to their carriages and drove on 
to Corwen, which was the rendezvous of the army collected to oppose 
Henry IV. 

The parish church of Corwen was then visited, and a paper on the 
subject was read by the rector, the Rev. W. Richardson. The church 
is dedicated to the Armorican missionaries, Mael and Sulien, who 
lived in the sixth centuiy. There is a singular legend in connection 
with a rude stone which is built into the wall of the north porch. 
The stone was called " Carreg y big yn y fach rewlyd", " the pointed 
stone in the icy nook". It is said that all attempts to build the 
church in any other place were frustrated by the influence of certain 
adverse powers, till the founders, warned in vision, were directed to 
the spot where this pillar stood. The Gossiping Guide says that similar 
stories are told of other Welsh churches. Mr. Richardson remarked 
that this stone appears also to supply the name of " Corfaen", the 
"enclosure or choir of the stone", rather than " Corwen", the "white 
choir or church". The latter would not have been applicable to the 
church, both the fi-eestone and the rough stone being of a rather 
darkish shade. Another curious legend is to the effect that the mark 
of a cross^ on the stone over the south door of the chancel is the im- 
press of Owain Glyndwr's dagger, which he threw down from the 
precipitous cliff just behind the town. In the churchyard is the shaft 

' The total length is 22i inches, including the hilt, which is 4^ inches long; 
the cross-guard is 10 ins.; the Wade, 1| inches wide, and is sunk in the wall 
from half an inch to an inch. One of the daggers is preserved at Rug House 
with other relics of the " Lord of the Water Valley." 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 205 

of a very ancient cross, probably of the seventh or eighth century, 
called the " Sword of Glyndwr", 7 ft. high, with roll mouldings, with 
interlaced cablework on the top. On the north side of the chancel, 
under a semi-circular arch, lies the very curious monumental effigy of 
lorwerth Sulien, a vicar of Corwcn, in his sacerdotal vestments, the 
upper part of the figui'e being in relief, and holding the chalice of a 
priest, and the lower portion a flat surface, with the inscription, " Hie 
jacet lorwerth Sulien vicarius de Coi'vaen ora pro eo." The monu- 
ment belongs to the end of the fourteenth or beginning of the fifteenth 
century. It has been said, but without good authority, to refer to St. 
Sulien, " the godliest man and greatest clerk in all Wales", who gave 
his name to a sacred well near Kug Chapel, from which it is said water 
was fetched in olden times to fill the font of Coi'wen Church. The 
church was restored in 1871-1872 by Mr. Ferrey. It was originally 
cruciform, but the south transept has been entirely swept away, and a 
south aisle, with an arcade of heavy arches and pillars added. Some 
fourteenth century carved work let into the communion rails, and an 
oak chest in the vestry, made out of the trunk of some bygone giant of 
druidical groves, were the only relics of the past. The dimensions of 
this tree may be gathered from the fact that it is 2-5 ins. across, 29 ins. 
deep, and is 4 ft. 8 ins. long. Mr. Richardson in his paper said that, 
before the alterations made by Mr. Ferrey, there was little architec- 
tural character to the church. Most of the windows were round-headed 
ones of the Hanoverian period, without muUions or tracery, while those 
which possessed any tracery were of comparatively modern and very 
debased type. The tower, it would be noticed, remained untouched 
to gladden the heart of the new Society for the Protection of Ancient 
Buildings. A project for improving the tower was, fortunately as 
some might think, deferred on account of a lack of funds. There is a 
beautiful triple-lighted window at the east end. According to Mr. 
Thomas, the date of 1777 upon the chancel ceiling appears to indicate 
the time when the nan-ow lancets which had existed throughout the 
church in 1729 were closed up or replaced bj^ round-headed Hano- 
verian windows, but no indications of old lancet windows were found 
when the present windows were inserted. Mr. Richardson said it was 
characteristic of Welsh churches that they were of great length in pro- 
portion to their width. Very frequently no break occurred in the roof, 
which ran from end to end, as it did at Llanycil, the mother church of 
Bala, Llanfor, near Bala, and other churches. There was usually a 
chancel arch, but only a rood screen. He thought that the narrow- 
ness of the churches might be explained from the fact of their being 
stronger and more easily roofed over. The plan of a continuous roof 
was more likely to keep the rain out, which in Wales frequently fouml 
its w^ay through the thickest and apparently best built walls. During 



206 PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 

the restoration, the base of the original rood screen was discovered, 
which, instead of being in a line with the walls of the transept, was 
found to be considerably further eastward. The general opinion ex- 
pressed by the antiquaries present was that the church was of the 
fourteenth century, though Mr. Richardson thought the east window 
probably indicated the date of a century earlier. The font is much 
earlier still. 

After luncheon, which was provided by Mr. and Mrs. Jones of the 
Owain Glyndwr Hotel, in the schoolroom, John Roberts, a Welsh bard, 
and his four sons performed some Welsh music, and the party then drove 
to Rug Chapel. This chapel, which is about a mile from Corwen, on 
the north-west side of the Dee, and is of the seventeenth century, has 
nothing in its exterior to attract notice, but the internal arrangements 
and decorations give it a quite unique and old world appearance. The 
only distinction between the nave and chancel is a Caroline screen, 
with a perforated fi'inge of older date. Seen through the openings is 
a very quaint reading desk, with Welsh mottoes on the panels. On 
the eastern side of the screen are two curious stalls, with small panels 
and turned posts, highly decorated with colour. One of these belonged 
to the lord of the manor, and the other to the incumbent of the parish. 
The upper part of the communion table is enclosed with panel work. 
The sittings of the church are very low, and quaintly cai'ved. The 
bench ends are of very singular pattern, rising from a solid carved 
beam in the floor in a crescent-shaped support to the seat. The curious 
carving on their supports is part of the oldest work in the building. 
The roof is divided into four bays by moulded arches, and the inter- 
vening space is panelled by moulded purlieus and beams with illu- 
minated bosses. The gallery has open balusters of the Stuart period, 
the supporting beam being ornamented with a late imitation of the 
bolt and hand moulding, and the springers with quaintly-robed angels. 
There is a most eccentric looking candelabra in the centre of the 
church, and amongst the mural decorations is the figure of a skeleton, 
with representations of an hour glass and two half-burnt candles in 
ordinaiy brass candlesticks, with an inscription in Welsh, of which the 
Jollowing is a translation : — " As the candle burns so life passes away. 
My eyes and nose are gone, and I am silent. My flesh is consumed, 
and no one knows me." 

The Rev. W. Richardson read a paper upon Rug Chapel, which will 
be printed in a future place in the Journal. 

In answer to a question, Mr. Richardson said it was generally sup- 
posed that the roof was brought from an old chapel five miles off. The 
inscriptions were in Welsh. If the chapel had been built in Roman 
Catholic times they would have been in Latin. The removal of the 
roof from elsewhere may be received with considerable doubt, since 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 207 

from its style it agrees so completely with other woodwork in Wales 
of seventeenth century date, particularly with that of the south chapel 
of Llanrwel Church, which is said to have been designed by Miss Jones. 
It is to be regretted that in the recent restoration of the little chapel 
all the windows and other architectural stonework has been renewed 
and replaced with modern designs of the fifteenth century style, quite 
out of harmony with the building. 

Mr. M. Bloxam said that the internal arrangements of the chapel 
were exceedingly interesting. The first time he passed by it, a few 
years ago, judging from the exterior, he thought it was all new work. 
It was one of those structures to which they might apply the old say- 
ing, " Fronti nulla fides", and it was certainly one of much historical 
interest. Unfortunately the arrangements of many of these chapels 
had been or were being destroyed. Sometimes they were the arrange- 
ments of the Puritan system, where they had seats arranged round the 
communion table. These were fast disappearing, and he regretted it 
very much. They had also the Laudian Church arrangements, where 
the chancel, as in pre- Reformation times, was separated by a screen 
from the body of the church, as in that chapel. Both these arrange- 
ments spoke of historical times, and of the polemics of those times. 
The emblems of death painted on the walls were very common in the 
latter part of the sixteenth and the earlier part of the seventeenth 
century. In the fifteenth century sepulchral monuments were sculp- 
tured effigies, but in the two succeeding centuries they found skeleton 
figures, which had been described as " the lively figures of death". 
He hoped those fittings would be allowed to remain as they now were, 
as an historical memorial of the church arrangements of the seven- 
teenth centuiy. He was very sorry to see either the Puritan arrange- 
ments or the Laudian arrangements disturbed. 

Mr. Morgan, Hon. Treasurer, then proposed the thanks of the Asso- 
ciation to Mr. Richardson for his courtesy and for his papers on Cor- 
wcn Church and Rug Chapel. 

The archceologists next drove to the Gaer, or Caer Drewyu, a most 
extensive station, of great elevation, overlooking Corwen and the Dee. 
The great area, enclosed by low polygonal walls of immense strength 
and thickness, although of loose stones carefully piled up and fitted 
together with regular faces of good work (as upright to-day as when 
they were first erected), was probably used as an early British fortress, 
or as a meeting-place of some of the tribes of the country. The word 
(jaer appears in a way to be connected with the ga or gau, the well- 
known tribal system of territorial government, shown by Kemble to 
have obtained very extensively throughout England at an early period 
of our histor3-. It is certainly difficult to sec how water was supplied 
to this and other similar hill-fastnesses which are here to be observed 



208 PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 

at every turn ; and tliose wlio fled to these hills for refuge must, from 
this circumstance alone, have been easily compelled to retire before an 
enemy whose principal difficulty in reducing them was, perhaps, the 
inability of finding suflBcient sustenance in the immediate confines. 
This fortress consists of a rough rampart formed of the loose stones of 
the country, about 15 feet wide at the base, with a rectangular enclo- 
sure to guard the entrance. At the north-east corner some sti'onger 
entrenchments could be seen. The antiquarians present were all agreed 
that the entrenchment was of British origin. It is true that some 
Roman remains have been found, but it is suggested that the Romans 
might have made a temporary sojourn here. They did not, it was 
said, like the British, construct their fortifications on such heights, but 
more often in the valleys. 

Mr. Bloxam said it was most probably one of the frontier fortresses 
of the Ordovices, one of the three great British tribes. The Romans 
would hardly have erected the large ciixular huts found in the 
encampment. They might have taken possession of the ancient Bintish 
works ; but their regular entrenchments were low down, near the 
stream. 

Mr. Wright referred to a tradition that Owain Glyndwr took pos- 
session of these heights, and entrenched himself there. It has been 
also suggested that Owain Gwynedd, a Prince who ruled in 1165, and 
who made Corwen his headquarters, might have occupied this position 
in his conflict with the forces of Henry II. Pennant speaks of his 
having traced the marks of " abundance of tents" from the encamp- 
ment south of Corwen Church to the village of Cynwyd, two miles dis- 
tant ; but they might have belonged to Owen Glyndwr, who concen- 
trated his forces here previous to the battle of Shrewsbury. In one 
part of the Caer Drewyn encampment a quantity of debris had been 
removed in order to show a portion of the wall still standing. 

In the course of a few remarks made by Professor Hughes, he said 
he thought the camp belonged to the bronze age, and he showed a 
bronze implement which had been found there. The ancient British 
adapted their fortifications to the natural conformation of the ground, 
the height of the wall being determined by the gradient ; and they 
constructed their entrenchments in such a manner as to enable them 
to see as far down the valley as possible. He did not think it at all 
likely that the fortification was strengthened by Owen Glyndwr. 

The attention of visitors was not too much concentrated on these 
relics of a long past age to preclude them from enjoying the glorious 
prospect before them of the lovely valley and stately range of hills. 
Not only the Arrans and the Arrcnigs, but Suowdonia, and even Snow- 
don itself, may sometimes be seen from the Gaer. 

Many of the fields west of the Gaer have names very suggestive of 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 209 

the troubled times of the past, and wliich accord so ill with the beauty 
of the scene. Thus, near the bridge seen in the distance, across the 
Dee, is the " Field of Pity"; next, the " Red Field"; close by is the 
" Field of Crowns"; wliile in the direction of Rug is the field called by 
the suggestive name, " The Place where they heard them"; while ad- 
jacent is the " Field of the Bards". All these names are referred to by 
local tradition as relating to some or other of the many battles said to 
have been fought here, while the hills above Corwen Church are still 
called the " Place of the Enemy". 

On descending the hill the party started on their homeward journey. 
They alighted, however, at Corwen, and went to the Rectory to look 
at a repousse silver chalice now in the possession of the Rector of Cor- 
wen, which was found during the last century in a cellar at Nannau, 
and was supposed to have come from Cymmer Abbey. The Rector 
said the cup was considei'ed to be of the thirteenth centur}-, and of 
very gi^eat value. It was, however, pronounced to be of late though 
good workmanship. The date hazarded by one of the party was actu- 
ally later than the date of the discovery of the cup, — a rather amusing 
instance of an excess of antiquarian incredulity. The design of the 
cup contains the emblems of Our Saviour's passion. 

At the evening meeting the Right Rev. Dr. Merriman, the Bishop 
of Grahamstown, again presided. The Rev. E. Owen contributed a 
most interesting paper upon the circular hut-dwellings in North "Wales 
known as cyttlaiCr givyddelod, and the state of civilisation of their 
inhabitants, who, from the evidence adduced, occupied abodes of the 
humblest kind, cultivated corn, had a knowledge of metals, ploughed 
their lands, prepared hay and winter fodder for cattle, venerated their 
dead, believed in the immortality of the soul ; and among whom, 
judging from the absence of weapons, wars were, if not altogether 
unknown, at least not common. This paper will be printed in the 
Journal. He was followed by Mr. G. G. Adams, F.S.A., who read a 
paper on " Medals Commemorative of Events in English History." 
This paper will find a future place in the transactions of the Asso- 
ciation. 

In the discussion which ensued, Mr. Birch pointed out that when the 
title of Empress was under discussion, he employed himself archoso- 
logically on the question, and found that the term Imperafor had been 
used by many Saxon kings, so that the title was not a political but an 
archaeological fact. He also mentioned that the title assumed by 
Henry VIII as head of the Church was " Siiprenium Caput Ecdesice 
Avglicancc", and this title was resumed by George III on one of his 
later great seals. 

Dr. Phene, F.S.A., followed with a paper " On some Similarities 
between Tre'r Ceiri, near Pwlhcli, North Wales, and the Structures in 



210 PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 

Brittany and in the East. Many of the ideas which Dr. Phene pro- 
pounded deserved more consideration than it was possible to give 
them at the late period of the evening at which the paper was 
delivered. Many carefully coloured diagrams showed the remarkable 
monuments and emblems along the route from the Archipelago to 
Brittany. 

Mr. Grover afterwards made a few remarks. 



Friday, August 31, 1877. 

If ever there was a pleasant prelude to an archteological excursion, 
it was the ride from Llangollen to Dolgelly this morning by the Great 
Western Railway, by the pleasant banks of the Dee, bounded by tall 
craggy hills, fringed with foliage of rich hues. Here and there the 
valley widens to show ripening cornfields and verdant meadows. These 
fields were studded with tumuli at various distances, but still within 
sight of each other ; all tracing a line from Eliseg's Pillar, and thence 
to Chirk. This gave a great interest to the rather long but exceed- 
ingly pleasant and picturesque ride. We saw again the rough stone 
entrenchment of Caer Drewyn on the tall hill on the left bank of the 
Dee, which we visited yesterday. By the Lake of Bala, so suggestive 
of legendary lore, by rainbow-tinted vales and purling brooks, and 
amid sunshine and showers, we reached Dolgelly, and at once pro- 
ceeded to the Cistercian Abbey of Cymmer, some mile and a half dis- 
tant. The road was varied and picturesque, full of old-fashioned pot- 
herbs ; and one of the most ardent of the archaeologists gave a 
description of the old flowers and their uses and legends, and the 
introduction of the hop, here growing wild side by side with the wood- 
germander, which in old times was used to bitter beer. Though the 
situation of the Abbey is picturesque enough, it in itself presents few 
points except for the ecclesiologist. 

The valley of Ganllwyd was the chosen home of a community of 
white-robed monks. The ruins of the Cistercian Abbey of Cymmer,^ or 

> The following letter concerning Cymmer and Valle Crucis, to the Editor of 
the Building News, appeared at the time : 

" Sir I am exceedingly glad that the Association have included in their 

progress visits to Cymmer and Basingwerk, for both are in a lamentable state 
of neglect. Strata Florida and Neath, alas ! are in no better case ; and a power- 
ful reinonstrance on their part, headed by Sir Watkin, and supported by the 
bardic and archfcological congresses of Wales, may load to timely and nume- 
diate measures for the preservation of the little that remains, and the excava- 
tion of the soil in the buried portions of the ruin. Of Basingwerk I have 
already written in your columns. 

" Cymmer, with its long coterminous north aisle and rudimentary arcading 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 211 

"Vanner as it is commonly called, arc very picturesquely situated. TI103' 
are not so beautiful as those of Valle Crucis Abbey, but are well worth 
visiting even by people who are not antiqaai-ians or ecclesiologists. 

in three bays (now occupied as a granary, etc.), must have had the appearance 
of a double church, — an aiuorphous plan which had its parallel in a Scottish 
minster. The western tower (with traces of a newel-staircase either correspond- 
ing to one in the south-west angle of Valle Crucis, or else leading to the upper 
story of the western range of claustral buildings) bears a humble likeness to 
its fellow at Furness. But the remarkable point is that Cymmer could never 
have been cruciform, although the original plan may have been abandoned for 
want of funds, as all churches were begun at the east end, the transept being 
never built whilst the church was continued westward. There are traces of 
three archways on the south front of the detached building to the west, and of 
ancient masonry in a stable on the north-east, which may mark the infirmary. 
"The departures from the strict Cistercian plan are not so very uncommon. 
The chapter-house at Cleeve is an aisleless oblong ; at Margam, polygonal ; 
Croxden had, perhaps, a chevet ; Beaulieu was apsidal ; Abbey Dore and 
Fountains have a transverse eastern aisle ; Kirkstall had a central ; its sister, 
near Ripon, a transeptal tower ; whilst Melrose has an outer range of nave- 
chapels. Some of the small Devonian abbeys may be well compared with 
Cymmer. 

■'After I was at Llangollen, in the year 187.3, at the desire of the Vicar I 
published in his local magazine an account of Valle Crucis, which, with many 
subsequent annotations, is now among the Additional MSS. in the British 
Museum. The ground-plan was separately produced as a woodcut in Black's 
Guide to North Wales. In it may be seen the similarity in the position of the 
day-stairs to that of Cleeve ; but on the opposite side of the chapter house is a 
small cell, quite unique as far as ray experience goes. My impression is that 
it was the carol of the Scriba Capituli, and also used for conference, submissd 
voce., in chapter time. The curious oblique door in the dormitory of Cleeve I 
suggested was used by the sacristan, as the chancel wall-passage was at Valle 
Crucis, the oriel in the aisle of Worcester, the gallery at Lichfield, and the 
watching-charaber in the transept of St. Alban's, for the supervision of lights. 
I am inclined to believe that it had a further use, as a means of communica- 
tion, over the vaulting of the southern transept chapels, with the belfry. 

"Whilst preparing a forthcoming memoir on Buildwas Abbey, which will 
form a portion of a work on the four minsters round the Wrekin, I detected a 
remarkable similarity between the Salopian and the Welsh transept. The 
position of the claustral buildings is reversed ; but in the eastern angle of the 
transept, in both instances, there is a staircase near a doorway. The latter 
was the entrance of the lay folk on the side away from the cloister-garth. The 
former was used by the sacristan, who occasionally slept in the corner of the 
church, and thus was enabled at once to proceed by an intramural passage to 
the central tower in order to ring the bell for matins. The porta excubitornni 
is still left, adjoining the transept at Benedictine Rochester ; and at Lincoln 
(a secular church) the tradition of the watchers' chamber — slept in by those 
who searched the minster at night for fear of fire, and rang the matin mass- 
bells — also near a transept, lingered on to the time of Browne Willis. 

" The presence of fireplaces over and above that of the calefactory or common 
house is another instance of decadence in the observance of the ancient rule ; 
and in the fifteenth century a canon of council forbade their continuance in 
Cistercian monasteries on the Continent. The abbot's cell was probably at the 
south end of the dormitory of Valle Crucis. Only in very large abbeys there 
was a separate house for the use of the superior. 

" Mr. Loftus Brock is in thorough sympathy with his subject, and his ex- 
tended paper will be doubtless full of new interest. I may mention that the 
last Abbot of Cymmer, Lewis Thomas, was Suffragan Bishop of Shrewsbury. 

"lam, etc., Mackenzie E. C. Wai-cott.' 

1878 -7 



212 PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGEESS. 

The Abbey is somewhat of a puzzle to antiquai^ians, because, although 
there is undoubted proof of its having belonged to the Cistercian order, 
its architectural features are very unlike those which are characteristic 
of Cistercian churches. The ruins now consist of a roofless nave. At 
the west end of the church, within the walls, stands a fine sycamore- 
tree. The Monastery was founded in 1199 by Griffith and Meredith, 
lords of Merioneth, and sons of Cynan, who was the illegitimate son of 
Owain Gwynedd, Prince of North Wales, by Angharad, daughter of 
Peredur ap Mael ap Bleddyn of Merioneth. Howell, son of Griffith, 
was also one of the founders. The visitors having assembled together 
in the Abbey, a paper on the remains was read by Mr. Brock, which will 
appear hereafter in the Jotirnal. The architectural features were 
further pointed out by Mr. Wynne of Peniarth, Mr. John Reynolds, 
Mr. Bloxam, and Mr. Talbot. 

The visitors then proceeded to what is called the Abbot's Hall, 
where Mr. Wynne gave an interesting account of the origin and history 
of the abbey, as well as of the ancient family of the Vaughans or 
"Vychans", who came into possession of the abbey and monastic 
buildings after the dissolution of the monastery. The foundation was 
afterwards confirmed by Henry III, and again by Henry VI. Amongst 
the papers left to him (Mr. Wynne) by his venerated friend, Sir Robert 
Vaughan, was a very curious memorial of a trial, relative to a water- 
course there. It appeared that very little corn was grown in that 
neighbourhood, and that the abbey got all its corn from its estates in 
Carnarvonshire. At the commencement of the last century the abbey 
was inherited by a daughter of some member of the Vaughan family, 
who, it was said, went to live in the abbot's house, and that, as she 
found it extremely uncomfortable, the house was altered a good deal 
at that time. The roof, however, w^as the original roof of the abbot's 
hall. Miss Lloyd and himself had some excavations carried out in the 
abbey two or three years ago. They hoped to find some tombstones, 
but all they found was an enormous quantity of human bones. There 
was a very interesting tombstone to the memory of the Vaughan family, 
which he recommended them to see. A member of the family appeai'ed 
also to have been buried on the noi'th side of the abbey archway. 
Howel Sele, the chieftain who was the victim of Owain Glyndwr's 
revenge, was a member of the Vechan or Vaughan family. The legend 
of the discovery of his skeleton in a large oak, in which Owain Glyndwr 
was supposed to have immured him, was referred to in Sir Walter 
Scott's Marmion, and also in a ballad by the Rev. Geo. Warrington, in 
which were the following lines : — 

"Back they recoiled ! The right hand still 
Contracted, grasped a rusty sword, 
Which erst in many a battle gleamed, 

And i)roudIy decked their slaughtered lord. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 213 

" They bore the corse to Vuner's shrine, 
With holy rites and prayers addresseJ. 
Nine white-robed monks the last dirge sang, 
And gave the angry spirit rest." 

Mr. Bloxam next made a few remarks about the plan of the Abbey, 
in which he said that it resembled the small Priory of Ulverscroft in 
Leicestershire. He did not think that that room was part of the Abbot's 
hall, although the roof was undoubtedly ancient. It was not where 
the Abbot's house would be. The chimney and fireplace were clearly 
of a much later date. 

Mr. Wynne said he certainly did not think that a hall of that size 
would have been built after the Reformation. It might not be the 
Abbot's refectory, but it must have been a hall used for some great 
purpose. 

Mr, Bloxam said he should think the date of the buildings was late 
in the sixteenth or early in the seventeenth century. 

It was suggested that the chimney and fireplace, and other features 
of the building, had been inserted at a later date. 

Mr. Brock said that in making a survey for the plan to accompany 
his description, he had discovered in the exterior of the hall traces of 
masonry which indicated that it was of an early date, and it might be 
within the bounds of possibility that the hall was a portion of the old 
monastic building with its ancient I'oof. The features of a" later date, 
which Mr. Bloxam's quick eye had detected, were, he thought, pro- 
bably additions. Mr. Wynne's suggestion that it was the guest-house 
was very likely correct. 

A member of the Association pointed out that the chimney was 
clearly not part of the original design. 

A vote of thanks to Mr. Wynne for his kindness in meeting them, 
and in giving them so much valuable information about the Abbey, and 
also the Abbey of Yalle Crucis, was heartily accorded. 

Mr. Wynne, iu acknowledging the vote of thanks, mentioned the 
fact that an exceedingly large and valuable collection of Welsh MSS. 
had been left to him by the late Sir Robert Vaughan. Some large 
bronze cooking vessels of the fourteenth ceuturj-, which had been found 
at Nannau, were exhibited in the hall. 

On the return from the Abbey, the party sat down to a very admir- 
able luncheon at the Golden Lion Royal Hotel, Dolgelly. 

After luncheon some of the members visited the church, where the 
principal object of attention was an effigy of one of the family of 
Vaughan, remarkable for the peculiar combination of chain-mail and 
plate-armour. It is believed that it was removed from Cymmer. 

The ancient house which has, without the least foundation in fact 
been supposed to have been the parliament house of Owain Glyndwr, 



214 PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 

was also examined. Mr. Breese, Local Secretary of the Cambrian 
Archaeological Association, stated that some time ago a committee was 
formed, and plans prepared, for the reparation of this house, under the 
impression that the story was true. 

Mr. Brock said that although the house was much later than Owain 
Glyndwr's time, it was well worth preserving, and he hoped something 
would be done to preserve it. 

About half-past two o'clock the archaeologists went by the special 
train to Llandderfel. It had been arranged that they should stop at 
Bala, and drive to the ancient manor-house of Rhiwaedog, which was 
to be described by Mr. E. P. Loftus Brock and others ; but this part 
of the programme was abandoned for want of time. While the special 
train waited at Bala for another train to pass, some of the passengers 
went to look at the tumulus and site of Bala Castle, close by the rail- 
way. 

On reaching Llandderfel the train stopped in order to enable the 
archaeologists to visit Llandderfel Church. There is nothing note- 
worthy in the architecture of this church, except a very good fifteenth 
century roof, a finely carved oak rood-screen, and the exceptionally 
grotesque and ludicrous corbel-heads outside the church. The church 
is chiefly remarkable for its pati^on saint, St. Dervel Gadarn, to whose 
wooden image pilgrimages used to be made from all parts of Wales ; 
the remains of which, part of a very extraordinary wooden horse, 
and a spear or crozier, are still to be seen. The principal points of 
the tradition concerning this image are thus told in the Gossiping 
Guide : " St. Dervel Gadarn, or Dervel the Mighty (a son of Emyr 
Llydaw), a saint of the sixth century, was the patron of the church, 
and a great wooden image of him was set up. Some say it was placed 
astride the very remarkable animal now in the church. The story 
goes that it had been predicted of this image that it should one day 
set a forest on fire. Now there was much wood about Llandderfel, and 
the good folks naturally thought that if the trees were to be burnt, it 
would be more profitable that they should be consumed on their own 
hearths than in the destruction of the object of idolatrous worship ; 
and it turning out about this time (1538) that a friar named Forest 
was condemned to be burnt at Smithfield, for denying the King's 
supremacy, they gladly dismounted the idol, and sent it to London. 
So the friar ' was suspended by his middle to a gallows which had on 
it the following inscription : 

' David Dornel Gutheran, 
As sayeth the Welshinau, 
Fetched outlawes out of hell. 
Now he is come with spere and shield, 
In havnes to luirn in Smithfield, 
For in Wales he may not dwel. 



THOCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 215 

' And Forest the friar, 
That ohstinate Iyer, 
That wylf'iilly shall be dead, 
In his contuiiiacye. 
The gospel doeth deny, 
The Kynge to be supreme heade.' " 

Mr. Brock, in ibc course of his remarks upon the church, said it was 
a simple Welsh village church on the site of another of very great 
antiquit}'. The greatest interest of that church was its connection 
with St. Dervel. The statue of that saint was one of the most renowned 
in North Wales. It was held in high veneration in the sense in which 
the Roman Catholic Church still used that word, and pilgrimages were 
made to it. In saying this he need not shock the susceptibilities of 
any Welshmen. Mediaeval history told them that such pilgrimages 
were so common that there was scarcely a county without its cele- 
brated statue. He had seen a denial of the statement in respect to the 
veneration paid to the statue ; but the ParJcer Letters, edited by Mr. 
Thomas Wright, their Vice-President, and published by the Camden 
Society, clearly indicated that such statues as that of St. Dervel were 
held in veneration in other parts of the country. With regard to the 
dedication of tlie church, they who resided in many other counties 
were not accustomed to the dedication of churches to saints in such 
remote times as St. Dervel. This, however, was one of many chui'ches 
in Wales (probably the greater number) dedicated to saints of such 
remote antiquity that their Hves were lost in the dim ages which tradi- 
tion only could reach. It proved that long before religion was esta- 
blished elsewhere, the Gospel was known in Wales. The ministers of 
the old British Church divided Wales into districts, and some good, 
holy man took up his abode in each. Of course at that early period 
Wales was not divided into parishes ; but districts were formed, over 
which these good men presided. He was sure every Welshman ought 
to find pleasure in the fact that his ancestors embraced the Gospel at 
a period when the great bulk of the inhabitants of Britain were plunged 
in barbarism and idolatry. 

Mr. Breese said that two or three years ago he had the honour of 
contributing a paper to the Archceologia Camhrensis on the subject of 
St. Dei-vel. He was a saint who lived in the sixth century, and his 
pedigree was given in Rees' Lives of the Saints. Mr. Brock had truly 
observed that there were no parishes, — in fact, parishes were not 
formed in England until the time of King Edgar, two centuries after. 
He sought refuge, like many Welsh saints in those days, from the tur- 
bulence of the times, and retired with St. Dubritius, Bishop of St. 
David's, to the Isle of Bardsey, and there he was supposed to have 
been buried. Great historical interest attached to the figure of the 



216 PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 

saint. From the original letters tbey found that Ellis Prjce, who 
was appointed commissioner by Cromwell for destroying superstitious 
" idols and statues in Wales", fixed upon the statue of St. Dervel for 
destruction ; and a petition was presented by the parson and parishi- 
oners to the King's Council, stating that the statue produced enormous 
profit, and that a large number of pilgrims who supposed it to possess 
healing virtues came to visit it, and that its destruction would there- 
fore inflict very great loss on them. There is no doubt that the statue 
was used for burning Forrest, who was confessor to Catherine of Ara- 
gon, for denying the King's supremacy. 

After inspecting Llandderfel Church, the party then walked to Pale, 
the beautiful seat of Mr. Henry Robertson, M.P. On arriving there 
they were most courteously receiyed and entertained by Mr. and Mrs. 
Robertson. During their stay here they went to look at some large 
stones in the grounds, which some persons had supposed to have formed 
a cromlech. The general opinion, however, was that it was not the 
work of man, but of nature, and that its partial resemblance to a crom- 
lech was purely accidental. 

The party afterwards returned by the special train for Llangollen, 
where they arrived about half-past seven. 

The evening meeting was presided over by Mr. Theodore Martin, C.B, 
A paper by Mr. Stephen Tucker, Bouge Groix Poursuivant o/^?-wis,upon 
the arms of the Principality of Wales, was very well received. Although 
the proposition which Mr. Tucker so ably demonstrated, namely, that 
there is little trustworthy evidence in favour of Welsh family heraldry 
before the sixteenth century, was naturally not a very palatable one to 
many of those who were present, yet it was impossible to gainsay the 
arguments adduced in support of the theories he advanced ; and we 
may fairly take it that all but students of practical heraldry were sur- 
prised when it was asserted that if it should ever be desired to add an 
especial quartering for the Principality of Wales to the coat-armour of 
the Princes of Wales, that quartering must be blazoned argent, three 
lions passant reguardant in pale, with tails coward, gules ! But this is 
the only shield the heralds could properly assign to them. The text 
of this paper will appear in a future place in the Journal. 

The ancient laws and statutes of Wales, as shown by the codes pub- 
lished by the Record Commission, and other similar works, were epito- 
mised by Mr. C. H. Compton into the form of a lengthy paper. A 
great deal of light might be thrown upon the manners and customs of 
the Welsh in the early days of their independence, and again in the 
fifteenth century, and upon the peculiar relationship which unites the 
simplest items of domestic life with the traditions of the country, by a 
systematic classification of the interesting details of these laws ; but 
that is an aspect of them which has yet to be reviewed. This paper 
will also appear hereafter. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 217 

A third paper, " On tlic Welsh Converts of St. Paul", by Mr. J. W. 
Grover, introduced a lively discussion upon the disputed question of 
pre-Angustine Christianity and the visit of St. Paul to the shores of 
Britain ; and although these important topics were by no means defi- 
nitively settled, Mr. Grover threw some fresh evidence into the scale 
in favour of the early intercourse between the primitive Christians of 
Rome and the royal Welsh captives of the imperial arms. So much 
interest was aroused by this, which has been printed at pp. 1-11, 
that we understand the paper, as well as the one by Mr. Tucker, is to 
be translated into Welsh, and so published, for the better dissemina- 
tion of their theories throughout the district. 

(To be continued.) 



218 



^procfetiings of tfje ^ssoctatton. 



Wednesday, March SOth, 1878. 
H. S. Cuming, Esq., F.S.A.Scot., V.P., in the Chair. 

The election of the following associate was announced : A. W. English, 
Esq., J.P., Wisbech. 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock, F.S.A., Hon. Sec, announced that, in conse- 
quence of the I'epresentations of the Association at the late Congress, 
the ruins of the Castle of Denbigh had been carefully placed in a safe 
condition. 

Mr. G. R. Wright, P.S.A., Hon. Curator, stated that he had received 
a communication respecting the remains of a Roman villa at Splash 
Point, Eastbourne, uncovered during the progress of some excavations. 

Mr. Worthington Smith, F.L.S., exhibited a very large and import- 
ant collection of flint implements, sling-stones, and arrow-heads, found 
near Luton, Bedfordshire. In the discussion which ensued, Mr. H. 
Prigg, of Bury St. Edmund's, bore testimony to the enormous quan- 
tities of similar objects, principally scrapers, found upon the surface of 
the soil at Bury. Mr. Smith also exhibited a series of camera draw- 
ings of the cromlech at Plas-Newydd, Anglesey, measured and pre- 
pared by him on the site, in August 1877. 

Mr. H. Prigg exhibited a bronze weight for a steelyard, or bell- 
hammer, bearing three shields of arms of Glare, found in a ditch near 
St. Botolph's Hospital, Bury St. Edmund's ; also a leaden casting, pro- 
bably a weight, bearing the several devices of a horseshoe, a hammer, 
and nails. 

Mr. C. H. Luxmore exhibited a group of curious objects in ii-on, 
obtained in Spain, of which the following is a description : 

1. Bust of a youthful person, possibly St. John the Evangelist, with 
flowing hair. The apparel, or band, of his tunic, is closed with a cir- 
cular concave brooch or morse. The arms and hands riveted to this 
bust are out of all proportion, and greatly mar the effect of this other- 
wise good example of chiselled ironwork of the close of the fifteenth 
century. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 219 

2. Two small hirrets, nearly the same size, but not a pair, both show- 
ing traces of gilding. The merlons have sloping tops, and the middle 
of the shafts is crenellated, and their bases arc finished off in the 
manner of a corbel. These little towers arc half-rounds with perforated 
staples at back, by which they were secured, without doubt, to a mini- 
ature castle, — possibly a shrine representing the arms of Castile. 
Date, sixteenth century. 

3. Little efiigy of a dog ; the narrow bar on which it stands is drilled 
in two places to permit its fixture to some object ; but what that object 
was, it is difficult to guess. Descending from the front end of the bar 
is an escallop-shell, the emblem of St. James of Compostella. This 
pretty piece of chisel-work is of the sixteenth or seventeenth century. 

4. Military turn-screw, full 4f inches long. The broad, flat sides are 
stamped with a rich pattern composed of numerous pine-cones, stars, 
and crosses, surmounted by open crowns. The flat edges are stamped 
with a species of Grecian fret. Date, sixteenth century. In Demmin's 
Weapons of War, p. 534, are figures of three priming turn-screws for 
wheel-lock pistols, of simple design ; and in Skelton's Mei/ricl; PI. 125, 
are given two richly wrought wheel-lock spanners of the sixteenth 
century with turn-screws at their ends. Turn-screws form part of the 
sportsman's companions described in this Journal, xv, p. 288 ; xix, 
p. 330. 

5. Butt of a pistol, engraved on either side with a pomegranate, the 
badge of Granada, and having in the centre an embossed face with 
wide mouth and upturned moustache. Date, middle of the seventeenth 
century. In the Cuming collection is a pistol of the time of William III, 
the brass butt of which has a boldly wrought satyr's mask in the 
centre. 

The Chairman exhibited a mould for pilgrims' signs, in the possession 
of the Rev. S. M. Mayhew ; and Mr. C. Brent, F.S.A., another repre- 
senting the dead Christ, and the gloves of St. Thomas a Becket, found 
at -Canterbury, and probably used in manufacturing the dgnacula sup- 
plied to pilgrims who visited the shrine of St. Thomas. The following 
paper was read in connection with these objects : 

On Stone Moulds for Religious Signacula. 

BY H. SYEH CUMING, ESQ., F.S.A. SCOT., V.P. 

The great and admitted rarity of early moulds or matrices for the 
production of saintly signacula, or pilgrims' signs as they are familiarly 
called, is a sufficient warrant for devoting a brief space in our Journal ■ 
to a notice of a few highly curious examples which have turned up Tn 
London and elsewhere. 

It is by no means an easy matter to determine the exact date of 
1878 28 



220 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

cveiy signurii wliicli has been brought to bght ; and of course the same 
difficulty as to age attends the moulds in which such religious badges 
have been cast. Possibly the very oldest of these moulds that has yet 
been observed is the one found in Coleman Street in 1873, and en- 
graved in onv Jon nial, xxix, p. 421, where it is assigned to the early 
part of the twelfth century. The device on this valuable ecclesiastical 
relic is a cross- passion, both its members being very broad ; and within 
it is another cross of the same form, but of much slenderer proportions, 
and with its extremities spreading out somewhat in the st3'le of a cross 
pattee. Surrounding the inner cross are the words, signvm sancte 
CRVCis PE WALTiiAM. There is a sort of loop or handle on either side of 
the upper part of the great cross ; and on either side of its base is a 
cross pomel resting on an arm or bracket. The legend shows that this 
i-emarkable badge appertained to the celebrated Abbey of St. Cross at 
Waltham in Essex, where was preserved a wonder-working crucifix 
which had been found at ]\Iontacute, and through the miraculous 
virtues of which the Saxon usurper Hai'old was cured from an attack 
of pals3^ This fine mould now forms part of the collection of London 
antiquities in the Guildhall Museum. 

The mould which would appear to stand next to the foregoing in 
age was discovered at Swinnie, near Jedburgh, in Roxburghshire, in 
18t.)'2, and is engraved in the rrocccdi)i(js of the Sociefij of Antitjum'ies of 
ScoUa»d (xi, p. 75), in illustration of a learned and interesting paper 
by Mv. J. Anderson. This curious object was probably made little 
later than the year 1300, and is cut on a piece of stone oi inches long. 
It consists of a disc Ij inch diameter, with a species of cable-border, 
a }n-otile bust occupying a considerable portion of the field. The head 
seems to be covered with a low crown, ana the various markings about 
the neck and shoulders indicate habiliments of a rich fabric. Before 
the face appears what I take to be a rude representation of an orb and 
cross ; and behind the head is a sceptre with four short transverse 
members, and which may be compared with the one held by Harold in 
the Bayeux Tapestry. Mr, Anderson says: "It would have been 
interesting if we had been able to identify the saint who is thus repre- 
sented, or the shrine to which the siijnaciihiin pertained ; but the whole 
subject is involved in obscurity." It may seem presumptuous on my 
part to even hazard a conjecture as to the person exhibited on this 
remarkable si(pinm ; but I have a strong idea that the bust is intended 
for that of William the Lyon, who succeeded to the Scottish throne in 
llGo, and died at Stirling, December 2, 1214. This monarch was 
renowned for his sanctity,^ and is regarded as the founder of the Con- 

' In the (/'(/i^ Mihj. for July 1794, p. TiOo, is a copy of what appears to be 
a seventeenth oentuiy picture of " ISt. William, King of Scots", preserved in 
tlie Trades' Hall, Al>eidoen. In neither the money of this monarch, nor in the 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 221 

vent of the Trinity Friars at Aberdeen, where he is said to have had 
a chapel, and at times lived in holy retirement. He was interred in 
the Abbey of Arbroath in Forfarshire. 

Proceeding in chronological order, we come next to a mould of the 
fourteenth century, found some years since in Canterbury, and which 
is now in the possession of my good friend Mr. Cecil Brent, who has 
favoured me with a wax impression of it. The devices on it are of a 
very unusual and complicated cliaracter, and of difficult interpretation. 
In the centre is an object which may be likened to the letter I, with 
its broad shaft covered with fine lattice-work, and having a wide, con- 
cave stroke at top, and a convex one at bottom. This letter, if it may 
so be denominated for convenience, I'ests on what appear to be three 
truncated branches spi-eading from the top of the stout stem of a tree. 
Planted in the hollow of the transverse portion of the I is the cruci- 
fixion, the rood being supported on either side by a diagonal prop, 
which, with the arms of the Divine Martyr, might at first sight be 
taken for a St. Andrew's cross. The body of Our Lord does not hang 
straight upon the rood, but is somewhat contorted. A cruciferous 
nimbus encircles the head, drapery reaches from the loins to the knees, 
and the feet are nailed one over the other. The whole subject is sur- 
rounded by great coarse rays. In this mould may have been cast sij- 
nacula relating to some relic of the Passion, formerly exhibited to the 
devout pilgrims at Canterbury, where was preserved the so-called 
" Pillar of Flagellation", a fragment of the rock on which the holy rood 
was fixed, and another of the Holy Sepulchre, and we may add, the 
stone on which the Redeemer stood before he ascended into Heaven. 

In February 1848 there was recovered from the Fleet Ditch a four- 
teenth century mould, of stone, for casting two figures of the winged 
bull, the well-known emblem of St. Luke. The devices are carefully 
executed ; but unfortunately the slab is fractured at either end, so that 
there only now remains the fore-half of one creature, and the hind 
portion of the other. Both bulls stand on curved labels, in the manner 
shown on the seal of Walter Reynolds, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
1313; and on the tomb of Lady Elizabeth de Montacute in Christ 
Church, Oxford, 1355. This mould is in my own collection, and as it 
has already been described and figured in our Journal (xix, p. 99), it is 
needless to dwell further on it. 

At no very considerable distance from the spot where the forcgomg 
relic was found, namely in Farringdon Street, has lately been exhumed 

above sign, is there any trace of beard ; but the painting gives the royal saint 
an abundant head of hair, a noble pair of moustaches, and a full beard descend- 
ing below the waist. He wears a helmet in the shape of a lion's mask, sur- 
rounded by a rich nimbus. He grasps a long stalf with his left baud, and has 
a closed hook resting in his right. Around the shoulders and waist is wreathed 
a chain of large links. 



222 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

a group of three moulds wrought on the same piece of argillaceous 
slate from the Grauwacke series. The slab measures 3i inches in 
heio-ht, full 2f wide at top, and 2| at bottom, and about half an inch 
in thickness. On one surface is cut the full-faced bust of a monarch 
with rather long visage, and with a crown composed of a narrow band 
surmounted by three triple groups of pellets, something like that seen 
on the money of Henry II. The dress is covered with a reticulated 
patteru, remindful of that seen on the costume of effigies on the Byzan- 
tine coins ; and rising above the left shoulder, in a diagonal direction, 
is a fleur-de-lys topped sceptre, the form and position of which may be 
found on English pennies commencing with Edward the Confessor and 
closing with Henry III. This matrix is probably as early as the four- 
teenth century. On the opposite face of the slab are two moulds of 
much later date than the one just described ; the upper one represent- 
ing the Virgin and dead Christ ; the lower, a pair of episcopal gloves. 
The holy mother is full-faced, with a nimbus filled with a chevron 
encircling her head, and her long garments are covered with coarse 
cross-hatchings. She is seated, and across her knees reclines the nude 
body of the martyred Saviour with rays emitted from the head. The 
execution of these two figures is utterly barbarous, the person of the 
Redeemer being out of all proportion, and each arm consisting of a 
single line with four diverging strokes at the end, intended to pass as 
hands. The idea of this group may be found as early as the thirteenth 
century, as may be proved by a Greek painting in distemper, on wood, 
given in Agincourt's History of Art ly its Monuments (iii, p. 90); but 
the mould cannot be older than the close of the fifteenth century. 
Beneath this group is wrought a mould for a pair of gloves, doubtless 
intended as a representation of those of Thomas a Becket, formerly 
kept among the other relics of the prelate at Canterbury, and which 
are entered in an old inventory as " his gloves adorned with three 
orfreys". The gloves on the matrix have broad orfreys about the 
wrists, and jewels on their backs ; but their general aspect is less ele- 
gant and ornate than are the pewter signacula engraved in our Journal^ 
xxiii, p. 329. 

The presence of Becket's gloves on this mould would seem to re- 
strict its use to Canterbury, and it is therefore highly desirable to 
inquire whether there were any other relics at this hallowed locality 
which would account for the associating the Virgin and dead Christ 
and the royal bust on the same slab. It is just possible that one mould 
is a rude copy of some miraculous picture or carved work that adorned 
the altar, shrine, or chapel, of the Virgin Mother at Canterbury, and 
of which, perchance, no other record exists. But how about the royal 
personage so carefully incised on the opposite side of the stone ? 
England can boast of a host of saintly kings, of some of whom signa- 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 223 

cilia are extant, as, for instance, Kenelra of Mercia, Edmund of East 
Anglia, Edwai'd the Confessor, and Henry VI. The bust on the mould 
may be intended for that of one of the monarchs here mentioned ; but 
we must not forget that Kent had its St. Ethelbert, the great patron 
and protector of Augustine, the fii"st Bishop of Canterbury. There is 
neitlier letter nor emblem on the mould that would help to the identi- 
fication of the sovereign ; and nothing, therefore, better than mere 
conjecture can at present be advanced respecting him. 

This slab, with its trio of matinees, is the property of our valued 
Vice-President the Rev. S. M. Mayhew ; and it is worthy of note that 
it and the stone with the winged bulls of St. Luke were both found 
within the precincts of the Monastery of the Black Friars, as the 
Dominicans were styled. 

The latest stone mould for a i-eligious badge, of which I am cogni- 
zant, was exhumed in the City in February 1868, and of which a few 
casts in lead were taken by the late Mr. J. W. Baily, one of which he 
kindly gave me. This badge belongs to the class designated " Madonna 
Medals", and is apparently of French fabric of the end of the sixteenth 
century. It is nearly 1 inch in diameter, with a loop at top for sus- 
pension, and bears the effigy of the Virgin Mary standing on the cres- 
cent moon, and supporting on her right arm the child Jesus, the 
group being surrounded by an aureole of alternate straight and flam- 
boyant rays. 

In the collection of our associate, Mr. Robert Fitch, is a casting- 
mould of an earlier date than most of the foregoing examples ; but it 
is left for final mention, as it was not designed for pilgrims' signacula, 
although it was evidently wrought for a religious purpose. The stone 
is deeply sculptured with a group of figures representing the Massacre 
of the Innocents, and the costume introduced enables us to fix the 
period of the woi-k to the end of the twelfth or beginning of the thir- 
teenth century. On one side is seated a personage who may be 
intended for Herod, but the breakage of the edge of the slab leaves it 
doubtful whether he wears a crown or high cap. His flowing mantle 
is closed on the breast with a quatrcfoil-shaped morse ; and he has, 
held in the right hand, either a sceptre or sword, and evidently watches 
the progress of the slaughter with stoical complacency. There is 
much about the head of this effigy which reminds us of the one from 
the front of "Wells Cathedral, given in our Journal, xiii, Plate 4, fig. 2. 
Both soldiers are equipped in chain-hauberk, one being provided with 
a coif de mailles, which protects the mouth in the manner seen in the 
Wells statue in this Journal, PI. 3, fig. a. The other soldier has a flat- 
topped, cylindric Jieanmo which conceals the whole fiice, but is pierced 
with perpendicular air-sUts. The children are nude. There is a litho- 
graph of this very choice specimen iu our Journal, xiv, p. 270. It is 



224 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

needful to add that the mould was exhumed at Norwich in 1858, and 
was probably designed to cast the front panel of a shrine to contain a 
relic of the innocents whose unhappy fate it so vigorously portrays. 

That pretended relics of the massacre were palmed off on the credu- 
lous is attested by the beautiful shrine in the Magniac collection, repre- 
senting a sandaled foot wrought in silver, and set with jewels, in the 
year 1470, by an artist named Oswald, and which, according to an 
inscription on it, once held a foot of one of the poor children, which 
was presented to the Cathedral of Basle by St. Columbanus. Richard 
Twiss, in his Travels through Portugal and Spain (p. 105), states that 
among the relics preserved at the Escurial was the body of " one of the 
innocent children murdered by order of Herod"; and Roger de Hove- 
den (s.a. 1190) affirms that there were a hundred and forty bodies of 
these said innocents shown at the Abbey of St. Victor at Marseilles. 

Considering the great number and variety of pewter signacula which 
exist to the present day, it seems surprising — nay, almost unaccount- 
able — that so few early moulds of stone should have survived, or at 
least come to notice. But this remark may be applied with equal 
truth to the moulds for other objects besides those for pilgrims' signs. 
A few lithic matrices for Keltic swords, spear and axe-blades, celts and 
paalstabs, have been discovered in different parts of the Britannic 
islands. Yorkshire has produced terra- cotta forma for Roman coins, 
and London its stone moulds for leaden tokens and dumps and round- 
headed pins ; but if all these examples were brought together, they 
would scarcely cover a surface of two square yards. With these facts 
before us, we should hail with pleasure and thankfulness any augment- 
ation to our meagre stock of knowledge in regard to' the moulds for 
religious signacula. 

Mr. J. W. Grover exhibited two bronze celts from Worthing, with 
some remains of pottery found with them, 5 feet below the surface of 
the ground, and promised to lay some account of the find before a 
future meeting. 

Mr. Prisrsr detailed the result of excavations he had made within a 
singular eai'thwork on West Stow Heath, Suffolk. A circular enclo- 
sui-e, about 340 feet in diameter, contains traces of occupation of very 
early date, and the fragments of pottery produced were pronounced to 
be Celtic in character. Flint implements were also found. The enclo- 
sure consists of a raised circular bank for about half the extent, and 
the remainder is an ordinary ditch. A discussion ensued, and the ana- 
logy of the enclosure with other unclassed circles was pointed out by 
various speakers. The paper will be printed on a future occasion. 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock then read a paper in which he described the 
recently discovered cavern at Eltham Park. This cavern had been 
explored purposely, when it was illuminated by the owner of the pro- 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 225 

perty. It is 37 feet broad, and 53 feet long ; and I'eached by a shaft 
142 feet deep, lined with brickwork of no great age. The chamber, 
however, is of remote antiquity, resembling, as it does, so many of the 
chalk-caverns of Essex, and the "bottle-pits" of Chislehurst and other 
parts of Kent. A long discussion followed, and Mr. Brent mentioned 
a remarkable excavation at Bickley. He has traced it for more than 
a mile in extent, and it is said to extend for three miles. 



Wednesday, Apkil 3. 
H. Syer Cuming, Esq., F.S.A. Scot., V.P., in the Chair. 

The following associate was duly elected : W. Eoper, Lancaster. 
Thanks were returned for the following presents to the library : 

To W. n. Cope, Esq., for "A Short History of Penzance and the Land's 
End District.-" By the Rev. W. S. Lach-Szyrma. 1878. 

To the Society, for " Sussex Archaeological Transactions", vol. xxviii. 
1878. 

To J. Reynolds, for " Notes of English Monasticism with Reference to 
Cleeve Abbey." Williton. 8vo., 1878. 

Mr. Luxmore, F.S.A., exhibited a beautiful series of Spanish keys of 
late sixteenth century and seventeenth century date. They were of 
elaborate and elegant workmanship, presenting many peculiarities of 
design ; some of the barrels being formed to work in T-shaped sockets, 
while others wei^e of delta-like form. 

Mr. R. S. Ferguson, F.S.A., and Mr. Lambert, F.S.A., pointed out 
many of the beauties of the workmanship in the discussion which ensued. 

Mr. Glaskett, in illustration of the ancient caverns of the south of 
England, referred to at the preceding meeting, exhibited some sketches 
of the caverns in the sandstone rocks at Hastings. These exhibited 
the bizarre forms of these curious subterraneans, and which are most 
probably of natural formation, but undoubtedly adapted for the wants 
of man at a very early period. 

Mr. E. P. Loftus Brock, F.S.A., Ho7i. Sec, in illustration of Mr. Mor- 
gan's paper, produced a large number of views of Spain, including 
several engravings of very early date, illustrating many of the primitive 
objects still in daily use, and a series of views of the Roman aqueducts 
and the principal early remains. 

Mr. Thomas ^lorgan, F.S.A., Hon. Treasurer, exhibited one hundred 
and fifty lava casts of profiles of the series of Roman emperors and 
empresses, generals, philosophers, poets, etc., of Roman times, brought 
from Rome by a member of Mr. Morgan's family in 1826 ; coin, second 
brass, of Constantino II, ditto of lionorius, brought by him from Ifa 



226 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

lica ; two coins of Hadrian, first brass, with the reverse, hispania, from 
Mr. E. P. L. Brock's collection. 

The following series of coins were brought by Mr. Morgan from 
Portugal in 1837, and have not been exhibited before : one hundred 
and three Roman silver consular denarii, arranged in families accord- 
ing to Mionnet ; nine impei'ial silver denarii ; seventy Roman, first, 
second, and third brass, various, including one medallion. The cata- 
logue was produced, which had been submitted to our associate 
Mr. H. A. Grueber of the British Museum, whose unavoidable absence 
was regretted. The following letter from him was read, suggesting a 
chronological arrangement of the consular coins ; and as time pressed 
for examining them, the Chairman hoped that another opportunity 
would be given. 

"Dear Sir, — As you have arranged your coins according to the sys- 
tems of Mionnet and Cohen, that is by families, it may be interesting 
to you to have a few remarks upon them from a chronological and his- 
torical point of view, i.e., after the system of Mommsen. 

" On examining your list of coins, I find that the whole series em- 
braces a period of about one hundred and ninety years, that is, from 
B.C. 220 to B.C. 31. 1^0. 4, p. 19, which you describe as a denarius, 
'unknown to which family it belongs', may be considered as the earliest 
coin of the whole series, its date of issue being about B.C. 220 ; whilst 
No. 9, p. 2, a coin of the Aufonia Gens, which was struck by M. Antony 
during his sojourn in the East, and which could not have been issued 
before B.C. 39, nor after B.C. 31, must be considered the coin of the 
latest date. I am inclined to assign this last coin to the later rather 
than the former date. My reason for placing No. 4, p. 19, at the begin- 
ning of the series arises from the fact that when the new coinage was 
first issued at Rome in B.C. 269, the only insci'iption on the coins was 
that of ROMA. Very shortly afterwards, about B.C. 235, the moneyers 
who had charge of the mint, and who were appointed by the Senate, 
began to place on their coins a variety of symbols, most probably for 
the purpose of pi'eventing, so far as possible, foi'geries, which even at 
so early a period were not uncommon. This step was followed by the 
adoption of the raoneyer's initials, or his name in monogrammic form ; 
and later, or after a period of a hundred years from the first issue of 
the denarius, about B.C. 170, we find the moneyer's name in full. The 
coins themselves afford us abundant proof of this gradual develop- 
ment. One of the earliest coins with the moneyer's name in full is 
No. 56, p. 7, a denarius of the Junia Gens, inscribed c . inni . C. f. The 
first issue of the denarius is marked by a very Greek-like style of art, 
the head of Rome being in high relief. These coins are somewhat 
rare. The adoption of symbols and moneyers' monograms did not pre- 
vent the striking of a few denarii and copper coins without either of 
these marks ; and it is to this class, without having seen your coins, 
that I would attribute No. 4, p. 19. 

" The coin of latest date in your collection, as I have already men- 
tioned, is the denarius issued by M, Antony during his residence in 
the East, and is one of a series which commemorates the number of 
legions of which his army consisted. The other coins appear to be 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 227 

spread in about equal proportion throughout the period from n,c. 220- 
31. It is possible to fix the date of many other coins mentioned in 
.your list, either from analogy of types, or else by the aid of history. 
For the purpose of illustrating this statement we will select two coins. 
From analogy of type it is known that No. 2, p. 10, with reverse, 
Luna in a hlga, was issued about B.C. 180, there being other coins 
of similar type and workmanship which have the moneyer's name in 
monogram. 

" The copper coins also with these moneyers' monograms are of the 
so-called heavy uncial series, and must, therefore, have been issued 
before B.C. 150. We thus obtain the date of the issue of a coin which, 
if taken alone, would afford us no clue of its date (No. 12, p. 2), a coin 
of the Aurelta Gens, which has on the reverse, besides the moneyer's 
name, M. avreli, two other names, L. Lie. (L. Licinius) and ex. DOM. 
(CnsBius Domitius), these being in the exergue. This coin belongs to 
the second class, that is, one whose issue can be fixed by the aid of 
history. It is at once evident to any one at all acquainted with this 
branch of numismatics, that L. Licinius and C. Domitius did not strike 
this coin, but that M. Aurelius was the moueyer ; because there are 
other coins with the same names in the exergue, but with c. porci. 
Lici. and L. cosco. M. F. as moneyers. 

" The question now to be solved is, who were these two personages, 
L. Licinius and C. Domitius ? And this can be easily done. We know 
from the evidence afforded by finds, that these coins were issued before 
the breaking out of the social war in B.C. 90 ; and taking this as a 
guide, upon referring to a Roman history it will be seen that in B.C. 92 
L. Licinius and C. Domitius filled the office of Censors at Rome. Wo 
thus obtain the exact date of the issue of these coins. Instances of 
such means of identification occur throughout the whole series, and 
it is by such lines of research and study that a complete chronological 
arrangement of all the coins struck at Rome from B.C. 269 to B.C. 3, 
when Augustus abolished the office of moneyers, can be arrived at. 

" As illustrating Roman history, we have in the coinage of Rome an 
abundance of material. I will, however, call attention only to two 
coins in your collection. The first is No. 68, a coin of the Muiucia 
Gens, which has on the reverse an Ionic column surmounted by statue 
between two men, one of whom holds a, patera and a loaf of bread, and 
the other an ear of corn ; at the feet of the latter, a demi-lion, from, 
whose head springs an ear of corn. This curious type is the repre- 
sentation of a monument which w^as erected at Rome in honour of 
L. Minucius Augurinus, outside the Poi'ta Trigemina, by the people to 
commemorate his successful endeavours to reduce the price of corn on 
certain days of the week. This event took place in B.C. 439. 

" Another coin of interesting style is No. 41, p. 5, a denarius of tlie 
Dldia Gens, which has on the reverse a warrior thrashing with a whip 
another armed with spear and shield. In this type is commemorated 
the successful efforts of T. Didius, in B.C. 138, in suppressing the revolt 
of the slaves in Sicily. The coin was struck about fifty years afr.cr the 
taking place of this event. 

" There arc many other coins of very interesting type ; but these two 
instances are sufiicient, I think, to show the importance of the Roman 
so-called family coins as illustrating Roman history. 

" I am afraid j'ou will find these remarks very scanty ; but as, at 
1878 2D 



228 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION, 

the last moment, I find it impossible to be present at the meeting of 
the Society this evening, my object is only to point out how instructive 
this class of numismatics, so much despised by collectors, can be made • 
if studied in connection with the history itself of Rome. 

" Yours very truly, 

" H. A. Grueber." 

The Chairman thought it probable that the casts of the profiles had 
been taken from ivory carvings, the outlines, being very shai-p, and of 
excellent workmanship, probably of the sixteenth or seventeenth cen- 
tury. He congratulated Mr. Morgan on being tlie possessor of this 
beautiful series. 

Mr. Morgan then read a paper headed " Through Spain to Italica", 
illustrated by a plan of the amphitheatre tbere, with sections and 
details drawn to scale by D. Demetrio de los Rios. This paper will 
find a future place in the Journal. The walls of the room were hung 
with numerous illustrations of tbe buildings and architecture of the 
principal places in Spain referred to in the paper, and of the Roman 
monuments there, kindly lent by Mr. Brock from his valuable collec- 
tion ; and other engravings to illustrate the pottery and arts of the 
Moors in Spain were furnished by Mr. H. Syer Cuming. 

In the discussion which ensued Mr. Grover, F.S.A., called attention 
to the enormous size of the principal Roman amphitheatres ; and to 
illustrate the large size of that of Italica indicated that the Albert 
Hall, which will accommodate about eight thousand persons, could 
very readily have been built within the open arena alone. He passed 
in review the humble structures erected by the Romans in England, 
and expressed the belief, grounded upon careful observation of these 
monuments, that they were formed only of earth, with probably wooden 
seats. No traces remain of masonry-constructed edifices, nor of any 
of very large dimensions. Had any such ever existed, they were most 
probably of wood. He gave some interesting particulars of the use of 
organs at a very early period, worked by water power, during the per- 
formances within the buildings. 

The discussion was continued by Mr. Previte ; and Dr. Phene, F.S.A., 
gave some details of the less known Roman amphitheatres which he 
had explored during his recent tour in Asia Minor, where many remain 
in a very perfect condition, their great age being taken into considera- 
tion. After taking notice of the terrible slaughter of men and beasts 
in the arenas, it might be of interest to British archaeologists to 
consider the origin of this shocking custom, which was unknown in 
the time of the consuls. It grew into public favour after the period 
of Julias Ca3sar's journeys to Gaul and Britain; and it was suggested 
that he might have observed the hideous religious sacrifices of the 
ancient Gauls, when human victims were mingled with wild beasts, 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. ^ ^^i, .-■■ 



^^^9 ^^ 



surrounded by a cordon of fire, and either burned or destroyed by om 
another. We may consider that this custom prevailed also in England 
from the analogy of the common uses of the two peoples. Mr. Cuming, 
in bringing the discussion to a conclusion, pointed out the probable 
position of the Roman amphitheatre of London, placed by Mr. Roach 
Smith on the sloping land in Seacole Lane, now covered by the Lon- 
don, Chatham, and Dover Railway. 

In connection with Mr. Jlorgan's paper, Mr. H. Syer Cuming made 
the following observations on early Spanish fictilia : 

" There are two classes of early Spanish pottery which are frequently 
confounded together, but which ought to be clearly distinguished one 
from the other, as they differ both in date and origin. The first is of 
Arabian fabric, embracing a period between the commencement of the 
eighth century and end of the eleventh century. The second is of 
Moorish manufacture, its era lying between the end of the eleventh 
century and that of the fifteenth century. The Mosque of Cordova, 
erected in the tenth century, is a good type of Arab or Saracenic art ; 
the famous Alhambra of Granada, of Moorish taste and skill ; and in 
both of which buildings fine examples of fictilia exist. Europe is 
deeply indebted to the Moslem masters of Spain for much valuable 
teaching. They were well acquainted with the art of glazing pottery, 
and employed plumbo-stanniferous enamel as far back as the eighth 
century. The azidejos, or glazed tiles, seen in the Cuai-to Real, and 
Alhambra of Granada, and Alcazar at Seville, are beautiful examples 
of the enamel in question. The oldest Hispano-Moorish tiles were 
surface-painted ; the later had the devices stamped with a mould, and 
the colours run in between the raised lines. A notice of such tiles is 
given in our Journal, vol. vi, p. 88. There are reasons for believing 
that Malaga was the chief centre of the Moorish pottery-works in 
Spain, and that there were wrought the two magnificent amphora-like 
jars found beneath the pavement of the Alhambra, and long preserved 
in Granada. Of these jars there are large engravings by Sixdeniers 
and Thomas Smith. Every portion of these graceful vessels is enriched 
with elaborate Arabesque patterns, with quaint animals, inscriptions, 
and shields introduced in certain portions. The designs on these jars 
are in two shades of blue on a white ground, and they exhibit that 
singular play of gold or copper lustre so frequently observed in the 
earlier fictilia of Italy and Spain. 

" The Moorish pottery next in antiquity to that of Malaga is pro- 
bably the ware produced in the island of Majoi-ca, on the east coast of 
Spain, from which place the title of Majolica, for the finer kinds of 
Fayence, is said to be derived. Though the final conquest of the 
Moors of Spain was effected in the year 1492, their taste and teaching 
are manifested in the later pottery of Valencia, Seville, Barcelona, 



* 



230 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Patema, Toledo, Talavera de la Reyna, and other places. Many of 
the alcarrazas produced in Andalusia at the present day are of the exact 
contour of the water-coolers used in ancient and modern times in 
Northern Africa. Some remarks on such vessels may be seen in this 
Journal, vii, p. 170 ; xxvii, p. 522." 
The following paper was then read : 

On some curious Reservations in Leases granted by 
Bishops of Hereford. 

by c. h. compton. 

Among the lands acquired for the purposes of Queen Victoria Street 
in the city of London, the fee simple of a yard and tenements called 
" Labour-in- Vain Yard", near old Fish Street, in the parish of St. Mary 
Mounthaw, parcel of the estates of the see of Hereford, was conveyed 
to the Metropolitan Board of Works by the Right Rev. Renn Dickson, 
Bishop of Hereford, on the 6th of July 1866. The title shown was 
possessory, i.e., it was evidenced by a succession of leases made by the 
Bishops of Hei^eford from time to time, the first being a lease dated 
12th April 1662, from Herbert Lord Bishop of Hereford, of his great 
capital messuage in the parish of St. Mary Mounthault, in the city of 
London, and all manner of houses and buildings to the same belong- 
ing, with the garden and appurtenances, to Leonard Bennett, his heirs 
and assigns, for the lives of himself, John Plumer, and Frances Hales, 
under the yearly rent of <£8 and one red rose ; and the Right Reverend 
Father reserved a right to lodge in part of the messuage during his 
pleasure. 

The next lease is dated 17th April 1766, and is a demise from the 
Right Hon. and Right Rev. Lord James Beauclerk, Bishop of Here- 
ford,^ to William Lindeman. It recites that the aforesaid great capital 
messuage and buildings were burned down at the di^eadful fire in the 
year 1666 ; and that at the Court of Judicature for determining differ- 
ences touching houses destroyed by the fire, a further term of forty 
years had been granted of the premises; and the lease of 1766 then 
grants a further term to William Lindeman, his heirs and assigns, 
for three lives, reserving a rent of £16 and one red rose yeai'ly during 
the said term, on the Feast of St. John Baptist, if it be lawfully 
demanded. 

The leases subsequent to this were granted for twenty-one years, 

' This Lord James Beauclerk was the seventh son of the first Duke of 8t. 
Albans, who was a natural son of Charles II hy Nell Gwyn. The family coat 
of amis is the arms of King Charles II, with a baton sinister gides, charged 
■with three roses argent, seeded and barbed proper. The connection of the red 
rose with the ei)iscopal, and the white rose with the temporal, functions of 
this Bishop of llereford is a curious coincidence worthy of uotc. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 231 

from time to time, until the 13th of October 18G0, the date of tho 
lease which was existing when the Board purchased the property ; in 
all of which leases the £16 and one red rose were reserved in precisely 
similar terms to those of the lease of 1766. 

I have not been able to meet with any leases prior in date to that of 
12 April 1662, before mentioned ; but as it was a well known practice 
on the grant of episcopal leases, until quite recent times, to renew 
them on payment of a fine, and to reserve the ancient rents, I have no 
doubt that the reservation of the red rose had its origin in the con- 
tentions of the rival houses of York and Lancaster, though I cannot 
find traces of any Bishop of Hereford having become historically con- 
spicuous during that eventful pei'iod of English history. 

In the last quarterly number of the Archceologia Canibrensis, which 
has been presented to our Society, there is a note contributed by the 
Rev. D. R. Thomas, vicar of Meifod, Welshpool, the Editor, referring 
to an entry in a terrier of the parish of Meifod, dated 1774, of " a per- 
petual claim of a modus of a red rose and two peppercorns in lieu of 
the tithe hay, out of the tenement or farm of Ystyn Colwyn, that hath 
been yearly offered to the vicar and impropriator of this parish ; but 
not upon any certain day. Neither have we, they, or any of us, allowed 
it as such ; or have we ever heard or believe that the predecessors or 
owners of the said tithe ever acknowledged it or allowed it as a modus, 
or hath it been inserted or taken notice of in any teri'ier of this 
parish." And it is asked whether any similar claim occurs elsewhere, 
and whether there is any instance of a red rose having been bestowed 
as a mark of privilege or favour upon supporters of the house of Lan- 
caster ? I do not think that this claim of a modus of a red rose can 
be considered in the light of a privilege or favour. It was a reserva- 
tion to be rendered to the tithe-owner by the tithe-payer in lieu of 
tithes in kind, and may have had its origin thus : A lease of the tithes 
may have been made to the land-owner, reserving a rent of one red 
rose, as in the leases from the Bishops of Hereford. The effect of this 
would have been to have suspended the payment of tithes during the 
existence of the lease ; and when the lease expired, the red rose may 
have been continued to be rendered in lieu of the tithes, and the claim 
of a modus set up. If this be the right explanation, the rendering of 
the red rose in both cases would have had a similar origin, viz., a 
reservation of rent involving an acknowledgment of fealty to the house 
of Lancaster. 

I have submitted this view of the case to Mr. Thomas by letter, and 
have received in reply a letter from him, in which he questions my 
theory, "as", he says, "the claim, though made, does not appear to 
have been acknowledged, and the tithe itself continued to be paid"; 
and he adds, "the terrier of 1774 is the only one of the several wc 



232 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Lave that contains any allusion to it ; nor have I met with any refer- 
ence to it elsewhere. I will try, however, and see whether the title- 
deeds of the property contain any notice of it. The rectorial tithes of 
the parish, now belonging to Christ Church, Oxford, were granted by 
Henry VI, in 1439, to Bishop Low^ of St. Asaph. Could this have been 
the origin ?" 

I ana still inclined to think that the red rose and two peppercorns 
were originally reserved as rent. The red rose may have been reserved 
out of the rectorial tithes belonging to King Henry VT, and the two 
peppercorns out of the vicarial tithes ; but the fact that the tithe con- 
tinued to be paid does not accord with this theory. Mr. Thomas' 
letter suggests some valuable matter for further research, particularly 
how Hemy VI (prior, of course, to the dissolution of the monasteries) 
came into possession of rectorial tithes. Extra parochial titlies belonged 
to the crown by the common law, but these were parochial. 

Mr. G. R. "Wright, F.S.A., Hon. Excursion Secretary, detailed the 
further arrangements made for the Congress at Wisbech, and gave an 
extended list of the places proposed to be visited. 

An announcement was then made that the Council had passed an 
nnanimous vote of condolence with the family of the late Sir Gilbert 
Scott upon his sudden decease. The interment was announced to take 
place in Westminster Abbey on the following Saturday. Much regret 
at the loss to archa3ological studies was expressed by several of the 
speakers, some of whom had hoped to meet Sir Gilbert at the coming 
Congress at Wisbech ; his brother, the Rev. Mr. Scott, being vicar of 
Wisbech, and the Chairman of the Local Committee. 



Wednesday, April 27. 
H. S. Cuming, Esq., F.S.A. Scot., V.P., in the Chair. 

Miss Tilden, of the United States of America (care of S. B. Merri- 
man, Esq., 25 Austin Eriars), was duly elected an associate. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned to the donors of the several 
presents as follows : 

To the Society, for " Archaeological Journal", vol. xxxiv, No. 135. 

,, ,, for " Collections Historical and Archaeological relating 

to Montgomeryshire", Part xxii, April 1878, vol. xi, 1. 
„ ,, for " Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries", Second 

Series, vol. vii, No. iii. 

' Bishop Low, of St. Asaph, was born in Worcestershire, an Augustine Friar, 
a Doctor of Divinity, and Provincial in England of his order ; and by King 
Henry VI made Bishop of St. Asaph, and afterwards traushitcd to lioohcstcr. 
(llolinshed, ed. 1586, p. 662.) 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 23.3 

To the Tijncslde Chob, for " Pamphlets relating to Excavations at South 
Shields." 

Dr. Stevens reported the discovery of an ancient stone coffin at 
Winchesfcr. It is pi'obably of Roman date, but no personal objects 
wei'e met with. This discovery atTords another instance of the occur- 
rence of ancient remains in this city ; but the ground is not often dis- 
turbed. 

The neglected condition of the recently excavated Roman station 
near South Shields was announced, and the injury which was daily 
resulting from the unprotected condition of the remains. The Council 
had passed a resolution calling the attention of the local authorities to 
this unsatisfactory state of things, and urging the preservation of at 
least the most interesting portion of the buildings excavated. 

Mr. B. P. Loftus Brock, F.S.A., exhibited four perfect and beautiful 
yellow glass bowls of small size, found at Cyzicus ; and three other per- 
fect little vessels (ffinochoje) brought to England by Mr. F. Calvert 
from the Dardanelles. The difference in design between these graceful 
vessels and others found in England was very apparent. 

A discovery of much archaeological interest was then announced. 
The existence of an unexplored Roman villa at Itchen Abbas, near 
Winchester, had been mentioned at the meetings on more than one 
occasion during the present session, and the intention mentioned of 
excavating at least one portion. Funds had been raised by local sub- 
scription, and a few tentative searches were made with encouraging 
results, the works being directed by the Rev. C. Collier, F.S.A., of 
Winchester Training College. Two beautiful pavements have been 
laid bai*e ; one perfect, and the other in almost perfect condition. Care- 
fully prepared drawings, made by Mr. Collier, were exhibited by him, 
and the following description of the excavations was read : 

On ax Unexplored Roman Villa at Itchen Abbas. 

BY THE REV. C, COLLIER, F.S.A. 

By the kindness of E. Shelley, Esq., of Avington Park, the owner 
of the land, and the ready kindness and help of Mr. Way the tenant, 
we commenced our excavations on the site of the Roman villa last 
mouth. About 18 inches below the surface we reached the pavements 
as given in the sketches sent herewith. I may state that the situation 
of the villa is on the high ground rising northward from the Itchen 
Valley. There is a fine look-out over the neighbouring country. The 
inhabitants residing on the spot would have ample opportunity of 
knowing the approach of an enemy from any quarter. The situation 
of the villa is so exposed that the late prevailing east winds effectually 
hindered us from taking accurate mcasui'ings or bearings ; but you 



234 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

may fairly consider that the rooms would seem to lie north-east and 
south-west. The two rooms opened would be, say 16 ft. by 8 ft. and 
6 ft. by 6 ft. The ornamented portions (and those only are sent in 
the sketches) have borders of red tesserae around them, to the extent 
of, say 18 ins. On the south side of pavement No-. 1, in the walls, 
were found flue-tiles, by which the warm air of the hypocaust was 
admitted into the room. The exact form of the hypocaust-flues is not 
yet known to us. The arched entrance under the wall from the fire- 
place outside remains, but the tiles are loose and brittle. As elsewhere, 
and under similar circumstances, a quantity of shells and bones had 
been found ; but only two coins have yet been met with. One is a 
small brass of Constantino, having on the reverse the words sarmatia 
DEVICTA round a figure of Victoiy ; the other coin is so much eaten 
away that the inscription cannot be made out. The head on the ob- 
verse is helmeted. I shall examine both coins more carefully, and give 
you further information about them. I have had the tiles carefully 
examined, but not a single letter in the shape of an inscription has 
been found. Many of the roof- tiles yet retain the nails by which they 
were held in their places. The plaster of the rooms remains, in some 
places, to the height of 12 ins. from the floor. Remains of about eight 
different kinds of vessels of pottery have been collected, but no glass 
has been found. There are portions of vessels of Samian ware, and of 
a vessel with a remarkably smooth and glassy surface. Some pieces of 
rusty iron were found in one of the flues. 

We hope to pursue our explorations, Mr, Shelley and his tenant 
Mr, Way (a relative of Mr. Roach Smith) take great interest in the 
matter, and Mr. Shelley has promised to pi'ovide a proper cover for 
the pavements. The sketches 1 send are correct both in the design 
and the colours. 

The drawings of the beautiful pavements were examined with con- 
siderable interest, and the Chairman called attention to the double- 
handled vases. This pattern also occurred on the pavement found on 
the site of the India Office, and most probably indicated the use of the 
room for dining or festive purposes, accompanied as the latter example 
was with the form of Bacchus, 

A drawing of a fragment of pottery was also exhibited, and Mr, 
Loftus Brock considered that its peculiar ware was from the Roman 
potteries in the New Forest, He called attention to the occurrence of 
these pavements at a distance not very great from those discovered 
at Bramdean, and expressed a hope that these would be as well pre- 
served. Probably other discoveries will reward further search. 

The Rev. S. M. Mayhew exhibited a few examples of recent London 
finds. The earliest are two keys and a small watch-seal, the three 
objects being hung on an iron ring. The largest key belonged to a 



Roman Pavement found at Itchen Abbas, 
near winchester. march. 1878. 




ABOUT -6 FEET SQUARE 



ColoufS. black . whiic a/I ci /r</ . 
on hot/i pavcjncittx. 



E.COLLIER OEr 



J Akercun. Fboio lith London 




J Akernun. Photo litli London 



PROCEEDTNGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 2:^"> 

chest, and is of iron, with solid stem and rcniform bow. Tlio 
second key is of the same general fashion with its companion, but is 
of brass with hollow stem, and belonged to a casket. Date of both 
specimens circa IGOO. The little seal is of silver, its octagon face 
bearing the arras of Norwich, viz., a castle ; in base, a lion passant. 
Exhumed at Clerkenwoll. 

The two following objects were found on the site of the Abbot of 
Battle's House, Maze Pond, Southwark. The first is a three-pronged 
fork of silver, 6 inches long ; the broad upper end being embossed 
with leaves, and the back of the flat stem stamped with the three Hall- 
marks, viz., the letter C, indicating the year 1680-81, the lion passant, 
and the leopard's head. A silver fork, of similar design to the fore- 
going, bnt of rather earlier date, is engraved in the Gent. Mag., July 
1790, p. 59G ; and another specimen is in the Cuming collection. The 
second item is a. /ausse-moiitre, If inch diameter. The silver or white 
metal rim is prettily embossed with rosettes, the face is marked with 
Arabic numerals, and the clos decorated with a back-painting of a full- 
faced bust of a young queen. i 

In the discussion following this exhibition, the Rev. A. Taylor de- 
scribed the Assyrian fork brought to England by the late i\Ir. Smith, 
now in the British Museum, and probably the oldest one in the world. 

Mr. Lambert, F.S.A., exhibited a fine collection of locks and keys, 
among which was a very remarkable example, the lock being filled 
with elaborate, pierced workmanship, through which the complicated 
wards of the key passed with the greatest ease. It was pronounced 
by the Chairman to be of the time of Henry VII, but several of the 
other examples were earlier. 

Mr, G. R. "Wright, F.S.A., exhibited a perfect bulla of Pope John 
XXII, having on the obverse the well known heads of St. Peter and 
St. Paul. 

Mr. Cuming then read a paper " On Good Friday Buns", which will 
be printed on a future occasion. 

An animated discussion ensued. The Rev. A. Taylor spoke of the 
references to the saci'ed cakes of the heathen nations mentioned in the 
Old Testament. 

Mr. Basil H. Cooper demurred to the endorsement, in so valuable a 
papei', of the traditional derivation of our word bun from the Greek 
accusative boun (a heifer), as quite antiquated by the teachings of 
modern comparative philology. 

Mr. Lambert pointed out that the equivalent of bun appeared in the 
modern bannock ; and the root was in the word panis, with the p soft- 
ened into b by no uncommon transformation. White bread is still 

' For notices oi fausses-7nontres, see Journal, xi, p. 259; xiii,p. 3.10; and for 
back-paintings, xxix, p. 81. 

1878 30 



236 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

called simmel in Germany ; and Mr. Blashill referred to this as its old 
name in England. 

Mr. Cuming, in replying, said that him has been supposed to be one 
of the few antediluvian words that have come down to us. It is the 
same, or nearly so, in almost all languages. Some " simmel cakes" 
wei^e very small, while others, on the contrary, were very large. 

Mr. John Brent, F.S.A., read a paper on " Recent Roman Remains 
at Canterbury", which will be printed in a future part of the Journal. 
He exhibited a large number of Roman coins and various other articles 
of the same early date, many being personal articles. In the discus- 
sion which ensued it was shown that this discovery afforded another 
instance of the occurrence of Roman articles in running water, and 
afforded ground for belief that this was a sacred spring resorted to 
with offerings, of which so many other instances have recently been 
met with. 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 



WEDNESDAY, MAY 1st. 
T. Morgan, Esq., F.S.A., Hon. Treasurer, in the Chair. 
The Chairman read the following Report : 
Treasurer's Report for the Year ending December 31, 1877. 

" In presenting the balance-sheet for the year ending 31 st December 
1877, which the Auditors have verified, it will not be a matter of sur- 
prise, after what I shadowed forth last year, if there is no surplus to 
invest in accordance with the rule to that effect, which was last year 
held in abeyance. 

"The result of the financial year 1877 shows that our expenditure 
has exceeded our income by £21 : 19 : 7, which sum added to the pre- 
vious year's deficit of £9 : 17 : 9, leaves the account overdrawn 
£31 : 17 : 4 on 31st December last. This, however, has arisen from an 
extraordinary expenditure in the sums paid on the Index printing 
account, the liability on which has now been reduced to £30, which I 
propose, with your permission, to pay off this year, and so extinguish 
it altogether. This payment will again prevent us from making the 
investment befoi^e referred to, of one half the sums received during the 
year for entrance-fees and life-compositions. The sum to have been 
invested under this head would have been £41 : 9 : 6, which must, 
therefore, stand over till the necessary equilibrium is established be- 
tween receipts and payments. 

" The usual economy has been exercised in the expenditure ; and 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 237 

the Journal at the same time has been well maintained, a large volume 
having been issued of 533 pages, and with no less than forty-three 
illustrations. As regards the receipts of the Society, they may be con- 
sidered satisfactory and progressive, from the increased number of 
subscriptions ; but the Congress at Llangollen last, year, though a suc- 
cess in every other respect, did not yield financially as much as could 
be wished, the net returns having only been £38 : 15 : 2. This item 
of revenue is always somewhat precarious, and fluctuates from year to 
year. The sum realised by the sale of the Society's publications has 
been £38 : 5 : 9, and from the sale of the Index, £4 : 10. A little extra 
expense in advertising has been rendered necessary to keep up with 
the times, and make known our evening meetings, which have been 
better attended than usual in consequence. 

"The financial position of the Association may be considered satis- 
factory ; but the subscriptions of the current year have been coming in 
rather slowly, and I take this opportunity of asking associates who may 
be in arrear to make their payments with as little delay as possible, 
whereby the interests of the Society will be greatly promoted. 

" I have now only to thank every member of this Association with 
whom I have been connected, for their very zealous co-operation in for- 
warding the work in which we are all engaged, and to express my 
hope that the coming Congress at Wisbech may be largely attended ; 
and that the programme of the proposed proceedings there, sketched 
out by our Excursion Secretary, Mr. George Wright, may lead to 
interesting researches both on the spot and in the wide domain of lite- 
rature. 

"Thomas Morgan, 77o?i.. Treasurer" 

The adoption of this Report having been unanimously agreed to, 
Mr. W. de G. Birch, F.R.S.L., Hon. Sec, read the following 

Secretaries' Report for the Year ending Dec. 31, 1877. 

" The Honorary Secretaries have the honour to lay before the asso- 
ciates of the British Archa3ological Association, at the Annual General 
Meeting held this day, their Report upon the state and progress of 
the Association during the past year 1877. 

"1. By a comparison of the numbers of associates in the current 
Part of the Journal, with that of the corresponding period last year, a 
total of 473 names is shown against a similar total of 440 last year. We 
can thus show an increase of 33 new names. The corresponding in- 
crease last year was IG, and in the year before 7. There are among the 
newly elected associates several gentlemen of well known antiquarian 
and literary eminence, and we trust we are correct in assuming that 
the British ArchaDolosrical Association will continue to increase its 



238 PEOCEEDTNGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

strengtli at the satisfactory rate of progress which has been so evident 
of late. 

" 2. Biographical notices of the Associates whom we have lost by 
death have, as far as is practicable, been prepared from materials sub- 
mitted to us for the purpose. These will be found in that part of the 
Journal devoted to that object. 

"3. During 1877, seventy-two complete works, or parts of works, 
have been presented to the Association ; but the Honorary Secretaries 
deplore the fact that no improvement has yet been adopted so as to 
render the valuable and constantly increasing library of archffiological 
works of reference available. 

"4. Forty-two of the most important papers read at the Congress 
held a't Bodmin and Penzance, or during the progress of the session in 
London, have been printed in the Journal of the past year. The Hono- 
I'ary Secretaries are glad that they are enabled to announce that there 
is no lack of material for the proper continuation of the Journal, as 
there are on hand several valuable contributions to British and foreign 
archajology from the pens of associates and others. These papers, as 
far as the very limited space at the command of the Editor will per- 
mit, will be inserted in forthcoming issues of the Journal. And the 
Honorary Secretaries here would wish to point out that large sums 
are expended on the publication of the Journal, whereby a very large 
amount of the subscrijjtion is returned to the associates. They also 
would remind local members of the Council, and associates generally, 
to lose no occasion of laying before the meeting early accounts and 
notices of fresh discoveries and interesting researches, thereby assist- 
ing to maintain the important position of the Journal as a record of 
archa)ology, and as a book of reference to all matters which enter into 
the scope of the Society. 

" 5, With respect to the portions devoted to headings of "Antiqua- 
rian Intelligence", it has been found that a useful medium of commu- 
nicating new and important matters has been in this way set on foot ; 
and the Honorary Secretaries earnestly thank all who have thereby 
assisted them by prompt correspondence with regard to local disco- 
veries." 

^'^\^-r^''''''\ Hon. Sees. 
E. P. L. BiiocK J 

!Mr. Morgan then moved the following resolution, which was carried 
unanimously : 

" That it is desirable to record among the ' Proceedings' of the Asso- 
ciation a meeting held at 9 Victoria Chambers, on the lOth of April 
last, for the purpose of testifying to the appreciation of the valuable 
and gratuitous services rendered to the British Archteological Associ- 
ation by Mr. George R. Wright, P.S.A., during nearly the whole term 
of its existence." 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



239 



A fund was raised by these subscribers for the purchase of ton 
volumes of a British topographical work, and to form a purse of money, 
which were together presented to Mr. George R. Wright in recogni- 
tion of these services. The chair was taken by the Treasurer of the 
Association ; and as the fund was subscribed to by a large number of 
our associates, including many past Presidents, Vice-Presidents, mem- 
bers of our Council, as well as members of the body at large, it is 
moved that the minutes of the said meeting be entered among the 
" Proceedings" of this Society. 

The ballot was then taken, with the following result : 

?=)v£siticnt. 
[THE EARL OF UARDWICKE.] 

Utcc=lprcsiticnt3. 
Ex officio — The Duke op Norfolk, E.M. ; The Duke of Cleveland, K.G.; 
The Marquis of Hertford ; The Earl of Carnarvon ; The Earl of 
Dartmouth ; The Earl of IMount-Edgcumbe ; The Lord Houghton, 
D.C.L. ; Sir Chas. H. Rouse Bougiiton, Bart. ; Sir W. C. Medlycott, 
,Bart., D.C.L. ; James Heywood, F.R.S., F.S.A. ; Kirkman D. Hodgson, 
M.P.; George Tomline, F.S.A.; Sir W. W. Wynne, Bart., M.P. 



The Earl of Effingham 
Sir II. W. Peek, Bart., M.P. 
II. Syer Cuming, F.S.A. Scot. 
John Evans, F.R.S., F.S.A. 
A. \V. Franks, M.A., F.S.A. 
George Godwin, F.R.S., F.S.A. 
Rev. S. M. Mayhew, M.A. 



T. Morgan, F.S.A. 

J. 0. H. PuiLLipps, F.R.S., F.S.A. 

J. R. Plancue, Somerset Uevald 

Rev. Prebendary Scarth, I\I.A. 

Rev.W. Sparrow SiMPsoN,D.D.,F.S.A, 

C. Roach Smith, F.S.A. 

John Walter, M.P. 



^Treasurer. 
Thomas Morgan, F.S.A. 

Srcrctarirs. 
Walter de Gray Birch, F.R.S.L. 
E. p. Loftus Brock, F.S.xV. 

Curator null ILibvarian. 
George R. Wright, F.S.A. 

iSraugijtsman. 
G. F. Teniswood, F.S.A. 

^alccograpfjcv. 
E. M. Thompson. 



George G. Adams, F.S.A. 

George Ade 

Thomas Blashill 

Cecil Brent, F.S.A. 

C. 11. Compton 

William Henry Cope 

T. F. Dillon Choker, F.S.A. 

R. Horman Fisher 

J. W. Grover 

J. Ro.MiLLY Allen. 



CTouncil. 

Wentworth Huyshe 

J. S. PuENE, LL.D., F.S.A. 

J. W. Previte 

Rev. Alexander Taylor, M.A. 

E. ]\I. Thompson 

Stephen I. Tucker, Ruiujc Croi.v. 

G. F. Warner, M.A. 

J. WuiTMORE. 



auDitoiS. 



Geouoe Patrick. 



240 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 241 

During the taking of the ballot, after the customary resolutions had 
been proposed and carried unanimously, Mr. G. R. Wright, F.S.A., 
explained several details in connection with the forthcoming congress 
at Wisbech, and on concluding, the following retrospect was read by 
the Chairman. 

Notes on the Past Session. 

BY THOMAS MORGAN, F.S.A., HON. TREASURER. 

It must be gratlfjnng to all true lovers of archeology to see how the 
practical labours of our associates during the past session have added 
to the stock of established facts, which day by day and year by year 
are building up history upon a more solid foundation than heretofore, 
not only as regards that period of time which is called prehistoric, 
but also that which follows it, from the sixth to the twelfth century — 
an epoch now emerging from what might have been called, and 
certainly as regards our own country should be called, the semi-historic, 
by reason of defect of materials to fill up the picture. The " cloud of 
error" has hung with more or less density over all lands, from Cadiz 
to Calcutta, since Juvenal complained of it, and it cannot be wrong to 
work at removing as much of the cloud as possible, that our progress 
may be guided by the Divine light of truth — a safer beacon than the 
uncertain glimmer of artificial or imperfect history, however well put 
together. 

We are indebted to the conti-ibutions of the Rev. W. C. Lukis and 
the Rev. Canon Ridgway for a careful exposition of facts, already 
established, with reference to megalithic monuments, and to Mr. C. 
W. Dymond, for altogether new and detailed measurements, ground 
plans, and descriptions of that fine specimen of a rude stone circle, 
Stanton Drew, in Somersetshii'c, showing the diameter of the large 
circle there to measure 368 feet, and of four in Cumberland, that is 
Long Meg and her daughters near Little Salkeld, wdiich is one of the 
large circles or ovals of 305 feet by 360 feet, and three others in Cum- 
berland of smaller diameters.^ He has also given us good measure- 
ments and descriptions of the Men-an-Tol and Chywoon Quoit in Corn- 
wall. Dr. Wise has contributed a detailed account of the circle and 
avenues of stones at Callernish, in the Island of Lewis.'- We have 
been favoured too with an account of another large circle of stones in 
another part of the country, that at West Stow Heath, by Mr. Prigg, 
and he makes the diameter of this circle to be 360 feet, which I point 
out, because these large circles are rare. These new measurements 
supply a desideratum for checking and rectifj-ing ancient descriptions 
and measurements by Aubrey and others, which have been copied by 

' Journal, xxxiii, p. 297. - Ibid., p. 158. 



242 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

subsequent writers, and are often inaccm\T,te. Ancient stone crosses 
in Staffordshire and elsewhere have been admirably illustrated, and 
careful drawings made of some of the best examples by Mr. C. Lynam, 
with his valuable classification of them, and we may congratulate the 
Society on the efforts which have been made to place the chronology 
of these crosses upon something like a satisfactory basis, by comparing 
the ornamentation of the stone with that on the parchment documents 
of the different periods. With these beautiful di-awings before us, and 
assisted by a collection of rubbings made by Mr. J. Romilly Allen from 
a large number of the crosses themselves, showing the designs in black 
and white without change or favour, a better opportunity is now given 
for such a comparison than antiquaries have had in times gone by, 

I may refer here to a noteworthy example of a cross which points to 
an historical date. It is given in the Journal of the present year at 
page 122. The cross or monolith is described as standing in the 
hamlet of Coplestone, about five miles from Crediton, on the Barn- 
staple road, where four ways meet. Mr. R. E. Way exhibited a draw- 
ing of it from a plaster cast of the cross, made by Sir Henry Dryden. 
He gives reasons why it should be considered a memorial cross to 
Putta, second bishop of Devon, who was murdered on the spot by one 
of the followers of Uffa, Earl of Devon. The sculpture is of the period 
A.D. 901 to 940, and a figure on hoi^seback carved on one side of the 
stone is conjectured by Mr. Way to be that of the bishop on his journey. 
The labours of our late treasurer in the illustration of Anglo-Saxon 
architecture have been followed up in the same impartial spirit by the 
practical and professional investigations of Mr. E. P. Loftus Brock, 
Mr. J. T. Irvine, and Mr. C. H. Talbot ; and we may refer with satis- 
faction to the information which those gentlemen have furnished upon 
the Saxon church of Boarhunt, in Hampshire, with full measurements 
to scale by Mr. J. T. Irvine, and upon the arches and pilasters at Brit- 
ford Church, near Salisbury, exhibiting as these do the characteristic 
fretwork carving, and the imitation of Roman mosaics. We are carried 
back through these intermediate stages of architecture to the Roman 
period, which has been very fully illustrated this session by new and 
important discoveries, and without particularising the ma,nj finds of 
the usual Roman remains, which are described in the Journal, I would 
wish to draw attention to some which have a special interest, as iden- 
tifying certain sites or throwing light upon the Roman topography of 
Britain. 

At Carlisle three different sections of stockades have been found 
composed of oaken piles, which, if Roman, as they are supposed to be, 
show that a continuous stockade surrounded the city in Roman times. 
This has been pointed out by Mr. R. S. Ferguson. The discovery of 
a wall bearing a colonnade, with columns in situ from 21 to 23 feet 



CoPLESTONE Cross. Devon. 




SfRJ.DRYDEN. DEL"^. 



J Aktfrmac.Phuto-Iith Loadoa 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 243 

apart, within the area of the camp at Templeborou<Th, near Sheffield, 
may lead to further discoveries on this site, which is now being opened 
up by the energy of Mr. J, D. Leader. He has given us an engraving 
of the larger columns, as well as of the smaller ones of a peristyle, and 
of the wall ; and bis discovery of other Roman remains and road, at a 
lower level, point to the occupation of the spot at another and earlier 
historical period. The tile of which he has sent a drawing^ gives the 
name of the fourth cohort of Gauls, presumably stationed, there, or 
sent to work at the entrenchments. We know only that the prcefect 
of the Cataphractan cavalry was quartered at Morbium when the 
Notitia Imperii was compiled; and as the Gallo- Grecian cavalry are 
called Cataphracti, or covered with armour, and associated with the 
Gallic infantry by Livy, and the Galli are also described by Tacitus as 
Crupellarii, likewise protected by heavy armour, we have a coincidence 
between the inscription on the tile and the Notitia, written about the 
time of Honorius, which is highly important. A Roman brick grave 
outside the eastern wall of Verulam may determine the site of the 
Roman cemetery there. In Roman villas partially excavated we 
should take note of the sites in the southern counties, where two have 
lately been found. The first at Abinger, near Dorking, brought to our 
notice by Mr. B. Hicklin, and the second at Preston, near Brighton, 
reported on by Dr. Joseph Stevens, and interesting as another instance 
of a Roman focus of civilisation on this coast of Sussex, to add to the 
others already known in those parts." 

The Roman discoveries at Canterbury, which were described to us 
by Mr. John Brent at our last meeting, are an important addition to 
our knowledge of Roman Canterbury, which Mr. Brent had imparted 
to us on many former occasions, and in a discussion upon the numer- 
ous coins which have been found in the bed of a spring there, the 
feeling of the meeting seemed to be that the subject of offerings of 
money and articles of value to the genius or divinity of springs and 
rivers should be followed up whenever opportunity offers, based upon 
the many instances we have had of such offerings, and having regard 
to a paper on the subject by Dr. Wake-Smart.3 By the kindness of 
Dr. Birch, we have had from him a full account of that Egyptian 
obehsk, which, through the generosity and public spirit of a private 
individual, has been brought over to these shores ; and the subject can 
no longer be treated as foreign to British archoeology, now that the 
obelisk itself is floating in the Thames, near its final resting place. 
The excavations at Alexandria, at the base where it once stood, des- 
cribed to us by Mr. Waynman Dixon, were second only in interest to 
the interpretation by Dr. Birch of the hieroglyphics on the monument 

' Journal, xxxiii, p. 508. J Il,i,L, xxx, jp. -5 IS, 522. 



1876 



IbiJ., xxxii, p. GO. 



81 



244 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

itself. The bronze crabs on which the obelisk had been reared by the 
Romans were brought to light, and on one of them inscriptions in 
Greek and Latin showed that the obelisk had been set up in the pre- 
fecture of Bai-batus, in the time of Augustus. This fixes the date, 
according to Mr. Dixon, to about B.C. 22. As a parallel to the engineer- 
ing works of the Moderns, .- i the great canal of M. de Lesseps, Mr. 
J. W. Grover has given us ^ u account, with plans, of the Suez Canals 
of the Ancients, from the age of Sesostris. Dr. Schlieraann's paper 
on Troy and Mycenoe will be remembered with interest, and kept in 
view when this subject is again discussed, for it is yet very far from 
being exhausted. Foreign archaeology has been brought to bear upon 
oiTr English finds by a comparison of some of the gathei'ings of our 
associate, Dr. Pheue, iu his travels through many lands. His zeal in 
archaBological researches has induced him to visit the Troad,and some 
of those out-of-the-way isles of the -i^gsean, not much known to modern 
travellers, though of great renown in ancient times, and of these he 
has given us descriptions on various occasions ; nor has he been less 
active nearer home in surveying the land of Armorica, and the mega- 
lithic structures of Brittany, and giving us the benefit of his researches. 
In documentary archjBology, I call attention to a MS. dated a.d. 770, 
brought forward by Mr. Walter de Gi'ay Birch, which is intei'esting, 
as beai'ing upon the history of the Hwiccii, from Worcester Cathedral 
Library. The sei'ies also of original charters on vellum, which were pre- 
sented to our librai-y by Sir P. Stafford Carey of Guernsey, illustrated 
by Mr. Birch, and published in our Journal, are a valuable addition to 
our archteological records, and the same may be said of the Spanish 
documents exhibited by the Eev. Dr. W. Sparrow Simpson, and the 
printing of the will and inventory of Robert Morton, of the fifteenth 
century, by Mr. E. M. Thompson, the inventory having been purchased 
for the British Museum at the sale of Mr. Bragge's collection of MSS. 
I would also refer to two specimens of MSS. in the Journal,^ which 
illustrate the history and Kterature of the ancient Cornish language by 
Mr. Henry Jenner, who deals critically with this diflBcult subject,' 
without allowing imagination to run too far in advance of facts — an 
error which is even more easily committed by etymological than by 
historical inquirers. Before leaving the subject of documentary archae- 
ology, I would i-efer with satisfaction to the action of the Society 
towards preventing the destruction of ancient papers among the sup- 
posed useless public records, and also for obtaining an extension of the 
date up to which ancient wills may be searched free of charge by 
literary students, the desired end having been attained in both cases. 
Passing to mediaeval remains, attention has been called by the Rev. 
Prebendary Scarth^ to an effigy in the cliancel wall outside Bathampton 

' Vol. xxxiii, pp. ]r)5 and 157. ^ Journal, xxxiv, p. 120. 



PKOCEEDlNCi,^ OF THE ASSOCIATION. 24 5 

Church, lately visited by the Somersetshire Archaeological Society, 
and, notwithstanding' a contrary opinion which has been expressed 
upon it, Mr. Scarth fully states his reasons for attributing this effigy 
to that of an early Norman bishop, much mutilated, but which gives a 
good representation of the ecclesiastical dress of the period. This 
confirms the opinion expressed upon the < -^y more than twenty years 
since by Mr. J. R. Planche, Somerset He. ^ d.^ In the same county 
the discovery of the supposed refectory ana tiled floor of the abbey of 
Cleeve, described heraldically, and with reference to the architectural 
arrangements, by Colonel J. P. Bramble and Mr. John Reynolds, are 
an interesting addition to the description we had before received of the 
same abbey from the Rev. Prebendary Walcott. A subject of con- 
siderable interest has been brought before us by Mr. Brock, resulting 
from a discovery at Eltham of very deep artificial caves, with passages 
communicating from one to another, and these have been compared 
with others of a similar character cut in the chalk, as well as with those 
extensive caverns at Hastings which have been cut in the sandstone. 
It is to be hoped we shall hear further upon this subject. I must not 
omit to mention the information conveyed to us by Mr. H. W. Henfrej^ 
concerning the family of Oliver Cromwell, by the production of many 
medals with their effigies, hitherto unpublished, and which have been 
admirably reproduced in the Journal. His description is a valuable 
addition to much that has been said of the troublous times of Charles I 
and Oliver Cromwell, both by himself on previous occasions as well as 
by the late Mr. Pettigrew, Mr, Syer Cuming, and others. Those times 
are recalled to our memory whenever we visit earthworks, which, 
whether ancient or medieval, have generally been occupied at one time 
or another by the troops of the contending parties in the seventeenth 
century. Some of the relics of Lord Fairfax were shown us at Leeds 
Castle in Kent, when we spent a most agreeable day there last autumn, 
by the kind invitation of Wykeham Martin, Esq., M.P. He gave us 
from memory a complete history of this very important historical 
fortress, and repeated the generous hospitality of his predecessor, C. 
Wykeham Martin, Esq., who entertained an equally large number of 
our members at dinner in the year 1853, and then gave us a descrip- 
tion of the castle, which will be found in the Journal,ix, p. 286. 

Without intending what I have said to be at all considered as a 
summary of the work of the past session, for I have said nothing of the 
very numerous exhibitions of antiquities, and of the many papers pro- 
duced at our evening meetings by Messrs. T. Blashill, Cecil Brent, 
Loftus Brock, C. H. Compton, H. Syer Cuming, J. W. Grover, C. H. 
Luxmore, H. Prigg, Rev. S. M. Mayhew, S. I. Tucker (Houge Croix), 
G. R. Wright, and many others, nor uf the interesting discussion:! 
which have ensued upon them, I have desired only to call atluutiou to 
' Journa/, xiii, j>. 1 i:>. 



246 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

certain points of historical or topograpliical interest which occurred to 
me, and I trust it will not have been considered time altogether wasted 
if I have paused a little at this, our anniversary meeting, to point 
out such of our new archeeological materials as illustrate the points 
referred to. 



Wednesday, Mat 15th. 

H. Syer Cuming, Esq., F.S.A. Scot., V.P., in the Chair. 

The following associates were duly elected : 

Edward B. Dawson, LL.B., J. P., Lime Cliff, Lancaster 
J. Neame Hill, 22 Albert Road, Regent's Park. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for the -undermentioned presents 
to the library : 

To Eclm. B. Ferrey, for " South Winfield Manor, illustrated by Plans, 
Elevations, Sections, and Details, with Perspective Views and 
a Descriptive Account, etc. ; Measured, Drawn, and Litho- 
graphed by Edmund B. Ferrey." Folio. London, 1870. 

To the Rev. R. E. Hooppell, for a Treatise " On the Discovery and 
Exploration of Roman Remains at South Shields, in the Years 
1875, 1876." By the Rev. R. E. Hooppell, M.A. Svo. Lon- 
don, 1878. 

To the Society, for the " Jom^nal of the Royal Historical and Archaeolo- 
gical Association of Ireland", vol. iv, Fourth Series. July, Oct. 
1877. Nos. 31, 32. 

Sir Henry Dryden forwarded, through Mr. R. E. Way, for exhibi- 
tion, a coloured drawing of portions of the interlaced woi-k on the Cop- 
plestone Cross. 

Mr. Richard Mann, of Bath, exhibited a plan, and reported the 
results of his researches in the Roman cloacce of Bath (Aqute Solis), 
which are still in excellent preservation, and adapted for the uses of 
the modern city to a great extent. These sewers were noted in 18G5, 
when a considerable length of their extent, about 500 feet, was dis- 
covered. This* portion received the water from some of the warm 
baths of the city, particularly those which were supplied from the 
" King's Spring." Shortly afterwards these were found to be con- 
nected with the mediaeval drainage of the Old Bath Monastery. The 
Corporation of the city, now finding their value, again utilised the 
works executed fully 1,400 years ago, and Mr. Mann was employed to 
execute the works of repair. The " middle passage" referred to is a 
portion where the water stood some half way up to the thighs, and 
with but an air-space above the water-surface of only about 14 inches. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 247 

The work generally was found to be in excellent condition, and of very 
solid construction, some of the stones being fully 8 ft. 6 ins. long. 
Mr. Mann reports as follows : 

"The sketch will give some conception of the Roman drain at 
its mouth. The small plan and two sectional elevations, with the per- 
spective sketch of its mouth, give a good idea of its appearance. It is 
intej'esting, since the sketch shows the preservation of a portion only 
of the Roman arch. 

" There are four large slabs forming the partition between the 
drains and also part of the side-walls. The top bed is exactly level, 
and is 2 ft. above the gravel, which here forms the bottom of the 
drain. The sectional elevation, showing western face, gives the joints 
of the first three slabs. There is another slab, but the ' ground' or 
'sludge' was not removed, at the time I took the dimensions of sizes, 
quite far enough back to enable me to reach it. Further on I had a 
hole sunk, 3 ft. 2 ins. from top bed of stone ; and still further, another, 
2 ft. 10 ins. deep, but in neither case reached the bottom bed-joint of 
the slabs. In width, the edges of the slabs are between 11 to 12 ins., 
probably the Roman foot. On the western side of the south drain is 
a slab 8 ft. 6 ins. long. 

" Where the south bi^anch turns off in a westerly direction, it is 
covered with slabs of stone ; as is also the portion shown on the plan, 
14 ft. 2 ins. long. Here the height is but 1 ft. 7 ins. from the bottom, 
which is paved hei'e, to the under side of the covers. In this portion 
I had to lie on a plank, with before me 1 ft. of deposit in the south 
branch, thus allowing but 8 ins. in height for peering into. The 
branch-covers started a foot higher than in the 14 ft. 2 ins. part, and 
seemed to .slope upward. 

"As nearly as I could see by the compass, the branch is parallel with 
the Roman drain of the Kingston buildings. There is a slight dis- 
crepancy in the jalan, arising in this way: When I made this one- 
eighth of an inch scale drawing I had not cut into the mediieval drain 
of the Monastery, and took it for granted that this part was in line 
(but it varies I find) with the middle passage. I looked up in it to the 
arching, to find the part supposed by Mr. Irvine to be built alternately 
of stone and brick ; but I missed it. The drain of the Monastery cut 
direct through the Roman drain, and was built quite irrespective of it. 
" I sank a hole first of all in the locked-up cellar facing, as you go 
down the slope of the chair-entrance of the Kingston Baths. It was 
in this way I came on the wall previously mentioned. I find this is 
the east wall of the buildings of the Roman Baths. I have burrowed 
in about 10 ft. westward, amongst the piers of a hypocaust ; and I 
wish that arch;uologists would spend .£10 in a little exploration to 
reach the south-casi (pioin of the building, to sec how the wall con- 



248 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

tinues at the sides of the drain-outlet. The latter is a matter of soma 
difficulty to understand. In the Kingston Buildings part we are get- 
ting on slowly. At starting, instead of working in the drain itself, I 
sank a hole down on to the modern blocking-wall, allowing the water 
to escape as we sank. The flat lintel-stone just by this I find is a large 
stone bedded on the arch at the time it was built. About 10 ft. beyond 
this the water comes in through a drain coming in on the south side, 
towards the bottom. Beyond this we have met with no water to speak 
of. At about under the middle of the Bank premises the arch is 
broken away, and gradually the walls are removed to about half their 
height on the north side. On the south side the opening seemed to 
get wider, and some piling then interfered ; and at present we have 
lost the wall thei'e altogether. I have had no mishap with the build- 
ings overhead. I am having inverts turned, side-walls built, and arch- 
ing over. Here and there I have left an opening to track the south 
wall, if possible, when everything above is secure. 

" During the progress of the work of repair I found two urns and 
also a mask ; the latter of some white metal. This is not lead ; were 
it so, it would be much more pliable, and not in quite such good pre- 
servation. I cannot help thinking that it is much later than Roman 
times. The flutings on the top part of the head terminate in a band 
on the forehead, and it is treated in so similar a manner to the brasses 
of late date as to suggest strongly a connection therewith. Several 
fi'agments of roofing-tiles of Pennant stone were met with, having the 
usual pointed ends, and the holes for the nails. 

" We have commenced to sink a fresh excavation in Abbey Passage 
this week, and found that a bulky Norman wall extends on one side of 
our excavation, built on a prostrate Roman one." 

The plans exhibited indicated the course of these remains, and 
showed their massive construction. A great portion is arched over, 
while in others the covering is of massive slabs. The north drain is 
divided from a parallel channel, which afterwards branches off into the 
south drain, by a division of massive stones respectively 6 ft. 8 ins., 
5 ft. 5 ins., and 5 ft. 9 ins. in width. At the junction where these two 
channels unite into one drain, the covering has been by a massive 
semicircular arch, of which only a fragment remains. 

Mr. J. T. Irvine exhibited a plan of the Roman villa discovered a 
few years ago near Tracey Park, near Bath, and which was excavated 
in part by the Bath Natural History Society at the time. He called 
attention to the existence here, as in the parallel case of the Roman 
camp at Templeborough, of an earthen rampart of quadrangular form 
enclosing the remains. Here, as there, the rampart was cut through, 
ill the hoi^e of Hnding an external wall, but none had existed. There 
had probably been a hedgo, or still mure so a stockade on its sunnnit. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 249 

Within this enclosure the walks of the garden were clearly distin- 
guishable ; and, had the entire exploration been made, probably the 
general arrangement of the flower beds would have been noted. Mr. 
Irvine believed that very many of the Roman villas were thus enclosed 
with earthen banks. In the villa at Hartlip an enclosing ditch was 
met with. The villa hero revealed but few antiquities, the principal 
being the leg of a white marble statue and some stone moulds for 
forming earthenware vases. The plan showed a large area, 332 ft. by 
264 ft., enclosed by the earthen rampart. The angles are square, and 
not rounded as at Templeborough.^ The villa occupied one of the 
angles of the area only. The foundation traced revealed the outline of 
ten or eleven chambers, grouped right and left of a recessed centre, 
with two hypocausts. Several drains were met with, and the remains 
of a heating fui'nace in connection with the hypocausts. 

The following articles were exhibited by Mr. Henry Prigg of Bury 
St. Edmunds. 1. A one-edged dagger, with blade 9 ins. long. The 
handle is of brass, six-sided, with a slight cross guard and disc-shaped 
pommel bearing on each side a Maltese cross. Found in Lavenham 
Church. 2. A leaden figure of a dragon, found in Lakenheath Church, 
and thought to have been associated at one time with a figure of St. 
George or St. Michael. 3. Two of four iron nails 13 ins. long, with 
laterally flat fungiform heads eleven-tenths of an inch wide at the base, 
and respectively seven-tenths and six-tenths of an inch thick ; weight, 
15| and 14^^ oz. ; found with a skeleton at Horningsheath, Bury St. 
Edmunds. On these objects the following paper was read : — 

On supposed Crucifixion Nails. 

BY H. PRIGG. 

The large iron nails or spikes exhibited by the courtesy of Mr. W. 
N. Last of Bury St. Edmunds, were found with human remains whilst 
extending the gravel pit, about one hundred yards west by south-west 
from the Red House Inn, Horningsheath, near Bury St. Edmunds. 
As they ai'e believed to be crucifixion nails by the owner and others, 
and to have been buried with the person crucified, I thought it de- 
sirable they should be submitted to the Association, together with such 
details of their discovery as could be procured. With this view I 
recently visited the Horningsheath gravel pit, and was fortunate in 
meeting with the labourer who, over ten years ago, found the nails in 
question. He tells me that in opening fresh ground on the eastern side 
of their pit they came upon about twenty -five human skeletons, which 

' The plan on p. .005, vol. xxxiii, is inaccurate in this respect. The angles 
at Templeboroiigh are rouuded, as described iu the letterpress, thus agreeing 
in this respect with the Roman station at the Lawes, South Shields, and those 
ot the Roman Wall from Wallseud to Bowness. 



250 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

lay extended with their feet directed north-east, at from 4 to 5 ft. deep, 
or just upon the surface of the gravel bed. With one of these were the 
four iron spikes, two of which were found at the head of the skeleton 
and two at the feet, about a foot apart. They were upright, that is, 
each spike had its head uppermost and point downwards, and were 
clear of the bones. Boreham, who well remembered the circumstances, 
is certain upon the position of the nails, and also that, with the excep- 
tion of this and another interment, that of a man near 7 ft. in height, 
who had buried with him some small animal having sharp teeth (possi- 
bly a cat), nothing of any description was found with the bodies, nor 
any trace of coffins. The bones generally wei"e sound and well pre- 
served, but otherwise no clue was afforded as to the age of the burials, 
which apparently extend further 'into the field, for Boreham informs 
me that not long since he observed bones protruding from the face of 
the old woT'king. In view of the facts thus elicited, I cannot see that 
we have any evidence in support of the theory of crucifixion, or that 
t)ie nails had been used in any way in connection with the death of 
the deceased ; indeed it would appear far more probable that they 
once held together the top and bottom boards of a rude form of coffin, 
all other trace of which had disappeared. The kind of protection to 
the body I would suggest as probable would be that it was laid between 
two boards of corresponding dimensions but a few inches longer than 
the deceased, which were supported by either ends or sides, and that 
the whole were held together by the long nails being passed through 
holes made in the top plank and driven outside the side or end boards 
into the bottom one. Instances of the finding of large iron nails with 
human remains of the Roman period in England are not rare, but have 
not failed to excite considerable curiosity and conjecture. The disco- 
very of interments believed to be of this age, each accompanied hj four 
large iron nails, at Bourne Park, near Canterbury,' and the discussion 
that followed it, in which the hypothesis of crucifixion was set up, is 
no doubt well remembered. In the chamber of the larger Roman 
tumulus of East Lowe Hill, near Bury St. Edmunds, iron nails 12 ins. 
in length were found, which were believed by the late Professor Hens- 
low,^ who explored it, to have held together the wooden frame over 
which the arch of tiles was turned, but which I think with greater 
probability were used to fasten together the planks between which the 
heavy leaden cofiin there found was once enclosed. I have found 
similar nails, although not so large, around a lead coffin in a Roman 
burial place at Icklinghara, partially explored by me in 1871 ; and also 
with a late Roman interment at Mitchell's Hill, in the same parish. 
These nails, however, had all of them round flat heads, not like those 

' Proceed inr/s, Soc. Antiqti.aries, vol. ii, pp. 79, 94. 

* Froceedimjs, Suff. Inst, of ArcJmology, vol. iv, p. 279. 



PROCEEDINGS OF TITR ASSOCIATION. 251 

from tlic interment at llorningslieath, wliich arc dcciJudly mediaeval 
in cliaracter, and resemble closely the nails depicted in some of the 
more noted representations of the crucifixion, and in the still more 
ancient monnments. 

J\rr. Y\. Allen exhibited some rubbings of tlie ancient cross at Leeds, 
and said : — " The history of the Leeds cross, rubbings of which are 
now displa3'ed on the walls of this room, is one of considerable interest, 
and a brief notice of it may therefore prove acceptable to some mem- 
bers of the Association. Professor Westwood thinks that it was origin- 
ally erected in the tenth or eleventh centuries, and there is little doubt 
that it remained an object of veneration for several hundred years, 
until subsequently it was cut up into wall stones by the vandals of the 
Perpendicular period, and used in the building of the tower of the 
parish church of St. Peter, Leeds. It was thus concealed for many 
centuries without anyone suspecting its existence, until in the year 
1838 Mr. Chantrell undertook the restoration of the church, and in 
pulling down the tower the fragments wei'e again brought to light, and 
by means of rewards oifered to the workmen, and through the inde- 
fatigable zeal of the architect, almost the whole was recovered. After 
the completion of the restoration in 1841, however, Mr. Chantrell (by 
whose permission I cannot say) removed the fragments and put them 
together in his garden at Leeds. When leaving Leeds he took the 
cross with him to Newington Butts, London, and subsequently to his 
residence at Rottingdean, near Brighton. There it remained until Mr. 
Chantrell's death, when the property was sold by an order under the 
High Court of Chancery. There was nothing at this time to have 
prevented the disappearance of this magnificent monument altogether, 
had not jNLajor Moore of Leeds stepped in, and at his own expense re- 
covered it, and had it brought back to Leeds, where it now stands in 
the stonemason's yard, awaiting its removal to the parish church, where 
it will be again erected after a lapse of some four or five hundred 
years. I think it right to mention that the inhabitants of Leeds so 
little appreciated the value of this remarkable relic as to allow it to 
be removed in the first place ; and that even now its being replaced 
will be wholly due to ^Major Moore's exertions, who is the owner, pro 
tern., and to whose courtesy I am indebted for being allowed to make 
the rubbings exhibited. In conclusion, I should be very glad if any of 
the members of this Association would favour mc with any opinions 
on this most beautiful work of earlj^ Italian art." 

Mr. H. Syer Cuming exhibited a silver-gilt fork which has been in 
his family's possession from about the middle of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. It is 4j ins. in length ; the handle flat, and broad towards the 
upper end, which is trisected at top, both front and back, being 
covered with engraved foliage. On the back is a stamp bearing an 
1878 32 



252 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

open ci'own, the letters m, and a, lion rampant. This rare and elegant 
little specimen had originally three prongs, but the centre one has 
been broken off. 

Mr. Cuming remarked that " it may be questioned if silver forks were 
ever in general use until the nineteenth century ; but certain it is that 
such things were known at an early period, and that from the com- 
mencement of the seventeenth century they became more and more 
familiar to the eye. Count Caylus^ has given a i^epresentation of a 
silver fork found in a ruin on the Via Appia, which many consider to 
be of ancient fabric. It has two prongs, the upper end of the handle 
being fashioned like a stag's foot. This fork may have been for table 
use, or for the purpose of trimming the wick of a lamp. But should 
there be any uncertainty about the date and purpose of this rare 
object, no doubt can attach to a five-pronged fork discovered in a 
tomb at Pa^stum, and now preserved in the Museum at Naples. The 
earliest silver fork yet met with in England is the one exhumed in 
1837, together with a silver spoon and Saxon pennies, at Sevington in 
Wiltshire, and described in the Archceologla, xxvii, p. 301. These 
several relics are assigned to a period not later than the close of the 
ninth century. The fork and spoon formed lot 73 at the sale of the 
collection of the late C. W. Loscombe, at Wellington Sti^eet, in August 
1854 

" We know little about silver or any other kinds of forks during the 
middle ages, but have positive evidence of their existence from the 
days of our Elizabeth and James I. Thomas Coryate, who performed 
his travels on the Continent in ]608, tells us in his Crudities that in 
Italy the gentlemen made use of silver forks, but that those commonly 
employed were of ' yron and steel'. Eosbroke, s. v. ' Fork', says ' one 
of silver, dated 1610, shuts up, and has at the end a statue which 
draws out a toothpick.' In the Gent. Mag., July 1790, p. 596, are given 
two examples of folding forks of silver, which serve the purpose of 
handles to oval spoon-bowls ; the latter having little loops on their 
convex surface, through which the fork-prongs are thrust. One of 
these specimens has three prongs to the fork, and is of very graceful 
character, the interior of the bowl being graven with a vase of flowers 
and two squirrels. The second is of plainer design : the fork has but 
two prongs, and the top of the handle represents an eagle's head, 
which forms the grip of a toothpick which screws into the shaft. In 
the same plate with these hinged forks are given a spoon, knife, and 
fork, all of silver, and found together in a shagreen case in pulling 
down a portion of the old Palace of Enfield in 1789. The fork has 
three prongs, and in general aspect closely resembles the one now sub- 
mitted. Both spoon and fork are stamped with the letters ib ensigned 

' Recueil, iii, p. 84. 



PKOCEEDiNGS OF THE ASSOCIATIOX. 253 

with a crown. In point of date the Rev. S. M. ]\Iayhc\v's fork here 
falls in, the Hall-Mark indicating it to have been made in IGS'J-Sl. 

" In Chambers' Book of Days (i, p. 520) is a woodcut of a black 
shagreen pocket-case containing a spoon, knife, and fork, with the 
handles into which they screw, all being of silver, tastefully wrought, 
and engraved with thistle-leaves. The fork has three prongs, and 
bears the letters C. S., the initials, as supposed, of Charles Stuart, the 
so-called Young Pretender, to whom the case and its fittings are 
believed to have belonged, and which are now in the Londesborough 
collection. It may be well to add that these several articles bear the 
Dutch plate-stamp." 

Mr. Cuming also exhibited a group of iron forks of the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries, some bidents, other tridents, with handles of 
horn, ivory, bone, agate, and silver. Two curious examples of steel 
forks of the end of the sixteenth century, both with two prongs, are 
engraved in this Journal, xviii, p. 117. 

Mr. Horman-Fisher, who had exhibited two swords in leathern 
sheaths on the 20th of February, as reported in the Journal for that 
day, forwarded the following account of them : 

" One of these is evidently an old coioteaic cle cliasse, having a handle 
and guard of brass or lacquered metal, with an ornamentation of 
Flemish or Dutch work of the seventeenth century. On the part of 
the hilt where it was slipped over the belt is figured, in good relief, a 
stag pursued by hounds ; thus marking distinctly enough the iise of 
the weapon, which measured 28 inches long. This sword is believed 
to have belonged to the brave and patriotic Admiral Blake, whose 
niece mai'ried Mr, Roger Staples of the Close, Salisbury, and has 
descended through the family to Mr, Charles Staples, cousin of the 
exhibitor. It was considered probable that the Admiral acquired the 
sword in one of his famous naval engagements, 

" The other sword is a finer specimen than the one just described, 
both as to beauty of its richly ornamented silver hand-guard and hilt, 
and well-shaped, polished steel blade. The peculiarity of the weapon, 
however, consisted in the handle, which was of buffalo-horn inlaid with 
silver; the guard and hilt being curiously ornamented, after the late 
Italian art, with quaint faces and figures of birds' or reptiles' heads at 
the terminals of the guard. On the pommel were two lions' heads, 
side by side ; and on the part of the hilt which secured it to the belt 
was a boldly designed human face with dishevelled locks, surrounded 
by a wild-looking dog and other animals, and grotesque human faces. 
The silver Hall-Mark on the guard indicated it to bo of the early 
part of the eighteenth century ; and the name, ' Charles Bibb, New- 
port Street', that its maker was an Eiigli.shuian residing in London. 
The length of blade measured 22 inche.-i.'" 



254 FKOCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

On this occasion Mr. Horman-Fisher exhibited a sex'ies of photo- 
graphs of ancient edifices existing in places likely to be inspected by 
members during the ensuing Congress. 

The Rev. S. M. Mayhew exhibited a fine and perfect Norman jug, 
lately found with others in Basinghall Street, together with the draw- 
ing of one in its broken state, 18 ins. high, 2 ft. 1 in. in greatest cir- 
cumference, standing on a base of 6 ins., covered with a fine and silvery 
green glaze, ornamented by a double circle in cameo of the arms of 
Clare, and another crest undefined. Also an earthen bottle of the 
Norman period, wide-moutlied, holding about half a gallon, and glazed 
a dark rough green. To these were added a wide and handled cup of 
Cologne ware, warmly brown in coloui', and ornamented by a roughened 
pattern ; found also in Samian, and doubtless derived by the potters of 
the seventeenth century from their Roman progenitors. This specimen, 
certainly unique as a London find, is 6 ins. across the rim, and will 
hold about three quarters of a pint. Also a small unglazed jug, with 
upright lip, strongly resembling a Roman cantharus, but probably of 
Cologne manufacture, and the seventeenth century. Also a disc of 
terra cotta, 5 ins. by 2 ins., serrated and painted, apparently related to 
the serrated cylinders, also of Roman work, and lately exhibited by 
Mr. Mayhew, one of which, for purposes of comparison, was laid on 
the table. 

It has been taken for granted the Romans imported glass from Sidon 
or Egypt, and were not manufacturers, at leaKst in London. This ques- 
tion, raised by the discovery five years ago of a glass melting pot, 
together with fragments of glass in Southwark Street, apparently of 
Roman origin, may perhaps be answered by the specimens of glass now 
exhibited. Collection No. 1 is from Southwark Street, and consists 
of fourteen specimens, one of Roman window glass, a lachrymatory, 
tubes, a solid reed, portion of a lip of a lai'ge jar or urn, and crystal 
droppings from the melting pots. No. 2 collection is from Clement's 
Lane. Here were found, together with Roman pavements, and this 
rim of a large painted Samian vessel, a mass of green and white glass 
slag, weighing nearly half a hundredweight, to which this piece be- 
longed ; two small masses of blue glass, each retaining portions of the 
pot in which they were melted ; a rim of an urn of olive glass, a 
portion of a basin, with filagree lines of white ; the handle of a small 
cantharus, a portion of imitative chalcedony, two " mixers", one having 
within a white line, and cut without in Roman facets, and what appears 
intended as an unguentarium or lachrymatory. Also a tool of iron — 
from the blue Roman earth so known to antiquaries — for pressing and 
moulding the ornamental portions of glass vessels, presenting a pattern 
very similar to those from Cyprus. The wliole subject is very in- 
teresting, and these discoveries certainly point towards the couclu- 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 255 

sion, even if tliey do not absolutely reach it, that Roman glass was 
manufactured in Loudon by perhaps Egyptian manipulators. We 
Lave in mind the fine Egyptian ring found in Walbrook, and this year 
exhibited. Collection No. 3, from Maze Pond, Southwark, contained 
several beautifully moulded and colossed stems, bases, and bowls of 
Venetian glass. 

Mr. Mayhew, having been entrusted by Sergt. Godwin of the Ord- 
nance Survey, with a drawing, plans, map, and survey of Stonehenge 
and adjacent territory, leading to confirmation that the great circle was 
indeed "a Temple of the Sun", opened the subject, in which he was 
followed by Messrs. Grover and Blashill, a fuller debate and investiga- 
tion being postponed until a future meeting. 

Mr. W. de Gray Birch, F.R.S.L., Honorary Secretary, read a paper 
entitled " Results of the recent Exploration of the Roman Station at 
South Shields", by the Rev. R. E. Hooppell, LL.D., Rector of Byert 
Green. This paper was listened to with enthusiasm and attention, the 
plans and drawings with which it was accompanied being carefully ex- 
amined. 

At the conclusion of the reading, Mr. Loftus Brock, F.S. A., said that 
we must consider this station, as Mr. Hooppell has truly observed, in 
relation to the stations of the Roman wall ; but we may do so, not only 
from the topographical considerations, this being a supporting station 
to Tj-nemouth, whei'e the wall commenced, but from its exact corres- 
pondence with the stations of the wall. The plan, a parallelogram, is 
identical, so are the rounded angles and the four gateways, while the 
area agrees nearly with that of the station at Bird-Oswald, which is the 
largest. Like these stations, too, it bears evidence of a common des- 
truction by fire, and of more than one reconstruction. We may safely 
infer therefore that this station formed a part of the original design, 
and was planned by the same hands. We may extend our inference 
when we find that there are many stations in the North of England, 
such as High Rochester (Brementium) and the recently discovered 
station at Rotherham, which are identical in plan, and safely conclude 
that all these northern stations were planned as portions of one com- 
prehensive design, and for the object of supporting the W'all from sea 
to sea. We have also an illustration of the value of one discovery in 
throwing light upon another. A closer inspection will also show that 
many of the buildings excavated here are almost identical in plan with 
those met with elsewhere ; for instance, Mr. Hooppell's general plan 
shows a large building divided into two aisles by a central passage 
/O ft. by 47 ft., with a portico of four columns to the south front. 
Templeborough and Rotherham have revealed a similar building, 72 ft. 
by as ft. The same, but without the portico, occurs at High Roches- 
ter, whore it is about Go ft. by l-S ft., while a partially excavated build, 




256 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

ing at Bird-Oswald (Amboglanna) has the same long buttressed side 
wall, most probably indicating that the building of which it forms a 
portion was of similar plan. We have thus four examples of similarly 
planned buildings, and probably others could be cited. The appear- 
ance of these buttresses, in all these examples, shows that we must 
accord to the Romans a perfect knowledge of their use in England. 
In France they occur in a very marked degree in the castrum of 
Jublans. These buildings have been designated barracks by Dr. Col- 
lingwood Bruce, and we may at least accept this appropriation until a 
better one presents itself. They all stand north and south, or nearly 
so. They present some points of resemblance to the " mutationes" or 
small intermediate halting stations of the Romans, which were pro- 
bably analogous for their use to the caravanserai of the East at the 
present day, and may be compared with the large apartments, divided 
by pillars, which are frequently found in England attached to villas, of 
which Hartlip, in Kent ; Bognor, Sussex ; Ickleton, and the single 
building at Andover, are examples. Special attention should be called 
to the very remarkable occurrence of the potter's stamp on the two 
fragments of the black ware mentioned by Mr. Hooppell. Also to the 
example, so very rare in England, of a portion of a window remaining. 
Also to the presence of Caistor (DurobrivEe) ware in this position, so 
far away from the seat of its manufacture, and showing how extended 
was the communication between one part of England and another. 



Wednesday, June 5. 
T. MoRCxAN, F.S.A., V.P., Hon. Tkeasurer, in the Chair. 

Mr. J. F. Edisbury of Wrexham was elected local member of Council 
for Denbighshire. 

Thanks were oi'dered to be returned for the following pi-esents : 

To the Socicfi/, for " Archajologia Cambrensis", Fourth Series, No. 34). 
April" 1878. 
„ „ for " Bulletin Historique de la Societe des Antiquaires de 

la Morinic." Livraison 100, 101, 102, 104. 1876, 1877. 
To J. Miiijer, E.'^q., for " Catalogue of the Mayer Collection. Part J, 
Egyptian Antiquities." By Charles T. Gatty. Liverpool, 1877. 
8vo. 
„ „ for " The Mayer Collection in the Liverpool Museum, 

considered^ as an Educational Possession." By C. T. Gatty. 
Liverpool, 1878. 8vo. 
), „ for " A Free Village Library. — Bcbingtou." Liverpool, 

1878. 8vo. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE A8S0ClATrON. 257 

Mr. G. K. Wrio;hf. announced the election of the Earl of Hardwicke 
as President of the Congress commencing at Wisbech on ^fonday, 
19 August, and spoke at length in reference to the details of the excur- 
sions proposed to be adopted by the Association on that occasion. 

The Rev. S. M. Mayhew, M.A., F.S.A., exhibited a variety of glass 
relics, and said : — " The old glass manufactures of France, as illus- 
trated by rare surviving specimens, are interesting, dwarfed as they 
were by the more numerous productions of Spain, on the one hand, by 
Germany and Italy on the other. Indeed glass work appears to have 
met with little encouragement and much neglect, prizes of art being 
found with Bernard Palissy at the Tuileries, and the workers in majo- 
lica at Nevers, the crown remaining with world-famed Sevres. Near 
this last Parisian suburb French glass appears to have been produced, 
and perchance the specimens before you proceeded from this favoured 
locality. These cups belong to the seventeenth and eighteenth centu- 
ries. The former may be pronounced purely French, the latter, opals, 
have a German inspiration, mingled with a French manipulation. 
You will observe the outline pattern as being similar, the texture of the 
glass very unlike, and possessing an excess of alkali ; upright for three 
and a half inches and then for half an inch an out-turned lip. The 
engraving representing within a fence a chiiteau, trees, and tower, 
with the initial " c" bordered in seventeenth century style. This glass 
is partially roughened. On another, similar in size and shape, are the 
three tleursde-lys — the arms of the monarchy, bordered with foliage. 
The initial " g" appears on this glass, and both were obtained from a 
lady, the sole survivor of an old Kentish family, whose ancestral home 
stood in the days of Charles II on a foreshore, over which now roll the 
waves of the bleak North Sea. These four opalescent cups retain the 
same shape, though belonging to the next century. They form part 
of a set of twelve, and are painted by no mean hand. Each in personal 
character, costume, and allusion illustrate a consecutive month, beai'- 
ing its name and appropriate sign in the Zodiac. The next object is 
the rare wallet-shaped ring bottle, probably for wine. The centre is 
compressed and perforated, four ribands, of German fashion, descend 
from the neck, and six discs bear in cameo the fleur-de-lys. Another is 
at present in the South Kensington Museum. The perforated ring 
bottle has been always a favourite type, and always rare ; Phoenician, 
Greek, Roman, Venetian, all made it, all have left it. Another curious 
and historical specimen is a large oval, white costrel, intended for 
a case, but bearing on one side an excellent cameo-moulded portrait 
of Washington, on the other the adopted arms of the new-born Re- 
public, the thirteen stars and stripes, borne with the eagle, grasping 
at once the lightning and palm branch. The stars are set as a border 
round the eagle. This is no roceni production. 1 claim for it an ao-e 



258 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

of one hundred years — that age when the troops of France crossed the 
Atlantic, and returning-, brought back the spirit of a new-found freedom, 
of which respectively Lafayette and Washington were embodiments. 
Where, in 1777, was the American glass factory to produce a costrel such, 
as this ? Costrel mould and glass could belong only to the old country, 
and that France. Two of a series of glass paintings, Dutch, and of 
the seventeenth century, ai'o on the table, the subjects of all are scrip- 
tural ; and whatever of excess belongs to the pictures, all must admit 
they are the work of one who thoroughly understands his art. Ex- 
cellent colouring, stoutness, with vigour of design, are apparent. A 
dolphin vomits Jonah on dry land, suggested, I believe, by a catacomb 
painting. The death act of Cain and Abel is realistic in itself. The 
brothers are, however, clothed in flowing woven tunics, and surrounded 
by advanced and ancient civilisation, a ruined castle, and grass grown 
tower. 

" I exhibit also a highly ornamented and artistic cup, glazed tur- 
quoise, almost oriental in its tint. It is assigned as a copy of a French 
carved cup of ivory by Fiammingo (Frangois de Quesnoy), A.D. 1594- 
1644. No artist's mark gives the hand of the worker; but such 
specimens of art appear to have been given us from the far-famed 
works of Urbino, which in later days put forth vases glazed in this as 
in other colours. It is of majolica ; upon an octagon base, adorned, 
with foliage. Three mermaids and merroen support the body and 
heavy bordering of a cup, beai-ing a sportive band, in high relief, of 
youths and dolphins. Two hold the trident ; another with reeds lashes 
a dolphin, on whose back he stands ; two others wind the sounding 
shell ; and a tall back^^round of river-reeds and bulrushes finish the 
picture. The cup is 9 inches high, and was found not long ago, by its 
present owner, in a marine store-shop." 

Mr. T. Morgan, F.S.A., IIov. Treasurer, exhibited three sketches by 
Lieut. Morgan, of stone mausoleums in Central Asia : 1, at Rajdam- 
bul ; 2, at Nagbal ; 3, at Martand or Mattam. 

The Rev. C. ColHer, F.S. A., announced that the excavation on the site 
of the Roman villa at Itchen Abbas had been resumed. He sent for 
inspection a sheet of sketches of the pottery which had already been 
found. The pottery is in fragments only, and the sketches showed 
that they were of greenish and brown ware, some portions having a 
graceful scale-work pattern. They are all probably the product of the 
New Forest and the Isle of Wight potteries. 

Mr. J. T. Irvine thus reports the discovery of the site of what was 
probably a castle of Saxon date, near Lichfield. " I have recently found, 
the eastern mounds of a very early castle not mentioned by Shaw, or, 
so far as I can yet learn, by any other writer. The site is by the side 
of an ancient hollow road passing from or past Lichfield, through Lin- 



PKOCEEDINOS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 259 

croft, to Farcwill (tlic site of a dissolved nunnery), and on to tlic Cliace. 
The site is just below Farewill Mill, wlicre the road makes an angle, 
and it has running water on three sides. When the grass is removed 
I hope to obtain a correct plan. The site is quite unknown here, and 
I can obtain no information with respect to it. Probably this may 
cease to be the case should it be mentioned in the Journal.'^ The 
plan exhibited showed the position due east of Fai-ewill, at the angle 
formed by the hollow road to Lichfield. The high mound, which is in 
the form of a rounded squai'e, is divided by a cross ditch into two 
almost equal parts. 

Mr. 0. R. Smith, F.S.A., V.P., thus describes a Roman coffin which 
has recently been found within the area of the modern cemetery of 
Chatham. " Another Roman leaden coffin has fallen into better hands 
than that at Crayford. Yesterday I was invited to see one which 
has just been dug up in the new cemetery, about a mile and a half 
from Chatham, on the j\Iaidstone road, in an open spot, remote fi-om 
modern habitations. The coffin was fully 6 ft. in length, although the 
occupant would appear, from the teeth, to have been very young. 
Quick lime had been poured over the body, and the coffin, from the 
iron and wood ai"ound it, was probably enclosed in a wooden frame- 
work, bound round by iron bands. There were with it two small 
earthen vessels, perfect, and some elegantly shaped glass, broken to 
pieces. The coffin was ornamented with a pattern different from those 
I have engraved.^ The ornament consists of a band of diagonal mark- 
ings, alternately broad and narrow. The head has a compartment 
divided into three triangular spaces by two diagonal bands, starting 
from the centre of the band of the compartment to the angles of the 
main band around the coffin, there being one escallop shell in I'elief in 
the central triangle. The whole is verj' greatly decayed. The Cray- 
ford coffin, which still remains buri'd, is more ornamented with shells 
and a beaded pattern". The Crayford coffin is one of lead, recently 
found during some drainage works. It was raised, but has been since 
buried again in an uncertain locality. Mr. Roach Smith also sent a 
drawing of a peculiar foliage pattern, which occurs on a curious leaden 
vessel belonging to Mr, Fitch, and which was found at Felixstowe, 
Essex. This vessel is very similar to that which was found at Roches- 
ter, and described at a recent meeting by Mr. Bcrney, these two vessels 
being the only examples known of their class. That from Felixstowe 
measures 31 ins. circular; it is G ins. high, and, from traces of iron, 
it may have had either an iron handle or a cover, or both. There are 
four flowers of the pattern which was shewn. The date may be earlier 
than the tenth century. 

Mr. R. S. Ferguson, F.S.A., communicated the following report 

' Collectanea Andqva, iii. 
]S78 aa 



260 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCTATTON. 

upon some further interesting discoveries at Carlisle. The stockading 
mentioned being evidently of much later date than those refei'red to in 
his previous description. 

Ancient Stockading Recently Discovered at Carlisle. 

BY R. S. FEKGUSON, ESQ., F.S.A. 

Some time ago I communicated to the British ArchEeological Asso- 
ciation^ an account of a remarkable stockade of early Roman or pre- 
Roman days, found in Carlisle. I have now to record the discovery in 
another place in Carlisle of a stockade of a different character, but 
equally remarkable. The earthen vallum (with ditch towards the 
south) of Hadrian's Barrier" long marked and still marks the boundary 
between the socage of Carlisle Castle and the city of Carlisle. The 
ditch formed the third fosse on the south side of the castle. That 
there were three fosses, is proved by an entry in the Liberate Rolls, 
29 Edward I, in which year also the same authority shows that John 
de Halton, Bishop of Carlisle, farmer of the castle and lordship of 
Carlisle, was allowed £5:5: for timber, to make new the stockades 
(bretechias) round the castle.^ Some houses and new barracks have 
been commenced on sites recently cleared on the north side of Annet- 
well Street, that is, exactly in the ditch, now long ago filled up. The 
new barracks have no cellarage, but at the west end of Annetwell 
Street, and so close to the site of one of Carlisle gates, well known as 
the Irish Gate, excavations for cellars were made in the ditch, and the 
vallum itself cut into. In the very heart of the vallum, about the level 
of the original ground, two skeletons were found together in an east 
and west position, as the vallum runs, but with their heads in differ- 
ent directions. Unfortunately a crowd collected, and the remains 
were scattered about before the}?- could be observed, but nothing what- 
ever was, I believe, found with them. The soil of which the vallum 
is composed has evidently been taken from the ditch. The excava- 
tions into the ditch showed a fixt black soil, such as the silting up of 
a ditch would produce. Hardly any Roman pottery was found. On 
the south side of the ditch was found a stockade, more like a stockade 
of railway sleepers than the stockade I have on another occasion 
described to this Society. It seemed framed together ; an oak beam 
hewn with the axe, about 12 ft. long and 8 or 10 ins. square was found, 
with treenail holes in it ; apparently it had bound together the top of 
the stockade. Only a small portion of the stockade was disclosed, so 
that no very minute examination could be made. About 12 ft, deep 

• Vol. xxxiii, p. 525. - The Roman Wall. 

^ See the Rev. C. 11. Ilartshornc " On tlic Parliaments of Carlisle", ArcJuro- 
loiiical Jonrnat, xvi, p. 33G. 



PKOCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 261 

were found throe or four stone balls, about 20 ins. in circumference. 
These would seem to be relics of the siege of Carlisle in 1315 by Robert 
Bruce. The Chronicle of Lanercost tells us that the Scots then erected 
an engine for casting great stones, and continually threw them at the 
Irish Gate. Stones missing the gate and going over it would roll 
harmlessly into the ditch, and be silted up. The place where they have 
been found is only a few feet from the back of the gate. A deer's 
tine was fountl, and also a more puzzling object — a pipe bowl of red 
clay. It has been smoked. It must have been made at Assouan or 
Siout in Upper Egypt. How it got to Carlisle I cannot conjecture. 
No one saw it found, and the finder said it was buried about 11 ft. 
deep. He knocked a bit out of it with his pick ; it has evidently been 
long buried. The stem portion has been long ago knocked off, and 
the finder sold the bowl for a few pence as a Roman egg-cup. The 
Builder of February 28, 1874, contains a plan which will elucidate the 
above. The dotted line marked " City Boundary" is the north side of 
the vallum. The continuous line south of it is the north side of An- 
netwell Street. Draw a line north and south through the word 
" city" and it cuts Annetwell Street, where the balls and stockade were 
found. 

Mr. C. H, Compton, speaking in reference to " Simnel cakes", which 
had been the subject of discussion on a previous occasion, said : " The 
Shropshire ' Simnel cake' is still used very generally through the county 
at mid-Lent. It is usually of the size and shape of a large pork-pie, 
and is composed of an outside crust very hard, flavoured and coloured 
with saffron, and the inside consists of some kind of mince-meat. 
There is a story current among the country people in this county, that 
the name ' Simnel' was given to the cake in consequence of the follow- 
ing occurrence. An old couple, Simon and Nelly, had a dispute as to 
how they should cook their mid-Lent cake. One said it should be 
boiled ; the other, that it should be baked. From words they came to 
blows, Simon being armed with a stool, and Nelly with a broom. At 
last they agreed first to boil, and then to bake, the cake, the result of 
which was that the crust was very hard ; and the cake, the subject of 
this compromise, received a name compounded of the names of the 
worthy couple — Sim-Nel. 

"A more classical derivation is given of the name in Richardson's 
TJictionary, quoting from Spelman : ' Simnel, a purer kind of bread, so 
named because made d sivvila, that is, the purer part of meal'. Schiller, 
in his Latin Didiunary, derives simila from aeiiica\t^, the finest wheat 
flour, called also similago. In the assize of bread the different kinds of 
loaves are called ' a farthing wastel, a farthing Simnel, and a farthing 
white loaf " 

Mr. E. P. Loftus Brock, F.S.A., Hon. Secretary, exhibited a curious 



262 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS. 

brown ware jug, with a partially developed face rudely formed, recently 
found in Old Street ; also a beautifully designed wall-tile with a pointed 
pattern, found in London Wall ; and several other articles, also derived 
frona recent excavations in the City. He also announced some import- 
ant discoveries of Roman date at Lincoln. 

Mr. J. Reynolds exhibited the fifteenth century silver matrix of the 
seal of St. Stephen's Church, Bristol. It was described by Mr. W. de 
G. Birch, Eon. Secretary. 

Mrs. Clagett exhibited a gold ring with the signs of the zodiac in 
relief, from Honduras, of the seventeenth century ; also a stone pot 
with silver top and handle, of the same date. 

Mr. J. Tom Burgess, F.S. A., exhibited, from Worcester, a flagon and 
paten of latten metal, with the royal arms of Spain. 

Mr. J. Reynolds also reported the discovery, at Key n sham Abbey, 
of some foundations, showing that the chancel had possessed a south 
aisle as well as a north one. The foundations have some projections, 
probably of a south chapel. His announcement was illustrated with a 
sketch showing the site of the discovery. 

A paper by Mr. E. Maunde Thompson, Assistant Keeper of the 
MSS. in the British Museum, upon "An Exultet Roll of the Twelfth 
Century", was read by Mr. W. de Gray Birch, F.R.S.L., Hon. Secre- 
tary. The photographic illustration which accompanied the paper 
created much interest. The paper will be printed hereafter. 

Mr. Gordon M. Hills then read a paper entitled " The Measurements 
of Ptolemy and of the Antonine Itinerary applied to the Southern 
Counties of England." The paper was accompanied by the exhibition 
of a large map of the south of England, and several old printed works 
referring to the subject treated of by Mr. Hills. This paper will find 
a future place in the Journal. 



Biograpljical IHcmoirs* 

Thomas Wright, M.A., F.S. A. — In Brompton Cemetery repose the 
mortal remains of one of our most distinguished antiquaries, Thomas 
Wright ; but the great leveller. Death, will have no power over the 
vivifying influence of the grand monument he has erected for himself, 
in all civilised countries, by his publications. When nine-tenths of the 
literature of the day is consigned to utter oblivion, the works of Thomas 
Wright will be fresh and flourishing wherever true science and litera- 
ture are understood and valued. And what are they ? Taken alto- 
gether, they are by far the best that in the present day have been 
contributed to our national historical literature ; and have done more 



BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS. 263 

to bring before us, in proper colours, our ancestors as they lived, 
thought, and died ; and the held of resurrection, as it may be termed, 
which he has opened to us and to futurity is so wide that the very list 
of his works occupies several pages in Allibone's Biorjraphical Vidion- 
arij, an American work. England has as yet no such catalogue in print. 
Mr. Wright's immediate ancestors lived in the neighbourhood of Leeds, 
as appears by the autobiography of Thos. Wright of Birkenshaw (173G- 
37), edited by his gi'andson, Mr. Thos. Wright, in 18G4. It is not certain 
where Thomas Wright, the antiquary, was born ; but he received the 
rudiments of his education in the Grammar School at Ludlow, for 
which town he retained a warm aflfection, looking upon it as his birth- 
place, and pubhshing, in after years, its history. Thence he proceeded 
to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated ; and where thus 
early in life he distinguished himself by researches into the MSS. of the 
libraries, the fruits of which shine in his publications. One of his col- 
lege friends was the late eminent Saxon scholar, John Mitchell Kemble, 
who in the preface to his translation of the SaxOn epic poem, Beowulf, 
pays a high compliment to Thomas Wright. He also became intimate 
with J. 0. Halliwell-Phillipps, the great Shakespearean scholar, and 
their friendship was lasting. In some early publications, such as the 
Beliquice Antiq^ice, in two volumes, they were associated. Conjointly, 
also, they edited a new edition of Nares's Glossary in 1859. Very early 
in life he must have published Christianity in Arabia — a remarkable 
work, not much known. His capacity for languages was great ; but the 
natural tendency of his mind was to study national history in its most 
important phases ; and in this study he was much assisted by his fami- 
liarity with the early dialects of France, and consequent co-operation 
with the most eminent French historians, among whom was Guizot, 
who soon appreciated his young friend's merits by procuring for him 
the distinguished position of membership in the Institute of France 
(Academic des Inscriptions). The great statesman and historian re- 
sided for some time at Brompton, and thus he and Mr. Wright were 
in constant personal union. The late Emperor entrusted to him his 
Life of Julius Ccesar for translation ; and it was completed with an 
almost incredible rapidity. Mr. Wright's life was an incessant literary 
labour. With the great historical publications came papers for socie- 
ties, such as the Camden and Percy, for periodicals such as the Gentle- 
man's Magazine, the Literary Gazette, Intellectual Observer, Athenonim, 
etc. The Arcliceologia of the Society of Antiquaries, of which he 
became a fellow soon after leaving Cambridge, contains some valuable 
papers from his pen. 

He became an Associate of the Society very soon after he took up 
his residence in London — a little anterior to Mr. Roach Smith, with 
whom he thus became acquainted, and with whom he co-operated in 



264 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS. 

formino- the British Archfeological Association. This friendship also 
became lasting. Among his other especial friends and colleagues were 
the late Lord Lytton, the late Lord Londesborough, Lord Houghton, 
the late Mr. Hallam, Mr. Fairholt, Mr. Wace, F.S.A., Mr. S. Wood, 
F.S.A., the Ainsworths, Crofton Ci-oker, and his son Mr. Dillon Croker, 
from whom, during the last fading years of his life, he I'eceived kind 
and constant attention. 

A list of the works on which Mr. T. Wright was engaged would 
extend over more space than we have at disposal, but among those less 
generally known are two volumes of Vocabularies, illustrating the 
general archaeology and histoiy of our country, and the forms of elemen- 
tary education, and of the languages spoken in our country from the 
tenth to the eighteenth centuries, and Feudal Manuals of English History. 
These valuable volumes were compiled at the request and at the ex- 
clusive cost of Mr. Joseph Mayer, whose name is familiar to all who 
interest themselves in the archaeology of this country. To Mr. Mayer's 
liberality Wright was ever ready to avow his obligations. 

There are several portraits of Mr. Wright, but there is one memorial 
which should be made part of a national collection, and that is the 
marble bust by the late Joseph Durham, R.A. This is the property 
of the widow, Mrs, Wright, who, we grieve to say, is left unpi'ovided 
for ; but we believe that the Government will recognise the claims the 
deceased has, most legitimately, upon this country. 

The Rev. Charles Boutell, M.A., was born on the 1st of August, 
1812, at St. Mary Pulbam, Norfolk, of which place his brother was 
rector. He graduated at Oxfox'd, and became curate of Litcham, in 
Norfolk ; then curate of Sandridge, near St. Alban's ; rector of Down- 
ham Market, in Norfolk, and afterwards at Norwood. His labours in 
the fruitful fields of archteology and media3val heraldry are well 
known. He took a leading part in the formation of the London and 
Middlesex Archasological Society, occupying the post of secretary for 
a considerable period, until his retirement under the auspices of the 
Rev. T. Hugo. For the last two years of his life he suffered severely 
from declining health, but the immediate cause of death was attributed 
to rupture of the heart. The Athenceum of August 11, 1877, and other 
papers of that date, contain obituary notices of the late Mr. Boutell, 
whose decease happened so shortly after his introduction into our Asso- 
ciation that we are unable to point to more than one paper from his 
pen, that on the " Early Heraldry of St. Alban's", contained in the 
Journal for 1877. 



265 



^ntiqitartan Jntclltgence. 

These paragraphs of antiquarian intelligence are prepared anrl con- 
densed from miscellaneous communications made to the Secre- 
taries ; and it is earnestly requested that Associates will forward, 
as early as possible, notices of recent discoveries, which may bo 
of archa)ological interest, coming to their cognizance. 

The Fenland Past and Present. By S. H. Miller, F.R.A.S., and 
S. B. J. Sketchley, F.G.S. Wisbech : Leach and Son.— In introducing 
this most interesting volume to the notice of the arcliceological world, 
we feel that it has been issued at a most opportune period. The 
forthcoming Congress of the British Archa3ological Association, in 
August, at Wisbech (the centre, so to speak, of the Fenland), will so 
work over the principal points of antiquarian attraction, which have 
been already noticed and discoursed on in the book before us, that it 
becomes almost a necessity for those who wish to derive any real 
benefit from their attendance at the 
excursions to procure and study this 
volume, as a pi^eliminary step to the 
right appreciation of the endeavours 
of the Society towards illustrating 
the archaeology of the Fens. Hardly 
a single point of interest has been 
omitted ; and although our Associa- 
tion natarally looks more to the 
past than to the present history of 
Fenlandjthestudentof statistics, and 
the practical man who I'evels in sci- 
entific results of well-prepared tests, 
will not be more pleased at the 
results of Messrs. Miller and Sketch- 
ley's labours in these subjects than 
the antiquary, to whom appeal sucli 
excellent reproductions as the pcv 
lished celt from Edcnham, nern 
Bourn, in Lincolnshire; an impU 
ment of moderate size, but, from its 
beautiful preparation, evidently a 
dearly prized weapon of some skil- 
ful man; or the magnificent celt ccit from Kate's Bridge, 
from Kate's Bridge, tlie relic of a neolitiiic period, such as are found 




266 



ANTIQUARIAN INTELLIGENCE. 



over all the western and southern portions of the Fens, although it is 

stated that they do not en- 
croach upon the broad area 
of the peat, probably because 
that area was under water. 
It would be, indeed, a mat- 
ter of some difficulty to point 
out such another splendid 
example of prehistoric art as 
is here exhibited in the celt 
from Dig-by Fen. The people, 
too, whom these and such 
like implements served for 
weapons of defence, or for 
necessary domestic purposes, 
not uncommonly built their 
ao-orlomerated habitations on 
piles in lakes, as a px'O- 
tection against human or 
scarcely less savage animal 
enemies. Of such dweUings, 
I lie vestiges of one have been 
observed at Crowland, in 
1870, the piles being con- 
structed of sallows planted 
c-losely together ; upon them 
a layer of brushwood, and 
over this a stratum of gravel. 
Tlie relics yielded by such 
habitations are bones of food- 
yickling animals, in vast 
heaps, pi-incipally of the Kel- 
tic shorthorn ox, a few im- 
plements of bone, and here 
and there a jet ornament or 
Celt from Digby Fen. two. Near Ely, in like man- 

ner, stakes have been found in the peat; but the finders do not attri- 
bute this instance of human work to the construction of a lake- 
dwelling. 

To a somewhat later period belong the very neatly fashioned flint 
arrow-head found at Chatteris in Cambridgeshire, and the flint arrow 
from Bourn Fen. Brandon also, as is pointed out in the volume, con- 
Rtitutes a very rich and productive field for relics of the stone age. 
The authors do not hesitate to assert, that as far back as two hundred 




ANTIQUARIAN INTELLIGENCE. 



26: 



thousand years, the earliest known men occupied that vicinage ; and 
even to this day the present flint-knappers, who earn a respectable 




Flint AiTow-Head from Chatteris. 




Flint AiTow-Head from Bourn. 



livelihood by the making of gun-flints, occupy identically the same 
spot as was held by their ancestors, the neolithic flint-workers, at the 
remote period already referred to. 




It- 






'K- 




Nor are the Fen districts wanting in relics of more recent ages ; <(he 
Roman, British, and Snxon periods have all kfi. tlieir iniprc'^s fully 
1878 34 



268 



ANTIQUARIAN INTELLIGENCE. 



marked upon objects that from time to time have been recovered from 
the voracious maw, of the peat and mud, which is so universal a feature 
of Fenland. Perhaps no one object of recent exhumation is more in- 
teresting than the statuette of Jupiter Martialis, figured at page 466, 
for the exhibition of which the Society of Antiquaries is indebted to 
the well known antiquary the Hev. S. S. Lewis, of Cambridge Univer- 
sity. The illustration also of the beautifully designed ancient shield 
is an excellent specimen of the execution of the volume. The metal 
coating of this shield was found in the River Witham, and for excel- 
lence of design may be favourably conti-asted with similar relics of 
antique civilisation preserved in the British Museum. Of later date, 
but of not less enticing import, is the cross of St. Guthlac (figures at 
page 76), which may be faii'ly considered to represent one of the best 
remaining specimens of lapidary palaeography of Christian Britain. 
To this class belongs also the cross of Kenulf of Evesham, first abbot 
of Crovvland. 

In architectural remains the Fenland is not in any way deficient, if 
we may judge by the tower of South Kyme or Tattershall Castle, once 
in the possession of powerful lords, whose family records and whose 
published histories would receive a very important addition at the 
hands of any one who would give time to the perusal of the ancient 
charters in the Harleian and other collections in our National Library. 
The abbeys of Crovvland and Thorney, landscape views of various 
districts, natural history of the localities, and a variety of statistical 

information, all afford material for 
first-rate illustrations, which the 
authors have introduced into their 
book unsparingly. Some of these 
are reproduced by the heliotype pro- 
cess, from spirited sketches by E. 
W. Cooke, R.A. The late Mr. John 
Carter, who was employed for many 
years in an artistic perambulation 
of England, has left behind, among 
his valuable drawings now in the 
Manuscript Department of the Bri- 
tish Museum, several carefully exe- 
cuted plates of antiquities, architec- 
tural and domestic, which relate to 
: tlie Fen disti^icts. Bloomfield's and 
Turner's collections for Norfolk, 
Cole's collections for Cambi'idge and 
Tower of South Kyme. other counties, would undoubtedly 

have offured a vast quantity of useful material to the authors, but it is 




ANTIQUARIAN INTELLIGENCE. 260 

evident that the volume before us prefers to stand upon an independent 
footing, and to discourse of now facts rather than repeat what may so 
easily be obtained elsewhere. Hence it is that originality of treatment 
forms one of the great charms of this excellent work, and no one can 
read the chapters on the later history, the rivers Wclland, Nene, Ouse, 
and Witham, the Wash, the geology, and prehistoric and modern fauna 
of the Fenland, or the art of the decoyer, without feeling that this is 
new ground for an exercise of local literature, which attracts by its 
very difference from the sententious heaviness of antiquated county 
histories. The printing and production of the work reflect gi-eat 
credit on the publishers ; aud there is no doubt that so well digested 
a book, upon so happily chosen a series of subjects, hitherto unnoticed, 
will receive from the arch^ological public that appreciation which it 
deserves. 

Discovery at Lincoln. — Some interesting Roman remains have just 
been found in Lincoln. Excavations were being cai'ried on near the 
old Roman gate known as ISTewport Arch, when the workmen brought 
to light several pillars of a basilica. A number of highly prized coins 
have also been picked up, and it is expected that other matters of inte- 
rest to antiquaries will be brought to light. Mr. F. C. Penrose has 
inspected the ruins, and advocates a large extension of the excava- 
tions, as he believes, from what has already been exposed, one of the 
finest Roman buildings in Great Britain can be uncovered. The only 
other building of this character is at Bath ; but there the remains 
have been removed to the Museum, and therefore do not afford the 
means of study they might had they been left in situ. 

Part I, vol. 7, of Mr. Roach Smith's Collectanea Antiqua is now ready. 
It should be understood that it is strictly limited to subscribers. The 
author's address is Temple Place, Strood, Kent. 

Discovery at St. Paul's Cathedral. — A few days ago, while some work- 
men were digging in the churchyard, on the south side of St. Paul's 
Cathedral, a stone was discovered of the ancient Cliurch of St. Paul ; 
and this led Mr. Penrose to study the plans of the old building, the 
result being that he ordered the workmen to dig south and south-east, 
and lay bare the walls of the cloisters and the buttress of the old 
chapter house. The stonework was in excellent condition, and the 
structure of the old building could be clearly traced. Some parts of 
the wall were only a foot ami a liuU' beneath the surface of the church- 
yard. 

Fly-Leaf Literature. — A manuscript music-book, written in the six- 
teenth century, and preserved in the British Museum among the Addi- 



270 ANTIQUARIAN INTELLIGENCE. 

tional MSS., No. 30,513, contains on the fly-leaf the following curious 

distichs : 

" Ve tibi, qui rapida librum furabere palma ! 
Nam tua uon possunt furta latere Deurn. 
Si quis eum errantem viderit dominoque carentem, 

Reddi mihi librum, margine nomen habes.— Thomas Mullyner." 

Among other examples may be quoted the following, from MSS. in 
the same place : 

"Occasum nemo, licet ortum novimus omues. — Jo. Gowre." 

(Harl. MS. 2270, f. 85 b.) Fourteenth century. 

" Contra caducura morbum hos karacteres in anulo scribe . extra on . 
thehal Gutguthani . intus . + . eri . gerarl." (MS. Harl. 3915, f. 150.) 
Fourteenth century. 

" Omnibus omnia non mea." (MS. Harl. 3915, f. 150.) 14th cent. 

" Omnibus omnia non mea sompnia dicere possum." (Add. MS. 
30056.) Fifteenth century. 

" Cur raoritur rhetor, paucis die optime lector ; 
Improba rhetoricam mors quia non didicit." 

(Add. MS. 30056.) Fifteenth century. 

" Diversis terris homines sibi convenientes, 
Alterius matrem si duxerit unus et alter, 
Horum sic nati patrui sunt atque nepotes." 

(MS. Harl. 3915, f. 149.) Fifteenth century. 

M. Fleury, in his catalogue of the MSS. at Laon, vol. ii, p. 140, 

quotes the following : 

"Explicit, expliceat, 
Bibere scriptor erat." 
And 

" Detur pro poena scriptori pulchra puella." 

Glasgow Archceological Societg.— This Society appears to be entering 
on a new and broader field of labour. It was originated in 1856, and 
its printed transactions or papers i-ead at meetings down to 1870 show 
a large amount of valuable results. These papers (about ninety in all) 
were a selection from a much larger number, and in subsequent years 
many more were read ; but a decreasing amount of contributions to 
the funds, through the death of some, failing health of others, and 
retirement of a few of the more active members, prevented further 
publication. A short time back the surviving members resolved on an 
effort for its resuscitation, and have been endeavouring to promote 
more earnestly than formerly the welfare of the Society. With a view 
thereto the rules and regulations have been revised, and an accession 
of excellent names introduced as office-bearers. In England, on the 
Continent, America, and elsewhere, antiquarian researches are pro- 
ceeding vigorously, throwing much liglit on history, and correcting 
many erroneous theories and popularly received historical impressions. 
In Scotland, and the immediate locality of Glasgow, there is still very 
much to be discovered, and not a few mistakes to be corrected. 



THE JOURNAL 



3BiittsI) ^rcOaeoloflital association. 



SEPTEMBER 1S78. 



THE MEASUREMENTS OF PTOLEMY AND OF 
THE ANTONINE ITINERARY, 

APPLIED TO THE SOUTHERN COUNTIES OF ENGLAND. 

BY GORDON M. HILLS, ESQ. 

In the year 1874 I directed the attention of the members of 
the British Archeeological Association, and of archaeologists 
generally, to the necessity that existed for a systematic 
attempt to correct and complete the Roman geography of 
England. I then pointed out that Camden's labours had 
been greatly impeded by the want of correct maps on which 
to test the Roman measurements, or to identify the relative 
positions of the places to which he or his predecessors ' 
assigned Roman names. Some improvement in maps oc- 
curred, and patient inquirers were not wanting ; but until 
the Ordnance Survey was undertaken, a hundred years ago, 
no maps existed accurate in point of scale, or adequate in 
detail, for the requirements of antiquarian research. AVheu 
the Ordnance Maps, drawn to the scale of one inch to the 
English mile, were published, this advantage was counter- 
vailed by the extraordinary deception which had been prac- 
tised on Dr. Stukeley. The Description of Roman Britain 
and the Itinerary compiled by Bertram of Copenhagen, and 
foisted upon Dr. Stukeley as the work of Richard of Ciren- 
cester, was published in 17.59. It continued, with but little 
exception, amongst antiquaries, down to 1SG6, to be received 
as a genuine composition of the fourteenth ccntur}', pre- 
sumed to have been then compiled from existing classical 
authorities. The pages of our Journal have already shown 
how Mr. AVoodward, the Queen's librarian at Windsor, ex- 

1878 35 



272 MEASUREMENTS OF PTOLEMY 

posed the cheat. The supposed ancient authorities of honest 
Kichard of Cirencester, it was then found, had been mustered 
in array from Camden and his successors, and dressed in an 
imposing form by the perverted ingenuity of Bertram. The 
corrections of Camden and the confirmations of Camden, 
drawn by numerous writers from Bertram's text, are appeals 
from the learned and venerable Camden himself to Cam- 
den's learning soiled and spoiled by a weak imposture. 
Newer and more independent theories, drawn from Ber- 
tram's premises, are now perceived to be utterly valueless. 
The imposition is now recognised, and, free from its cloud, 
we are at liberty to start in a fresh light. 

For a successful inquiry into the ancient geography of 
the country good maps are essential. The face of the 
country being always the same, an accurate representation 
of it is the best guide to the understanding of imperfect and 
partial representation. We have an inch scale Ordnance 
Survey complete throughout the country, and since its first 
publication, it has been continually enhanced and improved, 
down to the present day, by perfecting its detail. A large 
part of the northern counties and a small part of the south- 
ern has been published to the noble scale of 6 ins. to a 
mile. The examination of one sheet of this map, which 
takes in the neighbourhood of Ockley, in Surrey, will show 
how a simple delineation of the actual lands of the district 
sets out in the clearest manner the Roman Stane Street 
passing there, in the ancient route from Chichester to Lon- 
don, and will exhibit the high value of this map. I believe 
that the entire country has been surveyed and drawn to 
this scale, and that only the authority of Parliament, too 
long delayed, is needed to carry on the publication. 

My purpose is to offer a contribution to the re-examina- 
tion of the Roman topography of the southern counties. 
The plan I adopt is, first to adjust Ptolemy's description of 
the south coast and south districts of Albion to the map of 
Southern England ; to farther fill up the map from the 
Peutingerian Tables, the Notitia Dlgnitatum, and the 
Ravennas, and to apply upon it the more precise informa- 
tion afforded by the Antonine Itinerary. 

The latitudes and longitudes of Ptolemy are widely dif- 
ferent from modern reckonings, but the places and their 
distances being still the same, as they ever were, we ought 



AND THE AXTONINE ITINEKAKY. 273 

to consider what led to his ideas of distances and measure- 
ments. By ascertaining what was his estimate of the 
extent of a degree, wo can compare his scale with ours. 
The <]istaiice given by Ptolemy, from the extreme west 
point to the extreme east point of the south side of the 
Island of All)iou, that is to say, from the Promontorium 
Bolerium or Antivesta3um to the Promontorium Cantium, 
is 10° 30' O'V The true distance by the inch scale Ord- 
nance map is 7° 7' 45". The whole known world, accord- 
ing to Ptolemy, had 180'' O' of longitude, extending from 
0° 00' at the Fortunata3 Insulae or Canary Islands to a place 
3° 00' east of " Cattigara statio", where sprang up the 
fountains or head waters of the rivers of the country. 

Maps laid down from Ptolemy's particulars of latitude 
and longitude, and compared with modern maps, show that 
Cattigara was on the west coast of the present Borneo, near 
its southern extremity. Ptolemy connected Borneo, the 
Philippines, and Formosa into one line of coast, which he 
supposed joined to the south coast of China, and thereby 
shut in a large ocean gulf, with our Singapore and Borneo 
at its extremities. The true distance of Ptolemy's 180° of 
longitude is,, as nearly as possible, 130°. His number of 
degrees was in fact 27.7 per cent, too many, as the follow- 
ing calculation shows : 

180-180x100 

180 — ^-^ 

a proportion of error which is about 16 minutes, 37 seconds, 
in every degree. A correction in this proportion applied to 
the south coast of Albion, reduces Ptolemy's 1 0° 30' 0" to 
7° 40' 0", which differs from the truth by only thirty-two 
minutes. His reckoning of the difference of longitude be- 
tween the Promontory Cantium, in Albion, and his own 
dwelling place at Alexandria, is 38° 30'. The true distance 
is 28° 27' 15", the error being an excess of 2G per cent. 
The proportion of error does not differ widely in the two 
instances, Ijut a careful examination will show that the 
altered proportion is due to one principal local error of 
measurement. Ptolemy does not describe the south coast 
of Britain as extending so far west as the Promontory Anti- 
vestseum, although his figures show he knew that promon- 

' In some copies of Ptolemy the longitude of the Promontorium Antives- 
tajum is given as 11°; and that of Cantium, 22°. The whole distance, then, 
is 11°. 



274 MEASUREMENTS OF PTOLEMY 

toiy to be the extreme western point. He describes that 
promontory as on the west side of Albion, and passes on to 
the completion of the west side at the Promontory Ocrinum, 
which begins the description of the south side of Albion. 
In beginning at Ocrinum we escape an uncertainty and a 
difficulty of calculation, arising from the two different longi- 
tudes, assigned to the Promontorium Antivestseum in dif- 
ferent editions of Ptolemy. From the Promontory Ocrinum 
to the Promontory Cantium is, by Ptolemy, 10° 00', by the 
inch-scale Ordnance map G° 36' 25". The proportion of 
error has here risen to 33.8 per cent. This greatly in- 
creased proportion of error suggests that he has been 
misled by some local measurement which gave him, when 
converted into degrees, too great an arc for the extent 
in longitude of the south coast of Britain. Assuming his 
" Damnonium quod etiam dicitur Ocrinum Promontorium" 
to be the Lizard Head, in Cornwall, the longitude 12° 00' 
east of the Canaries or Insulse Fortunatse of Ptolemy re- 
quires only to be corrected 27 per cent, to be about 9°, 
which is almost accurately correct. By giving a length of 
10° 00" from the Promontory Ocrinum to the Promontory 
Cantium he pushed the east end of Albion a great deal too 
far to the east. A large part of this error lies in the 
distance of 3° 40", assigned by Ptolemy to the longitude 
from the Promontory Ocrinum to the mouth of the river 
Tamar. The true distance between the meridians of these 
two places is 1° 5", or 65 minutes. The regular proportion of 
error in his degree would have led him to call it about 1° 23', 
or 83'; so that betw^een these two meridians he had a local 
error of 2' 19" of his own degrees. Deduct this local error 
from his whole longitude of the coast, 10°, and the corrected 
quantity in Ptolemy's degrees would stand at 7° 41' 0", to 
compare with the actual longitudinal extent of 6° 36' 25". 
Excepting the longitudinal measure of Cornwall, his error 
on all the rest of the coast is scarcely 1° 5' 0", being 
37 minutes nearer the truth than his measure of the degree 
might be expected to have brought him. It is highly pro- 
bable that in the difficulty of reconciling local measure- 
ments from point to point along the coast, with observa- 
tions by time, made at such principal stations as the Pro- 
montories Ocrinum and Cantium, and the Island Yectis, 
Ptolemy or his informants somewhat corrected themselves 



AND THli ANTONINE ITlNEItARY. 275 

as to the extravagant length they had given to the land 
from the Promontory Ocrinum to the Tamar, by reducing 
the length given to them of the country from the Tamar 
eastward to the Promontory Cantium. According to 
Ptolemy, the distance from the Tamar to the Promontory 
Cantium is 6° 20'. These figures, reduced in the propor- 
tion of 180 to 130, or 27.7 per cent., would be 4° 34' 27". 
The true distance is 5° 31' 25", so that of his error of 2° 19" 
of excess west of the Tamar he recovered 0° 56' 58" (nearly 
a degree) by some rectification of his measurements in the 
eastern distance. Nothing but a simple admission of wrong 
information of measurements can account for the extra- 
ordinary error of distance between the Promontory Ocrinum 
and the river Tamar ; but some minor errors are not difficult 
to explain. When Ptolemy had a given distance in stadia, 
before he could produce the figures of latitude and longi- 
tude for the station at each end of the measured line, he 
had to determine what angles that line made with the 
meridians, and w^ith the parallels of latitude ; so that even 
if he had the distance correctly he would be wrong if misled 
or misinformed as to the bearing of the line. There can be 
very little doubt that the want of true bearings must have 
been one of the chief difficulties in his way. 

The places and their positions, given by Ptolemy in the 
districts of tlie country now to be discussed, are as follows : 

Part of the West Coast of Albion. 



Sabriana jEstuariura - . . . . 

Vexalla ^stuarium ..... 
Herculis Promontorium .... 

Antivestaeum Promont., quod etiam dicitur Bolerium 

Damnonium,quod etiam dicitur Ocrinum Promontorium 

TJie South Coast of Albion. 

Post Ocriuum Promontorium, Cenionis fl. ostia 

Tamari fl. ostia . 

Isacaj fi. ostia 

Alaunii tt. ostia . 

Magnus Portus . 

Trisantonis fl. ostia 

Novus Portus 

Cantium Promontorium 

Sub magno vero Portu, Insula est Vcctis, cujus nictlium 

gradus habet . . . ' . . i<) o,, .,. 52 20 

* Readings differ. 



^tude 


West from 


North 


Jisula 


; Fortunataj 


Lat. 





" 





" 


17 


20 ... 


54 


30 


16 


00 ... 


53 


30 


14 


00 ... 


53 


00 


(11 


30* 

00 ••• 


52 


30 


12 


00 ... 


51 


30 


14 


00 ... 


51 


45 


15 


40 ... 


52 


10 


17 


00 ... 


52 


20 


17 


40 ... 


52 


40 


19 


00 ... 


53 


00 


20 


20 ... 


53 


00 


21 


00 ... 


53 


30 


22 


00 ... 


54 


00 



276 MEASUREMENTS OF PTOLEMY 



Part of the East Coast of Albion. 

Longitude West from North 
thelnsulseFortuiiatEe. Lat. 

Jarnesa ^stuarium . . . . . 20 30 ... 54 30 

Postquam Cantiuin est Promontorium . . . 22 00 ... 54 00 

( 54* 20 
Juxta Triuoantes vero insulae hae sunt, Toliapis Insula 23 00 ... . . 

CouDOs Insula . . . 24 00 ... 54 30 



The Districts of the Country and their Towns. 

Post quos (Silures) Dobuni et Urbs Corinium . . 18 00 ... 54 10 

Post Atrebatii et Urbs. [Calleva, Gallena, Calcua, Nal- 

cua]* . ' . •...-.• . 19 00 ... 54 15 

Post quos maxime orientales, Cantii in quibus Urbes, 

Londinium 

Daruernum 

Rutupise 
Rursus Attrebatiis et Cantiis subjacent Regni et Urbs 

Nisomagus 
Dobunis vero subjacent Belgse et Urbs, Ischalis 

Aquge Calidge 

Venta . . . • 

Delude versus occasum et austrum Durotriges sunt, in ( 
quibus Urbs Dunium . . . ( 

Post quos maxime occidentales, Damnonii, in quibus 
Urbes, Voliba .... 

Uxella .... 

Tamare 

Isca .... 

Legio Secunda Augusta . ] 



Taking the south coast for the base line of the survey, it 
will be found convenient to fix the positions of the places 
north and inland from, and in relation to, this base. The diffi- 
culty arising from local errors, which prevents us from 
acting, along this base, exactly on the reduction of Ptole- 
my's degrees to true degrees, has been so far pointed out 
that the use of the following table will be appreciated. It 
seems to present the nearest approximation to a true 
calculation for the base that can be worked out from a pro- 
portion of error in Ptolemy's figures ; and in its applica- 
tion it shows also where all attempt at proportionate cor- 
rection fails. 

* Readings differ. 

[Table 



20 


00 . 


.. 54 00 


21 


00 . 


.. 53 40 


21 


45 . 


.. 64 00 


19 


43* 


( 53* 46 
•• \ 53 25 


19 


45 • 


16 


40 . 


.. 53 30 


17 


20 . 


.. 53 40 


18 


40 . 


.. 53 30 


18 


00* 


( 52* 40 
•• \ 52 05 


18 


50 • 


14 


45 . 


.. 52 20 


15 


00 . 


.. 52 45 

( 52* 25 

•• ( 52 15 


15 


00 . 


17 


30 . 


.. 52 45 


17* 


^ 00 


( 52* 30 


17 


30 • 


•* ( 52 35 





Distances Kast 




by Ptolemy's 




Longitude. 


Ocrinum Promont. 





00 00 


Cenionis fl. Ostia 


2 


00 00 


Tamari fl. Ostia 


3 


40 00 


Isacte fl. 0.>;tia 


5 


00 00 


Alavmii fl. Ostia 


5 


40 00 


Magnus Portus 


7 


00 00 


Trisantonis fl. Ostia . 


8 


20 00 


Novus Portus 


n 


10 00 


Cantiura Promont. 


10 


00 00 


Vectis Insulaj, medium 


7 


20 00 



AND THE ANTONINE ITINERARY. 277 



Tdhle xhnii'i)!'/ the Longitiides Eaat from the Promontormm Ocrin')im, of 
the Places named by Ptolemy on the South Coast, iviih Corrections : 

Distances East, cor- Distances East fur- 

rectcd Ijy doduoting tlicr con'ccted in 

the local Error of Proportion to the 

2" 1!)" between Ocri- true Distance be- 

num P. and Tama- tweon Ocrinum P. 

rus fl. and Cantium P. 

1 21 ... 1 9 34 

2 41 00 ... 2 18 18 

3 21 00 ... 2 52 40 

4 41 00 ... 4 1 23 
i 00 ... T) 10 
51 00 ... 5 53 3 
7 41 00 ... 36 25 

5 I 00 ... 4 20 44 

The last column is thus calculated : 

Ptolemy corrected 7" 41"=461" ) . 396 x the degree of Ptolemy ( a degree 
True distance . 6 36=396 |'' 401 ~ | corrected 

to actual 
extent. 

The application of the last column of this table to the 
maps will take us to the positions to be assigned to the 
rivers Isaca and Alaunus, which seem to have had their 
longitudes calculated by distances taken from the Tamarifs ; 
and the reason why their places were found in relation to 
the Tamarus was that all these places were in the territory 
of the Damnonii. The next group is in the territory of the 
Belgse, the Insula Vectis being the key to the group, with 
Magnus Portus to the east and the river Trisanton to the 
west. Novus Portus was, as its small distance from the 
Promontory Cantium shows, in the teri'itory of the Cantii, 
and its distance was probably settled by measurement from 
that promontory, which was the principal station for calcu- 
lation of the western group. We must now take into con- 
sideration the identification of each place separately. 

The figures of Ptolemy point out the position of the Pro- 
montory Antivestffium as the most westerly point of Eng- 
land, and near to its southern extremity. To these condi- 
tions the Land's End answers. Equally, Ptolemy's figures 
and the order of his descriptions point out the Promontory 
Ocrinum as the most southerly headland of the south coast, 
and as the west extremity of that const as a base line. To 
these conditions the Lizard Point in Cornwall answers. 
The almost universal opinion of antiquaries allo\vs this to 



278 MEASUREMENTS OF PTOLEMY 

be the true identification of these two points, notwithstand- 
ing the impossibility that exists of accommodating to the 
distance between the stations the figures by which Ptolemy 
gives that distance. This impossiljility must be taken to 
show, not that the identification is wrong, but that he had 
incorrect measurements furnished to him. 

The river Cenion, the first place eastward from the Pro- 
montory Ocrinum in the list, must be passed over for the 
present, until we have dealt with the succeeding name, the 
river Tamarus. It has been already suggested that here 
also we have a specific error of local measurement, which 
would place this river far east of the river with which it 
must be identified, viz., the Tamar. An attempt to apply the 
measurement given by Ptolemy on a true map, even with 
the reduction of 27 per cent., to allow for the proportion 
of his degree to the true degree, would place the Tamar as 
far east as the village of Chideock, in Dorsetshire, 1 4 minutes 
east of the river Axe. I remember reading in a French 
geographical work of about 182.5 that the position of the 
Land's End in England was not then determined within 
twenty miles. We need not then be greatly surprised 
when we find that Ptolemy's scheme misplaces the Tamar 
by fifty-two miles, in relation to the Lizard Head. The 
mouth" of the Tamar is only forty-eight miles east from the 
Lizard Point. Camden traces the present name of the 
Tamar far back into the Saxon era ; the two villages of 
Tamerton, one in Cornwall, near the source, and another in 
Devonshire, near the mouth, assist to fix the name on the 
district, and the universal opinion of antiquaries allows that 
this is the proper identification. Upon the west side of the 
Tamar, and a little inland, Ptolemy's figures place Urbs 
Tamare, probably St. Germans ; and due north from that, 
Urbs Uxella, near to Hartland Point, on the north coast of 
Devon. The latitudes of Ptolemy show that the distance 
across the country, from the mouth of the Tamar to Hartland 
Point, the Promontorium Herculis of Ptolemy, was reckoned 
110 minutes ; that the city Tamare was considered 1 5 minutes^ 
north from the mouth of the Tamarus, and the city Uxella the 
same south of Hartland Point. Again, a little to the west 
and 25 minutes to the south of Uxella, Ptolemy places 
Urbs Voliba. Uxella would seem to have been also the 

' Some editions make it only 5 n.inutcs north. 



AND THE AXTOXINE ITINERARY. 279 

name of a district or small principality, of which this was 
the chief town, for Ptolemy reports the name of a bay or 
estuary on the north or Severn coast of this country, 
A^'exalhi ^Estuarlum, as much as 45 minutes (too much, no 
doubt) north of the town of Uxella, nearly opposite to the 
mouth of the Tamarus, but somewhat east of it in longi- 
tude. The only possible identification for this estuary seems 
to be that in which the waters of the Torridge and the Taw 
unite, below the towns of Bideford and Barnstaple. A 
little further west Ptolemy fixes the entrance to the estuary 
of the Severn, which probably was at a line drawn across 
that estuary from the promontory now called the Foreland, 
on the north coast of Devon, near Couutisbury, close to 
Somersetshire, to near Dunraven Castle, in Glamorganshire. 

Having admitted the position of the Tamarus, the river 
Cenion must be found between it and the Ocrinum Pro- 
montory. Camden, on very slight grounds, identifies it with 
Falmouth Harbour, which is itself not a tenth part of a 
degree east from Ocrinum Promontory. If Ptolemy had 
intended this place, it seems scarcely credible that anything 
could have led him to represent it as two degrees distant, 
although it must be difficult to found any argument at all 
on figures so palpably in error. However, if there is any 
proportion in their error, his figures represent it as lying 
between Ocrinum Promontory and the Tamarus, and a little 
the nearer to the latter. The river which best accords with 
this position is the river Fowey. 

The attempt at identification for all these ])laces, as here 
suggested, rests on the idea that although the figures of 
Ptolemy's calculations for latitude and longitude must be re- 
jected as incorrect, yet they show approximately the bearing 
and direction of one neighbouring locality towards another. 
The very reason why he proceeded to calculate the latitude 
and longitude of the places was that he iiad studied the 
direction of their respective distances. This idea was alto- 
gether disregarded by Camden, who, depending on the 
jingle of a syllable or two, identifies Voliba with Falmouth 
(Vol, Vale, Fale, Fal), and Uxella with Lostwithiel. Others 
had previously taken Voliba for Bodmin, Uxella fin- Krck- 
hornwell (?), and Tamar for Tiverton. 

According to the scheme I suggest, all the three towns 
of theDamnonii, a1ivad\- namctl, Tamar, Voliba. and Txclhi, 

1S78 . ■ :-;o • 



280 MEASUREMENTS OF PTOLEMY 

lay near to the line of the river Tamar. The fourth and last 
town of the Daranonii named by Ptolemy lay much further 
to the east. This was the town called Isca. I have not 
the advantage of a personal acquaintance with any of the 
places previously named. In the case of Isca, and of many 
of the places hereafter under discussion, I have a personal 
acquaintance with the sites, and some of them have long 
been the subject of my careful observation and considera- 
tion. At Isca also we begin the places whose identity 
will have to be tested by the measurements given in Roman 
miles in the Antonine Itinerary. 

The town of Isca lay westward of the river of Isaca. 
This river is the next place in succession to the river Tamar 
in Ptolemy's coast description. The distance betw^een the 
Tamarus and the Isaca, in corrected degrees, is barely 
1° 9", which, measured from the Tamar, overshoots the 
mouth of the river Exe in Devonshire, and goes about two 
miles beyond the river Axe. Isaca has been thought to be the 
translation made by Ptolemy, or his informers, of the ancient 
generic name of Uisc, or Use, or Isc, — a name which 
amongst ourselves has, as is usually supposed, come to be 
translated in Devonshire into Exe in one case, and, I sup- 
pose, in the immediate neighbourhood, in two other cases, 
into Ax or Axe.^ These three rivers Isc are the Exe, which 
flows to the south coast, and on which stands the city of 
Exeter ; the Axe, near the border of Dorsetshire, jflowing 
also to the south ; and the Axe within the border of Somer- 
setshire, flowing into the Bristol Channel. P)y far the most 
important of these streams is the Exe ; but it is very ques- 
tionable if this is the river Isaca of Ptolemy. The southern 
Axe, though a much inferior stream, holds a place close to 
the position deduced from his longitude, and must be 
accepted as the true Isaca. His town of Isca is indicated 
by him to lie 30 minutes eastward of the Isaca. Without 
detracting from the antiquity of the city of Exeter, I con- 
tend that it cannot be identified with this Isca Damnoni- 
orum of Ptolemy, although by Camden and nearly all others 
except Horsley that identification has been allowed. The 
30 minutes of Ptolemy's longitude east of the Isaca, brings 

' Professor Rhys remarks : " The Usk is Try,??/!/ in Welsh, and the Irish word 
for water is visce ; but whether this has anything whatever to do with these 
names is far from clear". 



AND THE ANTONINE ITINERARY. 281 

it Dearly to Dorchester. In the same longitude, and south of 
Isca, Ptolemy places the station of the Eoman military force 
Avhicli maintained their power in these districts, viz., the 
station of Lexjio Secunda Augusta. To find the two places, 
a Ptoman town and the legionary station, we must look to 
the town of Dorchester, with its Piomau amphitheatre and 
extensive and numerous evidences of Ptoman antiquity ; 
whilst two miles and a half to the south of it lies that mag- 
nificent fortification, the Maiden Castle, so well shown in 
Mr, Munt's plan, published in our twenty-eighth volume ; 
one of the most extensive, elaborate, and impressive of the 
ancient fortifications of England. In some editions of Pto- 
lemy the latitude of the military station is 5, and in others 
1 minutes south of the city ; and there is a difference of 
30 minutes in the readings of the longitude. But the amount 
of authority for their contiguity, and the actual existence of 
two such places, leave little room to doubt this identification. 
Exeter has so long enjoyed the reputation of succeeding to 
the Isca of Ptolemy, that I suspect- it of having, in some 
points, usurped the later history of Dorchester. I may re- 
mind my readers of a passage in the life of King Alfred, 
where, when he is besieoinw the Northmen in AVareham, 
they are represented to have forced their way out and seized 
Exeter, where Alfred again besieged them, and then de- 
feated in Swanage Bay a fleet which came to their relief. 
Now Dorchester is much more likely to be the place seized, 
by its proximity to Wareham, than Exeter ; and a fleet 
coming to the relief of Dorchester would naturally be in 
Swanage Bay, whilst one succouring Exeter would, it is 
most likely, be in Torbay. 

The next place east of the river Isaca, in Ptolemy's coast 
progress, is Alaunus Fluvius, which seems to be a corruption 
of the generic name Avon. The corrected distance, in de- 
grees, brings it exactly to the river AVey, where, with the 
ancient towns of Weymouth and JMelcombe Regis on either 
bank, it discharges into the deep bay shut in by the Bill of 
Portland. The only Avon, now so called, on the south coast, 
debouches at Christchurch in Hampshire ; but neither, the 
relation in distance which it bears in Ptolemy to the Tamar, 
nor to the Isle of Wight, will allow us to place it there. 
The calculation for it probably has relation to that which 
fixes the position for Isca to the neighbourhood of Dorches- 



282 MKASUREMENTS OF PTOLEMY 

ter : the longitude is nearly the same, and the latitude 
agrees, and brings the river into one group with Isca and 
the military station of the Legio Secunda, closely agreeing 
with the relationship of Dorchester, the great fort south of 
it, and the estuary of the AVey, six miles further south. Just 
as Weymouth Harbour now is the port for the town of 
Dorchester, it was in old times, when it was fully com- 
manded by the Second Legion, and formed an important 
means for facilitating their operations, and their safety and 
com mun ica tion s. 

Before quitting the Damnonian country I must revert, 
for a few sentences, to the Exe, to what I have said of the 
town of Uxella and the district connected with it on the 
north Damnonian coast, marked by the Vexalla estuary. Do 
not these names suggest a connection with the river Exe 
itself ? The countr}^ or district of Vexalla or Uxella might 
have extended, and probably did, to the present Somerset- 
shire boundary of Devon. In that case it touched upon 
Exmoor Forest and the head waters of the Exe. Does not 
this confirm the view I have already put forward, that the 
Exe was not the Isaca of Ptolemy "? and show that the 
name Exe was a still older corruption M Vise ; so that 
under its present form it had already conferred the names 
of Uxella and Vexalla ; and if known to Ptolemy at all, it 
would have appeared in a form corresponding to its share 
in those names. 

The country next to the Damnonii, in Ptolemy, is that 
of the Durotriges. He does not allude to it in his progress 
along the coast ; but in his description of the territories 
and their inhabitants, he says the Durotriges are south-west 
of the Belgae, and next to the Damnonii, and their chief 
town is Dunium. The latitude and longitude of this are 
given in different figures in diiferent editions ; but they 
indicate its place near the coast-line, and eastward of Isca 
or Dorchester, bringing us to the neighbourhood, and I 
doubt not to the town, of Wareham in Dorsetshire. The 
town is still surrounded by a perfect, vallum of Eoman con- 
struction, pt-obably superseding the British dun or fort, is 
situated in a position of great military strength, between 
the rivers Frome and Trent, guards the entrance to the Isle 
of Purl)eck, and commands the extensive waters inside 
Poole Harbour. To these peculiar inland sea-waters, and 



AND Tin-: ANTONINE ITINERARY. 283 

to tbc singular lake shut in by the Chesil l)each, is prol)ably 
due the name of the inhabitants of the district, the Duro- 
triges or water tribes. Their neighbours, the Bclgce and 
the Damnonii, held large tracts of country, shutting these 
into a narrow space. To my mind, the most probable idea 
is that they were a part of the Daranonian nation ; and this 
will appear more clearly when, from the Antonine measure- 
ments, I shall show more definitely that I have rightly 
identified Wareham as Dunium, and Dorchester as Isca 
Damnoniorum. 

The Belgse, whose country comes next under considera- 
tion, stretched across the mainland from the estuary of the 
Severn, and included Insula Vectis (the Isle of Wight) in 
their territory : their boundary against the Damnonii and the 
Durotriges beino- about the line of the river Parret and the 
Yeo, in Somersetshire, and the Stour, in Dorsetshire, In 
the south coast of the Belgfe the figure reckonings of 
Ptolemy become singularly difiicult of application ; but 
the want of definiteness in this respect is compensated for 
by the significance of some other particulars to be drawn 
from him. After the river Alaunus, suggested to be the 
Wey, in Dorset, the next point named in Ptolemy's progress 
eastward is Maonus Portus. That Magnus Portus is the 
Southampton Water, is distinctly shown by the words I 
have quoted, where Ptolemy says that immediately below 
]\Iagnus Portus is the Isle of Wight, whilst he shows that 
the meridian of the centre of the Isle of Wight is a little to 
the east of the meridian of Magnus Portus. Presuming 
that the meridian of JMagnus Portus was taken in the upper 
part of the Water, just off the town of Southampton, he is 
nearly correct as to the relationship of the two meridians. 
In my edition of Ptolemy^ it is suggested that Magnus 
Portus is either "Portsmouth or Portamon, where is the 
city of Southampton." Camden describes the Southampton 
Water thus : " Hie etenim retractis magno recessu littor- 
ibus et Ycctte Insuloe objectu portus fit egregius". Much 
impressed as he was by the " magnus rccessus" and the 
"portus egregius", he failed to recognise in it Magnus 
Portus, and goes on to record his judgment tliat it is the 
place spoken of by Ptolemy as 'Trisaiitonis tluvii Ostium. 
Now the river Trisanton is the next place eastward of 
Magnus Portus in the progress of Ptolemy, yet Camden 

' J. Molotius. Vcuicc. 1504. 



284 MEASUREMENTS OF PTOLEMY 

reverses their position, and, selecting Portsmouth for Magnus 
Portus, places Ptolemy's eastern port to the west of the 
other, disregarding both the order of Ptolemy's progress 
and the order assigned by his figures of longitude. If the 
names belong at all to these, Southampton and Portsmouth, 
the eastern of the two places must be Trisanton. The 
mistake of Camden in fixing Trisanton in the Southampton 
Water is due to his habitual disregard of Ptolemy's figures, 
and to his dependence on some etymological accidents. At 
the head of the western arm of the Southampton Water 
there flows in the river Test. Camden says that in the 
lives of the saints he has found this river named the Terstan ; 
that upon the river are places called An-dover, Ant-port, and 
South-anton ; and hence he concludes that the river must 
have been the Anton or Trisanton of Ptolemy. By the 
kindness of the Dean of Chichester I have been enabled to 
refer the question of the meaning of the word Trisanton to 
Professor Earle and Professor Rhys of Oxford. From their 
valuable communications on the subject I am allowed to 
quote. Professor Earle says, "No doubt Camden was in- 
iiuenced by the name of Hampton to identify it with 
Trisanton, but he would never have seen Anton under the 
form Hampton had it not been for the names Andover, 
Amport, and Abbots Ann in the upper streams of the same 
water. When we see Anton on that water in the Ordnance 
map this is of course a piece of archseology, good or bad ;^ 
but there is no question that those names are peculiar and 
unexplained, and that they seem to indicate some such 
name as " Ant", for the river on which they stand. Put the 
longitude in Ptolemy seems to decide it that Trisanton is 
east of Magnus Portus. Well, if so, I should then look for 
Trisanton at Chichester". Leaving aside for the present 
the learned professor's suggestion as to Chichester, 1 will 
point out some further considerations which stand in the way 
of appropriating to the river Test or to the Southampton 
Water, which Camden includes with it, the name "Anton" or 
"Trisanton". The syllable am, or an, or ant, on which he 
entirely relies, is not confined in Hampshire topography to 
the head waters or the line of the river Test. In Wherwell 
Hundred, where arc" Amport"," Andover",aud" Abbotts Ann", 

' The archaeology of the Ordnance Map is influenced by the imposltiou of 
Bertram of Copenhagen. 



AND THE ANTOXTNE ITINERARY. 285 

we can add "Little Anne", all grouped near the head waters 
of the Test ; but far from it, we have in Fawley Hundred, 
"Hinton Ampner"; in Mansbridge Hundred, "Anfield"; in 
Hambleton Hundred, "Amner". In Sussex, though forming 
a part of Hampshire and extending in a singular line quite 
across the Weald or Andred wood is "Ambersham"(Am-bcres- 
ham), and still further east in Sussex, on the southern 
margin of the great forest, is"Amberley" (Am-bere-ley). The 
an syllable seems to have been too widely spread to admit 
of its allocation being now limited to a single river district, 
where assuredly, from remote antiquity, the name of Test 
has been used for the Hampshire river. But those who 
know Southampton will remember that, quite independently 
of the name any river there has borne, the name South- 
ampton is locally accounted for. The town stands on a 
tongue of land, which projects into the Southampton Water, 
between the two arms of the water, which run up on the 
west to the Test, and on the east to the Itchen river. 
Within my memory this tongue of land has much advanced 
its point on the open water by extending on the reclaimed 
mud banks the dockworks and dock estate. In former 
times a great deal of land has been reclaimed from the 
Itchen estuary, on the east side of the tongue, so that where 
the ancient town of Southampton now stands, on the west 
side of the tongue, was once the tongue itself, and the town 
was originally the South-hampton on that tongue ; north 
of it, and against the waters of the Itchen, on the same 
tongue, is North-ham, where the first bridoe of the Itchen 
stands, and where probably in old times was the first prac- 
ticable ferry across the Itchen estuary. I remember a good 
clear mile of open ground between the suburb of Northam 
and Southampton. Northam had, nevertheless, long been 
considerable for its shipbuilding, and now the spread of 
houses has made the two towns join hands. Southampton 
in very early ages gained a superiority which eclipsed its 
neighbour, and which is marked by the hamj'ftoii instead of 
ham. Camden certainly never heard of Northam, or he 
could not have overlooked the natural connection l)etween 
the two places and their names. But Camden, although 
not directly ex[)rcssing it, evidently hung to the idea that 
Ant, Anton, and Hanton gave the name to "Hantshirc". 
On the derivation of this name I venture a susjirestion, 



286 MEASUREMENTS OF PTOLEMY 



which I should be glad to have considered, although a little 
irrelevant to our principal subject. When we quit the 
coast of Hampshire and go east we leave the shires and 
enter the counties, first the coast of Sussex, and then, pro- 
ceeding along the soutli and east coasts of England, we 
have Kent, Essex, Suffolk, and Norfolk in succession. All 
of them counties, from the fact that in Eoman times they 
were (" sub dispositione viri spectabilis Comitis Littoris 
Saxonici") in the jurisdiction of the Roman officer, the 
count of the Saxon shore. Kent partly and Sussex entirely 
had throuo;h their lenoth the vast forest of Anclerida, which 
terminated at the west in and included a part of Hamp- 
shire — viz., in the hundreds of Meon and East Meon, Finch- 
dean, and Odiham, Waltham, Hambledon, and perhaps 
more. Hampshire was then the first shire west of the 
counties ; and, touching on the great forest of Andred, it so 
derived its name ; Andredshire, or Andshire, or Hantshire, 
somewhat as its neiohbourinof shire, took its name from the 
forest of Berroc, which it contained : hence Berkshire. 

We now return to the Magnus Portus of Ptolemy, and from 
it proceed to Trisanton. The first syllable of this name 
suoaested to me that Ptolemy translated into Greek that 
portion of the name which represented triplicity, and that 
Tris-Anton must mean something like Thrice- Anton. To 
have known what Anton means would have been very satis- 
factory. Professor Rhys, who has kindly communicated his 
views on the subject, says : " The name TpicrdvTOivo^ was pro- 
bably Gaulish — a language which is little known, but a 
comparison with the other Celtic languages, which are 
known, makes it in the highest degree probable that in 
Gaulish tris or tri meant three, so there is no need to sup- 
pose that we have here to do with a Greek word. As to 
the rest, I can only say that its meaning is unknown, but 
if I were to offer a conjecture, I should say that the com- 
pound meant the river of three roads or three courses. 
But I must not withhold the fact that there is a phono- 
logical difficulty in the way of this guess. Supposing that 
1 have hit the meaning of the word, one would have ex- 
pected it to appear as Tpia€vrcovo<; rather than Tpia-dvTO)vo<;. 
This is not c[uite conclusive, as we know so little of Gaulish 
\\ords. On the whole, I think Mr. Hills had better not go 
further than the rpi^ he lias been able so well to explain by 



AND THE AXTONINE ITINERA llY. 287 

his knowledge of the phice." Before I lorocced to the ex- 
plaiiiitioii which had been Laid before tlie learned professor 
of Celtic at O^fford, I will just remark that, whilst Ptolemy 
understood the syllable trls or t)'i, it is likely he did not 
understand the eyitoii or santon more than we do ; and that 
he or whoever wrote it first had to write in the alphabet of 
one language a word not understood, and reported to him out 
of another and an unwritten lanouaoe : no wonder then if 
it now appears in a doubtful form, as Professor Ehys shows. 

I must also call further attention to the opinion of Pro- 
fessor Earle, After the remark I have already quoted from 
him that Trisanton might be Chichester, he refers to the 
common belief that tlie Saxon name of that city, Cissan- 
ceaster, was derived from the name of Cissa, the prince who 
established the Saxon supremacy in the district now Sussex. 
The professor says, " Cissanceaster, the Saxon form of 
Chichester, can hardly be derived from the name of a man 
'Cissa', and it is just conceivable that it may contain a 
barbarous alteration of Trisan. I experience, however, the 
greatest difiiculty in supposing any other place can be 
Magnus Portus except Portsmouth. This name preserves 
within it the very word ' Portus', and so also do the names 
by which it is surrounded — -viz., Portsea, Porchester, Ports- 
down. That this name is older than the arrival of tlie 
Saxons, and that it was unintelligible to them, is plain from 
their mythic explanation of it in the early chronicles, where 
it is said that a man named Port landed there as settler." 

I ask my readers to give all the weight to this opinion 
which the great authority of Professor Earle must command, 
and to refer back to it when they have gone over the next 
-few sentences. 

Take in hand a really good map of the south coast, show- 
ing Hampshire, the Isle of Wight, and Sussex; county maps 
which show Hampsliire and Sussex separately will not do, for 
it is the fact of their beino- so seldom drawn in union that 
has prevented the most remarkable physical feature of this 
part of the coast from being noticed. The Ordnance index 
map of ten miles to an inch will do ; sheets nine, ten, and 
eleven of the Ordnance Map, one mile to an inch, are better. 
Failing these, W. H. Smith and Son's reduced Ordnance Map 
of the Isle of Wight, to l)e had at nearly all railway stations 
for a shilling, is the best I know, though it unfortunately 

1878 ' o7 



288 MEASUREMENTS OF PTOLEMY 

falls short of including Cliiclicster. A glance at these maps 
tells the eye that Southampton Water is physically the 
Mao-nus Portus ; that it lies, with regard to the Isle of 
Wight, in the true position Ptolemy assigns to it, and that 
west of it we have what I will call Trisanton — viz., that 
remarkable estuary, with the three ports or entrances, now 
known as the entrances to Portsmouth Harbour, Langston 
Harbour, and Chichester Harbour. The seaward side of 
the estuary extends from Gosport, in Hampshire, to a 
narrow tongue of land, or rather beach and shingle, jutting 
out from the parish of West Wittering, in Sussex ; but also 
the seaward front of the estuary is almost entirely occupied 
by Portsea Island and Hayling Island. These islands divide 
the water-frontage into the three narrow mouths already 
spoken of, whilst the form of the islands towards the back 
of the estuary allows the water to open out into three large 
spaces, connected together by narrow waterways behind the 
islands. In Roman times each of the three divisions of the 
estuary had an important town on the mainland, and each 
of those towns still exists — viz., at the back of Portsmouth 
Harbour, Porchester, announcing by name its Roman origin 
and fortification, and possessing a splendid mark of its long- 
continued importance in its fine Norman castle. At the 
Ijack of Langston Harbour, the town which our late learned 
associate Mr. W. H. Black pointed out as the British town 
Y-Gwent, Romanised into Venta, and now Havant. At 
the back of the eastern extremity of the estuary, the city of 
Chichester, marked by numerous Roman remains, and by 
its name for an important Roman station. It must be ad- 
mitted that the quality of triplicity, which the name Tris- 
anton implies, belongs in a remarkable degree to this 
singular estuary and its adjuncts. 

I am sinning against the cautious advice of Professor Rhys 
not to meddle with the anion . Yet I venture to point out 
that along the back of the whole estuary, there extended, not 
more than three to six miles distant, the fringes of the forest 
of Andred, where its great south barrier, the South Downs, 
comes to its western extremity, and breaks up. Just as at the 
eastern extremity of the forest we know the Saxons called its 
subdivisions Bera and Berende, we have still the forest of 
Bere at the north of Porchester, ending at Stanstcd, on the 
Sussex border, and then continued eastward, after an in- 



AND THE ANTONINE ITINERARY. 289 

teiTU2:>tion of two or three miles, by tLe forest lands of 
West Dean Woods, Singleton Forest, and the East Dean 
Woods. This Sussex forest crowns the heights which over- 
looked the whole breadth of the great weald or forest of 
Andred itself. 

Following the method I have previously taken, after 
considering the coast line, I now come to the towns nanK^l 
by Ptolemy in the interior. These are the towns of the 
Belgoe ; Ischalis, Aquas Calidse, and Venta ; the town of the 
Dobuni, Corinium ; the town of the Attrebatii, Calleva or 
Nalcua ; and the town of the Regni, Neomagus. 

There is no doubt that the country of the Belgre extended 
from the Bristol Channel and the Severn to the British 
Channel and the Isle of Wight, having the Damnonii and 
Durotriges to the south, and for their northern neighbours the 
Dobuni; and at the eastern portion of their north boundary, 
the Attrebatii. The Attrebatii and Cantii were the northern 
neighbours of the Eegni. Ptolemy marks Ischalis as the 
most western town of the Belgte. The name and the longi- 
tude point to the mouth of that river Axe of which we have 
already spoken in Somersetshire. Here, on the lofty pro- 
montory called Worlebury Hill, which closes Uphill Bay, into 
which the Axe discharges, is the most stupendous example 
of ancient British architecture in existence, the magnificent 
stone fort or citadel called Worlebury, immediately above 
the town of Weston-super-Mare. Besides this extraor- 
dinary citadel, built with uncemented stone walls, from 
10 ft. to 30 ft. thick, and 30 ft. to 35 ft. high, there are 
extensive earthworks markins; the inner and outer enclo- 
sures, and some of the internal features of a large town. 

The second town. Aquae Calidoe, no one has ever doubted 
to be Bath. 

In respect to Ischalis and Aquoe Calidse, Ptolemy's 
figures of latitude and longitude approach the truth 
nearer than usual. Aquae Calidoe had long before Roman 
times possessed regular roads to London ; and it can 
hardly be doubted that Ptolemy's figures are calculated on 
the actual distances between those two places, as reported 
to him. They are nearly in the same latitude, the dififer- 
ence being only about seven minutes. Ptolemy estimated 
that difference at thirty minutes, and the difference in 
longitude at one hundred and sixty minutes. The bypo;><<ur 



290 MEASUREMENTS OF PTOLEMY 

tlicnuse of the triangle, or actual distance in liis minutes, 
comes to only one hundred and sixty-two minutes. The 
true distances being one hundred and forty-one of our 
minutes of longitude, and only seven minutes of latitude, 
the hypothenuse is less than one hundred and forty-two 
minutes. Ptolemy tells us that his great distances in longi- 
tude were in some cases regulated by the diSerence of time 
observed at two positions with respect to an eclipse, and 
we account for some of his inaccuracy by the imperfection 
of the instruments then in use for measuring time. It is 
likely that in such a case as the distance between Aqua3 
Calidse and Londinium both a geometrical measurement and 
a horal measurement would have been considered ; and the 
result is that the error of Ptolemy is much less than the 
27 per cent, of his great measurements, and is reduced to 
barely 12 per cent, in the measurement between Aquse 
Calidas and Londinium. 

In justification of my identification of Ischalis witliWorle- 
l)ury, I must point out that it is as Ptolemy estimated, a 
little south of the parallel of Bath ; and that carrying on 
the correction of 12 per cent, in the longitude, it brings us 
exactly to where the village of VVorle is marked on the map. 

The third town, Venta, is attributed by the editor of my 
copy of Ptolemy to Bristol, and Camden states that his pre- 
decessors had so placed it. He removed it to Winchester, 
where an almost universal consent has since left it. Our late 
associate Mr. Black was the first to assert that its proper 
connection was with Havant. This identification is not 
free from important difficulties, for it implies not only that 
Ptolemy's exact figures of longitude cannot be accepted ; 
but that this place, which he puts upon a meridian a little 
west of Magnus Portus, is really east of that place, whether 
we take Magnus Portus to be Southampton, or, as Professor 
Earle thinks, Portsmouth. The difticulty, I suspect, arises 
from Ptolemy's reckoning for Venta having been made with 
regard to Bath, with which it is grouped in his list. If he 
had happened to group it with the places reckoned from the 
Isle of Wight, we should probably have escaped the dilemma 
we have to contend with in bringing it into that group. 

We must here make a remark with respect to Ptolemy's 
latitudes. They were determined mainly by reference to 
the greatest length of day reported to him, or Ijy previous 



AND THE ANTONINE ITINEKARY. 291 

gcograplicrs. In this way he determined the latitude of 
London to be 54° 00'. It is truly 51° 31'. The latitude 
of the Isle of Wight he reckoned to be 52° 20'. It is 
truly, at Carisbrook, which I take to have been Ptolemy's 
centre, 50° 39' 20'. Thus it is seen that in degrees his 
latitudes are much less seriously in error than his longi- 
tudes ; but it will at once occur to my readers that unless 
two places were almost in the same meridian, the diffi- 
culty of settling a difference of latitude of less than a de- 
gree would be very great. Where two places were nearly 
on the same meridian, a geometrical measurement would 
safely give the difference of latitude, but where the meri- 
dians were wide apart, either a triangulation or a horal 
calculation, founded on very uncertain data, were his re- 
sources. I have placed no reliance on the minutes of lati- 
tude where the longitudes are apart, and this reason 
accounts for the uncertainty which I attach to the latitude 
Ptolemy gives to Venta. 

His longitude brings the meridian of Venta just half 
wa,y between London and Bath, and his latitude places it 
on the same parallel as Worlebury or Ischalis, three-sixths 
of a degree south of the parallel of London, the same 
north of that of Magnus Portus, and five-sixths north of 
that of the Isle of Wight. The position thus indicated 
lies on that part of a meridian of which East Stratton, 
eight miles north-east from Winchester, is the south end, 
and the boundary between Hampshire and Berkshire, seven 
miles west of Silchester, is the north end. This piece of 
meridian, nearly fourteen miles in length, marks, however, 
no place which can be thought to be Venta ; whilst it must 
be admitted that it indicates more than any other place, 
either the great Koman city of Silchester, which by its 
remains so plainly testifies its Roman origin, or Camden's 
selection of Winchester. What, however, if both those 
places can be shown to have been represented by other 
Koman names, as I believe they can from the Antonine 
Itinerary, and that Havant, if not the Venta intended by 
Ptolemy, was the Venta Belgarum of Antoninus t 

North of the Belg£e, according to Ptolemy, were the 
Dobuni. The latitude and longitude assigned by Ptolemy 
to their town, Corinium, brings it, with slight correction, to 
Cirencester. The approach to correctness in the figures for 



292 MEASUREMENTS OF PTOLEMY 

Aqiue Calidae lias shown that when a good hind measure- 
ment was to be had, Ptolemy was not bound by the pro- 
portion of error which arose in his semi-circumference of 
the Earth, The distance between Corinium and Londinium 
exhibits a still nearer approach to correctness. The names 
Corinium and Cirencester both seem to contain in them the 
name of the river Churn, on which Cirencester stands ; and 
this identification I propose to accept. 

The next place in the order of Ptolemy's list is the town 
of the Attrebatii. This people joined to the Dobuni on the 
east, and must have bounded the north-east corner of the 
Belgic territory. The town of the Attrebatii, as given in 
the order of Ptolemy's arrangement, comes between Cori- 
nium and Londinium, whilst by his figures its position is 
exactly half way in longitude between those places. In lati- 
tude it is 5 minutes north of Corinium, and the latter is 
10 minutes north of London. The reckonings, no doubt, 
were in this case made both upon geometric and lioral 
measurements. Between Corinium and London the true 
distance in longitude is 1° 54'. Ptolemy says 2°. The true 
latitude of Corinium or Cirencester, north of London, is not 
more than 11 minutes. Ptolemy says 10 minutes. Presum- 
ing that the measurements to the Attrebatian town are as 
nearly correct, the place indicated is exactly at Alchester or 
Aldchester in Oxfordshire, where exist extensive traces of 
a walled Roman town, with the important suburbs of Bices- 
ter a mile and a half to the north-west, Chesterton Magna 
on the west, and Wendlebury on the south. Camden and 
all succeeding antiquaries have limited the territory of the 
Attrebatii to the south side of the Thames ; but here is evi- 
dence that it extended to the north of it. Camden fixed this 
town at Wallingford, and his was the nearest approach to 
its true position ; but it is too far south for the figures of 
latitude. He had made up his mind not to extend the tribe 
across the Thames, and satisfied himself by a fanciful deriva- 
tion of the name of their town. The ancient name is, 
indeed, in much greater doubt than the position. Camden 
says that scribes have sadly mistaken it ; that the Greek 
copies call the place Nalcua ; the Latin copies, Calleva and 
Galleva ; and that in the Antonine Itinerary there is the 
like error in the Latin name. Camden would have it read 
(ialk'ua; and this, Paynolds says, is justified by certainly 



AND THE ANTONINE ITINERARY. 293 

one copy. From this word Camden dciivcs Guallcn, Wall- 
ing, an(l Wallingford. I may add that in the modern Greek 
Tauehnitz edition of Ptolemy the name is given Calcua or 
Caleva. 

The key to all this confusion is this, viz., that the different 
forms of the name refer to three distinct places ; and the 
main difficulty of identification has been that eveiybody 
has tried to identify them as one. The Aidomne Itinerary 
shows with a good deal of certaint}' where the Calleva which 
it mentions three times stood, and it is presently identified 
at Silchester. It names once another Calleva, with the dis- 
tinction added, Attrehatum. The position of this will be 
hereafter found at the south-west corner of Surrey. I there- 
fore conckide that Ptolemy's town, Nalcua, of the Attre- 
bates, being so far to the north, is properly called by that 
name, and was situated at Aldchester. The name Nalcua 
is accepted by Camden's contemporary, the great Ortelius, 
and also by lieynolds, as the correct reading. 

East of the Belgoe, and south of the Attrebatii, Ptolemy 
places the Eegni and their town Neomagus. In the fifteenth 
chapter of his first book Ptolemy is employed in pointing 
out inconsistencies in the statements of his predecessor, 
Marinus, the Tyrian. One of them is, that in Britain, jNIari- 
nus places Noviomagus fifty-nine miles southward, although 
by climate he shows that he ought to have said northward. 
Several of the editions, but not all, give London as the 
name of the place which was fifty -nine miles from Novio- 
magus. Ptolemy does not offer a correction, unless it be in 
his tables of latitude and longitude, where he introduces 
Neomagus, which Camden considers to be Noviomagus. 
Eeynolds, in his commentary on the Antonine Itinerary, 
suggests that there is no need to believe the two names to 
belong to the same place; to which I quite agree, and intend 
to show by and by that they were separate places. It is 
very difficult to give any effect to the statement of distance, 
fifty-nine miles ; and although Camden and Iie}-nolds both 
regard it as starting from London, they quite disregard it 
in fixing the position of Neomagus or Noviomagus.^ Some 
Pioman remains at Woodcote, in Surrey, a little south of 
Epsom, induced Camden to fix Neomagus there. It is 
unfortunate that in different editions the figures of Ptolemy 

' "Either sliniilil now l>o Nevfiehl.''' — Professor Rhvs. 



294 MEASUREMENTS OF PTOLEMY 

vary, both of latitude and longitude, for this place. It 
may be either 19° 43' or 19° 45' in longitude, and either 
53° 25' or 53° 45' in latitude ; but either set of figures 
would place it somewhere on or near the line of the Stane 
Street, or Eoman road, which to this day runs from London 
to Chichester, and is in use through the greatest part of its 
length. Camden might therefore be right as to Woodcote, 
but, nevertheless, I cannot bring myself to think that the 
Eegni who lay south of the Cantii and Attrebatii came so 
far north as this. As the Cantii are said by Ptolemy to 
lay east of the Attrebatii, their territories must have joined 
either where Kent and Surrey now join or at some other 
line drawn across Surrey. Camden's position for Neomagus 
is not reconcilable with this, and would make the Eegni 
intervene between the Attrebatii and Cantii. The Antonine 
Itinerary will presently lead us to think that the Attrebatii 
extended from Berkshire quite across Surrey to the Sussex 
border at its west end, and this makes the probability great 
that the territorial boundary of the Eegni was adopted for 
the county of Sussex, which was therefore about the same 
in line from its west end until it reached the Cantii, as the 
Sussex line now is. The more southern figures of Ptolemy 
agree with this, and would place Neomagus in the hundred 
of East^ Easewrith or the adjoining hundred of Horsham. 

To complete the progress of Ptolemy along the south coast 
of Albion we have now only two places left, viz., Novus 
Portus and Promontorium Cantium. The position of 
Novus Portus depends on whether Ptolemy reckoned its 
distance from Vectis or from the Promontory Cantium. If 
he measured from Vectis, his distance of 1° 40', corrected 
to 1° 12" true measure, would bring it to Brighton, and it 
might be held that the outlet of the river Adur, between 
Brighton and Shoreham, was intended, an outlet which has 
varied unquestionably in different ages three or four mile^ 
along the coast. A Eoman road points to Portslade, at 
the back of the present harbour, near its Brighton end. 
Further on the river Adur will come under consideration, 
and will be identified as Portus Adurni, therefore the more 
likely idea is that the place of Novus Portus was measured 
from the Promontory Cantium, from which it is one degree 

' Observe the title of a district all along tho Sussex border here, from its 
west end, and comprised in the hundreds of Easel)Ournc (pronounced Ezburn), 
East Pasewrith, and West Easewrith. 



AND THE ANTOXINE ITINERARY. 29.') 

distant Ijy Ptolemy, or forty-three minutes hy correction, 
unci this will bring it to the west side of Komney Marsh. 

It must be noticed that in his coast-line Ptolemy speaks 
only of physical subjects, the mouths and estuaries of rivers 
and the promontories of the land, bays and gulfs of the sea, 
and not of towns. Those were reserved to be mentioned 
with the inhabitants of the countries. For this reason I do 
not suppose Novus Portus to have been a town of Newport, 
but some haven newly formed by the sea. In Romney 
Marsh the sea Avas re-forming the land at Lympne and Rye 
all through the period of the Roman occupation, and con- 
tinued to do so long after. At the earliest period of history 
the whole of what is now Romney Marsh was a bay of the 
sea. The Roman fort and harbour at Lympne lay at its 
east side, and the outlet of the river Rother, with the clijSPs 
of Pleyden and Rye, were at the western side. The gradual 
emergence of islands, first Roman-ey, and afterwards New 
Roman-ey, and of other tracts of land, are traced in Hollo- 
w^ay's History of Romney Marsh. To some new formation 
here of land and water, I have little doubt this name of 
Novus Portus was applied. 

The Promontory Cantium, from the days of Camden and 
before, has been received without question as properly iden- 
tified with the North Foreland in Kent. I have ventured 
to diff*er from this acceptation ; and in all the preceding 
references to its longitude I have calculated from the South 
Foreland, which I have no doubt was intended by Ptolemy 
instead of the North Foreland. It is, perhaps, the latitude 
given by Ptolemy on the same parallel as London which 
has directed attention to the North Foreland. In reality, 
however, it is only an illustration of the difficulty I have 
before pointed out, which Ptolemy had in determining lati- 
tudes within 60 minutes, or where tlie places were distant- 
in longitude, Novus Portus, he says, is on the south coast, 
and is 53° 30' north. Londiuium he makes 54° north, and 
the Promontory Cantium, 54° north ; the town Rutupia, 
54° north, the Island of Counos, 54° 30' north ; and the 
estuary of Jamissa (Thamissa, or Thames), 54° 30' north. 
Omitting Londinium, the other places are not far apart in 
longitude, and their relative positions in latitude show that 
Novus Portus was to the south; Prom. Cantium next to the 
north, and witli it the town Rutupia; the Island Counos 

1873 ^ 38 



296 MEASUREMENTS OF PTOLEMY 

still further north, and next the mouth of the Thames. The 
Island Counos has from very ancient times been identified 
with Thanet : manifestly it could not be half a degree north 
of the Prom. Cantium, and be that promontory too ; there- 
fore the promontory of the Island of Counos is different 
from the Promontory Cantium, and is to the north of it ; 
or in other words, the North Foreland in the Isle of Thanet 
is the promontory of the Island of Counos ; and the southern 
promontory on the mainland, or the South Foreland, is the 
Promontory Cantium. The name " Counos" seems to con- 
tain within it the ncss or promontory of the North Fore- 
land ; and if that be so, both the North and the South 
Foreland promontories are named by Ptolemy.^ 

Thanet was an island separated from the mainland by a 
considerable arm of the sea for long after the era of Ptolemy. 
In Bede's time it was separated by a water three furlongs 
across, and with two practicable fords ; but Ptolemy be- 
lieved it to be separated by a much more considerable dis- 
tance than it really had, for he puts its longitude half a 
degree east of the Promontory Cantium. This itself is a 
proof that it could not have contained that promontory. 
Besides which, Ptolemy describes the mainland first, and 
with it the Promontory Cantium, and places at the end of 
his description of Albion the islands, and puts Counos with 
them. The Promontory Cantium was, therefore, on the 
mainland ; and if so, was the point which we call the South 
Foreland, or some point a little north, and a minute or two 
more east, on the cliffs between that and Deal, where the 
cliffs fall down to a level shore. 

The towns of the Cantii, known to Ptolemy, were Londi- 
nium, Daruernum, and Rutupiae, The possession of Londi- 
nium by the Cantii indicates, as I have already hinted in 
respect to the Attrebatii, that at this time the authority of 
the Cantii extended beyond the present county of Kent. 
Daruernum can be no other than Durovernum, as it appears 
in other authors, and certainly Canterbury ; whilst Rutupiae, 
or Rutupium, is as certainly, by a long chain of history, the 
ruined and deserted Roman fortification on the mainland 
opposite the Isle of Thanet, now Richborough, itself once a 
tiny island in the estuary between Thanet and the mainland. 

It is important to notice the era to which Ptolemy's report 

• Hackncss, in Yorkshire, was written "Ila-canos" quite down to Saxon times. 



AND THE ANTONINE ITINERARY. 2.97 

of the country belongs. He was compiling his books l)etvvecn 
A.D. 125 and a.d. 140. How much before or after we do 
not know ; but this was nearly two hundred years after the 
invasion of Britain by Julius Cciesar, B.C. 55. The conquest 
of the southern provinces began under Claudius in a.d. 43, 
when Aulus Plautius, with four legions, was sent into 
Britain. In a.d. 50 Ostorius Scapula succeeded to the com- 
mand, and found himself master of the country north to 
the Dee and the Wash, but resolutely opposed by the 
Silures to the west, so that all the territories we have 
been considerino: were under his rule. Didius Callus and 
Veranius, following him, did not extend the Roman power. 
Suetonius Paulinus, the next governor, effectively extended 
their power into AVales, and was at the furthest point, en- 
deavouring to reduce Anglesey, when the great revolt of 
Boadicea broke out in the country of the Iceni, which he 
quickly suppressed. Csesar, in his expeditions, brought 
with him water-clocks, and amidst his military anxieties 
endeavoured to determine the geographical relationships of 
the parts of Britain he visited to the Continent. The series 
of commanders who followed after the invasion under 
Claudius were, no doubt, better provided than Cnesar, and 
must have brought with them, and maintained, a staff of 
engineers {agrimensores) equal to the survey of a country, 
both for military purposes, and designed to be permanently 
occupied. To the governors already named succeeded Petro- 
nius Turpilianus, Trebellius Maximus, and Yettius Bolanus, 
whose attention was but little directed to external affairs, 
and it was supposed might have organised the province ; 
yet the latter found it too much unsettled by the remains 
of the civil wars to arrive at a well-ordered state, towards 
which an important element would be contril)uted by the 
Roman law of territorial and land settlement. Petilius 
Cerealis, the next governor, about a.d. 70, under Vespasian, 
pursued a more vigorous policy. Ceasing from the tempo- 
rising measures of his immediate predecessors, he made the 
military power of his office felt within his province, whilst 
he increased it by the subjugation of the Biigantes through- 
out our northern English counties. The high rank of the 
men who were sent to administer the affairs of Britain 
testifies to the importance the central Roman power attached 
to the settlement of the government set up here. 



298 MEASUREMENTS OF PTOLEMY 

The next appointment evidently bad a special object in 
view. After five years, Petilius Cerealis bad so broken tbe 
wayward spirit of tbe subjected races, tbat Sextus Julius 
Frontinus ("i^ir magnus" as Tacitus calls bini) was sent to 
complete bis work. He still found tbe Silures obstinate 
and pugnacious, and did not besitate to use tbe military 
means wbicb Petilius Cerealis bad found for tbe most part 
effective. He bas tbe credit of baving finally broken tbe 
figbting propensity of tbis race, as fsir as could be done. 
But tbe speciality of Frontinus was that be was a great 
engineer. His works on the aqueducts of Eome, on the sur- 
veying of countries and lands, and on the art of war, are 
still extant. He must have made it bis special care, in the 
cause of permanent peace, to measure the country, define 
tbe lands, and apply thoroughly to it tbe work of the Col- 
lege of Land-Surveyors; and it is evident he did so. Upon 
the country thus surveyed and prepared, Agricola, who 
succeeded him in a.d. 78, was enabled " Frumenti et tribu- 
torum auctionem aequalitate munerum mollire, circumcisis, 
quae in qusestum reperta, ipso tributo gravius tolerabantur". 
The store-barns were thrown open for the wants of the 
people ; the roads and means for conveyance of the requi- 
sitions to the winter-quarters were improved, to the advan- 
tage of those on whom tbe service of such supplies was 
imposed ; and tbe gains hitherto monopolised by a few 
were distributed to the profit of the many. The exactions 
during peace had been almost as onerous as the forced levies 
of a time of war. But all tbis was reformed.^ This resulted 
in the first year of Agricola ; and the country districts being 
pacified, bis second year saw tbe construction of temples, 
markets, and courts of justice, by public aid and private 
enterprise ; and tbe construction, for the public security, of 
forts and castles where deemed necessary after a particular 
inspection of tbe places by Agricola himself throughout bis 
province ; tbe foundation for all these important measures 
having been laid by the engineering talent of Frontinus. 

In A.D. 120 the Emperor Hadrian visited the province, 
and travelled throughout it, inspecting the progress made 
in fifty years upon the work begun by Frontinus. No doubt 
that in tbe great Tabularium at Rome the principal results 

' Tacitus, Agikolu^ cap. 19, also 20 and 21. 



AND THE ANTONINE ITINERARY. 299 

of all this work were formally recorded on Roman maps. 
To what extent Ptolemy, who afterwards saw Hadrian at 
Alexandria, could avail himself of the work of the Roman 
surveyors v/e cannot know; but that he attempted to apply 
it as far as he could to his calculations, we cannot doubt ; 
and I have adverted to the history of the Roman survey to 
show that there were actual measurements in existence to 
be dealt with, and which Ptolemy may have used and 
attempted to reconcile with his horal and astronomical ob- 
servations. Ptolemy's figures cannot, therefore, be regarded 
as guesses or chances, but as the result of an application of 
measures different from ours (as in the case of his degree of 
longitude), and able to be corrected when the nature of his 
measure is discovered ; or in the case of a definite error, 
when a wron2: measure was furnished to him, or a correct 
one misunderstood. 

We next proceed to the Peutingerian Tables, to be briefly 
dealt with. We obtain from them the names of only six- 
teen places in Britain ; and of those, the six which are north 
of the Thames lie out of the range of the present subject. 
The compilation of tlie Tables has been usually attributed 
to about one hundred and fifty years later than the time of 
Ptolemy. To those who have not consulted works on the 
subject, I may say that it is a MS. on parchment, of the 
thirteenth century, copied from some older source, and 
commonly named after Dr. Peutinger, to whose library it 
belonged when first noticed. It is 22 feet long and 1 foot 
wide, and by lines drawn longitudinally is made a sort of 
road-book of the Roman empire, with the names and dis- 
tances of places marked upon the roads or lines. I have 
before me the published edition of 1587. 

Of the ten names which come within our district, Rutupis 
and Duroavernus, which w^e must identify with the Rutupia 
and Darueruum (Richborough and Canterbury) of Ptolemy, 
are shown near the coast, and towards the Continent. There 
are added, in the immediate neighbourhood, the ports of 
Dubris (Dover) and Lemanio (Lympne); but if the distances 
were ever inserted, they have been lost by the defective 
state of the MS., which is greatly damaged just where it 
would so much interest us to have it perfect. From Duro- 
avernus proceeds a road al.^ove which the names of three 
places are written, all of thcn> unknown to Ptolemy, and 



300 MEASUREMENTS OF PTOLEMY 

with figures (presumed to be of distance) marked against 
tliem, " Madus xviT, Earibis vii, Burolevo vii". Of the place 
called " Earibis" we shall get no further mention, and 
can only say that the distance of seven Eoman miles from 
Canterbury, on the Eoman road to London, brings us just 
to Nash Court, beyond Broughton -under- Blean. Burolevo 
we shall find hereafter called Durolevo, and placed at 
twelve miles from Canterbury, although the two sevens here 
seem to imply a distance of fourteen miles, which brings it 
one mile east of Bapchild. " Madus" may be conceived to 
be the Medway ; but the distance goes two miles and a 
half beyond the Medway, on the direct Eoman London road 
through Eochester; and as much beyond the town of Maid- 
stone, if it be supposed to have gone there by branching off 
at Sittingbourne. It may have been some place beyond 
the Medway, at Cobham or Higham ; or if it must abso- 
lutely be on the Medway, then at Barming or Teston, above 
Maidstone. 

The two remaining names are Iscadumnomorum and 
Eidumo, with the figure xv attached to the latter, and a 
road proceeding out of the former to it. These names evi- 
dently refer to the places we have already identified as 
Dorchester and Wareham, the Dunium of Ptolemy having 
grown into Eidumo or Eidumium. The most important 
point we get from this work is the confirmatory evidence it 
gives that Isca is certainly not Exeter, but Dorchester. The 
exact distance between Wareham and Dorchester, in Eoman 
miles, is fifteen, as here appears to be given between Isca 
Dumnomorum and Eidumo. 

The next geographical work to be dealt with is the Ra- 
vennas, a work of antiquity, but of unknown age or author- 
ship. It furnishes catalogues of names placed in strings 
and groups, out of which I insert here such as can be iden- 
tified with the places occurring in the other authors under 
consideration. I postpone to the end of this article the 
full catalogues embracing the places whose identification I 
do not attempt. The catalogue for Britain has : Tamaris, 
Uxelis, Scadum Nuniorum, Moridunum, Londinis, Bindo- 
gladia, Noviomagno, Vcnta Belgarum, Eavimago, Ecgentium, 
Cimetzone, Puntuobice ; clearly beginning with the district 
about Ptolemy's town of Tamare, just west of the river 
Tamar, and ending in the district of the Eegni and Attre- 



AND THE ANTONINE ITINERARY. 301 

bates. Uxelis wc have had asUxclla. The third name in the 
list is evidently Isca Damuonioiiim, our Dorchester. Next 
to it IMoridunum, already assigned to Wareham under the 
names Dunium and Ridumo. It then comes up to Londi- 
nis (London). Bindogladia we have not previously met 
with ; bnt shall find it presently as Vindocladia, and its 
place Winchester. Noviomagno is probably in Kent, as 
hereafter placed. Yenta of the Belgse is here in order, 
west of Vindocladia ; and this agrees with the place with 
which we have already identified it, viz., Havant. Ravimago 
reminds the ear of Neomagus and Noviomagus, previously 
spoken of, but I cannot venture to identify it. Regentium 
may be a town of the Regni ; but we have no other means 
to fix its position, unless it be Cissbury, a fine ancient fort 
in Sussex, in the district of the Regni, and of which more 
remains to be said presently. Cimetzione and Puntuobice 
are probably the Cunetione of the fourteenth Antonine iter 
and the Pontibus of the seventh, respectively to be identified 
as the town of the river Kenet in AViltshire, and as Pointers 
in Surrey. 

The next series begins in the country of the Silures, 
beyond the range of our districts, and has Yenta Silurum 
(Caerwent), Isca Augusta (Caerleon), Glebon Colonia (Glou- 
cester), and enters on the territory under discussion at Cori- 
nium Dol)unorum ; then has Calleva Attrebatum, Lemanis, 
and Dubris. Corinium we have dealt with from Ptolemy as 
Cirencester. Calleva Attrebatum remains to be identified, 
in the south-west corner of Surrey, near Haslemere, from 
the Antonine Itinerary ; and Dubris we have already 
accepted, as universally admitted, for Dover. Starting again 
from this last place, we are taken to Duroverno Cantiaco- 
rum (Canterbury), Ptutupis (Richborough), and to Durobra- 
bis, which we shall presently find as Durobrivis, and place 
it at Rochester, to Londini, and so on into North Wales. 

We now come to the Antonine Itinerary. It is of the 
same age as Ptolemy's work, and is conceived to have been 
compiled in direct connection with the journeys of the 
Emperor Hadrian, embracing, as it does, the whole of his 
empii-e, which he systematically visited. 

The great value of the Itinerary rests on the fact that it 
gives precise distances from place to place, so that if only 
we can be sure of some starting-places, and that we under- 



302 MEASUREMENTS OF PTOLEMY 

stand the moasiire apjilied to the distances, we cannot fail 
to identify the positions on a really correct map. In Lon- 
dinium, Eboracum, Cataractoni, Portus Dubris, Portiis Le- 
manis, Duroverno, Yerolamio, Glevo, Isca Silurum, Aquse 
Calidse, Eatis, and Lindo, we have probably named all the 
places in England which have not been at one time or 
another justly the subject of difference of opinion as to their 
identity, and that are not more or less open to question ; 
and this chiefly for the reason that the proper measure to 
be used has not been recognised. The important work on 
the Antoninc Itinerary, by the Eev. Thos. Eeynolds, pub- 
lished in 1799, contains much learning, and has been of 
much value to me ; but in its principal object, that of iden- 
tifying the places and distances, it signally fails, although 
it has remained the principal authority on the subject to 
the present time. Eeynolds might even have overcome the 
errors of his dependence on the false Eichard of Cirencester 
if he had correctly used Eoman miles. Just as, in applying 
Ptolemy, we must first understand what he accepted as the 
measurement of a degree, we must know, in applying Anto- 
ninus, what was a Eoman mile. 

If it is urged that this measure cannot be absolutely settled, 
it may be pleaded that the differences amongst authorities 
are very slight ; and that since there is no attempt in the 
Antoninc Itinerary to deal separately with portions of the 
Eoman mile, a very slight departure from a critically cor- 
rect measure will be of no effect. As all the distances are 
given by Antoninus in full miles, it must, for instance, be 
taken that ten miles means a distance nearer to ten than to 
nine or eleven ; that is to say, over nine miles and a half, 
and under ten miles and a half. It seems, too, that where 
he knew he had put down ten for something less than ten 
and a half, he would add the omitted part to make up an 
integer for his next measure ; for in each iter he gives a 
total distance which is intended for the sum of all the 
figures put down, which it would not be if he had not 
balanced his fractional parts as he went along. 

In the papers of the Institute of Architects it is laid down 
by Taylor, the partner of Cresy on Roman Architecture, 
that 1 foot 11 inches English is equal to 2 feet of ancient 
Eoman measure ; this being the regulated height for stone 
courses in numerous instances of ancient building. In 



AND Till-: ANTOXINI?: ITl XHKAin'. oOH 

Smith's Classical Dictionary the Roman foot is said to be 
11.G496 English inches; or by another calcuhition, 11.6*2 
inches ; making the Roman mile, 1618 or 1614 yards. 

These authorities give the following propoi-tions of the 
Roman to the English foot, .9583, .9708, .9683, and .9559. 
Previous calculations, such as I find in Nicholson's EnciJ- 
clop(edia (1809), give the Roman foot at .970 ; after Titus, 
.965; from rules,. 9 6 72; from buildings, .9681; from a stone, 
.9696 ; and the Roman mile of Pliny at 4840.5 feet Eng- 
lish; or of Strabo, 4903. These are founded on calculations 
of Professor Greaves, a once famous Oxford mathematician; 
and of General Roy and Colonel Mudge, the founders of the 
English Ordnance Survey. By Reynolds the subject is fully 
discussed, and the authorities for the proportions named in 
the EncyclopGedia are given, with the opinion of Dr. Long, 
the astronomer, " that the Roman mile, and the foot which 
measured it, seem to be pretty well ascertained." But then 
Reynolds falls into a singular and extraordinary error, which 
I believe has passed unnoticed ; and because the Roman 
foot is to the English foot as 967 to 1000, he infers that 
the Roman mile bears the same proportion to the English 
mile. But the Roman mile beino^ 5000 Roman feet, and 
the English mile 5280 English feet, the proportion of the 
English miles is quite a different thing from that of the 
feet. Besides the altered size of the foot, the English mile 
has 280 Enolish feet added on to it. Failino- to notice this, 
Reynolds concluded that there was but little if any difference 
between the Enirlish and Roman- miles ; and with General 
Roy's conclusion before him, that 11 English miles exceed 
12 Roman by just 108 feet, he threw all authorities aside, 
and announced his own conclusion to be that the English 
and Roman miles were the same ; and on this mistake he 
set out the whole Itinerary. 

The fact is that General Roy very nearly hit the truth. 
Taking the Roman foot at .9681 parts of an English foot, 
which is about the medium of the proportions previously 
given, 12 Roman miles of 5000 Roman feet each, make 
exactly 11 English miles and 6 feet. As may be shown thus: 

17G0 yds. X 3 = 5280 Englisli feet ; that is, 1 mile English measure. 
Subtract 4840 English feet; tliat is, 1 Roman mile of Pliii}', 

wauting 6 inches. 

The (liffercnce is 440 Eng. ft. less to a Roman mile than to an Encflish. 

1878 -it* 



304 MEASUREMENTS OF PTOLEMY 

Multiply 440 by 12 = 5280 feet, which is the English mile, 
Therefore, neglecting the 6 inches, in setting out 12 Roman 
miles, we fall short by just 1 English mile of 12 English ; 
which is to say that 12 Roman miles are 11 English and 
6 feet. Another proof is a simple multiplication : 

1 mile English = 5280 ft. Eng. Multiply by 11 = 58080 ft. 
1 mile Roman = 4840 ft. Eng. Multiply by 12 = 58080 ft. 

In applying the Antonine Itinerary to the English map, 
therefore, we must use 12 Roman for 11 English miles. 

But, further, Mr, Reynolds having assumed a ^vrong size 
for the mile, found himself in the confusion that might be 
expected, and proceeded to find fault with the distances 
figured by Antoninus ; he corrects them when convenient 
to his identification by the false authority of Bertram of 
Copenhagen ; and, besides, he assumes mistakes, in the 
numerals of which there is no evidence whatever, only 
because he thinks an x or a v might have slipped in or 
slipped out, or an i have been put by mistake after (xi), 
when he would rather have it before (ix), he assumes the 
numerals in error. The only justification for supposing 
the numerals in error of manuscript must be when we find 
different copies or editions, giving different numerals to the 
same place. When this occurs we have no alternative but 
to accept some plausible solution of the difficulty, till a 
better turns up. 

Of course it may be, perhaps I ought to say must be, 
that there are positive errors in the numerals of the dis- 
tances in some cases ; and this is indicated where the 
sum of the iter does not agree with the parts. It may 
be difficult to say wdiich is right, the sum or the items of 
it, and w^e are of course left to more or less uncertainty, but 
perhaps aided by a choice of readings. One kind of error 
I believe I have detected twice in the whole of England, 
which I think is not suggested by Reynolds, though it is in 
one of the cases suggested by the clever Bertram of Copen- 
hagen. It is where a place seems to have dropped out of, 
or been missed from, the Itinerary altogether. One of 
these cases we shall touch upon, as it comes near to the 
districts we deal with, the other is in the north of England. 
The iters relating to the south of London are the third, 
fourth, and end of the second, the seventh, thirteenth. 



AND THE ANTONINE ITINERARY. 305 

fourteenth, and fifteenth. We will treat of them in this 
succession, using Koman miles in all our expressions. 

ITER III. 

A LONDINrO AD PORTDM DuBRIS, LXVI M.P. 
DUROBRIVIS, XXVII ; DUROVEKNO, XXV ; Ad PorTL'M DuBRIS, XIV. 

As to the route to be followed there is no room for doubt. 
It is the ancient Koman road, the Watling Street from 
London to Rochester, to Canterbury and Dover, But the 
actual distance from London to Rochester is twenty-nine 
miles ; on to Canterbury is twenty-eight miles, and on to 
Dover is sixteen miles, or seventy-three miles in all. The 
Watling Street is lost between where it appears in the city 
of London, and reappears, nearly six miles off, just beyond 
Greenwich. The line of it shows that from London it con- 
tinued for a considerable distance on the north side of the 
Thames, and my solution of the difficulty is that the 
twenty-seven miles to Rochester were measured from the 
Thames, at the point where some ferry carried the traffic 
across to Rotherhithe, very nearly where the Thames Tunnel 
now is. There is certainly an error in the numeral xxv 
from Rochester to Canterbury. It is rendered uncertain 
by the fact that the editions of Aldus and Simler say xv. 
But the correct distance is given in iter ii, presently 
quoted — viz., xxviii miles. The distance to Dover, xiv 
miles, falls short by one and a half miles, stopping at the 
little village of Buckland ; most likely because there, or 
half a mile on, at Charlton, was the post station, to which 
the measurement was taken, and not to the lofty clifis 
where the castle stands, nor to the actual seashore. 

ITER IV. 

A LONDINIO AD PORTUM LeMANIS, LVIII M.P. 
DdROKRIVIS, XXVII ; DOROVERNO, XXV ; Ad PouTUM LiCMAXMS, XVI. 

All the observations on the distances of London, Roches- 
ter, and Canterbury, made just above, apply here. The 
distance, xvi to Lympne — a place strongly marked Ijy 
its Roman remains — is absolutely correct for Portus Le- 
manis. 

ITER II. 

This iter commences in the north of England, a. vallu. 



30G MEASUREMENTS OF PTOLKMY 

tliat is to siiy, from the wall beyond Carlisle, and proceeds 
to London. From London the latter part of it is — 

NOVIOMAGO, X ; YaGNIACIS, XVIII ; DUROBRIVIS, IX ; DuROLEVO, XVI ; 

DuROVERNO, XII; Ad Portum Ritupis, X. 

Instead of the direct road to Rochester taken by the two 
routes previously given, this journey is by a circuit to the 
south. It is unfortunate that in every instance except 
one — viz., from Durolevo to Duroverno, the numerals are 
more or less in doubt, owing to variations in different 
editions. The numeral x affixed to Noviomao;o is altered 
to XII in Harrison's first edition, whilst the numeral xviii, 
affixed to Vagniacis, is altered to vi in Harrison's first 
edition, and to xviiii in Wesseling, from the Vatican copy. 
The majority of the editions favour the figures stated at the 
head. I will first point out that at nine miles from Roches- 
ter, on the line of the Watling Street, in the woods of 
Swanscombe j^arish, is a singular collection of earthworks, 
called on the Ordnance maps Clubber-lubber.^ As the 
public road is here diverted for several miles from the 
Watling Street, these remains are little known and rarely 
visited. I take them to be the site of Vagniacis. If so, 
eighteen miles from this point and ten from London, that 
is, from the Rotherhithe ferry, as I take it, is Noviomago. 
The point falls a quarter of a mile south of C^old Harbour, 
just a mile north of Addington and west of Wickham 
Street. I do not know of Roman remains here, though the 
name Coldharbour bespeaks them, nor do I suppose, allow- 
ing for some uncertainty in the numerals, and possibly for 
roads not actually straight, that we are tied exactly to this 
2:)oint. The great encampment at Holwood Hill, about four 
miles to the south-east, has been supposed to be Novio- 
magus. It might be the fort above that town, and some- 
where about Keston, the place itself, and this seems the 
likeliest solution. It is probable that the road from it to 
Vagniacis joined the Watling Street at Cray ford, and thus 
broke the distance of xviii or xviiii miles into two lengths. 
A Roman road from the south passes near to Holwood 
Hill, going direct for London. Durobrivis has been already 

' On the six-inch scale maps, Claliber-hibhcr, with a sufrgestion that it is 
derived from Caer-ber-huber. At Springhead, half a mile eastward, the map 
marks "Site of lloman town". Very nunicruus Human auti(|uities have been 
found there. 



AND THE ANTONIXE ITINEEARY. 307 

admitted as Rochester, and we have here the distance to 
Duroverniis, Canterbury, divided into two spaces— viz.,^ to 
Dnrolevo xvi miles and on to Canterbury xii miles, making 
the actual true distance of twenty-eight miles. We have 
already had Durolevo, otherwise Burolevo in the Peutin- 
gerian tables, but it is here placed two miles nearer to 
Canterbury. Giving a preference to the Antonine measure- 
ment, it seems highly probable that Durolevo was near to 
the Roman fort, which lies just north of the Watling Street, 
close to Teynham Piailway Station, and marked Durolevum 
on the inch scale Ordnance map ; to this spot the distance 
exactly points. The iter takes us one stntion beyond 
Canterbury to the Port Eitupis. Richborough, where stands 
the Roman fortification considered to be Ritupis, has already 
been indicated by Ptolemy and the Peutingerian tables. It 
was in Hadrian's time an island. The distance does not 
actually reach to it, but only to the shore of the port on the 
main land, at the end of the Roman road called Each End, 
from hence it was about a mile and a half over the shallow 
waters to the castle or fort. I have found the omission of 
a water distance to be the rule of the Antonine reckonings, 
which only account for laud travelling. 

Two hundred and fifty years later than the time of this 

Itinerary, during all which this port was the chief port of 

Britannia for communication with the Continent, Rutupis 

was the head-quarters and seat of government of that great 

Roman ofticer already mentioned, of whom we hear in the 

Notitia Diynitatum — viz.,"Viri spectabilis Comitis Littoris 

Saxonici", or, in the language of to-day, of the Lord 

Warden of the Cinque Ports, the direct successor in office 

of the Roman Comes, and still holding his seat at Walmer 

Castle, about eight miles from Rutupis. The Roman officer 

had for his garrison at Rutupis the Legio Secnnda Augusta, 

which, two hundred and fifty years before, Ptolemy had 

found as I have shown at Maiden Castle, near Dorchester, 

and stretched out his subordinate garrisons right and left 

along the coast as follows : — viz., to the left : 1st. On the 

north shore of Kent, at Regulbium, now Ileculver, the 

tribune of the first cohort of the Vetasians. 2nd. The 

puepositus of the light Fortensian troops at Othona (Numeri 

Fortensum), that is Ithancester, in Essex. 3rd. The pnT3- 

positus of till' Stablesian cavalry of Garriononum, at Car- 



308 MEASUREMEKTS OF PTOLEMY 

riouonum, that is to say Burgli on the Sands, in Norfolk. 
4th. At Branodun, now Brancaster, in Norfolk, at the 
entrance to the Wash, the Dalmatic cavaliy of Branodun 
with their pisepositus. To the right the first garrison 
station of the Roman Warden was at Dubris, now Dover ; a 
force of Tungrican milites, under a prsepositus. The second 
station was at Lemannis or Lympne, with Turnacensian 
troops and their praepositus. The third was at Anderida, 
with a prsepositus and light troops of the Abulci. The 
name of the station Anderida occurs nowhere else in the 
authors we have reviewed, and except that it took its 
name from the great wood of Anderida, and that it was 
finally attacked and sacked by the South Saxons, we have 
no local relationships for it ; yet by a very general consent 
it is now believed to be Pevensey, possessing considerable 
remains of Roman work in its castle walls, once having an 
important harbour and still a member of the Ciiique ports. 
The fourth and last was at Portus Adurni, the name of 
which is retained to the present day in the river Adur, in 
Sussex, whose fort at Bramber was probably the station of 
this garrison — viz., the prsepositus and light troops called 
Exploratores. The consideration of this last station is of 
great importance in the next iter. 



ITER VII. 

A Regno Londinium, xcvi. 

ClAUSENTO, XX ; VenTA BeLGARUM, X; CaLLEVA AtTREBATUM, XXII ; 
PONTIBUS, XXII ; LONDINIO, XXII. 

There is no question as to the numerals in this iter, with 
the single exception that one edition of the Itinerary gives 
the total at cxv, and another at cxvi, instead of the actual 
total, XCVI. The mistake seems to be the misplacing of the 
X in both the variations, and the accidental omission of the 
I in one. 

No iter has been subject to a wider application. Camden 
places its commencement (Regnum) at Riugwood in Hamp- 
shire ; Clausento he gave to Southampton, or its near neigh- 
bour. Bittern. Yenta had been placed at Bristol ; he 
removed it to Wincliester. Calleva he thought Wallingford ; 
others had thought it Oxford, and have since put it at Sil- 
chcstcr and at Reading. Puntibus was put by Camden at 



AND THE ANTONINE ITINERARY. 309 

Colnbrook ; nnd since his time Longford, Windsor, and Old 
AMndsor, have been advocated. 

In 1723 an inscribed stone was dug up in the North 
Street at Chichester, and is, I l^elieve, preserved at Good- 
wood. It is of tlie time of the Emperor ('laudius; and from 
the occurrence on it of a part of a name, ciiDUBNi (the first 
portion of the word being broken off), which has been sug- 
gested to be COGIDUBNI, it was concluded that we have here 
tlie name of the native Prince, of whom Tacitus relates that 
having remained faithful to the memory of the Roman 
power, certain states out of the conquests of Ostorius Sca- 
pula were given " Cogiduno regi". This conclusion led to 
another assumption, viz., that the states given to " Cogidu- 
nus rex" must have been those of the Regni ; and lastly to 
another, viz., that the capital town of the Regni must be 
Regnum ; and that the discovery of the stone here declared 
Regnum to be Chichester. Depending on this chain of con- 
jecture, the town Regnum has been invented out of the 
name of a people or district, and has by antiquaries been 
ever since annexed to Chichester. We know from Ptolemy 
that the Regni were a people, and that their town, Neoma- 
gus, lay a considerable distance inland ; therefore, when we 
read that this iter starts from Regnum, I conclude that it 
started from some place not given by name, but in the terri- 
tory of the Regni ; which territory it is pretty evident from 
the position we have been obliged to give to their town, 
Neomagus, stretched across Sussex, the present Rape of 
Bramber forming about the centre of it. This territory, 
after some time, came to be the most westerly of the juris- 
diction of the counts of the Saxon shore ; and their seat of 
authority within it was at Portus Adurni,^ which can be 
none other than the port of the river Adur. This river 
descends almost the whole length of the Rape of Bramber, 
discharmno: into the sea no\v near to New Shoreham, but 
formerly near to Portslade and Aldrington. In Roman 
times, we may judge from the present aspect of the land, 
the river, which still forms a considerable pool up to Old 
Shoi-cham, was a titlal lake up to Becding and Jjramber. 
Bramber is in a strong military position, tlie key to the 
inner country. Its ruined Norman castle, and its Saxon 
earthworks and history, attest its ancient importance. J)C- 
neath its shelter grew up the ancimt town of Steyning, and 

' Xotitia Dignitatum. 



310 MEASUREMENTS OF PTOLEMY 

from it a Roman road leads to London. At Bramber, on 
the. banks of the Adm^ and overlooking the tidal lake, I 
cannot doubt was the seat of the Prospositus Numeri Explo- 
ratorum, stationed, as we know from the Notltia Dignita- 
tiim, at Portus Adnrni, towards the end of the fourth cen- 
tury. To this once important town of Bramber, or to some 
important position near it, I look for the town of the princes 
i)[ the Regni who preceded the Praspositus in the govern- 
ment of the district, and for the place from which this iter 
started. 

At Cissburj, three miles west of Bramber, we have a 
remarkable earthen fort, with evidences of Roman and of 
earlier workmanship. It is an oval in form of plan, cover- 
ing about sixty acres, its north side hanging over an almost 
inaccessible declivity, and in other parts having only two 
points of access. Its site is almost the highest point in this 
range of the South Downs, and so admirably is it placed for 
seaward observation, that from the central part of the area 
of the fort the white surf-line of the breaking sea upon the 
shore may be seen in clear weather, without interruption, 
from Selsey Bill to Beachey Head. It has two dependent 
camps in sight, — one to the south-west, on Highdown, four 
miles and a half distant ; the other at Chanctonbury, two 
miles and a half distant due north ; both of them admirable 
signal-stations. Highdown is an isolated mount command- 
ing the whole flat country between the South Downs and 
the sea. Chanctonbury, 780 feet above the sea, looks 
directly down upon Bramber, and over the whole breadth 
of the weald of the Regni, including in the view the northern 
town of Neo magus. 

From Cissbury I conclude this iter starts. The first stage 
is to Clausento, xx. The road seems to have been across 
the hills and valleys to Glating Beacon, just above the 
Roman villa of Bignor. Here it falls into the Roman Stane 
Street, which leads directly into Chichester at the exact 
distance of twenty miles. Chichester, therefore, was Clau- 
sento, and was one of the Roman towns, as we have seen, 
upon the waters of Trisanton. The next stage is to Yenta 
Belgarum, x. The name not only distinguishes it from 
other towns named Venta in the Itinerary, but seems to 
indicate the passage from the territory of one people, the 
Regni, to that of another, the Belgoe. This place Venta, in 



AND THE ANTONINE ITINERARY. 311 

the country of the Belgae, we have ah'cady placed tenta- 
tively, from Ptolemy, at Havant, the middle town of the 
Trisanton water. The distance given in this iter really 
settles the question, for the accurate measure is a little over 
nine miles and a half from the crossing of the streets at the 
centres of the two towns. From tiavant a Roman road 
goes due north through the Forest of Bere, by Rowland's 
Castle, near which " Roman remains" are marked on the 
Ordnance Map ; but what they are, I do not know. That 
there was a road right through to London is pretty certain, 
though a great deal of it remains to be discovered and 
marked out. From Venta to Londinium the journey is 
sixty-six miles, and this is the exact distance from Havant 
to London by a nearly straight route. The iter divides 
this distance into three stages, each of twenty-two miles. 
The first is Ycnta to Calleva Attrcbatum, xxii. Here we 
again pass from the Belgse to another people, the Attre- 
bates ; that is to say, from Hampshire into Surrey. Strange 
to say, no commentator has noticed the difference in this 
name and the Calleva of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and 
fifteenth iters. In those three cases it is simply Calleva ; 
in this iter it has the distinction of another Calleva, viz., of 
the Attrebates. Unless this distinction is admitted, it is 
impossible to lay out these iters. The distance (twenty-two 
from Havant) brings us close to Haslemere in Surrey, 
which I believe to have been Calleva of the Attrebates, 
though the road passed somewhat to the west of it, just as 
a railway now-a-days leaves its towns a little aside. To 
the next place, Pontibus, is xxii, and it is the same distance 
from London. After testing the many places suggested for 
this station, for more than a quadrant of the circle round 
London, and for all degrees of the circle round other places 
to which it has been misconnected by antiquaries, and re- 
jecting them all as incompatible with the distance, what 
was my surprise to find with twenty-two miles in the com- 
passes both from Haslemere and from London, that one leg 
of the compasses fell upon the name Pointers on the inch- 
scale Ordnance Map, as if the name Pontibus were still pre- 
served there. My meditated visit to the place has never 
yet been paid, nor have I ever been nearer to it than at 
Cobham in Surrey, from which it is about a mile and a half 
south-west. From Haslemere, the road (well known to be 

1876 1' 



312 MEASUREMENTS OF PTOLEMY 

Eoman) lies through Godalming and Guildford, and passes 
a full mile west of Pointers and Pointers Green, along the 
hill from which, at Eed Hill, a by-road goes off at right 
anoles down to the river Mole, where Pointers and Pointers' 
Green stand. To the point where this branch-road goes ofif, 
the distance seems to fall exactly. The main road is here 
equidistant from the river Mole and the river Wey. Their 
proximity and their bridges perhaps suggested the name 
Pontibus. Further on, about two miles, the road, after pass- 
ing over Pain's Hill, crossed the river Mole itself, and so 
pursued its way, and fulfilled its correct distance of twenty- 
two to London. The place Pontibus, or Pontes, seems to 
have given name to the hundred in which it stands, viz., 
the hundred of Emley Bridge, written formerly Elmeley 
Bridge, and in Domesday Booh "Amelebrige'\ 

ITER XIII. 

Ab Isca Callevam, cix. 

The first part of this iter is in Wales, which the limits of 
our subject will not allow us to discuss. It crosses the 
Severn at Glevum (Gloucester). The next stages are to 
DuROCOEXOVio, xiv, or in the Vatican MS., xviii ; Spinis, 
XV ; Calleva, xv. The sum of the items is short of the 
sum total given by ten miles. 

The distance (xiv) from Gloucester to Durocornovio will 
not reach to Cirencester, to which this name is usually allo- 
cated, but only to North Cerney on the same river. To the 
latter place our associate Mr. Black assigned it ; and in 
rejecting Cirencester, he gave the opinion that the rich and 
extensive Roman town still to be seen there was not founded 
in the early days of the Roman dominion, when the Anto- 
nine survey was made. It occurs to me that the Corinium^ 
of Ptolemy, which it has been usually thought is the Duro- 
cornovio of this iter, is certainly a different place ; and that 
these two names really give us Durocornovio for North 
Cerney, and Corinium for Cirencester ; the latter, even when 
Ptolemy put it down as the principal town of the Dobuni, 
being a much more considerable place than its neighbour, 
although for some reason the Emperor Hadrian's route was 
directed to the smaller place of the two. But whether 
North Cerney or Cirencester be assumed, the distance (xv) 



AND THE AXTONINE ITINERARY. 313 

to Spinis brings us into difficulties. The place called Speen, 
a little west of Newbury in Berkshire, was fixed upon by 
Camden for Spinis ; and standing, as Speen does, at the 
junction of two Roman roads, whilst also Spinis is the junc- 
tion station of this and of the next iter to be quoted, the 
circumstances seem to justify Camden's choice. But then 
how are we to account for the distance xv, when the actual 
distance is, from Cerney to Speen, thirty-eight miles, or 
from Cirencester, thirty-six miles I I can only account for 
it by the suggestion that the name and distance of a place 
between Durocornovio and Spinis has from very early 
times been erroneously omitted altogether in the Itinerary. 
Perhaps even the omission was the error of the original 
scribe. If Spinis and Speen are correctly identified, this 
lost place was fifteen miles from it, in the direction of Ciren- 
cester. The point on the Roman road, at this distance, 
falls exactly at the IManor Farm on Wanborough Plain, about 
midway between the villages of Wanborough and Baydon. 
Here I suggest is the place whose name and distance from 
Durocornovio are altogether lost in the Itinerary copies ; 
and the next iter also shows that Spinis was fifteen miles 
from Calleva. Calleva is also the starting-place of the fif- 
teenth iter, which makes it still more important to establish 
its identification. I have already shown that this Calleva 
is to be distinguished from Calleva Attrebatum of the 
seventh iter. No name has had so many different identifi- 
cations as Calleva. Camden thought it Wallingford ; Hen- 
ley, Farnham, Silchestcr, Oxford, and Reading, have had 
other advocates. But if Spinis be Speen, then the distance 
shows that Silchester, fifteen miles from it, is the only place 
which has a claim to the name. Silchester has long been 
known for its walls of Roman masonry with a circuit of 
near three miles ; and by the labours of the Rev. Mr. Joyce 
of Strathfieldsaye, in recent years, our knowledge of its 
marks of Roman antiquity, has been greatly extended. As 
long ago as 1732 an inscription was dug up, which showed 
the people whose city it was in Roman times to have been 
the Segontiaci. These people, nearly two hundred years 
before Hadrian's journey, appeared by an embassy before, 
and submitted to,JuliusC?esar when he reached the furthest 
point of his second invasion. Their ambassadors were 
joined with those of their immediate neiirhbours, the Bibroci, 



314 MEASUREMENTS OF PTOLEMY 

or people of Berroc, i.e., Berkshire ; also with those of the 
Cassii, i.e., the people of Middlesex and of Cashiobury in 
Hertfordshire ; with the Aiicalites, probably a people of 
some part of Hampshire ; besides the Iceni Magni, the 
neighbours, in another direction, of the Trinobantes, whose 
quarrels had brought Csesar to Britain. Ptolemy does not 
distinguish the Segontiaci as a separate people in his time ; 
and the probability is that, being of Gaulish descent, they 
had then come to be included in his mind with the Belgse. 
Nor is their town named by him ; yet Calleva, which seems 
to be the city of the Segontiaci, is named in three iters of 
Ptolemy's contemporary, Hadrian. Coins found in abund- 
ance at Silchester show that the place was known to the 
Eomans from immediately after tlie invasion of Claudius. 
Probably its importance greatly increased under the Eoman 
rule ; and when Hadrian visited it, it was in comparatively 
humble condition. The name appearing three times in his 
iters as simply Calleva, may be thought a little singular ; 
and it may be a matter for wonder wdiy it was not distin- 
guished as Calleva Segontiacorum, just as the other, Calleva 
Attrebatum, was distinguished by the name of its people. 

But to sum up. It really seems, 1st, that by the men- 
tion of the Attrebates at the one Calleva, and not at the 
other in its three repetitions, the distinction was sufficiently 
marked ; 2nd, that Silchester is the town of the Segontiaci, 
the inscription discovered in 1732 proves; and therefore, 
if Calleva at all, it is Calleva Segontiaci. 3rd, that it is 
Calleva is proved by its distance of fifteen miles from Spinis 
or Speen repeated in two iters. I ought to add that the 
distance is not measured from the modern village of Speen, 
called Church Speen, but from the place called Stock Cross, 
near Wood Speen, about a mile and a quarter west of 
Church Speen. The station Spinis lay, in fact, in the fork 
between the tw^o junction-roads from Aquse Solis and Duro- 
cornovio, a little before they united on their way to Calleva. 
How Calleva came to be so called by the Romans, whilst 
with the Britons it long retained, in the appellation Caer 
Segont (as it appears in Nennius), the name of its ancient 
people, and how finally it came to take the appellation of 
Silchester, are difiicult questions wdiich I am not competent 
to enter upon. Its latest appellation it seems to gain from 
its neighbourhood to the same source which gives to that 



AND THE ANTONINE ITINERARY. 315 

hugost of English barrows near Avclniry tlic name of Sil- 
biuy, and to the great forest of Wiltshire the name of Sil- 

\V00ll. 

ITER XIV. 

Alio Itinere ab Isca Callevam, cm. 

Ven'ta SiLUKUM, IX; Abone, IX; Trajectds, IX; Aquis Sous, VI; Ver- 

LUCiONK, XV ; Cunetione, XX ; Spinis, XV ; Calleva, XV. 

The total is here in error ten, and should be one hundred 
and thirteen. The subordinate distances are not open to 
any question of variation in different copies, yet their dis- 
crepancy in the total raises the question whether there is 
not some error of ten in one of the items. 

From Isca Silurum,or Caerleon, toVenta Silurum, or Caer- 
went, is almost nine miles ; thence by the Via Julia to Crick, 
and turn off to the Severn by Portskewet, and to the Roman 
camp on the shore at Southbrook Chapel, near to Portskewet 
Pill ; cross the Severn to the promontory at the Chessel Pill ; 
thence by Pilning Street to Awkley Farm, and so through 
Almondsbury to the Roman Kidgeway at Almondsbury Hill, 
and a little beyond the Hill the distance is nine miles, leav- 
ing out the water-passage. To the right of the road is the 
fine ancient encampment of Kuole Park, which was pro- 
bably the fort of ancient Abone, the place itself being only 
a small station on the road. The way to Aquoe Solis con- 
tinues by Wood Green and Trench Lane, and is not further 
distinguishable on the map ; but the distance, Trajectus ix, 
reaches to a camp on the river Boyd, one mile south of the 
village of Abstone. To Aquis Solis, vi, brings us exactly 
to Bath. 

I have passed rapidly through the route up to this 
station, as the places previous to Aquis Solis are not within 
the limits of the present discussion. From Aquis Solis to 
Spinis the present existence of a direct llomaii road has led 
to the supposition that this direct route must be followed, 
although it brings us into a difficulty exactly the reverse 
of that encountered in the last iter. There the perplexity 
was that the distances given fell considerably short of 
Speen. In this iter, if the direct route from Aquis Solis is 
followed, the distances are in excess, which plainly indicates 
that a circuitous and not a direct route was chosen. The 
two names, Verlucione and Cunetione, given between Bath 



316 MEASUREMENTS OF PTOLEMY 

and Speen, like Derventione in another iter, seem to be 
places deriving their appellations from rivers. Just as Der- 
ventione is named from the Derwent, and Cunetione in all 
probability from the Kenuet, so Verlucione may have been 
derived from a stream having the first part of that name, 
Verlet or Verlut-ione. Bishop Gibson finds a stream near 
to Westbury, in Wiltshire, called the Ware, which induced 
him to fix on Westbury for Verlucione, thinking that river 
to preserve in its name the first syllable of the old word. 
Camden preferred the neighbouring town of Warminster, 
evidently also led by the first syllable of that name, 
although not mentioninof the river Ware. Until the river 
of Verluc-ione is satisfactorily identified, which I am not 
able to do, it is probably not possible to identify the place 
itself, because there is little to show whether the route bent 
to the north or to the south of the direct road between 
Bath and Speen. If to the north, then it probably went by 
the old British road, the Fossway, about to Chippenham, 
and then turned towards Speen by the road through Calne, 
uniting with the direct road near Silbury Hill ; but Chip- 
penham stands on the river Avon, and I can scarcely think 
if that river had once taken a more distinctive name that 
the older generic word Avon would now attach to it. If 
this makes it probable that the route went to the south- 
east on quitting Bath, then the distances bring us to the 
neio'hbourhood of Edgington and Coulston, on the north 
verge of Salisbury Blain, where only some small springs 
take their rise. At Edgington and the neighbouring village 
of Bratton, or rather on the lofty crests of the hills above, 
there are important earthworks ; and this point, if it be 
Verlucione, would be the only one by which the Emperor 
Hadrian visited the remarkable country which we call 
Salisbury Plain. From hence the route would lay through 
Devizes, joining the direct road to Speen, also near Silbury 
Hill. This great direct road, which was certainly a British 
road before it was Roman, then passes on near to the great 
stone circle of Avcbury, crosses the Kennet at Marlborough, 
and beyond that town the course of the river is nearly 
parallel to the road. At about two miles east of Marl- 
borough, and somewhere within a mile of the Kennet, and 
on the verge of Savcrnake forest, the distance xv miles 
from Spinis places Cunet-ione. The place may have been 



AND THE ANTUNINE ITINERARY. 'M7 

a mere post station, and llic town of Marlborough the 
growth of a later time, or as at Spccn, where that place has 
for ages sunk into insignificance, extinguished by the 
growth of the now ancient but once new town of New- 
bury. The concluding town of this iter, Calleva, has been 
fully treated of as the concluding town of the preceding iter. 

ITER XV. 

A Calleva Isca Dumnuniorum, cxxxvi. 

ViNDOMI, XV ; VeNTA BeLGARDM, XXI ; BrIGE, XI ; SORBIODUNI, VIII ; VlX- 
DOCLADIA, XII ; DdRNOVARIA, IX; MORIDUNO, XXXVI ; IsCA DdMNUNI- 
ORUM, XV. 

The discrepancy of the sum total with the items again 
perplexes us, the actual sum total being one hundred and 
tw^enty-seven. It is also suggested by Akerman that the 
name of the starting place, Calleva, is uncertain. This final 
route is perhaps the most interesting of all the iters, from 
the confirmation it gives to and receives from the examina- 
tion of Ptolemy ; from its connection with the termination 
of the last two iters ; from its union to the seventh iter, 
and from the fact that its identification diff'ers at every 
station except the starting point from all previous attempts 
to map out the route. 

Silchester was an important centre, upon which two of 
the routes already traced converged, but there still exist 
the lines of ancient roads which converged upon it from 
other places— viz., from Old Sarum and the country of the 
Durotriges beyond, from Winchester and Magnus Portus, 
from Londinium, and fuom the country north of the forest 
of Berroc. In the direction we have now to take at 
starting the traces of the road are lost. The distance to 
the first station, Vindomis xv, and to the second station, 
Venta Belgarum xxi, makes thirty-six miles, but the actual 
distance to Venta Belgarum or Havant, in a straight line, 
is between thirty-eight and thirty-nine miles. Nearly on 
this straight line and about sixteen from Silchester is the 
ancient town of Alton (Aid-ton or Old-town possibly)^ and 
this it seems probable was Vindomis. From it to Venta 
Belgarum or Havant the route lay through the forest of 
Andred. I cannot agree with those who insist that we 
must point out a Roman road wherever the iter leads us. 
It is highly probable that some of tliese early Roman roads 



318 MEASUREMENTS OF PTOLEMY 

were of but a temporary construction, and fell into oblivion 
during the subsequent two hundred and fifty years of the 
Koman occupation of the country. The discrepancy of three 
miles in the distance is, perhaps, to be accounted for by the 
measure being merely that of the by road between the 
points where it touched the main roads out of Calleva and 
Venta. From Venta the route turns westward, and the 
first stage is brige, xt, which distance falls almost exactly 
to the river at Titchfiekl, just north of Titchfield Abbey. 
SoRBiODUNO VIII is written vim in one edition. The distance 
VIII brings it just to the estuary of the Itchen, opposite 
Southampton, but the line of road takes it in the direction 
of the Roman fortifications at Bittern, opposite the sister 
town of Northam. The abundant Koman remains found 
at Bittern leave no doubt of its Roman occupation, and 
incline me to give the name Sorbioduno to Bittern rather 
than to Southampton. The next stage, Vindocladia xii. 
whether from Bittern or from Southampton, ends actually 
at the ancient city of Winchester. From Winchester to 
Durnovaria ix (with, however, the uncertainty imported 
by one edition, which gives the numeral xvi) brings 
us to the Romsey, to the flowing waters of which the 
name Durnovaria well applies. The next stage, to Mori- 
duno, xxxvi, reaches exactly to the Dunium, Ridunum, 
or Wareham, on which from Ptolemy and others we have 
already said so much. From Wareham to Isca Dumnu- 
niorum, xv, ends the route exactly at Dorchester, and con- 
firms the identification suggested by the previous consi- 
deration of Ptolemy. If I am correct, this place was at one 
period, and most likely for a considerable time, the Roman 
capital of the south of Britain. Some importance of this 
kind gave to the district an early prosperity, and a teeming 
population, of which a curious evidence survives in the 
minuteness of the ancient subdivisions of Dorsetshire. The 
county is subdivided into fifty-six hundreds and liberties. 
The much larger county of Devon contains only thirty-two 
hundreds, indicating three thousand two hundred families, 
when Dorset indicates probably more than five thousand 
six hundred. 

I have now completed, to the best of my ability, the task 
of applying the measurements of Ptolemy and the Antomne 
Itinerary. In such an attempt. one student can hardly be 



AND THE ANTOMNE ITINERARY. 319 

.successful. There is so much room for the application of 
local kuowledge, and so much space for the criticism of 
authorities on the Roman antic[uities of Britain, that if 1 
can only hope to have gained the attention of those qualified 
to point out the correct conclusions, my purpose will be 
served. 

I have purposely postponed to this place the complete 
consideration of one author, viz.. The Ravennas. It would 
have inconveniently overloaded the argument to have intro- 
duced sooner the names of places which this author fur- 
nishes, but which neither Ptolemy nor Antoninus help us to 
identify ; yet as The Ravennas affords the most copious list 
of ancient classical names for English places, of any ancient 
author, and as they complete the evidence in existence of 
the Roman nomenclature of British geography, the list in 
full for the districts we have had under consideration can- 
not well be omitted. I think, too, that the author deserves 
more attention than he has hitherto received. I cannot 
pretend to enter into the question when he wrote, further 
than to remind my readers that the author quotes St. Paul, 
and speaks of the Saxons having formerly passed over from 
Antiqua Saxonia, and occupied Britain, and that in describ- 
ing the country he speaks of it in the past tense. The edi- 
tion I have used is that published with the works of Pom- 
ponius Mela, published in 1696, ex MS. Lugchcnensi. So 
far as I use it I quote the author literally, but I distinguish 
the places hereinbefore identified by printing them in capi- 
tals. The work is divided into five books, of which book i 
is introductory ; book ii describes Asia ; book lit, Africa ; 
book IV, Europe ; book v, from which the extracts are made, 
describes the coasts of the Mediterranean and of other seas, 
and describes the islands of the seas. Concerning the places 
in Britain it begins and proceeds thus : 

" In qua Britannia plurimas fuisse legimus civitates et castra ex qui- 
bus aliquantas designare volumus, id est, Giano, Eltabo, Elconio, Neme- 
totacio, Tamaris, Durocoronavis, Pilais, Vevnalis, Avdua, Ravenatione, 
Devionisso, Static Deveutia, Stene, Duriavno, Uxelis Verteoia, Melar- 
non, IscADUM^ NuMORUM, Termonin, Mostevia, Miledunum, Apaunaris, 
Masona, Aiongium ; item juxta suprascriptam civitatem Scadomorum 
est civitas qua3 dicitui' Mouiduno, Alauna Silva, Omire, Tedertis, Lon- 
DiNis, Canca, Dolociudo, Clavinio, ]\Iorionio, Boluelanio, Alauna, Colo- 
neas, Aranus, Anicetis, Moiezo, Ibernio, Bindogladia, Noviomagn'o, 

' These are printed .Melarnoni, Rca<luin Numorum. 
1873 4 1 



320 MEASUREMENTS OF PTOLEMY, ETC. 

Orma, Venta Belgarum, Armis, Ardaoneon, Ravimago, Regentium, 
Leucomoga, Cimetzione, Puntuobice." 

There is no break in the list, although this, so far, seems 
intended for a survey from Cornwall to London, and into 
Kent and Sussex ; and the next place named takes us into 
Wales, the list proceeding as follows : 

"Venta Silurum, Jupania, Metanibala, Albinunno, Isca Augusta, 
Bannio, Brenna, Alabum, Cicutio, Magnis, Branogenium, Epocessa, 
Ypooessa, Macatonion, Glebon Colonia, Argistillum, Vertis, Salinis, 
CoRiNiuM DoBUNORUM, Caleba Attrebatium, Anderesio, Miba, Mutuan- 
tonis, Lemanis, Dubris," 

Here again seems to be the end of a series which stretches 
across the country from Caerleon to Dover. The list con- 
tinues without a break : 

"Duroverno Cantiacorum, Rutupis, Durobrabis, Londini, Tamese, 
Brinavis, Alauna, Utriconion Cornoninoriim". 

And so having arrived as far north as Staffordshire and 
Shropshire, continues into North Wales, returns to London 
(this time called " Londinium Augusta"), proceeds into Essex, 
Suffolk, Norfolk, and Lincolnshire, and on to the line of 
Hadrian's Wall and Carlisle, and thence back to York, nam- 
ing sixty-seven places from the last quoted. The author 
then announces the commencement of a fresh district, and 
proceeds to the line of the Wall and the countries north of 
it, naming eighty-two civitates, and five places which he 
calls loca. He concludes thus : 

" Currunt autera per ipsam Britanniam plurima fluraina, ex quibus 
aliquanta nominare volumus, id est, Fraxula, Axium, Maina, Sarva, 
Tamaris, Naurum, Abona, Isca, Tamion, Aventio, Leuca, Juctius, Leu- 
gosena, Coantia, Dorvatium, Antrum, Tinoa, Liar, Leuda, Vividin, 
burolani, Alauna, Coguvensuron, Darbris, Lemana, Rovia, Ractomessa, 
Senua, Cimea, Velox." 

This list of rivers is remarkable for its deficiencies. The 
Iscs, the Axes, and the Avons, are represented in it, but 
not so as to identify any particular river. Of the rivers of 
the southern counties only the Tamar and the Lympne are 
certainly in the list. Perhaps the Thames is named as the 
"Tamion"; Alauna may be the one identified as the Wey ; 
and "Durbis" is probably written for Dubris or Dover. "Ro- 
via", as it occurs immediately after the T^ympne, may me;m 
the Rother, at the opposite extremity of Romney Marsh. 



T E R-- 

rtA, Cer/icy. 






T/uJUiasiutmoflsofJ^ofmy 
T/u Anton ine Iffmra/y 



^^^^n .//.<f/ti^'.^// 



r 



821 



ON AN "EXULTET" OF THE TWELFTH 
CENTUHY. 

BY E. M. THOMPSON, ASSISTANT KEEPER OF THE MSS., BRITISH MUSEUM. 

" Pictures arc poor men's books." — JoH. Damasc. 

I HAVE the honour to lay before the Association a description 
of a MS. which I believe to be the only one of its kind to 
be found in England. It was purchased by the Trustees of 
the British Museum in 1877, and now forms a part of the 
national collections, bearing the number. Additional MS. 
30,337. It is in the form of a long roll of vellum, measuring 
22 feet 6 inches in length by 11 inches in breadth, made 
up of twelve skins sewed together with strips of the same 
material ; and it is one of those liturgical MSS. to which 
the name of "Exultet" is given from the first word with 
which the service contained in them begins. This service 
is that of the consecration of the Easter taper (the cereus 
2KischciIis), the ceremony of whose hallowing and lighting 
took place on Easter Eve. 

The text of the service is written in so-called Lombardic 
or Beneventine characters, with the addition of pneums for 
chanting; and at intervals are painted large pictures filling 
the entire width of the roll, and thus dividing the text into 
sections. These pictures are reversed for the following reason. 
As the deacon proceeded in the celebration of the service he 
threw the end of the roll over the front of the ambo or 
reading-desk, and gradually pushed it forward, so that it hung 
down and could be seen by the congregation, who had the 
pictures thus placed before them in the right position. As 
will presently be seen, the paintings are intended to illustrate 
and exemplify different passages in the text, and the mean- 
ing of certain of them would be clear even to the ignorant. 
Others, however, the greater part of the congregation, could 
hardly have understood. But they were, no doubt, content to 
gaze on the brilliantly coloured designs, and leave the solu- 
tion of their meaning to their betters. This custom seems 
to have been confined to southern Italy. The character of 
the writing seems to be always the same, and the rolls which 



322 ON AN "exultet 

are extant appear to be all of the eleventh or twelfth cen- 
turies. Our roll belongs to the later period. 

There are not many specimens of " Exultet" rolls which 
have survived to our times. Seroux d'Agincourt, in his 
Histoire de VArt par les Monuments^ has given a descrip- 
tion and drawing of one in his own possession, together with 
specimens of those in the Vatican, the Barberini, and the 
Minerva, libraries in E-ome. Others are described by Natale 
in his Lettera intorno ad una colonna del Duomo di Capua 
(the candlestick, in fact, for the taper), 1776, and by E,ai- 
mondo Guarini in \v\s> Ricerche sidV antica Cittd di Eclano,^ 
as I learn from a paper by Professor Wattenbach in the 
Anzeiger fi'ir Kunde der deiitschen Vo7'zeit,^ for I have not 
been fortunate enough to see copies of those works. In this 
last mentioned paper Professor Wattenbach has also given 
a short description of an "Exultet"' in private hands in 
Nurnberg — the solitary example in the whole of broad Ger- 
many. This example is assigned to the eleventh century, 
and differs from others in having its miniatures not re- 
versed ; so that it may be doubted whether it was used in 
the ordinary way, as the congregation would have had before 
them the pictures inverted. Our roll seems to resemble the 
one in the Barberini library more closely than the others. 

As will be seen in the transcript below, the service closes 
with special prayers for the Emperor and for "comes nos- 
ter", the ruler within whose country the roll \vas executed. 
Unfortunately no name is given ; but it is not impossible 
that the Emperor here prayed for is Frederic Barbarossa, 
who succeeded to the empire in 1152. For it will be noticed 
that no mention is made of the Emperor's children in the 
text of the prayer; but that the words "et filiorum eius" 
are a later marginal addition. One would therefore suppose 
that the roll was executed at a period when the reigning 
Emperor had no children ; and we know that Frederic's 
eldest son was not born till 1165, that is, thirteen years 
after his father's accession. 

A few words as to the character of the drawings and 
ornamentation. The outlines in the miniatures are generally 
))old, and the figures fairly modelled. Some of the drawing 
is, however, inferior, notably that of the Virgin and Child 

' Tom, ii, 66, and turn, v, j.l. 53-56. - Naples, 1814. 

3 N. F., 1878, No. 8. 











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OF THE TWELFTH CENTUKY. 323 

iu the miniature numbered 13 below. The features are 
drawn with the pen, and generally washed over with colour, 
without much attempt at shading. The prevailing colours 
are bright red and blue, which are relieved by a large use 
of an olive tint. Gilding in some of the miniatures is pro- 
fuse. As is frequently the case in MSS. of Italian and 
other south-European countries, where a highly polished 
vellum was iu ftivour, the colours and gilding have peeled 
off to a great extent. The E of the word " Exultet", and 
the U of "Uere", in the middle of the service, are large orna- 
mental letters of the usual Lombardic type, divided into 
compartments, gilt, and filled with interlaced patterns in 
colours, and terminating in monsters' heads. The smaller 
initials are gilt outlined in red, and are filled with various 
colours. 

The following is a transcript of the text and description 
of the miniatures in order as they are painted on the roll. 
The Plate represents two sections which contain the minia- 
tures here numbered 3, 4, 5, 10, 11 : 

[1. Our Saviour enthroned. In His left hand is an open book rest- 
ing on the knee ; the right arm raised in benediction. On either side 
is an angel adoi'ing. Beneath, in capital letters, is written " Lumen 
xpisti. lumen xpi. lumen xpi.] 

"Exultet iam angelica turba c^lorum, exultent divina misteria, 

ET PRO TANTI regis VICTORIA TUBA INTONET SALUTARIS. 

[2. A group of angels : four standing abreast in front, with others 
behind thera. They carry long wands.] 

" Gaudeat se tantis tellus irradiatara (sic) fulgoribus, et eterni regis 
splendore lustrata tocius orbis se senciat amisisse caliginem. 

" Letetur^ et mater ecclesia tanti luminis adornata fulgoribus, et 
magnis populorum uocibus hcc aula resultet. 

[3. The interior of a basilica, represented by a section of the build- 
ing forming the nave and aisles. In the nave stands " mater eccle- 
sia", a tall female figure wearing a crown, and clad in a blue robe with 
broad gilt borders, her hands resting on the springs of the arch. In 
the left aisle is a group of tonsured clergy ; in the right, the lay con- 
gregation, the prominent figures of which are a man and a woman 
carrying a child.] 

[4. Immediately above No. 3 is the nude figure of a woman with 
arms outspread, and buried to the waist in the earth, on which are 
growing conventional shrubs and trees. At her right breast a heifer 
is sucking ; at her left, a snake. She is mother Earth who feeds good 
and bad, as some interpret the heifer and snake to mean ; or, perhaps, 
the living creatures of the dry lantl and of the earth-encircling sea.] 

" Quapropter uos astantes, fratres carissimi, ad tarn miram sancti 

' From waut of the proper type, the e with a dot beneath represents e 
with cedilla in the MS. 



324 ON AN "exultet 

huius luminis claritatem, una mecum, queso, dei omnipotentis 
Tnisericordiam inuocate 
[5. The interior of the basilica. In the centre stands the ambo 
elaborately worked and inlaid, from which the deacon is chanting the 
service, and with outstretched arm. blesses the huge taper which stands 
in front, and which an acolyte is on the point of lighting. The roll 
hangs from the ambo and is being examined with curiosity by the 
congregation below, — a few queer little figures who twist their necks 
in their endeavours to see the paintings. The rest of the congregation 
is seen behind the ambo, on the right ; on the left stand the clergy.] 
"Ut qui me, non meis meritis, intra leuitarum numerum dignatus 
est aggregare, luminis sui graciara infundendo cerei huius lau- 
dem implere precipiat 
" Per dominum nostrum Jesum xpistum filium suum, uiuentem se- 

cum atque regnantem in unitate spiritus sancti deura, 
" Per omnia secula seculorum, Amen. Dominus uobiscum. Et cum 
spii-itu tuo. Sursura corda. Habemus ad dominum. Gratias 
agamus domino deo nostro. Dignum et iustum est. 
" Uere quia uignum et iustum est ^quum et salutare 
" Te inuisibilem deum patrcm omnipotentem, filiumqae tuum uni- 
genitura, dominum nostrum ihm xpm, toto cordis ac mentis 
aiFectu et uocis ministerio personare, 
" Qui pi-o nobis tibi, eterno patri, ade debitum soluit, et ueteris pia- 

culi caucionem pro cruore detersit. 
[G. The Crucifixion. In the centre. Our Lord crucified ; His feet 
not crossed. On the left the three Maries ; on the right St. John, the 
Centurion, and an attendant soldier. Above, the sun turned to blood, 
and the moon hiding her face in deep blue.] 

" Hec sunt enim festa paschalia in quibus uerus ille agnus occiditur, 

eiusque sanguine postes consecrantur. 
"Hec nox est in qua primum patres nostros, filios israhel, eductos ex 

egypto, rubrum mare sicco uestigio transire fecisti. 
[7. The passage of the Red Sea. On the right are the children of 
Israel, who have crossed in safety, Moses with his wand at their head. 
Near him is Miriam holding in her hand the scroll of her song of 
triumph ; and close by is, as I suppose, Aaron with his flowering rod. 
Pharaoh's host, his chariots and hoi'semen, lie under the waves which 
fill the left of the picture.] 

" Hec igitur nox est que peccatorum tenebras columne illuminacione 

purgauit. 
" Hec nox est qu? hodie per universum rauudum in xpisto credentes 
a uiciis seculi segregates et caligine peccatorum reddit gracio, 
sociat sanctitati. 
" Hec nox est in qua destructis uinculis mortis xpistus ab iuferis 

uictor ascendit. 
" Nichil enim nobis nasci profuit, nisi i^edimi profuisset. 
[8. The Harrying of Hell. Christ, bearing a long cruciform stave 
in his right hand, is seen within the gates of Hell; the Evil One lies 
trampled beneath His feet, in the midst of flames ; the gates are shat- 
tered ; hinges, bolts, and locks, lie dispersed. On the right is^a group 
of souls of the departed, at whose head stands Adam, whom Christ is 
rescuing and leads forth by the arm, and near him is Eve. On the left 
arc a company of saints and prophets, at whose head arc John the Bap- 




s 

OF THE TAVELFTH CENTURY. V^25 /C^^ 

\V 
tisfc bearhif? a label on which is written " Ecce Agnus Dei, ecco qft" 
tollis pccciita niuiuli", and David.] 

" O niira circa nos tu9 pietatis dignacio. inestimabilis dileccio 

'caritatis. Ut seruum redimeres, filiura tradidisti. 
"0 cei"te necessarium ad? peccatum quod xpi mortc doletum est. 
" felix culpa, quo talom ac tantum meruit habere redemptorum. 
[9. The Fall of Man. Eve, in the centre, thrusts the forbidden fruit 
with her left hand into Adam's mouth, while she receives it with her 
right from the serpent which coils round the tree, his tail being twisted 
round and fettering the ankles of the woman.] 

" O beata nox que sola meruit scire tempus et horam, in qua xpistus 

ab inferis resurrexit. 
" Hec nox est do qua scriptum est, Et nox ut dies illuminabitur, et 

nox illuminacio mea in deliciis raeis. 
[10. Noli me tangere. Mary Magdalen, in the garden, kneels before 
Our Lord, who moves away while he looks back upon her.] 

" Huius igitur sanctificacio noctis fugat scelera, culpas lauat, reddit 

innocenciam lapsis, mestis leticiam, fugat odia, concordiara 

parat, et curuat impcria. 

[11. Censing the taper, a subject nearly similar in arrangement to 

No. 5 ; but here the ambo is unoccupied. At the foot of the steps 

stands a deacon with the congregation behind him ; on the left the 

officiating deacon swings a censer in front of the taper; behind him a 

group of laymen and clergy.] 

" In huius igitur noctis gracia suscipe, sancte pater, incensi huius 

sacrificium uespertinum, quod tibi in hac cerei oblacione sol- 

lemni per ministrorura manus de opei'ibus apum sacrosancta 

reddit ecclesia. 

" Sed iam columne huius prcconia nouimus quam in honore dei ruti- 

lans ignis accendit. 
"Qui licet sit diuisus in parte, mutuati tamen luminis detrimenta 

non nouit. 
"Alitur liquantibus ceris, quam in substanciam precioso huius lara- 

padis apes mater cduxit. 
"Apis ceteris que subiecta sunt homini animantibus antecellit. 
" Cum sit enim minima corporis paruitate, ingentes animos angusto 

uersat in pectorc, uiril)us imbecillis sed fortis ingenio. 
" Hec explorata temporum uices, cum caniciem pruinosara hiberna 
posuerint, et glaciale senium uerni temporis modei'ata deterse- 
rit, statim prodeundi laborem cura succedit. 
[12. A flower garden in which bees are flying and gathering honey. 
On the left are the hives, oblong boxes i-aised on a framework, from 
one of whicli the bee-master, having removed the side, is cutting honey 
with his knife and receiving it into a bowl.] 

" Di.spersoque per agros libratis paulnlum pennis, cruribus suspcHsis 

insidunt. 
" Partim ore legentes flosculos, oneratc uictualibu.s suis ad castra 

remcant. 
" Ibiqne alie inestimabili arte cellulas tenaci glutino instruunt, ah'e 
liquancia mclla stipant, alio uortunt florcs in coram, alio ore 
fingunt, alio collectam e foliis nectar includunt. 
" O uere mirabilis apis cuius nee sexum masculi niolant, fetus non 

quassat, nee filii destrnunt castitatem. 
[13. The Virgin and Child. The figure of the Child is out of all 



326 ON AN "EXULTET , ETC. 

propoi'tlon small. An angel originally stood on eitlier side ; but both 
have been cut out.] 

" Sicut sancta concepit uirgo, uirgo peperit, et uirgo permansit. 

" uere beata nox que expoliauit egypcios, ditauit hebreos, nox in 

qua terrenis celestia iunguntur. 
[14. The interior of the basilica, an arrangement similar to No. 3. 
The deacon in the ambo is blessing the taper which an acolyte is cens- 
ing ; a priest holding a large book stands on the right, near the steps 
of the ambo, with the congregation behind him ; on the other side is a 
mixed group of clergy and laymen. In this miniature is also seen the 
roll hanging from the ambo, and the group of small figures examining 
it from below.] 

" Oramus te, domine, ut cereus iste, in honorem nominis tui conse- 
cratus, ad noctis huius caliginem destruendam indeficiens per- 
seueret, et in odorem suauitatis acceptus supernis luminaribus 
misceatur. 
" Flammas eius lucifer matutinus inueniat, ille, inquam, lucifer qui 
nescit occasum, ille qui regressus ab inferis humano generi sere- 
nus illuxit. 
" Precamur ergo te, domine, ut nos famulos tuos, omnem clerum et 
deuotissimum populum, una cum beatissimo papa nostro, et 
antistite nostro, presentis uite quiete concessa, gaudiis facias 
perfrui sempiternis. 
" Memento eciam, domine, famuli tui, imperatoris nostri, necnon [et 
filiorum eius]\ et famuli tui comitis nostri,^ cum omni exercitu 
eorum,^ et celestem eis concede uictoriam, et his qui tibi offe- 
runt hoc sacrificium laudis premia cterna largiaris." 

' Added in the margin. 

* All attempt has been made to erase the words "comitis nostri". 

' " Cetu eorum" is Avritten in the marorin. 



327 



FOLK-MEDICINE. 

TtY WILLIAM GEOKOE BLACK, ESQ. 

Since Mr. W. J. Tlioms gave the word " folk-lore" to our 
language, the study of the homc-lcariiing of the people has 
grown with much rapidity, owing probably to the fact that 
it is found to afford the best insight obtainable into the 
character of a nation, without considerable knowledge of 
which the pages of history are difficult to read. As it is 
mentioned in the statement of the aims of this Association, 
that its objects are to investigate, preserve, and illustrate, 
not only those subjects which are supposed more especially 
to fall under the name " archaeological", but also the man- 
ners and customs of our forefathers, I am encouraged to 
bring before your notice a special branch of folk-lore which 
has, I think, hardly received the attention due to it. The 
term above, " folk-medicine", is one for which I confess my- 
self responsible, having first (so far as I am aware) used it 
while writing some articles in a provincial newspaper. It 
is meant to comprehend the subjects of charms, incantations, 
and those habits relating to the preservation of health, or 
the cure of disease, which were and are practised by the 
more superstitious and old-fashioned. 

Disease was early, it is probable, attributed to the malice 
of a spirit somehow offended. The Bornean Dyacks say to 
be smitten l)y a spirit is to be ill ; and in Sameo, when a 
man dies, they say a spirit has eaten him. ]\Ir. Tylor, in 
his Primitive Ctdture, mentions that in New Zealand each 
ailment is said to be caused by the spirit of an infant, or 
undeveloped human spirit entering the body of a man, and 
feeding inside. Other nations accuse the ghosts of the dead 
of being the plagues of the living, and are consequently 
anxious to be on good terms with the dying, and after death 
to do the spirits all proper worship. When a spirit was 
believed to have taken possession of a man, it was sought 
to be driven forth by prayers and promises and threats ; 
but with the progress of culture this idea became incredible 
to long-headed inquirers. Could not disease, it was asked 
(we may suppose), be got rid of more thoroughly by trans- 
ference ? If a man ill of some contagious sickness could, 

1878 42 



328 FOLK-MEDICINE. 

without conscious act on his part, infect his neighbours, why 
might he not also of puiyose transfer his complaint to some- 
thing of a lower order, which should suffer the disease in 
his place "? — not necessarily fatal to it, although likely to 
have proved so to him who rid himself of it. Belief in 
transference lingers down to the present day. Tn Cheshire 
it is still by no means uncommon for a young frog to be 
held for a few moments with its head inside the mouth of 
a sufferer from aptha or thrush. The frog is supposed to 
become the recipient of the ailment, which has, indeed, in 
some districts received the folk-name of " the froo;" from the 
association. Toads were at one time (and, indeed, may yet 
be) used in a similar manner in cases of hooping-cough ; 
while in America Indians hold the head of a living fish for 
a moment or two in the mouth of the afflicted person. The 
Irish are said, in cases of fever, to be known to cut off some 
of the hair of the patient, and pass it down the throat of an 
ass, believing that thus the disease is transferred to the 
animal. Elias Ashmole set his confidence in transference, 
for under date 11 May 1613, he writes, — "I took, early in 
the morning, a good close of elixir, and hung three spiders 
about my neck, and they drove my ague away. Deo gra- 
tias." Burton (Anatomy of Melancliohj) says he first saw 
the spider-cure practised by his mother. Then he derided 
the notion of any good being done by it ; but " at length, 
rambling among authors, as often I do, I found this very 
medicine in Dioscorides, approved by Matthiolus, repeated 
by Alderovandus, I began to have a better opinion of it, 
and to give more credit to amulets, "when I saw it in some 
parties answer to experience." Longfellow mentions the 
spider as a cure for fever in Evangeline, — 

" Only beware of the fever, my friends ! Beware of the fever ! 
For it is not, like that of our cold Acadian climate, 
Cured by wearing a spider hung round one's neck in a nutshell." 

Perhaps one of the simplest methods of transferring disease 
is that mentioned by Dalyell,^ that laving a handful of water 
over each shoulder was formerly reputed to transfer disease 
to the person first seen ; with which may be compared 
Burder's statement, that the Jews of Germany shake their 
clothes over a pond, after a meal, that their iniquity may 
be cast on the fishes. 

' Duller Svperstitions of Scotland, p. 127. 



FOLK-MEDICINE. 329 

Often disease was supposed to be coramuiiicaljle to a 
tree, and certain oak trees near Berkham[)stead, in Hert- 
fordshire, were long resorted to by aguish patients. A lock 
of hair was pegged into an oak, and then l)y a sudden 
wrench transferred from the sufferer's head to the tree. 
Sometimes it was said the infected creature or thing trans- 
ferred the disease to the next person touching it, thereby 
disinfectiuo; itself. Thus in Thuriuma it is said that a strinof 
of rowan-berries, for example, which has touched a sick 
man will impart the malady to the first person who touches 
it, the original patient being immediately cured. In this 
country, to touch each wart with a pebble, place the pebbles 
in a bag, and contrive to lose it on the way to church, was 
a plan well spoken of for the cure of warts, the unlucky 
person who found the bag receiving the warts. Hunt says 
a Cornish lady told him that when a child, out of curiosity, 
and in ignorance, she once took up such a bag and examined 
its contents, the lamentable consequence being that in a short 
time she had as many w^arts as there were stones in the 
bag. 

Of remedies for diseases there are two great classes ; the 
first comprising those the virtues of which are supposed to 
lie in the supernatural power of certain forms of words ; 
and the second, those whose efficacy is looked upon as due 
to certain fortunate or lucky or proper actions (which we 
now specially term " superstitious"), the intelligent origin of 
which we have probably lost. 

All charms relied on through some assumed connection 
Avith our Lord, the Virgin, the saints, or the evil powers, 
we may regard as belonging to the first class, — a very large 
one. The following, common in Lancashire, is worn inside 
the waistcoat or stays, and over the left breast, for the cure 
of toothache: "Ass Sant Peter sat at the geats of Jerusalem 
our Blessed Lord and Sevour Jesus Christ Pased by and 
Scad, What Eleth thee 1 hee sead, Jjord, my teeth ecketh. 
Hee sead, arise and follow race, and thy teeth shall never 
Eake Eney mour. Fiat-|-Fiat-f-Fiat." h\ Berkshire, \\here 
a similar charm is known, Bortron is substituted for Peter. 
The general belief of all country folks is that the above is 
in the Bible. Once, it is recorded in Xotcs and Queries, a 
clergyman said, "Well but, dame, I think I know my Bible, 
and I don't find any such verse in it." To which the good 



330 FOLK-MEDICINE. 

woman made answer, "Yes, your Eeverence, that is just the 
charm. It's in the Bible, hut you caiitjiiid it." An interest- 
ing Cornish version is preserved by Hunt. For ague, Bla- 
grove, in his Astrological Practice of Physick, prescribes 
the following to be worn by the patient : " When Jesus 
went up to the cross to be crucified, the Jews asked him, 
saying, 'Art thou afraid, or hast thou the ague V Jesus 
auswered and said, 'I am not afraid, neither have I the 
ague. All those who bear the name of Jesus about them 
shall not be afraid, nor yet have the ague.' " Many were 
said to have been cured by this writing. Blagrove himself 
received the " receipt from one whose daughter was cured 
thereby, who had the ague upon her tw^o years." 

An anonymous correspondent sent me, some time back, 
a curious charm which (so he wrote) is sold in great num- 
bers, at Queenstown, to Irish emigrants. It contains a 
prayer which is said to have been " found in the tomb of 
our Lord Jesus Christ in the year 803, and sent from the 
Pope to the Emperor Charles, as he was going to battle, for 
safety. They who shall repeat it every day, or hear it re- 
peated, or keep it about them, shall never die a sudden 
death, nor be drowned in water, nor shall poison have any 
effect upon them", etc. Those who laugh at it will suffer, 
they are warned. " Believe this for certain. It is as true 
as if the holy Evangelists had written it." The prayer itself, 
which is addressed to the " holy cross of Christ", specially 
prays, "ward off from me all dangerous deaths'. In the 
Black Country a child suffering from hooping-cough is sent 
to any couple bearing the happy names of Mary and Joseph. 
Bread which Joseph must cut, and butter which Mary must 
spread, are to be demanded ; it being essential to the cure 
that there is no courtesy prefix of "please". In Wicklow, 
I am informed, it is often said that if the points of three 
smoothing-irons are pointed at a paining tooth three times, 
in the name of the Trinity, the toothache will cease. For 
blood-staunching we have, among others, the following : 

" Clu'ist was born in Betlilehem, 
Baptised in the river Jordan. 
There he digg'd a well, 
And turned the water against the hill : 
So shall thy blood stand still. 

In the name," etc. 

Another version is, " Our Blessed Saviour was born in Beth- 
lehem, and baptised in the river Jordan,— 



FOLK-MEDICINE. 331 

" ' The waters were wild and rude, 
The child Jesus was mild and good.' 

He put his feet into the waters, and the waters stopped, and 
so shall thy blood, in the name", etc. 

Lancashire provides two monkish charms. One runs thus : 
"A soldier of old thrust a lance into the side of the Saviour ; 
immediately there flowed thence hlood and water, — the 
blood of redemption and the water of baptism. In the name 
of the Father + may the blood cease. In the name of the 
Son + may the blood remain. In the name of the Holy 
Ghost -I- may no more blood flow from the mouth, the vein, 
or the nose." Orkney provides the following, to be repeated 
once, twice, or oftener, according to the case ; not aloud, 
nor in presence of any save charmer and patient : 

"Three virgins came over Jordan's land, 
Each with a bloody knife in her hand. 
Stem, blood, stem ! Letherly stand ! 
Bloody nose [or mouth] in God's name mend." 

Prints of the apocryphal correspondence between Our 
Lord and Abgar, King of Edessa, are looked upon as pre- 
servative against fever in parts of Devonshire and Shropshire. 

When the evil powers are invoked, the charm is generally 
sealed up, and the wearer warned that should the packet 
be opened, the efficacy will be gone. Thus Cotta, in his 
Short Discoverie, etc. (p. 49), inserts "a nierrie historic of 
an approved famous spell for sore eyes. By many honest 
testimonies it was a long time worn as a Jewell about many 
necks, written in paper, and enclosed in silke ; never fail- 
ing to do soveraigne good when all other helps were help- 
lesse. No sight might dare to read or open. At length a 
curious mind, while tlie patient slept, by stealth ripped open 
the mystical cover, and found the powerful Latin characters, 
'Dkiholus effodiat tlhi ociilos, implcat foramina stercori- 
hus.'" But instances are common of the invocation being 
written, not in the language of the learned, but in somewhat 
rough Saxon. 

Leaving this only touched upon, it may be noted that 
even in the last century (and the custom may not yet be 
forgotten) it was still common to go through a ceremony 
which, there can be little doubt, symbolised new birth. 
Lalyell tells how children under hectic fever, or consumptive 
patients, were often transmitted through a circular wreath 
of woodbine cut durinoj the increase of the March moon. 



332 FOLK-MEDICINE. 

The wreath was let down over the body, from tlie head to 
the feet. Twenty hours intervened between each transmis- 
sion. Many other instances of the custom might be easily 
adduced. In Cornwall sick children were frequently drawn 
through perforated rocks ; and in most parts of England it 
was not unusual to pass a child suffering from her7iia through 
a cleft ash-tree. The holy places of the east, the narrow 
openings for the pious to squeeze through, will be recollected 
in this connexion. 

Of the class of simple remedies to which it is at present 
somewhat difficult to assign a meaning, I shall, for obvious 
reasons, only give a few illustrations. 

Hooping-cough will never be taken by any child that has 
ridden upon a bear (very common). Cramp is effectually 
prevented by placing the shoes under the bed, with the toes 
just peeping from beneath the coverlet (Lancashire). In 
some parts of Cornwall you are told to put the shoes at the 
foot of the bed, with the toes turned upward ; in other 
parts, simply to put your slippers under the bed, with the 
soles upturned. An Irish belief is that the blood of any 
man named Keogh, put into a decayed tooth, will prevent 
toothache ; and I lately heard, on very good authority, of a 
Keogh whose flesh had actually been punctured scores of 
times to obtain his blood. 

Among other works to which all concerned in the investi- 
gation of folk-medicine must needs refer, are Brand's Popu- 
lar Antiquities, Tylor's Primitive Culture, Daly ell's Darker 
Superstitions of Scotland, Hunt's Romances and Drolls of 
the West of England, Harland and Wilkinson's Lancashire 
Folklore, Choice Notes {Folklore), and the valuable volumes 
of Notes and Queries. I have to thank James Earl More- 
ton, Esq., F.R.C.S., of Tarvin, and sundry other correspond- 
ents, for the valuable information they have courteously 
forwarded. 

The above notes may serve to show somewhat of the 
scope of folk-medicine. Many points have been barely men- 
tioned, and many, such as substitution, the efficacy of colours, 
the connexion of our charms with those of other people, left 
unnoticed ; but it is my hope that even the slight illustra- 
tions of a few special parts of the subject may not be vni- 
interesting, and that some attention may be directed to 
the important study which I have ventured to call Folk- 
Medicine. 



333 



THE 

ABBEYS OF WINCHCOMBE, IIAYLES, CIBEN- 
CESTER, AND HALES OWEN. 

BY MACKENZIE E. C. -WALCOTT, B.D., F.S.A., PRECENTOR ANU 
PREBENDARY OF CHICHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

The Abbey of Winclicombe, founded in 798 by Kcnulf, 
King of the Mercians, was dedicated by Archbishop Wilfrid 
and thirteen bishops ; and in the midst of the solemn rite, 
surrounded by ten of his chief officers, the King set free his 
captive Eadbert, King of Kent, before the altar. Koyal pre- 
sents of great price, and largess to every class, followed the 
ceremony. The site at first is said to have been occupied 
by the Nunnery founded here by King Offix in 787. 

In the time of King Edgar the Monastery was known by 
little more than its name, when St. Oswald the Archbishop 
restored it in 985. A few scattered notices are all that can 
be recovered now with regard to its history ; but imperfect 
and scanty as they are, they are worthy of record in the 
pages of the Journal of the Association. It was mitred. 

Kenulph, the founder, was buried in the eastern arm of 
the church ; and near him, in St. Nicholas Chapel, Henry 
Boteler, who leaded the nave, was interred. The old parish 
church of St. Nicholas becoming decayed, the parishioners 
used the nave of the Abbey Church until Abbot Winch- 
combe built a parish church at the west end of the Abbey, 
on the site of St. Pancras Chapel. The parish contributed 
£200 for the chancel ; and the Abbot completed the nave 
with the assistance of Lord Sudley, after which it was dedi- 
cated to St. Petcr,^ It thus resembled Sherborne. On the 
ides of October 1091, the great tower, as was the fate with 
so many Norman structures, fell down, and threw down the 
crucifix and the image of St. Llary on the rood-screen.^ 
5 Richard I, Abbot Robert restored the church and claustral 
buildings, " ad navem ecclesise nostra?, domorumquc claus- 
tralium exstructionem sollicitudine usus est."^ There had been 
a disastrous fire in the church on Sept. 26, 1151. In 1374 

' Leland, Itln.^ iv, p. 505. -Simeon of Durham ap. X Sa-ipt., 210. 

' J/o?^.. ii, 312. 



334 ABBEYS OF WINCHCOMBE, 

the Abbot and Convent were licensed to fortify their Abbey 
and houses at the request of Master John of Branktre, 
chaplain to the King, and there are some slight remains of 
the buildings in a meadow near the church. In 1398 the 
minster was dedicated/ The eastern arm of the minster was 
rebuilt in 1454-74, but not a fragment of it now exists. 

The pensions are taken from another MS., Dec. 23 
31 Henry VIII :— Richard Munslaw, Abbas, £140 ; Joh 
Augustine, Prior, £8 ; Will. Ombersley, £6:13:4; Will 
Jerome, £6:13:4; Robert Enbuerth ; Jo. Gregory ; Will 
Kenelm, £6:13:4; Jo. Placid ; Wm. Maur^ £6 ; Rich 
Ambrose ; Rich. Martin, £6 ; Rich. Angel, £6 ; Rich. Ber- 
nerd,£6 ; Walter Aldelm, £6:13:4; Jo. Gabriell,£6 : 13': 4 
Hugh Egwyng, £6:13:4; Peter Raphael ; Jo. Cuthbert ; 
Jo. Anthony ; Geo. Leonard, £6:13:4; Christopher Bene- 
dict, £6 ; Rich. Michahel, £6 : 13 : 4 ; Wm. Overbery, £6; 
Rob. Oswold. 

" Payments to xvij late religious persons, £37 : 8 : 4 ; to iiij'"^x per- 
sons, late offj^cers and servauntes in household there, £51 : 13 : 4. 

" The late Abbot's lodging, leading from the north gate to the south 
gate of the ffraiter, with ketchyn, buttre, pantre, and lodgings within 
the same boundes. All the lodging on the west side of the courtc from 
the north gate to the south gate, bakyng and bruyng houses, the late 
Abbott's stable, barne, cowhous, and shepepens, committed to Sir John 
Brydges the King's fermor. The church with the iles, chapelles, 
steple, cloister, chapter house, dormytery, ffrayter, fFermery, library, 
with chapelles, and lodgings to them adjoining. Besides in the church, 
quere, iles, chapelles, steple, liberary, halle, cloister, and gallery." 

The following characteristic letter, signed "J. Chandos", 
Feb. 11, ... from Blunsdare, relates to the bells : 

" Perceivinge by your letters" [those of Sir Wm. Berners, Mr. Wys- 
man, and Mr. Myldmay], says this worthy lord, " that Edmond Bridges 
accordinge to my commandyment hath bin in hand with you for the 
bells of Winchcombe, and that you have appoynted me by y"" said let- 
ters to pay for them lx?i., which I sold for xU., and where also you 
have sent unto me the weyghte of the bells of Wynchcombe, which 
you Mr. Bernes dyd way at the tyme of your survaye, that is not 
unknown I thincke to you, & so not to dyvers others as I can well 
approve, that Sir Thomas Seymore, L'' Admyrall, and then ov/ner of 
the same, did exchaunge the same bells for other which were moche 
lessc, and one of them was a lyttle sanncs bells, so that the bells which 
I found theer were nothyng lyke in weyght to those which you wayde 
and lefte there, wherefore I dowte not that ...... you wyll not wille me 

to pay IxZi.'", etc.^ 

' Harl. MS. 107, fo. 261, to SS. Mary and Kenelm. 
^ Land Revenue Bundle, /b't. 



HAYLES, CIKENCESTER, AND HALES OWEN. 335 

The arms of the Abbey were — 1, arg., on a chevron gu. 
between three cross crosslets sa., three bezants ; 2, barry of 
six az. and arg., on a chief of the last, two pellets between 
two gyrons, dexter and sinister, of the first ; on an ines- 
cutcheon arg., a cross crosslet gu. 

The possessions of Winchcombe and Hayles are enume- 
rated in Misc. Books Q.R., 31 Henry VIII. Fuller esti- 
mates the income of Malmcsbury at £756 a year. Pershore 
Register is among Augm. Off. Books, 61. The seal of Winch- 
combe is in the Public Record Office, marked AS 4 : 120*. 

" The Benedictines of Winchcombe had a mansion in Ox- 
ford for their freshmen and novices, confirmed to them by 
Pope Alexander III, July 1176. Malmesbury established 
a hostel in 1259, and Bury St. Edmund's, 49 Edward HI. 

" Gloucester then built a hostel ; and at length the other 
Benedictine monasteries obtained an endowment of land 
from John Gifiard, lord of Brinfield, 19 Edward I. Upon 
which gift, celebrating a general chapter at Abingdon, they 
appointed awarders and overseers concerning the buildino-, 
and after an equal tax raised from them, built several lodg- 
ings. [Coeval with the Gloucester Hall (1283) was Durham 
College.] 

" The lodgings that are on the right hand as we come 
through the inner gate into the court or quadrangle of 
AVorcester College were for the monks of Abingdon, as 
appears by the arms. The next lodgings, that now belong 
to the Principal, were built for the mwiks of St. Peter's, 
Gloucester, as appears by the arms. The lodgings on the 
south side of the court being five in number, running toge- 
ther. The furthermost distant from the hall, hath this re- 
bus, a shield with a mitre over it, viz., a comb and a tun 
with the letter W. over it, for Winchcombe. Besides which 
are three cups on another shield (Argentine or Butler). 
[The former was allotted to Pershore, as the rebus is that of 
Abbot Compton (1504-27), with his mitre over it.^] 

"The next above these chambers, towards the hall, was 
allotted to Westminster Abbey. The middlemost were 
partly for Ramsey and Winchcombe Abbeys, built by John 
Galys and Richard Cheltenham. His name was once writ- 
ten on the window. The two next divisions have these 

' Ilearne, Lio. ^^ig.,\l, App. 584 ; B. Willis, i, 212. 
1878 ^^ li- '43 



336 ABBEYS OF WINCHCOMBE, 

several coats of arms over their doors : tlie first is a griffin 
segreant (Malmesbury), and the other a plain cross (Nor- 
wich). Besides these, both at the upper end of the hall, in 
form of a quadrangle, there are, over two of the doors, these 
coats, viz., a cross patonce with a rose in the first quarter ; 
and guttee, a cross humettee, trunked, with two waterpots 
in base ; as also others at the lower end, and east side 
thereof. 

" These abbeys sent their monks to be trained up here : — 
St. Peter's, Gloucester ; Glastonbury ; St. Alban's, whose 
arms are over the outward gate, on the gabled wall over 
the south postern arch ;^ Westminster, Eeading, Abingdon, 
Eochester, St. Austin's (Canterbury), Ramsey (whose arms 
are over the outer gate), Tavistock, Burton, Winchcombe, 
Chertsey, Coventry, Evesham, Einsham, St. Edmund's Bury, 
Abbotsbury, Mucheluey, Malmesbury, Norwich, and the 
Priories of Stoke and St. Neot's refused, claiming to be sub- 
ject to Bec."^ 

It will be remembered that out of the cathedral and 
monastic schools, the great centres of learning grew, and 
adopted their names of "acadeniia, generate studium, uni- 
versitas". 

Canterbury Hall has given name to a court at Christ- 
church. The Cistercians, through the bounty of Chichele, 
had St. Bernard's College, as the Austin Canons held St. 
Mary's. Three-fourths of the Benedictine students M^ent to 
Oxford, and the rest to Cambridge. The short-lived uni- 
versity of Stamford had also its Benedictine halls. When 
the first Benedictine took his degree of D.D., in 1298, he 
was attended by all the monks of Gloucester and the Abbots 
of Westminster, Evesham, Abingdon, Reading, and Malmes- 
bury. The Abbots were first summoned to Parliament, 
49 Henry IIP 

851. Living. 

985. German, Prior of Ramsey, resigned. 

1005. Godwin died in October 1054. 

1054. Godric, or Eadric, King's chaplain, sent prisoner 
to Gloucester Castle, 1066. 

1066. Galand. 

1077. Ralph I, died 1095. 

' See O'esia Abbat., iii, 496. 

" Wood, f. 29ff, 2G8, 2G5a ; Ashmolc MS. 8491, fo. 200 ; Dugdalc, Monast., 
ii, 854-G ; Stevens, Add., i, 338. ^ Stevens, Apji. ii, p. 15. 



]Ix\.YLES, CIRENCESTER, AND HALES OWEN. 337 

1097. Gcrinund, monk of Gloucester, died June 10, 1 137. 

1137. Godefrid, Prior, died March 7, 1138. 

1138. Robert I, monk of Clugni, died Jun. 20, 1151. 
1152, William, monk of Canterbury. 

1157. Gervase, died 1172. 

1173. Henry, Prior of Gloucester, died 1182. 

1182. Crispin, Prior, died 1182. 

1183. Ralph IT, died 11.94. 

1194. Robert II. On the morrow of All Souls' Day one 
hundred people were yearly regaled by his enactment. 
Died June 13, 1220. 

1222. Thomas, Prior, died Oct. 3, 1232. 

1232, Oct. 29. Henry de Thornton, or Tudcnten, sacrist, 
resigned in 1247. 

1248. John de Yau worth, or Yarmouth, Prior of the Bene- 
dictine Chapter at Oxford inl27l. Died 1284, resignedl282. 

1282, Oct. 27. Walter de Wickwane, cellarer, died 1314. 
The church of Eudstone was appropriated in 1308. See his 
benefactions in the Cottonian MS.Cleop.B.ii, and Lansd.227. 

1314, June 10. Thomas de Scirburn received benediction 
in St. Mary's-le-Strand. Died 1314. 

1315, June 14. Richard de Ydebreri, sacrist, resigned 
March 20, 1339. 

1340,Apr.28. William de Shirborn resigned Sept. 18,1352. 

1352, Sept. 24. Robert de Ippcwell resigned 13G0. 

13G0. Walter de Winfortune, cellarer of Worcester, died 
June 22, 1395. He built Eudstone Grange in 1362.^ 

1395, July 6. William Bradley, died Dec. 28, 1422. 

1422, March 8. John Cheshente, or Cheltenham, re- 
ceived benediction at Worcester. Died 1454. 

1454, Dec. 20. Will. Winchcombe received benediction 
at Alvenchurch. Died in the summer of 1474. 

]474, Aug. 22. John Twining, died in the Carmelite 
Friary, Oxford, 1488. 

1488, July 10. Richard Kedcrminster of Gloucester Hall, 
Oxford. He sat in Convocation, 1515. He built the pre- 
cinct wall, and "did the great work of the church". 

1531. Richard Anselni, or Maenslow, resigned 1539. 
Rector of Radwinter, rector of Notgrove, Prebendary of 
Gloucester. His pension of £1G0 was reduced to £120, but 
he held benefices to the value of £40. He died in 1558, 
and was buried in the Cathedral. 

' Ocnl. Matj. for 1^72, \,. 21-1. 



338 ABBEYS OF WINOHCOMBE, 



ST. mary's abbey, cirencestee, for black canons 

OF ST. AUGUSTINE. 

Without alluding to old legends of the African magician, 
who burned the old town by means of sparrows with wild- 
fire under their wings, or of King Arthur and other worthies, 
it is sufficient for our purpose to remark that the abbey of 
St. Mary's, which, by King Henry's conditions, was swept 
off the earth to its foundation stone, succeeded a college of 
secular canons, and was endowed by King Henry I, The 
charter is dated in 1103, the abbey church was commenced 
in 1117, and finished within fourteen years, being conse- 
crated on Sunday, October 17, by Bartholomew, Bishop of 
Exeter.^ Leland says the eastern part of the minster was 
a very old building, and the transept, the western arm, was 
of later date, but "new work."^ William of Wyrcestre 
gives the length of the church 140 of his steps (19^ ins.), 
the breadth with the aisles 41 steps, or 24 yards. There 
was a chapel at the east end. The Elder Lady chapel on 
the south side of the choir was 44 yards, and 22 yards 
broad, including the aisle attached to it. This arrangement 
must have resembled the plan at Oxford with two lateral 
cliaj^els, one being dedicated to St. Mary, on the east side 
of the north wing. The cloister was 52 steps on either side. 
The chapter house measured 14 by 10 yards, and had ten 
bays and six windows.^ Two bells were consecrated in 
1238, and there was a fine high tomb of St. Amand. 

The public Record Office contains a short survey of the 
site. 

" The Abbot's Lodging with the new Lodging and houses of oflBce 
annexed, set between the SiDital Gate Grange and the Squier's Lodg- 
ing, baking, bruyng, malting houses, the Abbott's stabull, harne in the 
Spittel Gate Grange with 2 entrees ; the Garner in the Base Courte, 
the gate that closeth the quadrante of the base courte, the Woolhouse 
with the stabull by the mill ; the Almery grange for husbandry. 

" The church with all the chapells ; the Cloister with the Chapter 
House, Dormitory, Frayter, Library', Hostrey ; the Fermeiy with all 
the lodgyngs adjoynyng, the cellarer's chamber, the squier's chamber, 
the sextry ; the Convent kitchyn with houses adjoynyng ; the store- 
house in the courte, the slate house, sty ward's chamber, guesten chani- 
bre, stabullcs and heyhouse. 

" viii belles in the steeple, poiz. xiiii"" weight. 

' llovedcn, 31C. ^ Itin., ii, 24. 3 j^j. Nasmitb, 278. 



HAYLES, CmENCESTEIl, AND HALES OWEN. 339 

" i cope cmbrodercd with the story of Jesse, with clothe of goldo 
npon crymsen velvi'tt. 

" 2 coopes of clothe of golde reysed. 

" 2 myters garnished with silver gilte, small pecrles, and counterfefct 
stones. 

"Plato silver gilte 121 oz , silver parcell gilte 459 oz., silver white 
217 oz. = l.xiiij."''xvii oz." 

The church has been swept away, and now of two, the Spital 
and Almery gates, one remains. These 1)roken fragments of 
information can readily be tesselated together if we bear in 
mind the following facts. The cloister garth was always 
arranged thus. The refectory or fratry fronted the church. 
The chapter house was on the east side, the dormitory 
usually extended over it, and also above the sacristy or 
vestry, and an intervening open passage, known as the 
slype. On the west side there was cellarage, and above it 
the dormitory, usually the hostry or guest house. Besides 
these buildings, there were others devoted to a special use, 
the library, the treasury, the parlour or speak-house, for 
conversation, when permitted, with guests or on home 
matters ; the hall or misericord— a chamber for meat 
dinners ; and the calefactory — a room with a fire, used for 
purposes of warmth in cold weather, drying boots and 
parchments, lighting censers, and the like. There was an 
ample provision of cellarage, divided by partitions into 
household storerooms of every description. Fanciful names 
of rooms have been of late years invented for these depart- 
ments, whereas the cloister was the ordinary living room of 
the inmates ; and, except a few serving brothers, easily 
lodged, the other converts or lay brothers being distributed 
over the o-ransfes or monastic farms. The base or outer 
court formed usually a square or quadrant, having an 
entrance gateway ; round it were the grange for husbandry, 
the kiln, the barn, the bakery, the brewer}^, the woolhouse, 
the stables, hay lofts, and the garner. Near the court gate 
was the almonry, often with its own spiteal gate. The infir- 
mary had generally its own outer cloister, a hall and gallery, 
and a chapel on the east side, with various lodgings in the 
vicinity, the vicegerent's, whatever his title might be, the 
cellarer's, the sacristan's in the sextry, the steward's, and 
lesser guest chamber. The butteries for the issue of wine 
and the kitchen adjoined the refectory. The superior's 



340 ABBEYS OF WINCHCOMBE, 

lodgings, witli the houses of office, were generally built 
somewhat apart from the rest of the conventual buildings/ 

Arms of the abbey, gii. on a chevron, arg. three rams' 
heads cabosed sa., attired or. The abbey held the churches 
of Shrivenham, Hatch eburne, Passeham, Rowel, Eristoke, 
Avebiry, Melborne, Walon, Pevesy, and Preston. Its 
revenues were valued at £1,051 : 7 : 1. 

Allots. — 1117. Serlo, Dean of Salosbury, died 1147.^ 

1147. Andrew, died 1176. 

1176. Adam, Prior of Bradenstoke, died 1183. 

1183. Robert. 

1183. Robert, died 1186. 

1187. Richard, Prior of St. Gregory's, Canterbury, died 
1213. 

1213. Alexander Necchan, buried at Worcester 1227.^ 

1227. Walter or Richard, died November 27, 1230. 

1230, Dec. 2.5. Hugh or Henry de Bampton or Bathon, 
received benediction at Worcester, died 1238. 

1238. Roger de Rodmarton, died 1266. 

1266. Henry de Munden. 

1281. Henry de Hamptonet. 

1307, Nov. 13. Adam Brokenbury, died 1319. 

1319. Robert de Charleton or Cheriton, brother of the 
abbot of Evesham, resigned 1334. 

1345. William Here ward, died April 25, 1352. 

1352, May 20. Ralph de Estcote, died in London 1357. 

1358. WilHam de Martley, had benediction at Hartle- 
bury at Epiphany, died 1361. 

1361. Wilham de Dinton, Lynton, or Lynham, had bene- 
diction November 3, died 1363. 

1363. Nicholas de Ameney had benediction July 30, 
died 1394. 

1394. John Leckhampton, summoned to convocation 1402 

1416. William Best procured the use of mitre and ponti- 
ficals, died February 6, 1429. 

1429. William Wotten had benediction March 5, died 
1440. 

1440. John Taunton had benediction at Hartlebury 
January 3, died 1445. 

' Various inventories ; Augm. Misc. Books, 404, 494. 

- Laiub. MS. 085, fo. 703 ; 589, fo. 201; llarl. MS. 7520, fo. 3-!). 

^ Tits, 298 ; Bale, 272. 



HAYLES, CIRENCESTEE, AND HALES OWEN, 341 

1455, April 10. William George received benediction at 
Persliore, died 1461. 

1461, October 13. John Solbiuy or Sobbiiry received 
benediction at Alven Church, died 1477. 

1477. Thos. Corapton, died October 1, 1481. 

1481, Oct. 25. Richard Clive. 

1488, Oct. 22. Thomas Aston, confirmed in Worcester 
Chapel, Strand, resigned 1504. 

1504, Dec. 7. John Hakeborne, D.D., Prior of St. Mary's, 
Oxford, died 1522. 

1523. John Blake sat in convocation ; he resigned, with 
sixteen canons, on December 29, 1534. 



THE CISTERCIAN ABBEY OF HAYLES. 

Owing to the similarity of name, the two Abbeys of 
Haylcs, co. Gloucester, of the Cistercian order, and of Hales 
Owen in Worcestershire, held by the Prasmonstratensian 
Canons Eegular, have been frequently confounded. I have, 
therefore, thought some new particulars with regard to 
these foundations would be acceptable to those members of 
the Association who visited Hayles and Winchcombe at the 
last Congress. 

It is a remarkable fact that a Cistercian Abbey like Hayles 
was built so near AVinchelcombe, a great Benedictine house, 
and it is a curious coincidence that there w^ere three bishops 
present both at the consecration of Wiuchelcombe and of 
Hayles. Hayles, like Netley and Newenham, were daughters 
of Beaulieu. It was founded in honour of St. Mary and 
All Saints, by Richard Earl of Cornwall and King of the 
Romans, who was buried within its walls in 1271.^ Matthew 
Paris relates that it was built as a thankofFerino- for the 
preservation of the royal founder on his return from Gas- 
cony, when in great peril at sea, so that he could hardly 
reach a Cornish port.^ It cost ten thousand marks,^ and 
was designed for twenty monks and thirty brothers or con- 
verts. The chronicler once asked the Earl touching the 
real amount of what he had spent, and he replied, "Ah, 
would that all the money I laid out on Wallingford Castle 
had been spent as wisely and as well !" 

1 Matt. Par., iii, 376. ^ Ibid., iii, G5. ^ Ibid., 311. 



342 ABBEYS OF WINCHCOMBE, 

The Waverley Annals assign the date 1245 for the entry 
of the Convent, on the anniversary of the dedication of 
Beaulieu, June 26, when twenty monks and ten converts 
took possession. " Sumpsit in domo Belli Loci Regis xx 
monachos et x conversos ad hoc opus sibi assignatos xv kal, 
JuHi."^ The Ypodigma Neustrie and the Chronicle of Eves- 
ham give 1246 as the year of foundation. 

The church was consecrated on Nov. 9, 1250, in the pre- 
sence of thirteen bishops, the principal being the dio- 
cesan, W. de Cantilupe. Each of them consecrated an altar, 
and the Bishop of Lincoln sang mass right solemnly at the 
higja altar. " Dedicata fuit non. Novembris ecclesia de 
Hayles prsesentibus xiii episcopis a quibus xiij altaria eo die 
in ipsa ecclesia dedicata fuerunt", in presence of the King, 
Queen Eleanor, many nobles, and three knights, who enjoyed 
a splendid banquet — a Sunday feast, whilst the religious 
fared apart on every variety of a fish dinner. Richard 
"ecclesiam illam cum toto cenobio propriis sumptibus con- 
struxit." He gave, for the purchase and building houses, 
one thousand marks after the consecration, and the King 
bestowed a charter for a rental of £20.^ 

The abbots were first summoned to Parliament 23 Ed- 
ward I.^ 

1298. John. 

1305. John de Gloucester. 

a 1332. John. 

C. 1380. Robert. 

C. 1402. John. He took part with the Earl of North- 
umberland and Sir Thos. Bardolph, and was taken prisoner 
by the Under Sheriff of York at Bramham Moor, near Tad- 
caster, having been deserted by the Scottish lords, who left 
them on the north side of the Tweed, and pointing south- 
ward, added, " Go onward now ; you have England with 
you." Walsingham^ says that he was hanged. The Eulo- 
gium^ asserts that the three were beheaded, and their heads 
set upon London Bridge as traitors, on Feb, 18, 1408. He 
was in arms ; but the Bishop of Bangor more warily rode 
" inermis", and had a reprieve. 

1420. William Henley. 

Landrake. 

' Ann. de Waverleia, 337. 

^ Leland's /<m., v, fo. v; Ann. de Waverleia, .343. 

^ Stevens, App. ii, p. 15. •• P. 279. '' iii, [>. 411. 



HAYLES, CIRENCESTER, AND HALES OWEN. 343 

1404. AVilliam Wliitcliurcli. He rebuilt Decrliurst in 1470. 

1479. Eichard Wotten. 

c. 1480. John Cunbcck. 

c. 1503. Thomas Stafford. 

15... Stephen Scgar. The Commissioners for the Disso- 
lution said that they " found the father and all hys brethren 
very honest and conformable persons".^ Segar retired, on a 
pension, to Coscombe mansion house at Gorton, and twenty- 
oue monks received annuities varying from £8 to 26*5. 8c^. 

This Abbey was made rich by the shrine with a "counter- 
feit relik" of the "blood of Hales", which -was given by 
Edmund Earl of Cornwall on Holy Cross Day, 1270, and 
shown as that which flowed from our Blessed Lord's side on 
Calvary.' 

A leaden impression of the conventual seal of Hayles is 
in the possession of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, 
which was found in a field at Acaster Malbis. It represents 
Richard, Earl of Cornwall, holdintr a globe with a cross, and 
a branched rod, with this legend, " Sigillura Fraternitatis 
]\Ionasterii B. M. de Hayles."^ Leland says the church 
dormitory, cloister, and refectory were completed in 1251, 
at a cost of 8,000 marks."* In 1271 the church and build- 
ings were burnt, which caused a loss valued at 8,000 marks. 
The novum opus, probably the east end, was consecrated on 
Christmas Day 1277 by the Bishop of Worcester. Licence 
to crenellate was given by Pat. Rot. 22 Edward I. The 
cloister was 192 ft, square, and portions of the entrance 
gate and abbot's lodge are still pointed out. Rudder says 
that the \vest alley of the cloister, with armorial shields 
upon the vault 45 ft. long, was standing, with portions of 
the other walls.^ Buck has also preserved a very interest- 
ing view of these remains. The church has wholly disap- 
peared. It passed into the hands of Sir Thomas Seymour 
in the first year of Edward IV, and three years later was 
granted to William, jMarquess of Northampton. The follow- 
ing record is therefore exceeding valuable, as it gives a 
survey of the site, which is of rare occurrence.^ 

> Sitppr. of Mo7i., 236. 

^ Lord Herbert, Hint, of flenri/ VIII, p. 431 ; Nichols' Pilgrimages, 86-90 ; 
MS. Cotton. Cleop. E. iv, p. 254b. 
' Sue also Monasticoii, v, 687, and Gm. .\cii, p. 545. 
* hill., B. V, fo. 5. * (ilouce.i(tr.^/uri\ 4S6, 487. 

« Dec. 24, 30 Henry VIII ; Aii^cra. Oft'. Books, 491, lo. 67. 
187S " 41 



344 ABBEYS OF WINCHCOMBE, 

" Houses and buyldyngs assigned to remayne undefaced. — The late 
abbotts lodging extending from the church to the frayter southward 
with payntre buttre kitchen larder sellers and the lodgings over the 
same. The bakynge bruynge houses and garner the gatehouse the 
great barne two stables the oxehouse and the shepehouse, committed 
to the custode of Robert Acton, Esq. 

"Deemed to be superfluous. The church with iles chapelles and 
steple the cloister chaptei'house dorm3'tory and frayter the infirmary 
with chapelles and lodgings to them adjoynyng the priories chambre 
and all oder chambre lately belongyng to the officers there. 

" The bells in the steple there 5 poiz. by estymacion vjccc™Veight. 

" Sume of all the ornaments sold by the seid Comissioners, ccccvli. 
viijs. iiijVZ. 

" Reserved to the use of the Kings Majestic goolde poiz. xxviij oz. 
silver gilte cviij oz. silver parcell gilte ciiij^^viij oz. silver white 
ciiij^'^^'viij oz.=:cccciij^^xiiij oz. 

" The leade cxix ioders. 

" The clere yerely value of the possessions cccxxxU. ijs. \jd. 

"Dettes none." 

The Monastic Treasures give, gold plate, DXix oz., and 
in parcell gilte and white, Dcxxv oz. (p. 10). 

Patronage of churches : vicarage of Didbroke, Glouc. ; 
Tuddington, Glouc. ; Langborowe, Glouc; Northlye, Oxon. ; 
Hawley, Suffolk ; Eodboro, Wilts, (given by Hugh le De- 
spenser) ; St. Brice, Coruub. ; St. Pallyn, Cornub.; parson- 
age of Pynuockes, Glouc. HemelheiTfpstead was granted 
by charter of Edward I, along with North Leigh ; the ad- 
vowson of the vicarage and hospital of Lechlade, by charter, 
6 Edward II, n. 22. 

'* Pencions assigned, Stephen Sager late abbott there by yere cZi." 
[he also had Croscombe Manor House] "Jo. Dawson, B.D., viij/i. ; 
Philip Erode, B.D., ynjli. ; Will. Cheo, senior, \jU. vjs. viijcZ. ; to Sil- 
vester Kitchyner, vj/v'. ; Thos. Farre, cellerer, vjli. vjs. v'njd. ; to Grif- 
fith, vj//', ; Richard Ewin, B.D., vij/i. ; Reynold Lane, cs.; Adam Tyler, 
cs. ; Will. Netherton, cs. ; Thos. Hopkins, cvjcZ. viijcZ. ; Rich. Dawnsor, 
cvjs. v'ujd. ; Richard Woodward, cs. ; Roger Rede, B.D., vij//.; William 
Ilolledaye, cs-. ; Thomas Rede, cs. ; Eliseus Dngdell, liijs. iiijj. ; John 
Halle, liijs. iiij<Z. ; Cristofer Hodgeson, liij.s. iiij'/. ; John Holme, vicar 
of Didborough, Richard Dene, vicar of Lougboro, liijs. iiijcZ. 

In all, ccvjl;'. xiijs. iiijt?." 

John Griffith, mentioned by Pits, was author of Cond- 
ones Ilyemales et Ai^stivales. It also notes these — 

" Payments to xxj late religious persons of the Kings Ma'ties record, 
xlviij//. xiij.v. WVyl. ; to Ixx persons lately beinge servauntes in house- 
hold, xxxvij7i. viijtZ. 

" iiii^'^^vZ/. xiiij,s\ 
"And so romayiioili clcre, cxxiijV/. viijs'. xt^." 



HAYLES, CIRENCESTEU, A.ND HALES OWEN. 345 



ST. MARY AND ST. JOHN EVANGELIST, HALES OWEN. 

Founded by Peter de Roche, Bishop of Winchester, in 
1215, for canons reguhir, Prsemonstratensian. The following 
notes of the abbey church occur in the Prattinton collec- 
tion : — "The quire in length, i.e., from the altar to the 
arch, 86 ft. ; from the quire or arch to the west end, about 
100 ft. ; breadth of the quire, taking in the south aisle, 
6G ft ; from the side to the pillar in the middle of the 
quire, 43 ft. ; from the pillar to the side of the north aisle, 
55 ft. ; breadth of the body of the church, 78 ft. ; from 
the middle of the pillar to the south waJl near the altar, 
28 ft. ; the same to the north side." I had intended to 
have given a plan of the abbey if ]\Ir. P. J. Holiday had 
not informed me that he had one which he would imme- 
diately publish in connection with his paper in " The Trans- 
actions of tlie Birmingham and Midland Institute, 1871." 
I therefore limit myself to the following particulars. The 
minster and quadrangle, as usual with the Prsemonstraten- 
sians, were irregular. Of the church, little more than one 
bay of the presbytery, which had long lancets in the cleres- 
tory, the south and east walls of the transept, with coupled 
lancets in the upper storey, and a great part of the south 
wall of the nave, witli the eastern processional door, remain. 
The nave was 100 ft, long by 55 ft. It had a narrow 
south aisle and a large north aisle, with a total breadth of 
78 ft. The south wing of the transept, 23 ft. in its western 
wall and 30 ft. along the front, retains the ablution drain 
of its altar; it was 100 ft. long. The choir was under the 
crossing, and from the western arch to the extreme east 
end there was a length of 86 ft., with a width in the pres- 
bytery of 43 ft. A south aisle made the extreme breadth 
QiQ ft., thus in the case of the outer aisles of the nave and 
presbytery their width equalled that of the transept. On 
the south side of tiie quadrangle is the south wall of the 
refectory, 64 ft. long (it was 100 ft. by 32 ft.), showing 
the hall windows, with a double plane of tracery ; above 
remains of a vaulted cellerage ; westward of it are portions 
of a guest hall 40 ft. lono- and eastward removed to a 
distance of 160 ft., the infirmary, 61 ft. 6 in. by 18 ft. 6 in., 
with couplets of" trcfoiled windows and five doorways. 



346 ABBEYS OF WINCHCOMBE, 

There is a view of the refectory as then existing in the 
Monasiicon. Dr. Thomas informed Dr. Prattinton that 
" there was a tradition that King John ordered the Bishop 
of Winchester to found the abbey here in so retired a 
place that it might neither see nor be seen two miles any 
way from it ; and that the king, intending to visit it, spied 
it out from the top of Romesley Hill, near St. Kenelm's, 
near three miles distant from it, upon which he turned 
back, and so deprived the house of his company, and pro- 
bably of many priviledges." 

For the concluding history of Hales Owen we have only 
a short document, showing that Sir John Dudley in 30 
Henry VIII had the site at an annual rent to the Crown of 
i/*28 : 1 : 4. Alexander de Hales, the "irrefragable doctor", 
was probably educated in this monastery ; he was buried in 
the Cordeliers Church at Paris in 1245. 

King Henry III granted a weekly market on Wednes- 
days, and a fair on the vigil and feast of St. Denys (Henry 
III, m. 3.) 

Among the abbots, who were confirmed by the abbots of 
Welbeck, occur — 

1232. Eichard. 

After 1250. Henry Branwick, who came from Titchfield. 

Roger. 

Nicholas, died January 1298. 

John, received benediction February 1, 1298, at 

Bosbury, from the Bishop of Hereford. 

William. 

1306. Walter de Flarro-e. 

1314. Bartholomew. 

1322, January 17. Thomas de Leche. 

c. 1327. Adam de Burmingham. 

1366. William de Bromso;rove. 

1369. Eichard de Hampton. 

1391. John de Hampton. 

1395. John de Poole. 

1422, December. Henry de Kidderminster. 

1432. John Derby, LL.B. He occurs again c. 1446. 

1443. Wm. Hemele. 

1485, March 9. Thomas Brigge, Sub-Prior, died 1505. 

1505, July 4. Edmund Grayne, Prior of Horneby. 

1 539, June 9. Wm. Taylor, resigned on a pension of 
£^]i\ : 13:4. 



HAYLES, CIRENCESTER, AND HALES OWEN. 847 

At the Dissolution the following pensions were paid to — 
Nich. Greeves, clcricus, £10; Eob. Shyngfells, cler., £6; 
Tho. Kobinson, cler., £6 ; Will. Bolton, cler., £4 ; Alex. 
Whytehead, £5 ; Will. Boroden, 5 ; Jo. Rogers, £3:6:8; 
Will. Glasgar, £4 ; Rich. Gregory, £3:6:8; Tho. Blunt, 
£2:13:4; Hen. Cooke, £7:5:8; Hawkworth, £2 ; Al. 
Stacey, £2:13: 4; Tho. Singulton, £2:6: 8; Tho. Blount, 
£2:6: 8. 

The Abbey held the patronage of Hales, 1370. V. St. 
John B., with St. Kenelm's Chapel and SS. Nicholas, Old- 
worth, St. Michael, Brandstal or Brendhall ; Clent with 
Rowlege C, 1344; Frankley, St. Leonard ; Dodford; Wales- 
hale, given by Sir William Rufus, 121.5-24 ; Wednesbury, 
tern}). Edward I ; Brome, St. Peter. Dod worth Priory was 
appropriated by 4 Edward IV, P. 2, m. 16. 

The Monastery maintained a chantry in Lichfield Cathe- 
dral. The arms were, gu., between three fleurs-de-lys or, a 
chevron anj. 



348 



ANCIENT SCULPTURE DISCOVERED IN BREAD- 
SALL CHURCH, NEAR DERBY. 

BY ALFRED WALLIS, ESQ., OF DERBY. 

" An interesting and important antiquarian discovery has 
been made at Breadsall, near Derb3^ The parish church is 
now undergoing the process called "restoration", in the 
course of which several details of interest have been brought 
to light. Amongst them are a " squint" in the south-east 
angle of the north aisle, the stairs of the old rood loft, and 
two large slabs of alabaster, one of which has, doubtless, 
served as the upper stone of the high altar, and the other 
probably as a reredos. Many stones of Norman moulding, 
which once pertained to the north doorway, and to the old 
chancel, have also been brous^ht to lio;ht. But the most 
valuable of the discoveries has just been made under the 
west gallery. On removing the paving, the workmen came 
across a large stone, buried below the surface of the soil. 
On being taken up, a most delicate piece of sculpture was 
disclosed, the subject being the dead Christ upon the knees 
of the Virgin. Most of the details are finely finished, and 
as sharply chiselled as when first the image left the sculptor's 
hands ; but, unfortunately, owing to its position, the nature 
of the stone was not discovered until it had been turned 
over with a pick, by which means parts of the head-dress 
and hand of the virgin, and also a portion of the face of 
the Christ were damaged. Judging from the disposition 
of the drapery and other features, the workmanship may be 
attributed to the fifteenth century. " Our Lady of Pity" 
is most rarely found in English sculpture ; and the subject 
appears to have never reached that degree of popularity (if 
we may use such a term) to which it attained in Italy, 
France, and Spain, where a pieta may often now be seen 
over the altar of the virgin. It is not improbable that the 
Breadsall 2^^Gta is a specimen of Continental art imported 
into this country. This figure must have been placed in 
the position from which it has just been rescued with care 
and deliberation, or it would otherwise have been much 
mutilated." 



A^X•IENT SCULPTURE. 34.0 

Tliis extract, which forms the substance of a com- 
munication made to me by a vahied correspondent, was 
printed in the DcrJ>y Mercury. It naturally stimulated 
curiosity, and I gladly accepted the courteous invitation of 
the rector of Breadsall to devote a summer afternoon to the 
" find", and to the examination of some of the treasures of 
his library — an irresistible inducement. The sculpture, wdien 
I saw it, had been placed against a column and carefully 
arranged for the photographer. I was at once charmed by 
the expression, the technical skill displayed in the workman- 
ship, and the delicacy of the details. 

The material of the group is alabaster or gypsum (evi- 
dently from the quarries of Chellaston, some nine miles 
distant), a large slab of which was disinterred at the 
same time, and which, from its thickness and superficial 
extent, seems to have been prepared for the use of the 
artist. The costume, according to Strutt, is that of the 
ninth or tenth century ; but I am told that Mr. Planche, 
whose authority is unquestionable, is disposed to assign it 
to the twelfth century. The head-dress is not a wimple, 
but a coiiv7'e-chef {the drawing is not quite accurate in this 
detail.-) The shoes, which peep beneath the folds of the 
robe, are long and pointed ; the dead Christ presents 
features which quite corroborate Mr. Planche's view, 
but tbe ICO rhnan ship appears to be of a much later 
period. J\Iy own impression is that the sculpture was 
wrought on the spot by some wandering artist, who, if a 
foreigner (which is most likely), would use the conventional 
model, with which he was familiar. Under any circum- 
stances, the material, I am quite sure, is local. The group 
was discovered ftice downwards, at a depth of about 18 ins., 
at the south-west corner of the church, not far from the 
font. The interior of the hanging sleeve shows indications 
of colour (vermilion) and gilding. The entire height is 2 ft. 
5 ins., and the entire breadth 1 ft. 5 ins. 

Breadsall Church is dedicated to All Saints, and was 
founded at the time of the Conquest,^ and the recent 
restorations have brought to light many stones of Norman 
moulding, most of which have probably formed part of the 
chancel arch. The chancel is Early English, and the nave 
has an aisle with one row of cylindrical columns ou the 

' DowesJo'i notes a churcli and a priest :it BniiJeshale. 



350 ANCIENT SCULPTURE 

north side. At the east end of this aisle I find traces of an 
altar, the steps to a rood gallery, long since removed, and 
a curious " squint", splayed on the chancel side. The exist- 
ence of these remains was unknown until the recent restora- 
tions were commenced. It is possible that here was a 
chapel dedicated to "Our Lady of Pity", and this conjec- 
ture is strengthened by the fact that such a chapel existed 
in Eepton Priory Church, not many miles distant, whilst at 
the collegiate church of All Saints, Derby, as stated in some 
highly interesting unpublished churchwardens' accounts {siih 
an. 1486), there were kept burning " v serges (tapers) before 
the Mary of pety". Hence we may be tolerably certain 
that the east end "of the aisle in Breadsall Church was the 
lady chapel, and that the group under notice was its dis- 
tinguishing feature. In 1572, a meadow {called St. Mary's 
meadow) and half an acre of arable land (called St. Nicholas' 
land), which had been granted to the priest in the church of 
Breadsall, " then serving by name of priest of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, and called ' our ladye priest' ", were granted 
by the Crown to John Meashe and Francis Grencham.^ 

John Dethick, the last lord of the manor of Breadsall of 
that name, and patron of the church, was on the Piecusant 
Eoll in the time of Elizabeth, and it may have been by his 
orders that this figure was thus concealed, to save it from 
the iconoclastic propensities of the Puritans. 

Breadsall Church is the last resting place of the famous 
physician and poet, Dr. Erasmus Darwin, who spent the 
last years of his life at the priory and died there. This was 
a priory of friars-hermits, founded Henry III, and after- 
wards converted into a priory of Austin monks. The site 
and lands were granted by Edward VI in 1552 to Henry, 
Duke of Suffolk, and came finally by purchase into the 
possession of the Darwins. The inscription on Dr. Darwin's 
monument runs thus: "Erasmus Darwin, M.B., E.P.S. 
Born at Elston, near Newark, 12th December, 1731. Died 
at the Priory, near Derby, 18th April, 1802. Of the rare 
union of talents which so eminently distinguished him as 
a physician, a poet, and a philosopher, his writings remain 
as a public and unfading testimony. His widow has erected 
this monument in memory of the zealous benevolence of 

' Patent Rolls, 14 Elizabeth, 4tli pt., No. 20. 




X w^sx. 



DISCOVERED IN BREAD5ALL CHURCH DURING THE 
- RESTORATIOM IN 1577. 



DISCOVERED IX BREADSALL CllUrvCn. 351 

his disposition, tlic active liumaDity of his conduct, and the 
many virtues which adorned his character." 

The rectory of Breadsall is in the patronage of Sir Jolui 
Harpur Crewe, Bart, of Calke Abbey, and is at present 
held by the Rev. Hugh A. Stowell — a clergyman of enlarged 
views, a zealous bibliomaniac (I may have a word or two 
to say some day about his early printed books), and an 
enthusiastic naturalist. He will take good care that this 
valuable monument of the piety of our ancestors is not re- 
moved from the church to which it unquestionably belongs, 
although I am sorry to say that he has " influential" parish- 
ioners who would gladly compass the work of destruction, 
in which the Roundheads were foiled by the care of the 
unknown person who reverently laid the " image" into the 
earth, committing it, as it were, to the care of the dead, in 
order to protect it from the fanaticism of the living. 



1878 



352 



NOTES ON INTEELACED CEOSSES. 

BY J. KOMILLY ALLEN, C E. 

The subject of interlaced crosses, which I have the honour 
of bringing before the meeting this evening, is one which 
has not as yet, I think, received from archteologists the full 
measure of attention it deserves. Few people indeed seem 
to realise that many hundred years before England pos- 
sessed a school of painting, there was no lack of real artists 
in this country ; men of whom we may well be proud, and 
of whose handiwork there are still fortunately numerous 
examples extant. At the period referred to, our ancestors 
were gradually emerging from the darkness of Paganism 
into the glorious light of Christianity. There was then no 
outlet, except an ecclesiastical one, for intellect of any 
kind, and the whole mental growth of the nation was tinged 
by an intensely theological bias. If a man was an orator, 
he devoted the wliole wealth of his eloquence to the service 
of the church ; if he was a logician, he plunged headlong 
into religious controversies ; if he was an artist, he spent 
the best years of his life in illuminating manuscripts of the 
Gospels, with unrivalled skill, or in carving those exquisite 
crosses which we propose now to describe. The character 
of the ornament in the illuminated manuscripts and on the 
sculptured stones is of so similar a nature that there can be 
but little doubt as to the common origin of both. The 
leading feature of this style of art, which gives it such an 
intense individuality, is the marvellously interlaced, knotted, 
and braided patterns of endless variety and unsurpassed 
beauty. And, again, combined with this are geometrical 
designs of great intricacy, and bearing some resemblance 
to the Greek fret and occasionally to Chinese ornamenta- 
tion. The most celebrated illuminated books of this type 
are the Book of Kells, the Lindisfarne Gospels, St. Chad's 
Gospels, and the Gospel of Mac Durnan. These manu- 
scripts are of inestimable value, and are consequently most 
jealously guarded from the public gaze ; but the interlaced 
crosses, which, except for the absence of colour, are quite as 
beautiful, may be freely inspected by anyone who will take 
the trouble to visit the churchyards where they are to be 



NOTES ON INTERLACED CROSSES. 353 

found. It is only lately that the great artistic and historic 
value of these monuments is beginning to be fully appre- 
ciated, and the tide of wholesale destruction, which has been 
going on for centuries, is now ceasing to a certain extent. 
A bill like Sir John Lubbock's, for the Protection of Ancient 
Monuments, may do a great deal of good in this direction, 
but much remains besides to be done by private enterprise, 
in describing, illustrating, and cataloguing the examples that 
yet are left. Dr. Stuart has bequeathed to us a work on 
The Sculptured Stones of Scotland, which leaves little to 
be desired in this direction. Mr. J. O'Neill's beautiful draw- 
ings of the Irish crosses and Miss Stokes' Christian Inscrip- 
tions are well known. The Rev. J, G. Gumming has done 
full justice to the stones of the Isle of Man. Professor 
West wood is now bringing out his Lapidarium WallicB. 
The interlaced crosses and fragments of England, however, 
still remain undescribed, and here is a work well worthy to 
be undertaken by the archaeologist anxious of distinction. 
The following are a few brief notes and suggestions, which 
it is hoped will be found useful by anyone who may be 
tempted to take up this most interesting branch of study. 

Origin of Interlaced Crosses. — The origin of these most 
exquisitely beautiful monuments of Ghristian art may fairly 
be traced back to the Maen Hir, or rude obelisk of the pre- 
historic period. The transition took place by stages, some- 
what after the followins: manner. Lonof before the dawn 
of history, we find gigantic monoliths erected to com- 
memorate the resting places of illustrious chieftains, pro- 
bably slain in battle ; and here the value of the tribute to 
the memory of the deceased lay in the great size and weight 
of the stone, and consequent labour involved in raising such 
a, huge mass. At a later period, when the art of writing 
became known, the rude nnhewn pillar was still adhered to, 
but now an inscription in mystic oghams or debased Latin 
characters is added. The stones chosen for this purpose 
were generally those which nature had formed with a smooth 
side or sharp angle, presenting a good surface for cutting 
the letters. After the introduction of Ghristianity, the 
symbol of the cross was universally adopted. Mr. Wake- 
man, in his Archteologia Iliberniea, ^. 88, says : "From 
the rude stone marked with the symbol of our faith, enclosed 
Avithina circle — the emblem of eternity — the finely propor- 



354 NOTES ON INTERLACED CROSSES. 

tioned and elaborately sculptured crosses of a later period 
are derived. In the latter, the circle, instead of being cut 
upon the face of the stone, is represented by a ring, binding, 
as it were, the shaft arms and upper portion of the cross 
together". The last step in the development was in fact 
to make the cross the principal feature in the design, lavish- 
ing on it all that wondrous skill which has made these 
monuments the admiration of so many successive genera- 
tions. 

Object of Erection. — In by far the largest number of 
instances these crosses were sepulchral, being erected to 
perpetuate the memory of some illustrious warrior or holy 
saint. This fact is borne out by the inscriptions, and by 
their being almost invariably found in connection with 
Christian places of worship. Crosses were, however, no 
doubt used for other purposes, either to commemorate some 
celebrated event, to mark boundaries, or to serve as way- 
side crosses. Some of these stones had the privilege of 
sanctuary ; for instance, Ripon Cathedral had the privi- 
lege of sanctuary, and eight crosses, called mile crosses, 
marked the boundary.^ At Hexham also there were four 
crosses set up at a certain distance from the church, in the 
four ways leading thereto, in order to indicate the limits of 
sanctuary. Penances were frequently finished at crosses, 
and perhaps the Maen a Chwynfan, or stone of lamentation, 
in Flintshire, may have received its name from this cause. 

Date of Erection. — The period during which monuments 
of this class were erected ranges over about four hundred 
years — from GOO a.d. to 1000 a.d. AVith regard to the 
exact dates of particular examples, there exists a wide 
divergence of opinion. The only way in which the question 
can be at all satisfactorily settled will be by a minute ex- 
amination of the ornament and lettering of the inscriptions 
(where such exist), and a subsequent comparison with the 
illuminated manuscripts of the same type. Philological 
evidence, such as that which Professor Ehys has collected, 
may also possibly throw considerable light on the subject. 

Bij ivhom Erected. — Crosses of the kind we are describ- 
ing, differing but little in their general characteristics, are 
found in every part of Great Britain ; and, since they were 
all erected between a.d. GOO and 1000, this form of monu- 

' See Walbran's Guide to Itipon^ p. 30. 




1.Z.3.4.yjxu)m^nt of Sh<U\ of C/-)'SM found in PeiutVy <li l\-inhrokeshire. 
5.6. Head/ of Cfoss froiii S' Davids (JatiLeditii . Pemhroksfiwc . 



NOTES ON INTERLACED CROSSES. 355 

ment would appear to have been adopted by most of the 
nations inhabiting these islands during the period specified. 
These nations were the Kelt, the Scandinavian, and the 
Saxon. 

Where Erected. — Interlaced crosses are generally found 
connected with sacred buildings, but are more especially to 
be met with at the centres of ecclesiastical learning and 
sanctity, as for instance at St. David's, Llantwit Major, etc. 
The builders of the Norman and subsequent periods did not 
hesitate to use up these most beautiful relics as material for 
their churches, fully justifying the thoroughly practical 
character that the true Englishman has always rejoiced in. 
The stones referred to being long and narrow, were gene- 
rally built into the foundations, or into the coigns of the 
towers, and again as jambs or lintels to the doors and 
windows. Architects restoring old churches, and archaeo- 
logists examining them, would do well to pay attention to 
this point, and may be thus rewarded by important disco- 
veries. Mr. Chanterell, who restored the parish church at 
Leeds, found a magnificent cross broken up and built into 
the old walls in this way. 

Material — The favourite material for sculptured crosses 
appears to have been a fine-grained white sandstone, some- 
what resembling that of which the Stonehenge monoliths 
are composed. In tlie Isle of Man clay slate is almost 
universally adopted. I cannot recall any instance of Bath 
or Portland stone being used for this purpose. The ques- 
tion of material is one which is, I think, deserving of more 
attention than it has yet received, though it is occasionally 
a matter of some difficulty to determine, owing to the 
prevalence of lichen and weather stains. 

General Form. — The gradual development of the highly 
ornamented cross from the rude stone pillar has been 
already explained. The general outline of the stone is 
more or less the result of this transition. The tall shaft is 
all that survives of the obelisk which preceded it, and, 
crowning this, is the symbol of Christianity itself, coupled 
with the circle emblematical of eternity. Some of the 
oldest of these monuments are still simply slightly conical 
pillars, covered with interlaced work, but witliout the cross. 
The most celebrated example of this class is at Lhmtwit 
]\Iajor, in Glamorganshire. In a few instances the shaft 



356 NOTES ON INTERLACED CROSSES. 

and cross are carved from one stone, but more frequently 
the head is cut from a separate block and morticed into 
the shaft. In many cases the head has got loose, fallen off, 
and either got broken or carried away. Where this has 
happened the mortice hole is left exposed, so that it gets 
filled with rain water, which freezes in the winter, and 
sometimes disintegrates the stone, by splitting, in conse- 
quence. In all such cases the hole should be filled in with 
cement. The dimensions of interlaced crosses vary con- 
siderably ; one of the tallest and most graceful is that at 
Gosforth, in Cumberland, which is 15 ft. high. The shafts 
of the crosses are generally rectangular in section, often 
with a cable moulding at the angles. Sometimes the lower 
portion is circular, dying off into the square towards the top. 
The Penrith crosses are a good instance of pillar stones, 
differing very little in outline from the Pagan monoliths. 

Origin of Ornament. — By far the finest illuminated 
manuscripts and crosses of this description are undoubtedly 
Keltic, the Irish having far excelled all the other inhabit- 
ants of Great Britain in the fertility of their designs and 
extraordinary skill displayed in their workmanship. It is 
therefore but fair to suppose that the Anglo-Saxons and 
Scandinavians simply adopted the style of ornament of the 
people they conquered. 

Chayxicter of the Sculpture. — The various forms sculp- 
tured on these stones may be divided into the following 
classes — viz., 1, symbolical devices; 2, interlaced patterns ; 
3, geometrical patterns of the Greek fret type ; 4, grotesque 
interlaced animals ; 5, conventional foliage ; 6, forms of 
men and animals ; 7, inscriptions. A leading peculiarity 
of the sculptured ornament is that it is almost always 
divided horizontally into panels. A marked exception to 
this rule must, however, be made in the case of the Isle of 
Man stones, which possess also other features not found 
elsewhere. 

Symbolical Devices. — The Scottish crosses are very rich 
in symbols of all kinds, the meaning of which is, however, 
still doubtful. They are known as the spectacle, the 
sceptre, etc. The symbol which occurs most frequently on 
all crosses of this date is the triquetra — a device formed by 
the intersection of three equal circular arcs. Whether 
I'agan or Christian it stands for Trinity in unity. There 



NOTES ON 1NTERLA.CED CROSSES. 357 

is also another symbol, consisting of two elliptical rings 
crossed, the meaning of which I am unacquainted with. 
The most common Christian symbols arc the cross and 
the emblems of the four evangelists and the Trinity. 
The five bosses which occur on many of the Cornish crosses 
are supposed to indicate the Saviour's five wounds. 

Interlacements. — The distinctive and beautiful feature 
which separates Keltic art from all other is the wonderful 
variety of interlaced patterns, known as knotwork or braid- 
work, and often wrongly called Kunic — a term which can 
only properly be applied to a particular form of Scandina- 
vian alphabet. Numerous ingenious suggestions have been 
made to explain the origin of interlaced work. Mr. French 
has written a paper in the Journal of this Society to show 
that it was copied from the wattlework of the aboriginal 
inhabitants. Against this theory, it may be urged that the 
lines of wattlework run horizontally and vertically, as in a 
common basket, wdiereas the lines of the interlacements 
run diagonally. Mr. Ecroyd Smith is of opinion that the 
Roman pavements may have been taken as models. The 
Rev. J. G. Gumming^ holds by far the most plausible theory, 
namely, that of gradual development from simple elements. 
He says, " I observe that a cord or rope suggests itself very 
readily as an ornament to any maritime people". The 
straight cable occurs continually on these monuments with- 
out any alteration. A waved line is the next development, 
then t\vo cords twisted, and a plait. ]\Iy own idea is 
that a few, perhaps not more than a dozen or so dificrcnt 
kinds of very simple knots, such as must inevitably 
occur to a desioner of this kind of work, were taken 
as elements. These elements are then repeated ni suc- 
cession, either by themselves alone or in combination 
with others recurring at intervals. In this way it will be 
found that the most elaborate patterns take their origin 
from a few very simple elements. It may, however, be 
thought strange how so many extraordinarily beautiful 
variations can be obtained from such a small number of 
primary elements ; but the mathematical theory of com- 
binations easily explains this. A large number of new 
designs may also be obtained by slightly altering the angles 

' See Arch. Camh. ISGO, pp- ISG-IGT. 



358 NOTES ON INTERLACED CROSSES. 

at wliicli tlie interlacements cross, by sharpening their 
curves or by doubling or trebling the cord. 

Geometrical Fret Patterns. — Patterns of the Greek fret 
type, or, as they are sometimes appropriately called, key 
patterns, are almost invariably found side by side with 
interlacements. The contrast thus obtained between the 
highly geometrical character of the key patterns and the 
almost naturalistic appearance presented by the knotwork 
is most effective and striking. Fret designs occur all over 
the world, in China, Peru, Greece, and Etruria, and may 
reasonably be supposed to have been originated afresh in 
each of these different countries. They are remarkably 
well adapted for being drawn with a pointed stick on 
pottery, or with a reed pen on parchment, and are conse- 
quently used to a very large extent as borders to illuminated 
manuscripts. The origin of the Greek honeysuckle was the 
ease with which the sweeps of the brush followed its curves; 
and these key patterns may very likely be traced back to 
the fact of the facility with which they may be drawn with 
a reed. 

7;^ terlaced Animals. — The extraordinary mythical animals, 
with tails and paws interlaced in every conceivable way, 
are probably nothing more than a further development of 
knotwork. Mr. Gumming thinks that in the Isle of Man 
the pelleted band suggested the scaled animal. In refer- 
ence to this, he says, in the paper before mentioned, " Start- 
ing from the form of a simple cord or riband, then of two 
or more different ribands intertwined, this form of decora- 
tion has passed (as I conceive) into lloriation, assuming the 
forms of interlacing boughs and foliage, and at all times has 
a tendency to zoomorphism, transforming itself into gro- 
tesque figures of intertwining monstrous animals, more 
especially of dogs, birds, fishes, and serpents." 

Conventional Foliage. — The foliage which occurs on these 
crosses is apparently like the animals, simply elaborated 
from knotwork. It is probably the last development, and 
when it takes the form of spiral scrolls it is exceedingly 
beautiful. It ma}^ here be observed that spiral lines are 
found much more frequently in the manuscripts and on 
metal work than on the sculj^tured stones, probably on 
account of the material not being so well adapted for this 
kind of ornament. 




.,«=s^i^^^^^^^^=^ M 



_..*^*Vvr.V -J** 




^ tM 



Crosses IN Penrith Ch.yd. Cumberland. 



NOTES OX INTERLACED CROSSES. 350 

Forms of Men and Animals. — We come at last to the 
highest development of the sculptor's art — that of repre- 
senting the human form, in which, however, the designers 
of this period seem to have been singularly unsuccessful. 
Although there is a marked difference between the various 
attempts that were made, I think that, on the whole, it 
must be admitted that they utterly failed in this branch of 
art. The scenes represented on these crosses show a curious 
mixture of Paoan and Christian leojend. Animals occur 
frequently, especially stags and horses. In the later 
examples, figures of the Saviour and of saints are common, 
generally with the nimbus. Before leaving this subject, 
there is one very curious peculiarity of some of the sculp- 
ture, and that is the representation of reversed figures. 
There are several examples of this at Gosforth, at Winwick, 
and Ayclifi'e. 

Inscriptions. — ^The languages in which the inscriptions 
are written is either debased Latin, Scandinavian, or Saxon. 
The character of the letters are Oghams, Runes, Latin 
caj^itals, and the Irish alphabet of the Booh of Kells. 



1S78 46 



]\IEDALS COMMEMORATIVE OF EVENTS IN 
BEITISH HISTORY. 

BV G. G. ADAMS, ESQ., F.S.A. 

The study of the vestiges of the civilised history of mankind, 
A\'hich I assume is the true vocation of the archaeologist, 
may often puzzle us to determine to which of the three 
classes of artists or art workmen we are most indebted — the 
workers in stone, clay, or metal. The first have left us the 
architectural remains of distant ages and lost nations. The 
fictile ware of the potter is, however, more enduring than 
the cloud-capped towers, gorgeous palaces, and temples of 
the architect. The workers in metal supply most of the 
implements of industry and war, coins which are the medium 
of commerce, and medals which have been struck to com- 
memorate some great event in the world's history. 

Medals ma}", for the sake of convenience, be divided into 
various classes, and we are rich in collections of almost 
every variety of them. First of all, there are coronation 
medals, which commemorate the accession of a sovereign 
to the throne ; next there is a vast series of medals, struck 
in honour of statesmen and others who have rendered great 
public services ; then the army and navy have their medals, 
some given exclusively to generals, field officers, and admi- 
rals, others like those seen on the breasts of so many of our 
brave soldiers and sailors. There are also satirical medals, 
some of them possessing great wit and humour ; and last, 
though by no means least, medals which were struck in 
memory of great events in our national history. The first 
of these now extant is the gold medal of Henry VIII (a 
Welshman), and the last is that executed and struck to 
commemorate the proclamation of our Queen Victoria as 
Empress of India. 

As the title of this paper indicates, my observations will 
be limited to a comparatively small number of medals. We 
exclude not only coins, but all medals used as coins, such 
as the celebrated gold one of David II, King of Scotland, 
and others, earlier, of the same character. There are also 



MEDALS COMMEMORATIVE, ETC. 3GI 

minor medals, some of tlicm clisplayin_£y much artistic skill, 
^vhich can hardly be considered of historic value, except to 
their possessors, for medals have been struck in honour of 
]>acchanalian clubs, teatotal festivals, and those of Odd- 
fellows, who seem to delight in wearing such decorations. 
There are also medals given in our schools, colleges, univer- 
sities, and learned societies. 

The series of royal coronation medals, from William the 
Conqueror to Queen Victoria, may be said to be complete ; 
unfortunately none of them are authentic prior to the year 
1545. We are indebted to Dassier, a Swiss artist, who 
came to Enoland in 1740, for most of the earlier designs. 
He was an artist of merit, and a man of great industry, 
who, by the study of coins, pictures, monuments, and books, 
arrived at a tolerably accurate conception of the physio- 
gnomy and features of our earlier kings. Indeed, where he 
fails, a ready and full excuse may be given him. The 
archaeologists of the early part of the last century had, com- 
paratively speaking, few of the advantages in the prosecu- 
tion of their labours which fall to the lot of the gentlemen 
who form this Association. For the sake of convenience, 
we may divide all these royal and imperial medals into two 
classes — the authentic, that is, those which were executed 
by artists who were contemporary with the events com- 
memorated, and in which the hkeness of the sovereign is 
taken from life ; and the artistic, or those which the artist, 
assisted by the archaeologist, produces as the only attain- 
able representation of what a contemporary artist should 
have done if the man had lived, and the opportunity been 
afforded him of executing his work. 

The latter kind of medal, then, which I call artistic, 
takes its place by the side of a historical picture, the artist 
not being present to witness that which he produces. In 
the same way Dassier and other men of genius have brooded 
over the relics of the hero of Agincourt, his predecessors 
and successors, until there had risen before them a grand 
procession of kings and queens ; and in that hour of their 
inspiration have touched the more than brutal metal, and 
made it expressive of royal passion, thought, and power, 
bravery and cowardice, beneficence and avarice, intellect 
and stupidity, all are there for sculptors and medallists, as 
Dryden says from Virgil — 



362 MEDALS COMMEMORATIVE OF 

" The bi^eathing bronze shall chase, 
And from the death-like marble upcall the living face." 

The authentic medal is, however, always more precious 
than the artistic, since, in addition to other things, it gives 
ns an idea of the state of the fine arts at the period when 
the piece was executed ; it also usually has a feeling in it, 
expressive of the emotions of the time, wdiich no resusci- 
tator of the past can possibly impart to his creations. This 
perhaps is seen as much in the caricature medals as in any 
others, or even more so. 

I was told the other day that, while Scotland was rich in 
medals, Wales had none. It might almost be said in reply, 
especially if there be not an error in saying it, that the 
English medals are Welsh, as they originated with the 
Tudors. I have therefore much pleasure in showing you 
an impression of the first royal medal that was ever executed 
in this country, that of Henry VIII, struck at the time of 
the Eeformation. Until the commencement of Henry's 
eventful reign, England had no medals ; and, when the 
Tudors took possession of the throne, they inaugurated a 
new age in the medallic history of England. 

The first medal, as before remarked, was struck in the 
year 1545 — a year of great trouble, every efiVn-t being made 
to crush the Reformation. Around the head of the king is 
an inscription in Latin : " Henry VIII, by the grace of God 
King of England, France, and Ireland, Defender of the 
Faith, and on earth of the Church of England and Ireland, 
under Christ, supreme Head" ; and this is repeated on the 
reverse by two inscriptions, one in Greek and the other in 
Hebrew. You will observe that the king appears in his 
usual bonnet, furred gown, and invaluable collar of rubies, 
which precious gems were afterwards disposed of in the time 
of Charles I, to procure bread for the royal family. 

The next of these royal (shall I call them Welsh Vj 
medals, dated tw^o years later, just before the king's death, 
is a work of much merit. On the obverse is a full- 
faced portrait of the king, and around it in Latin, " Henry 
VIII, by the grace of God King of England, France, and 
Iivland." On the reverse is a monument, with Hercules 
breaking the ensigns of Pa]jal power, and in the foreground 
an anofcl, holdino- a downward bnrnino- torch. The whole is 
executed with much spirit, skill, and ability. There are 



EVENTS IN BrJTTSTI HISTORY. 3G3 

several otlier medals of the time of TTenry VIII, which arc 
not without their beauty an<l interest. The first, however, 
which we have mentioned is the most important, not only 
in itself as the first medal struck in commemoration of a 
great historical event, but because it further served as an 
example for the first of our authentic coronation medals. 

We are indebted to the accession of Edward VI for the 
first coronation medal England can boast of, which was 
executed at the time the event recorded, or represented 
upon it, happened. On the obverse, the king appears half 
length, with a sword in one hand and an orb in tlie other. 
Around the effigy is a Latin inscription : " Edward VI, by 
the grace of God of England, France, and Ireland, King, 
Defender of the Faith, and on earth, of the English and 
Irish Church, supreme Head ; was crowned on the 20th 
of February, 1546, in the tenth year of his age." (We 
should read this date" 1547", since the year then began on 
the 25th of March.) The inscription is repeated on the 
reverse in Greek and Hebrew. 

The inscriptions or royal titles upon medals have varied 
considerably since the days of Henry VIII, but they still 
retain the title of " Defender of the Faith", which was con- 
ferred on that king by Pope Leo X, October 11, 1521, for 
his book against Luther. It was confirmed by Act of Par- 
liament, 35 Henry VIII, c. 3, 1543. The title had, how- 
ever, been used in England long before that time, notably 
by Richard II, in his proclamation against the opinions of 
AVyclifFe, July 3, 1382, and was also used by the Eoman 
Catholics, Mary, Philip, and James II ; also by Protestant 
sovereigns. There have, however, been some significant 
changes. Henry and his successors were kings of France 
and Ireland, with the union of Scotland under the English 
crown. The old British, that is the Welsh, title of " Great 
Britain", was employed as being the most ancient, national, 
and expressive. 

There are three royal medals which may be styled impe- 
rial, since they bear the word emperor or empress upon 
them. The first of these was issued by James I, soon after 
his accession to the throne. It has the head of James look- 
ing young and hopeful, and around it the motto : " James I, 
Caisar Auoustus of Britain, heir of Ca3sar." On the reverse 
there is a lion supporting a beacon, and the niscription : 



3G4 MEDALS COMMEMORATIVE OF 

" Behold the haven and safety of the people." It is difficult 
to see how his majesty could have explained his connection 
with the Koman emperors ; and this perhaps w\as felt at the 
time, for a few years later another, and what we may call 
an amended medal, was made and issued. In this the king 
has not only the laurels of victory around his head, but the 
face is more bold and determined. The artist seems to 
have flattered his majesty a little. The inscription is clear 
enough, "James I, Emperor of all the islands of Great 
Britain, and King of France and Ireland", with the motto, 
*' They flourish in perpetual concord." 

The last imperial medal is that of our Queen as Empress 
of India. It was thought sufficient (by the Indian Govern- 
ment) to record the fact in all simpHcity. When elames 
issued his medal with the word "emperor" upon it, he 
reigned over something less than seven millions of people. 
Queen Victoria reigns over fully one-fourth of the human 
race, and the ancient, civilised, and mighty country of 
which she became empress, contains a population of nearly 
two hundred millions of souls. No emblems that I know 
of can express that mighty change. It is a thing that the 
mind can realise, but which neither painter nor sculptor 
can embody, either on canvass, in marble, or in metal. 

The Empress of India medal, as will be seen by the im- 
pressions before you, bears a profile portrait of her Imperial 
JMajesty, the only words employed are, "Victoria, 1st Janu- 
ary 1877" (the day of the proclamation in India), and on 
the reverse, in English, " Empress of India", and in Persian 
and Hindi the same, or a similar title. 

These medals, as I have already shown, commemorated 
great historial events, and may be termed purely national 
medals, since they were struck in honour of something that 
had been done, in which the whole heart of the nation had 
been absorbed. 

The next in order are, I consider, the two celebrated 
medals which were executed in 1587, to commemorate the 
destruction of the Spanish Armada. They have been said 
to be of Dutch workmanship, and with great probability, 
as Holland was at this time almost as much interested in 
that celebrated event as the English themselves, and may 
therefore have paid it that honour. What may be called 
the first, represents on the obverse all the Catholic princes 



EVENTS IN BRITISH IIISTOUY. 365 

seated in a circle, with their eyes haiuhiged and their feet 
resting upon spikes ; over their heads is a Latin motto : 
"0 the blind minds of men"; and around an inscription, 
" It is hard to kick against the pricks." The reverse shows 
a powerful sketch of the Armada itself. The huge un- 
manageable ships are rolling in the trough of the sea or 
sinking down hopelessly in the watery abyss, reminding one 
forcibly of Byron's lines — 

" Then rose from sea to sky the wild f:ire\vell ; 
Then shrieked the timid and stood still the brave. 
Then some leaped overboard with fearful yell, 
As eager to anticipate the grave." 

Above is an appropriate motto, " Come, see, live, etc." The 
other medal is not equal in artistic finish, still it is not 
without its merits. The obverse represents the Queen as 
seated upon the throne, around are the shields of monarchs, 
held by boys, representing the ambassadors of Europe pay- 
ing homage to the fortunate sovereign ; encircling them is 
the inscription, " To the best and greatest God be praise 
and honour for ev^er." The subject of the reverse repre- 
sents the pope, cardinals, bishops, and monks as smitten 
with the wrath of heaven, who are falling crushed, and over 
this, in Hebrew, the word "Jehovah," The inscription 
proceeds, " Whom God shall destroy with the breath of His 
mouth." 

These medals may be considered as significant, since they 
are, so far as I am enabled to determine, the first that cele- 
brate the naval victories of Great Britain. All true Britons 
love the sea. In ancient times they met the foe at the 
ninth wave. They launched out into the deep to meet him 
there. The record of our naval triumphs, down through 
succeeding generations, has been preserved, however im- 
perfectly, on our medals. I have given you a sketch of the 
first, on which the valour of Hawkins, Drake, and other 
heroes, who broke the power of Spain, is displayed. I now 
submit an impression of the obverse of a medal (the Queen's 
profile portrait), which commemorates a deed of adventure 
equal in intensity and daring — it is the medal of the last 
Arctic Expedition (1875-1876.) The reverse represents a 
ship imbedded in ice. 

Before leaving this subject, however, let me call your 
attention to a curiosity, in the form of a coronation medal, 



366 MEDALS COMMEMOKATIVE OF 

which possesses for me at least no small interest. I by 
chance met with and purchased in London a pair of huge 
steel dies, the impressions from which will show the medal as 
unusually large. It is nearly 6 inches in diameter, and is 
a coronation medal of George I ; but all inquiries have 
failed in gaining any knowledge of it, and it is by no means 
clear that it was ever used for the purpose for which it was 
executed. Nothing is known of it at the British Museum, 
at the Eoyal Mint, or in other collections visited by me. 
All seem anxious to obtain impressions of it, but none 
have as yet been issued. The name of the artist is N. 
Seelsender, who flourished in 1711, and died in 1743. Now 
the Seel^ender family appear to have been celel^rated as 
medallists for more than two hundred years. Nicholas 
Seekiender published a small book on coins and medals, 
another artist of the same name published an elaborate 
work on the same subject no longer ago than 1853. Both 
these books were published in Hanover. 

Now what we may call the real dies, used for the corona- 
tion medal of George I (impressions of which are before you), 
were cut by E. Hannibal, and it is singular that we find no 
trace of him. He does not appear to have been uf sufficient 
mark to get his name into any biographical record. The 
medal has considerable merit, and you may contrast the 
manner in which two artists have displayed their genius in 
recordino; the same event. We have no authentic account 
of how it happened that two artists were employed upon 
dies to celebrate the same event, and bearing the same date. 
For argument's sake, suppose (as the prince was a German) 
there was a competition by two of his countrymen, then 
we might imagine why Seelaender's medal was not selected. 
Perhaps from its large size, and money not being so plenti- 
fid in those days. His medal would have taken at least 
£1 20 worth of gold to have made one for his majesty. See- 
kender's medal is not without its peculiarities, as well as its 
merits ; and it is the only attempt that I have seen where 
symbolical letters instead of plain ones have been used on 
a royal medal. Indeed, the medal and its associations will 
aii'ord matter enough for a paper by itself Both medals 
have the profile portrait of the king on the obverse. The 
reverse of IIanni1)ars is the more simple in design, and is 
the usual size of coronation medals. 



EVENTS IN BRITISH HISTORY. 3G7 

The first modern satirical medal which we possess was 
struck about the year 1501, and published by Frederick (the 
ex[)e]lcd King of Naples) against his adversary, Ferdinand, 
King of Spain. It bears on one side the head of Ferdinand, 
with the inscription in Latin : " Ferdinand, King of Arra- 
gon, the old inoJf of the worhV\ and on the other side a wolf 
carrying off a sheep, with the motto, " My yoke is sweet 
and my burden light." It is said that the enraged monarch, 
on seeino' it, declared that he would rather have lost a rooi- 
nient of soldiers than the medal should ever have been 
struck. About the time of the Reformation they became 
very plentiful, and the first of these were points of wit 
directed against the papacy. During the time of Charles I 
and the Commonwealth, many fine satirical medals were 
struck, notably one in wdiich is ridiculed the anxiety of 
France and Spain in seeking the Protector Crom wells 
favour. It was made in Holland by the partisans of 
Charles II. There is a famous medal ridiculing the Kve 
House plot ; and there are two more serious ones on San- 
croft and the seven bishops who were sent to the Tower. 
They were pungent weapons thrown at the heads of 
sovereigns and statesmen, and occasionally at the mob, which 
sometimes did good service, especially before we had a free 
press. Tiie last edition of Pinkerton's work on The Medal- 
lie ITif<toriJ of England was published seventy-two years 
ago, and that only brought the subject down to the reign of 
Anne. Other publications on medals are merely an epitome 
of that author's work. Time forbids my pursuing this subject 
further. 

The universal and systematic culture of the fine arts 
which adorn civilised life received a great impetus in 1851, 
through the patronage of the Prince Consort ; and although 
medals and coins have received less attention than the other 
branches of art, still, though slowly, we are, I trust, attain- 
ing to a better state of mind in relation to them. Never- 
tlieless, we cannot forget that at the present moment the 
art of medal die is in advance of us, by patronage, in Ger- 
many, France, Belgium, and other countries. For instance, 
it is a fact, that since Waterloo I know of no medal being- 
struck commemorative of our great battles gained. It is 
true also that nearly twenty-five years have passed since 
our Government (through the recommendation of nn otticer 

1S7S ■ 17 



368 MEDALS COMMEMORATIVE, ETC. 

of the Royal Engineers, Captain Harness, who was commis- 
sioned to report upon the establishment of the Royal Mint) 
agreed that the services of our artists stationed there should 
be dispensed with, so that the dies which were executed 
then and previously are multiplied, and still being used for 
the coins now issued. But hopes are, that the time is not 
far distant when due thouf^ht and encourao-ement will be 
again given to this art ; and that this country may have 
the fair opportunity of competing in it with other nations ; 
and that we may be enabled to sing with Pope, somewhat 
in this strain — 

" When shall Bi'itain, conscious of her claim, 
Stand emulous of Greek and Roman fame ; 
In living medals see her wars enrolled, 
And vanquished realms supply recording gold ?" 



:w.) 



ON SIEGBURG STONEWARE. 

BY H. SYER COMING, ESQ., F.S.A, SCOT., V.P. 

The Chinese annals record that pottery was invented by 
Houen in the reign of the Emperor Hoang-Ti, B.C. 2698, 
and although western barbarians are too prone to scoff and 
quibble about celestial chronology, we have good reason to 
believe that vessels and various objects of stoneware, coated 
■with stanniferous glaze, were employed in China at a very 
remote epoch, and of which specimens are still preserved in 
the cabinets of the virtuosi. A few pine-cone and lemon- 
shaped bottles of terra cotta have been met with in Theban 
tombs, of a deep reddish-brown hue, and so intensely hard 
and highly fired that they may fairly come under the de- 
signation of stoneivare, and prove beyond question that the 
art of manufacturing this peculiar and valuable species of 
pottery was well known to and practised by the ancient 
Egyptians. Examples of these fruit-shaped vessels exist in 
the British Museum and in my own collection, and one, in 
form of a pine-cone, is engraved in Denon's Travels (pi. 98, 

fig.siy 

Some of the larger Roman crucibles, cadi, amp]iorce,2iXidi 
mortaria, and the black ollw of the fourth century, bear a 
slight affinity to gres-cerarne, but it was not until late in 
the middle ages that veritable stoneware w^as produced in 
Europe, tradition attributing its invention to the year 1 425, 
and Teylingen, near Leyden, as its birthplace. But with- 
out halting to inquire into the truth of these assertions, we 
may accept as fact that Teylingen, Arnheim, Siegburg, 
Cologne, Aachen, and other localities in the neighbourhood 
of the Lower Rhine, carried on a vigorous manufacture of 
vessels of light-coloured stonew'are towards the close of the 
fifteenth and throughout the sixteenth century. One of 
the earliest examples of this kind of pottery, of which the 
date can be determined with precision, is a costrel or 
pilgrim's bottle, once in the possession of our former asso- 
ciate Mr. George Isaacs, and now in the British Museum. 

' A nearly similar bottle is reported to have been found in Berkshire. Sec 
Jonnial, xiv, p. 358. ^ 






370 ON SIEGBURG STONEWARE. 

It bears in low relief on one of its flat faces tlie busts of St. 
Clement and a bishop, and on the other the holy coat, with 
a cherub above, and beneath a shield charged with a double- 
headed eagle ; and from an inscription surrounding this 
group, we learn that the vessel was wrought at akon (Aix- 
la-Chapelle) about the year 1480. During the reign of our 
sovereign Elizabeth there dwelt in this same city of Akon 
one Garnet Tynes, who dealt in and exported " pottes made 
at Culloin, called drinking stone pottes", at least so we are 
told in a curious document printed in our Journal (v, 38). 
But it is time we hasten on to the productions of Siegburg, 
a few miles from Cologne, and for the identification of which 
reference must be made to an example of the sixteenth 
century in the British Museum. It is a beaker-shaped jug, 
about 5 ins. in height, the mouth funnel-formed, the body 
ovate, embossed with three medallions, each occupied by a 
group of Sampson and the Lion. At the back is an annular 
handle, and it has a spreading foot impressed round its edge 
with the thumb, in the manner observable in pottery of a 
much earlier age. This fine specimen was found in London, 
and purchased in 1855. There is also in the British Museum 
a bottle-shaped Siegburg vessel, the globose body of which 
is decorated with three medallions of Scriptural subjects, 
and which is of special value, from its bearing the date 
1559. This choice object formed Lot 3,040 at the sale of 
the Bernal collection in 1855. 

The stoneware of the Lower Ehiue is distinguished by its 
lightish hue, the extreme durity and density of its paste ; 
its intense firing rendering glaze needless, although there be 
nothing repugnant to its reception, as we shall presently 
see. There are two types of vessels characteristic of, if not 
absolutely peculiar to, the Siegburg pottery. The one, a 
somewhat skittle-shaped jug, with more or less cylindric 
neck, the other a beaker of the form given in our Journal 
(vol. V, p. 23, fig. 8), which was made both with and without 
a handle. And it is worthy of note that drinking vessels of 
the latter contour are found delineated in paintings of the 
eleventh and fourteenth centuries, copies of which may be 
seen in DAgincourt's History of Art by its Monuments, iii, 
83 and 75. 

At our meeting held on December G, 1876, our Vice- 
President, I\Ir. R. N. Philipps, exhibited to us a fine tall Sieg- 



ON SIEGBUKG STOJsKWAItM "371 

bur<^" iu2f of the sixteenth ccntiu'v, discovered with a similar 
example in Gueldeiland, Holland ; and this exhibition has 
prompted me to gather from the Baily and my own collec- 
tion a few stoneware vessels of Siegburg origin, and place 
them before you for inspection this evening. The skittle- 
shaped jug I produce was found in the Steelyard, Upper 
Thames Street, in ] 865. Its neck, to which the handle was 
attached, has suffered damage, but the body well displays the 
horizontal channels called by the French writers cercle, and 
the expanded foot the thumb ornamentation. My next 
specimen was also discovered in the Steelyard in 1863, and 
is, I believe, a variety of the beaker, but its neck is so much 
broken that its exact form is rather doubtful. The body is 
less ovate than is usually the case with the beaker ; it shows 
the cercle in the style of the foregoing jug, and the foot is 
thumbed round the edge. The date of this small and scarce 
type cannot be later than cio'ca 1500. 

I have now to call attention to two sixteenth century 
beakers of different capacity, but each measuring nearly 5 ins. 
in height. The largest one was exhumed in Cannon Street, 
February 1855, the smaller in Old Broad Street, July 1866. 
We have only to add annular handles to the ovate bodies 
of these vessels and we convert them into jugs, similar to 
the one in the British IMuseum, save that these are unde- 
corated, whilst that is adorned with medallions. 

We will pass now from the beaker jug in the British 
Museum to two highly interesting examples in the Baily 
collection, both of which were found in London. The first 
has on its ovate body three medallions, that in froot display- 
ing the demi-figure of a lady in the costume of the sixteenth 
century, with her hands pressed in prayer, behind whom is 
a band or ribbon, inscribed de boenvx. The two other 
medallions have half-length profile figures of a lady, bearing 
in her right hand a cross-staff, and in her left a cup. The 
legend on the ribbon reads der gelvf. Each of these figures 
is enclosed in a lozenge, the spaces between which and 
the wreath-margin of the medallion being occupied with 
cherubs' heads, with expanded wings. JMrs. Baily 's second 
specimen was exhumed from the Steelyard in 1864. On 
the front of its body is a large medallion nearly filled with 
a shield, charged with the imperial double-headed eagle, 
ensimied with a crown. But the most remarkable features 



372 ON STEGBURG STONEWARE. 

in this beaker jng are two large thistle-like leaves, one on 
either side, incised in the paste before firing, and which 
extend from just beneath the annular handle at back, to 
near the edge of the medallion. This species of embellish- 
ment is seldom met with on Siegburg stoneware, but I 
have the front portion of the body of a vessel produced in 
the same mould as the foregoing, which shows the tops of 
the incised leaves on either side of the medallion. It was 
found in Moorfields, November 1865. We should not fail 
to observe the glaze on the jug from the Steelyard, which, 
from its only partially covering the surface, looks more like 
the effect of accident than design, though it cannot be denied 
that the Siegburg pottery was at times coated with a glaze, 
as is evident by a large jug in the Baily collection, on the 
two opposite sides of which are great medallions, wdth the 
expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden by an angel. And, 
as a further example of the glazed ware of this manufacture, 
1 submit a sixteenth century jug, discovered in Lombard 
Street in 1866. It is 4 J ins. in height, the flat handle 
arching from the cylindric neck to the sw^elling body, the 
spreading foot being as usual thumbed round its edge. ^ 

I have endeavoured in this brief communication to indi- 
cate the origin, and point out the leading characteristics of 
a singular and highly interesting description of German 
stoneware, which from time to time is exhumed in England, 
but in far less abundance than the mottled-brown ware 
manufactured in the vicinage of the Middle and Upper 
Ehine, and of which the renowned BeUarmines or Long- 
Beards are old, familiar, and favourite examples. 



373 



ON 

THE "RESULTS OF THE RECENT EXPLORA- 
TION OF THE RO]\LVN STATION AT SOUTH 
SHIELDS." 

BY THE KEY. R. E. IIOOPPEI.L, M.A., LL D., F.R.A.8., MEMBER OF THE 

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF K EWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE, PRESIDENT 

OF THE TYNESIDE NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

The town of South Shields is situated in immediate proxi- 
mity to one of the most interesting and important of the 
Roman fortresses in the North of England, but, through 
circumstances which it is not necessary for me to enter into 
on the present occasion, its claims to regard, both on account 
of its interesting archaeological associations and its neigh- 
bourhood to charming natural beauties, have been, until 
very lately, almost entirely ignored. 

The Roman fortress was situated on a commanding 
eminence, known to subsequent ages as the " La we", jutting 
out like a promontory towards the north, on the southern 
bank of the Tyne, where that river falls into the sea, and 
isolated from the mainland in Roman times by a narrower 
branch of the same river, which ran past its southern face, 
and thus formed a second outlet for the stream. The posi- 
tion of the station was thus immensely strong, and it was, 
in addition, powerfully fortified by art. 

During the past few years, building operations have re- 
markably extended in South Shields, and it was the bring- 
ing of this lofty hill into the market, as an eligible site for 
new streets and edifices, that stirred up local antiquaries 
and their friends, to endeavour to disentomb the buried 
treasures of history and art, concealed beneath the surface 
that for generations past had been consecrated to the plough. 
In this attempt they have been entirely