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Preface ..... 

Prospectus .... 

Rules of the Association 

List of the Congresses 

Officers and Council for the Session 1881-82 

List of Associates 

Local Members of Council 

Honorary Correspondents and Foreign Members 

Societies exchanging Publications 







Inaugural Address. By the Very Rev. Lord Alwyne Compton, 

D.D., Dean of Worcester, the President . . .1 

The Architecture of Ledbury Church. By the Rev. John Jack- 
son, M.A., Rector of Ledbury .... 9 

Boorg ez Ziffir, Cairo. By Professor Hatter Lewis . .17 

The Anglo-Saxon Charters of Worcester Cathedral. By W. de 

Gray Birch, F.S.A., Bon. Secretary . . .24 

The Stained Glass Windows of Great Malvern Priory Church, 

By James Nott, Esq. . . . . ..55 

Mermaids. By H. Syer Cuming, Esq., V.P., F.S.A. Scot. . 60 

The Ecclesiastical State of the Diocese of Worcester during the 
Episcopate of John Carpenter, 1444-1476, illustrated by his 
Registers. By the Rev. Canon A. H. Winnington Ingram 65 

On a Metal Chalice found at Cheadle Hulme. By A.C. Fryer, Esq. 96 

" Soveraygne." By A. C. Fryer, Esq. .... 96 

Discoveries at Redenham, near Andover, Hants. By the Rev. 

C. Collier, F.S.A. . . . . . .97 



Description of an ancient British Barrow in the Isle of Wight. 

By Captain J. Thorp . • • • .109 

A Roman Villa at Methwold. By the Rev. C. Denny Gedge, 

M.A., Vicar . .... 110 

The Ruins of an early Church at North Gosforth, near Newcastle- 

on-Tyne. By the Rev. R. E. Hooppell, M.A.,LL.D.,F.R.A.S. 117 

Seals of the Knights Templars. By H. S. Cuming, Esq., 

F.S.A. Scot. . . . • • • .122 

Roman Remains in the Tower of London, with a Note on the 
Wall of London recently opened in Bevis Marks. By E. P. 
Loftus Brock, Esq., F.S.A., Hon. Secretary . . 127 

On the Roman Army in North Britain in the Second and Third 

Centuries. By T. Morgan, Esq., V.R, F.S.A., Hon. Treas. 136 

Duloe Stone Circle. By C. W. Dtmond, Esq., F.S.A. . . 149 

Notice of Sculptured Rocks near Hkley, with some Remarks on 

Rocking Stones. By J. Romilly Allen, Esq., F.S.A. Scot. 156 

On the Excavation of the Site of Carrow Abbey, Norwich, by 

J. J. Colman, Esq., M.P., in 1880-1. By E. P. L. Brock, Esq. 165 

Roman Villa in Spoonley Wood, near Sudeley Castle. By 

E. P. L. Brock, Esq., F.S.A., Hon. Sec. . . .215 

The Tapestry Scenes from the Passion of Christ in Knole Chapel. 

By the Rev. G. B. Lewis, M.A. . . . .216 

Acoustic Jars from the Churches of Ashburton and Luppitt, 

Devonshire. By G. M. Hills, Esq. . . .218 

Notes on the London Excursion and on the Session. By T. Mor- 
gan, Esq., V.P., F.S.A., Eon, Treasurer . . .223 

Ancient Ecclesiastical Stained Glass. By W. H. Cope, Esq. . 249 

St. Agnes. By H. Syer Cuming, Esq., V.P., F.S.A. Scot. . 268 

On a Bronze Sword and an Iron Spear-Head found at Henley- 
on-Thames. By Joseph Stevens, Esq., M.R.C.P. . . 275 

The Tonsure-Plate in Use in St. Paul's Cathedral during the 
Thirteenth Century. By the Rev. W. Sparrow Simpson, D.D., 
F.S.A., Sub-Dean of St. Paul's Cathedral . . .278 

Romano-British Mosaic Pavements. By T. Morgan, Esq., F.S.A., 

V.P., Hon. Treasurer 291 

The Original Camden Roll of Arms. By J. Greenstreet, Esq. 309 

Middleton Castle, or Towers, Norfolk. By Sir L. W. Jaryis . 329 

Cuddy's Cove. By Dr. A. C. Fryer, M.A. . . .335 

The West Front of Lichfield Cathedral. By J. T. Irvine, Esq. . 349 


Notes on the Borough Records of the Towns of Marazion, Pen- 
zance, and St. Ives. . By Rev. W. S. Lach-Szyrma, M.A. 

Golf. By C. H. Compton, Esq. ..... 

Original Documents. By Walter de Gray Birch, Esq., F.S.A., 
Hon. Sec. . ...... 

Dolbury and Cadbury, two Somersetshire Camps. By C. W. Dt- 
mond, Esq., F.S.A. ...... 

A Hoard of Bronze Bracelets at Brading, I.W. By C. Roach 
Smith, Esq., V. P., F.S.A. . 

The Roman Wall of London at Moorgate. By E. P. L. Brock, 
Esq., F.S.A., Hon. Sec. ..... 

Review of the Congress at Plymouth. By T. Morgan, Esq., V.P., 
F.S.A., Hon. Treasurer ..... 








Proceedings of the Congress at Great Malvern . . 74, 178 

Proceedings of the Association at Evening Meetings 89, 205, 332, 420 
Presents to the Association 89, 99, 103, 106, 112, 205, 206, 214, 

332, 420, 421, 426 
Election of Associates . 89, 101, 103, 205, 214, 420, 426 

Annual General Meeting- . . . .210 

Treasurer's Report .... 

Balance Sheet ..... 

Secretaries' Report .... 

Election of Officers for the Session 1882-83 

Obituary : Mr. J. Brent, F.S.A., 235 ; Dr. J. Kendrick, 337 

Antiquarian Intelligence .... 113, 237, 339, 447 

Index ........ 458 





1. Boorg-ez-Ziffir, Cairo . . . . .20 

2. Font in Ebchester Church, co. Durham . . .94 

3. 4, 5, 6, 7. Terra-Cotta Statuettes found in Cyprus . 95, 104 
8. Gold Plate Relics from Cyprus . . . .105 

British Barrow at Brading, Isle of Wight . . . 109 

Roman Building at Methwold .... 110 

Plan and Details of North Gosforth Church, Northumber- 
land . . . . . . .117 

Seals of the Knights Templars .... 124 

Roman Wall, Tower of London, London Wall, etc. . 132 

Stone Circle at Duloe, Cornwall . . . 150 



. Qkley, Yorkshire . . . 156 

16. Plan and Details of Carrow Priory, Norwich . . 168 

17. Details, Carrow Priory ..... 172 
1 B, Seal of Carrow ..... 176 

ira at Ashburton and Luppitt, co. Devon . 220 

20. Gorge of the Avon, Bristol, with Pit-Dwellings on Downs 237 

21. 1!. asi s built on the Frome Wall, Bristol . . .238 

- reel and Entrance to St. James' Fair, Bristol . 239 
Church, Bristol . . . . .240 

Pithay, Bristol . . . . .240 

Glass, Canterbury Cathedral. Plate I . . 249 

31 lined Glass, Canterbury Cathedral. Plate II. Frontispiece. 
27. Stained Glass, Canterbury Cathedral. Plate III . . 202 

Stained Glass, Kivenhall Church, Essex . . . 264 

29. Bronze Sword and Iron Spear-Head found at Henley-on- 
Thames . . . . . .276 

; . Ancient Tonsure-Plate for the Officers of St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral, in the British Museum .... 278 

!]. The Ancient Rite of Tonsure .... 283 

32. I'ac--iniile from the original Camden Roll of Arms . 310 

West Front of Lichfield Cathedral . . . .349 

.1. Plan of Lichfield Cathedral . . . .352 

35. Dolbury Camp ...... 405 

36. Cadbury Camp ...... 408 

37. Redcliff Gate, Bristol ..... 450 
- Pie-Poudre Court, Old Market Street, Bristol . . 450 

Redcliff Church, Bristol, in the Seventeenth Century . 450 

I". Carved Mantelpiece at Welsh Back, Bristol, a.d. 1614 . 450 

LI, 42, 43. Bristol Seals .... 450,451 

II. Interior of Westwell Church, Kent . . . 453 

!•">. Lambeth Palace Courtyard .... 455 

!''•. Entrance to Chapel, Lambeth Palace . . . 456 


The thirty-eighth volume of the Journal of the British 
Archaeological Association, which is here laid before 
the world of antiquaries, will be found to contain a series 
of papers upon most of the principal points to which, 
during the year 1882, the attention of the Association 
has been chiefly attracted. The last Congress, held in 
the course of the summer at Great Malvern, although 
productive in many ways tending to advance the interest 
that antiquarian pursuits should rightly hold among us 
all, was not particularly prolific in papers or dissertations. 
But, on the other hand, the evening meetings of the 
Association during the past session have been more 
numerously attended than heretofore ; and they have also 
been signally fortunate in witnessing and recording a 
considerable improvement in the number and importance 
of the objects exhibited, many of them being the result 
of recent discovery in the course of excavations almost 
always in progress at some spot or other in the hundred 
square miles of superficial area of London ; and many of 
them either of great rarity of form, or of high historical 
pr intrinsic value. Among foreign antiquities, notably 


the gold, silver, and fictile relics exhumed by the dili- 
gence and perseverance of our Associate Major A. P. di 
< Vsnola, F.S.A., at Cyprus, have been brought before 
the notice of the Association, to the delight of those 
members who were thereby enabled to contemplate the 
very beginning's of Phoenician and Hellenic arts, that 
were destined afterwards to rule the progressive arts of 
the civilised world. 

W. de G. B. 

31 December 1882. 


Iritis!) Irdjcrolnqirol lomiriofiim. 

The British Arcileological Association was founded in 1843, to in- 
vestigate, preserve, and illustrate all ancient monuments of the history, 
manners, customs, and arts of our forefathers, in furtherance of the 
principles on which the Society of Antiquaries of London was estab- 
lished ; and to aid the objects of that Institution by rendering avail- 
able resources which had not been drawn upon, and which, indeed, 
did not come within the scope of any antiquarian or literary society. 
The means by which the Association proposed to effect this object are : 

1. By holding communication with Correspondents throughout the 
kingdom, and with provincial Antiquarian Societies, as well as by 
intercourse with similar Associations in foreign countries. 

2. By holding frequent and regular Meetings for the consideration 
and discussion of communications made by the Associates, or received 
from Correspondents. 

3. By promoting careful observation and preservation of antiquities 
discovered in the progress of public works, such as railways, sewers, 
foundations of buildings, etc. 

4. By encouraging individuals or associations in making researches 
and excavations, and affording them suggestions and co-operation. 

5. By opposing and preventing, as far as may be practicable, all 
injuries with which Ancient National Monuments of every description 
may from time to time be threatened. 

G. By using every endeavour to spread abroad a correct taste for 
Archeology, and a just appreciation of Monuments of Ancient Art, so 
as ultimately to secure a general interest in their preservation. 

7. By collecting accurate drawings, plans, and descriptions, of 
Ancient National Monuments, and, by means of Correspondents, pre- 
serving authentic memorials of all antiquities which may from time to 
time be brought to light. 

8. By establishing a Journal devoted exclusively to the objects of 
the Association, as a means of spreading antiquarian information and 
maintaining a constant communication with all persons interested in 
such pursuits. 

9. By holding Annual Congresses in different parts of the country, 
to examine into their special antiquities, to promote an interest in 
them, and thereby conduce to their preservation. 

Thirteen public Meetings are held from November to June, on the 
first and third Wednesdays in the month, during the session, at eight 

o'clock in the evening, for the reading and discussion of papers, and for 
the inspection of all objects of antiquity forwarded to the Council. To 
Meetings Associates have the privilege of introducing friends. 

1', sons desirons of becoming Associates, or of promoting in any way 
the objects of the Association, are requested to apply either personally 
or by letter to the Secretaries; or to the Treasurer, Thomas MORGAN, 
, Bill Side House, Palace Road, Streatham Hill, S.W., to whom 

subscriptions, by Post Office Order or otherwise, should be transmitted. 

The payment of One Guinea annually is required of the Associates, 
or Ten Guineas as a Life Subscription, by which the Subscribers are 
entitled to a copy of the quarterly Journal as published, and permitted 
to acquire the publications of the Association at a reduced price. 

Associates are required to pay an entrance fee of One Guinea. The 
annual payments ai*e due in advance. 

Papers contributed to and accepted by the Association will be found 
in the volumes of the Journal. Every author is responsible for the 
statements contained in his paper. The published Journals may be had 
of the Treasurer and other officers of the Association at the following 
prices : — Vol. I, out of print. The other volumes, £1 : 1 each to Asso- 
ciates ; £1 : 11 : G to the public, with the exception of certain volumes 
in excess of stock, which may be had by members at a reduced price 
on application to the Honorary Secretaries. The special volumes of 
Transactions of the Congresses held at Winchester and at Gloucester 
are charged to the public, £1 : 11 : ; to the Associates, £1:1. 

An Index for the first thirty volumes of the Journal has been 
prepared by Walter dc Gray Birch, Esq., F.S.A., F.R.S.L., Honorary 
Secretary. Present price to Associates, 10s. 6d. ; to the public, 15s. 
Subscribers' names received by the Treasurer. 

In addition to the Journal, published regularly every quarter, it has 
been found necessary to publish occasionally another work entitled 
(.'nllcrfii.n- " ArcliU'nliKjica. It embraces papers whose length is too 
great for a periodical journal, and such as require more extensive 
illustration than can be given in an octavo form. It is, therefore, put 
fortb in quarto, uniform with the Archceologia of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, and sold to the public at 7s. Gd. each Part, but may be had by 
the Associates at 5*. (See coloured xcropper.) 

Public Meetings held on Wednesday evenings, at No. 32, Sackville 
fc, Piccadilly, at 8 o'clock precisely. 

The .Mm nigs for Session 1881-82 are as follow :— 1881, Nov. 1G, 
7. 1882, January 4, 18; Feb. 1, 15 ; March 1, 15 ; April 5, 19 ; 
May '■'< (Annual General Meeting, 4.30 p.m.), 17 ; June 7. 

Visitors will be admitted by order from Associates; or by writing 
their names, and those of the members by whom they are introduced. 
The Council Meetings are held at Sackville Street on the same day as 
the Public Meetings, at half-past 4 o'clock precisely. 



Thk British Archaeological Association shall consist of patrons, asso- 
ciates, correspondents, and honorary foreign members. 

1. The Patrons, 2 — a class confined to the peers of the United Kingdom, and 


2. The Associates, — such as shall be approved of and elected by the Council ; 

and who, upon the payment of one guinea as an entrance fee (except when 
the intending Associate is already a member of the Society of Antiquaries, 
of the Royal Archaeological Institute, or of the Society of Biblical Archae- 
ology, in which case the entrance fee is remitted), and a sum of not less 
than one guinea annually, or ten guineas as a life subscription, shall become 
entitled to receive a copy of the quarterly Journal published by the Asso- 
ciation, to attend all meetings, vote in the election of Officers and Com- 
mittee, and admit one visitor to each of the public meetings. 

;). The Honorary Correspondents, — a class embracing all interested in the 
investigation and preservation of antiquities ; to be qualified only for 
election on the recommendation of the President or Patron, or of two 
members of the Council, or of four Associates. 

4. The Honorary Foreign Members shall be confined to illustrious and learned 
foreigners who may have distinguished themselves in antiquarian pursuits. 

To conduct the affairs of the Association there shall be annually elected a Pre- 
sident, fifteen 3 Vice-Presidents, a Treasurer, two Secretaries, and a Secre- 
tary for Foreign Correspondence ; who, with eighteen 4 other Associates, 
one of whom shall be the Honorary Curator, shall constitute the Council. 
The past Presidents shall be ex officio Vice-Presidents for life, with the 
same status and privileges as the elected Vice-Presidents, and take prece- 
dence in the order of service. 

1. The election of Officers and Council shall be on the first Wednesday 5 in 
May in each year, and be conducted by ballot, which shall continue open 
during one hour. Every Associate balloting shall deliver his name to the 
President or presiding officer ; and afterwards put his list, filled up, into 
the balloting box. The presiding officer shall nominate two scrutators, 
who, with one or more of the Secretaries, shall examine the lists, and 
report thereon to the General Meeting. 


1. The President shall take the chair at all meetings of the Society. He shall 

regulate the discussions, and enforce the laws of the Society. 

2. In the absence of the President, the chair will be taken by one of the Vice- 

Presidents, or some officer or member of Council. 

3. The President shall, in addition to his own vote, have a casting vote when 

the suffrages are equal. 

1 The rules, as settled in March 1846, are here reprinted by order of the 
Council. The variations made since that date are introduced, and indicated by 

2 Patrons were omitted in 1850 from the list of Members, and have since been 
nominated locally for the Congresses only. 

3 Till 1848 six Vice-Presidents, then the number enlarged to eight, in 1864 
to ten, and in 1875 to the present number. In 1868 past Presidents made per- 
manent Vice-Presidents. 

4 Formerly seventeen, but altered in 1875 to the present number. 

5 In the earlier years the elections were in March. After 1852 till 1862, the 
Annual General Meetings were held in April. Subsequently they have been 
held in May. 




shall hold the finances of the Society, discharge all debts pre- 
dted to, and approved of by, the Council ; and having had 
ante audited by two members elected at the previous Annual 
y\. tu _. 3hall lay them before the Annual Meeting. 


1. The Secretaries shall attend all meetings of the Association, transmit notices 

ad read the letters and papers communicated to the 

2. The Secretary for Foreign Correspondence shall conduct all business or 

adence connected with the foreign societies, or members residing 


1. The Council shall superintend and regulate the proceedings of the Associa- 

tion, and elect the members, whose names are to be read over at the public 

2. Th.' Council shall meet on the days' on which the ordinary meetings of the 

Association are held, or as often as the business of the Association shall 
require; and five shall be deemed a sufficient number to transact business. 
0. An extraordinary meeting of the Council maybe held at any time by order 
be President, or by a requisition signed by five of its members, stating 
the purpose thereof, addressed to the Secretaries, who shall issue notices of 
such meeting to every member. 

4. The Council shall fill up any vacancy that may occur in any of the offices 

or among its own members. 

5. The Chairman, or his representative, of local committees established in dif- 

ferent parts of the country, and in connection with the Association, shall, 
upon election by the Council, be entitled to attend the meetings of the 
' mil and the public meetings. 

6. The Council shall submit a report of its proceedings to the Annual Meeting. 


1. The A iit ion shall meet on the third Wednesday in November, the 

first Wednesday in December, the first and third Wednesdays in the 
months from January to May. and the second Wednesday in June, at 
8 o'clock in the evening precisely, 2 for the purpose of inspecting and con- 
vereing upon the various objects of antiquity transmitted to the Associa- 
tion, ami such other business as the Council may appoint. 

'1. An extraordinary general meeting of the Association may at any time be 
convened by order of the President, or by a requisition signed by twenty 
Members, stating the object of the proposed meeting, addressed to the 
i tea, who shall issue notices accordingly. 

3. A gen raJ public meeting, or Congress, shall be held annually in such town 
or place in the United Kingdom as shall be considered most advisable by 
the Council, to which Associates, Correspondents, and others, shall be 
admitted by ticket, upon the payment of one guinea, which shall entitle 
the lady, to be presenl a1 all meetings, either for the 

reading of papers, the exhibition of antiquities, the holding of conver- 
vni, or the making of excursions to examine any objects of antiquarian 

111 t • : 

1 In irs the Council meetings and ordinary meetings were not 

held in connect ion. 

tin' meetings wore more numerous, as many as eighteen meetings 
beld in the year ; and the rule, as it originally stood, appointed twenty- 
lour i.. fjp to 1867 the evening meetings were held at half-past eight. 


Congresses have been already held 


1844: Canterbury 


1845 Winchester 

1846 Gloucester 



• I 

1847 Warwick 

1848 Worcester 

1849 Chester 


1850 Manchester&Lancast 


1851 Derby . 

1852 Newark 

1853 Rochester 


1854 Chepstow 

1855 Isle of Wight 


1856 Bridgwater and Bath 

1857 Norwich 

1858 Salisbury 

1859 Newbury 

1860 Shrewsbury 

1861 Exeter . 

1862 Leicester 

1863 Leeds . 

1864 Ipswich . 

1865 Durham 

1866 Hastings 

1867 Ludlow 

1868 Cirencester 

1869 St. Alban's 

1870 Hereford 

1871 Weymouth 

1872 Wolverhampton 

1873 Sheffield 

1874 Bristol . 

1875 Evesham 

1876 Bodmin and Penzance 

1877 Llangollen 

1878 Wisbech 

1879 Yarmouth & Norwich 

1880 Devizes 

1881 Great Malvern 

Under the Presidency of 

The Lord A. D. Conyngiiam, K.C.IL, 
F.R.S., F.S.A. 

J. Heywood, Esq., M.P., F.R.S., F.S.A. 
Sir Oswald Mosley, Bt., D.C.L. 
The Duke of Newcastle 

Ralph Bernal, Esq., M.A. 

The Earl of Perth and Melfort 

TnE Earl of Albemarle, F.S.A. 
The Marquis of Ailesbury 
The Earl of Carnarvon, F.S.A. 
Beriah Botfield, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. 
Sir Stafford H. Northcote, Bt. 
John Lee, Esq., LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A. 
Lord Houghton, M.A., D.C.L., F.S.A. 
George Tomline, Esq., M.P., F.S.A. 
The Duke of Cleveland 
The Earl of Chichester 
Sir C. H. Rouse Boughton, Bt. 
The Earl Bathurst 
The Lord Lytton 
Chandos Wren Hoskyns, Esq., M.P. 
Sir W. Coles Medlicott, Bt., D.C.L. 
The Earl of Dartmouth 
The Duke of Norfolk, E.M. 
Kirkman D. Hodgson, Esq., M.P. 
The Marquess of Hertford 
The Earl of Mount-Edgcumbe 
Sir Watkin W. Wynn, Bart., M.P. 
The Earl of Hardwicke 
The Lord Waveney, F.R.S. 
The Earl Nelson 

The Very Rev. Lord A.Compton,D.D., 
Dean ok Worcester 






Ex officio — The Duke of Norfolk, E.M.; The Duke of Cleveland, K.G.; 
The Marquess of Hertford; The Earl of Carnarvon, F.S.A.; The 
Earl of Dartmouth; The Earl of Hardwicke; The Earl of Mount- 
Edgcuhbe; The Earl Nelson; The Lord Houghton, D.C.L.; The Lord 
Wavehey, F.RS. ; Sir Chas. H. Rouse Boughton, Bart.; Sir W. C. 
Medlicott, Bart., D.C.L.; James Heywood, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A.; George 
Tomline, Esq, F.S.A.; Sir W. W. Wynn, Bart., M.P. 

The Earl of Effingham 
Bib H. W. Peek. Bart., M.P. 
II. Syer Cuming, Esq., F.S.A. Scot. 
John Evans, Esq , F.R.S., F.S.A. 
A. \Y. Franks, M.A., F.S.A. 
George Godwin, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. 
Rev. S. M. Mayhew. M.A. 
T. .Morgan, Esq., F.S.A. 

Rev. Preb. Scarth, M.A., F.S.A. 
Rev.W. Sparrow Simpson, D.D., F.S.A. 
C. Roach Smith, Esq., F.S.A. 
E. M. Thompson, Esq., F.S.A. 
Stephen I. Tucker, Esq., Somerset 

John Walter, Esq., M.P. 


Thomas Morgan, Esq., F.S.A., Hillside House, Palace Road, 

Streathani Hill, S.W. 

Honorary Secretaries. 
Walter de Gray Birch, Esq.. F.R.S.L., F.S.A., British Museum, W.C. 
E. P. Loftu8 Brock, Esq., F.S.A., 19 Montague Place, Russell Square, W.C. 

Curator and Librarian. 
George R. Wright, Esq., F.S.A., Junior Athenaeum Club, Piccadilly, W. 

WoRTniNGTON G. Smith, Esq., F.L.S. 

E. M. Thompson, Esq., F.S.A. 


J. W. G rover, Esq., F.S.A. 

Q. <;. Adams, Esq., F.S.A. 
George Am:, Esq. 
Thomas Blabhill, Esq. 
Cecil Brent, Esq., F.S.A. 
C. 11. Comptojj, Esq. 

A I.TIM B I lOPB, K ■). 

\\ ii. 1. 1 am II EH i;v I lOPE, Esq. 

B A. Doi GLA8 Lithoow, Esq., LL.D. 
I- 3.A., F.R.8.L. 

R. Horman-Fisher, Esq., M.A., 

J. T. Mould, Esq. 
W. Myers, Esq., F.S.A. 
George Patrick, Esq. 
J. S. Piiene, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A. 
Rev. Alexander Taylor, M.A. 
J. Whitmore, Esq. 



Geo. Lambert, Esq.. F.S.A. 


Srituft archaeological SUfaefotfatiott. 



The past-Presidents marled * are permanent Vice-Presidents. 
The letter L. denotes Life-Members. 


Date of Election. 

1865 Armstrong, Sir William, Newcastle-on-Tyne 

1876 Ace, Rev. D., D.D., Laughton Rectory, near Gainsborough 
1854 Adams, George G., Esq., F.S.A., 126 Sloane Street, S.W. 
1881 Adams, Rev. W. J., D.C.L., 77 Birchington Road, Kilburn 

l. 1850 Ade, George, Esq., 161 West bourne Terrace, W. 

1857 Adlam, Wm, Esq., F.S.A., The Manor House, Chew Magna, 

L. 1871 Aldam, William, Esq., Frickley Hall, Doncaster 

l. 1851 Alger, John, Esq. 

1878 Alien, J. Romilly, Esq., A.I.C.E., 5 Regent's Park Terrace, N.W. 

l. 1857 Allen, W. E., Esq. 

l. 1874 Ames, R., Esq., M.A, 2 Albany Terrace, Regent's Park, N.W. 

l. 1857 Amherst,W. A. T.,Esq., M.P., DidlingtonPark, Brandon, Norfolk 

1869 Andrews, Charles, Esq., Farnham, Surrey 

1877 Ashby, Thomas, Esq., Staines, Middlesex 

1876 AthenjEum Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 

l. 1857 Bateman, Lord, Carlton Club 

Baker, Rev. Preb. Sir Talbot R. B., Bart., Ranston, Blandford 
1880 Boileau, Sir Francis G. M., Bart, Ketteringham Park, Wy- 
l. 1860 Boughton, Sir Charles Rouse, Bart., Vice-President* Down- 
ton Hall, Ludlow 
l. 1860 Bridgman, Hon. and Rev. Geo. T. Orlando, M.A., The Hall, 
1864 Broke-Middleton, Vice-Admiral Sir George, Bart., C.B., 
Shrubland Park, Ipswich 
l. 1874 Brown, Sir John, Endcliffe Hall, Sheffield 
L. 1878 Babington, C. C, Esq., M.A., F.S.A.,5 Brookside, Cambridge 

1877 Barrett, Henry, Esq., 12 York Buildings, Adelphi, W.C. 


1882 Barrow, Miss, 23 Frederick Street, Gray's Inn Road 

l-7'.> Barton, Rev. II. C. M., M.A.. Andover 

1879 Barton, Thomas, Esq., Castle Bouse, Lancaster 

1877 Bate, Charles James, Esq., Thorncliffe, .Malvern 

i.. 1876 Bayly, Robert, Esq., Torr Grove, Plymouth 

L880 Bedell, Rev. A. J. 

1865 Bi Ik, Thomas, Esq., Bartle] 1 

L879 Bensly, W. L, Esq., LL.D., Norwich 

l. 1859 Benyon, Richard, Esq:, M.I'.. 17 Grosvenor Square, W. 

i. 1857 Berrey, George, Esq., The Park, Nottingham 

1-7'.' Beynon, the Rev. F. W., Sutton Coldfield, Birmingham 

1879 Birch, Rev. ( . G. R., Brancaster Rectory, King's Lynn 

1871 Birch, Walter de Gray, Esq.. F.R.S.L., F.S.A., Hon. Secretary, 

British Museum, and 6 Dartmouth Park Avenue, N. 
1877 Black, W. G, Esq., 1 Alfred Terrace, Hillhead, Glasgow 
1 B78 Blair, R., Esq., South Shields 

_■ Blakiston, Rev. R. Milburn, E.S.A., Ashton Lodge, Tavistock 
Road. Croydon 
1852 Plane, Rev. Henry, M.A, Folkton Rectory, Ganton, York 
l. 1865 Blane, Thomas Law, Esq., Foliejohn Park, Windsor 
1861 Blashill, Thomas, Esq., 10 Old Jewry Chambers, E.C. 
1876 Bloxam, Matthew II., Esq., E.S.A., Rugby 

Bly, -I. II., Esq., Yauxhall, Great Yarmouth 
1881 B< goushe .sky, Baron X. Casimir A. De. Sapolia House, Villa 

l'arkrof'skoe, Estate Panikovitz, Pskoff, Russia 
1870 Bonnor, George, Esq , F.S.A., 42 Queen's (-ate Terrace, S.W. 

1876 Borlase, William Copeland, Esq., M.P., M.A., F.S.A., Laregan, 


1879 Boutcher, Emanuel, Esq., 12 Oxford Square, Hyde Park, Y\\ 
1-70 Bowyer, Rev. E. \V. Atkins, M.A., Macaulay's Road, Clapham 

1869 Boyson, Ambrose I'., Esq., East Hill, Wandsworth 
1-77 Bradney, Joseph Alfred, Esq., Rockfield House, .Monmouth 
l. 1874 Bragge, William, Esq., E.S.A., Shirle Hill, Hampstead Road, 

1872 Braid, Charles, Esq. (care of G. E. Tamer, 49 High Street, 

1>74 Bramble, Colonel James R., Cleeve House, Yatton, Somerset 
1—" Brangwyn, W. O, Esq. 

1 381 Brankerd, Pet< r 1>.. Esq., The Knowle, Sneyd Park, Bristol 
L875 Branson, < '. A.. Esq., Page Hall, Sheffield 

1880 Brav( cider, Thomas B. . Esq., The Firs, Cirencester 

1853 I I, Esq., F.S.A., 37 Palace Grove, Bromley, Kent 

1877 Brent, John, Esq., F.S.A., Cantertmry 

• 1875 Brent, Francis, Esq., 19 Clarendon Place, Plymouth 

I.. 1875 Brinton, John, Esq., M.P., Moorhouse, Stourport 

1861 Brock, E. P. Loftus, Esq., F.S.A., Hon. Secretary, 19 Montague 
Place, Russell Square 

i.. 1874 Brooke, Thomas, Esq., F.S.A., Armitage Bridge, Huddersfield 

l. 1871 Brown, A. M.. Esq., 269 Camden Road, N. 

1878 Brunt, V... Esq., Ravelock Place, Hanley, Staffordshire 

1856 Brushfield, T. N., Esq., M.D.. Asylum, Brookwood, Woking, 


1880 Bulwer, J. R., Esq., Q.C., 1 1 King's Bench Walk, E.G. 
1862 Bunbuiy, H. M., Esq., Marlston House, Newbury 
187(5 Barges, Rev. Dr. -I. Hart, Rectory, Devizes 

is 11 Burgess, Alfred, Esq., F.S.A., 8 Victoria Road, Worthing 

1879 Burroughs, T. Proctor, Esq., The Priory, Great Yarmouth 

187G Burgess, J. Tom, Esq., F.S.A., Worcester 

18G8 Burgess, William J., Esq., Shenfield House, Brentwood, hssex 

1881 Bush, Edward, Esq., The Grove, Alverton, Gloucester 
1881 Bush, John, Esq., 9 Pembroke Road, Clifton 

l. 1880 Butcher, W. II., Esq., 2 Chalcot Crescent, Regent s Park, N.W. 

1864 Cleveland, His Grace the Duke of, K.G., Vice-President, 
Baby Castle 
l. 1858 Carnarvon, Right Hon. the Earl of, Vice-President* Higti- 

clere, Hants. 
l. 1853 Crewe, Sir John Harper, Bart, Calke Abbey, Derbyshire 
1868 Carey, Sir P. Stafford, Candie, Guernsey 
1876 Cowper, Hon. H. F., M.P., 4 St. James' Square, S.W. 
L861 Cauu, William, Esq., Exeter 

1853 Cape, George A., Esq., Utrecht House, Abbcywood, Kent 
1864 Carmichael, C H. E., Esq., M.A., F.R.S.L., M.A.I F.L.AS , 
New University Club, St. James' St.; 46a Coleshill St., S.W. 
1881 Cates, Arthur, Esq., 7 Whitehall Yard, S.W. 

1878 Catling, Captain R. C, Needham Hall, Wisbech 

1881 Cesnola, Major A. P. Di, Palma Villa, Woodchurch Road, Y\ est 

1881 Chaffey - Chaffey, W., Esq., East Stoke House, Stoke-sub- 

Hampden, Ilminster 
1855 Chapman, Thomas, Esq., 37 Tregunter Road, West Brompton 

1879 Chasemore, Archibald, Esq., 8 Lower Park Fields, Putney 
1876 Clagett, Mrs. Horatio, 17 Lowndes Street, S.W. 

1879 Clemence, John L., Esq., Lowestoft 

1881 Close, Thomas, Esq., F.S.A., Nottingham 

1859 Cockeram, William, Esq., 50 South Street, Dorchester 
l. 1878 Cocks, Reginald Thistlethwayte, Esq., 43 Charing Cross, S. W. 

1869 Cokayne, Andreas Edward, Esq., Bolton-le-Moors 
L. 1867 Cokayne, Geo. Edw., Esq., F.S.A., Lancaster Herald, Heralds 
College, Doctors' Commons, E.G. 

1866 Cole, T. H., Esq., 1 Linton Terrace, Hastings 
l. 1877 Coleman, F. S., Esq., Trevanger, Hamlet Road, Upper Nor- 
wood, S.E. 
l. 1847 Colfox, Thomas, Esq., Bridport 

1875 Collier, Rev. C, F.S.A., Andover 

1864 Collins, William, Esq., M.D., 1 Albert Terrace, Regent s Park 

1879 Colman, J. J., Esq., M.P., Carrow House, Norwich 

1876 Compton, C. H., Esq., 13 The Chase, Clapham Common, S.W. 
1875 Cooke, James H., Esq., F.S.A., Berkeley, Gloucestershire 

1877 Cooper, Basil Henry, Esq., B.A., Malvern Lodge, Duhvich Grove, 

East Dulwich, S.E. 
1863 Cope, Arthur, Esq., 4 Fairfax Road, Finchley IN ew Road .N.W . 
1863 Cope, Wm. Henry, Esq., 12 Gloucester Road, Regent's Park 

1878 Corry, Rev. W. Corry de B., Bengeworth, Evesham 


L 18G9 Cosens, Frederick W., Esq., 27 Queen's Gate, S.W. 

is 17 ('..ultliiii-t, J. Ross, Esq., Croft House, Ashton-under-Lyne 

1-;:, Cox, J. C, Esq., The Close, Lichfield 

l87 g | ,,,,,„ ,-. l'. I,.. Esq., 36 Sutherland Place, Westbourne Park, \\ . 

[36] ( fresswell, Rev. Samuel Francis, D.D., F.U.A.S., F.R.G.S., 
North Repps, Norfolk 

1871 Crickmay, G. R, Esq., St. Thomas Street, Weymouth 

1867 Croker, t. F. Dillon, Esq., F.S.A.,9 Pelham Place, Brompton 

1863 Crossley, James, Esq., F.S.A. 

, I-:,- Culley, Frederick W. H., Esq., Bradestone, Blofield, Norwich 

1844 Cumin-, II. Syer, Esq., F.S.A. Scot., Vice-President, 63 Ken- 

nington Park Road, S.E. 
L872 Curteis, Rev. Thomas S., Sevenoaks, Kent 

l. 1872 Dartmouth, Right Hon. the Earl of, Vice-President* Pats- 
hull, Wolverhampton 
1853 Ditcie, Right Hon. the Earl of, F.R.S., 16 Portman Square; 
Tortworth Court, Falfield, Gloucester ; and Sarsden, Chip- 
ping Norton, Oxon. 
18.58 Dillon, Lady, The Vicarage, Goole, Yorkshire 
L. is 73 Davis, J. E., Esq., 5 Brick Court, Temple, EC. 

is 78 Dawson, Edward B., Esq., LL.B., Lunecliffe, Lancaster 

1872 Day, Robert, Esq., F.S.A., M.R.I.A., Rock View, Montenotte, 

l. 1874 Derham, Walter, Esq., M.A., LL.M., Henleaze Park, Westbury- 
1871 Digby, G. Wingfield, Esq., Sherborne Castle, Dorset 

1877 Dobson, Frederick, Esq., Castle Grove, Nottingham 

1878 Douglas-Lithgow, Dr. R. A., F.S.A., F.R.S.L.,34 Cadogan Place, 

1875 Dunning, S., Esq., 27 Parliament Street, S.W. 
1847 Durdeu, Henry, Esq., Blandford, Dorset 
1875 Dymond, C. W., Esq., C.E., F.S.A., 7 Clarendon Place, Plymouth 

1845 Effingham, Right Hon. the Earl of, Vice-President, Tees- 

more, Bicester, and 57 Eaton Place 
1867 Edmonds, James, Esq., 67 Baker Street, Portman Square 
1875 Edwards, < : . W., Esq., 2 Sea Wall Villa, Sneyd Park, Bristol 
1 >:>:> Evans, J., Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A,, Vice-President, Hemel Hempstead 

i.. 1863 Forster, Right Hon. William Edward, M.P., Burley, near 
L854 Falconer, Thomas, Esq., Esk 

].. L879 Ferguson, Richard S., Esq., Lowther Street, Carlisle 

i . 1864 Ferguson, Robert, Esq., M.P., Morton, Carlisle 
186 I Finch, Rev. Thomas, B.A., Morpeth 
L872 Finch, Rev. T. R. 

l. 1880 Fisher, S. 'I'., Esq., The Grove, Streatham, S.W. 
1857 Fitch, Robert, Esq., F.S.A., Norwich 
1880 Floyer, Frederick A., Esq., 7 River Terrace, Putney 
1 375 Franks, Augustus W., Esq., M.A., F.R.S., Director of the Society 
of Antiquaries, British Museum, W.C. 


l. 1852 Fraser, Patrick Allen, Esq., Hospital Field, Arbroath, N.B. 

1877 Frctton, W. G., Esq., F.S.A., 88 Little Park Street, Coventry 

1880 Fryer, Alfred C., Esq., Elmhirst, near Wilraslow, Cheshire 

l. 1874 Gainsford, T. R., Esq., Whiteley Wood Hall, Sheffield 

1878 Cane, Charles, Esq., Wisbech 

1876 Gardner, J. E., Esq., 453 West Strand- Park House, St. 

John's Wood Park, N.W. 

1877 Glasgow, The Mitchell Library, Ingram Street, Glasgow 
1872 Glover, F. K., Esq., The Chestnuts, Beckenham 

1847 Godwin, G., Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A., Vice-President, 6 Cromwell 
Place, South Kensington 

1881 Gough, Mrs. V., Compton Lodge, Hampton Road, Redland, 


1865 Gow, Mrs. George, care of Mrs. Waite, 3 Gordon Place, W.C. 
1881 Grain, J. H., Esq., Virnew House, Blackheath Road, Lewis- 
ham, Kent 

1881 Grain, Mrs., Virnew House, Blackheath Rd., Lewisham, Kent. 

L. 1860 Greenhalgh, Thomas, Esq., T homey dike, Sharpies, near Bolton 

1863 Greenshields, J. B., Esq., Kerse, Lesmahago, Lanarkshire 

1866 Grover, J. W., Esq., C.E., F.S.A., 9 Victoria Chambers, Victoria 

Street, S.W. 

1876 Grueber, Herbert Appold, Esq., British Museum, W.C. 
L. 1857 Gurney, John Henry, Esq., Nortkrepps Hall, Norwich 

1878 Hardwicke, The Right Hon. the Earl of, Vice-President* 

Wimpole Hall, Royston 

1877 Hertford, The Most Hon. the Marquess of, Vice-President* 

Ragley, Alcester 
1847 Houghton, Lord, M.A., D.C.L., Vice-President* Fryston Hall, 

Ferrybridge, Yorkshire 
1858 Hammond, Charles E., Esq., Newmarket 
1852 Hannah, Robert, Esq., Craven House, Queen's Elm, Brompton 

1864 Harker, John, Esq., M.D., King Street, Lancaster 

l. 1861 Harpley, Matthew, Esq., Royal Horse Guards Blue; Naval 

and Military Club, Piccadilly 
1880 Hastings, Rev. Frederick, Ingle wood, Weston-super-Mare 
1844 Hawkins, George, Esq., 28 City Road, E.C. 
1872 Hellier, Lieut.-Colonel T. B. Shaw, 4th Dragoon Guards (care 

of A. Laurie, Esq., 70 Jermyn Street, S.W.) 

1877 Henderson, William, Esq., Ashford Court, Ludlow, Salop 

l. 1844 Heywood, James, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A., Vice-President* 26 
Palace Gardens, Kensington 
1862 Heywood, Samuel, Esq., 171 Stanhope Street, Hampstead Rd. 
1858 Hibbert, Frederick D., Esq. 
1872 Hicklin, B., Esq., Holly House, Dorking, Sun-ey 

1879 Hill, Captain, 53 Marine Parade, Brighton 

1878 Hill, W. Neave, Esq., 22 Albert Road, Regent's Park 

1866 Hills, Capt. Graham H., R.N., 4, Bentley Road, Prince's Park, 

L858 Hills, Gordon M., Esq., 17, Redcliffe Gardens, Brompton 
1870 Hodgson, Rev. J. F., Wilton -le-Weir, Darlington 


1880 Hodgson, Philip Fancourt, Esq., 8 Dartmouth Park Hill, N. 

[869 Holford, R. S., Esq., Westonbirt, Tetbuiy, Gloucestershire 

L881 Holdsworth, John, Esq., Kidderminster 

L880 Hooppell, Elev. K. E., M. V, LL.D., Byers Green Rectory, 
Bishop's Auckland 

L872 Borman-Fi8her, I!., Esq., F.S.A., 13 Durham Terrace, West- 
bourne Park, W. 

L870 Horner, W. S., Esq., 7 Aldgate 

i.. L863 Horsfall, Richard, Esq., Waterhouse Street, Halifax 

1880 Houghton, -Mrs., Hill Wood, Leigham Court Road, Streatham 

i. L856 Hovendon, Thos. Henry, Esq., 181 Bishopsgate Street Without 

i.. 1867 Howard, John M., Esq., Q.C., G Pump Court, Temple, E.G. 

1876 Howlett, Richard, Esq., 2 Palace Grove, Bromley, Kent 

L. 1S7.'. Hudd, Alfred K., Esq., 96 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol 

L878 Hughes, H. R., Esq., Kinmel Park, Abergele, North Wales 

l. 1SG0 Hughes, James, Esq., 328 Camden Road, N. 

i. L859 Hughes, Thomas, Esq., F.S.A., 1 Grove Terrace, Chester 

1853 Hull Subscription Library, Albion Street, Hull 

i.. 1866 Hunter, Edward, Esq., The Glebe, Lee, Blackheath 

1874 Hunter, Michael, Esq., Greystones, near Sheffield 

1^7*1 Huyshe, Wentworth, Esq. 

1880 Hyde, Mrs. Moore, 77 Cambridge Gardens, North Kensington 

1863 Irvine, J. T., Esq., The Close, Lichfield 

l. 1858 Jarvis, Sir Lewis Wincopp, Middleton Towers, near King's 

L. 185G Jackson, Rev. J, R., M.A., F.S.A., F.R.A.S., The Vicarage, 
Moulton, Lincolnshire 

i. 1859 Jackson, Rev. Win., M.A., E.S.A., Pen-Wartha, Weston-super- 
Mare, and 7 Park Villas, Oxford 

1879 Jarvis, John W., Esq., Avon House, Manor Road, Holloway 

1877 Jeayes, 1. H., Esq., British Museum, W.C. 

1877 Jehu, Richard, Esq., 21, Cloudesley Street, Islington, N. 

1876 Jenner, Henry, Esq., British Museum, W.C. 

1879 Jenner, Miss Lucy A., 63 Brook Street, Grosveuor Square 
18G1 Jennings, Mrs., East Park Terrace, Southampton 

i. J -7 I .b-ssop, Thomas, Esq., Endcliffe Grange, Sheffield 

1869 Jewitt, Llewellyn, Esq., F.S.A., The Hall, Winster, Matlock 

1876 Jones, R. W., Esq., Cross House, Newport, Monmouth 

L865 Jones, Morris (has., Esq., E.S.A., Gungrog, Welshpool 

1847 -Ion, b, John, Esq., 95 Piccadilly, W. 

1882 Joni -. Thomas E., Esq., Broadway House, Hammersmith 

1880 Jones, \V. P., Esq. 

i. 1875 Josi phs, Major 11., 1G Queen Square, Bloomsbury, W.C. 

1853 Kendrick, James, Esq., M.D., Warrington, Lancashire 

1 ~ 70 K. rslake, Thomas, Esq., 14 West Park, Bristol 

i.. 1 857 Kerr, Mrs. Alexander 

L867 KetteL, II., Esq., 6 Champion Place, Cold Harbour Lane, 
< 'amherwell 

i. 1865 KircholVr, I'rof'essm- Tlieodu)-, 12 Ivi-unprinz Strasse, Stuttgart 


1875 King, William Poole, Esq., ^vonside, Clifton Down, Bristol 

1874 Knight, C. J., Esq., 14 Argyll St net, W. 

18G9 Knight, W. H., Esq., 4 St. James's Square, Cheltenham 

1877 Lamp-son, Lady, 80, Eaton Square, S.W. 

L875 Lach-Szyrma, Rev. W. S., M.A., St. Peter's Newlyn, Penzance 

1872 Lacy, John Turk, Esq., 81 Cambridge Gardens, North Kensing- 
ton, W. 

1874 Lacy, C. J., Jun., Esq., 28, Belsize Park, N.W. 
L. 1870 Lambert, George, Esq., F.S.A., 10, Coventry Street, W. 

1874 Laverton, F., Esq., Cornwallis Crescent, Bristol 

1867 Leach, John, Esq., High Street, Wisbech 
L. 1873 Leader, J. Daniel, Esq., F.S.A., Oakburn, Broomhall Park, 

1862 Le Keux, J. H., Esq., 64 Sadler Street, Durham 
1877 Lewis, Rev. G. B., M.A., Rectory, Kemsing, Sevenoaks 

1881 Lewis, T. Hayter, Esq., F.S.A., 12 Kensington Gardens 
Square, W. 

1863 Library of the Corporation of London, Guildhall, E.C. 
L. 1877 Long, Mrs. Plater, Westhope Lodge, Southwell 

L. 1862 Long, Jeremiah, Esq., 50, Marine Parade, Brighton 

1856 Long, William, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., West Play, Wrington, 

1877 Lord, J. Courtenay, Esq., Cotsford, Solihull, Warwickshire 
L. 1868 Louttit, S. H., Esq., Trematon House, Grove Road, Clapham 

1858 Lukis, Rev. W. Collings, M.A., F.S.A., Wath Rectory, near 

1880 Lush, W. J. H., Esq., Fyfield House, Andover 
1847 Luxmore, Coryndon H., Esq., F.S.A., 18 St. John's Wood 

Park, N.W. 
1865 Lynam, C, Esq., Stoke-upon-Trent 

1877 Mostyn, Lord, Mostyn Hall, Flintshire 
l. 1876 Mount Edgcumbe, Earl of, Vice-President* Mount Edgcumbe, 

Devon port 
l. 1872 Medlicott, Sir William Coles, Bart., ~D.CL.,Vice-President* 

Ven House, Sherborne, Dorset 
l. 1875 Mackeson, Edward, Esq., 13 Hyde Park Square 

1860 McCaul, Rev. John, LL.D., Toronto (care of Mr. Allen, 12 

Tavistock Row, Covent Garden) 
1864 Macnaghten, Steuart, Esq., Bittern Manor House, near South- 

1876 Manchester Free Libraries, Manchester 
1880 Mann, Richard, Esq., Charlotte Street, Bath 

L. 1874 Mappin, F. J., Esq., Thornbury, Ranmoor, Sheffield 

l. 1863 Marshall, Arthur, Esq., Weetwood Hall, Leeds 

1862 Marshall, W. G., Esq., Colney Hatch 

l. 1844 Marshall, William Calder, Esq., R.A., 115 Ebury Street, S.W. 

1875 Martin, Critchley, Esq., Narborough Hall, Swan nam, Norfolk 

1871 Matthew, James, Esq., 27 York Terrace, Regent's Park 

1877 Mauleverer, Miss Anne, The Hall, Armagh, Ireland 


! 1879 Maude, Rev. Samuel, M.A., 175 Prince of Wales Road, 
Haverstock Hill 
18G7 Mayer, J., F>q., F.S.A., Vice-President, Pennant House, Beb- 
ington, < Iheshire 

1865 Mavhew, Rev. Samuel Martin, M.A., Vice-President, St. Paul's 

Vicarage, Bermondsey; 83 New Kent Road, S.E. 
i . 1870 Merriman, Mrs., Tottenham 

1872 Merriman, Robert William, Esq., Marlborough 

1881 Methold, Frederick J., Esq., 15 St. James' Terrace, Regent's 

Park, N.W. 
L863 Milligan, .lames, .Inn., Esq., 9 High Street, Ilfracombe, Devon 
i. 1867 Milner, Rev. John, 43 Brunswick Square, Brighton 

1874 Mitchell, R. W., Esq. (for Army and Navy Club), St. James' 

i 1875 Money, Walter, Esq., F.S.A., Herborough House, Newbury 
1881 Montgomery, A. S., Esq., Busch House, Isleworth 
1878 Moore, Rev. Canon, M.A., F.S.A., Spalding 

1873 Moore, James G., Esq., West Coker, Yeovil 

l. 1S4 7 Moore, J. Bramley, Esq., Langley Lodge, Gerard's Cross 

i.. L874 Moore, Thomas, Esq., Ashdell Grove, Sheffield 

1876 Morgan, Rev. Ernest K. B., St. John's, Sevenoaks 

1876 Morgan, Albert C. F., Esq., Hillside House, Palace Road, 

Streatham Hill 
1845 Morgan, Thomas, Esq., F.S.A., Vice-President, Hon. Treasurer, 
Hillside House, Palace Road, Streatham Hill 

1866 Mould, J. T., Esq., 1 Onslow Crescent, South Kensington 
L. 1877 Mullings, John, Esq., Cirencester 

1872 Mullings, J. D., Esq., Birmingham Free Libraries, Birmingham 
l. 1861 Murton, James, Esq., Silverdale, near Carnforth 

1787 Myers, Walter, Esq., F.S.A., 21 Queensborough Terrace, Hyde 

l. 1875 Norfolk, His Grace the Duke of, E.M., Vice-President* 
Arundel Castle and St. James's Square 
1881 Nelson, The Right Hon. the Earl, Trafalgar, Wilts 

1875 Northwick, Lord, Northwick Park, Moreton-in-the-Marsh 

L. 1875 New, Herbert, Esq., Hon. Secretory of the Association at the 
Evesham Congress, Green Hill, Evesham 
1880 Newton, Mrs., Hillside, Newark-on-Trent 

1877 Nicholls, J. F., Esq., Chief Librarian, Free Library, Bristol 

1880 Nixon, Edward, Esq., Savill House, Methley, Leeds 
I - 1 I N- .1111:111, Ceorge Ward, Esq., Bromley, Kent 

1881 Nathan, Benjamin C, Esq., Albert Square, Chatham Road, S.W. 

1871 OUSBLBV, Rev. Sin F. Gobb, Bart., St. Michael's, Tenbury 

1874 Ogle, Bertram, Esq., Hillside, London Road, Retford 
1852 Oliver, Lionel, Esq., Heacham, King's Lynn 

i. 1881 Oliver, Edward Ward, Esq., 11 Kensington Square, W. 

1 . 1 360 PowiB, Tin; Earl OP, 15 Berkeley Square 
1. 1866 Peek, Sir Hk.nkv W., Bart,, M.P., Wimbledon House 
1859 Patrick, George, Esq., Dalham Villa, SouthfieldB, Wandsworth 


180G Peabody Institute, Baltimore, U.S. (care of Mr. E. G. Allen, 

12 Tavistock Row, Covent Garden) 

18G2 Pearoe, Charles, Esq., Banham House, Welbury Road, Brighton 

1880 Peckover, Algernon, Esq., Sibaldsholme, Wisbech 

i . L851 Peile, Rev. Thomas W., D.D., 37 St. John's Wood Park, N.W. 

i,. 1866 Pemberton, R. L., Esq., Hawthorn Tower, Seaham 

1880 Penfold, Hugh, Esq., Rushingtou, Worthing 

1874 Peter, Richard, Esq., Town Clerk-, Launceston 
1852 Pettigrew, Rev. Samuel T., M.A. 

1871 Phene, J. S., Esq., LL.D., E.S.A., F.G.S., F.R.G.S., 32 Oakley 
Street, S.W. 

l. 1844 Phillipps, Jas. 0. Halliwell, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A.,Vice-President, 
1 1 Trcgunter Road, West Brompton 
1879 Phillips, The Rev. G. W., Pebworth Vicarage, Stratford-on-Avon 
18G5 Phipson, R. M., Esq., F.S.A., Norwich 

L. 1852 Pickersgill, Frederick R., Esq., R.A., Burlington House, W. 
1879 Picton, Sir J. A., F.S.A., Sandy kno we, Wavertree, Liverpool 
L879 Pollard, Harry E., Esq., 14 Duke Street, Adelphi 
187;") Prance, Courtenay C, Esq., Hatherley Court, Cheltenham 

1858 Previte, Joseph W., Esq., 13 Church Terrace, Lee 

1876 Price, F. C, Esq., 86 Leighton Road, Kentish Town 
18G7 Prichard, Rev. Hugh, Dinam, Gaerwen, Anglesey 
1873 Prigg, Henry, Esq., Bury St. Edmund's 

l. 18G3 Ripon, The Most Hon. the Marquis of, 1 Carlton Gardens 

1878 Rochester, The Lord Bishop of, Selstead Park, Maidstone 
l. 1866 Rae, John, Esq., F.S.A., 9 Mincing Lane, E.C. 

1877 Rawlings, W. J., Esq., Downes, Hayle, Cornwall 
1870 Rayson, S., Esq., 32 Sackville Street, Piccadilly 

1881 Rendle, Mrs. W. Gibson, 15 Russell Road, Kensington 

1875 Reynolds, John, Esq., The Manor House, Redland, Bristol 
L. 1848 Richards, Thomas, Esq., 37 Great Queen Street, W.C. 

1879 Robinson, T. W. U., Esq., F.S.A., Houghton-le-Spring, Durham 
18G0 Rocke, John, Esq., Clungunford House, Aston-on-Clun, Shrop- 

i.. 1866 Roe, Charles Fox, Esq., F.S.A., Litchurch, Derby 

1877 Roofe, W., Esq., Craven Cottage, Merton Road, Wandsworth, 


1859 Rooke, Wm. Foster, Esq., M.D., Belvedere House, Scarborough 

1878 Roper, W., Esq., jun., Lancaster 

1877 Rowe, J. Brooking, Esq., F.S.A., Plympton Lodge, Plympton 

1877 Russell, Miss, Ashiesteel, Galashiels, N.B. 

1873 Rylands, W. Harry, Esq., F.S.A., 11 Hart Street, Bloomsbury 
L. 1881 Rylands, Thomas G., Esq., Highfields, Thelwall, Cheshire 

185G Scarth, Rev. Preb. H. M., M.A., Vice-President, Rectory, Wring- 
ton, Bath 

1878 Scrivener, A., Esq., Hanley, Staffordshire 
1878 Sharpe, Frederic N., Esq., Wisbech 

1869 Sheldon, Thomas George, Esq., Congleton, Cheshire 
1877 Sheraton, Harry, Esq., 1 Highfield North, Rock Ferry, Bir- 


1881 Sherborn, Chas. D., Esq., 540 King's Road, S.W. 

1851 Sherratt, Thomas. Esq., 10 Basinghall Street, E.C. 

1862 Shute, Arthur, Esq., 23 Drury Buildings, Water Street, Liver- 

] ....1 

1865 Sich, William Thrale, Esq., Chiswick 

1867 Silver, Mrs. Beechcroft, Weybridge 

1-7''. Simion, I.., Esq., Berlin (care of Asher and Co., 13 Bedford 

Street, Covenl Garden) 

1879 Simpkinson, The Rev. J. N., North Creake, Fakenham, Norfolk 

1-7:' Sinclair, The Rev. John, Fulhara 

i. 1-71 Smith, ('. Roach, Esq., F.S.A., Vice-President, Strood, Rochester 

184 1 Smith, J. Russell, Esq., 36 Soho Square 

1878 Smith, Worthington G., Esq., L25 Grosvenor Road, High- 

bury, N. 

1876 Smith, Miss, Holly Lodge, Southfields, Wandsworth 
1881 Smith, Miss Agnes 

1881 Smith, Miss Margaret 

l. 1865 Simpson, Rev. W. Sparrow, D.D., F.S.A., Vice-President, 9 
Amen Court, !'..< !. 

1881 Soames, Rev. C, Mildenhall Rectory, Marlborough 

l. 187-"> Stacye, Rev. J. Evelyn, M.A., Shrewsbury Hospital, Sheffield 

1879 Stanley. Joseph, Esq., Bank Plain, Norwich 

18G1 Stephenson, Geo. Robt., Esq., Victoria Chambers, Victoria 

Street, S.W. 

1881 Sterry, J. Ashby, Esq., Martin's Chambers, Trafalgar Square 

1880 Stevens, Henry, Esq., F.S.A., 4, Trafalgar Square 

1867 Stevens, Joseph, Esq., Dorset Villa, Oxford Road, Reading 

1879 Steward, The Rev. Charles J., Somerleyton Rectory, Lowestoft 

1880 Stock, Elliot, Esq., Fern Lodge, Millfield Lane, Highgate Rise 
1865 Stocker, Dr., Peckham House, Peckham 

1880 Stovin, Rev. Chas. Frederick, M.A., 59 Warwick Square, S.W. 
].. 1878 Strickland, Edward, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., Bristol 

1881 Surtees, Fred. R., Esq., Boseley Abbey, Sandling, near Maid- 

stone, Kent 

1858 Swayne, Henry J. F., Esq., The Island, Wilton, near Salisbury 

1872 Tabberer, Benjamin, Esq., 10 Coleman Street, E.C. 

1877 Talbot, C. If., Esq., Lacock Abbey, Chippenham 

1876 Taylor, Rev. Alexander, M.A., Chaplain of Gray's Inn, \Y.<'. 

1874 Taylor, John, Esq., the Museum and Library. Bristol 
1880 Taylor, Robert, Esq., 3 Apsley Road, Clifton, Bristol 

l. I s - 1 Templer, .lames (;., Esq., Lindridge, near Teignmouth 

1-77 T< ■ui-w 1. ('has., Esq., M.A., LL.M., Caton Lodge, Putney 

1876 Thirlwall, F. J., Esq., 169 Gloucester Road, Regent's Park 

1875 Thomson, E. M., Esq.,F.S.A., Vice-President, Keeper of Manu- 

scripts, British Museum, W.C. 

1877 Thorp ,G ,E [.,21 Eastcheap, E.C. 

1 V 7I Tomline, George, Esq., F.S.A., Vice-President* 1 Carlton 

Eouse Terrace, S.W. 

1877 Todd, Miss, Hough Green, Chester 

J -77 Tovey, Charles, Esq., 2 Royal Crescent, Biis^ol 

1875 Trappes, T. Byrnand, Esq., Stanley House, Clithcroe 


1879 Tremlctt, Rear-Admiral, Belle Vue, Tunbridge Wells 
1860 Tuck, George, Esq., Post Office, Bloomsbury 

1873 Tucker, S. I., Esq., Somerset Herald, Heralds' College, E.G. 

1874 Tuke, William Murray, Esq., Saffron Walden, Essex 

1852 Turner, John, Esq., 15a Wilton Street, S.W. 

1867 Vaughan, John Lingard, Esq., Heaton Norris, Stockport 
1872 Viles, Edward, Esq., Pendyre Hall, Godsall Wood, Wolver- 

1872 Villiers, Right Hon. C. P., M.P., E.R.S., Richmond, Surrey 
1882 Vincent, Samuel, Esq., Cressy Cottage, Sutton, Surrey 

l. 1878 Westminster, The Duke of, K.G., Grosvenor House, W. 

1853 Warwick, Right Hon. the Earl of, Warwick Castle 

l. 1875 Winchester, Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of, Farnham 
Castle, Surrey 

1880 Waveney, Lord, F.R.S., Vice-President* Flixton Hall, Bungay 
1880 Woods, Sir Albert, F.S.A., Garter King of Arms, Heralds' 

College, E.C. 

1879 Wynn, Sir W. W., Bart., M.P., Wynnstay, Ruabon 

1860 Wace, Henry T., F.S.A., Brooklands, Abbey Foregate, Shrews- 
L. 1873 Wake, Bernard, Esq., Abbey Field, Sheffield 

1880 Walford, Edward, Esq., M.A., 17 Church Row, Hampstead 

1874 Walker, E. L., Esq., 22 Great Cumberland Place, W. 
1872 Walker, Mrs. Severn, Severn Lodge, Malvern Wells 
1878 Walker, Rev. James, Akleburgh, Suffolk 

1872 Walker, Robert Percy, Esq., B.A., Ventnor Place, Tettenhall 
Road, Wolverhampton 

1868 Wallis, Alfred, Esq., 17 Cornmarket, Derby 

1881 Walmsley, Gilbert G., Esq., 50 Lord Street, Liverpool 

1859 Walter, John, Esq., M.P., Vice-President, 40 Upper Grosvenor 
Street, and Bearwood, Wokingham 

1872 Ward, H., Esq., Rodbartou, Penkridge, Staffordshire 

1844 Warne, Charles, Esq., F.S.A., 45 Brunswick Road, Brighton 
1877 Way, R. E., Esq., Sidney Villa, Mervyn Road, Brixton 

1873 Webster, John D., Esq., 21 Church Street, Sheffield 

1868 Westlake, Nathaniel Herbert J., Esq., The Goodyears, Hendon 

1875 AVeston, J. D., Esq., Dorset House, Clifton Down, Bristol 
1866 Whitmore, John, Esq., 124 Sloane Street, S.W. 

1870 Wilding, William, Esq., Montgomery 

1880 Williams, John, Esq., 16 Alma Road, Clifton, Bristol 

1881 Williams, Mrs. Louisa, Yarth House, Greenhill Road, Hamp- 

stead, N.W. 

1875 Wilson, Charles M., Esq., More Hall, Bolsterstone, near Shef- 


1876 Wilson, Rev. John Edward, Durham House, Chelsea 

1877 Winn, Roland, Esq., M.P., Nostel Priory, near Wakefield 
1877 Wise, Thomas, Esq., M.D., Thornton, Beulah Hill, Upper 

l. 1881 Wood, C. F., Esq., M.A., Redenham Park, Andovcr 
L. 1863 Wood, Richard, Esq., Plumpton Hall, Bamford, near Rochdale 

]8S2 (j 


L . 1864 Wood, Richard H., Esq., F.S.A., F.R.G.S., Penrhos House, 

1-77 W Ihoue, Dr. T. J., Ranelagh Lodge, Fulham 

g Wright, G. R., Esq., P.S.A., Hon. Curator and Librarian, 
Junior Athenaeum Club, W. 
1859 Wyatt, Rev. C. F.. M.A.. Broughton Rectory, Banbury 
L874 Wyon, Alfred B., Esq., F.R.G.S., 2 Langham Chambers, Port- 
laud Place, W. 

i. 1863 York, His Grace the Lord Archbishop of, Bishopthorpe 

1878 Yale, William Corbet, Esq., Plas-yn-Yale, Corwen 

L. 1844 Yates, Richard, Esq., F.S.A., Beddington, Surrey 

1844 Yewd, William, Esq., 37 Vaughau Road, Brixton 

187G Yorkshire Philosophical Society, York 

Local iflembens of ti)e Council, 

Berkshire Br. J. Stevens, Dorset Villa, Oxford Road, Reading 

Bris county Y and I * L Re 3™ lds ' Esc h> The Manor House ' Redland > Bristo1 

Cheshire Joseph Mayer, Esq.,F.S.A., Bebington, Vice-President 

Cornwall Rev. W. S. Lach-Szyrma, M.A., Newlyn, Penzance 

Derbyshire Alfred YVallis, Esq., 88 Friar Gate, Derby 

Devon F. Brent, Esq., 19 Clarendon Place, Plymouth 

( R. Blair, Esq., South Shields 
DURHAM < Rev. Dr. Hooppell, Byers Green, Spennymoor 

( J. H. Le Keux, Esq., 64 Sadler Street, Durham 

Edinburghshire J. R. Allen, Esq., F.S.A. Scot., 23 East Maitland Street, 

Guernsey Sir P. Stafford Carey, Candie, Guernsey 

Hampshire Rev. C. Collier, Andover 

Kim John Brent, Esq., F.S. A., Canterbury 

T ( James Kendrick, Esq., M.D., Warrington 

LANCASHIRE j Sir j A p ictoni F.S.A., Sandyknowe, Wavertree, 

Montgomeryshire M. C. Jones, Esq., F.S.A., Gungrog, Welshpool 

( W. A. T. Amherst, Esq., M.P., Didlington Park, 
NORFOLK < Brandon, Norfolk 

( Sir L. W. Jarvis, Knt., Middleton Towers, King's Lynn 


Shropshire W. Henderson, Esq., Ashford Court, Ludlow, Salop 

Somersetshire ... Colonel James R. Bramble, Clifton 


{ J. T. Irvine, Esq., Lichfield 
Staffordshire ... j c Lynani) Esq., Stoke- upon -Trent 

Suffolk H. Trigg, Esq., Bury St. Edmund's 

(T. N. Brushfield, Esq., M.D., Asylum, Brookwood, 
Surrey \ Woking 

( B. Hicklin, Esq., Holly House, Dorking 

( M. H. Bloxam, Esq., F.S.A., Rugby 
Warwickshire ... j w G FrctfcoU5 Esq., F.S.A., 88 Little Park Street, 


Wiltshire II. J. F. Swayne, Esq., The Island, Wilton, near Salis- 

( J. Tom Burgess, Esq., F.S.A., Worcester 
Worcestershire... j H -^^ Egq ? Green mU) Evesham 

( Rev. W. C. Lukis, M.A., F.S.A., Rectory, W r ath, Ripon 
\orksiiire j j jy Leader) Esq., F.S.A., Broomhall Park, Sheffield 

IJwnotarp Correspondents anti JToretgn jHembers, 

Arbellot, M. LAbbe, Limoges 

Ardant, Monsieur Maurice, Limoges 

Birch, Samuel, LL.D., Esq., F.S. A., President of the Society of Biblical 

Archaeology; Keeper of the Egyptian and Oriental Antiquities, British 

Bond, Edward A., Esq., F.S.A., President of the Palazographical Society ; 

Principal Librarian, British Museum 
Boutelou, Don Claudio, Seville 
Bover, Don Joaquin Maria, Minorca 

Bradshaw, H., Esq., M.A., University Librarian, Cambridge 
Brassai, Professor Samuel, Klausenberg, Transylvania 
Brugsch-Bey, H., Gratz 
Cara, Signor Gaetano, Cagliari 
Carrara, Professor, Spalatro 

Cassaquy, Monsieur Poncin, Seraings-sur-Meuse, near Liege 
Cesnola, General Luigi Palma di, New York 
Chalon, M. Renier, President of the Royal Numismatic Society of Belgium, 

Coste, Monsieur, Marseilles 

Courval, Le Vicomte de, au Chateau de Pinon, near Chavignon 
Dassy, Monsieur, Marseilles 
Delisle, Monsieur Leopold, Hon. F.S. A., Paris 
Delgado, Don Antonio, Madrid 
Durand, Monsieur Antoine, Calais 
Dubosc, Monsieur, St.-Lo, Normandy 
Dupont, Monsieur Gustave, Caen 
Dupont, Monsieur Lecointre, Hon. F.S. A., Poitiers 
Fillon, Monsieur Benjamin, Fontenay-le-Conite 
Formaville, Monsieur H. de, Caen 
Habel, Herr Schierstein, Biberich 
Hefner von Alteneck, Herr von, Munich 
Hildebrandt, Herr Hans, Stockholm 
Jones, T. Rupert, Esq., F.R.S. 


Klein, Professor, Maintz 

Kulme, Baron Bernhard, St. Petersburg 

Lenoir, Monsieur Albert, Paris 

Lenormant, Professor, Paris 

Lepsius, Professor R., (Jeheimrath, Berlin 

Ldndenschmidt, Dr. Ludwig, Maintz 

Longperier, M, Adrien de, Paris 

Michel, Francisque, Paris 

Nilsson, Professor, Lund 

Reichensperger, Monsieur, Treves 

Richard, Monsieur Ad., Montpellier 

J)u Rossi, Commendatore, Home 

Schliemann, Dr. II., Athens 

Da silva. Chevalier J., Lisbon 

Spano, The Canon Giovanni, Cagliari 

Stephens, Professor, Copenhagen 

Vassallo, Dr. Cesare, Malta 

Wright, W. Aldis, Esq., M.A., Cambridge 

Worsaae, His Excellency J. J., Hon. F.S.A., Copenhagen 

Yates, Giles Fulda, Esq., Albany, New York. 


The Society of Antiquaries of London, Burlington House, London, W. 

The Royal Archaeological Institute, New Burlington Street, W. 

The Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society. 

The Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Derby 

The Kent Archaeological Society. — Care of the Rev. Canon Scott-Robertson, 

The Somersetshire Society of Antiquaries, Taunton 

The Sussex Archaeological Society, the Castle, Lewes 

The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Royal Institution, Prince's St., Edin- 

The Wiltshire Archaeological Society 

The Cambrian Archaeological Association, 37 Great Queen Street, W.C. 

The Powys-Land Club. — Care of M. C. Jones, Esq., Gungrog, Welshpool 

The Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland, Royal Institu- 
tion, Cork, Ireland 

The Royal Dublin Society, Kildare Street, Dublin 


Britislj Svcljaeologtcal association. 

MARCH 1882. 



When last I took the chair at a meeting of this kind, 
which was at Northampton, where I had the honour of 
presiding over what I may call the sister Society, the 
Archaeological Institute, I chose as the subject of my 
address the defence of Restoration in opposition to the 
views of the body which its enemies have dubbed " the 
Ruinistic Society", but which, I think, calls itself the 
"Society for the Preservation of Ancient Buildings"; and 
I was not a little amused to find that the permanent Pre- 
sident of the Institute, who sat beside me, was himself a 
member of that Society. Probably many of those whom 
I see before me to-day are so likewise, for it is quite im- 
possible for an archaeologist not to feel a strong sympathy 
with the anti-restoration views I have referred to. We 
all of us remember the delight of our younger days, when 
we entered some country church unnoticed by Rickman, 
and found in it the undisturbed traces of the work of 
many centuries : here a Norman respond, there an Early 
English stringcourse broken by a Decorated or Perpen- 
dicular window ; then the search for straight joints and 
other marks by which we might complete our scheme of 
the history of the building ; lastly, the reference to the 
county history, and the occasional good fortune of light- 
ing upon some evidence of the true date of one or other 
of the changes we had noticed. These were the joys 
of the antiquary in the dirty, untidy, old, unrestored 

1882 1 


church. How changed it all is now ! We enter a restored 
church : all is spick and spau : all seems new; and even 
it' we find a suggestive mixture of various styles, we know T 
qoI what is due to the Gothic architect, and what to 
his humble follower, the architect of Queen Victoria's 
reign. And if the church is one we knew before, we are 
almost certain to miss something; perhaps a fragment of 
decorated glass, perhaps a bit of the Perpendicular screen 
now for v\t>v swept away. Is it not quite natural that we 
should regret the change ? Can we w r onder that a society 
should be formed to save the Goths from the Vandals % 

And yet, much as we must sympathise with the anti- 
restoration movement, there is not a little to be said on 
the other side. We look back to those archaeological 
delights of our younger days, and we hardly remember 
how dearly they were purchased. We are so accustomed 
to the w T ell ordered beauty of our churches now, that we 
foro-et the terrible disfigurements of those times. We 
have in this county, side by side, a restored and an un- 
restored church at Pershore. One, indeed, is a splendid 
example of Gothic ; the other a very poor one ; and so it 
may be said the comparison is hardly fair. But still I 
would ask any of the younger members of this Association 
who cannot date back their antiquarian pursuits to the 
earlier half of this century, when they visit Pershore, 
after inspecting the Abbey Church to go also into the 
other parish church close to it, and to believe what we 
older ones can assure them of, that many a parish church 
they now enter with artistic pleasure, if not with anti- 
quarian interest, was but little better, say in 1840, than 
that which seems to them so strange. And since these 
questions of restoration or preservation chiefly refer to 
our churches, it is impossible to forget that they are not 
merely monuments of antiquity serving for the delight of 
tht- archaeologist. They are buildings intended for use, 
for a most important, a most sacred use ; and to sacrifice 
the very purpose of their erection in an attempt to pre- 
serve their ancient features, would be something like the 
action, condemned by the ancient poet, of those who for 
tin- sak<- of life would lose all that made life valuable. If 
they art- now lc^s interesting as monuments, they are 
much more beautiful, more suited to the purposes of devo- 


tion as churches. Nor is there really any reason why 
both objects should not be attained. It is usually from 
ignorance or carelessness, it may be of the architect, it 
may be of the builder, it may be of the committee, 
that the old and interesting features have disappeared 
when the important work of restoration has been car- 
ried out. If care is taken to preserve as far as possible 
all old work, restoring where necessary, and not other- 
wise, just so much as needs it, and no more ; and not 
attempting, by over-careful matching of stone and other 
like tricks, to deceive the future student, however much 
the ignorant sight-seer may be taken in, I believe that the 
antiquary and the devout Christian may be equally well 

And this course may even be advantageously followed 
in cases other than those of churches. The well known 
Queen Eleanor Cross at Northampton has been restored 
three times, at long intervals ; each time most lovingly 
and carefully ; each time, as it happened, with stones 
from a different quarry. What is the result ? The tired 
wayfarer resting on his journey may still feast his eyes 
on the same beautiful object which has been the pride of 
the county for more than five centuries, while the careful 
student can verify the fact that it is the same in every 
detail of its design, and can find in it a noble example of 
the memorial road-side cross. Had the gentlemen of the 
county in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries not 
restored it, it would now be a mere wreck, even if it had 
been thought worth while that such a wreck should cum- 
ber the ground. 

You will see, during your visit to this neighbourhood, 
various examples of restored churches; some of unrestored 
also. I have not resided in this county long enough to 
pretend to speak to you with any competent knowledge 
of these, still less of the earlier antiquities you will have 
your attention called to. As regards the one building I 
have studied with any care, the Cathedral of Worcester, 
it is, perhaps, one of the finest examples of restoration 
you can anywhere meet with. I had almost said of over- 
restoration ; but had I done so I might have been mis- 
understood. The Society for the preservation of ancient 
buildings would probably condemn everything that has 


been done. I cannot agree with that view. I think the 
interior of the ( lathedral one of the finest I am anywhere 
acquainted with; I may say the very finest, considering its 
si/.c ; and from t lie old engravings, and from what I am 
told, it must he far finer now than it was before the work 
was begun. The outside of much of this building is terribly 
new, and, no doubt, much less picturesque than it was; 
bin in aii archaeological point of view what has been lost? 
Tlif whole of the outside stone had largely perished in 
the beginning of the eighteenth century, from the ravages 
of -the weather upon its surface. Mouldings and other deli- 
cate features could scarcely be traced. Then came the 
band, not of the restorer, but of the men who wished to 
make it neat and new and tidy. They pared down the 
mouldings, and reduced each stringcourse to what they 
looked upon as a more perfect condition ; they put on the 
top of the pinnacles neat spires formed like that of St. 
Andrew's Church ; they repaired the tracery of the east 
wiiK low according to their notions of what we should now 
call Late Gothic. Was all this worth keeping ? Is it 
not far better that our east window which we see so 
much from the interior, our pinnacles outside, our drip- 
mouldings and stringcourses, should be renewed to some- 
thing like their original Early English character, even 
though this involved some conjecture, some newness of 
appearance for a few years ? The walls were dangerous : 
unsightly modern buttresses supported them. Nothing 
short of rebuilding would suffice. The internal stonework 
was replaced stone by stone as far as possible. The out- 
side stone was going again as it had gone before. Was it 
not wise to substitute for it a casino: which would stand 
the weather, and put the Early English Cathedral of 
Worcester again before our eyes ? 

Si i far. then, I think the restoration of Worcester Cathe- 
dral was wisely and well carried out; so far I think those 
with whom the decision rested were perfectly justified in 
what they did. Still, in some respects, I think they went 
too far. The large, severe lancet windows of the eastern 
portion of the building had in most cases been subdivided 
by a mullion, and their lines filled with tracery at a later 
period of Gothic art. These features not being original, 
were removed at the restoration; and I cannot help re- 


gretting it, both as they were part of the history of the 
building in the period of our greatest architects, and also 
because it seems to me that we bave really lost some 
beauty by the change. I am told, indeed, that this 
tracery was of a very poor and mean character ; and, per- 
haps, had I seen it, I might have regretted it less than I 
do. Probably there are other points in which the archae- 
ologist may think he would have wished for a different 
result of the discussion which took place at that time. 
The Guesten Hall we must all of us regret : we cannot, 
I think, greatly blame the Dean and Chapter, who, 
although at the time engaged on the costly work of the 
Cathedral, offered to find £5,000 (one half of the esti- 
mated expense needed for the Guesten Hall) if those who 
desired its preservation would raise the rest, and received 
one promise of £5 towards it. 

But may not both systems, both restoration and pre- 
servation of ancient buildings, be objected to from another 
point of view ? Are not both alike the result — may not 
both alike be, in some degree, the cause — of a great want 
of originality in the present day % Who can imagine 
either the one or the other in the times of our great archi- 
tects, whether we take William of Sens, or William of 
Wykeham, or Christopher Wren ? It was not only 
Danish robbers, or accidental fires, or bad foundations, 
that destroyed our fine early churches. Scarcely was the 
Norman or semi-Norman Cathedral of Worcester (begun 
in 1084) completed and consecrated in 1218, when the 
Bishop laid the first stone of the Early English choir and 
chapels in 1224. Plenty of money was coming in, and so 
it was at once resolved to make the building much larger 
and much more beautiful, as they considered it. They 
did not think the older work so valuable that it must be 
preserved at any cost. Their idea was simply to do all 
they possibly could to beautify the place of God's sanctu- 
ary. Later on we do, indeed, find the men of the fifteenth 
century proud of their noble Norman Chapter House, and 
carefully and skilfully preserving it from the danger it 
then ran of becoming a ruin. But still they worked freely 
in their own fashion. They had to raise its walls, so 
they put into them what we call Perpendicular windows. 
They added buttresses outside, of the Perpendicular style. 


They left traces of the Norman entrance ; perhaps from 
antiquarian motives, more probably to save trouble ; but 
they did not hesitate to put in a Perpendicular doorway. 
All this they did as a matter of course. It was their way 
of building. What is ours ? Have we any style at all ? 
[f what we build now lasts five hundred years, will there 
be anything in it to tell in what century it was built ? 

I have said that the want of originality may be partly 
tli«' effect, perhaps also partly the cause, of our treatment 
of ancient buttdings, whether we treat them after the 
fashion which began some forty or fifty years since, "re- 
storing" them as far as we can to the design of their ori- 
ginal builders, or according to the new plan of " preserv- 
every scrap of work older than ourselves, without 
thinking much of the present use or object of the build- 
ing. Such careful and minute study of old work seems 
likely at least to check any freshness of artistic thought. 
It is quite true that in the period of the Renaissance the 
artists and architects did most carefully study and copy 
the works of the Romans as they found them in ruined 
arches and temples, and also in the domestic decorations 
of Herculaneum and Pompeii. But they were using them 
for new purposes; the palaces and churches of modern 
Italy were necessarily quite different from the houses and 
temples of the Romans; and thus what were to them 
Dew elements of beauty were worked into architectural 
designs, of which the essential constructional features, the 
plans, the elevations, the window T -spaces, the roofs, were 
already in full use; and from this combination of the old 
and the new a very beautiful style was soon produced. 
But the extraordinarily rapid deterioration of this style 
seems to shew that from the very first it was not based 
on sound principles. The copying of ancient forms and 
ancient decorations seems to have had, not immediately, 
but ultimately, the effect of destroying style altogether. 
And now we have again taken to this copying, and I fear 
the result will beeveu worse than before. Men of artistic 
will now, as ever, design and erect buildings that 
are beautiful: whatever the style, or the absence of style, 
of i he period, this will be the case ; but as a whole I fear 
eannol boasl of the Victorian age of English archi- 


T am afraid, in addressing you on the subject of modern 
architecture, I have wandered away from the proper busi- 
ness of the Archaeological Association ; and of course I 
am aware that even if the peculiar effects archaeological 
studies have had upon our architecture are to blame, in 
some measure, for its want of originality, they are not the 
only cause of it. For a long time perfection of workman - 
ship, in the sense of neatness and finish combined with 
cheapness, have been the object of Englishmen, beauty 
being left out of the question, or looked upon as an occa- 
sional extra ; and the natural result has been to throw 
much of our energy into the form of engineering rather 
than into the fine art of architecture. Still I think archae- 
ology is partly to blame. But we cannot help it. _ The 
study (for I will not call it a science) our Association is 
devoted to is far too interesting, far too valuable, to be 
checked by the thought that in some way it may do, or 
may have done, mischief. I suppose we most of us pur- 
sue it simply for its own sake, — the only effectual way to 
pursue any study, to seek for any kind of knowledge. 
But if we are asked what use it is of, we may fairly 
answer that it is the handmaid of history ; that it helps 
us to fill up the outlines given us by the chronicler of old 
times; that further back it is the only source of such his- 
torical knowledge as we possess ; and that it is by its 
means that we may, perhaps, hope eventually to solve the 
great questions of the unity or (non-unity) of the human 
race, of the original condition of man in respect of what, 
for shortness, we express by the words civilisation and 
morality, and other such questions which bear upon some 
of the deepest problems of the philosopher and the man 
of science, upon some of the most important beliefs of the 

And is there no remedy for the evils I have spoken of % 
I confess I see none. Some of the elements of advance in 
architecture, considered as a fine art, undoubtedly are 
present. There is something new to be mingled with the 
old. New materials unknown to the great architects of 
old, or at least new methods of treating the old materials, 
iron and other metals, glass, artificial stone, ought to give 
rise to something beyond what they did. There is also a 
fair demand for new buildings ; and not a few men of 


ability, of good artistic taste, who embrace the profession 
of architects. But all this has been true for the last fifty 
years, and very little has come of it. Nothing has come 
of it which may be indicated as characteristic of the pre- 
sent day. Perhaps, sooner or later, some architect may 
arise of pre-eminent genius, and may find some patron 
who will give him his own way, and let him found a 
school. Till then we must be satisfied to study the great 
works of the past. 



(Read August 24, 1881.) 

On the south side of the church is a paved narrow way 
leading from the churchyard to the main road, which now 
bears the rather uninviting title of "Cabbage" Lane, being 
a corruption of the word "Capuchin", which would indi- 
cate that at an early period of English history a body of 
( apuchin monks was established here. It is shewn, from 
documents which I am not now able to refer to, that a 
priest was stationed at Ledbury at the time of the Nor- 
man conquest. 

Whether any remains exist of a church earlier than 
the Conquest is doubtful ; but if there be any, the only 
fragment now remaining is the hagioscope on the north 
side of the chancel, which until about six years ago was 
blocked up with stone walling, plastered over, and hid 
from sight. The rudely constructed arch, built of stone 
from a neighbouring quarry, might lead to the conclusion 
that it was Saxon work ; but on this point, on which 
many opinions have been expressed, I leave you to draw 
your own conclusion. I am in some degree confirmed in 
my opinion that this is of pre-Norman date, from the 
fact that on the north side of the hagioscope, in what is 
known as St. Mary's Chapel or Chantry, a Norman piscina 
was introduced without interfering with the hagioscope 
on the south side of the wall. 

There is, however, no doubt that shortly after the Con- 
quest a Norman church existed of the length of the pre- 
sent one, viz., nave, 97 feet, and chancel, 90 feet, with 
side-aisles of narrow width, and chapels or chantries at 
the east end of those aisles, with then- altars, aumbries, 
and piscinas, the latter of which are still remaining. The 
Norman doorway with its rich mouldings, not unlike in 
character to the chancel-arch of Kilpeck Church in this 
county, the outline of two Norman windows, and the Nor*.. 
man buttresses with their conical heads, shew this afc the 
west end ; and the Norman arches of the chancei, the 


remains of two Norman windows, the two perfect ones in 
the north and south walls, and the buttresses at the east 
end shew unmistakably that such church existed. All 
trace- of Norman work in the east wall have disappeared, 
and a Perpendicular window takes the place of the Nor- 
man. An examination of the outside of the west end of 
the south aisle shews the foundation of an aisle about 
8 feet in width, similar to the south aisle of the Priory 
Church at Great Malvern; and the dripstone in the north 
and south walls of the chancel, underneath the circular 
clerestory windows, shews that those windows, during the 
existence of that church, were in the outer walls of the 
building. In the north aisle is a Norman pillar and capi- 
tal, from which sprang the arch which separated the aisle 
from the chapel or chantry ; and at the west end of the 
dripstone, on the north side of the chapel, is a portion of 
stone cut out at an angle, which shews the pitch of the 
roof of that aisle and chapel, which was evidently what is 
called a " lean-to" roof. From the grotesque carving of 
that date (forming, no doubt, some of the corbels), which 
Las been fortunately preserved, and inserted in the eastern 
ends of the north and south arcades, there is sufficient to 
shew that the Norman church was of no mean pretensions. 
The pillars of the Norman arches on the north and south 
sides of the chancel (square to a certain height, and then 
circular) are singular specimens of Norman architecture. 
The chapels on the north and south sides would appear 
to have had a stone screen to separate them from the 
chancel, for on the east end of the walls, under the capi- 
tals, are stones with mouldings-, and jambs which have 
loii ned one side of doorways to communicate with the 
chapels and chancel. The chancer- arch is one of the 
obtuse-pointed or drop-arches which are occasionally found 
in Norma n work of the latter part of the twelfth century. 
The peculiarity thereof is that the east and west sides do 
not correspond in their character and mouldings. 

The next important change which we find is the re- 
moval of the Norman side-aisles. In the early part of 
the thirteenth century, when the Early English style of 
architecture clianged the form of the windows, and elon- 
1 ones with tracery took the place of the Norman, 
the principal portion of the south aisle was built of a 


greater width than its predecessor, and appears to have 
been built at three different periods. The easternmost 
part (known as St. Anne's Chapel or Chantry), as appears 
from a straight joint in the wall, with its three windows 
and doorway, being the most ancient; then the aisle with 
its four windows, to another straight joint in the wall, 
where it probably ended. From that point westward a 
totally different style prevails in the formation of the 
buttresses, stringcourse, and inner mouldings of the win- 
dow jambs, the concave being changed to convex in the 
heads of the south-west and west windows. A respected 
parishioner, on whose judgment and authority I can rely 
(lately taken from us in mature old age), has told me 
that he recollects the window at the south-west corner 
and the window at the west end of the aisle with hori- 
zontal transoms and upright mullions, which would indi- 
cate the Perpendicular style ; and in this he is confirmed 
by entries in the churchwardens' books, in which is re- 
corded, "1818, Sept. 19. By cash received from Mr. Bid- 
dulph on account of west window, £20"; and in the year 
1824, "Mrs. Myddleton Biddulph, one moiety of expense 
to window in south-west corner of church, £6"; when 
the tracery of the old windows was taken out, and new 
introduced, to correspond with the other windows on the 
south side, and with the west window of the north aisle, 
producing the wretched specimens of anachronism we see. 

At a later period, while the Early English style pre- 
vailed, the north aisle was built, with its beautiful, tall 
windows at the east and west ends. The porch, or par- 
vise, appears to have been added about that period, as 
the same character prevails in the outer arch, in the arch 
of the doorway, and the windows on the north side of the 
aisle, which have this peculiarity, that the heads are not 
curved to merge gradually into the jambs, but spring 
from appoint ; and the heads take a shape approximating 
to an equilateral triangle. 

In the porch is a lower chamber, formerly connected by 
a staircase with two upper chambers for the use of the 
sacristan. One of them has a fireplace and piscina of 
Early English date. The proportions of the rooms have, 
however, been entirely destroyed by a fine specimen (I 
hope the last of its kind) of what is called "churchwardens' 


architecture", when, about thirty years ago, the ceiling of 
the lower chamber was raised, thereby interfering with 
the windows of the upper chamber as well as with one, or 
it may be a doorway, in the north wall of the church. 

Up to this date the north and south arcades of the 
nave remained in their Norman shape. In the early part 
of the fourteenth century, when the Decorated style was 
introduced, the south arcade was taken down, and the 
present pillars and arches were built, corresponding in 
form and moulding with those at Sandhurst Church in 
Kent, viz., a plain octagonal pier with a simple capital 
and moulded abacus. I am confirmed in my statement 
by the fact that when, in consequence of their deflection 
from the perpendicular, two of the present arches were 
taken down and rebuilt about three years ago, several 
Norman corbels like to those still remaining in the south 
wall of the chancel, and portions of circular clerestory 
windows, were found in the walls between the arches. 

At this same period, when the ball-flower, the ornament 
most peculiarly characteristic of the Decorated style of 
Gothic architecture, prevailed, the beautiful chapel known 
as St. Catharine's, at the north side of the north aisle, 
was built. The wall was pierced, and an archway was 
made to connect the aisle and chapel ; the original win- 
dow over the archway was shortened, and left as it 
appears at the present time ; but until a few years ago it 
was walled up, and plastered over. 

It may not be uninteresting to relate the legend of 
St. Catharine, to whom this chapel is dedicated. Catha- 
rine Audley, or St. Catharine as she is commonly called, 
was a religious woman in the time of Edward II, and had 
a maid called Mabel ; and not being fixed in any settled 
place, she had a revelation that she should not set up her 
rest till she came to a town where the bells should ring 
of themselves. There is a piece of land near Ledbury, to 
the wesl ward, called " Catharine's Acre", and another near 
it called " Mabel's Furlong". She and her maid, coming 
near Ledbury, heard the bells ring, though the church 
doors were shut, and no ringers there. Here, therefore, 
she determined to spend the remainder of her days, and 
built a hermitage, living on herbs, and sometimes on 
milk, which she sent for to a place called "The Hazle". 


The King, in consideration ofher birth and piety, or both, 
granted her an annuity of £30. 

The last change which took place in the architecture of 
the church was the substitution of the present north 
arcade for the Norman in the year 1G19, as appears by a 
date on the wall-plate of the roof. The meagre capitals, 
with the lozenge-shaped pillars, shew that Gothic archi- 
tecture was then on the decline. The workmen who built 
those arches and columns appear to have had one of two 
motives for their work, — either to be at as little trouble 
as possible, or to preserve all that remained of the Nor- 
man arcade ; for in the easternmost pillar some portion of 
the moulding of a Norman capital is visible ; and in four 
of the westernmost arches, the Norman hood-mouldings 
were used which give them their irregular and zigzag 
appearance ; while the two easternmost arches have 
mouldings of a different character. 

The tower, with its spire, next claims our attention. 
This is, and always has been, separated from the church. 
The lower portions thereof, up to and including the lower 
tier of windows, are of strictly Early English character. 
I recollect seeing a drawing, some years ago, where a 
shingle spire was placed immediately over the lower tier 
of windows, without any battlements. In the year 1733, 
July 18, the spirit moved the good people of Ledbury to 
take down the shingle spire, for in the churchwardens' 
books for that year it is recorded, " We whose names are 
hereunto subscribed do hereby agree that the tower shall 
be raised 6 foot higher than what is necessary, and the 
spire 1 6 foot, and to raise the bells, which shall not be at 
the parish charge, but by subscription, provided the Brief 
does not answer the same." The subscription seems to 
have been abandoned, for on February 20, 1734, there is 
an entry as follows : " At a vestry meeting it was ordered 
and agreed that the churchwarden be allowed to make a 
book towards paying the debt that was borrowed for 
building the spire, and going forward with the work, and 
defraying his charges by a book not exceeding fourty 
months ; and also order the churchwardens to do their 
endeavour to borrow money to pay what money was bor- 
rowed towards building the steeple." They raised the 
tower one storey, in which the bells were reining, and 


built tli*' present spire, not 1G feet, but 100 feet high; 
which for the time of its erection is a passable work, 
though the Corinthian cornice underneath the battlements, 
and the upper windows in the tower, ill accord with the 
graceful outline of the Early English windows and door- 
way beneath. The height of the present tower and spire 
12 feet. 

In the year 1771 the mutilation of the timber roofs 
commenced. A resolution in the churchwarden's book for 
that year is as follows : 1771, Sept. 5th, "Mr. Bridg, the 
present churchwarding, shall seele the midle ile of the 
church." No doubt the men of that generation were so 
well pleased with their performance that the north and 
south aisles were also ceiled; and in carrying out this 
unfortunate work, the mouldings on the timber- work, and 
wall-plates, and the stone cornices, were recklessly de- 
stroyed. Two of these ceilings have disappeared ; and 
the days of the remaining one, let us hope, are numbered. 

The roof of the south aisle, constructed entirely of 
English oak of massive dimensions, is an exact restitution 
of the original. On its being repaired, three years ago, 
under the superintendence of Mr. Haddon, architect, of 
Hereford, every feature of the old roof was retained. I 
have little doubt that the settling of the south wall from 
the perpendicular took place immediately after it was 
built, as it was found on careful examination and measure- 
ment of the principals of the roof, that they had been 
fitted to the expanded form of the walls. The panelled 
roof of St. Anne's Chapel at the east end of the aisle is 
an exact copy of the original, all old work being carefully 
retained. The roof of the north aisle, hidden by the pre- 
sent ceiling, is exactly similar to that of the south aisle. 
All the roofs of the Early English character were of very 
high pitch. Towards the end of the fifteenth century 
they became much lower. Unfortunately the roofs of this 
chinch are placed on walls of a much earlier date, and 
consequently in the nave and north aisle especially they 
interfere with the heads of the windows. As we find 
them so we must leave them. 

I bave in my possession a report made by an eminent 
architect in the year 1858 (two years prior to my incum- 
bency), where the grand old oak roofs were pronounced 


to bo decayed ; sentence of condemnation was passed 
upon them, and plans, with specification, were given, sup- 
planting them by ordinary tie-beam roofs of red deal. 
Happily these plans were never carried out; and the roof's, 
so far from being decayed, will last for many ages to come. 

The doors at the northern entrance have a greater inte- 
rest attaching to them than their homely appearance 
would claim for them. About two years ago, when they 
were cleaned and planed to a fair surface, the workmen 
found several bullets embedded in the wood ; and I have 
little doubt that these doors were in existence at the time 
of the battle of Ledbury, when an engagement took place, 
on the 22nd of April 1645, between the Royalists and 

I may also call your attention to the glass sun-dial in 
one of the windows of the south aisle. I believe there are 
not many in existence. Curious in their way; but not to 
be altogether depended upon for their accuracy in denot- 
ing time, as the surface is affected by action of the wind. 

One or two monuments also call for a passing remark. 
The first is a small square brass in the floor at the south- 
east corner of the south aisle, with this quaint inscription, 

" The world's fashion defied, 
Our Lord's passion applied, 
His bliss only in this descried, 
Ould Richard Hayward died. 
An. Dom. 1618." 

The other is in a recess in the north-east window of the 
north aisle, where there is a recumbent figure of a female 
(unknown), which has evidently been removed from some 
other part of the church, as the altar-tomb on which it is 
placed is Perpendicular work, while the dress of the figure 
is of the time of Edward II. The cushion on which the 
head reclines being reduced in size, would indicate that it 
had been originally placed elsewhere, but removed and 
fitted to its present position. 

I think I have now called your attention to the princi- 
pal parts of this structure, to the various changes it has 
undergone in the last seven hundred years, and to the 
objects of interest which are worthy of notice. _ Ecclesi- 
astical architecture must always be regarded with pecu- 
liar interest. A thoughtful mind cannot but experience 


melancholy feeling on beholding the barbarous mutilations 
and additions to which the Gothic piles of the middle 
have been subjected; which, nevertheless, still retain 
a holy and venerable character, appearing through the 
land like monuments reared to bear testimony to the 
ins and piety of our forefathers. 
In former times the fabrics set apart for religious pur- 
poses were usually built from drawings, under the imme- 
diate superintendence of the ecclesiastics themselves, who 
sometimes even worked for the love of Christ's holy 
Church ; and although no vestige of their plans or their 
names exist, yet they wrought out for themselves each 
his own monument, " sere perennius", the wonder and ad- 
miration of succeeding generations. The appearance of 
an ancient Gothic church is often most magnificent and 
ini] losing, and even when of a plain and homely descrip- 
tion it is impressive and beautiful. There is a spirit in 
its time-honoured walls, and a reality about the building, 
that are extremely pleasing ; for however rude the mate- 
rials employed in its erection, there is never any attempt 
to i nake them appear other than they really are. The 
faithful builders, conscious of having exerted themselves 
to the uttermost, seem to have felt that any false preten- 
sions would be at variance with the holiness of the service 
to which the building was to be consecrated ; and that 
alone, in their estimation, would invest it with sufficient 
majesty. The great charm, however, of all the ancient 
churches consists in their possessing a sacred and devo- 
tional character which at once distinguishes them from 
every other class of buildings ; so that notwithstanding 
the different styles and variety of their architecture, they 
have a certain similarity of appearance which marks in a 
very significant and expressive manner that they are 
alike dedicated to the same holy service. At the Reform- 
ation, in the sixteenth century, they were generally de- 
spoiled of their sumptuous furniture and costly decora- 
tions ; but in other respects their appearance was not 
very materially affected by the alterations that were then 
made. They were afterwards subjected to many wanton 
and disgraceful mutilations during the reign of Charles I; 
but since thai stormy and eventful period, the injuries 
which the buildings have sustained are for the most part 
the results of shameful neglect or tasteless reparations. 



(Facet Nov. 17, 1881.) 

The building of which drawings are here given (the only 
ones, so far as I am aware, that have been made of it) is 
situate at the north-east angle of an elaborate chain of 
walls and bastions built outside the present walls of Cairo, 
and enclosing a space which has been, no doubt, desolate 
for centuries past, and now occupied only by enormous 
mounds of rubbish. These bastions combine high artistic 
work with that of fortification ; yet they are so completely 
buried to their very summits in the rubbish that their 
existence is scarcely noticed. I found, in fact, that they 
were scarcely known to many good archaeologists in Cairo 
itself, and I should probably have missed seeing them had 
it not been for my very kind and active friend Mr. Gre- 
ville Chester. They are shewn in Baedeker's plan, but not 
described. There is a good description in Murray, although, 
by a printer's error, the name of the Boorg is given to the 
angle of the present wall of the city, though the Boorg is 
correctly placed on the map. 

Murray's description is this : "It is a tower in which 
the builders lavished their utmost ingenuity. It is partly 
choked with mud and rubbish, but can still be entered by 
its slanting, vaulted passage. Various apertures for the 
admission of air, or communication with the outer pass- 
ages, are pierced in the walls. The object of this con- 
struction must be left to conjecture. It may probably 
have served originally as the quarter of the commanding 
officer, and might have also been used as a prison or tem- 
porary dungeon. Numerous quaint stories are associated 
with the place, which has acquired a bad reputation as 
being the resort of thieves and afrits. Several other 
towers and chambers constructed in the interior, to the 
south and west of the Boorg ez Ziffir, are worthy of care- 
ful inspection." 

The account is, so far, good ; but since it was written 

1882 - 


the Boorg, etc., have been further explored, and I can 
now give some more details respecting them. The Boorg 
is circular in plan, and being built at the external angle 
of thf walls has about three quarters of its circuit dis- 
engaged. The upper part is about 54 feet in diameter, 
externally. The greater part of this, and all the lower 
part, are quite buried in rubbish. Internally, the chief 
Feature is an octagonal hall about 26 feet in diameter, the 
level of its floor being about 38 feet below that of the 
] >lat i'< >rm inside the walls. The hall is entered by a sloping 
passage ; but whether by steps or inclined plane cannot 
be seen until the rubbish is cleared away. This entrance 
occupies one side of the hall. In each of the other seven 
sides is a recess, 10 feet deep, in the thickness of the wall. 

At the end of most of these recesses there is a niche 
ending in an arrow-slit, the whole being designed in a 
very artistic way. As their ends are choked with rub- 
bish, their external finish cannot be seen. All arches are 
pointed, and the main ones have an ornamental archi- 
volt, above which an Arabic, corbelled stringcourse leads 
the octagon into a circle, whence springs the dome. This 
is very well built (as is all the rest of the tower and the 
other fortifications), of good, squared masonry, unplastered. 
From the floor to the soffit of dome is about 62 feet ; but 
the dimensions are not very easy > get accurately on 
account of the rubbish. I ought to mention that in tak- 
ing them I was greatly assisted by Mr. Hayes, a well 
known engineer, in charge of the harbour works at Alex- 
andria, who with Mr. Waynman Dixon has kindly assisted 
me in such work, years back, at Cairo. 

The walls of the hall are about 14 feet thick to the 
inside of arrow-slits. What their thickness is beyond, the 
rubbish prevents one seeing. This hall is the chief feature 
of the tower, but certainly not the most curious, for 
partly by its side, and partly over it, are three passages 
winding round it at different heights, all arched with 
semicircular arches, as carefully built as the hall, but not 
decorated. The outer one is 3 feet 6 inches wide, and 
II feet high to soffit of arch, its pavement being somewhat 
below thai of the platform. It lias recesses over those of 
the hall. How this passage was entered cannot now be seen, 
as the part of the tower which opens into the internal 


angle of the fortification is destroyed ; but a staircase (j) 
is perfect, and leads to a wide landing (k, section), whence 
a staircase (l), part of which still remains, led over the 
fust passage to probably a walk defended by ramparts, 
round the outside of the Boorg. But these, or whatever 
else ^as in their places, are gone. 

In front of the landing an opening with two very steep 
steps in it leads to the second passage (a), which, as well 
as the third, is in the mass of masonry at the haunches of 
the dome. The second is only 2 feet 3 inches wide. An- 
other opening, facing the last, leads to the third passage, 
w hich is only 2 feet 1 inch wide. These two passages are 
so choked with rubbish that I cannot be quite sure as to 
whether their floors are level, or whether they partially 
wind to a higher level. The upper one is so narrow and 
so low (only 3 feet 9 inches to the soffit of arch, where I 
measured it) that it can scarcely have been intended for 
defence. What, then, was the object of this singular con- 
struction ? Were the two upper passages intended merely 
to lighten the weight of masonry in the dome ? I doubt 
it, and yet can offer no better solution of the problem. 
The first passage was, doubtless, formed to aid the de- 
fences in some way ; but it must have terribly weakened 
the walls. The nearest approach to the plan that I call 
to mind in our island, of mediaeval times, is the class of 
fortifications represented,^, c, by our Launceston castle, 
in which the keep has a large internal chamber in the 
centre, and a gallery all round it, covered, and with stairs 
leading to ramparts. But even this is very different from 
the Boorg. That the hall was probably a guard-chamber 
may, I think, be admitted. It would have light from the 
open passage, also from the arrows-slits, and possibly from 
an opening in the crown of dome. The entrance-passage, 
the arches to recesses, and even the arrow-slits, were 
ornamented with care and taste, and there are distinct 
traces of colouring on some of the ornaments. The hall, 
even thus, would scarcely be considered to be a very 
cheerful room ; but it would be more so under the hot sun 
of Egypt than with us. 

Several of the other bastions present features of great 
interest, though none are so singular as the Boorg. They 
are all entered, so far as I could see, by sloping passages, 

•20 BOORG EZ /IFF I It. 

like the Boorg, .and at the same level. One of the cham- 
bers is domed over by courses of masonry winding round 
it spirally to the top, where they end as shewn. St.Vitale, 
at Ravenna, lias also its circular dome built over an octa- 
gon in tin- same spiral way; but the construction there is 
of earthen jars in place of masonry. 

A few words now as to the probable date and builder 
of these curious bastions. The history of the Avails of 
( Jairo is by no means clear. The city itself, setting aside 
Fostat and Boulak as suburbs, consists of four separate 
quarters, anciently distinct, as shewn on my rough map. 
The part best known to Europeans, as containing their 
hotels, is really on the site of the most ancient, having 
existed before the Arab invasion, and then known as El 
Maqs. It is the north-west quarter of the city, and the 
Nile formerly flowed directly to the west of it. The 
southern part, comprising the mosques Hassan and Too- 
loon, the Horsemarket, etc., was built by Sultan Tooloon 
in the ninth century. It was then called El Kataii. Tlie 
city of Cairo, El Kahireh (the Victorious), is to the north- 
east, and was founded by the Fatemite Caliph Moez c. 
973. It may be worthy of remark that his general, Gow- 
her, was sent on his conquering expedition to Egypt 
from Kairwan in Tunis, now again famous. The fourth 
quarter was the great citadel built by the famous Saladin 
in 1166. 

So far is well known ; but the time at which the fortifi- 
cations which I have described were erected, and who were 
their authors, have still to be learnt. Why, also, was the 
large space between them and the present walls given up 
to desolation? As to these points, I have searched through 
all the Arabic historians whose works, so far as I know, 
have been translated into English, German, French, or 
Latin, the total results being these: the three great gates 
of El Kahireh (the only ones of importance), viz., Nazr,Foo- 
t iili. and Zweileh, were built under the direction of the 
Tunisian (Fatemite) General Gowher in the tenth century. 
At first no walls were built, the height of the houses ren- 
dering these unnecessary. In the eleventh century the 
Sultan Mustansir (or rather his celebrated Vizier, Bedr al 
Djemely) reconstructed the three gates, and surrounded 
the city with a brick wall. In the twelfth century Sala- 


din built a stone wall in place of the brick, joining all to 
the Citadel ; but whether the Boorg formed part of this 
wall, or whether the present actual wall of the town was 
his, or why fortifications so extensive and costly were 
given up to ruin, there is nothing to tell us from these 

As to the utter desolation which now reigns in the 
vacant space, the only solution which they suggest is the 
terrible series of earthquakes, plague, and famine, which 
well nigh destroyed inhabitants and buildings alike in 
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. No details more 
horrible exist than those given by Abd-al-Latif, who wrote 
of what lie himself witnessed in 1232 ; and we may well 
believe that such a piece of ground as this might possibly 
have been desolated by the earthquake, abandoned as a 
plague, and never afterwards rebuilt. But this is a mere 
theory, without absolute proof. In absence of historical 
proof as to the date of the Boorg, we are thrown back on 
a comparison with any buildings of a like character or of 
a like architectural style. The only building of Arabic 
times, with which I am acquainted, whose design at all 
resembles the Boorg, are parts of the grand fortress of 
Subeibeh, which occupies one of the grandest positions I 
know, on a spur of Mount Hermon, commanding the direct 
road from Banias to Damascus. One of the bastions of 
this fortress is almost perfect, and is semicircular outside, 
and semi-octagonal within ; and although not finished 
with such decorative work as the Boorg, has much of the 
same style and careful finish. 

Now there are numerous inscriptions in this castle 
which corroborate the statement of Arabic historians that 
it was built by the Moslems at the end of the twelfth 
century, and reconstructed in the thirteenth. This gives 
us some clue, though slight. Were the question one as 
to a building in the Pointed style, the solution would he 
one of no great difficulty ; but it is quite different with 
respect to the early stages of Arabic art. I am ignorant, 
except from books, of Spanish art ; but I have seen most 
of the Arabic edifices in Egypt, Palestine, Sicily, and 
Algiers, and confess my inability to decide with any cer- 
tainty, from the styles alone, what would be the date of 
any early Arabic work. Materials of older structures were 


so constantly used under Christrian architects in this 
work that we have a mixture of Roman, Byzantine, Ara- 
bic, and Norman, or (as Mr. Street tells me that he thinks) 
Spanish details and design, that for my own part 1 always 
I very great hesitation at arriving at an opinion. We 
have some few well dated buildings, as, e. g., the three 
gates (eleventh century), and they present much such a 
mixture as one would expect. The Mosque Tooloon is 
often quoted as a complete example of perfected Arabic 
work: and if the year 879 be accepted as its date, we 
have, undoubtedly, as fine a basis for study as we could 
wish. But the Arabic historians state distinctly that the 
mosque was largely decorated by the fanatic Hakim, c. 
1000, quite abandoned by the end of the thirteenth cen- 
tury, ruined by earthquakes, and then rebuilt as it now 
stands. There are, however, Cufic inscriptions remaining 
which appear to authenticate the early date. 

Finding so much difficulty in the matter, and being 

anxious to obtain for you all the information in my power, 

I wrote to Mr. Ronald Michel, who I knew had taken 

great interest in it, and had studied it on the spot. _ He 

kindlv answ ered me as follows, in a letter which I received 

only a few days since : " I endeavoured, when in Cairo, 

to obtain information, searching El Makrizi and other 

works, as you have done, and also consulting persons who 

might be interested in such subjects, especially Ali Pasha 

Mubarek, formerly Minister of Public Works and of Public 

Instruction, but without results. My idea is that the old 

walls in which the Boorg is situate are of the Fatemite 

period, dating from the time of El Mustamir and his 

Vizier, Bedr-el-GfemaTi, i.e., of the eleventh century. This 

quarter was specially exposed to attack, and may often 

bave suffered destruction. When, much later, the inner 

walls were built, the intermediate space may have been 

srved for military purposes. When deserted, it became 

a resorl lor thieves and other bad characters, and so ac- 

quired its evil name and reputation." 

Thus, according to Mr. Michel's opinion, the evidence 
is in favour of the Boorg having been built in the eleventh 
cenl ury. Tins is borne out by some notes by El Makrizi 
(the author quoted), who wrote at the end of the four- 
teenth cenl ury. But he states in another part, as do also 


otlier historians, that Saladin in the twelfth century sur- 
rounded Cairo with a stone wall, and that the eleventh 
century wall was in part at least of brick. After quoting 
Mr. Michel's letter I could scarcely venture to give an 
opinion contrary to his ; otherwise I confess that I acqui- 
esce in what is, I believe, the general opinion that the 
Boorg is not earlier than the time of Saladin. 

I trust that this singular work may be preserved. Its 
position is perilous. It is sad to know that the Mosque 
Tooloon, to which I have referred, and which has been an 
object of interest to every visitor of Cairo, is in the last 
st age of decay; that the beautifully carved ceiling of Kait 
Bey's tomb has been partly replaced by execrable modern 
work ; that many an object of exquisite beauty which I 
.sketched in the old Coptic churches only five years since, 
has vanished ; and that some of the houses in the middle 
of the city, containing the most beautiful studies of orna- 
ment and plan, are going fast to ruin. We can almost 
put up with the modern French town springing up round 
the old one, as it serves to shew more strongly its beauty 
by the contrast , ' :ough we would fain have the old city 
framed in, as Damascus is, by foliage and gardens and 
running streams. But that the old city should be left 
intact and well cared for, every one, however little he may 
care for art, must fervently wish ; but seeing how the 
steady progress of decay is working its will, little checked, 
in the fine old Arabic buildings, I can only wish, but with 
somewhat slender hope, that they may be spared to de- 
light future travellers as they have delighted me. 







The Benedictine Monastery of Worcester, attached to 
and carrying out the religious services of the Cathedral 
( '1 lurch, is justly celebrated by many writers for its Anglo- 
Sax on literary treasures, although, perhaps, most of my 
readers will become cognisant of this fact now for the 
first time. I propose, on this occasion, to draw a short 
and rapid sketch of the principal points of interest which 
attach to the expression, "a Saxon charter", and to shew 
how far Worcester Cathedral may be considered fortunate 
in having possessed, or unfortunate in having (I hope, 
however, only temporarily) lost sight of nearly a hundred 
and fifty of these highly valuable relics of our past national 
history. First, then, let us review the facts which circle 
round and indicate the value of a Saxon charter. 

One of the most intelligent historians of this century, 
and certainly one of the most painstaking and enlight- 
ened, the late Mr. J. M. Kemble, compiled and published 
for the English Historical Society — a Society which has 
done some of the best work of its kind — the Codex 
Diplomaticus JEvi Saxonici,m six volumes, 8vo., to which 
he prefixed an introduction with which every ant icjuary 
should be familiar. From this and from other kindred 
sources, and above all from an observation of a large num- 
ber of the charters themselves in the British Museum 
and elsewhere, I have gleaned the information which I am 
about to lay before my readers. 

What, then, is a Saxon charter? It is to the Saxon 
charter that the antiquary points as to the highest and 
oldest native and authentic record of our insular history. 
To it we must look for nearly all our information respect- 
ing the law <.f real property, the descent and liability of 
lands. 1 he mature of tenures and services, the authority of 
t he sov< reign, of the nobility and of the Church, and even 


the power of popular councils. But however great the 
light which Saxon charters throw upon the foundations 
and gradual growth of our laws, their value is not less as 
illustrating the minuter details of early English history. 
That which they are to the codes of monarchs in a legal 
sense, they are also to the annalists in a historical sense. 
"Too much ignorance", says Kemble," prevails in England 
respecting the habits of our Saxon ancestors. Too ninny 
of our most polished scholars have condescended to make 
themselves the echoes of degenerate Greeks and ener- 
vated Eomans, and to forget the double meaning which 
lurks in the epithet ' barbarous'. Want of power, too, to 
comprehend the peculiarities of the Saxon mind, without 
which no one will comprehend the peculiarities of the 
Saxon institutions, has led others to describe the ances- 
tors of the English nation as half-reclaimed savages, 
without law, morals, or religion. To these unfounded 
assertions it is enough to oppose the fact that nearly all 
European civilisation went forth from our shores when 
the degraded remnants of Roman cultivation survived 
only to bear witness in their ruins to the crimes of the 
respective nations, and the punishment which national 
crimes have never yet failed to merit and receive." 

It was, as is w T ell known, the appointed work of the 
Teutonic race to reinfuse life and vigour, and the sanctity 
of a lofty morality, into institutions perishing through 
their own corruption, and the Anglo-Saxons were not the 
least active in fulfilling their share of this great duty. 
We may rest assured that when the Teutonic tribes first 
attracted the attention of the south, they already pos- 
sessed, more or less developed, the principles of that sys- 
tem of polity which has at length found its completion in 
the institutions of this country : a land that, in spite of 
all its changes, still of all European nations is the most 
true to its Germanic prototype. One fact, we are told, 
common to the Celtic, German, and Wendish tribes, ap- 
pears to have impressed itself powerfully upon the lioman 
observer, who could find no parallel to it in the customs 
of his own country. The typical principle of the Roman 
law was, " the property or land of the individual citizen, 
the ager, which was bounded and defined by civil and 
religious ceremonies." On the other hand, the typical 


principle of the Teutonic law was "the land held in com- 
mon, the German cat"', — a term which to this day, for 
exam] lie. survives as a final syllable in the well known 
Ober-Ammergau, the home of mystery-play or religious 
(liama. and many other more or less renowned places. 
Out of this, either in its development or its disturbance, 
arose the democratic and elective, or the aristocratic and 
monarchical, power in Europe. In a word, the Roman 
law looked to and considered the individual member of 
the state, tlie citizen ; the Tr.r ic law based itself upon 
the family bond. 1 The noble r i tons, like their kings or 
chief's, undoubtedly possessed lands ; and this very fact 
of possession necessarily supposes the means and forms of 
transfer, and the gradual establishment of a system of 
law based on that of possession and transfer. It is highly 
probable that the Anglo-Saxons had symbolical means of 
perfecting a transfer, similar to the Frankish methods at 
a contemporary age in vogue ; and Mr. Kemble, with 
considerable reason, conjectures that the multitude of 
methods by which, in the later middle ages, livery of 
seizin might be given, — nay, even the particular, varying, 
and unconventional customs of various manors, so many 
of which are recorded in Blount's Fragmenla,—had their 
origin in the ancient provisions of Teutonic law, and not, 
as has been sometimes alleged, in the mere caprice of 
individuals. The red rose, the pair of white gloves, the 
gilded spur, the clove, the pepper-corn, the pound of 
spices, the custard-apple, common forms of annual rent (in 
addition to the j>rrs<n,<il services) attached to the perpe- 
tual tenure of lands, must in like manner be looked upon 
as based rather upon some older forms of service than as 
merely nominal provisions upon the part of the grantor 
to indicate his paramount tenure, and his claim in case of 
a failure on the part of the grantee and his heirs to per- 
form the duties which were inherent to a due and legal 
possession of the property. 

With the advent of St. Augustine, a.d. 597, the only 

1 "Possession of a certain amount of land in the district was the 
indispensable condition of enjoying the privileges and exercising the 
rights of a freeman. There is no trace of such a qualification as con- 
stituted citizenship :it Alliens or Rome. Among our forefathers the 
exclusive idea of ciTT had no sway." (Kemble, Saxons in England, i, 
38 ; 


native writing employed up to that time, the Runes 
carved on stones and wooden blocks (characters ill fitted 
for long documents), gave way to the elaborate Roman 
writing and the parchment or papyrus. Some of our 
documents 1 (a few, alas ! we can only say) belong to this 
early Augustine period. They are written in uncial cha- 
racters, and bear marks of a Roman and ecclesiastical 
origin, differing considerably from forms afterwards cur- 
rent in Europe, and resembling in some respects ancient 
papyri, more especially in grammatical solecisms and erro- 
neous constructions. 

" What is remarkable", says Mr. Bond, 2 "in the forms 
of minuscule writing in the earlier characters, is their dis- 
tinctness from foreign characters of the same period, their 
resemblance to Irish types, and their beautiful execution. 
The particular forms of letters have had the same origin 
as those of the Roman and Merovingian cursive writing, 
and it is interesting to trace the connection; but the 
common type has been worked by the caligraphers of 
these islands into shapes of beauty and clearness strongly 
contrasting with those of Continental use. That the 
school of caligraphy first developed itself in Ireland, and 
thence was introduced into England, may be concluded 
not only from historical facts shewing close intercommu- 
nion of the two countries, and from the earlier civilisation 
of Ireland, but from comparison of existing MSS." 

Kemble goes on to say that "the extreme importance 
attached to the destruction of all remnants of heathen- 
dom to which the symbolic transfers more especially be- 
longed, rendered it, from the very first, necessary to sub- 
stitute for them such forms as the Church had sanctioned, 
since in all times the possession and transfer of land had 
become one of the deepest foundations of the whole social 
polity. I therefore see no reason to doubt that land was 
transferred by documentary forms from the very first in- 
troduction of Christianity among the Anglo-Saxons. 

" Let us now investigate wherein those forms consisted. 
Throughout Europe the documentary dispositions of the 
Latins" prevailed. The conquerors readily adopted such 
portions of the law of the conquered as applied to those 

1 Cf. Cott. MS. Augustas, ii, 2, a.d. 679 ; ii, 29, a.d. G92-3 ; ii, 3, A.D. 
736. 2 Brit. Mas. Facs., iv, 8. 


new relations of life which the conquest itself had created, 
and those social wants which had not been provided for 
in their own unwritten, customary law. The formal study 
of the Roman law still survived in the seventh century. 
AMhelm of Malmesbury remarks upon the time and pains 
it cost bo master it. and declares it to have been a pursuit 
of his own. Wilfrid of York was celebrated for his pro- 
ficiency in it, to which, in part at least, he probably owed 
his unpopularity in England, and the undeviating sup- 
port he received from the papal court. The peculiar 
habits and disposition of each individual people, and mani- 
fold accidental circumstances, had undoubtedly tended to 
liit reduce great variations into the received system ; but 
in the main the formularies were those of the empire and 
the Church ; for amongst the Lombards, Franks, East 
and West Goths, and other nations that successively pre- 
vailed to dismember the enfeebled Colossus of the empire, 
in spite of all the changes which time, conquest, or opinion 
hit reduced, the Church, as a body, continued to live under 
the " Lex Romana" or Roman system of rights, privileges, 
immunities, and duties ; and in direct proportion to the 
influence of the clergy was the predominance of Roman 
and ecclesiastical forms. The Roman law was necessarily 
in many respects more favourable to the clergy than the 
national law of the conquering tribes, which could contain 
but few provisions suited to the circumstances of their 
condition. It was, moreover, the code of the orthodox ; 
while the German invaders were for the most part tainted 
with semi-Arian, if not Arian heresy. Add to this that 
the clerical profession was one of power and dignity, and 
to which a gentleman might devote himself without im- 
peachment of his gentility, and that all nationality was 
generally found to merge in the new feelings appertain- 
ing to the class. As Savigny well observes, " Whatever 
nation they might belong to by birth, their priestly cha- 
racter made them belong to a new nation, the clergy": 
hence, both for themselves and those whom they could 
influence, they retained as much as possible of their 
national forms, viz., the Roman. The collection of Mar- 
culfus professed to embody these for the Merovingian 
Franks; other collections have retained the precedents of 
the Carlovingian princes ; the still older formularies of 


Cassiodorus did the same for the Ostrogoths in Italy ; 
the Liber Diurnus <>f the Church supplied similar patterns 
for ecclesiastical instruments, unmixed with national pecu- 
liarities. A similar work might, perhaps, be compiled 
from the Anglo-Saxon charters, so regular and strict are 
they in form ; and as their authenticity seems capable of 
being tested in some degree by such internal evidence, it 
will be advisable to subject these forms to a detailed ex- 

With the Anglo-Saxons, the land, wherever it may 
have been situated, was to be held, generally speaking, 
on the usual terms : that is, the repair of bridges, fort- 
resses, and military service, — " nisi pontis constructione, 
arcis edificatione, et hostium expeditione." The terms of 
these burdens upon the lands granted by Saxon kings are 
so interesting that the remarks of Kemble upon them 
may well be introduced here. He says : x " The one com- 
mon and unavoidable duty, called the 'communis labor', 
'generale incommodum', ' trinoda necessitas', etc., was the 
repairing of bridges, fortifications, or other public build- 
ings, and military service. From these no one was ex- 
cused ; and they were so essentially a part of the ancient 
and customary law of the land, that the attempt to escape 
from them casts well deserved suspicion upon any docu- 
ment in which it is found It does not appear from the 

charters whether these burdens, like the corvee of the 
French Feudists, were a personal service, or capable of 
being compounded for at a fixed sum, a kind of county 
rate. Whichever was the case, and perhaps both forms 
may have existed together, the want of any stipulation 
in the documents as to the amount serves to shew either 
that there was a fixed and invariable proportion, or that 
the assessment was made, pro hdc vice, by all the land- 
owners in county court assembled, and was not dependent 
on the will of the grantor. It was 'onus commune'; the 
advantages of the community superseding all privileges, 
even those of the clergy. But military service is not sus- 
ceptible of such commutation in the early stages of a 
country, when the population is thinly scattered over a 
wide extent of uncultivated land." 

With these preliminary observations I will pass on to 

1 Vol. i, p. 51. 


the immediate subject of my paper, which is(l)an inquiry 
into the Qumber and value of the Anglo-Saxon charters 
which have been recorded as extant among the Worcester 
Cathedral muniments; and (2) an endeavour to shew how 
far linguistic, literary, and monastic history has suffered 
by their dispersion. 

" There is no doubt that when, before the time of William 
the Conqueror, the literary monk Heming, of whose 
memory every Wigornian should be justly proud, wrote, 
or rather coin] tiled, his Register, of which the MS., now 
known as Tiberius A xiii (in the Cotton Collection of the 
British Museum) is the autograph, and that edited by 
Hearne 1 (when in possession of Richard Graves of Mickle- 
ton) a contemporary copy, between two and three hundred 
original Anglo-Saxon diplomata were contained in the 
Worcester scriptorium or muniment-room. Heming him- 
self gives a very graphic account of the way in which his 
interest in them was excited and sustained, which I shall 
translate here from the original autograph MS. in the 
British Museum : 

" Enucleatio Libelli. 

"Hunc libellum, de possessionibus hujus nostri monastevii, Ego 
Heraingus monachus et sacerdos quamvis indignus, et conservus servo- 
rum Dei habitantium in Monasterio sanctte Dei Genitricis Mariae, silo 
in urbe, que anglice Wigornaceaster nominatur, multorum antiquorum 
hominum et maxime domni Wlstani episcopi, piissimi patris nostri, 
edoctus relatione, et corroboratus auctoritate, quaedam etiara ex nostra 
memoria ipsemet, quibus aut interfui, aut que nostra elate facta sunt, 
intermiscui, utpote de terris, quas Francigeni invaserunt, qua? omnia 
fcanto certins dico, quanto ea nostra memoria recolit facta, ea maxima 
intentione composui, ut posteris nostris claresceret, qua? et quanta? pos- 
sessiones terrarum ditioni bujus monasterii adjacere, ad victum dun- 
taxat servorum Dei, monachorum videlicet, jure deberent, quamque 
injuste vi et dolis spoliati his caremus Noverit autem studiosus lec- 
tor me hoc opus non mea presumptione, sed plurimorum rogatu, max- 
ime tamen ipsius reverentissimi patris nostri jam dicti et sepe nomi- 
nandi domni videlicet Wlstani episcopi jussionc, incepisse, cujus 
orationibns suffultus, veraciter credo ad finem usque me perduxisse. 

1 Hearne appears to have collated the Cotton MS. with the Graves 
MS. : "At priusquam prelo committeretur hoc chartularium {i.e., Gra- 
num),ut cum autographo in Bibliotheca Cottoniana (i.e., Tiberius 
A xiii) conferretur, euravimus." (Hearnii Prefatio, lxii.) Bat I am not 
able to make out why he continually seems to be transcribing from the 
Cotton MS., nor am I able to say what has become of the Graves MS. 


"Solebat namque, inter jocunda ammonitionis sue colloquial qujfl 
nobiscum ut pins pater frequenter habere delec'tabatur, nou qnidcm 
mc solum expresso nomine, sed cunctos fratres, qnos forte casus sil 
presentaverat, pigritise et desidiaa arguere, cur nos, otio torpentes, re 
precedent] sive nostro tempore gestas, de possessionibus duntaxat eccle- 
sise nostiic nollemus litteris commendare, cum nos et plura oculis nos- 
tris facta vidissemus, et ipse, utpote vir venerande senectntis et 
caniciei, multa posset recolere quae pluriraorum nou erant recondita 

"Aiebat enim non minimum posteritatis nostras teraporibua si litte- 
rali memorise commendaretur, huic monasterio evenire posse, Deo do- 
nante, proficuum, sieut e contrario, si negligeretur, accideret damnum, 
dura nullus snperesset, qui memoria recolere posset, aut ei etati rerum 
gestarum veritatem vel ordinem nam • aosset. His siquidem adhor- 
tationibus plurimum instigatus, ad pofctremum etiam ejus prsecepto 
constrictus, el auctoritate corroborates, hoc opus aggredi sum exorsus, 
in jubentis magis orationibus, quam in propriis viribus confisus. Erat 
namque idem reverentissimus pater roster, licet secularium rerum 
minime cupidus, hujus monasterii plurimum studens semper utilitati- 
bus, et ne sua, ut quorundam predecessorum suorum, negligentia, 
commissa sibi ecclesia damnum aliquid posteris temporibus pateretur, 
pro posse suo precavebat providus. 

" Unde et scrinium monasterii coram se reserari fecit, diligenterque 
omnia antiquorum privilegia et testamenta de possessionibus hujus 
ecclesia? perscrutatus est, ne forte custodum negligentia putrefacta, aut 
iniquorum avaritia forent distracta. Cumque ex parte, ut putavei-at, 
reperisset, curavit studiose et putrescentia reparare, et, qua? inique dis- 
tracta fuerant, strenue adquirere, adquisita vero insimul congregare, 
congregataque in duobus voluniinibus studuit ordinare. In uno qui- 
dem ordinavit omnia primitiva testamenta et privilegia, in quibus 
manefestabatur, quomodo vel per quos primo terrarum possessiones 
huic monasterio date sint ; in altero vero cyrographa quibus beatus 
Osvvaldus archiepiscopus, cum adjutorio regis JEdgari, terras injuste a 
viris potentibus aliquanto tempore possessas, ditioni ecclesia? attitula- 
vit, easque regali auctoritate et senatorum consensu et principum 
patriae testimonio, data unicuique cirographi cautione, post duorum vel 
trium heredum tempora, juri ecclesia? absque coutradictione reddendas, 
cirographorum etiam exemplaribus in scrinio sancta? ecclesia? ob testi- 
monium collocatis, suis script is successoribus manifestavit. 

" Quibus ordinatis, precepit, cuncta eodem ordine in bibliotheca 
sanctaa ecclesia? scribi, quatinus etiam si, ut assolet, contingeret, quod 
aliqua negligentia testamentorum scedula? perderentur, earum exempla- 
ria saltern in ibi conscript;' nullatenus oblivioui traderentur. Hoc quoque 
juxtavelle et imperium e n patrato, praecepit adhuc, omnia privilegia 
et cirographa terrarum, ■ proprie ad victum monachorum pertinent, 
separatim ex his congre .iri, eaque similiter in duobus voluniinibus 

1 Wlstau could also shew another and a sterner mood, if we may 
trust his contemporary admirer and biographer, William of Malmes- 
bury, who has left a highly finished biographical sketch of the great 
prelate, in which are contained many curious anecdotes that I may not 
mention on this occasion. 


eodem ordine adunari, quod in hoc codicello, ejus, ut predixi, imperio, 
pro modulo mese parvitatis, studiosus lector fecisse me animadvertere 

" Deprecor, ergo, ut si cui hie parvitatis mea? labor cordi sedet, ora- 
tionis mercedem milii peccatori impendere non deneget. Si cui vero 
disp[l]icet, aut superfluum judicat, sciat me rion fastidiosis et desidio- 
sis, sed strenuis et studiosis laborasse, eisque qui pro sanctse matris 
ecclesina proficuo et augmentatione non solum strenuc certare, verum 
etiam, si necesse erit, et semet ipsos impendere non dubitant, hoc opus 

"Annuat, qua?so, omnipotens Deus, ut sancta? ecclesiaa honor et 
potestas jugiter crescat et augmentetnr, ad laudem domini nostri Ihesu 
Christi, qui cum Patre et Spiritu Sancto vivit et regnat Deus in secula 
seculorum. Amen." (Tib. A. xiii, f. 130b-132 ; Hearne, i, 282-286.) 

This work concerning the landed property of this our monastery, I, 
Heming, although only an unworthy monk and a priest, and a fellow- 
servant of God's servants who dwell in the Monastery of the Blessed 
Mary, God's Mother, set in the city which is called in English Wigor- 
naceaster, taught by the relation of many men of the old days, and 
chiefly by Dom Wlstan the Bishop, our very pious father, and con- 
firmed by his authority, have composed, and have introduced into it 
certain points which have come to my mind, either because I was pre- 
sent at them, or because they happened in my time ; as, for example, 
that about the lands which the Franks invaded ; all which I so much 
the more assert in proportion as my memory recalls their occurrence. 
I have, I say, composed them with the greatest care, in order that it 
may be clear to future ages what manner of landed property by right 
ought to lie under the rule of this monastery ; to wit, for the suste- 
nance of God's servants, I mean the monks, although we are deprived 

of them, being unjustly despoiled by force and craft And I would 

have the careful reader know that I have undertaken this work not 
on my own presumption, but by the special request of many persons, 
and especially by command of the same our most reverend father, 
already mentioned, and often about to be spoken of, I mean Bishop 
Wlstan ; and I verily believe that it is from being supported by his 
prayers that I have been led along safely to the end of my task. 

For it was his wont, among the pleasant conversations and admoni- 
tions which the holy father was often pleased to hold with and bestow 
upon us, not only to accuse me expressly by name, but all the brethren, 
as they fortuned to be present, of slothfulness and idleness. Why did 
we, slavishly slothful as we were, shew ourselves unwilling to put 
together into writing an account of the affairs which had taken place 
in previous times, or even in our own days, in reference to the landed 
property of our own church ; particularly since we could see more 
things going on under our eyes everyday, and he himself, as was natu- 
ral with a man of a venerable old age, whose hair was hoary with Lis 
Long years, could call to mind many things which were not stored up 
in the memory of many others. 

For it was a favourite saying of his that no slight advantage here- 
after, in the times of our posterity, would be sure to happen to this 


monastery, under God's will, if such things won; committed to the 
memory of letters (that is, if they were written down); and so, on the 
other band, if they were neglected, a corresponding' loss might happen 
when it fell out that no one was left living who could recall to his 
memory, or could know how to relate the truth or tin; sequence of 
things which had been done in that age. Spurred on, as I was, by 
these exhortations to the utmost height of my feelings, and to crown 
all, especially requested by him, and sustained by his influence, I 
aroused myself to undertake this work, putting my trust rather in the 
prayers of my director than in the little power I had of my own. For 
I may say that this same, our most reverend father, although he was 
of all the least desirous of earthly things, yet was always excessively 
desirous of the improvement of the means of this monastery, and pru- 
dently took care beforehand, as far as he was able, lest by careless- 
ness (a fault of some of his predecessors) the church which had been 
committed to his charge should suffer any loss in subsequent ages. 

Actuated by these feelings it was that he even ordered the charter- 
chest of the monastery to be opened in his presence, and diligently 
examined all the privileges of the old days, and the bequests of landed 
property of the church, to see lest by chance the documents had become 
decayed by the carelessness of their custodians, or abstracted by the 
avarice of designing persons ; and when he found that this was the 
case in some respects, as he had suspected, he studiously took care to 
repair the decaying documents, and made strong efforts to regain pos- 
session of those which had been unjustly abstracted. And when he 
had thus collected them he arranged them in one set, and studied to 
put them in order, when they had been arranged, in two books. In 
one, I say, he arranged all the earliest bequests and privileges, whereby 
it was made manifest in what manner, or by whom, in the beginning 
the landed property was given to this monastery; and in the other, 
the indentures in which the blessed Archbishop Oswald, with the assist- 
ance of King Eadgar, established the Cathedral title to lands taken 
possession of, at some time or other, by powerful men ; and in which 
he manifested to his successors, by his documents, that in accordance 
with the king's authority, and the assent of the senate, and testimony 
of the princes of the fatherland, every holder of a lease having had the 
opportunity of inspecting their title, the lands were to revert, without 
dispute, into the power of the church after the lapse of two or three 
lives. And to make this more clear, he deposited copies of the inden- 
tures in the charter-chest of the sacred edifice as a witness of the facts. 

And when the Bishop had made all these arrangements, he ordered 
that all the deeds should be transcribed in the same order in the 
library of the sacred edifice, to the end that if it were to happen, as it 
sometimes does happen, that by any one's negligence the testamentary 
documents should be lost, at any rate the copies of them having been 
thus entered into registers woukl by no means be delivered over to 
oblivion. And when this part of the work had in like manner been 
executed in accordance with his wish and order, he directed still fur- 
ther that all the privileges and leases which belong properly to the 
sustenance of the monks should be separated out from among the 
mass of documents, and similarly arranged in their own order in two 
volumes. And the careful reader of this my little book may observe 
that T have done all this in compliance with the Bishop's commands, 
so far as the measure of my insignificance has been able to do it. 
1S82 3 


I pray, therefore, that if any one is gratified by this work of my 
smallness, he will not object to give to me, a sinner, the reward of his 
prayers; but if any one be displeased with it, and thinks it unneces- 
sary, I would have him know that I have not laboured for the proud 
and idle, but for the hard-working and the studious ; and that I have 
consecrated this work to those who never hesitate not only to strive to 
the utmost for the advantage and increase of Holy Mother Church, 
but also, if need arise, to sacrifice themselves in her cause. 

May Almighty God, I pra} 7 , grant that the honour and power of 
Holy Church may grow together, and be augmented, to the praise of 
Our Lord Jesus Christ, who with the Father and the Holy Spirit lives 
and reigns, God for ever and ever. Amen. 

To these sentiments of the Saxon monk let us all 
heartily agree. What a vivid picture we may imagine of 
the aged and hoary Bishop exploring the unknown regions 
of his muniment-chest, and of the ardent gaze of Heming, 
the literary novice, as the Saxon charters, with their ele- 
gant characters and their beautiful ensemble, were un- 
folded one after another, to the number of many hundreds, 
to his gaze ! How prophetic and far-seeing his senti- 
ments have proved to be, with respect to the likelihood 
of destruction and loss which have befallen all these 
deeds ! One, only one, 1 which would have been exhibited 
on the occasion of the visit of the Association to the 
Cathedral during the past Congress in 1880, had it not 
been lent for a time to the Ordnance Survey Commission. 
Mr. J. H. Hooper, the Librarian, some years ago allowed 
me to have a photograph of this sole surviving relic, and I 
should have been glad to point it out to the meeting. In 
course of time this great treasure of Saxon charters, a veri- 
table spolium opimum, a royal treasure in more senses than 
one, as it represented the unbroken series of royal favours, 
grants, and privileges, bestowed upon the rich and power- 
ful centre of Mercian intelligence and influence for the 
four hundred years preceding the advent of the Norman 
rule over England, became dispersed. Of the entire num- 
ber, which I roughly estimate at from two hundred and 
fifty to three hundred, nearly half are unknown to us, 
except in the form of transcripts, in cartularies, and regis- 
ters. Mr. Bond, to whose edition of Facsimiles of Ancient 
Charters in the British Museum I have already drawn 
attention, refers, in his Preface to vol. iv, twenty original 
charters now in the British Museum to the Worcester 
archives. With the exception of Christ Church, Canter- 

1 No. 109 in the ensuing calendar. 


bury, from which no less than sixty-two Anglo-Saxon 
charters have found their way into the collections of the 
British Museum, no other cathedral or monastic founda- 
tion has contributed so many Anglo-Saxon documents to 
our Museum as Worcester. I have described them all 
briefly in the following catalogue, in their places, and 
shewn how far they may be connected with the mislaid 
charters of the Worcester Cathedral archives. 

The indefatigable worker and highly gifted linguist, 
Hickes, who made a catalogue of Anglo-Saxon MSS. ex- 
tant in his time, the end of the seventeenth century, 
describes in brief terms ninety-two, 1 stated by Dugdale, 
in 1G43, to have been found lately missing from the Wor- 
cester archives. There can hardly be a more deplorable 
circumstance than this in the whole history of Anglo- 
Saxon literature. These diplomata would afford, could 
they only be rediscovered from their hidden locality, mate- 
rial of considerable interest for the monastic and imperial 
historian, from the large number of internal facts which 
they would record ; and before the scientific eye of the 
paleographer an unwonted feast would be spread in the 
shape of dated specimens of our national handwriting, 
wherewith to compare MSS. of similar characteristics, 
whose true date is yet awaiting a scientifically accurate 

Hickes, in his Thesaurus, ii, pp. 301-303, prints a cata- 
logue of twenty-four Anglo-Saxon charters at that time 
(1703) in possession of Lord John Somers of Evesham, late 
Chancellor of England. From references made in the 
Dugdale catalogue of the Worcester charters it would 
appear probable that Lord Somers became possessed of 
some at least of the charters that Dugdale had examined 
while they were among the Worcester archives. Hickes, 
at any rate, gives references to the Somers charters in 
sixteen cases out of the twenty-four, and I have made 
also a tabulation of them. 

1 Dugdale's list of Anglo-Saxon charters at Worcester has the fol- 
lowing title and notes : " Catalogus Chartarum temporibus Regum 
Anglo-Saxonum confectarum, qua? haud ita pridem in Archivis Eccle- 
sia3 Wigorniensis extabant. (Hunc Catalogum texuit D. G. Dugdalius, 

A.D. 1643.) Quin et intra tres aut quatuor annos in ejusdem Eccle- 

siaeArchivis extabant aliae quajdam charta?, quas quidem jam perditas 
feliciter publicavit D. Georgius Hickesius Gramm. Anglo-Sax." 




Numeration of 

Numeration of 

Lord Somers Du^dale 


Lord Somers Duprdale 




A.D. 692 


B. a. 



s a. 

14 34 

a.d. 967 



s. a. 

15 6 






s. a. 










1023 bef. 
















s. a. 



s. a. 

22 02 










24 35 

c. 1049 

In the following calendar of original Saxon charters of 
Worcester I have collected together, from various sources, 
descriptions of a hundred and thirty-eight documents 
either now extant, or stated to be extant in the time of 
the author who has mentioned them. The marks : 

D. = Dugrlale's Catalogue of 1G43, given by Hickes. 
S. =Lord Somers' collection, given by Hickes, p. 301. 
H. = Hickes, p. 300, col. 2. 

[I] [II]. Two charters mentioned by Hickes to be " in archivis 
ecclesiaa", a.d. 1689. {Cat. Lib. Sept., p. 171.) 

Add. 19796 
D. 73 
D. 86 
D. 89 

Augustus, ii, 3 
D. 63 
1). 72 
D. 32 
jD. 3 

Is. 1 

H. 1 

S. 9 

D. 82 

Cott. viii, 37 

D. 71 

D. 18 

17 I D - 84 

17 I S. 7 

18 D. 87 

iq i D - 92 

19 ( 8. 2 

20 D. 11 
2i D. 85 

22 [I] 

23 D. 10 

24 D. 5 

25 S. 6 

26 D. 30 

27 I). tO 

28 D. 69 

29 D. 17 

3° J S. 8 

31 Add. 19797 

32 D. 1 

33 D- 2 

34 D. 14 

35 D. 46 [A. 1 

36 Iiarl. Ch. 83, 

37 D. 79 

38 H. x 

39 I>. 65 

40 I). 76 

41 Har.MS.7513 

42 i S. 16 

43 Add. 19793 

44 D. 54 

45 II. xiv 
D. 6 


S. 15 

47 D. 25 

48 |s. 11 

49 Add. 19802 

„ (D. 35 

5° JS. 24 

51 H. xvii 

52 Add. 19801 

53 D. =39 

54 Add. 19800 

55 Add. 19879 

56 Harl. Ch. 83 

A. 3 

57 D. 28 

58 D. 52 

59 D. 27 

60 II. vii 

61 D. 43 


( D. 75 

I 8. 19 

69 {g 

63 D. 7 

64 1). 51 

65 S. 22 

66 D. 62 

67 Add. 19799 

68 D. 38 

D. 70 
S. 21 
D. 36 
D. 31 
S. 20 
D. 12 
S. 23 
D. 56 

Add. 19798 
D. SO 
D. 29 
. D. 21 

79 J S. 3 

80 D. 66 
13. 47 
D. 22 
H. v, vi 
D. 74 
Aug. ii, 30 
S. 5 
1). 67 
II. ii 
D. 34 
S. 14 

90 19794 

91 D. 78 










92 P. 57 

104 D. 42 


D. 77 


n. xii 

93 j S. 12 

105 D. 55 


D. C4 


D. 91 

106 S. 4 




D. 53 

94 D. 19 

107 D. 83 


I), il 


II. xvi 

95 S. 13 

108 II. iv 


H. 11 



96 D. 20 

109 D. 4 


II. viii, ix 


I). 15 

97 11. XV 

no Birch,R.S.L. 




D. 23 

98 D. 90 

in D. 61 


D, 16 


1). 68 

99 D. 26 

S 1). 58 

112 js. 10 




D. 83 

100 D. 50 

A 2 



101 D. 9 

113 D. 88 


D. 45 



102 19792 

114 D. 13 


J D. 48 

S. 18 


11. 13 

S D. 37 

115 D.40 

103 s< 17 

1. A charter by iElfwerd, Abbot of Evesham, a.d. 1017-23, con- 
tains the following clause : "7 thissa gewrita synd iii. and lidh on 

Wigra cestre set Sea Marian mynstre", etc. (£. M. Facs., iv, 15.) Cf. 
Cott. Ch. viii, 37, A.D. 1012 : "Nu syndan thissa gewrita threo. an 
on wiqerna set. Sea Marian thass thset land to herdh." [B. M. Add. 
Ch. 19796.] 

2. " iEthelbaldi Regis de 24 Cassatis in iEstun et Natangrafan. 
(Lat. Sax.) [D. 73]. 716-755 

3. " yEthelbaldi Regis de terris in iEthilmore. [D. 86.] 

4. " JEthelbaldi Regis de terris in Bradanleag." [D. 89.] 

5. " ^Ethilbalt Rex Marcensinni" to " Cyniberhtte Comes", of 
land near the river Stonr, to build a monastery at Husmera. A.D. 
736. Endorsed : " NorS-Stur." (B. M. Facs., i, 7.) Fine uncial 
handwriting. (Dugd., Mon., i, 585.) [Brit. Mus. Cotton. MS., 
Augustus, ii, 3.] 

6. " Ethelbaldi Regis de Sture et Wlvardele." Lat. [D. 63.] 

a.d. 700 

7. "^Ethelbaldi Regis" [? of Wessex, 854-860] "de Wlfardileia." 
Lat. [D. 72.] a.d. 864 

8. " ^Ethelbaldi regis Merciorum de duobus caminis in Wice, et 
gustario (sic) salis." Lat. [D. 32.] 

9. " ^thilredi Regis" [675-704] " et Egwini Episcopi, de Fledan- 
byrig." [D. 3.] a.d. 692 

Hickes refers here to his description of the charters belonging to 
Lord J. Somers, Baron of Evesham, late Chancellor of England 
(p. 301). " Donatio quadraginta quatuor (vox ' quatuor' quae pri- 
mitus abrasa erat, recentiori maim restituitur) cassatorum qui 
dicuntur Fledanburg Ostforo Episcopo; ut quemadmodum primitus 
tradita fuerat rursus per illius diligentiam Mouachorum in ea sub 
abbate degentium honestissima conversatio recuperatur, per iEthil- 
redum Regem, pro absolutione criminum suornm vel conjugis qnon- 


dam sure Osthrythae. Ilac in carta cemuntur cruces diversse formre, 
confecta quoque 1'uit circa annum domini a.d. 692. In dorso hujusce 
carta' ex tat commutatio eorundem 44 cassatorum cum Ethilredo 

io. .ZEthelred, King of the Mercians, to Ostfor, Bishop, 30 cas- 

sates in Heanburg and aet Austin. " Printed by Hickes, Gr.Anglo- 

"; Hickes, Thesaurus, i, p. 169 ; MS. Harl. 46G0, p. 1 ; Dugd., 

Mori. AngL, i, p. 584. [H. L] c. a.d. 692 

ii. "^Ethelredi Eegis de xxx cassatis terra) in Haenbyrig." 
P>- 81.] 

12. iEthelred, King of the Mercians, to ^Ethelwulf, of 5 manents 
in Hvmeltun. Led. termini Sax. "Carta suspectae vetustatis et 
fidei." [S., 9.] a.d. 884 

13. "yEthelredi Eegis de terra in NorS Sture." [D. 82.] 

14. iEthelstan, Bishop, relating to various lands to Worcester. 
Sax. "-(-Her swutekvS on dissum gewrite." (B. M. Facs., iv, 14.) 
[15. M, Cotton. Ch, viii, 37.] a.d. 1012 (?) 

15. ".Ethelstani Eegis" [of Kent, 836-853, or of England, 924- 
940] "de duabus mansis in Mortune." [D. 71.] 

16. Alhuui [Alwine or ./Ellmn of Worcester, 818-872] Episcopi 
de Kemesey. Sax. Led. [D. 18.] a.d. 844 

17. "Alwini episcopi de terris in Codesvelle et Sture." [D. 84.] 

a.d. 855 

This is evidently the same as S.7, — Alhwini, Bishop of the Hwic- 

eii, to yEthelwulf, Dux, and his wife Wulfthrytha, of 11 cassates 

" 33t Codeswellan 7 set Sture." a.d. 855 

18. "Aldbuni episcopi de terris in occidentali parte fluminis 
SahrincT." [D. 87.] 

19. " Aldredi, Subreguli Hwicciorum de terris in Fladbyrig." 
[D. 92.] 

This is the same deed as that of S. 2, — Tilhere, Bishop [of Wor- 
cester, 777-781], with assent of Aldred, Subr. Hwic., to ./Ethelburg 
his kinswoman, of land at Eledanbyrg, with reversion to the monas- 

20. "Aldredi de ToinworSie de consensu Brihtwlfi Eegis." [D. 

a.d. 848 

21. "Aldredi episcopi" [of Worcester, 1044; Archbishop of York, 
L061-69] "de duabus mansis in Westune." [D. 85.] 

22. "Aldredi Episcopi iEthelstano cuidam et Eccleske Wigor- 
Diensi/ J Sax. [I.] 

23. "Alfredi Eegis de terris set Pendoc." Led. [D. 10.] a.d. 


24. "Allmni, diaconi et abbatis, de Stoce." Lat. [D. 5.] 

25. "Carta Saxonica confecta a.d. 825, Indict. 2, Beornwulfo 
Merciorum Rege quae continet Acta Synodici Conventus in Clofes- 
hoas de jure herbagii et glandinationis porcorum in sylva Suthtu- 
nensi." [S. 6.] 

26. " Beorwlfi Regis de Suderton." [D. 30.] 

27. " Bertlmlfi Regis de Breodnne." [D. GO.] 

28. " Berthwlfi Regis de terra in Werburg Stoce." [D.G9.] a.d.852 

29. " Burliedi regis" [of the Mercians, 853-874] "de Beagabyrig." 
[D. 17.] A - D - 855 

30. " Burhedi Regis Wlfrendeleia." Lat. [D. 33.] a.d. 866 
This charter is the same as S. 8, Burgred, King of the Mercians, 

to Wulfferd, of two manents at Soegeslea, called Wulfferdinleh, in 
exchange for certain possessions and property. With crosses " in 
diversis formis." Led. term, [five hides] Sax. A.D. 866 

31. Byrhteh, Bishop, to Wulmaere, his " cnihte", of two hides in 
Easttune, with reversion to Worcester Monastery. Sax. (B.M.Faes., 
iv, 15.) "+ In nomine domini Ic byrhteh." [B. M., Add. Ch. 
19797.] a.d. 1033-1038 

32. " Charta Ceolulfi postea Regis Merciorum" [819-822] " super 
concessionem terrarum apud Intanbergum, Bradanlege, et Bremes- 
grafe." Lat. and Sax. [D. 1.] a.d. 789 

Printed in Dugd., Mon. Angl, i, 588, Sax. ; and from the dorso of 
another charter, by Hickes, i, 171 ; see also MS. Harl. 4660, p. 7. 

33. "Ceolulfi Regis de Salewarpe." Lat. [D. 2.] a.d. 813 

34. " Ceonwaldi de tribus mansis, in Brocton twa, ^riddan in 
Stoce." [D. 14.] a.d. 941 

35. "Ceonwlfi Regis de Bremesgraf." Lat. [D. 46.] 

36. Coenwulf, King of the Mercians, to SurSno^, Comes, of one 
plough-land in Csert. Lat. [B. M., Harl. Ch. 83, A i.] a.d. 814 

Inc., " In nomine Dei Summi." (B. M. Facs., ii, 14.) 

37. " Ceonwlfi Regis, de Cherneseg" (Kemesey ?), " terra 30 tri- 
butariorum." Lat. [D. 79.] 

38. Coenwlf, King of the Mercians, exchanges Huntingtun, Spe- 
acleahtun, Teolowaldingeato, thirty manents in Weogornealeage, 
and twenty-five manents set Ceadresleage for fourteen manents at 
Sture, with Deneberht Bishop. [H. x.] a.d. 816 

Printed in Dugd., i, 588. " Huitingtun." From MS. Harl. 4660, 
f. 5. Lat. See also Hickes, Thcs., i, 173. 

39. "Coenulfi Regis Merciorum de Salewearpe." Lat. [D. 65.] 

a.d. 816 


4a "Ceonwlfi Regis." Lat. [D. 76.] 

41. Charter of Eadgar to Worcester; a twelfth century copy. 
See Hickes, Thesaur., i, 86, 152. [15. M., MS. Hail. 7513.] a.d. 964 

This has not been printed or fac-similed in the fac-similes of 
ancient charters in the British Museum. It was also passed over 
by Kemble in his Codex, who prints from the even more corrupt 
copy in Spelman's Concilia, i, 432. Incipit: "Altitonantis Dei lar- 
giflua elementia." It resembles Pugdale's 24 and Soraers' 1G (as 
in Eickes); cf. also MS. Karl. 358, f. 48b, and MS. Harl. 3875, f. 751. 

42. " Eadgari regis de Libertatibus (Wigorniensis Ecclesise). Lat. 


This may be taken to be the same as S. 16, of which it is said : 
•• I tesiderantur cruces et nomina plurimum terrarum quae ad Wigor- 
niam pertinebant." 

43. Eadgar, of fifteen cassates at JEpslea, to MM wold, " fidelis 
minister:" "£ in nomine domini nostri." (B. M. Facs., iii, 29.) 
Lat. Sax. [B. M., Add. Ch. 19793.] a.d. 909 

44. "Eadgari Regis de septem cassatis in Bisantune." [D. 54.] 

45. Eadgar, King, to Beorhtnoth, Earl, of two "niansiuncuke" at 
Culnanclif. Bounds in Sax. [H. xiv.] a.d. 964 

46. " Regis Eadgari de x cassatis terne set Cyngtun." [D. 6.] 

a.d. 969 
The same as S. 15, granted to Alfwold, "fidelis minister". 

47. " Eadgari Regis de terris in Wigornia." [D. 25.] a.d. 972 

48. " Eadredi Regis de terris in Cyngtun." Lat. [P. 49.] 

The same as S. 11, "Concedente gratia dei anno domenicse", etc. 
Printed in full, p. 302 col. 1. "Cum crucibus diverse formationis. 
Termini desiderantur." Lat. A.D. 940 

49. Edward (Confessor), appointing Wnlstane the monk to the 
bishopric of Worcester. Sax. (B. M. Facs. iv, 39.) " Eadward 
kyning gret harold eorl." [B. M., Ch. 19802.] . a.d. 1062 

50. "Ealdredi Episcopi de terris in Picford. Sax. [P. 35.] 
Identical with S. 24. Granted to Wulfceat for life. c. a.d. 1049 

51. Eddied, Bishop of Worcester, to iEthelstan and two other 
lives, of two hides of land in Hylle. Sax [II. xvii.] 1049-1057 

52. Ealdred, Bishop, to Dodda, minister, of two manses and a 
perch at NorS-tun. Lat. [B. M., Add. Ch. 19801. a.d. 1058 

" x Anno dominice ab incarnatione." (B. M. Facs., iv, 38.) 

53. "Ealdredi episcopi de prima mansa in Penedoc." Lat. Sax. 
[D- 39.] 

54. Ealdred, Bishop, to Balwine, " religiosus atque fidelis", of 


two hides at West-tun. Lit. [B. M., Add. Ch. 19880] " In no- 
mine sunnni salvatoris." (B. M. Facs., iv, 32.) a.d. 104G-1056 

55. Eanberth, Uclitred, and Aldred, three brothers, with consent 
of Ofl'a, King of the Mercians, to Headda, Abbot, of ten cassates at 
Onnanford. [B. M., Add. Ch. 19789.] a.d. 759 

{]>. M. Furs., ii, 2.) The writing of this charter strongly resembles 
that of certain ancient and finely written Biblical MSS. of these 
islands, such as the Latin Gospels known as the " Book of Kells", 
the " St. Chad's Gospels", at Lichfield, and others of which the date 
is uncertain. It may be compared with Cotton. Charter viii, 4, 
dated a.i». 778. 

56. Agreement between Worcester Monastery and Fuldre, con- 
cerning land at "set Ludintune." [B. M., Cart. Harl. 83, A. 3.] 

" x Her swutelad on ymb", etc. (B. M. Facs., iv, 43.) Bought 
by H. Wanley, for the Harley Library, from Mr. Le Neve. 

57. "H episcopi de Penbylle." [D. 28.] 

58. "II episcopi de duabus mansis in Tappenhallan." [D.52.] 

59. " Carta de Hallingan." Sax. [D. 27.] 

60. " Carta Reconciliationis et Concordia inter Heathoredum 
Episcopum (Wigorniensem) et Wulfheadum filium Cussan de here- 
ditate Hemeles et Dudre, quod post obitum suorum nominaret ad 
Weogorna-ceastre : facta apud Pontificale Conciliabulum in loco 
qui dicitur Celchyth", etc. (31 Offaj.) [H. vii.] a.d. 789 

Dugd., Mon., i, 587, from MS. Harl. 4660, p. 7. Lai. Hickes, 
Tkes., i, p. 171. Sax. on dors. 

61. "Henrici I Begis de Libertatibus, cum SigiUo." Lat. [D. 43.] 

62. "Leofsii Episcopi" (of Worcester, 1016-1033) " de una mansa 
in Biscopstune." Lat. Sax. [D. 75.] a.d. 1016 

Same as S. 19, Leoffinus Episcopus, with consent of Wulfstan, 
Archiep. Eboracen., of one manse in Biscopesdun, to his"fidelis 
minister" Godric, for three lives. Lat. term. Sax. 

63. " Leofsii Episcopi de Terris in Wlfington tempore Canuti 
Eegis." Sax. [U. 7.] 

64. "Lyfingi episcopi" (Wore, 1038-1046) " de tribus mansis in 
Al'bry^etune. Lat. Sax. [D. 51.] 

65. Lyfing, Bishop, with consent of HearSacnut, King, and of 
Leofric, Dux Merciorum, to his " fidelis ^Ethelric", of six manses at 
Beonetleag. Lat. term. Sax. [S. 22.] a.d. 1042 

Perhaps same as D. 62. 

66. " Lyfingi episcopi de vj hidis in Beverley." Lat. Sax. [P. 62] 
Perhaps same as S. 22. a.d. 1042 


67. Leofric, Bishop, with assent of Hearoacnut, King, to ^Egelric 
his thegn of two hides at Eadnranddesc6tan, with reversion. Sax. 
[B. Bi. Add. Ch. 19799.] [>.i>. 1042 

" p In ures drihtnes naman." (B. M. Foes., iv, 23.) 

68. "Lyfingi episcopi de 11 mansis et dimidia in Ealdingcote." 

Lat. Sax. " [D. 38.] 

69. " Lyfingi Episcopi de duabus mansis in Elmleia." Lai. Sax. 

This is the same as S. 21. Lyfing, Episc., with assent of HearSa- 
cnut and Leofric, Dux Merciorum, to his "fidelis homo jEgelric", 
of two manses in Elmlaeh for three lives. Lat. term. Sax. a.d. 1042 

70. " Lyfingi Episcopi de 5 mansis in Eovinlode." [D. 36] .Lot. 

71 "Lyfingi Episcopi de una mansa et dimidia in Hrydmear- 
lean." [D. 31.] a.d. 1038 

72. Lyfing, Bishop, with assent of Harold the King, and of Leo- 
fric, Dux Merciorum, to his " fidelis homo ^Ethelred", of five manses 
in Hylcromban and Bocctun. [S. 20.] a.d. 1038 

73. " Lyfingi episcopi de duabus mansis set Lenc, liccntia Regis 
Edwardi." [D. 12.] 

74. Lyfing, Bishop, with consent of the Monastery (of Worcester), 
to of land at Sawertun, for three lives. Imperfect. [S. 23.] 

A.u. 1045 

75. "Lyfingi episcopi de 5 mansis in SivShan." Lat. Sax. [D. 56.] 

76 Lyfing, Bishop, to Earcytel, "fidelis", of two cassates at 
Tapen-halaiL Lat Sax. [B. M., Add. Ch. 10708.] a.d. 1038 

"P Anno dominice incarnationis." (B. M. Foes., iv, 22.) 

77. " Lyvingi Episcopi de yj cassatis terras in Weletun." [D. 80.] 

78. "Mildredi episcopi" (Wore, 743-775) "de Tilsho." [D. 20.] 

a.d. 774 

79. "Off 83 regis" (Merc, 755-706) "et Aldredi subreguli Huiccio- 
ruin de vico nominato ret Gate." Lat. [D. 21.] 

This is the same as S. 3 : Offa, King of the Mercians, and Aldred, 
Subregulus Hiccioruin, to Worcester Monastery, of land, "bis qui- 
nos mansionis vici aet Geate." A late copy. S. a. 

80. " Oflie Regis de Grimanleg." Sax. Lat. [D. 66.] 

81. " Offae Regis de NorSsnere." [D. 47.] 

82. " Eomndem Offae et Aldredi de Saggesberue." [D.22.] a.d. 775 

83. Offa, King of the Mercians, to Aldred, Dux of the Hwiccii, 
of four " mansiones" at " a?t Segcesbearuue." [H. v.] 


The same as Hickes' (vi). On the dors, regrant of the above by 
Aldred to Worcester Church. A.D. 775 

Dugd. 3 i, p. 587, from MS. Harl. 4660, p. ; and Ilickes, i, 70. 
Oil-i to Aldred, "Dux Huiccjorum", of land at Segcesberuue, near 
Esegbuma. Lat. a.d. ^^ 5 

84. " Offse Regis, de Ecclesia de Breodun." Lat. [D. 74.] ad. 770 

85. The above may be Cotton. Augustus, ii, 30, "Cuncta labilis 
vitse hujus", etc., printed in B. M. Facs., i, 11; dated a.d. 780 for 
780 (Kemb.). Offa to the church at Breodune, of ten manents at 
Wsersetfelda and Costune, and five cassates at Wreodanhale (lied- 
nal), co. Wore. Compare Somers, 5. 

86. Offa, King of the Mercians, to the monastery founded by 
Kanulf, his grandfather, at Breodune, of twenty manents setWerst- 
hvlle and set Costune. [S. 5.] A.D. 780 

" Carta longe recentiori maim scripta." Printed in Dugd., Man., 
i, p. 586, from Tiberius, A. xiii, f. 25 b. Lat. 

87. "Offse Regis de Westbyrig." Lat. Sax. [D. 67.] 

This is a Latin charter in Brit. Mus., Add. Ch. 19790, of Offa, 
granting fifty-five cassates in Vuestburg, in the province of the 
" Huuicciorum", to iEthelmund, his "fidelis minister". " + £ In 
nomine summi tonantis." (B. M. Facs., ii, 5.) a.d. 793-796 

88. Oshere, King of the Hwiccii, and ^Edilheard his son, with 
consent of Cuthberht, Earl, fifteen tributaries at Penitanham for a 
monastery to Cutsuida, Abbess. [H. ii.] c. a.d. 692 

The same as Hickes' (iii). On the dors. : Sale by Eadilheard and 
Eadiluuead (? Reguli of Hwiccii) to Cudsuida, Abbess, of five ma- 
nents in Ingiun. See MS. Harl. 4660, p. 2 ; Hickes, Thes., i, 169 ; 
Dugd., Moil, i, 585. 

89. "Oswaldi episcopi" (Wore, 961-991 ; Archbishop of York, 
972-992) " de duabus mansis set Bradanbeorh." Lat. [D. 34] 

a.d. 964 

The same as S. 14. Oswald, of two manses at Bradanbeorh and 

Holenfesten to Osulf, "Germano suo", for three lives, with reversion 

to Worcester Monastery, etc. Lat. Sax. cum Adjuratione. a.d. 967 

90. Oswuold, Archbishop, with assent of ^Ethelred, King of the 
English, and of iElfric, Dux Merciorum, to Cynelm, minister, of 
two manses at Caldinccotan. Lat. Sax. [B. M., Add. Ch 19794.] 
(B. M. Facs., iii, 32.) Written in English, rounded minuscules, 
merging into the foreign hand. A.D. 984 

qi. "Oswaldi Episcopi de duabus mansis ret Clifford." [D. 78.] 

a.d. 966 

92. " Oswaldi Episcopi de 5 mansis in Cromb." [D. 57.] 
11., 348, gives Saxon boundaries only. 


93. " Oswaldi Episcopi de tribus Cassatis in Cungle." Lat, [59] 
Identical with S. xii. Oswold, Bishop of Worcester, with consent, 

of two cassates at Cungle, formerly held by the matron Alhthrydh, 
to the minister Regis Ali'wold, with reversions. Lately mutilated. 

a.d. 9 02. 

94. " Oswaldi episcopi de tribus mansis in Degilsford. Lat. Sax. 
[D. 19.] 

95. Oswald, prelatus, with consent of Eadgar, Basileus, and of 
JElfhere, " Mertiorum finium Ducis", to Osulf his brother, of four 
manses at Grimanleag, one at Morleage, one and a half at Wican, 
for three lives, with reversion to the monastery. Imperfect. Lat. 

Una. Sax. [S. 13.] S. a. 

96. "Ejusdem Oswaldi de una mansa in Meolcoton." Sax. Lat. 
[D. 20.] 

97. Oswald, Archbishop, and the Worcester convent, to Biornage 
and Byrcstan, brothers, of two hides of land in Mortune for three 
lives, '' acceptis quatuor libris". Lat. Sax. [H. xv.] a.d. 990 

98. "Oswaldi episcopi de terris in Oddingalea et Lauuerra." Lat. 
Sax. [D. 90.] 

99. " Oswaldi episcopi de Stoce." Lat. Sax. [D. 26.] a.d. 984 

100. " Oswaldi episcopi de Stoc." [D. 50.] 

10 1. " Oswaldi Episcopi de Teddington." Lat, Sax. [D.9.] a.d. 877 

102. The above, notwithstanding the improbable date given, 
may be Brit. Mus. Add. Ch. 19792 ; a Saxon charter of Oswold, 
Bishop, to Worcester Monastery, of some hides of land at Teot- 
tingetun and yElfsigestun. " £ 1c Oswold bisceop." (B. M. Facs., 
iii, 28.) a.d. 969 

103. "Oswaldi episcopi de 3 mansis in Wlfrintun. Lat. Sax. 
[D. 37.] a.d. 964 

Identical with S. 17. Oswald, Archiep. Ebor., Episc. Wigorn., 
of three manses in Wulfrintun, to his kinsman Eadwig and his 
wife Wulfgyva, for three lives. Lat. term. Sax. in dorso. a.d. 984 

104. "Stephani Eegis de Confirmatione, cum sigillo." [D. 42.] 

105. "Stephani Regis de Libertatibus, cum sigillo suo, et Gual- 
leranni Comitis de Mellent confirmata." [D. 55.] 

106. Uhtred, Regulus of the Huiccii, with consent of Off a, King 
of the Mercians, of " bis quaternorum mansionnm in australi parte 
montis qui dicitur l.reodun, in aquilonali plaga rivuli qui vocatur 
Carent", to Ceolmund, minister. [S. 4.] Perhaps=l). 83. a.d. 756 

107. "Uhtredi, Ducis Hwicciorum, de viij mansis in Breodune/ , 
[D. S3.] Perhaps=S. 4. 


108. Uhtredus, Regulus of the Hwiccii, to TEthelmund, son of 
Ingeld, of five tributaries at Eastun, near Saluuarpe river. [H. iv.] 

A.n. 76 (sic) 

Dugd., Man., i, p. 580. Lot. From MS. llarl. 4660, p. 3 ; and 

Hickes, Tkes., i, 170. a.d. 767 

109. "Uhtredi Reguli Huicciorum de Eastun prope Salewarpe, 
confirmata per Ofifam Regem." Sax. Lat. [D. 4] a.d. 770 

Although it is not very clear what became of this fine series of 
early documents of Worcester, for the most part relating to a period 
anterior to the conquest of England by the Normans, it is certain 
that the late John Mitchell Kemble, when collecting materials, in 
1839, for his renowned Code,'' Diplomaticus j$vi Saxonici (a work 
aiming at embracing the accurate text of every known Saxon docu- 
ment), was not able to make use of any of these original Worcester 
MSS.j but was compelled to have recourse either to late — in some 
instances very late — copies of the same deeds, or to omit them 

But a short time ago the Librarian of this Cathedral, Mr. J. H. 
Hooper, M.A., who was well aware of the former existence of lite- 
rary treasures relating to his Cathedral, and their unaccountable 
disappearance, was so fortunate as to recover a very valuable 
charter ; which, however, I am not quite certain was ever included 
in the catalogue of the treasures already quoted ; and it is through 
his agency that we are indebted for the exhibition, on this occasion, 
of a photograph of the only original Saxon document now left to the 
Cathedral out of all the YVoreester charters. I shall commence my 
account of it by giving the text, which T have supplied in some 
parts (but not throughout), where mutilated, from analogous for- 
mulas found in two other similar documents which will be men- 
tioned and described further on : 

"+ In nomine dni nri ihu xpl. Certissime itaq^ absq, dubitati- 
one constat omnia quae uidentur temporalia esse, Et ea q, | non 
uidentur a?terna esse, Iclcirco ego uhtredus do donante regulus huic- 
cioru cogitaui . Ut ex accepta portione terrigenis | regni a largitore 
omniii bonorfi aliquid quamuis minus dignu p remedio animge nieaB 
in usus a?cclesiastica3 libertatis eroga|[rem] . Unde fideli meo 
ministro a'delmundo uidelicet Alio ingeldi qui fuit dux et pfectus 
redelbaldi regis merci, cum consi|[lio] et licentia offani regis mer 
Simula episcoporu ac principu eius, Terra .v. tributatorioru Id ~ 
uicfi qui nomina?| [eastun 1 ] iuxta fluuifi in orientali parte qui 
dicitur saluuerpe iure reclesiastico possidendu libentissime p duo 

omnipotenti | tenus se uivente possideat et pos 1 se cuicnq^ 

voluerit duob; heredis relinquat Illisq^e sa?culo migrantib; redda? | 
[uig]eranens ?eclesia3 agru cum libris 2 ad mensa eorii sine 

1 "Hodie Aston infra manerium Stoke Prion's." (MSS. Harl. 4G60, 
f. 3, 4. 

2 A remarkable use of the word liber for a charter. A. S. Boc. 


ulla eontradictione mihi atq, omnib; nobis in elemosijna] ...... tis 

patriae illorfiq, intercessione ad dm uiira et ueru lnsup digno ptio a 

antedicto seSelmundo suscepto | [sciat unusquijsq, hanc term 

libera esse ab omni tributo paruo I maiore publicaliu rem et a 
eunctis operib; t regis t prin[cipis prater instructio]nib; pontiu i 
aecessariis defensionib; arciu contra hostes . Omnimodo quoq, in di 
omnipotentis nomi [ne interdicimus ut si] aliquis In hac pnominata 
terra aliquid foraras furauerit alicui aliquid nisi specialiter ptiii p 

Btio | augentem hoc nieu pceptii . Omnips ds sua augere 

bona In Beternu fi cessat, Minuente qd fi | [optamus sciat se ante] 
tribunal xf.i ratione reddituru nisi ante ea do et hominib; satis 
emendanerit, Conscripta* | [autem haec donatio anno ab] incarna- 
tione dfii nri ibii xpi dec, lxx, Indie, viii, decenoui,_xi, Lun, viii. 
«'[_l_Ego offa dei dono rex me] re banc donatione subreguli mei 

osensi et signii seas crucis inposui. 
«[+Ego Mildredus Christi gra]tia ocedente humilis huicci ep 
oonsen et sub'. 

»[_)_ Ego Uhtredus di]spensatione donante regnlus ppiae 

mentis banc raea libertatis donatione p drio ocessa orobo- 
rans signu salutare oscnpsi. 
'■ [ + Ego Aldredus subregulus h]uic huic ocessas donationi fratris 

mei osentiendo subscribo. 
" [ + Ego Eacla consen' et su]b' 
" [+Ego Brorda con]sen et sub' 
"+ Ego Eadbald osens' et sub' 

"Hii st' termini donationis istius saluuerpse cymedes lialli 
huitun §stan readan solo. 
".j-Ego 1 cyne i Sry i S regina mere osen et sub' 
" + Ego EegferS filius ambom osen et sub' 
" + Ego a?lfflssd filia amboru osefi et sub'." 

The description of this is that Uhtred, Regulus of the Huuiccas, 
grants by permission of his superior lord and king, Offa of the 
Mercians, to JSthelmund his minister (not necessarily an ecclesi- 
astical, but probably a high political personage at his court), the 
son of Ingeld, who had held the office of Dux, or military leader, 
to Ethelbald, 2 King of the Mercians (the immediate predecessor to 
Offa), a quantity of land specified as of five tributaries ; that is the 
vicus which is called Eastun, near the river, on the eastern part 
which is colled Salwerpe, for the ordinary Saxon holding of three 
lives, after which the property is to become the possession of the 
church at Worcester. It was to be held on the usual terms of a 
free gift; that is, the repair of bridges, fortresses, and military 

Of Uhtred, the Regulus of the Huuiccas, and the grantor of the 

1 These on the dors., on which also, in later hands, are," ToEastune", 
"Offani regis", ".i. Stoce", ".i. Stoce", "To Eastune". 

2 Ob. a.d. 757. 


land of Easton to JSthelmund, here contained, very little is known 
beyond what may be gleaned from the only live charters which 
exist relating to him, and which I shall now refer to in order of date. 

1. The first is a charter which until the last few years was in 
Hie possession of the Finch-Hattons, Earls of Nottingham and 
Winchelsea, and probably formed part of Sir Christopher Hatton's 
collection of MSS. It was purchased from Mr. Attenborough by 
the Trustees of the British Museum in 1873, and has been fac- 
similed by the Museum authorities in their Facsimiles of Ancient 
Charters, Part II, No. 2, 1876. From this charter it appears that 
three brothers (" tres germani uno patre editi"), Eanberht, atque 
Uhdred aec non ct Aldred"? granted land at Onnanford to Headda, 
Abbot of Worcester,- in A.n. 759. They are designated each by the 
title of Eegulus in the subscription appended. (See No. 55, supra, 

p. 411.) 

2. The second charter, as far as its general import goes, is some- 
what similar to the one before us, and enables me to supply a few 
words that have been torn from the charter under inspection. It 
is printed by Kemble in his Codex Dijilomaticus, No. cxvii, dated 
a.d.767, and is closely allied to this newly found document in much 
of its text. Kemble, however, does not appear to have seen the ori- 
ginal ; but he prints from an eighteenth century copy in MS. Harl. 
4G60, f. 3,4, entitled " Cartarum aliquot Pervetustarum qure extant 
in Archivis Ecclesias Cathedralis Wigorn. Apographa." In the list 
of contents of this Harley MS., the charter of Kemble's Codex, No. 
cxvii, is called "4, Uhtredi reguli Huicciorum iEthelmundo ministro" 
and is the same as that one numbered as 4 by Hickes in his Cata- 
logue of A7irjlo-Saxon MSS. already quoted. The title of this lost 
charter is noticed by Hickes as " Carta Donationis qua dat Uhtre- 
dus Regulus Huuicciorum fideli suo Ministro iEthelmundo (filio 
Ingeldi qui fuit Dux et Prefectus iEthelbaldi Eegis) cum consensu 
et Licentia Offani Pegis Merciorum, simulque Episcoporum et Prin- 
cipum ejus, terrain 5 Tributariorum, i.e., vicum qui nominatur 
Eastnn juxta fluvium, in (loco) qui dicitur Saluuarpe, a.d. 76 (sic). 
Indict. 6, Lun. 5." The text is not only given in the Codex Viplo- 
maticus and in the Harley MS. quoted above, but also in Hickes' 
Grammatica Anglo- Saxonica, p. 170, and in Dugdale's Monasticon 
Anglicanum, vol. i, p. 586. 

From inspection of the text of this second charter, it is certainly 
not the same as the one restored to Worcester, the date and the 
list of witnesses being very dissimilar to those of the original char- 
ter exhibited on this occasion. 

3. There is also another charter which bears yet closer resem- 

1 Aldred appears as late as a.d. 777, and seems to have survived his 
brother. (Kemble, Cod. Dipl, No. exxxi.) 

2 Headda, Abbot, occurs in Kemble, Cod. Dipl, No. cv, February 
a.d. 759, and is probably the same a3 Headda, Abbot of Worcester, 
between a.d. 781 and 798 in Kemble, No. clxix. 


blance to the one under our immediate attention. It is described 
by Hiekes in the Catalogue of Worcester Charters already referred 
to, as "4, Uhtredi Reguli Huicciornm de Eastun prope Salewarpe, 
A. 770, confirmata per Offam regem. Lot." This also, appa- 
rently, was never seen by Kenible, who only gives it from the 
eleventh or early twelfth century " Register of Worcester Charters" 
in MS. Cotton., Tiberius A. xiii, ff. 145, 146, " De Stoke", Kemble, 
Cod. Dipl., No. cxviii. But this charter is a grant of the land to 
the brethren of the monastery of Worcester, and not to iEthel- 
mund, although it is couched in very nearly the same words, and 
supplies some words for the restoration of the text of the charter 
exhibited on this occasion. It is, therefore, reasonable to conclude 
that very shortly after the granting of this land to iEthelmund, the 
text of which grant I am enabled to describe here, the grantee 
granted it to the brethren of Worcester. 

Kemble unfortunately omitted the boundaries of the land hereby 
conveyed, 1 which I here supply to complete the history of the 
transaction; for although the charter is not quite identical with 
that which I exhibit, yet the property mentioned is apparently the 
same ; and the statement of the boundaries is valuable not only to 
the county topographer, who can by its means catch up the posi- 
tions of lost places, and explain the names of modern localities, but 
it is also of very great importance to the philologist, and it adds a 
fresh contribution to the corjms of Anglo-Saxon texts : 

".Krest fram my^ain in cyrstel masl ac. Of cyrstel mael ac in 
caste ende teoue lege. Of teofe leage in past syrf treop. Of pam 
syrf treope in ^ rug niapel treop in forpeard perdune. Of forepeard 
perdune 0$ midde pearde per. Of midde perdune in perdun broc. 
Of midde per dune broce in middan pearde langan dune. Of mid- 
dan pearde langan dune in sceap peg. Of scearp peg in hpasta 
leage. Of hpseta lege in hens broc. Of hens broce in salparpan. 
Of seal parpan in holan peg. Of pam peg in SSa-hpitan biricean. 
Of pasre birican in alcherdes ford. Eft of salparpan in pa ifihtan 
ac. Of pasre ac in ] a masr ac. Of hasre ac in bennic ascer. Of 
pam aseere in ca?rsa bast. Of pam baete in pipan. Of pipan in 
proi broc. Of |»am broce in past pruh. Of pa ] rug in holan peg. 
Of bam pege in bridenan brygge. Of pasre brigge in cuinb. Of pam 
cumbe in ale beardes iic. Of pasre ac in pa heort sole. Of hasre 
sole in pa pisle. Of hasre ^isle eft in ^a my]>ax." (Tib. A. xiii, 
f. 146.) 

4. The fourth document is a charter of TJhtred.the text of which 
is giveo by Kemble in his Codex Diplomaticus, No. exxviii; but it 
has been marked by him as of doubtful authenticit} r . It has no 
date ; bul the editOT of that monumental work is probably not far 
from right in assigning to it a date between the years 764and 775. 
The documenl is a grant by CJhtred, " Subregulus Huicciornm", of 

1 In Anglo-Saxon, and thus bearing out the description, "Sax. et 
Lat.", by Hiekes. 


land to Worcester Cathedral, " Ecclesia Beata) Semper Virginia Dei 
Genetricis Marise, qua) sita est in Uegerna civitate ubi corpora 
patrwm meorum digne conduntur." The subscription of Uhtred is 

appended with that of Aldred liis brother, to whom reference has 
already been made. The original of this is not now extant, and 
Kemble gives it only from the Worcester Register in the Cottonian 
Library,— a manuscript, the date of which has already been 
pointed out. 

5. It is worthy of record that in addition to these above men- 
tioned charters, which are grants from Uhtred himself direct, there 
are the following charters in the Codex, where he is mentioned, or 
where his subscription is appended, in testimony or confirmation of 
their purport : 

1. "Uhtred." — K. cii*, a doubtful charter of Eanberht of the 
Hwiccas, a.d. 757. 

2. "Uhtred regulus." — K. cv ; a charter of Eanberht, Feb. 759. 

3. "Manus Uhtredi." — K. cxi*; a doubtful charter of Offa of 
M ercia, a.d. 764. 

4. "Uhtred" ("Uhtredi Germani Mei"). — K. exxv ; a charter of 
Aldred of the Huiccas, a.d. 757-775. 

5. "Uhtred Subregulus." — K. exxvii ; a charter of Ceolfrith, 
Abbot of Worcester, a.d. 757-775. 

To recapitulate, therefore, the important points which have been 
elicited in the course of these notes, we have found the following 
facts relating to Uhtred, " Subregulus" of the Hwiccas, viz. : 

1. That Eanberht, Aldred, and Uhtred, were three sons born to 
one father, and that the father and ancestors were buried in Wor- 
cester Cathedral. 

2. That Eanberht, the eldest brother, grants various charters to 
Worcester Cathedral in the years 757 and 759. 

3. That Uhtred, the third brother, is not styled " Regulus" in 
757, but is styled " Regulus" in 759 in two documents ; is not 
styled " Eegulus" in 764, but styled " Regulus" in 767, and again 
in 770 ; and "Subregulus" in a charter of date between 757 and 775. 

4. That the second brother, Aldred, appears to have been the 
survivor of the three in a.d. 777. 

5. That of the five documents purporting to have been issued 
directly at his command, two only are extant in the form of char- 
ters, the other three being only found in manuscript registers of far 
later dates. 

6. Of these two, one is in the Manuscript Department of the 
British Museum, numbered as Additional Charter 19789; the other 
is that at present before us, in the possession of the Dean and 
Chapter of Worcester. 

7. That the one before us is new to Saxon antiquaries ; and the 
boundaries which probably related to the same land, when regis- 
tered to the Cathedral, are unpublished. 

There is a photograph published by the British Archaeological 
Association, in the Journal for 1876, p. 190, of a charter which is 
1882 4 


a grant of Offa to his faithful minister ^Ethelmund : tlie same, pro- 
bably, as the grantee of the Worcester deed. This is to lie dated. 
in ;dl likelihood, between 791 and 796, and is valuable as shewing 
close resemblance of handwriting to the one before us. 

no. " WerMthi Episcopi de Agnenbyrig." Sax. [D. 61.] 

iii. " Wirfirthi Episcopi de Almundingtun." Sax. [D. 58.] 

Identical with S. 10. Werfrith, Bishop, with consent of the 
Monastery, to his kinsman Oyneswith, of three hides of land in 
Alhmnnding-tune. Sax. "Eleganti manu scripta." " Cruces divers* 

112. '• Werferthi episcopi de terris in Alcmimdinton." [D. 88.] 

a.d. 888 

113. "Werferthi episcopi de tribus mansis apud Tredington." 
[D. 13.] a.d. 873 

114. "Werferthi episcopi de Sobwaberies." Sax. [D. 40.] 

115. " Werferthi episcopi de Australi FJVSfeld." [D. 77.] a.d.892 

116. " Werferthi episcopi de terris", etc. Sax. [D. 64.] 

1 17. The above may he the Saxon charter, B.M.,Add. Ch.19791 , 
of Bishop Werfrith to Wulfsige, his "gerefa", of one hide of land at 
Easttune for three lives, and reversion to Worcester Church. [B.M. 
Foes., iii, 2.) a.d. 904 

118. "Willelmi Conquestoris de Culnclif." Mutila. Lot. Sax. 


1 19. Donation of three manents at Hethfeld, and land at Hreod- 
halh, by the Monastery, to Bishop Werfrith for three lives. [H. xi.] 

a.d. 892 

120. Confirmation of H. vii, by Wulfheard, to Deneherht, Bishop 
of Worcester, at Clofeshos. [H.viii.] a.d. 803 

[ix.] On the dors, note concerning further suit regarding the 
property. Sax. a.d. 821 

121. AVnlt'here, King of the Mercians, to BerhferSe, "propin- 
quus meus",of five manents at Dilingtune. [B. M. Add. Ch. 11)788.] 

a.d. 624 (for 074 ?) 
{B. M. Foes., iv, 2.) "From the Worcester archives." Written in the 
eleventh century." 

122. "Wlfari regis de terra 50 manentium quae Hanbyrig dici- 
tnr." [D. 16.] 

123. "+Ha3r is Wulfgates gecwide set Dunnintune." Sax. {B.M. 
Foes., iv, 42.) [B. M., Cart, llarl. 83, A. 2.] 

This was bought by II. Wanley of Mr. Le Neve for the Ilarley 


124. "Wlfgeati in prima Hida de Terdebigan." Sax [D. 45.] 

125. Wlfrici. Sax. [D. 48.] Probably same charter as S. 18. 
Printed at length, pp. 302-303. Wlfric and the Archbishop (Wulf- 
stan, Bishop of Worcester, <»!►. a.d. 1023). Marriage of the Arch- 
bishop's sister, with endowment of lands at Eabretune, Ribbedford, 
and Cnihte-wican. Sax. 

126. Wilfrith, Bishop of Worcester, to the Church of Worcester, 
of lands " set Clifforda". Sax. [H. xii.] a. 922 

127. " Wlfrithi episcopi de terris in Ugginchalan." [D. 91.] 

1 28. Wulfstan, Archbishop of York, 1003-23, and Bishop of Wor- 
cester, to Elfwig, his "germanus frater", and two other lives, of six 
manses at Beonetleah. Lat. Sax. [H. xvi.] a.d. 1017 

129. Wulfstan, "Archipontifex", to Wulgyun, " matrona", of half 
a manse in Pyriae, with reversion to the Monastery at Worcester. 
Lat. Sax. [B. M., Add. Ch. 19795.] a.d. 1003-1023 

" p Naturae rerum varise et labens." (B. M. Fans., iv, 13.) 

130. " Wlstani archiepiscopi de tribus mansis in Throcmortune." 
[D. 15.] 

131. "Wlstani archiepiscopi de Tidelintun." Lat. Sax. [D. 23.] 

132. "Wlstani episcopi de iiij mansis inWarreburn." Lat. [D. 68.] 

133. "Wlstani archiepiscopi de duabus mansis in Wlfrington." 
Lat. Sax. [D. 8.] a.d. 1017 

134. "Wlfstani episcopi" (II of Worcester, 1062-95) "de iElues- 
tun." Sub sigillo. [D. 53.] a.d. 1088 

135. " Privilegium S. Wlstani de Ecclesia S. Elense Wigornien- 
sis." Lat. [D. 44] a.d. 1092 

136. " S. Wlstani Episcopi de Ecclesia 1 S. Elense in Synodo dio- 
ces/' [II.] ^ a.d. 1092 

1 37. " Carta Historica de S. Wlstano Episcopo Wigorniensi, post 
obitum ejus exarata." =Dugd. i, 599. [H. xiii.] 

Thomas Hearne, in his Hemingi Ghartularium Ecclesim Wigor- 
niens'is (1723) prints " E codice MS. penes Eichardum Graves de 
Mickleton in Agro Gloucestriensi Armigerum", about two hundred 
and fifty charters (besides a collection of miscellaneous matters 
relating to Worcester Monastery), to which I do not propose, on 
this occasion, to refer. I hope hereafter to make a calendar of them, 
and shew how far they may be traced in the above series. 

The following MSS. in the British Museum contain collections 
of Worcester charters of the Anglo-Saxon period, transcribed : — 



Tiberius, A. xiii, — a very fine MS., eleventh century ; Harley, 66, 
paper; Vespasian, A. y, ditto ; Harley, 4660, ditto ; Yitellius, c. ix, 
ditto. See also Lansdowne, 447; Arundel, 26, f. 49 ; Harley, 464, 
f. 17. 

Tiberius, A. xiii. — A chartulaiy of St. Mary's, Worcester, com- 
piled by Heniing, in the eleventh century, from the originals at 
Worcester. Kenible (Cod, Dip!., vi, p. xv) says this is a collection 
of the highest value. He prints no less than one hundred ami 
seventy-five documents from this invaluable MS. 

With regard to the silence of biographers as to Heming, and to 
the history of Tiberius, A. xiii, Hearne's Preface has the following 
instructive paragraphs : 

" Qua de causa apud biographos nostras non commemoratur 
Hemingus. § xvi. ..Unde, rogabitur, factum est, ut de Hemingo, 
tanto equidem viro, siluerint biographi nostri ? Hinc, ut arbitror. 
Etsi nimirum Lelandus auctoritate regia frueretur bibliothecas per 
regnum cunctas perlustrandi, codicesque omnes MSS. ac membra- 
nas inspiciendi, chartularii tamen hujus custodes summam curam 
adhibebant, ne illud adspiceret, timentes scilicet, ne secum auferret, 
Principique perditissimo (cujus animus impudicis puellarum amo- 
ribus immersus fuit) traderet. Adeo ut, quoniam silentio prasteriit 
Lelandus, conticuerint etiam alii viri, alioqui celeberrimi, et qui 
quamplurima, de quibus ne ypv apud Lelandum, memorise prodide- 
runt. Inde sane neque Balasus, neque etiam Pitseus scriptoribus 
suis accensuerimt 

"§ Cujus sane opus, Prioratu Wigorniensi dissoluto, ad manus 
privatas, tandemque ad Bibliothecam Cottoniensem devenit. 

" Non obstante tamen tanta cautela, chartularium hoc tandem 
sublatum est e scriniis sive pluteis ecclesie Wigorniensis (in quibus 
tarn diu delituerat), et in manus devenit privatas. Nam quum ex- 
cerpta ex eodem colligerat Antiquarius (quern modo dixi) [i.e., 
Dugdale] eruditissimus, penes Alderfordios de Salford Abbatis in 
agro Warwicensi, erat. Et quidem ad banc farailiam paullo post 
Prioratus Wigorniensis dissolutionem pertinuisse e nota etiam ad 
linem Codicis clarissime liquet. At quamprimum Monastici Angli- 
can i prodiret volumen in Bibliotheca adservabatur Cottoniana. 
Porsitan Bibliothecse illi insignissimse donavit epiidam ex Alder- 
i on His. Ab ecclesia Wigorniensi subreptum fuisse monuit CI. 
Wharton. Id, undo didicerit, me labet. De subreptione enim nulla 
in Codice Gravesiano nota" (Pp. xcii-xciv.) 

The Cotton. MS., Nero, E. i. — A fine vellum book, written about 
a.d. 1000, filled with lives of saints, contains at if. 387-390 a frag- 
ment of a Worcester chartulary. It is described as : 

"129. Chartas concessa) monasteriis de Westbury, Bredune, et 
Wigornia, tempore Bernulphi, Ofiie, Cenredi, aliorumque regum 
M( rciorum, partim Saxonice, partim Latine, fragmentum cujusdani 
cartarum Wigorniensis ecclesiaj registri: extant hse chartaa, sed 
plnrimis in locis discrepantes, in Cod. Cott, Tib. A. xiii." (1756.) 

B. M v MS. Hurl. 4660.— Copies of charters from originals in the 


archives of Worcester, probably by Ilickes. Kemble prints thir- 
teen documents from this MS. (Cod. Dvpl., vi, p. xix). 

The new edition of Dugdale's Monasticon Anglicanum (vol. i, 
pp. 584 et seq.) contains the texts of twenty-nine Anglo-Saxon 

charters relating to Worcester, derived from a variety of .sources to 
which I have drawn attention in the course of this paper. 

En concluding my remarks upon these charters T desire to draw 
the attention of this meeting, and, indeed, of all antiquaries through- 
out the world of letters, to the following points : — 1. Omitting, for 
the occasion, all thought of Anglo-Saxon literary remains, histories, 
chronicles, theological, fictionary, and scientific works, the entire 
number of documentary evidences, such as charters, wills, etc., of 
the Saxon period in England is very limited, — perhaps, at the out- 
side, to two thousand. Many of these are preserved in public 
museums or local libraries ; some are in private hands ; others, 
again, in the temporary possession or custody of capitular bodies, 
town clerks, librarians, and the like. 

2. These documents, even with the greatest amount of intelli- 
gent care that can be bestowed upon them, in many cases, from 
extreme age, careless treatment in past time, and that gradual 
influence which " tempus edax rerum" exerts and exercises upon 
all mundane things, are beginning to shew signs of deterioration 
and decay, which may be taken to clearly foreshadow that the time 
must come when a Saxon charter is no longer in existence. The 
noble volumes of British Museum Facsimiles owe their origin, in 
the first place, to Mr. Bond's observance of the gradual and insi- 
dious decay which affects these records. 

3. The printing and publication of the texts has been hitherto 
carried on in a very uneven and unsatisfactory manner. Kemble's 
well known Codex (a marvel of laborious care), and Mr. Bond's 
Facsimiles, in which palaeography and photography combine to pro- 
duce one of the most representative reproductions of this century, 
are so far wanting in general scope that the one, while claiming to 
be a codex, would require entirely recasting, remodelling, collating, 
inserting half as much more new matter, and indexing, to bring it 
up to the status of the knowledge which we now have of these pre- 
cious documents; and the other, a masterpiece of photography, 
makes no claim to be considered a literary work. 

4. What antiquaries and students of early English history really 
require is a corpus of these charters with the text of every known 
charter collated, the dates worked out, the localities of the lands 
(where possible) identified, the periods of the personages they allude 
to assigned, the peculiarities of the language and the terms pointed 
out and illustrated. This work, which Kemble almost accom- 
plished, and probably would have left easily to be accomplished 
had not his literary remains been dispersed at his death, I now 
desire to see undertaken under the auspices of this or any Society 
desirous of encouraging researches into the literary incunabula of 
English history. After all, thanks to the versatile nature of the 

54 \\<;Lo-s.\.\<>\ CHARTERS, ETC. 

human mind, there is no lack of willing hands for the work ; but 
the necessary funds for expenses of preparation and publication 
can only be obtained by appealing to those who are willing to see 
the work performed, ami I take this welcome opportunity of ap- 
pealing earnestly, while there is yet time, to all antiquaries to 
hasten the organisation of machinery by which such a monument 
of the importance of their science may be erected. 

(To be continued.) 




{head at Great Malvern, 1881.) 

In response to the demand of one of your Local Secre- 
taries, made to me only yesterday evening, I proceed to 
give you very briefly an account of the ancient painted 
windows of Great Malvern Priory Church. 

Not less than fifteen windows of the church are par- 
tially or altogether filled with old glass. Some portions 
are entire, and beautiful as when first painted; but for the 
greater part there are nothing but fragmentary remains 
of former magnificence. The elates are probably, 1st, late 
fourteenth century glass ; 2nd, the middle of the fifteenth 
century ; and one window at least is of the beginning of 
the sixteenth century. The oldest glass is that in the 
windows of the south chapel, traditionally called " the 
Chapel of St. Anne." The most easterly window of this 
chapel represents very graphically the events of the crea- 
tion of the world. In square 1 the Almighty is seen with 
a huge pair of compasses marking out the world. Chaos is 
all around him ; and in obedience to the command, " Let 
light be", light is streaming down from a great fountain of 
light in the presence of the Deity. Squares 2 and 3 shew 
trees coming into existence, and some animals. In the 
4th birds are seen ; and the Father's blessing is being 
given to the inhabitants of the waters. In the 5th the 
creation of Eve is depicted. The bone in the Almighty's 
hand has drawn upon it the picture of a woman. In the 
6th the Garden of Eden, with our first parents walking, 
and abiding with God without fear or misgiving. Next, 
in the 7th, the temptation, a human headed serpent de- 
ceives the Avoman, whilst Adam is partaking of the for- 
bidden fruit, represented by a large golden pippin. In the 
8th the hiding beneath the trees of the Garden ; the 
cursed serpent, no longer disguised with the human coun- 
tenance divine, as dragon is prostrate on the ground. In 


the 9th the expulsion. Our first parents are by the flaming 
sword driven from the Garden, Eve looking back as if 
with desire for the lost inheritance. The 10th and 11th 
squares shew us Eve, with the infant Cain on her knee, 
at a spinning-wheel; and Adam, as husbandman, is thrust- 
ing a spade into the ground by the aid of his naked and 
unprotected foot. 

The middle window of this chapel gives the history of 
Noah : 1st, taking the animals into the ark, birds of 
many kinds, amongst which is the dove, camels, lions, 
] >igs, deer, goats, etc.; 2nd, the ark floating on the waters, 
Noah looking out at one of its windows, his wife at the 
other; 3rd, Noah is seen offering sacrifice, — the kid or 
lamb, with crossed forelegs, is fastened on the altar, as if 
to symbolise the crucifixion ; 4th, Noah, very beautifully 
painted on glass of the deepest hue, is represented digging 
in the midst of the vines ; 5th, in another part of the 
window the patriarch is prostrate on the ground in his 
drunkenness, in the presence of his sons. In the same 
window are Abraham sending away Agar, Lot in the cave 
with his daughters, the Babel builders, the marriage of 
Abraham ; and two squares in the centre of the window T 
represent, in most marvellous paintings, Esau and Jacob 
before their patriarch father. 

In the most westerly window of the chapel, in the 
midst of much that is broken and despoiled, are shields 
held by angels, containing, 1st, an illustration of the be- 
trayal ; 2nd, the club or stave crossed with the bulrush ; 
3rd, the lantern ; 4th, the bloody spear crossed with the 
sponge and reed ; 5th, the Saviour blindfolded, the face 
lovingly painted, the beard and general contour of the 
face most delicately outlined ; 6th, the three hands, one 
plucking off the hair, the other with the open palm smit- 
ing the blindfolded Saviour; 7th, the sacred monogram; 
8th, Judas' purse overflowing with the thirty pieces of 
r-i]\er; 9th, the pierced hands, the pierced heart and feet; 
and 10th, St. Veronica holding her legendary veil, on 
which is impressed the Saviour's likeness. 

In other parts of the church there are several more of 
these memorial shields, containing in the following order: 
1st, the cock crowing; 2nd, the crown of thorns in a flood 
of holy nimbus; 3rd, the two pikes crossed; 4th, 5th, and 


Gtli, the ladder, the seamless coat, the scourges, the club, 
and bloody spear, and the scourging-post in form of a 
cross. In the great north window, on other shields, are 
represented the hammer and nails, the pinchers, and the 

The great east window, the windows of the clerestory 
of the choir, the great w r est window, and others in differ- 
ent parts of the church, are more or less filled with glass 
dating, without doubt, from the middle of the fifteenth 
century, marking the time of the reconstruction of the 
church in the Perpendicular period. Prior John, of Mal- 
vern, helped greatly with these windows, and a legend in 
Latin, believed to be his motto, is on most of them. 

In the most westerly of the north clerestory windows 
of the choir, belonging to this period, is recorded the 
famous legend of St. Werstan, about which so much has 
been said and written. The window is still, for the most 
part, unbroken. This St. Werstan window has been so 
often described, and was so fully delineated by the late 
Mr. Albert Way, 1 that it is quite unnecessary to do more 
than to call attention thereto. It forms a most interest- 
ing link in Malvern's history, and but for it the story of 
St. Werstan (who was, in fact, the founder of Malvern) 
would be almost a blank. 

The lower part of what is known as St. Werstan's win- 
dow is filled with paintings illustrative of the dedication 
and early history of Malvern's Norman church. The 
window also contains what are believed to be large full- 
length portraits of the following eminent personages : — 
King Edward the Confessor, the good St. Wulstan, and 
King Henry I. Others of these clerestory windows have 
fine paintings of bishops and archbishops, the why and 
the wherefore of whose appearing is matter of conjec- 
ture ; but probably they represent eminent ecclesiastics 
who were in a way unknown to us connected with the 
monastery. Large figures representing the Annunciation 
are very choicely delineated in the most easterly of these 
windows, as are also four representations illustrative of 
the legend of Joachim and Anna, containing, 1 , the alter- 
cation in the garden ; 2, the meeting under the golden 
gate ; and 3, the birth of the blessed Virgin Mary. 

1 Archaeological Journal, March 1845. 


In the most easterly of the south clerestory windows 
are designed illustrations of the four Latin doctors, and 
scenes connected with the history of the Israelites, such 
as the gathering of the manna and the smiting of the 
rock, the manna being represented as falling in the shape 
of loaves of bread. In the middle window is the cruci- 
fixion, in which angels are shewn catching the shed blood. 
On one side St. John supports the fainting Virgin ; and 
on the other, the centurion, looking on the crucified One, 
exclaims " Truly this is the Son of God !" 

The great east window, also of fifteenth century date, 
though sadly broken, has many a charming picture. A 
beautiful Annunciation is at the top. A little lower down 
there are the twelve Apostles and the emblems of the 
Evangelists. The entry into Jerusalem and the Last 
Supper are both very finely depicted. Following these 
are the betrayal, the nailing to the cross, and the appear- 
ance amongst the Doctors. The last picture is surrounded 
by the Scriptural quotation of " Wonderful, Counsellor, 
the mighty God, the everlasting Father". All these pic- 
tures are unbroken, though in some cases they have been 
displaced. The confused mass of broken fragments of 
other pictures, filling up the remaining portions of this 
great east window, gives but a faint idea of its former 

In the great west window are unusually large figures 
of the Blessed Virgin and Child, and St. John the Bap- 
tist, St. Michael, St. George and the dragon, St. Christo- 
pher, St. Nicholas, and St. Catherine, with a great deal 
of fragmentary glass of interesting character. 

In the great north window, the date of the construction 
of which is 1501 or 1502, and which has been said to have 
been given by Henry VII, there are still remaining very 
bold representations of the Most Noble Prince Arthur and 
Sir Reginald Bray. There are traces also of pictures 
formerly existing ; of Henry VII, his Queen, and the 
Princess Elizabeth; but all, except those mentioned, have 
long since disappeared. This window also contains the 
Nativity, which as a picture is quite a study; 1 the Saluta- 

'I'll'' holy \ irii'hi is attired in queenly robes of ermine and crimson. 
Her luxuriant, golden tresses arc represented as banging down below 
her waist ; holy nimbus surrounds her head. A grey-headed and very 


tion ; the visit of the Magi ; Christ in the household of 
Martha, Mary, and Lazarus, the opening of the prison 
house of Purgatory, and much of very fine fragmentary 

In the west window of the north transept is a Nativity, 
a beautiful Last Supper, large full length figures of St. 
Paul, St. John, St. John the Baptist; a Pope's head, pro- 
bably that of St. Gregory ; a very beautifully designed 
Annunciation ; Christ healing the sick, lame, and blind; 
the Presentation in the Temple ; and much besides of 
beautiful broken remains. 

These are but a summary of the beautiful paintings still 
remaining in Malvern Priory Church. Any one desirous 
to know more may consult a little book published some 
years since on the subject. But no mere description can 
afford anything like a clear conception concerning them, 
or do them justice. To be understood they must be care- 
fully examined. 

From various causes these windows did in former times 
possess to the then beholders a magnificence and import- 
ance they never can possess to us, regarding them, as we 
are apt to do, as mere works of art, or even as mere his- 
torical remains ; for they had a religious significance. The 
rime of age may charm these windows to us, and the 
saintly mythology with which they are invested gives 
to them a poetic significance ; but all this can be as no- 
thing compared with the religious reverence with which 
in former times they must have been regarded. 

aged looking man, supporting himself by a crutch, represents Joseph. 
The blessed Saviour, surrounded by a profusion of holy nimbus, occu- 
pies the centre of the picture. In the background are two figures, the 
ox and ass. The former animal, with bowed head, seems to be impart- 
ing the warmth of his breath to the infant Saviour. The stable, a 
dilapidated looking building, exhibits its thatched roof partially de- 
nuded of its covering. On the Virgin's mantle, and in other parts of 
the picture, are etched, very beautifully, small white, emblematical 
lilies. Over the whole picture the Almighty Father is represented 
with out-spread hands, as if in the act of blessing, and golden-winged 
angels on each side appear as if diligently inquiring into the myste- 
rious transaction. 




(Read June 1, 1881.) 

The following notes are suggested by a drawing of a mer- 
maid traced by Mr. Watling from a piece of painted glass 
formerly in the window of St. Nicholas Church, Yarmouth, 
and now in that of the Rectory of All Saints, South 
Elmham, near Halesworth, Suffolk. In this example the 
damsel has a profusion of long hair, one lock of which she 
holds in her left hand, whilst in her right is placed a 
large, square, double-toothed comb. Her breasts are well 
developed, and the lower or fishy portion of her person, 
commencing at the hips, is covered with large scales. 
This painting is apparently referable to the end of the 
fifteenth or early part of the sixteenth century. 

This is a good typical representation of a class of sea- 
monsters, a belief in the existence of which may be traced 
back into ages of remote antiquity, and who figure con- 
spicuously in the Pantheons of many nations : witness 
the Dagon of the Philistines of Ashdod, 1 the Dercetis or 
Atergates of the Syrians, the Sirens, the Oceanides, the 
Tritons, and Nereides of the Greeks and Romans, which 
are nothing more nor less than the mermen and mermaids 
of later days. 

Apollodorus has preserved a fragment of Berosus which 
furnishes an early notice of a merman. We gather from 
his statement that there appeared in the Erythraean or 
Persian Gulf a creature called Oannes, which resembled a 
fish ; but under the fish's head was that of a man, and to 
its tail were conjoined women's feet ; and further, that it 
spoke a language which the Chakkeans understood. Oan- 
nes taught them many useful arts during the day, and 
when night came on he plunged into the sea. Five such 
marine monsters visited Babylonia at different periods, 
and were denominated "Annedoti", i.e., coming out of or 

1 Can this name be connected with Dugong, the designation of a 
cetacean of the Indian seas ? 


proceeding from. The first was named the " Musarus 
Oamics"; the last, "Odacon". Berosus also records that 
their effigies were preserved in Chalda3a down to his time. 
Sir Henry Layard discovered at Khorsabad a bas-relief of 
a bearded merman, the upper half perfectly human in 
shape, and the head protected with the sacred helmet, 
the lower half of the body being perfectly fishy in form. 1 
This figure is undoubtedly a marine deity, and reminds 
us of the Hindu god Matsyavatare, the first of the ten 
incarnations of Vishnu, who, it is well to note, at times 
holds in one of his hands a drawn sword. 

Gervase of Tilbury, who flourished at the commence- 
ment of the thirteenth century, asserts that mermen and 
mermaids live in the British Ocean ; and there is no lack 
of indications that our ancestors were well acquainted 
with the form of such creatures. Mermaids are occasion- 
ally seen on old seals. There is in the possession of the 
Corporation of Chesterfield a grant of the time of King 
John, from William Briwer, to which his seal is attached, 
bearing the image of a mermaid with a very long up- 
turned tail, having the right arm akimbo, and the left 
hand raised to the head. 

Mermen and mermaids found a place in heraldry in 
early times. Guillim, in his Display (ed. 1724, p. 271), 
gives a delineation of a sea-nymph with this notice: "He 
beareth argent, a mermaid gules, crined or, holding a mirror 
in her right hand, and a comb in her left. By the name 
of Ellis." This red lady's golden tresses descend below 
her waist, the comb is double-toothed, and the oval glass 
which reflects her fair face has a pearled edging. Arms 
similar to these are given in Kent's Grammar of Heraldry 
(ed. 1716) to Ellis of Yarmouth in Norfolk, the place 
where the painted glass with our mermaid was originally 
set up. Ellis of Cornwall and Ellis of Merionethshire, 
whilst displaying different arms, have each for crest a 
mermaid proper ; in her dexter hand a mirror, in her 
sinister a comb. The mermaid is also adopted as a crest 

1 See Layard's Nineveh and its Remains, 3rd ed., vol. ii, p. 46G. In 
Brayley's Graphic Illustrator, p. 384, is an engraving of an idol in the 
Soane Museum, which may be compared with this Khorsabad sculp- 
ture. It belongs to the class of objects described in this Journal, xxii, 
p. 444; xxv, p. 393. 


by the families of Byron, Phen£, Sheffington, Foster, and 


The Worshipful Company of Fishmongers have for sup- 
porters bo their arms a merman and mermaid, the latter 
of whom has a mirror in her hand, but no comb. The 
companion figure has a helmet and cuirass, and holds a 
mighty sword. Some may ask whether there be any 
authority for equipping a merman like a warrior. We 
have already seen that Oannes at Khorsabad wears a hel- 
met, that the Hindu god Matsyavatara wields a sword, 
and an old chronicler tells us as follows : "About this 
time ( 1 202 ) fish of strange shapes were taken, armed with 
helmets and shields like armed men, only they were 
much bigger." After all this, who will dispute the pro- 
priety of the Fishmongers having harnessed their brave 
merman as if ready for battle ? The Royal Fishery Com- 
pany have a merman and mermaid for supporters to their 
arms ; but both weapon and comb are dispensed with, 
and each figure holds a Union banner. Mermen or mer- 
maids are likewise found as supporters to the arms of the 
Earls of Caledon, Howth, and Sandwich,Viscounts Boyne 
and Hood, Lord Lyttelton, and Scott of Abbotsfbrd. A 
merman is the sinister supporter of the arms of Liverpool. 

English heralds have been pretty well content to deli- 
neate the mermaid with a single tail ; but those of 
Fiance and Germany have frequently endowed the damsel 
with two, thus following the teaching of the illustrations 
of some of the early works on natural history- In the 
M<ir<i<ir'<t<i Philosophica, printed at Basle in 1508, is a little 
woodcut of various fish swimming in the sea, and among 
them a mermaid without arms, but with two tails ; one 
rising up on either side as high as the lady's head, which, 
by the by, is crowned or coronated. Another double- 
tailed mermaid may be seen in one of the plates in Pto- 
lemy's Geography (Basle, 1540). I have a silver-mounted, 
revolving seal of steel, on one face of which is a profile 
bust of Shakspere ; and on the other a crest, a two- 
tailed mermaid holding a heart in one hand, and a couple 
of straight trumpets in the other. 

Some of the classic poets describe the Sirens with 
wings; which they are said to have lost in consequence of 
having been worsted in a contest with the Muses. Ali- 


ferous mermaids are rare creatures in art; but I have a 
heavy stand for sonic object, wrought out of a block of 
alabaster, at either end of which is a very graceful mer- 
maid with large wings. This curious piece of seventeenth 

century sculpture was formerly in the collection of the 
late Mr. Sams. 

The mermaid was a very favourite sign with the old 
London traders. In the sixteenth century the printers 
John Rastall and John Gowyhe, in Cheapside, near Paul's 
Gate, John Baynes and Nicholas Ling of St. Paul's 
( Jhurchyard, and Henry Bynneman of Knightrider Street, 
all dwelt under the sign of the Mermaid. 

In the seventeenth century tokens were issued from 
Mermaid taverns in Bow Lane, Cheapside, Cornh ill, Fetter 
Lane, and Red Cross Street, Cripplegate, all of which dis- 
play effigies of the fishy damsel. There was likewise a 
Mermaid Tavern in Carter Lane. Mermaid Court, South- 
wark, derives its name from the old sign ; and the Old 
Mermaid at Hackney will not soon be forgotten. There 
was once a Mermaid Court, Charing Cross, and another 
in Paternoster Row, but they have both long since passed 

Pliny 1 and other old writers relate that Tritons and 
Nereids, or in other words, mermen and mermaids, have 
been seen both alive and dead, and in both states have 
been captured and exposed to public gaze. Two mermaids 
were exhibited in London in the years 1775 and 1794, 
which proved great attractions ; but the most noted one 
was that which drew such crowds of visitors to the Turf 
Coffee House, St. James' Street, Piccadilly, in 1822, and 
of which George Cruikshank has left an exact portrait. 
This mermaid, though professed to have been caught alive 
in the Eastern Seas, was in truth made up in London by 
a person named Norman, who ingeniously concealed the 
lower part of a dried monkey in the body of a salmon, 
varnishing the whole over so as to hide the union of the 
two creatures. Norman is said to have been the father 
of two or three other like monsters of the deep. 

Mermaids are not nearly so plentiful on our coasts iioav 
as they were in the days of Gervase of Tilbury; but in 
the year 1845 a small shoal of little ones appeared in a 

1 N. II., ix, 4. 


shop-window at Hastings ; but grave naturalists declared 
they were nothing but young ray-fish (Eaia clavata) bent 
and twisted out of form; some having black beads for 
eyes, and two bits of wood fixed in the gums for teeth. 
These Hastings damsels are not a thousandth part so 
beautiful, elegant, and attractive in aspect as the pictorial 
mermaid at South Elmham which has suggested and 
called forth these few remarks. 

Popular belief declares that to dream of a mermaid fore- 
bodes ill to the dreamer, and it is therefore to be hoped 
that the subject of this paper, if remembered at all during 
the hours of wakefulness, will find no place in the sleep- 
thought, but that the rest may be as calm and blissful as 
if the wave had never been tossed up by the finny tail of 
the ocean nymph, or fancy spread its net, and secured her 
as an adornment of the pagan temple, the heraldic shield, 
the traders' sign-board, and the wild story of the fabulist. 





OF JOHN CARPENTER, 1444-1476, 



(Read at Malvern, August 24, 1881.) 

My acquaintance with the unpublished Registers of John 
( larpenter, Bishop of Worcester, I owe to the courtesy of 
the Rev. T. P. Wadley, who has assisted me to unlock 
the historical information included in their small, difficult 
writing, and almost hieroglyphical abbreviations. These 
documents, comprised in two large volumes, contain a 
record of the official transactions of that prelate during 
the thirty-two years of his episcopate, from 1444 to 1476 ; 
and from them I intend to read such extracts as may 
throw light on my subject. 

Bishop Carpenter, on his consecration to the see at the 
commencement of 1444, had to deal with a clergy who 
committed flagrant breaches of their vows of celibacy. 
The bad example of the dissolute Protector, the Duke of 
Gloucester, who had wedded Jacqueline of Holland in the 
lifetime of her husband, and afterwards discarded her to 
marry Eleanor Cobham, had encouraged a laxity of morals 
which had crept over English society during the French 
wars. In this profligacy the clergy shared, and were 
much given to revelry and debauchery. Our Bishop set 
himself vigorously to repress these clerical scandals. He 
delivered commissions to the Deans of Gloucester and 
Bristol, and to the Rector of Slaughter, not only to cite, 
but " to seek out and cause to be safely conveyed to his 
Palace all clerks who had been convicted of offences." A 
commission for the same purpose, relative to the clergy 
in the city and deanery of Worcester, issued August 6th, 
1444, to the Rector of St. Martin's and Sir Thomas Cooke, 
parish chaplain of St. Helen's in that city. The Bishop's 

1882 5 


activity is signified by dates which shew that in 1444 lie 
was, Nov. 9th, at Bloekley, in the following month at 
Alvechurch, and in January 1445 he was at one time in 
his Palace at Worcester, and another at his Castle of 
Hartlebury, and soon afterward in the Monastery of Per- 
shore. On February 6th following he is found at the 
Priory of Llanthony ; in a fortnight after that date in the 
Monastery of ( !irencester, in the next week in the Abbey 
of Winchcombe. and within a few days in the College of 
Stratford-on-Avon, and a little later on at Bromsgrove. 
He dates during the months of May and June from Lon- 
don, where his probable attendance at the coronation of 
Margaret of Anjou interrupted the inspection of his ex- 
tensive diocese, comprising the counties of Worcester, 
Warwick, and Gloucester. 

The record of the admission of priests to livings vacant 
by resignation, seems to indicate that some of the clergy 
preferred retiring from their parochial cures to facing the 
inquisition of their new Diocesan. It was difficult, how- 
ever, for him to stop at once the irregularities and non- 
residence of his clergy. These and the practice denounced 
by Archbishop Stafford, of holding fairs and markets in 
churches and the adjoining burial-ground, and tumults 
arising among the parishioners irritated by news of the 
loss of territory in France, when they met for religious 
service in the churches, created a desire in the gentry to 
have private worship in their own houses. This privilege, 
however, from the fear of the secret spread of Lollardism, 
was not permitted without episcopal sanction. 

January 14th, 1445, Bishop Carpenter granted to his 
auditor, William Pyllesdon, and Elianor his wife, a license 
to have divine offices celebrated in their own presence 
only, "within their mansion house in the city of Worcester, 
so that no prejudice accrue to then own parish church." 
The same right was conceded, January 20th in the same 
year, "to Thomas Lyttelton and Johan his wife, and their 
mts, 1 he license to remain in force during the Bishop's 
pleasure." March 11th following, a similar leave was 
ited " to Nicholas Poyntz, Esq., and his wife, and their 
children also/' Sept. 30th, 1445, Thomas Bouse, Esq., and 
Elizabeth his wife obtained permission "to have divine 
service in their oratory within their mansion of Bouse 


Lench, so that no prejudice he done thereby to their 
parish church." March .".1st, 1450, the year of the Duke 
of Suffolk's murder and Cade's rebellion, "John Clopton, 
Gent., lord of the manor of Clopton, within the parish of 
Stratford-on-Avon", sought and was granted a similar 

Another evil which the Bishop set about to remedy 
was the dilapidated state of the roads and bridges in his 
diocese, arising probably from the diminution of labour in 
consequence of the drain on the population to supply sol- 
diers for the army in France. The method adopted by 
Bishop ( arpenter for the improvement of these indispens- 
able adjuncts of social progress was the same by which 
Pope Leo X raised money for the erection of the great 
church of St. Peter at Rome. He issued grants of indul- 
gence to all who would contribute towards the repair of 
certain roads and bridges ; that is, he held out hope of 
repayment for such assistance by a temporary remission 
of the penalty of their sins in this world and the world 
to come. As early as March the 11th, 1445, he granted 
" forty days' indulgence to all who aided the reparation 
of the King's highway between Bristol and Wooton- 
under-Edge, persons being allowed to avail themselves 
of this privilege within the lapse of two years." The 
same indulgence of forty days was accorded, August 25th, 
1445, to those who helped to repair the bridge called 
the West Bridge, near Gloucester; and May 22nd, 1448, 
to those who should be willing to contribute to " the 
amendment of the King's highway between Worcester 
and Pershore, especially from Thornton Heath to Lough 
Mill beside Pershore"; on May 31st, 1448, to all who 
assisted in improving the King's highway leading from 
the town of Gloucester to the hamlet of Newport ; on 
Oct. 27th, 1449, to persons "who would, within one year, 
aid in the reparation, reconstruction, and sustentation of 
the bridge at the east side of the town of Bidford in War- 
wickshire"; and in May 1 464 to all who would better the 
condition of the road between Gloucester and Bristol. It 
will be observed that such grants (which in later times, 
shamelessly sold by auction for private profit, accelerated 
the Reformation) were confined by Bishop Carpenter to 
serving as inducements to public spirit, works of charity, 


and religious devotion and sympathy with good persons. 
Sept. 25th, 1445, letters of indulgence were issued " to all 
people contributing to the support of Elizabeth, widow 
of Sir .John Holt, who had suffered misfortune in the 
parts of Normandy"; no doubt in the disastrous war car- 
ried on there; and in 1463 a similar reward was extended 
to all who subscribed to the aid of the Hospital at Dun- 
wich, in the diocese of Norwich, probably St. James's 
Hospital for Lepers. An interesting entry, June the 
11th, 146G, testifies that the Beverend Father granted 
" forty days' indulgence, available for all future times, to 
such as should devoutly say the Lord's Prayer and the 
Angelic Salutation (i.e., Ave Maria) at the time of the 
tolling of the great bell called the Bell of Jesus Christ, 
hanging in the tower of the Monastery at Tewkesbury, 
with a view to the good estate of brother Robert New- 
ent, almoner of that Abbey, while he shall live, and for 
his soul when he shall have departed, and for the souls of 
his parents and benefactors." 

The Lollards accused the bishops of not employing, for 
the edification of the people, the apostolical ordinance of 
preaching ; but if Bishop Carpenter did not preach him- 
self, or deliver what is now called a charge at his visita- 
tions, yet he generally commissioned some learned clergy- 
man to discourse on a text from the Bible. On the second 
day of his visitation at Bristol, July 18th, 1467, he called 
upon William Mogys "to expound the Word of God". The 
same office was performed on the 21st of that month, in 
the same city, during his inspection of the House of St. 
Mark, by Master Hugh Chesenall; and on the 24th, dur- 
ing his visitation of the collegiate church of Westbury, 
by Master Philip Llyett, Sub-dean. 

It is pleasing to notice how, in the midst of the Wars 
of the Hoses, the spiritual functions and ordinances of the 
( 'lunch went on under the supervision of the good Bishop. 
( Ihurches and chantries and altars, as in the case of those 
of ( Jreat Malvern Priory Church, were consecrated. In 
that terrible year, the year 1461, at the commencement 
of which 60,000 Englishmen, within three months, had 
been slain in the fiercely contested battles of Mortimer's 
Cross, St. Alban's, and Towton, the Bishop, as soon as 
the coronation of Edward IV had given some tranquillity 


to the country, commenced a general inspection of his 
diocese. On Tuesday, Sept. 22nd, he visited in person 
the Cut hedral and Monastery of Worcester. Sir Thomas 
Musard, the Prior, "was vexed with a serious illness"; hut 
the hells sent forth joyful peals, and the Sub-prior and 
the monks went in procession to meet their Diocesan. 
During his stay in the Convent till Thursday, much con- 
versation was, no doubt, carried on between the monks 
and his attendants concern ing the young cousin of the 
Earl of Warwick, Sheriff of Worcestershire, Edward of 
York, whose gallantry and good generalship had made 
the White Rose flourish again, and had won for him the 
throne of his ancestor, Edward III. Our official docu- 
ments are, however, silent on such points, but duly record 
that Master John Lawern, professor of sacred theology, 
monk and sacrist of the church, set forth the Word of 
God ; and kindly inform us that his text was "Qui est 
misit me ad vos"; in our English Version, "I am hath sent 
me unto you." 

On Tuesday the Bishop visited "the clergy and people" 
in the mother church of the diocese, the church of St. 
Helen at Worcester. October 3rd, Master William Vance 
was commissioned to hold a visitation for him at the 
parish church of Halesowen, and Master Robert Slym- 
brygge at the church of Tardebigge. On Wednesday, 
Oct. 14th, the Diocesan was received into the Monastery 
of Pershore with due marks of honour, the ringing of 
bells, and a procession. During his stay there, which 
continued till Friday morning, " Master William Mogys 
duly set forth the Word of God." Oct. 20th, the Priory 
of Little Malvern was visited by Master William Vance 
as deputy for the Bishop, and afterwards other churches 
in the counties of Warwick, Worcester, and Gloucester, 
were submitted to episcopal inquiry, and so concluded the 
visitation of the Bishop in that memorable year. 

His reception cost the convents and parishes consider- 
able expense. We are told that while he resided in the 
Monastery of Worcester "the said Reverend Father was 
furnished with meat and drink for himself, his officials, 
ministers, and .servants, and their horses." Procurations 
of meat and drink were supplied to himself and retinue 
during his abode for four days in St. Augustine's Monas- 


tery at Bristol, which convent he entered with monks in 
procession, and bell ringing, July 17th, 1467; and to his 
deputy, William Vance, when he inquired, Sept. 25th of 
the same year, into the state of the House of St. Mary 
Magdalene in that town; but were commuted for five 
marks when the Bishop visited, July 20th, 1467, "the 
clergy and people" of the Deanery of Bristol and the 
( Ihurch of the Holy Trinity there. These facts are inte- 
nding as shewing the origin of the fees required from 
the clergy and churchwardens at episcopal and archidi- 
aconal visitations at the present day. 

But episcopal supervision and the continuance of reli- 
gious rites and ceremonies could not prevent the spread 
of lawlessness engendered by the cruel wars for the suc- 
cession of the English crown. Affrays, assaults, and 
murders, took place in the churches and churchyards of 
the diocese of Worcester. These outrages were branded 
by the ecclesiastical authorities as shocking sacrilege. In 
the parishes where they occurred, holy offices seem to 
have been suspended until the church or burial-ground 
had undergone rededication to their sacred uses. The 
Abbey Church of Tewkesbury, we are told, was rededi- 
cated after pollution by the blood of those slain there at 
the great victory of Edward IV on May 4, 1471. On 
March 14th, 1469, a commission Avas appointed "for the 
solemn reconciliation of the parish church of Northfield 
after violence and shedding of blood." One Pilchard Baker 
of that parish was the offender. His father Thomas 
Baker paid 40 shillings, part of the procuration fee due to 
the Bishop ; the remaining £3 were remitted by the con- 
siderate Prelate at the request of William Berkeley, Esq. 
Feb. 23rd, 1470, an inquisition was holden respecting the 
pollution of the churchyard of Bisley by violence and 
bloodshed. "A certain David Jones had made an assault 
therein upon Thomas Dolman of Bisley aforesaid." The 
burial of the dead was prohibited till the churchyard had 
been " reconciled". For this process the parishioners paid 
five marks. June 27th, 1472, an inquiry under the 
authority of the Bishop took place concerning the dese- 
cration of the interior of the parish church of Didbrooke, 
" notoriously polluted by violence and shedding of blood." 
< >ther records tell us the circumstances under which the 


church had been contaminated. In the previous year some 
of the Lancastrian fugitives from the battle of Tewkes- 
bury took sanctuary within its walls, and were there 
basely put to death. So dreadful did this sacrilege appear 
to the monks of the adjoining Abbey of Hales, who, per- 
haps, had sympathy with the party of the lied Rose, that 
Abbot Whytechurch in 1478 built at his own expense a 
new church in the place of the one in which the barbarity 
had been committed. 

But while "the ruthless wars of the White and Red" 
encouraged a lawless and profane spirit in some persons, 
they deepened the religious sentiments of others. June 
3rd, 1465, during a solemn service in the collegiate church 
of Westbury, our Bishop gave his blessing to Isabella 
Seymour, a widow, "devoting herself to perpetual chastity". 
On March 12th, 1468, William Canynge the younger, a 
widower, a great owner of ships, five times Mayor of Bris- 
tol (so rich that he could lend his sovereign, Edward IV, 
3,000 marks), the builder of a great part of the church of 
St. Mary Redclifle, knelt meekly before the Bishop of 
Worcester in the chapel of his Palace at Northwick, in 
the parish of Claines, and was admitted by him to the 
humble order of subdeacon. It is said he desired to avoid 
a second marriage with a lady of the Woodville family 
proposed to him by the King. He was soon afterwards, 
in the same chapel, ordained deacon ; and on April 16th, 
1468, received in the same place, at the hands of the 
Bishop, the order of priesthood, and was collated on the 
same day to one of the five canonries of the College of 
Westbury-on-Trym, and on June 3rd, 1469, promoted to 
be its Dean. There he spent five years, engaged, among 
other works of mercy and devotion, in praying for the 
souls of Richard Duke of York and his son Edmund Duke 
of Rutland, both slain at the bloody battle of Wakefield. 

Bishop Carpenter was a great benefactor of the religious 
institution which became the retreat of the royal mer- 
chant of Bristol, and rebuilt and beautified the edifice, 
adding to it, as he did to his Palace at Hartlebury, a mag- 
nificent gateway. He had so great a partiality for the 
College situated in the parish where he is supposed to 
have been born, that it is said he affected to be styled 
Bishop of Worcester and Westbury ; and it is noticed in 


his Registers that on one occasion of his visiting it, he 
kindly remitted his procuration-fee of four marks. He 
was at Westbury College, August 22nd, 1474, a short 
time previous to ( anynge's death, and no doubt imparted 
spiritual consolation to his friend in his last sickness. 

But before I conclude my paper I must refer to some 
other act inns of our Prelate recorded elsewhere, which 
will help to complete my picture of his character and the 
ecclesiastical state of the diocese under his rule. In these 
disorderly times, when justice was pursued precipitately 
and in a revengeful spirit, he thought it prudent to cast 
the shield of the Church's protection even over criminals, 
and obtained a stricter charter of sanctuary for the church- 
yard and precincts of the Monastery of Worcester, so 
that no one could be arrested within their limits except 
for the crime of treason. Having been Provost of Oriel 
and Chancellor of the University of Oxford, and appointed 
to his see by Henry VI (the munificent founder of King's 
College at Cambridge and Eton College, where our Bishop 
had been consecrated), he was not insensible, amid his 
arduous official duties, to the claims of learning. In 1464 
he established a library in the charnel-house near the 
north porch of the Cathedral of Worcester, and endowed 
it with £10 for a librarian. It was to be open daily, two 
hours before and two hours after nine, to any person 
wishing to consult it for the purpose of erudition. But 
as he grew older his affection grew stronger for his Col- 
lege of Westbury. The Registers inform us that he held 
an ordination, Sept. 19th, 1472, in his oratory there; but 
after that time he suffered the Bishop of Down and Con- 
nor to perform such ceremonies in his stead. The last 
ordination held by that Prelate for him was at Worcester, 
June 6th, 1476; and Master Arnulph Colyns transacted 

business for the Bishop of the diocese on Sept. 6th and 

loth of the same year in his manor of Northwick. 

Soon after that time our eminent ecclesiastic closed his 
active and well spent life in his Palace there, a few 
months before William Caxton set up in the Almonry at 

Westminster the printing press which was to realise, far 
beyond the Bishop's expectation, the spread of secular 
and religious knowledge. His will, which, no doubt, was 

a ivik-x of his noble and generous character, though men- 


tioned in the Index of the Worcester Probate Office, can- 
not be found. He was buried in the church of his beloved 
Westbury, but not near his friend William Canynge, who 
preferred "to be laid by the side of Johan his wife" in his 
beautiful church of St. Mary lledcliffe. A plain altar- 
tomb, with a skeleton carved upon it, commemorated in 
Westbury Church the Bishop from whose minutely kept 
Registers I have endeavoured to draw and throw light on 
the ecclesiastical condition of the great and important 
diocese over which he presided in the most troublesome 
and sanguinary period of the existence of our English 
monarchy, and amid events of which contemporary chro- 
nicles afford only a bare and meagre description. 

33ntts|) archaeological association. 


MONDAY, AUGUST 22nd, to SATURDAY the 27th inclusive, 
(With Three Extra Days to the 31st). 



The Very Rev. The Lord ALWYXE COMPTON, D.D., 



The Duke of Norfolk, E.M. 

The Duke of Cleveland, K.G. 

The Marquis of Ailesburt. 

The Marquis of Hertford. 

The Earl of Carnarvon, P.S.A. 

The Earl of Dartmouth. 

The Earl of Effingham. 

The Earl of Hardwicke. 

The Earl of Mount-Edgcumbe. 

The Earl Nelson. 

The Earl of Warwick. 

The Lord Houghton, D.C.L., F.S.A. 

The Lord Wavenet, D.L., P.R.S. 

Sir C. H. Rouse Boughton, Bart. 

Sir W. Coles Medltcott, Bt., D.C.L. 

Sir H. W. Peek, Bart., M.P. 

SikWatkin Willi A3isWYNN,Bt.,M.P. 

The Marquis of Worcester. 

The Earl of Coventry. 

The Earl Somers. 

Tin. Lord Windsor. 

The Lord Lyttelton. 

The Hon. J. Roper Curzon. 

Sir Edmund A. II. Lechmere, Bart., 

MI'., D.L. 
Sir Richard Temple, Bart. 
C. M. Berington, Esq., D.L. 
Michael Biddulph, Esq., M.P. 
John Brinion, Esq., M.P. 

H. Syer Cuming, Esq., F.S.A. Scot. 

Captain Castle, the Sheriff of Wor- 

Colonel Davies. 

G. D. Wingiteld Digby, Esq., D.L. 

John Evans, Esq., F.E.S., F.S A. 


George Godwin, Esq.,F.R.S., F.S.A. 

J. O. Halliwell-Phillipps, Esq., 
FR.S., F.S.A. 

G. W. Hastings, Esq., M.P. 

James Heywood, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

J. Rowley Hill, Esq , M P. 

J. V. HOKNYOLD, Esq., D.L. 

F. Winn Knight, Esq., M.P. 
Eneas Macintyre, Esq., M.P. 

G. E. Martin, Esq., D. L. 
Rev. S. M. Mayhew, M.A. 
Thomas Morgan, Esq., F.S.A. 
Rev. Prebendary H. M. Scarth,M.A. 
C. Roach Smith, Esq., F.S.A. 

T. Martin Southwell, Esq. 
Rev. W. S. Simpson, D.D., F.S.A. 
E. Maunde Thompson, Esq., F.S.A., 
Keeperof the MSS., British Museum 
George Tomline, Esq., F.S.A. 
S. I. Tucker, Esq., Somerset Herald. 
John Walter, Esq., M.P. 
Dr. West. 



The Rev. Prebendary Gregory Smith, MA., Vicar of Malvern, 

( 'hairman. 

H. Aldricii, K-<q. 

I :. \ u< ii i it, Ksi|. 

i;i \ . C. I-. Bani - ii b 

T. Hill Harrows, lv><j. 

Charles J. Hati:, Fsq. 

R. Binns, Esq. 

Bev Charles Black, M.A. 

W. B. Burrow, Esq. 

J. S. Burrow, Esq. 

Major Clowes. 

Thomas Cox, Esq. 

Bev. C. T. Cruttwell, M.A. 

Bev. F. Davenport. 

Bev. A. J. Douglas, M.A. 

E. B. Fitton, Esq. 

Bev. C E. Freeman, M.A. 

Joseph Greaves, Esq. 

Lieut.-Gn. Sir John S. H awkins,B.E. 

John Hooper, Esq. 
l;i iv. P. HciriviNSON, F.S.A. 
Edwin Lees, Esq., F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Bev. G. S. Munn, M.A. 

A I r. .1 \ M E8 NOTT. 

Rev. Fredk. Peel, M.A. 

J. Dyson Perrins, Esq., J. P. 

Thelwell Pike, Esq., M.D. 

(i. II. Piper, Esq., F.G.S. 

F. Powell, Esq., M.D. 

Kkv. Hemming Bobeson, M.A. 

Bev. W. S. Symonds, M.A., F.G.S. 

Bev. J. B. Wathen, M.A. 

J. H. Whatley, Esq. 

Bev. G. C. White, M.A. 

Bev. E V. Williams, M.A. 

11. Wilson, Esq. 


G. G. Adams, Esq., F.S.A. 

George Ade, Esq. 

Thomas Blashill, Esq. 

Cecil Brent, Esq., F.S.A. 

C. H. Compton. Esq. 

Arthur Cope, Esq. 

William Henry Cope, Esq. 

B. Horman-Fisher, Esq., F.S.A. 

J. W. Grover, Esq., F.S.A. 

With the Officers 

B A. Douglas Lithgow, Esq., LL.D. 

J. T. Mould, Esq. 
Walter Myers, Esq., F.S.A. 
J. S. Phbne, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A. 
George Patrick, Esq. 
Bev. Alex. Taylor, M.A. 
John Whitmore, Esq. 

and Local Committee. 

Hon. Treasurer— Thomas Morgan, Esq., V.P., F.S.A., Hill-Side House, Palace 
Boad, Streatham Hill, London, S.W. 



W. de Gray Birch, Esq., F.B.S.L., F.S.A., British Museum. 
E. P. Loftus Brock, Esq., F.S.A., 19, Montague Place, Eussell 
Square, W.C. 

Hon. Local I W. Tyrrell, Esq., Claremont, Malvern. 
Secretaries { Edward Nevinson, Esq., Abbey Gate, Malvern. 

Hon. Curator, Librarian, and Congress Secretary— George B. Wright, Esq., 
F.S.A., Junior Athenaeum Club, Piccadilly, W. 

Hon. Local Treasurer— Charles J. Bate, Esq., Thorncliffe, Malvern. 

Hon. Assistant Congress Secretary — John Beynolds, Esq., The Manor House, 
Eedland, Bristol. 


13 ro recti tncjs of tfje Congress. 

Monday, August 22, 1881. 

The thirty-eighth annual Congress of the British Archaeological Asso- 
ciation was opened at Great Malvern. The meeting has been one of 
considerable interest, and in regard to the numbers attending it may 
undoubtedly be reckoned amongst the most successful ever held; and 
if it had not been for the cold and rainy weather which has prevailed 
during the last ten days, it would have been also most pleasurable. 
The area visited has been more closely circumscribed than usual, owing 
partly, perhaps, to the obstacles to locomotion presented by the great 
chain of hills lying to the west of the meeting-place ; and partly to the 
fact that carriages were used in preference to the railways more largely 
than has been customary in these excursions, — a choice which the un- 
propitious weather rendered somewhat unfortunate. 

The special feature has been the diversity of objects seen. Nume- 
rous earthworks upon the hill-tops were examined, and caused warm 
discussion, as a matter of course not resulting in uniform agreement. 
Only one mediaeval castle, Branshill, a mere fragment of outer tower, 
was seen. Of the many churches examined, a large number were cruci- 
form in plan, with central towers, and retained in their low arcades, 
carried on cylindrical columns with plain heads, and in their deeply 
splayed windows, extensive remains of work executed at the Transition 
period, when the highly elaborated Norman was merging into the 
simpler, more refined, and less massive Early English style. 

The opening meeting was held in the Malvern College Council Room 
at three o'clock. There was a large attendance both of members of 
the Association and of ladies and gentleman of the town. 

Sir John Hawkins, Chairman of the Malvern Local Board, said that 
in behalf of the inhabitants of Malvern he was deputed to give the 
British Archaeological Association a hearty welcome. The Association 
had twice before met in the county, in 1848 at Worcester, and in 1875 
at Evesham. Sir John referred to the interest taken in the Association 
by the late Mr. Chance. 


The President, Lord Alwyne Compton, then delivered his inaugural 
address, which has been printed at pp. 1-8. 

The Rev. I. Gregory Smith, Vicar of Great Malvern, in proposing a 
vote of thanks to the Dean, said the Honorary Secretaries, who had 
spared no trouble in making the preliminary arrangements, had in no 
point been more successful than in securing the services of the Presi- 
dent. The wise words which they had heard about restoration and 
preservation applied to questions of greater importance than archaeo- 
logy, and came with especial force from one whose association with 
archaeology was hereditary. 

Mr. G. R. Wright, Congress Secretary, seconded the motion, which 
was unanimously adopted. 

The Dean briefly replied. 

Before leaving the College the party inspected some beautiful speci- 
mens of the wooden carving of the old Guesten Hall of Malvern Abbey, 
which were temporarily exhibited in the corridor, having been removed 
from a local building for the purpose. 

The bells were ringing a merry peal as the archaeologists wended 
their way to the Abbey Church. Quite a large audience was assembled 
together, and Mr. W. Jeffrey Hopkins, F.R.I.B.A., of Worcester, read 
his paper. The Abbey of Malvern was, he remarked, founded in the 
eleventh century, according to Dovecote in 1085 ; but there had pre- 
viously been an Oratory of St. Werstan at the place, near St. Anne's 
Well, still known as " The Hermitage", where bones, coffin-lids, and 
other proofs of interment have been dug up. Of this St. Werstan, to 
whom the Priory as well as the Oratory was dedicated, we knew little, 
except that he fled from Deerhurst to Malvern in the time of Edward 
the Confessor, and was martyred here about 1056. No mention of 
Werstan existed in the Calendar, and the only record of him were the 
miracles depicted on the shattered glass of a much more recent date, 
still to be seen in this Church. The earliest part of the structure 
around them w r as built by Prior Alwyne, a monk, who had served under 
Wulstan of Worcester. Alwyne founded this, with the aid of thirty 
monks of the Benedictine order, to which belonged the great neigh- 
bouring Abbeys of Worcester, Pershore, Tewkesbury, and Gloucester. 
There were grounds for believing this Priory Church, like all the others 
just mentioned, had a double apsidal eastern termination, — a very rare 
feature in England, and probably imported from the banks of the 
Loire. The Clerk of Works engaged in the restoration of Malvern 
Priory, under Sir Gilbert Scott, found that although the eastern end 
was now square, there were foundations of a semicircular aisle pro- 
longed into an apse ; and Mr. Nott and others now present had seen 
these remains. Beneath the chancel were remains of a crypt ; and it 
was a singular coincidence that all the Norman towers erected over the 


crossings of great abbey churches, with crypts to the east of them, fell 
at about the same time, from the failure of the range of columns, in 
each case crushing the eastern part of the church. Winchester tower 
fell in 1079, Worcester in 1084, Gloucester in 1080, and Canterbury in 
1096, while this one also failed about that time; and at the present 
time they could see the tower-piers leaned to the east, especially on 
the north side. Mr. Hopkins asked the audience to look around them 
and picture the great Norman church as it appeared when completed 
eight centuries ago. The great circular piers and arcading of the 
nave and aisles still remained ; but there was then no lofty clerestory, 
as at present, but a low roof. The tower piers, although recased, and 
the transepts (the southern one) largely restored, yet existed ; and also 
the outline of the eastern portion, except its apse. The walls were not 
bare, as now, but covered with distemper-paintings. Yet, while the 
Norman fabric could be reconstructed internally with little difficulty, a 
hasty observer would say that the exterior was entirely Perpendicular, 
except the Norman door on the south side of the nave. They might 
notice that the western portion of the nave was of a slightly later date 
than the three eastern ones. The piers, instead of having a plain 
chamfer, had sub-bases and bases composed of a torus and hollow 
moulding. One or two traces of Early English existed in the capitals 
at the crypt-entrance, below the east window ; and of the Decorated 
period there were worked into the same blank arch a series of bosses, 
still gilded in places, and probably removed from the groined roof of 
the former Lady Chapel ; and the tiled floor might still be seen pro- 
jecting from the east end ; but the remains of this period were poor in 
character. Coming to the Perpendicular period, they saw extensive 
works excellent in their style ; and the dates 1453 to 1456 on the tiles 
set in the east wall above the altar, and the fact that the high altar 
and six other altars were reconsecrated in 1460, gave a very probable 
period of completion. The soffits of the great tower-arches, on Nor- 
man piers, shewed great judgment and skill in the architect who 
altered them ; but the same could not be said of the great nave clere- 
story-lights, and he was inclined to think another man must have car- 
ried them out, from the unsightly interval of bare walling left between 
the arcade and clerestory, possibly intended to be decorated with paint- 
ings. In the choir they saw vaulting-piers and springers carried up 
to receive groining, never added except in wood. At the back of the 
altar, between it and the east window, was a singular raised passage, 
semicircular in form, and with the wall pierced by four deeply splayed 
squints, two of which looked into the former Lady Chapel, and the 
others into the north and south aisle eastern chapels. The glass in 
this church was not excelled anywhere in England in its skilful 
arrangement of cusped panelling and disposition of lights in connec- 


tion with blank panelling, especially in the west, window of the south 
chapel. The fragments of many windows were, however, thrown 
together; and all hough it might be best to let them be, he would sug- 
gest that they might bo restored if careful tracings or drawing in 
colours were made of every light, and. the copies then cut up into sub- 
jects, and sorted like a child's puzzle, until the corresponding pieces 
were properly rearranged. Of the Abbey buildings, which all lay to 
the south, few traces remained. The line of the cloister-roof could be 
seen on the south side of the nave. The Priory-gate, occupying a cor- 
responding position to that at Bristol, still existed ; and so recently as 
1841 the beautiful refectory, which had long been used as a barn, was 
wantonly destroyed by a builder. Drawings of the roof were now on 
view at the College hall. This church was that of the Priory, not the 
old parochial one, which was dedicated to St. Thomas, and measured 
about 02 feet by 3G feet. A few remains existed. This Priory Church 
was bought, soon after the Dissolution, for a parish church ; and in 
1788 it was reported ruinous, the result of wanton folly, ignorance, and 
neglect. Boys were allowed to use the windows as targets, the roofs 
went to decay, the parson used a portion of the fabric as a dovecot, 
and the room over the great north porch was a servants' hall. In 1812 
the fabric was partially repaired, and again in 1815, and recently it 
had been thoroughly restored by the late Sir Gilbert Scott. 

Mr. E. P. Loftus Brock, F.S.A., Eon. Sec, pointed out the analogy 
in date and construction between Malvern and Gloucester churches. 
The church of Gloucester was dedicated in 1100, and the tower was 
built about 1450. The capitals of the Norman pillars of Gloucester 
agreed in the smallest details with those of Malvern. He knew of no 
large Norman church without the apse. It was, from the earliest 
times, a sign of Latin influence. The little Roman church unearthed 
at Canterbury had the apse. The apse was not found in the old Irish 
churches and many of the Saxon churches. The fact that Malvern 
Church was dedicated in 1239 had puzzled some writers. Matthew 
Paris threw light on the subject, shewing that it was in obedience to 
Constitutions made in London in 1237 by the Papal Legate. The infer- 
ence was that many churches had remained unconsecrated for a long 
time, and it was probable that many old churches were never conse- 
crated at all. 

A rapid perambulation of the building, under the conductorship of 
Mr. Hopkins, was then made ; the grotesquely carved misereres under 
the stalls, which have been picked out in chocolate colour upon the 
naturally blackened oak ground; the dated tiles in the choir; the 
passage behind the altar; the alabaster altar tombs to John Knottes- 
ford, his wife, and daughter; and the confused stories in the stained 
glass, receiving most attention within ; while outside the traces of con- 


ventual adjuncts on the south side, and the resettings of Decorated 
fragments in the east wall, provoked some discussion. 

In the evening the members dined together at the Imperial Hotel, 
under the presidency of the Dean. 

Tuesday, August 23. 

A night of soaking rain, and a morning shewing the Malvern Hills 
buried in vapour, were not a cheerful prelude to a day of which two 
leading features were to be visits to a hill-side camp and a battlefield. 
But the archaeologists were not daunted by the unfavourable appear- 
ances. More than a hundred members and visitors had assembled by 
nine o'clock at Malvern Railway Station, whence they journeyed by 
special train to Ripple. 

On the way to the parish church the party halted at the village 
Cross, which is of oolite, and very much resembles the cross in Mal- 
vern churchyard. Beneath the Cross still stand the stocks. Although 
the age of punishment by the stocks seems a distant one to the imagin- 
ations of the younger generation, one of the party (himself not an old 
man) recalled the time when he saw a woman locked in the stocks in 

At the church the Rector, Mr. Holmes, was in waiting, and delivered 
from the pulpit a little history. There was a monastery at Ripple 
before the year 800 ; and probably an older building stood on the site 
of the present church, which was largely of the thirteenth century. 
Some very curious oak carvings, evidently the misereres of some colle- 
giate church, attracted much notice. Probably, as they were once in 
the hands of Bishop Hough, they came from Worcester. Most of them 
represented agricultural pursuits, such as binding corn or driving ani- 
mals. Another shewed a couple of monks cooking. In the vestry an 
Elizabethan Book of Common Prayer, lent by Mr. Empson, was shewn. 
The church is chiefly of Early English character, having arcades car- 
ried by piers of four-clustered, circular shafts with scalloped caps of 
semi-Norman character. In the chancel is late plate-tracery to the 
windows. The church was restored twenty years since, when a beauti- 
ful thurifer of beaten copper was found at the east end. This, Mr. 
Brock pronounced to be an excellent example of middle fourteenth 
century period. It has on the cover a model of a cruciform church, 
pierced by holes for the hanging chains. In the south transept-arch 
the Rector shewed a Bible, Psalter, and Service, of the closing years 
of Queen Elizabeth's reign. Having seen the shaft of a second cross 
in the churchyard, the carriages were resumed. 

A heavy storm was bursting over the valley of the Severn as the 


travellers set out, in seven or eight brakes, from Ripple. There was 
a temporary cessation of the rain as the village of Twyning was driven 
through ; but unluckily, just as Twyning Fleet was ncared, the rain 
was again coming down in torrents. 

Bredon was the next point to be gained ; but between Twyning and 
Bredon the Avon was swollen by the heavy rains. A few of the party 
were a little timid in trusting themselves, in vehicles, to the ferry-boat 
over the Avon, and got out ; some of the horses, too, slightly shied ; 
but at length the ford was crossed by all, and amid the descending rain 
the party hastened on to Bredon. Even some of the older archaeolo- 
gists declared that they had never known a worse day. 

Some of the party, in descending from the carriages, alighted in pools 
of water, and all were glad to take refuge from the drenching rain in 
so fine a church as that of Bredon. The Rev. Mr. Adye, Curate in charge, 
read a short paper giving an account of the history of the church, refer- 
ring, among other things, to the residence in Bredon of John Prideaux, 
Bishop of Worcester. Prideaux was a man of lowly origin, and was at 
one time candidate for the office of parish clerk of Ugborough. He 
was unsuccessful, and used to say that if he had been appointed parish 
clerk of Ugborough, he should never have been Bishop of Worcester. 
Driven from his see during the civil wars, he was allowed an income of 
4s. 6(7. a week. He retired to Bredon, where he lived and was buried. 
The church possessed two altar-candlesticks of the time of Elizabeth 
or James I. A peculiarity of the church was its great ascent from 
west to east. This church, like the last, is a cruciform edifice, but has 
a lofty spire upon the tower, at the intersection, and contains, as 
Mr. Brock said, an assemblage of the characteristic features of the 
churches in this district. The nave is transitional Norman, the three 
entrances being under round-headed arches ; and to the south a chapel 
or quasi aisle of two bays was thrown out about 1230. The two-light 
windows have two plates of trefoil cusping, the inner one supported by 
Purbeck marble shafts. The chancel was rebuilt in the Decorated 
period ; and a little later a second quasi aisle, with flowing tracery to 
windows, and clustered piers and shallow mouldings to arcade, was 
thrown out on the noi'th of the nave. The west window and spire are 
Perpendicular additions ; and in the south chapel, which has a piscina, 
is a sumptuous mural monument adorned with obelisks, scrolls, and 
other Jacobean ornaments. It is to the memory of Giles Reede, a.d. 
1G11. In this chapel are also three low I'ecesses, two containing flori- 
ated stone coffins, and the third a shield having upon it two forearms 
and hands bearing a heart. In the south side of the chancel are three 
fourteenth century sedilia; and next them, set upright, is a coped 
tombstone having upon it a carving of a crucifix ; above the arms of 
the cross being a pair of doves, and the busts, in high relief, of a maa 
1882 G 


and woman. The risers as well as the treads of the altar-steps are 
paved witli fifteenth century tiles similar in character to those in Mal- 
vern Priory, but having armorial hearings. At the foot of the steps 
is a brass to John Prideaux, Bishop of Worcester, who after the seques- 
tration of his see returned to this parish, and died here in great 

}lr. Brock remarked that during a l'estoration in 1842 the back of 
the sedilia was pierced for purposes of ventilation ; and as it now re- 
sembled a low side-window, its position might furnish a crux for future 
archaeologists unless the fact were recorded. 

The well known Tithe Barn at Bredon was afterwards visited. It 
much resembles one at Avebury, Wilts, in which this Association dined 
on one of the Congress days last year, but has outer walls of stone, 
and a roof of thin slabs of stone. The interior, some 135 feet long, is 
divided into a nave and aisles, with projecting double porches or tran- 
septs, by massive timber supports. In each of the nine bays of the 
main roof a pointed arch supports a collar and curved struts, and is 
itself tied in by a second collar ; and the aisle-bays are also of single- 
pointed arches with cross-ties in the transverse section. On the north 
side is an upper chamber having a good octagonal stone chimney with 
pyramidal cover supported by little shafts. The immense original key 
is still preserved, and has double wards on either side. The Barn is a 
highly interesting, and at present singularly perfect, specimen of the 
larger kind built about 1450 ; but the roof admits the rain in several 
places, and requires the provei'bial "stitch in time". 

Overbury Church was next inspected. The building is cruciftmn, 
being the third seen during the day's excursion ; in this case with a 
central tower of Perpendicular character, having a richly carved and 
perforated stone belfry. The west end has good Early English lancets, 
and the chancel windows are good specimens of Early English woi4r. 
The Rector, the Rev. Charles Glynn, stated that the church had just 
been restored by Mr. R. Norman Shaw, R.A., to whom was due the 
stone groined roof which now covered the chancel. Considei'able dis- 
cussion took place with reference to the font, which has a tapering, 
cylindrical bowl (on a fourteenth century base) rudely carved in high 
relief. Some local sculptor has restored it in ludicrous fashion in 
cement, the missing side of a bishop being reproduced with a second 
staff in right hand. Several contended that this bowl was coeval with 
the present church, and of the eleventh century ; but others held that 
it was as early as the Confessor's date, and called attention to the 
model of Christ held in the hand of a priest's figure, and the costume, 
as corroborative of this opinion. Prebendary Ingram contended it was 
Danish in origin. 

It was announced that Mr. Martin of Overbury Court had prepared 


luncheon ; but time was pressing, and with a deep sense of Mr. Mar- 
tin's kindness the party were obliged to drive on to Tewkesbury, 
where (hey partook of luncheon at (lie Swan Hotel, which was a true 
"guesten hall" to the drenched and weary travellers. 

At Tewkesbury the Abbey was visited after luncheon, the members 
being received by the Vicar, the Rev. Hemming Robeson, M.A., for 
whom an elaborate descriptive paper was read, by Mr. J. R. Sergeant, 
on the early fortunes of the Abbey from its first foundation by its 
reputed founder Theoc, and the Dukes Odo and Doddo of Mercia, and 
its refoundation in Norman times by Fitz-Hamon. This paper entered 
fully into the connection of the Abbey with the Hamons, the Clares, 
the Beauchamps, and the De Spencers, and with several successive 
Dukes of Gloucester, to very many members of whom noble monuments 
with recumbent effigies, and rich in heraldic blazonrj*-, are erected in 
the chancel and its side-chapels. These were pointed out in detail ; 
and the manner in which both these exquisite memorials have been 
repaired, and the fabric itself has been restored, under the advice of 
Sir Gilbert Scott, was much admired. The Norman nave with its 
huge, tall, round pillars ; the Decorated chancel ; and the coronel of 
side-chapels, grouped after the French fashion, round the eastern end 
of the Abbey, and the Lady Chapel at the end of the north aisle, were 
inspected in turn. The great Norman arch at the western extremity, 
and the remains of the old Abbey gateway, came in for their share of 

At the conclusion of the paper Sir J. Allanson Picton, F.S.A., pro- 
posed a vote of thanks to the author and reader, remarking that the 
manner in which this noble Abbey Church had been restored reflected 
high credit on all concerned in the work. 

It had been intended to extend the programme of the day by a visit 
to the battlefield of Tewkesbury ; but owing to the heavy rains, the 
visit to that interesting spot, and to the earthworks hurriedly tin-own 
up by Queen Margaret, had to be given up. Many of the members, 
however, paid visits to the ancient bowling-green of the Abbey, the 
Abhot's House, and to several of the old timber houses in the town, 
many of which, no doubt, saw the flight of the defeated army from the 
battlefield already mentioned. The return journey to Malvern was 
made by train. 

In the evening a meeting was held in the council-room of Malvern 
College, under the chairmanship of the Rev. Prebendary Smith, Vicar 
of Malvern. 

Mr. J. Tom Burgess, F.S.A., of Worcester, delivered an address on 
" The Ancient Encampments of the Malverns", illustrated by a series 
of plans and sections drawn by Mr. H. H. Lines of Worcester. Having 
first shewn the direction of the lines of fort drawn, as Tacitus tells us, 

6— '1 


in an oblique direction across England, along the banks of the rivers 
None Avon, ami Severn, by the Roman General Ostorins, Mr. Burgess 
said thai the bold range of hills below which the Congress was being 
held, marked the disputed boundary-line where the Belgic wave ceased 
and the Celtic began. Every crest and hill in the line of the Mal- 
verns, from the Bristol Channel to the banks of the Dee, was still 
crowned by the earthworks and encampments used by the Silures and 
Ordovices the two kinds being distinct from each other in their traces 
at the present day. Those in the immediate neighbourhood he pre- 
sumed to be Silurian defences ; and when these were formed, the fer- 
tile, cultivated plains now at the eastern foot of the Malverns were 
marshy districts often flooded, and the out-cropping hills were then 
easily defended islands. The entrenchments at Meon Hill, on the oppo- 
site side of the eastern plains, covered some 30 acres, and in them had 
been found Roman javelins, now distributed in the Warwick, Worces- 
ter, and Sir Henry Dryden's collections, while close by was a tumulus 
which had yielded undoubtedly British remains. The hill seemed to 
have been held alternately by the opposing forces. On Bredon Hill, 
still nearer, was a camp of somewhat different character ; and a third 
island in the plain of Evesham, Elmby, contained also the medieval 
earthworks thrown up by the Beauchamps. Two years since he aided 
in carrying out excavations with Mr. F.G. Hilton Price, F.G.S., at the 
great remains on the Herefordshire Beacon. The fortified area in- 
volved the whole summit of this great hill and the adjacent one of 
Midsummer, and consisted of an oval, deep ditch with rampart round 
it, having a circumference of 6,800 yar-ds, the longest diameter being 
932 yards. The ditch was 7 feet deep, and broad enough for one 
chariot ; and there was but one ancient entrance, that to the south, 
although a modern one, injui'ed the line at the north-east point. In the 
centre was a strongly fortified citadel, and outside and below this, 
other and larger walled-in spaces. All over the area were pit-like de- 
pressions, which appeared to be permanent dwellings, averaging 15 feet 
by 9 feet, and 6 feet deep. Outside the citadel, at Hollow Bush, were 
walled enclosures, which may have been for cattle-pounds in times of 
danger, and others for sheep ; and within the protected area was 
St. Anne's Well, as it was now termed. Amongst the remains found 
were many specimens of red pottery of the fifteenth and sixteenth cen- 
t uiies, some dated; and below these, flint flakes, hone-stones, iron 
fibulae, a bronze ferrule, broken bones of the pig and other domestic 
animals, enough to prove the continued occupation and use of these 
dwellings. The so called Druids' sacrificial stone appeared to be a 
boulder removed by natural means to its present site ; and the tradi- 
tional earthen Druids' seats were but rabbits' burrows, which had 
feral uf the minor irregularities of the surface. 


Mr. Brock read a letter upon this chain of forts, written by Mr. M. 
IT. Bloxam, who was unable to be present through ill health, and 
added that it was to the patient investigations of Mr. Roach Smith, 
Mr. Price, Mr. Burgess, and others, that archaeologists had been able 
to establish that these earthworks were no mere summer encampments 
hastily thrown up and abandoned; but the permanent dwelling-places 
of races of people who dwelt in pits on the hill-tops, and kept flocks 
and herds, folding them on the sides of the hills when danger threat- 

Mr. G. R. Wright, F.S.A., Uon. Congress Secretary, referred to the 
hardship and waste of archaeological spoils occasioned by the existing 
barbarous law of treasure trove; and Mr. Burgess, in his reply, said 
that he had been a victim of this law of Edward Ill's time, for 
the silver and gold ornaments found in a Saxon lady's grave were 
required by the Treasury authorities, who paid compensation for value 
of metal, not to the explorer, nor to the owner of the soil, but to the 
labourer who actually dug them up and then sold them. Such pro- 
ceedings led, as Mr. Wright had said, to melting of priceless anti- 
quities by the landers. 

The Chairman said that they had all gained much information from 
Mr. Burgess's address, and they were also indebted to Mr. Lines for 
his beautiful sketches. 

Mr. John Nott, of Malvern, read a paper upon " The Stained Glass 
Windows of Great Malvern Priory Church", which has been already 
printed at pp. 55-59. 

Mr. Johnson Cope said that in these windows of the olden time there 
were a gem-like appearance and soberness of colouring which were 
very charming. 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock referred to the great loss of painted glass which 
had taken place in the past, owing to carelessness. All they knew 
about St. Werstan was from the four little pictures in glass in Malvern 
Abbey Church. He should ascribe the glass to English artists. 
Votes of thanks were passed to the speakers and the Chairman. 

Wednesday, Augdst 24. 

Better fortune favoured the archaeologists who on Wednesday set 
out to see Ledbury and some of the Herefordshire churches. Starling 
by train for Ledbury, carriages were taken there, and the party pro- 
ceeded to Bosbury, where the Early English church and its detached 
tower were examined. 

Bosbury Church is remarkable for a massive, detached, square tower 
standing some 180 feet to the south of the church, much resembling 
that at West Walton, North Norfolk, visited by the Association in 


1878. The church is chiefly of transitional Norman character, with a 
Tudor chapel with fan-tracery at the east end of the south aisle. The 
rood-screen still retains its position, and is late fifteenth century in 
style, with fan-coving above the open work supporting a heavy cornice. 
The pulpit contains four carved panels representing the Adoration, 
the Flight into Egypt, the Crucifixion, and the Resurrection of Our 
Lord. These are said to have been brought from Flanders. The font 
in use is square, with shallow bowl supported on five columns; the 
whole being of a local conglomerate, and about 1230. At the west end 
of the church is a second font, dug up near, of much earlier character, 
rudely shaped. 

The Vicar, the Rev. S. Bentley, read an exhaustive paper in the 
church, in which he mentioned that the tower was one of seven de- 
tached ones existing in Herefordshire, and from its narrow windows 
and thick walls seemed to have been used as a place of refuge. 

In the churchyard is a perfect specimen of a cross of red sandstone, 
12 feet high, and an oaken lych-gate. 

The Vicar afterwards shewed the remains of the Palace of the 
Bishops of Hereford (now part of a farmhouse), which has just come 
back into the possession of the Bishops. The only original portion is 
a panelled room crossed by heavy beams. Near by, in the out-buildings, 
is the fourteenth century gate-house described by Mr. J. H. Parker in 
his Domestic Gothic Architecture. The outer face is of stone, and the 
inner one has two large oak beams carried the whole height of the 
structure as an ogee-arch, and filled in with masonry. 

The Crown Inn, formerly the residence of the Harford family (two 
of whose Elizabethan monuments had been seen in the chancel of the 
church), was next seen. The principal room has oak panelling sur- 
rounding the wall, and at the intersections of the beams in the ceiling 
and over the fireplace are oak shields carved in relief with armorial 

Some other houses and foundations on the site of the Knights 
Templars' House were seen, and the party returned to Ledbury. One 
of the first objects that attracts the attention of a stranger in Ledbury 
is the timbered Market House. As Herefordshire is peculiar for its 
detached church towers, so again it can boast of its peculiar town halls 
or market houses, either as existing or as preserved in sketches. Two 
of the most beautiful, those of Hereford and Leominster, have disap- 
peared within the last half century. Ledbury Market House, elevated 
on its sixteeen oak pillars, remains. 

The members peeped into one of the picturesque seventeenth cen- 
tury half-timbei'ed cottages which line the Church Lane. 

At the parish church, a very large and lofty edifice kept in admirable 
repair, but still retaining low pews, the Vicar, the Rev. John Jackson, 


read a descriptive paper upon its architecture. If any remains of an 
older church than the present one si ill existed, they were to be found 
in the hagioscope on the north side of the chancel. Shortly after the 
Conquest a Normal) church existed on this spot, as was still evidenced 
by the Norman doorway, the chancel-arch, and other remains. It was 
curious that the east and west sides of the chancel-arch did not corre- 
spond. In the early part of the thirteenth century the Norman side- 
aisles were taken down, and in the early part of the fourteenth century 
the south arcade was taken down. It was also in the fourteenth cen- 
tury that the beautiful Chapel of St. Catherine was built. St. Cathe- 
rine was a religious woman who in the time of Edward II settled at 
Ledbury. The lower part of the tower, which had always been separate 
from the church, was of Early English character. In the doors of the 
northern entrance the workmen, a little time ago, found several bullets, 
which were probably embedded in the wood at the time of the battle 
of Ledbury in 1G15. Mr. Jackson directed attention to the glass sun- 
dial in one of the windows of the south aisle ; which, however, was not 
to be depended upon, as the surface was affected by the action of the 
wind. He also referred to several of the monuments, including the 
curious little brass in the south aisle : 

" The world's fashion defied, 
Our Lord's passion applied, 
His blisse only in this descried, 
Ould Richard Hayward died 
Anno D'i 1618." 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock said that it was not improbable that Ledbury 
Church was a school of architecture to the district in which it was 
placed. It was a very unusual thing for a Norman church to exist of 
so great a length. The capitals of the arches of the chancel agreed 
with those of Overbury Church. He attributed the whole of the Nor- 
man w r ork to the close of the twelfth century. There was a fragment 
of an older church at the back of one of the piers, as was shewn by 
the jointings of the stone. 

A vote of thanks was given to Mr. Jackson for his paper. 

After luncheon at The Feathers Hotel, carriages were resumed to 
Much Marcle Church, which, with its alabaster monuments, was de- 
scribed by Mr. G. H. Piper, F.G.S., of Malvern ; Helen's House, the 
seat of Mi\ R. D. Cooke, being visited en route. 

Kempley Church, where a number of interesting mediaaval frescoes 
still exist in good condition, was shewn by the Rector, the Rev. J. Crow- 
ley Weaver, and the members returned to Ledbury. Malvern was 
reached by special train. 

At the evening meeting, the Rev. I. Gregory Smith in the chair, 
Mr. G. E. Wright, F.S. A., read a paper on "The alleged Assassination 


of Prince Edward after the Battle of Tewkesbury." He said his 
endeavour would be to remove the doubt which enwrapped the death 
of the unfortunate son of Margaret of Anjou. A French MS. was still 
preserved at Ghent, giving an account of the battle by one of the 
Kind's followers, who probably witnessed it. The writer placed the 
Prince among those killed in the battle. Other writers had expressed 
their doubts of the truth of the murder of the Prince. Mr. James 
Gardner of the Record Office, in a recent work, also said that the story 
of the "murder of the Prince by the Duke of Gloucester rested upon 
very slender evidence. He also quoted other writers in support of 
this including Mr. Symonds, who in his recent work, Malvern Chase, 
had said that he could hardly believe that the Princess Ann, after the 
death of her affianced husband, would have coolly married his murderer. 
The Rev. Canon Winnington Ingram expressed his agreement with 
Mr. Wright, referring to various other authorities. Andreas said that 
the Prince died at Barnard's Field. It would be interesting to know 
whether any field in the neighbourhood of Tewkesbury still retained 

that name. 

Mr. C. H. Compton said that, remembering a powerful scene in 
Shakespeare, it might be supposed that if Ann did marry the murderer 
of her affianced husband, it was after persuasion, and not in cold blood. 

The Rev. Canon Winnington Ingram next read a paper on "The 
Ecclesiastical State of the Diocese of Worcester during the Episcopate 
of John Carpenter, 1444-1476", already printed above at pp. 65-73. 


3Proccctitm$3 of tfje Association* 

Wednesday, January 4, 1882. 

W. H. Cope, Esq., in the Chair. 

Thomas Glazebrook Eylands, Esq., F.S.A., etc., Higbfields, Thelwall, 
Warrington, was duly elected an Associate. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned to the respective donors of the 
following presents to the library of the Association : 
To the Society, for " Report of the Council of the Art-Union of London, 
„ „ for " Archseologia Cambrensis", 4th Series, No. 48, October 

„ „ for "Archaeological Journal", vol. xxxviii, No. 148a, 1881. 
„ „ for " The Journal of the Royal Historical and Archaeologi- 
cal Association of Ireland", vol. v, 4th Series, No. 46, April 1881. 
„ „ for " The Journal of the East Indian Association", vol. xiii, 

No. 3. 
„ „ for " Proceedings of the Royal Institute of British Archi- 
tects", No. 5, 6. 
„ „ for " Erdelyi Muzeum", viii Eufolyam, Kolozsvar, 1881. 
To Henry Phillips, Jim., Esq., for a tract on " Old-Tirae Superstitions", 
Mr. Worthington G. Smith exhibited a series of neolithic, holed ham- 
mers, and stone spindle-whorls and spindles, from Ireland ; an unusu- 
ally small flint celt, weighing less than an ounce, from Icklingham in 
Suffolk ; and a hemispherical quern, a foot in diameter, made of lower 
tertiary conglomerate, of Roman age, recently found near Thetford in 
Norfolk. Mr. Smith also laid on the table a series of views taken by 
him, of a fountain or well with an architectural edifice, about 20 feet 
in diameter, upon it, at Ludlow ; and a drawing of a mermaid from 
one of the misereres in the church. 

In the discussion which ensued, Mr. J. R. Allen pointed out several 
facts of interest with regard to the exhibition of the early stone remains. 


Mr. Charles D. Sherborne exhibited on behalf of Mr. A. Chasemore 
a collection of seventeen London tradesmen's tokens of the seventeenth 
century. The following is a list of them. The last two, also in the 
possession of Mr. Chasemore, were not exhibited. 

1. Obv., a tasselled bag tied with cord also tasselled ; leg., freeman 

i ann ai y 1 i \ bse. R v., within circle, " His | Half | Peny | 1669"; 
leg., "In West Smithfield". 

2. Obv., an anchor on left of field, a dot on right half; leg., "John 

Fullerton in Old Street", liev., a chequer ; "John Sandsbury 
in Old Street". 

3. Oir., five gloves on pole; leg., "Joseph (Gauntner) Gleen". Rev., 

r c -R; leg., "Aly in Tulys Streete". 

4. Obi:, a three-mast vessel at half-sail ; leg., "At the Ship without". 

Rev., "W S 'M. Temple Barr 1649". 

5. Obv., three geese proper ; leg., " Will. Geese at y e Gees". Rev., 

"w G, E Kinges Street Westmin". 

6. Obv., " James | Holland | his half | penny". Rev., a shield bearing 

a pair of scales held by a hand in clouds, between three weights, 
the chief wavy ; above shield, 1668. 1 

7. Obv., a man standing in crescent ; leg., " William Holden at y e In 

St." Rev., " His | Half | peny | Martins neere Aldersgate". 

8. Obv., " His | Half | peny Arthor Prior 1G67". Rev., " AP. in West- 


9. Obv., a shield wavy, over which an anchor is supported around by 

emblems. Rev., "adis's | farthing | 1669", with emblems. 

10. Obv., design of fruit ; leg., "lames Beech in Bow Streete". Rev., 

"His | Halfe | Penny in Westminster 1607". 

11. Obv., a shield quarterly, two leopards' heads and two cups, etc. (pro- 

bably Goldsmiths' Company's arms) ; leg., " Richard Lucas 
Grocer". Rev., " His j Half | peny in Bishopsgate Street". 

12. Obv. (in italics), " Henry | Hurl-in | t Street | Westmin | ster". 

Rev., a bag of nails bearing a face, on the forehead of which 
appears to have been punched a crown ; leg., " At y e Bag of 
Nails His Half peny". 

13. Obv., a lion rampant; leg., " Tho. Armitage In". Rev., "r A 'l St. 

Martins lane". 

14. Obv., a man with spear; leg, "William Rackany". Rev., "w*"£. 

in Petty France 6G'\ 

15. Obv., " This | was | the | Kinges | Armes 1 1656". Rev., F' s, s. in Full- 


16. Obv.,B. dagger; leg., " The Dagger in Nevrents". Rev.,"v v s T...INS 


17. Obv. (in italics), " Samuell | Hawkins | of Tewell | in Surry". Rev., 

" Chandler j His Halfe | Penny". 

18. Obv., two lasts ; leg., " Sam 1 Mansell at y c 2 lasts". Rev., " His | 

Half | penny | S' M -G | 1660 ALSAVO.... COCK HEAD". 
10. Obi:, St. George and Dragon; leg., "At the George In". Rev., 
w"-a Thomas Apostle 1649". 

Our Associate, Mr. J. T. Irvine, of Lichfield, sent the following com- 
1 Probably arms of Brown-bakers' Company. 


munications, which were read by Mr. W. de Gh Birch, F.S. A., F.R.S.L., 
Eon. Secretary : 

1. "With regard to the stones presenting cup-shaped sinkings, which 
are found in Scot land, in certain places around the coasts of the Shet- 
land Islands sinkings of a similar description are found. These are 
found, it has been said by a good local authority, at points where in 
general a boat could run into and land a person on the rock at certain 
times of the tide. Those I have seen were in each case more than one 
in number, and irregularly placed : speaking from memory, about, 
it might be, 2 to 2£ inches deep, and wide enough to turn round 
three ringers in. Instances are found at Punzie or Finyie, in Fet- 
lar and in Yell, on the north side of the Gioe called Cogie Gioe, 
below Backhouse ; in Unst, on the rocks on the north side of the 
Voes of Suarravoe, and at or below Palyabag, Clivocast, Uyuasound. 
A singular notice of certain cap-marks which I have not myself seen, 
is found in the account of the Scattald Marches of the Island of Unst, 
a transcript of which is here added : 

" ' Ska Scattald, being Outer and Hamer Ska, begins with Norwick 
at the North Sea, at a knowe in the middle of Liddadaal, thence with 
Norwick, Scattald on the right hand, southward, up to Sodersfail, 
where is a stone standing endlong, with three holes in it, the middle hole 
zohereof is broke out, to a great grey stone, near which stands a stone 
endlong, with a small stone set upright to the top of it ; and thence, 
with Norwick still on the right, stretching to a great heap of stones or 
ancient building, called Housen-vard, and from thence to Clifts of Ska. 
and Norwick to a place called the Catthouse, right beneath which, at 
the foot of the banks, is a solid rock into which three holes, near each 
other, are artificially made, which is the southmost sea march separat- 
ing Ska from Norwick.' 

2. "A sketch of a leaden seal for wool-packs or bales of cloth, found 
in a slight excavation made on Barrow Cap Hill, Lichfield, in 1881, and 
now preserved in the Lichfield Museum. It is about 1| inch in dia- 
meter, and embossed or moulded with a device which appears to be a 
rosette of eight cusped points within a cabled border. 

3. "A sketch of a latten plaque, If inch diameter, found in North- 
amptonshire, and now in the possession of S. Sharpe, Esq., of Dallyng- 
ton Hall. The device upon this relic is a shield of arms, — per pale 
dancettee and ermine, a chevron fretty. The spaces outside the shield 
are replenished with branches of foliage. The date appears to be of 
the end of the fourteenth century. 

4. " During my last visit to Bath I took the opportunity of further 
inspecting the excavations made in the neighbourhood of the King's 
Bath Spring. I find that the tank of the Roman period, into which the 
hot springs of this spring discharged their water, has been found and 


cleaned out. Its walls have been of a very irregular shape, and thus 
far differ from all other tanks or baths discovered here, which are inva- 
riably of regular shapes. Probably the cause is that here the old out- 
line of the pond or tank of the Britons had been, from respect for its 
supposed sacred character, retained when the Roman works were 
added. A thick stone pavement surrounded it. On the ends of these 
slabs next the water rested a low but very solid stone fence, having 
its top moulded into a half circle in section ; under which a shallow, 
sunk panel had ornamented that side next the tank. Mr. Mann tells 
me also that while the junction of the stone-work with the ground 
round the open space had been protected with sheets of lead, the whole 
of the general bottom of the tank had been left open, for the springs to 
discharge their waters. There were found no remains of steps down, 
nor did it seem that there ever had been any intention to use this for 
bathing purposes. Blocks much resembling pedestals for figures were 
found placed inside, he said ; both north and south sides. A fine, large 
bronze sluice, in a very perfect state, was discovered. 

" During the course of the excavations many large stones with 
moulded edges, and with slots in their sides for metal cramps (lead or 
bronze), have been found. Some of these belong to the great temple, 
enabling the depth to be fixed of courses of that building, before un- 
known. Of these, two stones belong to the lowest course of its hori- 
zontal cornice (side walls), and one to its moulded plinth ; another 
probably to the upper part of a pillar. There are also two or three 
which seem to belong to the architrave-mouldings of its entrance- door. 
Others formed parts of that building which in a former Number of our 
Journal was conjectured to have been the entrance-hall to the baths. 
Of these, a fresh stone of its moulded plinth is one ; and two or three 
connected, perhaps, with its cornices ; while three at least, if not more, 
were probably parts of the plain pilasters of its back or end-walls, cor- 
responding in position to the enriched ones of its front. These stones 
are of considerable interest as suggesting the source from whence the 
origin of Saxon pilasters arose ; corresponding, indeed, so closely with 
specimens of these, that had they been found elsewhere they would 
almost certainly have been ascribed to that period. 

" Besides some caps and other fragments of pillars, not referable to 
any one place, two singular and richly carved stones turned up. These 
had occupied, when in their original positions, such a place in the 
building to which they belonged as to enable both of their sides to be 
seen. That face to the back, or less exposed side, was carved with 
scroll-foliage, bounded at top and bottom by a plain fillet; but the 
outer and most exposed side had been divided into sunk panels con- 
taining figure-subjects in fairly bold relief. From sundry causes I am 
led to suspect that they either must have had to do with a cornice, or 


.it- least formed Hie top of a wall which finished with a corn 
them, and had behind it an open space roofed with flat stones 
reasons arise from the fact that it is evident a certain number 
figure-panels were always divided by a narrower one filled in with 
foliage, which had centred either with a supporting pillar or pilaster 
under it. Second^, that while thai best preserved, which is 1 foot 
7', inches high, had on its back side the scroll-foliage quite perfect, 
inclusive of the plain top and bottom bounding fillets, on the front side 
it can be easily seen that that dimension would not have permitted the 
completion of the carved figure-panel nor the plain fillet over ; so that 
the stone, when in place, must have had its top notched at the back to 
receive the flat covering slabs, while in front the cornice-block had set 
over, and covered the joint of both below. The destruction of this had 
in a great measure, therefore, taken place while the block yet stood on 
its original site, and while yet the large, flat covering stones retained 
it in place. The carving presents so close a similarity in treatment 
as leaves little cause to doubt its execution was by the sculptor of 
that of the temple. The extreme thickness of these stones was 1 foot 
[>l inches. 

" Of small finds, one of much interest was part of the working stores 
of a jeweller, if we may so name one whose materials, so far as found, 
seem to have been only strips of bronze, the ornament on which was 
formed by stamps precisely in a similar manner to that produced on 
the remains found at Cuerdale. 

" The size and magnificence of the stone pilasters based on the great 
steps of these baths, and laid open in these ' Bath Catacombs', as they 
are seen to project from the walls of the various baths opened, is asto- 
nishing ; remaining, as they do generally, in a perfect state to about 
the height of a man. For much of the way a floor formed of the great 
leaden slabs or sheets was found remaining as laid down upwards of 
1,400 years ago. 

" It is, as regards the local history of these discoveries, a piece of 
singular good fortune that the excavations were placed under Mr. 
Mann's direction to execute. To which circumstance it is owing that 
not only has every small fragment found been preserved, but that most 
painfully accurate plans and sections to scale have been carefully 
made of every wall or remain either seen or laid open over the whole 

5. Note by Mr. W. H. Wood, architect, at Durham, on the church and 
font at Ebchester, from which we extract the following : " The village 
of Ebchester is in a large degree constructed of Roman materials, and 
one may frequently detect pieces of moulded stones built into the walls 
of the houses. More than one has been noticed, with inscriptions, 
enclosed in a panel or label with triangular or wedge-shaped projec- 



tions at the side, like those in front of Roman busts. The church 
stands in the centre, or nearly the centre, of the Roman camp, and is 
also largely constructed of Roman stones. This is particularly notice- 
able in the lower parts of the walls, which are composed of a course of 
square stones about 2 feet diameter. These Roman stones are easily 
distinguished from the local sandstone by being of a large, coarse- 
grained millstone-grit, somewhat crystalline. This must have been 
brought from a considerable distance, there being no local stone of that 
kind. The bowl of the font is of this stone, and very shallow, being 

only about 5 inches deep inside, and without the usual hole at the 
bottom for the water to escape. In its dimensions and general shape 
inside, the font very strongly resembles the Roman handmills which 
have been dug up in the camp, one of which is in the possession of 
Mr. Linthwaite, the Rector, who was the suggester of this theory. The 
outside of the bowl has been carved apparently in Norman times. The 
stem of the font is also of this Roman stone, rudely cylindrical in form. 
It is difficult to determine if it was cut into its present form by Roman 
or Norman sculptors. The circular step is of the local sandstone." 

In the discussion which followed the reading of these communica- 
tions, Mr. E. Walford, Mr. J. W. Grover, and Mr. E. R L. Brock, took 
part, the latter speaker pointing out the Saxon character of the work. 

Major Alexander Palma di Cesnola exhibited a selection of terra- 
cotta statuettes, between 5 and 10 inches in height, from his extensive 
collection of relics obtained by him at Salamina and other sites in the 



island of Cyprus, at a depth of from 3 to 10 feet below the present 
surface. Among the statuettes were, a pensive figure seated with the 
knees crossed ; a travelling actor wearing a tragic mask, and carrying 
a pack on his back, and a water-bottle and wallet in his hands, as in 

the accompanying sketch ; a female, probably a portrait-figure, with a 
curious head-dress ; a harper ; a female with a harp ; a finely modelled 
figure of the Venus of Milo ; and a figure of Cupid or Eros, winged 
and draped, riding upon a horse pacing to the 
right, of fine execution, and in a Greek style of 
treatment. These terra-cottas have small holes 
at the back, in order to admit of the escape of 
steam during the process of firing. The three 
accompanying illustrations are drawn to a scale 
of one-third the actual size. Major di Cesnola 
also exhibited three terra-cotta masks, probably 
votive offerings, and found in tombs which may 
have contained the bodies of deceased members 
of the Cypriote stage. 

In the discussion which ensued, Mi\ Brock, 
the Eev. A. Taylor, Mr. W. H. Cope, and Mr. 
J. W. Grover, took part. 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock, F.S.A., Eon. Sec, exhi- 
bited four seventeenth century Dutch tiles from 
recent London excavations. They are adorned 
with elegant and bold ai-abesque and floriated 
patterns. Mr. Brock also laid on the table a 
fragment of a Roman pavement from the site of Leadenhall Market, 
now in course of rebuilding. 

The following papers were then read : 


On a Metal Chalice found at Cheadle Hulmb. 
by a. c. fryer, esq. 

Early in the present year, soon after the frost Lad left us, a labourer 
at Cheadle Hulme, in Cheshire, found a metal chalice in one of those 
deep, square pits which abound in this part of the country. The little 
sketch, made by a friend of mine, shews the shape of the cup. It is 
much injured, and there is a long crack in one side of it. At no great 
distance from Cheadle Hulme is the ancient Hall of Bramall, and I at 
first conjectured that this cup perhaps formed part of the Communion 
plate of the chapel there, and had been hid in this pit at the period of 
those troublous times when the neighbouring town of Stockport 
became noted in the civil war, and the owners of Bramall were full of 
fear and consternation. But this conjecture gave place to another, for 
I find in the churchwardens' accounts for the parish of Prestbury the 
following: "1703, August y e 18. Spent then and att other times in 
goeing to Bramall and other Places about y e Church Plate w ch was 
stollen out of y e Parish Chest in y e Vestry in y e year of our L d 1684, 
was this j'ear found againe (one of the fflaggons) in a Pitt in Cheadle 
Hulme. Paid for Horse Hire & other charges to seu'all men for search- 
ing y e Pitt where y e said Plate was found... 03 : 18 : 10." 

In the above extract there is no mention of a chalice being lost ; but 
some twenty-three years had elapsed between the time when "y'Chm'ch 
Plate was stollen out of y e Parish Chest", and the time when one of the 
" fflaggons was found againe in a Pitt in Cheadle Hulme". There 
exists a document made in 1548, which contains a full list "concerning 
the Implements of the said Parish Church." In this document we 
find "one chalys" (chalice) mentioned ; and in a later paper, drawn up 
in 1602, and headed " An Inventory of all the Churchgoodes belong- 
ynge to the paryshe churche of Prestburye", we find mention of " one 
comunyon cuppe of syluer and one of pewter". Here a pewter 
chalice is spoken of; but in the list of church goods made out in 1692 
there is no mention of the "pewter cuppe"; but the silver one has a 
companion, for we read "2 silver chalices w' h patents" wei'e then part 
of the church property. I therefore venture to conclude that the pew- 
ter chalice found by the labourer at Cheadle Hulme may be the pewter 
one referred to in 1602, but apparently missing in 1692. 


In the church of Mottram-in-Langdendale, in the county of Cheshire, 
is a tomb with two recumbent figures upon it. These figures i*epre- 
sent a knight and a lad}-, and judging from the dress and general 


character of the armour wc should imagine that they belong to the 
reign of Henry IV or perhaps Henry V. The pointed bascinet of the 
knight rests upon two small, flat cushions, and his hands are crossed 
upon his breast. From his baldrick is suspended his long sword, on 
the left side, while his thighs and legs are cased in plate-armour. The 
chief interest of this monument, perhaps, rests in the fact that, hung 
round the neck is a collar of SS. This is believed to be one of the 
examples of the badge which was introduced by Henry IV. The efligy 
of the lady is represented in a simple, square headdress. The long 
robe is fastened at the chin with a high collar, and a broad belt en- 
circles the waist. The sleeves are buttoned at the waist, and are close- 
fitting. Above this robe is a mantle which falls in folds on either side. 
The collar around her neck is composed of SS, and is among the very 
few examples to be found in England. Another example, however, is 
to be met with in Cheshire ; and this is in OverPeover Church, on the 
effigy of Margaret, wife of John Mainwaring, who died in 1420. A 
similar collar is found on the effigy of the Queen of Henry IV, Jean of 
Navarre, who died in 1397. 

Discoveries at Redenham, near Andover, Hants. 


Many years ago an interesting tessellated pavement and other re- 
mains of Roman occupation were found near Redenham Park, Ando- 
ver ; and about two miles or less from the spot was found a fine villa, 
at Thruxton. The present resident at Redenham, C. F. Wood, Esq., 
having from time to time been led to believe, from certain peculiarities 
on the surface of the ground in the woods of the park, that remains of 
buildings were underneath, made several excavations, and soon found 
that his surmises were correct. 

In the midst of one of the woods in the park is a rectangular plot 
of ground enclosed by an earth mound of the same shape. This mound 
Mr. Wood opened at one of the angles, and found beneath it the 
foundations of a round tower, evidently Roman, as tiles were laid here 
and there as bonds to the masonry. Within the area of the rectangle 
is a well lined with ashlar ; and near the spot was found, on digging 
beneath the surface, an immense mass of ashes or slack. Amongst this 
were found a silver spoon of very ancient type, and bits of Roman 
tiles and pottery. 1 

About a hundred yards from this spot, and just outside the park- 

1 A small Roman coin, evidently a minimus, was found in the ashes. It is 
difficult to make out the head with correctness ; but it seems to be radiated, 
and on the obverse is a large cross with the ends joined. A great number of 
Roman nails were found, and a fine stone celt, and also pieces of slag. The 
place where these things were found has long been called the " Chapel Copse." 
1882 7 


gates, in an adjoining field, and at least half a mile from any habitation 
except a modern cottage and lodge, workmen are making the new rail- 
road from Marlborough to Andovcr, and while cutting through the 
chalk have laid bare what appeared to be the remains of old British 
pit-dwellings ; but their contents are undoubtedly Roman. The pits, 
or rather excavations, are of somewhat unusual construction. The 
sketches sent herewith give the pits as they appear to a spectator look- 
ing at the railway-cutting while standing upon the temporary iron 
rails. The depth of the cutting where the pits are found, sinks gradu- 
ally to a depth of about 10 feet, as from A to B. The pits are not, how- 
ever, so near to one another as given in the sketches. A to B (about a 
foot) is a section of the soil of the meadow ; from B to C is the solid 
chalk ; and from c to D is a well cut, hollow arch in the chalk, filled 
with black earth, clay-ashes, and pieces of black pottery, while at the 
bottom are bones and charred wood. The arches might be radiating 
passages cut in the chalk from the sides of a central pit which was 
found near the centre of the cutting. I may remark that not far from 
these pits a skeleton, with a vase beside it, was found some years ago 
by a man who was working in the Redenham Woods, and great quan- 
tities of bones are found in them. 

I send you a sketch of portion of a skull of a large deer which was 
thrown out by the navvies a few days ago. The horns have been cut 
off with a rough saw, and it will be seen that an attempt had been 
made to cut them off nearer the skull. I found a piece of fine, black 
pottery which had formed evidently the bottom of a vase. It is smooth, 
and intensely black. 

I may remind you that these relics are in the neighbourhood of 
several British oppicla, and of the remains of Roman camps and villas. 
On the north-east is the Roman road from Winchester to Cirencester, 
and on the south the grand British camps of Bury Hill and Qnarley 
Mount. The wonder is that more remains of our early forefathers 
have not been found in this neighbourhood. Since writing the above, 
the workmen have found the bones of a roebuck, the skull of a horse, 
and two human skeletons. One of the skeletons was found as in the 
sketch. The skull was taken away by the contractor; but the bones I 
had an opportunity of examining. They appear to be those of a young 
person. They were found about 3 feet under the surface, in a place 
dug in the chalk. 1 Many kinds of pottery have been found, some of 
the New Forest type ; numerous pieces of black vases, and portions of 
Samian ware. Seven peculiar, triangular masses of hard composition 
were also thrown out of one of the holes. The sides were about G ins. 

1 The burial of a body in a sitting or crouching posture is a mark of a very 
early interment. It is strange that Roman remains should be found in the 
same grave. 


in length. Each side was pierced with two holes, as in the sketch. 
These have been preserved by Mr. Wood. 

Since writing the above I have read an article in the September 
Number of the Archceological Journal, describing a somewhat similar 
find at Nursling, near Southampton. In the latter place, however, the 
remains discovered were of a more diversified character. 

Wednesday, January 18, 1882. 
T. Morgan, Esq., V.P., F.S.A., Hon. Treasurer, in the Chair. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned to the respective donors of tho 
following presents to the library : 

To the Society, for "Transactions of the Somersetshire Archaeological 
and Natural History Society", vol. xxvi. New Series, vol. vi. 
„ ,, for " Proceedings of the Royal Institute of British Archi- 

tects", No. 7. 1881. 

„ for " Journal of the Society of Arts", Nos. 1520, 1521. 
To Bev. B. H. Blacker, M.A., tho Author, for "Gloucestershire Notes 
and Queries", Part xiii. Jan. 1882. 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock, F.S.A., Hon Sec., exhibited a series of engrav- 
ings of Romano-British mosaic pavements : among them the pavement 
at Wellow, near Bath ; the Hawkstow pavement ; and that found at 
the East India House, Leadenhall. 

The Chairman exhibited an engraving of a Roman pavement found 
at Bucklersbury ; also, on behalf of Mr. Greenshields of Lanai'k, the 
carved ivory hilts of two dress-swords ; one of which has a shield of 
arms, of which the bearings appear to be sa., a lion rampant, crowned ; 
the other a lion's face, and at the top a lion's head. 

Mr. J. F. Hodgetts stated that the sword-hilts appeared to be parts 
of an ornamental state chair for an admiral's cabin, and that they were 
probably of the time of Charles I. 

It was announced that a vote of thanks had been passed by the 
Council of the Association to J. J. Colman, Esq., M.P., for the exten- 
sive and systematic excavation, at his own expense, of the site, and 
discovery of the buried ruins, of Carrrow Nunnery, near Norwich, 
thereby contributing liberally to the cause of archaeology, and forward- 
ing the scope of the British Archaeological Association. 

Our Associate, Mr. A. C. Fryer, forwarded for exhibition a Roman 
silver coin found at Nazareth. It was reserved for further examination. 

Mr. Arthur Cope exhibited a small series of tiles of the twelfth cen- 
tury* picked up on the site of the monastic buildings at Chertsey. One 
of them has three heads, with parts of the draped bodies ; perhaps 



portion of a representation of a Biblical scene. Two smaller tiles had 
cusped and foliated ornamentation. Mr. Cope read some notes con- 
cerning the foundation, fortunes, and almost total destruction of the 
Abbey, a portion of the wall of the precincts alone being left. 

Mr. Park, of Russell Square, exhibited a collection of ancient 
Egyptian remains obtained by him from a mummy which was being 
ground up by colour-makers for the pigment known to artists as 
"mummy brown". The collection is valuable as shewing the complete 
set deposited by the priests or embalmers with one mummy. The ob- 
jects are as follow : 1, a pure gold mouth with the lips finely modelled ; 
2, four was figures of the Amenti, or Genii of the Karneter ; 3, a wax 
model of a heart ; 4, a tat or sistrum, generally called a Kilometer, — 
blue glazed porcelain; 5, another, jasper ; 6, a scarabseus, glazed stea- 
tite ; 7, another, of lapis lazuli, with the symbols, neb (lord), nefer (good) 
neb ; 8, an eye, finely modelled, of ivory with black glass or obsidian 
pupil, full size ; 9, a figure of the anhh, or emblem of life, jasper ; 10, 
a papyrus pendant, in form of a sceptre, blue glazed porcelain ; 11 , a 
pendant hawk, lapis lazuli ; 12, a pendant figure of Thoth, ibis-headed, 
with disk-shaped headdress, blue, glazed porcelain ; 13, a waxen duck, 
red legs and crest, the head recurved along the back ; 14, three sym- 
bolic eyes, agate, — a waxen plaque with radiated ornament ; 15, the 
heel-bone of the right foot of the mummy, on which is plastered a pieco 
of mummy-cloth with a ritualistic inscription ; 10, a red leathern strap 
or brace for the body; 17, two sepulchral figures, called shabti, repre- 
senting the Osirified, or defunct, person, who, from 18, the long wrap- 
per or winding-sheet, also inscribed with a chapter of the Ritual of the 
Dead, appears to have been a priest named Ha, of the period of the 
twenty-second Egyptian dynasty, about B.C. 900. 

Mr. Birch, who described these objects, requested Mr. Park to lay 
them before Dr. Birch of the British Museum, with a view to obtaining 
a short paper upon them for a future evening. 

The Chairman read a paper on "Romano-British Mosaic Pave- 
ments", accompanied by a series of sketches and engravings, some of 
which had been shewn to the members at an earlier hour. It is hoped 
that the paper will be printed hereafter. 

Mr. Brock read a paper on " St. Agnes", by H. S. Cuming, Esq., 
V.P., F.S.A. Scot., which will also be recorded, we hope, in a future 
part of the Journal. 


. Wednesday, February 1, 1882. 
T. Morgan, Esq., V.P., F.S.A., Hon. Treasurer, in the Chair. 

Rev. R. Milburn Blakiston, M.A., Ashton Lodge, Tavistock Road, 
Croydon, was duly elected an Associate. 

Thanks were ordered to be conveyed to the donors of the following 
presents to the library of the Association : 

To the Society, for " Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmoreland 
Antiquarian and Archaeological Society", vol. v, Part 2. 
„ for " Erdelyi Muzeum", 1882. 
„ ,, for " Journal of the Society of Arts", 1881. 

„ „ for " Proceedings of the Royal Institute of British Archi- 

To the Autlior, M. Ad. de Ceuleneer, for " Decouverte d'un Tombeau 
Chretien a Conixheim-les-Tongres", and " Diplome Militaire de 
Trajan trouve aux Environs de Liege", 1881. 

Mr. R. E. Way exhibited a collection of objects recently exhumed 
on the site of the King's Arms' Yard, Southwark, consisting of frag- 
ments of pottery of Roman black or Upchurch ware ; Samian ware 
with potters' stamps, | OF . sevei | and | of . calvi | ; white Roman ware 
strainer ; handle of a large amphora with uncertain inscription ; frag- 
ment of a flanged tile for a roof; a pitcher of the Norman era, or middle 
of the twelfth century, of very large dimensions, and richly flashed, 
having a raised fretty pattern in green glazed clay, laid on with a boss 
or roundle, in each interstice. 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock exhibited a heavy bronze, metal plaque of rect- 
angular form, with a design of three half-length figures under a canopy, 
with festoons of foliage. In the frieze overhead the word lambadiorvm. 
This object appeared to be of the Roman period. Purchased at a sale 
in London. 

Mr. W. de G. Birch, F.S.A., F.R.S.L., Eon. Sec, said that he did 
not like the appearance of the patina upon this bronze ; and that in his 
opinion it looked moi'e like a cast from an antique than the antique 
itself, on account of the roughness of the surface. 

Mr. Brock promised to submit the relic to Dr. Birch. 

Mr. C. H. Compton exhibited an Egyptian scarabseus set in gold as 
a scarf-pin. It was of glazed porcelain, bearing a figure of Thothmes 
seated in a Boat of the Sun, with figure-heads of the god Mentu Ra, 
the name of the king being placed on a cartouche or royal oval. 

Tlic Chairman exhibited, on behalf of Mr. H. J. Swayne, a screw- 
dollar of tlic Emperor Ferdinand III, containing a miniature portrait 
alleged to be that of Lord Herbert of Chirbury. 


Mr. S. I. Tucker, Somerset Hera! J, after comparing the portrait with 
the well known engraved portraits of that nobleman, shewed that this 
assertion was untenable. 

Mr. Swnyne's exhibition called forth the following observations from 
Mr. H. Syer Cuming : 

" The largest collection of screw-dollars, or ' rose-money' as they are 
sometimes denominated, I have ever seen was in the possession of the 
late Mr. Benjamin Nightingale, and the next in extent belonged to our 
late Associate Mr. Walter Hawkins. Both collections contained no- 
thin o- but German examples of the seventeenth century. Our Journal 
(xxx, ]). 370) records the unexpected discovery by our Vice-President 
the Rev. Dr. Simpson, of a charm within a box fashioned out of a dol- 
lar of Leopold Archduke of Austria ; and I exhibit a screw-dollar of 
Leopold as Emperor of Germany, which formerly belonged to Frede- 
rick Prince of Wales, the father of King George III, and which was 
presented to me by the late Lord Boston. The obverse bears the laure- 
ated bust, in armour, looking to the right ; legend, leopoldvs d. g. 
ROM. IMP. s. a. G. H. B. rex. Rev., imperial arms ensigned by a crown ; 
legend, archid. avst. dyx. bv. co. tyr. 1683. This fine dollar contains 
two miniatures of figures painted in body-colours on paper, and twelve 
on round pieces of mica, representing headless figures of a male and 
female in various poses and amount of attire, to place over the two 
first mentioned, the faces of which complete the effigies laid on them ; 
but their lack of decency forbids their production at a public meeting, 
or anything like a detailed notice to be furnished, and they ai*e merely 
alluded to to shew the varied nature of the contents of the old sci'ew- 

" The sale Catalogue (p. 112) of the treasures of our former Presi- 
dent, the late Ralph Bernal, Esq., gives the following description of 
two examples of German box-money : ' Lot 13G5. Around silver medal 
which opens, and contains a male and female portrait painted in 
colours. On one side are engraved the 6gure of a saint (bishop), and 
coat of arms below, and inscription, Sand. Budbertus Eps. Salisb. 1G25. 
On the other, the holy father, etc., with a cardinal's hat, and a lion 
rampant below ; inscribed Paris, D. G. ArcMeps. Sali. Se. A. P. L., and 
an inner inscription, Sub tuum prcesidium confug.' The second speci- 
men was lot 1366: 'A round silver medal which unscrews, and con- 
tains twelve miniatures on talc and two on paper, with the life of a 
saint. Each one has a blank for the face of the saint to fit over the 
painting at the bottom. The medal has on one side the effigy of 
Frederick III, Emperor of Germany, who reigned from 1637 to 1658.' 

" The sale catalogues of other collections, though less diffuse in de- 
scription than the above, gives us evidence of the existence of screw- 
dollars, and the character of their contents. Tn the Catalogue of the 


collection of Marmaduke Trattle, dispersed in June 1832, we find under 
the head of ' Silver Coins of the Empire of Germany', lot 629, consist- 
ing of seven ' screw-dollars, five of which have paintings in them'; and 
lot 1372 is entered as 'a box-medal containing well executed paintings 
commemorative of the Reformation in Germany.' The stock of the 
late Matthew Young, sold in 1840, had in it several examples of screw- 
dollars, as we learn from the Catalogue. Thus on March 7, lot 108G 
was ' Switzerland, three, — a screw dollar, a screw-medal containing a 
series of water-colour paintings, and two others, 7.' On July 0, lot 
835 consisted of a screw-dollar of Ferdinand III, the Emperor Joseph, 
and five others, 7'; and on Nov. 7, lot 7G1 contained a ' crown of 
Charles II hollow as a box'. This crown, and that of William and 
Mary, in the cabinet of Mr. Henfrey, attest that English money was at 
times, though rarely, formed into boxes of the screw-dollar type ; and 
in recent days a taste for such practice seems in some degree revived 
in the boxes occasionally hawked about the streets by toymen, which 
are made in imitation of the copper and silver currency of King 
George III and Queen Victoria, of which I possess a few specimens." 

Mr. Worthington G. Smith exhibited a bone object marked on both 
sides, and on one edge, with rude geometrical scratches or cuts ; also a 
round disk of stone, concave on both sides, recently found in an exca- 
vation of gravel at Bedford. 

Mr. Brock read a paper on " Duloe Stone-Circle", by C. W. Dymond, 
Esq., F.S. A., accompanied by a carefully measured plan. This will, it 
is hoped, appear in the Journal hereafter, 

In the ensuing discussion, Mr. Brock, Mr. Way, Mr. G. R. Wright, 
F.S. A., and the Chairman took part. 

Wednesday, February 15, 1882. 
Rev. S. M. Mayhew, M.A., V.P., in tiie Chair. 
The following Associates were duly elected : 

Miss Barrow, 23 Frederick Street, Gray's Inn Road 

Thomas Edward Jones, Esq., Broadway House, Hammersmith 

Thanks were ordered to be returned to the author, through Bernard 
Quaritch, Esq., for "Punjab Customary Law", by C. L. Tupper, Esq. 
Calcutta. 3 vols. 1881. 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock, F.S. A., Hon. Sec, exhibited a collection oifictilia 
from recent excavations at Cripplcgate. Among them were two glazed 
pipkins; one large bowl or pipkin with two handles, of the sixteenth 
century ; and several fragments of glazed and decorated tile. 

Mr. C. Sherborn exhibited an Egyptian scarabams made of dark blue 
glazed porcelain ; the base engraved with a cynocephalus, a feather of 
the goddess Truth, the symbol neb or lord, and other hieroglyphics. 



Mr. E. Walford gave an account of an ancient processional cross in 
bis possession, bearing a date thus expressed, mxxiccccc ; also a por- 
trait, on a panel, of John Milton, believed to bave been painted by the 
poet himself at a time when his eyesight was beginning to fail. 

Mr. W. G. Smith exhibited a dark blue glass implement of mush- 
room shape, used in the manufacture of straw-plait at Dunstable. 

Mr. Gr. K. Wright exhibited for our Associate Mr. Th. Kerslake, of 
Bristol, a coutcan-de-chasse, or hunting-knife ; the hilt embellished with 
a plume of feathers and other heraldic bearings, and bearing the in- 
scription, OWEN . BVRGEXT . M . T. 

Mr. Hodgetts stated that a similar knife was in the possession of 
Sir Samuel Meyrick at Goodrich Court. 

Major di Cesnola exhibited, from his collection of Cypriote antiquities, 
a large series of gold leaves, 1 frontals, mouths, eyes, mortuary earrings, 

and chaplets ; also several very fine ancient Greek terra-cottas : among 
them Eros or Cupid upon a hillock, holding out a bunch of grapes to 
a cock, as in the accompanying illustration, which is one-third the full 

1 For the loan of the woodcuts of the Plate of gold-leaf work we are indebted 
to the kindness of Major di Cesnola. 



Frontal with Ornamental Uorder. 

Frontal with archaic Ornamontation. 

Groups and Details of Leaves of Fillets. 



size ; and a finely modelled, full-length portrait of a female in an ele- 
gant posture (see woodcut, one-third size), evidently the work of an 
artist of considerable reputation. These were obtained at Salamina, 
the site of the ancient city of Salamis, founded, according to the legend- 
ary histories, by Teucer. 

J. S. Phene, Esq., V.P., LL.D., F.S. A., etc., read a paper on " Recent 
Researches and Excavations in Scotland", which was illustrated by a 
large number of carefully drawn and coloured diagrams. In the dis- 
cussion which ensued, Mr. T. Morgan and Mr. Hodgetts took part. It 
is hoped that the paper will appear in a future part of the Journal. 

Rev. W. S. Lach-Szyrma, M.A., read a paper on the "Antiquities of 
the Church and Churchyard of St. Hilary, co. Cornwall", and exhibited 
several photographs in illustration of his remarks. This paper also 
will, we hope, be printed hereafter. 

Wednesday, March 1, 1882. 
Rev. S. M. Mayhew, M.A., V.P., in the Chair. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for the following presents to 
the library : 

To the Author, Henry Grey, Esq., for " The Classics for the Million, being 
an Epitome in English of the Works of the principal Greek and 
Latin Authors." 8vo. 1881. 
To the Society, for "Archaeological Journal", No. 152. 1881. 

„ „ for " Journal of the Society of Arts", Nos. 1526-27. 

Mr. G. R. Wright, F.S. A., Hon. Curator and Congress Secretary, 
announced that the Council had great pleasure in accepting the kind 
invitation of the Mayor and Town Council of Plymouth to hold the 
Congress this year in that town. 

.Mr. W. G. Smith, E.L.S., Hon. Draughtsman, exhibited three very 
fine large flints of the polished neolithic style, from recent diggings at 
Holloway, about 18 inches below the surface. 

Major A. P. di Cesnola, F.S. A., exhibited two chalcedony bracelets 
from Salamis (Cyprus), with phallic pendants, and a collection of orna- 
ments in the same material. One of them was in the shape of a cuttle- 
fish, with an illegible inscription ; another was in form of a small cup 
or goblet, about li inch high, probably an unguentarium. 

Tlie Chairman exhibited and described — 

1. A drinking-cup of Caistor ware, 44 inches high, bearing the usual 
characteristics ; but of a pinkish coloured clay. London. 

2. A Roman silver vessel for pouring. It was found with ashes, 
broken Samian, aud Upehurch funereal ware. The vessel is a depresed 


round ; tho diameter greater than its height, 1| inch, by a diameter of 
2| inches. It is beaked, without handle; but on one side bears a 
label, once apparently set with a stone or jewel. This spot would have 
received the pressure of the thumb. This precious little vessel has 
been subjected to considerable heat, ashes being fused on its surface. 
The shape is novel, somewhat resembling a small, squat cream-ewer. 
The beaked spout is also novel for a London find, the nearest approach 
being amongst familiar mortaria. Very possibly it played a part in the 
cremation of a Roman citizen. It may, however, be a crucible. 

3. Portions of large Samian patera found with the above; also a por- 
tion of a black olla with rim, but not exhibited. 

4. Two Samian medallions : one, a soldier in action ; the other, 
Diana seated, and wearing buskins ; the right arm liaised, as having 
loosed an arrow from the bow held in the left hand. 

5. A card with three pins of bone, Celtic and usual type ; a second, 
bodkin or needle of ivory (Roman) ; the third, a needle of fishbone, 
perhaps walrus, found with Samian ware ; together with a glazed clay 
roundel, 4J inches diameter, — a whorl, or loom-weight, or sinker. 

6. Objects in Norman and mediaeval bronze, found also in London : 
1. The spear and haft, or socket, of a Norman standard ; the former 
of hard, compact bronze ; the latter with its collar of brighter, softer, 
and folded metal. It is not possible to give the length of the staff; 
but judging by examples in MSS. it was of no great length. 2. Two 
scales for weighing : one oblong and peaked, for a frame ; the other 
for suspension, and round, of hammered metal. Found near Brooks' 
Wharf. 3. Two bridle-bosses : one of the ordinary shape, round, on a 
flat plate ; the other a gored hexagon on bosses, resting upon a flat 
plate. Sixteenth century. 4. The cover of a tankard (fifteenth cen- 
tury), flat, of reddish bronze. 5. A very fine house-key of iron, G| ins. 
long, and sixteenth century work. All found in London. 

7. The body of a dog, red earthenware, with deep brown glaze, — a 
child's toy; time of Elizabeth. A very rare specimen. Found in 

8. Glass, Spanish : 1. A chalice on foot, bossed, and cut in facets, 
9 inches high ; the cup engraved, cut, and decorated. 2. A drinking- 
tumbler covered by designs, scrolls, foliage, and drops, with a buck 
and doe running. 3. Two amphora-shaped vases with arms of opal, 
5 inches high, hand-painted, with bouquets and rings of flowers. The 
Spanish factories of La Granja, Barcelona, San Ildefonso, made and 
exported vast quantities of glass ; some artists rivalling Venice in 
shape, quality, and colour ; some approaching our own Bristol ; and a 
third retaining the primitive shapes of Spanish drinking-vessels, de- 
rived sometimes apparently from the uslcos, others from the Romans. 

0. An extremely tine and true ruby drinking-cup, Germano- Venetian, 


set in modern ormolu, of beautiful pattern. This cup is cut in oc- 
tagon form. 

10. A hexagon drinking-cup, 4| inches high, of eighteenth century 
German art, coloured to resemble sapphire (smalt), and thickly en- 
amelled on each face with scrolls, foliage, flowers, birds, and Cupids in 
gold. A fine specimen. 

11. A Germano- Venetian duplex cup, crystal and ruby, 9 inches by 
6 ; the whole thickly engraved, by diamond, with a representation of 
a combat between panoplied German knights and Norsemen. The 
spirit of the engraving was caught from representations of the chase 
upon German hunting-horns, where figure crowds on figure. Here also 
the knight cleaves his enemy, carries his standard in triumph, or reins 
his furious steed. The enemy, on foot, sturdily stand the charge, but 
more than one grovel in the dust. A mere description can do but scant 
justice to the accuracy and spirit of the engraver. By one true pressure 
lines of every curve are cut through the ruby to the crystal, and the 
effect is a brilliant etching. But what of the artist ? How confident 
of his line, its curve of beauty, and wonderful expressiveness ! No pat- 
tern could have been used. No false lines appear to have been made. 
Here and there, under an inspired stroke, the picture grew to perfec- 
tion. Two clusters of arms and banners appear, with Medusa's head 
on the upper margin ; but long flamboyant swords, military maces, and 
spears are the weapons of the mailed knights. The banners bear the 
eagle of Germany ; the northern soldiers, the dragon and other em- 
blems. In the year 1800 this cup was in the possession of " St. Jacob", 
who has scratched his name thereon, and it is to be feared enriched (?) 
the cup with a scratched border. The body of the cup appears to have 
been submitted to the action of a wheel or horn, for the roughened 
traces of diamond cutting are visible interiorly or externally. 

12. A lovely cameo of thick crystal glass, 4 inches, cut in dog-tooth 
pattern, with lucid points, and containing a silvery, standing figure of 
classical form holding a wreath. This art was partially revived by the 
late Mr. Pellatt, and died with him ; but the origin is Venetian. The 
exhibitor has also two other specimens, long in his family, and four 
were lately in the South Kensington Museum, in crystal. 

13. The badge, in silver and gold, of the Venetian order of St. Mark. 
This badge is of seventeenth century work, an oval, displaying the 
winged lion in gold on silver ground, with the legend, " Pax Tibi, 
Marce, Evangelista Meus." At the back is a movable, bevelled glass, 
a reliquary. The upper portion is seventeenth century scroll-work 
with a loop for suspension. 

The Chairman also read the following : 




Sketch of the Borrow cus opened, 
Nov^-28. 1881. 

URN found with the/ interment. 

SkeLeUn uv the. 
position/ ae found/. 

Sketch of the/ Skull 
shewing mark of 
flint impUrrvent/. 

Cap' J THARP del* 


Description op an Ancient British Barrow in the Isle 
of Wight. 


On the Middle West Down beyond Nunwcll, Isle of Wight, facing 
the north and east, by kind permission from Lady Oglander, the owner 
of the estate, I removed about 15 inches of earth from the present sur- 
face, on a spot I had previously marked, feeling convinced, from its 
peculiar shape (once, no doubt, an extensive mound or tumulus, but 
now flattened), and its faint outline of minced chalk, forming a large 
circle, barely perceptible to the ordinary observer, on the ground 
ploughed up for cultivation, that something worthy of investigation lay 

By compass I trenched due north, south, east, and west, when I 
quickly came upon a most compact body of flints so placed that when 
the whole surface was uncovered it bore the exact shape of a huge 
mushroom ; for upon examination I found it equal on all sides, from 
the apex to the outside of the circle ; well put together, — in fact like a 
solid, paved causeway, — measuring in diameter 22^ feet, and nearly 
2 feet 6 inches in depth in the centre of the flints, narrowing down to 
12 inches. Under this extraordinary mass of flints (vide sketch), and 
exactly in the centre of the circle, there was a round stone (not flint), 
as if placed to mark the centre, and act as a guide, round which the 
flints were to be placed to form a proper circle. Close to this stone 
was an urn or " passing cup" with two handles placed horizontally, the 
holes in each handle being so small as to suggest the idea that it was 
intended to pass a string through for suspension. It only contained 
earth and a few chips of flint, stood upright, and is 5f inches high, 
and 8 inches in diameter, apparently of unbaked clay, with very rude, 
diamond-shaped markings scratched over its outer surface. On the 
left side of this cup I found a human skull, the jaws and splendid teeth 
of which touched the rim of the cup ; and on the right side of the 
skull, above the ear, a wedge-shaped hole, 2 inches long, and nearly 
half an inch wide at spots marked X, cleanly cut in the bone, as if by 
a sharp weapon. 

Upon further removing the earth I laid bare the skeleton of a well 
grown man, apparently more than 6 feet high, and buried in a sitting 
position. Most of the ribs and other small bones, together with a por- 
tion of the jaw, had crumbled away, the body being so placed and 
doubled up as to bring the knees level with the chest. This fact sug- 
gests the idea^that it is the grave of an ancient Briton. Close under 
the jaws I found a flint flake corresponding with the shape of tho hole 
in the skull, and which I consider might have caused the death-wound, 


having, as it were, fallen out of the skull as the hody mouldered away. 
The skeleton lay or sat east and west. I could not discover any rem- 
nant of metal of any description. On either side of the skeleton were 
two smooth stones, the size and shape of an egg ; one a flint, the other 
a horn pebble. 

One of my labourers, an experienced man in measurements, com- 
puted, with myself, that the amount of flints over this grave could not 
be less than one hundred tons in one compact mass. 

I excavated in various directions of this barrow, but could only find 
the one skeleton. 

In the discussion which ensued, Messrs. Brock and Wright took part, 
and the Chairman remarked that prehistoric burials were by crema- 
tion, or the body was placed in a prone or sitting posture, the knees 
bent upwards, and the arms often extended. Notable examples were 
those of Monsal Vale, Derbyshire, and Hitler Hill. Frequently after 
cremation or burial a circle of stones was made the boundary of a mass 
of flints covering or arching the underlying deposit. An urn or cup 
of clay, marked by lines, has in every case been found accompanying 
these early burials. 

Mr. W. H. Cope read a paper on "Ancient Painting on Glass", which 
it is hoped will be printed hereafter. The paper was accompanied by 
the exhibition of a large number of coloured drawings of painted glass 
windows from English and foreign cathedrals and churches, the Chair- 
man shewing in illustration pieces of glass from destroyed windows at 
Crowland Abbey, Ely Cathedral, Newdigate, and St. Nicholas near 
St. Alban's. 

The discussion which ensued was taken part in by Mr. Morgan, 
Mr. Brock, and Mr. Wright. 

Mr. C. Brent, F.S.A., communicated the following : 

A Roman Villa at Methwold. 


I exhibit a plan of the excavations made on the site of some Roman 
remains at a spot known as " Little Holmes", in the parish of Meth- 
wold, with sketches of specimens of the tiles, which are very numerous, 
and of the fragments of an amphora; together with a plan of the 
parish, on which the position of the site of the excavations is marked. 
The parish contains a great deal of the old nomenclature, though in 
some instances greatly modified by time. The line of the Roman foss 
way runs between the Little Ouse and Wissey rivers ; thence their line 
went down the Wissey for four miles, up a tributary known as the 
String River (stringerc) to Beachamwell, whence the fossway is con- 
tinued to Narford, the line thence to Lynn following the course of 


M s 1 & 2 Scored tiles 
. 3 . 4 Roofuzg tiles. 

5 . 6 FraxjmentB of Grey pottery. 

TheRer* J.DENNY GEDGE d«l' 


the river Har. Tims the parish of Methwold lies outside the Roman 
line of demarcation, which fact gives some interest to the discovery of 
Roman remains on this site. Another tiling that gives still greater 
interest thereto is that a spot rising but some 4 feet above the Fen- 
level should have been at that early date chosen for a residence. This 
is an additional testimony to the fact, often stated, that the "Pens were 
more habitable in a.d. 400 than in A.n. 1400. 

The actual locality is one of the Holmes (called Little Holme), of 
which a string extends down either side of a small natural stream 
called the String Dyke. It lies just in a corner formed by the conflu- 
ence of another small stream known as Haggard's or Hoggard's Dyke, 
which drains a pool known as Humble (Holme Hill) Pit. For years 
large numbers of tiles have been turned up on the mound of which 
this little holme is composed, the level of the pavement of the house 
being within reach of the ploughshare. The tenant had supposed that 
some brick-kiln must have existed here, till the turning up of certain 
pieces of fine-grained, grey Northamptonshire sandstone induced him 
to search further. 

The foundations, which are placed immediately on the subsoil of 
sand, are, so far as we traced them, of great hardness and solidity, and 
built in alternate bands of flint rubble and the grey flagstone before 

The chamber A, apparently an apodyterium, has a floor of solid ma- 
sonry intersected by flues 15 inches wide. Tiles 1 and 2, with abund- 
ance of others like them, probably formed the flooring of cubiculum (b), 
which has been entirely raked up by the ploughshare. The other tiles 
are roof-tiles. A small portion of the concrete flooring of chamber c, 
lined to represent tiling, remains in situ. At D probably there was a 
furnace, as there are many remains of burnt matter. Further investi- 
gation has not been made. 

The Chairman read the following note on Mr. Karslake's couteau-de- 
chasse, exhibited on a previous occasion : " It belonged and was known 
as belonging to the Vaughan collection, nominally ' the sword of Owen 
Glendower', but really as a hunting-knife presented by a Stuart, the 
Vaughans being devoted Jacobites. At the sale wherein this knife was 
sold, Sir R. Brook, of Norton Priory, bought for £25 a ring with minia- 
ture of the Young Pretender. A number of Carolean relics were also 
dispersed. When the great oak in Nannau Park fell, the skeleton of 
Howell Seele (Owen's cousin) fell out from within the decayed bole, 
together with his sword. Owen Glendower murdered Howell, and con- 
cealed him in the hollowed oak, where the skeleton remained until the 
fall of the tree." 


Wednesday, March 15, 1882. 
T. Morgan, Esq., V.P., F.S.A., Hon. Treasurer, in the Chair. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned to the respective donors of the 
following presents to the library : 

To the Society, for " Proceedings of the Royal Institute of British Archi- 
tects", No. 11, March 1882. 

„ for " Journal of the Society of Arts", Nos. 1528, 1529. 
To C. Ii. Smith, Esq., Y.P., F.S.A., the Author, for tracts " On a Hoard 
of Roman Coins found at Deal", and " On a Roman Leaden 
Coffin discovered at Canterbury". 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock, F.S.A., Bon. Sec., announced that the arrange- 
ments for the Congress at Plymouth were in progress. He also exhi- 
bited a drawing shewing part of the wall of the old gate of Ludgate, 
as revealed by setting back some of the houses, at a spot nearly oppo- 
site St. Martin's Church. The wall appears to have been built of 
squared ragstone, and at one part there are traces of a window. 

The Rev. Prebendary Sir Talbot Baker exhibited two pieces of 
rough, hard pottery in the shape of U, found on the prehistoric camp 
five miles to the south of Weymouth. They shew traces of friction at 
the bend, and have been conjectured to have been used as pounders or 
pestles for mortaria, or for grinding corn, as was suggested by several 
of the speakers. 

In the discussion which ensued, Messrs. J. Brent,F.S.A., Gr. R. Wright, 
F.S.A., C. Brent, F.S.A., and J. Blashill, took part. 

In the unavoidable absence of the author, Mr. J. R. Allen, Mr. W. de 
G. Birch, F.S.A., Hon. Sec, read the paper entitled " Notices of Sculp- 
tured Rocks near Ilkley, with some Remarks on Rocking Stones." 
This was illustrated by several drawings to scale and photographs. It 
will probably be printed in a future place. 

In the discussion which followed the reading, Mr. J. Brent, F.S.A., 
suggested that the configurations seen upon stones marked with cups 
and rings represented iu a rude way the position of barrows contain- 
ing the bodies of members of the tribe, who thus sought to preserve a 
record of their resting-places. 

The Chairman accepting this theory, suggested in advance of it that 
these stones were thus marked to indicate the relative position of the 
village houses or dwellings of the people, who had thus, as it were, 
mapped out their holdings. 

Mr. Brock then read Dr. Hooppell's paper on " The Ruins of an 
early Church at North Gosforth, near Newcastle-on-Tyne." This was 
illustrated with a sheet of drawings, and it is hoped it will be printed 
in a future Number of the Journal 

I i:; 

Antiquarian Entcllujcnce. 

The Plymouth Congress. — We have great pleasuro in announcing that 
the Council have accepted an invitation from the Mayor and Town 
Council of Plymouth to hold their thirty-ninth Annual Congress at 
that celebrated old seaport town in August next. Mr. G. R. Wright, 
F.S.A., Hon. Conyress Secretary, it is expected, will shortly proceed to 
Plymouth to make arrangements with the Mayor, Mr. Francis Brent, 
Hon. Local Secretary of the proposed Meeting, and a Committee 
already appointed, of which Mr. Brooking Rowe, F.S.A., Mr. W. C. 
Dymond, F.S.A., and other old members of the Association, form part, 
for the various excursions and proceedings of the Meeting, which bids 
fair, from the interest with which the locality abounds, to be one of 
the most useful of the Congresses of the Association. 

The Kent Kistvaen. — The Rev. Francis T. Vine of Patrixbourne, 
Kent, describing the discovery of an ancient kistvaen in Gorseley 
Wood, states that the tumulus first opened was the largest of three 
tumuli, the circumferences of which touched each other, their centres 
being in one straight line, and the mounds being progressive in height. 
The two other tumuli have since been explored. The second (next to 
the largest) contained a kistvaen, the dimensions of which were exactly 
the same as those of the first, namely, length, 4 feet ; breadth, 2| feet ; 
depth, 2| feet. The earth of the mound had fallen in, and nearly filled 
the chamber. Two small pieces of charred bone and a few minute 
fragments of thin glass were all that could be discovered amongst the 
debris. The third mound was nearly on a level with the surrounding 
ground. In it was a third kistvaen, quite perfect, but of smaller 
dimensions : length, 3 feet ; breadth, 2\ feet ; depth, 3 feet. It is re- 
markable that the depth of this kist was equal to its length, while that 
of each of the others was the same as the breadth. The contents also 
were different, for in this small fragments of bones were found, and 
one may trace portions of the skull and of most other parts of the 
human skeleton. Some of the bones appeared to have been burnt, but 
the greater part had escaped the fire. A small fragment of bronze and 
a few pieces of fine glass were also found in the kist, and in the mound 
itself two fractured urns. At the bottom were some large flint stones, 
possibly those on which the body had been placed for cremation, and 
therefore reverentially preserved by the Druids, and deposited with 
the body. The direction of each of the kistvaens was nearly the same ; 
1882 8 


at of the third 
. liiied. i I he :.."" Hm sentra - af the 

midd". : wo outer ones. 

- of design hoth in their construction and rela- 
tive F " 

are some of I \a sepulchres ; 

or one of them may externally have represented an altar, which 
-roll placed upon one seems to indi: whether the three 

z~-Vi'. : . "'.:-.: . ::"- :": ; : y r ::::r.: :/ "^r; :•_: ::. .1; .1 :■: :::.r, ?:/.:: " r ;stc-rity 
a knowledge c:' : n1 That the ki- bach Mr. 

has been perm." ..ghanvs kindness, and at his expense, 

to open, are Britis i he -las no dc u _ I . 

" — 7 - Baker of Hargrave 

Rectory, Kimbolton, announces thai a splendid hoard of aucient bronze 
weapons has recently been found by labourers in cutting a drain in 

The collection consists of about one hundred 
ear and javelin-heads, I - broken), two sock- 

: ^lts, a pa. - rules for the butt-end of spears, ends of sword- 

sheaths, and other artie'. be I -:- spear-heads are of various sizes and 
shapes, but all elegant in design, and as castings equal to a brass- 
founder's work of the r i . - s collection of Celtic weapons 
a heap upon :elow the fen-peat, and their deposition is 
supposed tot;.-; i esult of a boat-accident. A fen-fire which 
occurred at the spot some years back, reached these treasures, and 
fused and injured many of the weap - the greater number are 
still well preserved, and in good condition. Dr. John E _- S.A.. 
has '.. _ ■""..- g hoard before the Soci. 

1 5 "_:"-'_ ] ? . F.S.A. 

I: is proposed to pri: iniscencc- scription ; the 

:h will not be great, to be regulated by the cost of printing. 

£ "' - - - - ... -.:;.: 7-;:;.; ".; 


Ancient Customs of Hereford. By the 1. Town 

— is preparing for public :'n illustrations. 

The contents comprise : Sale lltoti ons. — 

m Book compiled by order of Henry III. — Transla- 
: t Charters, important Proclamations, Account of Courts, Court- 
-. and Bailiff's Compotus- Rolls, in the time of Plan - _• . Kings. 
— nens and Cler_ I is and Trades of Here- 

on! daring tl i iors ; Procession of Corpus Chr:= -.. — 


Courts of tho Marches ; Historical Letters from Lords Presidents of 
the Council, with other interesting, unpublished information. Mr. 
Richards, 37 Great Queen Street, London, W.C., will receive names of 

Antiquities. — Under this title Mr. Chr. Chattock has in preparation 
a work comprising translations of threo hundred ineditcd charters, 
deeds, documents, assessments for train-bands, etc. They relate to the 
families of Marmion, Mouutfort, Dcvercux, Arden, De la Pole, Viscount 
Hereford, Berkley, Dimock, Babington, and others of historical inte- 
rest. — Treatises on tho origin, purpose, and structuro of Stonehenge, 
Avebury, and other similar remains. — An account of several hitherto 
unknown Roman, British, and Saxon tumuli or grave-mounds, hoar- 
stones, and Roman coins, I'ecently discovered. — Description of a hitherto 
unknown royal castlo at Castle Bromwich. — Shakespeariana. — Wager 
of battle. — Record of early Anglo-Hebrew Christians. — Cerdic's Shore. 
— The Anglo- Saxon Chronicle. — Unique case of ownership and occu- 
pancy, by one family, of " alodium", " franc alond", or free land, from 
the Conquest. — Survey of some Roman roads. It will be published by 
Messrs. Triibner and Co. 

Ars Moriendi. — Our Associate, Mr. W. H. Rylands, F.S.A., has just 
edited, for the Holbein Society, a reproduction (in facsimile by our 
Associate, Mr. F. C. Price) of the copy of the Ars Moriendi in the Bi'itish 
Museum, with an introduction by Mr. G. Bullen, F.S.A., Keeper of 
the Printed Books. For this rare and beautifully quaint fifteenth cen- 
tury block-book, the Trustees, we are told, paid the sum of £1,072 : 10, 
being the highest price ever paid by them for any single xylographic 
or printed work. It was acquired at the Weigel sale at Leipsic in 
1872. The introduction forms a valuable manual to the attractive sub- 
ject of block-books ; and the marvellously faithful manner in which the 
well known facsimilist, Mr. Price, has done his task, trenches very 
closely upon mechanical processes of reproduction. The whole work 
is a welcome addition to the archaeology of the printing press. 

Ptircell. By W. H. Cummings, Esq. (Sampson Low and Co.) — The 
life of the great musician, Henry Purcell, by a well known member of 
the musical profession, is interesting for the careful and conscientious 
manner in which the author has touched upon the condition of music 
and poetry in the seventeenth century. With great pains, evidently 
not spared throughout his work, Mr. Cummings has given to students 
of the artistic, social, and domestic history of the period a vivid picture 
of the old days as exemplified in the life of one who will always hold a 
foremost position among the fathers of the divine art. 


The Manuscript Library of the British Museum has lately acquired a 
number of interesting documents, among which may be mentioned 
" The Naturalist's Journal", with entries relating to weather, garden- 
ing, agriculture, and natural history, by Gilbert White of Selborne, the 
well known author (17G8-03), in six volumes; Letters of the same 
author to the Hon. Daines Barrington (1769-80); a " Chorographical 
Description of several Shires in England", by John Norden (1595) ; 
the "Parish Register of Papworth-Bverard, Cambridgeshire, 1565- 
1G92"; a detailed account of the execution of Giacomo, Beatrice, and 
Lucrezia Cenci (1569) ; the "Statutes of Westminster, 1285"; and a 
very large vellum Roll containing the pedigree of the family of Weston 
of Sutton Place, co. Surrey, by Sir W. Segar, Garter King (1632). 
The Irish collections of Mr. Maurice Lenihan, of Limerick, have also 
been purchased. They consist of eighteen volumes, the principal num- 
bers being two copies of Dr. Geoffrey Keating's " Histoiy of Ireland", 
in Irish ; Irish songs by poets of Munster ; Keating's " Three Pointed 
Shafts of Death"; " Triumphalia" of the Abbey of Holy Cross, co. Lime- 
rick ; MSS. and papers relating to the diocese of Killaloe ; a curious 
"Entry-Book" of Thomas Arthur, M.D., practising in Limerick and 
Dublin (1619-66); "Annals" and other MSS. relating to Limerick; 
and a volume of Correspondence of Richard Annesley, sixth Earl of 
Anglesey, with his agents, etc. (1741-1766). 

The latest addition to the Egerton Library of MSS. in the British 
Museum comprises "A Portuguese Chronicle of Affonso I of Portugal", 
by Duarte Galvam, differing in some respects from the printed copy ; 
Epitaphs in Norfolk Churches ; Correspondence of Edward Lord 
Zouche, Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports (1615-36) ; thi-ee volumes 
of Welsh Pedigrees, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries ; and a Regis- 
ter of " Inquisitiones post Mortem" for Cheshire, from the time of 
Edward HI to Richard III. 


33rtttsl) SUcljaeolocjical association. 

JUNE 1882. 




{Read March 18, 1882.) 

In looking over, recently, a volume of archaeological papers 
published in the year 1832, my eye was caught by a plan 
of a ruined church at North Gosforth in Northumberland, 
furnished to the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, in the year 1826, by Mr. John Bell of Gateshead. 1 
The ruins had then recently been disencumbered of earth 
by Mr. Robt. William Brandling of Low Gosforth House, 
in whose grounds they were situated ; and Mr. Bell, 
thinking they might be interesting, had drawn a plan of 
them, and made a few notes, which he communicated to 
the Secretary of the Society. In these he said nothing 
about the probable age of the ruins, nor about any special 
characteristics they possessed. 

Having so lately been deeply interested in the remark- 
able Saxon church at Escombe, constructed entirely of 
Roman stones, and having Roman inscriptions still visible 
in the walls, both externally and internally, my eye was 
quick to detect the striking similarity of ground-plan 
between it and the church at North Gosforth ; and my 
interest was further quickened by observing that Mr. Bell 
recorded that on one of the stones in the east wall of the 

1 Arehobologia JEliana, quarto Scries, vol. ii. 
1882 :i 


chancel the letters coh were still visible. I made arrange- 
ments to visit the spot at as early a period as possible ; 
and, in company with, my friends, Mr. Robert Blair . of 
South Shields, and the Key. Thomas Stephens, now of 
Monkswearmouth, did so on the 31st of August last. We 
were more than rewarded for our journey. We found the 
whole ground-plan of the church perfect, the walls stand- 
inu' all around to a height of between 2 and 3 feet. We 
found the edifice to be one of manifestly early date; 
whether Saxon or very early Norman, not altogether easy 
to decide. We found it built entirely of Roman stones ; 
not of the very large size of those composing Escombe 
Church, but of the smaller, squarer type familiar to us in 
the Roman Wall which runs across the counties of North- 
umberland and Cumberland. 

Besides the other Roman indicia abounding on the 
spot, we found a Roman altar of large size lying on the 
ground, within the walls of the church. The dimensions 
of this altar are as follow : — height, 3 feet 1 1 inches ; 
breadth at top, 2 feet 4 inches ; breadth at base, 2 feet 
1^ inch; thickness at top, when unbroken, 1 foot 2 inches; 
thickness at base, 1 foot 4 inches. The inscription, which 
was on the front, appears completely gone. It might 
be possible to recover some of it in some lights ; but 
beyond the letter 0, which we thought we could dis- 
cern, we could make out nothing. On the sides of the 
altar, however, the sacrificial implements are distinctly 
traceable ; the cutter and the securis on the one side, 
the prafericulum and the patera on the other. From 
a mortise-hole in the top of the altar it would seem 
that in Christian times it had been made to serve the 
purpose of a pedestal for a cross, or for some similar 

The church, at some period or other, was shortened. 
The west wall now standing was not the original termina- 
tion of the nave. The whole of the original ground-plan 
is, nevertheless, perfect in the earth, and I am thus 
enabled to give the dimensions of the building as it was 
when first erected. In taking the following measure- 
ments I was assisted by my friend Mr. J. W. Taylor, archi- 
tectural draughtsman and surveyor, of Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, with whom I visited the church again on the 18th 


of November last. To him also I am indebted for the 
drawings which accompany this paper : — 

Outside. — Total length, G6 ft. 5j ins.; length of nave, 
44 ft. 7J ins.; breadth of nave, 23 ft. 5 ins.; length of 
chancel, 21 ft. 10 ins.; breadth of chancel, 20 ft. 

Inside. — Total length, GO ft. 6| ins. ; length of nave, 
38 ft. 4 ins. ; breadth of nave, 17 ft. 8 \ ins. ; length of 
chancel, 19 ft. 1 in. ; breadth of chancel, 14 ft. 3 ins. ; 
width of chancel-arch, 5 ft. 10J ins. ; thickness of wall of 
chancel-arch, 3 ft. 1 1 in. 

It will be seen that the nave and chancel-walls average 
nearly 3 ft. in thickness. There are two doorways, one 
on the south side of the nave, the other on the north side 
of the chancel. These are respectively 3 ft. 4 ins., and 
2 ft. 3^ ins. in width. The jambs of the north doorway 
are simply chamfered on the exterior ; those of the south 
doorway are recessed, and there were slender pillars on 
each side. These pillars lead one to conclude that the 
building was early Norman rather than Saxon, the only 
doubt being whether the doorway may not have been a 
subsequent insertion. Upon this and a few other ques- 
tions, perhaps, it may be possible that no definite conclu- 
sions can ever be reached. 

Round the whole church, on the exterior, with the ex- 
ception of a length of 1 1 feet on the north side, runs a 
course of chamfered stones precisely like the chamfered 
courses so often seen in the ramparts of Roman stations. 
Similar courses of chamfered stones ran along" the old 
town wall of Newcastle-on-Tyne, where it crossed Pandon 
Dene, on the eastern side of the present town, presum- 
ably on the line of the great Roman Wall from Wallsend 
to Bowness, and which has, to a great extent, been up- 
rooted, for modern improvements, within the last twelve 
months. The break in the course of chamfered stones, on 
the north side of the church, may indicate the position of 
a doorway opposite to the present southern doorway, and 
which may have been obliterated when the later west 
wall was built. 

On the ground, within the walls of the church, lie other 
interesting sculptured stones, besides the Roman altar 
already mentioned. There is the ancient font, of a rect- 
angular shape, — a parallelopiped, in fact, with all the 


edges chamfered. It is of its original height at one end ; 
the other end is broken. When perfect, its dimensions 
— Outside, length, 2 ft. 6 ins.; breadth, 1 ft. 9f ins.; 
height, 1 ft. 10 ins. Inside, length, 1 ft. 11^ ins.; breadth, 
1 ft. 2f ins. ; depth, 1 ft. There is also a cluster of four 
columns with a pyramidal base and a broken capital, in 
the centre of which is a rectangular depression, 8 ins. 
square, intended apparently to receive the stem of across 
or other similar object. As one of the four sides of the 
cluster is plain and flat, it appears certain that it was 
intended to stand against a wall or column. It could not, 
therefore, have served very well for a pedestal for the 
font. There are several grave-covers and fragments of 
grave-covers of various periods lying in and around the 
church. One of them bears upon its face a raised cross 

The inscribed stone in the east wall of the chancel is 
near the ground, and forms one of the course of chamfered 
stones. It bears more letters than the three recorded by 
Mr. Bell, viz., COH. There is an N very plainly at the 
commencement, and there are appearances of two or three 
more letters after the h. The h, too, itself is decidedly 
doubtful. It appears to me to have been really an x, 
though it may possibly have been an R. From the most 
searching examination I have been able to make of the 
stone, I conclude that the inscription was either x coxvex 
or x corxov; that is, either "Numerus Convenarum" or 
"Numerus Cornoviorum". The letters appear to me to 
be more distinctly like the former. At the same time the 
Cornovii were the troops stationed at the neighbouring 
fortress of Pons iElii in the days of the Notitia. 

This inscription is given as COH in Dr. Hlibner's Corpus 
Inscriptionum Latinarum, but is not mentioned in Dr. 
Bruce's Lapidarium Septentrionale. No mention of the 
altar occurs anywhere to my knowledge. Since my visit 
to the ruins I have seen a slight mention of them in Mr. 
Richard Welford's History of the Paris], of Gosforih, pub- 
lished some little time ago by W. 1 ). Welford, Xewcastle- 
on-Tyne, together with a more extended account of the 
history of the church since the Reformation. From the 
particulars Mr. Welford has gathered, it appears that the 
last minister of the church, known to have held the cure, 


was the Rev. Geo. Powrie, appointed in 1G04; that in 1G01 
at a visitation in Newcast le, it was reported of the church- 
wardens, — "that they have not used the perambulation 
these two years past ; they have had no register-book 
these seven years, nor the Queen's Injunctions ; their 
Bible is torne, item a Communion-cloth"; that in 1G50, in 
the Inquisition taken at Morpeth respecting the churches 
in the neighbourhood, it was reported — "that the two 
chappellryes of North and South Gosfords are depending 
upon the parish of St. Nicholas in Newcastle, and hath a 
stipend of tenn pounds p. aim. payd to the minister by 
Dr. Jennison, vicar of the said parish ; but noe preaching 
minister is nowe in eyther of the said chappells. That 
South Gosford is fitt to be made the parish church, and 
North ( rosford, Fawden, Bruntons, and Jesmond, annexed 
to it." Burials appear, from a statement in Hutchinson's 
History of the County of Northumberland, to have taken 
place in the graveyard down to the eighteenth century ; 
and many tombstones of the latter part of the seven- 
teenth century, some of them still perfectly legible, exist 
in situ, in immediate proximity to the ruins. 




(Read April 20, 1881.) 

In the year 1099 the Crusaders, under the command of 
the renowned Godfrey de Bouillon, Duke of Lorraine, 
achieved the grand object of their ambition, the conquest 
of Jerusalem. This event was at no very distant period 
followed by another ; small, indeed, in its beginning, but 
which in the fulness of time was felt throughout the 
length and breadth of Christendom. Nine of the compa- 
nions of the victorious Prince formed themselves into a 
fraternity, and solemnly vowed to defend the Holy City, 
and the pilgrims who flocked thither, against the attacks 
of their Moslem foes. The zeal of this little band of war- 
rior monks attracted others to their community, which 
grew so rapidly in numbers and importance that in the 
year 1118 Baldwin II, King of Jerusalem, granted them 
a home near the Temple, and from this circumstance the 
society acquired the title of the Knights Templars. In 
1128 the brotherhood was formally recognised by the 
Council of Troyes, when a rule or constitution was pre- 
scribed to them, and a white mantle with a red cross on 
the left shoulder was appointed to be the uniform or 
canonical habit of the order. 1 From this time the com- 
munity spread itself over the different countries of the 

1 Montfaucon, in his Monumens de la Monarchie Frangaise (1730, 
torn, ii, pi. 36), has given us the costume of a Knight Templar, circa 
L275, from the effigy of Jean de Dreux in the church of St, Yved de 
Braine, near Soissons, France. This figure is bearded, and wears a 
flat coif or close cap, a long gown or tunic, and over this the white 
mantle with the red cross on the left shoulder. In Dugdale's Monas- 
ticon is an engraving, by Hollar, of a Templar whose costume differs 
from thai of the effigy delineated by Montfaucon. The arms and legs 
of the knight are protected with chain-mail. He wears a rather short 
surcoat belted at the waist, and over this the mantle with across pattee 
on the left shoulder. On his head is a close fitting skull-cap ; his left 
hand rests on the hilt of a sword which hangs by his side, and his 
right hand supports a staff surmounted by a plate displaying a cross 
pattee, which ensign of office was denominated the abacus. 


Christian world ; hut its chief seat was in Paris, where a 
Chapter of the Order was held as early as 1147, at which 
it is recorded one hundred and thirty Knights assembled. 

These few remarks seem a needful prelude to the exhi- 
bition of impressions of two very curious seals of the 
Templars, which have been kindly sent to me by out- 
valued Associate Dr. Kendrick with ;i request that 1 would 
lay them before our Members, and accompany them with 
some descriptive notes. Our good friend has lately pro- 
cured these impressions from Paris, their existence having 
been brought to his knowledge by Dr. S. Perceval, F.S.A. 

The earliest of these seals is affixed to a charter of 
Muster Amio de Aiis preserved in the French archives. 
It is without date, but was executed circa 1202, that is, 
in the reign of Philip II of France, and in that of our own 
King John. This seal is about seven-eighths of an inch 
in diameter, and displays in the field the device of two 
knights riding on one horse, which is cantering to the left. 
The details of the design are not well defined in this 
impression, but we see that both the warriors are equipped 
with hemispherical chapelles defer and long heater-shaped 
shields, and couch their lances as if ready for the fight. 
The foremost knight rests his feet in the stirrups. On 
the verge of the seal is the legend, sigil' militvm cristi. 
Dr. Spencer Perceval states that this seal is No. 9,859 in 
M. Douet d'Arcq's Inventaire des Sceaux, etc. 

Our next seal is assigned to a.d. 1259, the era when 
Louis IX occupied the throne of France, and Henry III 
that of England. The seal is about 1^ inch in diameter, 
and is in a high state of preservation. It bears the same 
device as the earlier example, with its details clearly 
developed. The chapelles of the knights are hemispheri- 
cal, with their necks and chins protected with what we 
may presume to be chain-mail. The shields are of the 
long heater-shape, strengthened in front with cross-bars 
resembling the heraldic charge called escarbuncle, and 
which is well exhibited on the shield on the arm of the 
effigy of Geoffrey de Magnaville, Earl of Essex, in the 
Temple Church, London. The foremost knight thrusts 
his long, pointed solleret through a triangular stirru^^ai^ 
it may be noticed that the lances are not held 
zontal position, but have their blades elevat( 


above the horses' heads. The legend is to the same effect 
as that on the first described seal, sigillvm militvm 
xpisti. This seal is No. 9,863 in the In renin ire before 

Since the receipt of the foregoing, Dr. Kendrick has 
sent me an impression of a third seal of the Templars, 
which from the triangular form of the Knights' shields I 
venture to assign to the middle of the thirteenth century. 
The margin of the seal is circular, about half an inch in 
diameter ; but the field is octangular. It bears the usual 
device of two warriors mounted on one steed, which ap- 
pears to be on the gallop. The legend seems to be com- 
posed of a good many letters ; but they are too faint to 
be easily deciphered. The Rev. C. R. Manning, Rector 
of Diss, Norfolk, from whom Dr. Kendrick received this 
seal, states that it is attached to a document in Metting- 
ham College, Suffolk, dated Nov. 6, I lth of Richard II 
(1387) ; but there is nothing in the deed relating to 
the Templars. The impression is in all probability from 
a signet-ring worn by one of the witnesses to the deed 
long after the era of the Templars. 

To these three impressions I add an outline of a seal of 
the order of Knights Templars, which was sent to me a 
few years since, but without a line of information where 
the original was to be found. It is unquestionably of 
later date than either of the foregoing, and the subject in 
the field presents a variation in treatment. The horse- 
canters to the right instead of the left, and the second 
warrior seated on it has his back to the one who holds 
the bridle. They seem to wear bascinets, and the hind- 
most knight has no shield. The lances are carried in a 
horizontal positron. The legend consists of four words, 
the last one being very indistinct, sigillvm militvm 
( iiimstt (d pov ?) 

In The Mirror (xxii, p. 40) is a vignette entitled " Seal 
of the Knights Templars", which differs much in detail 
from either of the examples adduced. Two melancholy 
looking men bestride one horse, which is proceeding to 
the right, towards the famous Beauseant, the black and 
white banner of the order, the staff of which is planted 
uprighl in the ground. Both knights are represented 
full-faced, clothed in frocks or surcoats, and wear flat- 

No. 4 (Matrix of No. 3). 

Ko. 3. 

No. ;-,. 



topped caps somewhat like that of Jean cle Dreux (circa 
1275) as given by Montfaucon. No authority is stated 
for this "seal", and to all appearance it is rather a "free- 
hand drawing" than a rigid copy of an ancient original. 

Matthew Paris, when speaking of the Templars, says 
that though they at first lived upon alms, "and were so 
poor that one horse served two of them, yet they sud- 
denly waxed so insolent that they disdained other orders, 
and sorted themselves with noblemen". 1 The device on 
the several seals here cited is emblematic of their primal 
condition ; which, however, soon passed away. Their 
riches augmented with their numbers, until at length they 
proved their ruin and destruction. Their vast wealth 
excited the greed of that crowned monster, Philip IV of 
France, surnamed "Le Bel", and that still more atrocious 
villain, Pope Clement V, who leagued together to plunder 
and destroy the brave Knights. The open persecution of 
the Order may be said to have commenced in France on 
October 13, 1307, and to have gone on increasing in fury, 
till on March 18, 1314, the Grand Master, Jacques de 
Molay, with one of his noble Knights, Guy, Commander 
of Normandy, perished at the stake. The Pope had in 
the previous year abolished the Order at a council held at 
Vienne in Dauphiny ; but Dulaure, in his Histoire de 
Paris (viii, p. 121), clearly shews that the order of Knights 
Templars has existed in that city, at least in name, down 
to the present century. He states that De Molay, before 
his murder in 1314, bestowed the dignity of Grand Master 
on John Mark Larmenius of Jerusalem, who transferred 
it in 1334 to Francis Theobald, or Thibaut, of Alexandria, 
by a charter written in Latin, which still exists in the 
archives of the brotherhood. In 1340 Theobald resigned 
the Grand Mastership into the hands of Arnold deBraeque, 
and from him the office has descended to modern times 
through an unbroken line of successors, all French, and 
many of them of illustrious rank. In 1825 Bernard us 
Raymondus Fabre-Palaprat was the Grand Master of the 
Templars. When Dulaure wrote, the fraternity at Paris 

1 Sir Walter Scott, in his novel of Ivanlioe (chap, ix), describes the 
shield of Brian de Bois Guilbert as bearing for device "two knights 
riding upon one horse, an emblem expressive of the original humility 
and poverty of the Templars." 


were still in possession of some curious relics of their 
order ; among others a Greek manuscript volume of the 
twelfth century, relating to the foundation of the Templars, 
and containing the Golden Table, or list of the Grand 
Masters. They had also the sword of Jacques de Molay, 
and some fragments of his bones gathered from the ashes 
of the tire in which he was consumed. 

" The boues of the brave old knight are dust, 
And his trusty sword is dull'd with rust ; 
But in Heaven rests his soul, we trust." 




{Read Dec. 1, 1880.) 

The south-eastern angle of the ancient Wall of London 
has been described by many old writers as having been 
strengthened by a fortress from very early times : indeed, 
such a position seems marked out by the natural fitness 
of things for such a purpose, the spot being at the end of 
the marsh-land which came up to the walls of the City, 
on the ground rising considerably to the west. A fort to 
guard the approach westward must have been as essen- 
tial for security, at the time of its erection, as have been 
the later ones which have been erected at distances farther 
down the river, from time to time, to afford protection to 
the approaches of the capital city in this later age and 
altered system of warfare. 

The position of a fort, in Roman times, at an angle of 
the walls of a town is exceptional theoretically. On this 
account, coupled with the absence of any remains, much 
doubt has been raised with respect to its existence, not- 
withstanding the evidence of tradition and the needs of 
the position. In later years the well known discovery of 
an ingot of silver, etc., of Roman date, has been recorded 
in 1777, 1 and a careful observation of the mediaeval wall- 
ing has shewn the presence of Roman bricks here and 
there. These are worked up as old material, and are not, 
therefore, conclusive as to whether or not they belonged 

1 This discovery is fully recorded in a paper read by the President 
before the Society of Antiquaries (see Archceologia, vol. v, p. 291). 
Besides the ingot of silver, which bore an inscription which has been 
read, ex officina honorii, there were three gold coins of Honorius and 
of Arcadius. They were met with in digging the foundations of the 
Ordnance Office, and below the level of the river. There was also 
found in another spot a sepulchral stone inscribed DIIS manib t licini 
ascanivs. There is no evidence as to whether or not this stone marked 
an interment, or had only been used as old material. 


to some building formerly on the actual spot, 1 or were 
removed from the great quarry of old materials, Roman 

It has been my pleasant duty on several occasions to 
sul unit to this Association notices of discoveries of por- 
tions of the buried foundations of the old City Wall of 
London, and which in their relation to each other may 
tend to throw light upon its entire history. These dis- 
coveries agree with those made by some other writers 
who concur in asserting that the old City Wall was ori- 
ginally the work of the Romans. I have now to report 
the discovery of Roman Availing within the area of the 
Tower of London itself. 

For many years there existed on the east side of the 
great keep, the White Tower, a range of buildings of three 
stories in height, and extending at right angles to those 
so well known as the Armoury. These are shewn in 
various old plans and views, the point of junction with 
those on the site of the present Armoury being marked 
by a circular tower of some elevation, and of picturesque 
appearance, called the Wardrobe Tower. 2 Various alter- 
ations were effected in these buildings, one of the last 
being the removal of the tower, and the covering of the 
walls with a modern casing of brick and cement, no traces 
of antiquity being visible. These buildings were entirely 
removed last year, and the whole east side of the White 
Tower thrown open. 3 On the period of the visit of some 

1 Maitland, Hist. Lond., vi, p. 148. " In digging the foundations of 
those large storehouses on the south side of what is called Caasar's 
Chapel, the workmen (in 1720 or thereabouts) met with old foundations 
of stone about 3 yards in breadth, supposed to be the remains of some 
ancient tower, as to the spot of which history gives no account, and so 
cemented together that it was with much difficulty that they were 
forced up by beetles and wedges." 

2 This is shewn in its later phase in the drawing made between 1G81 
and 1680, and published by the Society of Antiquaries. It forms plate 
xxxix of vol. iv of the Vetusta Monumenta. An older aspect of the 
Tower is given in the survey made in 1507 by W. Haiward and J. Gas- 
cogne. This is engraved in Brayley's History of the Tower of London. 
See plate xl. for plan of the Tower in 172G, where the position of the 
Ordnance Office and the storehouses is shewn. 

3 Subsequently to this I reported the existence of one of the original 
Norman windows in the lower story of the large angle-tower, and the 
old rubble-walling of the keep. This window has since been replaced 


of tlie country Associates to the Tower (October 27th), 
our attention was called to the foundation of a remark- 
able Avail which had been brought to light by the removal 
of the buildings referred to, which had covered it, it hav- 
ing formed no portion of them. This wall had already 
been removed, to some extent. / The peculiarity of its 
construction called for special notice in view of its import- 
ance as evidence of the early foundation of the fortress, 
and request was made to General Mil man, Major of the 
Tower, for investigation to be made. This has been since 
done with great consideration to our wishes ; and while 
the demolition is stayed, all that is left has been laid 
open to view on both sides. It is but a small fragment, 
but sufficient to denote its history. 

The wall is of Roman construction, consisting of a 
foundation of rough stone, forming a mass of concrete 
brought up to a face by a course of squared stone on the 
east side. Above this is a chamfered plinth of dark brown 
ironstone.; above this four courses of squared stone, and 
then a bonding course of three layers of flat tiles going 
the entire thickness of the wall. The inner side is the 
same, except that the set-off instead of the plinth is 
formed by three courses of tiles, one of which is flush with 
the wall, and the others project beyond each other. These 
tiles occur only in the face of the wall. The upper 
through course is visible only beneath the modern brick 
wall which forms the end of the Armoury buildings ; the 
wall having been demolished, at its discovery, from this 
level down almost to the plinth. 

The courses of ragstone are roughly squared, and of the 
small size (about 7 ins. by 6 ins.) so often found in Roman 
face-work. The core of the wall is filled in with hard 
mortar and rough ragstone, which form the whole into a 
solid mass, the tiles being solidly bedded in like manner. 
The thickness is 6 ft. 11 ins.; the extreme length, as far as 
visible, 10 ft. 6 ins.; the height, 4 ft. 9 ins. The mortar is 
hard and firm, and has no pounded brick. The tiles which 
appear in the face-work are of bright red colour, and 
rather softer than is usual in Roman work, and not made 
of very well kneaded clay. This is not the case with the 

by another in new stone. The rough walling shews that it had been 
plastered on its face at the period of its erection. 


Larger internal tiles, which are of reddish brown colour, 
of great hardness, and which are of pottery-like texture. 
The joints of mortar between the tiles are very thick, 
fully 1 as much as the tiles, which measure lj in. thick, 
the size being about 14 ins. by 14, as far as can be told 
from the broken tiles lying with the debris of the demo- 
lished part. The ironstone is the same material as that 
found in the wall at Camomile Street, which Mr. Price, 
K.S.A.. found to be chamfered in a similar manner, thus 
indicating the identity of the work. 

It is greatly to be regretted that more of the wall is 
not left, It is, however, matter of congratulation that 
enough remains to indicate its construction, while we may 
hope that more may yet remain buried. The height only 
comes up to the present level of the ground. 

On the east face of the wall traces yet remain of the 
base of the circular tower already referred to. These are 
about 13 ft. high, partly incorporated with, and partly 
projecting from, the modern wall of the Armoury. The 
upper part calls for no comment, being of late mediaeval 
date, laid with white mortar, and patched with modern 
brickwork. It is different with the base. We have here 
a rough mass of rubble masonry, 5 ft. high, put together 
with mortar of iron-like solidity, and of browner colour 
than that of the first Roman wall. Mingled with this are 
patches of masonry and broken Roman brick, having the 
bright red mortar produced by pounded brick, and in too 
large masses, I think, to justify our belief that they were 
brought from elsewhere. (Since writing the above, the 
southern face has been cleared, and this reveals the fact 
that much of the walling is built with this same red 
mortar, but in patches, as if it were a matter of no con- 
cern to the builders which mortar was used.) 

Have we here another example to add to the numerous 
list of Roman circular towers built on, at a slightly later 
date it may be, to pre-existing walls, such as we have 
recently seen at Camomile Street, and which exist at 
Ki<hborough,Lympne, Burgh Castle, and elsewhere? An 
objection will be made to the fact that pounded brick 
does not occur in either wall except as above. This is no 
real difficulty, for it is no rule at all. It does not appear 
at any point known to me along the course of the Picts' 


Wall. We do not see it at Silchester, at Caerwent, or at 
Kenchester, 1 and many others. Can it be said that these 
are not Human works? At Burgh Castle there are layers 
here and there of red mortar alternating with others 
where it does not occur, giving us an interesting example 
of how indifferent the Romans were in the matter when 
they were able to make good mortar without it. 

The position is as follows. If the line of the east face 
of the wall be extended northwards, it will be 28 ft. from 
the central face of the great circular turret of the White 
Tower. (This is the angle which contains the apse of 
St. John's Chapel.) The measurement is taken from the 
face of the wall to the face of the upper plinth of turret. 
It will be noticed that this foundation has special refer- 
ence to the line of the City Wall. If this be extended 
from Postern Row, where it still exists, it will all but 
touch the south end of the foundations now discovered. 
The wall, however, is parallel with the White Tower, and 
not to this line. If its line were prolonged to Canon Row, 
it would not coincide at all with the inclined line of the 
Roman wall there, shewing that there must have been a 
diversion before they joined. If prolonged in the opposite 
direction, it will reach between the Store Houses, where 
the foundations of the supposed tower were met with, as 
recorded by Maitland, about the year 1720, and the spot 
where the ingot was found. 

May we not, in considering these discoveries together, 
reasonably accept them as evidence of the existence of 
the old Roman fort of traditional times V 1 We have the 
greater reason to do so since the thickness of the founda- 
tions now met with (6 ft. 11 ins.) is less than that of the 
City Wall. This is about 10 ft. on Tower Hill (Canon 
Row); 3 7 ft. 6 ins. behind America Square; 9 ft. at Camo- 

1 ''At Richborough the mortar used in the interior of the wall is 
composed of lime, sand, and pebbles, or sea-beach ; but the facing- 
stones throughout are cemented with a much finer mortar, in which 
pounded tile is introduced." (The Celt, the Roman, and the Saxon, by 
T. Wright, F.S.A., p. 190.) 

2 The old buildings on the east side of the White Tower were not 
quite parallel to it. It may be that this was owing to the course of the 
Roman wall of the City, which would take such a line. 

3 See the description of this fragment in Knight's London, vol. i. It 
was met with in 1841, during the works for the Blackwall Railway. The 


mile Street, according to Dr. Woodward ; and 8 ft. in 
Bevis Marks. It maybe that further search will shew 
that this is a trace of a once square enclosure, in the centre 
<>t' which, to speak approximately, the White Tower has 
been erected in Norman times. It is, however, more pro- 
bable that the Tower was further to the south. 

It is greatly to be desired that a few tentative open- 
ings should be made in the ground to afford conclusive 

• 1 • • • i 

evidence for or against this supposition. 1 

Our thanks are due to General Milman and his depart- 
ment, and also to Mr. R. M. Lush, who have paid so much 
attention to this interesting discovery, and who have 
directed the clearing out. The Association will learn with 
much pleasure and satisfaction that it is intended to 
keep the wall open for public inspection. This is the 
more to be appreciated since it is the only fragment now 
open to daylight. 

The Wall of London, as revealed here, may be compared 
with the Hounsditch portion described in vol. xxxii, p. 
490, and with that at America Square in vol. xxxvi, p. 463. 
Still more recently, in December 1880, a much larger and 
finer portion was uncovered in Bevis Marks, Aldgate, 
which was described by Mr. Charles Watkins at the even- 
ing meeting of the Association, February 16th, 1881. No 
written statement having been yet received for publica- 
tion, a few notes from my own observation at the time, 
and of his lecture, may be of service to record the dis- 

The wall was met with in course of rebuilding No. 31, 
Houndsditch, when it was found to form the boundary 
between the backs of the houses in Bevis Marks and the 
yards, etc., of those of Houndsditch. The extent of wall 
actually exposed and removed was about 70 ft. in length, 
and 11 ft. 9 ins. in height, the whole of which was in 
very perfect condition, and of the same construction as 

tiles went through the whole thickness of the wall. No red mortar is 

1 The name "Cold Harbour", so often applied to old sites with Roman 
remains, was given to a tower at a corresponding position on the west 
side of the White Tower. The tower has long since been removed. 

Roman Wall, Tower of London 


1 , . 

t 1 "*] ' 1 

» r U. 


2S b 6. „.<£, y 

g* /Li- of ancle Turre 
./ H'wrc Tower - 

London Wall, America Square. 

London Wall 

x »■ ] 

: ] 

■ vik • Or 




P Loftu. Brock K S A d.V 

X Nole. Rtltrtme ui l/,t Uj* )uus been 
tliadytfUrUly cnuXUd,, u> S cmirsu ct ■„,, 

J Akerman Photo lith London W C 


follows. The foundation consisted of a bed of puddled 
clay and flints, 1 ft. 6 ins. thick, laid on the natural earth, 
which is here a yellow loam. Above this was, on the 
country side, two courses of face-work and an ironstone, 
chamfered plinth, somewhat broken at the part where I 
observed it, but having its chamfer perfectly visible. On 
the city side there were three courses of tiles instead of 
the plinth. Above this there were four courses of face- 
work, and then a through bonding* course of three tiles, 
the wall being 8 feet thick. Above this, again, two more 
courses of face-work remained, the remainder of the wall 
having 1 been long since demolished. This termination was 
9 ins. only below the level of the paving of the footpaths 
of Bevis Marks and Duke Street, indicating the extent 
to which the earth had risen to cover over the mass of 
Avail beneath it. The tiles were 1 5^ ins. by 11^ ins., and 
1-g inch thick ; although the sizes were somewhat vary- 
ing, and the colours were red, light red, yellow, and buff, 
probably the results of different burnings in the kilns, 
since the texture of the clay appeared the same. The 
face-work was of Kentish ragstone, axed to form paral- 
lelograms, and of the same moderate size as had been ob- 
served at the other portions of the wall. The core was 
formed of unworked Kentish ragstone laid irregularly, 
and well bedded in good hard mortar without any admix- 
ture of pounded brick. Nor was any of this latter to be 
found in the facings. A sketch of the section of wall is 
given, together with that at the Tower and America 
Square, and the remarkable analogy of the work and 
appearance justify the belief that all the portions shewn 
were constructed at the same time and by the same hands. 
The same may also be said of the portion found in Camo- 
mile Street, and which had the same chamfered plinth : 
indeed, the only difference is in the thickness and in the 
absence of the sets-off. These have not existed at Bevis 
Marks, on the country face, but they may have been on 
the inner one, which, as shewn on the sketch, was cut 
into by the modern work of the public house, the Bed 
Lion, No. 17, in that street. 

It is pretty apparent that a great length of the old 
wall still lies buried beneath the houses on the north side 

1882 10 


of Duke Street, quite up to Aldgate. The line of the 
wall, as op >ned here, corresponds with the fronts of the 
houses in thai street, the back portions of which, being 
erected over the site of the ditch beyond the wall, have 
in consequence settled bodily outwards in a manner very- 

At the north-east end of the excavations the mass of 
masonry described on p. SG^vas met with, and the sculp- 
tures used as old material. This has proved to be the 
base of another bastion, not bonded into the wall, and of 
late and rougher work. While no red mortar was found 
in any part of the wall, it was observable in some part of 
the bastion, as if used sparingly, and not as if it had ad- 
hered to the stones on their removal from some other 
building, as their large size would lead us to believe was 
the case. Mr. Watkin described to us, February 16th, 
the rough nature of the workmanship, and its extreme 
solidity, and entered into curious details, from which the 
following may be noted. It projected 18 ft. 6 ins. from 
the outer face, while its width from north-east to north- 
west would have been about 40 ft.; its face having been 
a flat segment of a circle rather than the bold projection 
of the Camomile Street bastion. 

The north-east end had, however, been cut away and 
rebuilt to a sharper curve, thus giving a very irregular 
plan to the mass, which was increased by a projecting 
square block of masonry at the junction of the old and 
new curves. A massive channel, worked out of solid 
stone, was found leading from the solid of the bastion, 
near its north-west extremity, out into the ditch. This 
measured, internally, 1 ft. G ins. broad, and 1 ft. 3 ins. 
deep. The massive construction justifies our belief that 
the bastion was of Roman work, although of later date 
than the wall. 

The contour of the ditch was traced by Mr. Watkin 
through the bright loam of the excavations; and although 
its slope did not begin until the space of the projecting 
bastion was well passed, it was found to extend quite to 
the line of the fronts of the houses on the south-west side 
of Houndsditch, here about 95 ft. from the outer face of 
the wall. He found in addition, at this line, indications 

1 Journal, vol. xxxvii. 


of a raised earthen hank, like an external vallum to the 
ditch, the crown of which was about 11 ft. G ins. below 
the present footway of Houndsditch, and its base 16 ft. 
The centre of the ditch is most probably marked by the 
main sewer between Hounds, lit el i and Be vis Marks, which 
forms the boundary of the City of London, although it 
does not here run quite parallel to the wall. 





[Bead January 15, 1879.) 

The purport of this paper is to put together certain facts, 
well authenticated hy contemporary writings cut in stone, 
concerning the intercourse between the garrisons of the 
fortified places in North Britain and the eastern provinces 
of the Roman empire in the second and third centuries of 
our era, as well as to make a passing reference to the reli- 
gious movement which was the result of that intercourse. 
The subject is suggested, in the first place, by the inte- 
resting monument discovered by Dr. Blair at South 
Shields, and described to us by Mr. Walter de Gray Birch, 
of the Palmyrene Baratus to his wife Regina, of the nation 
of the Catevellani; and secondly, by the discovery recently 
made at Spoleto, in Italy, of a cave dedicated to Mithraic 
worship, which throws some new light upon that obscure 

As regards the garrisons in the north of England, their 
position, and the roads leading to them from the south, 
as laid down in the Itinerary of Antoninus, can be traced 
and confirmed by the copious inscriptions which have been 
collected by Dr. J. Collingwood Bruce in the Lapidarium 
Septentrionale, and the Inscrip. Rom. Brit., vol. vii, of 
Dr. Hubner's great work, as well as the Collectanea Anti- 
(/"" of Mr. C. Roach Smith, and the last edition of the 
late Mr. Thomas Wright's Celt, Roman, and Saxon (Lon- 
don, 1835); and the inscriptions either omitted from these 
lists, or discovered since they were made, have been sup- 
plied by Mr. J. Thompson Watkin. I shall, therefore, 
extract only some which have a local and chronological 
value for my purpose, and more particularly those which 
illustrate the western coast of our island from the Mersey 
up to the Wall of Hadrian, because this coast has been 
less written upon of late in our Association than has the 
eastern, though all the counties of Northumberland, Cum- 


berland, Westmoreland, Durham, and Lancashire, abound 
witli remains of the Roman occupation at the period re- 
ferred to. 

From the time when Septimius Severus and his wife 
went up to check the invasions of Roman Britain by the 
Caledonii, the lords of the forest, and the Majataj, the 
dwellers in the plains, to the reign of Aurelian, and even 
as late as Constantine, the worship of the sun under the 
oriental form of Mithras in a cave, with its Persian rites 
and self-denying initiations, seems to have engaged the 
minds of men in North Britain as elsewhere; and perhaps 
before this time, as it prevailed in Rome as early as the 
reign of Trajan. Mithraic worship was imported into 
Alexandria under the name of Serapis, where the magni- 
ficent temple to the god was considered one of the won- 
ders of the world. The same form was introduced, under 
ilic simple name of Helios, into Palmyra, a city which had 
been restored by Hadrian, and whose citizens were proud 
to call their city after him, Hadrianopolis, 1 instead of Tad- 
mor in the Desert (the City of Palms). The same divinity 
was recognised as Baal at Baalbec, where that famous 
Temple of the Sun was erected which gave the name of 
Heliopolis to the city situated at the foot of the Anti- 
libanus, on the road between Tyre and Palmyra. This 
latter great city, placed half way between commercial 
Tyre, on the coast of the Levant, and the head of the Per- 
sia n Gulf, was enriched by the important traffic of the 
easi with the western world; and it was the interest of 
the Romans that it should be carried on by this route 
through Palmyra rather than by the Black Sea, and 
through Greece. The palm-tree grew luxuriantly in this 
oasis of the Arabian Desert, and gave its name to the 
city whose Corinthian columns (some standing in situ, and 
others strewing the ground) recall the favourite architec- 
ture of the Romans in the age of the Antonines. The 
traveller of the present day wanders with astonishment 
ami 1st the columns, the pedestals, and ruined walls of the 
Temple of the Sun, which stand among Christian churches, 
Turkish mosques, sepulchres, and the mud huts of the 
miserable villagers who now dwell there. 

The historical episode of the reign of Queen Zenobia, 

1 Stcphaiius Byzantinus. 


who defied the whole power of Rome from this her capital 
city, first in union with her husband, and after his death 
on her own responsibility, threw a lustre upon the brief 
reign of the Emperor Aurelian, a.d. 270-275. It will 
be remembered that he put an end to the Gothic war 
by surrendering the Dacian conquests of Trajan north of 
the Danube, fixing that river as the boundary southward 
of the Gothic kingdom. He chastised and repelled the 
Marcomanni, who had invaded Italy ; and what is speci- 
ally interesting to us, he recovered Gaul, Spain, and Bri- 
tain, out of the hands of Tetricus, whose copper coins are 
so numerous in this country. After this, turning his arms 
to the east, he set about subduing the determined and 
powerful Zenobia, and defeated her two armies in the 
battles of Emesa and Palmyra. The Queen fled on a 
dromedary as far as the river Euphrates, but was captured 
by the light cavalry of the Emperor Aurelian. The 
triumph at Rome followed, and the captive Zenobia, in 
fetters of gold, and the ex-Emperor Tetricus and his son, 
had to march in the procession of the exultant conqueror, 
who rode up to the Capitol in a chariot drawn by four 
stags which had belonged to one of the German kings. 
The pageant was further graced by the appearance of ten 
women of the Gothic nation, who had been made prisoners 
while fighting in the garb of men. 

Let us now pass from the plains of Arabia to the 
mountain gorges and valleys of Westmoreland and Cum- 
berland, and the line of our coast which looks towards the 
setting sun. Here we find stones recording the nation- 
ality of the regiments and cohorts composing the legions 
in the north of England, with interesting particulars of 
their prsefects and other officers ; and I will first quote 
from that tablet of brass found at Malpas, in Cheshire, in 
1812, because its date is fixed at 20 January a.d. 103, in 
the reign of Trajan, from the internal evidence of day, 
month, and consuls' names engraved upon it. In order 
to record the names of those soldiers who had completed 
with honour their term of military service (twenty years 
and upwards), this tablet ("tabula honestse missionis") 
gives tlie designations of four squadrons [ales) of cavalry 
and eleven cohorts of infantry as follows : 

1st Regiment of Thracians, raised in the country now 
- ailed Eastern Roumelia. 


1st Regiment of Pannonians, termed the "Tampian", 
from the modern Croatia, Sclavonia, and part of I [ungary. 

2nd Regiment of Gauls, termed "Ala Sebosiana." 

1st Regiment of the Spanish Vettones from the banks 
of the Tagus in Estremadura 3 Roman citizens. 

1st Cohort of the Spaniards. 

1st Cohort of the Valciones, a milliary one. 

1st Cohort of the Alpini. 

1st Cohort of the Morini from the coast of Gaul oppo- 
site Kent. 

1st Cohort of the Cugerni. 

1st Cohort of the Boetasii from Cordova and Jaen in 

1st Cohort of the Tungrians on the Meuse in the Nether- 

2nd Cohort of Thracians. 

3rd Cohort of the Bracarse Augustini from the modern 
Braga in Portugal. 

4th Cohort of the Lingones from the confines of Cham- 
pagne and Burgundy in France. 

4th Cohort of the Dalmatians from the modern province 
of Herzegovina on the Adriatic Sea. 

It will be seen from this list that if we take the ala or 
squadron of cavalry to consist of 1,000 men, and the in- 
fantry cohorts of 480, and the milliary of 960 each, the 
total will amount to 10,240 men, which will give a good 
portion of two legions. It is important to have such data 
at a fixed time ; and the alteration which occurred in the 
constitution of the legions, and the nationalities of which 
they were composed, must be studied chronologically, and 
it will be seen that great changes had taken place when 
the Notitia Imperii came to be written some three hun- 
dred years later. 1 

To return to the tablet. I find from an inscribed stone 
dug up at Camerini in Italy, and figured by Reinesius, 2 
that M. Msenius L. Tusidius Campestris commanded the 
ala of Spanish horse (the Vettones), and that he was prce- 
fect of the heavy-armed regiments of Gauls and Panno- 
nians ; that he was procurator of the Emperor in Britain, 

1 We find a cohort of the Nervii in Britain at the later period. See 
the prudence of Rome in opposing them to the Celts. (Tac ., Germania, 
c. 28.) 

- Class VI, No. 128. 


and prcefect or admiral of the British fleet; and as he is 
mentioned on this stone as having entertained at his 
house iElius Hadrianus the Senator, and father of the 
Emperor Hadrian, so we get a contemporaneous confirm- 
ation of the tablet, and in perfect harmony with it. The 
high authority of this colonel-commandant may account 
for the regiment of the Spanish Vettones having the pri- 
vileges of 1 toman citizens, as he commanded them. 

Let us now take a survey of the shore of Cumberland 
from the point of St. Bees northward. From the ruins 
remaining in Camden's time along the coast, it seems to 
have been fortihed by the Romans in all such places as 
were convenient for landing. Camden thought he had 
discovered such a fort at Moresby, where, among other 
antiquities found, was an altar dedicated by the 2nd Co- 
hort of Lingones to the god Silvanus. Further north, at 
Workington, the river Derwent falls into the sea, which, 
rising in Borrodale, finds its way through the Derwent 
Fells, and through Keswick Lake, down to Cockermouth, 
where it receives the waters of the Cocker river, and 
thus would make a good defence to a Roman town built 
between two hills, on one of which stands a church, and 
on the other a castle. At some two miles distance, on the 
north side of the river, stands another castle called Pap 
Castle, the Roman antiquity of which is attested by 
several monuments. A Roman road is marked in the 
Ordnance Map, running in a straight line in the direction 
from this place (Pap Castle) to Elenborough, on the coast 
at the mouth of the river Elen or Elne, where the 1st Her- 
culean squadron (ala) lay in garrison in the time of Theo- 
dosius the Younger ; l and not far from the head of this 
river is Ierby, which Camden takes to be the Arbeia of 
the Notitia, where the Barcarii Tigrienses were garri- 
soned ; and, indeed, all this country was most appropri- 
ately defended by marines serving in galleys and barges, 
both for the defence of the coast and for the internal com- 
iininication by the rivers and lakes. 

Elenborough was situated on a pretty high hill ; but in 

1 If the reading suggested by Dr. M'Call upon the " tabula honestse 
missionis" found at Bath be correct, that is, "Ala Herculeiana" instead 
of " Proculeiana", as reported by Mr. Lewis in Appendix to vol. xviii, 
Arclia >logia, then here is another allusion to this squadron of cavalry. 


( amden's time the ploughshare had levelled much of it, 
though the traces were plainly discernible ; and by dig- 
ging, the old vaults and underground recesses yielded up 
many antiquities. At Maryport a beautiful square altar 
of red stone, about 5 feet high, was found, dedicated "to 
the Genius of the place, — to Fortune, who is able to con- 
duct a man home, — to the eternal city of Rome, and to 
Good Luck", by a tribune of the province of Mauritania. 

Camden considered a place called Old Carlisle, near the 
important monastery of Ulme, or Holme Cultram, and a 
fortress hard by, to be the Castra Exploratorum of the 
Itinerary. The distance, he said, answered well both from 
Bulgium and Luguvallum, though Horsley and others 
think they can identify this with Netherby, where so 
many Roman remains have been found. Camden had 
heard say that a paved causeway ran along the shore from 
Elenborough to the small promontory which, with an arm 
of the sea, was formerly the boundary of the Roman pro- 
vince ; and upon this promontory was Blatum Bulgium, 
Bowness. Then a little inland, Drumborough Castle was 
formerly a Roman station ; and another, called Burgh - 
upon-the-Sands (where Edward I died), and on the eastern 
margin of Burgh Marsh, Dr. Collingwood Bruce con- 
siders it probable that another fort stood at Dykesfield, 
corresponding with Drumborough ; and the same learned 
author rightly observes (in the preface to the second edi- 
tion of The Roman Wall) that " the nature of the country 
renders the western portion peculiarly liable to attack, 
and to the latest periods of English history it was more 
frequently selected than the eastern for the march of hos- 
tile armies." 

Space will not allow me to refer to the twenty-three 
stations along the line of Hadrian's Wall, from Bowness 
to Wall's End, with its intermediate mile-castles and 
watch-towers ; the whole line garrisoned and guarded, as 
well as the Wall built, by the numerous cohorts to which 
reference has been made, and who have left records of the 
extent of their individual labours on the Wall by nume- 
rous inscriptions on centurial stones and others. From 
Cataracton (Catterick in Yorkshire) two roads branched 
off, northward, to the Wall ; the eastern to Corstopitum 
(Corbridge), passing through the Wall on to Bremenium; 


and the other in a north-westerly direction, "by Brougham 
Castle, to Carlisle. 

<>n the western coast it is probable a road ran from 
Elenborough and Pap Castle to Keswick and to Amble- 
side, at the upper end of Windermere Lake, where the 
remains of a Roman station are well described by Cam- 
den, and where a dedication-stone to Jupiter Serapis 
was found, and numerous coins of Antoninus Pius and 
Gordian. From hence, by Kendall and a Roman fort, the 
route followed was probably that of the modern Kendall 
Canal to Kirby Thore and Overborough, down by the 
valley of the river Lone or Lune to Lancaster. About four 
miles east-north-east from Lancaster was found a fine 
milliarium of Hadrian, a.d. 119-138. 

The "milites numeri Barcariorum" and their commander 
dedicated an altar to Mars, which is figured by Mr. W. 
Thompson Watkin in his paper on Roman Lancaster, read 
before the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire on 
13 Jan. 1876; and the importance of this station in Roman 
times is manifest from this account. The altar was found 
in a place called Halton, three miles north-east of Lan- 
caster, on the Lune ; and it was remarked at our Congress 
held at Lancaster in 1850, that Halton appears in Domes- 
day Booh as the name of a Saxon honour, under which 
Lancaster w T as included as a ville. Halton may be a cor- 
ruption of "Aid Tun" (Old Town). A large quantity of 
coins have here been found : one of Otho, a.d. 69, in Dec. 
1834, a little below the parish church; and in the church- 
yard, within a few years previously to 1836, coins of Ves- 
pasian, Domitian, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aure- 
lius, Commodus, Maximus, Diocletian, and Licinius. 

A road from Lancaster has been traced southward, and 
between this and Cockerham a milestone of the Emperor 
Philip was found, a.d. 244-249. This Emperor is called 
" the Arab" by his biographer, and was a native of Thra- 
conitis, a district of Palestine. 

An equally important station must have been Roches- 
ter, on the river Ribble, from the antiquities found there, 
of which an account is given in Journal, vi, p. 229. The 
ancient remains at Wigan are also pointed out by Mr. 
Watkin. The identification of the two stations in the 
Itinerary, Bremetonacse and Coccium, is by no means 


satisfactory. To make the distances agree, the latter has 
been fixed at Wigan, and the former at llibchester, leav- 
ing out Lancaster altogether, which both Just and Rey- 
nolds considered to be Bremetonaca). Coccium, which 
used to be fixed at Ribchester, is now given to Wigan, 
partly to bring in that place, and make the distance 
agree, and partly to make use of the supposed authority 
of a stone seen by Camden some two hundred years ago 
at Salisbury Hall, near Ribchester; rediscovered by Whit- 
aker, and with the word p.hemicton upon it, and supposed 
to have been dug up at Ribchester. If it had, it would 
not prove this was the place where the regiment was 
quartered, but a collector of antiquities at Salisbury Hall 
may as well have sent his carrier to fetch the stone from 
Lancaster or anywhere else. I am not prepared to con- 
travene the opinion, in this respect, of Mr. J. Thompson 
Watkin, whose local knowledge is so extensive, but the 
discussion of the matter may be useful in furthering a 
solution of the question. Correct as appear the distances 
in the Itiner. Anton in., in a general way, the substitution 
or omission of an x, a v, or an I, by the copyists must be 
taken as the cause, in not a few instances, of anomalies 
which can only be reconciled on such a hypothesis. 

I must not omit, in touching upon this western coast, 
to refer to an ingenious attempt to reconcile the estuaries 
from Carnarvon to Cumberland with the names and lati- 
tudes given by Ptolemy, by our Associate Mr. T. G. Ry- 
lands, F.S.A. ; x and without entering into his learned 
discussion of the neasurements and modus operandi of the 
great geographer of the ancients, I will give Mr. Rylands' 
identification of the coast, to which reference has been 
made. He places Seteium ^Estuarium at Dee-mouth, and 
Belisama at the Mersey. He makes Setantioi'um Portus 
the Ribble; Moriacambis iEst., Morecambe Bay; and Ituna 
iEst., the Sol way Firth. 

I will now refer to a few inscriptions of emperors in 
chronological order : found by Mr. Clayton at Chesters 
(Cilurnum), in February 1875 : 




Salvis Augustis Felix Ala Secunda Asturum Antoniniana. 
1 Proceedings of Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society, 3rd Ser., vi. 


In the following the name of the Emperor is given : 







It was in one of a series of small round pits, where, in 
1870, seventeen Roman altars were discovered, and was 
found lying on its face, 4 feet deep. The above are two 
out of the fifty recently discovered Britanno-Roman in- 
scriptions; that is, between June 1873 to the end of 1875. * 
This is not the only tablet in which the name of Postu- 
mus Acilianus, Prefect of the 1st Cohort of Dalmatians 
in the reign of Antoninus Pius, is mentioned. At Old 
Carlisle was found an altar dedicated by him to the gods 
and goddesses, "Diis, Deabusque". 

The following inscribed slab, found at Chesters in North- 
umberland {Cilurnum),is interesting for two reasons, both 
because the name of Helagabalus appears to have been 
intentionally erased; and secondly, because it describes a 
temple restored, which at the date given, corresponding 
to a.d. 221, was in a ruinous condition throuarh ag-e. 


ayg pont max 

trib P COS ... PP divi Autonini fil 


CAESAR imper duplares 



ERVNT PER MARIYM VALERIAllum leg avg. pr. pi\ 



Strong party spirit followed this grandson of Severus 
to his grave, with his mother Julia Soemias, the widow of 
Caracalla. His half-brother, Alexander Severus, and 
n iot Uer, Mammsea, had a slab inscribed to them, together 
with t he " transmarine mothers", by a vexillatio, found 
near Old Penrith in Cumberland, a.d. 222-235. 

In the neighbourhood of Old Carlisle was found an im- 

1 Mr. J. T. Watkin lu Journal of the liuyal Arch. Inst., xxxiii. 


portanl dedication to Jupiter, for the health of the Empe- 
ror ( Jordian and Sabinia T. Tranquilla and all their house, 
by llic squadron (aid) of horse named the "Augustan" for 
their bravery, Nonnius Philippus being the Augustan 
legate and propraetor. The date of this, from the consuls' 
names, is fixed to a.d. 243. And from the same neigh- 
bourhood came the altar dedicated to Julius Philippus the 
Emperor (father), and his son of the same name, the 
Caesar, about a.d. 248. 

I will finish these imperial inscriptions with one, disci- 
pline avg., found at Castlesteads in Cumberland, to 
shew how discipline was respected ; and yet the want of 
it afterwards worked the destruction of Roman rule. 

The Roman milliaries must not be overlooked. The 
Rev. Prebendary Scarth has reckoned up fifty-four or fifty- 
six (two being very doubtful) found in Britain. I have 
referred to some in this paper ; and as belonging to the 
period of history before us, I will recall the six found at 
Bittern, near Southampton, with the names of the follow- 
ing Emperors : to Gordian the Younger, 238-44 ; Gallus 
Volusianus, 252-54; three to Tetricus, 267-72; Aurelian, 
2 7 0-7 5. 1 It might thence be supposed that Southampton 
was the port of passage for the troops at this period 
rather than the old ports of Kent. This, however, is only 

It is easier to recognise the influence than to trace its 
progress upon British civilisation, by the planting of the 
headquarters of the sixth legion (the Victorious) at York, 
and of the twentieth (the Victorious and Loyal) at Ches- 
ter, with their cohorts of so many different nations, and 
officered by men who had seen service in the East and 
throughout Europe. We have seen their footprints, as it 
were, in the inscriptions referred to. I will mention a 
few others which shew the tolerant system of the Romans 
in dealing with the religious belief of the conquered 
nations. The local divinities were adopted, and altars 
raised to them. Thus the local Belatucader had an altar 
to him found at Old Carlisle ; 2 two dedications at Broug- 
ham ; 3 and the name sounds like Bel-on-the-Mountain. 
Cadr is the Celtic word for seat or mountain. The word 

1 Mr. C. Roach Smith, F.S.A., in our Winchester Volume, p. 103. 

2 Camden. Watkin, Arch. Journ., xxxiii. 


cadeira, in the Portuguese, signifies a chair, and seems to 
be one of the many < leltic words in that language, as sd 
is also used for a cathedral, probably from the same root 
as our see. Belisama and the Kibble (Bhe-Bel) are con- 
jectured to be compounded of Bel. There are certainly 
heights peculiarly fitted for contemplating and worship- 
ping the setting sun, as on the lofty Skiddaw, overlooking 
the coast, the winding Derwent in the plain, and the 
Keswick Lake with its island, where St. Herbert led his 
hermit's life. The whole western seaboard was visible 
from Skiddaw as far as the white cliffs of Whitehaven on 
the south, the fortress of Elenborough, Moresby, and up 
to Bowness and the Roman Wall on the north. Another 
equally fine position was that which would be reached by 
the Belisama iEstuarium ; that is, the high ground be- 
tween the eastern and western seas, both of which were 
visible at Laughten-en-le-Morthen, near Sheffield, visited 
at our Congress there. 

Nehalennia was a local goddess, to whom I am not 
aware that inscriptions have been found in Britain ; but 
Reinesius 1 figures eight such, one of which I will give, 
found in Zeeland, which is dedicated by a British chalk 
merchant on account of his merchandise having been con- 
veyed in safety : 






V S L M. 

This goddess is supposed to preside over merchandise 
and the creeks and rivers where it was landed. She has 
been represented as a sitting figure with flowing drapery, 
and apples or other fruit in her lap. It might not be too 
far-fetched an idea to suppose that the seated figure 
found at South Shields was the conventional form of that 
goddess erected as a type, and in honour of the lady 
Regina. We have Reginus frequently on Samian ware 
as a potter's name, regini was found on some at Lan- 
r. This lady might have been the daughter, or of 
the family, of the wealthy potter ; and the Palmyrene 
merchant, in his transactions; may have purchased her at 

1 Classis, i, 177. 


Y<>nil;un, or Dunstable (DianCB Forum), or elsewhere, as a 
slave, and afterwards married her. She is described as of 
the nation of the Catucllani, whose territories are sup- 
posed to have been in Bucks., Beds., and Herts., wit b 
verulam for their capital, before it was seized by the 

I will do no more than name some of the many local 
divinities besides Silvanus, who was quite Roman, found 
in the north of England, such as Settocenia, Ialona, Ma- 
ponus, Gadunus, ( !eams,Mogonis, Cociduis, Vithris,Coven- 
fcina, etc. The influence of these divinities began to wane 
when those emperors from Severus to Aurelian, whose 
ii;ii nes we have recorded, introduced the Persian worship 
of Mithras, a new form of solar worship. Elagabalus, a 
priest of the sun at Emesa, has the doubtful honour of 
introducing into Rome customs of the Eastern monarchs 
as to wearing silken robes and diadems ; but all this out- 
ward display did not prevent his subjects from throwing 
his murdered corpse into the Tiber. The influence of the 
Empresses Julia Massa, Ssemias, and Mammaea, was pro- 
bably as great in matters of religion as it appears to have 
been in affairs of state. Their Syrian education would 
have taught them that the vivifying influences of the sun 
and of mother earth were the deepest mysteries which it 
was possible for the human mind to conceive. The effi- 
cacy of the polytheistic system was growing weaker and 
weaker ; but the sun remained invictus, and Cybele was 
still the mater deorum. How far this new form of belief 
tended to impure rites and practices such as have been 
imputed to the worshippers of Mithras, it is difficult to 
determine with certainty, because the accounts are handed 
down to us by Christian writers, whose zeal for their own 
religion seemed to justify their vilifying that of the Gen- 
tile world. An altar found in a Mithraic cave at Borco- 
vicus (Housesteads) in Cumberland, in 1822, is as good a 
specimen as we have in this country, erected in a.d. 252 
Invicto Mitrw Sceculari. 1 Mr. T. Wright has remarked 
that it is a curious fact that he has not found a trace of 
Christianity among the many religious monuments of this 
period in Britain. 

Aurelian adorned the Temple of the Sun at Rome with 

1 See Wright's Celt, Roman, etc., p. 326. 


rich gifts he had brought from Palmyra, and placed in it 
the images of the Sun and of Belus (i)\(ov re kcu B/jXov), 
( Ber< >dian),which recalls acurious tablet of marble at Rome, 
figured by Spon, 1 on which are two figures with a pine- 
tree growing between them, and beneath is an inscription 
in Greek and Palmyrene. The dedication is by one Lucius 
Aurelius Heliodorus Hadrianus Palmyrenus to the two 
local divinities, Aglibolus and Malachbelus, which seem to 
correspond, the one with the sun darting his rays, and 
the other with King Belus or Apollo. The figure of the 
I'. inner is a youth with flowing hair bound round the 
crown of the head by a fillet ; clothed in a tunic, and what 
looks like a pallium over the shoulders; and holding a 
staff, or what is thought to be the handle of a sickle for 
cutting the tree. The latter figure also is a young man 
with flowing hair ; but with a diadem on his head, and 
the crescent moon affixed to his shoulders. He has on a 
military perizonium and sword, with paludamentum, and 
also holds a staff in his hand. 

The mysteries of the taurobolium and the criobolium, 
which the candidate for initiation into the rites of Mith- 
ras underwent (percepit), can be studied in an article by 
Dr. M'Caul, of Toronto, in Journal, vol. xxix, p. 371, and 
by means of the references he has given. 

" I must now^ close my sketch at the end of the third 
century, passing over, for want of space, the interesting 
seven years of the reign of Carausius in Britain (287-293), 
and the stirring events in the East under Diocletian, 
when he defeated the Persians, and fixed the river Araxes 
as the limits of his empire, and checked the raids ^ from 
the north of the Sarmatian hosts. His name will be 
remembered in connection with that famous era of mar- 
tyrs, iixed at 29th August 284, and used by the early 
Christian writers. He at last put off all his greatness, 
and retired into private life. 

1 Misc. Enid. A7itiq., i, 1 ; Lugduni, 1G85. 




(Read Feb. 1, 1882.) 

In my papers on "The Hurlers" and " Trethevy Stone", 
recently published in this Journal, 1 the descriptions of 
those relics of antiquity were introduced by a reference to 
the relative positions which they bore to several others 
of a remarkable group extending from the megalithic 
circle at Duloe, on the south, to Kilmarth Tor, on the 
north. Since those papers were written, I have visited 
Duloe, which is four miles, in a straight line, south of Lis- 
keard in Cornwall; and have prepared the following short 
account of its interesting, but little known, circle, which 
may be compared with the kindred remains within a walk 
to the north of it. 

The Plate which illustrates this paper has been photo- 
lithographed from a drawing made to a much larger scale. 
The plan is plotted from a minutely exact survey, and 
shows the circle as it is at present. Those stones which 
have always been erect are filled-in with black; a leaning 
one is cross-hatched ; three which had fallen, and were 
re-erected, are shaded by light hatching; while No. 1, 
which was buried, and No. 2, which remains prostrate, 
are stippled and line-shaded. Over-hangs are shown in 
full outline. The view is copied from a careful sketch 
taken on the spot. At the top of the Plate, in three dif- 
ferent positions, are accurate representations of a frag- 
ment of ancient pottery found in the circle, and described 
a few pages farther on. 

The village of Duloe, close to which this circle is situ- 
ated, stands near the southern end of the crest of a long, 
wide, gently undulating ridge, said to be 440 feet above 
the sea-level. It is nearly the same height above the 
bottoms of the valleys on either side, which here are a 
mile and three-quarters apart, and about one mile beyond 
the point to which the tide reaches, or three miles and a 

1 Vol. xxxv (1879), pp. 297-307, and vol. xxxvii (1831), pp. 112-122. 
1882 1 1 


half from the open sea at Looe. The circle itself, distant 
rather more than a furlong from the church, stands in a 
pasi are on Stonetown farm, on a site which, if the country 
were bare, would command a rather wide view in almost 
every direction. Among remains of its class in Cornwall, 
it is distinguished by being formed with stones which, 
both actually, and, in a still greater degree, relatively to 
its diameter, are conspicuously larger than those of any 
other circle. 

The earliest notice of this relic of the past was pub- 
lished in 1801 by Britton and Brayley, who describe it 
thus : l — 

" Within a furlong north-east of the church [of Duloe], is a small 
Druidical Circle, that has not hitherto been noticed. It consists of seven 
or eight stones, one of which is about nine feet in height : four are up- 
right, the others are either broken, or concealed by a hedge, which 
divides the circle ; part being in an orchard, and part in an adjoining 
field. We are unable to state its dimensions accurately, but its dia- 
meter does not appear to exceed twenty or twentj'-five feet." 

This account was successively adopted (but without the 
addition of any original matter) first, in 1823, by Bond, 2 
a local topographer, with rare opportunities for obtaining 
information, of which, in regard to these objects, it is to 
be regretted that he did not avail himself more com- 
pletely ; and, after him, in 1838, by Penaluna, 3 compiler 
of a county history ; and it is not until nearly twenty 
years later, 4 that we find the author of a county Guide 
making a fresh contribution to our knowledge of the sub- 
ject, which I here quote from the third edition of the 
work, dated 185G: 5 

"At Bidoe, 2 m. beyond the village of St. Keyne, on a farm oppo- 
site the ch., and in a field, a gun-shot 1. of the road, are the remains 
of an ancient circle of large upright stones, about 30 feet in diameter. 
The old monument, however, is in a very mutilated condition. A 
hedge bisects it, one stone lies prostrate in the ditch, five only stand 

1 Beauties of England and Wales, vol. ii, pp. 400, 401. 

Topographical and Historical Sketches of the Boroughs of East and 
11"., 7 Looe, pp. 121, 122. 

3 An Historical Survey of the County of Cornwall, vol. i, p. 149. 

4 Unless, perhaps, we except a paper (to which I have not been able 
to refer) by -Mr. MacLauchlan, written in 1846 for the Journal of the 
Royal Institution of Cornwall, which, from a casual notice in Namia Cor- 
nubioe, p. 127, note 3, appears to contain some reference to Duloe. 

h Murray's Handbook for Devon and Cornwall, p. 207. 




//.«- ! e ri — 

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I I 

7« /■; <; 3.*" s J _ 

3- 2 3 O /..!•' tf i _ 

tf.* -r. « 2. 2 

I J-. o i rf. 2 1.6 

U., ,,„,.! I!, ...,!>„,, cl tl, r M vs -„rUc -Vrrr/Zr. f9'l5'tf. 






"a Y 

SURVEYED BY C . w . D Y M O N D , C I ... 2 O ' - M A. Y , I fi S O 

Akerman Photo-litK LondonWC. 

DULOE STOXE uku.i:. 1 51 

upright, and three appear to be wanting to complete Hie circle. The 
stones, which are rough and unhewn, are principally composed of white 
quartz, and one is about 9 ft. in height." 

A still later account, published in 18G7, runs thus i 1 — 

" Near Stonetown, about a furlong to (he north-east of the church 
[of Duloe], stands a small Druidical circle, about 15 ft. in diameter, 
composed of six or eighl si ones of quartz or spar, one of which is about 
■ ' H. high. Some of the stones lay on the ground, and in 1863 an 

attempt, was made to fix them upright. Under one of them was found 
a cinerary urn, which was carelessly broken, and its contents scattered. 
One of the stones was also broken. The adjoining- hamlet is called 
Stonetown, from these memorials ; and their position is about 440 ft. 
above the sea-level." 

The next, and, I believe, the most recent account of the 
remains at Duloe is contained in a paper written in 1872 
by Mr. E. H. W. Dunkin, and published in the Archceo- 
logia ( hmbrensis* with a sketch-plan of the circle, scale- 
elevations of the inner sides of the stones, developed into 
a line, and a woodcut 3 of a fragment of the urn referred 
to in the last quotation. It was not until several months 
had elapsed after my drawings were completed, and nearly 
all the materials collected for these pages, that I happened 
to hear of Mr. Dunkin having already worked in the 
same field. On perusing a copy of his paper, which he 
was kind enough to send me, I found that, though the 
two descriptions naturally cover a good deal of the same 
ground, yet I had gathered several particulars on which 
my predecessor had not touched. On the other hand, I 
am glad to borrow from him, with acknowledgments, one 
or two which had escaped my research. 

Short as are the accounts verbally cited above, they are 
not free from such errors as necessarily result from hasty 
and imperfect observation. The wide discrepancy between 
the diameters given in the last two quotations, will be at 
once noticed; but even the highest of these figures is con- 
siderably short of the truth, as will presently appear. 

In their present state, the remains consist of nine 
quartzose stones, obtained from the neighbourhood, and 

1 A Complete Parochial History of the County of Cornwall, vol. i, p. 308. 

2 Fourth Series, vol. iv, pp. 45-50. 

3 A duplicate of that on p. 128 of Mr. W. C. Borlase's Ncenia Cornu- 
lice. (1872). This woodcut is far from being a good representation of 
either the shape or the ornamentation of the fragment. 


all now erect, except the two northern ones (numbered 1 
and 2 on the plan), which are fragments of what was ori- 
ginally one stone. Of these pieces, No. 1 (thought to be 
Dearly in situ, though athwart the ring) was the base of 
the stone ; and, when the fallen portion was erect, its 
height from the surface of the ground must have been 
about 8 ft. The dimensions of all the stones will be found 
tabulated on the Plate. No. 6, the largest and tallest, 
may weigh about eight tons. The diameters of the ring, 
measured between the centres of opposite stones, are : — 
No. 1 to No. 6, 37 ft.; Nos. 3 to 7, 39 ft,; Nos. 4 to 8,34 ft.; 
Nos. 5 to 9, 38 ft. 6 ins. The intervals between the cen- 
tres of successive stones, measured around the curve, are : 
Nos. 1 to 3, 17 ft. 6 ins.; Nos. 3 to 4, 13 ft. 6 ins.; Nos. 4 
to 5, 14 ft.; Nos. 5 to 6, 19 ft.; Nos. 6 to 7, 17 ft.; Nos. 
7 to 8, 13 ft, 6 ins.; Nos. 8 to 9, 12 ft. 6 ins.; Nos. 9 to 1, 
11 ft. 

Undoubtedly, the complete circle originally consisted of 
eight members, the same number as that composing the 
north-eastern circle at Stanton Drew. But these mega- 
liths are not now all exactly as they originally stood. 
The positions of some of them have, doubtless, been so 
altered by overthrow and subsequent restoration, that 
some of the measurements given above are deprived of the 
value they might otherwise have had. At an unknown 
date, an embanked hedge was made to intersect the ring, 
crossing it between Nos. 5 and 6, and Nos. 1 and 9; and 
either then, or at some other time, four of the stones (the 
northern one, then unbroken, with Nos. 5, 7, and 9) fell 
to the ground, and No. 3 declined from the perpendicular, 
while three of the largest (Nos. 4, 6, and 8, — probably the 
most firmly founded) remained erect. From information 
most kindly supplied to me by the Rev. Paul Bush, 
rector of Duloe, it appears that the hedge was removed 
about the year 1858, and that, five years later, 1 three of 
the fallen stones (Nos. 5, 7, and 9) were re-erected in what 
were supposed to be their original positions, which, how- 
ever, were not indicated by any remaining hollows. The 
attempt to raise the large northern stone did not succeed, 
and its separation into two portions was the result of the 

1 Mr. Borlase and Mr. Dunkiri say it was in 18G1 ; but it is a matter 
of no moment. 


operation. It should be added that No. 5, as it now 
stands, is said to be only a small part of what it once was. 
But the circumstance which, perhaps, has endowed 
these remains with their chief interest in the eyes of anti- 
quaries, was the discovery of the cinerary urn in the soil 
beneath the south-eastern corner of the prostrate stone 
No. 2, at the spot marked with an asterisk in the plan. 1 
Mr. Bush informed me that, when found, it contained 
bones which quickly crumbled to dust on exposure to the 
air. Unfortunately it was carelessly broken into small 
fragments by the workmen, and only one piece (the 
largest) was preserved. It includes a portion of the rim 
and the greater part of one of the ears of the vessel, and 
is now in the possession of the owner of the land on which 
the circle stands, the Bev. T. A. Bewes, of Plymouth, who 
very kindly sent the piece of pottery for my inspection ; 
and, directly from it, the drawings in the illustrative Plate 
were made. It is 3 ins. in breadth and height. Its sub- 
stance, as may be seen on reference to the drawing, is, at 
one edge, very distinctly divided into two layers, the inner 
one of a dull black hue, and the outer, of a dull brick-red 
and grey. The separate and total thicknesses of different 
parts are here given in decimals of an inch : 

Place of Measurement 




At upper edge of rim 
At indented thickening of ditto 
At top of ear .... 
At base ..... 









The texture throughout is coarse. The urn has been 
rudely shaped by hand, and burned without glaze. Calcu- 
lated from the curvature of the fragment, it must have 
had an internal diameter of 8 ins. It was ornamented in 
a very primitive style by uniform indentations, made appa- 
rently by the end of a stick ; the work, though ruder, cor- 

1 According to one account, the urn was found under the hedge at 
the time when that was removed: according to another, it was disco- 
vered when the subsequent attempt was made to raise the northern 
stone. (See Naniia Com., pp. 127, 128.) This is of little consequence; 
but Mr. Borlase suggested that a portion of the hedge may have been 
a cairn or barrow raised within the circle. See, however, the conclu- 
sion of this paper for his present opinion. 


responding with that on an urn found by Mr. Borlase on 
Morvah Hill, in the mouth of which was a coin of Con- 
stantius II. According to that gentleman, the remark- 
able thing about this urn is, that it is the only one yet 
discovered hi Cornwall within, or immediately contiguous 
to, a stone circle. 1 Similar instances have, however, occur- 
red elsewhere, of which he quotes two from Scotland. 
Though there is not sufficient evidence on which to base 
a very close calculation of the date of the interment, I 
believe Mr. Borlase at that time was inclined to put it 
approximately at the commencement of our era. Mr. Dun- 
kin records an interesting fact, "that a considerable quan- 
tity of charcoal was found within the inclosure when the 
bisecting hedge was removed, and", he adds, " that much 
still remains beneath the turf". 2 This he regards as 
" almost conclusive evidence that a funeral pyre had been 
lit on this very spot"; and he thinks that " this burial 
must have taken place in pre-Koman times". 

W hile engaged in removing the earth from over and 
around stone No. 1, so that its shape and position might 
be accurately measured, my friend Mr. Francis Brent, of 
Plymouth, (to whose kindness I am indebted for valuable 
aid in the work of survey and exploration), found another 
small fragment of pottery, differing totally in character 
from the one just described, lying in the loose earth by 
which the buried stone was covered. It is composed of 
micaceous clay of rather fine texture, and is very thin, — 
only one-fifth of an inch in thickness ; and, calculating 
from its curvature, which, on the outside, is very regular, it 
belonged to a somewhat cylindrical vessel, with an external 
diameter of 1 5 inches. The outer face is smooth, regu- 
larly formed, and of a grey-brown tint ; while the inner 
one is very rough, and of a light red colour, mottled with 
dull yellow. The section exhibits only an uniform, close- 
grained, yellow substance, edged externally with a very 
thin skin of brick-red. The vessel was evidently made on 
a wlieel : the interior formed by hand, and the exterior 
smoothed by a tool. It was afterward burned in an open 
fire. The fragment bears no trace of ornament. 

1 Ncenia Cow., p. 1'27. 

2 It may be as well to note, that not the least trace of charcoal was 
visible during the operation referred to in the next paragraph. 


Being rather doubtful as to the antiquity of this piece 
of pottery, I sent it to Mr. Borlase (from whose judgment 
in such a matter few would be inclined to dissent) with a 
request that he would favour me with his opinion upon 
it. He responded to the invitation with the greatest 
kindness; and I cannot close this paper better than by 
quoting the substance of his letter. He says : " The piece 
of pottery is similar in kind to that which very frequently 
occurs both in the envelope, and, occasionally, at a con- 
siderable distance from the surface, of Cornish barrows. 
It is the domestic ware which was in use amongst the 
inhabitants of the hut-villages in the fourth century; but 
how much older it may be than that, it is impossible to 
conjecture. It would be equally impossible to say that it 
w;is nut mure recent." Mr. Borlase says he is "convinced 
that when the mounds were being raised, vessels of 
various kinds were broken to atoms, and their fragments 
thrown into the pile." He has found in different parts 
of the same mound, and at different depths, pieces of 
domestic vessels which he has been able to put together. 
Mr. Borlase now thinks it improbable that there was a 
tumulus within, or near to, the Duloe circle. 





(Read March 15, 1882.) 

Three years ago I had the honour of reading a paper 
before this Society, on the subject of rocks bearing cup 
and ring-markings in the neighbourhood of Ilkley in York- 
shire. 1 Since then several more important discoveries of 
sculptures of the same class have been made, chiefly by 
my friend Mr. F. W. Fison of Ilkley ; and it is to these 
that I propose to call your attention in the following brief 

The town of Ilkley is situated in Yorkshire, on the 
banks of the river Wharfe, and lies sixteen miles and a 
half, by rail, to the north-west of Leeds. The surround- 
ing scenery is varied in character, and of great beauty, 
consisting, in the lower lying land, of fertile valleys, and 
in the higher regions, of wild wastes of moorland covered 
with rock and heather. One of the largest of these tracts 
of uncultivated ground is known as Rumbold's Moor, 
occupying a space measuring ten miles in length by five 
in breadth, lying between the valleys of the Aire and the 
Wharfe. It lies immediately south of the town of Ilkley, 
and rises to a height of 1,323 feet at its highest point. 
Scattered over its surface are several barrows, stone cir- 
cles, and other traces of the primitive inhabitants of the 
district ; but from an archaeological point of view, by far 
the most remarkable feature is the large number of sculp- 
tured rocks and boulders which are to be found in various 
parts of the Moor. Several of these have been illustrated 
in my previous paper, and one good example has since 
formed the subject of a notice by Mr. Dymond in our 

The stones which I propose to describe on this occasion 

1 Journal of the Brit. Arch. Assoc, vol. xxxv, p. 15. 

Doubles Ston 


are as follow : 1, stone on Pancake Ridge; 2, stone at foot 
of Green Crag ; 3, stone on Weary Hill ; 4, stone near 
Piper's Crag ; 5, the Donbler Stones. 

Stone on Pancake Ridge. — A mile and a half south-east 
of Ilkley, and almost due south of the Ben Rhydding 
Hydropathic Establishment, will be found marked on the 
Ordnance Map (scale, 6 ins. to the mile, sheet 18G) a line 
of cliffs called Pancake Ridge, just at the edge of Rum- 
bold's Moor, and overhanging the valley of the Wharfe. 
Perched on the top of the cliff is a large, flat slab of grit- 
stone which from its peculiar form has obtained the name 
of the "Pancake Rock." On its upper surface are several 
cup-markings much obliterated by the action of the 
weather, but some of them sufficiently distinct to prove 
their origin artificial, and to shew that this rock was 
noticed in ancient times, and very possibly considered an 
object either of worship or superstition. About 150 }^ards 
to the west of the Pancake Rock, close to the edge of the 
cliff, and at a level of 1,010 ft. above the sea, is the sculp- 
tured stone to be described. It is a piece of gritstone 
measuring 5 ft. 3 ins. by 5 ft., and is 1 ft. 9 ins. high. On 
its upper surface, which is nearly horizontal, are carved 
thirteen cups, varying in diameter from 2 to 2^ ins., eleven 
of which are surrounded by single rings. There is also an 
elaborate arrangement of connecting grooves, which will 
be best understood from the accompanying drawing. 

Stone at the foot of Green Crag. — A quarter of a mile 
to the south of Pancake Ridge, and higher up the Moor, 
is a short line of cliffs called "Green Crags." Between 
these two sets of cliffs, which are nearly parallel, and run 
east and west, is a comparatively level stretch of moor- 
land, the total rise between the two being 60 ft. At the 
west end of Green Crag, at the foot of the cliff, will be 
found, marked on the Ordnance Map, an ancient enclo- 
sure. It is of approximately rectangular form, and its 
walls of loose stone project so little above the surround- 
ing heather as to be only just visible. The use of this 
curious structure is not clear, as there are no traces of 
hut-circles within it. Two hundred yards or so to the 
east of this enclosure, at the foot of Green Crag, are three 
large gritstone boulders having cup-markings, lying a few 
yards from each other. About twenty yards from these 


is the stone having upon it the beautiful specimen of pre- 
historic sculpture here illustrated. (See fig.) The stone 
is of grit, and measures 3 ft. 2 ins. by 2 ft. 6 ins. Its 
upper surface is nearly horizontal, and has carved upon it 
cups varying in diameter from 2 ins. to 3 ins. A row 
of cups in the middle of the stone are entirely surrounded 
by a groove. There is also a channel running round the 
outside. Single cups are often found encircled by one or 
more concentric rings ; but it is very exceptional indeed 
to find several cups surrounded by a single groove, or to 
find the cups so symmetrically arranged as in the present 

On the plateau lying between Green Grag and Pancake 
Ridge is also situated the large cup-marked boulder de- 
scribed in my former paper. 1 It lies to the north of the 
stone just mentioned. 

Stone on Weary Hill. — One mile south-west of Ilkley is 
a road leading over the top of the Moor, and the most 
rapid part of the ascent is marked on the Ordnance Map 
(6 ins. scale, sheet 186) very appropriately as Weary Hill. 
To the west of the road, and between it and the boundary- 
wall of Silver Well Farm, is a small boulder of gritstone 
with cup-markings on it. It lies at a level of 900 ft. above 
the sea, and it measures 8 ft. by 5 ft. On its upper sur- 
face, which is nearly level, are carved ten cups, varying 
in diameter from 2 to 3 ins., one of them being surrounded 
by a single ring. The "Neb Stone", which is at the upper 
extremity of the boundary- wall of Silver Well Farm just 
mentioned, and which is 1,100 ft. above the sea, has also 
cup-marks upon it. The group of sculptured rocks near 
the Panorama Stone described in my previous paper, 2 lies 
at the foot of Silverwell Farm. 

Stone near Pipers Crag. — Piper's Crag is situated two 
miles west of Ilkley, at a level of 1,050 ft. above the sea, 
and is at the east end of the long line of cliffs known as 
Addington Crags, which extend in a westerly direction 
for some miles, and form the natural boundary between 
Kuinbold's Moor and the valley of the Wharfe. At the 
edge of Piper's Crag is a horizontal rock-surface, and on 
a portion of it, measuring 5 ft. by 7 ft., are carved a series 
of fifteen cups varying in diameter from 2 to 3 ins. Of 

1 Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc, xxxv, p. 19. - Ibid., p. 20. 


these, one is surrounded by a single ring, four by a double 
ring, and one by a triple ring. 

On the same line of cliffs, half a mile to the east, mid- 
way between Piper's Crag and the Panorama Stone, is 
situated the large boulder on Woodhouse Crag, described 
in my former paper, 1 bearing the curious pattern resem- 
bling a "swastica" with curved arms. 1 take this opportu- 
nity of acknowledging a mistake in my drawing of this 
stone, pointed out by Mr. Dymond. 2 

A quarter of a mile east of Piper's Crag is a large mass 
of grit called the " Sepulchre Stone", and a quarter of a 
mile to the west is another called the " Noon Stone." 
Neither of these has sculptures upon it; but both, are 
of striking appearance. 

The Doubter Stones. — The Doubler Stones are situated 
on Rumbold's Moor, three miles south-south-west of Ilk- 
ley as the crow flies, and two miles east of the village of 
Silsden. The place is difficult of access, and can be reached 
either by following the road from Ilkley to Addingham, 
and striking up into the Moor just beyond the latter 
place, or by going up at once into the Moor from Ilkley 
to the Panorama Stone, and walking along the top of the 
long line of cliffs called "Addingham Edge." These cliffs, 
as before mentioned, run due east and west, and form the 
south side of the valley of the Wharfe. They terminate 
at a point two miles west of the Panorama Rock, where 
they attain a height of 1,200 feet above the sea, the views 
over the surrounding country being everywhere grand in 
the extreme. Half a mile south of the west end of the 
cliffs are the Doubler Stones, situated at a level of 1,100 ft. 
above the sea, and overlooking the valley of the Aire. 
These rocks are by far the most remarkable freaks of 
nature to be seen in the district. They occupy a promi- 
nent position, perched on the extremity of a rocky knoll 
which juts out into the valley; and as seen from below T , 
with their weird forms standing out clear and sharp 
against the background of blue sky, they present so ex- 
traordinary an appearance that they would at once attract 
the attention of even the most unobservant. In general 
outline they resemble gigantic toadstools; and I presume 
that they are called the Doubler Stones from the fact of 

1 Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc, xxxv, p. 21. - Ibid., xxxvi, p. 417. 


their shapes being almost identical. They may be appro- 
priately described as Nature's twins. The stones lie east 
and west, the eastern one being on the very edge of the 
cliff, and the other further inland, towards the Moor. I 
call the western stone A, and the eastern one B, for the 
sake of distinction. The distance between the stones is 
30 ft., and the intermediate ground is level. Each stone 
consists of a pillar 6 ft, in diameter, supporting a flat slab 
or cap, the top of which is level, and at a height of 6 ft. 
above the ground. The cap of stone a measures 1 1 ft. by 
11 ft., and is 1 ft. thick ; and that of b, 11 ft. 3 ins. by 
10 ft., and 1 ft. thick. The shape in plan is roughly oval, 
or rather a rectangle with its corners rounded. The shape 
of the stones which form part of the rock on which they 
stand, seems to be purely natural, and due to the fact of 
the strata lying horizontally; the top slab being of hard 
material, and the underlying rock soft, so that it has 
gradually become worn away by the action of the weather. 
Both stones, however, present traces of the work of man 
on their upper surfaces. There is no difficulty in climb- 
ing on to the top of stone A, as there are natural steps on 
the side away from the cliff ; but the top stone, b, is not 
so easy of access, which may account for there being fewer 
artificial sculptures on it. The upper surface of the cap 
of stone a has three large basin-shaped cavities in it. 
Two of these lie along the central axis of the stone, and 
measure respectively 1 ft. 3 ins. by 2 ft, by 9 ins. deep, 
and 1 ft. 9 ins. by 1 ft. 3 ins. by 9 ins. deep. They are 
united by a deep groove, a continuation of which runs out 
over the edge of the stone at each end. There is another 
basin lying to the west side of the two central ones, with 
one of which it is connected by grooves. It measures 
2 ft. by 1 ft, 9 ins., and is 9 ins. deep. There is no direct 
evidence that these basins are artificial ; but it is quite 
possible that they may have been so originally, and have 
been enlarged by natural agencies. But in addition to 
the basins are twenty-six cup-markings of distinctly arti- 
ficial origin. They vary in diameter from 2 to 4 ins. One 
group of cups appears to be arranged in a series of parallel 

Stone b has no basins on its upper surface; but I counted 
eight cup-markings. Whether these wonderful stones 


were Druidical altars or not, I do not pretend to snv; but 
at any rate they are well worthy of the attention oirhe- 
geologist on account of their curious natural character- 
istics, and of the antiquary on account of the prehistoric 
sculptures which are to be found upon them. 

There are some prominent masses of rock higher up the 
Moor, called "The Gawk Stones"; but I could detect no 
carvings upon them. 


I propose here to make a few remarks about the sub- 
ject of rocking stones, as I believe that the Doubler Stones 
illustrate one of the means by which they may have been 
formed. Rocking stones may be produced in any of the 
following ways, namely, — 1, by the agency of man ; 2, by 
an accident of nature ; 3, by disintegration. I do not 
know that there are any instances where it can be shewn 
that rocking stones have been the result of human 
agency ; but it is just possible that some of them may be 
due to this cause. By accident of nature, I mean cases 
where a boulder has been borne either by ice or water, 
and deposited by chance in such a way that it balances. 
Now as to the last method of formation, it may be the 
result of the following natural changes. Assume, to begin 
with, a large pillar of rock in an exposed position like the 
" tors" on Dartmoor, if the lower strata is softer than the 
upper, it will disintegrate more rapidly under the action 
of the weather; and if the decay is even all round, it will 
gradually take the form of a mushroom, like the Doubler 
Stones. If the disintegration took place unevenly, the 
capstone would eventually fall off; but otherwise it would, 
in the process of time, become a rocking stone when the 
stem of the mushroom had disappeared. A rocking stone 
may, of course, either balance on either one or more points 
in a straight line or ridge forming a knife-edge. In any 
case the point, or line joining the points, must lie directly 
under the centre of gravity of the stone above. Rocking 
stones are called in Cornwall, " Logan Stones"; and in 
France, " pierres branlantes, tremblantes, ou vacillantes". 
The following is a list of some of the best known examples : 


England: Yorkshire, — four stones at Brimham Crags, 

near Pateley Bridge; Attermyre, near Settle. Cornwall, 
— near Land's End; Bosistow in St. Leven. Sussex, — ■ 
West Hoadley. Derbyshire, — Stanton Moor, near Birch- 
over. Devonshire, — several on Dartmoor. 

France: Dept. duLot, — Pierre Mart ine, near Livernon. 
Finistere, — Huelgoet, Kerisquillier, and Trecung, near 
Concarneau. Cotes du Nord, — Perros Guyrech. Lozere, 
— near Meucle. Sadne et Loire, — near Saint Germain. 
Perigord, — Commune of Garde. 

Cup and Ring-Markings. — It will naturally be asked, 
at the conclusion of this paper on the rock-sculptures of 
Ilklev, whether any satisfactory theory has been formed 
on the subject ? I can only reply that, had these hiero- 
glyphics existed in Egypt or Persia, or China, or, in fact, 
any other country but our own, we should have long ago 
filled our museums with casts of them, and have left no 
stone unturned until their meaning was fully deciphered. 
They have, however, the misfortune to be found close to 
our own doors, and are therefore treated with that con- 
tempt which anything that does not appertain to classical 
learning seems to meet with in England. The only repre- 
sentatives of this class of prehistoric sculpture in the 
British Museum are two miserable little fragments at the 
top of one of the cases ; but as there is no catalogue of 
the English antiquities, the public are probably not aware 
of their existence. All materials for this branch of inquiry 
must, therefore, be sought in situ. 

Although no complete theory has been formed, still a 
great number of facts have been collected which throw 
light upon the matter. The most exhaustive memoir 
which has been published on the subject is that of Sir 
James James Simpson, where all the typical forms are 
fully illustrated. The state of our knowledge may be briefly 
summed up as follows ; 

1st, as to their geographical distribution. Stones with 
cup and ring-markings are found widely scattered over 
the whole of the British Isles, also in various parts of 
France, Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, and 

2nd, as to the classes of monuments on which they are 
found. These are as follow ; 

> Sepulchral remains. 


1. Natural rock-surfaces. 

2. Isolated boulders. 

3. Near ancient British fortified (owns and camps. 

4. In connection with lake-dwellings, underground 
houses, and Pictish lowers. 

5. On single standing stones. 
G. On groups of standing stones. 

7. On stone circles. 

8. On cromlechs. 

9. In chambered cairns. 

10. On cist-covers. 

11. On urn-covers. 
VI. On grave-stones in Christian churchyards. 
13. On the walls of churches themselves. 

From the fact of cup-markings being found in so many 
instances directly associated with sepulchral remains, I 
think it may fairly be inferred that they are connected in 
some way or other with funeral rites, either as sacred 
emblems or for actual use in holding small offerings or 
libations. I am aware, however, that the fact of their 
being found occasionally on vertical surfaces is rather 
against the latter assumption. The connecting grooves 
are suggestive of channels for carrying off liquids 

After seeing several hundreds of these stones m Eng- 
land and Scotland, I have been forcibly struck by two 
points : 1st, the absence of any definite arrangement of 
any kind in the positions of the cups ; and 2nd, the con- 
tinual recurrence of the same monotonous figures of cups, 
rings, and grooves, repeated hundreds of times with 
hardly any variation of any kind, or tendency to develop 
into more ornamental forms. The absence of appearance 
of design in the arrangement of the cups might be 
accounted for by supposing that they were executed one 
by one, at different times, either by the same or different 
individuals. With regard to no advance being made 
beyond the cup, ring, and groove, I think it points to what 
w;is before suggested; i.e., that they were either a well 
recognised symbol frequently repeated, or that the shape 
of the cup, ring, and groove, adapted itself specially to 
some ceremonial use. 

The method of execution of the carvings appears to 
have been by punching with a pointed instrument, the 


tool-marks being in many instances very distinct where 
the stone has been protected by earth above it, either in 
a cairn or otherwise. The circles are not struck from a 
centre, and are often very irregular. 

Finally, with regard to the age of the sculptures, it is 
attested, 1st, by the very large area over which they are 
scattered ; 2nd, the absence of any traditions as to their 
meaning ; 3rd, their being found as covers of urns, inside 
cairns belonging to the late stone or early bronze age. 

Their use has survived down to a comparatively recent 
period, as they have been found near Inverness, by Mr. 
Jolly, on gravestones in Christian churchyards ; and also 
they have been noticed on the walls of brick churches in 
Germany. In some cases they are still anointed with 
grease as a superstitious ceremony. 

Where the carvings occur on rock-surfaces, it is almost 
always in special, isolated districts which may have been 
considered sacred in ancient times. In Scotland, France, 
Switzerland, and Germany, cups alone are found as a 
general rule ; whereas in England, Ireland, and Sweden, 
rings and grooves are almost always associated with the 
cups. In Sweden figures of men and boats are also added. 



BY J. J. COLMAN, ESQ., M.P., IN 1880-1881. 

(Read December 7, 1881.) 

It will be remembered by many who are now present that 
a visit was paid to the site of Carrow Abbey on the last 
day of the Great Yarmouth Congress, 1879, after leaving 
the old Manor House of Arminghall, where many frag- 
ments of elaborate stonework, etc., are preserved. The 
fragments there evidently formed a portion of some reli- 
gious edifice, and are said by tradition to have come from 
Carrow Abbey. 

On arriving at the site we inspected the scanty re- 
mains then visible, the conspicuous feature being the 
dwelling-house occupied by J. H. Tillett, Esq., M.P., and 
known as "The Abbey." By Mr. Tillett's courtesy we 
were permitted to examine the building from floor to roof. 
It is now divided into several smaller apartments ; but 
we had no difficulty in tracing the original plan of the 
principal portion, namely, a good hall with an open roof 
in the centre, with a withdra wing-room on the left, and 
a bedroom above it, approached by a newel-staircase. 
The initials on the roof-timbers were assignable to Isabel 
Wygon, Prioress in 1514, and we had thus good evidence 
that the work was of her date, — a rebuilding of the six- 
teenth century ; this period being also well attested by 
the architecture. The tradition that this was the Abbess' 
house is worthy of all respect ; and the more so since a 
similar one is found at Castle Acre, applied to the block 
of buildings in similar relation to the church. Neverthe- 
less, the position is that usually occupied by the guest- 
house ; and it is more than probable that this was so in 
both these cases. The bay window and other additions 
are ancient ; but are of later date than monastic times, 
being, doubtless, the work of Sir John Shelton, Knt., who 
fitted up the buildings as a residence for himself. 

1882 12 


To the east and to the north of the house we noticed 
long, rectangular lines of original stone walls in ruined 
condition, partly overgrown with ivy and creeping plants, 
and forming adjuncts of no small interest to the pretty 
flower-gardens beyond the house. We were pressed to 
point out the sites of the church, chapter house, and the 
other l>n ili lings usual in a monastic establishment; and on 
the strength of noticing that the site, which somewhat 
slopes away into a valley on the north-east from the 
house, hardly admits of buildings in that direction, and 
on the assumption that the house was the guest-hall of 
the Abbey, I ventured to place the church immediately 
to the north of it ; the cloister-garth where the garden 
now appears ; the chapter house opposite to the latter, on 
the east; the refectory parallel to it, on the south; and 
the day-room, or calefactory, in the south-east corner. 

On proceeding round the ruins, these suggestions ob- 
tained additional support by noticing in the south-east of 
the old wall a rough gap where we should expect to find 
the processional door from the cloisters into the church ; a 
small, Benatura-like niche remaining beside it ; a similar 
opening where we should look for the entrance to the 
chapter house ; while the base and part of the shaft of one 
pillar remained, as if to shew the line of the usual row 
so often observable in the day-room. 

Beyond these feeble traces, both to the east and the 
north, only rough irregularities were visible in the green 
sward, indicating the presence of foundations azid rubbish, 
while the south side of the garden was occupied by trees 
and shrubs, beneath which, we were told, foundations were 
known to exist. 

Such was the site of Carrow Abbey on the occasion of 
our visit, and although some features have, doubtless, dis- 
appeared within living memory, yet it is possible that 
but few distinctive traces remained in Blomfield's time, 
for he tells us that he had great difficulty in tracing the 
site. Our kind host and Associate J. J. Colman, Esq., 
M.P., was urged, on the occasion of our visit, to under- 
take some tentative excavations to test how much of the 
foundations remained, and the position of the buildings, 
by actual observation. The plan before us shews to what 
an extensive scale these excavations have been carried out 


by Mr. Colman, and also that the hypotlietical position of 
the various buildings has been confirmed in all material 

Before proceeding to describe the results of Mr. Col- 
man's costly work, a few brief notices of the history of 
( 'arrow Abbey may be of service ; placed thus, as it were, 
side by side with the remains that have now been brought 
to the light of day after their long burial of over three 
hundred years. 

Carrow Abbey, for Benedictine nuns, was founded by 
King Stephen on the site of an older hospital dedicated 
to St. Mary and St. John. Sseyna and Leftelina, two of 
the sisters, began the foundations in 1146, when there 
appear to have been nine nuns and an abbess. The various 
confirmations of the charters, the spiritual and temporal 
possessions, are set forth by Dugdale and Blomefield, where 
many items of interest are to be found. Among these are, 
probably as a manorial right, the use of a common gallows 1 
by their windmill, on a hill by Bear Street Gates ; the 
right of a fair for four days ; their non-payment of tolls ; 
their having their district exempt from jurisdiction, and 
consequently the Abbess was supreme in her own right. 
We hear of her, through the chaplain, proving wills, and 
exercising all spiritual authority there, subject to the 
Pope. We find that in 1273 Pope Gregory inhibited the 
Prioress and Convent from increasing the number of the 
nuns, "upon the representation that the English nobility, 
whom they could not resist, had obliged them to receive 
so many sisters into the Convent that they were unable 
to support them." 

The Nunnery became one of those useful institutions, 
a school of education for the young ladies of the chief 
families of the diocese, who boarded with the nuns. Even 
after making allowance that the source of revenue from 
the school would be of necessity unnoticed in the returns 
at the Dissolution, it is a matter of surprise to find the 
income returned at only £84 : 12 : 1 J, according to Speed, 
and £54 : 16 : 4 J, according to Dugdale. 

1 The whole of the abbesses, at any rate, do not appear to have occa- 
sioned much terror by the use of their gallows, for early in the fifteenth 
century we find one of them in trouble, being tried for affording sanctu- 
ary to a murderer. The right of sanctuary was not, apparently, one of 
their privileges, and therefore was not allowed by the secular power. 


The list of Prioresses is apparently very complete, 
twenty-one being mentioned by Blomfield, commencing 
with Maud le Strange, 1198, and ending with Cecily Staf- 
ford, the last Prioress, who retired with a pension of £8 
per annum. The name of "Abbey" is given by somewhat 
general parlance to the establishment ; but it must be 
noted that all documents referred to, style the lady supe- 
rior as Prioress. Among the list of names in connection 
with the Abbey are several old English names that have 
passed out of general usage : thus we hear of Petronel, 
Beatrix, and Cicely. Seyna and Leftelina have already 
been noticed. The still common name of Agnes occurs 
twice, Catherine three times, Alice four tunes, and Maud, 
Margery, Edith, Joan, and Isabel, once. 

References to the buildings are of unfrequent occur- 
rence in the documents. It is recorded that the Chapel 
of St. John the Baptist joined on to the south side of the 
church, while St. Catherine's was on the north side. 
About 1452 Robert Blickling, of Norwich, was buried by 
his wife's grave, having given twenty marks towards 
building the nuns' new dormitory, which was completed 
by contributions about 1460. In 1531 William Aslak was 
buried between the high altar and the image of Our Lady 
of Pity. 

Carrow appears to have been a parish by itself, the 
nuns providing the parochial chaplains. The parish church 
was dedicated to St. James the Apostle, and there is no 
evidence that it was attached to the Convent church, as 
is supposed on the spot. It appears to have been a sepa- 
rate building, described by Blomfield as being "now so 
totally demolished that there are no apparent ruins. The 
site is called 'the Churchyard'." " The Churchyard" is 
the field containing the foundations of the Priory Church, 
so we may conclude that the parish church was in close 
proximity to it. An Ancorage also existed in connection 
with the Abbey. 

The site having belonged to various owners, is now in 
possession of Messrs. Colman, part of it being occupied 
by Carrow House, and part by the extensive works which 
have aided the industry of Norwich so well. The site of 
the Abbey buildings has been, however, untouched, ex- 
cept where part has become the gardens of Mr. Tillett's 

Cloister Gar 


Tlower Garden 


Me.turea I Draw, by AS Hi! 


Carrow priory Norwich. 

Plarv shxiwinxj the< ecccavcUiorLS rrvcuLe^ by J.J. Cobruxrv Es^ r M P. 

Site of the 

Refectory, etc. 

J Akerman Polo-Mh London W l 


house ; the field containing the site of the church being 
the position used for many years for the pleasant meet- 
ings of workpeople and employers, so well known in con- 
nection with the owners' names. This year's gathering 
has been prevented by the excavations, the whole site of 
the church and its chapels, the chapter house, and the 
day-room, having been opened to the original floor-levels, 
the work involving the removal of about 4 feet of earth 
and many tons of material. 

I will now proceed to describe the results of the exca- 
vations. The plan of the church has been recovered, ex- 
cept a portion of the nave and the west end, where the 
whole had been removed. It has consisted of a nave and 
two aisles, north and south transepts, a short presbytery 
with a chapel on each side ; that on the north, perhaps 
of larger size than the other, we may safely conclude to 
have been that of St. Catherine, and that on the south 
St. John the Baptist. The floor-level is shewn by glazed 
tiles without pattern, while traces only were met with of 
one of the nave-piers. We are not, therefore, able to con- 
clude with any accuracy either how many bays the nave 
had, or what was their design. Ordinarily, at this period, 
the piers were of various patterns, octagonal, circular, 
banded, and the like, in the same arcade. The remaining 
artistic design is not likely, therefore, to have regulated 
the others in any way. The elegant base which remains 
calls for special comment. The four piers of the central 
tower are apparent ; those on the south side being dis- 
tinct, and having a good height of the shafts above the 
base. The walls of the north transept have almost gone ; 
but sufficient remain to give the width, but not the 
length. The south transept is in better condition, the 
east side of the ruined wall, noticed on our visit, being 
found to go down to the level of the church, and to con- 
tain the base of an elegant wall-arcade in situ. The same 
remark applies to the wall at right angles, which proves 
to be the wall of the south aisle ; traces being shewn by 
the excavations of a similar arcade along its whole ex- 
tent internally, while the rough opening proves to be the 
site of the processional door. The south end of the south 
transept has a more modern wall of very rough bricks, as 
if to lessen its size. The space thus obtained (4 ft. wide) 


was. doubtless, for the descending flight of steps from the 
dormrl ory into the church, on the rebuilding of the former. 
No trace remains of the steps, which were probably of 
wood. There are two small chapels opening out from the 
east wall of the south transept ; the narrowest has been 
originally a passage only to the exterior, since the east 
wall is built against the external plinth, which appears 
inside. The base of the altar remains in the larger chapel. 

The south aisle of the presbytery, or St. John the Bap- 
tist's Chapel, has traces of the fine arcading all round its 
walls, and the base of the altar remains detached from 
the wall. This is of later date than the building, since 
the floor-level has been so much raised that the base of 
the arcading is buried. 

The presbytery has a square ending, and there are 
traces of the two steps leading up to the high altar, while 
only a small portion of the base (of rubble masonry) of the 
altar itself still remains. There is a broken sepulchral 
vault on the south side, measuring 6 ft. by 2 ft. 2 ins. in- 
ternally ; while on the outside a stone coffin, without a 
lid, has been found close to the exterior south wall. 1 It 
has been, very properly, not disturbed, nor has the vault 
been cleared out. 

Leaving the church, the slype is met with, adjoining 
the south transept. The external door of the slype has 
trace of a circular, central shaft roughly put into the posi- 
tion indicated. 

The chapter house is in a ruined state ; but traces re- 
niaiii of a wall-seat around the western portion, while 
there are indications of a raised floor-level to form a dais 
at the eastern part ; but here a large mass of plaster floor- 
ing covers the position most probably occupied by the 
eastern wall. The rough opening from the garden proves 
to be the western entrance into the chapter house. 

The calefactory, or day-room, extends southwards from 
the passage. It has been a fine apartment, divided into 
bays by a central range of circular columns, and vaulted 
through its whole extent. This is sufficiently proved, not 
only by traces of the actual line of the vaulting at the 
south-west, and by one of the corbels there remaining, 

1 The coffin contained a skeleton, pronounced by Dr. Beverley to be 
that oi i female. 


but by a great number of the vaulting-ribs found in the 
excaval ions. These are ehaml'ered only, ;iik1 have belonged 
most probably to Pointed rather than to semicircular 
arches. The floor appears to have been of mortar only. 
Above this long apartment, and also the chapter house, 
was the imiis' dormitory, whence the stairs already refer- 
red to, leading into the church. 

The foundations of the south range of buildings are 
completely hidden by the flower-beds, etc., of the present 
garden. Hero would have been the refectory, the kitchen, 
etc., and also, by fairly usual arrangement, the Abbess's 
house at the south- west corner. 

The plan shews four buttress-like projections at the 
south-west end of the outer wall of the day-room. These 
consist of return quoins projecting from the wall; and 
there is nothing, therefore, to prove them to be buttresses. 
From their being continuous from base to as high as the 
wall remains (about 10 ft.), they have more the appear- 
ance of being the commencement of walls. I am inclined 
to consider them as such, and to recognise in them the 
commencement of the southern range of buildings. An- 
other reason tends to the same conclusion. From the south 
wall of the church to their commencement is 118 ft. 3 ins., 
which would be the size, from north to south, of the 
cloister-space, now (as we have seen) occupied by Mr. Til- 
lett's garden. From the west face of the eastern range of 
buildings i o the eastern face of the guest-hall is 1 2 7 ft. 3 ins. 
This would give very nearly a perfect square for the pro- 
portion of the cloister-court, supposing that the cloisters 
had gone quite up to it, which is hardly probable. Any 
less amount would bring their plan more nearly to the 
usual plan of a perfect square. Should the fragment of 
foundation shewn on plan prove to be the south-west 
angle of the outer walk of the cloisters, it would make 
the plan a parallelogram with its largest side from north 
to south. We may, therefore, fairly well conclude that 
the inference is a correct one with respect to the position 
of the walls of the south range of buildings. 

The evidences of the excavations prove that the build- 
ing lias been set out according to general ride ; and that 
although this has been a nunnery rather than a monas- 
tery, yet that the arrangements of the latter buildings 


have been maintained. This is valuable archaeological 
evidence, thanks for which are certainly due to Mr. Col- 
man for the labour and expense he has devoted to obtain- 
ing it. It is the more valuable since we have so few other 
ground-plans of nunneries, and know so little of their 
arrangements. I may add that Norfolk and Suffolk have 
furnished many ground-plans of monasteries, such as 
Castle Acre, Bromham, Walsingham, etc., several being 
the results of painstaking research ; but hitherto no nun- 
nery has been investigated. 

The style of the architecture would lead us to suppose 
that the work now revealed was begun some time after 
the date given for the foundation in 1146. It is semi- 
Norman in character, admirably designed and executed. 
The mouldings are neatly worked. There is an abundance 
of angle-shafts with bases, many of the latter being in 
the cushion form of earlier Norman capitals : indeed, were 
some of them found detached, they would be supposed to 
be caps rather than bases. They are here in position, so 
there is no doubt as to their appropriation. The design 
of the east end has been one of three windows in as many 
compartments, as is attested by the interesting fragment 
of the east end now uncovered. The nature of the wall- 
arcading, which appears to have gone around the whole 
of the church alike, is well shewn by the portion of the 
south transept and south aisle now revealed to view. The 
massive piers of the crossing attest that there was a cen- 
tral tower, and the arrangement of very large, attached, 
segmental shafts, and others of much smaller size, is well 
shewn by the portions found ; while the south aisle of the 
church is of the same date as the eastern part. The 
nave-arcade was somewhat later, if we may judge by the 
very elegant base of the south-east pier that remains. 
We may accept this as evidence that the church was 
1 legun at the east, and carried on slowly towards the west, 
the nave being, therefore, somewhat later in date and 
style. The walls are constructed with a rough core of 
flint masonry, faced on the exterior with fairly well knob- 
bled but not squared flint, with a liberal use of wrot 
freestone for the dressings and quoins. The stone is very 
varied, for we find Caen, Barnack, and Clipstone stone and 
chinch in profusion; the appearance of Caen stone being 

Carrow Priory Norwich 

Fig: 4-. 

1. S-W. Respond out junctujn 
,1 South rial* ojub South/ 

2. Shaft in the /Jay Room, 

3. -Base of Column, of SoutJi. cusle „ ■ 2^t^^v^t;^ 

of JVctve, Eust side. 

Fig: 5. 

4 <S.£. pi«/* of tA* Centra) 

5. J3a£es on .S. «u2e of 
Prtsbytry. showing first 
step to Altar space,. 

6. $.£. angle- of Prcsbytry 

J Akerman Photo-Lith London WC 


accounted for by the ease of water-carriage with Nor- 
mandy. The other buildings agree as to style, there 
being but few apparent signs of work of later date, except 
the guest-hall, the rough brick division- walls, and some 
fragments of fifteenth century window-tracery, the steps 
to the eastern building, etc. 

There are a few masons' marks; and from the same mark 
occurring again and again, we may, perhaps, conclude, but 
it is uncertain evidence, that a small number of men was 
employed continuously rather than a greater number for 
a shorter time. 

Traces of alteration of the floor-level are apparent, and 
at the east end both altars have the foundation of their 
pavements laid on the older one; while these new founda- 
tions are so deep as to raise the levels above the original 
stone plinth of the walls, which is thus buried. A piece 
of neatly worked shaft is used as old material in the 
rough base of St. Catharine's altar. This latter stands 
away from the wall. St. Catharine's altar has a piscina 
at the south-east angle of the wall near it. 

The floors generally are formed of reddish brown and 
yellow tiles, laid diagonally in some cases ; but only one 
portion of a pattern-tile was met with. This was stamped 
in relief, a reddish brown in colour, and glazed. 

There is a curious niche in the west wall of the south 
transept, which on being opened was found to have its 
walls plastered, the floor being a little lower than that of 
the church. It had been bricked up for a short portion 
of its height, and this part filled with clay. Immediately 
in the line of the north wall of St. John the Baptist's 
Chapel two cesspool-like pits were met with. Their posi- 
tion is singular, and their neat plaster lining shewed that 
much pains had been taken in their formation. They 
were found to be filled with dry rubbish. The wall con- 
taining them has the appearance of being the north wall 
of the chapel, of later date than the rest, since the founda- 
tions of another wall, parallel with it, had been found, 
shewing that the chapel was originally at least of the 
same size, or nearly so, as that on the south side. The 
appearance of the pits fully justifies the belief that they 
were external to the chapel, although no other walls have 
been noted. They are hardly of post-Reformation date, 


or the wall would have some fragments of removed stone- 
work in its material. 

There are several curious steps east of this chapel, noted 
on the plan, part of a little room ; while farther to the 
east, and away from the buildings, is a well 36 ft. deep, 
partly cut through solid chalk. 

There is a division-wall, not to be accounted for, at the 
south-west end of the nave ; while at the east end of 
the north transept is another, diagonal in its course, and 
not explainable by any requirements of the building known 
to me. The base of the rood-loft was met with between 
the two western piers of the central tower, going across, 
and thus forming the termination of the nave. The return- 
wall on the south side, for the choir-stalls, filled up in 
like manner the arch into the south transept. Both these 
walls were of later elate than the main building. 

The diagonal cutting away of the moulded base of the 
south-east pier of the central tower is a curious feature. 
On one of the face-stones is a sort of "cat's cradle" scratched 
on the stone by an idle hand. This work is evidently of 
old date. Traces of colouring, of very bright colours, still 
remain on many of the moulded stones that have been 

The indications of the west front of the church are not 
very apparent; nor is the age of the thin wall found out- 
side the church, a short distance beyond it. The latter 
has evidently helped to form a portion of a chamber at 
the south-west, probably the locutory ; and there is every 
appearance of the west front being curtailed from the 
position originally intended for it. While we may accept 
the fragment of walling shewn as evidence of the position 
of the west front, yet it will be noticed that the older 
south aisle wall and its arcading extend quite up to the 
thin western wall, beyond the block of masonry, and 
through what I have called the locutory. It would, there- 
fore, appear that the nave had never been built so long- 
as had been originally intended. The fragment of the 
west front has an external plinth of thirteenth century 
work, which on examination proves to be that of an octa- 
gonal buttress. It is somewhat displaced in position, but 
it is in a solid mass. 

There are traces of a small building, with the chamfered 


jambs of a doorway, to the north-east of the church, just 
at the commencement of the sloping ground, which has 
been called locally "The Ancorage", since it has been thus 
so far opened. Other foundations, of more extensive 
character, exist east of the chapter house, inclined, and 
not at right angles to the other walls. These have proved 
to be two side-walls parallel to one another, as if of an 
apartment 42 ft. wide. I assign this as the position of 
the nuns' school, as being the most probable from its prox- 
imity to the day room, and the evident convenience in 
relation to all the other buildings. It is approached by 
the brick steps already noticed, which are much worn, the 
level being higher than that of the day room. 

The small building opening from the passage is a neces- 
sarium, and there is a flue beside it. The back of the 
chapter house has been the cemetery, since many traces 
of interments have been found. 

Far away to the south-east, at the angle of the field 
where it joins some apparent traces of what was probably 
the boundary-wall, there are other foundations. These pro- 
bably indicate the site of some of the domestic buildings. 

On the north side of the nave, externally, a cross-wall 
has been found, in a line with the inexplicable wall across 
the south aisle. It has at its extremity an oval pit, 
strongly built in brick, domed over, and plastered inter- 
nally, as if for storage of water; and adjoining it is another, 

There has been a circular newel-staircase in the east 
angle of the slype, filled in with later work. This was 
probably the original staircase from the nuns' dormitory 
prior to the curtailment of the south transept for the 
later one. 

One of the graves to the east of the chapter house has 
a Purbeck marble slab with a floriated cross in relief. 

The thin cross- wall in a line with the west front, form- 
ing the east w T all of the supposed locutory, is not bonded 
into, but is built against the plastered face of the older 
south aisle- wall. The workmanship is even later than the 
fragment of the west front. The doorway in the south 
wall from the cloisters has been built up in old times, pro- 
bably when the apartment was formed. It was intended 
for use for the extended nave, and not for the apartment. 


The fragment of walling in the south-west angle of the 
cloister-space (in Mr. Tillett's garden) has the angle neatly 
dressed with brickwork ; while the south-east face and 
the ends are plastered like inside work, the south-west 
side looks like outside work. It is a curious fragment. 
Other foundations can be seen beneath the gardens, in 
dry weather, by the different colour of the grass. 

The question of the extension of the nave westward, 
beyond the fallen mass, appears to be definitely settled 
by the most recent of the excavations. The wall of the 
north aisle was traced to its end, and found to extend no 
farther westward than the position shewn, in a line with 
the fallen mass. 

The site of one of the gateways of the Priory has been 
found by Mr. King to the north-west of the church, close 
to the present cottages. Nothing remained above ground ; 
but he has found a Sight of steps leading to a small base- 
ment ; some of the walls being of rubble-work, added to, 
in later years, in brick. A curious vault, 8 ft. 4 ins. by 
4 ft. 3 ins., with circular corners, has also been met with, 
the surface being plastered on hard chalk; while the floor 
was paved with brick, 12 ins. below the level of the floor 
of another vault. 

The plan has been prepared with very great care by 
Mr. King, and may be relied on. In ordinary circum- 
stances we find some rule observed with respect to the 
setting out of the building, and some system of relative 
proportion may be traced. I confess myself at a loss to 
speak of any such system here. The piers of the chancel 
are close together, while the aisles are narrow in regard 
to their length. Taking the square of the central tower- 
piers as the " key-note", so to speak, the chancel is 3j 
squares in length to 1 in width; but the aisles are not 
governed by any such law, nor can it be extended either 
to transepts or nave. The south aisle of the chancel is 
one half of such a square in width, always measuring from 
centre to centre of walls; but this does not extend to the 
old line of the north aisle. The chancel pier-shafts are 
also irregular in width from one to the other. 

The dimensions are as follow : extreme length from east 
to west, within walls, 175 ft. 9 ins.; width of nave and 
aisles, 53 ft. 3 ins.; width of chancel from centre of the 

ANCIENT SEAL of car-row nuukery 


aden matrix of the seal of Carrow, of which the 
liberality of Mr, Fitch has here supplied a full size 
engraving, is now in his possession. Mr. Fitch says :-- 
'It was found among the debris of St. Paul's church, 
Norwich, at the time of the reparation of that building 
in 1841. It is pointed oval, and represents the B.V. 
Mary crowned, seated on a throne, holding our Saviour 
on the knees and a sceptre fleury in the hand, with 
the inscription, + S. SANCTE MARIE IUXTA 
NORWICV. The reverse has in the centre a slightly 
elevated ridge, still preserving some remains of the 
handle whereby it was used. A more remarkable 
seal in point of style and execution is perhaps no- 
where to be found. The extreme coarseness and rude- 
ness of this seal are as deserving of attention as the 
opposite qualities of elegance and care and beauty. What 
most approaches to this is the seal of the Abbey of 
Wilton, a seal by no means equally curious in its bearings, 
but still so much so, that the late Mr. Douce presented a 
■ Ira wing of it, accompanied with a dissertation, to the 
Society of Antiquaries, by whom it was published in the 
ArchcBoloffia, vol. xviii. Mr. Douce considered hi 
justified in referring that seal to the time of Edgar, thus 
giving it a priority in point of date over nearly all others. 
A similar claim cannot be preferred in behalf of the seal 
here represented ; for, though it be still more rude in the 
figures of the Virgin and Child, who are seen in profile, 
yet the shape of the letters is far from indicating the 
same period, while its pointed oval outline equally forbids 
so great antiquity, and the monastery to which it is sup- 
posed to have belonged was not founded till the time of 
Stephen. In his reign, or later, the seal most probably 
had its existence. The Virgin's crown accords with that 
worn by Henry I, as figured in Strutt's Reg. and Eccle. . 
Antiq., p. 101, pi. LI. Her sceptre resembles that borne 
by William II, p. 7, pi. IV. For the netted head dress 
it would not be easy to find an equally satisfactory pro- 
totype. The- author quoted figures none prior to the 
fourteenth century, for which time he gives an example, 
in his Ureases and Habits, pi. xcvn. ; but Willemm in- 
troduces in his Miiiiiniieiis Im'dits, vol. i, p. 61, pi. CI, a 
female figure holding a child, with her hair similarly 
confined, copied from a MS. in the Royal Library, Paris, 
of the year 1291." 


eastern tower-piers to the inner face of the east wall, 
65 ft. 6 ins. ; width of chancel, 23 ft. ; width of south 
chapel, 11 ft. 10 ins.; south transept, from centre of tower- 
pier to inner face of south wall, 44 ft. 6 ins. ; width of 
south transept from wall to wall, 22 ft. 9 ins. ; width of 
north transept, 23 ft.; width of chapter house, 22 ft.; 
length (about), 42 ft.; day-room, 95 ft. long, and 22 ft. 9 ins. 
wide. The axis of the presbytery is the same as that of 
the nave. The oval cesspool is 6 ft. G ins. deep ; that next 
it, 7 ft. 6 ins. Of those by the presbytery, the western is 
10 ft. 6 ins.; and the centre, 12 ft. deep. 

The whole of the works of excavation have been super- 
intended by Mr. A. S. King on Mr. Colman's behalf, and 
have been watched over with considerable care. Among 
the numerous articles found have been a large quantity 
of semi-Norman carved and moulded stones ; several small 
capitals of early thirteenth century date ; an iron ring, 
chain, and a bolt attached to it ; several fragments of 
stained glass and of fifteenth and sixteenth century stone- 
ware pottery ; several pieces of delft, gres de Flandres, 
and combed ware ; a silver penny of Henry Y, a Nuren- 
berg token; a portion of a cable-moulding made of cement; 
iron keys, a knife ; and, fitting in this feminine establish- 
ment, a brass thimble and a large pair of shears. Among 
the fragments were a bone pin of Roman date, a small 
ring cut out of solid bronze, and a Saxon amber bead. A 
bronze, flower-like ornament (part, probably, of some crest- 
ing), of mediaeval date, was also found. In one of the 
wells a pair of spurs was found, and a large hand-millstone. 

It will be heard with interest that it is Mr. Colman's 
intention to preserve, open to view, the most interesting 
of the portions of the buildings met with, and to arrange 
the architectural fragments also for inspection. 


Prorrrtmujs of tlje (JToncjress, 

{Continued from p. 88.) 

TnunsDAT, August 25, 1881. 

Tuesday and "Wednesday were especially clays for the lovers of church 
architecture. Thursday was the day for domestic architecture. Unfor- 
tunately the weather turned out wet and cheerless. The start was 
fixed for ten o'clock ; but, in the hope of the weather clearing up, it 
was delayed till eleven. Things had not much improved by that time, 
and after consultation, the party divided, a small contingent coming on 
afterwards, and joining the main body at Birt's Morton. 

On the road to Birt's Morton the first party in some way became 
divided. Castle Morton was passed by one of the brakes. The occu- 
pants, however, did not alight. The Rev. C. E. D. Fox kindly came 
out, and gave a little information. The fine old Norman doorway and 
the pretty spire were much admired. Near the church an immense 
mound, " The Tump", surrounded by entrenchments, marks the site of 
the castle which gave a name to the village. 

As the carriages halted in front of Birt's Moi'ton Court, the imagin- 
ation was carried back most vividly to olden times. There were the 
old timbers and massive chimneys, and strong foundations girt about 
with the broad moat with its green duckweed. A bridge spans the 
moat, beneath the massive, embattled gateway. 

The church was first inspected. This is more remai'kable for two or 
three curiosities than for its architecture. The Rector, the Rev. R. Pil- 
son, pointed out the objects of interest. On the modern door is fast- 
ened an old ring, to which the hand of the outlaw, the deer-stealer, or 
the murderer, may have clung many a time in the days when the 
forest-laws were strictly carried out in Malvern Chase. If the fugitive 
could only reach the church, and clasp the ring, he was safe from the 
fury of the chief ranger of the forest. Just inside the church is an 
alms-box, made of solid wood, formerly fastened to the churchwardens' 
pew. Probably it was placed there immediately after the Reformation, 
in the transept is the altar-tomb monument to Sir John Nanfan, 


Esquire of the Body to Henry VI. Sir John was buried at Tewkes- 
bury. One of the effigies in the side-compartment formerly had near 
it the inscription, " Dame Lygon." 

After looking at the church the archaeologists went across the farm- 
yard to the Court House. Here, by Mr. Bevan's kindness, the party 
assembled in the oak dining-hall, where the Rev. W. S. Symonds, that 
unrivalled masterof Worcestershire folk-lore, was waiting to receive 
them. Birt's Morton Court, close by (now a farmhouse), as seen in the 
rain, was the ideal of the dreary, moated grange, — a group of build- 
ings in stone and brick, surrounded by a moat completely coated with 
duckweed, and approached from a muddy farmyard by a stone bridge. 
This bridge is faced by a fourteenth century stone gateway having a 
more modern brick battlement; and beyond an inner courtyard is the 
house, a low timber and stone structure, now inhabited by the farmer. 
The chief room has oak-panelled walls and a massive fireplace, all well 
carved, and enriched with shields of arms. Above is an elaborate, 
beamed, and plastered ceiling in hexagonal panels. In this room the 
Rev. W. S. Symonds, F.G.S., read a paper, in which he said that this 
village of Brute Morton, standing in the woodlands of Malvern Chace, 
was one of those mentioned in Domesday. The family of Birts or De 
Brutes lived here in the reign of Edward I ; and at a subsequent period 
tradition asserted that Owen Glendower, who married one of the 
daughters of Birt, used to visit the family, disguised as a shepherd ; 
and a so called secret chamber formed in the thickness of the wall at 
the back of the house, and looking into the moat, still existed, now 
used as a cupboard. Sir John Oldcastle, also connected with the Birts, 
was concealed here. The house afterwards came, by marriage, to the 
Nanfans, a Cornish family, who lived here in the fifteenth, sixteenth, 
and seventeenth centuries ; and the statesman, the Right Hon. William 
Huskisson, was born in the house, his father being then a farmer and 
churchwarden of the parish. This room contained a great number of 
shields bearing the arms and quarterings of the families with whom 
the Nanfans married. 

Mr. E. P. Loftus Brock pronounced the present house, although 
occupying an ancient site, to date no further back than the time of 
Sir John Nanfan of Henry VI's household. The beautiful, panelled 
ceiling was Elizabethan, and more recent than the beams which crossed 
it ; and since it was cut away at the edges to admit the oak cornice, 
it was evident that the wainscoting was more recent ; and, indeed, was 
somewhat later than the Jacobean mantelpiece. Very similar carving, 
dated 1634, was seen the previous day in a house in Church Lane, 
Ledbury. Mr. Symonds and others urged that the arms must have 
been gradually carved as new alliances took place ; but Mr. Brock held 
that, as at the present day, the whole series was done to order at one 


time, about two centuries ago. The evidence of relative dates of wall- 
ing and ceiling, fixed by the cutting away of the latter, appeared on 
examination indisputable. 

Upstairs, the beams of what was once the hall, and some more 
armorial bearings, were seen ; and in an upper room of an outer build- 
ing next to the entrance-gateway (now used as a cheese-room), a plas- 
tered ceiling divided into hexagonal and other panels, containing 
fleurs-de-lis, was seen. 

Rain fell heavily as the party drove through the pretty country 
lying between Birt's Morton Court and Payne's Place, the next halting- 
place. This house is at once interesting as a beautiful specimen of our 
domestic architecture, and as the hiding-place of Margaret of Anjou 
after the battle of Tewkesbury. The Rector of Bushley was away from 
home. In his absence the Rev. J. M. Guilding received the visitors, 
and read from an account of the house and its history, published by 
Mr. Dowdeswell. The Eev. J. M. Guilding explained that this house 
was built in 1450 by Martin Payne, a merchant in the neighbouring 
town of Tewkesbury. Its chief interest was, that after the battle of 
Tewkesbury, fought in 1171 (soon after it was finished), Queen Mar- 
garet of Anjou, finding that her husband's cause was hopeless, and her 
troops dispersed and slain, committed herself to the care of two monks, 
who conducted her to Bushley, where Thomas Payne and his wife 
came out, and entreated the Queen to stay all night. Next day the 
Queen went on to Worcester. 

The old house was inspected with much curiosity. Its chief feature 
is the hall, which was formerly open to the roof. Mr. Dowdeswell 
supposes that the house was built about 1450, and that the present 
bed-room floor was inserted in the hall about a hundred years after. 
In the sixteenth century a family named Stratford was settled at 
Payne's Place. The sitting-room on the ground-floor of the east wing 
was then decorated ; and close under the ceiling, on a white ground 
enclosed with a framework, ran couplets of verse. These were covered 
up, for many years, by plaster. Two of them have been saved, and 
run as follow : 

" To lyve as wee shoulde alwayes dye, it were a goodly trade ; 
To change lowe Deathe for lyfe so hye, no better change is made ; 
For all our worldly thynges are vayne ; in them there is no truste ; 
Wee se all states awhile remayne, and then they turn to duste." 

More than two hundred years ago Payne's Place was bought by Mr. 
Richard Dowdeswell, and it has continued to be owned by the same 
family ever since. 

Canon Winnington Ingram asked what grounds there were for the 
statement with respect to the Queen's visit, to which Mr. Guilding 


replied, tradition had always associated the room on the first floor with 
the Queen ; and the position agreed exactly with the historical narra- 
tive, — on the opposite side of the Severn to the battlefield, and not 
two miles' distance from it. 

Canon Ingram replied that Margaret was said to have fled to a reli- 
gious house. Had this been identified with any establishment? It 
was replied, it had not ; but there was no monastery in the neighbour- 

Mr. Guihling also shewed the Parish Register, brought from the 
(rebuilt) parish church of Bushley, which dates from 1538, and con- 
tains the entry of the burial, in 1510, of Edward Tyndall, brother of 
William, the martyred translator of the Bible. On the upper floor 
was seen the modernised Queen's room, looking upon Tewkesbury 
Abbey, the Severn, and the battlefield ; and in another bedroom and 
in a passage, the high-pitched beams of the former hall, and part of 
the front of the minstrels' gallery. 

After luncheon in Moss House, Pull Park, a modern picnicing 
kiosque belonging to Mr. Dowdeswell, the carriages were resumed, 
through Ipton and Hanley, to Severn End, the ancient seat of the 
Lechmere family, where a halt was made. In the principal apart- 
ment, the dining-room, the Rev. T. W. Wood, Vicar of Eldersfield, on 
behalf of Sir Edmund Lechmere, M.P., welcomed the members, and 
read a historical paper on the house, which he said occupied a spot 
that had, with one interval of forty years, been the residence of the 
Lechmeres from the time of their arrival from Brittany or Holland 
with the Conqueror. The house, as they saw it, was added to by 
Nicholas Lechmere, a judge of Charles IPs time, from whose Diary one 
could trace the whole progress of the work. Nicholas was the third 
son, and the heir, of Edmund Lechmere and Margaret, the daughter 
of Sir Thomas Overbury. He was born in 1613, and in 1641 began 
the alterations and additions which transformed the house, erecting on 
the south or riverward side new rooms, and then garden-walls. In 
1656 he planted an avenue of elms at the back; and in 1671 built a 
study at the south-west corner of the garden, which was restored by 
Sir E. Lechmere in 1861. In 1673 he contracted with John Avenon 
to build him north and south pi'ojecting wings to the house for .£250, 
making an entry in the Diary, " How this shall he performed, time 
will show", — a misgiving afterwards confirmed by the added note, 
"He failed in all thiugs." In April 1701 Judge Lechmere died, aged 
eighty-eight. His favourite studies, as shewn by some large chests of 
books still preserved, were medicine and divinity. Sir Nicholas was 
buried at twelve o'clock at night, without a coffin. His descendants 
continued at Severn End till early in the present century, when the 
head of the family sold the property, which was repurchased in 1855 
1882 13 


by the father of the present Sir E. Lechmere. It was now furnished 
as a museum, and inhabited by the steward. 

The members then went over the house, examining the specimens of 
armour, china, and Etruscan ware, minerals, autographs, etc., with 
which it is furnished, and also the small but valuable library. The 
rooms have highly ornamental ceilings, but are very low. The main 
staircase has a disproportionately large newel and very narrow treads. 
It was remarked that the floors are of elm, beeswaxed and polished, cut 
from very wide planks, the average being over a foot. 

One of the party not unnaturally observed that he could not have 
believed that such a house as Severn End was in existence at all. It 
is indeed a charming specimen of the mingled architecture of the 
Tudor and Stuart periods. Gables, windows, doors, water-spouts, are 
all in their way perfect. 

The Rev. T. W. Wood pointed out that Severn End was a modern 
name for the house. Before the civil wars it was known as Lechmere's 
Place. Some people had supposed that the Lechmere family came 
from the Low Countries at the time of the Norman Conquest. Another 
theory, to which the present Baronet leaned, was that the family came 
from Brittany. In the Breton dialect, lech stood for love, and mere for 
mother. This harmonised with the Lechmere symbol of a pelican 
feeding her young. It was certain that the Norman Conqueror assigned 
a domain to one of the family, who built a house on the spot where 
they were assembled. 

Mr. Wood described the various rooms of the house, and stated that 
although the present owner did not reside there permanently, he 
delighted in keeping up the old place where his ancestors lived and 
died. He mentioned that Bishop Bonner was born close by, and was 
maintained at Oxford by Thomas Lechmere. Bonner, though he per- 
secuted to the death, had at least the virtue of gratitude, and requited 
the kindness shewn to him in his youth. The various rooms in the 
house, including the museum formed by the present Baronet, were 
then inspected. 

At the evening meeting, at Malvern College, papers were read by 
Mr. C. H. Compton " On the Antiquity of the Game of Golf", and by 
the Rev. W. S. Lach-Szyrma " On some Records of a Cornish Borough"; 
those of Marazion, or Market Jew, in which the author urged the 
desirability of having those interesting historical documents examined, 
edited, and published. 


Friday, August 26, 

Was spent in a group of places near Kidderminster, the arrange- 
ments having been made by Mr. John Brinton, M.P., who personally 
conducted the party. 

The members arrived at Kidderminster by special train, about 
10 a.m., and were 1'eceived in the new Town Hall (built in 187G, from 
the designs of Mr. J. T. Meredith, in Renaissance style) by Mr. Brin- 
ton, who introduced them to the Mayor (Mr. Willis) in full robes, and 
the members of the Corporation. Upon the table were displayed a 
number of municipal documents ; and the Mayor, in welcoming the 
visitors, mentioned that till the previous day no one in Kidderminster 
knew whether any old MSS. existed, other than a charter granted by 
Charles II, and some very modern ones ; but the night before, the 
assistant town clerk, in searching through some old papers in prepara- 
tion for the Congress, found a paper parcel which when opened proved 
to contain a number of valuable documents now laid before them. He 
feai'ecl time would not permit of detailed examination that day ; but 
after the Congress the Mayor's parlour would be at the service of any 
members of the Association if they would examine and report on the 

Mr. Brinton, M.P., referred to this fortuitous coincidence as a tan- 
gible proof of the benefits accruing to towns through the visits of 
archaeological societies, by inducing the inhabitants to search for and 
treasure their links with past history. The old and valuable charters 
belonging to the Corporation, uncared for and forgotten, in drawers 
and cupboards, having been once brought to light, will probably be 
arranged by competent hands. He then read a historical paper de- 
scriptive of the borough. Anciently known as Chiderminster, the 
earliest mention of the town was in the eighth century, when Cuuibert 
received a parcel of land of that name from Ethelred, King of the West 
Angles, for a monastery, an establishment utterly demolished by the 
Danes a century later, and of which no traces remained. In 1164 the 
church was given by Manser de Biset for the founding of a hospital 
for female lepers at Maiden Bradley, Wilts., and so continued till the 
Dissolution, in 1538. The manor was at the Conquest the property of 
the King, but was granted by Henry II to the above named Manser 
de Biset ; and it successively passed through the hands of the Beau- 
champs, Nevilles of Bergavenny, Blounts, Waller the poet, the Foleys, 
to the family of Ward and Dudley. The Manor House, near the 
parish church, was sold by the poet Waller, its possessor and occupant, 
to escape from difficulties with the Parliament, and was at the present 

13 -a 


moment unroofed, and about to be removed for tbe extension of the 
church schools. There was near the town a sandstone tower of Cald- 
well Castle, erected about the time of Edward III, and attached to it 
a residence rebuilt about the beginning of the eighteenth century. 
There was also a mount, which, together with the Castle, played an 
important part in the last civil war, although it was uncertain whether 
the mount was erected in connection with, or to command, the Castle. 
The manufactures of the town dated back to the thirteenth century, 
and woollen goods and serge were made from that time till the 
eighteenth century. In the year 1710 the manufacture of carpets was 
surreptitiously brought here from Wilton, where it had been imported 
from Flanders ; and it had since become the staple trade, and sup- 
ported an increasing population. 

Mr. E. P. Loftus Brock said that on the table wei'e three old charters 
having fine seals, much injured by rough usage, granted by Henry VIII 
(in 1530), Elizabeth, and Charles I ; the first reciting previous charters 
of Henry VI, Henry II, and Richard II, not now known to exist ; the 
latter incorporating the borough. 

In reply to a question from Sir J. A. Picton, as to whether the estab- 
lishment of the carpet trade was not prior to 1713, the Town Clerk of 
Much Wenlock said that Corporation possessed a deed dated 1687, 
being a formal transfer from the outgoing to the incoming high bailiff, 
of a "carpet from Kidderminster for the Council Chamber", as the 
first of numerous items. 

The Mayor also exhibited a copy of Richard Baxter's Saints' Ever- 
lasting Rest, dated 1651, containing the autograph presentation from 
the author to the high bailiff and burgesses ; a silver-gilt loving-cup of 
late Elizabethan date, with an inscription shewing it to have been 
enlarged in 1623 ; aud two querns found in 1879, in Church Street, 
very similar to those of Roman date. 

The members then perambulated the town, seeing the statues to 
Richard Baxter in the Bull Ring, and to Sir Rowland Hill opposite 
the Corn Exchange ; the one unveiled in 1875, the other a few weeks 
since. Both are by Mr. Brock the sculptor, who is a native of Wor- 
cester. They are executed in white statuary marble, and are heroic in 
scale. Baxter's House (now a confectioner's shop) has no intrinsic 
interest ; but also in Coventry Street, beneath an inn, is a large, vaulted 
crypt, apparently mediaeval in character, which has been traced for 
35 yards, and is, as usual elsewhere, said to extend to the church, about 
half a mile off, although no vestige of it or of an entrance is known to 
exist there. It is of red brick, having moulded jambs to some of the 
openings, and late fifteenth century in date. 

In the vestry of a Unitarian Chapel, the pulpit formerly in St. Mary's 
Church, and used by Richard Baxter till the passing of the Uniformity 


Act, was seen. It is of oak, has a huge sounding-board, and is carved 
with stiff roses, pomegranates, and foliage, agreeing well with the date 
over the crown at the head, 1623. On the edge of the sounding-board 
is a quotation from the Psalms ; and on the panels is carved, " The 
gift of Alice Dawkx, widow." In 1785, at the "restoration" of the 
parish church, this interesting memorial was sold, with a quantity of 
pewing, for £5, to a townsman, who presented it to the Chapel 

The parish church of St. Mary and All Saints was next visited. It 
is chiefly of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and has been re- 
faced externally, with the exception of the tower at the south-west 
angle, which is of crumbling red sandstone. The panelled battlements 
of the clerestories have been coated, during some restoration, with 
cement. Projecting from the east end, and connected with it by a 
vestry, is a large Perpendicular chantry chapel, founded by Simon 
Ryse, and till recently used as the grammar school. In this room the 
Vicar, Canon Boyle, read a paper in which he stated that there was a 
church built on this site before 1100, by John Niger ; but no traces of 
it were known to exist, except, perhaps, the concrete core of the tower. 
The oldest visible part of the church was the north side of the chancel, 
in Middle Pointed stjde ; next to it the tower ; aud then the nave, 
which was in the Third Pointed style. It was repewed under Johnson, 
of Worcester, in 1785, and restored in 1847, and again in 1872 and 
1877. In this chantry the Vicar shewed a carved chair of Jacobean 
character, said to have belonged to Richard Baxter, having the names 
of Baxter and two of his friends cut upon the back. Some doubt was 
thrown upon its authenticity ; not lessened when it transpired that the 
relic was recently picked up in a London dealer's shop. 

The members then went into the church, seeing on the way the 
oolitic shaft of the old cross, the head of which was destroyed during a 
riot in Baxter's time. On the north side of the chancel were shewn 
the marks traditionally said to have been caused by cannon during the 
last civil wars. Some amusement was occasioned by the Mayor's ex- 
claiming that this must be a mistake, as he helped to make the holes 
himself, when a lad, by throwing weavers' leaden balls against the 
church. The arcades, columns, clerestories, windows, were all seen to 
be in the Perpendicular style, well developed. There is a large stained 
glass west window by O'Connor, and a new reredos containing a repre- 
sentation of the Last Supper, designed by Mr. W. Jeffrey Hopkins, 
Worcester, and executed by Messrs. Boulton, Cheltenham. On the 
north pier, behind where Baxter's pulpit stood, has been recently found 
an appropriate quotation, in old English characters ; but Mr. R. Danks, 
of Worcester, remarked that the passage was not cited from the 
Authorised Version, and was, therefore, probably earlier than 101 1. 


The church contains several alabaster effigies and brasses, including 
amongst the former Lad}' Beauchamp (c. 1469) represented as lying, in 
ruff and mantle, under a canopied recess ; and several of similar charac- 
ter, but a century later, to members of the Blount family, — three of 
these lying in an out of the way corner at the south-west angle of the 
building. In the centre of the chancel is an unusually large and well 
wrought brass to Maude Saint Pierre and her successive husbands, 
Sir Walter Cooksley and Sir John Phelip. Colonel Bramble, of Bris- 
tol, in describing this memorial, mentioned that the costumes depicted 
were of very early fifteenth century, both the husbands wearing plate- 
armour and the collar of SS, the Lancastrian badge. The armour, as 
shewn especially by the elbow-pieces, was of two types, the second hus- 
band being the later. In a recess opposite, on the north wall of the 
chancel, were recumbent effigies of a knight and his wife, both in very 
similar attire to those just examined ; but indicating a still later type 
of armour by sixty or seventy years, in the addition of tuilles to the 
skirt of the taces. 

Mr. E. Piper called Colonel Bramble's attention to the fact that both 
brass and alabaster were believed, from inscriptions, to represent a 
lady and her second husband. Did the change in costume indicate 
that some mistake in identification had occurred? 

Colonel Bramble replied that this was not so. It illustrated the 
important principle in deciphering monuments, or, indeed, paintings 
or pictorial representations of any kind, that a mediaeval artist did not 
attempt to depict his subject, whether a person or building, in the 
garb actually worn, but in that which was in fashion when he executed 
his commission. Having again shewn the differences between the cos- 
tumes of brass and monument, he suggested that the order for the 
hitter was given some time after the brass had been laid down, and of 
course, in any case, to a different artist. 

The members then drove to Warshill Camp, an entrenched space on 
the summit of a hill in the Forest of Wyre, cut through by a roadway, 
and commanding a splendid view bounded by the Wrekin, the Hagley, 
and Lickcy Hills, the Cotswolds and Malverus, and the Radnor, Brecon, 
and Shropshire Hills. Here Mr. Brinton read a short paper, in which 
he stated that the trenches and ditches which still crowned the hill 
formed one of a series of strong earthworks (many of which were 
pointed out) defending the Saxon borderland against the Cymri or 
Welsh, whose great camp was at Maybary Hill, well in sight, to the 
south. This fort was second to none in position, being placed so as to 
command the valleys of the Severn, Teme, and Stour. 

Passii g through Wribbenhall, and over Telford's Bridge, to Bewd- 
ley, where were seen several half-timbered houses and a large and 
plain brick church of about the time of George II, the party went to 


Ribbesford Church, which although partially rebuilt, two years since, 
from the designs of Mr. Preedy of London, afforded an agreeable sur- 
prise. It is much too large for the present requirements of the little 
village; but is the mother church of Bewdley. It is cliielly of the 
fourteenth century ; but the south and west doorways are early Nor- 
man, and fragments adorned with chevron-carving are worked into the 
south wall. The south aisle is separated from the nave by massive 
oaken pillars and struts of the fourteenth century, while that to the 
north has curious stone piers nearly a century later in style, evidencing 
an intention to rebuild in stone. The roodloft stairs and doorway 
(partly concealed by a new memorial-brass) are not opposite, but 
between two pillars, and are in the south aisle-wall. The lectern is 
completely covered with flat Jacobean ornament, and seems contempo- 
rary with the south porch, which is dated 1G33. The rude Norman 
sculpture in the south doorway revived an old controversy as to its 
subject. It represents a man shooting with bow and arrow a four- 
footed creature of prodigious girth, and having spines on the back and 
a flat tail, while between runs a slender quadruped. This, Mr. Brinton 
said, had been described as an archer shooting a salmon and deer ; but 
Mr. E. Lees, of Worcester, said he regarded the " salmon" as a seal, 
and the deer as a greyhound ; and others took the former to be a 
beaver, or otter, or dragon. The general opinion was that it was a 
symbolical representation of "Pursued Man delivered from the Strong 
One by a Stronger." 

Mr, Brinton, Mr. Brock, and others, having described the church, 
the early Jacobean Ribbesford House was seen directly afterwards. It 
is of stone, with octagonal turrets at the entrance, covered with ogee 
cupolas, and is surrounded by a moat. It was formerly the residence 
of the Herberts of Cherbury. 

Areley King's Church is an unrestored structure having flat plaster- 
ceilings, open pews, and an unsightly west gallery. On the north is 
a walled-up Norman doorway of two tints of stone. The Rector, 
the Rev. J. P. H. Hastings, shewed in the chancel some singular epi- 
taphs, including one on a flat stone to one Walter Walsh, dated 1702, 
who was " ruinated by thre quackers, two lawers, and a fanatick to 
help them"; and in the churchyard a still more curious one. It con- 
sists of huge, new red sandstone-boulders, forming the boundary-wall 
overhanging a cliff, and inscribed, in letters a foot high, with the tri- 
lingual jumble, " Lithologema quare ? Reponitur Sir Harry." Till 
recently, the Rector said, this was a puzzle ; but the recent discovery 
and recovery of the ancient Parish Registers from a Tewkesbury soli- 
citor's had shewn that the old tradition was correct, that they marked 
the burial-place of the eccentric " Sur Harry Consby" or Coningsby, 
of Hampton Court, Herefordshire, who " was burried in wollin at 


midnight", in November 1701, near the wall lie had caused to be 

Mr. Brock pointed out that some elm-trees beyond the walls were 
breaking the inscribed stones of many tons weight, and would ulti- 
mate!}* overturn them ; but the Rector said he would not have the trees 
cut down in his clay. In the churchyard is also an immense hollow 
yew-tree, and a pillar sun-dial dated 1687. 

The Hermitage Caves, near the Stour, are deep recesses in the sand- 
stone cliffs, and vary from 10 to 20 feet high. They were probably 
formed by quarrying, and have been used at several periods, and again 
a few years since by persons of dubious antecedents. 

At Moor Hall, Stourport, the members were entertained by Mr. 
Brinton ; and in the after-dinner proceedings Sir James Picton referred 
to the rediscovery of the Kidderminster corporate records as the event 
of the Congress, and said that in the examination of municipal docu- 
ments a new field of archaeological research was just being opened up, 
which would hereafter probably throw new light on our towns' inner 
life and history. A good example had been set in the publication of 
extracts from the MSS. of Oxford city, which he trusted would soon 
be followed by Liverpool, and that other boroughs would endeavour to 
popularise the history buried in these muniments. The members then 
went over Mr. Brinton's residence, which is especially rich in land- 
scapes in oil and water-colours by English painters. 

At the evening meeting, Mr. T. Morgan, F.S.A., read a paper upon 
"Some Flowers of Chivalry and Fields of Rue, 1458-71 and 1642-57." 
Mr. E. H. Lingen Barker followed with one upon " Garway Church, 
Herefordshire", recently partially restored under the author's direc- 
tion. The church had, he said, two peculiarities, — a detached tower 
connected with the main fabric by a long, covered passage ; and a fine 
chancel-arch, which had been thought by some to be Saracenic in its 

Mr. E. P. Loftus Brock said the drawings shewed an ordinary Nor- 
man arch, with no suggestions of Oriental influence. 

Sir J. A. Picton said it was probable that the tower was erected as 
a defence against the Welsh, and that the church was a later addition. 

The Rev. J. R. Burton, F.G.S., read a third paper containing ex- 
tracts from the Parish Registers of Ribbesford, visited on Thursday, 
and from the chapel and bridgewardens' accounts of Bewdley. 


Saturday, August 27. 

This day was allotted for the examination of early earthworks, a 
priory, a church, and a modern and an old castle, lying a few miles 
south-west of Malvern. 

Little Malvern Priory, now the parish church of St. Giles and St. 
Mary, is a fragment of a Benedictine monastery church, consisting of 
central tower and chancel. The tower is Perpendicular, of four stages, 
abruptly capped by a modern high-pitched roof. Attached to the west 
face are responds and caps of transitional Norman columns with hol- 
low chamferings (c. 1180) ; and to the south of these Mr. E. P. Loftus 
Brock pointed out still earlier work (evidently that of the original 
foundation) in a plain, semicircular arch in the east wall of what had 
been the south transept. Beyond the south side of the chancel are 
ivy-clad piers and arches of a former aisle ; and on the north, Mr. J. 
Tom Burgess shewed that a broken flagstone has on it moss-covered, 
incised crosses in the centre and on the front edge ; where is also some 
Roman lettering, clearly proving this neglected fragment to be a 
former altar-slab, probably of the south chapel. Inside, the remarkable 
features are the remains of late fifteenth century stained glass in the 
east window ; the Perpendicular rood-screen and beam now dividing 
the quasi chancel from the nave ; an open oak structure crowned by 
pierced quatrefoil-stage, and solid, slightly overhanging cornice ; the 
latter convex, and carved with flowing vine-ornament, and a roll- 
member filled with roses; and the patterned tiles in the floor. The 
fenestration is at first sight a puzzle, as within debased Tudor arches 
in the side- walls are a lancet and flowing Decorated windows, while 
above are fifteenth century double clerestories : anomalies explained 
by the theory that Bishop Alcock in the rebuilding reset old lights in 
his new arches, which agree pretty nearly in style with his chapel at 
the east end of the south aisle in Ely Cathedral. The octagonal base 
of a column from the nave is reBxed in the present church to serve as 
a font ; and there are two walled-up hagioscopes, formerly looking into 
the chancel-aisles. The carved misereres of the stall-seats have been 
hacked off. 

Mr. Daniel Parsons read a scholarly paper in the little church, 
which, he said, like the others in the grand group of Great Malvern, 
Evesham, Pershore, Gloucester, Tewkesbury, and Worcester, was ori- 
ginally that of a Benedictine establishment, and was founded in 1125 
on a site described b} T Buck in the last century as " a dismal cavity 
between the Malvern Hills"; and the original grant was sigued by 
Simon, twenty-seventh Bishop of Worcester. It seemed to have been 


rebuilt in 1171-87 by Joscelin and Edred; and again greatly altered 
in the Decorated period, to which and to the Early Perpendicular the 
present remains belonged. In 1480, Bishop Alcock, of Worcester, 
found the discipline very lax, and dismissed the four monks; and after 
closing the Priory for two years, and rebuilding the church, he re- 
opened the establishment. It was dissolved in August 1534'. The site 
of the Monastery was granted by Philip and Mary to John Russell, 
descendant of one of the late King's secretaries, in whose family it 
remained till the present century, when it passed, in the female line, to 
the Beriugtons, the present possessors. The glory of the part of the 
church still left was the six-light Perpendicular east window, which 
still shewed a valuable series of Yorkist royal portraits. Beginning 
with the lowest pane to the south, and reading from left to right, there 
w r as a space w r e knew to have once contained Richard Duke of York, 
now filled by a kneeling figure of great beauty brought from some 
other window. Next was a full-length portrait of Edward V, who was 
murdered in the Tower, — a window preserved by the late Mr. Albert 
Way, who had it drawn, and then carefully releaded and replaced. 
The third should be Edward IV, now lost; then a full-length figure of 
Queen Elizabeth Woodville, wife of the last mentioned King, and the 
remains of an inscription ; and then four figures of ladies in one light, 
two of which were identified as the sisters Elizabeth of York and 
Katharine. Above, in the next small tier, were, first, two canopies ; 
then the head of the Almighty Father ; the body of a bishop with cro- 
zier and two sets of chains, the head being gone; and two blank 
spaces. In the head were the shields bearing the arms of Edward IV 
and of Edward V, diminished for eldest son, each supported on a 
compartment by two lions and two angels, — an unusually complete 
heraldic representation ; and another, the arms of Bishop Alcock. The 
tiles on the floor had full inscriptions, and one had been singularly 
misunderstood by the late Albert Way and John Gough Nicholls. 
Both of them regarded the motto, " Misereatur me ! Misereatur me !" 
to indicate a leper's interment, whereas it was but the usual sign of a 
monk's burial-place, being a quotation from the passage in Job used in 
the office for the dead. 

Little Malvern Court, which occupies the site of the monastic build- 
ings, was shewn by its owner and occupant, Mr. C. M. Berington. It 
is a picturesque structure of various dates, having many gables, — one 
on the west half-timbered; and on the north, the principal entrance 
under a rough -cast circular turret. The library shews some remains 
of the kitchen built by Bishop Alcock, and contains a choice collection 
of seventeenth century and eighteenth century Catholic works, and a 
few illuminated MSS. and early printed books. Mr. Berington drew 
out of an old chest, which once belonged to Queen Katharine of Ara- 


gon, an embroidered quilt of rich silk, Moresque in pattern, and other 
relics of that Queen, lie also exhibited several deeds relating to the 
Monastery, the earliesl being of the twelfth century; one from William 
Earl of York, relating to the Priory; and the finest, the grant by 
Philip and Mary of the Monastery to Russell. Mr. Berington held up 
a walnut-shaped cowhide-box, of which he challenged the members to 
give the use, although a feature of every house a century since. No 
one responding at once, he said it was a gentleman's wig-box. 

A stiff clamber brought the party to the summit of the Hereford- 
shire Beacon, where, after some time had been spent in identifying 
and pointing out the salient features of the magnificent landscape, ex- 
tending from the Wrekiu to the Severn estuary, and from Edge Hill 
to the Mid Welsh Mountains, with portions of some thirteen or four- 
teen counties, a fierce controversy arose as to the origin of the great 
earthworks by which the hill has been surrounded, and was only cut 
short by a sudden, passing storm. 

Mi-. E. Lees, of Worcester, delivered an address, in wdiich, after 
pointing out the successive deep trenches and banks by which the 
eastern or English side of the Beacon is defended, he offered reasons 
for supposing that the hill could not have been used by Caractacus as 
a defence against the advances of the Romans under Ostorius, as it 
was not on the line of march. Nor was it more probable that the 
Romans ever occupied it, as neither coins nor other traces of their 
presence had been found : indeed, the only early object found on the 
Malvern range was the celebrated chieftain's gold crown set with 
jewels, of about the ninth century, dug up at Camp Hill, on the north- 
west side of this Beacon ; a few bones of domestic animals and pieces of 
pottery, recently found on Midsummer Hill; and calcined bones and a 
fragment of a cup dug up by the Ordnance surveyors in the cairn on 
the Worcestershire Beacon. 1 Whenever formed, this Herefordshire 
Beacon camp was a vast undertaking. The summit of the hill, an 
oval space GO yards in the longest diameter, was enclosed by a ditch 
from 12 to 18 feet in diameter ; and below this, on the eastern 
face, were other deep valla and fossce, the lowest complete one being 
2,970 yards round. Dr. Card, a former Vicar of Great Malvern, 
was the first to notice that only the eastern face of the hill was 
strongly defended, and that the summit had been so scarped and 
banked up, with a dip to west, that a beacon-fire would be visible to 
all the hill-sides of Wales, while it would be hidden from the plains of 
Worcester and Evesham. He held, therefore, that the lines were 
formed by the Romano-Britons or Welsh as defences against the 
Saxons, and that the lower entrenchments were the most recent. 

1 The latter he exhibited, and it was described by Mr. Brock as a piece of a 
food-cup of earthenware often found in tumuli, with the familiar zigzag orna- 
ment afterwards improved upon in Norman MSS. and carving. 


Mr. T. Morgan remarked that the absence of Roman remains was 
no convincing proof that the Romans were never there. Till the late 
discoveries at Brading it was denied that the Romans could have been 
in the Isle of Wight. 

Sir J. A. Picton believed, from the variety in character of the hill- 
defences, that, like many other entrenched sites, they were used by 
many successive races ; that the higher ones were the work of hill- 
tribes far anterior to the Roman occupation. 

Mr. J. Tom Burgess pointed out from the rampart, that just oppo- 
site, rising from the eastern plain, was the Bredon Hill, which was 
undoubtedly occupied by the Romans : indeed, in sight on the east 
was a long line of hill-tops which were held by Ostorius during the 
second Roman occupation ; and to the north-east, another series of 
earthworks and forts of the Cornobii ; while to the north was their 
capital, the Wrekin ; and a little to the west were hill-fortresses attri- 
buted to the Silures. These gigantic engineering works on this Beacon 
might be, and probably were, much older than the days of the Romans ; 
but it was impossible to suppose that such a skilled commander as 
either Ostorius or Caractacus would have failed to secure so important 
a place, lying on the very border-land between the contending nations; 
and although no remains had yet been found, it was probable that the 
Beacon was held by either party several times during the twenty-five 
years' war; and in this view he believed Mr. G. T. Clark, of Dowlais, 

Mr. Burgess then described the escape of Prince Edward from Wig- 
more Castle, and his victory over Simon de Montfort at the battle of 
Evesham in 1265, pointing out the localities as he proceeded. 

The party having seen a square cave-chamber, of very modern appear- 
ance, in the Valley, then walked on to Midsummer Camp, a series of 
less clearly defined earthworks on a lower hill to the south ; and here 
Mr. J. T. Burgess explained the excavations made by him two years 
since, and shewed what he held to be cattle-enclosures, and three 
ponds for storing water on the side of the hill. 

Walking single file along the Ridgway, a narrow backbone of the 
Wenlock sandstone, with shelving declivities on either side, a steep 
descent led to the approach to Branshill Castle ; some discussion aris- 
ing afterwards as to whether the narrow path was a geological or mili- 
tary formation, Messrs. G. H. Piper, C. Lyuam, Swayne, and others, 
holding the former theory, and Messrs. Burgess and George the latter ; 
the general conclusion seeming to be that it was the result of detrition 
of the rock by rain, afterwards artificially scarped and rendered uni- 
form for purposes of defence. 

Of Branshill Castle little is left except outer lines of ramparts ; an 
extensive moat, now enclosing a dell, overgrown with yews and other 


trees, and part of the shell of a red sandstone tower, defending the 
bridge to the moat; a late structure, octagonal without, and circular 
within, marked with stringcourses and ornamental loopholes. Mr. 
G. H. Piper, F.G.S., President of the Malvern Natural History Club, 
read a historical paper shewing the families who have held the Castle, 
which was never garrisoned, and was bund, down during the last civil 
war. He exhibited a tracing of Buck's view, taken in 1731, which 
shewed two towers defending a drawbridge, and extensive walling, but 
proved quite inaccurate in detail when compared with the actual 

Eastnor Church, seen after luncheon, was rebuilt, with the exception 
of the west tower, in 1852, from the designs of Sir Gilbert Scott. The 
feature of interest is the chapel, on the north-east, of the Cocks family 
(now represented by Earl Somers), which contains several large altar- 
tombs, like the church, of fourteenth century character, in marble 
inlaid with coloured marbles and precious stones ; that to the second 
Earl, by Philip, being decorated with bas-reliefs. There are also mural 
slabs, the earliest being one to Richard Cocks, Alderman of London, 
who died in 1623. 

Eastnor Castle, the last place visited, is the seat of Eaid Somers, 1 
and is an attempt by Robert Smirke to reproduce a castellated man- 
sion. Sufficient is it to say that the circular flanking towers at each 
angle, the inadequate central keep, and the battlements, are all copied 
from an Edwardian castle, while the decorative details of the exterior 
include the dogtooth, the zigzag, and other ornaments of the Trans- 
itional Norman period. It was built between 1812 and 1824, in solid 
ashlar-masonry, at a cost, it is said, of nearly a million of money ; and 
with all its many and glaring incongruities, the Castle is an interesting 
specimen of the knowledge of Gothic existing at that period. The 
entrance-hall is very large, and 60 feet high. Upon the stencilled 
walls are hung a series of thirty-two complete suits of Milanese armour 
worn by the body-guard of Charles V. There are many poi'traits by 
Kneller, Romney, etc., and a full-length of the present Countess (then 
Miss Virginia Pattle) by Watts, whose " Tennyson", exhibited at the 
Academy, is hung in one of the lower rooms. The dining-room is 
interesting as having been furnished, from Pugin's designs, in a florid 
Gothic style now quite out of fashion. 

In the evening a paper was read by the Rev. W. S. Symonds, F.G.S., 
"On the Battle of Tewkesbury", and the customary votes of thanks 
were passed. 

1 There were several Anglo-Saxon charters of Worcester Cathedral in the 
possession of the first Lord Somers. 


Monday, August 29. 
excursion to worcester. 

The business of the Congress formally closed on Saturday night ; 
but three extra clays were arranged for, — the first, which was very 
numerously attended, being spent in Worcester. The members were 
received at the Guildhall by the Mayor (Mr. Townshend), and upon 
the table were arranged the charters and the Corporation regalia, 
including four silver maces, a double-handed sword with richly orna- 
mented scabbard, two punchbowls, and two jugs of Worcester porce- 
lain, and three flagons. 

Mr. W. de G. Birch, F.S.A., Hon. Secretary, of the British Museum, 
gave a description of the charters, which he said were a fine and un- 
usually complete series, beginning with the reign of Richard I, and 
ending with that of Charles II. In the first, gi'anted in 1189, Worces- 
ter was called a "ville", and the inhabitants "burgesses"; but in the 
second, granted by Henry III in 1216, and all succeeding ones, "city" 
and " citizens". The plain tapes or bobbins which formerly held the 
seals of the first and second charters, were amongst the earliest speci- 
mens in existence of the English weavers' art. The charters were in 
good preservation ; but he would suggest to their custodian that such 
invaluable documents ought not to be folded, as each creasing hastened 
the time when they would drop to pieces. They should be kept in a 
portfolio, or, better still, under a glass case ; but ample ventilation was 
essential to their preservation. Mr. Birch then read a paper " On the 
Anglo-Saxon Charters of Worcester Monastery", of which he said 
there were catalogued by the moiik Heming, at the direction of Bishop 
Wulstan, between two hundred and three hundred, relating to the 
sale and tenure of land, the transfer of real property, — documents 
which possessed the highest value as throwing light on our insular 
history. Of these, more than half had ceased to exist ; twenty had 
found their way to the British Museum ; twenty-four were in 1703, 
and probably some were now at Eastnor, in the possession of the 
Somers family ; and only one remained in the care of the Dean and 
Chapter, and that was temporarily held by the Ordnance Survey. This 
single remnant of the capitular MSS., of which a facsimile reproduc- 
tion in photolithography (published by the speaker in the Transactions 
of tin' Royal Society of Literature) was exhibited, was a grant dated a.d. 
770, to Uhtred, Regulus of the Mercians. Only about two thousand 
Anglo-Saxon documents are now known to exist, — a number necessa- 
rily, by accidents, thefts, and the lapse of time, which devoured all 


tilings, always diminishing; and it was, therefore, desirable that an 
attempt should at once be made to complete the work commenced by 
Kemble, and to collate, edit, translate, and publish, the whole in one 

Mr. J. Tom Burgess gave an account of the recent discoveries in the 
City, and stated that, beginning from opposite the Guildhall, and run- 
ning in the line of the thoroughfare (but sometimes just under the 
houses\ to Little Angel Street, an ancient street, paved with Roman 
slag, had been found from 7 to 8 feet beneath the present surface ; a 
quantity of detritus, horns of oxen and goats, and bones of pigs, and 
also two small broken cups of brown, glazed pottery, pronounced by 
Mr. Brock to be very like Elizabethan ware. 

At the Cathedral the members were I'eceived by their President, the 
Dean (Lord Alwyne Compton), who delivered an extempore address 
at various parts of the edifice, describing its peculiarities, the course 
of the recent restoration, which he stated cost over £130,000, and the 
appearance of the building previously to that work. Having taken the 
party over the entire building, nave, crypt, choir, transepts, cloisters, 
and chapter house, the Dean led them to the refectory, which stands 
over a series of Norman vaults (one of which fell in a fortnight since), 
and is now used as the King's School. It is well proportioned, with 
thirteenth century walls, into which five Decoi'ated windows are in- 
serted on either side ; the east end being occupied by a large quatre- 
foil containing a greatly mutilated representation of the Lord in 
Majesty, and above is the blocked-up tracery of the window, and on 
either side Perpendicular panelling. 

In the Deanery, formerly the Palace, the Dean entertained the mem- 
bers at luncheon in a splendid vaulted hall in the basement, and after- 
wards shewed them, in the drawing-room, an extensive collection of 
water-colour, chalk, and pencil-drawings of Worcester, sketched during 
the past half century by Mr. H. H. Lines of that city, who had lent 
them for the occasion. These are all dated, the construction being 
noted, and ah'eady are of high local interest, and must increase in 
value, as they illustrate the Cathedral before the restoration, with its 
former tower-parapet and east front, and the disproportionately high 
spirelets added to each gable a century since by the architect of 
St. Andrew's Church spire, and now replaced by weak Decorated pin- 
nacles ; the guesten hall, wantonly destroyed in 1854 ; St. Peter's 
Church, another loss to picturesque Worcester ; and the old buildings 
and walls on the Severn front of the Cathedral adjuncts. 

In the afternoon the Hall of the Commandeiy was visited, and. 
scribed by Messrs. J. Tom Burgess, E. Lees, and John Reyi 
latter pointing out that the roof of the hall (now, unhappi) 
by a carriage-road to stables, recklessly driven through tl 


by the last proprietors within living memory) was probably an unique 
example of the transition from the collar-beam to the hammer-beam 
mode of treatment, having the latter style of principals; which were 
also tied in, and had collars, and curved braces to purlins. 

The party then divided, one section going over the Roj^al Worcester 
Porcelain Manufactory and its Museum, 1 under the guidance of Mr. 
Biuns, F.S.A., its Director; another preferring to inspect the Edgar 
Tower, some half-timbered houses in Sidbury, and a fourteenth century 
wooden archway in a passage leading from Lych Street, leading oppo- 
site the north-east transept of the Cathedral, — conjectured by Mr. 
Burgess to mark the site of the lych-gate. All met again at the Museum, 
a section afterwards walking out to White Ladies, beyond the Tything, 
to find the site of this ancient Priory, occupied by a modern red brick 
house ; the only old portion seen being a blank wall, towards the 
street, of masonry, broken up by First Pointed blank windows, alter- 
nately tall and short, and a vault at the street side of the garden. 

1 The contents of the cases are : 
1. Roman pottery and model of kiln found at "Diglis, 1861 

o' ( Blue and white porcelain painted and printed between 1751 | ^ % g =p 

and 1783 I B fcrl ^ 

,_, hi ^ © 

>-' • a ** 

^i <^ <L 

CS S5 C gj 
~B -• 

I PrM-^loin hrr "FKn-nfe anrl T?1io-nt arid Tiarr 1 7R3-1 S4fi 

10.' „ „ „ Chamberlain, 1786-1840; united with Barr, 1840-47; 

Chamberlain, Lilly, and Kerr, 1851 

11. „ ,, „ Kerr and Co., 1852-62 

12. „ ,, „ Royal Porcelain Co., 1J--62-72 

13. „ „ „ Royal Porcelain Co., 1872-80 

14. Persian pottery, tiles, etc., Indian pottery 

15. Japanese bronzes 

16. Japanese bronzes 

17. Ivory and lacquer, carved and decorated wood 

18. Cloisonne enamels, Bijen and Maiko pottery 

19. Oribe, Minato, and Bakuyaki pottery 

20. Celadon porcelain ; Kishiu, Kioto, and Banko pottery 

21. White porcelain, Kaga ware 

22. Hizen and Owari jiorcelain 

23. Makudzu ware 

24. Kioto and Satsuma ware 

25. Chinese porcelain, turquoise, etc. 

26. Chinese and Japanese blue porcelain 

27. Specimens of a service in Old Worcester style, made for the Paris Exhi- 


28. Specimens of services in Japanese style, made for the Paris Exhibition 

29. Specimens of Worcester enamels, the last works of the late Mr. Bott 

30. Unique specimens of Japanese pottery and porcelain 

31. A pair of vases illustrating the story of pottery manufacture. 


5. Specimen of black and coloured transfer-printing, 1756-83 \ 

c ) 

m' > ,, of scale-blue, etc., from 1751-83 

1 Porcelain by Flights, and Flight and Barr, 1783-1840 


Tuesday, August 30. 

On Tuesday the last Worcestershire excursion took place. Leaving 
Worcester in carriages, the archaeologists drove through Whittington 
to Cruckbarrow Hill. Clambering up the hill-side, they soon reached 
the top, from which, when the weather is fine, there is a beautiful view. 

Mr. J. Tom Burgess said that Cruckbarrow was one of about twenty 
hills he knew with this name. This was a marl-stone hill which 
appeared to have been escarped as a beacon between the Malvern Hills 
and a series of earthworks extending along the valley of the Severn. 
There was no history in connection with it. He had no doubt that if 
excavations were made, a broken cist would be found. 

Mr. Edwin Lees stated that at the base the hill was 1,536 feet round, 
and at the top 540 feet. It was 250 feet above the level of the sur- 
rounding country. The hill was, doubtless, a place of assembly for 
Saxon magnates. 

After a long drive past Spetchley and Broughton Hackett, the carri- 
ages drew up in front of Huddington Court and church. The church 
was first inspected. It is a small structure dating from the eai'ly part 
of the fourteenth century. In the fifteenth century, as the tiles shew, 
there were those who cared to enrich and beautify it. Later on, in the 
seventeenth century, probably shortly after the Restoration, the church 
was put in good order. Now the hand of the mason is again needed. 
On many parts of the stonework there is a black, fungous slime, and 
the very walls of the chancel have old newspapers stuck upon them. 
The most relentless opponent of church restoration would make con- 
cessions if he saw a church like that of Huddington. Not the least 
interesting features of the church are the ancient porch, a belfrydadder 
of singularly rude construction, a chest of early carved work, and a 
seventeenth century chancel-screen. It is devoutly to be wished that 
some effort will be made to restore the church without sacrificing even 
the old ladder. In a niche (probably at one time filled by a statue) in 
the east wall are the words, "As often as ye eat this bread and drink 
this cup, ye do shew the Lord's death till He come." This inscription 
may be of the time of the Restoration. 

Mr. E. P. Loftus Brock said that it was not often that they saw a 
church in so unaltered a state. Archeeologists though they were, they 
must be grateful to think that probably through the work of their own 
Society and other kindred societies, the taste and regard for old 
churches had been so much developed that there were now few oppor- 
tunities of seeing churches in such a poor condition as Huddington. 
The church, however, was interesting as an example of the little village 
1882 14 


church of the early part of the fourteenth century, in which fewer 
alterations of a later date had been made than was commonly the case 
in such buildings. The building was not unworthy of study. It con- 
tained the original timber roof, which, if the plaster were taken off, 
would be seen to great advantage. It was surprising what a different 
effect would be produced by the outlay of a few hundred pounds. He 
hoped their visit would result in drawing attention to the church, and 
preserving it. It was apparent that unless something were done a 
catastrophe would occur to its bulging walls and rotten timbers. The 
church contained a chancel-screen of Jacobean date. The tiles of the 
floor were of very great beauty ; but there were now only about a 
dozen in anything like a state of preservation. The porch is of early 
date. He considered it to be as old as the church. The hall was, as 
in many other cases, near the church. The lord of the manor, in the 
old times, was the patron and father of the village, looking after his 
own comforts in the hall, and the spiritual welfare of the people. The 
ladder was of the same date as the porch. 

The Court House stands on a moated area of unusual extent. Its 
exquisitely moulded chimneys are the admiration of all beholders. In- 
side the house a fine mantelpiece is still preserved. It has the ball- 
flower ornament ; but may be assigned to the sixteenth century. In 
the early part of the reign of James I the house was occupied by one 
of the "Winters, who was concerned in the Gunpowder Plot, and the 
old legend tells of his surreptitious visits to his Manor House. 

Even on a dull day like Tuesday, Mere Hall, approached by a splen- 
did avenue of elms, and with woods rising above its seven gables, formed 
a charming picture. Mere Hall is one of the finest specimens of the 
timbered houses for which Worcestershire is famous. Different opi- 
nions were expressed as to the date of the building. The house bears 
the date 1337. Mr. E. P. L. Brock and Mr. Reynolds thought that 
the building was erected in the time of Charles I. Other gentlemen 
thought that it was Elizabethan. Mr. Bearcroft mentioned that the 
forest of Feckenham was disforested in the early part of the seven- 
teenth century, and that consequently wood was then very plentiful. The 
quadrangle in front of the Hall is bounded by a brick wall, with iron 
railings and finely worked gates. Two pretty summer-houses stand at 
the two corners. The whole very much resembles the quadrangle of 
Hanbury Hall, which was built about 1710. Mr. Bearcroft produced 
a copy of a pedigree, tracing his family in this parish to the time of 
Edward III. The house was once known as Meer Green Hall. An 
old tradition says that a troop of Royalist horse was quartered here 
after the battle of Worcester. 

Mr. E. Bearcroft received the party with the courtesy and hospitality 
of an English country squire. In the large hall a fire was burning, and 


in a neighbouring room adorned with a richly carved mantelpiece, 
refreshments were provided. 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock said that it was a matter of considerable gratifi- 
cation to him to stand beneath the roof of that house, not only because 
it was a specimen of the "black and white house" so common in the 
district, but for personal reasons which it was pleasant for him to re- 
member. On the disforesting of the district it appeared that oak was 
so abundant that farmhouses and even cottages were ei'ected with it. 
On the journey during the morning, from Worcester, they must have 
noticed how many small houses had been erected in the same style. If 
single, and alone, those houses would well have demanded their paus- 
ing to make a careful investigation. Mere Hall was one of the finest 
in the district. It was the more interesting because its date could be 
so well made out. On the building was the date 1337, placed there 
for a sort of double purpose. The date of 1637 so nearly fitted in with 
the style of the house as to justify them in believing that the house 
was erected at that time. The house is figured in Habershon's Half- 
Timbered Houses. He had referred to his personal feeling in being in 
the house. Under the direction of his late partner's father, Mr. Haber- 
shon, the house received certain alterations and additions to adapt it 
for the purposes of a modern residence. Probably it was to Mr. 
Habershon that they owed the existence of the house at all. It had 
been stated that Mr. Habershon covered the new work of the house 
with black and white stripes, in imitation of the old work. They might 
depend upon it that the work was originally erected without those 
stripes, as Mr. Habershon would be the last man to create an archi- 
tectural sham. It was a matter of gratification to see that Mr. Bear- 
croft had done so much to uphold and preserve to future generations 
so interesting a specimen of a style of architecture which was every 
day disappearing. Apart from the cordial reception Mr. Bearcroft had 
given them, they owed him a debt of gratitude for the care he had 
bestowed on the house. 

Mr. J. Tom Burgess, F.S.A., said that all pi'esent would join with him 
in tendering heartfelt thanks to Mr. Bearcroft for receiving them so 
kindly at his house, which was known not only for its beauty as one of 
the old homes of Worcestershire, but also for its hospitality. 

Mr. Bearcroft, in reply, said that the archajologists had shewn their 
detei'mination to see everything they could in the county, notwith- 
standing the unfavourable weather. In doing so they had even, as he 
read in the newspaper, encountered perils by water. In 1826 altera- 
tions were made to the house by his father, and were carried out under 
the direction of Mr. Habershon. The brickwork had been made to 
match with the older part of the house since that time. The house 
required to be frequently painted in order to pi'eserve it. Disasters 


had of late fallen upon the agricultural interest ; but he hoped still to 
be able to preserve the old house. 

From Mere Hall the party drove to Droitwich, where an excellent 
luncheon was provided at the Raven Hotel. The Mayor (Alderman 
Blick) met the party, and presided at the luncheon. The Raven Hotel 
is itself of some archaeological interest. In one of the windows are 
preserved some specimens of sixteenth century painted glass, formerly 
preserved in the Exchequer Room. The dates 1580 and 1581, with 
the name of " Mr. George Winter", occur on this glass. 

At St. Andrew's Church the Rector was in attendance to receive the 
visitors. Tin' whitewash in this church, though it mars, does not con- 
ceal the original beauty of the mouldings and carvings. 

Mr. J. Tom Burgess said that Droitwich was believed to be the 
a of the Itinerary of Richard of Cirencester. There were indica- 
tions that in ancient times it was a city of considerable importance, 
arising from its salt springs. A tessellated Roman pavement found at 
Droitwich was preserved in Worcester Museum. In Norman times 
three or four persons held certain lands in the place. A charter was 
granted to it in the time of King John. The town was the birthplace 
of Richard Bishop of Chichester, who, beginning in a very humble 
sphere of life, took the cowl, and was the friend of Thomas a Becket. 
Richard was canonised about the middle of the thirteenth century, 
and his shrine at St. Andrew's, Droitwich, became a place to which 
many pilgrimages were made. St. Richard was one of the two or 
three saints of whom Worcestershire could boast. In the chancel was 
a window of peculiar construction, which it was supposed was con- 
structed for the purpose of looking upon the shrine. The capitals of 
some of the pillars were of a kind unknown in England before the 
time of William of Sens ; and as Becket and Richard were bosom 
friends, it seemed not impi-obable that one of the pupils of William of 
Sens came to Droitwich and re-edified the church. 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock said that St. Andrew's was an interesting town 
church, which he should like to see placed in a better condition. A 
o-lance at the Ordnance Map shewed that Droitwich was a Roman 
settlement. Several Roman roads are there shewn to converge to it. 

Dodderhill Church, to which some of the party next proceeded, is 
conspicuous for many miles around by its massive square tower stand- 
in o- on the brow of a hill. The church is without a nave. The ex- 
planation of this is, that during the civil wars it was much battered, 
and became so ruinous, that during the last century it was pulled 
down, and a very good, solid tower was built with the materials. 

Alderman Blick pointed out the staircase leading to the old tower. 

Mr. J. Tom Burgess said that but little was known of the early his- 
tory of the church. The present building was erected at the time of 


the transition from Norman to Early English. It appeared from some 
of the mouldings that the old templets of Worcester were used by the 
builders of Dodderhill. As a whole, the church was a very fair speci- 
men of Early English architecture. The most curious feature about it 
was that it had no nave. It was known that the Dave was short, and 
was not considerably longer than the chancel. The tower was creeled 
without any definite idea of style. 

The weather being still inclement, and the day far advanced, the 
intended visit to the fine old house at Westwood had to be reluctantly 
given up. A passing glance was, however, bestowed on its picturesque 
turrets and gables on passing the Park. 

From Droitwich the archaeologists drove to Salwarpe, where Canon 
Douglas and Mr. J. T. Mence received the party. The nave of the 
church is late twelfth century work. One of the most striking points 
of the excursions has been the immense quantity of work of the transi- 
tion period between Norman and Early English that has been seen. 
The latter half of the twelfth century was evidently a great church- 
building period in Worcestershire. To the Norman nave of Salwarpe 
beautiful Decorated aisles have been added. In the chancel, which 
was rebuilt in 1848, there is a well preserved, recumbent effigy, of the 
beginning of the fifteenth century. The parish chest encloses some 
curiosities, which were shewn by Mr. Douglas. 

From the church it is only a few yards' walk to the Court House. 
The two most notable points in it are the beautiful bay on the west 
side of the house, and the old nail-studded door. Salwarpe Court has 
no moat. On one side, however, it would have been protected by the 
river Salwarpe, which here runs through a kind of ravine. Histori- 
cally, Salwarpe Court is famous as having been the birthplace of 
Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, who fought at Agincourt. The 
present house was probably erected about the time of Henry VII. 
About that time, or later, the house was granted to the Tabolts. Sal- 
warpe Court, like many other fine houses in the district, has its herring- 
bone brickwork painted white. It is the opinion of some architects 
that the effect of these old houses would be heightened by leaving the 
brickwork untouched. Still it must be admitted that, at least from a 
distance, the black and white houses of Worcestershire have a charm- 
ing appearance. 

Canon Douglas kindly provided tea at the Rectory. It was late 
before the excursionists reached Worcester, where they took train for 

During Tuesday some few of the party remained in Worcester, where 
they interested themselves in inspecting the old houses and tracing 
the city wall. 


Wednesday, August 31st. 
visits to cheltenham and leckhampton. 

The closing day of the Congress was spent in the neighbourhood of 
Cheltenham. On arriving by train at that town, the party, who num- 
bered between forty and fifty, walked to Thirlestaine House, formerly 
the residence of Lord Northwick, and afterwards of the late Sir Thomas 
Phillipps, Bart. Here they were received by the present owners, the 
Rev. J. E. A. and Mrs. Fenwick, who threw open to the members the 
picture-galleries and a selection from the famous collection of MSS. 
formed by the late Sir T. Phillipps. 

The President, the Dean of Worcester, introduced Mr. E. Maunde 
Thompson, F.S.A., Keeper of the MSS. in the British Museum, who 
delivered an address upon the palaeography of ancient MSS. These, 
he shewed, went back to about the second century before Christ, and 
were successively written in capitals, uncials, cursive, and minuscules. 
The insertion of breathings, punctuation-marks, and contractions, also 
served to mark the date of a MS., and the development of illumination 
was also a safe guide. In speaking of the Thirlestaine collection, 
Mr. Thompson said the late Sir Thomas Phillipps brought together no 
fewer than 30,000 MSS., largely by personal purchases. He was his 
own librarian, cataloguing, arranging, and binding, this mass of writ- 
ten material with his own hands ; and he also, in the course of his 
long life, made himself master of a considerable portion of the contents. 
The work was found in a chaotic incompleteness at his death ; but the 
trustees, Messrs. Carden and Gale, had continued the cataloguing, and 
the collection was now open to students under necessary restrictions, 
and was largely used, chiefly by Germans. On the tables were dis- 
played a series of illustrated French and Italian MSS., illustrating the 
development of ornamentation between the thirteenth century and the 
advent of printing ; and on side-shelves were shewn an extensive series 
of Greek and Latin MSS. from very eaidy periods, and English works 
by Geoffrey of Monmouth, Chaucer, Gower, and other well known 
chroniclers and poets. The pictures are in two galleries planned as 
the letter T, and top-lighted. The larger one, which communicates 
with the house, is hung with a miscellaneous collection of paintings by 
the old masters and deceased English painters of two generations 
since, the subjects being chiefly sacred or portrait. At the end of this 
long apartment is a smaller one, forming a cul-de-sac, the walls being 
covered with Welsh and Gloucestershire landscapes by Glover and one 
or two other painters. The pictures would have been greatly increased 
in value had the name, subject, and date, been lettered upon the 


frames ; and two catalogues seemed hardly sufficient for so numerous 
a party. 

Leckhampton Church, the first seen after luncheon, in the afternoon, 
has a late thirteenth century spire of great heauty, on the tower at the 
crossing, and having beneath it advanced Perpendicular groining 1 . 
Above the altar is a reliquary-locker with bolt-holes perfect. The win- 
dows are chiefly reticulated fourteenth century. The church has been 
recently restored by Mr. Middleton of Cheltenham. A new north aisle 
has been added. Various old monumental effigies remain in the church- 
yard in very mutilated condition. 

At Prestbury Church the members were welcomed by the incumbent, 
the Rev. J. De la Bere, who explained that the church, a lai'ge and 
fine one, was formerly served as a priory by Llautony Abbey, and that 
it had been restored by Mr. Gr. E. Street. With the exception of the 
lower stage of the tower, it is a late Decorated building, and still pos- 
sesses its original Sanctus bell over the chancel-arch. On the wall of 
the south aisle have been hung a modern oil-painting of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, and also a pre-Raffaelite one representing the Last 
Supper, in which the disciples carry symbolical emblems. These and 
a Virgin and Child near the chancel-arch, and the condition of the 
chancel, served to remind the members that other than antiquai'ian 
associations rendered Prestbury Church well known. 

Prestbury House, to the west of the church, was also inspected. It 
contains some remains of the Priory buildings, including some fifteenth 
century mullioned windows, and a fine late, open-timbered roof extend- 
ing through the attics. 

Bishop's Cleeve Church was the last seen. The grouping from the 
south-west is very impressive. There are transepts with square tower 
at the crossing. A south porch having late Norman doorway and 
groined interior, projects like a second transept, and is connected with 
the other by an extension of the south aisle, of the fourteenth century, 
but battlemented at a later period. The rich Norman doorway and 
west front are flanked by square pinnacles, which have been figured in 
Parker's Introduction to Gothic Architecture, and beyond these are the 
Decorated aisles. The church has not been restored, except that a 
wretched modern east window, with poor circular opening above, has 
been substituted for one which, judging from the remains of ball- 
flower enrichment, must have been as rich as the well known examples 
at Leominster and Ledbury. On entering, the chancel, clean but bare 
of fittings, and whitewashed, presented an effective contrast to that 
just left. The nave-columns are cylindrical, but carry pointed arches 
of great span ; a second aisle or chapel, separated by octagonal 
columns, existing on the south side. The tower-arch is supported by 
stilted circular arches to the main building, and pointed ones to the 


sides; but the cushion-capitals, with acanthus-leaves in the fillets, 
shew, as Mr. Reynolds observed, that the pointed form is only adopted 
for structural security. The south transept is shut off by a lath and 
plaster screen, and in it is an elaborate Decorated recess treated with 
the ball-flower and bold cinquefoil cusping. In this is awkwardly 
fixed an effigy of a warrior clad in chain-mail aud surcoat, and bearing 
a kite-shield and broadsword, which enabled Mr. Bramble to fix the 
date as c. 12G5-70. The effigy, which probably belonged to the recess, 
is a female figure, now lying against a large Jacobean monument to a 
Bao-hott in the south chapel. There is a seventeenth century west 
gallery carried on pillars. 

The visit to this fine and unaltered church proved a fitting climax 
and close to the Congress. 


IProcecaings of tfje Association, 

Wednesday, April 5, 1882. 
Eev. W. S. Simpson, D.D., F.S.A., V.P., in the Chair. 

The following Associates were duly elected : 

Andrew W. Tuer, Esq., 20 Notting Hill Square 
Captain Philip Pendoggett, Tiuisbury, Bath. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned to the respective donors of the 
following presents to the Library : 

To IF. George, Esq., the Author, for " Some Account of the oldest Plans 

of Bristol." 
To the Society, for " Archasologia Cambrensis", 4th Series, Part 49. 

„ „ for "Proceedings of the Royal Institute of British Archi- 

tects", No. 12. 

„ ,, for " Journal of the East India Association", vol. xiv, 

No. 7. 

„ „ for " Collections Historical and Arch geological relating 

to Montgomeryshire", Part xxx. April 1882. 

„ „ for " Journal of the Society of Arts". Twelve Parts. 

„ ,, for " Journal of the Royal Historical and Archasological 

Association of Ireland", vol. 47. 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock, F.S.A., Hon. Sec, exhibited several encaustic 
tiles from recent London excavations, probably from a church floor 
destroyed in the great fire of London. They were of the fourteenth 
century ; a tile with diapered pattern, of the twelfth century, from the 
same source ; and a set of three, one of which has an oak-leaf in relief, 
one of Dutch style of colouring, and a third of hexagonal shape. 

Mr. R. E. Way exhibited two coins recently discovered close to 
St. Thomas' Church, Southwark, — Titus and Allectus, third brass. 

Mr. W. G. Smith exhibited a Roman terrarcotta diota from Honiton, 
in good condition, and of bright reddish brown colour, about 9 inches 

The Chairman read a paper entitled " The Tonsure-Plate in Use in 
St. Paul's Cathedral during the Thirteenth Century", and exhibited a 


east made by Mr. Ready, of the British Museum, of the engraved cop- 
per plate which formed the subject of the paper. 

In the discussion which ensued, Mr. Birch, Mr. Brock, Mr. Compton, 
and Mr. Cope, took part. 

Mr. T. Morgan, V.P., F.S.A., Bon. Treasurer, exhibited a stamped 
Roman tile recently found at Leadenhall, and read a paper on the 
"Inscriptions on Roman Tiles found at Leadenhall", which will be 
printed hereafter. 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock, F.S.A., read a paper by Sir Lewis W. Jarvis, 
entitled " Middleton Castle or Towers", and exhibited a plan and views. 

Wednesday, April 19, 1882. 
T. Morgan, Esq., V.P., F.S.A., Hon. Treasurer, in the Chair. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned to 
F, 0. Surtees, Esq., the Author, for a tract entitled " Norman Architec- 
ture and Gundulph, Bishop of Rochester." 

Mr. Brock announced the progress of arrangements for the Congress 
at Plymouth. He also described the discovery of mediaeval walls and 
remains of arches, decorated doorways, etc., in the course of excava- 
tions now proceeding at Throgmorton Street. A further detailed 
account was promised. 

The Chairman exhibited a fragment of Roman tile from the wall at 
the back of Trinity Street, Tower Kill, and a rubbing from a brick 
inscribed | vidvcos |, of which the dimensions are, 11 inches square by 
2\ inches thick. This latter, which is in Mr. Brock's collection, was 
found several years since on the site of Cannon Street Hotel. 

The Rev. S. M. Mayhew exhibited— 

1. A drinking-cup of Greek glass, 5j inches high, expanding from 
the button, of 1 inch, to a width of 2 J at the lip, and beautifully iri- 
descent. The type is entirely novel, the textui-e thin and fine, mark- 
ing the great excellence of an art which appears at once to have reached 
its meridian beauty. 

2. A wine or mead-cup, 4-| inches diameter, of opal glass, thickly 
enamelled with foliage in colours, and beading, with a central figure of 
a lion rampant: it is hard to say whether Venetian or early Dutch, 
the lion being in both cases a national emblem, yet the general charac- 
teristics incline to Venetian. Many and very beautiful mead-cups 
were sent forth in the latter years of the seventeenth century from the 
Spanish manufactories, alike interesting in shape and engraving. 
Spanish, therefore, are less rare than Dutch ; and these than Venetian. 

3. A pure opal vase, oviform, with lip and base, 5£ inches high. 


This very interesting specimen was found in a London lumber-shop. 
It may be ascribed to Italian art. The so called opal glass is produced 
from an infusion of wood-ash, oxide of zinc, or oxide of silver, with the 
metal, and gives but one colour, a dull red, rising to a dull jacinth. 
This, with the general whiteness of the glass, has gained it the desig- 
nation " opal". The vase exhibited shews brilliantly the well known 
tints of the opal stone, — sea-green, opaque white, bluish, translucent 
white, rufous brown, and fiery jacinth, sufficiently powerful to cast on 
objects a colourable reflection. 

4. A beautiful sucrier and cream-ewer of bright, deep blue Venetian, 
diamonded glass. Mr. E. P. L. Brock said that several portions of 
like ewers had been disinterred from London, but never until now had 
he seen one perfect. The exhibitor has one nearly perfect, from Lon- 
don, of black glass. Temp, seventeenth century. 

5. A very fine German white glass sucrier with cover and "jewelled" 
top, finely engraved with foliage, flowers, and birds. This specimen 
of seventeenth century art was exhibited for comparison of shape with 

6. A large box of latteen with cover, of German design and execu- 
tion. The exhibitor said it had fallen to him in a state of dirt and 
neglect; but being carefully cleaned, became what it was, a most inte- 
resting relic. Although German, it bears the influences of Italian art 
in the wreaths surrounding it, and cherubic heads adorning the cover. 
It is divided into four panels, containing the history of the Prodigal 
Son. In the second scene the female figures are clothed with the dress 
of the then period. In the first, the aged and generous father wears a 
high Eastern cap or kaftan ; the general pose and disposition of the 
figures strongly resembling the illustrative pictures of the Vulgate of 
Sixtus V, printed in Venice. 

7. Of recent London discoveries, Mr. Mayhew brought forward a 
fine Roman axe-head from the Minories, the half of a lustre-jar of 
Grebbio, covered with running pattern of leaves with blue flowers, 
which Mr. Cope thought might indicate Spanish origin ; but the shape 
is Italian. Found in Leadenhall Street. A phial of green glass, 
7 inches long, peculiar in shape, with expanding throat and lip, pro- 
bably circ. sixteenth century. A fine Tudor rose of black oak, circ. 
1560, 5 inches diameter; and an ivory maiTow-scoop, circ. 1750-60, 
from Leadenhall Street. 

8. To these were added, from Nineveh, brought thence, in 1856, by 
Mr. Boutcher of Devonshire, the upper jaw and teeth (in situ) of a 
young pig ; an ivory stud carved in rays ; and a strip of stone, which 
Mr. W. de Gray Birch said had been cut from a larger slab by the 
Arabs, and bore, in cuneiform characters, two words and a half from a 
historical inscription, — "overthrow, he fled", — relating to some war- 
like achievement. 


9. Two cards exhibiting a Roman fish and bowed fibula ; a third, 
broad and flat, filled with a blue and red designed enamel, with fine, 
elastic Saxon tweezers of bronze; also a lance and arrow-head of obsi- 
dian, — all said to have been found in Kent. Admitting this statement 
for the former, Mr. Mayhe_w demurred as to the latter, instruments of 
obsidian belonging more generally to South America than Kent. 

10. By request were added an ancient medal of the Society of the 
Crown of Thorns, with legend, " Societas Coronae." Rev., " Tunc Coro- 
nam adoram Dei!" Another, very fine, of Paul IV. Rev., Christ 
cleansing the Temple. " Domus Mea, Domus Orationis." And the cele- 
brated medal of Gregory XIII, commemoi'ating alike the infamous 
massacre of the Huguenots and the Papal approval of the murder. 
This particular medal had in remote time been pierced, and evidently 
worn, perhaps by one concerned in the massacre. 

The interesting exhibition closed with a pyx-box of latteen, with the 
crucifixion and resurrection of the Lord in high l-elief ; and a finely 
chased silver ring of the sixteenth century, set with an artificial ruby 
of great beauty. 

The remarks of Mr. Grover on the latter portion of the exhibition 
were marked by great aptitude and feeling. 

Mr. H. Prigg, of Bury St. Edmund's, exhibited a large collection of 
bronze relics from Icklingham and Mildenhall in Suffolk, the latter 
being the site of an ancient British village. He also read a paper on 
the " Thinghoe", a hill of assembly, near Bury, which, it is hoped, 
will be printed hereafter. 

In the discussion which ensued, the Rev, S. Maude and Mr. E. Wal- 
ford took part. 

Professor J. F. Hodgetts, of Moscow, observed that the idea of Kel- 
tic remains in a Scandinavian tumulus was new to him, as he had been 
accustomed to believe, on the authority of Finn Magnussen, that the 
meetings of the " Ting" throughout all Scandinavia took place on the 
grafhog, or tomb of some jaid of their own race, whose spirit was gene- 
rally expected to take what some would call a vital interest in 
the proceedings ; it having been the custom to pause after an import- 
ant speech, to allow any " manifestation" to take place. That the 
departed hero ever opposed a motion does not appear from historic 
evidence ; but whether we are justified in forming the hypothesis that 
he never did, is another question. 

The cone-shaped tumulus was peculiarly adapted to the purposes of 
the " Ting" or parliament, inasmuch as it offered an excellent frame- 
work for the accommodation of the estates of the realm in their re- 
spective stations. At the apex sat the king, on the domsten or doom- 
stone (judgment-seat) ; at his right was the king's henchman, some- 
times a jarl (earl) in rank; on the, left stood the officiating priest. The 


estates were ranged in concentric rings round the mound. First stood 
the juris ; next, the free men, or rank between the jarl and trail (our 
thrall) , and last came these thrall themselves, the whole assembly 
being fully armed for war. 

According to the nature of the subject to bo discussed, the most 
appropriate deity was invoked by the priest, who had previously con- 
sulted his oracles on the point, and then the king's jarl opened the 
meeting. The king himself next spoke, stating what the special object 
of the " Ting" was, and called upon the noble earl, or free born man, 
or thrall, to state the grievance or whatever it might be that he wanted 
to ventilate. When a speech was made which excited admiration, 
applause was expressed by strikings with the flat of the drawn sword 
upon the shield. In the words of the historian poet Gejer, — 

" The warriors listen with joy, 
And clash their applause 
With a thousand swords 
On their sounding shields, 
So that it thunders 
Through the eternal 
Realms of the dead !" 

This was the prototype of our " Hear ! hear!" Displeasure was ex- 
pressed by an ominous silence almost as unpleasant to our sturdy fore- 
fathers as the groans and hisses of their refined descendants are to 
their "Opposition". 

Tegner, in his FritJijqf's-Saga, makes Frithjoff, when attending the 
" Ting" held by King Helge on the grave-mound of his (Helge's) 
father, King Bele, use the following expressions : 

" We stand upon Bele's grave ! Each word 
Down in its depths by his shade is heard : 
With Frithjoff praying 
Is that dear shade in each word I'm saying." 

The Jciinec, Tcbnig, honnung, Jcunnung, hung, cyning, cynic, cyng, Icing 
(occurring again in the Russian Jcniaz), means nothing more than 
prince or leader; but from the position given him in the " Ting", he 
fairly represents the highest estate of the present day, while the jarls 
and thralls stand for the loixls and commons. 

Bearing in mind the supreme contempt entertained by the Scandi- 
navian for the Kelt, and in view of the theory held by Scandinavian 
authorities, it seems strange that a "Ting" should be held over Keltic 
remains ; and yet in the Scandinavian name of the place in question 
we have a description of it as the "height whei'e the Ting is", May 
the remains not point to a Scandinavian (English) rather than to a 
Keltic origin ? In any case the investigation is highly important both 


to archaeologists and to philologists, and certainly ought to be more 
fully carried out; for if the remains be Keltic, a grave doubt is thrown 
over the results of the labours, for more than a century, of the most 
learned Scandinavian antiquaries ; and if they be English (not British), 
we learn how closely the keramic ware of one ancient people resembled 
that of another. A visitor present, who was born in Russia, and who 
visits England for the first time, at once pronounced the "urn" to be a 
Russian kuvshin, such as is used by the peasantry, and was quite 
delighted at seeing an old friend again. 

Mr. Hodgetts i-eferred to Finn Magnussen's works in general as the 
authority for his opinion, and supported it farther by reference to 
Geijer's Historia Svea's Forntid, Tegnere's notes to his Frithjoff's Saga, 
Turner's Anglo-Saxons, Mallett's Northern Antiquities, Ackermann's 
Saxon Pagandom, and Grimm's Nordische Mythologie. 

Mr. Brock read a paper by Dr. J. Stevens, " On a Bronze Sword and 
an Iron Spear-Head found at Henley-on-Thames." It is hoped that 
this paper will find a place in a future part of the Journal. 


Wednesday, Mat 3, 1882. 
T. Morgan, Esq., V.P., F.S.A., Hon. Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The Chairman declared the ballot open, and appointed scrutators to 
report the result to the meeting. 

The Chairman then read the following Report and balance-sheet : 

Treasurer's Report for the Tear ending Dec. 31, 1881. 

It affords me much pleasure to announce, in presenting the balance- 
sheet for the year 1881, that there was a balance in favour of the Asso- 
ciation, on 31st December last, of £13 : 7 : 2. This improvement in 
the finances has been brought about, not by an increase of the income, 
but by pursuing a rigorous system of economy in the printing and 
illustration of the Journal, which will best be seen by the following 
figures : the Journal in 1879 cost £344 : 3 : 8 ; in 1880, £324 : 15 : 6; 
in 1881, £291 : 13 : 10 ; shewing a reduction of no less than £52 : 9 : 10 
between the first and the last of the three years. At the same time 
we are bound to give credit to the Editor for having, while carrying 
out this economy, striven with success to keep up the efficiency of the 



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Journal ; for unless this had been done, the saving of money would 
have been dearly purchased. 

The receipts from the Congresses will vary from year to year ; and 
we shall hope the report from Mr. G. R. Wright, of the next meeting 
of the Local Committee at Plymouth will fully bear out the expectation 
he has given us of a good gathering there in August, — a prophecy 
which I am sure he will use his accustomed zeal to get fulfilled. 

Thomas Morgan. 

Mr. W. de Gray Birch, F.S.A., Hon. Sec, then read the 

Secretaries' Report for the Year ending Dec. 31, 1881. 

The Honorary Secretaires have the honour of laying before the Asso- 
ciates of the British Archaeological Association, at the Annual General 
Meeting held this day, their customary Report upon the state and pro- 
gress of the Association during the past year, 1881. 

1. By comparing the list of members of the Association in the cur- 
rent part of the Journal, dated March 31, 1882, with that of the corre- 
sponding period last year, a total of 445 names is shewn against similar 
totals of 444, 449, 447, in the years immediately preceding. For the 
last few years, therefore, the numerical strength of the Association 
appears to be stationaiy. The names of several Associates in arrear 
with subscriptions have, however, been removed from our list, which 
may now, therefore, be taken to represent more accurately our financial 

2. Biographical notices of those whom we have lost by death have, 
as far as is practicable, been prepared from materials submitted to the 
Editor for that purpose. These will be found in those parts of the 
Journal which are set apart for the object. 

3. During 1881 eighty-seven complete works, or parts of works, have 
been presented to the Library of the Association ; and it is hoped that 
the long catalogue of the books and relics in possession of the Associa- 
tion may be prepared and printed in the Journal, to the advantage of 
the members. The suggestion which was made at a former Annual 
Meeting, with regard to the lending out of books, under certain condi- 
tions, to the members, has, however, not yet been brought to a practi- 
cal issue. 

4. Thirty-six of the most important papers read at the Congress 
held at Devizes, or during the progress of the sessions in London, have 
been printed in the Journal of the past year, and illustrated with forty- 
four plates or woodcuts. The Honorary Secretaries are glad that they 
are enabled to announce that there is no falling off in material for the 
proper continuation of the Journal, inasmuch as there are in hand 
many important contributions both to British and foreign archa3ology, 


from the pens of Associates and others. These papers, so far as the 
very limited number of pages at tho command of tho Editor will per- 
mit, will find places in the future Numbers of the Journal; and tho 
Honorary Secretaries here desire to point out that a considerable share 
of tho total income of tho Association is annually expended on the 
production of the Journal, whereby a very large proportion of the 
annual subscription is returned to the Associates. 

5. The Honorary Secretaries would also remind all tho Associates 
that no opportunity ought to be neglected of laying before the meet- 
ings, from time to time, early and authentic notices of fresh discoveries 
and interesting researches, and so of assisting to maintain the import- 
ant position of the Journal as a record of archaeology and as a book of 
reference to all matters which enter into the scope of the Association. 

6. With respect to the "Antiquarian Intelligence", it is found that 
this useful medium of communicating new and prominent matter, and 
of reviewing archaeological publications, has in many ways prospered, 
and has advanced the position of the Association in literary circles ; 
and the Honorary Secretaries earnestly thank all who have therein 
assisted them by prompt correspondence with regard to local disco- 

W. db Gray Birch ) Eon. 
E. P. L. Brock / Sees. 

Mr. G. R. Wright, F.S.A., Hon. Curator, gave a detailed account of 
the Congress arrangements. A prospectus will be issued without delay, 
in order that intending participators may have all details before them. 

After the customary resolutions had been proposed, seconded, and 
canned unanimously, the ballot was taken, and the following result 
declared : 



Ex officio — The Duke op Norfolk, E.M. ; The Duke op Cleveland, K.G.; 
The Makquess op Hertford; The Earl of Carnarvon, P.S.A.; The 
Earl of Dartmouth; The Earl of Hardwicke; The Earl of Mount- 
Edgcumbe; The Earl Nelson ; The Lord Houghton, D.C.L.; TnE Lord 
Waveney, D.L. ; The Very Rev. the Lord Alwyne Compton, Dean of 
Worcester; Sir Chas. II. Rouse Boughton, Bart. ; Sir W. C. Medli- 
cott, Bart., D.C.L.; James Heywood, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. ; George Tom- 
line, Esq., F.S.A.; Sir W. W. Wynn, Bart., M.P. 

The Earl of Effingham 
Sir H. W. Peek, Bart., M.P. 
H. Syer Cuming, Esq., F.S.A. Scot. 
John Evans, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. 
George Godwin, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. 
Rev. S. M. Mayhew, M.A. 
T. Morgan, Esq., F.S.A. 

Rev. Preb. Scarth, M.A., F.S.A. 
Rev.W. Sparrow Simpson,D.D.,F.S.A. 
C. Roach Smith, Esq., F.S.A. 
E. M. Thompson, Esq., F.S.A. 
Stephen I. Tucker, Esq., Somerset 

John Walter, Esq., M.P. 

1882 15 



Thomas Morgan, Esq., F.SA. 

Honorary Secretaries. 
Walter de Gray Birch, Esq., F.S.A., F.R.S.L. 
E. P. Loftds Brock, Esq., F.S.A. 

E. M. Thompson, Esq., F.S.A. 

Curator and Librarian. 

George R. Wright, Esq., F.S.A. 

(With a seat at the Council.) 

WoRTniNGTON G. Smith, Esq., F.L.S. 


G. G. Adams, Esq., F.S.A. 
George Ade, Esq. 
Thomas Blashill, Esq. 
Cecil Brent, Esq., F.S.A. 
C. H. Compton, Esq. 
Arthur Cope, Esq. 
William Henry Cope, Esq. 
R. A. Douglas-Lithgow, Esq., LL.D., 
F.S.A., F.R.S.L. 

R. Horman-Fisher, Esq., M.A., 

J. W. Grover, Esq., F.S.A. 
J. T. Mould, Esq. 
W. Myers, Esq., F.S.A. 
George Patrick, Esq. 
J. S. Phene, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A. 
Rev. Alexander Taylor, M.A. 
J. Whitmore, Esq. 


A. Chasemore, Esq. 

Geo. Lambert, Esq., F.S.A. 

Wednesday, May 17, 1882. 
T. Morgan, Esq., V.P., F.S.A., Hon. Treasurer, in tee Chair. 

The following Associate was duly elected : 

Rev. Canon Routledge, St. Martin's, Canterbury. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned to the respective donors of the 
following presents to the Library : 

To the Bev. J. C. Blomfield, 31. A., Hector of Launton, the Author, for 
" History of the present Deanery of Bicester. Part I. — Early 
History." London, 1882. 4to. 

To C. C. Babington, Esq., 31. A., F.B.S., F.S.A., the Author, for "Address 
delivered at the Meeting of the Cambrian Archaeological Asso- 
ciation, Church Stretton, August 1, 1881." 

To the Society, for "Archaeological Journal", vol. xxxix, No. 153. 1882. 

It was announced that the Council had unanimously adopted a reso- 
lution deprecating the demolition of a Norman building situated near 
the west end of Bristol Cathedral. 

The further progress of matters connected with the Congress was 
also announced. 


It was further announced that a conversazione would be held on Tues- 
day, July 4, at the Suffolk Street Gallery, under arrangements similar 
to thoso of the preceding year. 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock, F.S.A., Hon. Sec, read the following note on a 

Roman Villa in Spoonly Wood, near Sudeley Castle. 

We are indebted to Mr. Dent, of Sudeley Castle, for the accompany- 
ing plan of a remarkable villa now being excavated on the estate, about 
a mile from the Castle. Stone being required, workmen were engaged 
to open a pit in Spoonley Wood, when traces of solid walling were met 
with. The discovery was followed up, and already a considerable por- 
tion of a large building has been opened. It consists of what will 
probably prove to be a long central building, with a wing projecting 
at right angles for nearly 100 feet beyond it. The supposition on the 
spot is that a corresponding wing will be found on the left side of the 
centre, the latter thus having a frontage of 157 feet. These figures 
will testify to the size and importance of the building. The plan thus 
conjectured is so usual, that it is very probable that the completion of 
the excavation will prove its existence here. Already the whole of the 
right hand wing has been excavated, together with about 70 feet of 
the central building. 

Starting from a rectangular apartment about 14 feet by 12 feet, a 
corridor, 9 feet wide, extends around both the wing and the centre, 
thus fronting the enclosed quadrangular space. From this many rooms 
open, in one of which, in the centre building, the piers of a hypocaust 
remain ; while mosaic pavements of elaborate patterns, formed of tes- 
serce about half an inch square, of various colours, are to be seen. One 
of the pavements is of very elaborate and elegant workmanship, many 
of the others being much broken and damaged by the roots of the 
trees. The site is now being covered by a thick coppice, and the exca- 
vations have, therefore, to be carried on under many difficulties. The 
walls are from 1 to 2 feet in height. It is proposed to cover over the 
best of the pavements for protection, and to remove the detached frag- 
ments, for safety, into Sudeley Castle. 

This villa is quite distinct from the site on the Sudeley property 
which yielded the beautiful ornament now in one of the conservatories 
at the Castle, inspected by the members of the Association when a 
visit was made during the Evesham Congress. The Roman villa is on 
the slope of the hill on the opposite side of the valley, and fully a mile 
from the site where the building now being excavated has been met 
with. The excavations were made twenty years ago ; but only to a 
partial extent, since the land was urgently wanted by the tenant for 
agricultural purposes. It is to be hoped that they may be resumed at 
no distant date. The existence of these evidently important buildings 



in this locality is remarkable ; and the evidences they may yield, apart 
from what is at present known, may be of considerable archaeological 
interest. It is a matter of gratification that the investigation is in such 
able hands, and Mr. Dent deserves our best thanks for bringing the 
subject before our notice. 

Mr. E. Walford exhibited two much worn third brass coins : one of 
Marcus Aurelius, the other of Victorinus, found recently on Hampstead 
Heath, near Well Walk. 

Mr. J. T. Irvine forwarded, on behalf of Sir Henry Dryden, a photo- 
graph of an object supposed to be a Norman draughtsman, carved out 
of walrus-tooth ivory, and found at the Castle, Northampton, in 1881. 
It is 1-ff inch in diameter, and -^ inch thick. The subject may, per- 
haps, be a personification of Charity, a female figure seated, giving 
suck to two infants. The border is a chevroned pattern with a pellet 
in each angle. 

The Rev. G. B. Lewis exhibited and presented a series of photo- 
graphs (executed by 0. D. Marriot, Esq., M.D.), of antique tapestry, 
and read the following notes : 

The Tapestry Scenes from the Passion of Christ 
in Knole Chapel. 


This interesting tapestry is now for the first time photographed. 
Little is known of its history. It was found rolled up, and laid aside, 
among other old things, in Knole, about sixteen years ago. The late 
Lady Delawarr and Baroness Buckhurst had it cleaned and repaired, 
and placed in its present position, along the north-east wall of Knole 
Chapel. This Chapel, unlike other churches, does not stand east and 
west, but south-east and north-west, the altar being to the south-east. 
The Chapel itself was built (no doubt re-built) by Archbishop Bourchier 
in the latter half of the fifteenth century, a.d. 1456-86. The tapestry 
is thought to be Flemish or German work of the sixteenth century ; 
and considering its size, which just fits the wall-space, and its subject, 
which perfectly suits a church, it is not unlikely that it now occupies 
the place for which it was originally made. It may have been the gift 
of Archbishop Warham, 1503-32. Knole was surrendered to Henry VIII 
in 1537. 

There are six subjects, divided, as will be perceived on close examin- 
ation, from each other. The first three are separated by dwarf stone 
screens ; the fourth stands within a distinct canopy-frame ; the fifth is 
in the foreground ; the sixth or final one, on the upper right, is parted 
off by a leading. 

The dresses of the figui'es are rich and varied ; the colours, in some 


cases artificially restored, being effective but quiet. The transparency 
of the gauze or muslin on the sleeves of Pilate's dress is very skilfully 
represented. There are several types of countenance among the 
figures, most of them entirely European, a few only being of Jewish 
outline. On the borders of the dress of one or more characters in each 
scene, some letters ai'e to be seen. It is not easy to decipher them, 
and very difficult to interpret them. They may be either the names of 
the needle-artists, or (more probably, perhaps,) key-letters to the text 
applying to each scene. 

But the chief interest lies in the subject, very fully handled, without 
much extravagance of gesture or action, — a very becoming adornment 
for a place of Christian worship. It is a representation of some of the 
closing scenes of Our Saviour's life ; events which took place on the 
first Good Friday morning (April 5th ?), between early dawn and eight 
o'clock. The scenes are six, as follow : 

I. — Jesus sent by chief priests to Pilate. (St. Matth. xxvii, 1, 2.) 

Time, 4.30 a.m. 

II. — Jesus sent by Pilate to Herod. (St. Luke, xxiii, 8-11.) 6.15 A.M. 

III. — Jesus sent back by Herod to Pilate. (St. Luke, xxiii, 11-12.) 

7 a.m. (Repeated on second photograph.) 

III*. — Judas casting down the blood-money. (St. Matth. xxvii, 3, 4, 5.) 

IV. — Jesus scourged by Pilate's order. (St. Matth. xxvii, 25, 26.) 

7.30 a.m. 
V. — Jesus mocked in purple, with reed placed in hand, and crown 
of thorns being screwed round His head. (St. Matth. xxvii, 
28, 29.) 7.30 a.m. 
VI. — Jesus given over by Pilate to be crucified. (St. John, xix, 16.) 

7.30 a.m. 
Note on Scene I. — The high priest's palace in the background. Jesus, 
in His own robe (a warm brown colour), is led by officei's from priest 
to Pilate. Pilate, in silver or white satin brocade, standing receives 
Jesus. Pilate's cap will be seen repeated in each scene. 

Note on Scene II. — Herod ; in robe like Pilate's, but lined with brown 
fur, and wearing a crown over his turban, receives Jesus with a ges- 
ture of ridicule : all others are on the broad, insulting grin, except 
one ; he, holding the cord, and kneeling at the feet of Jesus, looks up 
with, I think, a face of pity and respect. A white robe is being placed 
over the head of Jesus, His own robe remaining under it. 

Note on Scene III. — Jesus, conspicuous in white robe, is led back to 
Pilate. This " gorgeous robe" is in St. Luke, iaOipu Xu^nrpav ; literally, 
a bright or dazzling robe. It is not unlikely that this was such a 
dress as that "royal apparel" of Herod in Acts, xii, 21, of which wc 
find the following account in Josephus :' 

1 Antiq., XIX , viii, 2. 


" Herod put on a garment made wholly of silver, and of a tex- 
ture truly wonderful, and came into the Theatre early in the 
morning ; at which time the silver of his garment being illumin- 
ated by the fresh reflection of the sun's rays upon it, shone out 
after a surprising manner, and was so resplendent as to spread an 
awe on those that looked intently upon him ; and presently his 
flatterers cried out, one from one place, and another from another 
(though not for his good), that he was a God." 

This Herod Agrippa, who died for this impiety, was nephew of the 
Herod Antipas (in Luke, xxiii) who arrayed Jesus in the dazzling robe, 
iaOTpa \afiirpav ; and the event in Acts, xii, 21 (so signally confirmed by 
Josephus) was only eleven years after the crucifixion. Now Herod 
Antipas (Luke, xxiii), in arraying Jesus in a "gorgeous" robe, was 
dressing Him as a mock King of the Jews; and it, therefore, is not un- 
likely that he used some such shining royal robe as was afterwards used 
(Acts, xii, 21) by his nephew. In each case the time was sunrise. 1 

Note on Scene III*, above No. 3. — The pieces of money cast down 
by Judas are seen lying on the foreground. 

Note on Scene TV. — In the scourging of Jesus three executioners are 
employed : one handling rods, the other two scourges. Of these two, 
one has a swarthy skin. A lad binds His feet. In this and the two 
next scenes, the flesh-wounds caused by the terrible scourges are seen 
on His person. 

Note on Scene V. — Jesus, now sitting, arrayed in scarlet, is the 
object of mock homage of one who puts a reed, as a sceptre, into His 
fingers (His wrists are bound), while three men behind are using staves 
to twist the circlet of thorns tightly round His head. 

Note on Scene VI. — (In the upper corner, on the right) Jesus finally 
given over by Pilate to be crucified, appears now in scarlet robe, — a 
sign of Gentile royalty. 

Mr. G. M. Hills exhibited three acoustic jars, and read the following 
notes upon 

Acoustic Jars, 
from the churches of ashburton and luppitt, devonshire. 

An instance which has much resemblance to the arrangements at 
Fail well, in Staffordshire, was discovered in 1838 at the parish church 
of St. Andrew, Ashburton, Devonshire. For information respecting 
it I am indebted to several correspondents, chiefly to Mr. G. Pycroft of 
Kenton, and to Mr. J. S. Amery of Druid, Ashburton. A description 
of the discovery is printed in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries 
of London for January 1873, and in The Transactions for 18/3 of the 
Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science, Art, and 

1 Josephus' book was published A. p. 93, thirty years after the Acts were 


Literature. From this it appears that the jars were found on the inside 
of the chancel- walls in 1838, when the old plaster on the inside of 
the walls was removed. Tho jars lay on their sides, their mouths 
directed to the inside of the church, covered over with a piece of slate 
to each, and that hid behind the plaster ; several were taken out, all 
were empty. 

In 1872 Lieutenant C. Worthy revived an interest in the discovery, 
and made it public by a communication to Mr. Winter Jones of the 
British Museum. From this it appears that between 1836 and 18-10 
great alterations were made in the chancel, so that Mr. Worthy finds 
it difficult to form an opinion as to its architectural date. From a 
workman employed upon the alterations he learned that the jars seen 
in 1838 were nine or ten, besides one he actually saw and drew ; that 
they were lying in holes like those left in the walls for the reception of 
scaffolding ; they were not regularly placed one above the other, but 
the workmen said "were scattered all over the north and south walls 
of the chancel, on their interior sides." I judge from these descrip- 
tions that the jars were really laid in the putlog-holes of the scaffolds, . 
which would be in horizontal rows, without the jars being vertically 
over one another. Mr. Worthy furnished a drawing of one of the jars, 
and by his description they are of a red ware like common flower-pots, 
and have a zigzag line round the body, with a very faint white mark 
under it. The jars were firmly fixed in the recesses, in mortar. Two 
of the jars are still preserved, in the possession of a gentleman in the 
neighbourhood. One of them was exhibited at the Society of Anti- 
quai'ies in 1873, but I did not see it. I have succeeded in obtaining a 
sight of two of them now by the kindness of their owner, J. Eddy, Esq., 
and I have the pleasure to furnish drawings made from them. 

In correction of Mr. Worthy's description it should be said that the 
ware, though called red, is very highly burned, almost to a grey hue. 
The jars are not alike in their ornaments. A band or bands of whitish 
yellow colour is applied on the soft clay ; and through it, into the red 
ware, a zigzag line is scatched. The least perfect of the specimens has 
besides a series of lines round its body, slightly grooved or scratched 
into the clay in the process of turning the jar on the potter's wheel ; 
and there is a band of scrolls of the yellowish colour, painted on round 
the girth of the jar at its lai'gest part. 

I have also the pleasure to exhibit another jar belonging to an inte- 
resting discovery made in the year 1880, at Luppitt Church, near 
Honiton, Devon. I am indebted to Mr. J. H. Spencer, architect, of 
Taunton, and to the Rev. W. T. Perrott, the Incumbent, for a descrip- 
tion of the discovery, and for a sight of one of the jars. From this 
one my three views of it are drawn. Mr. Spencer had sent to The 
Builder, in June 1880, a notice of the discovery. In the course of 


some restorations then proceeding at the church, under his superin- 
tendence, when the plaster had been removed from the inside of the 
north and east walls of the chancel, the original putlog-holes were 
found going through the entire thickness of the walls ; the openings in 
the interior face being stopped with a small vase of rude pottery fitted 
into each, with the mouth towards the church, and immediately behind 
the plaster. Mr. Spencer thinks the walls are thirteenth centur} 7 work ; 
but windows of the fifteenth century have been inserted. The eager- 
ness of the workmen to get out the jars, when first found, destroyed 
several ; and the number seems, therefore, very uncertain. Three or 
four are spoken of as now in existence. All were similar in their 
characteristics, and these are very remarkable. The one I have is 
6 inches high, and 4| inches across at its greatest diameter. It is thus 
the smallest of all the examples of so-called acoustic pottery I have 
met with. It was evidently made for the purpose to which it was 
applied, for to enable it to rest the better on its side, the side is flat- 
tened in one part. 

One of the figures shews the full outline of the jar as presented by its 
upper side, another gives the outline of the jar in profile, and the third 
is a view of the depression in the under side. This depression was evi- 
dently made whilst the clay was damp and soft, after the pot had been 
turned on the wheel, by pressing it with the fore-knuckles of the three 
first fingers of the right hand, whose impression is very distinct, and 
exactly fits my own fingers. The material is well burnt ; the exterior 
a greyish red ; and where it is broken, the interior is a grey black. 

I have submitted the more perfect of the Ashburton jars and the 
Luppitt jar to our Vice-President Mr. H. S. Cuming, who has favoured 
us with his opinion upon them as follows : 

" I have carefully examined the two earthen jai'S you have kindly 
sent me for inspection. The tall, skittle-shaped one from Ashburton 
is very curious in many respects. If we were to single out one or two 
of its details, without considering the vessel as a whole, we might be 
led to assign it to a very early period. Take, for instance, its convex 
base, so like in fashion to what we find in Romano-Keltic pottery of 
the fourth century, and which fashion was revived in Norman times. 
The two bands of white paint incised with chevrons again remind us 
of fourth century work, whilst the outline of the jar bears with it a 
marked Norman character. But there are two other highly important 
elements which must be taken into consideration in fixing the date of 
the specimen in cpiestion, viz., its paste and amount of firing. The 
quality and hue of the paste are both identical with the bell-shaped 
watering-pots of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, which also ex- 
hibit the same degree of high firing. These watering-pots have con- 
vex bases, and their sides arc decorated with bands and stripes of 



-Asfrfir/rfoff Ztewn , fwvj&ieee&ze/ea. 

t9ea?cef\ L 

s. S -4. jS- « 


7'/rree [?rir.f of fine /j7rjficime*T. 


white pigment ; and aro occasionally, though rarely, adorned with in- 
cised patterns. Taking, therefore, all the details into consideration, I 
do not think that we could be far wrong in assigning the Ashburton 
jar to the close of the fourteenth or commencement of the fifteenth 

" The Luppitt jar is evidently of the same date as the examples 
found in Leeds Church, Kent, which although exhibiting in the paste 
some of the characteristics of lato Keltic pottery, cannot in truth be 
earlier than the fifteenth century." 

Mr. G. M. Hills also laid on the table the concluding chapter of his 
"Measurements of Ptolemy." 

The following articles were then exhibited by the Rev. S. M. May- 
hew, who thus describes them : 

" 1. A jug of fifteenth century pottery, 7 inches in height. Usual 
green glaze, with upright lip. 2. A printer's Stamp or Colophon, of 
the seventeenth century ; brass or latteen, set in hard wood. Found 
April 1882, with broken pottery, in Tower Street. 3. A round silver- 
solder bonbonniere, with rich ornamentation, by Michael Moser, and an 
old Yarmouth relic. 4. A string of eighty-two extraordinarily beauti- 
ful sapphire, old Venetian beads, extraordinary in workmanship as in 
colour. 5. A panel of oak, 15 inches by 9, of Low Country carving, 
emblematic of the Passion and Resurrection of Our Blessed Lord." 

Commenting on these objects, the exhibitor said : " The jug is some- 
what apart in shape from the usual production of the fifteenth century, 
being oviform ; the glaze is that with which we all are familiar. The 
printer's stamp is of far more interest, beauty, and value. We all are 
more or less sensible of the beauty of the designs which adorn the 
covers or fill the vacancies of final pages in books of the seventeenth 
century ; but it is a rare sight to see the instrument whereby those 
designs were produced. The artistic beauty of the stamp now on the 
table is very apparent. A central, long-stalked flower of eight petals 
and leaves springs from a group of four leaves (two inverted) connected 
with two unopened buds ; and lower, with two seed-vessels from which 
the seed just appears. I have had (by the hand of an appreciative and 
careful printer) a few copies struck off on card, shewing more decidedly 
the elegant taste of the artist. The stamp was used either as a colo- 
phon, or for an ornament upon the cover of some ponderous seven- 
teenth century volume. 

" Of the bonbonniere, the shape, a perfect round, is uncommon ; and 
perhaps the condition, of thick silver on copper, uncommon also. The 
scroll-work is of the pattern of Venetian art united with German. The 
scrolls upon the lid frame in a female figure sitting, and receiving 
from a Flamen standing by the hymeneal altar the hymeneal wreath. 
No doubt the box was originally a wedding gift. 


" The revel of art and luxuriance of taste belonging to the old Vene- 
tian workers frequently concentrate in the productions of the bead- 
workshops of Murano. Certainly in this necklace there are qualities 
sufficient to assert the pre-eminence of the old manufacture. Eighty- 
two beads of wonderful lightness ; of clear, brilliant yet exceedingly 
dark, sapphirene blue ; each bead thickly silvered within, girdled by 
two strokes of lattimo, and the interval of the strokes filled by clear 
glass ; studded, i.e., inlaid in some sparkling composition brilliant as 
diamond-points on silver. Although, apparently, a silver band had 
been joined between the hemispheres, it is not really so. A clear glass 
has been inserted, through which shines the internal silver." 

Many remarks of admiration, and questions also, followed the exhi- 
bition of these beautiful beads. Mr. Mayhew said they could be traced 
back for fifty or sixty years, but were of a much earlier date. On the 
carved panel, the fact that another very remarkable carving had been 
exhibited to the Association about six years since, was recalled by 
the exhibitor. The sacrifice of Isaac, as the type of those great trans- 
actions commemorated by the present, the suffering and resurrection 
of the Lord. That former panel, in three parts, had been found in the 
City of London; this one, bought in Yarmouth, is from Holland. It 
probably found a place over a Jesuit oratory altar, or in a reredos, as a 
central subject. The large beaded I. H. S. is on a raised oval of the 
form adopted by the Society of Jesus. Beneath are three nails ; on 
either side a draped angel, in one hand bearing a palm-branch, in the 
other supporting a cental, open diadema, giving us the suffering and 
the triumph. Two palms surmount the Victor's crown. The age of 
the carving suggests the sadly historic remembrance of the ruthless 
Spanish occupation of the Netherlands. Perhaps the fact that this, 
now disjointed, lies before us, may recall the patriotic self-devotion 
through which civil and religious freedom were won against over- 
whelming force. 

Mr. Mayhew added an iron casting of the story of the Golden Goose, 
obtained last autumn in Pembroke, — an art effort by the old Pem- 
broke Foundry, which ceased its operation towards the close of the 
last century. In this casting the costumes are of the reign of George II. 
The original mould appears to have been bi'oken, since in the collec- 
tion of our Vice-President Mr. Cuming is a precisely similar group, 
with the exception of the floor : in this case plain, in that diamonded. 
In recasting the ornament was added. It is much to be desired that 
notes of the works of these local foundries might be gathered. 

Also a saucer of white Livei'pool porcelain, having painted within 
the edge the outline of the Spanish and African coasts from Cadiz to 
Cape Spartel, set by compass. Off Trafalgar Cape stretch the double 
lines of the combined fleets of France and Spain. At right angles the 


attacking lines of Nelson and Collingwood are delineated with accu- 
racy faithful in the number and quality of the ships ; and under a 
powerful glass, both ensigns and rigging appear. The date may be 
180G ; and the cup probably received the portraits of Nelson and Col- 
lingwood, or Nelson alono. At any rate, though not an antique, it is 
a most interesting relic of our greatest naval triumph. 

Mr. W. de G. Birch, F.S.A., Hon. Sec, read a paper by Mr. James 
Greenstreet on " The Camden Roll of Arms." It is hoped that a place 
may be found for this in a futuro part of the Journal. 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock, F.S.A., Bon. Sec, exhibited plans and drawings, 
and read a paper on " Recent Discoveries at the Site of the Stock 
Exchange." This also will, it is hoped, be printed hereafter. 

Mr. Cole described the progress of the excavations alluded to above, 
and spoko of an ancient bridge which he believed had existed on the 

The Chairman then read the following 

Notes on the London Excursion and on the Session. 


On the occasion of this London excursion, our point of reunion on 
the 14th of October was the Cathedral Church of St. Paul, which 
stands on a hill memorable from the earliest times as the eye of a great 
metropolis, and the history of which has been brought home to us by 
the published accounts of the Rev. W. Sparrow Simpson, D.D., F.S.A., 
in which all the principal authorities on the subject are given, and 
many of these may be collected from his article in Journal, xxxvii, 
pp. 123, 132. We had the privilege this day of hearing from the same 
learned divine a full account, on the spot, of the successive buildings 
here dedicated to St. Paul, commencing with the mention of St. Ethel- 
bert's Cathedral, i-ebuilt in 961 ; then the account of the burning of 
one in 1087, which was rapidly rebuilt, and again destroyed by fire in 
1137, to be replaced by the beautiful Early English Cathedral of the 
thirteenth century ; completed in 1240, with crocheted spire rearing 
its finial point crowned with the relic bearing ball and cross, 490 feet 
from the ground. The fire of 1561 destroyed the spire, and injured 
the building ; which, however, survived, with the reparations then 
made, and the additions of Inigo Jones, for another hundred years, up 
to the great fire of 166(5 ; after which Sir Christopher Wren demolished 
its ruined walls, replacing them by the present magnificent temple, 
the first stone of which was laid on the 2 1st of June 1675 ; and except 
a small portion of the bases of the piers of the chapter house, on the 
south-west, nothing is to be seen of the old building abovo ground. 

What need is there of repeating what has been already so well told ? 


The history and description of the old St. Paul's, which Dr. Simpson 
brought before our eyes when exhibiting the architectural elevation of 
it, drawn on a very large scale, and enabling us to estimate its prodi- 
gious length of 090 feet ; while the view of the crypt, into which we 
descended, sets forth the ample dimensions of the modern Cathedral. 
The expansion of the crypt has been accomplished by removing the 
enclosure which formerly shut off a portion of it to form a church for 
the parish of St. Faith. The opening, too, of the western exterior of 
the building by removing the massive iron railings which formerly 
enclosed and concealed its western portals, vastly improves the prin- 
cipal entrance ; inviting the passers by to enter freely the open gates, 
and assist at the services of the Church, conducted consistently with 
the grandeur of the building, whose noble arches are made to resound 
with the peals of the organ and the voices of the choir. In the Whis- 
pering Gallery of the dome, however, on the occasion of our visit, we 
heard only the small voices of our own party re-echoed to the opposite 
side of the building ; and passing from thence along the spacious 
ambulatories, we were struck by the massive flying buttresses of very 
solid masonry, placed to counteract the outward thrust of the walls 
supporting the lofty vault of the nave ; thus shewing Sir Christopher 
Wren's adaptation of mediaeval ingenuity in rearing this temple on the 
revived classical model, and yet concealing the means by which the 
support was given by placing the buttresses within the screen-wall. 

Descending into the bod}', which is now filled with marble monu- 
ments to the great and the good of our land, a thought will again sug- 
gest itself of some of the objects of respect and adoration which once 
were the glory of old St. Paul's, as the famous rood or crucifix near 
the north door, visited by pilgrims from all parts. In the north aisle 
of the choir were two shrines containing the bones of Sebba, King of 
the West Saxons, converted by St, Erkenwald ; and the other, of King 
Ethelred. Ascending the choir, were seen the high altar and reredos, 
and three famous altars dedicated — that on the east to St. Paul, and 
those north and south to St. Ethelred, king and confessor ; and to 
Bishop Mellitus. The date of this Bishop's consecration is given as 
a.d. 004; and that of St. Erkenwald, 075, whose famous shrine, rival- 
ling in popular veneration even that of St. Thomas at Canterbury, was 
just eastward of the screen ; and the Saint was buried in the nave. 
Among the great political characters of his clay was Sir John de Beau- 
champ, K.G., son of Guy Earl of Warwick, whose grand tomb stood 
in the eleventh bay on the right hand. 

I must cut short the further relation of what Dr. Sparrow Simpson 
has described by a passing remark on St. Paul's Cross, which once 
stood in the Churchyard, at the east end ; famous in political as well 
as ecclesiastical history, for here u the folk-motes had been assembled, 


bulls and papal edicts read, heretics denounced, heresies abjured, and 
penances performed", besides the sermons preached here by the most 
eloquent divines of the clay. 

Before Christianity reared its first shi'ine on this hill, which sloped 
down to the Thames on the south, and to the then broad river of Fleet 
on the west, an old Roman wall is thought to have como down in a 
straight line from the bastion forming the north-west corner of London 
Wall, in the churchyard of St. Giles, Cripplegate, and to have formed 
a continuation southward of that wall which turned off to the west at 
the back of the Castle and Falcon Hotel in later times. A straight 
line would have ci'ossed Paternoster Row, where remains of the wall 
have been seen. A continuation of this would bring it diagonally 
across the site of the present choir of St. Paul's, skirting the southern 
porch of the Cathedral on the east ; and thence passing to the west of 
St. Benet's Church, the wall would enter the premises of the Carron 
Iron Company to the Thames, where it was flanked by the Castle of 
Baynard, or an older one on the same site, known as the Palatine 
Tower, which defended the City on the west, as did the Tower of Lon- 
don on the east. 

This suggestion of a wall here in Roman times is rendered probable 
by the fact of many sepulchral remains having been found outside of 
it, and notably the collection of urns and glass vessels found in War- 
wick Lane, on the premises of the Messrs. Tylor, and exhibited by 
them before the Society of Antiquaries last year. The great Earl of 
Warwick had his town residence afterwards on this site. There would 
be ample space for a large necropolis between this wall and the Fleet 
river ; and it is probable that the road to and from London passed 
through it, and up to the bridge which crossed the Fleet at Holborn 
Hill. Such an arrangement would naturally suggest the opening of 
the New Gate on a spot nearly opposite the bridge, and the building of 
the newer wall westward of the old one, by which the boundaries of 
the City might be extended. 

After walking up Fleet Street (as was the custom of Dr. Johnson 
with his friend Boswell), and hearing from Mr. G. Lambert a recital 
of the many worthies who once lived in Fleet Street, though their 
houses have departed as well as themselves, we again found ourselves 
in the Abbey Church of St. Bartholomew the Greater, in Smithfield, 
visited on a previous occasion.. Professor T. Hayter Lewis, F.SA., 
who has done much to preserve and restore the fabric, gave us a full 
and particular account of its architecture. That the nave is now want- 
ing, hai'dly supports the supposition that the church never had one ; 
nor do the words quoted from Matthew Paris, who describes what hap- 
pened in the choir as " in media ccclesia", strengthen such a view, 
because a monk would naturally call the middle of the choir the middle 


of the church, whether it had a nave or not. The scuffle which occur- 
red on the occasion, between the Prior and the Papal Legate, in 1250, 
was aptly brought in by Professor Lewis as shewing the state of society 
at the time, when the Legate was found clothed in armour under his 
vestments. The circular and pointed arches which support the tower, 
the former to the east and west, the latter to the north and south, 
were built at the same time, according to the evidence of the archi- 
tects, who could find no traces of rebuilding or resetting in the pointed 
arches ; and a similar construction was noticed by Mr. E. P. L. Brock 
in the parish church at Devizes during our Congress there. 

Rahere, the founder of the Priory, whose effigy is seen in the place 
of honour, in the north wall of the chancel, was also the founder of the 
Hospital of St. Bartholomew the Less, which we next visited. This 
institution is a noble development of the surgeon's art, repi'esented in 
its infancy, among the records of Barber-Surgeons' Hall, which was 
visited the next day. The stairs and entrance-hall of the Hospital are 
adorned with allegorical paintings, by Hogarth, of the highest interest 
and ascending the staii^case, the collection of documents was shewn us 
and explained by Mr. Cross, — documents such as are rarely seen toge- 
ther in connection with the foundation where they are preserved. The 
original grant by Rahere was here, with his seal attached, on which 
was a design of the building, and the date 1136. There were many, 
in fine preservation, of the time of Edward III ; and among the seals 
was that of the religious house of St. Giles in the Fields, which attracted 
our attention as we were about to visit another church dedicated to 
that Saint in Cripplegate. 

"The way was long, the night was cold", but many of our party 
would not be deterred from retracing their steps to the far East before 
assembling at dinner in the far West. The object of interest was the 
Roman bath and villa under the Coal Exchange in Thames Street. As 
this has been often described before, I will only i*efer to the satisfaction 
we felt at seeing so well preserved and attended to, a relic of antiquity 
which the British Archasological Association had a hand in preserving ; 
and we were glad to bear testimony to the attention paid us by 
Mr. Scott, Secretary to the Coal Exchange, by having the place lighted 
up, by which the hypocaust and each recess could be seen and ex- 
plored. There was the old seat where the bathers sat to be anointed 
after the bath by the attendant, and then scraped with the strigil. The 
old wooden drain-pipe has been preserved, which once drained off the 
water from the bath to the river, and the timber seems still sound. 
The plan of this building, parts of which have been uncovered at dif- 
ferent times, shews the usual arrangement of rooms for baths of the 
Romans ; but the dimensions are small for public baths. But even if 
they were larger, they would, of course, be on a very different scale from 


those colossal edifices in Rome, such as the Baths of Agrippa, of which 
tho Pantheon, still existing, is now found to be only the laconicum 
or sweating-bath ; behind which wcro the usual series of apartments, 
the walls of which arc now being brought to light, and the plan of their 
arrangement traced, and compared with tho similar remains of the 
thermae of Caracalla. 

Before leaving the eastern end of the City, I will pay a passing 
tribute to that very characteristic relic of the early part of the seven- 
teenth century, the dwelling-house of Sir Paul Pindar, which it is said 
will shortly be pulled down. Its oriel window still commands a view 
up and down Bishopsgate Street, and its barge-boards are well carved 
in the style of the day. The then occupier, Sir Paul Pindar, a great 
linguist, was ambassador to the Court of Turkey, and a large capitalist, 
who in 1639 is said to have amassed more than a quarter of a million 
of money, but was ruined by lending it to Charles I. At his death, at 
the advanced age of eighty-four, in 1650, his affairs were so embar- 
rassed that his executor committed suicide, and at an inquest on the 
body he was brought in as felo de se. 

On the second day, the meeting in the morning was at the Barber 
Surgeons' Hall in Monkwell Street, where we were received in the 
great room by the Master and Wardens of the Company. The anti- 
quities and histoi^y of this foundation were given in a paper by Mr. 
G. Lambert, F.S.A. ; l and the plate, of which there was a large dis- 
play on the table, was described by Mr. Shoppee. Among the objects 
specially pointed out was a beautiful cup of gold, presented by Holbein, 
who was a member of this Company ; and the coronets worn by the 
Wardens, consisting of a golden brim surmounted by crimson velvet. 
The junior Warden was crowned with one of green velvet. On the 
walls of the room were several portraits, — one of a Duchess of Rich- 
mond ; another of Sir — Frederick, who gave his name to Frederick's 
Place in the neighbourhood. More valuable than Holbein's gold cup 
was the picture he painted for this room, of Henry VIII delivering 
their charter to the Barber-Surgeons, by which they were incorporated 
in 1541. The names and descriptions of the persons represented in it 
will be found in an article in our Journal (vol. viii) by the late T. J. 
Pettigrew ; and a memoir of Holbein as a historical painter, in vol. 
xxvi, by Henry T. Holt, wherein are shewn the genuine paintings of 
Holbein, of which this is one, and those which have been falsely attri- 
buted to him. The first visit of this great painter to London was about 
the year 1526, when he brought a letter of recommendation from 
Erasmus to Sir Thomas More, the latter then residing at Chelsea ; and 
he kept Holbein three years in his house, on a visit, so much did he 

1 The lecture of Mr. Lambert, copiously illustrated with engravings, has 
been published. (Brettell and Co., 51 Rupert Street, Ilayinarket.) 


appreciate the painter and his great talent. A plan of the theatre of 
the old Hall, from a drawing in Worcester College, Oxford, is given in 
Journal, vol. viii, p. 118, and is about the only representation of any 
portion of that building (pulled down in 1782) which has been pre- 

What shall I say of St. Giles, Cripplegate (S. Egidius), which has 
not been said on the spot by Mr. E. P. Loftus Brock ? who considered 
it a good example of a City church of the period just anterior to the 
Reformation ; and not a few interesting tombs and tablets of later 
date, recording the names of illustrious parishioners, were pointed out, 
some of which we noticed in the Registers carefully laid out for our 
inspection in the Vestry. Among the burial-registers, which begin in 
1561, were the names of J. Fox, J. Milton, Daniel Defoe, Robert Somer- 
sett alias Glover, and Frobisher, 1594. Through the chinks in the 
oak panelling which lines the wall of the chancel we could see the ori- 
ginal stone sedilia. 

After viewing the bastion of the London Wall in the churchyard we 
passed down Wood Street, past St. Alban's Church, said to have been 
founded by King Athelstan, whose name is preserved in King Adel 
Street in this vicinity, wherein the name of Aldermanbury seems to 
betoken an ancient seat of government. 

Emerging in Cheapside, not far from the cross erected by the pious 
Edward I to the memory of his Queen Eleanor, the massive tower of 
St. Mary-le-Bow Church (or de Arcubus) came in sight; and here we 
were to view the ancient crypt upon which Sir Christopher Wren raised 
his superstructure. The ancient arches are said to have given the 
name to the church (Bow or Arched). The crypt consists of three 
arches, a central, and one north and south of this. The southern is 
supposed to be that called a Roman temple by Sir Christopher Wren. 
The depth is about to the level of Roman London, and there are win- 
dows closed up at about half the height of the wall. All the columns 
supporting the crypt are said to be early Norman work. 

Passing westward up Cheapside, we left on our right St. Martin's- 
le-Grand and Aldersgate Street, which once was lined with houses of 
the nobility all the way up to the Barbican. In the reign of Queen 
Mary an old manor-house here was possessed by Catherine, widow of 
Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, in her own right Baroness Wil- 
loughby d'Eresby. The Earl of Bridgewater had also a house in the 
Barbican. Lauderdale House stood on the east side of the northern 
end of the street ; and in Noble Street, near, was Shelley House, built 
by Sir Thomas Shelley in 1st Henry IV, afterwards called " Bacon 
House" in the time of Queen Elizabeth. Westmoreland and Northum- 
berland Houses were here the town houses of the Neviles and the 
Percies. Westmoreland Court still preserves the memory of the former, 


the latter was in Ball and Mouth Street. London House stood not far 
from St. Botolph's Church, formerly the residence of the Bishop of 
London. This was once called " Petre House", from having been the 
property of the Lords Petre. Shaftesbury House is still to bo seen 
with its pilasters and wreaths, the work of Inigo Jones, though now 
doomed to destruction. This is almost opposite London House, and 
succeeded Thanet House, first called " Dorchester House", from the 
Marquis of Dorchester ; becoming in after times the residence of the 
Tuftons, Earls of Thanet. 

Following the line of Newgate Street and St. Sepulchre's Church, 
we passed into Ely Place, where once stood the palace of the Bishops 
of Ely, of which the only portion remaining is the chapel, now called 
of St. Etheldreda. There are some who fail to see that it was ever 
built for a chapel at all, but consider it to have been the hall of the 
Bishop's Palace. The crypt below, they say, was formerly a cellar 
supported on timber uprights, which have been replaced by stone pil- 
lars after the ground had been excavated several feet to give it height. 
Father Lockart, M.A., Oxon., said it was used as a chapel by the 
Spanish ambassador in the time of Elizabeth, and preserved the old 
faith longer than any other. It was appropriated to Welsh Presbyte- 
rians in the time of William and Mary. Since it has been purchased 
by the Roman Catholic Church, coloured glass windows have been 
inserted ; figures of the Apostles, in plaster, from the originals at 
Nurenburg, have been added ; and other additions have been made. 

After the different theories on the original uses of the building had 
been in some way reconciled, we left Ely Place to proceed to Sir John 
Soane's Museum in Lincoln's Inn Fields, where we were met and wel- 
comed by one of the new Trustees, Mr. George Godwin, F.R.S., F.S.A., 
and by Mr. James Wild, the Curator. This once private house, the 
residence of Sir John Soane, who died on January 20, 1837, was made 
over to the nation by an Act of Parliament in the lifetime of the donor, 
which came into operation at his decease. The contents of the Museum, 
valuable and instructive as they are, yet are even exceeded in value 
and instruction by the skill and invention displayed by Sir John Soane 
in transforming a moderate-size house into the Museum as it now 
stands, with its recesses, corridors, crypt, sepulchral chamber, and 
mediaeval cloister, all closely packed with ancient i*elics and objects of 
art. It is indeed a marvel of architectural contrivance. Among the 
contents of the ground-floor and basement are some elegant specimens 
of Etruscan and Greek vases, marble fragments of Greek and Roman 
sculpture, bronzes, and innumerable casts of some of the best pieces of 
ancient sculpture and models of temples, arches, and buildings, of 
ancient Rome and Athens. The picture-room contains in a small 
space, by means of folding planes, a select collection of paintings, as 
1882 1C 


views in Venice by Canaletti ; four paintings poi'ti-aying scenes at 
elections, by Hogarth, purchased at the sale of Garrick's effects for 
1,650 guineas ; original drawings by Piranesi, and portraits of English 
artists, including one of Sir John Soane himself. In the " Monks' 
Parlour and Oratory" are many fragments and casts in plaster of 
bosses, corbels, and other portions of ecclesiastical buildings, as well 
as Flemish wood-carvings. 

Descending into the catacombs and under-ground galleries, a fine 
collection is seen of Roman marble cistve, urns, and other antique 
remains, including a marble statue of the Ephesian Diana or Dea Multi- 
mamma, and a colossal bronze head of Jupiter. Models, in cork, of 
ancient tombs and sepulchral chambers are not wanting ; and to crown 
all is the famous sarcophagus discovered in Egypt by Belzoni, in 1817, 
in a royal tomb in a valley near Thebes. This must not be passed 
over without a few words of description, as its merit has lately been 
enhanced by the discovery of the body of the very king who originally 
occupied this sarcophagus. This king was no less a person than 
Seti I, the second king of the nineteenth dynasty, which has been called 
by a well known authority the dynasty of " struggle", as was the 
eighteenth that of " triumph", and the twentieth that of " decline". 
This Seti I reconstituted the fleet in the Red Sea, and regained some of 
the foreign conquests of Thothmes III. He is also famous as being the 
father of Rameses IT, supposed to be the Pharaoh of the Jewish captivity. 

To return to the sarcophagus at Sir John Soane's, it is cut from a 
block of the finest alabaster, and is transparent when a light is placed 
within it. The length at the top is 9 feet 4 inches ; breadth, in the 
widest part, 3 ft, 8 ins. ; depth at the head, 2 ft. 8 ins. ; and at the 
foot, 2 ft. 3 ins. The cover, when placed upon it, added 15 ins. to the 
height. The sides are about 2| ins. thick at the top, increasing a little 
in thickness towards the bottom, which is about 3| ins. thick. It is 
sculptured within and without with several hundred figures, which do 
not exceed 2 ins. in height. The engravings on the walls of the sarco- 
phagus have reference to the journey of Ra (the Sun) through the 
chambers of Amenti, or Hades, during the hours of the night. In the 
centre is the boat of the Sun in the firmament, sustained by the sur- 
rounding waters ; above is the figure of Osiris. Among the subjects 
treated of is one embodying the ancient doctrine of the metempsycho- 
sis, the weighing of the souls of the human race in the balance of Osi- 
ris. The human race is symbolised by nine men on the steps of the 
throne of the judge. Among the fragments supposed to belong to the 
lid was one, being the corner of a box, which contained the four vases 
of the genii of Amenti, who presided over the different parts of the 
viscera of the embalmed person deposited within them. 1 

1 I am indebted to the official description of the Museum (1879) for the 


Too long would be tho recital of the many objects, paintings, minia- 
tures, architectural designs, and models, which furnish tho upper part 
of the house, tho staircases, lobbies, and recesses ; but the eight paint- 
ings of William Hogarth, illustrative of the " Rake's Progress", touch 
a chord of human sympathy by their truth to nature, and attracted so 
large a portion of the attention of tho visitors, that their subjects shall 
bo noted:— 1, "The Heir"; 2, "The Levee"; 3, "Orgies"; 4, "The 
Arrest"; 5, "The Marriage"; 6," The Gamiug-House"; 7, "The Prison"; 
8, "The Mad-House." These pictures, formerly in the possession of 
Alderman Beckford, were purchased by Sir John Soane, in 1802, for 
570 guineas. 

There is a fine library of books in print and in manuscript. Among 
the former may be mentioned the first three folio editions of Shake- 
speare's works, that of 1623, of 1632, and three copies of that of 
1664, which contains the seven additional plays not printed in the 
first two. 

Thus, with the week, ended the two days' excursion to the City ; 
but two more days in the following week were to be devoted to the 
western extremities of London. Want of space will, however, prevent 
my giving any account of them on this occasion ; and I must reserve 
for another any notice of Fulham Palace, Chelsea Church, Holland 
House, Hampton Court Palace, and the interesting vicinity of Kings- 
ton and Wimbledon. 

I will make but an observation or 'two on some of the most strik- 
ing features of the session, the subjects treated on having extended 
over an unusually wide range. In Egyptian antiquities, Mr. Myers 
exhibited some interesting specimens brought by himself from Egypt, 
as the bronze figure of Osiris, thought to be a representation of the 
great conqueror, Thothmes III ; and a reading priest. Mr. Park 
shewed portions of the flesh and bone of a mummy, which led to some 
interesting details about the linen material used for wrappers, and the 
amulets and religious emblems interred with the body were explained 
by Mr. W. de Gr. Birch. A scarabceus, set in gold, was exhibited by 
Mr. Compton. 

From Cypi'us some beautiful specimens of early art were commented 
on by Major A. di Cesnola, from his great collection. Among these 
were gold necklaces and bracelets for the living, rings and earrings for 
the dead, cornelian scarabcei, and sixteen beautiful types of Phoenician 
iridescent glass unguentaria, as well as fine specimens of the terra 
cotta statuettes for which the island was celebrated. The association 
of these with the many Roman remains on the table recalled the an- 

dirnensions and details of the sarcophagus, in which reference is made to " The 
alabaster sarcophagus of Oimenephtha 2, King of Egypt, drawn by Joseph 
lionomi, and described by Samuel Sharpe." (Longman and Co., 1864.) 


nexation of Cyprns by the Romans, when Ptolemy, King of the island, 
committed suicide rather than be despoiled of his possessions, referred 
to by Mr. G. R. "Wright in his sketch of the history of Cyprus in 
Journal, xxxv, p. 198. 

Roman tiles from London sites have not been wanting, — one from 
the City Wall, below the surface of the ground, just cut through (near 
Trinity Square) by the Metropolitan Railway Company, of very bright 
red and compact material ; and a rubbing of a stamp on one in his 
possession was produced by Mr. E. P. Loftus Brock. It had been dug 
up, many years ago, on the site of the Cannon Street Hotel. The let- 
ters were vidvcos ; and as this potter's mark is found on Samian ware, 
the fact seems to shew that some of the so called Samian (at least of 
the coarser kind) was manufacturecl in this country, as it seems hardly 
probable that these large tiles would be imported from abroad ; there- 
fore the pottery of Viducus must have been made on English soil. 
Mr. Grover confirmed the supposition that the coarser kinds of Samian 
ware, of which large quantities have been found on the now submerged 
parts of the Kentish coast, were manufactured here. 

Two other tiles from the site of Leadenhall were shewn by Mr. Brent, 
having upon them ppbrlon, read from right to left ; and two tiles with 
the same stamp are preserved in the Guildhall Museum. These I 
should take to have been stamped in the imperial pottery works of the 
London prefecture. Mr. Way exhibited many Roman and other anti- 
quities from the King's Arms Yard in Southwark. He as well as the 
Rev. S. Maude and Mr. G. R. Wright have at different times exhibited 
coins of Titus, Allectus, Gallienus, and Justin, and one of the Antonian 
legionary coins. 

The discovery of two Roman villas was announced : the one at 
Methwold by Mr. Cecil Brent, and the other at Wingham, in Kent, by 
Mr. E. P. Loftus Brock. The Rev. C. Collier also described some 
Roman remains found near Andover, Hants. Mr. Arthur Cope had 
specimens to shew of early tiles at Chertsey Abbey, a place already 
renowned for such tiles. Dr. Hooppell has discovered a Saxon church 
at Gosforth, Durham, — an interesting addition to such discoveries. 

The numerous stone implements exhibited from time to time by 
Mr. Worthington G. Smith would naturally lead to the discussion of 
early British habitations. Of these, some good examples are those at 
Birtley in Cumberland, figured and described in Arcliceologia, xlv, p. 
355 ; and the discovery among them of Roman or Saxon swords and 
bronze celts should cause diligent investigation to be made of such 
sites. This subject was illustrated by the rude drawings carved upon 
rocks, and known by the name of "cup and ring markings", of which 
Mi-. Romilly Allen has given us careful drawings and descriptions from 
[lkley in Yorkshire, and from near Tealing in Forfarshire. 1 Such 

1 Journal, xxxvii, p. 254. 

on. WffiENTiiAi }'• 

marks, and the frequency of their occurrence, can no longer be trea 
either as natural indentations in the stone, nor as capricious carving 
of man without purpose and without meaning. Mr. J. T. Irvine has 
favoured us with notices on the same subject; and the late Mr. John 
Brent of Canterbury took a prominent part in this discussion, the last 
in which he was to enter before his late sudden decease, which deprives 
our Society of a very active and valued member. 

The Duloe stone-circle, in Devonshire, has been carefully measured 
by Mr. C. W. Dymond ; and his description of the fine effect of the 
white stones, as seen from a distance, is another factor in solving the 
problem of these ceremonial circles. Dr. Phone illustrated the subject 
of stone-circles as well as barrows by many diagrams, the result of a 
recent visit to Scotland, and an excavation of one of the barrows there. 
Captain J. Thorpe also gave us a description of an ancient British bar- 
row opened on the middle of West Down, beyond Nunwell, Isle of 

The " Thinghoe", or Hill of Council, near Thetford, has been dug 
into by Mr. Prigg, who described his discovery of two secondary inter- 
ments there, the centre of the mound not having been reached. These 
hills of assembly and legislation were commented on by many speakers, 
and the well known examples in England were cited, as the " Tyn- 
Wald" in the Isle of Man ; and the foreign examples in Norway and 
Sweden were supplemented by the mention, by Mr. E. Walford, of the 
Salt Hill near Eton, on which the students of the College used to 
assemble at the periodical ceremony, "Ad Montem", now abolished, but 
till lately kept up with all the accompaniments of mediaeval pageantry. 
He said that an old religious custom may have been the origin of this 

A screw-dollar was exhibited by Mr. Henry J. F. Swayne, containing 
within it a beautiful miniature-portrait, in the Dutch or Flemish style, 
of a young man ; but the likeness could not be identified with known 
celebrities, though compared with many portraits of these by Mr. 
Stephen Tucker, Somerset Herald, and the Rev. Alexander Taylor. 

Two curious ivory sword-hilts, elaborately carved, were exhibited by 
our old correspondent Mr. J. B. Greenshields of Lesmahago. They 
came from Ireland, and the opinion was that they were used for some 
ceremonial ; but whether they belonged to the seventeenth or the end 
of the previous century was difficult to determine. The shield upon 
one, sable, a lion rampant crowned, might connect it with the Nether- 
lands and William of Orange. On the other hilt was carved a lion's 
head nffronte. 

Mr. \V. H. Cope's lecture upon coloured glass windows, from the 
earliest ages of their introduction, through successive centuries, came 
in very appropriately after the fine specimens we had seen at our late 


Congress. Very choice examples of early Spanish, German, and Venetian 
glass were exhibited by the Rev. S. M.Mayhew ; and numerous miscella- 
neous specimens from his copious museum, of vai'ious ages and countries, 
among which were two medals which attracted much attention ; the 
one struck by the " Society of the Crown", the crown of thorns being 
impressed on the reverse ; and the other was commemorative of the 
Massacre of St. Bartholomew, struck by Gregory XIII and the Sacred 
College to commemorate that event. The tradesmen's tokens of Mr. 
A. Chasemore, commemorative of the industiy of our nation, were 
more congenial to the feelings of those whose ancestors assisted and 
bled with the Huguenots of France. 

Dr. Sparrow Simpson's exhibition of the cast of a small metallic 
plate of the thirteenth century, used for determining the size of the 
tonsure of priests, was accompanied by interesting particulars con- 
nected with the monastic establishments of the period ; which were 
further exemplified by the ruins of Carrow Nunnery, near Norwich, 
unburied by J. J. Colman, Esq., M.P., at his own expense, and the plan 
of which was exhibited and explained by Mr. Brock. 

Here I will close this brief abstract, to be filled up by the official 
account of our proceedings and the note-books of those who took part 
in them. 



Mr. John Brent, F.S.A. 

We havo to record the death of Mr. John Brent, F.S.A., who died, after 
a short illness, at his residence on the Dane John, Canterbury, on the 
23rd of April 1882, in the seventy-third year of his age. He was born 
at Rotherhithe on the 21st of August 1808, and was the eldest son of 
the late Mr. John Brent, Deputy-Lieutenant for Kent, who had been 
several times Mayor of the city of Canterbury. 

Mr. Brent occupied for many years a seat on the Council of the 
Canterbury Corporation, and was elected an Alderman ; but resigned 
that position on being elected City Treasurer. He was also a member 
of the Local Council of the British Archaeological Association at the 
first Congress that was held at Canterbury in 1844. An enthusiastic 
lover of antiquarian pursuits from his earliest years, he contributed 
numerous papers to various antiquai'ian magazines, viz., the Archceolo- 
gia, Journal of the British Archceological Association, Arclmologia Canti- 
ana, Notes and Queries, etc. He published a revised edition of Felix 
Summerly's Handbook to Canterbury, also a Catalogue of the Antiquities 
in the Canterbury Museum, of which he was Honorary Curator ; and in 
18G0 he published his first edition of Canterbury in the Olden Times. 
The second edition was much enlarged, and shewed on the part of the 
author a great amount of research and ability as an antiquarian topo- 
grapher. Mr. Brent's literary pursuits were not confined to archaeo- 
logy. He wrote several works of fiction, Battle Cross, Sea Wolf, Elite 
Forestere, etc. ; and his poetical works, Atalanta, Justine the Martyr, 
Village Bells, etc., were much esteemed. 

From the Retrospections now being printed by one of his intimate 
friends, Mr. C. Roach Smith, we are enabled to add an extract contain- 
ing that author's warm and reliable testimony to Mr. Brent's worth : 
" When I commenced these Retrospections, and named Mr. John Brent 
as having been associated with us in the Canterbury Congress, with 
the brief addition of ' the poet and the historian of Canterbury', I relied 
on saying more of him at an advanced stage of my work, and I ex- 
pected him to read what I intended to say. I told him so when, a 
few months since, we went together to inspect the Roman villa at 
Wingham. This was not to be. Death outrides us with all our calcu- 
lations and speculations ; and apparent health is one of the delusions 
by which his approach is masked. On that day I had an opportunity 


of knowing more of his varied accomplishments than I had previously 
known, and he was unusually communicative in regard to himself. I 
had read his Elite Forestere with delight ; but I did not know he had 
written for the stage. I knew his superior poetic powers, so well 
shewn in Atalanta, Justine, and other poems ; but I did not know he 
was fond of singing, and that some of his songs had been set to music; 
and further, I did not know the extent to which he devoted his spare 
time to the education of the young, usually uncared for after they have 
left school. He hated ever} T thing in the shape of intrigue and mean- 
ness, and with manly courage was always prepai'ed to combat for truth 
and propriety. At the Congress of the Kent Archaeological Society 
at Sandwich an incident occurred precisely similar to that at Worces- 
ter, narrated in another part of my Retrospections. Mr. Brent, to the 
surprise, and perhaps dismay, of the President, recalled the large 
dinner party to a sense of what he considered their duty. It was from 
that very dinner, contrary to the protest of Mr. Brent and others, that 
the reporters of the public press were excluded, to the loss of the 
Society ; for in consequence no reports appeared of the particularly 
interesting and important proceedings of the day. Illiberality was 
thus punished by silence. 

" The Archceologia Cantiana will testify to the merits of Mr. Brent 
as an antiquary. His researches and discoveries in the Saxon ceme- 
teries of Sarre and Stonting were conducted with remarkable intelli- 
gence and success, and they have greatly contributed to our sepulchral 
collections of the Saxon period, so full of historical evidence. In his 
Canterbury in the Olden Times he has introduced much valuable matter, 
which, in another edition, had his life been spared, would still have 
been added to; for I believe he had recently made fresh discoveries. 
From his brothers we may expect their publication. Of the poems 
referred to, I propose giving specimens in the Appendix to my volume. 
At the last Archaeological Congress at Canterbury, Mr. Brent in vain 
tried to induce the Corporation to allow him to make some excava- 
tions, at my suggestion, to prove the character of the base and interior 
of the city walls, which I have no doubt are Roman, although many 
assert that they are wholly mediaeval. Several Congresses have been 
held at Canterbury, and this important question remains unanswered. 
It could easily be solved without a Congress." 


Snttquartan intelligence. 

These paragraphs of antiquarian intelligence are prepared and con- 
densed from miscellaneous communications made to the Secre- 
taries ; and it is earnestly requested that Associates will forward, 
as early as possible, notices of recent discoveries, which may be 
of archaeological interest, coming to their cognizance. 

Bristol: Past and Present. By J. F. Nicholls, F.S.A., and Jorw 
Taylor. Vol. i, "Civil History"; vol. ii, "Ecclesiastical History." 
(Bristol. J. W. Arrowsmith.) — The great city of western England, 
which was visited by the British Archaeological Association as the 
centre of a recent Congress, has found two worthy expounders of her 

Gorge of the Avon, with Pit-Dwellings on Downs. 

many glories and her many treasures. The authors, who rendered 
invaluable services to the Association on the occasion of that Congress, 
are well known in the archaeological circles of literature ; and it may 
be that the stimulus which such meetings are universally acknow- 
ledged to excite to the prosecution and advancement of the study of 
local antiquities, was not altogether unfelt by them when this literary 
project was being revolved in their minds. But be that as it may, the 



result of their labours, as we have it before us in these two handsomely 
printed and elegantly illustrated books, is a creditable monument to 
themselves, and a fitting tribute to the large share of English archaso- 
logy which the ancient city possesses stored up within her boundaries, 
and well worthy of exploration by the diligent seeker after the relics of 
the past. 

Written in accordance with a systematic method, and in a style per- 
fectly lucid and readable, without being commonj^lace or dull, this, the 
latest history of Bristol, is not only an invaluable pendant to the more 
ponderous productions of those who have previously essayed to describe 
Bristoliau history, but inasmuch as it gathers up facts which have 
hitherto escaped the notice of writers, and builds up irrefragable theo- 
ries from these very facts, by means of the axioms which the more 
advanced school of antiquaries has now established, it is an indispens- 
able addition to the shelf of the historical student. From the earliest 
period, when the gorge of the Avon was studded with pit-dwellings on 
its banks and downs, as in the accompanying illustration ; through the 

Houses built on the Frome Wall. 

lithic eras, and through the Roman and the Saxon ages ; through the 
early middle ages of earthen camps, and moated castles, and loopholed 
walls ; and through the later ages of gabled roofs, and narrow, cramped 
styles of domestic architecture such as that shewn by the woodcut of 
the old houses built on the wall of the river Frome, the authors lead 
us, while they leave nothing worthy of notice unexplored. 



As may be well imagined, the relics of tho fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries are far more numerous than those- of earlier times : hence the 
greater share of the descriptions and illustrations in the book is de- 
voted to a consideration of them. Among others of equally great anti- 
quarian interest, we are enabled by the publisher to reproduce here a 
view of Silver Street and the entrance to St. James' Fair, — a site now 

Silver Street and Entrance to St. James' Fair. 

covered with very old houses of a type not difficult to match, not only 
in Bristol, but in several of the more important cities and towns of 
the west of England. Of the church of St. James, which gives its 
name to this fair, we gave notices and texts of several hitherto unpub- 
lished documents in the Journal for 1875, vol. xxxi. 



Another highly interesting bit of ancient domestic architecture, with 
the storeys hanging one over the other, apparently in a most dangerous 
manner, and furnished with casement-windows and acutely pent-roof 
lines, may be studied in the view of the so called " Pithay", i.e., the 
Well-Close, or "Ilaia du Putt", one of the boundary-marks of the old 
town, adjoining Wine Street, and now covered with the suburb known 
as Aylward Sti'ect, under the old fortifications. 

Of picturesque places in the immediate vicinity of the city there are 
plenty, and many of them are well represented in the pages of this 
work. Such, for example, is the church at Highbury, built upon the 

Highbury Church. 

site of the old gallows, and standing upon the very ground where the 
martyrs of the reign of Queen Mary perished by fire for their ad- 
herence to principles destined so soon again to be transcendent 
throughout the country. 





All this and much more, — the gradual rise to pre-cminenco of the 
city's fortunes ; the constant connection of the King and nobility with 
the locality ; the local mint and coinage ; the civic history ; the gradual 
growth of the commercial spirit which to-day maintains Bristol as one 
of the largest centres of our insular trade and industry ; the military 
and naval matters relating to the city and the port ; the monastic and 
religious, the ecclesiastical and the lay elements, which have each in 
turn left their marks upon the sites which they once animated, — are 
exhaustively treated by Mr. Nicholls and Mr. Taylor. If there is a 
failing in the book, it is the want of a thoroughly good index, which in 
our opinion should embrace in one collection all the names and places 
mentioned in both volumes, and be placed at the end of the second. 
The short index prefixed to each volume is of little use to those who 
are searching for the mention or occurrence of an individual or a place, 
and from their abnormal position are likely to be overlooked ; but this 
is a matter which can be rectified with little difficulty, and we believe 
we are not wrong in saying that its rectification will greatly enhance 
the value of the book as a text-book of reference. As it is, however, 
it will take an important place among the new style of books which 
are supplementing the older style of county and city histories ; and 
deservedly so, for portability, compactness, and close reasoning, are 
more than ever they were indispensable factors in that kind of litera- 
ture to which Bristol Past and Present is the latest and by no means 
the least important contribution. Our Associates and those who 
accompanied us in our rambles through Bristol, guided, as we often 
were, by the authors of this book, will experience many a pleasant 
reminiscence of the Congress when they peruse the pages of a work of 
which we are here obliged to close our notice. 

Itude Stone Monuments in Palestine. — Lieutenant Conder's Report in 
the last Quarterly Statement of the Palestine Exploration Fund, 1 con- 
tains some valuable information on the subject of the cromlechs, men- 
hirs, and stone-circles, which have been recently discovered by him in 
Palestine. One special point of interest is that some of the cromlechs 
have basin-shaped cavities formed in the upper surface of the capstones. 
The following is a brief summary of the Report. 

In Galilee a few cromlechs still exist ; but in Moab and the Jordan 
Valley they are very numerous. On one hill twenty-six examples were 
found ; and in three days nearly fifty cromlechs were planned, sketched, 
and photographed. These monuments do not appear to be sown broad- 
cast over the country, but are referable to cer-tain centres which repre- 
sent the old sacred places of the primitive inhabitants. One of these 
centres seems to be the rounded summit west of Hcshbon, called 

1 Published by R. Bentley and Son. London, January 1S82. 


" Kerumiyeh". Here were found twenty-six cromlechs, a cairn sur- 
rounded by a circle 40 feet in diameter, and a double stone-circle. An 
engraving is given of one of the finest of the cromlechs, the capstone 
of which measures 9 feet by 8 feet, the two supports being 5 feet G incbes 
high. The average size of the capstones is 5 feet square, and the height 
of the supports 3 feet. There is a second group, of sixteen cromlechs, 
on the north side of Wady Heshban, more than a mile west of Kerumi- 
yeh Hill. 

It is remarkable that the mountains thus covered with cromlechs 
are also those where the modern Arabs pile their stone-heaps, or Jceha- 
/./7, which they are accustomed to place in sacred spots or along roads, 
at points where shrines first come into view. Lieutenant Conder had 
an opportunity of observing the cultus of these sacred circles, which 
consists in placing a small offering on the lintel or cromlech, which in 
most cases occurs on the west side of the circle. The worshipper then 
touches the lintel with his forehead, and mutters an invocation to the 
local divinity. The theory that the cromlechs were graves appears to 
be contradicted by the fact that the three stones stand, in most cases, 
on the live rock. In many cases circular holes are found in the top 
stones of the Heshbon groups. These are sometimes 8 or 9 inches in 
diameter, and 2 or 3 inches deep. 

Some curious rock-cut chambers are found in connection with the 
cromlechs. They are generally 3 to 5 feet long by 3 feet broad and 
high ; in other cases they are 6 or 7 feet long. They are almost always 
excavated in detached cubes of rock, i0 to 15 feet wide. The crom- 
lechs appear to occur in connection with ancient towns. 

A Critical Inquiry into the Scottish Language. By Francisque Michel, 
F.S.A. (Blackwood and Sons. Edinburgh and London.) — Our Hon. 
Associate M. Michel has from time to time during the long period that 
he has been connected with us, shewn good proof of the interest he 
takes in archaeological and literary matters connected with the history 
of Britain. The present, his latest production, fully maintains the 
high position he holds among us, and throughout England, as an emi- 
nent scholar and philologist. We all know how enticing a study philo- 
logy is, and how easily one is apt to be led away by apparent simi- 
larities of forms of words until all becomes speculation and conjecture. 
This cannot, however, be said of M. Michel's Inquiry, for the compari- 
sons which he points out generally carry their own conviction with 
them. The immense number of words in the Scottish language which 
are to be referred to French derivations has been indicated by Jamie- 
son in the Dictionary to which we drew our readers' attention a little 
while ago. Here we are reminded afresh of the intimate connection 
which these languages bear to one another, as far as the use of words 


representing the numerous branches of domestic and every day lan- 
guage is concerned. The laborious reading through the whole cycle 
of Scottish literature, and the copious annotation which every page of 
this work makes manifest, deserve the highest approbation. It would 
have been a task worthy of great praise if a Scotchman had under- 
taken to illustrate the obscure words and phrases of his own language, 
but when we find a foreigner so keenly appreciative of the archaic and 
hidden beauties of a language, the credit which is due becomes en- 
hanced, for the labour must have been far more extensive. 

The headings of the chapters or sections into which the work is 
divided, so as to classify the words, speak eloquently as to the prolific 
nature of the subject M. Michel undertakes to illustrate. "We find 
architecture, furniture, banqueting, clothing, fine arts, money, animals, 
education, medicine, law, punishments, war, sea-terms, music, dances, 
games, etc., all separately contributing useful series of words. The 
glossary of abstract words, and the list of phrases derived from the 
French, which follow in due order, are of an exceedingly interesting 
nature ; and at every page the reader is fairly astonished at the close 
manner in which the Scotch has borrowed, frequently with but little 
or no changes, such an extensive vocabulary from the country with 
which she was for a long time in such intimate connection. 

We may quote the following passages from the prospectus of the 
work : 

" To the antiquarian, the student of folk-lore, and the philologist, 
this Critical Inquiry presents the fruits of a long life of special research. 
The illustrations of the Scottish vernacular make the book an invalu- 
able addition to Jamieson's Dictionary. The labour and research ex- 
pended on this subject justify the presumption that this work will be 
found to be one of the most important contributions ever made to the 
literature of Scottish antiquities, and that it will prove a cyclopaedia of 
information upon all topics connected with the ancient intercourse 
between Scotland and France. 

" The close political and social ties that bound Scotland to France 
form a very striking feature in the history of both countries. On Scot- 
land, as the more backward of the two countries, French influence 
made a deep impi'ession. Scottish early civilisation was cast mainly 
in a French mould ; the Universities drew their constitution almost 
wholly from French sources, the municipal institutions were largely 
copied from French examples, the religion at the Reformation elected 
to be guided by French rather than by German rites, the language, 
social customs, business, and pastimes, were all more or less modified 
by the French conviction. To understand Scottish civilisation we 
must seek for its important germs in French sources. We must recall 
the intercourse between the two countries ; the Scotsmen flocking to 


France for study or for military service, and coming back to imbue 
their students and their tenants with their own experience ; the French 
courtiers and men-at-arms who came to Scotland in the train of each 
royal alliance ; the scholars of the Reformation, who strove to intro- 
duce the principles and forms of the Huguenots ; the Jacobite emis- 
sary of a later century, full of French sympathies and French ideas ; 
and the French followers who often accompanied the Scot back to his 
own country. 

" The volume is an attempt to illustrate the extent to which French 
influence peiwaded Scottish life and progress, finding its way into 
every detail of life. The book is an opening up of a question of much 
general interest in the history of British culture, and now, after much 
labour, submitted to the learned of the two countries that have always 
shewn such good will to each other." 

The subscription price of the volume, of which there is but a limited 
impression, is £2 : 12 : 6. It is handsomely printed in 4to. size, and 
bound in Roxburghe style. The printer deserves a word of praise for 
the elegant ensemble which the book presents to the eye. 

Scotland Sixty Years Ago : a Series of Thirty -two fine Copperplate Etch- 
ings of the Chief Towns in Scotland, and their Surroundings. — Nearly 
sixty years ago an eminent firm of publishers in London commissioned 
the execution of a series of thirtj'-two fine copperplate etchings of the 
chief towns of Scotland and their environs. The commission was care- 
fully executed by an excellent artist ; but for some reason or other the 
series has remained unknown, and the views were, till vei'y recently, 
lost sight of or forgotten. Mr. Alexander Gardner, of Paisley, the pre- 
sent publisher, has been so fortunate as to secure, in admirable condi- 
tion, the artist's plates, and proposes to publish, by private subscrip- 
tion, a strictly limited impression of one hundred and fifty copies of 
the series, which will form a unique and magnificent double super- 
royal folio volume, half morocco, printed on finest plate-paper. The 
copies will be consecutively numbered, and issued to subscribers in the 
order of their applications. Most of the etchings bear the date 1824, 
and carry us back to a period when many Scotch towns and laud- 
scapes bore a very different aspect from that which is presented to the 
modern traveller. Steam had not then made rapid journeys possible, 
or seas and rivers navigable in spite of adverse winds and tides. 
The stage-coach had almost a monopoly of highway-travelling, and 
telegraph-posts were altogether unknown. The views bring our fathers 
vividly before us in their every day attire, as well as the scenes amid 
which they moved, and the houses in which they dwelt. As we look 
we are borne into the past, and more clearly than by words spoken or 
printed, come to understand how " the times arc changed, and we with 


them." With this volume before them, the present generation will be 
enabled to measure the changes which more than half a century has 
wrought upon the buildings, the boundaries, and the habits of the 
people, in the localities depicted. Faithfully representing the past, the 
work will be specially valuable to antiquaries; and, indeed, to all who 
are interested in the history and progress of their country. Seldom 
has the opportunity been afforded of securing a volume of equal inte- 
rest. The publisher will do his best to make the material character of 
the work worthy of the subject-matter. 

The impression will consist of one hundred and fifty copies only. 
The present price is £4 : 12 : G ; but the publisher reserves to himself 
the right to raise it when a certain number have been sold. A few 
impressions of the plates may be had separately, for framing, at 21s. 
per plate. 

The places represented are : — Glasgow, Aberdeen, Aberdeen (from 
the South), Cromarty, Falkirk, Dumbarton, Forfar, Gretna Green, 
Dunkeld, Greenock, Hamilton, Dingwall, Inverness, Jedburgh, Ren- 
frew, Tain, Edinburgh, Elgin, Dundee, Lanark, Inverary, Montrose, 
Linlithgow, Melrose, Peebles, Perth, Port-Glasgow, Peterhead, St. An- 
drew's, Stirling, Rothesay, Paisley. 

The Sculptured Monuments in the Church of St. Dubricius, Porlock, 
Somerset. By Maria Halliday. (R. Gibbs, 3 Union Street, Torquay.) 
— This is an elegantly written little book upon a subject which has 
many votaries. It is copiously illustrated with pen and ink sketches 
reduced by photography, and with coloured chromolithographic plates. 
The gifted authoress has caught the true spirit of archaeological in- 
quiry, and appears to have elucidated her theme in a veiy clear and 
succinct manner. It is to be hoped that her example may bear good 
fruit in many other places, for there are scattered over the length and 
breadth of our land, monuments quite as important, and relics endowed 
with history quite as romantic, as the alabaster effigies and richly 
carved canopy at Porlock ; but Societies such as ours have not yet 
enshrined them in their pages, and those who live in the vicinity of 
them will not take that absorbing interest in their local relics which 
Mrs. Halliday has taken in this. The monuments upon which this 
work is a charming brochure are two recumbent effigies of a knight and 
his lady, in alabaster, with traces of gilding and colours, canopied with 
an elaborate canopy, now placed under the easternmost arch which 
divides the nave from the south aisle of the church. The heraldic and 
genealogical clues which the writer with considerable labour has 
gathered together, enable her to point out, for the first time, the great 
mass of historical evidence on which she founds (and few will be dis- 
posed to dispute) her conclusion that the Porlock tomb was erected 
1882 17 


towards the close of the fifteenth century, by Cecilia Bonvile, second 
wife of Thomas Grey, first Marquess of Dorset, to the memory of Eliza- 
beth Courtney (who died in 11 Edward IV), widow of Sir John Har- 
rington, fourth Baron Aldingham, and also of Sir William Bonvile, 
K.G. There are other arch veo logical points of interest at Porlock, and 
these are incidentally treated with considerable acumen. This kind of 
book, we believe, does as much good in encouraging and fostering 
archaeological studies as works far more compi'ehensive and pretentious. 

A Neiv History of Norfolk, by R. H. Mason, Esq., is now preparing 
for publication by subscription. It is so long since the publication of 
a good county history of Norfolk, that copies are scarce and costly ; 
and from the number of changes which have occurred, it is desirable 
that a new and complete work should be produced. There are few 
counties so rich in material for the writer of local history as the county 
of Norfolk, yet it is a hundred and fifty years since Blomefield com- 
menced printing, in his Vicarage- House at Fersfield, the famous book 
which he too modestly entitled An Essay towards a county history, 
Editions of that Essay, revised and extended by his coadjutor, the 
Rev. Charles Parkin, were published in 1805 and 1829 ; but they only 
brought down the work to the latter end of the last century. Dawson 
Turner says that the latter part of the work was really written, very 
unsatisfactorily, by Whittingham, a bookseller of Lynn. It is more 
than fifty years since Chambers published his History in two small 8vo. 
volumes ; and it is remarkable that from his time no attempt has been 
made to gather into a collected form the abundant material that exists. 
The history of the present century, therefore, remains to be collated, 
and it is proposed to accomplish that in this work ; whilst going over 
the past, coiTections and additions will be made. Sources of informa- 
tion are now available which it is believed will add much to the valu- 
able researches of Blomefield. In the national collections of the British 
Museum, in the Record Office, and in private collections, documents of 
great interest are preserved, and no trouble will be spared to discover 
whatever may add to the value of this publication. 

The History of Norfolk will be issued to subscribers only, in about 
ten Parts, at intervals of three months. The terms of subscription 
will be as follow : Quarto edition, one guinea each Part ; large paper, 
folio edition, one guinea and a half each Part. Communications may 
be addressed to R. H. Mason, 2 Byng Place, Gordon Square, London, 

Norwich Cathedral — Mr. J. Gunn sends us the following extracts 
from his paper on " The Mutilations of the Piers which support the 
Tower and Spire of Norwich Cathedral": 


" I pointed out, at a Meeting of the British Archaeological Associa- 
tion held at Norwich in 1881, the mutilation of the billet-mouldings, 
and the plastering them over, so as to form a hood-moulding like 
none known in any style of architecture. Another innovation is a piece 
of reckless mischief. It consists in an experiment to see how much of 
the piers which support the grand tower and spire can be removed 
without bringing them to the ground. First the triple columns which 
descend from the capital to the base were cut away ; and having suc- 
ceeded in effecting that safely, the architects next pared off about 
14 inches of the solid masonry, about 20 feet from the floor. Thus the 
piers were reduced not less than 2 feet 3 inches in width on the inside 
of the grand central arches spanning the choir. It is obvious that the 
jambs and arches above are sustained by the cohesion of particles 
more than by the direct support of the piers, because if the demolition 
were carried throughout, up to the capital, the inner part of the arch 
must fall, and the consequences extend further. Even supposing there 
were no danger, this innovation must be an eyesore to every thought- 
ful person to whom it is pointed out. It has been partially concealed 
by the Precentor's and the Minor Canons' seats under the western 
jambs, and by the Bishop's throne against the north-eastern jamb ; 
and the south-eastern has been rebuilt where the Chancellor's seat 

" It may be asked when this extraordinary experiment was tried. I 
have not been able to ascertain by reference to the Treasury accounts ; 
but I am inclined to think that it was post-Reformation work, because, 
as Mr. Spaul informs me, the drops or finial terminations of the trun- 
cated columns are made, not of stone, but of plaster. The carved 
wood stalls over the Precentor's and Minor Canons' seats, and also the 
Bishop's throne, are late Perpendicular. 

" I trust that the restoration of the piers of Norwich Cathedral may 
be promoted now that I have pointed out the danger." 

National Society for Preserving the Memorials of the Dead. — With a 
laudable object, and under distinguished support, this Society has been 
lately established, and certainly not a moment too soon : indeed, many 
persons will think that in order to have done much real good, it should 
have been called into being fully forty years ago, and before "restorers" 
had begun to sweep away from walls and floors of parish churches the 
principal part of the sculptured and graven history that did not hap- 
pen to come within their charmed "Gothic" period. It cannot be 
denied that the loss of much of these evidences of local history lies at 
the door of the very persons who were their proper protectors ; and it 
is to be hoped that the exertions of this Society may at last open the 
eyes of the clergy and churchwardens to the fact that memorials of 


ancestors, even though they be only " rude forefathers of the hamlet," 
give a human interest to a church which all the crude vulgarities of 
modern tile-paving can never produce ; and that the simple, inscribed 
stone of even an honest grandfather is more interesting (and what is 
of more importance, more historical) than an acre of encaustic tiles, be 
they never so garish and slippery. It is further to be hoped that this 
Society may be the means, not only of rescuing numberless church and 
churchyard monuments that are in danger of being removed from their 
proper places, but also of bringing out of unseemly, dark corners — 
restoring, in fact, in the best sense — such memorials of the dead as 
have in our own time been hidden away. A wise discretion has been 
exercised in establishing this Society upon a broad basis, by setting 
the amount of the subscription to it as low as possible, so that sub- 
scribe!^ of not less than one shilling a year become members. There 
is thus the probability of the formation of a body of persons of all 
classes — for the subject should appeal to the feelings of the whole 
of the intelligent community — having the single and high purpose of 
protecting memorials of ancestors. 

All communications should be addressed to Mr. W. Vincent, Lower 
Hellesdon Road, Norwich. 

Organ-Cases and Organs of the Middle Ages and Renaissance. By 
Arthur George Hill, B.A., F.S.A., Jesus College, Cambridge. — Sub- 
scribers should communicate with Mr. David Bogue, 3 St. Martin's 
Place, London, W.C. This work is in the press, with forty full-page 
illustrations, imperial 4to., handsomely bound ; to be issued to sub- 
scribers at two guineas per copy. The price will be raised to three 
guineas upon the day of publication. Among the illustrations, which 
include several remarkable cases now destroyed, will be given draw- 
ings of the following ancient organs : — Fourteenth century : Sion 
(Switzerland), church of St. Catherine. Fifteenth century : Nurnberg 
Laurenzerkirche and Frauenkirche (now destroyed) ; Amiens Cathe- 
dral ; Alcala de Henares, Spain ; Rome, Old St. Peter's (now de- 
stroyed) ; Lubeck, Marienkirche ; Strasbourg Cathedral. Sixteenth 
century : La Ferte Bernard ; Hombleux, Picardy ; Chartres Cathedral ; 
Freiburg im Breisgau ; Constance Cathedral, Switzerland ; Argentan, 
Sarthe ; Angers, S. Maurice (now destroyed) ; and Le Mans. 

The first volume of Mr. C. Roach Smith's Retrospections will contain 
notices of the first six Congresses of the British Archaeological Associ- 
ation ; of Messrs. Bateman, Barham, Isaacson, Rolfe, Wright, Joseph 
Mayer, C. Warne, Thomas Waghorn, Thomas Charles, W. Bland ; the 
author's early life, life in London, etc. To secure subscribers' copies, 
early applications should be made to the author at Temple Place, 
Strood, Kent 

Til 111 JOURNAL 

BritisI) Archaeological association. 



(Read March 1st, 1882.) 

The manufacture of glass is of the highest antiquity ; but 
could the ancients, who were so well acquainted with the 
art of staining glass of various colours, of fashioning it 
into vases of every kind, of employing it (in little cubes) 
in the composition of mosaics, — could they also prepare it 
in sheets ? At what period was glass first used for win- 
dows % These are the first questions that suggest them- 
selves to the authors who have treated on the history of 
painting upon glass ; and until lately a few texts of con- 
troverted interpretation were the only documents we pos- 
sessed on the subject. 

According to Pliny, 1 the invention of glass was the 
result of accident, as in other discoveries. In that part 
of Syria called Phoenicia, at the foot of Mount Carmel, 
lies a swamp or morass, to which the name of Candebeus 
is given. From this swamp the river Belus takes its rise, 
and empties itself into the sea near Ptolemy's Column. 
It is only at low water that its sands can be seen. It 
happened that a merchant ship laden with nitron having 
anchored at this spot, the crew prepared their food on the 
sea-shore, and wanting some stones to place their caul- 
dron on, and not finding any, brought some blocks of 
nitron from the cargo of the vessel. These blocks, com- 
posed of azote of potash, melting from the action of the 

1 Liber xxxvi, ch. xxvi. 

1882 18 


fire, mingled with the sand of the sea-shore, and transpa- 
rent streams of a noble liquid began to flow. 

That to some fortuitous liquefaction we owe the first 
suggestions for the manufacture of glass is, indeed, very- 
possible ; but it is still more certain that human industry 
must have been long employed before it arrived at the 
production of a substance which is capable of being mani- 
pulated on the marble, 1 of being expanded by the blow- 
pipe, and of being coloured by metallic oxides. 

If in favour of the Phoenicians we have the testimony 
of several authors to their skill in making glass, the 
Egyptians have better evidence still. The excavations 
made in Egypt, and principally those of the Temple of 
Karnac at Thebes, in bringing to light the produce of 
their manufactures, demonstrate that they carried to 
great perfection the art of vitrification. It is a fact well 
ascertained, that glass, both white and coloured, opaque 
and transparent, was made by the Egyptians upwards of 
three thousand years ago. Sir Gardner Wilkinson de- 
scribes the proficiency of making white and coloured glass 
at the period of the eighth dynasty, and glass-blowing 
upwards of three thousand five hundred years ago ; and 
there are paintings on the tombs of Beni-Hassan repre- 
senting figures blowing glass with the rod or "punt", as 
now made. 

The Phoenicians and Egyptians introduced their art 
into Sicily, and the islands of the Archipelago, and Etru- 
ria, and manufactories of glass were established in these 
countries at a very remote period. The Romans soon dis- 
covered the method of staining glass, of blowing it, of 
working it on a lathe, and of engraving it. The early 
Christians were acquainted with the art of decorating 
vessels of glass, and large quantities have been found in 
the Catacombs. When Constantine removed the seat of 
the Roman empire to Byzantium, the art of glass-making 
appears to have suffered more than any other. It was 
afterwards carried on by the Greeks of the Lower Empire, 
and they preserved all the fine processes belonging to the 
glass-making of antiquity. 

1 Technically called " marver", a slab of cast iron with a polished 
surface, placed upon a wooden stand. Upon this slab the lump of 
glass is rolled, to give it a regular exterior, so that the result of expan- 
sion by blowing may be uniform in thickness of metal. 


The employment of glass for the closing of windows is 
spoken of by Lactantius, a celebrated ecclesiastical writer 
of the beginning of the fourth century, St. Jerome, and 
others. Kecent discoveries at Herculaneum and at Pom- 
peii have brought to light fragments of panes of glass and 
window-frames, which are now preserved in the Museum 
of the Studj at Naples. It is certain that when, on the 
establishment of Christianity, the ancient basilicas were 
converted into Christian temples, the windows of these 
new churches were adorned with coloured glass. In these 
brilliant glasses of various colours there were yet no 
figures, no ornaments painted upon the glass ; they were 
merely transparent mosaics. 

There are three distinct systems of glass-painting, 
which for convenience sake may be termed the "mosaic 
method", the "enamel method", and the " mosaic enamel" 
method. Of these, the most simple is the mosaic method. 
Under this system glass paintings are composed of white 
glass, if they are meant to be white ; or only coloured 
with yellow, brown, and black ; or else they are composed 
of different pieces of white and coloured glass arranged 
like a mosaic, in case they are intended to display a 
greater variety of colours. The pieces of white glass are 
cut to correspond with such parts of the design as are 
white, or white and yellow; and the coloured pieces, with 
those parts of the design which are otherwise coloured. 
The glass painter in the mosaic style uses but two pig- 
ments, — a stain which produces a yellow tint, and a brown 
enamel called "enamel-brown". The main outlines of the 
design are formed when the painting is finished, by the 
leads which surround and connect the various pieces of 
glass together ; and the subordinate outlines and all the 
shadows, as well as all the brown and black parts, are 
executed by means of the enamel-brown ; with which 
colour alone, a work done according to the mosaic system 
can be said to be painted : the yellow stain is merely used 
as a colour. It therefore appears that under the mosaic 
method each colour of the design, except yellow, brown, 
and black, must be represented by a separate piece of 
glass. A limited number of colours may, however, be ex- 
hibited on the same piece of glass by the following pro- 
cesses : part of a piece of blue glass may be changed to 


green by means of the yellow stain ; the coloured surface 
of coated glass may be destroyed by attrition or the appli- 
cation of fluoric acid, and the white glass beneath it ex- 
posed to view. This may, of course, be wholly or in part 
stained yellow, like any other white glass. Two shades 
of yellow may also be produced on the same piece of glass 
by staining some parts twice over. But unless he adopt 
one or other of the above mentioned processes, the glass- 
painter under the mosaic system cannot have more than 
one colour on the same piece of glass. A variety of tint 
or depth may often be observed in the same piece of 
coloured glass, arising from some accident in its manufac- 
ture. Of this a skilful glass-painter will always avail him- 
self to correct as much as possible the stiffness of colour- 
ing necessarily belonging to this system of glass-painting. 
Under the enamel method, which is the most difficult of 
accomplishment, coloured glass is not used under any cir- 
cumstances, the picture being painted on white glass with 
enamel colours and stains. 

The mosaic enamel method consists in a combination of 
the two former processes, white and coloured glass, as 
well as every variety of enamel colour and stain being 
employed in it. The practical course of proceeding under 
each of these three methods is nearly alike. 

Glass-painting may be considered from two points of 
view, as glass or as painting, the glazier's or the artist's. 
In fact, there is a great difference between colouring glass, 
and painting upon it. Painted glass and stained glass 
are commonly used as if synonymous. The coloured 
glasses are obtained by mixing metallic oxides with glass 
in a state of fusion, by which means a uniform colour is 
given to the whole mass. This is called "pot-metal glass". 
This colouring is not superficial ; it pervades the sub- 
stance of the glass, the colouring matter becoming incor- 
porated by fusion with the vitreous mass. This process 
produces what is called " stained glass", which must not 
be confounded with painted glass. 

Coloured glass is of two kinds ; one coloured through- 
out its entire substance, and the other is coloured only on 
one side of the sheet, and is termed "coated" or "covered 
glass", or white glass covered with a coating of pot-metal 
colour. Ruby glass is almost invariably coated glass. 



With painted glass it is different. To obtain the latter 
the artist makes use of a plate or sheet of translucid glass 
either colourless or already tinted in the mass, and gives 
the design and colouring with verifiable colours upon one 
or both surfaces. These colours, true enamels, are the 
product of metallic oxides, which give the colouration, 
combined with vitreous compounds known by the name 
of" fluxes". These fluxes serve as vehicles for the colours; 
and it is through their medium, assisted by the action of 
a strong heat, that the colouring matters are fixed upon 
the sheet of glass, and incorporated with it. 

The charm of the brilliant mosaics, of the glasses of the 
first ages of Christianity, very naturally induced the wish 
to trace upon them figures and subjects ; but the ques- 
tion, at what period this art of glass-painting with enamel 
colours was first introduced, has not been less the subject 
of controversy than that concerning the first use of glass 
for closing windows. Anastatius Bibliothecarius, who 
wrote at the end of the ninth century, and who has, in his 
Lives of the Popes, delighted in setting forth all the mag- 
nificence with which they had decorated their churches, 
never speaks of windows with painted glass, but only of 
windows with stained glass. Thus, when in the Life of 
Leo III he relates that this Pontiff caused the Church of 
St. John Lateran to be decorated with coloured glass, it 
is in terms which do not admit of our supposing the 
existence of any painting whatever upon the windows 
employed : " Fenestras de absida ex vitro diversis colori- 
bus conclusit." (He filled up the windows of the apse with 
glass of different colours.) We must, therefore, consider 
it as very nearly established, that painting upon glass 
was unknown in the ninth century; for had it been known, 
the Popes, so zealous in the decoration of churches, would 
not have failed to welcome with delight this new means 
of embellishing them ; and Anastatius would surely have 
spoken of so splendid a style of decoration. 

The tenth century was a prey to so many calamities, 
and the arts (almost everywhere deprived of the patron- 
age of the great) had sunk into such a state of degrada- 
tion, that we cannot with any probability assign to this 
period so important a discovery. It is, therefore, gene- 
rally acknowledged by all archaeologists that we do not 


know now any painted glass to which can be assigned 
with certainty an earlier date than that of the eleventh 

It was during the twelfth century that the imaginative 
power of the artist was exerted to the utmost. A species 
of sympathy existed between this divine art and the reli- 
gion it strove to elevate, that it venerated and adored : 
hence it was that enthusiastic endeavours were made to 
produce works of the highest order on the leading sub- 
jects of the creed of the Fathers of the Church. Painting 
on glass took the lead ; and connected, as it was, with 
religious worship, took possession of the minds of men, 
and dissipated the thick darkness which had overspread 

The varieties of glass-painting have been arranged 
under five styles or classes, viz., the Early English, ex- 
tending from the date of the earliest specimens extant to 
the year 1280; the Decorated, from 1280 to 1380; the 
Perpendicular, from 1380 to 1530; the Cinque-Cento, from 
1500-1550 ; and the Intermediate, from the end of the 
Cinque-Cento style down to the present day. 

The oldest examples to which a date can be assigned 
with any degree of certainty, appear to be some plain 
windows or remains in the abbey church of St. Denys in 
France, supposed to be the work of Abbot Suger in the 
middle of the twelfth century. No English glass-painting 
exists of an earlier date than this. 1 The painted windows 
of the twelfth and those of the thirteenth century have 
nearly the same character. The general design consisted 
of little historical medallions of various forms, symmetri- 
cally distributed over mosaic grounds comprised of coloured 
glass, borrowed from preceding centuries. This ground 
is arranged in square or lozenge-shaped panels filled with 
quatrefoils, trefoils, and other ornaments. The whole 
design is surrounded with borders of varied patterns, of 
scroll-like foliage, interlacings, palms, and other leaves of 
different kinds. The subjects of the medallions are taken 
from the Old or the New Testament, or more often from 
the legendary history of the saints. The principal out- 

1 The monks of the Abbey of Rivaulx, in the north of England, were 
ihe first in that part of the kingdom to discover a taste for enriching 
their convent with fine paintings on glass, brought from France about 
the year 1 1 10. 


lines of the design, both of the medallions and of t 
grounds, are formed by the lines of the lead used for hold- 
ing the different pieces of glass together, and which thus 
formed a black boundary to each subject. The pieces of 
glass are in general coloured, rarely plain. Upon these 
pieces of glass, which are always of small size, the folds 
of the draperies and the details of the ornaments are por- 
trayed by a reddish or bistre colour laid on with a brush. 
Some " hatches" 1 of this colour form the shading. The 
flesh tints themselves are not expressed by any applica- 
tion of colour ; but a glass slightly tinged with violet 
forms the ground, and the features are indicated with 
this same bistre enamel. At the end of the twelfth cen- 
tury the whole subject was drawn in bistre, but giving a 
more detailed outline. "Hatches" scratched out upon the 
coloured ground produced a very happy effect of light ; so 
that with one enamel colour only the painters on glass 
succeeded in obtaining three different tints. We soon 
after find, upon some windows, the little medallions with 
subjects replaced by isolated figures of larger size, with 
a background of mosaic. 

The chief merit of the windows of the twelfth and thir- 
teenth centuries, and which, notwithstanding the many 
imperfections, causes them to be esteemed, is their perfect 
harmony with the general effect of the edifices to which 
they belong. At whatever distance we examine them we 
are struck by the elegance of their form and the brilliancy 
of their colour. The artist has had no intention of an 
independent work ; he has given himself little trouble 
about a faithful copy of nature ; his whole aim has been 
to contribute, under the direction of the architect, in the 
ornamentation of the building ; and he has never failed 
of success, through the skilful arrangement and harmo- 
nious distribution of his colours, which, notwithstanding 
their brilliancy, shed over the interior of the temple a 
mysterious light, adding much to the solemn grandeur of 
the architecture. This harmony of effect did not exclude 
a richness of detail. The mosaics of the grounds, and the 
borders which surrounded them, are always of graceful 
patterns, of infinite variety, and of charming originality. 

1 French, hachures, — close, equal, and parallel lines used in engrav- 
ing and drawing to mark the shadows. 


The subjects are characterised by a touching simplicity 
neither devoid of life nor movement. 

Theophilus 1 shews us (from the 17th to the 31st chap- 
ters inclusive, of his second book) the manner in which 
the painter upon glass drew his composition ; how he cut 
the glass, how he painted it. On a wooden table which 
had been previously whitened with pulverised chalk, and 
sprinkled with water, the artist first marked with a rule 
and compass the exact size of the window or pane of the 
window to be composed. This done, he sketched out with 
lead or tin, and afterwards with a red or black colour, 
the subject to be represented on the glass, together with 
the borders and other ornaments with which it was to be 
decorated; marking out the shadows with "hatches", such 
as afterwards would be expressed by the bistre enamel. 
He then noted down the colour of each part of the com- 
position, either by colour applied upon the table, in the 
different compartments which formed the design, or by a 
conventional letter which referred to a given colour. The 
artist, from these memoranda, then placed as many pieces 
of glass, one after the other, on the spaces they were to 
fill. He traced upon them, with chalk ground in water, 
the outlines of the design he saw through the glass upon 
the table. The glass-makers were not then acquainted 
with the method of cutting glass with the diamond, which 
did not begin to be used until the sixteenth century. To 
cut out these pieces of glass they made use of an iron rod 
called " the dividing iron". This was heated in the fire, 
and drawn along the lines to be divided, which they took 
the precaution of slightly moistening if the glass were 
hard and did not easily divide. All the portions being 
thus cut out, any remaining asperities were removed by 
filing them with a kind of iron tool or claw called " riesel 
iron" (g rosarium fer rum), and the parts made to fit accu- 

1 The artist-monk Theophilus lived in the twelfth century. He 
wrote a treatise generally known under the title of Diversarum Artium 
Schedula, in which he describes the processes of the various arts culti- 
vated in the middle ages. He devoted thirty-one chapters of his book 
to the art of glass-making, and to that of painting upon glass. Six 
JVJSS. only of this work are extant. The work itself affords no inform- 
ation whatever of a positive date. A careful study of the book of Theo- 
philus has led to the general belief that it cannot have been written 
before the twelfth century. 


rately. All the pieces of glass thus cut out were then 
carried back to the table upon winch the design was 
drawn, and each laid over the place it was to occupy. The 
painter then proceeded with the bistre-enamel colour, of 
which Theophilus gives the composition in his 19th chap- 
ter, to retrace upon the glass the lines and shadows 
marked upon the table. 

Theophilus teaches, moreover, how to degrade 1 the 
tones with this single enamel colour, in such a manner as 
to give the effect of three colours ; and he also_ makes 
known other resources of the glass-painters of his time. 
When the enamel-painting thus applied upon the tinted 
glass was dry, the pieces of glass were carried to the fur- 
nace or kiln to be burned. The burning finished, and the 
glass cooled, the different pieces composing the design 
were again put together and fastened by strips of lead. 

The glass employed in the middle ages, and down to 
the middle of the sixteenth century, is similar in general 
character to the modern style, but differs materially in 
texture and colour. In old glass it appears to have been 
always painted, burnt, and leaded together, as at pre- 
sent. The mosaic system of glass-painting was admirably 
adapted to the nature of the material. 

In the fourteenth century the painter upon glass endea- 
voured to copy nature with fidelity, and sometimes he 
was successful. He began to seek the effects of chiaro- 
oscuro, to introduce lights and shades into the ornaments 
and draperies. The flesh-tints are no longer expressed 
by violet-tinted glasses, but painted upon white glass in 
a reddish grey colour ; and their models approach more 
nearly to nature; the pieces of glass are larger; the strips 
of lead are placed at wider intervals ; large single figures 
became more common, occupying an entire window, and 
at the end of the century we find them of large dimen- 
sions. These figures are placed under elaborate canopies, 
and no longer on a mosaic ground, but one of plain blue 
or red. The consequence of this progress in the art of 
design is seen in the efforts of the glass-painter to create 
an individual work, yet without an absolute neglect of 

1 " Degradation." The diminishing of the tones of colour, lights, 
and shades, according to the different degrees of distance. 


the general effect to be produced. If he did not yet ven- 
ture upon a design with large figures, subject to the rules 
of perspective, he gave up the small medallions filled with 
legendary subjects. 

.Regarding painted windows in the light only of a monu- 
mental decoration, we may say that the glass pictures of 
the fourteenth century produce a less striking effect than 
the brilliantly coloured mosaics, relieved by historical 
medallions, of the preceding centuries ; yet the architec- 
tural ornaments employed in the fourteenth century to 
form a frame to the figures are often very favourable to 
the decoration of the edifice, of which they appear to pro- 
long the extent. Besides, the improvement in the draw- 
ing and colouring is an ample compensation for the mys- 
terious effect of the painted glass window of the thirteenth 
century ; and the end of the fourteenth century may be 
considered as one of the finest epochs in the history of 
painting upon glass. 

All the arts kept nearly equal pace with each other. 
Painting upon glass followed the progress of painting in 
oils during the fifteenth and the first half of the sixteenth 
century. The amendment of the drawing, the costume 
of the figures, and the style of the composition, serve par- 
ticularly to determine the age of the painted windows 
during these hundred and fifty years. The tendency of 
the artists in glass to produce individual works is more 
and more observable from the beginning of the fifteenth 
century. The decorations which, like frames, surround the 
figures and subjects, and which always are borrowed from 
the architecture of the time, are increased from day to 
day, and present a great complexity of lines and orna- 
ments which have often a very beautiful effect. 

During a great part of the fifteenth century the legends 
painted upon the phylacteries explain the subjects most 
commonly by a verse of Scripture. The blue or red 
hangings introduced behind the figures are of damasked 
stuffs of great richness. Borders are rare, and when formed 
consist of branches of rather meagre foliage painted upon 
long strips of glass. The artists made frequent use of 
f ' grisailles", which admit a great deal of light into the edi- 
fices, and produce none of those fine effects of the coloured 
mosaics of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. In the 


second half of the fifteenth century, buildings and land- 
sen pes in perspective were first introduced. ^ In the six- 
teenth century artists shewed great skill in producing 
graceful compositions, depth of backgrounds, trees, fruits, 
and flowers. Subjects taken from the lives of saints are 
abundant, with scenes from the Gospels ; while figures of 
apostles, prelates, and abbots, prevail in the composition. 
As regards the materials and means of execution, these 
remained during all this period much the same as in the 
preceding centuries, although some improvements in the 
ancient processes had been introduced. 

From the thirteenth century, and particularly in the 
fourteenth, use was made of a red glass coated or cased 1 
with a layer of white, which was turned to good account. 
According as the composition required, certain parts of 
the red glass which formed the ground of the draperies 
was ground away in such a manner as to uncover the 
layer of white glass ; and in those parts thus removed 
were introduced new layers of glass variously coloured, 
which imitated fringes, embroidery, and even precious 
stones, and were fixed by firing under the "muffle". 2 

In the fifteenth century the cased glasses were made of 
blue, green, and violet. Very beautiful effects were thus 
produced, and a great variety of tones of colour placed in 
juxtaposition, without having recourse, as before obliged, 
to as many pieces of glass as there were colours. From 
the first year of the fifteenth century much less use was 
made of glass coloured in the mass, and artists preferred 
white glass and the use of enamel colours for expressing 
the lines and giving the colouring. 

In the middle of the fifteenth century the revolution in 
the art of painting upon glass was complete. The palette 
of the painters had been greatly enlarged by means of 
chemistry ; and the quantity of enamel colours at their 
disposal enabled them to give up entirely glasses coloured 
in the mass, and to paint upon a single piece of white 
glass with enamelled colours laid upon its surface. Thence- 

1 French, double, a term also applied to precious stones wlien ce- 
mented on glass or coloured crystal, to double their thickness and bril- 
liaticj' by artificial and sometimes fraudulent means. 

2 Earthen vessels in which delicate substances may be strongly 
heated, and at the same time protected from the contact of the fire. 


forth glass was nothing more than the material subservi- 
ent to the painter, as canvas or wood in oil-painting. 
Glass-painters went so far as to copy upon white glass, as 
upon canvas, the masterpieces of Raffaelle, Michael Angelo, 
and the other great painters of the Italian Renaissance. 
They executed small pictures most highly finished, and 
attained to great richness of colouring through their skil- 
fulness in coating the enamel colours upon each other. 
The use of grisaille became very frequent; a simple stroke 
upon the white glass sufficed to give the outlines, light 
grey tints for the shadows, and the high lights expressed 
by a bright yellow, 1 completed the composition. We also 
find entire windows painted in monochromatic tints. 
Claude, Bernard Pallissy, Guillaume, Jean Cousin, Pinai- 
grier, and many others, distinguished themselves in this 
style of painting, and produced works of great correctness 
of drawing and remarkable execution. 

But the era of glass-painting was at an end. From the 
moment that it was attempted to transform an art of 
purely monumental decoration into an art of expression, 
its intention was perverted, and this led of necessity to 
its ruin. The resources of glass-painting were more limited 
than those of oil, with which it was unable to compete. 
From the end of the sixteenth century the art was in its 
decline, and towards the middle of the seventeenth cen- 
tury was entirely given up. 

At the beginning of the fifteenth century, according to 
Kiighler, in his Handbuch der Kunstgeschichte,- painted 
glass had been used, as observed before, in the decoration 
of private houses, — a taste which prevailed chiefly in Ger- 
many and Switzerland. Nuremberg, Ulm, Freiburg in 
Breisgau, possessed at the end of the fifteenth century, 
and at the beginning of the sixteenth, first-rate masters 
of the art of glass-painting. From these schools issued 
artists who settled in German Switzerland, and who care- 
fully preserved until the beginning of the eighteenth cen- 

1 The yellow stain, neither pot-metal nor enamel, was discovered and 
came into vogue, about the fourteenth centuiy. By applying on the 
surface of the glass a solution of nitrate of silver, and passing it through 
tlie furnace, a yellow stain was produced, lighter or darker, and re- 
markably clear and golden. The glass-painters of that period were 
not slow to avail themselves of this method. 


tury the style of the large church windows of the fif- 
teenth, by uniting with the brilliant colouring of the 
glass tinted in the mass, and the coated glasses before 
mentioned, all the finish that can be obtained on the flesh- 
tints and small subjects by the application of vitrifiable 
colours upon the surface of colourless glass. The windows 
of the castles, town halls, rich abbeys, and private habi- 
tations, in Germany and Switzerland, were decorated with 
this admirable painted glass ; for the nobility, artists 
represented the arms of the family framed by architectu- 
ral decorations ; for the houses of the commonalty, the 
coats of arms of the town or of the canton, supported by 
standard-bearers in the costume and armour of the time ; 
for the abbeys, a full length figure of the founder of the 
order ; citizens and artists had the badges of their pro- 
fession placed on a shield ; lastly, nobles, citizens, and 
artisans, often had their own portraits taken in proper 
costume, accompanied by their wives and children. 

These painted windows, therefore, possess a great inte- 
rest independently of their artistic merit, inasmuch as 
they exhibit the manners, customs, and arms, of a period 
already very remote ; and they give the portraits of per- 
sons who, without having a name in history, have yet 
occupied in their time a distinguished rank in the cities 
they inhabited. Among the most skilful masters of the 
art of painting upon glass, in this style of workmanship, 
are named the brothers Stimmer and Christopher Mauer, 
who flourished in the third quarter of the sixteenth cen- 

The original windows of ecclesiastical buildings as w T ell 
as military towers, and the residences of the feudal 
barons, were of the genuine Saxon, round-headed form 
mixed with the Norman loophole. These evidently shew 
a struggle between the admission of light and the exclu- 
sion of cold. A greater breadth was afterwards intro- 
duced : first a single light, and then expanded into two 
or three divisions included in the sweep of one common 
arch. Soon after this change followed the introduction of 
coloured glass, then painting on glass ; and this suggested 
a still further enlargement in width and height, both for 
the full display of the vivid colours employed, and to give 
sufficient space for historical arrangement. The church 


windows of the middle ages, which have escaped the 
numerous causes of destruction, may afford valuable assist- 
ance to the history of the art at that period ; but it is in 
neither private collections, nor even in public museums, 
that the study of painted glass can be pursued. Those 
who are interested in the investigation should visit those 
cathedrals in which these large, transparent pictures are 
preserved unblemished, and in which they produce so 
wonderful an effect. 

Taylor states in his work on the Fine Arts of Great 
Britain, that another beautiful feature of the ecclesiasti- 
cal style of architecture began to attract much attention 
during the latter part of Henry's reign. Stained glass 
had been used on a very small scale in some of the prin- 
cipal churches about the middle of the ninth century; but 
its progress was very slow in England. The earliest 
specimens of any note in this art, now remaining, are in 
the aisles of the choir at Canterbury Cathedral. Of exist- 
ing early glass there remains more in the choir of Canter- 
bury Cathedral than in any other church in this country; 
some of it very fine, and all of it representative of the 
period. In the trefoil-headed lights of the triforium, west 
of the choir-transept, at Canterbury Cathedral, the gene- 
ral effect of colour is most gem-like : the glass sparkles 
like gorgeous, barbaric jewellery. There is a quantity of 
" grisaille glass", white and silvery, in Salisbury Cathe- 
dral, and much of it in very beautiful patterns. The best 
known windows of this character (grisaille) are the five 
long lancets occupying the end of the north transept of 
York Minster, which go by the name of " the Five Sisters 
of York." Their size is such that the whole of the end of 
the transept presents itself as one huge screen of the 
most delicate and silvery glass. The effect is simply per- 
fect ; something to be enjoyed rather than described or 
criticised ; also those executed by Thornton about the 
year 1400. St. Martin's Church, Acaster ; Malbis Church ; 
St. John's Church, Michelgate ; St. Mary's Church, Castle- 
gate, in the city of York, are fine examples of Early Eng- 
lish painted glass. The churches of Ramsay in Hunting- 
donshire, and Long Melford in Suffolk, are only to be seen 
to be equally appreciated ; as also the Priory Church at 
Great Malvern. 



The north and south transept windows of Lincoln 
Cathedral are very fine. The north transept has a large 
rose or wheel-window retaining its original stained glass ; 
one of the most splendid, and in its present state one of 
the most perfect works of the thirteenth century. The 
window itself, which is probably part of St. Hugh's work, 
and may date about 1200, is filled with plate-tracery, and 
on the exterior is delicately ornamented. The subject of 
the glass is " The Church on Earth and the Church in 
Heaven." The extraordinary intensity and vividness of 
the colours, the strength and boldness of the outline, the 
tallness of the figures, their vigorous and spirited atti- 
tudes and classical heads, and conventional foliaged orna- 
ments, as displayed in the borders and white patterns, 
and which resemble the ornaments of the contemporary 
sculpture, are all characteristics of the Early English style 
of glass-painting, and are all traceable in this window. 
Very little white glass is used, so that the window con- 
sists of a mass of rich and variegated colouring, of which 
the predominant tints are those of the grounds. 

The end of the south transept has at the top a rose- 
window of extreme richness, the date of which is about 
1350, and which is quite as remarkable as an example of 
the pure Decorated period, as the window in the opposite 
transept is of the Early English. Pugin has compared 
the tracery to the fibres of a leaf. The stained glass in 
the window consists of fragments collected from different 
parts of the Cathedral, and for the most part Early Eng- 
lish. The great richness of the colouring is quite as 
noticeable here as in the window opposite. According to 
the symbolism of the different parts of the church, in the 
Metrical Life of St. Hugh (written between the years 
1220-1235), these windows typified the bishop and the 
dean, — " Ecclesise duo sunt oculi." The bishop looked 
toward the south, the quarter of the Holy Spirit, as though 
inviting His influence ; the dean toward the north, the 
region of the Devil, in order to watch his advances. 

We may also point out the collegiate chapels and halls 
of Oxford, and the matchless chapel of King's College, 
Cambridge, 1 the glazing of which last was executed in the 

1 Holbein is said to have finished the cartoons for the windows of 
King's College, Cambridge. 


time of Henry VIII by glazier-artists (Bernard Flowers, 
glazier, South wark ; Francis Williamson of St. Olyff, 
Southwark; and Symond Symondes, St. Margaret's, West- 
minster), at the total price of Is. 4c/. per foot, and appears 
to have been finished about 1531. 

The magnificent restoration of the windows of the 
Temple Church, in exact representation of the glass of the 
thirteenth century, affords evidence of the talent of the 
late Mr. Willement, and that artists of the present day 
are equal to original design and to ancient restoration, 
aiding it with an improved knowledge of drawing and 

In the year 1248 we find a rescript directed to the 
Sheriff of Southampton, enjoining him, out of the receipts 
of the county, to have painted in the Queen's Chapel, 
Winchester, over the great west window, the image of 
St. Christopher, as he is elsewhere painted, bearing Christ 
in his arms ; and the figure of St. Edward the King when 
he gave his ring to a pilgrim, whose figure was also to be 

The church of Fairford, in Gloucestershire, is justly 
celebrated for the beauty of its painted windows. The 
glass consists of a series of Scripture histories. The chapel 
of the Society of Lincoln's Inn contains six painted win- 
dows, in which are represented twenty-four full-length 
Scriptural portraits painted by Abraham Van Linge. 

The painted glass in the windows of the apsidal choir 
of St. Jacques Church, Liege, though inferior both in ex- 
tent and subject to many other examples, may safely be 
pronounced to be one of the most splendid specimens of 
the Cinque-Cento style, and merits particular attention on 
account of its execution and brilliancy of its effect. Its 
goodness as a specimen of glass -painting will be the more 
readily appreciated by the student since it has lately 
been repaired and restored to its original lustre by a care- 
ful and judicious cleaning. Its principal subject is the 
family alliances of the Counts of Horn. 

The glass in the choir of Lichfield Cathedral, the win- 
dows of which are filled with glass brought from the dio- 
cese of Liege, strongly resembles that of St. Jacques 
Church in its general character and execution. The Lich- 
field glass is dated 1534, 1535, 1538, 1539. As glass- 




paintings they are indeed finer than those at St. Jacques 
Church, Liege. The glass belonged to the dissolved Abbey 
of Herkenrode, in t lie diocese of Liege. It was obtained 
by the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield in 1802, through 
the assistance of Sir Brooke Booth by, who, travelling 
through the diocese of Liege (then in the occupation of 
the French), purchased it for the trifling sum of £200. 

We have nothing in England to compare for quantity, 
and therefore for effect, with the early glass to be found 
in the French cathedrals. It is not generally understood 
how very greatly the effect of glass depends upon its 
abundance, or rather upon the absence of any plain win- 
dows in its vicinity. Every ray of light that penetrates 
into a building, excepting through the stained glass itself, 
does injury to the effect of what coloured glass is there. 
It is far worse than if we were called upon to judge a pic- 
ture without its frame. You see and admire the beauty 
of the windows at Strasburg probably without realising 
how much their beauty is due not only to the circum- 
stance that there is no white light, but in the fact that 
the red sandstone of the Cathedral reflects so little light. 
The windows are seen absolutely at their best. 

To be impressed with the grandeur of early coloured 
glass we must go to Chartres, Le Mans, or Bourges. 
Chartres particularly is very rich in coloured glass. It far 
exceeds any other cathedrals. The colours are deep with- 
out losing their brilliancy; and the light is stronger than 
at Eheims, although the windows of the aisles, with only 
one or two exceptions, are painted, as well as those of the 
clerestory. Each of the above mentioned cathedrals is a 
perfect treasure-house of jewels. There is something bar- 
baric about the brilliancy of this early mosaic; something 
that, perhaps, belongs to Byzantine origin. 

The painter on glass must refrain from attempting to 
imitate oil-painting. On the contrary, he must acquire 
the conviction that, although these two arts have unques- 
tionably a point of contact, they, nevertheless, possess 
sides extremely dissimilar. To these belong, in the first 
place, the proper modes of practising them respectively ; 
lastly, the different conditions under which their effects 
are produced. Thus, for example, painting on glass, on 
account of the distance at which the picture is placed 

1882 19 


from the spectator, requires to be treated in a perfectly 
distinct manner. It excludes detail, which on an opaque 
surface is susceptible of great effect ; but which, through 
the transparency of the glass, is lost, even should not a 
defect in the burning have done injustice to the talent of 
the painter. But if, after all, the artist be bent upon 
giving to his performance all the harmony of an oil paint- 
ing, he must sacrifice the transparency and the liveliness 
of the colours, which constitute the most beautiful feature 
of this kind of painting. Besides, the presence of the 
leading and the iron or cross-bars which unite the various 
portions of a painted window, and which it is in vain to 
attempt to conceal entirely in the shadows of the picture, 
must ever prove the stumbling-block on which the claim 
of the artist to imitate oil-painting is sure to founder. 

Mr. Lewis Foreman Day concludes his paper on stained 
glass, read at the Society of Arts, February 1,1882, thus : 
" In tracing thus far the history of glass-painting, it is as 
well to bear in mind what stained glass should be. It 
should be on a level with the art of our time, — original, 
artistic, and not a servile copy of the earlier ages of glass- 
painting. But first, and before all things, it should be 
glass, — translucent, sparkling, gem-like, and not an ela- 
borate painting. It means that the artist should have 
studied old glass as a painter studies the old Masters. 
We want the archaeologist, the glass-painter, and the 
artist ; we want the three fused into one, — a man who is 
at once familiar with old work, master of his craft, and 
an accomplished artist." 

The taste for glass-painting has been of late revived 
under favourable auspices, and the productions of artists 
by whom it is now practised, encourage the expectation 
that it will be cultivated with a success worthy of the 
present age. 

The west window of St. George's Chapel, Windsor, lately 
restored and rearranged by the late Mr. Willement, is an 
example of large dimensions, with great beauty in effect. 
It is a surpassing accomplishment of art. According to 
Mr. Willement— 

"The glass is of the time of ITemy VII, and consisted partly of fifty- 
nine figures of sainis. prophets, kings, and knights, all of which had 
been removed to tin's window from various parts of the Chapel, in 


1T71, l>y the Rev. Dr. C/ockman, Canon, who had placed the figures on 
a ground of clear while glass. The remaining openings were filled by 
reticulated patterns in common and glaring colours placed also on 
clear glass. With all its defects, this window, particularly towards the 
time of sunset, had, from its great dimensions, a very imposing and 
pleasing effect. The removal of the glass being necessary previously 
to the removal of the stonework, it was thought desirable to make 
some considerable alterations in the arrangement. It was found that 
i en more of the ancient figures still remained in the stores of the Chap- 
ter. With these, and by the addition of six new effigies, the glaziers' 
patterns were excluded, and every opening became then occupied by a 
full-length figure. The plain ground of white was removed, and super- 
seded by ancient diaper-patterns in a quiet tone of drab ; rich cano- 
pies, columns, and bases, were added to each figure ; and on a scroll 
which now runs through the whole of the bases of the lowest compart- 
ments, is inscribed the prayer peculiar to the service in this Chapel : 
' God save our gracious Sovereign and all the Companions of the most 
Honourable and Noble Order of the Garter.' " 

To the kindness of Messrs. Heaton, Butler, and Baynes, 
of Garrick Street, Covent Garden, I am indebted for the 
loan of the illustrations, from which reproductions have 
been made for my paper. 

Among the works which the student may refer to, and 
which have helped me considerably in the preparation of 
this paper, I may mention — 

Handbook of the Arts of the Middle Ages and Renais- 
sance. Translated from the French of M. Jules Labarte. 

Magazine of A rt. November Number, 1881. Article on 
Glass-Painting by Lewis F. Day. 

Also a paper read by Lewis Foreman Day at the Soci- 
ety of Arts, on " Stained Glass- Windows as they were, 
are, and should be." 

An Inquiry into the Difference of Style in Ancient Glass- 
Painting, especial/// in England ; with Hints on Glass- 
Painting by an Amateur. C. W. John Henry Parker. 
Oxford, 1847. 

Kiighler. Handbuch der Kunstgeschichte. 

Divers works of early masters in Christian decoration, 
and an account of the works of Albert Durer ; examples 
of ancient painted and stained glass ; and Illustrations of 
Painted and Stained GlaSS at Gouda, in Ho/land, and the 

Church <f St. Jacques at Liege. Edited by John Weale 
2 vols. 1846. 

2 08 



{Read January 18, 1882.) 

At the commencement of the last decade of the third 
century of the Christian era, a girl is said to have been 
born in Rome, whose brief career extended over but thir- 
teen years, but whose memory still lives in legend under 
the name of St. Agnes, or Anneys as she is sometimes 
called. 1 This child is described as of such surpassing 
beauty, that, young as she was, she kindled the affection 
of the son of a Roman prefect, whose offer of marriage she 
rejected, having determined to devote her life to the ser- 
vice of the Almighty. The repulsed lover was so incensed 
at the rebuff that he in revenge denounced the little girl 
as a Christian ; and, after refusing to sacrifice to the hea- 
then deities, she was doomed to torture and death. When 
her virginity was assailed in the public Bordellos, to 
which she was condemned, she was miraculously preserved 
by lightning and thunder from Heaven. When stripped 
by her persecutors, the angels immediately veiled her 
whole person with her flowing hair, and she is so exhibited 
by Sebastian le Clerc ; but in the window of Gillingham 
Church an angel is depicted covering the Saint with a 
mantle. 2 According to Peter Ribadeneira, the next act of 
her cruel foes was to light a huge pile of faggots, into 
the midst of which they cast the hapless child ; but no 
sooner was this done than the flames were extinguished, 
and Agnes remained unhurt. Hence it is that we fre- 
quently see flames accompanying representations of the 
Saint, as in the engraving by Petrus de Ballin. 

If we are to believe all that is related of the young 
maiden, she must have had as many lives as a cat is fabled 
to possess ; for after various horrible tortures, any one of 
which would have sufficed to kill any other mortal, she 

1 This Roman child is sometimes confounded with St. Agnes of 
Monte Pulciano, a virgin who died in 1317, and whose festival falls on 
April 20. Jacques Callot has represented her in an open tomb with 
sick persons praying around it. 

• Compare Brit. Mus. MS. Reg. 20, D. vi, f. 77. 

ST. AGNES. 269 

was at last beheaded at Rome (some say in 304, others in 
306); and a church dedicated to her honour is pointed 
out as marking the spot where, according to the legend, 
she suffered martyrdom in the reign of the Emperor 
Diocletian, and during the tenth persecution of the 
Christians. 1 

St. Ambrose and St. Augustine both affirm that Agnes 
was but thirteen years of age at the time of her death, 
yet she is always represented by painters and sculptors 
as a fine, full-grown young woman well out of her teens. 
She may generally be recognised in art by the presence of 
a large sword, the instrument of her martyrdom; and the 
frequent accompaniment of a lamb, an emblem which is 
evidently connected with her name, and which is made to 
play a part in her story. 2 We are told that eight days 
after her decease she appeared to her parents surrounded 
by angels, and with a white lamb by her side, and bade 
them cease to sorrow, for she was in Heaven, and united 
for ever to her Saviour. 

This brief review of the legend of St. Agnes will enable 
us to more fully comprehend the delineation of the Saint 
upon the south screen in the church of Eye, Suffolk, exe- 
cuted in the second half of the fifteenth century. Agnes 
is there shewn standing in a pensive attitude, with her 
nimbecl head declining to her right, and her hands pressed 
together as if in prayer. So much for pose of figure. Now 
for its details. The Saint has long, golden hair, with a 
chaplet of red roses on her brow. She wears a green robe 
secured at the waist with a belt, the rich, golden pendant 
of which hangs far down in front. Beneath this robe is 
seen the skirt of a white garment, and over the shoulders 
is a green mantle with a deep, golden tippet. Through 
the damsel's throat is thrust horizontally a great two- 
edged sword with oval pomel, and with the quillons bent 
down at right angles to the straight cross-guard, charac- 
teristic of the weapons of the fifteenth century. On the 

1 There are two churches at Rome dedicated to St. Agnes ; one out- 
side the Porta Pia, the other in the Piazza Navona. In a crypt beneath 
the latter is a bas-relief by Algardi, representing Agnes clothed alone 
by her flowing hair. 

2 Our Hon. Secretary, Mr. W. de Gray Birch, F.S.A.. and Mr. 
H. Jenner, in their Early Drawings and Illuminations in the British 
J/useum, give a long list of figures of St. Agnes, many of great beauty. 

270 ST. AGNES. 

lady's neck and dress are long gouttes of blood. On a blue 
band behind the figure are the letters sca agn. ; and at 
the bottom of the picture is a green sward with trees in 
the distance. 

On the rood-screens at North Elniham and Westhall 
the Saint is also seen with her throat pierced with a 
sword, and at both places she is attended by a lamb. In 
some examples St. Agnes holds the sword in her hand, 
as, for instance, on the rood-screen formerly in St. James' 
Church, Norwich; in the painting on the church-chest at 
Denton ; and on the font of Taverham Church, Norfolk. 
The figures on the chest and font are both accompanied 
by a lamb. The presence of these lambs reminds us of a 
curious custom observed on the Saint's festival in the 
church at Rome which bears her name. The old ceremony 
is described as follows in Barnabe Googe's translation of 
Naogeorgus' Popish Kingdom (1570, f. 46): 

" Then commes in place St. Agnes' Day, which here in Germanie 
Is not so much esteemde nor kept with such solemnitee ; 
But in the Popish Coui't it stands in passing hie degree 
As spring and head of wondrous gaine, & great commoditee. 
For in St. Agnes' Church upon this day, while Masse they sing, 
Two Lambes as white as Snowe the Nonnes do yearly use to 

bring ; 
And when the Agnus chaunted is upon the Aulter hie 
(For in this thing there hidden is a solemne mysterie) 
They offer them. The servants of the Pope, when this is done, 
Do put them into Pasture good till Shearing time be come. 
Then other Wooll they mingle with these holy Fleeces twaine, 
Whereof, being Sponne & Drest, are made the Pals of passing 


Stopford, in his Pagano-Papismns, gives a full account 
of this lamb-blessing on St. Agnes' Day ; and in The Pre- 
sent State of the Manners, etc., of France and Italy, in 
Poetical Epistles to Robert Jephson, Esq. (8vo., London, 
1794, p. 58), may be seen a further description of this 
strange custom, under the heading of aSV. Agnes Shrine. 
The death of Agnes, as already stated, is set down to the 
era of Diocletian ; and yet this ceremony in her honour is 
said to have commenced in the time of Bishop Linus, a.d. 
GG-78. Well may Naogeorgus ask — 

" Where was Agnes at that time ? Who offered up, and how, 
The two white Lambes? Where then was Masse, as it is used 
now ? 

ST. AGNES. 271 

Yea, where was tlicn the Popish state & dreadfull Monarchec ? 
Sure, in Saint Austen's time, there were no Palles at Rome to see." 

Though St. Agnes was very popular in England, few 
churches seem to have been dedicated to her. There is 
one bearing her name at St. Perron in Cornwall ; and in 
Aldersgate Street, London, we have a church dedicated 
conjointly to her and St. Anne ; and within these few 
years a hideous brick building has been raised at the back 
of Kennington Park, Surrey, which is entitled St. Agnes' 
Church. In Cambridgeshire there is the village of Pap- 
worth St. Agnes ; but its church is dedicated to St. John 
the Baptist. One of the Scilly Islands bears the name of 
St. Agnes ; but there is no proof that this is in honour of 
the Roman child. 

Among the holy wells which once existed in and about 
London was one bearing the title of St. Agnes le Clair, 
which was on the site of part of Old Street Road and 
Hoxton Square. Stow describes it as " curved square 
with stone"; but not a vestige of it now remains. 

The Christinas rose (JSelleborus nigerjlore albo) is sacred 
to St. Agnes, and her festival was held on January 21. 
But of far higher importance than her festival was St. 
Agnes' Eve. Then it was that pining lovers sought the 
maiden's aid in solving their doubts, and lulling their 
fears by resorting to strange divinations. Damsels were 
enjoined to fast during the day, and so qualify themselves 
to receive revelations during sleep : hence, says Ben Jon- 
son, — 

"And on sweet St. Agnes' night 
Please you with the promis'd sight, 
Some of husbands, some of lovers, 
Which an empty dream discovers." 

In Cupid's Whirligig (1616, iii, p. 1), Pag exclaims : "I 
could find in my heart to pray nine times to the moone, 
;ii id fast three St. Agnes's Eves, so that I might bee sure 
to have him to my husband." The Rev. Robert Burton, 
in his Anatomy of Melancholy (ed. 1660, p. 538), speaks 
of maids fasting on St. Agnes' Eve to find out who shall 
be their first husband. In Mother Bunch's Closet Newly 
Broke Open are directions how to divine so as to obtain 
St. Agnes' assistance. Here you are told not to let any 
one kiss you during the day; and when you go t<> bed, to 

272 ST. AGNES. 

put on clean linen, and lay as straight as you can on the 
back, with the hands placed under the head, and in this 
posture repeat the following lines : 

" Now, good St. Agnes, play thy part, 
And send to me my own sweetheart, 
And shew me such a happy bliss, 
This night of him to have a kiss. 

And then be sure to fall asleep as soon as thou canst, 
and before thou awakest out of thy first sleep thou shalt 
see him come and stand before thee." John Keats has 
thus gracefully recorded this species of love divination on 
the night of January 20, in his beautiful poem entitled 
The Eve of St. Agnes: 

"upon St. Agnes' Eve 

Young virgins might have visions of delight, 
And soft adorings from their loves receive, 
Upon the honey'd middle of the night, 
If ceremonies due they did aright : 
As, supperless to bed they must retire, 
And couch supine their beauties, lily white ; 
Nor look behind, nor sideways, but require 
Of Heaven with upward eyes for all that they desire." 

Pins seem to have been looked upon as essential objects 
in one kind of St. Agnes' divination. Good old Aubrey, 
in his Miscellanies (p. 136), gives the following quaint 
directions : " Upon St. Agnes' night, you take a row of 
pins, and pull out every one, one after another, saying a 
' Paternoster', sticking a pin in your sleeve, and you will 
dream of him or her you shall marry." 1 Similar directions 
are to be found in Raphael's Chart of Destiny. 2 

Another mode of invoking the assistance of St. Agnes 
was this. The maiden was, for the occasion, to change 
her place of abode, and on retiring to rest to take the 
stocking she had worn on the right leg, and tie round it 
her left garter, repeating at the same time the following 
lines : — 

1 Pins are also employed as a love-charm on the night of the 29th of 
February. Twenty-seven tiny ones are to be stuck in a tallow candle, 
lit at the lower end, and then set up in a stand made of clay from a 
virgin's grave. For full directions see Mother Bridget's Bream, and 
Omen Book. The sticking pins in a waxen heart, to procure the death 
of an enemy, was an old practice. 

A twopenny chap-book published by II. Ellioi, 475 New Oxford 

ST. AGNES. 273 

" I knit this knot, this knot I knit, 
To learn the thing I know not yet, 
And in the hope that I may see 
The man (hut shall my husband be. 
Not in his best nor worst array, 
But dress he weareth every day ; 
That I tomorrow may him ken 
From out a crowd of other men." 

Her next act was to lay herself flat on her back, with her 
luu ids crossed beneath her head, and during her first 
slumber the future husband would appear to her in a 
dream, and gently kiss her lips. 

Here is one more invocation for January 20 : 


" Gentle Agnes, unto thee 
Do I humbly bend the knee. 
Gentle Agnes, heed my prayer, 
Lull my pangs and ease my care. 
Thou hast power to send this night 
In my dream, yet clear to sight, 
Lover faithful, lover true, 
Oue who me alone will woo. 
If such be, then seal my bliss, 
Pressing on my lips a kiss. 
Bid him then to glide away, 
But to meet on the third day ; 
And on that day, if we meet, 
Let him with kind looks me greet. 
Gentle Agnes, ever kind, 
In thee let me mercy find. 
Gentle Agnes, to me guide 
Him to whom I shall be bride." 

AVe must not pass from St. Agnes' Eve without citing 
a charm for the ague, which is then to be repeated up the 
chimney by the oldest female member of the family in the 
house : 

" Tremble and go ! 

First day shiver and burn. 
Tremble and quake ! 

Second day shiver and leai'n. 
Tremble and die ! 

Third day never return." 

I Cere, too, is a charm for a burn, good for all times and 
seasons : 

" Fire, thou hath burnt me sore ! 
Agnes, I thy aid implore ! 

274 ST. AGNES. 

Cure me of this painful burn, 
So I may thy kindness learn." 

St. Agnes, or rather one of her effigies, once got mixed 
up with a strange love-affair, which is duly incorporated 
in her legend. It was in brief as follows. A certain priest 
who officiated in a church dedicated to St. Agnes, getting 
weary of a single life, begged the Pope's licence to marry, 
which he obtained together with an emerald ring, and an 
injunction to pay his court to an image of Agnes which 
then adorned his church. He did as the Pope had bidden 
him, and the dumb idol stretched forth her finger, on 
which the priest slipped the ring; and, mirdbile dictu, the 
image immediately drew back her digit, and kept the 
ring fast, and so deprived her votary of his jewel. The 
legend adds, " and yet, as it is sayd, the rynge is on the 
fynger of the ymage." The priest remained a bachelor, 
and perhaps entertained no very friendly feeling towards 
one who had behaved so shabbily to him. 

But enough of Agnes, with all her charms and incanta- 
tions. It is no gracious task to hurl a popular idol from 
its lofty pedestal, and tell the love-sick lads and lasses 
that they have all along been invoking the aid of a myth; 
but there is such discrepancy in the dates associated with 
the story of St. Agnes, and such gross improbability in 
the whole legend, that we are constrained to regard the 
young damsel as nothing more than a fancy portrait ; an 
ideal embodiment of female beauty, virtue, innocence, con- 
stancy, faith, and patience. That her existence was once 
credited, and that it was believed that her power in earth 
and Heaven was co-ordinate with that of divinity itself, 
is evident from a prayer to her in a Roman Missal printed 
at Paris in 1520, and of which Bishop Patrick has given 
us the following translation : 

"Agnes, who art the Lamb's chaste spouse, 
Enlighten thou our minds within ! 
Not only lop the spreading boughs, 
But root out of us every sin. 

" lady, singularly great ! 

After this state, with grief opprcst, 
Translate us to that quiet seat 

Above, to triumph with the blest !" 





(Read April 19, 1882.) 

A leaf- shaped bronze sword, in good preservation, 
was dug out during the last year in making a cutting 
close alongside of the Thames river at Henley, and at a 
short distance from it a spear-head of iron was found in 
the same section ; but although I made a visit to the 
place purposely, I could not ascertain the relative depths 
at which the implements were buried. The sword is, in 
type, Swedish, and similar forms are found in Ireland. 1 
Mr. Thomas Wright gives the same type f and a very 
similar blade, taken from the Thames at Battersea, is now 
in the British Museum. A weapon of the same form is 
figured (344) in Dr. Evans' work f but there is in that 
figure some difference in the arrangement of the rivet- 
holes in the hilt, and it has slight flanges at the edges of 
the hilt-plate to retain the horn or wood. 

The usual form of swords of this kind is leaf- shaped ; 
and their average length is about 24 inches, although 
they range from about 16 inches up to 30 inches. The 
number of rivets also varies, the common number being 
seven. In some the ends of the rivets have conical depres- 
sions in them, as if a punch had been used as a riveting- 
tool ; but in the Henley specimen the rivets have been 
closed by a hollow punch, so as to leave a small stud pro- 
jecting in the middle of each, surrounded by a hollow 
ring. With these rivets the plates, which usually con- 
sisted of horn, bone, or wood, were secured on each side 
of the hilt-plate. The Henley sword has a very shallow 
bead or ridge extending along each side of the blade, 
within the fillet. It is undoubtedly of the bronze period 

1 Prehistoric Times, p. 16, figs. Li, 15. 

2 The Gelt, Roman, and Saxon, p. "■">. 

/'A. Bro?iH( Implements of Great Britain. 


(Celtic); for although their advocacy as being Roman has 
met with some considerable support from archaeologists of 
reputation, as the late Mr. Thomas Wright, the weight of 
opinion, from evidence which we have not space to detail 
here, has determined that weapons of this kind are to be 
regarded as anterior to the Roman period. 

In Scandinavia it is not uncommon to find bronze 
swords with interments in barrows ; but such is not the 
case in Britain. In Britain, therefore, Dr. Evans classifies 
the bronze age as comprehended in three stages, placing 
the sword in the latest group. The first group is charac- 
terised by the presence in tumuli of flat or flanged celts 
and knife-daggers with instruments of stone. The second 
is determined by more heavy dagger-blades, flanged celts, 
and tanged spear-heads or daggers. While the third 
comprehends paalstaves, socketed celts, and other forms 
of tools and weapons, as well as swords and socketed 
spear-heads ; and he attributes the bronze period in Bri- 
tain as having extended to eight or ten centuries, which 
would place the beginning of the period some 1,200 or 
1,400 years B.C. 

The moulds employed for casting are of stone, burnt 
clay, and sometimes of bronze ; and occasionally, as in Ire- 
land, sand or loam has been used. But the moulds found 
are mostly of stone. The lengthened sword-blades re- 
quired great skill in casting ; and in addition there were 
the processes of hammering out and sharpening the edges, 
which were conducted not only by those who first made 
the weapons, but also by their subsequent possessors. 

The art of casting, no doubt, originated on the Conti- 
nent : indeed, their manufacture appears to have been 
localised at particular places ; and they must have formed 
an important article of commerce, as the same type has 
been found in countries widely separated. But the fact 
that some British types are rarely found abroad, with the 
discovery of moulds, would seem to prove that they must 
have been cast in this country. The alloys used in cast- 
ing have been found to vary in different countries ; in 
some cases lead and other impurities having been found 
to be present. But an amalgam of 9 parts copper to 1 of 
tin furnishes the most tough and durable bronze. 

The development in form of the bronze sword, from the 





Bronze Sword. 
27 in. long ; 1J in. wide. 

Iron Spear-Heart. 
18 in. long ; 2 in. wido. 




rude stone spear-head, is traceable through the bronze 
spear-head, thence onwards to the bronze dagger, which 
is simply a spear-head hilted ; the bronze, leaf-shaped 
sword being an elongated form of bronze dagger. 

The iron spear-head (fig. 2) has details regarding it 
attached to the figure. It is in good preservation as an 
iron instrument, has a socket with rivet-holes for fixing 
the shaft, together with the somewhat unusual addition 
of guards. Its period is probably Roman. 

The weapons are both in my possession. 





(Read April 5, 1882.) 

In the Department of Manuscripts in the British Museum 
is preserved a circular copper plate, slightly convex on 
one side, and concave on the other, like one of the scales 
of a balance. The convex side of the plate is quite plain ; 
but on the concave side is engraved, very boldly, a lion 
rampant, queue four chee. The plate is as nearly as pos- 
sible 3 inches in diameter. It has evidently been, at some 
time or other, reduced in size, as the rampant lion en- 
graved upon it has lost the right fore-foot and the left 
hind-foot, part of the right hind-foot, and the junction of 
the tail to the body. The plate itself is probably as old 
as the thirteenth century. Attached to the plate is a 
narrow strip of vellum, on which may be read (not with- 
out difficulty 1 ) the following words : 

" Ista est mensura seu forma coronarum officiariorum ecclesiae Sancti 
Pauli London ex primaria fundacione ejusdera ecclesia? [assi]gn[ata] ; 
et per diversos venerabiles patres Episcopos, Decanos, et Capitulum 
...ste conformata et observata." 

The purpose to which the plate was applied is thus ren- 
dered certain. It was the standard by which the tonsure 
of the clergy of St. Paul's Cathedral was regulated. 

Dr. Rock 2 observes that, "of the ecclesiastical tonsure 
there were known to the Anglo-Saxons, in the early period 
of their Church, two distinctive shapes, the Roman and 
the Irish. The Roman form was perfectly round ; the 
Irish was made by cutting away the hair from the upper 
part of the forehead, in the figure of a half-moon, with the 
convex side before. In this, as well as every other ritual 
observance, the Anglo-Saxons followed Rome, and adopted 

1 I am much indebted to Mr. W. do Gray Birch, F.S.A., for his help 
in the decipherment. 

2 The Church of our Fathers, vol. i, p. 185-188. 


N^ 1 


the form of tonsure for their clergy; but after, as well as 
before, St. Osmund's times, the canons of our national 
( 'i iiirch required her ministers to wear this mark of their 
clerkhood about them, that they might ever have in mind 
they were the servants of a crucified Master who wreathed 
His head with thorns for them." The notes which Dr. Rock 
subjoins to this passage are very full of interest. Arch- 
bishop Ecgberht, he says, traces the tonsure to St. Peter •} 

" Petrus itaquo Apostolus clericali tonsura primo usus est, gestans 
in capite imaginem coronas spincao Christi." 

Amongst the canons enacted under King Edgar, the 47th 
provides that no man in holy orders shall hide his ton- 
sure; 2 and by the law of the Northumbrian priests it was 
ordained that " if a priest enwrap his tonsure, let him pay 
bot for it"; that is, a fine. 3 He proceeds to relate that 
Abbot Ceolfrid, in a letter written 710 a.d., to Naitan, 
King of the Picts, allows us to see how the Roman and 
the Irish tonsures differed : 

" Quia Petrus in memm-iam Dominican passionis ita attonsus est, id- 
circo et nos, qui per eandera passionera salvari desideramus, ipsius 
passionis signum cum illo in vertice, summa videlicet corporis uostri 

parte gestamus Formam quoque coronas quam ipse [Dominus] in 

passione spineam portavit in capite, ut spinas ac tribulos peccatorum 
nostrorum portaret, id est, exportaret et auferret a nobis, suo quemque 
in capite per tonsuram prasferre, ut se etiam irrisiones et opprobria pro 
illo libenter ac prorate omnia sufferre ipso etiam frontispicio doceant ; 
ut coronam vita? asternas quam repromisit Deus diligentibus se, se sem- 
per expectare, proque hujus perceptione et adversa se mundi et prospera 

contemnere designent Quas [tonsura 4 ] in frontis quidem superficie, 

coronas videtnr speciem prasferre, sed ubi ad cerpicem considerando per- 
veneris, decurtatam earn, quam te videre putabas, invenies coronam." 5 

Dr. Rock further explains that by the old English use 
the clerical tonsure consisted, rightly speaking, of two 
things : "1. The hair was shorn away from the top of the 
head in a circular shape, more or less wide, according as 
the wearer happened to be high or low in Order. 2. The 
hair was clipped over the ears, and all about the neck, in 
such a way that from behind and on the sides it looked 
like a ring or crown around the head. On all our old 
English grave-brasses, and every other kind of pictorial 

1 Excerpt., Ancient Laws, vol. ii, p. 124. 2 Ibid., p. 255. 

? - Ibid., p. 297, note 40. 4 That worn by the Irish monks. 

5 Beda, Hist. Eccl, lib. v, cap. xxi, § 430, 440, curu Roberti Hussey, 
pp. Moo, 301. 


monument, not only the tonsure as now understood, but 
the clerical cut of the hair is very marked." 

Carton, in the Liber Festivalis, speaking of Maundy 
Thursday, 1 says that in English it is called " Shere- 
thursday, for in old fathers' days the people would that 
day sheer their heads, and clip thair beards, and poll their 
heads, and so make them honest against Easter Day. On 
Sherethursday a man should do poll his hair and clip his 
beard, and a priest should shave his crown." 

For a clergyman to wear his hair long was regarded as 
effeminate and worldly by the English canons. "The 
Council of London, a.d. 1342, blames the dressy clerk of 
those days": 

" In sacris etiam ordinibus constituti, coronam quae regni ccelestis 
et perfectionis est indicium, deferre contemnuat, et crinium extensorum 
quasi ad scapulas utentes discriraine, vclut effceminati, militari potius 
quam clericali habitu induti." 2 

So far Dr. Rock has been our guide. The Statutes of 
St. Paul's Cathedral 3 are very strict upon this matter, 
and contain many references to the tonsure of its clergy. 
I will select a few of these : 

" De Tonsura, Habitu, et Gestu Clericorum. — Ad hec oranes cho- 
rum intrantes si in tonsura vel habitu minus honesto aut gestu fuerint 
ex assueto reperti, nisi moniti, se composites et correctos ostendant. 
In brevi nullatenus incorrecti tollerentur, cujuscumque ordinis, officii, 
et dignitatis." 4 

" De Tonsura. — Tonsui'am insuper que deceat habeant sine scrupulo 
angulari, crinibus ad rote speciem succisis." 5 

And again, in a later statute, — 

" Omnes insuper in choro dicte Ecclesie divinum ministerium prose- 
quentes couveniant in habitu decenti secundum congruenciam tempo- 
rum, et decenter tondeantur, crinibus ad ruodum rote subtilis sine scru- 
pulo angulari ; coronam eciam habeant secundum exigenciam ordinis 
sui latitudinis congruentis." 

A still more stringent statute is to be found : 

" Clerici comam non nutriant, set capud desuper in modum spere 
radant. (xxiii, D. Prohibete. 7 ) Non clericis liceat comam nutrire, set 

1 I am still indebted to Dr. Rock. 2 Wilkins, Concilia, ii, p. 703. 

3 See Eegistrum Statutorum et Consuetudinum Catltcdralis Sancti Pauli 
Londinensis, edited by the author of the present paper. 

4 Statutes,book i, part ii,chap. 14, p. 28. 5 lb., part iii,chap. 20, p. I t. 
,! Ibid., part v, Preamble, pp. 05, 00. 

' The references are to the Decretals. Sec Ojius Decvetorum (opera 

ix st. Paul's cathedral. 28 I 

attonso capite et patentibas auribafl incedere debent, ne capilli crescen- 
fcea aares operiant xxiii* non liceat. Longitudo enim capillorum multi- 
tadinem significat peccatorum, ideo in Cartagenensi Concilio statutum 
est, ut clerici neque comam nutriaut ncque barbam." 1 

The references here also are to the Decretals, 2 lib. iii, 
cap. iv, — " Si quis ex clericis comam relaxaverit, anathema 
sit" (Ex Cnm-ilia Cartliagenensi) ; cap. v, " Clericus neque 
comam nutriat neque barbam" (Ex Concilio Triburicensi). 

The fourth Council of Carthage decreed as follows : — 
"Clericus nee comam nutriat, nee barbam." 8 In the Epis- 
tolaAniceti Papce ad Gallics Episcopos* in the fourth sec- 
tion, we find words to the same effect : 

" Protiibete, f rat res, per universas regionum vestrarum ecclesias, ut 
clerici, qui laicis et simplicibus, virtutis, honestatis, pudicitiae, et gravi- 
tatis exemplar esse debent, ac seipsos, tanquam signum parioris vitae, 
rudioribns ad imitationera prudenter exhibere, juxta' Apostolum, comam 
non nutriant, sed desuper caput in modum spheras radant ; quia sicut 
discreti debent esse in conversatione, ita et in tonsura et omni habitu 
discreti debent apparere." 

The editor of the sumptuous edition of the Concilia, 
from which I am quoting, adds in the margin of this let- 
ter a reference to 1 Corinth, xi ; and in a note on the 
words " in modum spherce" says : 

" Id est coronas vel circuli qui Patres et Concilia durn praedictis locis 
de tonsura clericorum aut monachorum loquuntur, earn communiter 
coronam nominant, propterea nirnirum quod tonsura coronae figuram 

Bishop Gibson, in his Codex, 5 gives a similar definition 
taken from Lvndwode's Provinciate : 6 

"Coronam. Hoc est signum regni et pcrfectionis, cum sit circularis, 
carens angulo, in signum carentis sordium ; quia ubi angulus, ibi sor- 
des. 7 

Franeisci Fradin. Fo. Lugduni, 1-j2-j.) Prima Pars. Distinctio xxiii, 
fo. 122b. " Prohibite, fratres, per universas regionum vestrarum Eccle- 
sias,^ clerici, juxta Apostolum, comas non nutriaut, sed desuper caput 
in modum spere radant." 

1 Extra. I)e Vita, et Honestate Clericorum, cap. " Clericus", xxiii, D., 
" Siquis." Statutes, book i, part iii, cap. 28. 

2 Decretales Epistole Gregorii Jfoni. Folio. Paris, 1527. " Ex Offi- 
cina Claudii Chevallonii." 

3 ConcU. Carthag. IV, cap. xliv ; Concilia, fo., Paris, 1644, iii. 
There are various readings here : " barbam tondeat, alias sed radant, 
vel tondeant." * Concilia, ut supra, i, 2 

5 Second edition. Fo. Oxon., 1761. Vol. i, p. 166. 

-■ /. l\ >de. Fo. Oxon., ! J 
7 B" - 1261 ; Lyndwode, \ 



" Tonsnram. Signum qaod prcscindenda sunt vitia cordis et corpo- 
ris, ne intuitum divinorum irapediant." 1 

And in another place Bishop Gibson says: 

"Nee alii clerici comam nutriant : sod honeste tonsi et coronati con- 
venienter incedant, nisi forte justa causa fcimoris exegerit habitum 
transformari." 2 

Those who desire to study the matter more fully may 
well be referred to Bingham's Antiquities, book iv, chap.v, 
sees. 15, 16, 17; book vii,chap. iii, sec. G; and to Mr. Macken- 
zie Walcott's Sacred Archaology, art. "Tonsure." 

Mr. Maskell points out 3 that a distinction is sometimes 
made between tonsura and corona, and that "when both 
are named, one must, doubtless, be understood to relate 
to the length of the hair, the other to the bare circle on 
the top of the head (the shaven crown)." He quotes from 
Lyndwode a gloss upon the words : 

" Tonsi. Hrec tonsura sic fiet, ut aures sint patentes. Et hoc, si reli- 
giosus sit, altius : si seeeularis, dimissius. Et sic, quod inter presbyte- 
rura et alios inferiores sit differentia." 

"Coronati. Rasnra superior, et tonsura inferior, faciunt de circulo 
capillorum coronam." 4 

An excellent article on the "Tonsure", written by the 
Eev. F. E. Warren, D.D., Fellow of St. John's College, 
Oxford, will be found in Dr. Smith's Dictionary of Chris- 
tian Antiquities. The writer points out that there were 
three distinct varieties of ecclesiastical tonsure : 

"1. The Roman tonsure, associated with the name of St. Peter, 
which was formed by the top of the head being shaved close, and a 
circle or crown of hair being left to grow round it. In breadth this 
coronal tonsure was said ' to be like the golden crown which is placed 
on the head of kings'." 5 

" 2. The Eastern or Greek tonsure, styled 'St. Paul's', which was 
total. When Theodore was selected to be Archbishop of Canterbury 
(a.i>. G68), he was obliged to wait four months to let his hair grow in 
such a manner as would enable him to receive the coronal tonsure in 
the Roman manner, ' for he had previously, as subdeacon, received the 
tonsure of St. Paul, according to the manner of the Easterns'." 6 

" 3. The Celtic tonsure known as ' St. John's', in use in the Celtic 
Church of Great Britain and Ireland. It consisted in shaving all the 
hair in front of a line drawn over the top of the head from ear to ear. 
The Anglo-Saxon Church attributed this form of tonsure in use among 

1 Lyndwode, ibid. 2 Codex, vol. i, p. 163. 

:i Monumenta Ttitualia, 2nd edition, ii, pp. c, ci. 

1 Lyndwode, lib. iii, lit. 1. 5 Isidore, Dr Div. Oft'., ii, 4. 
''■ J5rd(>, Hist. Ere/., iv, 1. 

British Museum, Uarley Ttoll, Y 6. 


in st. paul's cathedral. 283 

their opponents to Simon Magus. Abbot Ceolfrid discussed the sub- 
ject at length in his letter to Nectan, King of the Picts, a.d. 710. 1 
Although not brought forward by St. Augustine either at 'Augustine's 
Oak' or at Bangor, this question of the shape of the tonsure formed 
the subject of the most frequent and violent controversy in England 
during the seventh and eighth centuries." 2 

Mr. Warren examines briefly the alleged antiquity of 
the tonsure. He quotes the express authority of Hege- 
sippus, who says of St. James, "upon whose head no razor 
was compassed"; 3 and suggests that it is exceedingly im- 
probable that the Apostles or their successors should, in 
time of persecution, have adopted an outward mark which 
would at once have led to their identification as leaders 
of a body whose members were liable to torture and to 

Mr. W. de Gray Birch, F.S.A., Hon. Secretary, in his 
Memorials of St. Guthlac, — a very valuable contribu- 
tion to hagiology, and to the history of Christian art, — 
has presented us with an illustration of our present sub- 
ject. The third cartoon which he figures represents St. 
Guthlac at the Monastery of Rypadun (now Repton), in 
Derbyshire, in the very act of receiving the tonsure. 
" The Bishop, with his mitre, pastoral staff, embroidered 
and fringed stole, and ample surplice, holds in his right 
hand a veritable pair of shears, such as may be seen at 
any sheepshearing of the present time, with which he is 
cutting the hair from Guthlac's head. Guthlac himself 
kneels to receive the ancient and important rite, in the 
foreground of the picture." 4 

As an appendix to this paper, I print the Cotton Boll, 
xiii, 4 (a MS. of the end of the twelfth or the beginning 
of the thirteenth century), which contains an office for 
the conferring of the tonsure, together with many ancient 
forms of benediction. I have compared it with the office 
now in use in the Roman Church, as it is found in the 
Pontificate Romanwm, printed at Marines in 1845 (pp. 753- 
757). The variations in the text of the prayers, though 
numerous, are not of great importance. I have noted only 

1 Bede, Hist. Bed. v, 21. 

2 The whole article is well worth perusal. At the end of it a series 
of references to original authorities will be found. 

3 Eusebius, Hist. Eccles., ii, 23. 

4 Memorials of St. Guthlac, p. x.wix. 

20 2 


those which seemed worthy of observation. Those who 
are desirous of a more minute collation should consult 
Mr. MaskelTs Monumenta Ritualia Ecclesice Anglicance, 
where will be found 1 an early "Modus faciendi tonsuras et 
coronas primas", together with the variations exhibited 
by the Pontificals of Bangor, Winchester, and Exeter. I 
gladly acknowledge my obligation to Mr. Kirk for his 
very careful transcript from the original Poll. 


Printed from Rot. Cot., xiii, 4. 

Ojjicium ad primam tonsuram. 

Acliutorium nostrum in nomine Domini. 

Qui fecit eel urn et terram. 

Sit nomen Domini benedictum. 

Ex hoc nunc et usque in seculum. 

Oremus dilectissimi fratres 2 Dominum nostrum Ihesum Christum 
pro hiis famulis suis qui ad deponendam capitum suorum comam 3 pro 
eius amore festinant, ut donet eis Spiritum Sanctum, qui habitum reli- 
gionis in eis perpetuo 4 conseruet, et a mundi impedirnento uel seculari 
desiderio, corda eorum defendat, et sicut immutantur in uultu, ita 
manus dextere sue, eis 5 uirtutem perfectionis et boni operis tribuat in- 
crementa, et abiecta omni cecitate humana, spirituales illis oculos ape- 
riat, et lumen eis gratie eterne concedat. Qui cum Patre et eodem 
Spiritu Saucto uiuit et regnat Deus, per omnia secula seculorum. 

Dominus vobiscum. 

Et cum spiritu tuo. 


AdestoDomine supplicationibus nostris,et hos famulos tuosbene + di- 
cere dignare, quibus in sancto nomine tuo, signum sacre religionis 
imponimus, ut te largiente, et deuoti in ecclesia tua persistere, et uitam 
percipere mereantur eternam. Per Dominum n. I. X. etc. 

Deinde dicatur Psalnnts, Conserua, usque ad versum, Dominus pars, 
et quilibet tondendus dicat Dominus pars. Et mox tondeat eos successive 
et omnibus tonsis dicatur residuum Psalmi, quo dido dicatur Antiphona, 
Tu es Domiue qui restitues hereditatem mihi. Tunc dicat EpiscnqJics, 

Dominus vobiscum. 

1 Mon. Bit. Eccles. Anglic, 2d edition, ii, pp. xciv-cii, and pp. 153-161. 
- " Fratres charissimi." (Po)dif. Horn.) 

3 The original Roll interlines the singular form above the plural : 
thus, over "hiis" is written " oc"; over the is in " famulis" is written 
" o". I have not thought it necessary to retain this. 

4 " In perpetuum". 

5 " Virtutis tribuat incrementa et ab omni coscitate spiritual! et hu- 
mana oculos", etc. 

in ,st. taul's cathedral. 285 


Presta qucsumus omnipotens Deus lit bii famuli tui quorum hodie 
comam capitis, pro dinino amore deposuimus, in tua diloccione perpe- 
tua maneant, et eos siue macula in sempiternum custodias. Per Douii- 
num nostrum. 

Delude dicatur Psalmus, Domini est terra, cum Antiphona, Hii acci- 
pient benedictionem a Domino et misericordiam a Deo salutari suo. 

Delude Ejplscopus conuersus ad allure dlcat : 


Flectamus genua. Leuate. 

Max JCjiixcojJus ad illos couuersus dlcat oraclouem, 

Omnipotens sempiterne Deus propiciare peccatis nostris, et ab omni 
scruitute secularis habitus bos famulos tuos emunda; ut dum 1 tuo 
amore comam capitis deponunt, tua semper 2 perfruantur gratia ; et 3 
sicut similitudinem corone tue eos gestare facimus in capite, sic tuam 
uirtutem et 4 bereditatem subsequi mereantur 5 in corde. 6 Per Dominum 
nostrum, &c. 

Delude Eplscnpus lenens in mami sua superpelllceum dlcens : 

Induat vos Domiuus nouum hominem, qui secundum Deura creatus 
est in sanctitate et iusticia veritatis. R'. Amen. 

Mox Eplscopus immittat superpelllceum, seriatim immittens usque ad 
scajndas, 1 et inmcdlate retrahens, slcque faciens usque ad idtlmum, qui 
totaUter induatur. Postea aspergat eos aqua benedlcta. 

[Videte ut quod ore cantatis corde credatis et quod corde creditis 
operibus probetis, et responcleant, Deo gracias. Deinde iniungantur uel 
ante ab Episcopo ut orent pro ipso corditer.] 

[Benedictiones Diverse ] 8 

IT Benedlctlo Patene. 

Adiutorium n. &c. 

Consecra + mus et sanctifica + mus banc patenam, ad conficiendum 
in ea corpus Domini nostri Ibesu Christi, qui passus est in cruce pro 
omnium salute. Qui cum Patre et Spiritu Sancto uiuit et regnat Deus 
per o. s. s. Amen. 

Deinde facial crucem cum polllce de oleo sancto sup>er patenam, et bene- 
dlcat earn dlcens : 

Consecra + re et sanctifi + care digneris Domine Deus omnipotens, 
patenam banc per istam sanctam unccionem et nostram benedic + cio- 
nem in Christo Ibesu Domino nostro. Qui tecum, et cum Spiritu 
Sancto, uiuit et regnat Deus per o. s. s. Amen. 


Deus, qui post typicum pascba esis agni carnibus sacrosanctum cor- 
pus tuum discipulis tuis distribuere dignatus es, te supplici deuocione 
cleposcimus, ut quicunque ex bac pateua illud perceperint, te uiuum et 

1 " Dum ignominiam ssecularis habitus deponit." 

' 2 " Semper in ffivum." 3 " Ut," 4 "Tua virtute." 

5 "Mereatur seternam." ° "Qui cum Patre", etc. 

7 In the margin of the Roll is the word " Verte". This refers to the 

next paragraph, in brackets, which is written on the back of the Roll. 
s These Benedictions should be carefully compared with those 

printed by Mr. Maskell, Monumenta Ritualia, 2nd edition, i, 1G9-182. 


uerum panem corde concupiscant et capiant et benediccionem mcrcan- 
tur percipere sempifcernam. Per te Domine Ihesu Christe. Qui uiuis 
et reguas Deus per o. s. s. Amen. 

Benedictio Calicis. 

Oremus, dilectissimi fratres, ut Deus et Dominus noster calicem hunc 
in suo ministerio consecrandum,celestis gratie inspiracione santifi + cet; 
et ei ad human am benedic 4- cionem plenitudinem diuini fauoris acco- 
modet : Qui ueuturus es. i. 


Dignare Domine calicem istum benedi + cere in usum ministerii tui 
pia famulatus deuocione formatum, et ea sanctificacione perfundere 
qua Melcbisedecb famuli tui sacrum calicem perfudisti, et quod arte 
uel metallo efiici non potest altaribus tuis dignum, fiat tua benedictione 
preciosum atque sanctificatum. Per Dominum n. 

Tunc facial cum pollice crucem de crismate super calicem dicens : 

Consecra + i*e, &c. 

Dominus vobiscnm. 

Et cum s. t. 


Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, manibus nostris quesumus opem tue 
benediccionis infunde, ut per nostram beuediccionem, hoc uasculum 
sanctifi + cetur, et corporis et sanguinis Domini nostri Jhesu Christi 
nouum sepulcrum Spiritus Sancti gratia perficiatnr. Qui tecum &c. 

^[ Benedictio Corporalium. 

Clementissime Domine, cuius inenarrabilis est uirtus, cuius misteria 
arcbanis mirabilibus celebrantur, tribue, quesumus, ut hec corpoi^alia, 
tue propiciacionis benedicti + one sanctificentur ad consecrandum super 
ilia corpus Domini nostri Ibesu Christi. Qui tecum. 

Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, bene + die corporalia ista ad tegen- 
dum inuoluendumque corpus et sanguinem Domini nostri Ihesu Christi. 
Qui tecum. 

Et aspergantur aqua beuedicta. 

Benedictio generalis ad omnia Omamenta Ecelesice. 

Adiutoi'ium n., &c. 

Sit no,, &c. Dominus vo. 


Visibilium et inuisibilium creator Deus, adesto propicius inuocacio- 
nibus nostris, et hec ornamenta sanctitatis effigiem pretendencia desu- 
per gratia tua irrigante tua ingenti benedictione per nostre huinilital is 
seruitutem j^urifi + care, bene + dicere et consecra + re digneris ad lau- 
dem et gloriam nominis tui. Per Christum Do. n. 

Et aspergantur aqua benedict a. 

% Ad reconciliandum Ornamenta Ecclesie. 
Adiut. n. &c. 

Denm indultorem criminum, Deum sordium mundatorem, Dominum 
qui eoucretum peccatis oi'iginalibus mundum aduentus sui nitore puri- 
lieauit, supplices deprecemur, ut contra Diaboli furcntis iusidias, f'ortis 


nobis pugnator assistat, et qaicquid eius airosa calliditato cotidianisque 
infestacionibus maculatum liic coruptumque fuerit . efficiatur celesti 
sanctificacione ac mundacione purgatum, quia sicut illius est solidura 
perfectumque quassare ita auctoris nostri est lapsa restaurare, et cor- 
rupta purgare. Cuius maiestatem precamur, ut liic locus, uel calix, 
uel hec aestimenta, uel corporalia, fiat ab omni pollucione purgatus et 
sanctificatus, atque in priorem statu m restitutus et reconciliatus ac 
sacratus. Per cum qui in Trinitate perfecta uiuit et gloriatur Deus : 
per infinita secula seculorum. Amen. 
Postea aspergatur aqua benedicta. 

H Benedictio Baptisterii, siue lapidis foncium, hoc modo fiat. 

Adiutorium n. 


Omnipotens scmpiterne Deus, baptisterium hoc salutis eterne celesti 
uisitacione dedica, et Spiritus tui illustracione miseratus illustra, ut 
quoscunque fons iste lauaturus est, trina ablucione omnium delictorum 
suorum indulgeuciam consequantur. Per Christum Do. 


Multiplica super nos Domine benedictionem tuam, et Spiritus Sancti 
munere fidem nostram corobora, ut qui hec fluenta descenderint in 
libro uite ascribantur. Per Dominum. 

Et aspergat cum aqua benedicta. 

Here ends the original compilation, which is written in 
a large hand, with rubrics and ornamental initial letters. 
What follows is written on the back of the Roll by a 
later hand, in an inferior style, and with very pale ink. 
It is not rubricated, but the directions are mostly under- 

Benedictio Amicti. 

Benedic, Domine, quesumus, omnipotens Deus, Amictum istum tarn 
Leuitice quam sacerdotalis officii, et concede propicius ut quicunque 
eum capiti suo imposuerit benediccionem tuam accipiat, sitque in fide 
solidus et sanctitatis gravedine fundatus per Christum. 

Benediccio Albe. 

Deus invicte virtutis auctor, et omnium rerum creator et sanctifica- 
tor, intende propicius ut banc albam Leuitice ac sacerdotalis glorie tuo 
ore proprio bened + icei-e sanctific + are atque consecr + are digneris, 
omnesque ea vtentes tuis mistei"ijs aptos, et tibi in ea deuote et amica- 
biliter seruientes, gratos effici coneedas per Christum. 

Benedictio Manvpuli. 

Exaudi nos, Domine, sancte Pater, omnipotens eterne Deus, ut hunc 
nianipulum sacri ministerij vsui preparatum benedic + ere sanctific + are 
atque consecr + are digneris per Christum. 

Benedictio Stole. 

Deus, qui stolis predicatoribus collum et pectus muniri concession, 
exaudi propicius, ut quicunque tuorum sacerdotum uel Leuitarum huie 


stole colla subiecerint, quicqnid boni ore protulerint corde credant, et 
quod verbis docuerint opere festinant per Christum. 

Benedictio Casule. 

Deus fons pietatis et iusticie, qui tui operis ministros ad extremum 
vestimentomro casula cuius muni mine interius omnia tegerentur vestiri 
sanxisti, concede peticionibus nostris, ut bee planeta a te sit sancti- 
fic + ata et bene + dicta quatenus ea induti enumeratis intus omnium 
virtutum ornamentis uinculum perfecte caritatis super omnia habeant, 
quo perficere que iuste desiderant te prestante valeant, per Dominum. 

Benedictio Zone. 

Omnipotens eterne Deus, qui Aaron et filioseius in sacerdotali minis- 
terio cingulo cum balcheo in renibus stringi iussisti, adesto supplicaci- 
onibus nostris, et presta, ut omnes tue sancte operacionis ministri hac 
zona iusticie circumcepti, renes lumbosque suos virtute sancte pudicicie 
precingere valeant et satagant, quatenus nullo vento elacionis uel fri- 
gore iniquitatis tabescant, sed te opitulante corrobari ad tibi placita 
semper queant, per Dominum. 

Benedictio IAntheaminum Altaris. 

Omnipotens et misericors Deus, qui ab initio vtilia et necessaria 
bominibus creasti, quique per famulum tuum Moysen velamina et orna- 
menta et cetera necessaria ad cultum et decorem tabernaculi et altaris 
tui fieri decreuisti, exaudi propicius preces nostras et bee ornamenta 
uel lintbeamina in vsum ecclesie uel altaris tui et ad bonorem et grlo- 
nam tuam preparata, purific + are et sanctific + are bene + dicere et 
cons + ecrare per nostre bumilitatis seruitutem digneris, ut diuinis cul- 
tibus sacris misteriis apta et benedicta existant, bijsque confeccioni 
corporis et sanguinis Ibesu Cbristi Filij tui Domini nostri dignis famu- 
latibus pareatur, qui tecum, &c. 

Alia Benedictio Lintheaminum. 

Solus ineffabilis et incomprebensibilis Rex, omnipotens Deus, qui per 
Moysen famulum tuum Legisque latorem misticas tibi munerum spe- 
cies et ad demonstrandum boni operis finem tandem in sacrificio offerri 
precepisti, ostendens quod ille bene immolat, qui bonum opus usque 
ad finem debite accionis perducit, te ergo, Domine, humili prece sup- 
plicique famulatu deposcimus, ut boc lintbeamen ad sacrosancta corpo- 
ris et sanguinis Filii tui libamenta ofFerenda preparatum tua bene- 
dic + cione dotari celesti sanctificacione perfundere digneris, quatenus 
ofTerent in beneplacitum munus suscipias, et sumentibus vitam propi- 
cius concedas eternam, Saluator mundi, qui in Trinitate perfecta uiuis 
et gloriaris Deus per cuncta seculorum secula. 

Benedictio ad quodcumque vohieris. 

Visibilium et invisibilium Creator, Deus, adesto propicius inuocaci- 
onibus nostris, ut bee ornamenta sanctitatis effigiem pretendencia desu- 
per gratia tua irrigante tua ingenti benediccione per nostre humilitatis 
seruitutem purificare bene + dicere et consecr+are digneris, ad laudem 
nominis tui qui in Trinitate perfecta viuis et regnas Deus &c. 

Tunc aspergatur aqua henedicta. 

J n nomine Patris. etc. 


Benedictio Preculorum. 

Deus, omnium benediccionum largus iufusor, ac omnia bone accionia 
inspirator, qui omnia tabernaculi federis ornamenta ad deuocionem 
populi tuo ore proprio fieri precipisti, te humili prece deposcimus, at 
liee oracula siue precaria sanctitatia effigiem pretendencia ei ad deuote 
orandum beatissimam Virginem Mariam Dei genitricem adaptata, et 
ad psallcnduin ciusdem sane! issiine Virginis psalterium confecta et 
nreparata, ilia benediccione perf'undas et benedicas, qua olini per mauus 
Bacerdotum vtensilia (abernaculi perfudiati. Concede ut quicunque in 
hijs oraculis siue precarijs ipsam glorioaiasimam Virginem suppliciter 
honorare studuerint, aut in hija quoeunque loco coram sua ymagine 
preces effundere decreuerint, aut eius patrociuium postulauerint, illius 
precibus et optentu gratiam et gloriam consummate) vite presentis ter- 
mino optineant, et tuc propiciacionis indulgenciam conaequantur. 

Solus ineffabilis et incomprebensibilis Dens, cuius verbo et potestate 
omnia sunt creata, cuius dono percepimus que ad vite remedia possi- 
denius, te supplices obnixis precibus deprecamur, ut de sede majestatis 
tue bee oracula siue precaria fklelium famulorum tuorum sanctitati 
conueniencia tua benedic + cione et celesti santificacione perfundere 
digneris, quatenus beneplacitum munus in liijs orancium accipias. Sint- 
que bee oracula siue precaria in conspectu clemencie tue libenter ac- 
cepla sicut Abel alumni tui uel sicut Melcbedecb muuera tibi placuerunt 
oblata : ut qui in hiis beatissimam Dei genitricem Mariam suis Sanctis 
nititur decorare obsequijs, Filius eius Dominus noster Ihesus Christus 
magna pro paruis recompense^ deuocionem eius accipiat, peccata 
dimittat, fide eum repleat, indulgenciam foveat, misericordia protegat, 
aduersa destruat, prospera concedat. Habeat in hoc seculo bone accionis 
documentum, caritatis studium, sancti amoris affectum, et in futuro 
cum Sanctis angelis gaudium adhipiscatur perpetuum per Dominum,&c. 

Benedictio Nanis. 

Deus, cuius prouidencia vniuersa l-eguntur et conseruantur,qui domi- 
naris potestates maris et mitigas motum fluctuum eius, qui Noe famulo 
tuo ne genus bumanum toturu periret in diluvio arcbam facere preci- 
pisti, qui ventis et tempestatibus imperas et obediunt, qui Petrum 
super aquas maris ambulantem ne mergeretur erexisti, tuam Domine 
clemenciam obnixe petimus et hnmiliter imploramus, quatenus banc 
nauiculam per virtutem sancte Crucis et per intercessionem beate et 
gloriose Marie semper Virginis et omnium sanctorum, tua dextera dig- 
neris bene + dicere omnesque insidias hostium visibilium et invisibi- 
lium ab ea repellere, ut in ea sub tua protectione nauigantes nullis 
illudantur fantasmatibus, nullis deiciantur aduersis, non eos vorago 
terribilis sorbeat, non tempestas impcllal, non frangat scopulus, non 
invadat aduersarius, sed uniuersis expedita terroribus, nomeu tuum 
collaudantea ad propria cum gaudio reuerti mereantur, per te, Saluator 
mundi, qui cum Deo Patre et Spiritu Sancto vivis et reguas Deus per 
omnia secula seculorum. Amen. 

JJeiudc asjpergatar nauis aqua Lenedicta. 

Benedictio Corporalium. 
Clementissime, &c, ut infra. 1 

1 I.e.., on tlic face of the Roll. 


Dens, qui pro generis humani saluacione verbura caro factus es, et 
habitare totus in nobis non dedignatus es, quique fcraditori tno perfido 
osculum pium dedisti dam pro omnium vita pius voluisti agnus niac- 
tari atque in syndone lino fcexta totum te involui permisisti, respice 
propieius ail vota nostra qui tua fideliter carismata amplecti cupimus. 
Quesumus, Doniine, sancti + Scare, bene + dicere, conse + crareque dig- 
neris hec corporalia in vsurn altaris tui, ad consecrandum super illud, 
sine ad tegendum, involuendumque, sacrosanctum corpus et san- 
guinem tuum, Domine Ibesu Christe, dignisque pareant famulatibus 
ut quicquid sacro ritu super hec imrnolabitur, sicut Melchisidech obla- 
tum placeat tibi holocaustum : et optineat per hec premium quieunque 
optulerit votum. Te quoque humiliter rogamus ac petimus ut hec 
corporalia tue sanctificacionis ubertate per Spiritus Sancti gratiam 
pari + fices et sanctifices, qui te pro nobis omnibus sacrificium offerre 
voluisti ; et presta ut super hec sint tibi libamina accepta, sint grata, 
Bint pinguia, et Spiritus Sancti tui rore perfusa, Saluator mundi, qui 
vivis et regnas. 

Deus, qui digne tibi seruiencium nos imitari desideras famulatum, 
respice propieius ad humilitatis nostre seruitutem, et hec corporalia 
nomini tuo dicata, et seruitutis tue vsibus pi'eparata, celestis virtutis 
benediccione sanctifi + ca puri + fica et con + secra ; quatenus super ilia 
Spiritus tuus Sanctus descendat, qui oraciones et oblaciones populi tui 
benedicat et corda siue corpora sumeucium benignus reficiat per D. 

Benedict iones in omni tempore. 

Benedicat vobis Dominus et custodiat vos semper. Amen. 

Illuraiuet faciem suam super vos et misereatur vestri. Amen. 

Convertat uultum suum ad vos et det vobis pacem. Amen. 

vobis prestare dignetur re permanet in secula 

seculorum. Et beuedictio Dei Pa + tris et Fi + lij et Spiri + tus Sancti 
descendat super vos et maneat semper. Amen. 

Et pax eius sit semper vobiscum. 

Et cum spiritu tuo. 

Agnus, &c. 

Beuedictio Vascali pro Eucharistia. 

Adiutorium nostrum. 

Qui fecit. 

Dominus vobiscum, &c. 


Omnipotens sempiternus Deus, maiestatem fcuam supplices deprcca- 
mur, ut vasculum hoc pro corpore Filij tui Domini nostri Ihesu Christi 
in eo condendo fabricatum, benedictionis tue gratia dicare digneris, 
per eundem Dominum nostrum. 

Tunc a&spergit [sic] aqua henedicta. 




{Bead January 18, 1882.) 

The discovery of the Roman mosaic pavement at Morton, 
near Brading, Isle of Wight, and quite lately that at 
Wingham in Kent, has excited an interest in these re- 
mains which has induced me to bring together, for the 
purpose of comparison, the various Roman pavements 
throughout the kingdom ; and I had hoped to give an 
account of them in a short paper, but the subject has so 
extended itself on investigation, that I find a fourth of a 
volume of the Journal would hardly suffice to give an 
account of nearly one hundred pavements of which I have 
collected the descriptions from various authors too nume- 
rous to particularise here. In many instances the pave- 
ments have been destroyed or reburied, and therefore are 
only known by these descriptions in print ; some have 
been removed to public museums or private collections ; 
and useful as the full details of them would be, I must 
here confine myself to a mere list of names in two tables : 
No. 1 giving the places where the mosaics are found, 
arranged in counties ; and No. 2 giving a list of the sub- 
jects with reference to the mosaics on which they are de- 
picted ; and these lists embrace forty of the principal 
figured mosaics in England. 

The list will begin with Woodchester, 1 at one time the 
finest of the British pavements, but which now has even 
been excelled in interest by the late discovery in the Isle 
of Wight, with which I shall conclude ; and in offering 
some observations upon this, there will be little need of 
expatiating much upon the others. 

The south-western counties have furnished the most, 
and some of the best, examples ; but as instances are 
found in nearly all the other counties, it is probable that 
many more may hereafter see the light. The pavements 

1 Fully described in vol. iii of that sumptuous work, Txcliquia- Britait- 
Romance, fol., by S. Lysons, F.S.A. 


were formed of cubes of various sizes, colours, and materials, 
measuring mostly half an inch to an inch each. Mr. Lysons 
calculated that in the mosaic at Woodchester not less 
than a million and a half of these tessellce were employed. 
The materials there were principally the produce of the 
country, except the white, which is of a very hard, calca- 
reous stone, bearing a good polish, and resembling the 
Palomino marble of Italy. 

The Komans took much pains to keep out damp from 
their floors and walls, and hence the mosaics have been 
so well preserved : thus the greater part were " sus- 
pended"; that is, built on a platform of tiles, which rested 
on pillars of brick, tile, or stone ; and into the hollow 
space below, or the hypocaust, was blown the heated air 
from a great furnace lighted outside the house, and the 
blast rushed into the hypocaust through one or two nar- 
row channels. When the pavement had no hypocaust 
below it, then it was laid upon a thick bed of different 
materials, by which the same purpose of keeping out the 
damp was effected. 

According to Mr. Thos. Wright, the foundation of one 
at Wroxeter measured between 2 and 3 feet in thickness ; 
but the example at Woodchester, above referred to, had 
a foundation of nearly 5 feet. These foundations were 
probably influenced by the nature of the soil, a moist clay 
requiring a thicker foundation than a subsoil of gravel. 

These mosaics were called opera segmentata, opus mus- 
sivum, and musaceum. The workmen, in laying them 
down, kept the tessellce of different colours in divisions, as 
does the printer his types. The bed to receive them was 
of lime, sand, and ashes, and the cement used to set them 
in was composed of pounded slate, white of egg, and gum- 
dragon, which was to be moist when the tessellce were laid 
upon it, as it soon hardened; and these were then pressed 
down with a heavy roller, which fixed them in their 
places. The surface was then polished, or rather such of 
the tessellce as would take a polish ; and the inequality of 
materials, some being polished, and others retaining their 
natural, dull surface, produced a very pleasing, chromatic 

Some say the w r ords mussivum and musaceum are de- 
rived from the Muses, often introduced in designs for 


floors. Cean-Bermudez, in his summary of Roman anti- 
quities in Spain, mentions two pavements at Ulia, near 
Montemayor, on one of which is a female head with the 
letters evterpe; and on the other are female busts, which 
he supposes to represent the Muses. The Muses, it will 
be remembered, are said by Euripides to be the offspring 
of Harmony, an abstract being, much connected with our 
British mosaics, as I will shew hereafter. In the mean- 
time let me introduce Harmony in the words of Euripides, 
addressed to the Athenians, which rendered in English 

" Happy of old, ye sons of Erechtheus, 
Children of good gods, happy for ever ; 
Nurtured on wisdom the most distinguished, 
In a land sacred, untrodden by enemies, 
Leading refined lives in brightest of atmospheres, 
Where, as report says, the flaxen-haired Harmony 
Planted of old nine Pierian Muses, 
And where, as they say, the fair-flowing Cephisus 
Offered to Venus her pure stream to drink, 
As she breathed o'er the land odoriferous breezes 
While braiding with chaplets of roses her hair, 
Sending her sweet loves attendant on wisdom, 
And helpmates in excellence, science, and taste." 1 

If we apply these lines to our own land, and compare 
the river Thames with the Cephissus, the less said the 
better, perhaps, of the " brightest of atmospheres". 

We may trace Epicurean ideas prevalent when our 
mosaics were laid down. They would justify the satirist 
in saying that the hungry Muse had migrated into the 
antechamber; 2 for the favourite subjects here, in the best 
rooms, were Orpheus and the Bacchic theogony, and the 
Hours or Seasons had taken the place of the Muses. 3 

The subjects must be studied chronologically, according 
to the prevailing ideas of the time when the mosaics were 
designed, and considerable changes must have taken place 
in them during the four or five centuries of Roman rule 
in Britain. We have, in fact, several instances of floors 
upon three separate levels, and of different ^ degrees of 
merit, representing the dwellings of successive genera- 

1 Eurip., Medea, 820 et seqq. 

2 " Esuriens migraret in atria Clio." (Juvenal, Sat. vii, 6-7.) 

3 The Muses, according to Cicero, were originally only four in number. 


In the decline of the Empire, the conservative ideas of 
the old Roman aristocracy, when heathenism was dying 
out, dictated the designs, and the eclecticism of the philo- 
sophers was striving to modify, in some degree, the myi bi- 
ology of the ancients, and to bring it more into harmony 
with the experiences of man and the lessons of nature. 
The spread of Christianity, too, may have had the effect 
of encouraging, on the part of its adversaries, the pictorial 
treatment of subjects which held up Epicureanism as the 
sum/mum bonum? The old theogony of Homer and Hesiod, 
though forming the groundwork of the system, had been 
gradually giving place to the Orphic or Bacchic. This 
system may be traced back to Onomacritus, who lived 
between 520-485 B.C. He seems to have collected the 
myths and traditions concerning Orpheus, the pupil of 
Apollo, who taught him to play on the lyre. So apt was 
the pupil that not only wild beasts, but even trees and 
rocks were moved by the power of his song; and even the 
queen of the infernal regions was inclined to give back 
Eurydice, his wife, whose loss Orpheus ceased not to de- 

At about the same time that Onomacritus was establish- 
ing Orphic societies in Greece, Pythagoras was introduc- 
ing his philosophy into Italy, and Meton had made that 
great discovery in astronomical science, the cycle of nine- 
teen years, when the sun and moon revert again to the 
same position relatively to the earth and to each other, — 
a cycle which is still used and preserved in our Golden 
Number in the Calendar ; and this cycle of 19 years, or 
235 months, or 6,940 days, only differed from the true 
time of modern astronomers by little more than seven 
hours in the whole period, shewing considerable accuracy 
in his observations. 2 He intercalated one month seven 
times during the cycle; that is, in the 3rd, 5th, 8th, 1 1th, 
13th, 16th, and 19th years. 

These three men mark an epoch in the world's history, 
and from them science and religion took a mould which 

1 The Stoics and Cynics did all ihcy could to bring Epicurean doc- 
trines into ridicule. Hierocles the Stoic, one of the most moderate 
(quoted by Aulas Gellius, ix, c. 6, 8), sums them up very bitterly. 

2 Clinton (Fasti Hellenici, Appendix) shews how each of the succes- 
sors of Meton, Calippus, B.C. 330, and Hipparchus, B.C. 146, made gra- 
dual progress towards correcting the excess of his predecessors. 


poets and artists rendered permanent. The Bacchic theo- 
logy, under the auspices of the son of Seniele, youngest 
daughter of Cadmus of Thebes, encouraged, and was acted 
upon by the Epicurean ideas of the age, which were in- 
troduced not without a revolution which spread from 
Thebes to the islands of the ZEgean, and to Argos, the 
stronghold of the stately and jealous Juno, where, though 
first opposed, the system was introduced, and lastly into 
Athens. The ultimate stage of this mythology may be 
studied in the Dionysiaca of Nonnus, a native of Pano- 
polis (the city of Pan) in Egypt, and his contemporaries 
Claudian and Ausonius, who lived also at the time of 
Cyros of Panopolis, and of Coluthus, Trypliodorus, John 
of Gaza, Musseus, Comtos of Smyrna, and the poets of the 

After the first Dionysus, called Zagrasus, had disap- 
peared in the great war with the Titans and powers of 
darkness, appeared the second Dionysus or Bacchus, the 
Theban. Born amidst the thunders of Jupiter, he had to 
flee from the vengeance of Juno and of Athamas, the hus- 
band of Ino, who had suckled the child and brought him 
up. The young hero, after profiting by the education 
given him by Rhea, or Cybele, in Phrygia, proceeds to 
destroy the enemies of civilisation, and to spread it over 
the earth. The arts of agriculture were promoted, and 
particularly the cultivation of the vine. He taught the 
manufacture of wine from grapes all through India, fol- 
lowing the line of march of Alexander the Great in that 
country at a later period. We find him at Tyre, the 
dwelling-place of his grandfather Cadmus ; and passing 
through Cilicia and Lydia, he brings his influence into 
Europe, by way of Illyricum and Macedonia, towards 
Thebes, where he was born. Athens is initiated into his 
mysteries. At Naxos he dries the tears of the deserted 
Ariadne, and marries her. Then comes his struggle with 
Juno at Argos, and the episode of Perseus. He then con- 
quers inhospitable Thrace, and makes rebellious Pallene 
submit to be cultivated. After again repairing to Cybele 
in Phrygia, the scene of his youth, where he had learnt 
to drive great Rhea's chariot, drawn by lions, and per- 
forming many great and useful works in that country, he 
is admitted to Olympus, among the immortal gods. 


I will now refer a little more in detail to the Dionysiac 
myth which illustrates the designs of our mosaics. The 
marriage of Cadmus and Harmony is celebrated with all 
honour, Apollo himself being present with his lyre, and 
the nine Muses also assisting. Polyhymnia directed the 
dance, and Venus brought presents for the daughters yet 
to be born, who played important parts in the myth here- 
after. The following are the names of the four daughters : 
1, the eldest, Autonoe, married Aristoeus, and they had a 
son, the hunter Action ; 2, I no, who married Athamas ; 
;;. Agave, who married Echion, and they had a son named 
Pentheus; 4, Semele, the youngest, who, though a mortal, 
had a son by Jupiter, called the Theban Bacchus. This 
child was born amidst the thunders of the god, which 
burnt up the unfortunate mother, 1 

" Ortus in igne 
Diceris, et patria raptus ab igne manu." 1 

An account is given of a very mixed army of Centaurs, 
Satyrs, Fauns, and others too numerous to mention here ; 
and* among the first was Actaeon the hunter. These were 
to accompany Bacchus on his Indian expedition ; and a 
very curious series of campaigns are described. The 
splendid reception is recorded of Bacchus at the court of 
Assyria, in the palace of Staphylus and his son Botrys. 
Here we have an interesting contest on the lyre between 
the two great players, iEagrus, the father of Orpheus, and 
Erechtheus, to compete for prizes. Erechtheus sings first; 
but the wreath of ivy is placed on the brow of ^Eagrus, 
who receives the first prize, while Erechtheus of Athens 
has to walk sulkily away with only the second prize, 
which was the long-bearded goat. 

We are next introduced to Lycurgus, son of Mars, and 
King of Arabia, who is a great enemy to Bacchus, and 
determines his destruction. Juno arms him with a double- 
headed axe, with which he attempts to break the crown 
of Bacchus. The queen of heaven also sends Iris down to 
Bacchus to threaten him with war. Iris puts on the tala- 
ria of Mercury, and Bacchus has to throw himself into 
the sea to escape, and is well received by Thetis and old 
Nereus. Homer describes the axe of Lycurgus, and calls 

1 Ovid, Fasti, lib. iii, 503-4. 


it Bou7r\r?£, the " ox-smiter". 1 The punishment of Lycur- 
gus is referred to by Seneca, 2 

" Regna securigeri Bacclium sensere Lycurgi." 

The campaigns against Deriades, the Indian king, and 
his ally, Hydaspes, are the occasion of many poetical ad- 
ventures, and a war of seven years was not sufficient to 
bring into subjection the Oriental nations. On a portion 
of the stucco found at Morton, which once adorned the 
side of a room, is painted the head of a parrot, well de- 
signed, and perhaps emblematic of these Eastern cam- 

" Psittacus Eois, imitatrix ales ab Indis." 3 

The victories of Bacchus are contrasted with the feeble 
exploits of Perseus against a woman, — 

"AAA, ov tolos erjv V>pofiiov //.o'#o?. 

The poet makes little of what Perseus accomplished by 
killing one woman, — 

Ov/c aya/jLat, Weparja, fiiav Kreivavra <yvvaiKa. 

The Bassarides and Moenades women on the side of Bac- 
chus take a prominent part in the fight. The former 
derived their name from the bassarce, or dresses of fox- 
skins, worn by the Thracian Bacchanals. 

An interesting episode is that of the Indian Morrheus 
and the Bassarid Chalcomeclia. The former has left his 
black wife, and makes several Bassarides prisoners, tying 
their hands behind their backs, and leaving them to his 
father-in-law Deriades. He sees the beautiful Chalcome- 
dia wearing a transparent cloak and a brilliant tunic, — 

<£>dpea Xeirra (frepovcra koX aaTpdinovTa ^irayva. 4 

He pursues her ; she flies before the winds, exposing her 
beautiful neck and shoulders, which rival the pallid moon, 

avyeva <yvfj,v(i)aapre<> epiSfxdivovra %e\r)vr}. 

She escapes, and hides herself among the troops of Bassa- 
rid women, who then disperse and fly tow aids Eurus, 
Notus, and Boreas. The Moenads at last think it prudent 

1 Iliad, vi, 135. - (Edip., AH ii. 

3 Ovid. ' Dion vs., v. 266. 

1882 " 21 


to exchange their thyrsi of Bacchus for the spindles of 
Minerva, After a fight between Deriades and the women, 
Morrheus again chases Chalcomedia, and is about to seize 
her when a serpent coiled about the aymph's waist seizes 
the pursuer by the throat. He had been persuaded by 
the woman's stratagem to take off his buckler, and put 
down his arms, so that he was helpless against the attack 
of the angry reptile. Deriades then meditates a naval 
attack upon Bacchus ; but in the meantime funeral rites 
to the dead are performed, games are described, and 
Erechtheus this time gains the first prize. At length the 
Hours bring in the seventh year of the Avar. 

The punishment of Cadmus of Thebes and his family is 
the appropriate epilogue to the foregoing events. The 
tragedy of Agave is told by Nonnus much as it is by Euri- 
pides in the Bacchce ; and Pentheus is killed by the hand 
of his mother, who mistook him for a wild beast : indeed, 
his head is much like that of a lion. Agave holds up the 
bleeding head. " Hang it up", she says, " under the por- 
tico of Cadmus, that it may be seen how Jupiter has 
doomed the Cadmean family to destruction." Autonoe 
consoles her sister Agave, and Bacchus consoles them 
both, and sends off Cadmus and Harmony into Illyria to 
wander there till they are petrified into serpents. Bac- 
chus, after a variety of other incidents, closes the drama 
with his Pans and Satyrs in immortal Athens, the never 

Silent daiyyJTOicriv ' 'AOtjvat^. 

The poems thus explain the myths as well as tone of 
thought pervading the mosaics ; and as the pavement at 
Morton, near Brading, Isle of Wight, is about the fullest 
in subjects of any, I will say a few words about its inter- 
pretation, and there will then be little left to explain as 
to the pictures on mosaics elsewhere. I will number the 
rooms according to the plan given in the Guide to the 
Eoman Villa by J. E. Price, F.S.A., and F. G. Hilton Price, 
F.G.S. (1881). 

Boom No. 3 has a female head in the centre, which I 
should be inclined to attribute to Harm on ia, and around 
it are three pictures which seem to represent the three 
sci soi is of the day ; that is, the early morn, or cock-crow, 
when the lanistce, or keepers of the gladiators, were in the 
habit of bringing out their men to fight with wild beasts: 


"In matutina nupei' speetatus arena." 1 

Seneca 2 says, "Mane leonibus et ursis, homines meridie 
spectatoribus suis objiciebantnr." The panthers are repre- 
sented with wings, which express the figurative, ideal 
animal sacred to Bacchus. The lanista is dressed in the 
tunic (probably woollen) which he usually wore, as on the 
pavement at Bignor, and on the bas-reliefs from Cardinal 
M.iximini's palace at Koine, figured in the Vetusta Monu- 
menta, vol. i, p. G5. The man with head, wattles, and 
spurs of a cock is emblematic of the early part of the 
Roman day. 

The next scene is midday, when men fought with men 
for the recreation of the "Roman world. The principal 
work of the day was then over, and after a light meal 
and short repose the Roman rose up refreshed for the 
afternoon amusements. Here we see the secutor with 
helmet and sword, the retiarius with net and trident. 
The latter endeavours to entangle his adversary in his 
net, and then attack him with the trident. The secutor 
has to avoid this, and then follow up his antagonist sword 
in hand. The origin, perhaps, of this display of force is 
the personification of the land and sea-combat. 

In the third scene we probably behold the evening, or 
time of the principal meal of the Romans ; the time being 
indicated by the fox stealing into the vineyard to eat the 
grapes at nightfall. The division of the Roman day was 
similar to that of the Greek; but the space of forty-eight 
hours was reckoned differently by different nations (Macro- 
bius). The Athenians reckoned from sunset to sunset ; 
the Babylonians from sunrise to sunrise ; but the Roman 
day extended from midnight to midnight, and the first 
part was called medice noctis inclinatio ; the next, gallici- 
nium, or cock-crow ; the third, conticuum, or the silent, 
when not only cocks cease to crow, but men also take 
their rest ; the last is the diluculum, when day begins to 
decline. 3 

In the centre of the long gallery is Orpheus with Phry- 
gian cap, cothurni on feet, the attributes of divinity, the 

1 Martial, x, 25 ; and again in same author, xiii, 05. See also Sue- 
tonius in Claudia, c. 34. 

2 Episf., lib. i, 7. :? Saturnalia, lib. i, cap. iii. 



lyre on left knee, and the flowing robe. The picture is 
well drawn, both as to the principal figure as well as the 
monkey, and what remains of the animals. This favourite 
subject may be compared with the many other examples 
at Woodchester, Withington, and elsewhere. 

The northern room, numbered 12, extends 39 ft. 6 ins. 
from west to east, and is divided into four principal com- 
partments, — a square towards the west, then an oblong 
panel, another square, and another oblong panel eastward. 
The square towards the west is mutilated, the centre is 
gone, and we have no means of divining the subject. The 
corners represent the seasons of the year. The angry 
Juno seems to stand for the spring, and Ceres for the 
summer. Winter is placed to the north of the latter, and 
autumn has been destroyed. The only one remaining of 
the four pictures which surrounded the centre in this 
western compartment, is that attributed to Perseus and 
Andromeda, the former holding up Medusa's head ; but 
my interpretation would be more appropriate to the unity 
of the design, with reference to the poems, by considering 
the two figures to be females, — the one, Agave holding up 
the head of Pentheus, whose mangled remains appear at 
foot ; and the other, Autonoe or her sister Ino. This is 
the catastrophe to the house and fortunes of Cadmus. 
Besides the three daughters just referred to, the fourth, 
Semele, the mother of Bacchus, was burnt up by the 
lightnings of Jupiter, represented possibly by the laby- 
rinth pattern involving the suastika (the emblem of fire), 
which is clearly depicted on the western margin of the 
pavement between the pictures and the western Avail. 
Autonoe, the eldest daughter, escaped the catastrophe ; 
but it fell upon her son Actseon, whose fate has been re- 
ferred to, and is depicted on a pavement at Cirencester. 
The intrusion of the hunter Actaeon upon Diana and her 
attendants when bathing, was speedily chastised by the 
goddess, who became purple with rage ; l and she was not 
satisfied till, after changing him into a stag, he had been 
torn to pieces by his own dogs. 2 

Then follows the oblong panel with the astronomer 
seated ; and who this may be it is difficult to conjecture. 
It might be one of the wise men of the age of Onomacri- 

1 Ovid, Met, lib. iii, v. 183. 2 Ibid., v. 250. 


tus, Pythagoras or Meton. The figure stands hy itself in 
a separate panel, and with the instruments around him 
which called forth the jealousy of the gods, according to 
Claudian. This figure has also been attributed to Hip- 
parchus (b.c. 146) the astronomer, who wrote a commen- 
tary on Aratus, and made a list of the fixed stars. 

The next square panel is a continuation of the story of 
the enemies of Bacchus, and I should be inclined to con- 
sider the central head as that of Pentheus, though usually 
ascribed to Medusa. The first picture in this square 
represents the man with the double-headed axe, who can 
be no other than Lycurgus. The axe was given to him 
by revengeful Juno, with which to crack the Osiris skull 
of Bacchus between the horns ; x but Bacchus was too 
much for him, as Ovid says, in addressing the god, 

" Penthea, tu, venerande, bipenniferumque Lycurgum 
Sacrilegos mactas." 2 

The robed figure well represents Juno. The myth of 
Ceres and Triptolemus shews how she rewarded those 
who had received her hosjntably, and taught the young 
farmer to sow corn and till the ground ; but jealous of 
Bacchus for his gifts to man, she is here placed among his 
enemies. This myth is sung by Erechtheus in honour of 
Athens ; and the other melody before referred to was that 
sung by iEagrus, the father of Orpheus, about Staphylus, 
who was the son of Bacchus and Ariadne, and who re- 
ceived the first prize. This young man, from the island 
of Naxos probably, is dressed in the costume of that 
island, and with the Pandean pipe in hand is educating a 
nymph for her part of a Bacchante. She plays the tam- 
bourine, and her attitude is not inelegant. 

" Motus doceri gaudet Ionicos 
Matura virgo", 

was said by Horace of his young countrywomen, as it may 
be told of ours on this mosaic. This is the third picture 
of the eastern square. 

The fourth has delineated upon it a nymph pursued, 
and with her drapery torn from her back. This seems to 

1 Propertius (111-17) speaks of his horns, — 

"Quod superest vitae per te et ttia cornua vivam Bacche." 

2 Met, iv, 22-3. 



answer very well the description of the Bassarid Chalco- 
media pursued by the Indian Morrheus. As a pair of thin 
legs is all that remains of the pursuer, these legs answer 
better to the Indian prince than they would to Apollo, 
on the supposition that the scene represented Apollo and 
Daphne; and here is another of the episodes in the expe- 
dition of Bacchus to India. The four female heads hav- 
ing on them the wings of Mercury may represent Iris sent 
down by Juno to proclaim war on Bacchus, which they 
do by the trumpets (tuhte) they are blowing ; but it is 
more likely they personify the four winds with wings ex- 
pressive of speed. 

In the easternmost panel the scene is changed to the 
realms of Neptune. Ino threw herself into the sea, and 
was welcomed by Thetis ; but was afterwards changed 
into a rock, under the name of Leucothea. Bacchus, to 
avoid Lycurgus and the stroke of his axe, had also to leap 
into the sea, and was hospitably received by the queen 
of the deep, to whom he presented the golden vase which 
had been given to him by Venus. The two figures with 
human bodies and tails of fishes are possibly intended for 
old Nereus and Neptune, each carrying his wife on his 
back; the former Thetis, the latter Amphitrite. 

If I have rightly explained the figures, the unity of the 
whole mosaic is established ; and a beautiful illustration 
it is of the Dionysiac myth ; the early Bacchus or Orpheus ; 
Harmony, and the seasons of the day and year regulated 
and explained by the astronomer on his instruments ; 
then the enemies of Bacchus, and his final triumph both 
by sea and land. The fearful catastrophe to the house 
and fortunes of Cadmus is held up as a warning to those 
who oppose the god ; while Staphylus (the vine) perpe- 
tuates the race of the wine-god, and delights the agricul- 
tural population with the sounds of his Pandean pipes. 

It will be seen that room No. 12, in its entirety, is 
divided into four parts, corresponding with the four ele- 
ments of nature,— -fire in the semicircular division at the 
west end ; then earth, on which are enacted the fables 
here pictured; air in the astronomical compartment; and 
water at the western end. 

By reviewing the subjects depicted upon the various 
mosaics which are classified in list No. 2 at the end of this 


paper, it will be seen which are those most often re- 
peated. Thus Orpheus with his lyre, taming the animals, 
is at Woodchester, Withington, Barton Farm, Winterton 
(near Horkstow), Littlecote, Ched worth, Cirencester, and 
Morton, Isle of Wight. 

Bacchus and panther at Cirencester, Pitney, Thruxton, 
Stunsfield, Bignor, and London ; l and without his panther 
at Frampton. His canih < i rus at Bignor, Cotterstock, Little- 
cote, Crondall (near Farnham), Lee (near Shrewsbury), 
Itchen Abbas, Bramdean, Stunsfield, Carisbrook, London, 
and Morton, Isle of Wight. 

Harmonia, once at the latter place. 

The seasons of the year at Littlecote, Thruxton, and 
Morton, Isle of Wight ; and at the latter place, the sea- 
sons of the day also. 

The realms of Neptune with his Naiads, Nereids, Tri- 
tons, dolphins, and fishes, at Withington, Cirencester, 
Bramdean, Bignor, Frampton, Horkstow, Woodchester, 
and Littlecote. 

The enemies of Bacchus, as Lycurgus with his axe; Pen- 
theus, whose head is held up by Agave, the mother, who 
killed him ; and the head itself in another compartment, 
are all at Morton, Isle of Wight ; where also the angry 
Juno is depicted in her interview with Lycurgus ; and 
she appears also through her emblem, the peacock, at 
Wellow (near Bath), London, and Morton Farm, where 
also are depicted her winged messengers, or Iris, sent to 
proclaim war against Bacchus, unless their winged heads 
are meant for the four winds. 

Mercury is shewn five times at Frampton, and once at 

The episode of the black king Morrheus, and the Bas- 
saricl Chalcomedia, seems portrayed at Morton ; and a 
grandson of Cadmus, Action, son of his daughter Anto- 
noe, fills up the tragic catastrophe which overwhelmed 
the family of Cadmus, and is seen at Cirencester. 

The goddess Isis is only once drawn at Pitney, even if 
the figure should really be that divinity, who holds what 
looks like a sistrum, but may be something else. Sir 

1 " Armenias tigres, et fulvas ille leoenas 
Vicit et indomitis rnollia corda dedit." 

Tibullus, lib. iii, Elcg. vi. 


R. C. Hoare, Bart., calls it a book, and thinks she may be 
the keeper of accounts to a smelting establishment, to 
which he attributes the other figures, said by him to be 
scattering coin from a cylindrical vessel ; but which it 
seems to me is more likely corn, and the figures to be con- 
nected with the various myths of Bacchus, as at Morton. 
Thus we may conjecture the horned figure, No. 1, to be 
Bacchus, from his attributes ; No. 2, Ceres ; No. 3, Trip- 
tolemus; No. 4, female figure difficult to appropriate to 
any particular goddess ; No. 5, Staphylus with Phrygian 
cap; and No. 6, nymph whom he is teaching to dance; No.7, 
unknown figure; No. 8, perhaps Isis with sistrum. The 
animals at the corners, with cornucopias, may perhaps 
represent the four seasons. 

Cupid is represented at Bignor, and at Lincoln and 
Leicester, and riding on a dolphin at Cirencester. 

" Good Luck" is honoured at Woodchester. " Bonum 
eventum bene colite"; and as this divinity was worshipped 
at Borne, much more should it be so in Britain, where the 
climate renders agricultural results so uncertain. 

Beference is made to agriculture in the young man fight- 
ing the Hydra, by which was understood the swampy 
stream with many heads, which had to be drained or its 
channels turned. This is at Pitney; and at Woodchester 
is seen foliage issuing from the head of Pan, who is the 
personification of Nature, both of woods and plain country. 
A curious statue of him is figured in the Monurnenta Ve- 
tusta, vol. ii, p. 21, § 22. 

The occupations and amusements of men are shewn in 
hunting scenes, as the tree and animal at Alclborough ; 
three dogs at Cirencester ; animals at Pitney ; figure^ in 
cloak, standing by a stag, at Leicester ; an equestrian 
figure fighting a lion, at Frampton and Withington. 

There are gladiatorial combats and lanistce at Bignor 
and at Morton. The gladiators at Bignor are represented 
with wings, as well as the lanistce. It is possible this may 
mean they are the umbrcs, or ghosts, of an institution 
passed or passing away. 

The old gods (majoiiim gentium) are not so often drawn. 
Jupiter and Ganymede are seen only at Bignor ; Jupiter 
and Mars at Frampton; Mars, Venus, and Diana at Brani- 
dean; Apollo and his lyre at Littlecote and Bignor, unless 
the figure is meant for Orpheus 


At Bramdean also we have iEsculapius and Hercules 
and Antaeus, who thus only appear once, though it is quite 
possible that this figure with the lion-skin may be Bac- 
chus fighting the giant Rhoetus. 1 

The star is introduced into many of the pavements, ' 
astrology and astronomy being kindred sciences among 
the ancients. Many of the personages referred to in this 
paper were transferred as stars to the skies. The Greeks 
called a human being a " light"; and when it went out 
here, it shone forth in the sky above : 

" Micat inter omnes 
Julium sidus, vclut inter ignes 
Luna minores." 

The borders of the mosaics are not without their signi- 
ficance. The single, the braided, and double braided guil- 
loches are beautiful designs, with their blended colours 
which shew off to advantage the pictures of which they 
form the frames. The labyrinth-border is a combination 
of those emblems of fire which were used as such by the 
most primitive nations. The element of water is repre- 
sented by the spiral pattern well known to students of 
Greek art, and examples of which, as well as of the 
double-headed axe of Lycurgus, are seen on the pavement 
found on the site of the old India House, London. 2 The 
earth is represented by lilies and foliage in flowing de- 
signs, and birds personify the air which they inhabit. 

The Rev. S. M. Mayhew, who first brought a portion 
of the Morton pavement to the notice of the British 
Archaeological Association in the spring of 1880, pointed 
out at the time that the subjects then discovered were 
purely Bacchic. This is confirmed by the discoveries 
which followed. 

The best introduction to Romano-British pavements is 
a careful study of the magnificent examples of Roman 
pavements in the British Museum, where they are placed 
in the Graeco-Roman basement with annex. 3 They are 
chiefly from the discoveries at Carthage, 1856-8, and from 
Halicarnassus in 1856. For an account of the former, see 
Archceologia, xxxviii, pp. 202-30, by Augustus W. Franks, 

1 See Horace, CMc 19, lib. ii, 20-4. 2 Now in the British Museum. 
3 For a detailed notice of all of them, see Builder, 1882. 



F.S.A., and Carthxige and its Remains, by the excavator, 
Mr. N. Davis; and for the latter, Newton, History of Dis- 
coveries at Halicarnassus, vol. ii. There are also in the 
Roman Gallery on the ground floor, specimens of English 
m< isaics found atWithington, Woodchester, and in Thread- 
needle Street, in the Bank of England, and at Abbott's 
Ann, Hampshire. 




Gloucestershire : 

Lincolnshire : 

1. Woodchester 

22. "Winterton, near Horkstow 

2. Withington 

23. Lincoln 

3. Church Piece 

Yorkshire : 

4. Combe End 

24. Aldborough 

5. Hockby Field 

Essex : 

6. Ched worth 

25. Stan way 

7. Barton Farm 

26. Colchester 

8. Cirencester 


Somersetshire : 

27. The Mount, near Maidstone 

9. Pitney 

28. Canterbury 

Wiltshire : 

Middlesex : 

10. West Dean 

29. London, Bucklersbury, in the 

11. Littlecote 

Guildhall Museum 

12. Bromham 

30. Site of old East India House, in 

Shropsh ire : 

the British Museum 

13. Wroxeter 

Sussex : 

14. Lee, near Shrewsbury 

31. Bignor 

Oxfordshire : 

Dorsetshire : 

15. Stunsfield 

32. Frampton 

Leicestershire : 

33. Tarrant-Hinton 

16. Leicester 

Hants : 

Nottinghamsh ire : 

34. Itchen Abbas 

17. Mansfield-Woodhouse 

35. Thruxton 

Northamptonshire : 

36. Crondall 

18. Colterstock 

37. Bramdean 

19. liar pole 

38. Gurnard'a Bay, Isle of Wight 

20. Castor 

39. Carisbrook, ditto 

21. Nether-Heyford 

4U. Morton Farm, nr. Brading, ditto 


The Numbers refer to List No. I. 

Orpheus and animals 


Bacchus and panther 





Barton Farm 


Horkstow, near Winterton 


Littlecote, Wilts . 


Morton, Isle of Wight 






Thruxton . 






Bacchus, or perhaps Ariadne 



Bacchus and panther 



Bacchus and panther or leopard 



Cantharus, or double-handled cup 



i> n 11 



11 J) 5J 



)> )> >> 



11 11 )J 

Lee, near Shrewebury 


51 11 }> 

Itchen Abbas 


1> >1 11 



11 )) 11 • • 



Ilarmonia .... 

Morton, Isle of "Wight 


Four Seasons .... 

. Chedworth 

. 6 

n .... 

Morton, Isle of Wight 


,, .... 

. Cirencester 


j> .... 



j, . 

Thruxton . 


Same riding on animals 

Littlecote, Wilts . 


Seasons of the day 

Morton, Isle of Wight 


Neptune .... 



,, .... 



,, .... 



j, .... 



,, .... 



,, .... 



Nereus .... 

Morton, Isle of Wight 


Naiads, Nereids, Tritons, dolphins, and fish 



11 11 )) 31 



31 11 33 33 



11 11 11 11 

Horkstow, near Wintertor 

i 22 

11 11 11 11 



11 11 11 11 



11 11 11 11 



11 11 11 11 


. 1 

11 11 11 11 


. 2 

Lycurgus and Juno . 

Morton, Isle of Wight 


Ino, and Agave with head of Pentheus 

ii ii 


Head of Pentheus 

ii a 


Gorgon's Head 



n )> 



11 V 






Cupid . 


Leicester . 





Cupid on a dolphin 



Staphylus and nymph 



ii " . ' ' 



Morrheus and Chalcidsea 



Ceres and Triptolemus 



" . " .* 



Iris four times, or the four winds 



Peacock .... 

Wellow, near Bath 


ii .... 

Morton, Isle of Wight 


ii .... 

London and elsewhere 

Dancing figures 

Chedworth . , 


Foliage proceeding out of the mouth of Pan 



Bonus Eventus 





Acta?on .... 

Apollo and lyre, if this is not Orpheus 

11 11 '1 )! 

Gladiators with lanistce 

ii ii 

Chariot-races . 
Young man striking at Hydra 
Figure with cloak standing by a stag 
Equestrian figure fighting a lion 

Tree and animal 

Three dogs 


Venus and glass 


Jupiter and Ganymed 


Star . 

Undescribed figures 

Littlecote, Wilts 


Horkstow, near \\ 
Leicester . 











Lettered Inscriptions. 

. Woodchester 



. 24 



In another part : 



\- Frampton 

. 32 


V... O... 





(Read April 17, 1882.) 

When the Camden Roll was printed, in 1879, from the 
best of the then known copies, 1 no one (so far as I am 
aware) had any idea that the original still existed. Its 
recent discovery among the Cottonian Rolls in the British 
Museum, by W. de Gray Birch, Esq., F.S.A., Hon. Secre- 
tary of this Association, at whose request I have prepared 
the present paper, is a matter of great importance, the 
document being the earliest English example of a collec- 
tion of coat-armour in the strict sense of the term "Roll 
of Arms", Matthew Paris' collections taking the form of 
a book. 

The copy from which I printed in the pages of The 
Genealogist, now turns out to be the work of Richard 
Kimbey, apparently an assistant to the heralds of the 
day ; and, in addition to the version in trick in Vincent's 
Collections, which I mentioned in a final note, it has since 
transpired that at least one more copy exists at the Col- 
lege of Arms. These copies are useful, inasmuch as they 
were made when the designs and colouring on the face of 
the Roll were, doubtless, in a very different condition from 
what they are now. 

In two out of these three known copies it is expressly 
stated that the collection consisted of two hundred and 
fifty-three coats. It was difficult, therefore, to account 
for Vincent's version comprising, as it does, more than 
that number ; and I made a note to that effect when his 
version first came under my observation, at a time prior 
to Mr. Birch's discovery. These discrepancies are easily 
explained by the Roll itself. Heraldic students of those 
times usually copied one from the other ; and Kimbey, or 
some other who first set down the contents of the Roll, 

1 For knowledge of, and access to, the copies in the College of Arms, 
I have to express my obligation to my friend Mr. Alfred Scott Gatty, 
Rouge Dragon. 


evidently took cognizance only of such coats as had 
names attached, and went by the French blazon on the 
back ; assuming that it corresponded with the face of the 
document, whereas comparison shews differences. As a 
matter of fact there are on the face of the original Roll two 
hundred and seventy coats (forty-five rows of six shields 
each); but on the back the French blazon comprises one 
hundred and eighty-live coats only, answering to arms in 
the first portion of the collection. The document consists 
of three consecutive membranes of vellum ; in length, 
5 feet 3 inches ; and width, 6^ inches. 

The date of the writing upon the back (the series of 
entries of blazon being evidently unfinished), though of 
about the same time as that on the face, may be some- 
what later. One reason for thinking so is, that where the 
name of the King of Scotland, with the description of his 
arms, should be set down, a blank space is left. This in- 
dicates the date of the explanatory French blazon to be a 
period subsequent to the assertion of Edward's claim to 
suzerainty over Scotland, namely close upon a.d. 1286. 

Camden had this Roll in his possession in or about the 
year 1605, as appears from Kimbey's copy, which he de- 
scribes as " The coppy of an ould Role wherein these coates 
following were lymmed of the one syde, and in blason on 
the other syde, as here is sett downe ; whiche Role re- 
maines in the custody of Mr. Wm. Camden, Clarencieulx 
Kinge at Armes. Made by his coniecture in the tyme of 
King H. 3 or E. 1." The copy in Vincent's Collections has 
a title worded somewhat differently, as follows : "Anna 
que hie describuntur excerpta fuerunt ex Rotulo de per- 
gameno antiquissimo, in quo suis coloribus depingebantur. 
The blazon is also in French, wrytten on the backsyde of 
the same Roll; w oh Roll is in the handes of Mr. Wm. Cam- 
den, Clarentius K. of Armes, & is supposed by him to be 
made in K. H. 3." 

Here, it will be observed, Camden is said to have re- 
stricted the compilation to the reign of Henry III. Pro- 
bably he was disposed to consider the Roll earlier in date 
than it really is. On this point I drew attention, in The 
Genealogist, to two circumstances which tend to shew 
that any assignment of date must be confined to about 
seven years, 1278-85 : 

* 9 




^ Iri^E^ * '^ foflyh" 


1. Patrick de Chaworth, whose name and arms figure 
in the Roll, succeeded his brother Pain in the barony in 
1278, the arms of the latter not being given even retro- 
spectively, as those of some other barons apparently are, 
in cases where the successor's name has not been substi- 
tuted, or where issue has failed. 

2. The Roll includes both Roger Clifford, the father, 
and his son of the same Christian name. This could hardly 
have occurred after 1285, when the father died ; for his 
son had predeceased him, and Robert was the name of the 
son's child, the heir to the barony, aged only eleven. 

The arms of Geoffrey de Langley, recorded in this Roll, 
doubtless commemorate the person bearing that name, 
who was of much distinction in those times. When the 
European scare occasioned by the rapid and seemingly 
overwhelming immigration of the Tartar tribes into Cen- 
tral Asia had reached this country, Langley was selected 
by Edward to visit the Khan. Considerable portions of 
the daily accounts of money disbursed by him during the 
embassy yet exist in the Public Record Office. 1 In the 
accounts relating to the return journey mention is made 
of things brought home that were probably presents from 
the Khan : such as a silver vase, a lion (styled, as was 
usual at that date, " the leopard"), and an elephant. 
Another Roll of Arms of the same period ("The Segar") 
gives a representation of the armorial bearings then 
ascribed to the Tarter ruler. 

Kimbey erred in judgment when he rendered "Bealme" 
in his copy "Bedlme", explaining by a note that it meant 

In order that an accurate estimate of the contents of 
the Roll, as it at present exists, may be arrived at, I have 
thought best to print all that can now be discerned of 
the shields on the face, side by side with the Norman 
French blazon on the back. The entries in each column 
have been numbered separately throughout, to facilitate 
future reference both to the Roll and to this edition. 
Where no description of the arms is set down in the first 
column, it will be understood that the design on the shield 
is now totally effaced. 

1 Exchequer, Treasury of Receipt, Miscellanea, No. V. 




(1.) rim porte le escu de 

argent, a une croiz de or, cru- 

sele de or 
(2.) porte l'escu d'or, 

[a un e]gle de deus testes de 

(3.) [pjOrte argent et 

gules rampans en l'ar- 

gent, et deus toreles (?) en 

le goules 
(-4.) aun egle 

(1.) 1 

Shield. Face. 

1. Le Rey de IerTm (leva 



Emperur de Rome 



Rey de Espayne. Quar 
terly in 1 and 4, trace 
of lion rampant 



Emperur de Alam'(Ala 

Rey de France 



Rey de Aragon 

(7.) 2 


Rey de Engletere 



Rey de Cezile 




Rey de Escoce 
Rey de Nauarre 



Rey de Cypres 



Rey de Bealm[e] 

(13.) 3 


Rey de Griffonie 



Rey de Norweye 

(15.) 3. ReydeErmyne. Ermine, 

a cross passant gules 

(16.) 4. Rey de Deneniarch 

(17.) 5. Seynt Edeward 

(18.) 6. Rey de Man. Gules, three 

mailed legs embowed, 
and conjoined at the 
thighs, argent 


4 1. 

Due de Braban 



Due de Loreyne 



Due de Venise 



Due de Brusewic 











— l'escu de a- 

zur [fiorette] de [or] 
... de l'escu pale d'or et 

de goules 
Le Rey de Engletere, l'escu de 

goules, od treis leopars d'or 
Le Rey de Cezile, l'escu de azur, 

fiorette d'or, a uu label de gules 
[A space left blank] 
Le Rey de Nauare, l'escu parte 

de azur et de goules, od demy 

charbocle d'or, a une bende d'ar- 

gent, od deus cotices d'or 
) Le Rey de Cypre, l'escu de azur, 

od treis targes d'or 
) Le Rey de Bealme, l'escu de 

azur, od treis l>arges d'argent 
) Le Rey de Griffonie, l'escu de 

azur, od un griffun d'or 
) Le Rey de Norwey, l'escu de 

goules, a un leun rampant de 

or, od une hache d'argent 
) Le Rey de Ermenie, l'escu de er- 
mine a une croiz de goules, od 

une corone d'or 
) Le Rey de Denemarche, l'escu 

de goules, od treis haches d'or 
) Seynt Edward le Rey, l'escu de 

azur, od une croiz d'or, a quatre 

nierloz d'or 
) Le Rey de Man, l'escu de gules, 

a treis iambes armez 

(18.) Due de Breban, l'escu de sable, 

a un leun d'or 
(19.) Due de Loreyne, l'escu d'or, od 

une bende de gules,a treis egles 

(20.) Due de Uenise, l'escu de gules, 

od un chastel d'argent 
(21.) Due de Brusewic, l'escu d'or, od 

deus leuns passans de gules 



Row. Shield. Face. 

(23.) 4 5. Due de Lainburg 

(24.) G. Due de Beyuere 

(25.) 5 1. Cunte de Nicole. Quar- 
terly or and gules, a 
bend sable. Traces of 
the label 

(26.) 2. Sire Aunfour 

(27.) 3. Cunte de Gloucestre 

(28.) 4. Prince de Gales. Quar- 

terly or and gules. 
The charges have dis- 

(29.) 5. Cunte de Hereford 

(30.) 6. Cunte de Oxenefo[rd]. 

Quarterly gules and or 
(the mullet has dis- 

(31.) 6 1. Cunte de Bloys. Gules, 
three pales (traces of 
vair), and a chief ... 

(32.) 2. Cunte dePuntif. Bendy 

... and or, within a 
bordure gules 

(33.) 3. Cunte de Seynt Pol. 

Gules, three pales 
(traces of vair), a chief 
..., and label of five 
pendants ... 

(34.) 4. Cunte de Cornwaile. Ar- 

gent, a lion rampant 
gules, within a bor- 
dure sable charged 
eleven roundles ... 

(35.) 5. Cunte de Flaundres 

(36.) 6. Cunte de Richemund. 

Bordure gules, and 
over all a canton er- 
mine, remaining 

(37.) 7 1. Cunte de Wareyne 

(38.) 2. Will' de Sey. Quarterly 

... and ... 
(39.) 3. Thorn' de Clare. Traces 

of the chevrons and a 

label of five pendants 
(40.) 4. Will'deVescy. Traces of 

a cross passant sable 

(22 ) Due de Lamburg, l'escu d'argeut, 

a un leun rampant de goules od 

la couwe furche 
(23.) Due de Beyuere, l'escu burelce 

de azur et de argent, a une 

bende de goules 
(24.) Cunte de Nichole, l'escu esquar- 

tele d'or et de goules, od une 

bende de sable, a uu label d'ar- 
(25.) Sire Aunfour porte les armes le 

rey de Engletere a un label de 

(26.) Cunte de Glocestre, l'escu d'or, 

od treis cheueruns de gules 
(27.) Prince de Gales, l'escu esquartele 

d'or et de gules, a quatre lepars 

del un eu l'autre 

(28.) Le Cunte de Hereford, l'escu de 
azur, od sis leuncels d'or, a une 
bende d'argent, od deus cotices 

(29.) Cunte de Oxeneford, l'escu es- 
quartele d'or et de gules, a une 
molette d'or 

(30.) Cunte de Blois, l'escu pale de 
veir et de gules, od le chef d'or 

(31.) Cunte de Puntif, l'escu bende 
d'or et de azur, od la bordure 
de gules 

(32.) Cunte de Seynt Pol, l'escu pale 
de veir et de gules, od le chef 
de or, a uu label de azur 

(33.) Cunte de Cornwaile, l'escu d'ar- 
geut, od la bordure de sable be- 
sante d'or, a un leun rampant 
de goules, corone d'or 

(34.) Cunte de Flandres, l'escu d'or, a 
un leun rampant de sable 

(35.) Cunte de Richemund, l'escu es- 
checkere d'or et de azur, od le 
quarter d'ermine, od la bordure 
de gules 

(36.) Cunte de Wareyne, l'escu es- 
checkere d'or et de azur 

(37.) Munsire Will' de Sey, l'escu es- 
quartele d'or et de gules 

(3S.) Munsire Thorn' de Clare, l'escu 
d'or,od treis cheueruns de gules, 
a un label de azur 

(39.) Munsire Johan de Vescy, l'escu 
d'or, od une croiz de sable 



Row. Shield. Face. 

(41.) 7 5. Otes de Oransun. Paly 
of six azure and ..., 
with traces of the bend 









6. Johan de Vescy. Traces 
of across passant sable 


(43.) 8 1. Gerard del Ildle 

2. Sire de Botresham. 

Traces of the three 
lozenges,and on a chief 
gules three pales ... 

3. Sire de Waudripun 

4. Sire de Hundescote. Er- 

mine, a bordure gules 

5. Sire de Viane 

6. [No name.] Traces of 
three (1) mullets of six 
points gules 
9 1. Cunte de Gelre 

2. Aunsel de Guyse. Gules; 

traces of three pales 
vair and the canton 

3. Sire de Louayne 

4. Will' Paynferer. Argent, 
three fleurs-de-lis sa- 

(53.) 5. Will'deBetune. Argent, 

a fess gules, and in 
the dexter chief a lion 
passant 1 sable 

(54.) G. Sire de Ramerne. Traces 

of a lion rampant sa- 

(55.) 10 1. Henr' de Penebruge 

(5G.) 2. Prince de la Morree. 

Traces of three chev- 

(57.) 3. Sire ou de Narde 

(58.) 4. Sire de Asche. Argent, 

a fess azure, and over 
all a saltire gules 

(59.) 5. Louwis Bertout. Gules, 

three pales ... 


(40.) Munsire Otes de Cransun, l'escu 
pale de azur et de argent, od une 
bende de gules, a les escalops 

(41.) Munsire Will' de Vescy, l'escu 
d'or, od une croiz de sable, a un 
label de gules 

(42.) Munsire Gerard de Ildle, l'escu 
de gules, od un leopard de ar- 
gent, corone d'or 

(43 ) Sire de Botresham, l'escu d'or, 
od treis losenges perce de azur, 
od le chef pale de argent et de 

(44.) Sire de Waudripun, l'escu d'or, 
a deus leuns rampans de gules 
dos a dos 

(45.) Sire de Hundescote, l'escu de er- 
mine, od la bordure de gules 

(46.) Sire de Viane, l'escu de or, a un 
leun rampant de gules, bilettee 
de gules 

(47.) Cunte de Gelre, l'escu de azur, a 

un leun rampant d'or, bilettee 

(48.) Munsire Aunsel de Guyse, l'escu 

pale de veir et de goules, od le 

quarter d'or 
(49.) Sire de Louayne, l'escu de sable, 

a un leun rampant de argent, 

corone d'or 
(50.) Munsire Will' Peynferer, l'escu 

d'argent, od treis flurs de gla- 

gel de sable 
(51.) Munsire Will' de Betune, l'escu 

d'argent, od vne fesse de gules, 

a un leun passant de sable 

(52.) Sire de Ramerne, l'escu d'argent, 

a un leun rampant de sable, od 

une bende de gules 
(53.) Henr' de Penebrugge, l'escu 

barre d'or et de azur 
(54.) Prince de la Morree, l'escu d'or, 

od vn fer de molyn de sable 

(55.) Sire de Oudenarde, l'escu barre 

d'or et de gules 
(56.) Sire de Asche, l'escu de argent, 

od une fesse de azur, a un sau- 

tur de gules 
(57.) Munsire Louwis Bertout, l'escu 

pale d'argent et de gules 

1 In the Ilarlcian MS. 6137 the lion is tricked, in error, passant regardant. 



Row. Shield. Face. 

(60.) 10 6. Sire de Beyucrc. Traces 
of bars azure, and over 
all a saltire gules 

(01.) 11 1. Sire de Gaure 



Tebaud de Verdun 



Will' Marmiun. Va 
fess gules 



Peres Corbet 



Johan Giffard 



Johan de Cantelo 

(07.) 12 


Robert de Munteny 



Robert de Quency 



Johan de Eyuile 

(70.) 4. Robert Typotot. Argent, 

a saltire engrailed 

(71.) 5. Cunte de Guynes. Vairy 

... and ... 

(72 ) 6. Sire de Antoyne 

(73.) 13 1. [No name.] 

(74.) 2. Johan le Estrange 



1 1. 

3. Ernaud de Guynes. 

Traces of vairy within 
a bordure gules 

4. Henri de Basores. Gules, 

three pales vair, and 
on a chief or a demi- 
fleur-de-lis sable issu- 

5. Will' de Rodes. Traces 

of field azure and bas- 
ton gules 

6. Johan le Bretun. Quar- 

terly and gules 

within a bordure...... 

1. Henri de Percy 


(58.) Sire de Beyuere, l'escu burele de 
azur etde argent, od un sautur 
de gules 

(59.) Sire de Gaure, l'escu de gules, a 
treis leuns rampans d'argent 
corone d'or 

(60.) MunsireTebautde Verdun, l'escu 
d'or, frette de gules 

(61.) Munsire Will' Marmiun, l'escu 
verre de azur et d'argent, a une 
fesse de gules 

(02.) Munsire Peres Corbet, l'escu d'or, 
a deus corbyns de sable 

(03.) Munsire Johan Giffard, l'escu de 
gules, a treis leuns passans de 

(64.) Munsire Johan de Cantelo, l'escu 
de azur, od treis flurs de glagel 

(65.) Munsire Robert de Munteny, l'es- 
cu de azur, a une bende d'ar- 
gent, od sis esmerloz d'or 

(66.) Munsire Robert de Quency, l'es- 
cu de gules, od une quintefoille 

(67.) Munsire Johan de Eyuile, l'escu 
d'or, od une fesse de gules, od 
le fleurs de glagel del un en 

(68.) Munsire Robert Typotot, l'escu 
d'argent, a un sautour engrasle 
de gules 

(09.) Cunte de Guynes, l'escu verre 
d'or et de azur 

(70.) Sire de Antoyne, l'escu de gules, 
od leun rampant d'or, bilette 

(71.) Munsire Johan Lestrange, l'escu 
d'argent, od deus leuns passans 
de gules 

(72.) Munsire Ernaud de Guynes, l'es- 
cu verre d'or et de azur, od la 
bordure de gules 

(73.) Munsire Henri de Basores, l'escu 
pasle de veir et de gules od le- 
chef d'or, od demy flur de gla- 
g[el] de sable 

(74.) Munsire Will' de Rodes, l'escu 
de azur, od un leun rampant 
d'or, a une bende de gules 

(75.) Munsire Johan le Bretun, l'escu 
esijuartele d'or et de gules, od 
la bordure de azur 

(76.) Munsire Henri de Percy, l'escu 
de azur, od une fesse d'or en- 




Row. Shield. Face. 

(80.) 14 2. Johan de Gaure 




3. Johan de la Hay. Ar- 

gent, an estoile of thir- 
teen points gules 

4. Elmari de Lucy 

5. Sire de Dist 

C. [No name.] Argent (?), 
three lions passant in 
pale [sable ?] 
(85.) 15 1. Roger de Clifford. Traces 
of a fess gules 





2. Johan Giffard. Traces 

of three lions passant 1 

3. Gefrey de Picheford. 

Traces of a fess gules 
charged with three 
lions rampant 

4. Cunte de Chalun 

5. Rohert le fiz Roger. 

Quarterly... and gules 

6. Robert de Offord 

(91.) 1G 1. [No name] Gules, a sal- 
tire engrailed argent 
(traces of the metal) 

(92.) 2. [No name.] 

(93.) 3. Roger de Clifford le fiz. 

Chequy ... and ..., on 
a fess gules three 
pierced cinquefoils ar- 
gent (traces of the 

(94.) 4. Rey de Hungrie. Gules, 

a lion rampant ... 

(95.) 5 Robert le fiz Walter 

(90.) 6. Hue Turberuile 

(97 ) 17 1. [No name.] 

(98 ) 2. Ditto. Argent (?), a cross 

passant sable 
(99.) 3. [No name.] 

(100.) 4. Ditto. Gules, a cross 

passant ... 

(77.) Munsire Johan de Gaure, l'escu 

d'or, a un leun rampant de 

gules, corone de vert, od la bor- 

dure de sable endentee 
(78.) Munsire Johan du la Baye,Pescu 

d'argent, od un ray de solail de 

(79.) Munsire Almari de Lucy, l'escu 

de azur, od treis luz d'or, cru- 

sile d'or 
(80.) Sire de Dist, l'escu d'or, a deus 

barres de sable 

II.) Munsire Roger de Clifford, le 
pere, l'escu escheckere d'or et 
de azur, a une fesse de gules 

(82.) Munsire Gefrey de Picheford, 
l'escu escheckered'oretdeazur, 
a une fesse de gules, a treis 
leunceus d'argent rampant 

(83.) Cunte de Chalun, l'escu d'or, a 
une bende de gules 

(84.) Munsire Robert le fiz Roger, l'es- 
cu esquartele d'or et de gules, 
a une bende de sable 

(85.) Munsire Robert de Offord, l'escu 
de sable, a une croiz engrasle 

(86.) Munsire Roger de Clifford, le fiz, 
l'escu escheckere d'or et de 
azur, a une fesse de gules, od 
treis roses d'argent 

(87.) Rey de Hungrie, l'escu de gules, 
a un leun rampant d'or 

(88.) Munsire Robert le fiz Walter, 
l'escu d'or, od une fesse de 
gules, a deus cheueruns de 

(89.) Munsire Hue Turberuile, l'escu 
d'argent, a un leun rampant de 

1 Vincent's version has, in trick, argent, three lions passant gules. 



■Row. Shield. 
(ldl.) 17 5. . 


la Souche 

Dm' c 


(103.) 18 




(109.) 19 





(115.) 20 1. 


6. CuntedeCessun. Traces 
of bordure gules 

1. [No name.] The field 

appears to have been 

2. [No naine.] 

3. Aleyn la Zouche. Gules, 

semee of 11 roundles, 
3, 2, 3, 2, and 1, ... 

4. Johan Treeoz 

5. Jorge deCantelo. Gules, 

three fleurs-de-lis ... 

6. [No name.] 

1. Baudewyn Wake 

2. Will'deAudelee. Gules, 

frettee ... 

3. Roger de Mortimer. Bar- 

ry of six ... and ..., on 
a chief ... two pales 
...between twogyrons 
...,and overall an in- 
escutcheon ... 

4. Robert del Ildle 

Geffrey de Lucy. Gules, 
crusilly and three lu- 
cies hauriant...2 and 1 

Nich' de Seygraue. 
Field sable; traces of 
the three garbs 

Cunte de Warewic. 
Traces of field gules, 
the fess and crusilly 

Roger de Leyburne 

(117.) 3. Cunte deAnegos. Gules, 

crusilly fitchy and a 
pierced cinquefoil ... 

(118.) 4. Peres de Munfort 

(119.) 5. Johan de Seynt Johan. 

Argent, on a chief 
gules, two mullets of 
six points ... 

(120.) 6. Roger de Trumpynton' 

(90.) Munsire Will' la Zouche, l'escu 

de azur, besante d'or 
(91.) Cunte de Cessun, l'escu de gules, 

a uu escuchun d'or, od uu leun 

passant de gules 

(92.) Munsire Aleyn la Zouche, l'escu 
de gules, besante d'or 

(93.) Munsire Johan Tregoz, l'escu 

d'or, od deus listes de gules, a 

un leopard de gules 
(94.) Munsire Jorge de Kantelo, l'escu 

de gules, a treis flours de glagel 


(95.) Munsire Baudewyn Wake, l'escu 
d'or, a deus barres de gules, od 
treis pelotes de gules 

(96.) Munsire Will'deAudelee, l'escu 
de gules, frette d'or 

(97.) Munsire Roger de Mortimer, l'es- 
cu pale, barre et geroune d'or 
et de azur, od un escuchun d'ar- 

(98.) Munsire Robert de Ildle, l'escu 
d'or, a une fesse de sable, od 
deus cheueruns de gules 
(99.) Munsire Gefrey de Lucy, l'escu 
de gules, od treis luz d'or, cru- 
sile d'or 
(100.) Munsire Nicholas de Seygraue, 
l'escu de sable, od treis garbes 
de aueyne d'argent 
(101.) Cunte de Warewic, l'escu de 
gules, od une fesse d'or, crusile 

(102.) Munsire Roger de Leyburne, l'es- 

cud'or,od sis leuncels rampans 

de sable 
(103.) Cunte de Anegos, l'escu de gules, 

od une quintefoile d'or, crusile 

(104.) Peres de Munfort, l'escu bende 

d'or et de azur 
(105.) Munsire Johan de Seynt Johan, 

l'escu d'argent, od le chef de 

gules, od deus molettes d'or 

(106 ) Munsire Roger de Trumpynton', 
l'escu de azur, od deus trumpes 
d'or, crusile d'or 



Row. Shield. Face. 

(121.) 21 1. Will' de Leyburn' 






2. Robert Agilun. Gules, 

a fleur-de-lis argent 
(traces of the metal) 

3. Johan de Armenters 

•4. Steuen' de Penecestre. 
Gules, a cross passant 
argent (traces of the 

5. Phelip Marmiun. Field, 

sable ; truces of the 
sword in pale, point 

6. Johan deCameys. Gules, 

three roundles argent 
(traces of the metal) 

1. Johan de Vaus. Chequy 

argent (traces of the 
metal) and gules 

2. Aleyn de Plokenet. Er- 

mine, a bend engrailed 

3. Rauf Basset. Gules, 

three pales or, and a 
canton ermine 

4. Hue le fiz Otes 

(131.) 5. Will' de Munchensy 

(132.) 6. Reynaudde Grey. Traces 

of the barry and a la- 
bel of five pendants 

(133.) 23 1. Cunte de Wyncestre. 
Gules, mascally ... 

(134.) 2. Cunte del Ildle 

(135.) 3. Reynaud le fiz Pers. 

Gules, three lions ram- 
pant ... 

(136.) 4. WarindeBassingburne. 

Traces of gyronny of 
eight pieces 

(137.) 5. Sym'deMunfort. Gules, 

a lion rampant with 
two tails argent 
(traces of the metal) 

(138.) 6. Phelipe Basset. Traces 

of the barry undee 

(139.) 21 1. Henri de Hastinge. Or, 
amaunch issuantfrom 
sinister chief gules 

(107.) Munsire Will' de Leyburne, 

l'escu de azur, od sis leuncels 

ram pans d'argent 
(108.) Munsire Robert Agilun, l'escu 

de gules, a une liur de ^lagel 

(109.) Munsire Johan de Armenters, 

l'escu escheckere dor et de 

azur, od un leun rampant de 

(110.) Munsire Esteuene de Fene- 

cestre, l'escu de gul[es], a une 

croiz d'argent 

(111.) Munsire Phelip Marmiun, l'escu 
de sable, od une espee d'argent 

(112.) Munsire Johan de Cameys, l'es- 
cu de gules, od treis gastels 

(113.) Munsire Johan de Vals, l'escu 
escheckere de argent et de 

(114.) Munsire Aleyn de Plokenet, 
l'escu de ermine, a une bende 
engrasle de gules 

(115.) Munsire Rauf Basset, de Dray- 
ton', l'escu paled'oret de gules, 
od le quarter d'ermine 

(116.) Munsire Hue le fiz Otes, l'escu 
bende d'or et de azur, od le 
quarter d'ermine 

(117.) Munsire Will' de Munchensy, 
l'escu d'or, od treis escuchuns 
verrez de azur et de argent 

(118.) Munsire Reynaud de Grey, l'es- 
cu barre de azur et de argent, 
a un label de gules 

(119.) Cunte de Wyncestre, l'escu de 
gules, odleslosenges d'or perces 

(120.) Cunte del Ildle, l'escu d'or, aun 
leun rampant de azur 

(121.) Munsire Reynaud le fiz Peres, 
l'escu de gules, od treis leuns 
rampans d'or 

(122) Munsire Warin de Bassinge- 
burne, l'escu geroune d'or et 
de azur 

(123.) Munsire Symun de Munford, 
l'escu de gules, a un leun ram- 
pant d'argent, od la cue furche 

(124.) Munsire Phelipe Basset, l'escu 
undee d'or et de gules 

(125.) Munsire Henri de Hastinge, 
l'escu d'or, od une manche de 



Row. Shield. Face. 

(140.) 24 2. Johan de Burgh. Lo- 
zengy gules and ar- 
gent (traces of the me- 
tal), the azure of the 
vair having disap- 

3. Robert de Creuker. Or, 
a cross passant gules, 
voided of the field 

4. Cunte de AubemaiT. 
Gules, a cross patonce 

5. Robert de Brus. Or, a 
saltire gules, and in 
sinister point of a 
chief of the second, a 
mulletof six points ... 

6. Alex'de Baylol'. Gules, 
an orle argent (traces 
of the metal) 

1. Hue le Despencer. Quar- 
terly or and gules, in 
the second and third 
quarters frettee of 
the first. The baston 
has disappeared. 

2. Will' de Valence. Ar- 
gent, four bars (traces 
of the azure), an orle 
of martlets gules 

3. Johan del Boys. Argent, 
two bars and a canton 

4. Will'deBreouse. Traces 
of field azure and lion 

5. Patric de Chawurht. 
Barry of twelve ar- 
gent and gules, an 
orle of ten (?) martlets, 
3, 2, 2. 2, and 1, sable 

6. Ric' le fiz Johan. Quar- 
terly and gules 

within a bordure vair 



(145.) 25 



(151.) 26 



1. Adam de Creting'. Ar- 

gent, a chevron be- 
tween three pierced 
mullets of six points 

2. Cunte de Fereres. Vai- 

ry or and gules 

3. Hue Sanz Aueir 

Giles de Argentun. 
Gules, three covered 
cups argent (remains 
of the metal) 


(126.) Munsire Johan de Burg, l'cscu 
rnascle de veir et de gules 

(127.) Munsire Robert de Creuer|uer, 

l'escu d'or, od une croiz perce 

de gules 
(128.) Cunte de Aubemarle, l'escu de 

gules, od une croiz patee verre 

de azur et d'argent 
(129.) Munsire Robert de Brus, l'escu 

d'or, od le chef de gules, a un 

sautur de gules, od une molette 


(130.) Munsire Alisander de Bailol, 
l'escu de gules, a un escuchun 
d'argent perce 

(131.) Munsire Hue le Despenser, l'es- 
cu esquartele d'argent et de 
gules frette d'or, a une bende 
de sable 

(132.) Munsire Will'de Valence, l'escu 
burele de azur et de argent, od 
les rnerloz de gules 

(133.) Munsire Johan del Boys, l'escu 
d'argent, od deu[s] barres de 
gules, od le quarter de gules 

(134.) Munsire Will'deBreouse, l'escu 
de azur, od un leun rampant 
de or, crusile d'or 

(135.) Munsire Patrik de Chawurth', 
l'escu burele d'argent et de 
gules, od les rnerloz de sable 

(136.) Munsire Richart le fiz Johan, 
l'escu esquartele d'or et de 
gules, od la bordure uerre d'a- 
zur et d'argent 

(137.) Munsire Adam de Cretinge, l'es- 
cu de argent, a un cheuerun de 
gules, od treis molettes de gules 

(138.) Cunte de Ferers, l'escu verre 

d'or et de gules 
(139.) Munsire Hue Sanz Aueir, l'escu 

de azur,od treis cressantes d'or, 

crusile d'or 
(140.) Munsire Giles de Argentun, 

Pescu de gules, a treis cupes 




Row. Shield. Face. 

(155.) 26 5. Will' de Echingham 

(156.) 6. Gilbert Pecche. Ar- 

gent, a fess between 
two chevrons gules 

(157.) 27 1. Guy de Kocheford. Quar- 
terly or and gules. 
Traces of the label 

(158.) 2. [No name.] Gules, cru- 

silly fi tehee and a lion 
rampant argent (re- 
mains of that metal) 

(159.) 3. [No name.] Traces of 

vairy, pales gules, and 
a canton (?) 

(ICO.) 4. Barth' de Sulee. Or, 

two bars gules 

(161.) 5. Robert de Mortimer. 

Gules, two bars ... 

(162.) 6. Dauy de Jarkanuile 

(163.) 28 1. Will'deFereres. Traces 
of vairy or and gules, 
on a bordure sable 
nine horseshoes ar- 

(164.) 2. Nich'Malemeyns.Gules, 

three dexter hands ar- 
gent (remains of the 

(165.) 3. Robert de Munford. 

Bendy of six ... and 
...,alabelof fivepend- 
ants ... 

(16G.) 4. Will' Bardouf 

(167.) 5. Johan de Sandwiz. 

Traces of a chief in- 
dented dancettee 

(16S.) G. Gefrei de Langel'. Ar- 

gent, a fess and in 
chief three escallops 

(169.) 29 1. Will' de Orlauston'. Or, 
two chevrons gules, 
and on canton of the 
second a lion ram- 
pant ... 

(17m.) 2. Robert de la Warde. 

Vairy argent and sable 

(171.) 3. Nich' de Haulo. Or, 

two chevrons gules, 
and on a canton of the 
second a crescent ar- 
gent (remains of the 

(141.) Munsire Will' de Echingham, 

l'escu de azur, frette d'argent 
(142.) Munsire Gilbert Pecche, l'escu 

d'argent, a une fesse de gules, 

od deus cheueruns de gules 
(143.) Munsire Guy de Kocheford, l'es- 

cu esquartele d'or et de gules, 

a un label d'azur 

(144.) Munsire Barthol'de Sulee, l'es- 
cu d'or, a deus barres de gules 

(145.) Munsire Robert de Mortimer, 
l'escu de gules, a deus barres 
uerres d'azur et d'argent 

(146.) Munsire Dauy de Jerkanuile, 
l'escu esquartele d'or et d'azur, 
a un leuncel rampant de gules 

(147.) Munsire Will' de Ferers, l'escu 
verre d'or et de gules, od la 
bordure de sable, od les fers 

(148.) Munsire Nich' Malemeyns, l'es- 
cu de gules, a treis meyns d'ar- 

(149.) Munsire Robert de Munford, 
l'escu bende d'or et d'azur, a 
un label de gules 

(150.) Munsire Will' Bardouf, l'escu 
d'azur, a treis quintefoiles d'or 

(151.) Munsire Johan de Sandwis, l'es- 
cu d'or, od les endente d'azur 

(152.) Munsire de Langel', l'escu d'ar- 
gent, od une fesse de sable, a 
treis escalops de sable 

(153.) Munsire Will' de Orlauston', 
l'escu d'or, a deus cheueruns 
de gules, od le quarter de gules, 
a un leuncel rampant d'argent 

(154.) Munsire Robert de la Warde, 
l'escu verre d'argent etde sable 

(155.) Munsire Nich' de Haulo, l'escu 
d'or, a deus cheueruns de 
gules, od le quarter de gules, 
a une cressante d'argent 



Row. Shield. Face. 

(172.) 29 4. Gcfrei de Geneuile 
..., on a chief ermine 
a deini-lion rampant 
gules issuant 


5. Rio' Syward. Sable, a 
cross iiory argent 

6. Roger do Leukenore. 

Traces of the three 

(175.) 30 1. Ric'deGrey. Traces of 

the harry 
(176.) 2. Walran de Munsels. 

Argent, a bend sable 


3. Will' Grandin 

4. Cunte de Assele. Sable, 
three pales ... 

5. Cunte de Karrike. Sa- 
ble, three pierced cin- 
quefoils ... 

(180.) 6. Walter le fiz Hunfre[y]. 

Quarterly argent and 

(181.) 31 1. Cunte deJungi. Gules, 
an eagle displayed ar- 
gent (remains of the 
2. Will' Chamberleng 


3. Johan Comyn. Gules, 

three garbs or 

4. Sire de Brussele. Or, a 

saltire gules 

5. [No name.] Argent (?), 

frettee gules 

6. Nich' de Kuggeho 

(187.) 32 1. Robert de Muscegros 



2. Moris deBerkele. Gules, 
a chevron argent 

3. Guncelyn de Batele- 
mere (sic). Argent, a 
fess between two bars 
gemelles gules 
(190.) 4. Rauf de Seint Leger' 

(191.) 5. Johan Louel 

(192.) 6. Rauf de Normanuir. 

Gules, a fess between 


(156.) Munsire Gefrey de Geneuile. 
l'escu de azur, od treis bayes 
(? read " brayes") d'or, od le 
chef de ermine, a uu leun re- 
coupe de gules 

(157.) Munsire Richart Syuward, l'es- 
cu de sable, od une croiz d'ar- 
gent florette 

(158.) Munsire Roger de Leukenore, 
l'escu de azur, od treis cheue- 
runs d'argent, a un label d'or 

(159.) Munsire de Grey, l'escu barre 
d'azur et d'argent 

(160.) Munsire Walran de Muncels, 
l'escu d'argent, od une bende 
de sable 

(161.) Munsire Will' Grandyn, l'escu 
d'azur, od treis molettes d'or 

(162.) Cunte de Assele, l'escu pale d'or 
et de sable 

(163.) Cunte de Karrik, l'escu de sable, 
od treis quintefoiles d'or 

(164.) Munsire Walter le fiz llunfrey, 
l'escu esquartele d'argent et de 

(165.) Cunte de Jungi, l'escu de gules, 
a un egle d'argent, corone d'or 

(166.) Munsire Will' le Chamberleng, 
l'escu de azur,od treis clefs d'or 

(167.) Munsire Johan Comyn, l'escu 
de gules, a treis garbes d'or 

(168) Sire de Brussele, l'escu d'or, a 
un sautur de gules 

(169.) Munsire Nichol' de Kuggeho, 
l'escu de gules,a une fesse d'ar- 
gent, od treis losenges d'argent 

(170.) Munsire Robert de Muscegros, 
l'escu d'or, a un leun rampant 
de gules 

(171.) Munsire Moris de Berkel', l'escu 
de gules, a un cheuerun d'ar- 
gent _ 

(172.) Munsire Guncelyn de Bateles- 
mere, l'escu d'argent, od une 
fesse de gules, a deus listes de 

(173.) Munsire Rauf de Seynt Leger', 
l'escu d'azur, frette d'argent, 
od le chef d'or 

(174.) Munsire Johan Louel, l'escu un- 
dee d'or et de gules, a un label 
de azur 

(175.) Munsire Rauf de Normanuil', 
l'escu de gules, a uue fesse 



Row. Shield. Face. 

two bars gemelles ar- 
(193.) 33 1. Godefrei de Brabant. 
Traces of field sable 
and lion rampant 



Will' de Flandres 




James de Trumpinton'. 
Gules, crusilly fitcby, 
and two trumpets in 
pile or 

Moriz le fiz Geroud. Ar- 
gent, a saltire gules 



Robert de Ros. Gules, 
three water-bougets 



argent (remains of 
the metal) 
Henri Tregoz 

(199.) 34 


Pvobert de Cokefeud. 
Gules,afleur-de-lis er- 
mine (remains of the 
metal argent) 

Will' Heringaud 



Will'de Heuere. Gules, 

d'argent, od deus listes d'ar- 

(176.) Munsire Godefrey de Breban, 
l'escu de sable, a un leun ram- 
pant d'or, od une bende de 

(177.) Munsire Will' de Flandres, l'es- 
cu d'or, a un leun rampant de 
sable, od une bende de gules 

(178.) Munsire James de Truinpyn- 
ton', l'escu de gules, a deus 
trumpes d'or, crusile d'or 

(179.) Munsire Moris le fiz Geroud, 

l'escu de argent, a un sautur 

de gules 
(ISO.) Munsire Robert de Ros, l'escu 

de gules, a treis bussels d'ar- 


(181.) Munsire Henri Tregoz, l'escu 

d'azur, od deus lystes d'or, a 

un leun passant d'or 
(182.) Munsire Robert de Cokefeud, 

l'escu de gules, a une fleur de 

glagel d'ermine 

(183.) Munsire Will' Heringaud, l'escu 

de azur, od sis harangs d'or, 

crusile d'or 
(184.) Munsire Will' de Heuere, l'escu 

de gules, od une croiz d'argent, 

a un label d'azur 

(185.) Munsire Will' de Valoynes, l'es- 
cu undee de lung d'argent et 
de gules 

Gules, frettee ermine (remains of the 

a cross passant argent 
(remains of the metal), 
and label of five pen- 
dants ... 

(202.) 4. Will' de Valoynes. Ar- 

gent, three pales wavy 

(203.) 5. Robert de Seuans. 1 

(204.) 6. Werreis de Valoynes. 

metal argent). 

(205.) 35 1 . Will' de Detlinge. Sable, traces of the six lions rampant. 2 

(206.) 2. Ric' le Waleys. Gules, a fess ermine. 

(207.) 3. Sire de Breda. Sable, a lion rampant argent, and label of five 

pendants gules. 3 

(208.) 4. Sire de Fenes. Argent, a lion rampant sable. 4 

(209.) 5. Rauf de Batelesmere. Ermine, a fess between two bars gemelles 


(210.) 6. Henri de Breban. Sable, traces of a lion rampant (? with two 

tails). 5 

(211.) 36 1. Johau de Munceus. Gules, a maunch issuant from the sinister 
chief ... 6 

1 Azure, three corn-fans or. (Harl. MS. 6137.) 

2 Sable, six lions rampant argent. (lb-) 

3 The lion charged on the shoulder with an annulet gules. 

4 The lion tricked, in error, as rampant regardant. (lb.) 
* Sable, a lion rampant argent. (lb.) 6 Gules, a maunch or. (lb.) 



■Rovr. Shield. 
(212.) 36 2. Nich' do la Ilese. Argent, three men's hose, 2 and 1, gules. 
(213.) 3. Will' de Hastings. Argent, traces of fess azure between three 

lozenges ... l 
(214.) 4. Cunte del Ildle. Traces of or (?), a lion rampant azure. 2 

(215.) 5. Barth' de Briancun. Gyronny often pieces ... and ... 3 

(216.) 6. Robert de Bctune. 4 

(217.) 37 1. Will' de Northie. Quarterly ... and ../• 
(218.) 2. Boges de Kuouile. Gules, three mullets of six points or, a label 

of five pendants azure. 6 
(219.) 3. Cunte de Cestre. 7 

(220.) 4. Johan de Kepiughal'. Sable, two bars and in chief three roundlcs 

(221.) 5. Cunte de Salesbire. 8 

(222.) 0. Robert de Munteny. Traces of the bend. 9 

(223.) 38 1. Roger de Scirlande. Traces of field azure, a canton ermine. 10 
(224.) 2. Gerard de Giable. Sable, on a chief argent a lion passant gules. 

(225.) 3. Hamuli de Gatton', Chequy ... and ... u 

(226.) 4. Sire de Saschant. Sable, on a chief argent a demi fleur-de-lis 

gules issuant. 
(227.) 5. Johan de Horbire. Argent, a bend gules, and over all three 

bars azure. 
(228.) 6. Roger de Munhaut. Traces of field azure. 12 

(229.) 39 1. Cunte de Prouence. Paly of eight or and gules. 
(230.) 2. Sire Ernold de Guinea. Traces of field vairy. 13 

(231.) 3. Chastelein de Louain. Bendy of six, gules and or. 

(232.) 4. Will' de Basoges. Gules, three pales argent (? traces of vair), 

and a chief ..., on which traces of a lion passant (1 gules). 14 
(233.) 5. Bertout de Bredan. Gules, three pales or (?), and a canton ... 15 

(234.) 6. Will' de Guynes. Traces of vairy, a bordure gules charged with 

eight roundles or. 16 
(235.) 40 1. Johan de Guynes. Traces of field vairy. 17 
(236.) 2. Cunte de Bar'. 18 

(237.) 3. Wiot de Guynes. Traces of field vairy, a canton ermine. 19 

(238.) 4. Cunte Patrik. Gules, a lion rampant or (?), and a bordure ar- 

gent charged with eight pierced cinquefoils of the first. 20 

1 Argent, a fess between three lozenges azure. (Harl. MS. 6137.) 

2 Or, a lion rampant azure. (lb.) 

3 Gyronny of eight pieces azure and argent. (76.) 

4 Or, a lion rampant sable. (lb.) 

5 Quarterly, argent and azure. (lb.) 

6 The mullets argent. (lb.) 7 Azure, three garbs or. (lb.) 

8 ..., six lions rampant ... (lb.) 

9 Azure, a bend between six martlets or. (Ib.~) 

10 Azure, five (of six) lions rampant argent, and a canton ermine. (lb.) 

11 Chequy argent and azure. (lb.) 

12 Azure, a lion rampant argent. (lb.) 13 Vairy or and azure. (76.) 

14 Gules, three pales argent, and on a chief or a lion passant of the first. 

15 Gules, three pales argent, and on a canton sable a lion passant of the 
second. (lb.) 

16 Vairy or and azure, within a bordure gules charged eleven roundlea or. 

17 Vairy or and azure, a baston gules. (lb.) 

18 Azure, two bar (fish) dos d dos, or. (lb.) 

19 Vairy or and azure, a canton ermine. (lb.) 

20 The lion argent, (lb.) 


Row. Shield. 

(239.) 40 5. Baudewin de Ekont. 1 

(240.) 6. Cunte de Boloyne. 2 

(241.) 41 1. Pheli[je Burnel. Argent, a lion rampant sable debruised by a 

bend gules. 

(242.) 2. Henri de Ekont. Gules, crusilly fitchy and three crescents or. 3 

(243.) 3. Sire de Cochi. Barry of six vair (traces) and gules. 4 

(244.) 4. John Louel le fiz. 6 

(245.) 5. Will' de Ekont. 6 

(246.) 6. Sire de Florence. Or, three fleurs-de-lis gules remaining in base. 7 

(247.) 42 1. Race de Lynecarke. 8 

(248.) 2. Walter de Redesham. Chequy argent and gules. 

(249.) 3. Hue Wake. Gules, two bars and in chief three roundles or. 

(250.) 4. John de Lynecarke. 9 

(251.) 5. Henri de Sauueye. Argent, an eagle displayed sable. 

(252.) 6. Amys de Sauueye. Or (I), an eagle displayed sable. 10 

(253.) 43 1. Aubrey de Witlebire. 11 

(254.) 2. Rauf de Oteryngden'. Ermine, a cross gules voided ,.. 12 

(255.) 3. Will' Maufe. Argent, semy of escallops gules, a lion rampant 


(256.) 4. Henri de Lucenburg. Barry of twelve ... and ..., and over all a 

lion rampant gules. 13 

(257.) 5. Sire de Rode. 14 

(258.) 6. Johan de Asse. 15 

(259.) 44 1. Sire de Parueis. Gules, a fess argent. 

(26O.) 2. Phelip de Bruborg. Or, a lion rampant sable. 

(261.) 8. Ernaud de Wisemale. Gules, three fleurs-de-lis or. 16 

(262.) 4. Sire de Creseikes. 17 

(263.} 5. Franc de Wisemale. Gules, three fleurs-de-lis or. 18 

(264.) 6. Cunte de Gulg. Gules, an inescutcheon argent. 18 

(265.) 45 1. Cunte de Cliue. 19 

(266.) 2. Cunte de Estraderne. 20 

(267.) 3. Chastelin de Gant. 21 

(268.) 4. Rauf de Oteringbire. 22 

(269.) 5. Symuu de Muntagu. 23 

(270.) 6. Sire de Wingan. Argent, a chevron gules. 

1 Azure, a cross pat6e argent. (Harl. MS. 6137.) 

2 Or, a banner of three pendants wavy gules. {lb.) 

3 The field azure and the crescents argent. [Both in error 1] {lb.) 

4 Barry of six vair and gules. {lb.) 

6 Barry nebuly of six or and gules, a baston argent. {lb.) 
9 Azure, crusilly and three crescents argent. {lb.) 

7 Or, six fleurs-de-lis gules. {lb.) 

8 Only field given, namely azure. {lb.) 9 Blank, {lb.) 
The field argent, {lb.) n Only field given, namely azure, {lb.) 

2 The cross voided or. {lb.) 

3 The barry of ten argent and azure. {lb.) 

4 Only the field given, namely azure, {lb.) 

5 Or, a saltire gules, and over all a fess sable. {lb.) 

6 The fleurs-de-lis argent. {lb.) 17 Blank. {lb.) 

8 " Id est Gulic" written against the name. {lb.) 

9 Or, a lion rampant sable, {lb.) 

20 Gules, two chevrons or. {lb.) 

21 Blank. {lb.) 22 Blank. (lb.) 
23 Azure, a griffin segreant or. {lb.) 




{The figures apply to the numbers of the shields in the Roll.) 

St. Edward, King and Martyr, 17 

Emperor of Germany, 4 
Emperor of Rome, 2 
King of Arragon, G 
King of Bohemia, 12 
King of Cyprus, 1 1 
King of Denmark, 16 
King of England, 7 

Duke of Bavaria, 24 
Duke of Brabant, 19 
Duke of Brunswick, 22 
Duke of Lemburg, 23 
Duke of Lorraine, 20 
Duke of Venice, 21 
Earl of Albemarle, 142 
Earl of Angus, 117 
Earl of Athol, 178 
Count of Bar, 236 
Earl of Blois, 31 
Earl of Boulogne. 240 
Earl of Carrick, 179 

Aguilon, 122 
Anfour, 26 
Antoine, 72 
Argentine, 154 
Arm enters, 123 
Asche, 58, 258 
Audley, 110 
Badlesmere, 189, 209 
Baliol, 144 
Bardolf, 166 
Basoges, 232 
Basores, 76 
Basset, 129, 138 
Bassingborn, 136 
Berkeley, 188 
Bertout, 59, 233 
Betune, 53, 216 
Beyvere, 60 
Botresham, 44 
Boys, 147 
Brabant, 193, 210 
Breda, 207 
Bredan, 233 
Breowse, 148 
Breton, 78 
Briancon, 215 
Bruborg, 260 
Brus, 143 
Brussels, 184 
Burgh, 140 
Burnell, 241 
Camoys, 126 

King of Ermine, 15 
King of France, 5 
King of Grififony, 1:5 
King of Hungary, 94 
King of Jerusalem, 1 
King of Man, 18 
King of Navarre, 10 

Count Cessun, 102 
Count of Chalun, 88 
Earl of Chester, 219 
Karl of Clive, 265 
Earl of Cornwall, 34 
Earl of Dunbar, 238 
The Earl Ferrers, 152 
Earl of Flanders, 35 
Earl of Gelre, 49 
Earl of Ghisnes, 71 
Earl of Gloucester, 27 
Count Gulic, 264 
Earl of Hereford, 29 

Cantelupe, 66, 107 
Chamberlain, 182 
Chaworth, 149 
Clare, 39 
Clifford, 85, 93 
Cochy, 243 
Cockfield, 199 
Comyn, 183 
Corbet, 64 
Creseikes, 262 
Creting, 151 
Crevequer, 141 
De la Hay, 81 
De la Hose, 212 
De la Ward, 170 
Despencer, 145 
Detling, 205 
Deyville, 69 
Dist, 83 

Echingham, 155 
Ekont, 239, 242, 245 
Fenes, 208 
Ferrers, 163 
Fitz- Gerald, 196 
Fitz-Humphrey, 180 
Fitz-John, 150 
Fitz-Otho, 130 
Fitz-Piers, 135 
Fitz-Roger, 89 
Fitz-Walter, 95 
Flanders, 194 
Florence, 246 

King of Norway, 14 
King of Scotland, 9 
King of Sicily, 8 
King of Spain, 3 
Prince de la Morree, 56 
Prince of Wales, 28 

Count Jungi, 181 
Earl of Lincoln, 25 
The Earl Lisle, 134, 214 
Earl of Oxford, 30 
Earl of Poictou, 32 
Earl of Provence, 229 
Earl of Richmond, 36 
Count St. Pole, 33 
Earl of Salisbury, 221 
Earl of Stratherne, 266 
Earl of Surrey, 37 
Earl of Warwick, 115 
Earl of Winchester, 133 

Gatton, 225 

Gaunt, 267 

Gaure, 61, 80 

Genevile, 172 

Ghisnes, 50, 75, 230, 234, 

235, 237 
Giable, 224 
Giffard, 65, 86 
Grandin, 177 
Grandison, 41 
Grey, 132, 175 
Hastings, 139, 213 
Haulo, 171 
Heringaud, 200 
Hever, 201 
Horburi, 227 
Hundiscote, 46 
Jerkanvile, 162 
Knovile, 218 
Kuggeho, 186 
Langley, 168 
Lewknor, 174 
Ley bourne, 116, 121 
Linecarke, 247, 250 
Lisle, 43, 112 
Lovaine, 51, 231 
Lovell, 191, 244 
Lucy, 82, 113 
Luxemburg, 256 
Malmains, KM 
Marmion, 63, 125 
Maufee, 255 



Monchensi, 131 
Montague, 269 
Montfort, 118, 137, 165 
Monthalt, 228 
Mortimer, 111, 161 
Mun cells, 176 
Munceus, 211 
Munteny, 67, 222 
Muscgros, 187 
Normanville, 192 
Northie, 217 
Orlauston, 169 
Otteringburn, 268 
Otteringden, 254 
Oudenarde, 57 
Parveis, 259 
Peche, 156 
Pembridge, 55 
Penchester, 124 
Percy, 79 
Peyforer, 52 

Pickford, 87 
Plokenet, 128 
Quincy, 68 
Ramorne, 54 
Redesham, 248 
Repinghall, 220 
Rhodes, 77, 257 
Rochford, 157 
Roos, 197 
St. John, 119 
St. Leger, 190 
Sandwich, 167 
Sans- Avoir, 153 
Saschant, 226 
Sauvey, 251, 252 
Say, 38 
Segrave, 114 
Septvans, 203 
Shurland, 223 
Strange, 74 

Sudeley or Suley, 160 
Syward, 173 
Tiptoft, 70 
Tregos, 106, 198 
Trumpington, 120, 195 
Turbervile, 96 
Ufford, 90 
Valence, 146 
Valoigns, 202, 204 
Vaux, 127 
Verdon, 62 
Vescy, 40, 42 
Vyan, 47 
Wadripun, 45 
Wake, 109, 249 
Waleys, 206 
Wingan, 270 
Wisemale, 261, 263 
Witlebire, 253 
Zouch, 101, 105 


(The figures apply to the numbers of the shields in the Roll ; and the 

principal authority for the dates given in these notes is Courtliope' 1 & 

edition of Sir Harris Nicolas , "Historic Peerage") 

39. Thomas de Clare, son of Richard de Clare, seventh Earl of Gloucester, 
who died in 12^2. His second son, Richard, was in 1st Edward II 
heir to his brother Gilbert de Clare, the eldest son of Thomas. This 
Richard eventually became first and only Baron Clare by writ. 

42. John de Vesci, the first baron by writ, and son and heir of William the 
fourth and last baron by tenure, who died in 1253. He died in 1289. 

62. Theobald de Verdon, the first baron by writ, and son and heir of John the 

fifth baron by tenure, who was slain in Ireland in 1278. He died in 
1309, and was succeeded by his son, the celebrated Theobald de Verdon, 
second baron by writ. 

63. William Marmion, the second and last baron, by tenure, of Witringham, 

co. Lincoln, and son and heir of Robert, the first baron. 

65. John GifFard, the first Baron of Brimsfield by writ, and son and heir of 
Elias, the sixth and last baron by tenure, who died in 1248. He was 
aged seventeen in 1248, and died in 1299. 

70. Robert Tiptoft, son and heir of Henry Tiptoft, who died in 34 Henry III. 
(Dugd., Bar., ii, 38.) By the inquisition taken in 26th Edward I, after 
the death of Robert, Pain, his son, who eventually became the first baron 
by writ, of the elder line, was found to be his heir, and aged seventeen. 

85. Roger Clifford, " le pere", the fourth and last baron by tenure, and son and 
heir of Roger, next brother of Walter the third baron. Walter died in 
1263, and his brother Roger before him ; consequently this Roger suc- 
ceeded, and died in 1285. 

89. Piobert Fitz-Roger, the first Baron Clavering by writ, and son ajid heir of 
Roger Fitz-John, the fourth and last baron by tenure, who died in 1249. 
He died in 1310. 

93. Roger Clifford, u le fils", the eldest son of Roger, the fourth baron by 
tenure, who died in 1285. He died in his father's lifetime, leaving a 
son Robert, who succeeded his grandfather, and was but seven years of 
age in 11th Edward I. This Robert was subsequently summoned to 
Parliament as the first baron by writ. 


101. William la Zouche, second son of Alan, the fourth Baron of Ashhy by 
tenure, who died in 12G9. Joyce, the daughter and heir of this Wil- 
liam, married Robert, the third and last Baron Mortimer of Richard's 
Castle by tenure, who died in 1287. Their son William assumed his 
mother's name of Zouche, and became first Baron Zouche of Mortimer 
by writ. 

105. Alan la Zouche, the first and only Baron of Ashby by writ, and son and 

heir of Roger, the fifth and last baron by tenure, who died in 128.0. lie 
died in 1314, without male issue. 

106. John de Tregoz, the first and only baron, by writ, of the elder line, and 

son and heir of Robert, the third and last baron by tenure, who was 
killed at Evesham in 1265. He died in 1300, and left daughters only. 

107. George de Cantelupe, the second and last Baron of Abergavenny by tenure, 

and son and heir of William the first baron, who died in 1255. lie died 
without issue in 1272. 

109. Baldwin Wake, the fifth baron by tenure. He died in 1263, and was suc- 

ceeded by his son and heir John, 1st baron by writ, who died in 1304. 

110. William de Audley, the fifth baron by tenure, being a younger son of 

James, the third baron, who died in 1272, and brother and heir of Henry, 
the fourth baron, who died in 1275. He died without issue in 1281, and 
was succeeded by his brother Nicholas, the sixth baron, who died in 1299. 

114. Nicholas de Segrave, the first baron by writ, and son and heir of Gilbert, 
the third and last baron by tenure, who died in 1254. He died in 1295. 

116. Roger de Leybourne was Sheriff of Kent from 48th to 52nd Hen. III. 

118. Peter de Montfort, the ninth baron by tenure, and son and heir of Peter, 
the eighth baron, who was killed at the battle of Evesham in 1265. He 
died in 1287, and was succeeded by his son and heir John, 1st baron by writ. 

121. William de Leybourne, subsequently the first baron by writ, and son and 
heir of the above Roger. He was summoned to Parliament from 1299, 
and died in 1309. 

125. Philip Marmion, the fifth and last baron by tenure of Tamworth, co. War- 

wick, and sou and heir of Robert the fourth baron, who died in 12 41 
He died without male issue in 1292. 

126. John de Camoys, the second baron by writ, and son and heir of Ralph, 

the first baron, who died in 1277. He was aged twenty-six in 1277, 
died before 1299, and was succeeded by his son and heir, Ralph, the 
third baron. 

127. John de Vaux, the eighth baron by tenure, and brother and heir of Wil- 

liam, the seventh baron, who died before 1253. He died in 1288, leaving 
daughters only. 
132. Reginald de Grey, first baron, by writ, of Wilton, son and heir of John, 
first and only baron by tenure, who died in 1265. He died in 1308. 

138. Philip Basset, the fourth and last baron by tenure of Wycombe, co. 

Bucks , and brother and heir of Fulk, the third baron, who died in 1258. 
He was Justice of England, and died in 1271, leaving daughters only. 

139. Henry de Hastings, the first baron by writ, and son and heir of Henry, 

the sixth and last baron by tenure, who died in 1249. He died in 1268, 
when his son and heir John, subsequently 2nd baron, was aged 6 years. 
141. Robert de Crevequer, the fifth and last baron by tenure, and grandson of 
Hanio, the fourth baron, who died in 1262, being son and heir of Hamo, 
the latter's eldest son, who died in his father's lifetime. 

149. Patrick de Chaworth, the sixth and last baron by tenure, and brother and 

heir of Pain, the fifth baron, who died in 1278. He died in 1282, with- 
out male issue. 

150. Richard Fitz-John, the second baron by writ, and brother and heir of 

John, the first baron, who died in 1276. He was aged twenty-four in 
1276, and died in 1297. 

151. Adam de Creting. By the inquisition taken in 24 Edward I, after the 

death of Adam de Cretinge, in respect of property in Hunts, and Suffolk, 
it was found that John was his son and heir, aged 21 years and more. 


156. Glbert Peche, 4th baron by tenure of Brunne, and son and heir of Ilamon, 
the third baron, who died in the Holy Land in 1241. lie died in 1291. 

160. Bartholomew de Sudeley, the seventh baron by tenure, and son and heir 

of Ralph, the sixth baron, who died in 1231. He died in 1274, and was 
succeeded by his son and heir, John (the first baron by writ), aged 
twenty-two in 1 -74, who died in 1336. 

161. Robert de Mortimer, the third baron by tenure of Richard's Castle, and 

son and heir of Hugh, the second baron, who died in 1275. He was 

aged twenty-two in 1275, died in 1287, and was succeeded by his son 

and heir, Hugh, the first and only baron by writ. 
166. William Bardolf, the fifth baron by tenure, and son and heir of William, 

the fourth baron, who died in 1275. He died in 1290, and was succeeded 

by his son and heir, Hugh, the first baron by writ. 
169. William de Orlauston. There is an inquisition post mortem of William 

de Orlaweston, of Kent, taken 12 Edw. I, John, his son and heir, being 30. 
176. Waleraiu de Muncells. loan Assize Roll of 16th Edw. I {Tower Rec, No. 

40, Sussex, memb. 22) is mention of Lucia de Monceus and William de 

.Monceus, executors of the testament of Walrand' de Munceus. 

188. Maurice de Berkeley, the fifth baron by tenure, and son and heir of Tho- 

mas, the fourth baron, who died in 1243. He died in 1281, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son and heir Thomas, 1st baron by writ, who died in 1321. 

189. Guncelin de Badlesmere. According to Dugdale (Baronage, ii, 87) he 

was a great rebel to Henry III, and died in 29th Edward I. His son 
Bartholomew, the first baron by writ, was hanged at Canterbury for 
treason, after the battle of Boroughbridge, 15th Edward II. 

197. Robert de Roos, the first baron, by writ, of Hamlake. He died in 1285, 

and was succeeded by his son and heir William, second baron, aged 30. 

198. Heni*y de Tregoz, the first Baron, by writ, of Goring, co. Sussex, and next 

brother to John de Tregoz, the first and only baron, by writ, of the elder 
line. He was summoned to Parliament until 1322. 

199. Robert de Cockfield. By the inquisition taken in 25th Edward I, after 

his death, in respect of his property in Suffolk, it was found that Joan 
was his sister and heir, and aged twenty-three. 

200. William Heringaud. He was found, by the inquisition taken in Kent 

after the death of Stephen Heringod (who held the manor of Elmstead 
in that county), to be his son and heir, and aged forty in the 4lst 
Henry III. (Chancery Inquisitions post Mortem, 4lst Henry III, No. 23.) 

201. William de Hever. He was Sheriff of Kent in 1st and 2nd Edw. I. 
2()3. Robert de Septvans. He was of Milton, near Canterbury, and died a 

Knight in 34th Edward I. At the death of his father, Robert de Sept- 
vans, in 37th Henry III, he was but three years of age. King Edward I 
advanced him to the custodianship of Rochester Castle; and a very per- 
fect brass erected to his memory in Chartham Church yet remains, 
whereon he is depicted wearing the seven fans on his surcoat, etc., his 
shield bearing in addition the usual three. (See engraving of the brass 
in Boutell's Monumental Brasses and Slabs.) His son William succeeded 
him at Milton-Septvans, and died in 16th Edward II. 

204. Waretius de Valoigns. He was Sheriff of Kent in the third, fourth, and 
fifth years, and in part of the sixth year of Edward I. 

215. Bartholomew de Briancon. There was an inquisition taken in the 15th 
Edward I, after the death of Bartholomew de Brianzun, alias Briancun, 
by which it was found that William was his son and heir, aged 3 years. 

225. Hamo de Gatton. He was son and heir of Robert de Gatton, and found, 
by the inquisition taken in Surrey alter his father's death, to be aged 
twenty-two in the 48th Henry III. Was Sheriff of Kent in part of the 
thirteenth year, and during the whole of the fourteenth year of Ed- 
ward I. In the 20th Edward I. by the inquisitions taken after his 
death, in respect of his property in Kent and Surrey, his son and heir 
Hamo was found to be aged twenty-eight years. 




(Read April 5, 1882.) 

In recording a few remarks upon the past history of this 
site, I regret that the means I have of giving an account 
worthy of this occasion, or of the building itself, are very 
limited. Hugh de Montfort obtained possession of this 
place at the Conquest. In the reign of Henry II, Roger 
de Scales, who in conjunction with his wife Muriel founded 
the Nunnery of Blackborough in this parish, was lord of 
this manor. According to Blomefield, in the reign of 
Henry VI Thomas Lord Scales built the Castle, of which 
the gateway is the only portion now remaining; but from 
the arms over the gateway, Anthony Woodville, Earl 
Rivers, who married the sister and heiress of Thomas 
Lord Scales, is thought to have been the founder in the 
following reign of Edward IV. This Thomas Lord Scales 
is reported, in the reigns of Henry V and VI, to have 
served in the wars of France, and to have greatly distin- 
guished himself; and in the 3rd of Henry VI he was 
elected Knight of the Garter. 

On the arrival of the Earls of March, Warwick, and 
Salisbury, from Calais, and their entry into London on the 
2nd of July 1460, he, with other lords, took possession of 
and secured the Tower of London for the King ; but 
after the battle of Northampton, on the 9th of that 
month, wherein the King was taken (many in the Tower 
surrendering themselves), this lord, in endeavouring to 
make his escape towards Westminster, was killed on the 
Thames. He left a son Thomas, who died a minor, and 
daughter Elizabeth, who married Anthony Woodville, son 
and heir of Richard Woodville, Earl Rivers, father of 
Elizabeth, the Queen of Edward IV. 

In right of his wife he became possessed of this estate, 
assuming the title of Lord Scales. By will he gave the 
same to his brother, Sir Edward, and his heirs male. This 

1882 23 


Lord Scales, Earl Eivers, having distinguished himself 
in the preceding year at the battle of Bosworth Field, 
repaired to the Castilian court of Ferdinand and Isabella 
as a volunteer in the campaign against the Moors, taking 
with him one hundred archers, all dexterous with long 
bow and the cloth yard arrow, also two hundred yeomen 
armed cap-a-pie, who fought with pike and battle-axe. 
Probably many of his followers were his dependents from 
Middleton. He is reported to have been an accomplished 
cavalier, of gracious and noble presence, and fair speech. 
At the siege of Loxa, by a stone hurled from the battle- 
ments, he Tost two of his front teeth, upon which Ferdi- 
nand consoled him that he might otherwise have been 
deprived of them by natural decay, whereas the lack of 
them now would be esteemed a beauty rather than a de- 
fect, serving as a trophy of the glorious cause in which 
he had been engaged. The Earl's reply was, he accepted 
with all gratitude his gracious consolation for the loss he 
had sustained, though he held it little to lose two teeth 
in the service of God, Who had given them all. 

In the reign of Henry VII the property came into the 
possession of Elizabeth, the wife of the Earl of Oxford, 
one of the descendants of Eobert Lord Scales ; and upon 
a division of the estate it was assigned to the family of 
the Earls of Oxford ; and after a lapse of years, passing 
into various hands by inheritance and sale, became the 
property of the late Mrs. Wythe, by whose trustees it was 

The present structure is a fine specimen of the style of 
building adopted in the fourteenth century, which, how- 
ever, did not come into general use until the reign of 
Henry VI ; many considerable houses as well as public 
buildings being erected with bricks during his reign and 
that of Edward IV, chiefly in the eastern counties, where 
the deficiency of stone was most experienced. Few, if 
any, brick mansions of the fifteenth century exist, except 
in a dilapidated state; but Queen's College at Cambridge, 
and part of Eton College, are subsisting witnesses to the 
durability of the material as it was then employed, and 
Middleton Towers may be added as another example. ^ 

I have found no record of the time when this building 
was last inhabited. The marvel is that such a solid struc- 


ture could have become such a ruin as it was until the 
year 1856, there being neither roof, floor, nor ceiling, in 
any portion, except one floor in the north-east turret, and 
the groined roof of the oriel window over the gateway 
being nearly perfect. Of the stone newel-staircase in the 
north-west turret, fourteen steps, midway, only remained. 
It was simply the habitation of owls and bats, and a 
shelter for cattle. Whenever repairs were required on the 
estate, the building was resorted to as a quarry, as in re- 
building farm premises on the estate I found large quan- 
tities of carved stone which were utilised in the restora- 
tion. It will be observed that over the gateway are the 
Scales arms encircled with garter, bearing the royal motto, 
in a perfect state of preservation, and the six escallops 
appear at the base of the oriel window. 

In all probability the greater part of the area enclosed 
by the moat was covered with buildings forming the 
castle and offices; but I have not, I regret to say, been 
hitherto able to find any ground-plan to satisfy me as to 
their extent. In providing drainage for the additions 
made by me in 1 856, 1 had occasion to excavate a portion 
of the enclosure, when certain foundations were discovered. 

In the year 1860, in rebuilding some farm premises on 
my estate, about a mile distant from the Towers, the relics 
now temporarily placed on the Bridge were dug out of 
the foundations. The figure of the knight is more muti- 
lated than that of his lady. They probably form part of 
monuments of Robert de Scales and Isabel his wife, from 
the Priory of Blackborough, where they were both in- 
terred. Other relics, such as pottery, etc., were dis- 
covered when the moat was dug out in the year 1857. 


Proceeding* of tfje Association* 

Wednesday, June 7, 1882. 
Rev. S. M. Mathew, M.A., V.P., in the Chair. 

The following presents were received, and thanks returned to the 
donors : 

To the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, for " Proceed- 
ings", 1882. 

To the Society of Antiquaries, for " Archaeologia", vol. 47, Part I. 

To the Cumberland and Westmoreland Antiquarian and Archaeological 
Society, for " Transactions", vol. 6, Part I. 

The arrangements for the approaching Congress at Plymouth were 
referred to, and it was stated that the date for the commencement had 
been fixed for August 21st. G. R. Wright, Esq., F.S. A., Congress Secre- 
tary, gave a brief notice of the programme, and referred to the places 
to be visited. Among these he mentioned Berry Pomeroy Castle, 
Totnes, Plymptou Earls, and Dartmoor. It was also announced that 
the Duke of Somerset, K.G., had been elected President of -the Con- 
gress, and for the ensuing year. 

E. P. Loftus Brock, Esq., F.S. A., laid on the table, for exhibition, a 
row of Venetian beads of various patterns, of inlaid glass, recently 
found in excavations at Aldgate. Also a large portion of a jet amulet 
of Roman date, found in similar excavations close to the former. 

G. Gunn, Esq., exhibited a plan of one of the four massive piers, of 
Norman date, supporting the central tower and spire of Norwich 
Cathedral, shewing that three large circular shafts, a mass of pilaster, 
and two smaller Norman shafts, had been cut away. (See ante, pp. 

R. Earle Way, Esq., described another find of Roman antiquities at 
Southwark, on the west side of St. Saviour's Church. Among the 
articles laid on the table were examples of Samian and other pottery, 
a second brass coin of Nero, and third brass of Victorinus and Con- 

G. Sherborn, Esq., exhibited a varied collection of lithic implements 


from Ohio and other parts of North Americn. Among thcso were 
several stone hammers and neatly worked flint arrow-heads. Some 
flint scrapers from the South Downs of Sussex were also shewn, to 
indicate certain points of resemblance to the American examples. 

C. H. Compton, Esq., exhibited a fine collection of Greek fictile ware 
brought recently from Athens. These were mostly of small size, in 
good condition, many having painted designs of considerable beauty 
and freshness. A capital jug, of sixteenth century date, of Italian 
majolica work, found at Halicarnassus, was also described. 

G. Martin, Esq., exhibited various articles found in London, the 
most cui'ious being a circular standing lamp of compressed leather, the 
form having evidently been produced by impression in a mould when 
the material was in a soft condition. It was pronounced by the Chair- 
man to be of the time of Edward III. 

The Chairman exhibited a collection of articles, and made the fol- 
lowing remarks upon them : 

"I beg to exhibit, from recent excavations in London, a portion of a 
Samian acetabulum with indented border and potter's mark, of. ABN. ; 
portions of two oil-vessels of peculiar brown tint, similar (as justly 
observed by Mr. Brock) to those found in the kilns near Colchester; an 
iron pike-head for cutting and thrusting ; and a sample of the tasteful 
luxury of our forefathers in a knife-handle (3 inches) of Sicilian agate, 
mounted and bossed with silver. A pair of barber's scissors (7 inches 
in length) noted as bearing close resemblance to two other pairs 
found within the Precincts of Westminster Abbey, and now in the 
Chapter House ; these having been used probably even as they. Also 
a very attractive pectoral cross of agate, resembling almost amber, set 
in gold, of Italian work, and of the seventeenth century ; together with 
a rosary cross of cupped silver, filled with English pastes, of the six- 
teenth century, crystal and ruby, in its original stamped leather case; 
the first bead dropped into the top of the case prepared for its recep- 
tion. This arrangement, together with the shapely beauty of the case, 
leads to the supposition of the cross itself having been only occa- 
sionally exhibited, pei'haps on great festivals. If so, it may have 
belonged to some ecclesiastical dignitary, or possibly to a lady of high 
degree. A second highly wrought Moser snuffbox ; the lid, of scrolls 
and flowers, heart-shaped, being fitted to a bisected shell, — a fashion 
of those days. A double interest belongs to this box, as a fine speci- 
men of Moser's work, and the property of a gentleman, formerly a 
friend of the Prince Regent. A very massive ring of silver, wrought 
at each end of its bows, with two massive royal crowns, and beneath 
it two hearts. This portion of the jewel undoubtedly belongs to the 
sixteenth century. Later on, the ring was washed with gold in imitation 
of parcel-gilt, the original setting being supplied by an intaglio. A pale 


cornelian with slender rufous line, exquisitely cut, to Holbein's por- 
trait of the young Edward VI. The gem 1 must be referred to the close 
of the seventeenth or early years of the eighteenth century. Of course 
one would wish to identify this admirable work of art with one of the 
rings painted by Holbein on the fingers of Henry VIII. A fine statuette, 
of Spanish potter}', of S. Francis d'Assisi clothed in monastic garb, 
and wearing the scapular. This statuette is identical, or nearly so, 
with that exhibited in the South Kensington exhibition of Spanish art ; 
and being of the same mottled surface, much resembling a species of 
our seventeenth century Staffordshire, this exhibit may be from the 
same atelier, if not by the same hand. May we assign it to Madrid ? 
so little being known of the locale of Spanish fictile ware. A ' stand- 
ing cup' of wood, which, though undestined to rivalry with another 
cup of mulberry, can ' hold its own', inasmuch as it was once the pi'o- 
perty and planting of a man whose self, whose policy, whose deeds, 
perhaps also whose ' pride of place', will be ever a landmark in our six- 
teenth century history — Cardinal Wolsey. The tree was planted and 
grew at Scrooby Palace, where yet remain one or two prone and most 
venei'able pear-trees. This favourite residence of the Archbishopsof York 
is now represented by stables and a bailiff's house. The present house 
is a portion of a manor-house which succeeded the Palace, and was 
built from its materials; so that in the rooms, but chiefly in the stables, 
one comes on carved and moulded and pierced wood and oaken beams 
once covering the proudest head but one in England. A bend of the 
river Idle borders the old orchard. Scrooby is a place of New Eng- 
land pilgrimage. Two of the ' Pilgrim Fathers' sailed thence in the 
Mayflower. To preserve the unities as much as possible, the cap of 
this cup is from a bit of an oaken beam, and on the lines of an example 
of a sixteenth century glass ' standing cup'; the cup itself from a glass 
of the period, recovered from Smithfield, and in my own collection ; 
the foot from a cup in the Slade collection. 

" Lastly, an object in metal, coated with an earthy matter, and pre- 
senting the appearance of a large funnel. This it cannot be, nor yet a 
strainer (colum, or infundibulum), the dome being thickly pierced with 
successive holes ; nor yet a drain-head ; such purposes being served 
by a baser metal. So far as conjecture gives place to certainty, in this 
place it may be taken as the cap or covering of a thuribuhim. The 
central hollow spire (3 inches) would act as draught for the incandes- 
cent embers, and the multitudinous holes spread the white, fleecy per- 
fume. Whether of ecclesiastical, domestic, or palatial use cannot 
be determined offhand. The folded structure of the central spire is 

1 Good impressions were laid on the table for members caring to have them, 
and Mr. Mayhew will send an impression to any member of the Association 
who may wish to possess it. 


similar to a Roman bronze exhibited not long since. It may be Roman. 
The dome is G inches in diameter, 2\ inches in height ; the central 
tube, 3 inches, soldered into the dome, which is silver. A Roman 
thuribulwm coated with silver, and in two parts, was last year exhibited 
to the Association." 

The following paper was then read by Mr. E. P. L. Brock, F.S.A., 
lion. Sec, in the absence of the author : 

Cuddy's Cove. 


Few counties can boast of richer antiquarian treasures than the good 
old county of Northumberland. The Temple at the Three Stone Burn ; 
the Celtic village at Greaves Esh ; the Mote-Hills at Elsdon, Ward, 
Morpeth, and Haltwhistle ; the famous Bendor Gathering Stone ; 
numerous camps ; the rocks with incised circles discovered at Bewick, 
Rowting Lynn, Stamfordham, and other places, tell the story of the rule 
of an ancient British people. The dominion of the Roman conqueror 
has also left its mark. The Roman Wall has eleven of its stations in 
Northumberland. Watling Street, the bridges at Corbridge, Ingram, 
and Chollerford, various camps, the Wreken Dyke, and the Written 
Rock on Fallowfield Fell, each in its peculiar way points to the handi- 
work of Roman civilisation. The camp at Spindlestone is one of the 
few traces which the fierce Dane has left behind him. The county is, 
however, fairly rich in castles and churches of the Norman and later 
English period ; but there are, comparatively speaking, few remains of 
Anglo-Saxon times. The ciypt of St. Wilfrith at Hexham, almost 
entirely composed of Roman stones and inscriptions ; and the cross of 
Rothbury, a portion of which forms the pedestal of Rothbury Church 
font, while the remainder is in the Castle Museum of Newcastle, are, 
perhaps, some of the most interesting remains which the county of 
Northumberland possesses of our Saxon ancestors. 

One age has its incised circles, mote-hills, and written rocks, and 
another has its castles, towers, and abbeys. Each is interesting to the 
student of history and archaeology. Occasionally, however, some natural 
object, some stone, hill, or cave, attracts the attention on account of 
the historical or legendary associations surrounding it. Such a cave 
may be found on a bleak, moorland hill overlooking the valley of the 
Till. Scarcely any of our Northumbrian antiquaries mention this inte- 
resting place. Except for Raines' brief notice, which I quoted in my 
work on the Life and Times of Cuthbcrht of Lindisfarne, I do not remem- 
ber meeting with any other account of St. Cuthbcrt's Cave, or Cuddy's 
Cove as the villagers in the neighbourhood still call it. It is now more 
than half a century since Raiues mentioned the existence of this 


ancient Cave ; and as scarcely anything lias ever been written about 
it, I thought I might be justified in visiting it, and laying before the 
British Archaeological Association the following notes. 

About four miles from the little town of Belford, and only a short 
distance from the village of Howburn, a natural cave may still be found 
on the southern slope of a long ridge of hills overlooking the smiling 
valley of the Till. Tradition uniformly affirms that St. Cuthberht at 
one period of his life inhabited it. " Is there anything improbable in 
the supposition", asks Raines, " that this was the hermitage for which, 
in the first instance, Cuthberht quitted Lindisfarne ?" Baeda says 1 
that he retired to a secluded place somewhere upon the borders of the 
territory more immediately connected with Lindisfarne. This is all 
lie tells us ; and thus we neither learn its exact situation nor its name. 
If we accept Breda's historical information (and in this instance there 
seems to be no reason to doubt the accuracy of the statement), then 
we must discover some place for the saint's retirement on the main- 
land, and at no great distance from the church of Lindisfarne. I think 
we may venture to contend that the cave at Howburn was the one that 
has been inhabited by the patron saint of Durham. When we take 
into consideration that traditions declare that it was at one time the 
home of the saint, that the villagers still call it " Cuddy's Cove", with- 
out even knowing the tradition, and that it will satisfy the require- 
ments of Basda's statement, then I think we may certainly believe that 
this was the place which St. Cuthberht in 676 chose as his hermitage, 
and where this saintly apostle of Northumbria for a time adopted the 
life of an anchorite, following the traditions of his Church. From the 
small Railway Station at Beal it is only a few miles distant, and it is, 
therefore, of easy access from Lindisfarne. The Cave is now used by 
the farmers for a sheepfold; and it was here, doubtless, that Cuthberht 
took up his abode ; and when the snow-flakes fell thickly, and the 
wintry blast howled round his lonely rock, his voice might be heard 
reciting the liturgy or chanting the hymns of his Church. 

Mr. G. Patrick then read a paper entitled " On a Roman Villa 
at Benizza, Corfu", by Walter Myers, Esq., F.S.A. This, it is hoped, 
will find a future place in the Journal. 

The thanks of the meeting were voted to the exhibitors aud readers 
of papers ; and after detailed reference had been made to the exhibits, 
a vote of thanks to the Chairman was proposed by T. Morgan, Esq., 
V.P., F.S.A. 

The proceedings of the meeting, the closing one of the session, were 
brought to a conclusion by the Chairman, who l'eferred to the great 

1 Vit. S. Ctdhb., xvii. 


diversity of objects that had been brought before the notice of the 
Associates ; while the attendance, and particularly the presence of so 
many ladies at all the meetings, had been so large. Fitting reference 
was made to the continued illness of H. Syer Cuming, Esq., V.P., 
F.S.A. Scot., whose presence had been so greatly missed during tho 
whole of the session. 


Dr. James Kendrick. 

Odr valued friend Dr. Kendrick died on the 6th of April 1882, at the 
age of seventy-two. He was born on the 7th of November 1809, in 
Warrington. He was the eldest son of Dr. James Kendrick, M.D., 
also a native of Warrington, and one of the original members of the 
Warrington Natural History Society which formed the nucleus of the 
present Free Museum and Library. 

Although Dr. Kendrick practised extensively in the medical profes- 
sion, he always evinced a fondness for antiquities ; and we cannot, in- 
deed, record his life without speaking directly in reference to that 
institution of which Warrington is proud, and in which the deceased 
took so much interest, viz., the Museum. As his connection with this 
institution (like his father's before him) was so close, it may not be 
out of place to mention that the Warrington Museum and Library were 
originally founded in the year 1838, under the name of the Warring- 
ton Natural History Society. The Society then consisted of a number 
of local gentlemen associated for the purpose of forming a library and 
a collection of objects of natural history, and for generally advancing 
the interest of the science. Its first location was a house in the vici- 
nity of the present County Court ; but after one or two removals, the 
collection occupied a large room over the fire-engine shed in Market 
Street, which afterwards was used as a council chamber, and has now 
been demolished. On June 3rd, 1848, the institution, having by this 
time grown to importance, was denominated "The Warrington Museum 
and Library", supported by voluntary subscriptions. The collection 
was removed to a large house in Friars' Green, where it remained for 
several years. The Museum was finally taken over by the Warrington 
Corporation, and still remains under its control, its income being 
derived from a rate levied on the burgesses of the town, and by volun- 
tary subscriptions. The foundation-stone of the present building was 
laid by William Beamont, Esq., on the 20th of September 1855, and 
the collection was removed thither in the course of the following year. 


Dr. Kendrick had subsequently, in 1859, charge of the antiquities in 
the Museum, and he engaged himself in his work with very deep 

Many works were published by Dr. Kendrick, among them his 
" Warrington Worthies", " Some Account of two Ancient Chess-Pieces 
found at the Moot Hill, Warrington", " A Morning's Ramble round 
Old Warrington", "An Account of Warrington Siege a.d. 1643, "An 
Account of the Roman Station at Wilderspool", "Eyre's Warrington 
Press and its Local Associations", etc. He also appeared as a lecturer 
occasionally, and on the 22nd of December 1856 delivered a lecture in 
the large room of the Nag's Head Hotel, Sankey Street, on " The His- 
tory and Traditions of Old Warrington." In 1869 he published a 
work on " The Roman Station at Wilderspool, near Warrington, the 
presumed Condate of Antonine." In connection with this publication 
were given illustrations of Samian ware found at Wilderspool, also 
sections of Roman mortaria, tetines or feeding-bottles for infants, and 
other Roman pottery, including a drawing of a persona tragica or tragic 
mask, iron fire-dog or band-iron, etc. In 1871 another publication 
appeared, " On Recent Discoveries at the Roman Site at Wilderspool." 
The deceased spent a very considerable portion of his time, and not a 
little of his fortune, in prosecuting the excavations at Wilderspool in 
search of Roman antiquities, all of which he afterwards presented to the 
Warrington Museum. Subsequently, through his instrumentality, that 
institution became possessed of an important series of impressions of the 
imperial seals of Germany. The originals were acquired by Dr. Ken- 
drick at Frankfort some years previously. During the years 1839-40 
there issued from Dr. Kendrick's pen a series of " Contributions to the 
Early History of Warrington." He brought his " Contributions" to a 
close with the termination of the civil war. His busy pen and brain 
alike being ever at work, in 1876 he favoured his fellow townsmen 
with a series of " Warrington Local Sketches", which consisted of 
notes and representations of some ancient houses, etc., on the Lan- 
cashh^e side of Cheshire. 

Dr. Kendrick was pre-eminently an unselfish man. He was courage- 
ous, outspoken, manly, and open, in everything he did. He was, as is 
well known, an antiquary of no mean order, and to the science of 
archaeology he was sincerely devoted. 


"Hntiqtiarian Intelligence. 

These paragraphs of antiquarian intelligence are prepared and con- 
densed from miscellaneous communications made to the Secre- 
taries; and it is earnestly requested that Associates will forward, 
as early as possible, notices of recent discoveries, which may be 
of archaeological interest, coming to their cognizance. 

Discovery of British Urn-Burials at Basingstoke. — Dr. Joseph Stevens 
informs us that some remains of a singular character have been brought 
to light, during building operations, on a hill north of the town of 
Basingstoke, immediately overlooking the Loddon. The elevation occu- 
pies about the same level as Winklebury, a British camp not far dis- 
tant, of about four acres. In the Loddon valley, at a much lower ele- 
vation, Roman remains in some quantity have from time to time been 
discovered. The remains now under notice consisted of two cists 
which had been cut in the solid chalk, the floors of which had been 
puddled or prepared ; and which, from the character of their contents, 
were evidently British graves, although on the first view there was 
some difficulty in determining whether they were graves or the floors 
of dwellings. 

The first cist, which was square, and which was explored by Mr. 
Charles Cooksey, Hon. Secretary of the North Hants Archaeological 
Society, on the 10th of March, was found to contain several vessels, 
three of which occupied three several corners of the grave, one being 
surrounded with flint stones. The cist was about 1£ foot in depth in 
the chalk, and the filling-in above the cist consisted merely of superfi- 
cial earth and rubble to the depth of about 2 feet. From the non- 
protective character of the covering, the wet had penetrated so as to 
render it impossible to remove the vessels entire. With considerable 
difficulty, however, the greater portions of two of the urns were suc- 
cessfully removed. In addition to the pottery, the upper earth con- 
tained a Roman roof-nail, together with some bones of a small ox, pig, 
dog, goat, or sheep, and a tine of deer-antler. The earth surrounding 
the vessels was intermingled with small flints which had been charred 
and split by the action of fire, with some flint flakes, " pot-boilers", 
and scrapers, of which one scraper-flake was a good specimen. Some 
scraps of bone were so saturated and disintegrated as to render it ditli- 
cult to determine whether they were human or animal ; but the earth 
had a dark, unctuous appearance, as if animal matter had been mingled 
with it. The earth contained scraps of charcoal-ashes, one small por- 
tion being recognisable as charred bark of fir (Pinus sylvestris). 


On the following day Dr. Stevens assisted Mr. Cooksey in exploring 
cist 2, which was oval in form, its depth about 18 inches, and its dia- 
meter, 5 feet by 5 feet ; the earth above being in depth about 2 feet, 
as in the other cist. They found some flakes humanly wrought, and 
among the mould a scrap of red Roman ware, which might have fallen 
in from the top. The earth, as in cist 1, had evidently been mixed 
with some animal substance, and contained some ashes ; but they 
recognised no human bones. A number of small, crackled flints were 
mingled with the earth, and the pottery had become damaged from 
repeated saturation. The vessels were, however, perfectly recognisable 
in position, and they succeeded in removing the larger portions of two 
good sized urns and a smaller basin-shaped vessel. 

On careful inspection it was found that the whole of the pottery was 
of a very rude description, hand-made, coarse, and the paste largely 
mixed with flint grit. It was in colour brown, reddish brown, and pale 
clay ; and one of the vessels had been reddened on its exterior ; and 
the inner surfaces were blackened, as if from contact with ashes. One 
of the vessels bore a ring of small pits, as if made with a pointed stick 
or bone ; and in another one the rim was cable-twisted, and it had a 
raised fillet round the neck. Collectively, it was thinner, harder, and 
better baked than the funereal pottery of the Celtic period. It had 
more the character of culinary ware ; and the inference is that it may 
be considered as true British pottery manufactured at a time when 
Roman art in the fabrication of vessels had only, to a small extent, 
made itself felt among the British people. Much stress should not be 
laid on the absence of human remains in a soil long exposed to destruc- 
tive agencies. Canon Greenwell, in his work on British graves, re- 
marks on the absence of all traces of remains when the conditions are 
favourable to their decay. 

As the pottery points to late British, or perhaps to early Romano- 
British times, these cists may be looked on as indicating the presence 
of a small British cemetery for the reception of incinerated interments. 
In opening the ground at the present Cemetery at Basingstoke, Mr. 
Cooksey found two entire burials of the British period. The bodies 
were lying in a flexed position; and the skulls, which are in Mr. 
Cooksey's possession, are similar in type to some round Celtic crania 
from Rudstone and Helperthorpe, depicted at pp. 613 and 617, British 
Barrows, by Greenwell and Rolleston. 

The Lincolnshire Survey, edited by Mr. J. H. Greenstreet, 1G Mont- 
pelier Road, Peckham, S.E.— This remarkable record, Claudius C. 5, 
is preserved in the Cottonian Collection at the British Museum. Its 
date is the commencement of the reign of Henry I, and it sets out the 
landowners in the county of Lincoln at this early period. The MS. 


has not escaped antiquarian notice, for Hearne printed the text in the 
Appendix to his Liber Niger. Hearne's error as to date has been cor- 
rected, and the true one demonstrated, from the internal evidence of the 
record, by the late Mr. T. Staplcton, V.P.S.A., whose manuscript notes 
in connection with the subject are believed to be now deposited in the 
University Library, Edinburgh. The document is in fair condition 
throughout. It now consists of twenty-seven leaves, but was origin- 
ally in the shape of a roll. This is apparent from the condition of the 
parchment, which clearly shews that it has been cut in order to bind it 
in book form. Probably no other county can boast of a similar return. 
From the paucity of historical materials of any kind at the date in 
question, it is extremely desirable to place the evidence which this 
pal apograph ical rarity affords in the hands of scholars. In no other 
way can this be satisfactorily effected but by photography, and a care- 
fully executed photographic fac-simile of the document will be pro- 
duced by Mr. Praetorius. The subscription is £1 Is. per copy. Only 
one hundred copies will be printed. 

A History of the Arts of the Goldsmith and Jeweller in all Ages and all 
Countries, with nearly one thousand illustrations, is in preparation. 
By Joseph Grego and E. Emanuel. 2 vols., super royal 8vo., cloth 
extra. Price £4 4s. — The object is to trace the progress of the arts of 
the goldsmith and jeweller through successive ages and in many 
lands ; at the same time affording representations of good examples of 
those productions best calculated to illustrate the special features of 
the respective schools of artificers, the consideration of which forms the 
motive of the volumes now offered to the public. It may be said that 
these arts were in the past so closely allied with the history of civilisa- 
tion, that the two narratives, advancing simultaneously, are practically 
inseparable. Throughout the social cataclysms which have disturbed 
the condition of nationalities at different periods, these arts, too, have 
ever been the first industries to revive and re-assert their all-prevalent 
influence over the minds of the community. The literature of the sub- 
ject is rich and comprehensive. It may be safely conceded that a life's 
study would still leave many sources unexhausted. 

Archaeological science being of necessity the guiding principle of the 
compilation, the assistance of antiquaries, it was felt, would be the first 
encouragement accorded to an onerous undertaking like the present. 
Students of history will discover that it has been attempted to illus- 
trate the progress of mankind, and the narrative of successive empires, 
through those sumptuous arts, the remains of which still survive to 
attest the high state of culture manifested at remote epochs. Collectors 
of sumptuous objects will find records, descriptions, aud engravings, 
of the chief treasures to be found in national museums and similar 


gatherings of chefs-d'oeuvre. Corporations are concerned in the details 
of those memorials forming the heirlooms of great and ancient commu- 
nities whose traditions extend far back into the past. 

The work will be published by Messrs. Kegan Paul, Trench and Co., 
1 Paternoster Square. 

The Church Plate in the Diocese of Carlisle. — This work will be edited 
by Mr. Ferguson, M.A., F.S.A. Demy 8vo., cloth. Price 15s. With 
numerous woodcuts and lithographs. The old plate, silver, pewter, 
etc., in the diocese of Carlisle, and most of the modern, is carefully 
described, and the hall-marks recorded, and their peculiarities dis- 
cussed. Particular attention is given to old provincial plate, such as 
old York, old Newcastle, etc., of which the diocese affords some fine 
and unique examples. Plate of the Britannia period abounds, and 
search has brought to light many examples of the skill of famous 
makers. A beautiful massing chalice, found at Old Hutton, Westmor- 
land, is engraved in detail for the work, which contains other engrav- 
ings, by Mr. J. D. Cooper, of Elizabethan and seventeenth century 
cups. An Appendix contains an account of the plate in possession of 
the Corporation of Carlisle and of the guilds of that city ; and another 
Appendix deals with the old Newcastle silversmiths. 

The publishers are Messrs. Ch. Thurnam and Sons, Carlisle, to whom 
subscribers should apply. 

The Monumental Brasses of Cornwall. By Edwin H. W. Dunkin, 
Kidbrooke Park, Blackheath, author of The Church Bells of Cornwall. 
Sixty-one Plates, with descriptive Notes. Royal 4to. Price to sub- 
sci'ibers, 25s. — This work, which has been several years in prepai'a- 
tion, contains reductions of all the ancient monumental brasses in 
Cornwall. The drawings have been prepared and transferred with 
great care, so that the smallest details are reproduced. The notes 
contain a large amount of information hitherto unpublished, chiefly 
derived from the Public Recoi'ds, wills, and parish registers. Many 
of the brasses are of great interest, and refer to the Cornish families 
of Arundell, Assheton, Bassett, Bluet, Boscawen, Chiverton, Coryton, 
Cosowarth, Courtney, Curtis, Eryssy, Gerveys, Killigrew, Kingdon, 
Lower, Mohun, Opy, Pendarves, Rashleigh, St. Aubyn, Trencreek, 
and so forth. 

Liverpool Municipal Archives and Records. — Sir James A. Picton hav- 
ing, at the request of the Council, made a careful examination of the 
municipal archives and records for the purpose of preparing a cata- 
logue, finds them so fraught with matters of interest illustrative of the 
history and progress of the town in its municipal affairs, the growth 


of its commerce, as well as its manners and customs, a very small por- 
tion of which have seen the light, that ho thinks it highly desirable 
that a selection from them should be published with the necessary 
annotations. He is willing to undertake the task without any view to 
remuneration, provided a sufficient number of subscribers can be 
secured to defray the expense of printing. He has placed the docu- 
ments in the hands of Mr. G. G. Walmsley, of 50 Lord Street, Liver- 
pool, for that purpose. 

To those who have studied the history of the progress of the city 
and port, these records will supply a large fund of information, whilst 
to the general reader the insight afforded into the laws, institutions, 
manners, and habits of the olden time will well repay attentive perusal. 
The experience of the compiler in collecting materials for his previous 
Memorials will be a sufficient guarantee for the efficiency of the edit- 
in"-. The work is intended to be printed on old style paper, 4to. size. 
The volume will probably contain about 450 pages and a copious index. 
The price to subscribers will be 20s. After publication the price will 
be raised to 25s. 

Ancient Scottish Weapons. A series of Drawings by the late James 
Dkummond, R.S.A., with Introduction and descriptive Notes by Joseph 
Anderson, Custodier of the National Museum of Antiquities, Edin- 
burgh (G. Waterston, Edinburgh and London, 1881). — This is an ex- 
haustive work upon the weapons, offensive and defensive, used from 
early historic ages by the natives of Scotland. It consists of fifty- 
four large folio plates in richly and carefully coloured chromolitho- 
graphy of the finest style, representing targets, broadswords, dirks, 
powder-horns, Lochaber axes, halberds, brooches, bagpipes, harps, 
methers or drinking cups, spades, and implements with descriptions 
in detail. The Introduction, by Mr. Anderson, whose work upon 
Scotland in Early Christian Times was noticed in a recent part of 
our Journal, treats of the characteristics of the dress and parapher- 
nalia of the Highlanders in reference to modern archaeological and 
artistic research, and points out the value of Mr. Drummond's Col- 
lection of Drawings, which, apart from their intrinsic merits as the 
work of one specially devoted to the illustration of whatever was dis- 
tinctively national in the history and art of Scotland, are unrivalled 
in range and variety, and thoroughly representative in character. 
These drawings are now preserved in the Library of the Society of 
Antiquaries of Scotland, with which the artist had so long and so 
intimately been connected. Mr. Anderson prefaces to them a learned 
dissertation upon the Highland dress, first mentioned in Icelandic 
Sagas, the dress shewn on sculptured stones, the tartan and the plaid, 


the trews, and the " Feilc Beg " or little kilt; and another on the 
Highland armour of mail and plate, with especial examination of the 
development of military equipments in the 16th and 17th centuries, 
and the late use of bows and arrows. The whole of the introductory 
text is replete with information of an attractive charactei% and the 
student of Scottish Archaeology will find little unsaid with regard to 
this especial branch of his research. A similar work to this, treating 
of English arms, British, Celtic, Roman, and Mediaeval, and illus- 
trated in the same liberal and artistic way, would be invaluable. The 
production of this one reflects great credit upon all concerned in it, 
and we are not surprised that it has had a successful issue. In her 
recent antiquarian publications Scotland has evinced great improve- 
ment, as we have taken opportunity of pointing out before, and this, 
the latest production of the Scottish press, will bear comparison with 
the best works of this class which England, or indeed any other country, 
has lately produced. We hope Mr. Anderson will take upon himself 
some day to prepare a companion volume to this upon the prehistoric 
weapons and implements of his country. 

Le Havre a" Autrefois, Reproduction cVanciens Tableaux, Dessins, Gra- 
vures, etc., se rattacliant de la Ville du Havre. Texte par M. Charles 
Rcessler, Membre de la Commission des Antiquites de la Seine- 
Inferieure. 3 Rue de la Bourse, Havre. — From the prospectus of this 
important work we give the following extracts : 

"Nous avons maintes fois entendu exprimer le regret qu'aucun ou- 
vrao-e ne reproduisitles anciens monuments de notre ville, sa physiono- 
mie d'autrefois, les scenes les plus curieuses de ses annales, ne fut en 
un mot pour le Havre ce qu'ont ete, pour la capitale de la France et 
pour celle de la Normandie, des publications hautement appreciees, 
telles que Paris a. tr avers les ages, Paris a tr avers les siecles, Rouen dis- 
paru, Rouen qui s'en va, etc. C'est qu'en effet l'histoire graphique du 
Havre n'a pas encore ete faite, et par la nous entendons ce complement 
necessaire, sous forme de gravures, de son histoire ecrite, ce commen- 
taire dessine des descriptions et des recits qui la composent. 

" Tandis que le Havre d'aujourd'hui peut etre assurg que le souvenir 
de ses monuments actuels, des evenements auxquels nous assistons, 
traversera les siecles perpetue par cent precedes differents, le Havre 
d'autrefois s'enfonce dans le passe sans laisser de lui-meme d'autres 
traces que quelques dessins, quelques estampes, qui chaque jour se font 
plus rares, chaque jour s'eparpillent d'une fac,on plus irremediable, 
livres a, l'indifference des uns et a l'incurie des autres. II nous a sem- 
ble qu'il y avait urgence de grouper ces debris des temps qui ne sont 
plus, et d'en assurer la conservation a l'aide de reproductions qui au- 
ront le double avantage de multiplier les epreuves la ou il n'en existe 


plus qu'un petit nombre, ct de ramener an jour des fcr&ors historiquea 
dont nos concitoyens ne soupconnent memo pas l'existcnce. 

"M. Charles Rcessler, Membre do la Commission des Anfiquites de 
la Seine-Inferieure, lament de l'lustitut, a bicn voulu se charger de 
dresser le catalogue des documents conserves an Havre, a Rouen, ct a 
Londres. Un travail du meme genre, pour ce qui concerns Ies biblio- 
fcheques publiques et les collections dc Paris, a etc execute par M. Bou- 
chot, ancien clove de l'ecole de Chartrcs, attache au departement des 
estampes dc la Bibliotheque Rationale. C'est a l'aido de ce double 
catalogue que nous avons arrete la liste des objets qui nous out para 
devoir etre rcproduits dans notre ouvrage. Cet inventaire, que nous 
nous sommes efforces de rendre aussi complet que possible, sera publie 
dans la dernidre livraison. Les notices qui accompagncnt chaque 
planche ont etc redigees par M. Cb. Rcessler, ou extraites par lui de 
documents originaux, souvent peu connus ; l'auteur a pense que le 
commentaire de nos planches presenterait un interet plus reel, s'il etaifc 
extrait directement des memoires de l'epoque que s'il revetait la forme 
de dissertations. Ainsi, les citations qui figurent dans la notice sur le 
bombardement du Havre en 1759 ont 6te tirees des Memoires de M. Mil- 
lot, echevin de la ville a cette gpoque ; de meme les details sur Sarlabos 
et la cheminee du Logis du Roi sont la reproduction de passages des 
Memoires de Marceilles, premier chroniqueur du Havre. 

"Le Havre d' Autrefois sera publie en douze livraisons. Chaque livrai- 
son sera compose de 5 ou 6 planches accompagnees de notices explica- 
tives. Le prix de la livraison, en papier superfin, des papeteries du 
Marais, est de F. 5. II ne sera pas vendu de livraison separee. II 
paraitra environ une livraison par mois. La liste des souscripteurs 
sera imprimee a la fin du volume. Les souscripteurs aux editions de 
luxe auront droit a, l'impression de leurs noms sur le faux titre." 

Scotland Sixty Years Ago. — Since our notice of the proposed issue 
of these fine copper-plate etchings, given at p. 244, we are gratified 
to be able to draw the attention of archaeologists to the completion 
of the work, which fully realises the favourable anticipations then 
recorded. The collection forms a magnificent portfolio of Scottish 
views ; some shewing the nascent condition of towns then quiet and 
secluded, but now busy with, operatives and resonant with the din 
of work ; others reproducing rural scenes and suburban landscapes 
which are, perhaps, even now but little altered from their ancient 
state. The marvellous labour which has been expended upon these 
illustrations has resulted in giving them the appearance of sepia or 
monochrome paintings rather than of the work of a graver. But few 
copies remain unsubscribed for, and immediate application should be 
made by intending purchasers. 



Pedigrees of Roman Catholic Families. (Laicson MSS.) — The distri- 
bution of this work, according to a notice issued by Stephen Tucker, 
Esq., Somerset Herald, and J. Jackson Howard, Esq., LL.D., will be in 
the hands of Mr. L. Hartley, Middleton Lodge, Richmond, Yorkshire. 
It will be issued in Parts (royal folio). Each Part will contain the 
pedigrees and histories of not less than two families, and will be priced 
at two guineas. The whole may extend to fifty Parts, and form six 
volumes.' The impression is limited to two hundred and fifty copies, 
and we believe it to be Mr. Hartley's intention to give the first option 
of subscription to the heads of the various families whose collections 
will be included in the work. 

Catalogue of the Antiquities in the Mayer Museum, Liverpool. — Mr. 
G. G. Walmsley of 50 Lord Street, Liverpool, announces that, with the 
permission of the Committee of the Livei'pool Free Public Library and 
Museum, he is about to issue, by subscription, the above Catalogue, 
illustrated with autotype plates. These plates are taken from the ex- 
amples of mediaeval art given to Liverpool by J. Mayer, Esq., F.S.A. 
The specimens chosen for reproduction include unique and important 
examples of the ivory carvings, MSS., enamels, miniatures, etc. In 
issuing this work the publisher desires to place in the hands of those 
who take an interest in the Mayer Museum a series of plates, with de- 
tailed descriptions, of those works of art, which shall be a source of 
intellectual pleasure and interest to the general public, and of real 
service to the antiquaiy and student. The woi-k will be brought out 
under the editorship and personal superintendence of Mr. C. T. Gatty, 
F.S.A., Curator of the Museum. It is proposed to issue the work in 
demy 4to. size, extending to about 150 pages, with twenty plates ; the 
price to subscribers, 21s. The number of copies will be limited to 300. 

The Dene Holes in Essex. — The singular deep excavations in the 
upper chalk in Kent and Essex, which are locally known as " dene 
holes ", have long exercised the ingenuity of antiquarians without, as 
yet, any proved solution of their origin or purpose. The work of ex- 
ploration of these antiquities in the latter county, which belong, pos- 
sibly, in many cases at least, to the very earliest periods of human 
history, is being undertaken by the Essex Field Club, and their labours 
may be expected to bring forth interesting information. It is already 
known that these dene holes are not all of the same period, but that 
enlargements of some have taken place since the time when iron picks 
were employed, unless it can hereafter be demonstrated that there wero 
bronze picks of the same form before the age of iron. There is, how- 
ever, a conviction that these holes are of very great and most probably 
pre-historic origin. The sujrposition that they were subterranean 


granaries is very reasonable. From the lines of ancient ditches, which 
in some instances are found on the surface in connection with the 
holes, the notion has arisen that such may have been employed as pit- 
falls for the capture of wild cattle or deer. The grouping of numbers 
of these dene holes in certain limited spaces, as at Cavey Spring and 
Stankey, at Jordan's Wood in Kent, and at Hangman's Wood, near 
Grays, in Essex, presents the appearance, when mapped, of being the 
sites of villages. The connections of these underground wof-ks with 
the ancient camps and hut circles, ancient roads and boundaries, and 
their associations with the topographical names of places in the neigh- 
bourhood or surrounding district, will also throw light upon their 
history and object. 

The scene of the latest operations was a small, pretty wood, in 
almost primitive wildness, situated on the flat table land of tertiary 
geological age, on the estate of Captain Wingfield, by the permission 
of whose agent, Mr. Bidell, the explorations have been made. The 
geological section is shown in the excavation of the circular vertical 
shaft, which descends like a well hole to the chambers below in this 
descending order— gravel 5ft., Thanet sand 53ft. ; beyond which the 
secondary strata of upper chalk are penetrated to a further depth of 
22ft., making the total depth of the entrance shaft 80ft. Its diameter 
is about 3ft. ; but its form is now funnel shaped at the upper part by 
the falling in of the sands from around the orifice at the surface, 
where originally the shaft was probably of no greater diameter than 
below. The descent was, through the courtesy of Messrs. Brookes 
and Co., of the Gray's Chalk Quarries, conveniently made in a wooden 
cage attached to a rope worked over sheer-legs by a winch. Having 
made the descent, the visitor stood upon a conical mound of sand, 
which had fallen in and trickled away in all directions. Around were 
lofty chambers excavated in the white chalk, the exact horizon of the 
strata being clearly indicated by the thin two-inch thick line of black 
tabular flints so well known to geologists. The chambers were in 
height about 18ft. and in breadth about 12ft., the walls perpendicular, 
and the roofs nicely arched. The plan of the chambers, which are six 
in number, is that of a double trefoil, each set of three being disposed 
on each side of the descending shaft. In the north-west and south- 
east direction the extreme length from the end of the one chamber to 
the end of the other is about 70ft. ; in the other direction the two sets 
of parallel chambers are severally in similar extreme length about 
46ft. This symmetry in the arrangement and the similarity in the 
arched form of all the chambers is adverse to the theory which has 
been propounded of their having been ancient marl pits for the appli- 
cation of the excavated chalk to the cultivation of the soil. The floors 
ot the chambers are covered to some depth by a mouldy black humus, 


commingled in which are numerous small fragments of soft rotten 
wood. The humus is such as might well have been produced in the 
lapse of ages by the decay of corn or other grain, and is very like the 
dark soil produced by the decay of refuse malt from brewhouses. 

The example dene hole under examination would appear to be either 
one that is of a later period, or which has been subsequently enlarged 
at a much later date than its origin, as there are everywhere marks 
of the tool by which the excavations were effected, and the diagonal 
positions of which, from proper right to left on the surface, would 
accord with the blows of a pick. It must be borne in mind, however, 
that there are undoubted examples of far more primitive means of 
operation. No ancient remains of animals nor any other relics were 
discovered. A few semi-recent bones of dogs and sheep, with the 
gelatine still remaining in them, were turned up from the superficial 
sand, being those of animals which had fallen in through the open 
entrance. Indeed, as there are no fewer than seventy-two of these 
dene pits within the very limited area of Hangman's Wood, the scene 
of these explorations will be found a place of no small danger by 
strangers who may trespass within its limits in poaching for archaeolo- 
gical lore. 

A meeting was held, during July last, in the saloon of the Mansion 
House, for the purpose of eliciting public support in aid of the ex- 
plorations recently carried on by Mr. Wood at Ephesus. Mr. Wood 
explained by plans and diagrams how the Temple of Diana was formed, 
and what might be expected to be brought to light if the excavations 
were continued to the end. At the same time he directed the atten- 
tion to some very fine sculptures and drums of columns exhibited in 
the British Museum, photographs of which he exhibited to the meet- 
ing, one of which has been lately illustrated in the Journal. With 
the chance of adding other magnificent specimens of Greek archi- 
tecture, a sum of £5,000 was required, and it was to obtain this 
amount that the meeting had been called. Professor C. T. Newton 
spoke of the further discoveries which were likely to be made illustra- 
tive of Greek architecture, sculpture, and inscriptions. He moved : — 
"That the complete excavation of the Temple of Diana at Ephesus is 
an object well worthy of support from the nation, which now possesses, 
in the British Museum, the only portions of the beautiful sculptures 
as yet discovered of the temple, and that a subscription list be at 
once opened for the purpose." Professor Donaldson seconded the 
proposition, and it was adopted unanimous^, and the meeting con- 
cluded with a vote of thanks to the Lord Mayor for his kindness in 
taking (lie chair. 


BittMj arcliaeoloflical Association. 





(Read May 17, 1882.) 

The old Norman west front of Lichfield Cathedral appeal's 
to have existed down to the period of the Episcopate of 
Bishop de Meyland, Meulan, or Longespee, 1257-9G, hy 
whom a design for a rebuilding was obtained, probably 
from an architect of France, the country where most of 
his life was spent. With the French climate also the un- 
usual feature of an external stone seat found at Lichfield 
was much more in harmony. The new design had been 
prepared, as many singular peculiarities seem to evidence, 
for a loftier and broader building. When committed 1 1 1 
the hands of the Chapter for execution, it had suffered 
change sufficient to fit in with the existing and then 
recently erected eastern parts. Their new commencement 
began at the crux (see ground-plan of Cathedral) working 
outwards. Apparently they utilised the existing Norman 
front wall, leaving it to serve as a hoarding to fill up the 
gap, and break the force of the south-west wind and rains. 
Through this wall slits seem to have been cut barely 
wide enough to produce through them, westwards, the 
nave-arches and work over. Beyond it, so much only of 
the east sides of the proposed western towers was carried 
up as should merely block the new roofs arid vaulting of 
aisles (a feature over the nave executed only in wood), as 
yet, therefore, alone executed. The foundations of the 

rest of the towers and west end proper bad been only 

1882 25 


made, which lower and western stage of the end thus 
became the very last work undertaken ; and about a period 
when, from the here forced appointment, in 1282-9, of a 
coadjutor bishop (practically de facto), as also the demand 
by the first Edward of one half of the incomes of the 
clergy in 1291, had so diverted the supplies as necessi- 
tated a great curtailment of the design. This is exhibited 
in a variety of minute ways ; but specially so in the aban- 
donment of the great west buttresses intended to give 
depth of light and shade to the front, whose foundations, 
constructed in great measure out of the old Norman orna- 
mented stonework, still exist below ground. (See ground- 
plan, "33. 83".) The change is seen also in the compres- 
sion rather than abandonment of the centre porch, now 
thrust inward into the plan of the nave. 

The design, with its many engrafted variations, appears 
to have attained, at the period of Bishop de Meyland's 
death in 1295, just so far as the top surface of the caps 
in niches containing kings, (a. a., diagram of west end.) 
A delay of some years then evidently ensued. So long as 
this period of building lasted, the greater durability of 
the white sandstone (that found underlying the red) was 
acknowledged by its general use for the main part of the 
decorative features ; the red being retained, as far as pos- 
sible, for the ashlar walling or other simple works. Hence, 
internally and externally, the whole of the work of 
Bishoji) de Meyland's period is marked by this constructive 
coloured decoration ; which excellent practical arrange- 
ment unfortunately became abandoned upon the recom- 
mencement of the works by Bishop Langton, much to the 
disadvantage of the building. 

Bishop Langton, while retaining the French architect's 
idea in a general way, yet crushed down its proportions, 
and tampered with its parts (b.b.) ; the gradual advance 
in the style introducing a coarser treatment of the arch- 
mould sections, wherein is wanting that delicacy seen in 
those of the lower stage. The jambs, but not the mullions, 
of the great west window belong to his work, which appears 
to terminate in the string below the belfrey-stage. Above 
this line all belongs to his successor in the see, Bishop de 
Northburg, under whom a marked abandonment of the 
Frenchman's design followed (c.c.c): a change most un- 
pleasani ly presented in the groups of pinnacles feebly con- 


nected with their base, which replace the intended gabled 
termination of the buttresses al the south-east and north- 
east angles of the respective towers. This departure from 
the original designs is seen in a variety of other things. 

On the new design his architect lavished those abund- 
ant rows of ball-flowers which so enrich its appearance, 
while with better taste he increased again the heights 
of its parts beyond the intentions of the director of the 
work of Langton. The addition of the wanting mullions 
and tracery of the west window devolved on him. These 
new features are found to have been thickly powdered 
over with the same abundance of ball-flowers as those 
seen on the belfry^stage, though they are entirely want- 
ing on the jambs executed in the Langton period. The 
completion of the spires, if both existed, belongs to the 
time of Bishop de Northburg, whose singularly elegant 
south-west one, with its beautiful proportions and outline, 
are so well known. This results from the admirable judg- 
ment his architect herein displayed, — a result produced 
and accompanied by some marked peculiarities. Thus, 
in a spire whose clear internal width was so great as 
20 feet 4 inches, it would have been difficult indeed to 
give an entasis or swell whose result should undoubtedly 
prove satisfactory in execution. His plan perfectly accom- 
plished this, while he abandons the old method entirely 
by adopting instead the idea of a spire divisible into three 
parts. Of these, the upper and lower divisions have their 
angles provided with bold rolls, both sides of which are 
ornamented with plain balls or pellets (into which shape, 
by this date, the ball-flowers had generally changed). One 
stone alone, on the north side of the lowest west spire- 
light, had had these cut into leaves, but abandoned, from 
the ordinary pellet being found much more effective at the 
height. The angles of the central division were furnished 
by him with two of these rolls, between which alone the 
pellets are introduced. He thus produced all the advan- 
tages of a swell, though none exists; the lines of the spire- 
walls being 'perfectly straight; their rectangular section 
throughout being not more than 1) j ins.; and on the hori- 
zontal bed, \)\ ins. lie appeals to have also had a rule of 
propori ions by which he arranged the various spire-lights, 
so that their projection might but just lend proper spirit 
to the shape of his spire, bu1 not vi1 iate its outline. 


From the existing remains of the Figures of the Kings, 
many of whose beautifully designed and admirably sculp- 
tured heads now, alas ! form ornamental rockwork in the 
garden of the Cathedral chapter clerk, and in the grounds 
of Arthur Hinckley, Esq. , at Stowe, there remains no doubt 
that, exclusive of the figures which belonged to the 
belfry-stage of the north-west tower, all the others which 
adorned the front, dated from the time of Bishop de 
Northburg ; to whose age had also existed the very ori- 
gi rial drawing, the production of the French architect. A 
singular circumstance seems to prove this; for in the lower 
stage of the nave-buttresses, gablets are found presenting 
unusual sections of mouldings repeating nowhere else up- 
wards, till (strange to say) in the gablets of the large 
pinnacles surrounding the base of his spire are found 
almost actual transcripts. Which fact can scarcely other- 
wise be accounted for than by the supposition that the 
large parchment sheets on which the French architect 
made his design, while mostly covered thereby, yet left 
certain blank spaces at the base and upper angles, whereon 
he had rudely sketched the peculiar sections proposed for 
use; and in this way certain used below were here again 
ready at top, to the hand of the master mason of the 
very last period, who thus here reproduces tolerably close 
copies of a class of work elsewhere long since disused. 

The belfry-stage of the North- West Tower retains but 
scanty fragments of Bishop de Northburg's work. The 
largest is that seen to the south of the belfry-window in 
the east wall. The other two sides retain the scantiest of 
traces in their sills. The arrangement for glass in these, 
however, and the glass groove in the fragment in the 
east window-jamb, together with the fact of glass grooves 
appearing in the windows of the south-west tower, and 
having existed long enough to wear out more than one 
set of iron bars, conclusively prove that no bells could 
have for some time existed in either tower. 

For the necessity of rebuilding the upper part of the 
North-West Tower, no reason or cause can be assigned. 
The remaining slight traces of the early work of Bishop 
de Northburg are good and sound ; but they do not afford 
any suggestion. This rebuilding (d.d.d. of west front of 
diagram) took place late in Perpendicular times. As a 
mediaeval copy it is probably unique, not only for its size 



o ^ ^ 


but for the amount of actual decorative features copied. 
No account of such rebuilding is at present known bo 
exist ; but as the vaulting under the central and western 
towers appears not to have been completed until the time 
of Dean Denton, 1522-1532, whose arms appear ornament- 
ing the bosses of both western vaults (and he is known 
to have built largely at Lichfield and other places), it 
may have been executed during the ten years while he 
was Dean of Lichfield. The four figures of this date, orna- 
menting its west and north faces, probably represent per- 
sons engaged in this rebuilding; that to the north face of 
the staircase nearest the Deanery may be intended for 
the Dean himself. 

Singularly enough, the actual belfry-stage, from base- 
string up to under parapet, is just 1 foot 7\ inches less in 
height than its south-west neighbour. Its spire was also 
less ; a difference which the Chapter attempted to over- 
come, not very successfully, by an elongation, when in 
1841 they rebuilt 42 feet of the original top (f on diagram 
of front, e being an earlier rebuilding). 

The complete state of the front design is handed down 
with singular accuracy in Hollar's fine etching which 
adorns good old Fuller's Church History. This etching- 
must have been taken from a larger and really admirable 
drawing by Samuel Kyrk, 1 which was made for Elias Ash- 
mole prior to the civil war, probably in 1620. This draw- 
ing, had it been but recoverable, would, from its extreme 
accuracy, have been the most valuable representation left 
us of any English cathedral of so early a date ; of late 
reduced to a sort of plaster-model, whose carefully con- 
structed cement clothing covered but a skeleton whose 
bones were twisted clothes-lines and nails ! 

The reconstruction, in solid materials, of the magnifi- 
cent front of the Mercian cathedral will ever record that 
period of the fabric's history when the Chapter were pre- 
sided over by the Very Keverend Dean E. Bickersteth, 
the change being solely owing to his unwearied exertions, 
wherein he has been spared and permitted to effect and 
draw towards a close results whose gains had required, in 
an earlier day, both the lives and wealth of not less than 
at least three bishops of the see, each having been men of 
considerable mark in their day. 

1 Kyrk was probably a native of Lichfield. 






(Read August 1881.) 

I propose to select the records of three of the boroughs 
with which I am acquainted. I have no reason to sup- 
pose that they have more special points of interest than 
scores of others in England: indeed, neither of these towns 
is, or ever has been, of leading importance in English his- 
tory. Neither of them has ever reached 12,000 inhabitants ; 
nor probably, during the period referred to, above 4,000. 
One of them is comparatively a modern town. And yet, 
I think, even here we find some points worth considera- 
tion. The one point in which they may possess any ad- 
vantage over other towns is that they are the three chief 
towns of the Land's End district, — a district somewhat cut 
off from the rest of England until these railway days, — 
and that thus local life may have developed itself more 
than in towns nearer London. 

Early History of Marazion. — The chief of these towns, 
from a historic point of view, is Marazion or Marketjew, 
the small town close to St. Michael's Mount. If that 
Mount be indeed the Ictis of Diodorus (of which some 
doubts are now expressed), the great tin-mart of the 
ancient Britons, then the town might be regarded as one 
of the oldest in Great Britain. Not above three miles 
from it are the very interesting remains of Chysauster ; 
and in the neighbourhood some of the most curious 
remains of the primitive Celtic population to be found in 
Great Britain. These remains shew that Penwith was 
further advanced in civilisation, or rather house-building, 
than one would suppose. The multitude of remains in 
Penwith (apparently anterior to the Roman conquest) shew 
that the population must have been considerable even at 
an early date, and in a state a good deal above mere 


Penzance, as I need hardly say, is a comparatively 
modern borough, originating, possibly, in the markets held 
in Alverton, at the head of the bay; it was burnt by the 
Spaniards in 1595, and takes a certain position from the 
time of James I, when it received its charter. 

St. J res, in spite of its legends about St. la and the 
martyrdom of Christian missionaries at Porthia (its ancient 
designation), can hardly have existed as a town prior to 
the reign of Henry IV, when the church — a very curious, 
old building with exceedingly fine wood carvings— was 
erected. On the decay of Lelant, once the chief port on 
St. Ives' Bay, it assumed a certain importance, and took 
a position in English history. 

John tie Vere. — As we have been dwelling on the Wars 
of the Roses at Malvern, the chief event connecting them 
with Marazion may be worth noting. It occurred in 1471, 
the date we have been concerned w T ith chiefly of late. John 
de Vere, Earl of Oxford, after his defeat at Barnet fled to 
Milford Haven, and thence to Cornwall. He reached 
Mount's Bay in disguise, and with his followers made a 
pilgrimage to St. Michael's Mount. As soon as he entered 
the island fastness he declared it to belong to Henry VI, 
and took possession of it. Here he fortified himself. John 
Arundel, Sheriff of Cornwall, was ordered by Edward IV 
to advance with the posse comitatus of Cornwall to Mara- 
zion. He summoned the Earl of Oxford to surrender, but 
in vain. An attempt was then made to storm the Mount. 
The Lancastrians then made a sally, and Sir John Arun- 
del was killed, fulfilling the prophecy, — 

" When upon the yellow sand 
Thou shalt die by human hand", 

— a prophecy which had forced him before then to quit 
his house at Efford, and reside inland. 

The Markets. — The first question opened by the consi- 
deration of our Cornish borough records is, Were towns 
generally formed, as our Cornish ones were, in connection 
with markets? Penzance and Marazion certainly were 
pre-eminently market towns. The name of the latter cer- 
tainly, I tli ink, contains the Cornish for market in it, as 
"Marketjew", its later English form. It is "a town of 
tin- market" assuredly. St. Ives stands out as Porthia, as 


a port as well as a market, In Penwith (i.e., the Land's 
End district) there once was another market town more 
central in position, i.e., Buryan, which now has sunk to 
a village. 

The Names of the Towns. — Very many of the Cornish 
towns, including each of those I am especially consider- 
ing, have two or more names, e.g., Marazion is called also 
Marghasion and Marketjew, St. Ives is called Porthia, Pen- 
zance was called Buriton. But there are not a few cases 
in which towns have a double name, e.g., Launceston was 
called Dunheved. Out of Cornwall there are many fami- 
liar instances, e.g., Plymouth as Sutton, Salisbury as 
Sarum, etc. Thus we find the custom which often con- 
fuses English travellers abroad applies to parts of their 
own native land, e.g., Koln for Cologne, Aachen for Aix- 
la-Chapelle, Basel for Bale, Praha for Prag. 

The same causes, i.e., concurrent languages, or a combin- 
ation of two towns, are here at work. It seems Buriton 
was a part of Penzance, but Marketjew is a sort of attempt 
to translate Marghasiew. Porthia is a Cornish form of 
the port of St. Ives. Thus we see the same law at work 
as confuses us on the Continent, each name taking its 
duplex form, as at Basel or Koln. Here, however, we 
have the old Celtic, or Cornu-British, running almost con- 
currently with the English. In practice it may be true 
that one name dominates, for Marazion even is rarely 
called Marketjew, and never Marghasiew now ; but for 
all that, whatever the rule may be as to common conver- 
sation, in old documents we are reminded of old names. 

Light on the Subject thrown b>j the Documents. — In the 
charter, and in borough documents since, we have the 
town spelt as Margasiewe ; and in a deed of 1807 it is so 
quoted as Margasiewe, alias Marazion. The topic of the 
name of Marazion has learnedly been discussed at great 
length by Professor Max Miiller in his Chips from a Ger- 
man Workshop, vol. iii, cap. xiv. A fantastic derivation was 
suggested for Marazion from the Hebrew, i.e., " Bitter", 
Marah ; " Zion", Sion. This was most improbable ; and 
Prof. Max Miiller shews pretty conclusively that the mora 
or margha is really "market"; the Cornish form of the 
Latin word mercatus, which the Cornishmen adopted 
possibly after the Roman conquest, The ion he accounts 


for as being a mere plural ending " ion ". The variations of 
the name are very great, e.g., Merkiu, Meerceueu (Carew), 
Marhesin, Marhin (Leland), Markysyw, Marchew, Mar- 
gew, Machasyowe (William of Worcester), Marghasiewe, 
Marchaseyownog, Marchadyon (1257). The mediaeval 
meaning was " Thursday's market". 

Among the names of the places in the parish which 
are fixed in the records are : Park-an-Venton (enclosure 
by the fountain, or the enclosed fountain), Tol Radden, 
Adjoreeth, Henfer Gollie, Gwallan. So Marazion can boast 
of its share of curious old Cornish names. 

The Cornish rebellion of 1549 seems to have marked an 
era in the history of these Cornish boroughs, to judge by 
the charters themselves, and also by local legends. It is 
said that Marazion was a town of at least relative import- 
ance during the middle ages, Marketjew being the little 
urbs of the Land's End district, or Penwith. Many are 
the stories of old folklore that gather around this town ; 
and when a town is brought into the "droll", Marketjew 
is the place selected, not St. Ives, nor Mousehole, nor even 
Buryan, still less Penzance. Thus John of St. Levan 
meets with his town adventures in Marketjew, where the 
villains of the story are hanged. This is the sole ancient 
"droll" in the Cornish language. Also, when the Lord of 
Pengersic (the Cornish Faust) receives his mysterious 
Mephistopheles, it is to Marketjew the visitor comes, who 
carries him on from his castle, with his fairy wife. So in 
Jack the Tinkeard it appears as a town ; and also in the 
legend of the Brewer Mayor of Marketjew. 

This view of its being the largest town of the district 
is supported in the borough charter of Elizabeth of 1595. 
The town is called Marghasiewe, and was formerly "a mer- 
cantile town of great repute, until the said town, by the 
impious fury of false rebels and traitors against Ed- 
ward the Sixth was by them destroyed and laid 

waste. The building and edifices of the same town are 
now in great decay, ruin, and desolation." So Queen 
Elizabeth, to remedy these evils, enacted that they should 
have the privileges of a borough, under the name, "Mayor, 
Burgesses, and Inhabitants, of the Town of Marghasiewe." 
There were to be eight burgesses and twelve principal 


The borough charter of Penzance is a large roll of 
parchment written over in black letter, with the seal of 
James I attached. The preamble sets forth " that our 
vill of Penzance is an ancient vill and port, both populous 
and of great force and strength" (in this there was cer- 
tainly exaggeration) "to resist the enemies that shall there 
invade, and defend the country there adjoining" (here we 
see reference to the armament of the town), " and is also 
a vill that exercised merchandize from time wherein the 
memory of men existeth not; and also having much com- 
merce in and upon the high sea by means of the port of 
the same vill ; and whereas the inhabitants of the same 
vill in times past have been manifoldly burthened and 
daily heavily burthened with expense in fortification and 
defence of the vill aforesaid, and to the fort of the same 

and especially in the taking and apprehending of 

pirate and marine felons, and robbers upon the high sea ; 
and very lately in the new erection and reedifying the 
vill aforesaid, which was by the invasion of the Spaniards 
demolished and burnt, to the injury of the inhabitants." 

The borough maces of Marazion are of some age. The 
older set is of iron coated with silver, having inscribed on 
it two circles surrounding a central rose, with the inscrip- 
tion, "John Asie, Mayor of the Towne and Boroughe of 
Marcasiewe." The date, unfortunately, is effaced ; but it 
is believed to be shortly after the charter, as John Asie is 
marked as second burgess in that document. If of 1596, 
or the sixteenth century, it would be, I believe, among 
our oldest borough maces. The modern set is of 1768. 
The Mayor's staff of office is of the date of 1684. 

The arms of the town of Marazion are three castles 
argent on a field gules, with a knight's helm crowned with 
a castle. The two copies of the borough arms in the 
Town Hall itself differ essentially. The one of the mayor- 
alty of William Bains, in 1748, gives the three castles 
with a single tower castellated ; that of the mayoralty of 
William Cornish, 1770, gives the castles with three towers 
each, roofed in. Both sets of castles are ornamented with 
crosses; but in Cornish's set of arms there are four crosses 
to each castle ; in Bains' only two. I think the royal 
arms of the Town Hall are of the date of Queen Anne, 
dated 1712. The Penzance royal arms in the Guildhall 


are also of the same period, and said to be taken from the 
wreck of Sir Cloudesley Shovel's sliij). Was I his a com- 
mon period for putting royal arms up in town halls '. 

The borough arms of Penzance are St. John the Bap- 
tist's head on a charger. The story is that James I, w hen 
he gave the charter to the borough, asked the meaning of 
the name Penzance. He was informed that it was a com- 
pound of two Cornish words, i.e., "pen", meaning head (a 
word which runs through Celtic languages, and which 
some supposed is connected by common Aryan origin with 
the Latin caput); and "sans", holy, a Cornish word pro- 
bably adopted from the Latin sanctus. The King said 
that it must be a holy head ; and then, as he could think 
of nothing but the head of St. John the Baptist, he gave 
this. There may be some doubt, however, whether the 
town arms are not connected with the Knights Hospital- 
lers at Madron. The name Holy Head is also disputed. 
If it was, pen would still mean a headland or cape, as it is 
constantly used in Cornish, where we have 

" The Tre, Pol, and Pen, 
By winch you know the Cornishmen." 1 

The sans is suspicious. Sawn, a sandy bay, has been sug- 
gested as very appropriate. A headland in a sandy bay 
is a fairly accurate derivation. But be it as it may, the 
arms of Penzance always have been the head of St. John 
the Baptist in a charger. 

Before speaking of the documents themselves, perhaps 
the most interesting question that suggests itself would 
be, in what language were they written ? I suppose you 
all are aware that the old Cornish language was a tongue 
totally distinct from the English, and not even belonging 
to the same Teutonic family. It was a Celtic language 
of the Cymric division, nearly akin to the Welsh, but st ill 
nearer to the Breton. When an English stranger was 
passing through Cornwall in the days when part of the 
Marazion documents, and not a few of our parish registers 
were written, and asked his way. he might have met with 
the reply, " Mee a navidra cawsa Sawznech." "I do not 
know how to speak Saxon." 

1 "By Tre, Ros, Pol, Lan, Caer, and Pen, 
You may know most Cornishmen." 


In the reign of Henry VIII, the eccentric physician 
Andrew Borde wrote his glossary for English travellers in 
Cornwall; and up to the time of James I there were two 
lanffuaeres concurrent in Cornwall, i.e., Cornish, and what 
Borde calls "naughty English". As late as 1611 a miracle 
play was written in Cornish, and probably acted for many 
years after. 

In what language would public documents be ? In spite 
of the prevalence of Cornish as a vernacular tongue, I am 
not aware of any official or legal documents in it. All its 
existing written remains are the miracle plays ; the little 
epic Mount Calvary; a song or two; and a story, probably 
very late; a few proverbs ; and some family mottoes. The 
legal documents appear to have been all Latin or Norman 
French, and at the period we consider English (somewhat 
" naughty English" occasionally), or English with a few 
words which are now accounted provincialisms, and con- 
structions which seem to shew that even the officials who 
wrote the entries were imperfectly acquainted with the 
language. Whether this is usual in old English boroughs 
I must leave you to decide. If so, it was merely the 
result of defective education usual in town officials in, say 
the seventeenth century. If the Cornish case is singular, 
then it might be argued that the people were gradually 
passing from one language to another, and were in the 
state that some of the Welsh and Highlanders in remote 
parts are at present. 

It is a curious thing to notice how few official traces of 
Cornish there are, or how slight is the evidence of its 
having been used by the upper classes in Cornwall even 
during the middle ages. All the ancient epitaphs and 
inscriptions are either Latin or Norman French. Of the 
latter, more traces remain than we should suppose are in 
the Cornish dialect. When English dominated, however, 
after the Reformation, it became quite established in use. 
However, in the Register of Paul parish, near Penzance, 
where there is a record of the destruction of the church 
by the Spaniards in Elizabeth's reign, we have a Latin 
entry. In this church there is, perhaps, the only Cornish 
epitaph extant. 

Census under Charles II. — A question arises, was it a 
common custom before the governments of Europe had 


established the usage of a national census, for cities and 
boWns from time to time to have a local census % I think 
it must have been so, for how often in mediaeval history 
do we find records of the number of troops to be raised 
by a city ? Not merely in England, but in most of the 
cities of the Continent, there must have been an occasional 
census. To speak of cases on which I have made in- 
quiries, I think there is no doubt that a census was held 
occasionally of the cities of Cracow and of Gniesn during 
the middle ages, the statements of chroniclers being so 
minute; also probably of the Flemish cities and the Hanse 
Towns. But these probably were mere lists of the male 
inhabitants. As to females, I do not think the evidence 
of a census is so strong. But what has become of the 
records of these ancient lists ? Perchance some of them 
might even now be unearthed among the archives and the 
presses of the Town Hall or Rathhaus, or Hotel de Ville, 
of many a town in Europe. In Marazion we have, curious 
to say, such a document drawn up at the time of the 
restoration of Charles II. This seems to have been com- 
piled in connection with rating. 

In connection with the census we come across the sub- 
ject of lists of persons who should take parish apprentices. 
These lists are curious records of the old fashioned way 
of " boarding out", and the way the poor-law worked in 
the days of our fathers. A quaint illustration of the in- 
denture of the parish apprentice in the last century, at 
Colyton in Devonshire, is given in the last volume of our 
Western Antiquary. The poor little pauper is bound over 
to his or her master with a long deed, in the sixth year 
of the reign of "our most Gracious Sovereign Lord George, 
by the grace of God King of Great Britain, France, and 
Ireland, Defender of the Faith", etc., under the sign and 
seal of the churchwardens, overseers of the poor. Such 
documents were, doubtless, used in our Cornish boroughs 
to bind over the paupers whose names are given in these 
lists to their respective masters. The system was liable 
to abuse. It might, as readers of Oliver Twist will see, 
be corrupted into a sort of temporary slavery, or it might 
provide orphans with kind and influential protectors and 
foster- parents. Be this as it may, the system was in full 
operation in the Cornish boroughs, and it occupies a large 
portion of their business documents. 


Assize of Bread. — Among the documents of the borough 
of MarazioD worth mentioning as illustrating the change 
of opinion, and legislation as affected by that opinion, 
during the past century, is the "Assize of Bread." It 
is a large parchment roll giving in parallel columns the 
weight of loaves according to a fixed tariff of prices. It 
is divided into two sections, for small bread and larger 
bread. The former includes the penny loaf and the two- 
penny ; the latter, the sixpenny, the twelve-penny, and 
eight-penny. The proper weight of each is fixed. This 
was in consequence of an Act authorising the corporations 
of towns to set an assize of bread. Assize of bread in 
Penzance in 1686. 

Capital Inhabitants. — One of the peculiarities of Mara- 
zion was the institution of capital inhabitants. The Cor- 
poration are defined as the mayor, burgesses, and capital 
inhabitants. The name "capital inhabitants" gives one 
an idea, on a ludicrously diminutive scale, of the old patri- 
cian families of the great Urbs, or the noble families and 
heads of houses of the Italian or German cities. I am 
not aware if this was frequent in English towns at the 
period. If not, it is curious it should have been enacted 

One of the most remarkable things which appears con- 
tinually in these minutes is the amount of feasting that 
went on at the public expense. The corporations of these 
three boroughs must in a small way have been something 
like the City guilds of London are said to be at present, 
very fond of a dinner. Take Penzance as a sample. In 
1658 we have twelve ordinaries at a "taveran, with wine 
and bere\ when the Corporation drew up a "remon- 
strance to the protectee", — a Cornishism, I suppose, for 
the Protector Oliver Cromwell. Next year we have three 
boxes of prunes and fourteen pounds of raisins for the 
Recorder. When Charles II was crowned, the borough 
paid £14 10.9. for the wine and beer in which the Merry 
.Monarch's health was drunk. "Burnt sack and claret" 
came to £1 12s. in 1663. In 1670, to drink to the memory 
of Charles I cost £1 10s. A public dinner for Bishop Tre- 
lawney cost £6 16s. 4<7. In 1698 we have a bottle of 
canary wine charged. Drinking the Duke of Cumberland's 
health after Culloden is also charged (£2 13s. 4c/.). Such 
cut lies swarm. 


Among the ancient oaths in the Marazion borough 
records are: 1, the mayor's oath, a tolerably Long one; 
2, t lie burgesses' oath ; 3, the twelve principal inhabitants' ; 
1, the constable's oath; 5, the viewer of the markets' 
oath; 6, the town clerks. 

The mayors of these towns present a long list of names 
of no general interest; and yet about the mayoralty there 
is a certain amount of legend. Market] ew or Marazion is 
especially rich on this point. The proverb says, " Like 
the Mayor of Market] ew sitting in his own light." The 
subject of this proverb about Marazion mayors has excited 
recently some controversy both in the London Antiquary 
and the Western Antiquary of Plymouth. I have made 
inquiries at Marazion on the subject, and find that the 
proverb is " sitting in his own light", as I have given it, 
though "standing in his own light" (without any refer- 
ence to a mayor) is a common Devonshire saying, probably 
used throughout England. The local legend is that it 
refers to the mayor's seat in the old Town Hall, though 
I see that a correspondent in the Western Antiquary thinks 
that it refers to the mayor's seat in Marazion Church. In 
both cases, to judge by local tradition, the mayor sat in 
his own light, or with his back to the light. In the col- 
lection of proverbs by the Proverbs' Committee of the 
F< 'Ik-Lore Society, I hope some note wall be taken of pro- 
verbs about mayors and corporations. I believe this is 
not a singular one, though in West Cormvall rather cele- 

Mayors in old times must have had sometimes respon- 
sible and awkward posts. There are a few curious points 
of history about mayors : 

1. St. Ives. The Mayor of St. Ives was hanged after 
the rebellion of 1549, possibly because he led the St. Ives 
men in their revolt. The Mayor of Bodmin met a similar 
fate from Sir Antony Kingston under circumstances of 
peculiar atrocity. 

•_\ In the reign of Queen Anne, John Carveth, Mayor 
of Penzance, achieved a little local coup-d'Stat which re- 
minds one of the achievements of the podesta in some Ita- 
lian cities. ' ' By force and violence " , to quote the borough 
records, he retained the mayoralty for three years. 
"John Carveth stood in Mayor unlawfully"; so Penzance 


forfeited its charter. Four blank pages occur in the 
borough records, and the reign of the usurper was counted 
an interregnum. This is a curious little episode of borough 
history, to which I suspect there are few parallels in other 
towns of Eno-land. 

Much of the earlier records of Penzance, as well as the 
very name of Marazion, refers to the markets. Page after 
page, year after year, we find records of the farming of 
the market and also of the Quay. It would seem as if 
this was the most important business of the municipality. 
Both towns probably arose from their markets. So, per- 
haps, did St. Ives to some extent. Its market was char- 
tered in 1488 by Henry VII. Probably in this case all 
three towns were formed in the ordinary way ; for I sus- 
pect that a majority of our European towns, when uncon- 
nected with a court of king or great noble, or a cathedral, 
were formed around markets. This is as true of Belgium 
and Germany as of England. 

One incidental point I have noticed in relation to not 
merely borough records in Cornwall, but to parish regis- 
ters also, i.e., the inferior style of writing during the Com- 
monwealth. Is this an ordinary thing throughout Eng- 
land, due to the fact of persons of less education getting 
the administration into their hands, and to the office of 
town clerk being given to some popular person without 
special educational requirements ? In Cornwall I have 
noted it. Although the records of the reigns of James I 
and Charles I are beautifully written, under the Common- 
wealth they are scarcely legible in many parts. I have 
noticed the same in other of the parish registers. I do 
not know if the same is true of English documents of the 
period generally. One point, however, we should bear in 
mind, i.e., that English writing was about this time in a 
transitional state. 

In 1659 there is a curious entry of a decision of the 
Corporation to put a certain Marty n Bosence to the Uni- 
versity. This was done, and a vote made, the Mayor and 
eleven others signing the document. This custom of put- 
i trig promising young men to the University has a good 
deal to be said in its favour. In the present day open 
scholarships cover, to a great extent, the need it met ; 
but in a Utopia one can well fancy a corporation selecting 


by examination the ablest young men of the town, and 
giving them the chance of the best education the count i y 
could provide. It is a pity one does not more often meet 
such entries as this in borough records. This, possibly, 
was one of the new lights of Cromwell's administration. 
I do not recollect noticing similar entries at later dates. 
I am not sure that this old notion might not be worth 
the notice of go-ahead nineteenth century reformers. 
Town exhibitions are not without precedent even in the 
Land's End district. 

A list of prices of a sort of octroi occurs at Penzance. 
The Cornish word (of Saxon origin, however, as is thought) 
dome is used. " Every dozen of English dome" to pay 
one halfpenny. "Every pack or bag of shridds." The list 
is very long, and would be tedious to quote. 

The licensing lists are interesting : e.g., an apothecary's 
license in 1713; whitesmith's, 1717; to a seller of small 
ware, 1721. 

Musical Entries. — St. Ives seems always to have been 
a musical town. The borough was liberal in its charges 
for musicians and borough minstrelsy. These performers 
seem to have been employed on all grand occasions, and 
paid out of the rates. The borough fiddler, though I sup- 
pose not literally an establishment in the borough now, 
is still in some sense a fact, for a particular fiddler pre- 
cedes the Mayor and Vicar and sundry officials with a 
party of ten little girls who, according to the bequest of 
Mr. Knill, go up to the Knill Monument on St. James' 
Day once in five years, and the girls dance round it, the 
borough fiddler playing before them. It is a quaint cus- 
tom, and was kept up this summer. In Penzance they 
were not so much behind St. Ives, e.g., a payment of 5s. 
for beating the drum at the coronation of Charles II. 
Two payments for powder occur at the same time, either 
for salutes in rejoicing or for martial purposes. Possibly 
England was afraid of a civil war again. In 16G2 and 
after we again and again find mention of purchases of 
powder and wrapper for powder-barrels, etc. 

The charges for arms and ammunition are curious and 
instructive. These towns, however, be it remembered, 
were seaports, and therefore liable to attack from pirates 
and privateers. In 1689 there are, as might be supposed, 



many charges for powder. Also " men were paid for fit- 
ting the arms at the noise (sic) of the French fleet. £6 
were paid for "great guns", i.e., artillery. 

One may trace the effect of events on the public mind 
in these records : the great news of the victory of Russell 
over Tourville cost Penzance £4 15s. in rejoicings. In 
April 1696 there was a thanksgiving for William Ill's 
deliverance. St. Ives also spent a good deal, from time 
to time, on armaments, on powder and cannon. 

So much for the weapons ; but who wielded them ? 
Were there trained bands in connection with the towns, 
as in London and great cities of England or Belgium and 
Italy ? Or was it taken for granted that the townsmen 
would use them properly ? These armaments in the 
seventeenth century open a curious feature of English 
town life. In a rough way it would seem as if almost 
every Englishman was a soldier, just as every Prussian 
is now. 

" St. George and merry England" was an old war-cry, 
and St. George's Day was a national festival. On the 
restoration of Charles II we see the Corporation of Pen- 
zance had a feast, and paid for wine on St. George's Day, 
possibly in health -drinking. The festival has quite died 
out in Cornwall ; but is, I believe, kept up by a few in 
some parts of England and the colonies. 

Bonfires were kept up as well at Penzance in the time 
of Charles II as under Victoria ; but then they were sup- 
ported partly out of the rates. In 1665 there is a pay- 
ment of £2 9s. for wine and bonfires. On May 29 they 
had bonfires, at least under Charles II. The loyal borough 
voted £1 4s. for this object in 1579. They had bonfires 
also on the return of William III in 1692, and on Queen 
Anne's coronation: indeed, it would seem on all grand occa- 
sions. Penzance always has been, and is now, in 1881, a 
great town for bonfires, — an ancient institution of old 
Cornwall which is still highly popular. But our bonfires 
of Petertide in 1881 (it is strange the Church festival 
should shew more vitality than the secular) were arranged 
by a committee, and not, I need hardly say, assisted by 
the borough rates. 

The Maypole enters often into Penzance accounts, and 
later than one would suppose. We are all familiar with 


the restoration of the Maypole at London under Charles II, 
and the effort to re-establish the May games. In Corn- 
wall the observance of May Day is still more vivid than 
in most parts of England or even Europe. The Helston 
" Furry Day", though on May 8, is still a remarkable in- 
stitution, — a combination of old English with local May 
usages. An account of this was given in this last June's 

In Penzance records we learn that in 1738 Mr. Jenkin 
had £1 Is. for a spar for the Maypole. The Maypole was 
illuminated, and three new halberts bought, at the cost 
of £3 25. 8c/., in honour of the battle of Culloden in 1745. 
In 1749 the Maypole cost £3 17s. id. 

Oftentimes charities occur, e.g., a woman from Lincoln 
in 1698 had a grant, and two decrepit men from Ireland. 
Poor French Protestants were relieved in 1688. 

The efforts to defend the charters in 1687 probably 
occur in many of the borough records of England. Pen- 
zance had a good deal of trouble and expense in this mat- 
ter. Over £80 were spent in fees in defence. 

One of the most important interests about these records 
is the reference to great events, and how they seem to 
have affected the Corporation and townsfolk. Let us take 
Penzance. The Restoration produced naturally a great 
deal of carousing and festivity in loyal Cornwall. Mon- 
mouth's rebellion caused, as might be supposed, alarm ; 
and when defeated, festivities. There were festivities at 
the birth of the Pretender; but quite as much on the pro- 
clamation by William III. A false alarm of the French 
invasion at Helford, near Falmouth, put Penzance to some 
expense ; and there were gay doings at the victory over 
Tourville,the coronation of Anne, and the Peace of Utrecht. 
The coronation of George I caused a curious entry, i.e., 
of £1 5s. given to the mob on the King's coronation. 

Such are a few of the extracts from the borough records 
of three small and, in general English history, unimport- 
ant towns. If I have succeeded in any way in giving you 
a little interest in them, I hope its fruit will be the more 
careful searching by our archaeologists of our old English 
borough records. Each of our cathedral cities, nearly all 
our large towns, might be supposed to contain far richer 
mines of archaeological research than these three small 


boroughs. How much may yet be done to clear our ideas 
of antiquity by searching our borough records ! 

The points which strike me as brought out by these 
records, especially with regard to the seventeenth cen- 
tury, are : 

1 . The amount spent by the corporations out of borough 
rates on public fetes. England appears to have had more 
pretension to be called "merrie England" then than now; 
or at least the fetes supported by public expense, free to 
rich and poor alike, were more numerous then than now. 
I question if, at the present day, any of our English cor- 
porations would favour a large portion of the public rates 
being expended on public festivals. In France, Belgium, 
and even Germany, this may be done ; but not much in 
England. This confirms an impression which I have ex- 
pressed in a recent Number of Tlie Antiquary. In many 
points we may be helped to realise old English life by 
considering public life in certain parts of the European 
continent, where society is conservative and old fashioned. 
The importance given to public fetes in these Cornish 
archives could hardly be exceeded in the records of the 
small towns of France, or Belgium, or Italy, at the pre- 
sent day. 

2. The amount of conviviality going on at the public 
expense. We talk of the drinking customs of the present 
day ; but they seem to be quite moderate compared with 
those of our forefathers. The wines, however, have an 
old English sound. "Burnt sack" and "canary" have quite 
an antique and Shakspearean aspect. As for feasting, 
many jests pass about the aldermen of London ; but in 
olden times, in the Land's End district, they were well 
kept in countenance. After their fashion, aldermen feasted 
all over England in olden times. 

3. The intimate connection of townsmen with one an- 
other. A borough appears almost to have been like a 
greater family, of which the mayor was the head, and the 
aldermen the elder brethren. This intimate connection 
of man with man, and family with family, was character- 
istic of mediaeval and post-mediaeval times. We see it 
not only in England, but on the Continent. The idea of 
a town or city being an enlarged family was realised as 
well in Belgium, in the German empire, in some parts of 


Italy, as with us. Now, however, this has, to a great 
degree, passed away. The family is the one basis of 
society, and a township or borough is only felt as a society 
for taxation, for lighting, paving, and police; not a corpo- 
rate entity affecting all the public life of men. Whether 
we have gained or lost by the change, this is hardly the 
occasion to consider. There is a something, however, to 
my mind very pleasing in this ideal of a greater family 
as presented in an old English borough. 

4. The corporation also had a sort of personality which 
it has not now. It gave presents and received them ; it 
offered hospitality, and welcomed guests; it had its rejoic- 
ings and galas, its fdte days and merrymakings. The rela- 
tions of the country gentry to the corporations shew how 
long feudal ideas lingered in England after our common 
histories represent that feudalism was abolished among 
us. The Cornish gentry appear, as Carew says of them, 
in Elizabeth's time as little " roytlets". It almost seems 
like the welcoming of feudal barons, in time of peace, by 
the old German cities. 

5. The unsettled state of society and its armed condi- 
tion are realised in a way one would not gather from ordi- 
nary English histories. The Cornish towns armed them- 
selves at their own expense, and paid for the powder and 
shot, and cannon and muskets, to do it. They were, in 
this sense, not unlike the cities of the German empire, 
but on a Lilliputian scale. Was this the case in other 
towns of England up to the reign of George II ? Possibly 
the fear of pirates stimulated Cornishmen in a way that 
it did not stimulate English boroughs generally. 

6. Then how quaintly reads the little coup d'etat of 
John Carveth at Penzance, grasping the mayoralty for 
three years " by fraud and violence"; or, on the other 
hand, the deposition of a mayor of Marazion for going 
abroad, by a tiny domestic revolution. There were little 
Caesars and Bienzis in those far-off boroughs. 

7. The notice of national events is curious. Some events 
of tolerable importance in English history are passed over ; 
others, of which it is necessary to look over old records 
or books to explain the allusions, are observed as excuses 
for fetes and merrymaking. Possibly, even in this learned 
Society few recollect the reported invasion of Cornwall in 


June 1688 by the French, which put Penzance in an up- 

In conclusion, there are two points relating to these 
borough registers which have struck me : 

1. There is a suggestion made about the insecurity of 
our ancient parish registers, and that it would be well if 
they were put under national keeping. A better proposal, 
I think, is that they should be copied, — at least those 
parts of them likely to remain of public interest, — and 
the copies be preserved by the Government among the 
national records. All that has been said of parish regis- 
ters applies still more forcibly to ancient borough docu- 
ments, which are not merely of family but of public inte- 
rest. A system whereby they could be inspected and 
copied at the public expense, and the copies secured in 
the State Paper Office, would be of great service. One 
could not expect boroughs to give up their valuable public 
records, which are of special local interest ; but the nation 
might profitably secure copies of them, and thus secure 
their interesting accounts of past times from loss or acci- 

2. If this were impracticable, or an Act of Parliament 
(for I suppose that would be necessary) could not be 
passed, would it not be worth while for a committee of 
competent archaeologists to take hi hand the examination 
of such of our ancient borough records which have not yet 
been published (and very little has been done in this way), 
and give a sketch of them ? I am certain that there 
is a much greater wealth in these records of antiquarian 
and historic facts relating to our English history of the 
sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries than is 
commonly supposed. 

37 l 



(Read at Malvern, August 25, 1881.) 

Dr. Arnold, in the first of his Lectures on Modern Ills- 
ton/, after contrasting antiquarianism with historical 
knowledge, asks, "What is it that the mere antiquarian 
wants, and which the mere scholar wants also ; so that 
satire, sagacious enough in detecting the weak points of 
every character, has often held them both up to ridicule ? 
They have wanted what is the essential accompaniment 
to all our knowledge of the past, a lively and extensive 
knowledge of the present ; they wanted the habit of con- 
tinually viewing the two in combination with each other ; 
they wanted that master power which enables us to take 
a point from which to contemplate both at a distance, 
and so to judge of each and of both as if we belonged to 
neither." And he goes on to say : " The past is reflected 
to us by the present. So far we can see and understand 
the past ; so far, but no farther." These remarks form a 
fitting prelude to the subject of the present paper, con- 
necting, as it does, the study of the past with one of the 
modern attractions of the Golf-Links of Malvern. 

The" Links" ("Leuks"), those breezy, life-inspiriting com- 
mons whose name is always associated with Scotland's 
ancient national sport, which, like the old Eoman game, 
paganica, commencing in the open country, has found its 
way (thanks to the care taken in preserving open spaces 
for recreation) to the neighbourhood of our towns, and 
has brought Englishmen to compete in generous rivalry 
with their Scottish brethren in their at one time almost 
exclusively national sport. 

Strutt, in his book on Sports, thus describes golf (or 
goff, as it was anciently written): "There are many games 
played with the ball that require the assistance of a club 
or bat, and probably the most ancient among them is the 
pastime now distinguished by the name of goff. In the 

3 7 2 GOLF. 

northern parts of the kingdom goff is much practised. It 
requires much room to perform this game with propriety, 
and therefore I presume it is rarely seen at present in the 
vicinity of the metropolis. It answers to a rustic pastime 
of the Romans, which they played with a ball of leather 
stuffed with feathers, called paganica-, and the gofF-ball 
is composed of the same materials to this day. In the 
reign of Edward III, the Latin name cambuca was applied 
to this pastime (cambuta or cambuca, from baculus incur- 
vatus, a crooked staff : the word cambuca was also used 
for the virga episcoparum, or episcopal crozier, because it 
was curved at the top, — Du Cange, Glossary, in voce cam- 
buta)\ and it derived the denomination, no doubt, from 
the crooked club or bat with which it was played. The 
bat was also called ' a bandy', from its being bent, and 
hence the game itself is frequently written in English 
' bandy ball'." He then gives an illustration of two figures 
engaged at " bandy ball", and the form of the " bandy" as 
it was used in the fourteenth century. This illustration 
is taken from a manuscript book of prayers in the posses- 
sion of Francis Douce, Esq., and now in the Bodleian 

Strutt proceeds with his description of goff thus : — 
" Goff, according to the present modification of the game, 
is performed with a bat not much unlike the bandy. The 
handle of this instrument is straight, and usually made 
of ash, about 4^ feet in length. The curvature is affixed 
to the bottom, faced with bone, and backed with lead, 
The ball is a little one, but exceedingly hard, being made 
with leather, and (as before observed) stuffed with fea- 
thers. There are generally two players, who have each 
of them his bat and ball. The game consists in driving 
the ball into certain holes made in the ground, which he 
who achieves the soonest, or in the fewest number of 
strokes, obtains the victory. The goff-lengths, or the 
spaces between the first and last holes, are sometimes ex- 
tended to the distance of two or three miles. The number 
of intervening holes appears to be optional ; but the balls 
must be struck into the holes, and not beyond them. 
When four persons play, two of them are sometimes part- 
ners, and have but one ball, which they strike alternately, 
hut every man lias his own handy." 

GOLF. 373 

This description is a fair one of the game as it is now 
played, with the exception that golf-balls are now made 
of gutta-percha, the shafts of the clubs are made of hick- 
ory wood, and the club, which Strutt calls the " bandy", 
is a much more refined and precise weapon than the club 
as shewn in the old prints, which bears a much nearer 
resemblance to the shinty-stick of Scotland, or hockey- 
stick of England. This club is now generally used only 
for the first stroke, when the player is permitted to place 
his ball before playing or " teeing" it off. After this 
stroke he must play it as it lies on the ground ; and this 
led to several modifications of the original club to enable 
the player to meet the inequalities or difficulties of the 
ground. These difficulties arise from the natural forma- 
tion of the country, such as sand-heaps or " bunkers", if 
the links (as they most frequently do) lie along the sea- 
shore ; or clumps of gorse, if on downs or commons. They 
are called " hazards". If the player unfortunately drives 
his ball into one of these " hazards", so that it cannot be 
played out with a club, he must lift the ball, or take it 
out, step back three paces, and drop the ball over his 
shoulder, having the " hazard" in a straight line with the 
hole he is playing for, and play the ball from the place 
where it is dropped, counting one or more extra strokes 
against himself, according to the local rules of the game. 

Had it not been for the improvements which have from 
time to time been introduced into the primitive game, it 
would not have retained its popularity, or certainly would 
not have, as it has lately, increased in popularity in so 
many parts of England as well as Scotland, where there 
are facilities for playing it ; nor would it, as it has done , 
have enlisted the interest and enthusiasm of persons of 
all ages and both sexes ; the judgment, patience, and 
steadiness of middle age and advanced years finding ample 
scope for their exercise, and reviving the vigour and 
strength of youth. 

It will thus be seen that this game depends upon two 
distinct requisites : a ball and a club. Its very name is 
implied in the latter requisite, as it is derived from the 
( rerman word kolbe, or the Dutch kolf, a club. The ball 
is a very ancient instrument of sport. Herodotus attri- 
butes its invention to the Lydians. St nit t says that sue- 

374 GOLF. 

ceeding writers have affirmed that a female of distinction 
named Anagalla, a native of Corcyra, was the first who 
made a ball for the purpose of pastime, which she pre- 
sented to Nausicaa, the daughter of Alcinotis, King of 
Phceacea, and at the same time taught her how to use it. 
She appears to have entered heartily into the sport, if we 
may credit the account given in the sixth hook of the 
Odyssey, when she, prompted by Pallas, went to the river- 
side with her maidens, near where Ulysses had been cast 
ashore after his shipwreck, and in piteous plight had 
sought refuge in the underwoods, and covered himself 
with leaves in lieu of the garments of which Neptune had 
so ruthlessly deprived him. The description as given by 
Chapman in his translation, or rather paraphrase, is so 
suggestive of the game of golf that I venture to give an 
extract from it : 

" These here arrived, the mules uncoacked and drove 
Up to the gulfy river's shore that gave 
Sweet grass to them. The maids from coach then took 
Their clothes, and steeped them in the sable brook." 

And then having washed and dried their clothes, bathed 
and dined. 

" Nausicaa 
With other virgins did at stool-ball play, 
Their shoulder reaching head tires laying by. 
Nausicaa with the wrists of ivory, 
The liking stroke struck, singing first a song, 
As custom order'd, and amidst the throng 
Made such a show, and so past all was seen. 

Nausicaa so, whom never husband tam'd, 

Above them all in all the beauties flam'd ; 

But when they now made homewards, and array'd, 

Ord'ring their weeds disorder'd as they play'd, 

Mules and coach ready, then Minerva 

Thought what means to w T ake Ulysses might be wrought, 

That he might see this lovely sighted maid 

Whom she intended should become his aid, 

Bring him to town, and his return advance. 

Her mean was this, though thought a stool-ball chance. 

The Queen now, for the upstroke, struck the ball 

Quite wide off the other maids, and made it fall 

Amidst the whirlpools. At which out shrieked all, 

And with the shriek did wise Ulysses wake." 

If this were a literal instead of, as it is, a very free 
translation of the original Greek, there is no golfer who 

GOLF. 375 

would not claim Nausicaa as a sister in his sport. We 
have, first, the " sweet grass by the gulfy river's shore", 
the very place for golf-links ; then Nausicaa with the 
" \\ cists' of ivory", so suggestive of those delicate wrist- 
strokes which make such pretty play on approaching the 
greens, and when "she the liking stroke struck", the mind's 
eye sees her making a splendid " tee-stroke"; and when 
she struck the ball quite wide of the other maids, and 
made it fall amidst the whirlpools, it fell into as legitimate 
a "hazard" as ever brought an unfortunate golfer to grief. 
And when, as the story goes on to narrate, Ulysses came 
from his leafy thickets, and scared away her maids ; and 
she, emboldened by Minerva, assisted him in his distress 
out of as unfortunate a " hazard" as ever mortal fell into, 
and introduced him to her father's court, nothing is want- 
ing to fill up the picture, and recognise her as the very 
princess of golfers. 

But the truth must be told, that this description is 
more Chapman's than Homer's, who simply says that after 
dinner they played at ball, when Nausicaa sent the ball 
into the whirlpool. The Queen then threw the ball to 
her handmaid ; but it missed her. There is no word to 
imply that a club or bat was used. There is, indeed, no 
authentic record of how, or at what time, the primitive 
game of ball, in which the hand only was used, developed 
into those numerous games where clubs or bats were 
added ; but there is sufficient evidence to enable us to 
trace certain characteristics which shew that these games 
were all offsprings of a common stock, but diverse, accord- 
ing to the habits, civilisation, and characteristics of the 
nations who adopted them. The extract we have given 
from Strutt shews that in the reign of Edward HI a 
game was played with a ball and crooked club, called 
cambuca, which he identifies with golf ; and that it dif- 
fered from club-ball, a game also then in use, the latter 
being played with a straight club or bat, and is supposed 
to have been the original game from which cricket has 
sprung. In the thirty-ninth year of that King's reign 
(a.d. 1349) these games had become so common that 1 lie 
King sent a letter to the Sheriffs of London complaining 
that the skill of shooting with arrows was almost totally 
laid aside for the purpose of various useless and unlawful 

376 GOLF. 

games, and the penalty for playing at these games was 
imprisonment at the King's pleasure. The same command 
was repeated by a proclamation of King .Richard II, in 
the twelfth year of his reign. 

Strutt also speaks of a game of " stow-ball" as being 
frequently mentioned by writers of the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries, which he says " was a species of 
golf ; at least it appears to have been played with the 
same kind of ball." 

There is also the " stool-ball", mentioned by Chapman, 
which Dr. Johnson defines to be "a play where balls are 
driven from stool to stool", quoting Prior as his authority; 
and Richardson derives " stool" from the Saxon stole, 
Dutch stoel, German stoll, Swedish stol ; from the Saxon 
stellan, German stelle, Swedish stcela (jponere, statuere, to 
jDut or set); which are equally applicable to the word 
" stow", the stool being the goal or hole ; and " stow" or 
" stowing" being the placing the ball in the hole ; the 
technical term for which in golf is " putting the ball", i.e., 
striking it into the hole, or stowing it away. 

The game of stool-ball, however, still survives as a local 
game in the county of Sussex ; and since I read this paper 
I have, through the kindness of one of our lady Asso- 
ciates, been furnished with a copy of the rules of the game 
as now played in that county. These rules provide that 
the ball is that usually known as "best tennis, No. 3." 
The bat is not to be more than 7 inches in diameter, 17^ 
inches long, and about 1 inch thick. The bat is in form 
similar to a battledore, and should be made of elm or 
walnut. The wickets to be boards, 1 foot square, mounted 
on a stake ; the top of the wicket to be 4 feet 9 inches 
from the ground. The game is played with two wickets, 
to be 1 6 yards apart, and the bowling-crease an equal dis- 
tance between the two wickets. The remaining rules 
shew that the game is played almost precisely similarly to 
cricket, and is presided over by two umpires, whose duties 
are similar to those officials in the game of cricket. The 
number of players is twenty-two ; eleven on each side, 
and the fielders are placed as at cricket. The game is 
also called "tuts" and "lady's cricket", and is considered 
exclusively a Sussex game. 1 

1 There is, however, a set of stool-ball implements kept at Leith 
Hill in Surrey. 

GOLF. 377 

Although it seems clear, from the references already 
given, that golf was played in England in mediaeval times, 
it never became, as it did in Scotland, a national sport. 
Tennis appears to have been in England, early in the fif- 
teenth century, a fashionable if not a national game ; and 
though in most of its characteristics totally dissimilar to 
golf, it had the use of " hazards" in common with that 
game. Thus we find in Shakspeare's Henry V (Act I, 
Scene 2), when Henry gives audience to the Ambassadors 
of the Dauphin, the Ambassador, in answer to Henry's 
claim to the French dukedoms, says that he sends him in 
lieu thereof a ton of tennis-balls as meeter for his spirit. 
King Henry replies : 

" We are glad the Dauphin is so pleasant with us ; 
His present and your pains we thank you for. 
When we have match'd our rackets to these balls, 
We will in France, by God's grace, play a set 
Shall strike his father's crown into the hazard." 

In Stevens' edition of Shakspeare a note is added to the 
word "hazard": "A place in the tennis-court into which 
the ball is sometimes struck." If he had added, "and 
when so struck is left unplayable", he would have fully 
explained the very apt simile used by Shakspeare. 

Golf was sufficiently established in Scotland in the fif- 
teenth century, and attracted the same fears that it would 
displace the practice of archery, as it did in England in 
the reign of Edward III, as we find from an Act of James II 
of Scotland, a.d. 1457, thereby it is decreed and ordained 
" that the weapons chawngis be halden be the Lordes and 
Barronnes Spiritual and Temporal foure times in the zeir, 
and that fute ball and golfe be vtterly cryit downe, and 
not to he used." In the reign of James III 2 a similar Act 
was passed; and in the reign of James IV (1491) it was 
statuted and ordained " that in na place of this realme 
there be vsit futte ballis, golfe or uther sik unprofitabill 
sportis, for the commonn gude of the realme and defence 
thairof, and that bowis and schutting be hantit, and bow 
markes raised ; therefore ordained in ilk parochin, under 
the pain of fourtie shillinges, to be raised be the schereffe 
and baillies foresaid." 

1 Pari. 14, c. 64. 2 Pari. 0, c. 44 (1471). 

378 GOLF. 

These prohibitory enactments proved utterly futile, as 
legislation on similar lines has so frequently on subse- 
quent occasions failed, when opposed to the necessities or 
matured instincts of a people imbued with the spirit of 
freedom. Archery fell into disuse, till it was supplanted, 
as a military weapon, by the discovery of gunpowder, 
whilst golf and the "other unprofitabill sportis" increased 
in popularity, the King himself (James IV) transgressing 
his own enactments, as is shewn from the following entries 
in the accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland : 

"1503, Feb. 3. Item to the King to play at golf with 
the Erie of Bothuile, xlij.9. 

" Item to golf clubbis and ballis to the King that he 
playit with, ixs. 

"1505-6, Feb. 22. Item for xij golf ballis to the King, 

"1506, July 18. Item the xviij day of Julij for ij golf 
clubbes to the King, ijs." 

But golf had not only to run the gauntlet of enactments 
passed for the protection of archery and national defence, 
it also took such a hold upon the Scotch people that it 
interfered with the observance of the Sabbath. Thus we 
find that in 1592 the Town Council of Edinburgh ordained 
proclamation to be made through that borough that " na 
inhabitants of the samyn be sene at ony pastymes or 
gammis, within or without the town, uponn the Sabboth 
day, sic as golf", etc. And again, in 1593, the Town Coun- 
cil, finding "that dyvers inhabitants of this burgh repaires 
upon the Sabboth day to the town of Leith, and in tyme 
of sermons are sene vagrant about the streets, drynking 
in taverns, or otherwayes at golf, aircherie, or other pas- 
tymes, uponn the links, thairby profaning the Sabboth 
day", warned them to desist "under the payne of waird- 
ing their personnis quhill thai pay one unlaw of fourty 
shillings, and otherwayes be punist in their personns at 
the discretioun of the magestrates." Several instances 
occur of penalties having been inflicted under these pro- 

There is a curious story told by John Row, minister of 
Carnock, in his History of the Kirk of Scotland, which illus- 
trates the feeling so strong among the religious Scots of 
his day arid the Puritans of England, that national sports 

GOLF. 379 

were inconsistent with a religious life. Mentioning the 
apostacy of some of the newly made bishops in 1610, he 
states concerning the Bishop of Galloway, that " being at 
his pastime golf (for he loved that all his lifetyme verie 
much; so that that part of the Bishop's verses, Ludos 
Gallowa is his share), in the Links of Leith, he was terri- 
fied with a vision or an apprehension ; for he said to his 
playfellows after he had, in ane affrighted and commoved 
way, cast away his play instruments (arma campestria), 
' I vow to be about with these two men who has now 
come upon me with drawn swords !' When his playfel- 
lowes replied, ' My Lord, it is a dreame! We saw no such 
thing. These men has been invisible.' He was silent, 
went home trembling, tooke bed instantlie, and died, not 
giving any token of repentance for that wicked course he 
had embraced." 

James VI of Scotland was very fond of the game. He 
appointed, under the Privy Seal of Scotland, William 
Mayne to the office of fledger, bower, club-maker, and 
spear-maker, to His Majesty. This grant is dated the 
4th of April 1603. In the year 1608, after his accession 
to the throne of England, on the union of the two 
countries he, as James I of Great Britain, founded the 
Blackheath Golf Club, the earliest club in the United 
Kingdom; 1 and on the 5th of August 1618 he granted 
letters patent, dated at Salisbury, giving to "James Mel- 
vill and William Bervick, and others who the said James 
Melvill may adjoine to them, the exclusive privilege of 
making golf-balls for the space of twenty-one years in the 
kingdom of Scotland. These letters patent make mention 
" that our Soveraine Lord understanding that thair is no 
small quantitie of gold and silver transported zeirlie out 
of His Hienes kingdom of Scotland, for buying of golf 
ballis vsit in that kingdom for recreation of His Majesty's 
subjects, and His Hienes being earnestlie dealt with by 
James Melvil in favour of William Bervick and his asso- 
ciates, who onlie makis or can make golf-ballis within the 
said kingdom for the present, and were the inbringeris of 
the said trade thair." The price of the balls was fixed 

1 The two other oldest golf-clnbs are the Hon. Edinburgh Company 
of Golfers, who play on ^lusselbnrg Green, founded in 1744; and the 
Royal and Ancient Golf-Club of St. Andrew's, founded in 1754. 

380 GOLF. 

" not to exceed four schillingis, moneys of the realme, for 
every ane of the saidis golfe ballis." 

Charles I was devoted to the game. It is reported of 
him that he was playing at golf on the Links of Leith, in 
the month of October 1641, when a messenger from Ulster 
arrived with the news that the Irish rebellion had broken 
out. The King threw down his club, retired to the Palace 
of Holyrood, and despatched letters to the two Houses in 
London, who received them within two days of their 
receiving the news from Dublin. 

James II, when Duke of York, in the years 1681 and 
1682, being then Commissioner from the King to the Scot- 
tish Parliament, and residing in Edinburgh, frequently 
played at golf on the Links at Leith. Robertson, in his 
Historical Notes of Leith, says of the Duke, that "after 
the Pest oration he was sent to Edinburgh, and his 
favourite pastimes appear to have been the torturing of 
the adherents to the Covenant, and the playing of golf on 
the Links of Leith." 

An incident occurred during the Duke of York's stay 
at Edinburgh, which shews that this game was then fre- 
quently played in England as well as in Scotland. Two 
English noblemen who were in attendance at the Scottish 
Court, and who had occasionally practised golf, were one 
day debating with the Duke whether the game was pecu- 
liar to Scotland or England ; and having some difficulty 
in coming to an issue on the subject, it was proposed to 
decide the question by the result of a match between the 
two noblemen and the Duke and any Scotchman he chose. 
He selected John Patersone, a shoemaker, reputed the 
best golf-player of his day, and whose ancestors had been 
equally celebrated from time immemorial. The match 
was played, and the Duke and his partner were victorious. 
The shoemaker had half the stakes as his share, with 
which he built a house in the Canongate of Edinburgh 
(No. 77), on the wall of which the Duke caused an escut- 
cheon to be fixed bearing the following coat of arms : — 
three pelicans vulned, on a chief three mullets. Crest, a 
dexter hand grasping a golf-club. Motto, "Far and sure." 

In May 1628 the great Montrose, "ere the troubles 
began, was hard at golf on the Links of St. Andrew's." 
In the following year, returning to St. Andrew's from 

GOLF. 381 

Edinburgh, lie tarries a day at Leith, expending ten shil- 
lings for two golf-balls, and a further payment to the boy 
who carried " my Lord's chibbes to the field." Again, on 
November 9th be is at Montrose purchasing golf-balls in 
order to play a match with his brother-in-law, Sir John 

Mary Queen of Scots appears to have practised this 
game, for it was made a charge against her by her enemies, 
as an instance of her indifference to Uarnley's fate, that 
she was seen playing at golf and pall-mall in the fields 
beside Seton a few days after his death. 

I have now gone over all the ancient incidents of the 
game of golf that I have been able to collect. The rest 
is modern history, inappropriate to the present subject. 
Those who are interested in pursuing the subject beyond 
these limits cannot do better than obtain a copy of that 
splendid and elaborate account of the game intituled Golf, 
a Royal and Ancient da me, printed by It. and R. Clark, 
Edinburgh, to which I am indebted for some of the mate- 
rials I have embodied in this paper. 

There is only one incident worthy of note before I close. 
The old pila paganica of the Romans, stuffed with down 
or feathers, retained its place as the only regulation golf- 
ball until the year 1847, when the introduction of gutta- 
percha in the manufacture of balls proved such a success- 
ful innovation as to produce as serious forebodings among 
old golfers as the forecast of the revolutions of the follow- 
ing year cast over the political horizon of Europe, when, 
to use Henry V's simile, so many kings' crowns were 
struck into the hazard. But sound improvements cannot 
be delayed without danger, and the gutta-percha ball, as 
now manufactured, has proved such a decided advantage 
over the old feather-stuffed ball, that it has given a fresh 
impulse to the game, which promises to increase in popu- 
larity, and to form one of the many links which knit both 
banks of the Tweed in friendship and honourable rivalry. 

1882 27 



(Read January 21, 1880.) 

I have the honour of laying before the Association tran- 
scripts of the texts, with descriptive notes, of several 
documents which have come under my notice since the 
the close of last session. 

At Ely I was enabled, by the kindness of the Ven. 
Archdeacon Emery, to make a transcript of an Anglo- 
Saxon charter preserved among the archives in possession 
of the Dean and Chapter; and at Wells, where the Rev. 
Canon Bernard most hospitably received me, I was per- 
mitted by him to examine the entire series of charters in 
the possession of the Dean and Chapter, and to make 
transcripts of any that were of interest. A Saxon charter 
relating to Pucklechurch, probably the charter of Edred 
in a.d. 954, mentioned in William of Malmesbury's His- 
tory of Glastonbury Abbey, 1 has been temporarily mislaid 
from this repository ; but I hope it will soon be restored 
to light, and Canon Bernard has kindly promised then to 
allow me to examine it. 


Grant by Eadgar, Emperor of the whole of Britain, to 
Elfhelm, his faithful thegn, of two and a half manses at 
Wreattinge(Wratting,co. Cambr.), dated a.d. 974. Printed 
(with variations as collated in the footnotes) by Kemble, 
Cod. Dip!., vi, 103-5. 

"x lmminentibus vite caducis termini's quam nos sceleris [lijcet 2 
onere pressi nuLu divino statuti tamen dominica prosequentes mo- 
nita prout quimus secundum illud 3 evangelium ubi dicitur date ut 
dabitur vobis . I<leu ego Eadgar totius britannie 4 basileus quan- 

1 Migne's Patrol, 179, col. 1714. - Torn in original MS. 

3 "illud" omitted by Kemble, vi, 103. 
* " britannie," Kemble. 


dam ruris particulam duas videlicet mansas et dimidiam in Loco 
qui celebri . i^&rpREATTiNGE nuncupatur vocabulo cuidam ministro 
milii oppido fideLi qui ab hujusce patriae gnosticis nobili .Elfhelm. 
appellatur onomate pro obsequio ejus devotissimo perpetua largitus 
sum hereditate ut ipse vita comite cum omnibus utensilibus pratis 
videlicet . pascuis . silvis . voti compos habeat et post vite sue ter- 
m[inum] quibuscumque [volujerit cleronom[is] inmunem derelin- 
quat. Sit autem praedictum rus omni terrene servitutis jugo libe- 
nun tribus exceptis rata videlicet expeditione pontis arcisve 
restauratione. Siquis igitur hanc nostram donationem in aliud 
quam constituimus transferre voluerit privatus consortio sancte dei 
ecclesie eternis barathri incendiis lugubris iugter 1 cum juda xpi 
proditore ejusque complicibus puniatur. si non satisfactione emen- 
daverit congrua quod contra nostrum deliquid decretum. Hiis 
metis praefatum rus hinc hide giratur: 

" Dis syndon para breora hide land gemaera a3t prait tinge pudes 
7 feldes spa hit binnan p[sem] 2 mearcum belub 3 aerest set 'San hean 
gat an fram J?an gatan east ylang straete o^ pest tuniga gemaera 4 of 
bam felde on pa pude mearca ylang baes maeres 5 o^ ldinga ge- 
maera ylang gemaeres orS picnamnie 6 gemaere ylang gemaeres 

to eanheale of eanheale gemaere to bellesham gemaere ylang gemae- 
res J?aet eft on ba..Alic. 

"Anno domiuicae incarnationis .dcccclxxiiii. scripta est hec carta 
his testibus consentientibus quorum inferius nomina caraxantur : 

"t Ego Eadgar rex praefatam donationem concessi. yEgo Dun- 
stan dorovernensis ecclesie archiepiscopus consignavi. [Canterbury.] 
f Ego ospold archiepiscopus confirmavi. [York.] y Ego a^elpold 
episcopus corroboravi. [Winchester.] y Ego alfpold episcopus con- 
solidavi. [Sherborn.] y Ego aelfstan episcopus consensi. [London.] 
t Ego sideman episcopus non renui. [Crediton.] t Ego aelfstan 
episcopus conscripsi. [Rochester or Eamsbury.] t Ego aelfSy^ 
regina. y Ego aesepi.... 6 abb'. [? iEscwig, Abbot of Bath.] t Ego 

kyn abb'. [? Kyneweard, Abbot of Middleton, co. Dors.; Bishop 

of Wells a.d. 973.] y Ego osgar abb' [of Abingdon, co. Berks], 
t Ego ae^elgar abb' [of Newminster, near Winchester] . t Ego 
aelfhere dux. y Ego ae^elpine dux. t Ego byrhtno'S dux. y Ego 
oslac dux. t Ego aej>elpeard m. t Ego aelfsige m. y Ego aelfpeard 
m. t Ego byrhtric m. y Ego leofpine m. y Ego eanulf m." 

En dors. — "bis is bara breora hida land boc aet prettinge |>e ead- 
gar cyningc gebocode aelfhelme his |?egne on ece yrfe. 

"De wrettixge. 
" Carta Edgari." 

1 Sic in MS. ; "jugiter", Kemblo. 2 Torn in MS. 

3 "belrS", Kemble. 

4 A line drawn through the words " cvS... gemaera" in the MS. 

5 " [gelmseres", Kemble. 6 No liiatus here in Eemble. 




1. Twenty-one leaves of the "Regula S. Benedicti", a 
folio MS. in vellum, written with twenty-three lines to a 
page. They are out of the proper order; but as they now 
stand, the chapter-rubric on the rev. of the first folio is 

[§ 67.] " De f'ribus qui iu itinere diriguntur. 

Fratres qui pro quovis respoiiso, &c. 
Be }>am gebro^rum pe on fare synd 

pa gebwSra J?e for hpylcere neode lit faraV 

The fragment ends : 

[§ 65.] " lxv de proposito monasterii." 

Another example of this, with Latin and Saxon chap- 
ters, but entirely different text, is in the British Museum, 
( Jotton. M.S. Titus, A. iv. A fine Latin MS. of the Rule 
is Harley MS. 5431. 

I have been favoured with the following remarks upon 
this valuable fragment by Dr. Arnold Schroer of Vienna 
University, who has been commissioned by the Austrian 
Government to examine and collate the best Saxon texts 
of the "Rule of St. Benedict." 


" The Wells fragment of the Old English (Anglo-Saxon) 
version of the ' Regula St. Benedicti' takes a very promi- 
nent place amongst the MSS. still extant. It belongs 
probably to the end of the tenth century, and contains 
sixteen chapters, in Latin and English alternately, on 
twenty-three leaves, in small quarto; unfortunately in a 
rather bad condition, some parts being almost illegible on 
account of some water-spots and other dirty materials all 
over the parchment. The MS. begins with the hardly 
recognisable end of the English chapter xlix, and ends 
in the middle of the Latin chapter lxv, — 'q : ab abbate 
suo ei'. There is a gap in the MS.; one leaf, as it seems, 
being lost, the English text of Chapter lv breaking off 
with ' gif hig hwa haebbe o^'; the next leaf beginning in 


the middle of the Latin chapter lvii: ' (arti)ficum venun- 
dandum est', etc. 

"It is a great pity that only these few leaves are left, as 
the fragment gives a version very much differing from the 
usual one as preserved in MSS., Cot ton., Titus, A iv; Faus- 
tina, Ax; Claudius, Din ;C. C. C. C.178; and C. C. C. 0. 
197; the latter following more closely the Latin text, while 
the former seems to be a later version based upon the ori- 
ginal one, and brought, as it were, into better English 
syntax. In this respect the value of the fragment is 
chiefly a syntactical one when compared with the other 
MSS. However, the Wells version must have been done 
not very much later than the other one, as the^ MS. is 
about of the same date as the two oldest MSS. which con- 
tain the usual text, the Corpus MSS. of Cambridge and 
Oxford ; and, moreover, as the supposed author, /Ethel- 
wold, was busy with this work in the second half of the 
tenth century. It is not quite improbable that the revised 
version, as preserved in the Wells fragment, is a later 
work of iEthel wold's, as he may have retouched and cor- 
rected it afterwards himself. Possibly the MS. came over 
to Wells from Glastonbury, among other relics and pro- 
perty of that old Benedictine Abbey, the former dwelling- 
place of iEthelwold. 

" The English text alone will be printed, with an intro- 
duction and glossary, parallel to the corresponding chap- 
ters of the usual version, in my edition of the Old English 
Benedictine Pule, which is to come out in the Bibliotheh 
(let- angelsdchsischen ^mw, herausgegeben von P. P. 
Wtilcker (Cassel-Wigand), in the course of next winter. 

" My thanks are due to the Dean and Chapter of Wells 
for kindly having permitted me to make a transcript of 
the English, and a collation of the Latin text of the frag- 

2. "Liber Isidori Etymologiarum", written on fine vel- 
lum, in the twelfth century. At the end is a note attri- 
buting the MS. to a much earlier age: " Datus Ecclesie 
Wellensi per Leofricum 1 primum Episcopum, vide Mori. 
Angl" Small 4to. 

3. A Latin Bible of the fourteenth century, written on 
1 No such name occurs among the Bishops of Bath and Wells. 


fine vellum, in the French style, double columns, with ini- 
tials of colours and gold, red and blue capitals and head- 
lines. The first folio is wanting. At the end are two 
fly-leaves, in an earlier and larger handwriting, contain- 
ing (i), a treatise entitled " Materia Psalterii", commenc- 
ing with the words " Quoniam psalterium", etc.; (ii), the 
first few lines of the "Visio Sancti Pauli apostoli", com- 
mencing "Dies Dominicus dies electus in quo", etc. 8vo. 

4. "Registrum Brevium", a Latin MS. of the fifteenth 
century, in various handwritings, on coarse vellum, con- 
taining transcripts of statutes, formulm, brevia or writs, 
and miscellaneous law matters. At the end is written, 
"Ex dono Simonis Collins." Small folio. 

5. A Psalter for the Monastery of Hayles, co. Glouc, 
written and glossed, with additions, prayers, and homilies, 
in the eighth year of King Henry VIII. 359 leaves. Large 
folio. At the beginning is the following note : 

" Anno incarnationis Dominica? Millesimo Quingentesimo Quarto 
decimo scriptnm est hoc Psalterium expensis venerabilis viri domini 
Christophori Urswyke, Illustrissimi Principis Regis Henrici septimi 
quondam Elemosinarii magni, exequutoris testamenti et ultima? volun- 
tatis Nobilis viri domiui Joannis Huddelston' militis, et in hoc loco 
repositum : Anno invictissimi principis serenissimi Regis Henrici oc- 
tavi Regni sui octavo, in memoriam perpetuam prenominati militis 
Domini Joannis et Domina? Joanna?, consortis sua?; Scriptum (inquam) 
manu Petri Magii Unoculi Teutonis, natione Brabantini, oppidi Bus- 
chiducensis, Leodiensis diocesis ; Quarum animabus misereri dignetur 
ineff'abili misericordia sua altissimus. Amen. Misericordia." 

A Psalter in manuscript, of this period, when printing 
was already common, is considerably rare. 

6. The Homilies of St. Chrysostom, also for the Monas- 
tery of Hayles, written by the same scribe, and inscribed 
"Liber Monasterii de Hayles, dioc. Wygorn. in com. Glouc." 
A similar note records the preparation of the book in the 
year 1517 for the same owner. 432 leaves. Very large 
folio. Two coloured shields of arms are at the beginning. 
This manuscript copy of the Homilies belongs to a rare 
period, for the introduction of printing had caused the 
transcription of such works to be discontinued. 

7. "Catalogus Librorum in Bibliotheca Wellensi." An 
alphabetical list of the contents of the Cathedral Library, 
written in tlx j seventeenth century, on paper. Folio. 


8. "Catalogue Benefactoruni Quorum ope ac munificen- 
tia Ecclesia Cathedralis Wellensis ejusque Bibliotheca 
post felicem serenissimi Regis Caroli Ildi reditum auctior 
et ornatior evasit. Anno Dom. 1672." An alphabetical 
list of the additions to the Library, on vellum. Folio. 

9. Foundation Charter by William II, " Monarch of 
Britain", granting the Abbey of St. Peter's, Bath, to John 
of Tours, Bishop of Wells, in augmentation of the bishop- 
ric of Somersetshire. Dated Dover, 6 kal. Feb. [27 Jan.] 
A.u. 1090 ; with a clause stating that it was originally 
agreed to at Winchester a.d. 1088. 


" x inperpetuurn deicolis omnibus tarn, futuris quam presentibus. 
Quoniam deo omnitenente tempora seculorum ordinante . et his prout 
placuerit finem iraponente celum et terra . et omnia que in eis sunt suo 
fine transibunt . et vita nostra que ad tempus floret . et cito tamquam 
flos foeni decidit . videtur esse momentanea . idcirco cunctis agendum . 
nt hie bonis actibus future beatitudinis mercemur gaudia absque omni 
immutatione perenniter mansura. Quo circa ego Willelmus Willeltni 
regis filius . dei dispositione monarches britannie pro mee meique patris 
remedio anime . et l-egni prosperitate . et populi a domino mihi collati 
salute . concessi Johanni episcopo abbatiam Sancti petri bathonie . 
cum omnibus apenditiis tam in villis quam in civitate et in consuetu- 
dinibus . illis videlicet quibus saisita erat ea die qua regnum suscepi . 
dedi inquam ad sumersetensis episcopatus augmentationem . edtenus 
presertim ut inibi instituat presuleam sedem . Anno dominice incarna- 
tionis . Mill', xc . Regni vero mei . iiij . Indictione . xiij . vi . kl' Febr'. 
Luna . iij . pepigi id in eorum optimatum meorum presentia .-(-quorum 
Nomina subter sunt aunexa . et ut pro posteritates succedentes apud 
quosque homines veritatis amatores perseveret ratum . mee regie auc- 
toritatis annecto sigillum . sed et propria manu mea depingo crucis 
dominice signum. 

" Lanfranco 1 archipresule macln'nante Wintonie factum est hoc.o... 
hujus beneficii . Mill', lxxxviij . anno ab incarnatione domini. Secundo 
vero anno regni regis Willelmi hlii prioris Willelmi . Confirmatio 
a uteni hujus charte facta est apud doveram . eo tempore quod superius 
determinatum est. 

" + Ego thomas archiepiscopus eboracensis laudavi. Ego Mauricius