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Full text of "The Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo, Japan = Tokyo Teikoku Daigaku kiyo. Rika"

»^ 



$^ W. ^ M :^ 

m :^ m ftz m 

^ ^ ^ Pv W 

THE 

JOURNAL 

OF THE 

COLLEGE OF SCIENCE, 

IMPERIAL UNIVERSITY OF TOKYO, 
Vol. XXXII. 



^ M # ^ i: ^ fP If 

PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY. 
TOKYO, JAPAN. 

1911-1913. 
MEIJI 44— TAISHO 2. 



9i- 



Publishing Committee. 



O » G ^ 



Prof. J. Sakurai, LL. D., BUfakuhakiishi, Director of the College, (ev oßcio). 

Prof. Ï. Ifima, Ph. D., Rigakuhakushi. 

Prof. F. Omori, Rigakuhakushi. 

Prof. S. Watasé, Ph. /)., Rigakuhakushi. 



-oJ4«- 



All counuunications relating to this Journal should be addressed to the 
Director of the College of Science. 



3^3^ 



CONTENTS. 



Art. 1.— Revisio Aceracearum Japonicarum. (With 33 plates). By G. Koidzumi. 

— Publ. Augi\st 2ncl, 1911. 

Art. 2.— Beobachtungen an einer Süsswasser Peridinee. (Mit 1 Tafel). 

By N. Ohno.— Publ. November 20th, 1911. 
Art. 3.— Observations and Experiments on the Ctenophore Egg: i. The 

Structure of the Egg and Experiments on Cell-division. By N. Yatsu. 
—Publ. April 29th, 1912. 

Art. 4.— Etudes Anthropologiques. Les Aborigènes de Formose. Fase. II. 

—By K. ToRii.— Publ. January. 16th, 1912. 
Art. 5.— Climatic Changes in Japan since the Pliocene Epoch. (With i plate). 

By M. Yokohama. —Publ. Oct. 2nd, 1911. 

Art. 6.— On Nepheline-basalt from Yingé-mên, Manchuria. (With 2 plates). 

By B. KotA— Publ. June 7th, 1912. 
Art. 7.— The Systematic Motions of Sun-spots. (With 3 plates). 

By S. HiRAYAMA.— Publ. June 7th, 1912. 
Art. 8.— The Metallogeny of the Japanese Islands. (With 1 map). 

By C. IwASAKi.— Publ. November 3rd, 1912. 

Art. 9.— Oogonium Liberation and the Embryogeny of Some Fucaceous 
Algae. (With 3 plates and 5 text-figures). By M. Tahara.— Publ. 
March 31st, 1913. 

Art. 10.— Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Morphologie und Stammesgeschichte 

der Gorgoniden. (Mit 13 text-fignres). By K. KiNosHiTA. — Publ. March 

31st, 1913. 
Art. 11.— Ueber die charakteristische Mannigfaltigkeit der Partiellen 

Differentialgleichungen erster Ordnung. By T. Y'oshie. — Publ. 

August 25th, 1913. 

Art. 12.— On Cyathocormus mirabilis nov. gen., nov. sp., the Type of a 
New Family of Compound Ascidians from Japan. (With 3 plates 
and text-figures). By A. Oka.— Publ. March 30th, 1913. 



PRINTED BY THE TOKYO PRINTING CO., LTD. 



JOriiXAL OF THE COLLEGE OF SCIEKCE, IMPERIAL UNIVERSITY TOKYO 

VOL. XXXII., ARTICLE 1. 



Revisio Aceracearum Japonicarum. 

G. Koidzumi. 

{With S3 Platen) 

Introduction. 

In the year 1902, Dr. F. Pax published, in Engler's "Das 
Pflanzenreich," his excellent monograph of the Aceraceae, in 
which the genus Acer was divided into 13 sections, comprising 
114 species in all, besides a large number of varieties and forms. 

Since that publication, new species have been added to the 
genus from Eastern Asia, especially from the Sinico-Japanese 
region, augmenting the total number of known species up to 127. 

In 1905, a new section of the genus was proposed by Dr. 
Eehdepv, based on certain species found in eastern continental 
Asia, in addition to those of Pax. 

The present monograph deals with Acer found in Japan 
proper, Loochoo Islands, Formosa and Sachalin. Based on the 
results of careful examinations and revisions of each species, I 
have attempted to present a new systematic arrangement of the 
genus on the principle of bringing out as far as possible the 
phylogenetic relations of the members. 

The vernacular names of every species are taken principally 
from the works of Prof. J. Matsumura^ and Prof. M. Shirai.' 

The present work was taken up at the suggestion of Prof. 
J. Matsumura, to whom I beg herewith to express my grateful 
thanks for the many acts of kindness renderd me during my 
studies. I am also under great obligation to Prof. M. Shirai 
who helped me in many matters regarding the literature. Further 
to Dr. Y. Shirasawa, Prof. G. Yamada, and Mr. T. Kawakami 
of the Formosan government, I am much indebted for the valuable 
material placed at my disposal. 

1- Bm&^^M- ed. 3. (1897J. 

2. u^mm^mm- {1908). 



^ Art 1 — Oi. Koidz;iiui. 

Aeeraceae. DC 

Aceraceae, DC. Tht'or. Elem. Bot. (1S13) ;— Lindl. Nat. Syst. ed. 2. (1838) p. 81 ; Veg. 
Kingd. (1847) p. 387;— Pax, in Engl, et Prantl. Nat. Pfl. Fam. III. 5. (1893) p. 263, et Pfl. 
Etich, 8 Heft (1902) p. 1 ;— Engl. Svllb. Nat. Pfl. Fam. (1904]. p. 155. 

Acera, Juss. Gen. PI. (1789). 50. 

Acerineae, DC. Prodr. I. (1824). p. 593 ;— Endl. Gen. PI. (1836—40) p. 1055. 

Sapindaceae, subord Acerineae, Benih. et Hook. Gen. PL I. (1867) p. 391. 

Sapindaceae, series 8. Acereae, Bull. Xat. Hist. PL V. (1874) p, 427. 

Sapindaceae, subord. Acerinae, Drude, in Schenk, Handb. III. B. (1887) p. 3C0. 

Flores actinomorphi. Carpella 2. Ovaria in loculis biovu- 
lata. Fructus mericarpiis sainaratis 2-compositus. Semina exaril- 
lata. Folia opposita, simplicia vel imparipinnata, exstipulata. 



Acer. L. 

Acer, (Todrnf) L, Sp. PL ed. 1 (1753) p. 1034, et Gen. PL (1754). p. 1155;— DC. Prodr. I. 
•(1824). p. 593;— Endl. Gen. PL (1836—40). p. 1056;— Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL I. (1867) p. 
409 ;— Baill. Nat. Hist. PL V. 427 ;-Pax, in Engl, et Prantl. Nat. Pfl. Fam. III. 5. p. 269, 
Engl. Eot. Jahrb. VII. (18S6). p. 177. et Engl. Pfl. Eeich. (IV. 163.) 8. Heft. (1902) p. 6. 

Negimdo, Ludwig, Gen. PL ed. 3. (17C0). 309 ;— DC. Prodr. I. 596 ;— Benth. et Hook. Gen. 
PL I. 409 ;— Endl. Gen. PL 1056. 

Xegundinm, Rafin, in Desv. Journ. Bot. If. (1 809). p. 170. 

JMac, Adans, Fam. II. (1763). p. 383. 

Exincer, Opiz, Seznam (1852), p. 42. 

Flores lioterochlamydei rarissime monochlamydei, actinomor- 
phi, cyclici rarius semicyclici, pentameri vel rarissime tetrameri, 
hermaphroditi vel imisexuales. Sepala 5, rarissime 4, libera vel 
pi. in. connata, in aestivatione imbricata vel quincunciales. 
Petala imbricata sepalis alterna, vel nulla. Discus varius, extra- 
vel mtrastaminalis, annularis vel lobatus, interdum abortivus vel 
deficiens. Stamina 4 — 10, diplostemoni, saepissime 8, hypogyna 
vel perigyna; antheris bilocularibus, innatis, longitudinaliter 
dehiscentibus. Carpella 2 rarissime 3, connata (syncarpa et 
oligoinera). Ovarium 2-lobum, 2-loculares, loculis biovulatis; 
stylis 2 inter lobos ovarii insertis, intus stigmatosis; ovula 
pendula, collateralia vel deinde superposita, integumento duplici, 
raphe dorsali cum micropyle supera. Fructus samarae 2, indéhis- 
centes, demum ab axi secedentes, commissura plus minus persis- 
tente. Semina in loculis 1, exalbuminosa, testa membranacea. 
Embryo plerumque diplecolobeus, cotyledonibus plicatis, radicula 



ReTisio Aceracearum Japonicirum. 3 

elongata. Arbor vel frutices. Folia opposita, petiolata, exstipula- 
ta, membranacea, vel subcoriacea, simplicia vel imparipinnata. 
Inflorescentia racemosa, corymbosa vel paniculata; rarias bractea- 
ta; andro-polygama, andro-nionoecia vel -clioecia, ititerdum 
dioecia. 

C7at'is tliaynostica Sectiotinm. 

I. Intrastaminalia : (Discus intrastaminalis. Stamina hypogyna 
vel in flore ^ tantum perigyna. Flores cum foliis nascentes vel 
panllo tantum praecociores. Gemmae perulae interiores elongatae.) 

^ Inflorescentia andro-polygama, elongato-paniculata, in 
ramulis foliatis terminalis. Flores pentameri. Folia 

palmato-lobata. Pari-iflora. 

'* * Inflorescentia andro-dioecia vel-monoecia. Flores penta- 
meri rarissime tetrameri. 
A Inflorescentia in ramulis foliatis terminalis. 
O Folia indivisa. 

D Folia utrinque pluri-costata ; flores 5 meri Indivisa. 

DD Folia utrinque multi-costata; ûores A-meri.... Carp inifoUa. 
OO Folia pi. m. palmato-lobata. 

D Inflorescentia corymbosa Glabra. 

DD Inflorescentia racemosa. 

© Antherae ellipticae, laevae. Ovaria puberulento- 
tomentella. Folia 3 — (sub 5) lobata; lobis 

inaequaliter serra ta Macrantha. 

®® Antherae ovatae, apice apiculatae, leviter scabrae. 
Ovaria glabra. Folia 5-lobata; lobis utrinque 

lobulato-inscisis Palmatoidca. 

A A Inflorescentia in ramulis aphyllis termmaUs. . . .Lithocarpa. 
*"^ FJores pentameri, dioeci. Inflorescentia 9- in ramulis 
foliatis, ^ in aphyllis terminalis. Folia palmato- 
lobata Argiita. 

II. Extrastaminalia : (Discus extrastarainalis, rarius valde 
abortivus vel nuUus.) 

A. DUyji valb abortiva^ vel deflciens. Flores longe ante 



4 



Art. 1. — G. Koidzumi. 



folia nascentes. Gemmae perulae interiores non elongatae. 
ÇAdiscantha.) 

* Folia simplicia. Flores andro-dioeci. Sepala non connata. 

Discus dentiformis. Stamina 5 — 8 Ihihra. 

"^ "^ Folia ternata vel pinnatim 5-foliolata. Flores dioeci. 
Sepala connata. Stamina 4—6. Discus nullus. Corolla 
deficiens Kcrjundo. 

B. Discus bene evolutus. Flores cum foliis nascentes vel paullo 
tantum praecociores. Gemmae perulae interiores elongatae. 
* Flores ^ perigyni. Folia lobata. 
O Inflorescentia andro-polygama. 

-A. Foliorum lobi obtusiusculi, saepe integri. Stamina 
disco crasso prope ejus marginem interiorem 

inserta. Fructus loculi duri Cauipcstria . 

-AA Foliorum lobi grosse sinuato-dentati. Stamina 
disco medio inserta. Fructus loculi planiusculi 

Platanoidca . 

OO Flores dioeci. Sepala florum "^ cum petalis coalita. 

Diaholica. 

OOO Inflorescentia andro-dioecia vel-monoecia. Corolla 

nulla. Sepala connata Saccliarina . 

* * Flores omnes hj^DOgyni. Folia lobata, ternata aut indivisa. 
O Flores dioeci, tetrameri, minuti, elongato-racemosa. 

Folia ternata Ciasifolia. 

OO Inflorescentia andro-polygama. Folia lobata vel 
intégra. 
A Folia pi. m. palmato-lobata. 

@ Inflorescentia paniculata, vel racemoso-pani- 

culata. Folia 3 — 5 lobata :Spicata. 

©© Inflorescentia corymbosa. Folia 5-pluri 

lobata .Palniata. 

AA Folia intégra Integrifolia . 

OOO Inflorescentia andro-dioecia vel monoecia. Folia 
ternatisecta. Flores umbellati Trifoliaia. 



EeTisio Aceracearimi Japonicarum. 
lèuleoc sectionnu» getieris. 

I. J ntrastaminalia, Pax, 1885. 

1. Glabra, Pax, 1S85. 

2. Parviflora, ni. 

3. Indivisa, Pax, 1885. 

4. Carpinifolia, m. 

5. Macrantha, Pax, 1885. 

6. Palmatoiclea, m. 

7. Litliocarpa, Pax, 1885. 

8. Arguta, Rehder, 1905. 

II. Extrastamimdia, Pax, 1885. 

9. Negundo, Pax, 1885. 

10. Cissifolia, rn. 

11. Rubra, Pax, 1885. 

12. Saccharina, Pax, 1885. 

13. Spicata, Pax, 1885. 

14. Palmata, Pax, 1885. 

15. Integrifolia, Pax, 1885. 

16. Trifoliata, Pax, 1885. 

17. Campestria, Pax, 1885. 

18. Platanoidea, Pax, 1885. 

19. Diabolica, m. 



ludeoc specierunt, varietafutnj'oftiiai'unique A.ceraeearuni 

JfapoiticarMitn. 

I. Iiitmstaiinnalia, Pax. 

Sect. 1, Parviflora, Koidz. 

1 . Acer parviflorum, Fß. et Sav Tetsu-Jcaede. 

Sect. 2, Indivisa, Pax. 

2. Acer distylum, S. et Z Blaniha-kaede. 

3. Acer crataegifolium, S. et Z Ko-iwi-kaede, 



6 Art. 1. — G. Koidzumi. 

rar. Veitchii, Nichols Fw'ri- kmirikacde. 

4. Acer insulare, Mak Shma-wikaede. 

5. Acer Kawakamii, Koidz. sp. nov Onaga-hiede. 

6. Acer ovatifolium, Koidz. sp. nov Koha-onagahaede. 

7 . Acer morrisonensis, Hay Talcasago-nrikacde, 

Sect. 3. Carpinifolia, Koidz. 

8. Acer carpinifolium, S. et Z Yamasliiha-kacde. 

vSect. 4. Macrantha, Pax. 

9. Acer rufinerve, B. et Z Uriliada-kaede. 

forma, albo-limbaturn, Hook, fil Fuiri-urihada. 

10. Acer capillipes, Max Hosoe-iirihada . 

var. fujisanense, Koidz, var. nov Hiroha-asliiboso-iirinohi . 

1 1 . Acer rubescens, Hay Tahisago-iwihada. 

Sect. 5. Palmatoidea, Koidz. 

12. Acer micranthum, S. et Z Ko-minchiede. 

13. Acer Tschonoski, Max Minc-lcaedc. 

Sect. 6. Arguta, Rehdee. 

14. Acer arguturn, Max Asanolia-kacde. 

II. Extnisiaminalia, Pax. 

Sect. 7. Cissifolia, Koidz. 

15. Acer cissifoliuni, Kocir Mitsudc-kaede. 

Sect. 8. Rubra, Pax. 
10. Acer rubrum, L Hana-kaedc. 

Sect. 1). Spicata, Pax. 

17. Acer trifidum, Hook, et Arn Tû-kacdc. 

forma integrifoliuni, (Mak) ni Bland a-tôkaede. 

var. ningpoense, Hanct Tô-kaede. 



Re Visio Aceracearum Japonicarum. 7 

var. formosaiuim, Hay Talcasago-tühaede.. 

18. Acer ginnala, Max Karahogi-haede. 

var. yezoense, Koidz. var. nov Yezo-karalîogikaede.. 

19. Acer spicatum, Lam. 

var. ukurunduense, Max Ogarahana, Hozalci-haede. 

20. Acer Oliverianum, Pax. 

var. Nakaharae, Hay. var. nov Shima-vioiniji. 

scar, formosanum, Koidz. svar. nov 

Itomaki-sliimamomiji,. 

svar. trilobatum, Koidz. svar nov 

Mitsude-slimamomiji,. 

Sect. 10. Palmata, Pax. 

21. Acer Sieboldianum, Miq. 

«• typicum, Max Itai/ameigetm. Kihana-uclimaliaede. 

svar. albiflorum, m Shirohaua-itaiiameigctsu. 

svar. tortuosum, m. 

scar, micropbyllum, ni Hime-ucliiwa'kaede. 

svar. Moniijigasane, m Momiji-gasane. 

svar. Sodenoucbi, m Sodenouchi. 

ß- tsusimense, m Koba-itai/ameigetsu. 

svir. Kasatoriy ama, m Kasatoriijama. 

svar. laxifolium, m Hina-itayameigetsu.. 

svar. Ayaigasa, m Aijaigasa. 

22. Acer Shirasawanum, Koidz. sp. nov Oh-itayameigetsu. 

var. tenuifolium, in Hina-uchiicakaede.. 

svar. Murasame, m Mwasame. 

23. Acer japonicum, Thg, 

«• typicum, Ge. v. Scnw- Haiiclihra-kaede, Akahana -ucliiivakaede ^ 
forma angustilobum, m. 
forma macropbyllum, m. 
forma tenuilobum, ni. 
forma semiovatum, m. 
forma ascendens, m. 
forma crassifolium, m. 



^ Art. l.— G. Koidzumi. 

ß' aureum, Gr. v. Schw. 
T- Parsonii, Veitch. 

'^. Heyliachii, Matsum. Mai-hujaku. 

^' microphyllum, m Yezo-meigetsii-kaede, 

C- circumlobatum, m Oh-meigetsu. 

V- villosum, m. 

^- Kasado, m Kasado. 

'■ Kokonoye, m Kokonoe. 

X- Sayosigure, m Sayoshigure. 

^- Matsuyoi, m Matsuyoi. 

24. Acer palmatum, Thunb Kaede, Momiji, 

ssp. Ci. genuinum, m. 

(.1. spectabile, m Iroha-niomiji. 

forma Chisiwo, m Chishio. 

forma Komonnisiki, m Komon-nishiki. 

svar. crispum, m Okushimo. 

svar. Higasayama, m Higasa-yama. 

h. amabile, m Iroha-momiji. 

forma Akajinisiki, m Akaji-nisliiki . 

/or»?« Tsuchigumo, ni Tsucliigumo. 

forma Hanaizuminisiki, m — HanaizuminisMki. 

forma Oridonisiki, m Orido-nisliiki. 

suar. Kagiri, m Kagiri. 

^''•s/^. ß- septenlobum, (Thg. ) m Takao-momiji. 

car. latilobatum, ni Hiroha-momiji. 

var, speciosum, m Nomura-kaede. 

var, palmatipartitum m. 

forma Senri, m Senri. 

forma Ichigioin, m Ichigyoin. 

forma Akitsuta, m Akilsuta. 

forma Tsukubane, m Tsiikiihane. 

forma Ohsakazuki, m Oh-sakazuki. 

svar. Tanabata, m Tanahata. 

scar, linearilobum, n:i Shimcnouchi. 

forma lineare, (Gr. v. Schw.) m. 
forma atro-lineare, (Gr. v. Schw.) m. 



Revisio Acericearum Japonicarum, 9 

s^p. r- Matsumurae, m Yama-momiji. 

a. spontaneum, m. 

foniia angustilobnm, m. 

forma circumlobatum, m. 

forma acutum, m. 

forma rectangulare, m. 

forma obtusum, m. 
svar. elegans, m. 
svar. f ormosan urn, m Takasago-momiji. 

b. horten se, in. 

svar. pahïiatilobum, m. 

forma Sigitatsu, m Slwjitatsu. 

forma Nisikikasane, m NisJiikigascme. 

forma Asanoha, m Asanoha. 

svar. palmatipartitum, m. 

forma Monnisiki, ni MonnisMhi. 

forma Akitsusima, m Akitsiishima. 

forma Tokouatsu, m Tokonatsu. 

forma Yugure, lu Yügure. 

forma Nokibata, m Nokihata. 

forma Kihachijo, m Kiliacliijö. 

forma Kageorinisiki, m Kageorinisliiki. 

forma Siguresome, m Shigiirczome. 

forma Takinogawa, m Takinogaica. 

forma Kurabuyama, m Kurahuyama. 

forma Awoba, m Aoha. 

forma Karukaya, m Karukaya. 

forma Murasakitaka, rn Miirasakitaka. 

forma Asaji, m isaji. 

/or»za Akegarasu, m Akegarasii. 

forma Murehibari, ra Murchihari. 

svar. heterolobura, m. 

forma Wabibito, m Wahihito. 

forma Sensunagasi, m Sensunagashi. 

forma Hibari, m. 
svar. dissectum, (Tug.) m. 



10 Art. I.— G. KoLdzumi. 

1. iniiltifîdum, m. 

forma Awosidare, m Aoshidare. 

forma Tamukeyama, m Chinmen-momiji. 

2. palmatisectum, m. 

forma Matsukaze, m Matsiikazè. 

forma Ohsiusiclare, m Ohshyiisliidare. 

svar. sessilifolium, m. Hagoromo-kaede. 

Sect. 11. Integrifolia, Pax. 

25. Acer obloiignii), Wall Kimmoha-lxacàe. 

Sect. 12. Trifoliata, Pax. 

26. Acer nikoense, Max C]wja)iol-i\ Ohmitsiule-hiede. 

Sect. 1.3. Platanoidea, Pax. 

27. Acer Miyabei, Max Kurohi- ilaya. 

28. Acer pictum, Thuxb. 

«. typicuin, Gr. v. Schw. 

uïar. eupictum, Pax. Ilaya-htede. 

svar, mono, (Max.) Pax Itaya-lmede. 

srar. Savatieri, Pax Itomnld-itaya . 

forma septenlobum, m. 
forma novemlobuni, ni. 

srar. Mayri (G. v. Schw. ) ni Itnya-hicdc. 

svar. Futagoyan^a, m. 

ß' Paxii, Gr. v. Schw Oni-itaya. 

/'• dissectum , Wesmael A sahi-kaede. 

svar. subtrifiduni, Mak Yafjuruma-lmedc. 

f*. glaucuiï) , m Urajiro-itaya . 

.war. latilobum, m Urajiro-itoiiuiki-itaya. 

Sect. 14. Diabolica, Koidz. 
20. Acer dial)olicurii, Bl Kaji-kacde, Oni-momiji. 



Revisio Aceraceaniui Japonicarum. 1 1 

Descriptiones Specrerum Aceris Japoniae. 
I. Intrastaminalia, Pax. 

Instrastaminalia, Pax, iu Engl. Eot. Jahrb. YI. (1385) p. £27. (Periayna, Pax, 1. c. pro 
parte.) 

Sect. 1. Parcißora. m. 

InfloresceDtia andro-polygama, elongato-paniculata. Flores 
pentameri. Stamina 8, in flore '^^ perigyni; antlieris scabris. 
Discus intrastaniinalis. Stylus bipartitus. Folia membranacea, 
palmatilobata. Species unica. 

1. Acer parviflorum, Fr. et Sa v. (Tab. I.) 

Fr. et Sav. En. PL Jap. II. (1879) p. Îi21 ;— Max. Mtl. Picl. X. (18S0) 595;- Pax, in Engl. 
Bot. Jahrb. VU. (iSCö) p. 247, et Engl. Pfl. Riich, 8 Heft {IV. 163), (1£02) p. t9;-C. K. Schn. 
111. Hacdb. Laubh. II. (1907; p. 236 ;— Leveil. Bull. Soc Bot. Fr. VI. (1806) p. 592. 

A. pennsylvaiUciivi, var. iHirvißorum, Wesmael, in Bull. See. Bot. Eelj.iqueXXIX. (1810) C2. 

Nom. JAP. Tetsu-hiede (ß-:^^ ^), Tetm-no-ld (ibid.) 

Arbusculus vel arbor; ranuilis novelli?, foliis inflorescentibus- 
que rufo-pubescentibus, cito glabriusculis. Folia membranacea, 
adulta ad axillas costarum tantum rufo-barbarta, aeciuilonga 
(6 — 20 cm.) ac lata; ambitu quadrangulata, sed in foliis trilobatis 
ovata; basi cordata, H-lobata; lobis tiiangulari-ovatis brève 
acuminatis, duplicato-serratis; extimis valde abbreviatis; petiolis 
e.longatis basi parum dilatatis. Inflorecentia spicato-paniculata; 
Acribus andro-polygamis, foliis coaetaneis; pedicellis ebracteolatis, 
minute puberulentibus. Calyx extus ciliolatus; limbis 5, ovatis 
obtusis. Petala 5, alba v. lutescentia, oblonga obtusa, quam 
sepala breviora. Stamina 8; filamentis subulatis glabris; antheris 
scabris. Discus crenatus, intrastaminalis. Ovarium puberulento- 
tomentosum; stylis ad basin bipartitis; stigmatibus revolutis. 
Samarae loculi rufo-tomentelli; alis angulo obtuso divergentibus. 

Obs. Julio— Augusto fl., Augusto— Octobri fr. 

Hab. in sylvis montuosis insulae Hondo et Sikoku; Hondo: 
Kurikomayama (Rikuzen), Ötöge, Gassan, Hagurosan, lidesan, 



i^ Art. 1. — G. Koidzomi. 

Azumasan (Uzen), Simizutôge (Simotsuke), Myôkôsan, Kurobe- 
yama (Yechigo), Togakusiyama (Sinano), Fujisan (Suruga), Sikok: 
Tsurugiyama (Awa). 
DisTR. endemica. 



Sect. 2. Indicim, Pax. 

IiuUvim, Pax, in Engl. Bat. Jahrb, VI (18S5) 327. VTL (1S86) 210. 

Inflorescentia racemosa. Flores andro-dioeci vel-monoeci. 
Sepala petalisque 5. Stamina 8, hypogyna, in flore '^ perigyna. 
Petala rarius eroso-serrata. Discus intrastaminalis. Stylus pro- 
funde bilobatus. Folia membranacea, indivisa, saepe subtrilobata 
immixta, utrinque pauci — pluri costata. 

Species ad 6, Hondoensis, Sikokuensis, Kiusiuensis, et Form- 
osae incolae. 



Clavis speciemm ttichotonia. 

1. Folia elliptica, glabra, crenata; samarae loculi ferrugineo-to 

mentosa. A. disti/Ium, S. et Z. 

1 olia vata acuminata ; samarae glabrae 2 

2. Folia nunquam trilobata 3 

Folia saepe triloba immixta 4 

3. Folia crenulata nunquam dentato-lobulata A. ovatifoliuin, m. 

Folia serrata, saepe inciso-serrata; serraturis subito acutis 

patentibusque; petalis eroso-serratis A. Kawakamii, m. 

4. Folia inciso-serrata; serraturis inaequalibus, plerumque incar- 

vatisque ; petalis eroso-serratis A. insulare, Making. 

Petala intégra ; foliis serraturis patentibus 5 

5. Florum pedicellis glabris; folia ab initio glabra, subtus glau- 

cescentes, saepius distincte trilobata; alae samarae horizon- 

taliter patentes .-( . cmtaegi/olium, S. et Z. 

Florum pedicellis puberulentibus; folia juniora ad venas 
puberula, le viter trilobata A. morrisonense, Hayata. 



Eevisio Aceracearum Japonicarum. i--' 

2. Acer distylum, S. et Z. (Tab. II.) 

SiKBOLD, et ZüCCARiNi, Fl. Jap. Farn. Nat. in Abb. Akad. Munch. IV. 2 (1846) 154 ;— Miq. 
Prol. Fl. Jap. (1866). 21 ;— Walp. Ann. I (1846) 960;— Fr. et Sav. En. PI. Jap. I. (1875) 89 ;— 
Max. Mél. Biol. X (1880) 595;— Pax, in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. VII (1886) 216, et Engl. Pfl. Reich. 
8 Heft (1902) 34;— Leveil. in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fran. VI (1906) 590 ;—C. K. Sohn. III. Haiidb. 
Laubh. II. (1907)217. 

Nom. Jap. Hitotsuha-lcaede (nom. vulg.) Maruha-hjcde, Itufjo- 
hicde, Clndori-vo-ki. (^ « H ¥• 15 IS iXmm- ^^mm. 1832.) 

Arbor; ramulis juvenilibus ferrugiDeo-tomentosis; gemmae 
perulis chartaceis, ovato-lanceolatis, extus ferrugineo-pubescentibus 
praeditae. Folia membranacea, juniora petiolisque ferrugineo- 
tomentosa, mox glabra, ovato-elliptica, crenata, apice subito brève 
acuminata, basi cordata. Inflorescentia foliis coaetanea, sub- 
complicato-racemosa, ferrugineo-tomentosa; floribus andro- 
dioeciis. Calyx 5-fidus, laciniis utrinque puberulento-tomentosis, 
oblongis, apice rotundatis. Petala 5, alba vel lutescentia, oblonga 
basi parum angustata, apice rotundata, sepalis aequilonga. Discus 
bene annulato-evolutus, intrastaminalis. Stamina plerumque 8, 
in flore "^ leviter exerta, antheris laevibus. Ovarium dense 
puberulento-tomentosum, stylis ad basin bipartitis, laciniis 
subulatis. Samarae loculi ovato-oblongi, ferrugineo-tomentosi; 
alis angulo obtuse divergentibus. 

Obs. Maio— Junio fl., Augusto — Septembri fr. 

Hab. in sylvis insulae Nippon: Hayachine, Sengantöge 
(Rikuchiu), Kurikomayama (Rikuzen), Azumasan (Uzen), Aidzu 
(Iwashiro), Nikkö (Shimotsuke), Togakushiyama (Shinano), Cbi- 
chibu (Musashi), Ohyaraa (Sagami), Ibukiyama (Ohmi). 

DisTR. endemica. 

3. Acer crataegifolium, S. et Z. (Tab. III.) 

Sieb, et Zucc. F). Jap. Farn. Xat. in Abh. Akad. Münch. IV. 2. (1846), p. 155, et Fl. Jap. II. 
(1870), 84. t. 147 ;— Miq, Prol. Fl. Jap. (1S66), 21 ;— Fr. tt Sav. En. PI. Jap. I. (1875), 89 ;— Max. 
Mél. Biol. X. (1880), 596 ;— Pax, Engl. Bot. Jahrb. VII. (1886), p. 248, et Engl. Pfl. Eeich. 8 
Heft (1902). p. 36;— Leveil. et Vnt. Bull. So3. Bot. Fr. VI. (1906), p. 590 ;— C. K. Schn. 111. 
Handb. Laubh. II. (1907), 216. 

A. cmtae()i folium. 2. tTjp.cuvi, Graf. v. Schw. in Gartenfl. (1S93) 4c5 ;— Pax. Pfl. Eeich. I.e. 36. 
^ A, cüciiUobracteatiim, Leveil. et Vnt. 1 c. 59, 



14 Art. 1.— G. Koidzumi. 

Nom. Jap. Shirahashinold (¥ 1* + - ¥■ îI tî in âl ^. 5^ ^ ^ M Ä iS. 
1121)]—Hana-kaede (!?7T«5¥- ^W^m^m, -X^^^- 1708; — Yanm- 
kaetle (;^ 5fn tJc |i) ; — lion-wi (fg !)tl ,r> f|) ; — Sliira-kaede (?K 1* /\ ¥• laf H lg 
Ui !=■ *E i^ >^: Sß :£• ]So7) •,—Ao-iiri (Indigenis nikkoensis et chichi- 
biieusis vocatur); — Me-winoki, Uii-kaede, Ko-urikaalc (J. INIatsu- 
MURA, ShokubutsLi-]\[eii, no. 30). 

Arbor; ramulis no vis ferrugineo-pubescentibus, mox gkibris. 
Gemmae perukie angaste vel spatbulato-oblougae, parce pilosae. 
Folia membranacea, glabra; nascentia praesertim ad axillas 
nervorum ferrugineo-tomentosa; subtus glauca vel glaucescentia, 
ovata acuminata, basi cordata, inciso-serrata saepius leviter tri- 
lobata, utrinque pauci(4 — 6) — costata; acuminibus acutis vel 
obtusiusculis; petiolis gracilibus. Inflorescentia racemosa, foliis 
coaetanea; pedicellis glabris; floribusluteis, andro-dioeciis. Calyx 
5-fidus, extus glaber; laciniis oblongis apice rotundatis. Petala 5 
oblonga sepalis parum longiora. Stamina 8, inclusa; antheris 
rotuudatis laevibu=5. Discus carnosus, intrastaminalis. Ovaria 
glabra; stylis profouiide bilobatis, laciniis subulatis revolutis. 
Samara glabra, loculis reticulato-nervosis, roseo-coloratis, pulcher- 
rimis; alis horizontaliter patentibus, — 8 mm. latis. Maio — Junio 
ti., Augusto fr. 

Hab. in Hondo: Hayacliine (Rikucbiu), Aidzu (Iwasbiro), 
Nikko (Shimotsuke), Akagisan (Ködzuke), Chichibu, Tamagawa 
(Musashi), Norikurasan, Ontakesan (Shinano), Komono (Ise), 
Köyasan (Kii), Prov. Swö, Tottori (Inaba), Prov. Yamato. 
Kiusiu: Hikosan (l^uzen). 

Var. Veitchii, Nichols. iu Gard. Chron. (ISSl), II. 75;— Pax, Engl. pfl. 
Keich. 1. c, 37. 

No-M. Jap. Fuôii-kourikaedc (nom. no v.) 

Folia juvenilia roseo- dem urn albo-marmorata, inprimis 
secus marginem. 

Hab. culta. 

DisïR. SP. endemica. 

4. Acer insulare, [Marino. (Tab. IV.) 

T. Making, ia Bat. Mi^. Tokyo, XXIV. (101)) 293. 



Revisio Accracearum Japonicarum. 15 

A. rufinerve, Engl. Bot. Jahrb. VI. î.9;— Matsdm. et Ito, Tent. FI. Lutch. I. 120;— Forb. 
et Hemsl. Joiar. Lin. Soc. XXIII. 142 (non S. et Z.) 

J. (.viiffZanoH, Matsüm. Bot. Ma j. Tokyo, XII. (1593) 63;— MA.TSUM. et Ito, 1. c. 120 (?i07i 
Wall.) 

Arbor ramis glabris, cortice lutescenti-viride. Folia membra- 
nacea, adulta glabra, juniora subtus secus costas et in axillis 
nervorum ferrugineo-pubescentia, ovata ovali-ovata, utrinque 
5 — 7 costata, basi cordata vel subcordata, apice longe acuminata, 
margino inaequaliter, vel interdum subinciso-serrata; serraturis 
plerumque incumbentibus; 7 — 14 cm. longa, 4 — 14 cm. lata; 
petiolis mox glabris 2,5—9 cm. longis. Inflorescentia elongato- 
racemosa, cire. 8 cm. longa, parce ferrugineo-pubescentes; pedicel- 
lis fîliformibus 3— 8 cm. longis; floribus foliis coaetaneis, cire. 10 
mm. in diametro. Calyx extüs parce puberulens; sepalis 5, 
lineari-oblongis, obtusis vel acutiusculis, cire 3 mm. longis. 
Petala 5, cuneato-oblanceolata, obtusa vel acutiuscula, eroso- 
serrata, 4,5 — 5,5 mm. longa. Discus crenatus, intrastaminalis. 
Stamina 8, ßlamentis subulatis, antheris ellipticis. Ovaria 
puberulento-tomentosa; stylis profunde bilobatis, laciniis revolutis. 
Fructus glaber, cire 24 mm. longa; alae angulo obtuso vel 
obtusissimo divergentes. 

Nom. Jap. Shima-urihiedc (T. Makixo.) 

Hab. Kiusiu: Prov. Ohsumi, insul. Yakushima, insul. 
Amami-Ohslnma. 

5. Acer Kawakamii, Koidz. (Tab. V.) 

KoiDZ. in Bot. Mao-. Tokyo, XXV. no. 290 (Mart. 1011) p. 102. 

A. CMidaUun, Matsum. et Hat. En. PL Forrnos. (1905) 96 [non Wall.) 

A. canititi folium, Hatat. in Jour. Coll. Soi. Tokyo, XXX. 1. (Jun. 1911) p. 65. 

Arbor; ramulis ab initio glabris; gemmae acutae pauci- 
perulatae. Folia membranacea, glabra, juniora subtus in nervis 
parce et ad axillas costarum copiose rufo-puberula, ovata vel 
ovato-oblonga, caudato-acuminata, basi aperte cordata, subae- 
qualiter serrata, sublobulata immixta; serraturis patentibus; basi 
5-nervata ceterum 4 — 6 penninervia, 6 — 10 cm. longa, 3 — 4.5 cm. 
lata; petiolis gracilibus limbo brevioribus, 3 — 5 cm. longis. 
Racemus sat multiflorus, glaber vel parce pube rufescenti 
tectas; floribus andro-dioeciis, foliis coaetaneis. Sepala 5, obovata 



lö Art. 1. — G. Koidzumi. 

obtusa. Petala 5, subspathulata, quam sepala loiigiora, circ. 
3 — 3.5 mm. longa, eroso-serrata. Discus intrastaminalis. 
Ovarium glabrum; stylis quam stigmata revoluta brevioribus. 
Samarae cum ioculis 20 — 22 mm. longae; alis angulo obtuso 
divergentibus. 

Nom. Jap. Onaga-liaede (M. Shirai) 

Hab. ia sylvis temperatis Formosae: Arisan, Hakkutaisan. 

DisTR. enderaica. 

Nota, species arete affinis A. laxifforo, Pax, ab hoc diversa 
petalis spath ulatis eroso-serratis; fohis non crenulatis. 

6. Acer ovatifolium, sp. no v. (Tab. VI.) 

Arbor; cortice ramulorum laevi, luteo-viride. FoHa mem- 
branacea, adulta utrinque glabra, ovata rarius ovato-oblonga, 
caudato-acuminata, basi rotundata vel aperte cordata, margine 
minute crenulato-serrulata v. crenulata, interdum sublobulata 
immixla, basi 5-nervata ceterum 5— G penninervia; petiolis 
glabris 1.5 — 2.0 cm. longis. Inflorescentia andro-dioecia, multi- 
flora, racemosa, dense ferrugineo-tomentella. Flores 

Fructus glaber, circ. 1.5 cm. longus, alae angulo recto vel obtuso 
divergentes; pedicellis brevibus 4 — 5 mm. longis. 

Nom. Jap. Koha-oncuja-haede (nom. no v.) 

Hab. in sylvis temperatis Formosae: Ako (Yokusensha). 

Nota. Species ab A. Hookcri, MiQ. quocum junxit, distinctis- 
sima ist foliis minoribus 4.5 — 6.5 cm. longis, 2 — 3 cm. latis, 
minute crenulatisque. 

7. Acer morrisonense, Hayata, sp. nov. (Tab. VII.) 

Arbor; ramis glabris nigro-viridescentibus; ramulis juveni- 
liljus parce rufo-puberulis. Gemmae ovatae perulis paucis 
praeditae. Folia membranacea, cito glabra, juniora utrinque 
praesertim subtus secus nervös rufo-puberula, leviter triloba vel 
trilobatisve, rarius indivisa immixta, basi aperte cordata, apice 
longe acuminata, subduplicato-serrulata, utrinque 5 — G-costata, 
G — 11 cm. longa, 3 — 7 cm. lata; lobis lateralibus multo minoribus 



Kovisio Aceracoaruui Japonicarum. 17 

obtusis; petiolis gracilibus 3 — 4 cm. longis. Flores andro-dioeci, 
ill race mum pendulum parce puberulum, ramulo bifoliato in- 
sidentem dispositi; pedicellis capilliformibus ad 8 mm. longis. 
Sepala 5 ovata, obtusa, virescentia. Petala 5 sepalis aequilonga, 
rotundato-ovata, flavescentia. Stamina 8, antheris Jaevibus; 
filamentis subulatis glabris. Discus lobatus intrastaminalis. 
Fructus 

Nom. Jap. Takasiujo-wihaetlc. (nom. nov.) 

Hab. Formosa: in monte Morrison. 

DiSTE. endemica. 

Nota. Species affine videtur A. crataegifulio, S. et Z., sed ab 
hoc et a reliquis speciebus Indivisoriun foliis saepius leviter 
trilobis, utrinque viridibus, subtus tenuissime reticulatis manifeste 
distincta. 



Sect. 3. Carfiinifolia, m. 

Inflorescentia racemosa, ^ saepe umbellata vel subcorym- 
bosa. Flores tetrameri, andro-dioeci. Sepala 4. Petala 4. 
Stamina 5 — 6, hypogyna. Discus intrastaminalis. Stylus ad 
basin partitus, laciniis subulato-curvatis. Folia membranacea, 
utrinque multicostata. 

Species unica Japonensis. 

<^. Acer carpinifolium, S. et Z. (Tab. VIII.) 

SxEEOLD ct ZuccARiNi, Fl. Jap. Fam. Xat. in Abb. Akad. Müuch. IV. 2. (1S46) loi, et Fl. 
Jap. IL (1870) 81, t. 142 ;-Fß. et Sav. En. PL Jap. L (1875) 89 ;-MrQ. ProL FL Jap. (1866) 21 ;- 
Mas. Mél. BioL X. (1880) 595 ;-Pax, in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. VIL (1836) 217, et Engl. Pfl. Reich. 
8 Heft (1902) 34 ;— Leveil. Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. VI (1906) 539 j-C. K. Schn. IlL Handb. Laubh. 
IL (1907) 215. 

Nom. Jap. Yauiüs]uha-];acd('^ Cliidorinoki, Shinnsliide (i^m:^^); 
Shirn-shide (^i^-h^. ^fm^mm-^ïâW.:^-^. imj);—Taniasa (^i^^^. 
(mm'±^mm-W:^mm. 18SS);—Ara]iagj, Tsuhanoh (indigenis Chichi- 
buensis vocatur). 

Arbor; rainulis novellis glabris vel sparce villosis, cortice 



18 Art. l.—G. Kfidzumi. 

ramorum cinereo-fusescente. Gemmae perulae intimae membra- 
naceae oblanceolatae acuminatae versus basin valde angastatae. 
Polia membranacea, supra mox glabra, subtus praesertim ad 
venas adpresse pubescentia, oblonga, acuminata, basi rotundata 
saepe 1 éviter cordata vel subauriculata, utrinque argute incisoser- 
rata, parallele multi-costulata ; petiolis brevibus glabris. Inflores- 
centia foliis coaetanea, laxe puberula. Flores andro-dioeci, albi 
vel lutesecntes, '^ longe racemosi; $ umbellati, corymboso- 
cymosi, vel racemosi; pedicellis capilliformibus tenuissimis. 
Calyx extus ciliatus ; sepalis 4 oblongis apice rotundatis. Petala 
4, oblonga apice obtusa, saepissime ciliolata, sepalis aequilonga, 
in floribus 1^ caduca. Stamina 5 — 6 inclusa; antheris laevibus. 
Discus lobatus intrastaminalis. Ovarium margine pilosum, 
«eterum glaberrimum; stylis brevissimis subnullis; stigmatibus 
■elongatis subulatis. Samara glabra, loculis planis ovatis; alis 
angulo obtuso divergentibus; pedicellis elongato-capilliformibus, 
fere saemper nutantibus. 

Hab. Hondo: Nambu (Rikuchiu), Aizu (Iwashiro), Nikko 
(Shimotsuke), Chicliibu, Ohdake (Musashi), Olij^ama, Hakone 
(Sagami), Usuitöge, Ontake, Toriitöge, Höfukujitöge, Togakuslii- 
yama, (Shinano), Amagisan, (Idzu) Prov. Kii, Prov. Nagato. 
Sikok: Prov. Tosa; Prov. Avva. Kiusiu: Kudshusan. 

DisTK. endemica. 

Nota. Folia ad 16,5 cm. longa, 8,5 cm. lata; samara ad 
3 cm. longa, 1,3 cm. lata. 



Sect. 4. Macrantha^ Pax. 

Macrantha, Pax, ia Engl. Bot. .Jahrl). VI. (1885) 328, et VII. (I88ü) 24t. 

Inflorescentia racemosa. Flores andro-dioeci vel monoeci, 
pentameri. Stamina 8 hypogyna, in flore "^ perigyna. Discus 
intrastaminalis. Antherae laevae, ellipticae. Ovaria pl. m. pube- 
rulento-tomentosa; stylis profunde bilobatis. Folia membranacea, 
3 — 5-palmatilobata, inaequaliter serrata. 



Revisio Acsracearum Japoniciirum. !•) 

Clavis specierttui. 

1. Folia trilobata, rarius simul sub pentaloba iramixta 2 

Folia quinquelobata 3 

2. Folia ambitu obovata, subtus ad venas inflorescentiaque rufo- 

feiTUginea. Flores médiocres, pedicellis brevibus. Fructus 

alae 16 — 20 mm. longae, 10 (7 — 10) mm. latae 

A. riifinerce, S. et Z. 

Felia ambitu ovata glabra. Flores minuti, pedicellis gracile 
elongatis, circ. 10 mm. longis. Fructus alae circ 5 mm. 
latae, 10 mm . longae A. capillipes, Max. 

3. Folia glabra, 5-nervata, ceterum G — 11-penninervia; lobis 

acuminatis. Fructus pedicelli capilliformes 10 — 12 mm. 

longi A. capillipes^ var. fujisancnse, m . 

Folia juuiora subtus rufo-birta, 5-nervata, ceterum 4—5 
penninervia; lobis caudato-acuminatissimis. Fructus 

pedicelli 7 — 10 mm. longi; alis majoribus 

A. riihesœns, Hay ata. 

9. Acer rufinerve, S. et Z. (Tab. IX). 

SiEBoLD et ZuccARiM, Fl. Jap. Faui. Nat. in Abh. Akad. Miiuch. IV. 2. (184'3) 155, et Fl. 
Jap. IL (1S70) 85, t. 14S ;— Miq. Prol. Fl. Jap. (1866) 20 ;— Koch in Ann. Mus. Lugcl. Bat. I. 
(1863—64) 251; — Walp. Ann. I. 961 ;— Max. Mél. Biol. X. (1880) 593 ;— Pax, in Engl. Bot. 
Jahrb. VII. (1886) 247, et Engl. Pfl. Eeich. 8 Heft (1902) 69 ;— Fr. et Sav. En. PL Jap. I. (1875) 
89;— Leveil. Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. VI. (1906). 593 :—C. -v. Schn. 111. Handb. Laubh. II. (1907) 
237. 

A. pennsylvaniciim, var. rufinerve, Wesml. in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belgique, XXIX. (2890) 62. 

A. rufinerve, forma normale, Gß. v. Schw. in Gartfl. (1893) 454. 

Nom. Jap. Urlhada-hude (m %'a ^) ; — lizulu, Konjinoki (%m-h¥- 
^i^^lEm- H3fellJ^7tc|ffl. 1825) ; —Küinuri-kaede, Ohba-winoki (X ^ A if. 
7K ^ Äl 5^ ^- =f^ p^n m^ik a.) 182G ; —Ao-kacde, Oh-minekacde (5? 1* A ^. n^ 
B 22 m ^- *E ii ^ Sß iJ;- 1837) ; — (Jrikko (JtmmmM^); —Ao-momiji (? m 
7Ê ¥■ /h fr M m -^- -^ Sf tS ^ iE- 1801) ; Uri-i (nom. indig. Chichi- 
buensis); Oh-urik.mU (J. ^Matsumuea, Shokubutsu-Meii, no. 45); 
Urinoki (indig. Provinciae Settsu vocatur). 

Arbor vel arbusculus, ramis laevibus, cortice luteo-virides- 
ceiite nigricanto-striato ; ramulis novellis glabris; gemmae perulae 
spathulato-oblongae extus rufo-tomentosae. Folia membranacea, 



20 Art. 1. — G. Koidzuuii. 

fiubtus secus nervös, mox ad veiiarum axillas tantuni rufo-barbarta, 
ambitu obovata, basi leviter cordata vel i'otuiidata, triloba, vel 
quinquelobata si lobis basalibus adsunt minimis, inciso-vel 
subduplicato-serratis ; petiolis denium glabris. Racemi foliis 
coaetanei rufo-pubescentes; floribus sulphureis glabris, andro- 
dioeciis; pedicellis ebracteatis, flore minoribiis eirc. 3 — 5 mm. 
longis. Sepala 5 spathulato-oblonga, apice rotundata. Petala 5, 
obovato-oblonga apice emarginata vel rotundata, sepalis aeqni- 
longa. Stamina 3, inclusa, antheris laevibus. Discus intrastami- 
nalis, margine crenato, intus glaber. Ovaria puberulento- 
tomentella; stylis bifidis, laciniis subulatis intus longe stigmatosis. 
Alae samarae 5 m.m. latae, 10 m.m. longae, subparallelae vel 
angulo acuto interdum fere recto divergentes, loculis rufo- 
tomentellis multo longiores. Maio fl., Augusto fr. mat.. 

Hai]. Hando: Nanshözan, Himekamiyama, Iwatesan, 
Goyözan (Rikuchiu), Chökaizan (Ugo), Azumasan, Gassan, 
Asahidake, Ichinenhö, lidesan (Uzen), Aizu (Iwashiro), Nikko, 
Shimidzutöge (Shimotsuke), Hakone (Sagami), Amagisan (Idzu), 
Fujisan (Suruga), Hakusan (Kaga), Tateyama (Yettchiu), Kasu- 
gasan (Yamato), Prov. Nagato. — Shikok: Prov. Awa, Tosa, 
Sanuki. — Kiusiu: Iwatake (Buzen). 

DiSTE. endemica. 

Xota. Afiine Acer pcjnisijîudnico, et A. üujmcntoso, sed a priori 
pedicellis florum rufo-pubescentibus; fruc^us loculis quam ala 
inulto-brevioiibus, fructus pedicellis baud ultra 5 mm. longis; 
ab altero foliis iructibusc[Ue non glabris differt. 

furiiia albo-limbatum, Hook. fil. in Bot. :5[ag. (isa)), t. 579 5;-Pax, 

Engl. Tfl. Keich. 8 Heft (1902) G9. 

A. Tul'incrve,i. manjitinium, et m irmora'nm. P.vx, i.i Engl. Bot. Jalir'i. VII. (183G) 247. 

Folia albo-pulvurulento-marginata vel -maculata glabriuscula; 
racemis glabris vel ]-arius parce puberulis, i)edicellis infericribus 
longioribus cire. 10 mm, longis; fructibus glalnis alis angulo 
obtuso divergentibus. 

Nom. .Jap. i'uiri-unhadakacik (nom. nov.) 
JJühui/nki-kaalc (bort, nom.) 

IIa 15. culta. 



Rovisio Aceracearum Japoniearnm. 21 

10. Acer capillipes, Max. (Tab. X.) 

C. J. Maxuiowicz, in M.l. Biol. VI. (1867) ?.67. et X. (ISSO) 593 ;— Fr. et Sav. En. PI. Jap. I. 
(1875) ,88 ;— Pax, in Engl. Bot/Jahrb. VII. (188G) 2-46, et Pfl. Reich. 8 Heft at.02) 67 ;— Leveil. 
in Bull. Soc. Bot. Franc. VI. (1806) 589 ;—C. K. Schn. III. Hanclb. Laubh. IT. (1907) 238 ;— 
Making, in Bot. Mag. Tokyo XXIV (1910) p. 292. 

A. p>"i.mylraiiku)n, var. capdlipc", VVesmael in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belgique, XXIX. (1890) 62. 

Nom. Jap. Oh-karahana (-^i&-h¥- ^^^ lE^. U 3fe lü :?: ?l^ ü. 
l&2ô);~Hosoe-l-aedc (R. Yatabe n:^m^^m. vul. I. (1900) p. 
411.) ;—Äshiboso-iiriNol-i ( M . Shirai B:^mm ^ mm 1 908. ) ; —Hosoc- 
un'hada (nom. nov.) 

Arbor glaber 10 metralis. Rarnuli cortice laeve, luteo-viridis- 
cente iiigricanto-striato. Folia membranacea ambitu ovata, tri- 
lol:»ata rarius subquinquelobata. basi rotundata, lobis lateralibus 
vakle minoribus, omnibus acuminatis subduplicato-serratis 
serraturis ovatis nmcronatis; petiolis quam limbo brevioribus basi 
parum incrassatis. Flores andro-dioeci, foliis coaetanei, minuti, in 
racemum multiflorum pendentem, elongatum, pedunculo 3 — 5 cm. 
longo insidentem dispositi; pedicellis capilliformibus circ. 10 mm. 
longis. Sepala oblonga obtusa virescentia. Petala oblonga sepalis 
aequilonga lutescentia. Stamina 8 antheris laevibus. Discus 
intrastaminalis, mai-gine crenato. Ovaria parce puberula, st}dis 
bifidis, stigmatibus snbulatis exertis. Samara cum loculis 13-14 
mm. longa, ad 4 — 5 mm. lata; alis angulo obtuso divergentibus; 
pedicellis 10-12 mm. longis. 

Hai;, in sylvis Hondo: Nikkö, Ontakesaii, Fujisan. 

DiSTR. endemica. 

var. fujisanense, m. 

Folia ambitu subquadrangulata, di.-^tincte quinqaelobata lobis 
extimis multo minoribus. 

Nom. Jap. Hirolia-asliihoso-urinnlii. 

Hae. Fujiyama. 

11. Acer rubescens, Hayata, sp. nov. (Tab. XI.) 

Ai'boi-, rami purpureo-viridi glabri ; gemmae magnae ovoideae 
pauci-perulatae. Folia membranacea, elongato-petiolata, juniora ad 
basin costaruin subtus rufo-I)arbarta, mox glabi-a, ambitu rotundato 



22 Art. 1.— G. Koidzumi. 

vel subqnadraiigulato-ovata, quinquelobata, basi cordata pentaner- 
via, ceterum 4 — 5 penninervia, 6 — 9 cm. longa 4 — 7 cm. lata; 
lobis inaequaliter serratis caudato-acuminatis ; petiolis gracile 
elongatis, laminae aequantibns vel paulo brevioribus. Inflorescentia 
in ramulis 2 foliatis terminalis, fructifera glabra elongato-racemosa. 
Flores ut videtur andro-dioeci, graciliter pedicellati. Fnictus in 
racemum pendulum circiter ad 8 cm. longum dispositi. Samarae 
plerumque 1,3 cm. longae (raro ad 1,7 cm. longae), loculis 
ovoideis 3( — 5) mm. longis, convexis, parce venosis; alls horizon- 
talibus vel angulo obtusissimo divergentibus, medio 4 — 5 mm. 
latis, basi contractis; pedicellis capilliformibus 7 — 10 mm. 
longis. 

Nom. Jap. Tahisago-iinliachuaede (nom. nov.) 

Hab. in sylvis temperatis Formosae: in monte Morrison (ad 
7000 — 7500 ft. alt.), Hokkutaisan, Arisan, Kanmutsusha. 

DisTR. endemica. 

Not. Species affinis Acer capillipes, var. fitjisaaensi, Koidz., 
distinguitur foliis junioribus parce hirtis, utrinque 5 — 6 penni- 
nervis, lobis caudato-acuminatissimis; fructibus pedicellis brevio- 
ribus. 

Sect. 5. Falniatoidca, m. 

Inflorescentia racemosa. Flores andro-dioeci vel monoeci. 
Sepala petalisque quinque. Stamina 8 liypogjaia, in fl. ^ perigyna ; 
antheris leviter scabris, ovoideis apiculatis. Ovaria glabra ; stylis 
apice bilobatis. Discus intrastaminalis. Folia membranacea pro- 
funde 5-lobata, lobis incisis vel lobulatis. Species ad 3 Japoniae 
et Sinensis. 



Viavis »pecierum dichofotna. 

* Hacemus 15 — 22-floratus, floribus minutis, sepalis suborbicu- 
latis, petalis ellipticis; fructus minor 13 — 20 mm. longus, 
(3—) 4 — 6 mm. latus A. ntiminthwii, S. et Z. 

** Racemus 6— 10-floratiis, floribus mediocribus, sepala petalis- 



Eevisio Aceracearum Japonicarimi. 23 

que auguste spathulata; fructus major 20 — 25 mm. longus, 
G — ] 2 m m . latus A. Tschonoskii^ jMax. 

12. Acer micranthum, S. et Z. (Tal). XII.) 

SiEEoLD et ZoccARiNi, Fl. Jap. Farn. Nat. in Abh. Akad. Münch. IV. 2. (184'3) 155, et Fl. 
Jap. II. (1870) 80, t. 141 ;— MiQ. Prol. Fl. Jap. (I860) 21 ;— Fr. et Sav. En. PL Jap. I. (1875) 89 ; — 
Max. Mél. Biol. X. (1880) 598 ;-Pax, Engl. Bot. Jahrb. VII. (18StJ), 24S, et Engl. Pfl. Reich. 8 
Heft (1902) 70 ;— C. K. Schn. Ilh Handb. Lanbh. II. (1902) 233; — Leveil. in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 
VI. (1906)., 591. 

A. Tschonoflai, Komakj. («;)» Max.) Fl. I\lan. II. 73-3 (vidi specim ) :— Xakai, FI. Korea. I. 
131. 

Nom. Jap. Ko-minc-kacde (J. Matsümüea, Shokubutsu-Meii, 
no. 35.) 

Arbuscula, minis glabris viridescentibus; gemmae tegmentis 
interioribus obovato-oblongis vel late spatliulatis apice rotundatis, 
utrinque glabris, marginibus ciliolatis praeditae. Folia membran- 
acea glabra vel subtus in axillis costarum rarius secus nervös rufo- 
barbulata, palmato-quinquelobata, basi cordata ; lobis extimis ab- 
breviatis ceterum lanceolato-ellipticis vel ovato-lanceolatis, caudato- 
acuminatis argute serratis, omnibus utrinque incisis; petiolis graei- 
libus quam lamina brevioribus. Raceinus glaber circiter 15—22 
florus; floribus minutis pallide roseis, foliis coaetaneis, andro- 
dioeciis. Sepala minuta ovata vel rotundata, quam petala 2 — 3- 
plo breviora. Petala obovata vel obovato-elliptica 1,5 — 3,0 mm. 
longa. Stamina <S in sinubus disci inserta, exerta; antheris vix 
scabris apiculatis. Discus crenatus intrastaminalis. Ovaria glabra, 
stylis apice bilobatis. Samara glabra 13 — 20 mm. longa (3 — ) 
4—6 mm. lata; alis cum loculis horizontaliter vel obtusissime 
patentibus. 

Hab. in sylva. Hondo: Sengantöge, Himekamiyama, Omyö- 
jin (Rikuchiu), Gassan, Adzumasan (Uzen), Aidzu, Bandaisan 
(Iwashiro), Nikko (Shiinotsuke), Mitsuminesan (Musashi), Hakone 
(Sagami), Amagisan (Idzu), Obara (Yettchiü), Tateyama (Kaga), 
Kiso (Shinano), Shikok: Tsurugisan (Awa), Yahazuyama, Nano- 
gawamura (Tosa) ; — Kiusiu: Hikosan (Buzen), H(')manzan. 

DisTR. Korea, Manshuria. 

Not. Affine A. Maxinwn-iczii^ Fax, et Acer Tsclionoskii, Max. 



24 Art. 1.— G. Koidzuini. 

sed a priori foliis lobis inter se fei-e aequantibus ; ab altero floribus 
minutis; foliis lobis caudato-acuminatissimis; fructilnis niinoribus, 
i\lis horizontaliter patentibus differt. 

13. Acer Tschonoskii, Max. (Tab. XIIT.) 

C. J. Maximowicz, in Mél. Biol. XII. (188G) 432 ;— Pax, in E.s-ol. Prl. Eoieh. 8 
Heft (1902) 70; 

A. pellucidohracleatum, Leveil. et Vnt. in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr, VI. (190G), 592. 

Nom. Jap. Mine-kaede, Hime-ogarabana (J. ]\Iatsumura, Shoku- 
butsu-Meii, no. 49)]—Hahisa}i-iiwnriji(Jtm^n). 

Arbusculus dumosus, ramuli viridescentes glabri, gemmae 
tegmentis interioribus ut in praecedente. Folia membranacea 
supra glabra subtus ad nervös, vel rarius adulta tantum in axillis 
costarum rufo-barbarta, palmato quinquelobata, basi cordata; lobis 
ovalibus subito brève acuminatis, argute serratis utrinque sublobu- 
lato-incisis; petiolis gracilibus quam lamina brevioribus. Flores 
andro-monoeci, 5-meri, in racemum circiter G — 10 ( — 13) florum 
erectum, pedunculo 2 — 3 cm. longo insidentem dispositi; pedi- 
celli glabri; sepala 5 lineari-spathulata, obtusa; petala 5, sepalis 
conformia, ]mllide rosea, sed parant superantia, 4 — 4,5 mm. longa; 
stamina 8 petalis subaequilonga ; discus leviter crenatus intra- 
staminalis; ovaria glabra stylo stigmatibus revolutis vix longiore. 
Samara loculis liorizontalibus; alis in angulo obtuso divergentibus; 
20 — 2;") Dim. longae, G — 12 mm. latae. 

Hab. in subalpinis Japoniae mediae et borealis. Yezo: 
Raidentôge, Makkarinupuri, Prov Tokachi, Yunosawa, — Hontô: 
Iwakisan Hakködasan (Mutsu), Iwateyama, Goyôzon, llayaeliine 
(Rikuchiû), Kurikomayama (Rikuzen), Cbôkaisan (Ugo), Gassan, 
Asahidake, Zaôsan, lidesan, Azumasan (Uzen), Komagatake, 
INIyokôzan, Niôzan (Yechigo), Osenodaira, Nikko (Shimotsuke), 
Tcgakusliiyama, Önogawa, Ariakcyama, Norikurayama. Ontake 
(Shinano), Tateyama (Yettcbin), Hakusan (Kaga). 
DisTB. endemica. 

Nota. Affine Acer Maximowiczii, Pax, et Acßr micrantlio, S, et 
Z., sed a priori foliis lobis inter se fere subacqualibus; ab altero 
floribus majoril)Us, petalis sepalisque lineari-spatludatis 4 — 4,;") mm. 



Kevisio Acerri.ceciruLu Japonicaruui. 25 

loDgis, in raceinuin (> — 10 florum dispositis; foliis subtiis plerumque 
secus venas rufu-barbartis, subito breve acuminatis; alis samame 
obtuse divergentibus, latioribusque; fructibus uiajoribus 20 — 25 
mm. loDgis. (i — 12 mm. latis, differt. 



'&>' 



Sect. C). Anjvta^ Rehdee. 

RtHDER, ia Saegknt, Trees and Shr. I. (1935) 131 ;-C. K. S.-hn. 111. Haadb. II. 2. (1909/ 24k 

Infîorescentia mascula secus ramulos elongotos e gemmis 
lateralibus coryml)oso-fasciculata ; foemina semper in rainulo 
bifoliato terminalis, racemosa. Flores dioeci, tetrameri (sep. 4, 
pet. 4, stani. 4, carpel. 2). Discus intrastaminalis 4 — lobatus. 
Stamina hypogyna. Stylus profunde bilobatus. Folia mem- 
branacea palmatilobata. 

14. Acer argutum, Max. (Tab. XIV.) 

C. J. Maximowicz, in Mel. Biol. VI. (1S67) 36S, et X. (ISSö) 594; — Fr. et Siv. En. PI. Jap. I. 
(1875) 91 ;— Pax, in Engl. Bjt. Jahrb. VIF. il58Ü) 252, et Pfl Reich. 8 Heft (1902) 72 ;— Levkil. 
in Ball. Soc. Bot. Fr. VI. (1936) 589 ;— C. K. S.^hn. Hl. H.indb. Laubh. II. (1909) 244. 

A diahoUcum, subsp. arputum, Wksm.\el, in Bull Soc Bot. Belgique, XXIX. (1S?0) C3 

Nom. Jap. Jsanolia-kaedi', Mii/iiiiia-iiioin/ji (,J. Matsümura, 
Shokubutsu-Meii, no. 2G). 

Arbor ramulis novellis incano-puberulis; gemmae tegmentis 
interioribus oblongis vel ellipticis apice plerumque obtusis utrinque 
puberulis. Folia membranacea juvenilia subtus incano-pubes- 
centia supra glabriuscula vel ad venas parce puberula, adulta 
tantum subtus secus costas pilosiuscula, circumscriptione orb- 
icularia, quinquelobata basi aperte cordata, lobis ovatis acuminatis 
utrinque arguteinciso-serratis; petiolis gracilibus quam lamina 
brevioribus superne parce pilosiusculis. Inflorescentia primum 
corymbo.sa tum racemosa; floribus lutescentibus vel albis dioeciis 
foliis coaetaneis; pedicellis giabris gracile elongatis; bracteolis 
minulis. Calyx glaber, sepalis 4 auguste oblongis vel oblongo- 
lanceolatis oljtusis. Petala 4 sepalis breviora. Stamina 4 (in fl. ^ 
abortivi) exerta, filamentis ontherisc{ue giabris in faciebus 
exterioribus disci insertis. Di-^cus carnosus 4-lobatu-, in flore 



2i3 Art. 1. — G. Koidzuini. 

^ rudimentarius ad dentés reductus. Ovaria glabra, st3dis ad 
basin fere bipartitis. Fructus glaber in racemuin pendentem 
dispositi, locnlis nlisque horizontaliter patentibus; pedicellis gracile 
elongatis. 

Haiî. Mundo: Nikko, Ashio (Shimotsuke), Chichibu (Musa- 
sbi), Ariakeyania, Togakushiyama, Kiso (Shinano), Taira-no-ya 
(Hida)., — Shikok: Tsurugisan (Awa). 

DiSTR. endernica. 



II. Extrastaminalia, Pax. 

h.rirastavüiialici. Pax, in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. VI (18S5), 326. 
Adiscantlin, Pax, 1. c, 327. 
l'erigyna. Pax, 1. c. 327 (pro parte) 



Sect. 7. Cissîfolia, m. 

Inflorescentia elongato-racemosa. Flores dioeci niinuti. 
Sepala petalisque 4. Stamina 4 ( — 5) bypogyna. Stylus profunde 
bilobatus. Discus extrastaminalis. Folia membranacea ternata, 
foliolis petiolulatis. Species unica. 

15. Acer cissifolium (S. et Z.) Kocii. (Tab. XY.) 

C. Koch, in Acn. Mus. Liigtl-Batav. I. (1864) 252 ;— Fr. et Sav. En. PI. Jap. I. (1875) 90 .:-Max. 
Mél, Biol. X. (18bO) 610 ;-Pax, in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. VII. (1886) 204. et Pfl. Etich. 8 Heft (1902) 
29;— Leveil. in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. VI. (ISCC) 589 :-C. K. Schn. 111. Handb. I aubh. II. (1907) 
210. 

Xet/iiiido c iy." ijoliit III, S 1KB. et Zacc. Fl. Jap. I am. Nat. in Abb. Akad. Münch. IV. 2.(1846) 
159 ;— MiQ. Prol. Fl. Jap. (1866) 22 (?) 

Xeiiundo (?) nihoeniii', Miq. Prol. FI. Jap. 22. (1866). 

Negimdo nikocnfe, Miq. Archiv. Neel. t. II. (lSö7). 

Nom. Jap. Mitsiule-kaede {%ms.¥- m^n^Tî^m. W^mum- 
]>^-2-2);—Mitsudc-momiji\ Auniialio-lardc (%îAA¥- 7K^m:^.M- ^tJj nT. i^ 
« fô îfi- ] 825) ;—Anialwgi (^W^^Pkmm); —Amahild (- * fö !j^ ^ m m). 

Ar))or innovatione pubescente; gemmae perulis interioribus 
oblongis apice rotundatis dense rufo-tomentosis. Folia mem- 
branacea trifoliolata, nascentia supra dense subtus ad costas petio- 
lisque pubescentia, adulta utrinqiie glabra, aut supra pilosa et tunc 



Eevisio Aceracearum Japonicarum. 27 

subtus in axillis venarum tomentella; petiolis communis elongato- 
gracilibus mox glaberrimis; foliolis petiolulatis ellipticis vel oblon- 
gis saepe ovato vel obovato-oblongis interdum versus basin 
cuneatis aut subrhombeo-oblongis, apice in acumen longum 
acutum integerrimum productis, sursus pauci grosse dentato- 
serratis rarius incisis vel integerrimis, serraturis cuspidatis. Inflore- 
scentia longe racemosa, pedunculis pedicellisque pubescentibus, 
floribus minutis lutescentibus dioeciis. Calyx 4-fidus extus 
puberulus, laciniis ovatis vel lanceolato-ovatis acutiusculis. Petala 
4, auguste spathulata quam sepala duplo longiora. Discus extra- 
staminalis lobatus. Stamina 4 ( — 5), filamentis exertis auguste 
fusiformibus. Ovaria glabra, stylis brevissimis, stigmatibus 
recurvatis. Fructus glaber, alis angulo acuto divergentibus. 

Hab. Yezo: Niikapp (Hidaka). — Hondo: Hirosaki (Mutsu), 
Hiraidzumi, Kukaitoge, Tsunatoriyama, Kadoma (RikuchiQ), 
Aidzu, lidesan (Iwashiro), Nikko (Shimotsuke), Hakone (Saga- 
mi), Ontake, Norikuradake (Shinano), Sbimokura (Bittchiu), — 
Sikok: Nanogawa (Tosa), Tsurugisan (Awa). 

DiSTR. endemica. 

Sect. 8. Piuhra, Pax. 

F. Pax, in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. VI (1S85) 32Ö, et VII. (1836) 179. 

Inflorescentiae secus ramulos fasciculatae. Flores andro- 
dioeci longe folia ante nascentes. Sepala petalisque 5. Stamina 
5 — 8 hypogyna. Discus valde abortivus. Stylus profunde bilo- 
batus. Folia membrauacea palmatilobata. Gemmae perulae in- 
teriores non elongatae. Species uuica. 

IG. Acer rubrum, L. (Tab. XVI.) 

LiNN. Sp. PI. ed. 1.(1753), 1055;— DC. Prodr. I. (1824) 595 ;— Eobinson, in Geat, Syn. Fl. I. 
(1897) 437;— Pax, in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. VII. (1886) 181, et Pfl. Eeich. 8 Heft (1902) 37;— T. 
Nuttal, in North Am. Fl. (1835) II. 34 ;-Makino, in Bot. Mag. Tokyo.'XVI. (1902) 93. 

A. pycnanthum, C. Koch, in Miq, Ann. Mus. Lugd. Batav. I. (1863-64) 250;— S. et Z. Fl. 
Jap. IL (1870) 86, t. 143, fig. I. et 1—4 ;— Miq, Prol. Fl. Jap. (I860) 21 (p.p.) ;— Fb. et Sav. En. 
PI. Jap. I. (1875), II. (1879) 322 ;— Max. Mél. Biol. X. (1880) 591 ;— Pax, in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 
VII. (1886) 254. 

A. semiorbinduium, Pax, 1. c. (1886) 181. 



— J Art. 1. — G^. Koi'lzuuù. 

Nom. Jap. Hunanoki. (X ft p^ ¥■ A g: Sj /; ^. i^S^m^- 189('); — 
Hana-h.iedc (.J. Maïsumura, Shokubut.-u-Meii, iiu. 44); — M((jnsiiri- 
noki {^"^.^^m- B * ^ 4^ ^. i£ ö: SR. fol. 28. fig.) 

Ai'bui" iimgiia, cortice ramulorum glaucesceiite ; geinmae 
pcrulae coriaceae ovatae vel ovato-rotundatae obtusae intus 
tomentosae; innovationibus foliis junioribusque rufo-pubescentibus 
mox glabris. Folia chartacea, subtu.s intense glauca, trinervia vel 
subpentanervia, trilobata, indivisa immixta, basi rotundata vel 
leviter cordata interdum rotundato-obtusa, obtusiter acaminata, 
daplicato-inciso-serrata, serratnris obtusis, circ. .3 — 7 cm. lata 5 — 9 
cm. longa; petiolis gracilibus ad G cm. longis. Flores andro-dioeci, 
rubri, secus i-amos fasciculato-umbellati, foliis praecociores ; 
pedicellis glabris filiforniibus; perulis rubris vel coccineis. Bepala 
lanceolata acuta, petal is spathulatis obtusis subaequantia. Stamina 
8, antheris rubris oblongis. Discus abortivus. Stigmata 2 ovario 
glabro inserta elongata undique papulosa. Fructus glaber, alis 
rectis medio lati.ssimis in angulo acuto divergentibus. 

Hab. Hondo. Prov. Mino et C)hmi. 

DisTR. in America boreali atlantica, a Canada ad Floridam. 



Sect. 1). bpic-ita, Pax. 

F. Pax, in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. VI. (1335) 32o, et VII. (18S6) 132. 

Intlorescentia paniculata vel racemosa, interdum cor3'mboso- 
paniculata. Flores andro-polygami. Sepala peatalisque 5. 
Stamina 8 hj^pogyna. Discus carnosus extrastaminalis. Folia 
simplica o vel 5 — 7 lobata, memln-anacea raro coriacea. 

Vitivis Mpeciernut ffic/iofoma. 

1. Antherae scabrae; folia r)-lul>ata 

A. sjnrjiuiii^ viw. iikiiriDiJihiisr^ Max. 

Antherae laevae 2. 

2. Folia palmato-ö-lobata argute serrulatn. ...--i. Olivrrnuiwii, Pax. 
Folia trilobata 3. 



Eevisio Acerace:irnm Japonicarum. 2j 

3. Folia adultii integerrima A. irifiduui. Hk. et Arn. 

Folia irregularitev serrata ...A. (iinnala, Max. 

Folia aequaliter argute serrulata 

A. Oliccritinuiii^ var. Nakaliarac, svav. triloliatuiii, m. 

17. Acer trifidum, Hk. et Akn. (Tab. XVII.) 

Hooker et Arndt, ia Bot. Beech. Voj. (ISil) 17-i {nee thg) ;— Sieb, et Zocc. Fl. Jap. Farn. Xat 
in Abb. Akad. Münca. IV. 2. (134G) 157 ;.— Walp. Ann. I. 961 ;— C. Koch, in Miq. Ann. Mns. 
Lugd. Bativ. I. (1363—61) 251;— Miq. Prol. Fl. Jap. (1833) 19 ;— Fr. et Sav. En. PI. Jap. I 
(1875)87,11. (1879) 186;— Fosb. et Hemsl. Jour. Lian. Soc. XXIIf. (1836-88) 142 ;— Pax in 
Engl. Bot. Jahrb. VII. (1883) 186, et Pfl. Eeich. 8 Heft (1902) 10 ;— Max. Mél. Biol. X. (1880) 603 ; 
— Mak. Bot. Mas. Tokyo, XV. lli ;— Leveil. Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. VI (19J6) 593 ;—C. K. Sohn. 
111. Handb. Laubh. II. (1907) 197 

A. Buergerianuvi, Miq. Prol. Fl. J.ip. (18J6) 20 ; — Fr. et Sav. En. PL Jap. I. (1875) 88. 

A. palmatuin, var. trilohum, C. Koch, in Miq. Ann. Mus. Li\gd. Batav. I. (1834) 251. 

A. trincrve, Dippel, Laubh. IL 428 (1892) ;— Pax, in Engl. Pfl. Eeich, 8 Heft (1902) 12 ;— 
Mak. Bot. Mag. Tokyo, XIV. p. 136. 

Nom. Jap. Tölutcde (nom. viilg.); — Kahtduinn (yci^Mir :^^- ■^li 
±^m- mn:^:^^m 1 820) ; —Hanakazara (X ï* A ¥■ 7K ^ Kl y\ M- ^f^ «*!. m 
=Sfèît- 1825). 

Arbor magna, ramis glabris, innovationibus tomentosis. 
Folia nascentia pannosa, demnm glabra, raembranacea vel tenuiter 
chartacea, supra nitida subtus pallide viridia vel glaucescentia, 
triner via trilobata, indivisa immixta, basi cuneata vel rotundata, 
lobis jolerumque aequilongis plus minus acutis integerrimis rarius 
pauci-serratis ; petiolis glabris laminae aequantibus vel brevioribus. 
Flores andro-polygami lutescentes foliis coaetanei pentameri, in 
paniculam compositam dispositi; pedicello tomentoso. Sepala 
ovata acuta glabra. Petala sepalis longiora lineari-lanceolata. 
Discus extrastaminalis pl.m. carnosus. Stamina 8 inclusa; an- 
theris innatis laevibus. Ovarium bilobum pilosum; stigmata 
fîliformia circinato-revoluta. Samarae glabrae ad 2 cm. longae; 
alis parallelis erecti-; 5 — 8 mm. latis, saejoissime sese invicem 
obtegentibus. 

Hab. Formosa. 

DisTPv. in China jiu.-trali. 

Not. Species valde affinis Acer l'axü, Feaxch. distinguitur 
foliis membranaceis, fructus alis parallele erectis. 



30 Art. 1.— G. Koidzumi. 

var. ningpoense, Hange, in Jor. Bot. xi. (i873) i63;-PÄX,m engl. Bot. 

Jahrb. VIL (1886) 187 ;-C. K. S:hn. 111. Handb. Laubh. II. (1907) 198. 
A. Paxil, var. ninfjpo3n<ie, Pax, in Engl. Pfl. Reich. 8 Heft (1902) 11. 
Â. Baergeriamim, var. ningpoense, Rehder, in Sargent Trees and Shr. I. (1905) 179. 

Differt a typo praecipne fructus ali.s angulo circiter 55° 
divergentibus. 

Nom. Jap. Tokaede. 
Hab. ill hortis culta. 

forma integrifolium, m. 

A. trifidiivi, var. integrifolium, Making, in Bot. Mag. Tokyo, XV. 112 ; — Leveil. Bull. Soc. 
Eot. Fria. VI. (1906) 593. 

Folia subrhombeo-oblonga integerrima, raria.s biloba triloba 
immixta, basi rotundata vei obtusa. apice plerumque obtusiter 
acuminata; fructus alis erecto-patentibus. 

Nom. Jap. Maniha-tokaede. 

Hab. in hortis culta. 

var. formOSanum, HaYATA, Levell. in BuII. Soc. Bot. Fran. VI. (1906) 
593 ;-C. K. S:;hn. III. Handb. Laubh. II. (1937) 198. 

A. irifidum, var. ? Hatata, in Matsum. et Hatata, En. PI. Formos. (1905) 97. 

Folia basi cordata, leviter trilobata lobis obtusissimis. Alae 
samarae horizontaliter patentes. 
Nom. Jap. Takasago-tökaede. 
Hab. Formosa. 



18. Acer Ginnala, Max. (Tab. XVHL) 

C. .T. Maximowicz in Mél. Biol. IL (1857)]4.15 ;— Rupr. ibid. 522 ;— Pax, in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. VIL 
(1836) 18'), et Pfl. Reich. S Heft (1902) 12 ;— Fretn, Oesber. Bot. Zeitsch. (1902) 17 ;— Komaro. 
Fl. Mansh. IL 719 ;— C. K. Schn. 111. Handb. Laubh. IL (1907) 196 ;-Nakai, Fl. Korea. I. (1909) 
134. 

A. tataricum, var. Ginnala, Max. Prim. Fl. Amur. (i859) 67, Mél. Biol. X (1830) 604, et Fl. 
Mongol. 13} ;— Regel, Tent. Fl. Uss. no. 106 ;— Forb. et Hemsl. Jour. Linn. Soc. XXIII. 142 ;— 
Palib. Consp. Fl. Kor. I. 59;— Korsh. ia Act. Hort. Petr. XII. 318 ;— Schmidt, 11. Amur. no. 
79 ; — Regel, in Gart. fl. (1377) 338 ;— Leveil. Ball. Soc. Bot. Fr. VI. (1906) 593. 

A. tataricum, b. la'Mniatum, Regel, in Bull. Ph. Math. Akad. Petrop. XV. p. 213. 

A. tatari-um, Fr. et Sav. En. pl. J.ip. I. (1875) 89, II. (1879) 32 5 ;— Leveil. l.c 593, 

A. tataricum, var. amminatuin, Franch. PI. David. I. 76. 

A. tataricum, var. aidznensc, Franch. in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. XXVL (1380) 84 ;— Pax, in Engl. 
1. c VIL 185 (1886). 

A. titariaim, a. euginwili, Pax, in Engl. 1 o. VII. 135, et P.l. Reich. 8 Heft (1902) 12. 



Eevisio Aceracearum Japonicirum. 31 

Nom. Jap. Karahogi-kaede, Kanokogi (3Ç 1* h ¥• ^ ?S B ^ ^. ^ 7f^ la 

ta- 1 832) ; —Mochincsso (X Êic A ¥• 7}^nmi^m- ^^^m^^)&- 1 825) ; 

Yacliiitai/a, Xanai/e-uaga (àt M M lÊi ^ it^ m) ; — Hanakaedc (J. Matsu- 
MURA, Shokubutsu-Meii, no. 33.) 

Arbor, ramuli cortice griseo- vel fasco-brunneo; niinulis 
juvenilibus leviter pilosis. Folia juvenilia utrinque ad nervös 
plus minus dense rnolliter pilosa; adulta membranacea supra glabra 
subtus ad venas pilosa, ovato-oblonga vel ovata, acuta vel acumi- 
nata, basi leviter cordata vel rotundata interdum subtruncata, 
trilobata rarius indivisa vel subquinquelobata, inciso-serrata vel 
irregulariter subduplicato-serrata interdum crenato-serrata, versus 
basin integerrima; lobis lateralibus multo minoribus; petiolis 
gracile elongatis supra sulcatis. Panicula dense pubescens; flori- 
bus andro-polygamis. Calyx glabriusculus 5-fidus, sepalis ovatis 
obtusis. Petala alba oblanceolata quam sepala longiora. Stamina 
8 antheris laevibus. Discus bene evolutus extrastaminalis. Ovari- 
um dense visllosura, stylis bilobatis. Samara glabriuscula, loculis 
reticulato-venosis, alls ad 18 mm. longis apice rotundatis angulo 
acuto divergentibus rarius sese invisem obtegentibus. 

Hab. in sylvis montuosis per totam Japoniam. Yezo: 
Shibetsu (Nemuro), Sapporo (Isbikari), Prov. Iburi; — Honto: 
Nambu (Rikuchiu) Yonezawa (Uzen), Aidzu (Ewashiro), Nikko 
(Shimotsuke) Togakushi, Ontake (Shinano), Ohnogôri (Hida); — 
Kishu: Hikosan (Buzen). 

DiSTR. Asia orientali (Mongolia, China, Manshuria, Korea, 
Amuria). 

var. yezoense, m. 

Alae samarae parallelae sese invisem obtegentes ceterum ut 
in typicum. 

Nom. Jap. Yezo-karakogi-kasde. 

Hae. Yezo: Prov. Ishikari. 

19. Acer spicatum, Lam. 
var. ukurunduense. Max. (Tab. XIX.) 

Acer spicatum., L vm. Pncycl. Metho 1. IÎ. (I7i6) 331 ; — DC. Pro Ir. I (1824) 593 ;-Pax, in Engl. 



32 Art. 1. — G. Koidzumi 

Bot. Jahrb. YII. (ISÜC.) 188, it Fä. reich. 8 Heft (1902) 16 ;— Eobinsox, in Gra.t, Synopt. Fl. Nor. 
Am. I. (18'j7j 435 ;-K. Koch, in Dendrolog. T. (1SG9) 522 ;-C. K. Schn. 111. Handb. Laubh. II. 
(1907) 199. 

Acer gpicatitm, Lam. var. iiIiuriDKluensc, Maxim. Piim. Î1. Amur. (1859) 65 ; et Mtl. Biol. X. 
(1880) 504;-Fr. et Sav. Ph Jap. I. (1&75) 88 ;-Leveil. Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. VI. (K06) 593 ;-Pax, 
1. c. VIL 133, et Pfl. reich. I.e. 16 ;— Fb. Schmidt, Eeis. Amur. Sachal. p.p. 3j, 119;— Korsch. 
in Act. Hort. Petr. XII. 317 ;-Koidz. PI. Sachal. Xakah. (1910) 89. 

A. uhiintmluenfe, Tradtv. et Met. FI. Ochot. no. 78 ;— Eupr. Mt 1. Biol. IT. 520 ;— Komafo. 
Fl. Mansh. II. 722 ;— Xakai, Fl. Korea. I. iS-i ;— C. K. Schn. Ill, Handb. Laubh. IL 199. 

A. dedyle. Max., Eopr. in Mél. Biol. II. 520. 

A. siiicatuvi, var. ussuricnse, Bdd. (ex Komaro.) 

A. caudatum, var. itkuriinduense, Eehder (ex. C. K. Schneider). 

A. lasiocarpnm, Leveil. et Vnt. in BulL Soc. Bot. Fr. VI. (1906). 591. 

Nom. Jap. (hjarahana, Araliana (^Cife-b^- ^nt^^IE^. 03felU^ 
?I^Iil- 1825; — Hozahi-haede (jtmMm^^il^.m); — Amluuja (^^nx^- ^Mf 
sa m ^- -^ I? mmtZ. l soi ) ; — Yama-asagani (it Ä â ^ ^ tt). 

Arbnscula ramis viridibus vel fuscis, juvenilibiis pilosis. Folia 
membraiiacea supra glabra juniora subtus piloso-tomentosa, aclulta 
praesertim ad costas pubescentia pallidiora vel subcanescentia, 
rarissime utrinque perfecte glabra, amibtu rotundata vel ovalia 
(5 — ) 7 ( — 9)-niervia, 5 — 7-lobata, basi cordata vel nperte eordata 
interdum cordato-rotundata; lol)is acuminatis inciso-dentatis vel 
irregulariter subduplicato-dentata,dentibus mucronatis vel aristatis; 
petiolis elongatis mox glabriuscnlis. Racemus niultitlorus niolliter 
pilosus; fioribus andro-polygamis viridi-flavescentibus. Sepala 
(4 — ) 5 ovata vel ovato-lanceolata acuta extus ininute pilosa. 
Petala oblanceolata vel subspathulata quam sepala lougiora caduca 
fugacea. Discus lobatus extrastaminalis. Stamina 8, filamentis 
antherisque minutissime scabriusculis. Ovaria villoso-tomentosa, 
stylis profunde bilobatis laciniis revolutis intus stigmatosis. 
Fructus minute pilosus, alae angulo obtuso divergentes. 

ITaiî. in subalpinis Japoniae mediae et septemtrionalis. 
Sacbalin: Trctya-jiadj ; Kuriel ; Yezo: Teinesan, Sapporodake, 
Jözankei, Muiwayama (Isbikari), ]Makkarinu])uri (Shiribeshi), 
Konbumuri (Hidaka), Titose (Iburi), — Hondo: Iwakisan, Hakkn- 
dasan (Mutsu), Iwatesan, Hayachine (Hikucliiü), Chokaizan 
(Ugo), Asabidake, Gassau, Zaösan, Azumasan, lidesau (Uzen), 
Bandaisan, Aizu, lliucbigatake (Iwashiro), Xikko (Shimotsuke). 
Togakusliiyaina, Ilakuljasan. Yatsugatake, Komagatake, Ariake- 



Eevisio Aceracearum Japonicarnm. àS 

yama (Sliinano); Hakusaii (Kaga); Tairaiioyu (Hida); Myokösaii 
(Yechigo). 

DisTR. VAR. China, Manshuria, Korea, Amuria. 

DiSTE. SP. America boreali, Asia orientali. 

Not. a typo differt foliis 5 — 7 lobatis, inciso grandi-dentatis, 

20. Acer Oliverianum, Pax. 

F. Pax in Hooker Icon. PI. XIX (1889) sub. t. 1897, et Engl. Pfl. Eeich 8 Heft (1902) 21 ;— C. K. 
ScHN. lU. Handb. Lanbh. II. (1907). 206. 

var. Nakaharae, Hayata. (Tab. XX.) 

a. serrnïatum, Hayata. in sched. (Sut cuius storilis !) 

Arbor, ramuli glabri pnrpureo-brunnei vel olivaceo-virides. 
Folia rnembranacea quinquenervia, juniora subtus praesertim ad 
nervorum basin parce molliter pilosa, adulta gkibra palmato- 
quinqnelobata, basi aperte cordata raro truncata, argute serrata, 
serraturis incumbentibus, lobis triangularibus vel ovato-lanceolatis 
acuminatissimis; petiolis gracilibus quam lamina paullo bieviori- 
bus. Panicula corymbosa multiflora glabra, floribus albis foliis 
coaetaneis andro-polygamis. Sepala 5 ovata obtusa extus 
puberula. Petala 5 quam sepala paullo longiora rotundato-obovata 
apice undulata. Stamina 8 antheris laevibus. Ovarium pilosum 
mox glabrum, stylis gracilibus 2 — 2 J m.m. Ion gis, stigmatibus 
revolutis brevioribus. Samara glabra loculis ovoideis alis angulo 
obtuso divergentibus. 

Nom. Jap. Shima-momiji (T. Kawakami). 

Hab. Formosa: in sylvis temperatis, Taitö, Kierun, Nanô, 
Sintek . 

DisTK. Sp. China australi. 

Not. Differt a typo alis saniarae obtuse divergentibus. 

subvar. formosanum, m. (fig. 1.) 

Foha ambitu subquadrangulata basi cordata, lobis 5 late 
triangularibus subito acuminatisque. 
Nom. Jap. liomald-sliimamomiji. 



M 



Art. 1. — G. Koiclzumi. 



Hab. Formosa: Chösökei. 




Hab., For 



svar. ;9, trilobatum, m. (fig. 2.) 

Acer TuUcheri, var. Shinrichte, Hayata. 
in SchecL. 

Folia glabra, trilobata rarius 
tetraloba intermixta, lobis 
ovatis longe acuminatis regulari- 
ter serratis, serraturis leviter 
incunibentibns; petiolis glabris 
cum lamina usque 15 cm. longis. 
Alae samarao obtusissime diver- 
gentes. Folia basi rotundata, 
lobis intermediis saepe longiori- 
bus. 

Nom. Jap., Milsucle-slu'ma- 
momiji. 
mosa: Hakkutaizan, Sintek. 




Revisio Aceracearum Japonicaruui. oO 

Sect. 10. Palmata, Pax. 

Pax, ia Exgl. Bat. Jahrb. VI. (1S85) 326, VII. (1836) 198. 

Iiiflorescentia coiyinboso-paniculata vel corymbosa, bracteata 
vel nulla. Flores andro-polygami. Sepala petalisque 5. Stamina 8 
hyi^ogyna. Discus extrastaminalis. Stylus apice bilobatus. Folia 
membranacea simplicia (5 — ) 7 — pluri palmatilobata. 

Species -i. 

Clavis speeicriitti.. 

■* Antherae scabrae. Folia plerumque 9-lobata subtus secus 
venas petiolisque pubescentia. Inflorescentia bracteolata, 
floribus ochro-leiicis. Ovaria villosa. Alae saraarae hori- 

zontaliter patentes. A. Sieholdianum, Miq. 

*" Antherae laevae, inflorescentia ebracteolata. 

zs Folia plerumque 11-lobata, secus costas pedicellisque 
in juventate tomcntosis. Flores purpurei. Ovaria 
villoso-tomentosa. Alae samarae in angulo obtuso 

divergentes A. japomcwn, Thg. 

z^A Folia plerumque 11-lobata, petiolisque ab initio glabr- 
iuscula. Flores ochro-leuci. Ovaria pubescentia. 

Alae samarae obtusissiine divergentes 

A. Sh imsaiüanum, m . 

AAA Folia plerumque 7-lobata, nascentia subtus secus costas 
parce hirta vel glabra. Flores plerumque purpurei. 

Ovaria glabra. Alae samarae obtuse divergentes 

A. palmatum, Thg. 



21. Acer Sieboldianum, Miq. (Tab. XXI.) 

MiQQEL, Prol. Fl. .Jap. (1S;5) 19 ;-Pß et S av. Eu. PL Jap. I. (1S75) 87 ;-M.vx. M.l. Biol. X. 
(1830) 603, XII. (1833) 4î3;— Pax, ia Engl. Pfl. Reich. 8 Heft (1903) 23, et Bjt. Jahrb. VII. 
(1836) 200 ;— C. K. Sohn. 111. Handb. Laubh. II. (1907) 209. 

A. japoiiimm, var. Sieboldianum, Fr. et S^v. En. PI. Jap. II. (1870) 317 ;— Leveil. Bull. Soc. 
Bot. Fr. VI. (1906) 591. 

Ä.Siehüdianum, a. tjpi:a, Mas. Mil, Biol. XII. (1333) 433 ;— Pax iu Engl. Pfl. lieich. S 
Heft (1902) 2'. 



36 Art. 1.— G. Koidzimü. 

Arbor rami glabri, cortice badio-brunneo vel purpuras- 
cente, ramuli juveniles cinereo-tomentosi. Folia niembranacea 
juniora supra sparce puberula subtus presertim in nervis 
petiolisque cinereo-tomentosa, adulta supra glabra subtus secus 
costas petiolisque pubescentia, in axillis venarum villoso-barbarta, 
ambitu rotundata vel rotundato-ovalia, 5 — 8 cm. longa, G — 9 cm. 
lata, 9 lobata rarius 7 — 11 loba immixta, basi aj^erte cordata in- 
terdum subtruncata; lobis ovatis acutis vel breve acuminatis argute 
serratis vel irregulariter subduplicato-serratis; petiolis limbo brevio- 
ribus vel aequantibus dense pubescentibus, basi gemmas occultan- 
tibus. Flores andropolygami pentameri ochracei, in corymbum 
pluriflorum pendentem, pedunculo dense niveo-velutino 1 — 3 cm. 
longo insidentem dispositi ; bracteolis linearibus vel lineari-lanceo- 
latis. Sepala ovata vel lanceolata acuta utrinque dense minute 
puberula. Petala ovata vel rotundato-ovata obtusa, calycis lobis 
breviora, margine plicato. Discus extrastaminalis pauci-lobatus. 
Stamina 8 sub anthesin exerta; antberis scabris. Ovarium dense 
villosum stylis apice bilobatis. Samara pubescens deinde sub- 
glabra, alae oblongae horizontaliter patentes ad 13 m.m. longae 
5 m.m. latae. 

Hae. in sylvis montuosis llondûensis, Sikokuensis et 
Kiusiuensis. 

DiSTR. Korea, Manshuria. 

a. typicum, Max. inaiél. Biol. XII. (1SS8)433;-Pax. inENGi. pa. Eeich 
8 Heft. ^1002) 25. 

Nom. Jap. Iiaijaiueiijetsu (J. Matsumuka, Shokubutsu-Meii. 
no. 4G); KihaiKt-ncltiira-l.aedc (E. Yatabe, Nippon-Shokubutsu- 
hen. I. p. 417.) 

Folia 0-lobata, rarius 7-loba immixta, basi aperte cordata, 
5 — 7 ( — 8) cm. lata; floribus flavescenlilms. 

Hab. Hondo: Zaôsan, Nikkôsan Komuno, Ontake, AVada- 
tôge. Shikok: Tsuiaigisan, Nanogawamura, Yabazuj^ama. Kiushiu: 
Homanzan, Inutake, Ilikosan, Amami-ohslnma (Prov. Obsumi). 

subvar. albiflorum, m. 
Floribus albis, ccterum ut in typicum. 



Eevisio Aceraceanim Jtiponicarum. 37 

Nom. Jap. Sli irohcDia-itaijame'ujctm . 
Ha]î. Hondo: Yonezawa, Nikk(3. 

subvar. tortuosum, (Max.) 

A. SiehohUanum,-^. tortuofmm. Max. Mel. Biol. XIL (1838) 433; -Pax Pfl. Reich. 1. c. 3'». 

Habitus tortuoso-ramosissimus; foliis lobis 9 pleramquo 
brevissime acutis vel obtusis. 
Nom. Jap. 
Hab. culta. 

subvar. microphyllum, (Max.) 

A. Sieboldianum. ß. microphyllum, Max. 1. c ;— Pax 1. c. 25. 

Folia minora, 5 — G cm. longa. 

Nom. Jap. Hime-ucliiwa-haede . 
Hab. culta. 

subvar. Momijigasane, m. 

Foliis lobis anguste oblongis, versus basin subito constrictis. 
Nom. Jap. Momiji-gasane (UMM) {W" M ^ ^ ^, M^i&M i^) 
Hab. culta. 

subvar. Sodenouchi, m. 

Folia minora semper 9 lobata. 

Nom. Jap. Sode-no-iichi (liU / t^) (K7ic-b¥, iP'm^^<m, i^mi&i^ 
g>. 1710) 

Hab. culta. 

ß. tsusimense, m. 

Folia 7-lobata basi aperte cordata vel subtruncata; lobis oblongis 
inciso-serratis, sinubus profundioribus. 

Nom. Jap. Kolia-ücujamcigetsu . 

Hab. Kiushiu: Insl. Tsushima. 

subvar. Kasatoriyama, m. 
Folia 7-lobata, basi cordata, lobis ellipticis acutis. 



38 Art. 1.— G. Ivoidzn.mi. 

Nom . Jap. Kasatoriyama (^MÜi) (ß.n'.-h¥. ^ ü ^ ^ tf. if fS üü 
ISO?. 1710) 

Hab. culta. 

subvar. laxifolium, m. 

Folia ambitu rotuDdata, T-loljata, basi piofunde cordata, Jobis 
inciso-serratis. 

XoM. Jap. Hina-ilai/aiiieigctsu. 

Hap. culla. 

.^ul:)Yar. Ayaigasa, m. 

Folia minora 7-lobata. 

Nom. Jap. Ayaigam (m m ^) (fMiP^^ if. m ff iü 1^, ti^) 
Hap. culta. 

22. Acer Shirasawanum. .^p. nov. (Tab. NXII.) 

Arbor glaber, rami cortice cinerasceiite. Folia membrauacea, 
juniora supra vel utrinque secus nervös et in axillis venarum parce 
pilosa, adulta supra semper glabra subtus pilis persistentibus, 
ambitu lotuudata vel rotundato-subreniformia, basi cordata, 
palmato-11-lobata, lobis acuminatis duplicato-serratis; petiolis 
elongatis ab initio vel mox glabiis. Inflorescentia umbellato- 
corymbosa, glabra vel parce pul)erula ebracteolata pedunculata; 
floribus albis vel ochro-leucis andro-polygamis (vel andro-dioecis 
interdum andi'o-monoecis ?). Sepala 5 ovata acuta e.xtus raro 
puberula, atropurpurea vel purpurea. Petala 5 ovata apice 
rotundata quam sepala breviora. Discus carnosus extrastaminalis. 
Stamina 8 exerta, antheris laevibus. Ovaria villosa stjdis glabris 
stigmatibus leviter revolutis. Samarae glabrae loculis borizon- 
talibus, alis obovato-oblongis leviter arcuato-ascendenti]>us. 

Nom. Jap. (ih-itayamci(jctsu. 

Hap. Hondo: Nikkn, Usuitüge, Hakoneyama. 

DiSTP. endemica. 

Not. Affme Acer Sicholdiano, Miq. et Acer jiahiuilo, Tiig. sed 
a priori foliis 11-lubatis petiolisque glabris; antheris laevibus; 



Eevisio Aceracearum Japonicarum. ov 

inflorescentibus glabris ebracteolatis; sepalis extus purpurascen- 
tibus; ab altero foliis 11-lobatis lobis duplicato-serratis. subtus ad 
nervös et in axillis venaruin parce pilosis; alis samarae obtusissime 
divergentibus; ovariis villosis; petalis albis differt. 

Var. tenuifolium, m. (Tab. XXIIT.) 

Folia tenuiora basi profunde cordata, ambitu rotundata, 9 rarius 
11 circumlobata, lobis incisis; saniaris ad apicem ramidorurn 
solitariis. 

Nom. Jap. Hina-iichiicahaedc. 

Hab. Hondo: Nikko, Fujiyama, Ontake. 



sub var. Murasame, 



m, 



Folia rotundata usque 5 cm. longa 1 1-circumlobata basi profunde 
cordata, lobis incisis acuminatis subtus secus costas adpresse pilosis. 

Nom. Jap. Murasame (HM) 

Hab. in hortis culta. 

23. Acer japonicum, Thuxb. (Tab. XXIV.— XXV.) 

Thünbekg, Fl. Jap. (17S4) IG. et Icon Fl. Jap. clec. 2. t. 19 (1794) ;— Sieb, et Zucr. Fl. Jap. Farn. 
Xat. in Abh. Akad. Münch. IV. 2 (1846) 156, et Fl. Jap. II. (1870) 82. t. 144 :- Miq. Prol. Fl. Jap. 
(186 ■) 18 ;— Fe. et Sav. Eu. PI. Jap. I. (1875) 87 ;— Max. Mel. Biol. X. (IfeSO) C05 ;-Pax, in Engl. 
Bot. Jahrb. VII. 1 1886) 109, et Pfl. Eeich, 8 Heft (1902) 24 :-DC. Proclr. I. (1824) 595 -—CK. Schn. 
111. Hanclb. Laubh. I. (19G7) 203 ;— Leveil. Bull. See. Bot. Fr. VI. (1206) 591 :— A. Grat in Peert 
Expecl. Jap. 309;— C. Koch in Miq. Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bitar. I. 251 ;— Xakai, Fl. Korea. I. p. 135. 

Arbor rami cortice atro-purpurascente vel rufo-fusescente, 
ramulis novellis glabriusculis. Gemmae joerulae caducae, ex- 
teriores coriaceae rotundatae, interiores omnes dense villosao 
oblanceolatae vel lineari-spathulatae apice rotundatae vel obtusae. 
Folia membranacea juvenilia utrinque dense villosa, cito supra, 
glabra subtus in axillis venarum tantum barbarta, ambitu rotun- 
data, 11-lobata rarius 7— lo lobata, basi profunde cordata; lobis 
ovato-ellipticis acuminatis iiiciso-serratis; petiolis limbo multo 
brevioribus glabrescentibus bnsi plerumque dilatatis, junioribus 
pl. m. villosis. Flores andro-polygami pentameri purpurei spec- 
tabiles, in corymbum laxiflorum pendentem dispositi; pedunculis 



40 Art. l.-G. KoicUuiiû. 

pedicellisque glabris vel villoso-tonientellis ebracteolatis. Sepala 
purpurea, late elliptica obtusa, ampla 5 — 7 mm. longa, demum 
reüexa. Petala ovato-orbiculata obtusa vel rotundata, alba vel 
purpurascentia, sepalis fere duplo breviora. Discus carnosus 
extrastaminalis. Stamina 8 sub anthesiii exerta, filamentis 
antherisque laevibus. Ovarium dense villosum stylis elongatis 
apice bilobatis. Samara pubescens, alae angulo obtuso dive- 
rgentes. 

Hab. in sylvis montuosis Yezoensis et Hond(3ensis. 

DisTR. Korea. (Manshuria?) 

«_ typicum, Gr. V. ScHW. in Gattn. A. (ISDS/ XLII. p. TO^;— PAxin 
Pfl. Reich I.e. 24 (19U2). 

Folia aequilonga ac lata, lobis ovato-ellipticis acuminatis vel 
•caudato-acuminatis ; alae samarae angulo obtuso divergentes. 

Nom. Jap. Ha-iichiwa-kaede (J. Matsumüra, Shokubutsu- 
Meii, 110. 34); Ahahana-uclmva-kaede (R. Yataee. B:^^à^lisM. 1^ — ^. 
p. 417); Oguraijaina, Jünihitoyc, Meigclsii-hacde (p- M IP" ^ 'es SS: . ^W^^ 
#. 110. 4). 

Hab. Yezo: Moiwadake, Teinesan, Saj^poro, Jôzankei (Ishi- 
kari); Makkarinupuri (Shiribeshi); Sbikifu (Iburi). Hondo: 
Tokiwano, Iwakij^ama, Hakködasan (Mutsu); Iwateyama, Haya- 
cliine, Nanshözan (Rikucliiu); Kurikomayama (Rikuzen); Chö- 
kaizan (Ugo); Gassan, Asahidake, Zaösan, Adzumasan, lidesan 
(Uzen); Bandaisan, Aidzu (Iwasbiro); Nikkösan (Shimotsuke) 
Harunasan (Kotsuke); Togakuslii^^ama, Kiso, Onogawa, Nori- 
kuradake, Ontake, Yatsugatake (Shinano); Prov. Hida. 

foniiK angustilobum, m. 
Foliis lobis angustioribus oblongo-lanceolatis acuminatis. 

foniKi macrophyllum, m. 

A. jnpoiiiciiiii, var. iiiacrop]iyllitm, Gk. v. Sghvv. I.e. 709. (1893) 

Folia valde ampla 14 cm. longa ac lata, lobis caadato-acuminatis. 



Eivisio Aceracearum Japonicarum. 41 

forma tenuilobum, m. 

Folia 8 — 10 cm. longa, 11 — 13 cm. lata, lobis ovatis breve 
acuminatis, infimis sese invisera obtegentibus; alae samarae semi- 
ovatae. 

forma semiovatum, m. 

Folia subtus secus costas petiolisque dense villosa, basi profunde 
cordata, lobis ovatis acuminatis; alae samarae semi-obovatae. 

forma ascendens, m. 
Alae samarae arcuato-ascendentes. 

forma crassifolium, m. 

Folia crassiora subchartacea, subtus petiolis ramulisque plus minus 
canescentia. 

ß. aureum, Gr. v. Schw. ic 709;-pax1.c. 2i. 

Folia aureo-tincta. 
Nom. Jap. 
Hab. culta. 

r. Parsonii, Veitch, ex gr. v. schw. i.e. 709 ;-pax i.e. 25. 

Folia profunde inciso-lobata. 
Nom. Jap. 
Hab. culta. 

o. Heyhachii, Maïsum., MAKiNoiaBot. Ma- Tokyo (i'jo4) 115. (Tab. 
XXV.) 

Acer circumlohatum, Max. var. IL'ijliacliii, Mak. ibid. XXIV. (1910) 74. 

Folia 11 — 13 palmatipartita, lobis ambitu oblanceolatis longe 
acuminatis, sursum utrinque profunde lobulatis, deorsum integer- 
rimis versus basin cuneato-attenuatis. 

Nom. Jap. Mai-hijahi. 

Hab. culta. 



42 Alt. 1.— G. Koidzumi. 

ç. microphyllum, m. (Tab. XXV.) 

Folia minora 7^ — 8^ cm. lata, 11 — 13 lobata, lobis ovatis acutis 
inciso-serratis. 

Nom. Jap. Yezo-mc'Kjclsulîacdc . 

IIaiî. Yezo. 

•-;. circumlobatum, (Max.) ni. (Tab. XXV.) 

Acer circvmlohatinn, Max. Mt'l. Biol. \I. (18G7) p. 3GS, et X. (1880) €08 ;— Fr. et Sav. Ed. PI. 
Jap. I. (1875) 8S ;— Pax Engl. Bet. Jahrb. TH. (1886) 190, ot Pfl. Eeich. I.e. 25 ;— Leveil. Bull. 
Soc. Bot. Fr. VI. (1906) 589. 

A. cimimloiatum , a. insular,', Pax 1. c. pp. 25. 200. 

Folia chartacea, in venannn axillis albo villosa, nee rufo-barbarta, 
11-lobata, lobi.s basalibus sese invisem saepe obtegentibus. Alae 
samarae horizontaliter patentes. 

Nom. Jap. Oh-mcigctsu (J. Matsumura, 1. c. no. 28) 

Hab. Nikko, Sbinano. 

C. villosum, in. 

Folia 9-lubata ll-lo],>a intermixta, supra parce subtus praesertim 
secus costas et in axillis venaruin A'illosu-tomentosa; petiolis 
villoso-tomentellis. 

Nom. Jap. 

Hab. Yezo, Nikko. 

foinuif macrophyllum, ni. 

Folia ampla 14 cm. longa ac lata. 
Nom. Jap. 
Hab. Nikkn. 

0. Kasado, m. 

Acer j(i])oiii(ti III, a. ii/jucum, forma Kasudo, ui. IMss. 

Folia tenuiora 8 cm. longa ac lata, lo-lobata, lobis acuminatis 
inciso-serratis serraturis argutissimis. 

Nom. Jap. Kasado (3?^). 

Hab. culta. 



Eevisio Aceracearnm Japonicarum. 43 

V. Kokonoe, m. 

A. japonkinn, a. forma, Kohoiioe, m. Mss. 

Folia 11-lobata, lobis ovatis acutis. 

Nom . Ja p . Kolzonoe {% S) (e»- ü fi* Ä- §f Ä . if ffi üü IS ib . W.n^). 
Hab. culta. 

X. Sayosigure, m. 

A. jajwnicuvi, a. forma, Sayosigurc, m. Wss. 

Folia minora 9-circumlobata. 

Nom. J at. Sai/osliigure (/h ^ a| nf) (p-M^ ^^i R. IM^M If. i^). 
Hab, in hoitis culta. 

?•. Matsuyoi, m. 

A. jaxoiiicum, a. forma, Mittmyoi, m. Mss. 

Folia minora 0-lobata. 

Nom . Jap . Mahnnoi (^ W) (^ Hi ^ ^ if Ä . FfUl ifi IS tj?) . 
Hab. culta. 

24. Acer palmatum, Thukb. (Tab. XXYI— XXVIH.) 

Thunbeeg, Fl. Jap. (17S4) 161 .:-BC. Prodr. I. (1824.) GLE. ;— K. Koch, in Miq. Arn. Mv,s. Liigcl. 
Batav. I. (1863—64) 251, et Dtndrol. I. (1869) 224 ;— KiQ. Prcl. II. Jap. (1866-67) 20 .— Fieb. et 
Zucc. Fl. Jap. n. (1870) 83 ;— Fb. (t Sav. En. PI. Jsp. I. (IhVC)) 88 :-Max. MCI. Bid. X. (1S8() 
eC7 ;-Pax in E>GL. Bot. Jahrb. YII. (1886) 101, et Pfl. Ecich S Beit (1^(2) L5 ;— Ieveil. Eull. 
Sec. Bot. Fran. VI. (19(6) C91 .:-C. K. Schn. 111. Handb. lanl h 11. (1Î07) £C7 ;-Biels, 11. Cen- 
tralchin. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. XXIX. p. 448. 

Acer lohjmcri luw, S. (t Z. El. Jap. lam. Xat. in Alh. Atfd. Mirch. lY. 2. (ie4() ir8. 

Aibcr rami glabri cortice cinerascenti-viride vel fufco-puipuias- 
cente, ramulis novellis glabis vel puberulis. Gemmae perulae 
interiores spathulatae feirugineo-tcmentosae. Folia maxime varia- 
bilia, juvenilia dense moUiter pilosa, adulta glabra, membranacea, 
palmato-pluiilobata, basi aperte cordata, lobis acuminatis vel caud- 
ato-cuspidatis, serratis vel inciso-serratis; petiolis gracile elongatis 
Inflorescentia umbellato-corymbosa vel-paniculata, pedicellis 
filii'oimibus glaberrimis; floribus coaetaneis andro-polygamis. 
Sepala 5 ovato-oblonga rotundata vel obtusa intense purpurea 
extus saepe parce ciliolata. Petala 5 sepalis aequilonga oblonga 



44 Art. 1. — G. Koidzumi. 

obtusa aut rotundata basi parani angustata lutescentia vel ochro- 
leuca. Stamina 8 exerta, antberis laevibus. Ovaria glabra rarius 
parce ciliolata stylis bilobatis, stigma tibus revolutis. Samara 
glabra alis angulo vario divergentibus. 

Nom. Jap. Kaede (%7Tc2¥. M;^. ^$f#. 'Xm?^^. 1708); — 
Kaeclenold, Kaerudenold (U M WM ^ ii>) Moniijl (* W^^^M); — Iwatohcni 

Hab. per totarn japoniam spontanea. 
DiSTR. Hupeb (Cliina centrali). (Korea?) 

Snh>;i>. «. genuinum, (S. etZ.) m. (Tab. XXVI.— XXVIII.) 

A. palmatum, x.w. j^almatum, Koch. Dendrol. I. ^IStîO) 525. 

A. palmatum, var. ficnuinum, S et Z. Fl Jap. IT. (l'STO) 84 ipp.) (excl. A. t^rptenlohtim, Thg) t. 
145 (excl. fig. 9.) 

A. palmatum, var Thunhergi, Pax, svar. eupalmatuia, Gr v. Schw. Gartu. fl. (1833) G52 ; — 
Pax in Engl. Pfl. Reich 8 Heft (1902) 2o. 

A. palmatum. var. Thunhergi, Pax in Engl. Bot. .Jahrb. VII. (I8S6) 232 (p. p.) 

Gemmae perulae intimae circ. 15 mm. longae, glabrae vel 
ciliolatae. Folia 5 — 7 palinatilobata basi cordata usque 4,5 cm. 
longa ac lata; lobis lanceolato-oblongis acuminatissimis serrulatis 
aut inciso-serratis. Flores pedicellis capilliformibus. Samarae 
minores alis circ. 1 — 1,2 cm. longis in angulo obtuso, rarius acuto 
V. obtusissimo divergentibus. 

a. spectabile, m. (Tab. XXVIIl.) 

A. palmatum, Thg. Fl. Jap. IGl, et Icon. Fl. Jap. (1800) t 4i. 

.1. palmatum, var. genuinum, S. et Z. Fl. Jap. II. 84 (p. p.) t 145 (p. p.) 

Folia aequaliter argute serrulata. 
Nom. Jap. Iwhamomiji. 
PIab. llondö: Yugasbima (Idzu). 

J'onua Chisio, m. 

Folia 5 — 7 lol)ata serrata, nascentia intense et etiam in aestate 
vix roseo-colorata. 

Nom. Jap. Chishio (ff-'^), Mösen (^'îà). 

Hab. in bortis culta. 



Eevisio Aceracearum Japonicarum. 4o 

fonna Komonnisiki, m. 

Folia in varus inodis aureo-maculata. 
Nom . Jap . Komon-nishild (/h WL 1^) . 
Hab. in liortis culta. 

subvar. crispum, (Andhe) m. 

Ä. imlmatum, a TJmnheriji, svar. eiipnlnuitum, i. crisjjuin Andre, in Illustr. Hortic. XVIIl. 
(1870) 241. t. 43 ;— Pax I.e. p. L'G. 

Folia profunde palmatifida; laciniis anguste lanceolatis, niargine 
leviter involuto. 

Nom. Jap. Okiishimo (Eft). 

Hap. in liortis culta, 

subvar. Hikasayama, m. 

Folia palmatifida, lobis oblongo-lanceolatis eroso-serratis, secus 
costas et margincs viridia ceterum albo-maculata. 

Nom. Jap. Hil-a^aijama (e ^Uj). 

Hap. in hortis culta. 

h. amabilie, m. (Tab. XXVI.) 

A. imlmatum, var. Thunhergi, Pax, svar. eiipalmatum, Gr. v. Schw. I.e. (p. p.) 

Folia inciso-serrata. 

Nom. Jap. Iroha-momiji. 

Hap. Hondo: Nikko, Chichibu, Kasugasan, Takiyama 
(Swô); Sikok: Kotohirayama; Kiushiu: Mitake (Tsushima). 

forma Akajinisiki, m. 

Folia enascentia rosea, inciso-serrata, lobis anguste olilongis acumi- 
natis. 

Nom. Jap. Ahaji-nishihi (ßiüi^). 

Hab. culta. 

forma Tsuchigumo, m. 
Foliis lobis apice circinatis pulverulentibus. 



46 Art. 1.— G. Koiclzumi. 

Nom. Jap. Tsucliiijumo (^ fiH g IS Ä). 
Hab. culta. 

forma Hanaidzuminisiki, m. 

Folia inciso-serrata, albo-maculata. 

Nom. Jap. Haua-idzumi-iiUlnlü {^^î%). 
Hab. in hortis culta. 

forma Oridonisiki, ni. 

Folia inciso-serrata aureo-guttata. 

Nom. Jap. Orido-no-nUldhl (^ ^ l?,). 
Hab. in liortis culta. 

subvar. Kagiri, m. 

Folia leviter contorta argute serrata i'oseo-niarginata aut maculata 
saepe viridia immixta. 

Nom. Jap, Kaijiri. 

Hab. culta. 

Suhsp. septenlobum, (ïnc) m. (Tab. XXVI.— XXVII.) 

A. jHiliiiatum, ß. HL'ptcnlohum, (Tho.) Koch, in Ann. Mus. I.u^d. Bativ. I. (1SG4) 251, et 
Dendrol. I. (1869) 525. 

A. septenlobim, Th3. Fl. Jip. (17St) 161 ; — DG. Prodr. I. (1321) 595. 

A. vieikots, Sieb, in Jaahrb. Maatsch. Tuinb. (1344) t. 2. fi-j. 5. 

A. palmatum. var. septenlobum, Miq. Prol. Fl. Jap. (18ö7) 20. 

A. paimatum, rM.palmitlß.lum, S. et Z. Fl. Jap. II. (1870) 84. (p. p.) 

A. palmuttim, vxr. Thnnbn-ni, sv.ir. .<i:ib.!;pt.'iihb im Ga. v. Smiw. Givt. Fl. (lidl). G7S;— Pax 
Pfl. Reich. I.e. 26. (p. p.) 

A. palmatum, rar. Tknnbji-ji, svar. septenlobum, (Koch) C. K. Sch.v. I.e. ilJ07) 207. 

Gemmae perulao iiitimae anguste spathulatae, ad 3 cm. longae 
tomentosae. Folia nascentia dense pilosa, adulta glabra usque 
6,5 cm. longa palmato-7-lobata, basi cordata; lobis elliptico- vel 
oblongo-lanceolatis caudato-acuminatis vel subito cuspidatis, 
regulariter serratis. Inflorescentia corymboso-paniculata. Alae 
samarae 2 — 2,4 cm. longae in angulo obtusissimo, vel .subhori- 
zontaliter divergentes. 



Eevisio Aceracearum Japonicarnm 47 

XoM. Jap. Takawo-inomiji, Oh-moiuiji. 

Hab. Hondo: Morioka, Tokizawayama, Omyojin, Uba- 
yashiki, Kadoma, Sengantôge (Rikuchiu); Azumasaii (Uzen), 
\Vakamatsu(Iwashiro); Shiwobara, Nikkö (Shimotsuke); Chichibu 
(Musashi); Fujiyama (Suruga). 

var. latilobatum, m. (Tal. XXVI). 

Foliis lobis ovatis vel kite triangukitis subito acuminatis. Akie 
samarae liorizontales. 

Xo3r. Jap. Hiroha-momiji. 

Hab. Shiwobara (Shimotsuke), Ontake (Kiso Provinciae 
Shinauo); Kasugami, Nanogawa (Tosa), 

var. speciosum, m. 

Folis lobis ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis utrinque purpurascen- 
tibus, coloribus autumnalibus aureo-brunnescentibus. 

Nom. Jap. Nomiu-a-hacde, 2Iiisasliino (ß,M^). 

Hab. in hortis culta, sed saepe sj^ontanea. 



var. palmatipartitum, 



m. 



Folia palmato-7-partita lobis auguste oblougis acuminatis vel 
subito acuminatis versus basin cuneato-augustatis vel constrictis. 

forma Senri, m. 

Folia nascentia intense rosea deinde purpureo-rosea, in aestate 
viridescentes. 

Nom. Jap. «Sc/hy (-f- m), Cliisato. 

Hab. in hortis culta. 

forma Ichigyoin, m . 

Folia nascentia latescentia, auctumna profunde purpurea. 
Nom. Jap. Tchigijü-in. (— 'ff^). 
Hab. culta. 



48 Art. 1.— G KoiclziiHi'. 

forma Akitsuta. ni. 

Foliis lobis basi subito vakle angustaii.^. 
Nom. Jap. Akitsuta. 
Hae. in hortis culta. 

forma Tsukubane, m. 

Foliis lobis anguste lanceolatis. 

Nom. Jap. Tsvluhanc (^'i^m). 
Hau. culta. 

forma Ohsakazuki, m. 

Foliis lobis lauceolato-oblougis. 
Nom. Jap. Ohsahcuki (-k^). 
Hau. culta 

subvar. Tanabata, m. 

Foliis lobis lanceolato-linearibus utrinque attenuatis serratis vel 
integerrimis. 

Nom. Jap. Tanalmta (-h ^). 

Hab. culta. 

subvar. linearilobum, (Miq) rn. 

A. jminidlinii, var. liiwi rilobuiii, Miq. in Archiv. Xeerlandeis II. (1867) 4'j9 ; — Îiax. Mol. Biol. 
X. (1880) C03 ;-Pax in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. VII. (ISSÜ) 202. 

A. palmalum, f. linearilobum, S. et Z. Fl. Jap. II. (1870) 8i, t. 14Ü. 

A. 2>ii Intal lim, -{. liiicarilnhum, S. et Z., Pax in Engl. Pfl. Reich. I.e. 27 ;— C. K. Schk. I.e. -07. 

Nom. Jap. Slirmenouchi (ä "h). 

Hap. in hortis culta. 
Folia palniatisecta vel scctisve, laciniis linearibus acutis integris 
aut remote obscuriter serratis. 

forma lineare, m. ((Ir. v. Srnw.) 1-<^-o82;-Pax1.o. 27. 
Folia viridia. 

forma atro-lineare, m. (Gii. v. Sciiw.) J.c. gs2;-pax. i.e. 27. 
Folia atro-purpuroa. 



Eevisio Aceracearum Japonicarum. 49 

Suhsp. y. Matsumurae, ni. (Tab. XXVIII.) 

A. jialmatum, f. 2)<i/)«a/(;Wi(?», S. et Z. Fl. Jap. II. (1870) 84, (pro parte ?) 

A. pnlmatam, var. Thiaihergii, svar. auhseptenlohum, Gb.. \. Schw. I.e. 678 ; — Pax, Pfl. Eeich. 
I.e. 26 (pi-o parte). 

Folia 7 — 0-lobata ad 7 — 8 cm. longa; lobis ellipticis ovatis 
vel oblongis, candato-acuminatis incisis vel inciso-serratis rarius 
inaequaliter sabduplicato-serratis. Inflorescentia coiymljoso- 
paniculata. Alae samarae angulo acuto, obtuso v. obtusissiino 
divergentes, cire. 17 — 25 mm. longae. 

Nom. Jap. Yama-momiji (J, Matsumura, Shokubutsu-Meii, 
no. 40.) 

Hab. Yezo, Hondo, Shikok, Kiusbiu, Formosa. 

DiSTE. China centrali ?. 

«. spontaneum, m. 

forma angustilobum, m. 

Foliis lobis angnste oblongis. 
Nom. Jap. 
Hab. ill Yezo. 

forma circumlobatum, m. 

Folia 9 ( — 7) circumlobata basi profunde cordata, lobis basalibus 
conniventibus. 

Nom. Jap. 

Hab. Matsumine, Yudonosan (Uzen); Shimidzutöge (Shimo- 
tsuke). 

forma acutum, m. 
Alae samarae angulo acuto divergentes. 

forma rectangulare, m. 
Alae samarae in angulo fere recto divergentes. 

forma obtusum, m. 
Alae samarae angulo obtuso v. obtusissimo imtentes. 



-50 Art. 1 — G. Koidzumi. 

sultvar. elegans, m. 
Alae saniarae latiores, circ. 2 cm. longae 1 cm. latae apice 
rotundatae. 

XoM. Jap. 

IIab, in monte Gassan et Ohtôge. 

subvar. formosanum, m. 

A. dupUcato-serratuin, Hatata, in sclied. 

Folia 7-lobata lobis lineari-oblongis aciitis inciso-serratis. 
Nom. Jap. Takasago-momiji. 
Hab. Formosa. 

I), hortense, m. 

subvar. palmatilobum, m. 
forma Sigitatsu, m. 

Folia 7 — l)-lobata incisa, secus costas utrinque am-eo-maculata. 
Nom. Jap. Slrirjitatsu. 
Hab. in liortis culta. 

forma Nisikigasane, m. 

Folia am-eo-guttata. 

Nom. Jap. Niskihlgasane (UM). 
Hab. culta. 

forma Asanoha, m. 

Folia 9-circumlobata lobis ovatis acuminatis inciso-serratis. 
Nom. Jap. Asa-no-lia. 
Hab. in hortis culta. 

subvar. palmatipartitum, m. 

Folia palmatipartita inciso-serrata v. lobulata, lobis omnibus fere 
aequiformibus. 

forma Monnisiki, m. 

Foliis lobis 5 — 7, profunde incisis vel pinnatifidisve, versus basin 
cuncato-angustatis. 



Revisio Acer ice irum Japonicarum. 51 

Nom. Jap. .^[on-nisliihi. (^if,). 
Hae. in hortis culta. 

foniHi Akitsusima, m. 

Foliis lobis 7 — 9, anguste oblongis incisis acuminatis. 

Nom. Jap. Akitsushima. i 

fonna Tokonatsu, m. ■ ! 

I 

Foliis lobis 7, oblongis breve acuminatis incisis. i 

Nom. Jap. Tohmatsu. f 



forma Yugure, \n. 

Foliis lobis 7 oblongis breve acuminatis incisis, basalibus con- 
nive ntibus. 

Nom. Jap. Y ü (jure. 

forma Nokibata, m. 

Folia nascentia intense, in aestate pallide rosea. 
Nom. Jap. Nohibata ($f ^) . 
Hab. culta. 

forma Kihatsijö, m. 

Folia nascentia viridia, incisa, autumnales aurea deinde roseo- 
colorata. 

No if. Jap. Ki-hacltijö (^A^). 

FTab. culta. 

forma Kageorinisiki, m. 

Folia brunneo-aurantiaca mox atro-bruunea, incisa. 
Nom. Jap. Kageorinishiki (bi^^U). 
Hab. in hortis culta. 

forma Siguresome, m. 

Foliis lobis 7 oblongis acuminatis incisis basi pauUo angustatis. 



52 Art. 1.--G. Koidzumi. 

Nom . Ja r . Sh igurezomc (a^ rß îiè) . 
Hae. in lioi'tis culta. 

foniia Takinogawa, u\. 

Folia 7-lobata basi Iruncata, lobis anguste oblongis caudato- 
acumiiiatis versus basin cuneato-angustatis. 
Nom. Jap. Tahi-no-gcnra (îhI / jil). 

fonna Kurabuyama, m. 

Folia basi subtruncata, lobis 7 ol;)longis acuminatis versus basin 
angustatis. 

Nom. Jai». Kwahwjama. 

forma Aoba, ni. 

Folia palniatipartita incisa, intense viridia. 
Nom. Jap. Aoha (#^). 
Hai^ culta. 

forma Karukaya, m. 

Foliis lobis lineari-lanceolatis versus basin cuneatis caudato- 
acuminatis argutissime inciso-seiratis; saniarae alis loculisque 
horizontaliter patentibus. 

Nom. Jap. Karvhaya (^ij^). 

Haiî, in liortis culta. 

forma Murasakitaka, m. 

Folia subcliartacea 5-G-7-lobata, pu]i)urascentia; lobis incisis. 
Nom. Jap. j\lurasal;itala. 
Haiî. in liortis culta. 

forum Asaji, m. 

Folia 7-lobata, lobis incisis subtus secus nervo,-; jiaice adpresse 
pilosis. 

Nom. Jap. ./.sc,// (i^S&). 

Hat;, culta. 



Ri'visio Ac^ricearnoi J.T.ponicArum. 53 

forma Akegarasu, m. 

Foliis lobis 7 ol)longis incisis acaminatis. 
Nom. Jap. Ahc-garasu. 

fonna Murehibari. 

Foliis lobis 5, oblongis acutis, suberoso-incisis. 
Nom. Jap. Murc-liihan . 

subvar. heterolobum, m. 

Folia palmatipavtita; laciniis valde polyinorphis, in eodem folio 
una oblonga acuminata inaequaliter serrata, alteris lanceolato- 
lineariV)U3 incisis; ceteris pinnatifidis vel incisis. 

forma Wabibito, m. 

Folia margine roseo-guttata. 
Nom . Jap . Wahibito (it A) . 
Hab. culta. 

forma Sensunagasi, m. 

Foliis lobis brunneo vel roseo-marginatis. 
Nom. Jap. Seiisu-nagaslii (M^-^). 

forma Hibari, m. 

Folia viridia, lobis angustioribus. 
Nom. Jap. Hlhari(m^M). 

sLibvar. dissectum, (Tiro.) m. 

A. lU.^sectum, Thg. Fl. Jap. (178 i) 16, et lorn. PJ. Jap. t. 45. 

A . p ilmatum, var. multifidum, Koch, in Ann. Mug. Liigd. B.xtav. I. (1303—04) -51. 

A. dccompositinn, Miq. in Catal. Hort. Amsteld. 275, (1866). 

A. iKilmatum, var. dissectum, f. ruhrifoUum, Miq. Prol. Fl. Jap. (1867) 20. 

A. palmatum, var. dissectum, (Thg.) Koch, Dendrol. I. (1SG9). 224 ;— Pax, I.e. 27 (1902). 

A. palmatum, f. dissectum, S. et Z. Fi. Jap. II. (1870) 84. 

A. palmatum, f. decomposltum, S. et Z. I.e. 84. 

A. palmatum, var. dissectum, (Thg.) Max. McI. Biol. X. (ISSO) 6:'8. 



54 Art. l. — G. KoiJzuuii. 

Folia 5-7-'J-, rarius ll-secta, lobi auguste lanceolati piunatifidi, 
inciso-serrati. 

1. multifidum, m. 

A. dissecliDii, Thg. ].c. 

Folia palmatisecta lobis piniiatipartitis acuminatis, laciiiiis lineari- 
lanceolatis argute serratis. 

fonna Aosidare, m. 

Folia viridia. 

Nom. Jap. Aosltidare (#fö^). 

forma Tamukeyama, m. 

Folia purpurea. 

No3i. Jap. Tamukeijcuna (^ lA] ilj). Cliiriiucn-hiede. 
Hab. in hortis frequens. 

2. palmatisectum, m. 

Folia palmatisecta, laciniis auguste oblougis utiinque acuiuiuatis 
incisis. 

foDiut, Matsukaze, m. 

Folia purpurascentia. 

Nom. Jap. Matmkuzc (f$ E). 
Hab. culta. 

forma ^ Ohsiusidare, m. 

Folia purpurascentia; ramis pendulis. 
Nom . Ja p. a h sh iushidare (^ i'tl fè HE) . 

suljvar. sessilifolium, (S. et Z.) Max. m Ma. Bioi. x. (isso) cos;- 

Pax, 1. c. 23. 

A. sessilifolhm, S. et Z. I<1. Jap. Faiu. Xat. in Abh. AkaJ. Müuch. (1840) 158. 
Ncffiivdo scssiU/oliinn, ISIiq. Prol. Fl. Jap, (1860) 21. 



Kevisio Aceracearum J'aponic.imm. 



55 



Petiolis brevissimis; foliis ternatis vel quinatis; foliolis 
ambitu lanceolato-oblongis acuminatis ntrinque pinnatifidis vel 
partitis interdum pinnatisectis; lirnbis inaequaliter vel subduplica- 
to-serratis. 

Nom. jAr. Hagoromo-hacde (^^W.), Kahtircmiiin, 

Hab. in hortis culta. 

Sect. 11. Iniegrifolia, Pax. 

F. Pax, in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. VII. (1SS6) 207, VI. (18S5) 327. 

Inflorescentia paniculata. Flores andro-polygaip.i pentameri. 
Stamina 8 hypogyiia, in flore "^ perigyna. Discus extiastaminalis. 
Folia coriacea siniplicia intégra vel integerrima. Species unica. 

25. Acer oblongum, Wall. (Tab. XXIX.) 

Wall, in DC. Prodr. I. (1824) 503 ;— Benth. Fl. Hongkon. 47 ; — Hiern in Hook. Fl. Br. Ind. I. 
693 ;-Max. Mel. Biol. X. (1880) 599 ; -Pax in Engl Bot. Jahr. VII. (1886) 208, et Pfl. Reich. 8 
Heft (1902) 31 ;— Fokbes et Hemsl. in Jour. Linn. Soc. XXIII. 141 ;— Ire et Matsum. Tent. Fl. 
Lutch. I. p. 120 ;— Matsum. et Hat at. lîn. PI. Formos. 16 ;— C. K. Schx. 111. H:,ndb. Laubh. II. 
(1907) 214 ;— DiELs in E.\gl. Bot. Jahrb. XXIX. 499. 

A. laurifolium, D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1820) 240. 

A. huzimbala, Buch. Ham. ex Pas. 1. c. 

A. Itoanum, Hat ata, in sched. 

A. oblovrjitvi, var. Itoanum, Hay ata, in sched. 
? A. alh^-purpure^cenit, Hatata, in sched. (Ranul. i a^m. cum 4 foL). 

Arbor rainis vetustioribus cinerascentibns rugulosis; rainulis 
hornotinis brunnescentibns lenticellis minutis conspicne tectis. 
Folia coriacea utrinqne laevia ininute reticulato-venosa, oblonga 
rarius ovata vel ovato-elliptica interdura obovato-oblonga, obtuse 
acuminata, intégra, basi saepissime rotundata trinervata, subtus 
glauca vel glaucescentia, 25-55 mm. lata 5-11 cm. longa; 
petiolis gracile elongatis. Inflorescentia dense corymboso- 
paniculata. Flores minuti andro-polygami; pedicellis dense 
ruf o-puberulis ; sepala oblonga apice rotundata 1-1,5 mm. 
longa extus dense rufo-puberula; petala oblongo-linearia 2 — 2,5 
mm. longa alba v. lutescentia; stamina 8 exerta, antlieris 
scabriusculis ; discus extrastaminalis; ovarium puberulento- 
tomentosum, stylis profunde bilobatis. Samara glabra loculis 



^6 Art. 1.— G. Koidzumi. 

plerumque horizontalibus, alis 1-1.5 cm. longa 4-10 mm. lata, 
aiigulo acuto vel obtuso divergentibus interdum subhorizontaliter 
patentibus. 

Nom. Jap. Kum-no-lia-kaecle. 

Hab. Liukiu et Formosa. 

DiSTR. China australi, Hongkong, Hima]a3^a. 

Sect. 12. Trifoliata, Pax. 

r. Pax. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. VI. (1885) SI.',, VII. (1336) 203 ;— C. K. Schn. 111. H-i-mlb. Laubh. 
II. (1907) 193. 

Inflorescentia umbellata. Flores andro-monoeci vel dioeci, 
pentameri. Stamina 10 (8 — 12) hypogyna. Discus extras- 
taminalis. Stylus apice bilobatus. Folia membranacea trifolio- 
lata. Species unica. 

20. Acer nikoense, Maxim. (Tab. XXX.) 

c. J. Maximowicz, in Mél. Biol. VI. (ISi7i 370 ;-Fr. et Sw. En. PI. Jrp. I. (1875) 90 ;— Pax, in 
Engl. Bot. Jahrb. VIL (1S8Ö) 2o'>, et Pfl. Eeich. 8 Heit (1902) 29 ;— Leveil. in Bull. Soc. Bot. 
Pr. VI. (190G) 591 ;— C. K. Sch.v. 111. Ha^nclb. Laubh. IL (1907) 211. (non. Miq.). 
A. Maximo ciczianHvi, Miq. in Arch. Xeerlan. IL (1867) 472, 47(3 {nec Fax.) 

Nom. Jap. Clulja-iio-lä, Meguro (itm^^^; B 3^ Ui ^ ?<^ H) ; Kocliù- 
no-lii] Scminoki, Ohmitsade-haede (nov.) 

Arbor ramis validis cortice cinerascente; ramulis annotiiiis, 
foliis subtus, petiolis pedicellisque canescento-tomentosis. Folia 
ternata membranacea supra sparce pilosa subtus secus costas 
praesertim petiolisque liir.suto-tomentosa; petiolis erecto-patentibus; 
foliolis mediis oblongis petiolulatis, Jateralibus oblique oblongis 
subsessilibus, omnibu-^ integerrimis obtusis, rarius obscuriter vel 
inaeqiialiler remote obtuse dentatis. Inflorescentia triflora, 
floi'ibus andro-dioeciis albis coaetaneis; bracteolis linearibus 
cadacis. Sepala 5 glabra v. extus parce puberula, obovata v. 
ovata basi vix unguiculata. Petala obovata basi angustata sepalum 
aequilonga. Stamina cire. 10-12 exerta, antheris laevibus. 
Discus crenatus extrastaminalis. Ovarium puberulento-toment- 
osum stigmatibus revolutis. Samara 3.5-5 cm. longa, loculis 



lîevisio Aceracearum Ji^ponicarnm. 57 

pube^cento-tornentosis; alis circiter 13-14 nini. Jatis anguloobtuso 
divergentibus. 

Hau. Hondo: Azumasan (Uzen); Aidzu (Iwasbiro); Nikko; 
Togaknsbi^^ama; Prov. Kozuke; O^-ama (Sagami); Cbicbibu 
(Musasbi). Shikok: Prov. Awa; Kiusbiu; Prov. Hizen, Higo. 

DiSTR. Cliiiia centraUs: Hupeb (sec. CK. Schneider). 



Sect. 13. P!atanoidea, Pax. 

F. Pax in Exgl Bot. Jahrb. Vi. (1S85) 327, VII. (ISSü) 2 i3 ;-C. K. Sch.v. 111. Handb. Laubh II. 
(1907) 193. 

Inflorescentia corymboso-paniculata. Flores andro-polygami 
pentaraeri. Stamina 8 bypogyna in flore ^ perigyna. Discus 
extrastaminalis. Stylus profunde bilobatus. Folia membranacea 
pahiiatilobata, lobis integeriimis gro.sse sinuato-dentatis. Species 2. 



C*iat'is sitecieruin. 

" Foliis lobis iobulatis ol)tuse acuminatis; samarae loculi 

tomentosi J . Miyahei, ^Pix. 

FoUis lobis integris acuminatis ; samara glabra 

A. pictwii, Thunb. 

27. Acer Miyabei, Max. (Tab. XXXI.) 

C J. Maximowicz, Mél, Biol. XII. (1SS8) 72') ; -Pax in Engl. P.l Keicli, S Heft (190:) 53; — 
Making, Tokyo Bot. Mag. (190i) 111 ;-C. K. Schv. 111. Hanclb. Liubh. IL (1907; 229;-Leveil. 
in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. VI. (190o) 591. 

A. Haijatte, Leveil. et Vst. in Bull. Soj. Bot. Fr. VI. (190J) 590. 

Arbor ramulis novellis glabris vel puberulis. Gemmae 
perulae interiores oblongae apice rotundatae vel obtusae extus 
pubescento-tomentosae, exteriores ovatae coriaceae. Folia mem- 
branacea nascentia utrinque densius adulta subtus ad venas parce 
pubescentia, quinquenervia, 5-fida, elongato-peliolata, basi 
cordata; lobis obtusiter acuminatis utrinque paucilobulolatis. 
Inflorescentia paniculata; floribus foliis coaetaneis fulvo-sulp- 
hureis; pedicellis pilosis. Sepala 5 oblonga apice rotundata extus 



58 Art. 1 — G. Koidzuini. 

pilosa. Petala 5 pilosa auguste spath ulata sepalis aequilonga. 
Stamina 8 in flore -^ pamm exerta, antheris rotunclatis glabris. 
Discus carnosus 8-crenulatus extrastaminalis. Ovaria dense 
puberula stylis ultra medium bilobatis. Samarae loculi semi- 
orbiculati fulvescenti-velutini; alae oblongae horizontaliter 
patentes. 

Nom, Jap. Kuruhi-ilaiia (K. Miyaf.e). 

Hab. Yezo: Prov. Isbikari, Iburi, Hidaka; Hondo : Kuro- 
begöri, PIa_yacbine, Imoda, Shige, Kadoma (Rikuclnu). 

DrsTR. endemica. 

28. Acer pictum, Thunb. (Tab. XXXH.) 

Thunberg, FI. Jap. (1734), 161, et Icon. Fl. Jap. dec. V. t. 1 ;— Sieb, et Zucc. Fl. Jap. Farn. Xat. 
in Abb. Akad. Münch. IV. 2. (1846) 156 ;— A. Gray in Perrt, Exped. Jap. 310 ;— C. Koch, in. 
MiQ. Ann. Mus. Lugd. Batav. I. 251 ;-Miq. Prol. Fl. Jap. (1866) 19 ;— Fr. et Sav. En. PI. Jap. I. 
(1875) 87, et II. (lS79j 318:— Max. Mél. Biol. X. (18S0) 594;— Pax. Engl. Bot. Jahr. VII. (1886) 
235, et. Pfl. Eeicli. 8 Heft. (1902) 47;— Leveil. Bull. See. Bot. Fr. VI. Engl. (1906) 592 ;-C. K. 
ScHN. 111. Handb. Laubh. II. (1907) 225 ;— C. Koch, Dendrol. I. p. 531 ;— Forb. et Hemsl. Jour. 
Linn. Soc. XXIII. 1 tl ;— Miyabs, Fl. Kuril. 223 ;— Xakai, Fl. Korea. I. p. 133 ;— P.^lib. Consp. 
Fl. Korea. III. p. 46 ;— Franch. PI. David. 77;— Diels in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. XXIX. 499;— 
Saegent, Fort st Fl.Jap. 28 ;— Koidz. PI. Sachal. (1910) 89. 

A. truncatiim, Fb. et Sav. En. PI. Jap. I. (1875) 87, etl. (1879; 320 (non Bge.) 

A. Mnno, Max. in Bull, Phys. Math. Akad. Petrop. XV. 126, et Prim. Fl. Amur. GS ;— Eegel, 
Fl. Tss, 35 ;— Schmidt, Fl. Sachal. 119 ;— Komaro. Fl. Mansh. IL 73. 

Ä. picUim, var. inono, Koesh. in Act. Hort. Petrop. XII. 318. 

A. laetinn, var. parvißorain, Regel in Bull. Phy. Math. Akad. Petrop. XII. 219. 

A. amhifjiaivi, Dippel (vcc. Heer) Laubh. IL 457, fig. 218 ; — Pax in Engl. Pfl. lieich. 8 Heft. 
(1102)47. (serculus sterilis !) 

A. pictum, var. amhiguum, Pas, in Engl. Bot. .Jahrb. XVI, 401 ;—C. K. Schn. 111. Handb. 
Laubh. IL (1907) 225. 

A. jnctum, var. Paxi, Gr. v. Schw. in Gart. Fl. ( )893) 458 

A. BippeU, Gr. v. Schw. in Gart. FI. XLII. (1893) 460. 

A. Mayri, Gr. v. Schw. in Mittl. D. D. G. (1901) 58 ;— Matr, Fremdl. Wald u. Parkb. fig. 150. 

Nom. Jap. Tohhra-l-aede, Taiita-momijt] Shirahi-l-aedc (jCity'< ¥. 
7}^^ m >\- Ä. li^S^m^. 1809.) ; Itagi, Yurokho-lcaedc (5: -fc -b ^. 7K ^ ^ X Ä. 
:^^mmm. 1 8 1 0) ; Itai/a-haede (Ê,:^SfkM m) ; Oh -Imcdc (M. ^ 3« ^ Ä . 
:^^?is::f:); O]i-tsuta-iuomiji\ Kilnim'-inomiji^ liagi-kaedc (J. Matsu- 
mura, Shokubutsu-Meii. no. 42); Sandiciede, Ao-hicde, hranc-luicde 
(^:^^^^. ), liaija ; Tuldwa . 

Arbor magnus ramis ramulisque ab initio glabris. Gemmae 
perulae interiores oblanceolato-oblongae apice obtuse rotundatae 



Tvevisio Aceraccfirum Japonicarum. 



59 



extus ferrugineo-velutinae aut pubesceiites. Folia maxime 
variabilia (Fig. 3 — G.) membraiiacea deinde subchartacea elongato- 
petiolata, subtus plus minus hirta, ambitu lotundata semirotundata 
vel orbiciilato-reniformia, (3 — ) 5 ( — 9) lobata, basi subtrmicata 
cordata aut rotundata; lobis triangulari-ovatis integris subcaudato 
acuminatis vel acutis; petiolis gracile elongatis. Flores andro- 
pol^-gami sulphurei, foliis coaetanei, in paniculam glabram 
plurifloram dispositi; pedicellis ebracteolatis. Calj^x glaber sepalis 
5 late oblongis apice rotundatis. Petala 5 anguste oblonga sepalis 
aequilonga. Stamina 8 disci medio inserta; antheris rotundatis 






Via. 3 




60 



Art. 1. — G. Koi'lzumi. 




Fig. 4. 




laevibus. Discus carnosus extrastaminalis margine crenato. 
Ovaria glabra styles profunde bilobatis, laciniis revolutis intus 
stigmatosis. Samara glabra, alis loculis circiter duplo longioribus 
in varus angulis divergentibus. 

Nom. vulg. Itaija-Kaede. 

Hab. Saghalin, Kuril, Yezo, Hondo, Shikok et Kiushiu. 

DiSTE. Korea, China, Manshuria, et Amur. 





Eevisio Acorace".rum Japonicaruui. 



61 




Fig. G. 



a. typicum, Gr. v. ScHW., mGartn. F1. 

XLir. (1893) 45S;— Pax, in Engl. Pfl. Eeich 8 Heft. 
(1902) 47. 

Folia glabra vel subtos secus nervös 
plus minus pubescentia et in axillis 
costarum tomentosa, 5 ( — 9)-lobata, basi 
subtruncata, vel aperte cordata ; lobis ovatis 
vel ovato-lanceolatis longe acuminatis. 
Planta juvenilis, serculi steriles et inno- 
vatio novus foliis valcle abnormalibus 
(fig. 6.) plerumque basi profunde cordatis 
lobis basalibus parallel is. 



Subvar. 1. eupictum, Pax, ]. c. 47. 

A. incium, var. eiij)iclinii, Pax, Bot. Jahrb. VIT. 236. 

Folia plerumque 5-lojata triloba immixta; alae samarae angulo 
acuto divergentes. 





62 



Art. 1. — G. Koidzumi. 



Nom. Jai\ Itcujalcaede. 

Hab. Yezo : Sapporo, 
Konuma (Oshima). Hondo: 
Aclzumasan, Nikkosan, 
Togakushiyania, Chichibu, 
Ki^o, prov, Hida. Sliikok. 
ïosa. 

Subvar. 2. Mono, (Max.) 

Pax, in Engl. Pfl. Reich. 8 Hoft. 
(1902) 47;— Xakai, I.e. 133. 

A. Mono, Max. Prim. Fl. Amur. 68. 
A. pictitm, vir. y. Mono, Max. MJl. 
Biol, X. 60O. 

A. hietum, v,.r. parvifl.rum, Regel, in Bull. Akad. St. Petersbg. XV. (1857) 219 ;-C, K. Schn, 
1. c. 225. 

Folia 5-lobata. Samarae akie angulo fere recto divergentes. 
Nom. Jap. Itcujakacàe. 

Hab. Yezo: Rishiri, Shiribesi; Hondo: Iwatesan, Nikko, 
Chichibu, Hakusan. 




Fisr. 8 




Fiff. 9. 




Revisio Aceraceanim Japonicaru ii. 63 

Subvar. 3. Savatieri, Pax, m engl. Pot. jahrb. vir. 236, et pa. Reich. 

I.e. 47;— Xakai, I.e. 133 (fig. 7 ) 

Folia plerumque T-lobata pentaloba immixta, basi profunde 
cordata; lobis late triangalaribus subito acuminatis. Alae samarae 
subhorizoDtaliter vel angulo subobtu.so divergente.5. 

Nom. Jap. Itomald-itaija. 

Hab. Yezo: Jozankei; Hondo: Chichibu, Hakusan, Nik- 
kosan, Azumasan, Iwatej^ama, Togakusbiyama, Hakkodasan, 
Seugantöge. 

forma septenlobum, m. 

forma novemlobum, m. (fig. 5, a.) 

Subvar. 4. Mayri, (Gr. v. Schw.) m. 

Acer 2Iauri, Or. v. Schw. in Mitt. D. D. G. 1. e ; Pax, I.e. 

Folia plerumque 5-lobata 7 loba immixta. Alae Samarae 
rectae paralleles saepe versus apicem conniventes. 

Nom. Jap. Itaijahacde. 

Hab. Yezo: Sapporo, Konuma, Jozankei; Hondo: Hakko- 
dasan; Sawanouchi, Sengantöge (Rikucbiu); Azumasan; Matsu- 
mine (Shônai) ; Ikaho; Nikko; Togakusbiyama, Ontake. Sikok: 
Tsurugisan ; Nanogawa (Tosa). 

Subvar. 5. Futagoyama, m. (fig. 8.) 

Nom. Jap. Futago i/ ama (m^ \ii). 
Hab. in bortis culta. 

var. ß. Paxil, Gr. v. Schw. i. c. 458 ;-Pax, i.e. 47. 

Folia 5-lobata subtus pubescentia. 
Nom. Jap. Oni-itaya. 
Hab. lidesan (Uzen). 
DisTR. Korea. 

var. r, disSeCtUm, WeSMAEL, in BuU. Soc. Bot. Belgique (1S90) 56;— Pax, 

I.e. 47. (Fig. 9, a.) 

A. jiicUim, var. angustilobum. Making, Bot. Mi^g. Tokyo VI. 51. (nomon nudum) 



64 Art. 1. — Gr. Koidzumi. 

Folia glabra su])tiis in axillis costarum tomenlella, palmato 
5 — 7 partita; laciniis lanceolatis vel anguste oblongis acuminatis. 

Nom. Jap. Asahi-lxocdc. 

Hab. Honclö: Goyözan, (Rikuchiu); Awone (Rikuzen); 
Fukushima (Iwasliiro); Nikküsan, prov. Közuke; Hakone, 
Ohyanm, Yugashima; Chichibu; Amagisan. Sikok: Tsurngisan. 

Subvar. SUbtrifidum, MakI>-0. Bot. Ma- Tokyo aOOl) 114. 

Folia fere semper tripartita. 
Nom. Jap. Yü'jurunia-lMcde. 
Hab. Takaoyama (^lusashi). 

var. ö. glaucum, m. 

Gemmae perula extus puberula. Folia minora cire. 7 cm. 
longa ac lata, palmato 5-fida, subtus glauca in basin costarum vix 
pilosa; lobis lanceolato-ovatis acuminatis. Samara glabra minor 
16 — 20 m. m. longa, alls subborizontaliter patentil)ns 10 — 12 m. m. 
Ion gis 7 — 8 mm. latis. 

Nom. Jap. Vrajiro-itaija. (nov.) 

Hab. Mogariyama (Uzen). 

subvar. latilobum, m. 

Folia minor -4 — 5 cm. longa ac kita, ambitu quadrangulata 5- 
lobata 3-loba (fig. 0. b.) immixta, basi truncata rarius rotundata, 
lobis deltoideis subito acuminatis. Samara ut in praecedente. 

Nom. Jap. Urajiro-üomald-itaija. (nov.) 

Hab. Azumayama (Uzen). 

Sect. 14. Diüholica, ni. 

Inflorescentia cor\^mbosa. Flores dioeci. Sepala fl. 'S^ 5 
inter se connata, in fl. $ libera. Petala fl. '^ 1 — 5 cum sepaJis 
connata, in il. -Ç libera. Stamina 8 — 9 perigyna. Stylus 
profunde bilobatus. Discus extrastaminalis. Folia membranacea 
simplicia palmatilobata. Species unica in Hondo incola. 



lîovisio Acf^raiCoainnii Japonioarnui. b-) 

29. Acer diabolicum, Blume. (Tab. XXXTIT.) 

C. Kocir, in Miq. A71u. Mus. Lnj^d. Bafcav. T. (ISGÎ-(M.) 2r>l;— MiQ. Prol. FI. Jap. (ISj.'j-CG) 
20;-Fk. ot S\v. En. Tl. .Tax I. (187.'>) 87, IL (1879) 320 ;-Max. Mel. EioL X. (18S0) 593 ; -Pax, 
in Enol. Eot. Jahrb. VIL (1S8G) 251 ;-Leveil. BuU. Soc. Bot. Fr. VL (1008) 590 ;-Pax in 
Kngl. Pfl. Il(icli. 8 Heft (1902) 71 :-C. K. Schn. IlL Handb. Laubh. IL (1907) 241. 

A. pitrpitrancena, Fk. et Sav. I.e. IL 320 ; — Max. Mel. Biol. X. (1850) 59^^ ; ~Pax, 1. c. 251, et 
71 ;— Leveil. 1. c. 592. 

A. tliaboliciim, Y.\T. irarimrascota, Rfhder in Sarg. Tree. Shr. I. (1905) 134. ;—C. K. Sühn. 
I.e. 242. 

Nom. Jap. Om-momiji (^ iEfe A ¥. ^K ^ Kl A it . m «"« W. ^, fè a. 1825) ; 
KiriJia-haede (mW^MM); Kaji-hacdc (J. Matsumura, Shokubutsii- 
Meii, 110. 43). 

Arbor 10 — 20 metralis, ramuli novelli pubescentes. Gemmae 
penilao interiores lanceolatae, intimae longe spathulatae 
feiTLigineo-tomentosae. Folia membranacea demum subcbartacea, 
juvenilia supra pubescentia subtus villoso-tomentosa ad margines 
ciliata, adulta tantum subtus ad venas pubescentia, circuinscri- 
ptione suborbicularia, basi cordata, quinque-lobata; lobis ellipticis 
grosse obtuse pauci-dentatis, apice obtuse productis, infimis multo 
niinoril)iis; petiolis quam lamina bvevioribus nunc glabris nunc 
versus apicem adpresse pilosulis. Umbella 5 — 10-flora, floribus 
coaetaueis mediocribus purpurascentibus ; pedicellis adpresse 
pilosis inferne bracteolatis in anthesi nutantibus. Calyx cam- 
panulatus sepalis 5 ellipticis apice rotundatis in flore -^ connatis. 
Petala 5 albo-rosea sepalis aequilouga, in flore -^ cum sepalis 
adnata. Discus crenatus extrastaminalis. Stamina 8 filamentis 
antherisque laevibus in anthesi exerta. Ovaria tomentosa stylis 
ad basin bipartitis. Samara cum loculis circ. 3 — 3,5 cm. longa; 
loculis in faciebus cristatis, adpresse ferrugineo-tomentosis, extus 
distincte carinatis; alis saepe parallelis vel fere aiigulo recto 
divergentibus. 

Hab. Hondo: Nikkösan; Ikaho; Chicliilm; Mitake (Mu- 
sashi); Usuitöge; Hakone; prov. Owari. Shikok: Tsurugisaii ; 
Nanogawamura (Tosa). Kiusiu: Inutake (Buzen). 

DisTPv. endemica. 

ÇFinisy 



06 



Distributio geographicalis specierum in Arcipelago Japonico. 



A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 
A. 



Loc. 

Spec. 

parvifloruiu 

clistylum 

crataegi folium ... 

insulare 

Kawakaiuii 

ovatifoliuiii 

morrisonense.... 
carpinifolinin .... 

rnfinerve .. 

cnpillipos 

rubescens 

micrantbuiii 

TsclionosKii 

avf^ntuni 

cissifoliuîii 

rubrum 

trifidum 

Ginnala 

spicatum 

Olivei'iaiium... . 
Sieboldianum. . 
Sbirasawanum.. 

japonicura 

palmatum 

oblongum 

nikoense 

Miyabei 

pictura 

\aiabolicum. 



X 

X 
X 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

X 
X 

X 
X 
X 
X 



fM 



INDEX. 



sectionum, specierum et synonymorum. 

Acer, L 2 

Acer albo-purpuraycens^ Hayata 55 

Acer aiiihi(juuiii, Dippel 58 

Acer argutam, Max 25 

Acer Buerger iamuii, Mjq 20 

Acer Bih'njrrln tun, xiw. niiujpoensc, Keuder. ... 29 

Acer Bu'dmhdla, Buch-Ham 55 

Acer capillipes, Max 21 

Acer capillipes, ivu-. fujisaneuso, Koidz 21 

Acer carpiuifolium, S. et Z 17 

Acer caudal if oliuni, Ha yaï 15 

Acer caudatifii, Matsum. 15 

Acer caudal am, Matsum . et Ha y at ... 15 

Acer caadatuiii, Yi\Y. uharundacnse, Render ... o2 

Acer circamlobatuuij Max 42 

Acer circaiuluhalwii, var. Heijhachil, Marino 41 

Acer circaniîohaluiii, var, insulare, Pax 42 

Acer cissifolium, Koch 20 

Acer crataegifolium, S. et Z 13 

Acer crataegifolium, rar. Veitcliii, NrcfioLS 14 

Acer crataegifoliuiii, var. ti/piciiin, Gr. v. Schw 13 

Acer cucidlohraclealinn, Levfal. at W'ST 13 

Acer decoiiipositain, Miq 53 

Acer dedijle, Max 32 

Acer diabolicum. Be 65 

Acer diaholicam, var. purpurascens, C. K. Sciin. 05 

Acer diabolicwn, ssp. argiitain, Wesml 25 

' Acer Dippeli, Gr. v. Schw 58 

Acer dissectum, Tug 53 

Acer distylum, S. et Z 13 

Acer duplicatoserratuin, Hayat 50 



Üö Index Sectionuui, b'pccieruui, et Synouyuioruui. 

Acer Ginnala, Max 30 

Acer Ginnala, var. yezoense, Koidz 31 

Acer Haijatac, .Ly^vl. et y:^T 57 

Acer insulare, Manixo 14 

Acer Itoanum, Hay ata 55 

Acer japonicum, Tlig 39 

Acer japoiiicLim, car. aurcuin, Gii. v. Sciiw 41 

,, ,, i'är. circumlobatum, Koidz 42 

,, ,, car. Heyhachii, Matsüm 41 

,, ,, cdr. Kasadü, Koidz 42 

,, ,, t'cir. Kükonoe, Koidz 43 

,, ,, rar. Matsuyoi, Koidz 43 

,, ,, rar. micro})]iy]liini, Koirz 42 

,, ,, rar. Parsunii, Vkitcii 4] 

,, ,, i'cir. Sayosigure, Koidz 43 

,, ,, y i\v. S ichoklianuin, F II. dt 'ë)AY 35 

,, ., car. typicuin, Gii. v. Sciiw 40 

,, ,, rar. villosum, Koidz 42 

Acer Kawakaiuii, Koidz 15 

Acer laäiuii, \i\y. iHirci/lonuii, 'Regv.l, 02.58 

Acer lasiocarpum, Levl. et Vxt 32 

Acer laurifolntiii, D, Dox 55 

Acer Maximoiüicziaiiuin, ]\Iiq . 5G 

Acer Mau rii, Gr. \. Sciiw 03.58 

Acer Meihots, '^lEJ} 46 

Acer micranthnm, S . et Z 23 

Acer Miyabei, Max 57 

Acer Mono, Max 02. 58 

Acer morrisonense, Hayata 16 

Acer iiikoense, Max 56 

Acer oblongum, Wall 55 

Acer oblong um, var. Itoaiuim, Hayat 55 

Acer Oliveriannn], Pax 33 

Acer Oliverianum, rar. Nakaharae, scar, formosanuni, 

Koidz 33 

,, j, ,, Nakaharae, Hayat 33 



Jutk'X Scctiouum, i^pcciorimi, ct Syuouyuiorum. 69 

Acer Oliveriaiuiiii, vdr. Nakabarao, scar, trilubuni, Koidz.... 34 

Acer ovatifoliun"«, Koidz 16 

Acer palmatuni, Tito 44.43 

Acer palmattmi,/. decomposiluiii^ S. et Z 53 

,, ,, J\ dissecfwji^ ^, at Z. ... 53 

,, ,, J . linear ilohiuu ^ S. et Z 48 

Acer palmatum, siihsp. geiiuinuni, Koidz 44 

a. amabile, Koidz 45 

sulvar. Kagiri, Koidz 46 

b. spectabile, Koidz 44 

suhrar. crispiim, Koidz 45 

,, Hikasayania, Koidz 45 

Acer palmatum, .s?(6s;?. Matsumurae, Koidz 40 

b. horteiisis, Koidz 50 

•srrtr. dissectum, Koidz 53 

scar, lieterolobiim, Koidz 53 

scar. ])ahiiatilobum, Koidz 50 

scar, palmatipartitum, Koidz 50 

scar, sessibfolium, Koidz 54 

a. spontaneum, Koidz 4Ü 

scar, elegaiis, Koidz 50 

scar, formosanum, Koidz 50 

Acer palmatum, suhsp. septenlobum, Koidz 46 

car. latilobatum, Koidz 47 

car. palmatipartitum, Koidz 47 

scar, linearilobum, Koidz 48 

scar. Tanabata, Koidz 48 

car. speciosum, Koidz 47 

Acer paliiial mil, var. dissectain, Koch 53 

Acer palmalwii, var. dissectwii, 1". ruhri/oliuiii, MiQ 53 

Acer pahiiaf Ulli, \'ài\ geniiinuiu^ S. et Z 44 

Acer palinatuiii, var, Unearilohiuii, Miq., S, et Z 48 

,, ,, ,, multifidum, Koch 53 

,, ,, ,, palmatißdiun, ^. et 7j 46 

,, ,, ,, palmatum, Koch. 44 

,, ,, ,, septenlobum, Koch, Miq 46 



70 



Index Soctionum, Spccioruui, et Synonyuioriiui. 



Acer 'palinatwii, «. Tliuithoyi, Pax 

Acer palniafwiij «. Thunhergi, cupalmatuiii, Gr. v, 
Acer paliuatiuiij «. Thimherrji, b. septenlohiim , Gr. 

Acer palm atwu, var. trilobuiii, Koch 

Acer parviflorum, Fr. et Say 

Acer Paxi, yhy. ningpocnse, Pax 

Acer pcllucidohract.eatwu, Levl. et V^'T 

Acer pennsijlcaniciuii, var. capillipes,ViES^iL. 

,, ,, ,, ru/incri'c, Wesml 

,, ,, ,, parvijlorwii, Wes.ail. .. 

Acer pictuiii, Tjig 

Acer i)ictu]ii, var. ((;^/6/^H/y/, Pax 

,, ,, ,, cDigustilohwii, .Makixo 

,, ,, ,, dissectuiii, AVesmael. 

,, ,, ,, (lissectuii), scar, subtriluluin 

,, ,, ,, glaucuin, KoiDz 

,, ,, ,, glaucuni, scar, latiluluiiii, K 

,, ,, ,, eupictuiii, Pax 

,, ,, ,, mono, ^\\x., KoRsn 

,, ,, ,, Paxi, Gr. v. Schw. 

,, ,, ,, typicLiiii, Gr. v. Schw. 

Acer pictuni, a. t3^picum, eupictum, Pax. 

,, ,, ,, ,, Futago^-arna, Koidz 

,, ,, ,, ,, Alayrii, Koidz. 

Mono, Pax 

,, ,, ,, ,, Savatieri, Pax. 

Acer pühjmorphnm, '^. Qt Zi 

Acer purpurascens, Fr. et Sav 

Acer pijcnanthum, C. Koch 

Acer rubescens, H ayat 

Acer rubrum, L 

Acer rufinerve, S . et Z 

Acer rußnerve, ExGL., Matsum. et Ito, Ford, et 
Acer rufinerve, f. albo-]imbatum, Hk. I'il 

,, ,, f. marginatum, Pax 

,, ,, f. marmoratum. Pax 



Sciiw. 
V. Schw 



OIDZ. 



>L\K 



Hemsl, 



44 
44 
46 
29 
11 
20 
24 
21 
19 
11 
58 
58 
03 
63 
64 
(34 
64 
61 
62.58 
63.58 
61 
61 
63 
63 
62 
63 
43 
65 
27 
21 
27 
19 
15 
20 
20 
20 



Tmlex Pocfioniiin, Spoeù^rnm, ot Synonynioruni. 



71 



Acer ruf i nerve, f. normale^ ( Ju. v. St-nw. 

Acrr seiniorhiciihdiiiii, V.w 

Acer scpknloJiniu^ Tin; 

Acer serrulatwii, Hayat 

Acer sessilij'oUum^ S. et Z 

Acer Shirasawanum, Kotdz 

var. tenuifolimn, Koidz 

Acer Sieboldianum, MiQ. 

Acer Sieboldianum, var. micro pliijlhim.^ Max. 

,, tortuosum, Max. 
,, tsusimense, Kotdz. 
,, typicum, Max. 
Acer spicatum, Lam. rar. ukuriinduense, ]\1a 

Acer spicaliiiii^ var. ii.'isiiricnse, Bud 

Acer tftlaricuDi^ var. acuiuivaiwu^ Franch 

,, ,, ,, (liz-neiise^ Fr. et S a v.... 

,, ,, ,, ewiiiinala, Pax 

Acer tdtaricum, var. (jinnala^ jMax 

,, ,, ,, hiciniatwii., Regel. 

Acer tri fi du m, Hook. et. Arn 

Acer trifidum, var. formosanum, Hayat. 

,, ,, var. integrifoliuin, Makiko. 

,, ,, var. uingpoense, Hange.... 

Acer trinerve, Dippel 

Acer truncdiwu, Fr. et Sav 

Acer Ttrchonoski, Max 

Acer Tutclieri, var. Sliimadcie, Hayat. 
Acer iihir undue use, Tr. et INIey. ... 

Accra, Juss 

Aceraceae, DC 

Aceriueae, DC. 

Adiscantha V AX 

Arguta, Rehder ... 

Campestria, Pax. 

Carpinifolia, Koidz 

Cissifolia, Koidz 



10 
27 
40 

oo 

OO 

54 
38 
39 
35 
37 
37 
37 
30 
31 
32 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
29 
30 
30 
29 
29 
58 
24 
34 
32 

9 
9 

2 

4.20 

25 

4 

17 

20 



7Q 
^ Indox Soctionnui, Spocicruui, it Synonymornin. 

Dial)olica, Kotdz 64 

Euaccr, OvvA 2 

Extrastaminalia, Pax 26 

Glabra, Pax I] 

Iiidivisa, Pax 12 

IntegrifoJia, Pax 55 

Intrastaminalia, Pax 11 

Lithocarpa, Pax 3 

Macraiitha, Pax 18 

Negundium, Rafix 2 

Ncgumh, Ludwig ... 2 

Negiindo, Pax 4 

Ncguiido cissifolia, S. ct Z 26 

Negundo nilcociw^ jMiq 26 

Ncgiindo scssilifolia, Miq ~A 

Palniata, Pax 35 

Palnialoidoa, Kotdz 22 

Parvillora, Kotdz. 11 

Perigyna, Pax 26 

Platanoiden, Pax 27 

Rubra, Pax 27 

Ridac, Adaxs 2 

Saccharina, Pax ... 4 

Sapindaccae^ ^Q\\ Acereat\ Bxii^j. 2 

Sapindaccac, subord. Aecrincae, B. et H., Drut)e 2 

Spicata, Pax 28 

Trifoliata, Pax 56 



INDEX. 

Nominum japonicarum. 



Agajinishiki 

Akabanauchiwakaede 

Akegarasu 

Akitsushima 

Akitsuta 

Aniakkokaede 

Amakogi 

Amakngi 

Aoba 

Aokaede 

Aokaede 

Aomomiji 

Aoshidare 

Aouri 

Arahaga 

Arahago 

Arahana 

Asahikaede 

Asaji 

Asanoha 

Asanohakaede 
Ashibosourinoki . . . 

Aj^aigasa 

Chidorinoki 

Chidorinoki 

Chirimenrnomiji . . . 

Chisato 

Chishio 

Chöjanoki 

Fuiri-kourikaede . . . 
Fuiri-urikaede 

Futagoyama 

Hagoromokaede . . . 



45 

40 

53 

51 

48 

26 

26 

26 

52 

19 

58 

19 

54 

14 

32 

17 

32 

64 

52 

50 

25 

21 

38 

13 

17 

54 

47 

44 

56 

14 

20 

63 

55 



Hakusanmomiji ... . 
Hanaizumiiiishiki ... . 

Hanakaede 

Hanakaede ... ... . 

Hanakaede 

Hanakazura 

Hananoki 

Hatsuyukikaede ... . 
Hauclnhakaede ... . 

Hibari 

Hikasayama 

Hina-itayameigetsu. 
Hina-ncbiwakaede.. . . 
Himeogarabana ... . 
Himeuchihakaede ... . 
Hiroha-ashibosourinoki 
Hirobamomiji ... . 
Hitotsubakaede ... . 

Hon-uri 

Hosoekaede 

Hosoeurihada 

Hozakikaede 

Ichigyoin 

lizaku 

Irohamomiji 

Itagi 

Itagikaede 

Itagokaede 

Itaya 

Itayakaede ... 

Jtayameigetsu 

Itomakikaede 

ItoDiaki-shimarnomJji - 



24 
46 
14 
27 
30 
29 
27 
20 
40 
53 
45 
38 
39 
24 
37 
21 
. ... 47 
. ... 13 
. ... 14 
. ... 21 
. ... 21 
. ... 32 
. ... 47 
. ... 19 
. ... 45.44 
. ... 58 
. ... 58 
. ... 13 
. ... 58 
63.62.60.58 
. ... 36 
. ... 63 
33 



74 



Index Nouiiuuui japonicarum. 



Iwanekaede 


58 


MegLiro 


5G 


Iwatobeni 


44 


Megusurinoki 


27 


JOnihitoye 


40 


Meigetsukaede 


40 


Kaede 


44 


Meurinoki 


14 


Kaedenoki 


44 


^linekaede 


24 


Kaerudenoki 


44 


Mitsudemomiji 


26 


Kageorinishiki 


51 


Mitsudekaede 


26 


Ivagiri 


40 


.Mitsudeshimamomiji 


34 


Kajikaede 


05 


Miyamainoiiiiji 


25 


Kakuniino 


'2U 


Mochinesso 


30 


Xanokogi 


:]() 


^[omiji 


44 


Karakogi kaede 


m 


Moinijigasane 


37 


Ivarakaya 


:y> 


Monnisbiki 


51 


Kasado ... ... ... 


42 


Musen 


44 


Kasatoriyama 


38 


Murasanie 


39 


Kibanauch iwakaede 


30 


Murasakitaka 


52 


Kibunemomiji 


58 


Muieliibari 


53 


Kihachijö 


51 


Musasbino 


47 


Kirihakaede 


65 


Nanayeitaya 


30 


Koba-itayameigetsu 


37 


Nisbikigasane 


50 


Kobaonagakaede ... 


10 


Nokibata 


51 


Kochönoki 


50 


Nomurakaede 


47 


Kokonoe 


43 


Ogarabana 


32 


Koniinekaede 


23 


Ogurayama 


40 


Komoninshiki 


45 


Ohbaurinoki 


19 


Kûmorikaede 


19 


Obgarabana 


21 


IvoDJinoki 


19 


Obitayaraeigetsu . . . 


38 


Kourikaede 


14 


Obkaede 


58 


Kurabuyama 


52 


Obkarabana 


21 


Kurobi-itaya 


58 


Ohmeigetsu 


42 


IvQsunohakaede 


50 


Ohminekaede 


19 


Maikujaku 


41 


Ohmitsudekaede . . . 


56 


Marubakaede 


13 


Obmomiji 


47 


Marubatôkaede ... . 


30 


Ohsakazuki 


48 


Matsukaze 


54 


Ohsiusbidare 


54 


jMatsnyoi ... . 


43 


Obtsutamomiji ... . 


58 



Index Xominum japonicarum. 



V5 



Ohurikaede 


10 


Tanabata 


48 


Okushimo 


45 


ïaniasa 


17 


Onngakaede 


IG 


Tetsukaede 


11 


OuimoQiiji 


C5 


Tetsunoki 


11 


Oniitnj'a 


G3 


Tökaede 


.. 29.30 


Oridononisliiki 


46 


Tokiwa 


58 


Sarukaede 


58 


Tokiwakaede 


58 


Sayoshigure 


43 


Tokonatsu 


51 


Seminoki 


56 


Tsubanoki 


17 


Senri 


47 


ïsucliigumo 


46 


Sensunagashi 


53 


Tsukubaue 


48 


Shigitatsu 


50 


Tsutamomiji 


58 


Shigarezome 


52 


Urajiroitaya 


64 


Shimamomiji ... ... 


33 


ürajiroitomakiitaya 


64 


Shimaurikaede 


15 


Uribadakaede 


19 


Sbimenouchi 


48 


Urii 


19 


Shirahashinoki 


14 


Urikaede 


14 


Shirakaede 


14 


Urikko 


19 


Shirakikaede 


58 


Urinoki 


19 


Sbirashide 


17 


Wabibito 


53 


Sbirobanaitayameigetsi 


j.. 37 


Yacbiitaya 


30 


Sbirosbide 


17 


Yagurumakaede . . . 


64 


Sodenoucbi 


37 


Yamaasagara 


32 


Takaomomiji 


47 


Yamakaede 


14 


Tak asagomomij i ... 


50 


Yamamomiji 


49 


ïakasagotôkaede ■ . . 


30 


Yamasbibakaede . . . 


17 


Takasagourikaede . . . 


17 


Yezokarakogi 


31 


Takasagourihada . . . 


22 


Yezomeigetsu 


42 


Takinogawa 


52 


Yugure 


51 


Tainukeyama 


54 


Yorokkokaede 


58 



G. KOIÜZCMl. 

BEVISIO ACERACEARÜM JAPOfilCARUM. 



PLATE I. 



EXPLICATIO TABULAE I. 

Acer inirdflorum^ Fr. et Sav, 

1. Raiiuilus fructifer (mag. nat.). 

2. Flos ^ (aug.). 

3. Stamen (valde aug.). 

4. FJos hermaphroditus (aug.)- 

5. Verticalis ejus sectio (aug.)- 



Jour.Sci.Coll.,Vol.KX){ll.,Art.l.PI. I. 




G.Koidzumi del. 



F. Fujisawa sculp. 



: 



G. KOIDZUniI. 

REÏISIO ACERJCEARUM JAPONICABUM. 



PJL ATE II. 



EXPUCATIO TABULAE II. 



Acer distyhim, S. et Z. 

1. Ramulus fmctifer (mag. nat.). 

2. Flos 'S^(ang.). 

3. Sectio ejus verlicalis (aiig.). 



Jour. Sei. OgIL, Vol. XXX/I.Jrt.J. PI. II. 






G.Knidzuiiii del. 



F. Fujisawa <rulp. 



G. ICOIDZUAII. 

REViSIO ACERACEARUi JAPOBICARUM. 



PLATE m. 



EXPLICATIO TABULAE IM. 

Acer craiacgifoliiuii, S. et Z. 

1. Eamuli fructiferi (mag. nat.). 

2. Flos hermaphroditus, sepalis petalisque decisis (aug.). 

3. Floris ^ Sectio verticalis (aug.). 



Jour.Scl.Coll., Vol. XXXII., Art. I. PI. III. 




G.Koidzumi del. 



F. Fujisawa .souli 



G. KOIUZUMI. 

REÏISIO ÄCERACEARÜM JAPOBICARÜM. ' 



PLATE IV. 



EXPUCATIO TABULAE IV. 

Acer insulare, Makino. 

1. Ramulus fructifer (mag. nat.). 

2. Flos lierraaphroditus (aug.)- 



Jour. Sei. Coll., Vol. XXXII , Art. I. Fl. IV. 




(i- Koidzmiii (1(1. 



F. Fiiii.-.-,(«-,i s,u\\'. 



G. KOlDZUmi. 

REYISIO ACERACEARUM JAPONICARUM. 



PLATE V. 



EXPUCATIO TABULAE V, 

Acer Kaiüakamii, Koidz. 

1. RamiiluR fructifer (mag. nat.). 

2. Flos heriimphroditus (aug.)- 



Jour.Sci. Coli, Vol. XXXII., ArtJ. PI. V. 




•i.KniilzilIui (Ici. 



F. Kuji.s;uv;i .sculp. 



a. Koiuzunii. 

( 



REYISIO ACERACEARIM JAPOBICARUM. 



PLATE VI. 



EXPLICATIO TABULAE VI. 

Acer ovati folium., Koiclz. 

1. Ramulus fructifer (mag. nat.). 

2. Folium (mag. nat.). 
3.-4. Fmctus (mag. nat.). 



Jour. Sei. Coll., Vol. XXX IL , Art. I. PI. VI. \ 




F. Fiijisawa sculp. 



a, KOIDZFMl. 

REYISIO ÄCERACEARUM JAPONICARUM. 



PLATE VIL 



4 






EXPLICATIO TABULAE VII. 

Acer inorrisoneiise, Hayata. 

1. Pars plantae tloriïerae (mag. nat.)- 
2.-3. Flos-J^ (aug.)- 

4. Folium aclultum (mag. nat). 



Jour. Sei. Coll., Vol. XXXII. , Art. I. PI. VII. 




G. Koidzumi del. 



F. Fujisawa sculp. 



C. KOIDZUnil. 

REÏ1SI0 ACERACEARUM JAPONICARDM, 



PLATE VIII. 



EXPUCATIO TABULAE VIII. 



Acer carpmifolnim , S. et Z. 

1. Ramulus fructifer (mag. nat.). 

2.-4. Flos-S^Caug.). 

3. Sectio ejus verticalis (ang.). 

5. Flos hermapliroditus (aug.). 



Jour.Sci. Coll., Vol XXXII., Art. I. PI. Mill. 





ô- 




F. Fujisawa sculp. 



G. KOIDZUMI. 

REVISIO ACERACEARUM JAPOUICARUM. 



PLATE IX 



EXPLICATIO TABULAE IX. 

Acer rußnervc, S. et Z. 

1. Kamulns fructifer (nat. mag.). 

2. Flos hermapliroditus, sepalis petalisque decisis (aug.). 

3. Verticalis ejus sectio (aug.). 

4. Sectio verticalis fl. 'S" (aug.). 

5. Sepal urn (aug.)- 
G. Petaluin (aug.). 



Jour. Sei. Coll., Vol. XXXII, Art. I. PI. IX. 




G.Koidziiiui del. 



F.Fujisawa sculp. 



G. KOIDZUmi. 

REVISIO ACERÄCEARÜM JAPONICÄRUM. 



PLATE X. 



EXPLICATIO TABULAE X. 

Acer capillipcs, Max. 

1. Pars plantae (mag. nat.). 

2. Flos hermaphroditiis (aug.). 

3. Sectio ovarii vcrticalis (aug.). 

4. Flos -S^ (aug.). 



Jour.Scl. Coll., Vol. XXXII, Art.l.Pl.X. 




G.Koidzumi del. 



F. Fujisawa sculp. 



G, KOIDZÜMI. 

REYISIO ACERACEÄRUM JAPOHICARUM. 



PLATE XL 



EXPLICATIO TABULAE XI. 

Acer nihcscens, Ha3^ata. 
Pars planlae fructiferae (mag. nat.). 



Jour.Sci. Coll., Vol. XXXII , Art. l. PI. XI 




G.Koidzumi del. 



F. Fujisawa sculp.. 



G. KOIDZUMI. 

REÏISIO ACERACEAEUM JAPONICARUM. 



PLATE XII. 



EXPLICATIO TABULAE XII. 

Acer micrantliiuu , S. et Z. 

1. Pars plantae fr. (mag. nat.). 

2. Sectio verticalis f1. ^ (aug.). 

3. Stamen (valde aug.)- 

4. Flos hermaphroditus (ang.). 

5. Fructus alis in angulo fere recto divergentibus (leviter 

aug.). 
G. Folium (mag. nat.). 



' 



Jour.Sci. Coll.. Vol. XXXII., Art. I. PI. XII. 




(î.Koidziiini del. 



F. Kuji.s;!»;! sculp. 



G. KOIDZUniI. 

REYISIO ACERACEARUM JAPOICARM, 



PLATE XIII. 



EXPLICATIO TABULAE XIII. 



Acer Tschonoshii, Max. 



1. Pars plantae fr. (mag. nat.). 

2. Sectio verticalis fl. "^ (aug.)- 

3. Stamen (aug.). 

4. Flos bermaphroditus (ang.). 

5. Sectio ovarii verticalis (aug.). 



I 



Jour. Sei. Coll. , Vo I. XXXII. ,Art.l. PI. XIII. 




n.Koidziiiiii del. 



F. Kiijisawa snilp. 



J 



G. KOIDZUMI. 

REÏISIO ACERACEARUH JAPOMICARÜl. 



PLATE XIV. 



EXPLICATIO TABULAE XIY. 

Acer argiitum, Max. 

1. Ramulns fructifer (mag. nat.). 

2. rios^(aug.). 

3.-4. Verticalis ejus sectio (aug.). 

5. Flos ^ (aug.). 

6. Flos $ cum staminibus abortivis (aug.). 

7. Sectio ovarii verticalis (aug. ). 



XIV. 









G.Koiflzumi rlcl. 



F. Fujisawa sculp, i 



f 



^1 

il. 



%• 



G. KOIDZUMï. 

REVISIO ACERÄCEARÜM JAPOSiCARUlI. 



PLATE XV. 



EXPLICATIO TABULAE XV. 

Acer cissifoUum^ S. et Z. 

1. Pars plantae fructiferae (mag. nat.). 

2. Flos ^ (valdc aug.). 

3. Flos '^ (valde aug.). 

4. Fructus mat. (leviter aug.). 



Jour.Scl. Coll., Vol. XXXII.,Art.LPI. XV. \ 




<i.Koi(]ziinii del. 



F. Fujisawa sriilp. 



4.1 



G. KOIDZUmi. 

REYISIO ACERACEÄRUM JAPONICARUM. 



» 



PLATE XVI. 



EXPLICATIO TABULAE XVI. 



Acer ruhniin^ L. 

1. Pars plantae fiuctiferae (mag. nat.). 

2. Folia varia (mag. nat.). 



Jour.Scl. Coll., Vol XXXII. , Art. LPI. XVI 




îi.Koidzumi del 



F. Fujisawa setup. 



G. KOIDZUMI. 

REYISIO ACERACEARUM JAPOMICARUM. 



PLATE XVII. 



EXPUCATIO TABULAE XVII. 

Acer tnfidnm, Hook, et Arn. 

1. Pars plantae (mag. liât.). 

2. Sectio floris "^ verticalis (aug.). 

3. Stamen fl. -^^Cang.). 

4. Flos hermaphrociitus (aug.). 

5. Verticalis ejus sectio (aug.) 

6. Sectio ovarii transversalis (aug). 

7. Fructus (mag. nat.). 

Acer trificliun, var. formosanuni, Hay. 
<S. Folium (mag. nat.). 
9. Fructus (mag. nat.). 



Jour.Sci. Coll., Vol. XXX/l.,Art.LPI. XVII. 




F. Fujisawa srulp. 






il 



G. KOIUZUMI. 

EEVISIO ACERACEARUM JAPONICARUI. 



PLATE XVIII. 



EXPUCATIO TABULAE XVIII. 

Acer Ginnala, Max. 

1. Pars plantae (mag. iiat.)- 

2. Flos "^ (ang.). 

3. Verticalis ejus sectio (aug.). 

4. Flos hermaphroditus (aug.). 

5. Sectio ovarii verticalis (aug.)- 
Acer Ginnahi, var. yezoensc, Koidz. 

6. Fructus (mag. nat.). 



Jour.Sci. Coll., Vol. XXXIL,Art.LPI. XVIII. \ 




G.Koidziiini del. 



v. Fujis<iwa sculp. 



fil 

Hi 



I 



§' 



Mi 



U. iCOIDZUMI. 



REYISIO ACERÄCEARUM JAPONlCARUffl. 



PLATE XIX. 



EXPLICATIO TABULAE XIX. 

Jeer spicatuiii, Lam., var. ul'iirunih(c?ise, Max. 

1. Par? plantae (mag. nat.). 

2. Floy ^ (ang.). 

3. Verticalis ejus ^--ectio (aug.). 

4. Flos liermaphroditus, sepalis petalis staminibusque dicisis 

(aug.). 

5. Sectio ovarii verticalis (aug.). 
G. Fructus (mag. iiat.). 

7. Stamen (aug.). 



Jour. Sei. Coll., Vol. XXXII, Art. I. PI. XIX. 







G.Koidzumi del. 



F. Fujisawa sculp. 



G. KOIDZUMI. 

REVISIO ACERACEARUM JAPONICARÜM, 



PLATE XX 



EXPLICATIO TABULAE XX. 

Acer Oliver iaimm, Pax, var. Nahaharae, Hayata. 

1. Pars plantae fr. (nat. mag.)- 

2. Flos "P (aug.). 

3. Flos hermaphroditus(aug.). 

Svar. forniosanum, Koidz. 

4. Folium (mag. nat.). 

Svar. trilobatum, Koidz. 

5. Folium (mag. nat.). 



Jour.Sci. Coll,, Vol XXXII, Art.!. PI. XX. 




G.Koidzumi del. 



F. Kujisawa seul 



i 

■il i 



H 



G. KOIDZU3II. 

REVISIO ACERACEARUM JAPONICARUM, 



PLATE XXL 



EXPLICATIO TABULAE XXI. 

Acer SiehokUcmmii , j\Iiq. 

1. Eamulus fructifcr (mag. nat.). 

2. Sectio floris "^ verticalis (aug.)- 

3. Stamen (aug.). 

4. Flos hermaphroditus, petalis decisis (aug.)- 

5. Sepalum (aug.). 

6. Petalum (aug.). 

7. Fructus (mag. nat.). 

var. ts2isimcnsc, Koidz. 

8. Folium (mag. nat.). 

subvar. laxiflonim, Koidz. 

9. Folium (mag. nat.). 



Jour.Sci. Coll., Vol. XXX II. Art. 1 PI. XXI. 




•'■ l\<»i{|zuiiii (Id. 



K. Fu|isa«'.i sc\i\\ 



I 



; I 

J I 



G. KOIDZUIflI. 

REYISIO ACERACEARUM JAPOmCARÜM. 



PLATE XXII. 



EXPUCATIO TABULAE XXII. 

Acer Sliirasaicaniuii, Koidz. 

1. Pars phintao fr. (mag. nat.). 

2. Foliis lobiis (mag. nat.). 

3. Flos ^ (aug.). 

4. Stamen (ang.). 

5. Flos hermaphroditus, (aug.) sepalis petalisque decisis. 
G. Fructus (mag. nat.). 



Jour. Sei. Go//. . Vo/. XXX //, Art. I. Pi. XX ii. 








('"•Koi(|/-.iiiiii (1(1. 



hi|is;i\\;i sciilii 



Il 

1 I 






m 



G. KOIDZUMÏ. 

EEÏISIO ACERACEARUM JAPOBICARUM. 



PLATE XXIII. 



EXPUCATIO TABULAE XXIII. 

Acer Shirasawanum, Koidz. var. tcmdfoUum, Koidz. 
1. Ramulus fructifer (mag. nat.). 



Jour.Scl. Coll.. Vol XXXII, Art. I. PI. XXIII. 




G.Koid'/.imii ilcl 



F.'Fujisawa sciUp. 



f' 



■F 

I 



G. KOIDZUmi. 

REVISIO ACERÄCEÄRUM JÄP0N1CJRUM, 



PLATE XXIV. 



EXPLICATIO TABULAE XXIV. 

Àccrj ajionicun}, Tluiii]). 

1. Pars plantae fr. (mag. iiat.). 

2. Sectio vertiealis floris -^ (aiig.)- 

3. Flos hermaphroditus (aiig.). 

4. Sectio vertiealis ovarii (aug.). 

5. Embryon (aug.). 



Jour.Scl.Coll.,Vol.XXXII.,Art.l.PI.XXIV. 




1'. I' iijixawa sculp. 



G. liOIDZUMl. 

REViSlO ACERACEARUM JAPONiCARUM. 



PLATE XXV. 



EXPUCATIO TABULAE XXV. 

Acer japonicuni, Thanb. 
var. typicum, Gr. v. Schw. 
1.-2.-3. Fructus varii (mag. nat.)- 

var. circnmlohaiwn ^ (Max). Koidz. 

4. Folium (mag. nat.). 

5. Fructus (mag. uat.). 

var. viicroph tjllwu ^ Koidz. 

6. Folium (mag. nat.). 

var. Hcyhachii, ^latsum. 

7. Folium (mag. nat.). 



Jour. Sei. Coll., Vol XXX II, Art. I. PI. XX V. 




G. Kojdzüiiii fifl. 



F. Fujisawa xcu 



"Ip^ J 



^^1 






G. ItOIDZUflll. 

REVISIO ÄCERACEARUM JäPOlCARUM. 



PLATE XXVI. 



EXPUCATIO TABULAE XXVÏ. 

Acer palmaüuu^ Tliuiib. 

subsp. (jcnuinwn, (S. et Z.) Koidz. 

var. (iniahile, Koidz. 

1. Pars plantae (mag. iiat.)- 

2. Sectio vcrticalis floris ^ (aug.)- 

3. Flos Hermaphrodit us (aug.)- 

4. Fructus (mag. uat.)- 

5. Verticalis ejus sectio (aug.)- 

6. Embryon (aug.). 

Acer palmatwu, Tliunb. 
subsp. scptenlohum, (Thg) Koidz. 
var. latilohatiim , Koidz. 

7. Folium (mag. nat.). 

8. Fructus (mag. uat.). 



Jour.Scl. Coll., Vol. XXXII., Art. J. PI. XX VI. 




f 1. Koidzuiiii del. 



r .I'm i'i sawn scul|>. 



G. KOIDZUfllI. 

REÏISIO ACERACEARÜM JAPOSlCAfiUM. 



PLATE XXVII. 



EXPLICATIO TABULAE XXVII. 



Acer palmatwn, Thunb. 
subsp. scptcnlohum ^ (Thunb.) Koidz. 

1. Pars plantae fructiferae (mag. nat.). 
2.-3.-4.-5. Fructus varii (mag. nat.). 



■Jnur.Soi. Coll., Vol. XXXII., Art. I. PI. XXVII. 







G.Koidzunii del 



1'". I''iliis;i\v;i .siiil|i. 



fi 

Si 



41 



I ) 



l\ 



u 






G. KOIUZUMI. 

REVISIO ACERACEÄRUM JAPONICARÜM, 



PLATE XXVIII. 



EXPLICATIO TABULAE XXVIII. 

Acer palmatum, Thunb. 
subsp. Matsumurae, Koidz. 

1. Eamulus fructifer (mag. nat.). 

a. spontaneum , subvar. elegans, Koidz. 

2. Fractus (mag. nat.). 

Acer palmatum, Thg. 
subsp. genuinum, var. spectabile. Koidz. 

3. Folium (mag. nat.). 



Jour.Sci. Coll.. Vol. XXKII., Art. I. Pi. XX Vll/. 




fîKoidziiriii del. 



I-'. I'ujisiiwci srulp. 






l 



1 



G. KOIDZII31I. 

REÏISIO ACERACEARUffl JAPONICARUM. 



PLATE XXIX. 



EXPLICATIO TABULAE XXIX. 

Acer ohlonguvi, Wall. 

1. Pars plantae fr. (mag. nat.). 

2. Flos ^ (aug.). 

3. Fructus yarii (mag. nat.). 

4. Folia varia (mag. iiat). 



Jour. Sei. Coll., Vol XXX IL , Art. I. PI. XXIX 




G.Koidzumi del. 



F. Fujisawa sculp. 



Il 



1. 



G. KOIDZUMI. 

KEVISIO ACERACEÄRUM JAPOHICARÜM, 



PLATE XXX. 



EXPLICATIO TABULAE XXX. 

Acer iiilcoense, ^Tax. 



1. Pars plantae fr. (mag. nat.). 

2. Flos ^ (aug.). 

3. Flos ^ (aug.). 



Jour.Scl. Coll., Vol. XXXII., Art. I. PI. XXX. 




''• Ivnidziiini del. 



V. I''iiji.s;nv;i kciiI|i, 



i 



I 



G. KOIDZUniI. 

EEVISIO ACERACEARUffl JAP0N1CÄRÜM. 



PLATE XXXI. 



EXPUCATIO TABULAE XXXI. 

Acer Miijahei, Max. 

1. Pars plantae fr. (mag. nat.). 

2. Sectio vertical is fl. "^ (aiig.)- 



Jour.Sci. Coll., Vol. XXXII., Art. I PI. XXXI. 




( i. Koiil/.unii ticl. 



F. Fujisana sriilp. 



I 



'-1 

5 



G. Koiuzcrnii. 

REVISIO ACERACEÄRIM JAPOBICARUM. 



PLATE XXXII. 



EXPLICATIO TABULAE XXXII. 

Acer inctwu, Thunb. 

a. ti/picwii, Gr. V. Schw. 
subvar. eiipictiun, Pax. 

1. Pars plaiitae fructiferae (mag. nat.). 

2. Fructns (mag. nat.). 

3. Sectio vcrticalis floris "^ (aug. ). 

4. Flos hermaphroditus, petalis sepalisque decisis (aug.). 

5. Verticalis ovarii scctio (aug.). 

sub\'ar. mono, Pax. 
G. Fructus (mag. nat.). 

subvar. Savaticri, Pax. 
7. Fructus (mag. nat.). 

subvar. Mafjrii\ Koidz. 
8.-9. Fructus (mag. nat.). 

var. fjJancum, Koidz. 
10. Fructus (mag. nat.). 



Jour.Scl. Coll., Vol. XXXIL, Art.l.PI. XXXII. 




(i.Koitlzuini del. 



!•'. Kujisiiwa sculp 



G. KOinZUMI. 

EEVISIO ACERACEARÜM JAPONICARUM, 



PLATE XXXIII. 



EXPUCATIO TABULAE XXXIII. 

Acer diaholictnn, Bl. 



1. Pars plantae fr. (mag. nat.). 

2. Flos ^ (ang.). 

3. Flos ^ (ang.). 

4. Verticalis ejus sectio (aug.). 



Jour.Sci. Coll., Vol. XXXII., Art. 1. PI. XXXIII. 




G.Koidzumi del. 



F. Fujisawa sculp. 



4 



4 



RXAL OF THE COLLEGE OF SCIENCE, IMPERIAL UNIVERSITY, TOICYO, JAPAN. 

VOL. XXXII., ARTICLE 2. 



Beobachtungen an einer SüsswasserPeridinee. 

Yon 

N. OhnO, Rujakuhakuahi. 

Professor der Botanik an der Landwirtschaftlichen Fakultät 
der Tnhoku Kaiserlichen Universität, Sapporo. 



Mit 1 Tafeln. 



Im Jahre 1901 und in den darauf folgenden zwei Jahreji 
wurde eine massenhafte Entwickelung einer Peridineenart in 
einem kürzhcli angelegten kleinen Teiche in dem Botanischen 
Garten der Universität zu Tokyo beobachtet, einem Teiche, der 
für die Bepflanzuug monokotjledoner Wassergewächse bestimmt 
war. Die Entwickelung der l)etreffenden Organismen schien mit 
dem Wandel der Jahreszeiten eng verknüpft zu sein. Die üppig- 
sten Schwärme beobachtete man nämlich im kältesten Moiiat des 
Jahres d. i. im Februar; schon Mitte März trat eine l)eträchtliche 
Verminderung der Individuenzahl ein, und je weiter die Jahres- 
zeit vorschritt, desto geringer wurde die Entwickelung, um all- 
mählich ganz zu verschwinden. Diese periodische Erscheinung 
kehrte in den erwähnten drei Jahren mit einer ziemlichen Regel- 
mässigkeit wieder. Die absolute Menge der Individuen war aber in 
jedem Jahre eine verschiedene. Im Frühjahr 1901, war die Pro- 
duktion eine ganz ausserordentlich grosse, so dass sogar das Wasser 
cies Grabens auf eine ziemlich grosse Strecke rostfarbig wurde.' 
Die phototaktischen Eigenschaften der Organismen, von denen 
weiter unten die Rede sein wird, bedingten den Ort der Ansamm- 
lung. In den nächsten zwei Jahren nahm die Menge aus unbe- 
kannten Gründen beträchtlich ab. 

1. Das massenhafte Vorkommen der Meeresperidineen ruft bekanntlich oft die Eotfür- 
Ijung des Meeres hervor. Dass auch die Peridineen im süssen Wasser zviweilen reichlich genug 
auftreten, um eine deuthcbe Färbung des Wassers zu erzeugen, -wurde mehrfach beobachtet. 
Vgl. hieriibei Butschli, Protozoa in Bronns Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs. S. 1025. 



78 Art. 2.-X. Ohno : 

Die ^•o^liegencle Abhandlung bezweckt, die Eigenschaften 
dieser Organismen eingehend zu betrachten, soweit die angestell- 
ten Beobaclitungen reichen. Bevor ich die systematische Stel- 
lung dieser Organismen näher betrachte, möchte ich eine kurze 
Beschreibung derselben vorauschicken. Aus dem durch das dichte 
Anschwärmen der Peridinee rotbraun gefärbten Grabenwasser 
wurde ein Quantum mit einer Krystallisierschale herausgeschöpft 
und dieses wurde im Laboratorium mit Leitungswasser massig 
verdünnt. Unter diesen Bedingungen dem diffusem Lichte aus- 
gesetzt, gediehen die Organismen gut und die Kulturen waren 
tagelang lebensfähig. Die einzelnen Individuen konnte man 
schon mit blossem Auge als sich bewegende gelbbraune Pünktchen 
in der Kulturflüssigkeit wahrnehmen, besonders dann, wenn das 
Kulturgefäss gegen das Licht gehalten, oder auf weisses Papier 
gebracht wurde. Wenn man einen Tropfen der Kultur auf den 
Objektträger brachte und unter dem Mikroskop beobachtete, so 
bemerkte man eine Anzahl lebhaft herumschwimmender kleiner 
gelblich brauner Organismen. Das Lidividuum ist etwa von halb- 
kugeliger Gestalt. Die Bewegung ist eine vorwärtsgehende com- 
biniert mit einer rotierenden. Die Rotationsrichtung wechselt 
von Zeit zu Zeit, sie geht nämlich bald von links nach rechts, 
bald aber von rechts nach links. Zuerst ist die Bewegung sehr 
lebhaft, und es gelingt äusserst schwer, die Gestalt und die anderen 
Beschaffenheiten der Organismen näher zu ermitteln. Nach eini- 
gen Minuten jedoch wird die Bewegung immer schwächer und 
schwächer und es tritt ein Desorganisationsvorgang ein. Hierl^ei 
ist es beachtenswert, dass Individuen aus ganz frischen Kulturen 
d. h. solchen, die kurz nach dem Einbringen ins Zimmer dem 
Gefäss entnommen waren, stets etwas früher eine Sistierung der 
Bewegung und eine darauffolgende Desorganisation erlitteji, als 
diejenigen, die längere Zeit in Zimmer aufbewahrt wurden. Diese 
Tatsache findet aller Wahrscheinlichkeit nach darin ihre Erklärung, 
dass die letzteren sich den gegebenen Bedingungen in höherem 
Grade angepasst haben. Die früher oder später eintretende Des- 
organisation der Organismen geht zunächst in der Weise vor sich. 



Beobachtungou an einer Süsswasser-Peridinee. 



79 



dass ihre Bewegung allmählicli aufhört, dann beginnt der Vorgang 
des Lostrennens, oder anderweitige nekrobiotische Erscheinungen 
treten auf. Von den beiden Arten der Geissehi — der Quer- und 
Längsgeissel, von welchen später ausführhcher gesprochen werden 
soll — ist die Quergeissel empfindhcher gegen schädhche Einflüsse 
und wird bald von ihrer Ausgangsstelle abgeworfen und mit einer 
sehr eigentümlichen Vorwärtsbewegung von dem Körper abge- 
stossen. Die auf diese Weise losgetrennten toten Geissein finden 
sich, hie und da als lange geschlängelte Fäden. Die Längsgeissel 
hingegen beginnt ihre Desorganisation erst später, und wird nicht 
abgestossen. 

Dimcnsionsvcrhdîtnissc— Die Grösse der schwärmenden In- 
dividuen variirt zwischen engeren Grenzen. Im folgenden wer- 
den Messungen die für 25 Individuen ausgeführt wurden, zusam- 
mengestellt, um diese Verhältnisse einigermassen anschaulich zu 
machen. Diese Messungen wurden in der Weise ausgeführt, dass 
die Bilder der zu messenden Individuen mittelst Abbeschem Zei- 
chenajDparat auf Papier genau entworfen wurden, bei einer Ver- 
grösserung von 460 Diametern; und die Zeichnungen wanxlen 
mittelst Maasstab der Länge und Breite nach gemessen. 



L 


cinge 


Breite 


1 


21-7 [). 


15-2 [A 


2 


23-9 „ 


185 „ 


3 


20-6 „ ■ 


17-4 „ 


4 


250 „ 


210 „ 


5 


21-7 „ 


15 2 „ 


6 


22-6 „ 


18-5 „ 


7 


20-6 „ 


15-2 „ 


8 


25'0 „ 


20-6 „ 


9 


22-6 „ 


15-2 „ 


10 


20-6 „ 


17-4 „ 


11 


22-6 „ 


20-6 „ 


12 


23-9 „ 


15-2 „ 


13 


22-6 „ 


16-3 „ 



80 



Art. 2.-N. OLno: 



L 


inge 


Breite 


14 


21-7 |J. 


17-4 [1. 


15 


206 „ 


152 ,. 


IG 


250 „ 


13-5 „ 


17 


21-7 „ 


152 „ 


IS 


20G „ 


12 „ 


19 


20-G „ 


15-2 „ 


20 


225 „ 


17-4 „ 


21 


20-6 „ 


15-2 ,. 


22 


23.9 „ 


18-5 „ 


23 


23 9 „ 


135 „ 


24 


206 „ 


15-2 „ 


25 


217 „ 


17-4 „ 


Durchschnitt 


22-2 (X 


169 iJ. 



So Ijesitzt unser Organismus im Mittel eine Länge von 22.2 /^ 
und eine Breite von IG '9 /-«. 

Begcissciungsvcrhältnissc. — Bekanntlich sind die Peridineen 
mit zweierlei Arten von Geissein versehen. Die eine Art, welche 
sich in der Querfurche herumbewegt, ist die Quergeissel und die 
andere Art, welche nacli rückwärts gerichtet ist, stellt die sog. 
Längsgeissel dar. Die Quergeissel wurde lange als ein an der 
Querfurche angesetzter Cilienkranz aufgefasst. Erst in neuerer 
Zeit, machte Klebs^ eine wiclitige Entdeckung, dass es keinen 
Cilienkranz in der Querfurche gibt, sondern eine eigentümliciie 
Geissei, welche mit einem Ende hm Körper haftet und in der 
Querfurche in wellenförmiger Bewegung sich befindet. Dies bildet 
zweifellos eine Errungenschaft für unsere Kenntniëse der Organisa- 
tionsverhältnisse der Peridineen. Diese ursprünglich nur an Süss- 
wasserformen gemachte Beobachtung konnte Klebs später auch 



1. G. Klees, Über die Organisation einiger Flagellatengruppen und ihre Beziehungen 
zu Algen u. Infusorieagruppen, Unters, aus dem botan. Institut zu Tübingen, Bi. I. S. 233-262, 
1S33. 



Beobachtungen an einer Süsswasser-Peridinee. 81 

für marine bestätigen'. Bütschli konnte diesen Befund ebenfalls 
bestätigen", so dass er den Namen Dinoflagellata anstatt Ciliofla- 
gellata vorschlug. Die Längsgeissel nun wurde schon 1833 und 
1834 von Ehrenberg bei einem Teil der marinen sowie der Siiss- 
wasserformen entdeckt"; und dass sie in Einzahl vorhanden ist, 
gilt als eines der Organisationsmerkmale dieser Organismengruppe. 
Während ich die Bewegungsweise der im Rede stehenden Orga- 
nismen mit grossem Interesse beobachtete, schien es mir als ob 
die nach hinten meist in gerader Richtung befindliche Geissei 
aus einem Paar gleichlanger und gleichbeschaffner Geissein be- 
stände, die aus der Kreuzungsstelle der Quer- und Längsfurche 
hervorspringend etwa 1^ mal grösser waren als die eigentliche 
Körperlänge des Organismus. Wiederholte Beobachtungen zeig- 
ten stets dieselbe Tatsache. Anfangs erwachte in mir das Beden- 
ken, ob es sich hier nicht um eine optische Täuschung handelte, 
wie in dem Falle, wo ein rasch hin und her schwingender Stab 
wie zwei Stäbe aussieht. Dieses Bedenken zu beseitigen wurden 
Fixierungs- und Färbungsmethoden zu Hilfe gezogen. Der Trop- 
fen in dem die Organismen sich in aktiver Bewegung befanden, 
Avurde nämlich auf einem Deckglas ausgebreitet und schnell Os- 
miumdämpfen ausgesetzt und darauf ausgetrocknet, mit Fuchsin 
gefärbt und dann in Kanadabalsam eingeschlossen. In wohlge- 
lungen Fällen, konnte man stets zwei unabhängig von einander 
stehenden Längsgeisseln nachweisen. Da auf diese Weise die 
Tatsache, dass die Längsgeisseln bei meinem Objecte in Zweizahl 
vorhanden sind, endgiltig festgestellt wurde, so wurde es nun 
meine Aufgabe, nachzusehen, ob ein ähnlicher Fall in der Littera- 
tur zu finden sei. Es ergab sich alsbald, dass einige Angaben 
hierüber vorliegen. So schreibt BiJTSCHLi*, ,,Von verschiedenen 
Beobachtern wurde berichtet, dass sowohl bei Cemtiam tetraceros 

1. G. Klebs, Ein kleiner Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Peridineen. Bot. Ztg. Jahrg. 43, 1834 
S. 721-33 u. 737-45. 

2. 0. BiJTSCHLi, Einige Bemerkungen ü. gewisse Organisationsverhältnisso der Ciliofla- 
gellaten u. der Noctiluca. Morpholog. Jahrb. Bd. X. 1885, S. 529-77. 

3. Ehrenberg, Abhatjdl. d. Berliner Akad. 1833 u. 1834. 

4. O. BüTscHLi, Protozoa in Bronns Xlassen u. Ordnungen des Thierreichs. S. 958. 



82 Art. 2.-X. Ohuo: 

(comiium) wie bei Ceratium Tripos zuweilen zwei Längsgeisseln statt 
der einfachen zu finden seien. Für die erstgenannte Form be- 
merkten dies sclion Clapareds und Lachmanx, welche sicli auf 
das Zeugniss von Lieberkühn beriefen. Auf den prächtigen 
Originalabbildungen des letzteren Forschers, die mir durch seine 
Güte zugänglich waren, ist die zweite Geissei denn auch deutlich 
wiedergegeben. Für Ceratium Tripos machte zuerst Iîergh auf 
eine gelegentliche Verdoppelung der Längsgeissel aufmerksam. 
Man könnte nun diese Beobachtungen, Avelche aus einer Zeit 
stammen, wo die Geissei der Querfurche noch unbekannt war, 
wohl mit Klees für zweifelhaft halten, da die zweite Geissei event- 
uell die Quergeissel gewesen sein könnte, welche speciell bei den 
Ceratien zuweilen aus der Querfurche hervorzutreten scheint. 
Da nun aber BÜtsciili^ bei Ccr. Tripos gelegentlich neben der Quer- 
geissel zwei deutliche Längsgeisseln aufïand, so scheint die An- 
gabe der früheren Beol)achter doch gerechtfertigt." Bütschli ist 
also der Ansicht dass die besprochene Erschein ug nur ausnahms- 
weise bei einigen Individuen der Art vorkommt, also etwa als 
Abnormität aufzufassen ist. In einer Arbeit über einige Süsswas- 
serperidineen macht Folgner^ auf eine ähnliche Tatsache aufmerk- 
sam und gil:)t Näheres darüber an. Die Art womit er sich l)e- 
schäftigte, war Ceratium Tetraceros Schrank (C. cornuum Claparede 
ET Lachmann) also eine der oben genannten Arten. Er sagt wört- 
lich: ,,Ehe ich die Besprechung des Ceratium tetraceros schliesse, 
will ich doch nicht unterlassen, noch einer Eigenthümlichkeit 
Erwähnung zu tun, die bei dieser Peridinee zwar schon hin und 
wieder beobachtet wurde, niemals aber bisher meines Wissens als 
eine bei ihr anscheinend allgemein auftretende Erscheinung be- 
kannt geworden ist, nämlich des gleichzeitigen Auftretens von 
zwei Längsgeisseln. Bekanntlich haben schon Claparede und 



1. O. Bütschli, Einige Bemerkungen über gewisse Organisationsverhältnisse d. Ciliofla- 
gellaten u. der Noctiluca. Morpholog. Jahrbuch. Bd. X. ]8S5. S. 529-77. 

2. V. FoLGNER, Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Entwicklungsgeschichte einiger Süsswasser- 
Peridineen. Arbeiten des botanischen Institutes d. k. k. deutächen Universität in Prag. Nr. 
XLII. Oestsrreichische bot. Zeitschrift. Bä. XLIX 1S09. 



Boobauhtungen an einer Süsswasser-Pcridinee. 



83 



Lachmann, welche sich auf die Angaben Liebekkühn's stützen, 
und nach ihnen Bütschli' (Die Angaben von ClaparÈde und 
Lachmann im Original habe ich nicht gesehen. Bergh und später 
BuTscHLi beobachteten auch bei Ceratium tripos das ,, gelegent- 
liche" Vorkommen von zwei Längsgeisseln.) auf dasselbe auf- 
merksam gemacht, es jedoch lediglich als eine gelegentlich vor- 
kommende Abnormität betrachtet."' Meines Erachtens, sind 
mit diesen bisher erschienenen Angaben die Beobachtungen über 
die Doppellängsgeisseln erschöpft. So wäre es gewiss von eini- 
gem Interesse ein neues Beispiel und zwar bei anderen Form an- 
zuführen; und da in vorliegenden Falle, die sämtlichen Indivi- 
duen mit z\Yei gleichlangen Längsgeisseln versehen sind, so ist dies 
keineswegs als Abnormität anzusehen. Man kann wohl mit Sicher- 
heit sagen, dass in gewissen Süsswasserformen von Peridineen die 
Längsgeissel in der Zweizahl vorhanden ist. Es wäre wünschens- 
wert in dieser Beziehung auch eine Reihe von Meeresformen der 
Prüfung zu unterwefen. Die xMöghchkeit ist wohl nicht ausge- 
schlossen, dass die Erscheinung eine zeimlich verbreitete unter den 
Peridineen sei. Da die Zahl und Ausbildung der Geissein wich- 
tige Organisationsmerkmale bei derartigen Organismen bilden, so 
ist die Nachprüfung umsomehr von Bedeutung. 

Bevor ich die Beschreibung der Begeisselungsverhältnisse 
unserer Peridinee vollende, möchte iclr noch etwas über die ab- 
normalen Verhältnisse der Geissein angeben. Folgner-' macht auf 
ein eigentümliches Gebilde auf der Geissei aufmerksam, welches 
er bei Ccmtiwn tetraceros beobachtet hat. Nach ihm zeigte das In- 
dividuum eine Eigentümlichkeit, welche der Autor ,, bisher noch 
bei keiner anderen Peridinee in irgend welchem Lebensstadium 
gesehen und auch in der Litteratur nirgends erwähnt gefunden 
habe, nämlich am Ende der Längsgeisseln Anhangsgebilde resp. 
Anschwellungen in Form von ziemlich grossen Kugeln. Ob sie 
massive Kugeln oder aber Blasen, also Hohlkugeln darstellen, 



1. Siehe oben. 

2. FOLGNEE 1. c. S. 140-141. 

3. FoLQNEE, Ebenda. 



84 Art. 2.-X. Ohno: 

gelang mir nicht zu entscheiden ; die Gestalt kreisförmiger Schei- 
ben schienen sie jedoch nicht zu besitzen. '' Er beschreibt dieses 
Gebilde sehr ausführlich. Er ist aber geneigt dasselbe mehr als 
Missbildung aufzufassen, da er die Entstehung desselben nicht 
beobachten konnte, das Gebilde eben stets schon vorhanden war 
beim Sichtbarwerden der Geissein, und da er auch während der 
Beobachtung für längere Zeit keine bemerkbare Veränderung an 
ihm bemerkte. Er lässt jedoch, indem er ähnliche Gebilde bei 
Flagellaten und anderen Organismen in Betracht zieht, die Mög- 
lichkeit bestehen dass dies als eine Desorganisationserscheinung 
aufzufassen sei. 

Gelegentlich meiner Beobaclitung habe auch ich ein Gebilde 
das in jeder Beziehung mit dem eben beschriebenen überein- 
stimmt, hin und wieder gesehen. Allein diese Gebilde waren 
meist erst dann sichtbar als das Mattwerden des Individuums schon 
ziemlich weit fortgeschritten war. Man kann die Gebilde von den 
ersten Anfängen bis zum Grosswerden verfolgen, und es besteht 
kein Zweifel, dass man es hier mit Desorganistationsvorgängen zu 
tun hat. Fig 17 zeigt ein solche Gebilde auf den Enden des beiden 
Längsgeisseln. Auf den Quergeissein trifft man nie solche Ge- 
bilde; und die Verschiedenheit in der Beschaffenheit der beiden 
Arten von Geissein kommt hierin auch zum Ausdruck. 

lieber die Desorganisation der Geissein in allgemeinen 
machte Bütschli interessante Beobachtungen. Er schildert die 
Verhältnisse wie folgt: ,,Die Glenodinien stellen zunächst allmäh- 
lich ihre Bewegungen ein und liegen ruhig da, wobei von der 
hinteren Geissein nichts mehr zu sehen ist. Dann bemerkt man 
plötzlich, wie sich in der Gegend der Querfurche eine Geissei zu 
einem dichten Korkzieherartigen Gewinde aufrollt. Ganz kurz 
darauf löst sich diese zu einem kleinen Packet aufgerollte Geissei 
mit einem Ruck von dem Körper ab und bewegt sich ein Stück 
weit fort. Dieses kleine Geisselpacket kann nun zunächst einige 
Sekunden ruhig liegen bleiben und dann plötzlich in heftig um- 
herflatternde Bewegung übergehen, oder es schwimmt gleich nach 
der Abstossung in dieser Weise weiter. Diese Bewegung der 



Beobachtungen can einer Süsswasser-Peridinee. 85 

abgelösten Geissei dauert etwa eine Minute oder wenig länger 
lebhaft fort. Dabei bleibt die Geisse! stets eng aufgerollt. End- 
lich gelangt sie zur Ruhe, indem sie ohne Zweifel völlig abstirbt."^ 
Diese Beobachtung weicht von meiner insoweit ab, als bei un- 
serer Peridinee die beiden Längsgeisseln bis zuletzt sichtbar 
bleiben — also lange nach dem Wegwerfen des Quergeissels noch 
dem Körper anhaften — bis die oben erwähnte Desorganisations- 
erscheinung auftritt. 

Cystcnbildung.— Zwischen schwärmenden Individuen und 
am Boden befindlichen Schlamm treten uns eine Anzahl encys- 
tierte Individuen entgegen. Diese stellen den Dauerzustand un- 
serer Peridinee dar. Die einzelnen Cysten erscheinen, wie Fig. 
18-21 und 23-26 zeigen als rundliche Körper mit unregelmässig 
gewellter Oberfläche. Nicht selten findet man mit Stacheln ver- 
sehenen Formen. Die Cystenmembran ist ziemlich dick. Dass 
der Stoff der Membran hauptsächlich aus Cellulose besteht, lässt 
sich zeigen, indem man die Membran mit Chlorzinkjod behandelt, 
wobei sie rötlich violett tingiert wird. Der Inhalt der Cysten 
besteht aus gelblich brauner körniger Masse mit grösseren oder 
kleineren rötlich braunen Oeltropfen. Ausserdem ist im Innern 
der Cysten Stärke in reichlicher Menge aufgespeichert, wie es mit 
Jod leicht nachzuweisen ist, und in diesem Falle scheint deren 
Verteilung eine gleichmässige zu sein. Ueberdies werden die 
vorderen und hinteren Leibesenden im encystierten Zustande 
unerkennbar. Man begegnet zuweilen den in Bildung begriffen- 
en Cysten, die noch mit Geissein versehen sind und sich noch 
bewegen, wenn auch ihre Bewegungsenergie wesentlich lierab- 
gesetzt ist. 

Künstliche Veranlassung zur Cystcnbildung. — Es Avird von 
einigem Interesse sein, hier einige Versuche zu besprechen über 
die Tatsache, dass man durch Veränderungen der Lebensbedin- 
gungen die schwimmenden Individuen zur Cystcnbildung veran- 

1. O. BÜTSCHLT, Morphologisclic Jahrbücher 1885, Bei. X. S. 535. 



86 Art. 2— N. Ohno: 

lassen kann. In der Krystallisierschale kann man sie wochen- 
lang halten, ohne class sie dabei zur Ruhe gehen. Aber durch 
folgendes Verfahren kann man sie unfehlber zur Ruhe bringen. 
Einige Tropfen Wasser, in dem die schwimmenden Individuen 
enthalten sind, waren auf der in Petrischer Schale vorher erstarr- 
ten Agarplatte ausgebreitet (Die Gallerte bestand aus 0.2% Knop- 
scher Nährlösung und 1% Agar). Die Individuen schwimmen 
vor ihrer Encystierung auf den dünnen Wasserschichten über der 
Gallerte. Die Schale wurde dann mit dem Deckel bedeckt und 
in feuchter Kammer belassen. Das Verhalten der schwimmen- 
den Individuen auf der Gallerte wurde von Zeit zu Zeit unter 
schwächerer Vergrössezung beobachtet. Die Bewegung hört bei 
dieser Behandlung sehr frühzeitig auf, (d. h. nach einigen Stun- 
den). Schon nach etwa einer Woche gingen fast alle Individuen 
zur Encystierung über. Diejenigen Individuen, welche diese 
nicht zeigten, waren desorganisierte. Die hierbei beobachteten 
Cysten sind in Fig. 27 bis 33 abgebildet. Solche Cysten weichen 
etwas von den natürlichen ab, und sind mehr oder minder un- 
regelmässig gestaltet. Die Stacheln welche unter natürlichen 
Bedingungen entwickelt werden, wurden hierbei nicht 
ausgebildet, wenn auch nicht selten Anfänge dazu sich zeigten. 
Die Oberfläche der Cysten war meist mit unregelmässigen Undu- 
lationen versehen. Was nun die dicke der Cystenmembran selbst 
anbetrifft, so sieht sie bei den auf Agar gebildeten der normalen 
keineswegs nach. Der jMembranstoff wurde hier auch als 
Cellulose konstatiert (nach mehrtägiger Behandlung mit Javelle' - 
scher Lauge und darauf folgender Behandlung mit Chlorzinkjod). 
Der Inhalt der Zellen war, der Hauptsache nach, derselbe wie 
derjenige normal gebildeter Cysten, d. h. rote Oeltropfen, 
reichliche Stärke). 

Anderweitige Beobachtungen. — Dass die meisten Peridineen 
ähnlich wie die gefärbten Flagellaten und die Schwärmsporen der 
Algen phototaktisch reagieren ist bekannt, aber eingehendere 
Untersuchungen die besonders mit dieser Organismengruppe an- 



Beobachtungen an einer Süsswass-r-Peridinee. 87 

gestellt wurden, liegen meines Wissens nicht vor.' Bei meinen 
Versuchen mit unserer Peridinee, konnte ich vielfach die hervor- 
ragend phototaktische Eigenschaft derselben beobachten. Wenn 
man das Wasser mit schwimmenden Individuen in eine Krystal- 
lisierschale von etwa 10 cm Durchmesser bringt und in f m Entfer- 
nung von einem hellen Fenster aufstellt, so sieht man schon nach 
1 J Minuten, wie sich die schwimmenden Individuen auf dem dem 
Lichte zugewandten Halbkreis der Schale mehr ansammeln, um 
nach 3-6 Minuten sich vor allem auf der durch das reflektierte Licht 
schärfer erhellten Partie der Schale zu konzentrieren. Hierbei 
bildeten sie auch noch, von oben nach unten reichend, vertikale 
Ansammlungsstreifen. Einen hübschen Versuch konnte man 
fernerhin in der W^eise anstellen, dass man einen weissen Porzel- 
lanteller nahm, denselben mit Wasser füllte, das durch die hohe 
darin enthaltene Individuenanzahl scheinbar braun gefärbt war, 
und nun im Dunkelzimmer mittelst eines Prismas Sonnenspekt- 
rum darauf fallen liess. Man konnte schon nach 3-4 Minuten 
eine beträchliche Ansammlung der Organismen unter dem farbi- 
gem Lichte beobachten und nach Entfernung des Prismas behiel- 
ten die angesammelten Organismen noch für einige Zeit deutlich 
das Bild des Spektrums. Die stärkste Ansammlung zeigte sich 
dabei in den kurzwelligen Teile des Spektrums, nämlich im blau- 
violetten Teile. 

Ferner sind unsere Kenntnisse über die Fortpflanzungsver- 
hältnisse der Peridineen überhaupt noch recht lückenhaft und 
jede genaue Beobachtung auf diesem Gebiete ist willkommen. 
Bei meinen Beobachtungen konnte ich aber keinen neuen Beitrag 
in dieser Richtung liefern. Betreffs der Art und Weise der 

1. Heber die phototakti sehen Eigenscbaiten der verschiedenen pflanzlichen Organismen 
wird auf folgende bekannte Arbeiten hingewiesen : — 

E. Steasburger, Wirkung der Wärme und des Lichtes auf Schwärmsporen. Jeu. Zeitschr. 
Xaturw. 1S78. 12. S. 551. 

F. Oltmanns, Heber die photometrischen Bewegungen der Pflanzen. Flora 1892. 75. S. 
183. 

Man wird ferner in Pfeffer : Pflanzenphysiologie. Bd. II. S. 753 u. s. w. u. Oltmanns: 

Morphologie u. Biologie der Algen. 2. Bd. S. 220. Zusammenstellungen finden. 



88 Art. 2.-N. Ohno ' 

Fortpflanzung, ist bis jetzt nur die vegetative Zweiteilung sicher 
gestellt, und diese geschieht entweder im beweglichen oder 
Ruhezustände. Es gibt Angaben w^onach Fortpflanzung durch 
Konjugation stattfindet, diese ist jedoch noch nicht sicher gestellt 
und bedürfen weiterer Bestätigung. Bei meinen Beobachtungen 
traf icli mehrere Male auf Individuen, die in beweglichem 
Zustande in Teilung begriffen waren, (Fig. 34-37). Die sich 
teilenden Individuen bieten sein* eigentümliche Gestaltung dar 
und die Teilungsebene tritt in Schiefstellung ein, Konjugation 
konnte ich nicht beobachten. 

Systematische Stellung. — lieber die verwandtschaftliche Be- 
ziehung der Peridineai^ mit anderen Organismengruppen sind die 
Meinungen noch geteilt. Die Gruppe ist oft mit Diatomeen in 
engste Beziehung gebracht worden. Näheres darüber kann man 
bei Schutt" finden. Aber gleichzeitig ist ihre verwandtschaftliche 
Beziehung mit den Protococcacese und Volvocacese von ihm auch 
anerkannt.^ Oltmanns^ kann die Auffassung, dass die Gruppe den 
Diatomeen nahe steht, nicht ganz teilen. Er zieht es vor, Bütschli 
folgend, die Beziehungen zu den Cr^-ptomonadinen zunächst zu 
betonen, damit auch die Peridineen als Flagellaten zu betrachten 
und den Namen der Dinoflagellaten beizubehalten. Jedenfalls 
die nahe Verwandtschaft mit Flagellaten und verwandten Formen 
ist überall ausgesprochen. 

Was nun den systematischen Wert der Zahl und Ausbildung 
der Geissein bei der Einteilung der Flagellaten und verwandten 
Formen anbelangt, so bilden sie wichtige Anhaltspunkte für die 
systematische Einteilung derartigen Formen. Bütschli legte z. B. 
ein Hauptgewicht darauf.^ Klees'' aber hat seine Einteilung auf 

1. Peridinese (Klebs, 1883). Peridiniales (Schutt in En'Gleb u. Pbantl, Die nat. Pfl.- 
familien. L Ti-il. 1896), Cilioflagellata (Claparkde u. Lächmann 1858-1861, Arthroiele Flagel- 
liten (Stein 1833). Dinoflagellata (Butschli 1835). 

2. Schutt, Ppridiniales in Engler-Pranti, : Die natürl. Pflanz ?nfannlien T. Teil 1. Abt. b. 

3. Schutt, Ebenda S. 2, 8 u. lö. 

4. Oltmanns. Morphologie und Biologie der Algen, 1904. Erster Bd. S. 35. 

5. Hierüber vgl. man Bütschli, Protozoa, in Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier- 
Eeichs 1889 2te Abt. Mastigopbora. 

6. Gr. Klhbs Flagellatenstudien. Zeitschr. f. -wiss. Zoologie. Bd. LV. 1892. 



Beobachtungen an einer SüsswaSser-Peridinee. ö«? 

die gesammte Organisation des Vorderendes und in Verbindung 
damit anf die Art der Naln-ungsaufnabme gegründet. Dieses 
Prinzip ist auch von Senn in seiner Bearbeitung der Flagellaten^ 
in erster Linie angewandt. Senn schätzt ferner den systematis- 
clien Wert der verschiedenen morphologischen Eigenschaften wie 
folgt': ,,in zweiter Linie ist für die Bildung grösserer Untergruppen 
die Organisation der contractilen Vaculolen wichtig; ob sie einfache 
in Einzahl oder zu mehreren vorkommende Bläseben darstellen, 
oder ob sich mehrere zu einem mehr oder weniger stark differen- 
zierten Apparat vereinigt haben. Ahnliclien systematischen Wert 
hat wohl auch die Kernstrnktur, jedoch ist sie vorläufig noch zu 
wenig bekannt. In dritter Linie kommt der Grad der Ausbil- 
dung der plasmatischen Körperhülle in Betracht; dabei sind aber 
die Zellausscheidungen, wie Gallerthüllen, Gehäuse und Stielbil- 
dungen auszuschliessen ; dieselben können zur Begrenzung von 
Gattungen dienen, von Unterfamilien nur bei grosser Mannigfal- 
tigkeit der Bildungen. Erst in vierter Linie können die Geissein 
berücksichtigt werden, und zwar nicht nur ihre Zahl und 
Anordnung, sondern auch ihre Gestalt und Funktion. Neben der 
Geisseiausbildung, muss au(;h der Besitz oder Nichtbesitz von 
Chromatophoren und die Bildung bestimmter Stoff wechselprodukte 
(Stärke, Paramylon) berücksichtigt werden, schliesslich auch 
plasmatische Zehanhänge wie Kragen und Peristombildungen." 

Er gibt ferner an, ,,Als Gattungsmerkmale kommen in 
Betracht: Zahl und Ausbildung der Geissein bei sonst gleicher 
Organisation, Metabolie oder Starrheit, besondere Mundapparate, 
unduherende Membranen, Gehäuse-, Hüllen-, Stiel- und Colo- 
nienbildung; bei grossen Verschiedenheiten der Körpergestalt 
auch diese; sie wird sonst nur als Artcharakter benutzt." 

Für die Einteilungen einiger grösseren Gruppen jedoch ist die 
Zahl der Geissein auch gebraucht. So z. B. Avurde die Unterordnung 
Chrvsomonadinese welche von Klebs^ nach der Ausbildung der 



1. G. Senn, Flagellata in Englee-Prantl, Die natürl. Pfl.-fain. I Teil, 1 Abt. S. 93. 

2. Ebenda, S. 109. 

3. G. Klebs, Flagellatenst'idien (Zeitschr. f. wiss. Zool. Bd. LV. 1892). 



90 Alt. 2.— N. Obno: 

Zellumhüllung in nackte (Chrysomonaàina nuàci) in einem Gehäuse 
oder Schale sitzende (loricata) und in solche mit eng anliegender, 
hautartiger 'HixWa {memhranata') eingeteilt worden ist, von Senn^ nach 
der Zahl und Ausbildung der Geissein bestimmt. Nach seiner 
Ansicht wäre diese mehr als genetisclies Merkmal aufzufassen, 
indem die Hüllenbildungen der Flagellaten als sekundär erwor- 
bene Organe aufzufassen seien. Er teilt nämlich die genannte 
Unterordnung in 3 Gruppen: Chromulinacea3 (mit 1 Geissei), 
Hymenomonadaceœ (mit 2 ganz oder annähernd gleichen Geis- 
sein) und Ochromonadacea) (mit 2 ungleichen Geissein). 

Bei solcher Sachlage könnte man berechtigt sein, auch eine 
neue Gattung, oder selbst höhere systematische Einheit für unsere 
Form aufzustellen, da sie Konstant 2 Längsgeisseln trägt im 
Gegensatz zu anderen Peridineen die nur 1 Längsgeissel besitzen. 
Dieses um so mehr, da die Gruppe Peridinea? sich in den Begeis- 
selungsverhältnissen sehr einheitlich verhält, so class das Vor- 
handensein von 1 Quergeissel und 1 Längsgeissel das wichtigste 
Organisationsmerkmal dieser Gruppe bildet. 

So lange wir aber nicht im Stande sind zu beurteilen, ob das 
Vorhandensein der Längsgeisseln in der 2-Zahl hier als primäres 
Merkmal aufzufassen, oder vielmehr als ein sekundäres anzusehen 
sei, wäre es besser, wie es auch in dieser Arbeit geschieht, vorläu- 
fig diese Form den bekannten Formen mit denen sie in anderen 
Punkten übereinstimmt, anzureihen. Es ist sehr wünschenswert 
auch bei anderen Süsswasser-sowie Meeresforraen die Begeisse- 
lungs Verhältnisse näher zu prüfen und reichlichere Materialien zu 
sammeln, um einiges Licht auf den systematischen Wert des Vor- 
handenseins der Doppellängseisseln bei den Peridineen zu werfen. 
Dann erst kann man die systematische Stellung der in Rede ste- 
henden Form richtig beurteilen. 

Die Gruppe Peridiniales teilt man in 3 Familien,^ Gymnodi- 
niaceie, Prorocentraceaä und Peridiniacea?, von denen die erste 



1. G. Senn, 1. c. S. 152. 

2. Schutt in Englee-Prantl, Eie nntürl. Pfl.-familien. I. Teil. 



Beobaclitungen an einer Süsswasser-Peridinee. 91 

Familie ohne Panzer ist, während die zwei anderen mit Panzer 
versehen sind. Unsere Form kommt also unter Gymnodiniacese, 
und zwar ist sie in die Gattung Gymnodinium, deren Vertreter so- 
wohl im Meere als auch im Süsswasser verbreitet sind, zu bringen. 
Die Artdiagnose lautet demnach : 

Gymnodmium bicflÊatum nov. sp. 

Bis jetzt der kleinste bekannte Vertreter der Gattung.^ Länge 
22.2 <« und Breite IG. 9 /^. Die seichte Querfurche den Körper in 
einer kaum ansteigenden Schraubenlinie umziehend. Die beiden 
Körperhälften einander nahezu gleich. Längsfurche vertikal. 
Längsgeisseln zwei, gleich lang und gleich gebaut. Ein Augen- 
fleck nicht vorhanden. Durch eine bedeutende Reprodnktions- 
kraft ausgezeichnet und auch zur Cj^stenbildung sehr geneigt. 
Cysten oft stachelig, derb, durch Chlorzinkjod dunkelrotbraun; 
auf Agar künstlich zu Ency stierung zu veranlassen. Süsswasser- 
bewohner, in Graben. 



1. Gymnodinium pusillum Schilling besitzt die Grosse 23'0 MX i8'4 ß und ist von Schil- 
ling als die kleinste Form dieser Gattung angegeben (Vgl. Schilling 1. c). Die kleinsten 
Formen aus anderen Gattun^ea sind z. B. Amphidinium lacustre (23.0 AX 184 m) und 
Glenodinium pulvisculus Stein (23-Om XlS-i^). 



92 Art. 2.— X. Ohno: 



Figuren-Erklärung. 1 

Sämtliclie Figuren sind mit dem Abbe'sclien Zeiclieuapparat und zwar wo nichts ; 

anders angegeben ist, unter Benutzung von Oc. 4 und Obj. F, Zeiss, entworfen. 

Fiö". 1. Schwimmendes Individuum. , 

o I 

,, 2 11- 3- Fixierte u. gefärbte Exemplare. < 

,, 4 n. 5. Korperform im Umriss. (Mit Geissehi). 

,, 6 11- 9, ^1- 10 bis 16. Variationen in Korperform. (im Umriss). 

,, 7 11- 8. Kin und dasselbe Individuum, einmal bei oberer Einstellung (7) ■ 

und andersmal tieferer Einstellung (8). j 

,, 17- Sich desorganisierendes Individuum, dessen Längsgeisselendeu mit i 

Bläschen versehen sind. j 

,, 18 bis 21, u- 23 liis 26. Xatiirliclie Cysten, von denen 19 mit am deut- 
lichsten ausgebildeten Stacheln. 

,, 22. Stärkekörner aus dem Zellkörper. 

,, 27 Ijis 33. Künstlich auf Agar erzeugte Ruhezellen. 

„ 34 his 37. Teilungsstadien. 36 (Oc. 2 + ^ Horn. Imm , Zeiss.) \ 



Jour. Sei. Coll., Vol, XXXII., Art. 2. PI. I. 




N. Ohno, del. 



T 



JOURNAL OF THE COLLEGE OF SCIENCE, LMPEEIAL UNIVERSITY. 
TOKYO. JAPAN. 

VOL. XXXII., ARTICLE 3. 



Observations and Experiments on the Ctenophore Egg: 

I. The Structure of the Egg and 
Experiments on Cell- division. 

By 
Naohide Yalsu. 



Introduction. 

The ctenophore egg has become classic in experimental em- 
bryology through the invaluable papers of Chun ('92), Driesch 
and Morgan ('95), Ziegler ('98, '03) and Fischel ('97, '98 and 
'03). Singularly enough, however, since the appearance of these 
works no further detailed analytical studies on the interesting egg 
have been undertaken. At the suggestion of Professor E. B. 
Wilson, the writer made observations and experiments upon the 
egg of four common species of ctenophore in the spring of 190G, 
at the Naples Zoological Station.^ 

The present paper deals first with the structure of the egg 
with a note on the polocy tes and on fertilization ; secondly, with 
observation on the process of cell-division, mainly that of the first 
cleavage; and thirdly with experiments performed upon the egg 
of Beroë ovata. It Avill be followed by two other papers; one on 
cytogeny and experiments on cleavage physiology, and the other 
on germinal localization. 

As to experimentation, I wish to lay especial stress upon the 
following points. Great care was taken to secure good water quite 

1 This study was made with the aid of a grant from the Carnegie Institution at 
Washington, for which I take this opportunity to express my gi-atitude. I also have pleasure 
L n acknowledging my indebtedness to the staff of the Naples Zoological Station. 



"2 Art. ?. - Naohide Yatau : 

far from the shore. The water taken near the city of Naples was so 
polluted that it was unfit for use in developing egg-fragments into 
embryos. This is the indispensable condition for ctenophore 
experiments. The high mortality in Driesgh and Morgan's work 
seems to have been due to tlie neglect of this precaution ('95 p. 
217). To obtain eggs two or three animals were kept in a rather 
small cylindrical jar, so that they stirred the water more or less 
when swimming and kept the eggs they laid constantly in motion. 
If, on the contray, the ctenophores be put in a large jar, the eggs 
are liable to stay near the surface ; there they l)ecome weak and 
give rise to less lively larvae or fail to develop at all. 



I. Structure of the Egg. 

The eggs of the following four common species of ctenophores 
were studied; namely Beroë ovatu, B.fonkalii, Callianira hialata and 
Eucharis vmUicornis. The relative sizes of the eggs of these forms 

are shown in Fig. I {cf. Chun 
'80 p. 100). The egg of 
Beroë ovala was the one most 
carefully studied and exclu- 
sively used in experiments, 
being peculiarly suited for 
the purpose on account of its 
large size (1-1.2 mm) and 
of its consistency. 

When the eggs are laid, 
they are found entangled in 
a string-like mass of jelly. 
Close to the egg is a thin 
gelatinous covering that 
turns into a thick layer of 
jelly after fertilization.^ The 
egg has three visible con- 




PlG. I. 

Diagram showing the relative sizes of ihe eggs of 
Callianira hialata (1), Eucharis viiilticoriu's (2), 
Beroë forskalii ^3) and B.ovata (4). X6> 



1 The eggs of Eucharis multiconiis can be more easily taken out of the jelly than those of 
Beroë, 



Observations and Experiments on the Ctenophore Egg. o 

«centric differentiations; namely (a) the extremely thin homogene- 
ous outer layer, (b) the ectoplasm and (c) the entoplasm. 

The outer "membrane" is a very thin semifluid layer free 

from granules. It can hardly l)e called membrane. It is difficult, 

if not impossible, to detect it. When the egg is compressed or 

wherever accumulation of the ectoplasm takes place, one can see it 

fairly well. I should not hesitate to homologize this with the 

•ectosarc described by Andrews in the egg of Hydra ('98) and with 

a similar layer found in the sea-urchin egg, to Avhich Zjeglee, has 

.attached so much importance ('03, '04). It can not be looked 

upon as identical with the hypothetical cell-membrane of 

Rhumbler ('99). What rule this thin layer actually plays during 

•cleavage is problematical. I am rather inclined to think that it 

has very little to do with that process. 

The ectoplasm is, as has been described by many authors, a 
rrather thick layer of finely alveolar plasm. It is of uniform thick- 
ness until fertilized. This layer is, contrary to Zieoler' s view, not 
.at all of the same nature as the "ectoplasm" of the sea-urchin egg. 
It is fluorescent and looks green under reflected light, reminding 
•one of a piece of uramium glass (cf. Chun '80 p. 100). In stimulating 
the egg with a weak electric current this layer alone seems to emit 
a beautiful greenish light. It should be mentioned, that, as the 
-development advances, the ectoderm comes to monopolize this 
property. In a Wood's Holl species, Mncmiopsis, the egg before 
-cleavage, according to Peters ('05), was not phosphorescent. 

It need hardly be mentioned that the entoplasm is a coarse 
.alveolor structure. The alveoles of the Callianira egg are much 
fewer in number than those of the Beroë egg, the individual alveole 
■ of the former being much larger than that of the latter (PI. II, 
I^igs. 27 and 28). On crushing the Callianira egg I could count 
in one case 67, in another 64, and in still another 54 alveoles. 
Ziegler calls the alveoler substance " transparent yolk granules " 
;('98 p. 36). This seems to have given Rhumbler tlie impression 
îthat it was made up of a rather highly viscous substance. But 
.as::a matter of fact, this is not so. Chun ('80) has called it " Zell- 
rsaft." Though this term is not happily chosen, yet it is far better 



.4 •.. Art. 3.— Xaohide Yatsu : 

than ''yolk," In the material fixed witli Flemming's fluid the- 
alveolar substance is completely dissolved, being represented bj^ 
holes. Whatever its chemical nature may be, it is certainly not 
similar to Avhat commonly goes luider the term yolk. In the 
entoplasm no axial differentiation can be detected; tlie size 
and nature of the alveoles are the same throughout the egg.' 



II. Polocytes. 

I have nothing to add about the formation of the polocytes, 
excepting that in one case a maturation spindle with no pok'-ra3\s- 
was met with in an ectoplasmic accumulation (Flemmixcj's fluid 
material). 

In tlie living egg it was not difficult to see the polocytes. 
Pseudopodia are seen on botli the polocytes. The first polocyte 
loses them and invariably divides in two; each part has a smootli 
surface. The pseudopodia, however, remain on the second polo- 
cyte (PL I, Fig. 4). As to whether or no the polocytes perform^ 
an amoeboid locomotion b}- means of the pseudopodia I have had 
no means of determining. Yet I am rather inclined to believe that 
they do not (cf. Chun '80 p 101). As is shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3 
(PL I) a thickened portion of the ectoplasm is found beneath the- 
poloc^^tes. The egg nucleus undoul)tedl3' lies in this. The ac- 
cumulation lasts for some time after the formation of the second 
polocytes. But it soon disappears. 

III. Entrance of the Spermatozoon into the Egg. 

As already mentioned, when the eggs are discharged, they 
have a thin gelatinous covering about them. When fertilized tins 
membrane changes into a thick layer of jelly. I could not ascer- 
tain how the process took place. It is highly j^i'obable that tlie 
change is of the same nature as that of echinoderm eggs. In any 

1 In this connection it may be of some interest to note that Fewkes saw in the egg of 
Jgalma a mass of rosy entoplasm at one polo ("85 p. 247). 



Observations anel Exper.ments on the Otenophoro Egg-. 

•event tins jelly layer gives .a splendid criterion for distinguishing at 
.a glance fertilized egg from unfertilized. 

One other phenomenon accompanying fertilization is that the 
•ooplasm suddenly acquires greater consistency. This is especially 
frappant after the formation of an ectoplasmic thickening around 
the spermatozoon. One can hardly fail to notice this change when 
•experimenting upon various stages of the egg. 

The entrance of the spermatozoon can readily he seen in the 
■egg of Beroë. Fig 5 (PL I) shows a surface view soon after its 
penetration into the egg. A réfringent hody (acrosome?) is seen a 
little apart from the head. Behind the head is a dark body, 
sperm-centre, provided with long rays. Soon, however, the rays 
■disappear. In a side view one sees an entrance-cone consisting of 
a thickened external homogeneous layer and also considerable 
.accumulated ectoplasm. The entoplasmic alveoles are arranged 
radially (PI. I, Fig. 6). In them no rays are seen in the living 
-egg. In section, however, distinct long rays come into view, 
which extend from the straightened alveolar walls of the ectoplasm 
into those of the entoplasm. As is seen in Figs. 7 and 8 (PI. I) 
the ectoplasmic accumulations remain for some time, so that by 
them one can tell at once how many spermatozoa have entered the 
•egg. On one occasion I saw an egg with as many as five of them 
in it. Polyspermy in this form is not at all a physiological 
phenomenon. It usually takes place when eggs are kept too 
-crowded in a jar. I know nothing about the fate of those sperm- 
nuclei which fail to unite with the egg-nucleus. Yet judging from 
the fact that in many cases polyspermy does not lead to 
.abnormal cleavage ; those sohtary sperm-nuclei seem to degenerate 
.■in situ. 



IV. Cell-division. 

a) The First Cleavage. 
I could not make out how or where the germ- nuclei 



6 Art. 3. — Xaohide Yatsu : 

meet.' At any rate prior to the first cleavage, there takes place a. 
change in the distribution of the ectoplasm: it thickens consider- 
ably near the macromere pole,' while at tl)e opposite pole it thins 
out a great deal (PI. I, Figs. 9 and 10). Cleavage goes on, as has 
been observed by a good many investigators. Sometimes the 
cleavage fuiTOw is bent sHglitly to one side near its completion 
(PL I, Fig. 11). It should liere l)e especially mentioned tliat the 
cleavage is not strictly unihiteral, contrary to Ziegler's observa- 
tion ('98. p. 41; '03 p. 159 and his diagram Fig. 7), and also to 
Rhumbler's opinion based upon Zieglers results. A sliallow 
depression is always present at the micromere pole, as is seen in. 
the sketches drawn one upon another at different periods (PI. I, 
Fig. 11). And it will be also noted that the top of each blas- 
tomere becomes more rounded. The lateral elongation is almost 
nil. The rate of tlie cleavage from the macromere pole is <S-19/i 
per minute, 17/< on an average, at a room temperature of G5°-07°F. 
The rate of cleavage from tlie opposite pole is a little slowei". 13/>- 
per minute on an average. 

To supplement Ziegleu's observations, the j^rocess uf cleavage 
and especially the "cleavage head" (Furchenkopf) Avill be des- 
cribed in some detail. In the beginning a slight depression ap- 
pears near the polocytes. Its optical section is shown in Fig. 12. 
(PL II). Here is a pair of prominences in the outer homogeneous 
layer (cf. Andrews '98). Sometimes they are continuous, forming, 
a bridge over the now deepening furrow.^ Sometimes there is one 
process on one side and two on the other (PL IL Fig. 12) (rf. 
Kleinenbeeg '72 p. 49., Taf, 4, Fig 4; Wager '09 p. 23, PL III, 
Fig. 23a). Around the process a fine display of spinning activity 
is visible. At the bottom of the cleavage depression are rays in tlie 
homogeneous laver. 

1 As is seen in Figs. 10 and 11. the polocytes ai-e usually situât h1 at some distance from- 
the cleavage furrow. Whether the egg-nucleus or cleavage-nucleus moves a little from the spot 
■where the polocytes liave been formed, or whether the polocytes are transported by some means, 
is not certain. But the latter alternative seems to be the more probable one. 

2 Macromere pole = vegetative pole of Hatschek (Korschklt and Hkider 'OJ p. 24). 
Throughout the i)lates the macromere pole is above, and the micromere pole below. 

3 The bridge is not so distinct as was obsei-ved by Tannreüther in the Hi/dra egg, where- 
yolk granules were seen to pass from one blastomere to the other ('08 p. 2ö7). 



Observations and Experiments on the Ctenophore- Egg. T 

As a digession, the results from the study of sections of this- 
stage may here be given. Cleavage begins at the telophase of the 
first mitosis. Rays (pole-rays) of a considerable length extend 
into the entoplasm of both blastomeres, centering about the newly 
formed nuclei (the centres are in all probability situated very close 
to the nuclei). Besides, something like sheath-rays are found 
between two asters. They are evidentl}^ cut apart by the growing, 
" cleavage head." A similar condition has been observed in the 
Hydra egg by Brauer ('91 Taf. IX, Figs. 16 and 17). 

Now coming to the next stage (PL II, Fig. 13). The bottom 
of the depression has been carried farther down. Usually the clear 
protuberances at the entrance of the furrow are drawn in. Fine 
spinning is seen. The protoplasmic threads are not parallel to one 
another. Often they decussate. At the "head" are radiations- 
as in the foregoing stage. 

A fully formed " cleavage head " is shown in Fig. 14 (PI. II). 
By this time protoplasmic spinning is restricted to the entrance 
and bottom of the furrow. The " head '' is a thickened ectoplasm 
Here one notices that the outer homogeneous layer also has in- 
creased in thickness. Réfringent alveoles in the ectoplasm are 
arranged radially as extensions of fine radiations of the homoge- 
neous layer. Towards the entoplasm are processes (Zacken) as- 
has been rightly observed by Ziegler ('98, '03). I tried hard to 
detect rays extending from the tips of the processes into the 
entoplasm, but contrary to Rhumbler's assumption ('99 p. 203 
Fig. 12 and p. 205 Fig. 13), there were no such things; here the 
ectoplasm simply comes in contact with the entoplasm. The 
alveoles of entoplasm liere show a peculiar arrangement worth 
noting. Those along tlie walls of the cleavage furrow seem 
to have been carried down with it and those found at the tip 
of the " head " are somewhat flattened (cf. PI. II, Fig. 28). This 
undoubtedly shows that the "cleavage head" pushes downward 
instead of being pulled l)}^ the contraction of rays, stretching 
between the cleavage head and the micromere pole. At the 
next stage the alveoles recede from the median plane as i& 
shown in Fig. 15 (PI. II). It will be of some interest here to 



€ Art. 3.— Naohide Yatsn : 

•examine two cleavage stages of the egg of Berœ forskhlii (PI. II, 
Figs. 10 and 20). In this particular egg the second cleavage has 
begun before the first has come down nearly two thirds of this 
•entire course. By the precocious second division tlie typical 
alveolar arrangement has been considerably disturbed, a flow-figure 
having been formed in each blastomere. For all that, the first 
•cleavage cuts through the egg normally as through nothing had 
happened near the macromere pole. 

Pari paH.m with the coming-down of the cleavage furrow, the 
•ectoplasm thickens near the micromere pole as has been observed 
by ZiEGLER. And the "cleavage head" meets the ectoplasmic 
<iccumulation there (PI. II, Fig. 15,). The walls (,f the cleavage 
furroAv near the "head" become irregularly wrinkled and the spin- 
ning activity increases (cf. Andrews '98). The hole now assumes 
a triangular shape. As the entoplasmic alveoles quickly retreat, 
the ectoplasmic bi'idgc' is left; between two fartmeres (PI. II, 
Figs. 17, 18, 21, 21). It is interesting to recall that LoEB observed 
•cytoplasm flow away from the furrow towards the end of unilateral 
•cleavage ('06 p. OG). No particular movement as seen by Bunting 
in Hijdraciinia ('04 p. 216) takes place {cf. Ziegler's experiments). 
Finally the ectoplasm also goes into the blastomeres, leaving 
behind a fine thread of homogeneous layer. By the time one 
finds an ectoplasmic thickening with radially arranged entoplasmic 
alveoles near the micromere pole of each blastomere (PL II, Fig. 1 8) 
In studying this stage with a low powder one soon notices that 
the greater part of the ectoplasm has come down towards the 
micromere pole (PI. II, Figs. 31, 22) 

Incidentally I might mention that the cell- wall between the 
two blastomeres of Eucharis and CalUanira has a sieve-like appear- 
ance (PL II, Figs. 22, 24, 27). In the latter form I was able to 
see this peculiarity between two entoderm cells as late as the 
gastrula stage. The fenestrated appearance is due to the lenticular 
accumulation of a certain fluid as correctly observed by Chun ('80 
p. 102) (cf. Fol '73 Tf. 24, Fig. 5). 



1 The surface of the bridge has r.idiatint' wrinkles. 



Observations and Experiments on the Ctenophoi'e Egg. «^ 

1)) Siihseiueiit Cleavajes. 

Soon alter the first cleavage is completed, the ectoplasmic 
thickening near the micromere pole disappears and at the same 
time an accumnlation comes in view over the macromere pole 
(PI. II, Fig. 23). The second cleavage takes place in exactly the 
same manner as the first (PI. II, Fig. 24). In the beginning of the 
third cleavage an accumnlation of the ectoplasm near the macro- 
mere pole is also seen (PI. II, Figs. 25, 26, 27). At the fourth 
division the micromeres are formed, which are almost entirely 
made up of the greenish ectoplasm (PL 11, Figs. 29, oO). Sub- 
sequent divisions of the micromere are carried on in unilateral 
fashion similar to the division of the entire egg. So also the 
divisions of the macromeres (Text fig. II). 




Fig. II. 
Two dividing entoderm cells of Beroë ovata. X60. 

V. Experiments on Cell-division.^ 

Fifty eggs of Beroc ovata were operated on during the first 
«leavage in twelve different ways with the intention of testing, if 
possible, hypotheses hetherto put forth regarding the division 
mechanism of the ctenophore egg. On account of the large size 
iind favorable consistency of the egg, the operations were performed 
Avith the greatest ease by means of a small knife. Sometimes, 
however, in case tlie jelly around the egg was unusually hard, 

I This part of the present p ip.^r was read as a preliminary note before the Seventh 
International Zoological Congress at Boston 1907. 



10 Art. 3.— Naohide Yatsu : 

cutting was accompanied with some difficulty. Very soon after 
the operation the cut surfaces close ; so rapid is the closure that 
one cannot, as a matter of fact, see exposed entoplasm(f/. Maas 
'03 p. 45). Each of the eggs operated on was placed in a 
compressorium\ and the subsequent progress of cleavage was 
followed. From a single egg several sketches of successive 
stages were made. In the plates of the present paper in most 
cases only the first and the last stages have been reproduced, 
since the intervening ones would l)e of little value in ihustrating 
the following experiments. 

a) Experitiiciit 1 (four cases). 

A portion uf the egg was cut below tlie " cleavage head " at 
various angles and along various levels, and the enucleated pieces 
were watched to see if they showed any sign of division activitv-' 
Even in the case in which the cutting plane passed very near the 
" cleavage head," nothing happened in the enucleated piece — it 
simply rounded up and ceased to develop further (PI. Ill, Fig. ol). 

1)) Expciiment II (one case). 

The above experiment was modified in tlie following waj'. 
An incision extending two thirds of the diameter of the egg was 
made below the "cleavage head" to see if the connection with 
the nucleated part of the egg would impart some division activity 
(PL III, Fig. 32). The cleavage went on normally, cutting the 
upper part in two, but the lower past remained undivided (PL III, 
Fig. 33). 

The above two experiments (Exp. I and Exp. II) clearly show 
that portions devoid of the " cleavage head " do not manifest any 
division activity whatever. 



1 This was not used for compressin.,' the eggs but as a sort of live-box for keeping theui 
alive. 

2 I have a case in which both pieces produced by a horizontal cut cleaved. It can hardly 
be doubted that it was a dispermic egg. 



Observations and Experiments on the Ctenophore Egg. l * 

c) Experiment III (thirteen cases). 

Sections were made on the egg above the "cleavage head" at 
various periods and along various planes, and the behavior of the- 
enucleated fragments containing the "cleavage head" were studied. 

In eight cases out of thirteen the cleavage went on normally. 
The rate of downward progress of the furrow was normal, 
or a little slower than the normal that is 15/^ per minutes on 
an average. It was sometimes 10// or even as slow as 8//- 
per minutes. In Fig. 34 (PI. Ill) the section passed through 
the middle of the cleavage furrow and in Fig. 39 (PL III) 
the cut Avas made when the cleavage had just begun. In both the 
enucleated pieces cleavage went on as though they were a part of 
the Avhole egg. It is interesting to note that the movement of the- 
ectoplasm is the same as in the entire egg, that is, a thick ecto- 
plasmic accumulation is formed about the micromere pole towards 
the end of the division (PI. Ill, Fig. 35), and after that thickenings 
in the neighborhood of the macromere pole (PI. Ill, Figs. 36, 40). 
Here one notices that the thickness of the above ectoplamic- 
accumulation depends upon the size of the enucleated pieces. It 
also may be remarked that similar up-and-down movement of the 
ectoplasm takes place in the nucleated pieces (PI. Ill, Fig. 41). 

In studying carefully the relation between the angle of the cuts 
and the direction of the cleavage furrow, the following results were 
obtained. If the section be made when the cleavage furrow is 
shallow, then the division goes on normally irrespective of the 
angle of the cut (PI. Ill, Figs. 39. 40). If, on the other iiand, the 
operation is performed in later stages, the cleavage is usually ac- 
complished normally only when the section is horizontal or 
approximately so ; if otherwise, the furrow is bent and the l)ending is 
ahvays towards the side with more cytoplasm, so that tJie result- 
ing blastomeres are of nearly the same size (PI. Ill, Figs. 37, 38). 

In three cases out of thirteen something unexpected hap- 
pened. One of these cases is represented in Figs. 41 and 42 
(PL III). The other two were very much hke this. The cleavage 
furrow went down riear the micromere pole and turned upward so 



12 i Art. 3.— N.;ohide Yatsu : 

that in tlie end ii bridge- was formed between the two blastomeres. 
The bridge was not cut through. One case of this peculiar 
mode of cleavage was the result of a horizontal section. In the 
other two, the curving of the furrow faced the side of more 
■cytoplasm (in Fig. 41, PI III to the left). Conklix observed in 
the egg of Linenjes iiiercwiu^ tlie turning-up of the cleavage furrow 
v(Pl. 3, fig. 13) and thought it probable that this might l)e due to 
the flowing of cytoplasm through the bridge from one cell to the 
other (p. 160). In the Beroc, egg no streaming phenomenon ac- 
■companies this curling-up of the cleavage furrow. 

In two cases for some unknown reason tlie division stopped at 
.a certain stage and <lid not cut thi-ough. In one case at tlie begin- 
ning of the division the '' cleavage head " Avas thick but as it pro- 
•€eeded the ectoplasm thinned out somewhat (PI. Ill, Figs 43, 44). 

From this experiment it may be concluded that after the 
" cleavage head " is established, the cell-division is accomplished 
without the instrumentalitv of either the uncleus or the centro- 
somes. Furthermore it should be noted in this experiment that 
there is no perceptible difference between the cut and the uncut 
-eggs in the thickness of "cleavage head," though in some cases 
.a little retardation of the progress of the cleavage is seen in 
the cut eggs. The up-and-lown flow of the ectoplasm takes place 
independently of the presence or absence of either the nucleus or 
the centi'osome. 

d) Expeiiment. II' (Six cases). 

In order to test whether either the nucleus or the centrosome 
•exerts any influence on the deepening cleavage furrow, the 
nucleated portion of one side was cut off at various angles and 
periods, and the behavior of the cleavage furrow was studied. 

In all cases division took place undisturbed by the operation 
'(PI. Ill, Figs. 45, 46). In one case, however, the cleavage furrow was 
bent near its end towards the nucleated side, but such a bending 
occurs so often in eggs not operated upon (Fig 11 PI. 1) that the 
•cause of the bending in this particular case cannot be ascribed to 
the operation. 



Observations and Experiments on the, Ctenophoro Eg^. Xq 

This experiment streiigtheiis the results obtained from tho 
preceding one (Exp. Ill); that is, the nucleus, centrosome, and 
the amount of cytoplasni above the cutting plane have little to da 
with the growth and direction of the cleavage fuiTOw\ 

; e) Experiment V (One case). 

To slightly modify the above experiment, the cut w^as extend- 
ed to the middle of the nucleated part as is shown in Fig. 47 (PL 
IV). The "cleavage head" came down unintemipted by the 
operation. But the cleavage furrow stopped at a certain point 
(PI. IV, Fig. 48) OAving probably to the fact that the nuclei had 
already enterd the phases of the second cleavage. 

f) Experunent VI (Seven cases). 

Id tlris experiment the "cleavage head " were split in two 
at various stages by a vertical cut to see if the furrow proceeds 
from the end of the cut or from some other place. 

In no cases were two "cleavage heads" formed. In one case 
out of seven the cleavage furrow made its appearance at the bottom 
of the incision, dividing the egg in two equal blastomeres. 

In the six cases a remarkable phenomenon was met with. A 
new " cleavage head " emerged on one side of the incision below 
the original bottom of the furrow and in most cases a little above 
the end of the cut. It proceeded almost at right angles to the old 
cleavage plane. The portion of the cut below the new cleavage 
furrow dwindled and was either obliterated entirely or remained as 
a hole for a fairly long time. In Fig. 49 (PI. IV) the operation was 
made when the cleavage furrow was very shallow,' and the result 
was Fig. 50 (PI. IV). In passing, it may be remarked that in the 
egg of Pennaria Hargitt ('00) observed a similar figure (his 

PL II, Fig. 2). 

It is interesting to note that in this case an ectoj)lasmic t hiclvc n- 
ing was foomed at the side of the egg (PL IV, Fig. 50). ^^Vhen the 

1 'i'he original bottom of tbe cleavage furrow is marked with X X ia this and the- 
following figures. 



14 Art. 3,-Xaoliide Yatsu : 

operation was performed at a later stage (PI. IV, Figs. 51, 52) a 
new accumulation of the ectoplasm appeared at the end of the 
incision which reinforced that of the old "cleavage head" to form 
the new one. The resulting cleavage furrow was exactly the same 
.as that in the foregoing case. 

In five cases the new '^ cleavage head " was formed on the 
side with more cytoplasm, while in one case it was just reverse. 
This may be interpreted in two difïerent ways, viz., (a) that a new 
•cleavage furrow is formed on the side of more cytoplasm, or 
(b) on the side of more ectoplasm or "cleavage head ''-substance 
•due to oblique section. The above experiment fails to decide 
-which of the alternatives is the correct view. The following 
«experiments were especially directed to this point. 

g) Experiment I'll (One cass). 

The "cleavage head" was split vertically and a nucleated 
portion was cut off as is shown in Fig. 52 (PI IV). A new cleavage 
furrow was formed at an angle to the old and on the side of more 
•cytoplasm. 

h) Experiment VIII (Three cases). 

For the same purpose, the ' ' cleavage head ' ' was split and a 
portion of the cytoplasm was cut off. In all cases as in Exp. VI a 
new "cleavage head" ajopeared at some angle to the old one. 
In one case a new division plane was directed towards the cut sur- 
face (PI. IV, Figs. 55, 56) while in the other two the \\q\y furrow 
was formed on the side of the larger cytoplasmic mass and turned 
upwards as in some cases in Exp. Ill (PI. IV, Figs. 58, 59). 

This experiment clearly shows that the new " cleavage head" 
develops on the side of larger cytoplasmic portion. 

i) Experiment IX (One case). 

In one egg the "cleavage head" was split and another 
incision was made on one side of it (PL IV, Fig. GO). A new 
■" cleavage head " was formed on the left hand side which turned 



Observations and Experiments on the Ctenophore Egg. J 5 

to the right (PL IV, Fig. Gl). Tliis cleavage furrows finally cut 
off an enucl ;ated portion (PI, IV, Fig. 62). 

j) Kxpcrimeitt X (One case). 

This is a niodification of Exp. VIII. The " cleavage head " 
was cut in two by a vertical incision, a small nucleated portion 
was cut off (from the left side of the figure Fig. 63, PL V), and the 
micromere portion was removed. A new cleavage plane was 
established at the end of the vertical incision that cut through 
almost straight. This failed to yield anything of interest, being 
exactl}^ the same as Figs. 55, 56 (PL IV). 

k) Experiment XI (Eleven cases). 

In this experiment an incision was made in the egg at the 
micromere pole to see if that would affect the course of cleavage. In 
nine cases out of eleven the cleavage furrow passed by the incision 
as though nothing had happened to the egg (PL V,Figs. 65, 67, 68). 
One notices in Fig. 66 an ectoplasmic accumulation at the left hand 
corner. In one case the cleavage plane stretched towards the 
incision and became continuous with it (PL V, Figs. 61. 70 ). In 
another case the cleavage furrow, which had attained a consider- 
able length, dwindled owing to the operation, and two new furrows 
were formed giving rise to a three lobed egg (PL V, Figs. 71, 72, 
73). As the original cleavage furrow shriveled up, a peculiar ray- 
like arrangement of entoplasm was seen. Whether it was due to 
the effect of the incision or to preparation for the formation of two 
new "heads" I could not determine. At an3^ rate this double 
" headed " cleavage seemed to be an exceptional case, and should 
not be taken as of constant occurrence. 

1) Experiment XII (One case). 

Two cuts were made on one egg (Fig. 75 PL V) and the 
result was as in Fig. 76 (PL V). The cleavage furrow stretched 
tOAvards one of the incisions and cut through the egg. 



IG Art. 3.— Naohicle Yatsu : 

VI. Summary. 

Observational part : 

1. The ctenophore egg is composed of (a) the outer homo- 
geneous laj^er, (b) ectoplasm and (c) entoplasm. 

2. The outer homogeneous layer is homologous with 
Ziegler's " hj^aline Aussenschicht " of the echinoderm egg. 

o. The ectoplasm is an alveolar plasm and rays may be 
formed in it. 

4. The ectoplasm is phosphorescent. 

5. The sperm-rays and pole-rays of the first division enter 
the entoplasm, the alveolar walls of the latter taking a radial 
arrangement. 

6. Polyspermie eggs may clenve Jiomially. 

7. Cleavage is not strictly unilateral, the furrow being formed 
in the micromere region. 

8. Fine spinning of the homogeneous layer can be seen at 
entrance and at the bottom of the cleavage furrow. 

9. In the "cleavage head" radiations are seen in the 
homogeneous outer layer and ectoplasm, but they do not extend 
into the entoplasm. 

10. Beneath the "cleavage head" tlie ontoplasmic alveoles 
are considerablj^ compressed. 

11. The micromeres consisting almost entirely of the 
ectoplasm cleave very similarl}^ to the Avhole egg. 

12. In the beginning of each cleavage, ectoplasmic accumula- 
tion is seen at the macromere pole. Towards the end of cleavage, 
an accumulation appears in the micromere region. 

Experimental Part : 

13. Enucleated fragments destitute of the " cleavage head " 
not manifest any division activity. 

14. The cleavage plane is not predetermined in the egg. 

15. An enucleated piece provided with the "cleavage head" 
divides by itself without the aid of either nucleus or centrosome. 
Nor is the ray system necessary for the cleavage of enucleated 
pieces. 



Observations and Experimonts on the Ctenopborc Ei^<^. 17 

10. Tlie cytuplasin iibove the level of the cleavage bead 
lias little iniluenee upon the accomplishment of the division. 

17. The accumulation of ectoplasm over the micro-^ and 
macromere poles is formed in enucleated fragments in the same 
way as in the whole egg. 

18. If the removal of the nucleated portions is done at the 
beginning of the division, the cleavage furrow goes on normally 
irrespective of the angle of the section. If, however, the same 
operation is ^jerformed upon an egg in which the cleavage has 
further advanced, the division plane is in most cases turned towards 
the side of larger amount of cytoplasm, the enucleated fragment 
being divided into nearly equal parts." 

19. Sometimes in the egg operated on the cleavage furrow 
curls up towards the macromere pole. 

20. If the "cleavage head" be split lengthwise', a new 
head " forms nearly at right angles and towards the portion with 
larger amount of cytoplasm. 

1^1. If an incision is made in the egg in the micromero 
region the cleavage is not affected. 

VII. General Discussion. 

Three views have been put forth regarding the mechanism 
of the cytodieresis of the ctenophore egg. Zieglee maintains that 
the cleavage is accomplished by the constriction of a meridional 
ectoplasmic thickening, Mvhicli is in turn caused by the " action at 
a distance '" of the centres and no rays are necessary for cleavage 
('03 p. 162).' 



1 strictly speaking-, at the en I of the cleavage furrow, since the a-îcumuLition takes pLicj 
at the side of the e<;g in case a new cleavage furrow is formed at right angles t j the old, c.jj., 
PI. IV, Fig. 50. 

2 This result Mas obtained when a large portion was out off from the og^. Xo experi- 
ment was carried out, to my regret, to test whether or no the removal of a small amount of 
cytoplasm from an egg with an already far advanced cleavage furrow affects the remaining 
course of the cleavage plane. 

3 It is interesting to recall liow Kowalkvskt was impresso I when he observed cleaving 
ctenoi^hore eggs: "wie sonderbar es auch klingen mag, so sc'ieint mich doch diese, S3 zug 
sagen, todte unbewegliche centrale Masse ganz der mechinischen Pressung von Aussen ; u 
und keine innfn active Kraft zu besitzen'' ('67 p. 3). 



18 Art. 3.-Naolii(le Vatsn 



Based upon Zii;(;LKn,'s ohservatioiis Kiumülimi tried to explain 
the e^^todieresis of tlie cteiiopliore egg ])V adding a few sul)8idiavy 
assumptions to liis own theory of eell-division in general ])reviously 
put forth ('99), viz., that (a) the nuclear fluid is present along the 
axis of the egg; (h) at the expense of the nuclear fluid the mem- 
brane gi'ows rapidly; (c) the " cleavage head " is a structure com- 
parable to the centrosome, and (d) tlie rays radiating from tlie 
" cleavage head ' ' contract and pull down the cleavage furrow to 
the micromen^ pole. 

FiSGiiEL expresses his view of the probable existence of the 
pole-rays, which function as in ordinary cases of cytodieresis ('08 
p. G20 et àry.). 

My experimental study on the ctenophore egg makes it im- 
possible for me to accept anv of the above three hypotheses for the 
following reasons. If, as Zieulkr maintains, the cleavage is due 
to the contraction of an elastic ring around the egg, the curling-up 
of the cleavage furrow towards the maciomere pole after the 
removal of the nucleated portion is a thing not easily accounted 
for. Still more difficult is it to apply his view to the case in which 
a new cleavage furrow is formed at right angles to the old. The 
above two facts are also against Hitumuler's assumption. And 
the fact that there are no rays radiating from the "cleavage head" 
into the entoplasm makes his view untenable. It is certain that 
the cleavage is not accomplished bv the contraction of i)ole rays, 
as FiscHEL incidentally states, as is seen in the cases in which 
the nucleated part is removed. 

In his paper on the development of Liuenjes mrirtinus, Conklix 
puts forth the view that the unilateral cleavage of the cœlenterate 
egg in general is at least in part due to the structure of the oöplasin 
itself, that is, thin central entoplasm with a firmer peripheral layer 
('08 p. 167). This we have no reason to deny, yet how such 
a structure is favorable to one-sided constriction is hard to 
understand. When we come to study the unilateral cleavage of 
the njicromeres of the ctenophore egg, which are almost entirely 
made up of ectoplasm, it becomes doubtful how much influence 
the origir.al structure of the ooplasm exerts on the ]H'i-forniance of 



Observations and Experiments on the Ctenophoro Eu'< 



1Ü 



^ucli cell division. It is also interesting to note, as I have done 
elsewhere, that unilateral cleavage is seen in some parthenogeneti- 
cally developing sea-urchin eggs and also in lamprey eggs, whose 
ooplasm is uniform ely laden with yolk granules. 

At present I am not in a position to construct any hypothesis 
to account for the cleavage mechanism of the ctenophore egg. 
Further detailed biophysical experimentation on the egg will 
undoubtedly shed a new light on the problem. As a working- 
hypothesis this much can be said. Through the action of the 
centres (centrosomes) sin-face tension is increased along the cleavage 
plane first at the animal region and then towards the micromere 
pole^ and thus the ectoplasm is graduall}^ collected. The optical 
section of the bottom of the cleavage furrow is the '' cleavage head, 
that is a passive structure. The entoplasm now tends to round 
up around two centres (geometrical) and the two blastomeres are 
formed. My experimental study seems to have furnished two 
important data regarding the above rather vague general 
interpretation of the cleavage phenomenon. Firstly, the cleavage 
furrow tends to divide the egg equally, as for instance in the 
cases where a portion of ooplasm is removed and thus the 
sjanmetr^^ is disturbed, the new cleavage furrow being bent 
toward the larger mass of cytoplasm. Secondly, the ectoplasm 
flows up and down just as Avell without the nuclei and centres, 
as with them. This change may l)e caused b}^ the unequal 
increase of surface tension due to the internal division phases. 
At any rate my results do not indicate that the ectoplasm alone 
is an active cleaving agent as Ziegler and Rlumbler seem to 
believe. 

Misald Marine Biological Station 
Aucr. n. 1910. 



1 As has been pointed out by Zieglïb unilxt->ral cleavaje is doubtless in some way con- 
nected with the eccentric position of the nuclei and centres. But it should be noted that their 
being in the ectoplaaui is not ai esi ^ntiil condition of ou»-siied cleavag». In the egg of a 
good many cœlenterates the nuclei are in the 'n'oplas ii and the clewage is unilateral, c. r., 
L/H;'r^('s (Conklin), (',i')-ji(>iii<( (Fp[.), Hijilru (Bkaui'^r, T vuneedther). 



20 Art. 3— Naohide Yatsu 



LITERATURE. 

Andrews, E. A., ''J8. — Some ectosai-cal plienoimiüi in tlic egg of Ui/ilr» : Johns 

Hopkins University Circulars 18. 
Brauer A., '91. — Über die Entwicklung von H;/(b<i : Zeit. wiss. Zool. 52. 
Bunting M., ö'i- — The origin of the sex-cells in ////<^//örd/»/'f and ZWocv»;//»«-, and 

the development of H>jdractinia : Journ. Morph, i). 
Chun C. 80. — Die Ctenophoren des Golfes von Neapel : Fauna uud Flora 1. 
Chun, C, '92. — Die Dissogony der Rippenquallen : Festsch. f. Leuckart 1. 
Conklin, E. G., '08, — ^The habits and early dovclopmont of Lincniex uit'rcuiiii.s : 

Carnegie Institution Publication 103. 
Driesch, H. and Morgan, T. T., "95. Zur Analysis der ersten Enlwicklungs 

Stadien des Ctenophoreneies : Arch. f. Entwm. 2. 
FewkeS J. W., 85. — On the development of Aijahiut : lUill. Mns. Conjp. Zool. 

Harvard Coll. 11. 
Fischel, A., '97.— Experimentelle I'liteisncl.ungen an Ctenophoronei I Teil: 

Arch- f. Entm. ü. 
Fischel, A., '98.^ — ^Experimciitelle Untersuchungen an Ctcnophorcnei Fortsetzung : 

Arch. f. Entm. 7. 
Fol, H., '73. — Die erstL' Entwicklung der Gerionideu-Eies : Jen. Zeit. 7. 
Hargitt., C. W,, OO. — A contribution to the natural history and development of 

I'ennarin : Am. Nat. 34. 
Hertwig, 0., '78. — Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Pilding, Befruchtung ui:d Thoilung 

des tierischen Eies : Morph. Jahrb. 4. 
Kleinenberg, N., '12. — ]hiilia-tme anatomisch-(ntAvi(k]uiigsgeschiclitliche Unter. 

suchung 
Korschelt, E. and Heider, K., 09. — Lehrbuch der vergleich. Ent\Yicklungs- 

geschichte der wirbellosen Tiere. AUg. Teil, 3 Lief. 
Kowalevsky, A., 'CG.— Entwicklungsgeschichte der Eippenquallen : Mein, de 

l'acad. des sciences de St. Petersburg, 7 série 10. 
Loeb, J., '06. — Dynamics of living matter. 

Maas, 0., '03. — Einführung in die experimentelle Entwicklungsgeschichte. 
Peters, A. M., '05. — Phosphorescence in ctenophores -. Journ. Exp. Zcol. 2. 
Ehumbler, L., '99. — Die Furthung des Ctenophoreneies nach Ziegler und deren 

Mechanik : Arch. f. Entm. 8. 
Tannreuther, J. W., OS.— Development of iiy^/r« : £ioh Bull. 14. 
Wager, R. E., '09.— lie ccgene.^is and early development of H»/(/;v/ : Biol. Bull. 18. 
Yatsu, N., '10. — An experimental ^tudy on the cleavage of the clerophoie egg : 

Proceed. Seventh Intern. Zool. Congress. 
Zifgler, E. H., "18,— E5itrin(nte]le Studien über die Zelltheilung : III Die 

FiircbungszelJen von Eeroe ornta : Arch f. Entm. G. 



Observations and Experiments on the Ctenophore E^g. 21 

Ziegler, E. H., '08.— Expei-imentelle Studien über die Zelltheihmg: IV Die 
Zelltheilnug der Fnrchungszellen bei Jieroc und Echiims : Arch. f. Entm. IG. 

Ziegler, E. H., '04. — Die erste Eutwicklangsvorgänge der Echinoderraeneies 
insbesondere die Vorgänge am Zellkörper : Festschrift zu E. Haeckel. 



N. YATSU. 
OBSERVATIONS AND EXPERIMENIS ON THE CTENOP.IORE EGG. 



PLATE I. 



PLATE I. 

Figs. 1-8, 10 and 11 Uerue oiahi. 
Fig. 9 l'"iicli(iris ))iuUicor)iin. 

Figs. 1, 2 and 3. Three successive stages of tbe division of tlie first [lolocyto. x270. 
Fig. 4. Surface view of three polocytes. Clear spot indicates tlie egg-nnclens. 

x270. 
Fig. 5- Sperm-head in thi- egg (surface view). Notice an aster around the centre 

and a réfringent body situated a little apart from the sperm-head. x270. 
Fig. 6. Side view of an ectoplasmic acciunnlation caused hy the spermatozoon. 

X27(). 
Fi-g 7- Tbc same drawn from a Polyspermie egg. x 270. 
Fig. 8. Trispermic egg (surface view). xGO. 
Fig. 9. Dividing egg of Kucltaiis (optical section), a stage preceding Figs 23 and 

24 (PL II), 3.23 P.M. xl40. 
Fig. 10- Dividing egg, the cleavage having proceeded nearly one third the diameter. 

xCO. 
Fio- 11- Dividing egg, showing outlines of four stages ; a-a' 10 A.M., h 10.8 A.M., 

e-c' 10.2.5 A.M., and d-d' 10 3.5 A.M. xGO. 



N. Yatsu 



r-^ 



Jour. Soi. Coll., Vol. XXXII., Art. 3. PI. I. 








N. YATSÜ. 
OBSERVATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS ON THE CTEN0P210RE EQQ. 



PLATE II 



PLATE II. 

Figs. 12-18, 21, 25 ^nd 26 Beivë oiaio 
FigS- 19 aiid 20 Bcroé J'orskiilii 
Figs- 22, 27-30 CalUonira hialaUt. 
FigS- 23 aiid 24 J'.xchaii'i iiiiilticoruis. 

Fig- 12- Very young cleavage-head, x 270. 

Figs- 13 and 14- Two stages of the elongation of the cleavage furrow. x270. 

Fig- 15- Cleavage-head having fused with the ectoplasm in the micromere 

region. x27Ü. 
Figs- 16-18- Last three stages of the first division, x 27Ü. 
Figs- 19 ai^d 20- T^^'o «tages of the first division of the egg of 7>. forskalii, drawn 

respectively at 10. t A.M. and 10.15 A M. x71. 
Fig- 21- Early two-cell stage showing the ectoplasmic accumulation in the 

luicroiuere region. xOO. 
Fig- 22- Early two-cell stage of CalUan'oa. Notice fenestrated cell- wall and thicker 

ectoplasm at the micromere region. x390. 
Fig- 23- Two-cell stage of Knchnis, in which the cleavage is about to begin. 3.55 

P.M. X140. 
Fig- 24- The same; in one of the blastomeres the second cleavage has been taking 

place. XI 40. 
Fig- 25- Blastomere of the four-cell stage. x71. 
F^ig- 26- Beginning of the third division. x60. 

Fig- 27- Beginning of the third division (Callianira) ; cf. Fig. 22. x390. 
Fig- 28- Blastomere of the four-cell stage, in which the third cleavage lias more 

advanced {CdllUtnlra). x200. 
Fig- 29- t'pper cell of the eight-cell stage, giving off a micromere towards the 

micromere pole {CaUianira) x390. 
Fig 3D- Lower cell of the eight-cell stage giving off a micromere horizontally 

{Callianira). X390. 



Jour. Sei. Coll., Vol. XXKII., Art. 3. PI. II. 




N. YATSU. 
OBSERVATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS ON THE CTENOPHORE EGG. 



PLATE III. 



PLATE m. 



Fig. 


31. 


Fig. 


32. 


Fig. 


33. 


Fig. 


34. 


Fig- 


35- 


Fig. 


36- 


Fig- 


37. 


Fig. 


38- 


Fig. 


39. 


Fig. 


40. 



Fig. 41. 



Fig. 42- 



Fig. 43- 



Fig. 44. 
Fig. 45. 



Fig. 46. 



Beroë ovafa. xGO (with the exception of Fig. 44 xl02). 

Egg cut horizontally below the " head." The enucleated cytoplasm cut off 
did not show any division activity. 

Egg cut below the " head " liorizontally nearly two third of its diameter. 
10.15 AM. 

The same. 10.38 AM. 

Egg cut in two horizontally at the stage when the " head " liadcome down 
nearly two-tbirds of its course, 10.10 AM. 

Enucleated fragment of the same showing ectoplasmic thickening in the 
micromere region as in the normal case. 11;25 AM. 

The same showing a very thin ectoplasmic layer over the cut surface. 
11.4-) AM. 

Egg cut obliquely just above tlie " head." 11.22 AM. 
Enucleated fragment of the same divided by a slightly curved cleavage 
plane. 0.10 PIM. 

Egg cut a little above the " head."' 9.85 AM. " 

Enucleated fragment of the same showing a thick ectoplasmic accumulation 
along the cut surface. Tlie nucleated part was at the four-cell stage. 
10,55 AM. 

Egg cut horizontally a little above the " head." Notice the thickening of 
the ectoplasm along the cut surface of the nucleated pieces. 2.40 Pm. 
The " head " at a, 2.50 PM., and at b, 3.25 PM. 

Enucleated piece of the same. 4.40 PM. At G PM. tlie upper bridge 
became broader. 

Enucleated fragment obtained by a horizontal cut (outline in dotted line) 
10.2 AM. ; the same (in full line) 11.15 AM. In the beginning the " head " 
came down at the rate of 18 ;« per minute, and stopped at the spot repre- 
sented in the latter. 

Cleavage farrow and " head " of the same magnified XI 02. 11.15 AM. 
Egg from which the right-hand nucleated portion has been cut off 
horizontally. Irregular mass attached to the nucleated fragment is the 
portion that flowed out. 10.45 AM. 
The same. 11.27 AM. 



N. Yatsu 



Jour. Sei. Coll., Vol. XXXII.. Art. 3. PI. III. 




Il 



f 



I 



à 



N. YATSU. 
OBSERVATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS ON THE CTENOPHORE EÖQ. 



PLATE IV 



PLATE IV. 

lieio'é ovata. XGO, 
X X ill sürui! of tlio tigures in this plate indicate the bottom of cleavage furrow at 
the time of operation. 

Fig- 47- Egg partially cut in two liorizontally, a little above the " head " Ü.45 PM. 

Fig. 48- The same. 2 PM. 

Fig- 49- Ego an which young " head " has been split lengthwise by a vertical 

incision. 9.55 AM. 
Fig. 50- The same 11.35 AM. 
Fig. 51- Operation similar to Fig. 49. The '' head " had got halfway when cut. 

11.15 AM. 
Fig. 52- The same. 1 1.35 AM. The cleavage furrow cut through the egg at 0.5 PM. 
Fiö". 53. Egg with two cuts, one longitudinal and the other horizontal, separating 

nucleated portion from right-hand prominence. 10.29 AM. 
Fig. 54. The same. 11.24 AM. 
Fig- 55- Egg from which a portion of cytoplasm has been cut off and the " head " 

split lengthwise. 11.15 AM. 
Fig- 56- The same. 11.55 AM. 
Fig- 57- Egg operated on similarly to Fig. 55. 
Fig. 58- Cleavage furrow has been formed from the bottom of the cut towards the 

left. 
Fig. 59- Cleavage furrow has cut through the egg. Nucleated portions of both the 

blastomeres have divided. 
Fig- 60- Egg in which the " head " has been split lengthwise and an incision made 

at the micromere pole. 9.42 AM. 
Fig. 61. The same. 10.40 AM. 
Fig. 62- The same. Cleavage furrow has cut through the egg, forming an enucleated 

mass on the right. 



Jour. Sei. Coll., Vol. XXXII., Art. 3. PI. IV. 




N. YATSU. 
OBSERVATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS ON THE CTENOPHORE E(iQ. 



PLATE V. 



PLATE V. 

Ik'fo'é ucata. X 60. 

Fig. 63. ligg with three cuts, namely, tlic nucleated part was cut off from the left 
half, which is found attached to the right portion, the '' head " was spht 
lengthswise (it was at X X when operated upon) and a portion of cytoplasm 
was cut off obliquely from the micromere region. 11.10 AM. 

Fig. 64. The same. 0.35 PM. 

Fig. 65- £^gg "\^'itii '^11 incision at the micromere region. 9 AM. 

Fig. 66. The same. Ectoplasmic thickening is very conspicuous over a prominence 
to the left of the incision. 11.45 AM. 

Fig. 67- i^gg ^"»'ith an incision on the right side. 0.5 PM. 

Fig. 68. Til« same- O-SO PM. 

Fig. 69. Egg with an incision at the micromere region. 9.45 AM. 

Fig. 70- The same. Cleavage furrow has become continuous with the cut. 10.18 
AM. 

Fig. 71- Egg with a vertical incision at the micromere region. 2.15 PM. 

Fig. 72- The same. " Head " has become irregular and a flow figure is seen. 

Fig. 73. The same. Cleavage furrow has fused and two new furrows have been 
formed. 3.11 PM. (at 2.55 PM. two slight indentations were formed). 

Fig. 74. The same. 4.18 PM. 

Fig- 75. Egg with two incisions on both sides. 10.53 A^I. 

Fig. 76. The same. 11.28 AM. 



N. Yatsu 



Jour. Sei. Coll., Vol. XXXII., Art. 3. PI. V. 




i 

é 



4 



JOURNAL OF THE COLLEGE OF SCIENCE, TOKYO DIPERIAL UNIVERSITY. 

VOL. XXXIT., AKTICLE, 4. 



Études Anthropologiques. 
Les Aborigènes de Formose. 



(2® Fascicule.) 

par 

R. Torii. 

Chargé de cours d'Anthropolorjie à l'Université IvipCriale de Tôhyô, memlre du bureau des afain 
concernant les Aborigènes, département de V Administration civile. Gouvernement de Formose. 



Arec 7 planches. 

I. Caractères physiques. 
A. Tribu Yami 

Cette étude sur les "Aborigènes de Formose" comprend 2" 
parties : 

1". Caractères physiques. 
2°. Mensurations. 

Je commencerai par décrire les "Caractères physiques" des 
Aborigènes, en passant en revue les 9 tribus qui peuplent l'île. 

Ce premier chapitre est consacré à l'étude des caractères 
physiques de l'une de ces tribus: les Yami qui habitent Kö-tö-shö. 

J'ai déjà publié un album de photographies des Indigènes de 
Kö-tö-shö ^'^ et une note sur les coutumes locales de cette île. — ^^^' 
M. Otto Scheerer^^^ a fait paraître une traduction en allemand de 
ces 2 travaux dans la revue: "Mitteilungen der deutschen 
Gesellschaft für Natur und Völkerkunde Ostasiens." 

(1) R. Törii, " Kö-tö-shö shashin-shü " Tokyo 1839. 

(2) E. Törii, " Kö-tö-shö clözoku hökoku " Tokyo 1902. 

(3) Otto Scheerer, Ein Ethnographischer bericht über die Tnsel-Botel Tob ige in " Mitteil- 
ungen der deutschen Gesellschaft für Natur und Völkerkunde Ostasiens "—Band XT. 1906. 



•^ Art. 4.— Torii: 

Déjà, auparavant, le même auteur avait publié dans la même 
revue, une étude sur les relations d'origine entre les aborigènes de 
Lu'jon (Philippines) et ceux de Kö-tö-shö,^'^ dans laquelle il cite 
les 2 ouvrages dont je viens de parler, et celui de M. Davidson/^^ 
M. Davidson et ]M. Fischer^^^ ont visité Kö-tö-shö, et ont publié le 
Tésultat de leurs investigations sur les aborigènes de cette île. 
M.Davidson s'exprime ainsi au sujet de leurs caractères physiques: 
'* The natives are small, averaging only five feet two inches in 
height. They are yellowish brown in color; and, with one indi- 
vidual exception, possess straight hair, black with a brownish tint. 
While thus conforming with the Malayan type in their straight 
hair and complexion, they appear, so far as face character is 
concerned, to be two types. We find the rather small nose and 
non-protruding lips of the Malay; and again a type with 
projecting eyebrows, deeply sunk orbits, short noses rather 
depressed at the root and with large nostrils, — in fact almost a 
Negrito nose, — together with the comparatively large mouth and 
thick lips of the pure papuan type. One of the chief characteristics 
of the Papuan is his frizzled hair, of which no trace is found among 
the Botel-Tobago natives, save in the case of one male adult who 
possesses hair distinctly curly. So much for their physical character- 
istics. In their usages and rites, their canoes and dwellings, they 
possess much in common with the Papuan, and in some instances 
opposed to the Malay " 

A la suite des travaux ci-dessus mentionnés, que j'ai publiés 
au retour de mon voyage à Kö-tö-shö, je vais maintenant parler 
des caractères physiques des aborigènes de cette île. 

"Kö-tö-shö" est une petite île située au sud-est de Taï- 
Wan/*^ Les Européens l'appellent "Botel-Tobago." Elle est 
habitée par des aborigènes qui l'appellent " Yami," et se nomment 
eux-mêmes " Gourougourousera." — 

(1) 0. Scheerer, Zur Ethnologie der Inselkette zwischen Luzon und Formosa in " Mitteil. 
•der deutsch. Gesell, für Nat. und Volk. Ost "-Band XI. 1906. 

(2) Z. W. Davidson, The Island of Formosa.. London and New York 1903. (p. 585-6). 

(3) A. Fischer, Streif züge durch Formosa. Berlin 1900. (p. 359). 

(4) Formose. 



Études Anthropologiques. o 

Il y a encore, au sud de Ko-tô-shô, une autre petite île qui 
s'appelle " Ri -Taiwan." Les Européens l'appellent " Little -Botel- 
To-bago." Elle n'est pas habitée. 

L'île de Kö-tö-shö mesure 22 à 23 ri^^-* environ de pourtour. 
L'île étant entièrement formée de montagnes rocheuses, les villages 
-des aborigènes sont situés sur le bord de la mer. 

Les aborigènes de " Kô-tô-sho " nomment leurs villages 
^ ' nahmen. ' ' On n' en compte que 8 à savoir : Ya3^ou, Ibatashi, 
Irarai, Iwao, Ibariminouk, Ibarinou, Imorod, et Iratai. 
Le village de Yayou compte un nombre de maisons assez élevé, 50 
environ. Le village d' Imorod en compte 30, et chacun des villages 
d' Irarai, d' Ibariminouk, d'Ibarinou, 25. Il n'y en a que 3 au 
village d'Iwao, et 2 au village d'Iwatashi. 

D'après les légendes des aborigènes de Kö-tö-shö, à une époque 
reculée, il n'y avait dans l'île qu'un homme et une femme, au 
village d' Irarai. Ils eurent une nombreuse descendance. L'homme 
mourut de bonne heure. La femme, restée seule, éleva les enfants. 

Un jour, des Indigènes le l'île d'Ibatan étant arrivés dans l'île, 
s'emparèrent de la femme et l' emmenèrent avec eux. Dans la 
suite, les enfants, étant devenus grands, se marièrent entre eux. 
Ce fut l'origine du village d' Irarai. 

Les légendes du village d'Ibarinou racontent que des indi- 
gènes de l'île d'Ibatan, venant du village d' Irarai, où ils avaient 
enlevé cette femme, ayant eu toutes sortes de tribulations sur mer, 
ne purent retourner dans leur pays, et s'arrêtèrent à Ibarinou. 
De là date la fondation de ce village. 

Au village d' Imorod, existe la légende suivante: Les ancêtres 
des habitants de ce village étaient des indigènes de l'île d'Ikoubarat. 
Un jour, alors qu'ils étaient sortis pour pécher, un grand vent 
s'éleva tout-à-coup. Emportés par le courant, ils atterrirent à l'en- 
droit où se trouve aujourd'hui le village d' Imorod. 

Ils prirent des femmes dans le village voisin d' Iratai. De 
ces unions naquirent des enfants, qui, s' étant peu à peu multipliés, 
formèrent le village d' Imorod. 

(1) Le ri équivaut à 3 kiloin. 927. 



Art. 4.-Torii; 



Les légendes que je viens de rapporter, parlent d'îles nommées- 
Ibatan et Ikoubarat. 

Où étaient situées ces îles? J'ai fait des recherches à ce sujet. 
Je suppose que, comme ces îles étaient situées au sud du détroit de- 
Bashi, elles doivent avoir quelque rapport avec les îles Batan. 

Ibatan serait alors Batan, et Ikoubarat serait l'île Ibayat 
qui fait partie du groupe des îles Batan. 




Fig. 1. Vue de l'île Botel-ïobagû. 

Il nie parait donc évident que les aborigènes de Kö-tö-shö ont 
eu quelque relation avec les aborigènes du nord des Philippines. 

La population totale des S villages de Kô-lo-shô, s'élève au 
chiffre de 1300 habitants environ. 

J'estimais que des recherches anthropologiques sur les abori- 
gènes de Kô-tô-shô offriraient un grand intérêt. 

L'Université Impériale de Tokyo m' 3^ envoya dans ce but. 

Parti de Ke-Lung le 21 octobre 189G, j'arrivai à Kö-tö-shö le 
26 du même mois. Je séjournai d'abord quelque temps sous la tente, 
au village d'Imorod; x^^^is, je visitai, ultérieurement, tous les autres 
villages. 



Etudes Anthropologiques. 



J'ai poursuivi ces recherches anthropologiques jusqu'au 29 
•décembre, c'est-à-dire, pendant 70 jours. 

Il n'y a à Kô-tû-sho, ni Japonais, ni Chinois. Aucun navire 
ne faisant le service entre cette île et Taiwan (Forrnose), le Gouver- 
neur de Formose, M. le Baron Nogi eut la bonté d'en mettre im 
spécialement à ma disposition pourque je pusse me rendre à Kô-tô- 
shô. 

Je lui adresse ici l'expression de ma respectueuse gratitude. 




Fig. 2. Un village de l'ile Botel-Tobago. 

Je suis également respectueusement reconnaissant à M. K. 
Ouchida, gouverneur civil de Formose, ainsi qu'à M. R. Otsu, qui 
ont bien voulu me faciliter l'accomplissement de ma mission. 

C'est à l'appui de M. le Frofes. S. Tsuboï, que je dois d'avoir 
été envoyé à Kö-tö-shö. M. le Profes. J. Ijima m'a aimablement 
prêté son concours pour la publication de cet ouvrage. M. S. Hashi- 
moto a bien voulu également m' aider dans les calculs des men- 
•surations. J'ai enfin reçu l'aide ahiiable et les conseils de Mrs. U. 
Mori membre du bureau des affaires concernant les aborigènes, 



b Art. 4.— Torii: 

T. Goto, Y. Noro et K. Mi3'ajinui. Enfin, Mr. le docteur Chemin a 
bien voulu se charger de la traduction en franf^ais de cet ouvrage. 
Je leur adresse à tous mes bien sincères remerciements. 

Je dois aussi remercier mon assistant Mr. T. Nakajima, dont 
l'aide m'a été précieuse dans l'accomplissement de ce travail. 



CHAPITRE I 



Caractères Descriplifs. 



Couleur de la Peau 

La peau est fine et lisse. Je n'ai trouvé, au village cl'Imorod, 
qu'un seul individu présentant des boutons sur la figure ; beaucoup, 
cependant, seraient atteints de cette particularité pathologique. 

Les riches s'enduisent la peau de graisse de porc; la peau 
devient luisante, et dégage une odeur désagréable; mais ils en 
retirent une certaine considération. 

Pour mes recherches sur la couleur de la peau chez les abori- 
gènes de Kô-to-shô, je me suis servi de la table qui se trouve dans 
l'ouvrage publié par la Société Anglaise d'Anthropologie.^'^ 

Broca donne également, dans son ouvrage,^"-* une table des 
différentes couleurs de la peau: (couleurs de la peau et du sj^stème 
pileux.) Mais le nombre des couleurs donné dans le manuel de la 
Société Anglaise d'Anthropologie est moins élevé que celui que 
donne Broca. Il n'y en a que 10. Le n° 1, la couleur la plus 
fon(^ée est le " coal-black (noir de charbon) " ; la plus claire, le n° 
10 est "florid, or rosy (couleur fleurie ou rosée)." Au milieu se 

trouvent le " yellow (jaune) " ; le " brown (brun) " etc Cette 

table est très commode pour l'explorateur. 

(1) Notes aad queries on. Anthropology. London 1892. (p. 16; pL III.) 

(2) P. Broca, Instructions anthropologiques générales. Paris 1879. 



Études Anthropologiques. 7 

J'ai observé la couleur de la peau sur les parties suivantes: 
front, dos et paume de la main. 

La couleur de la peau est la môme chez les hommes et chez 
les femmes. 

Couleur du front. 
La couleur du front est le '' brown (brun) " ; elle n'est pas 
tout-à-fait aussi foncée que la couleur n° 5 de la table ' ' copper 
coloured (cuivrée)." Elle me parait être un mélange des couleurs 
n° 9 et n° 7 (n° 30 de Broca). 

Couleur de la Paume de la Main. 

Cette couleur diffère de celles du front et du dos de la main. 
C'est le n° 10 de la table, c. à. d. " florid (fleurie) '' ou "rosy 
(rosée)." 

J'ai fait porter mes recherches à ce sujet sur des individus de 
20 à 50 ans, hommes, femmes, vieillards, enfants, indifféremment. 

Ils ont tous la même couleur de peau. 

Sur les reins, elle ne diffère pas lorscj^u'ils sont nus, môrae à 
l'endroit où ils portent d'habitude le " gigat."*^^^ V. la fig. A de 
la pi. XIV de l'Introduction. 

J'ai, cependant, observé, au village d'Ibarinou, un sujet, 
nommé Shaman-Barrou dont la peau présentait la couleur n° 9 
"pale-white (blance pâle)," au niveau du grand-trochanter, à 
l'endroit où la peau était cachée par son " gigat." J'ai aussi 
observé, ultérieurement, le même fait sur 2 autres sujets. 

Chez les enfants, la couleur du front et du dos de la main est 
un peu plus claire que celle des adultes qui est le " yellow-brown 
(jaune brun)." Elle un peu plus foncée que le n° 10 de la table. 

Couleur des Yeux. 

En prenant comme base, pour observer la couleur des yeux, 
"l'Échelle chromatique des yeux " de Broca, -'"^ j'ai constaté que 

(1) Sorte de pagne de 3 mètres de longueur et de 15 centimètres de largeur, en toile de 
chanvre, que les indigènes portent enroulé autour de la ceinture à partir de l'âge 'de 7 à 8 ans. 

(2) Loc. cit. 



s 



Art. 4— Torii 



la couleur des yeux des aborigènes de Kö-tö-shö, répond aux 
numéros 1,2 et 3 de la série " brun-noir," de cette échelle. 

Cheveux. 

Les cheveux des indigènes de Kö-tö-shö sont absolument 
droits. Leur couleur est noire, un peu mélangée cependant de 
brun. Ils sont fins et souples, et sont très fournis. 

Les enfants ont les cheveux bruns au début; mais, à mesure 
qu'ils grandissent, la couleur de leurs cheveux se rapproche peu à 
peu de celle des cheveux des adultes. 

Voici une section des cheveux, examinée au microscope: 
<fig. 3). 



/^/^ 



7.S/Ù 




(C) 



B 




D. D I 2. zeiss 



//Jl 



Fis. 3 



A. Section à la racine. B. Section à la partie moyenne. 

C. Section à l'extrémité. 

Comme on le voit par ces figures, la section à la racine est 
légèrement triangulaire; elle est ronde à la partie moyenne et 
absolument circulaire à l'extrémité. 

Dans le nombre, il y a des cheveux de forme très irrégulière ; 
mais ils sont rares. 

Au milieu de la section, il y a un canal. 

J'ai trouvé au village d'Imorod, un sujet du nom de Shikashi, 
•dont les cheveux étaient frisés. Il est représenté en B dans la fig. 4. 



Études Anthropologiques. 9 

Les indigènes actuels de Ko-tö-shö ont le type que Mr. 
Deniker appelle " indonésien "^'^ Je n'ai jamais trouvé le type 
''Negrito." Tous les autres indigènes de Kö-tö-shö que j'ai exa- 
minés, ayant les cheveux droits, je pense que ce cas de cheveux 




frisés chez le nommé Shikashi est unique (B), et je suis porté à le 
considérer comme un phénomène de retour, les ancêtres des indi- 
gènes actuels s'étant métissés autrefois, ailleurs, avec le type negrito, 
avant leur arrivée à Kö-tö-shö. 

Le type A de la fig. 4, qui est extrait de l'album du Dr. 
]\jyei.(2) ^p2^ XII) est un indigène venu des Philippines, habitant 
Calayan, dans le nord de Lu(;on, et issu d'un métissage entre malais 
et negrito. En les comparant ensemble, on peut constater qu'ils 
se ressemblent. 

Barbe. 

Il ressort des recherches que j'ai pratiquées sur 79 indigènes 
de Kö-tö-shö, que leur barbe présente 3 variétés. 

(1) J. Deniker, Les races et les peuples de la terre. Paris 1900. 

(2) A. B. Meyer, Album von Philippinen typen. Dresden 1835 (PI. XII). 



10 



Art. 4.— Torii 



Type a) Sujets ayant de la barbe sur quatre parties du visage : 
des moustaches, la mouche, de la barbe au menton et sur les joues. 

Cette barbe est extrêmement rude, et peu abondante. 

Sur 79 sujets observés, 2 à peine, aj^pelés l'un Manigad, l'autre 
Shimagon, tous deux du village d'Ibarinou appartenaient à ce type. 






Type />). Sujets n'ayant de barbe que sur 3 parties du visage: 
moustaches, mouche et barbe au menton. C'est le type le plus 
fréquent: 73 sujets sur 71) le présentaient. 

Type c) Sujets n'aj^ant pas du tout de barbe sur les quatre 
parties du visage. Je n'ai trouvé que 4 sujets de ce type sur les 79 
que j'ai observés: 2 étaient originaires du village d'Ibarinou; ils 
s'appellent Shaman-Shagerrou et Kourongo; le troisième Shaman- 
Shabougai, est du A^illage d'Imorod; je n'ai pu savoir le nom du 
quatrième, originaire du village d'Iratai. 

Poils du Corps. 

On peut établir dans chaque race 4 divisions relatives au 
degré d'abondance des poils: absents, rares, moyennement abon- 
dants, abondants. 

Chez les indigènes de Kö-tö-shö, la variété ''rares" est fré- 
quente ; mais parmi ceux qui composent cette variété, il y en a 
chez qui les poils sont presque " absents,'' de même que d'autres 
sont à la limite de la variété " moyennement abondants." Voici 
le résultat de mes recherches relatives à l'abondance du système 
pileux sur 120 sujets. 

«) Sujets aj^ant des poils fins aux jambes. Les sujets de 



Études Anthropologiques. it 

cette variété sont nombreux à Kô-tô-shô; j'ai, cependant, observé 
que les poils du membre inférieur poussaient très rudes chez un 
individu du nom de Shaman-Manigad, au village d'Ibarinou. 

h) Sujets ayant des poils fins aux avant-bras et aux jambes. 
Ils sont également nombreux. 

c) Sujets ayant des poils fins à la fois aux épaules, aux avant- 
bras et aux jambes. Dans cette variété, les poils sont plus rares 
que dans les variétés précédentes. Je n'ai trouvé qu'un seul sujet, 
du nom de Shaman-Barrou, du village d'Ibarinou, appartenant à 
ce groupe. 

d) Sujets qui n'ont pas de poils du tout sur le corps. 2 in- 
dividus seulement, Shaman-Shagai, et Shaman-Kwakou, tous deux 
du village d'Imorod, appartenaient à cette variété. 

t') Sujets dont presque tous les poils du corps sont rudes. 
Je n'ai trouvé qu'un seul sujet de cette variété. Cet individu, 
nommé Shap-Makarrou, du village d'Iratai, était âgé de 50 ans en- 
viron. Les poils étaient rudes partout où ils poussaient, sur les 
épaules, sur le dos, les bras, le ventre, les jambes. Ces poils, assez 
abondants, avaient la longueur suivante: sur les bras, 26"™'; sur 
les épaules, 24'^"'-; aux jambes, 26.™"'. On peut le ranger dans, 
la variété '* abondants." 

Sourcils. 

La couleur des sourcils est noire ; ils sont généralement épais, 
la queue étant plus fournie. Chez 4 sujets sur 130 examinés, des 
poils fins poussaient entre les sourcils. L'un d'entre eux était du 
village d'Ibarinou; je n'ai pu avoir son nom; un autre, Shap- 
Makarrou, était du village d'Iratai; enfin, 



les deux autres étaient de jeunes garçons 
'"■ ■ de 15 à 16 ans, l'un Sekoa, du village 

d'Imorod, l'autre Sheramaza, du village d'Iratai. 

Si l'on regarde sans trop d'attention ces 4 sujets, leurs sour- 
cils semblent se rejoindre, en raison des poils fins qui poussent au 
milieu (fig. 6). 



12 



Art. 4— Torii : 



Insertiois des Cheveux sur le Front. 

Ayant examiné le mode d'implantation des cheveux sur le 
front sur 80 indigènes, j'ai trouvé les 3 formes suivantes (fig. 7). 

a) Insertion à 
-courbe très prononcée. 

h) Insertion à 
courbe moyenne. CO ^ 

c) Insertion à ^. ^ 

•courbe peu prononcée. 

Sur les 80 sujets examinés, 48 présentaient la forme a), 14 la 
forme ?>), 10 la forme ^). Le forme ci) semble donc être la plus fré- 
quente. 

Face. 

La face est plate. Elle est déprimée à sa partie médiane. Sa 
forme est, le plus souvent ronde. 

Le front est un peu incliné en arrière et bombé. 

L'os malaire est, le plus souvent proéminent; l'angle du 
maxillaire inférieur fait saillie. Il en résulte que la forme de la 
face semble carrée. ^=>':^^ 




Fis. 8 



Voici quelques spécimens de profils de la face chez les in- 
digènes de Kö-tö-shö (fig. 8). 



Études Anthropologiques. 



13" 



On peut les comparer ici, avec les profils de Japonais et 
d'Européens qui sont reproduits dans la fig. 8/'^^-^ 

1, 2, 3. Sont des profils de 
Japonais. 

4-5. d'Européens. 
\ Les lèvres des aborigènes de- 

J Kô-tô-shô sont épaisses. 
-' La bouche est large. 



Yeux. 

Les yeux ont des dimensions 
moyennes. Leur direction est 
toujours horizontale. 

Ayant examiné attentivement 
la forme des yeux sur 98 indivi- 
dus, j'ai constaté que des 2 formes 
d'œil que donne M. Topinard/-^ 
presque tous les sujets avaient 
l'œil ' ' européen. ' ' Je n' ai trouvé 
que chez un seul individu nommé 
Sheriton, du village d'Ibarinou, 
l'œil ' 'oblique, ' ' caractéristique de 
la race mongole, 
le globe de l'œil s'y enfonce profondé- 




Fisr. 9. 



L' orbite est très excavé 



ment. 



La couleur des yeux est, comme je l'ai déjà dit plus haut, 
brun-noir." 

La paupière supérieure présente deux rephs. 



Nez. 

^Dans mes recherches sur les profils des nez chez les aborigènes 
de Kô-tô-shô, j'ai trouvé 3 types. Dans ces 3 types, le sillon qui 

(1) Tiré de J. Eanke, Der Mensch II. Leipzig 189. (p. 278). 

(2) P. Topinard, Eléments d'anthropologie générale. Paris 1885 (-p. 909). 



14 



Art. 4.— Torii: 



Fier. 10. 



sépare les ailes du nez des joues, est profondément marqué, l'ouver- 
ture des narines est large. 

Voici un exposé détaillé des caractéristiques de chacun de ces 
types (fig. 10). 

a) La forme de ce nez est un 
mélange du n° 1 et du n° 7 de la 
table des "Types de nez; profils" 
de Topin ard. 

18 individus sur 85 présentaient 

ce type. J'ai dessiné la forme de 

ce nez d'après un indigène du village 

d'Ibarinou, nommé Shaman- Ayou. 

h) 19 sujets sur 85. La forme 

■de ce nez a été prise sur un nommé Shapoun-Magaro, du village 

d'Imorod. 

c) Au milieu du dos du nez, il existe une dépression; les 
ailes sont larges; l'ouverture des narines est grande. 48 sujets 
présentaient ce type. Chez l'un deux, nommé Shap-Magarrou, du 
village d'L-atai, existe une profonde dépression; à proprement 
j)arler, il semble qu'il n'y ait pas de dos du nez; les ailes seules 
ressortent. Ce type extrême de nez me fait penser au type negrito, 
dont il se rapproche beaucoup. J'ai dessiné ce type de nez 
d'après un nommé Kateshana-Yappanko, du village d'Imorod. 

De ces 3 types de nez, le type c est donc le plus fréquent. 
Les profils ont été pris dans les villages d'Imorod, d'Ibarinou et 
-d'Iratai. Le t^^pe a est fréquent au village d'Ibarinou; j'ai vu 
souvent le type c au village d'Imorod. 

La forme du nez est caractéristique d' une race. C'est vrai pour 
les aborigènes d'Australie, les Papous, les Boshimen, les Hotten — 
tots, demême que pour les Européens et les Juifs. 

Les formes extremes des types a et c devaient exister avant 
l'arrivée des aborigènes dans l'île; la forme /> est probablement 
le résultat du mélange des types a et c après l'arrivée dans l'île. 

J'ai trouvé dans l'album des photographies des types des 



Études Anthropologiques. 15 

Philippines du Dr. Myer/'^ des formes de nez semblables au type c 
<îes aborigènes-de Kö-tö-shö chez les Igorrotes et les Tinguianen. 
Il y a donc probablement une relation d'origine entre les deux. 

Dents. 

Les aborigènes de Kö-tö-shö ont généralement de bonnes 
dents ; elles sont réguHèrement plantées. Chez certains d'entre eux, 
le bord de l'arcade dentaire inférieure est horizontal. Sur 73 
sujets de 20 à 50 ans que j'ai examinés, je n'en ai vu qu'un, nommé 
Shaman-Magaro, à qui manquaient les dents molaires. 

Oreille. 

Tantôt le bord du pavillon de l'oreille est droit, tantôt il 
présente une échancrure; de même, chez les uns, le lobule est 
nettement séparé de la tête, tandis que chez d'autres il y est rattaché. 
j Dans le dessin I de la fîg. 11, ci- 

dessus, en a le bord du pavillon est très 
droit, le lobule nettement séparé de la 
paroi du crâne. 

En h le lobule est également séparé 
de la paroi du crâne; mais le bord du 
d -/ pavillon présente une échancrure. 

jy En II, le bord du pavillon de c est 

droit; mais le lobule est rattaché à la paroi 
du crâne; en cl le pavillon est droit, le 
lobule adhérent. 

Sur 73 sujets examinés 46 présentaient 
le type a, 17 le type 6, 14 le type c; enfin 
3 seulement répondaient au type d. 

Les femmes percent dans le lobule 

Fig. 11. . 

de l'oreille un petit trou, dans lequel elles 
introduisent un fil auquel est attaché un pendant d'oreilles que 
l'on appelle dans le pays "oubai."^-^ 

(1) Meyer, Album von Philippinen-typen (PI. XIV et XXIV). 

(2) Coquillage taillé en forme de 8 provenaut du Xautilus PompUlua L. 





16 Art. 4.— Toni: 

Les hommes ne portent pas de pendants d'oreille, mais ils 
présentent encore une petite cicatrice en trou d'aiguille dans le 
lobule. 

Voici le résultat de mes recherches sur 115 sujets: 

a) Sujets chez lesquels le petit trou du lobule est encore 
ouvert. 

h) Sujets chez lesquels persiste une cicatrice des deux côtés. 

c) Sujets chez lesquels cette cicatrice ne persiste que d' un coté. 

d) Sujets ne portant plus aucune trace du trou. 

Un seul sujet nommé Sliaman-Shabougai, du village d'Imorod 
appartenait à la catégorie a. Parmi 99 sujets venant se ranger dans 
la catégorie h, un d'entre eux, nommé Kourougo, du village 
d'Imorod, avait le lobule fendu. Enfin, il y avait un seul sujet 
dans la catégorie c, et 5 dans la catégorie d. Les sujets présentant 
encore des vestiges du trou dans le lobule, sont donc les plus 
nombreux. (99 sur 115). 

D'après les indigènes de Kô-tô-shô, ceux des îles Ibatan 
(Batan) et Ikoubarat (Ibayat) se perdent un grand trou dans le 
lobule de l'oreille, et y introduisent des morceaux de bambou ou 
de bois. En outre, les aborigènes de ces îles s'appelleraient du 
nom de " gourougourousera '''^ de même que ceux de Kô-tû-shû. 
On peut donc en déduire que les aborigènes de Kô-tô-shô se per- 
çaient également autrefois de grands tious dans le lobule de l' oreille. 

Dimensions de l'index et de l'annulaire. 

Sur 95 indigènes chez lesquels j'ai recherché les dimensions de 
l'index et de Tannulaire, 84 avaient l'index plus long; chez 8 
autres ces deux doigts étaient d'égale longueur. Chez 3 seule- 
ment, l'annulah-e était plus long. L'index est donc généralement 
plus long que l'annulaire. 

Forme de l'Ongle. 
Les 3 formes suivantes existent: 

(1) Hommes qui ont les cheveux taillés en rond, (de " gourou," cercle et " sera," homme.) 



Etudes Anthropologiques. 1 < 

Sur 70 sujets, 13 présentaient la forme a, 48 la forme h, 9 

I 1 I I seulement la forme c ; la forme h, est done 

J celle que l'on trouve le plus fréquemment. 



a 4 

Fie:. 12. 



Courbe du bras. 



Voici le résultat de mes recherches sur le degré de courbure- 

du bras chez i 

97 sujets: 

^ Tig. 13. -^ 

En faisant tendre le bras autant que la force le permet, 94 
sujets sur les 97 présentaient la forme en a), 3 seulement la forme 
en V). Le bras ne présente donc pas de courbure; il est le plus- 
souvent horizontal. 

Degré n' écartement des membres inférieurs. 

Ayant fait placer 79 sujets dans la position debout pour recher- 
cher le degré d'écartement des membres inférieurs, j'ai constaté 
que 74 les avaient écartés, alors que 5 seulement les avaient réunis. 
L'écartement est donc la généralité. 

Dimensions des 1™ et 2^^^^^ orteils. 

Le deuxième orteil est généralement plus long que le premier, 
ainsi qu'il résulte de ce tableau établi d'après des recherches prati- 
quées sur 82 sujets. 

a) I>II 8 sujets. 

h) I = II 23 ,, 

c). I <:II 51 ,, 

Chez un sujet, en outre, la longueur des T'' et 2"'° orteils du 
pied droit et du pied gauche différaient: d'un côté le V était plus 
long que le 2*^, tandis que c'était l'inverse de l'autre côté. 

Mes recherches ont surtout porté sur les hommes; je n'ai pas 
étudié les femmes. 

Les hommes que j'ai examinés sont surtout des adultes; j'ai 
laissé de côté les enfants et les vieillards. 



18 



Art. 4. — Torii : 



Voici la liste des sujets sur lesquels j'ai pratique' des mensura- 
tions ■• j 

(* Ce siçfne indique les enfants au dessous de 12 :vns). 



Nuint'ros 


Xoms des Villages 


Xoms des Individus. 


1 


Imorod 


Kateshana Yappanko 


2. 


>> 


Shapou Magaro 


3 


>> 


Sbennikotan 


4 


Ibarinou 


Jaraboi 


5 


Ibariminoiik 


Sheriton 


6 


Ibarinou 


Shenemararop 


7 


? 


Sbipanigaman 


8 


Ibariminouk 


Sbaman Garap 


9 


>> 


Sbamau Jagaraou 


10 


>» 


Banaibinko 


11 


Ibarinou 


Sliaman Manigad 


12 


>> 


Sbigatok 


13 


Imorod 


Sbaman Norain 


14* 


Ibarinou 


Sbijariga 


15 


Iratai 


Sbap Makarou 


16* 


Ibarinou 


Sbitokourin 


17 


Imorod 


Sbagerrou 


18 


Ibarinou 


Sbaman Noyau 


19 


9 


Sbaman Ranrounkô 


20 


Iratai 


Sbegawosbi 


21 


Ibarinou 


Panaman 


22* 


)> 


Sbijempou 


23 


Imorod 


GaraiD 


24 


Ibarinou 


Sbaman Barrau 


25 


Imorod 


Sbaman Sbabougai 


26 


jj 


•? 



f'> 



Études Anthropologiques. 



19 



Numéros 


Noms des Villages 


Noms des individus. 


27 


Iratai 


Shaman Kouyamako 


28 


Imorod 


Shaman Kwako 


29* 


Ibariminouk 


Shiramaya 


30 


Ibarinou 


Shaman Panama 


31 


j> 


Shimagou 


32 


jj 


Shaman Jokourin 


33 


jj 


Shaman Jonanko 


34 


Imorod 


Amanikotan 


35 


5> 


Shaman Maroukanko 


36 


9 


Shaman Harongan 


37 


Ibarinou 


Shaman Jüaji 


38 


5> 


? 


39 


Imorod 


? 


40 


5) 


Shaman Eoumai 


41 


Ibarinou 


Pountan Shagai 


42 


Imorod 


Shaman Kiprin 


43 


j> 


Shap kara Watouko 


44 


9 


? 


45 


Imorod 


9 


46 


)> 


Chikojiratai 


47 


Iratai 


Shaman Joumanoud 


48 


Imorod 


Shaman Eoup 


49 


Ibarinou 


9 


50 


Ibariminouk 


Shaman Mararou 


51 


Iratai 


Shaman Kwako 


52* 


Imorod 


Shekoa 


53* 


JJ 


Chichiagod 


54 


>> 


Shap Morainbinko 


55 


JJ 


Shaman Panigoun 


56 


Ibarinou 


Shaman Chinapi 


57 


JJ 


Shaman Kotouko 



20 


Art. 4.— Toni: 




Xuméros 


Noms des Villages 


Noms des individus. 


58 


Imorod 


Shaman Karawako 


59 


5> 


Shaman Shadaji 


60 


Ibarinou 


Kakoutoükü 


61 


Iratai 


Shaman Kwakù 


62 


Imorod 


Shaman Garouwash 


63 


Iratai 


Shaman Chinapi 


64 


Ibarinou 


Shap Megatok Shoun. 


65 


Imorod 


Shaman Matapo 


66 


Iratai 


Kagon 


67 


Imorod 


Set'machiang 


68 


Ibarinou 


Shaman Masori 


69 


)> 


Sham Norain 


70 


j> 


Shaman Joubout 


71 


Yayou 


Shépoposou 


72 


Ibarinou 


Shiraton 


73 


9 


Shaman Shagerroui 


74 


Ibarinou 


Kaurougo. 


75 


>» 


Shaman Patö 


76 


j» 


Shaman Magato 


77 


Yayou 


Matounara 


78 


5> 


Shaman Jagagi 


79 


Iratai 


Shaman Gararop- 


80 


Imorod 


Shenegapouri 


81* 


? 


Shenaoijei 


82* 


Imorod 


Shijabat 


83* 


Iratai 


Sherakounko 


84 


Ibarinou 


Shaman Jombou 


85 


Iratai 


Shaman Japourrou 


86 


>> 


? 


87 


Iratai 


Maroshi 


88 


j> 


? 



Études Anthropologiques. 



21 



CHAPITRE II. 
Mensurations. 

Mensurations de la tête et de la face. 



I. Diamètre antéro-postérieur maximum. 

Mensurations pratiquées sur 48 sujets. 

Le chiffre moyen est de 178 millimètres ; les dimensions ex- 
trêmes sont de 169 millim. et de 189 millim. 
Voici le tableau de ces mensurations. 



Xuméros d'ordre 


Diam. ant. jjost. maxim. 


Xuméros d'ordre 


Diam. ant. i)ost. maxim. 


1 


176 '"'"• 


34 


178 '"'^• 


2 


184 


35 


184 


3 


180 


36 


174 


4 


175 


39 


177 


6 


170 


40 


180 


6 


172 


41 


182 


7 


182 


42 


182 


9 


169 


43 


183 


11 


172 


47 


188 


12 


180 


48 


174 


13 


174 


50 


177 


15 


176 


51 


180 


17 


174 


55 


185 


18 


175 


57 


172 


21 


177 


58 


171 


23 


179 


59 


184 


24 


184 


60 


184 


25 


172 


61 


179 


27 


182 


62 


179 


28 


176 


63 


170 


30 


175 


64 


176 


31 


178 


65 


172 


32 


176 


66 


188 


33 


175 


74 


189 



22 



Art. 4— Toiii : 



Diamètre transversal maximum. 

Mensurations pratiquées sur 44 sujets. 

La moyenne est de làl'^'^^o; les dimensions extrêmes de 
130™"-,0 et de 153™"-,0. 

Voici le tableau de ces mensurations. 



Numéros cVordre 


Diarii. transv. maxim. 


Numéros cVordre 


Diam. transv. maxim.. 


1 


130 ™™- 


35 


153 "^"^■ 


2 


137 


36 


140 


3 


137 


39 


146 


4 


139 


40 


140 


5 


144 


41 


145 


G 


137 


42 


138 


7 


139 

! 


43 


140 


9 


1149 


47 


138 


11 


jl40 


\ 48 


138 


12 


'l53 


55 


138 


13 


150 

1 


57 


138 


15 


1130 


58 


132 


17 


il45 

1 


59 


143 


18 


|l41 


60 


145 


21 


!l39 

1 


61 


139 


25 


!l51 


62 


189 


27 


161 


63 


130 


28 


il40 


64 


141 


30 


145 


65 


139 


31 


145 


66 


144 


32 


139 


74 


143 


33 


141 


— 


— 


34 


140 


— 


— 



Etudes Anthropologiques. 



23 



Longueur totale du visage. 

(Du point mentonnier à la racine des cheveux). 

Sur une série de 45 individus, la longueur moyenne a été de 
178"™-, 4; les variations extremes de 16r"%0 et de 198"™-, 0. 



Numéroa d'ordre 


Long. tot. du visage 


Numéros d'ordre 


Long. tot. du visage 


1 


183 "^°^- 


36 


172 "^• 


2 


182 


39 


176 


3 


185 


40 


198 


4 


164 


41 


184 


5 


161 


42 


191 


6 


171 


43 


182 


8 


191 


47 


177 


11 


171 


48 


180 


12 


173 


50 


183 


15 


182 


51 


176 


17 


176 


55 


181 


18 


172 


58 


174 


21 


184 


59 


186 


23 


170 


60 


189 


24 


181 


61 


171 


25 


164 


62 


174 


27 


189 


63 


175 


28 


179 


64 


176 


31 


165 


65 


186 


32 


172 


66 


191 


33 


177 


67 


177 


34 


167 


74 


187 


35 


181 


— 


— 



^4 



Art. 4.— Torii : 



Longueur totale de la face. 

(du point sns-nag;il au point mentonnior.) 

Sur une série de 47 individus, le chiffre moyen a été de 10G'"'"',0 
les variations extremes, de 94"""-, et de 116'""\,0. 



Numéros cVordre 


Long. tot. de la face 


Numéros dordre 


Long. tot. de la face 


1 


108 '"™- 


36 


103 '"'" 


2 


107 


39 


107 


3 


103 


40 


ni 


4 


101 


41 


112 


5 


101 


42 


111 


6 


111 


43 


113 


8 


100 


47 


112 


11 


104 


48 


105 


12 


104 


50 


107 


15 


107 


51 


104 


17 


104 


55 


106 


18 


101 


57 


107 


21 


103 


58 


101 


23 


105 


59 


108 


24 


106 


60 


111 


25 


95 


61 


107 


27 


109 


62 


103 


28 


106 


63 


105 


30 


110 


64 


94 


31 


103 


65 


110 


32 


107 


66 


116 


33 


112 


67 


100 


34 


104 


74 


113 


35 


106 


— 


— 



Études Anthropologiques. 



25 



Largeur totale de la face (distance bi-zygomatique maxiaaaa). 

Examen pratiqué sur 49 individus. 

Largeur moyenne 128™", 6; variations extrêmes lOO'^^^jO et 



139"^-, 0. 



Numéros d'ordre 


Larg. tot. de la face 


Numéros d'ordre 


Larg. tot. de la face 


1 


137 '""• 


36 


122 '"™- 


2 


136 


39 


130 


3 


131 


40 


128 


4 


127 


41 


138 


5 


128 


42 


133 


6 


125 


43 


139 


8 


125 


47 


136 


9 


127 


48 


125 


11 


127 


50 


125 


12 


135 


51 


137 


15 


121 


54 


134 


17 


130 


55 


135 


18 


124 


57 


122 


21 


116 


58 


124 


23 


121 


59 


127 


24 


109 


60 


138 


25 


125 


61 


130 


27 


125 


62 


128 


28 


129 


63 


128 


30 


132 


64 


124 


31 


127 


65 


136 


32 


122 


66 


128 


33 


114 


67 


136 


34 


135 


74 


129 


35 


139 


— 


— 



26 



Art. 4.— Torii ; 



Hauteur du front. 



Le chiffre moyen de la hauteur du front mesurée chez 4G 
sujets est de 72^"-,4 ;les variations extrêmes sont de 60™™-,0et 9r™%0. 



Numéros d'ordre 


Haut, du front 


Numéros d"ordre 


Haut. du. front 


1 


75 "'"^• 


36 


69 "'^■ 


2 


75 


39 


69 


3 


82 


40 


87 


4 


63 


41 


72 


5 


60 


42 


80 


6 


; 65 


43 


65 


8 


' 91 


47 


65 


11 


67 


48 


75 


12 


69 


50 


76 


15 


■ 75 


51 


72 


17 


; 72 


53 


71 


18 


; 71 


55 


75 


21 


81 


58 


73 


23 


! 65 


59 


78 


24 


; 75 


60 


78 


25 


69 


61 


64 


27 


80 


62 


71 


28 


73 


63 


70 


31 


62 


64 


82 


32 


. 65 


65 


76 


33 


65 


66 


75 


34 


63 


67 


77 


35 


75 


74 


74 



J 



Études Anthropologiques. 



27- 



Longueur du nez. 

La longueur mo^^enne, prise sur 48 individus est de 42"""-, 9, 
les variations extremes de 34°™-, et 53^°^-, 0. 



Xuméros d'ordre Lo] 


ag. du nez 


Numéros d'ordre 


Long, du nez 


1 


36 "'"• 


36 


43 °""- 


2 


45 


39 


45 


3 


46 


40 


43 


4 


46 


41 


47 


5 


41 


42 


45 


6 


43 


43 


48 


8 


42 


47 


44 


11 


42 


48 


40 


12 


42 


50 


46 


15 


34 


51 


45 


17 


45 


54 


51 


18 


50 


55 


39 


21 


41 


57 


44 


23 


39 


58 


38 


24 


41 


59 


41 


25 


39 


60 


45 


27 


44 


61 


37 


28 


42 


62 


42 


30 


49 


63 


43 


31 


45 


84 


37 


32 


41 


65 


39 


33 


53 


66 


,47 


34 


41 


67 


40 


35 


42 


74 


42 



128 



Art. 4.— Torii : 



Largeur du nez. 

Largeur moyenne prise sur une série de 48 individus: 40 
; variations extrêmes : 32'""'\0 et 50'^"'-,0. 



lUam. o 



Numéros d'ordre 


Larg. du nez 


Numéros d'ordre 


Larg. du nez 


1 


^]^ mm. 


36 


^]^ mm. 


2 


46 


39 


46 


3 


38 


40 


40 


4 


35 


41 


42 


5 


34 


42 


39 


6 


45 


43 


40 


8 


40 


47 


34 


11 


41 


48 


42 


12 


35 


50 


40 


15 


33 


51 


43 


17 


41 


54 


41 


18 


39 


55 


42 


^1 


41 


57 


43 


23 


l35 


58 


42 


24 


;37 


59 


38 


125 


32 


60 


41 


27 


42 


61 


38 


28 


41 


62 


44 


30 


50 


63 


87 


31 


37 


64 


40 


32 


38 


65 


43 


33 


42 


66 


44 


34 


42 


67 


41 


35 


50 


74 


36 



Études Anthropologiques. 



29 



Largeur palpébrale (Longueur de l'œil). 

Largeur moyenne sur 49 individus: 31"™', 8. Variations extrê- 
mes : 24'™"-, Oet 39™"-,0. 



Xuméros cVordre 


Larg. palj)ébralo 


Numéros d'ordre 


Larg. imlpébrale 


2 


28 ™'»- 


40 


32 °"^- 


3 


31 


41 


31 


4 


24 


42 


31 


5 


35 


43 


34 


6 


28 


47 


39 


9 


29 


48 


29 


11 


29 


50 


34 


12 


32 


51 


33 


15 


30 


52 


29 


17 


28 


53 


30 


18 


31 


54 


31 


21 


33 


55 


34 


22 


28 


57 


31 


23 


32 


58 


31 


24 


25 


59 


31 


25 


33 


60 


33 


27 


33 


61 


28 


28 


36 


62 


33 


31 


30 


63 


34 


32 


30 


64 


34 


33 


36 


65 


32 


34 


37 


66 


35 


35 


37 


67 


36 


36 


33 


74 


31 


39 


33 


— 


— 



30 



Art. 4— Toni 



Largeur bicaronculaire (distance minima des yeux). 

La largeur bicaronculaire moyenne sur 49 individus est de 
.34'^"^9. Les variations extremes sont de 2S'^™-,0 et 44"™\0. 



Numéi'oa d'oi'dre 


Larg. iDicaroncnl. 


Numéros d'ordre 


Larg. ))icaroncu]. 


2 


33 mm- 


40 


34 mm. 


3 


37 


41 


38 


4 


36 


42 


33 


5 


39 


43 


38 


6 


36 


47 


35 


9 


40 


48 


31 


11 


30 


50 


34 


12 


34 


51 


34 


15 


37 


52 


32 


17 


37 


53 


29 


18 


36 


54 


42 


21 


S3 


55 


33 


22 


30 


57 


35 


23 


35 


58 


29 


24 


30 


59 


34 


25 


28 


60 


35 


27 


32 


61 


32 


28 


35 


62 


35 


31 


39 


63 


32 


32 


35 


64 


35 


33 


44 


65 


35 


34 


39 


66 


38 


35 


40 


67 


32 


36 


34 


74 . 


38 


39 


36 


— 


— 



Études Anthropologiques. 



31 



Largeur buccale. 

48 sujets observés. Largeur mo_yenne: 53"™, 3 Chiffres ex- 
trêmes: 40"""-,0 et G4"™-,0. 



Numéros cVordre 


Larg. ):)uccale 


Numéros d"ordre 


Larg. buccale 


1 


60 '""■ 


35 


59 '""■ 




2 


60 


36 


55 




3 


40 


40 


41 




4 


51 


41 


63 




5 


49 


42 


54 




6 


54 


43 


54 




8 


47 


47 


51 




9 


50 


48 


53 




11 


55 


50 


52 




12 


58 


51 


55 




15 


59 


54 


54 




17 


57 


55 


57 




18 


54 


57 


54 




21 


52 


58 


54 




23 


52 


59 


47 




24 


52 


60 


49 




25 


51 


61 


56 




27 


64 


62 


56 




28 


56 


63 


52 




30 


57 


64 


46 




31 


51 


65 


49 




32 


46 


66 


61 




33 


55 


67 


52 




34 


53 


74 


51 





32 



Art. 4;.— Torii : 



Longueur des oreilles. 

Chiffre moyen sur 51 individus: 59""", 7. Chiffres extrêmes 
46'"'"-,0 et 69"^-, 0. 



Numéros clordre 


Long, des oreilles 


Numéros d'ordre 


Long, des oreilles 


1 


62 "™- 


36 


63 "='" 


2 


65 


39 


64 


3 


52 


40 


59 


4 


59 


41 


58 


5 


61 


42 


63 


6 


61 :■: 


43 


66 


8 


60 


47 


56 


9 


60 


48 


56 


11 


62 


50 


62 


12 


57 


51 


58 


15 


69 


53 


59 


17 


61 


54 


61 


18 


60 


55 


58 


21 


57 


57 


67 


23 


59 


58 


63 


24 


63 


59 


61, 


25 


46 


60 


51 


27 


46 


61 


54 


28 


56 


62 


65 


29 


55 


63 


62 


30 


57 


64 


59 


31 


57 


65 


59 


32 


65 


66 


56 


33 


67 


67 


59 


34 


59 


74 


61 


35 


68 


— 


— 



Études Anthropologiques. 



3S 



Indice céphalique. 

Le chiffre moyen de l'indice céphalique, sur une série de 44 
individus, est de 79°™, 4. Les chiffres extrêmes sont de TO^'^^ô et 
88™"-, T). 

Cette moyenne correspond aux Sous-dohchocéphales de 
" l'Indice céphalique sur le vivant " de Deniker/'^ 

Voici le tableau de ces indices. 



Xuruéros d'ordre 


Indice céphal. 


Numéros d'ordre 


Indice céphal. 


1 


73,9 


35 


83,2 


2 


74,5 


36 


80,5 


3 


76,1 


39 


82,5 


4 


79,4 


40 


77,8 


5 


84,7 


41 


79,7 


6 


79,7 


42 


75,8 


7 


76,4 


43 


76,5 


9 


87,6 


47 


73,4 


11 


81,4 


48 


79,3 


12 


85,0 


55 


74,6 


13 


86,2 


57 


80,6 


15 


73,9 


58 


77,2 


17 


83,3 


59 


77,7 


18 


80,6 


60 


78,8 


21 


78,5 


61 


77,6 


25 


87,8 


62 


77,6 


27 


88,5 


63 


70,6 


28 


79,6 


64 


80,1 


30 


82,9 


65 


80,8 


31 


81,5 


66 


76,6 


32 


79,0 


74 


75,7 


33 


80,6 


— 


— 


34 


78,6 


— 


— 



(1). J, Deniker, Races et peui^lf 3 de la terre, p. 89. Paris 1900. 






54 



Art. 4. — Torii : 



En établissant un rapport entre ces indices céphaliques et le 
nombre des individus observés, on obtient ce qui suit : 



70,1 — 


71,0 


71,1 - 


72,0 


72,1 ~ 


73,0 


73,1 — 


74,0 


74,1 — 


75,0 


75,1 — 


76,0 


76,1 — 


77,0 


77,1 - 


78,0 


78,1 — 


79,0 


79.1 — 


80,0 


80,1 — 


81,0 


81,1 — 


82,0 


82,1 — 


83,0 


83,1 — 


84,0 


84,1 — 


85,0 


85,1 — 


86,0 


86,1 — 


87,0 


87,1 — 


88,0 


88,1 — 


89,0 


89,1 — 


90,0 


90,1 — 


91,0 



44 



Dolichocépliales . 



Sous-dolicliocéphales. 



Mésocéphales. 



Sous-brachycépliales. 



Brachycéphales. 



Hyperbrachycéphales. 



•Ce rapport est figuré dans la courbe ci-dessous : 




71 nz T^ 7f TS 76 77 73 7? 80 BT &Z 63 8"^ S5 66 87 83 8? 90 



Études Anthropologiques. 35 

Indice du visage. 

(obtenu en comparant la longueur totale du visage, de la racine 
des cheveux au point mentonnier, à la largeur totale de la face ou 
distance bizygomatique maxima.) 

Chiffres obtenus sur une série de 32 individus : 

Indice moyen: 71,9. Variations extrêmes: 60,2 et 80,8. 



Numéros d'ordre 


Indice du visage 


Numéros d'ordre 


Indice du visage 


1 


74,9 


27 


66,1 


2 


74,7 


28 


72,1 


3 


69,3 


31 


77,0 


•1 


77,4 


32 


70,9 


5 


79,5 


33 


64,4 


6 


73,1 


34 


80,8 


8 


65,4 


35 


76,8 


11 


74,3 


36 


70,9 


12 


78,0 


39 


73,9 


15 


66,5 


40 


64,6 


17 


73,9 


41 


75,0 


18 


72,1 


42 


69,6 


21 


63,0 


43 


76,5 


23 


71,2 


47 


76,8 


24 


60,2 


48 


69,4 


2.5 


76,2 


50 


68,3 



Indice facial. 

(obtenu en comparant la longueur totale de la face, (du point 
sus-nasal au point mentonnier), à la distance bi-zygomatique 
maxima.) 



36 



Art. 4. -Toni 



Chiffres obtenus sur une série de 47 individus : indice moyen 
121,1. Variations extremes: 101,8 et 130,0 



Numéros d'ordre 


Indice facial 


Nnméro& d'ordre 


Indice facial 


1 


126,9 


36 


118,4 


2 


127,1 


39 


121,5 


3 


127,2 


40 


115.3 


4 


125,7 


41 


123,2 


5 


126,7 


42 


119,8 


6 


112,6 


43 


123,0 


8 


125,0 


47 


121,4 


11 


122,1 


48 


119,0 


12 


129,8 


50 


116,8 


15 


113,1 


51 


131,7 


17 


125,0 


55 


127,4 


18 


122,8 


57 


114,0 


21 


112,6 


58 


122,9 


23 


115,2 


59 


117,6 


24 


102,8 


60 


124,3 


25 


131,5 


61 


121,5 


27 


114,7 


62 


124,3 


28 


121,7 


63 


121,9 


30 


120,0 


64 


131,9 


31 


123,3 


65 


123,6 


32 


114,0 


66 


110,3 


33 


101.8 


67 


136,0 


34 


129,8 


74 


114,2 


35 


131,1 


— 


^— 



Études Anthropologiques. 



37 



Indice nasal. 



Indice moyen sur une série de 48 individus: 94,3. Chiffres 
extrêmes: 7G,1 et 119,0. 



Xuméros d'ordre 


Indice nasal 


Xuméros d'ordre 


Indice naäal 


1 


113,9 


36 


95,3 


2 


102,2 


39 


102,2 


3 


82,8 


40 


93,0 


4 


76,1 


41 


89,4 


5 


82,9 


42 


86,7 


6 


104,7 


43 


83,3 


8 


95,2 


47 


77,3 


11 


97,6 


48 


105,0 


12 


83,3 


50 


87,0 


15 


97,1 


51 


95,6 


17 


91,1 


54 


80,4 


18 


78,0 


55 


107,7 


21 


100,0 


57 


97,7 


23 


89,7 


58 


110,5 


24 


90,2 


59 


92,7 


25 


82.1 


60 


91,1 


27 


95,5 


61 


102,7 


28 


97,6 


62 


104,8 


30 


102,0 


63 


86,0 


31 


82.2 


64 


108.1 


32 


92,7 


65 


110,3 


33 


79,2 


66 


93,6 


34 


102,4 


67 


102,5 


35 


119.0 


74 


85,7 



38 



Art. 4.— Torii : 



B. Mensurations du tronc et des membres. 



Taille. 



La moyenne de la taille, sur une série de 46 sujets, est de 
160°'"-5. Les chiffres extrêmes sont de lör'^^O et de 172''"% 0. 

Cette moyenne correspond à la " Taille au dessus de la 
moyenne " de M. Topinard/'-* 



Numéros d'ordre 


Taille 


Numéros d'ordre 


Taille 




cm. 




cm. 


1 


161,0 


33 


165,5 


2 


159,0 


34 


157,5 


3 


165,0 


35 


169,0 


4 


154,5 


36 


158,5 


5 


154,5 


39 


159,5 


6 


163,0 


40 


159,5 


7 


155,0 


42 


165,5 


8 


154,0 


47 


161,0 


11 


160,0 


48 


158,5 


12 


160,0 


50 


162,5 


13 


168,0 


51 


160,5 


15 


163,0 


54 


162,0 


17 


163,5 


55 


155,5 


18 


156,0 


57 


154,0 


20 


172,0 


58 


162,0 


21 


155,0 


59 


157,0 


23 


162,5 


60 


162,0 


24 


156,0 


61 


154,0 


25 


159,0 


62 


161,0 


27 


163,5 


63 


151,0 


28 


171,5 


65 


170,0 


29 


163,5 


66 


164,5 


31 


156,5 


67 


158,0 



(1) p. Topinard. Elements d'anthropologie générale. Paris 1885. (p. 402.) 



Études Anthropologiques. 



3c^ 



Si l'on établit un rapport entre ces chiffres, en partant des j^lus 
faibles pour arriver aux plus forts, et le nombre des individus ob- 
servés, on obtient ce qui suit : 



Taille 


KoDibre des sujets 


cm. cm. 




151,1-152,0 


1 


152,1-159,0 


— 


153,1-154,0 


— 


154,1-155,0 


3 


155,1-156,0 


4 


156,1-157,0 


3 


157,1-158,0 


2 


158,1-159,0 


2 


159,1-160,0 


4 


160,1-161,0 


4 


161,1-162,0 


4 


162,1-163,0 


3 



163, 

164,1 

165,1 

166,1- 

167,1 

168,1 

169,1 

170,1 

171,1 

172,1 



-164,0 
-165,0 
-166,0 
-167,0 
-168,0 
-169,0 
-170,0 
-171,0 
-172,0 
-173,0 



46 



C'est ce rapport que représente également la courbe ci-jointe: 




1^0 isr 752 7Î3 rÇ4 755 756 75r 7^8 759 760 767 t62 163 764 765 Vo6 76r 768 769 770 777 112 773. 



40 



Art. 4— Torii : 



Grande envergure. 
La longueur moyenne sur une série de 43 individus, est de 
IGo'^^^e. Les variations extrêmes sont de 156'"-, 5 et 178'"'-,0. 



Numéros cVordre 


Grande envergure 


Numéro.? d'ordre 


Grand envergure 




cm. 




cm. 


1 


171,0 


34 


163,5 


2 


165,5 


35 


177,0 


3 


173,0 


36 


161.0 


4 


156,5 


39 


162,5 


5 


156,5 


40 


163,0 


6 


165,5 


42 


173,5 


7 


165,0 


47 


170,0 


11 


165,0 


48 


160,5 


12 


167,0 


50 


165,5 


13 


176,5 


51 


167,5 


15 


165,5 


54 


168,0 


17 


173,0 


55 


157,5 


18 


157,0 


57 


165,0 


21 


157,5 


58 


170,0 


23 


173,5 


59 


165,0 


24 


160,0 


60 


169,0 


25 


169,0 


61 


160,0 


27 


167,5 


62 


171,0 


28 


176,5 


63 


161,0 


29 


162,5 


65 


178,0 


31 


169,5 


66 


169,5 


33 


174,5 


— 


— 






Si l'on établit un rapport entre ces chiffres, en partant des 
plus faibles pour arriver aux plus élevés, et le nombre des individus 
observés, on obtient ce qui suit : 



Grande envergure 


Nombre des sujets 


cm. cm. 

155,1-156,0 
156,1-157,0 
157,1-158,0 


3 



Etudes Anthropologlqiies. 



41 



Grande envergure 


Nombre des sujets 


cm. cm. 




158,1-159,0 


2 


159,1-160,0 


— 


160,1-161,0 


2 


161,1-162,0 


3 


162,1-163,0 


— 


163,1-164,0 


3 


164,1-165,0 


1 


165,1-166,0 


4 


166,1-167,0 


4 


167,1-168,0 


1 


168,1-169,0 


8 


169,1-170,0 


2 


170,1-171,0 


4 


171,1--172,0 


2 


172,1-173,0 


— 


173,1-174,0 


2 


174,1-175,0 


2 


175,1-176,0 


1 


176,1-177,0 


— 


177,1-178,0 


8 


178,1-179,0 


1 



43 
Rapport do la grande envergure à la taille. 
Ayant recherché ce rapport sur une série de 43 individus, j'ai 
constaté qu' à l'exception d'un seul individu (le n° 29 de la série, 
dont la taille est de 163'=^'%5 et la grande envergure de 162°^^-,5), la 
grande envergure était toujours supérieure à la taille. Le rapport 
moyen de la grande envergure à la taille est de 103,7. 
Voici le tableau de ce rapport : 



Numéros d'ordre 


Grande envergure 


Taille 


Différence 


Eapport entre la gr. 
enverg. et la taille 


1 

2 
3 


cm. 

171,0 
165,5 
173,0 


cm. 

161,0 
159,0 
165,0 


cm. 

10,0 
6,5 

8,0 


106,2 
104,1 
104,9 



42 




Art. 4.— Torii: 






Numéros d'ordre 


Grande envergure 


Taille 


Différence 


Rapport entre la gr. 
enverg. et la taille 




cm. 


cm- 


cm. 




4 


156,5 


154,5 


2,0 


101,3 


5 


156,5 


154,5 


2,0 


101,3 


6 


165,5 


163,0 


2,5 


101,5 


7 


165,0 


155,0 


10,0 


106,5 


11 


165,0 


160,0 


5,0 


103.1 


12 


167,0 


160,0 


7,0 


104,4 


13 


176,5 ! 


168,0 


8,5 


105,1 


15 


165,5 


163,0 


2,5 


101,5 


17 


173,5 


163,5 


10,0 


106,1 


18 


157,0 


156,0 


1,0 


100,6 


21 


157,5 


155,0 


2,5 


101,6 


23 


173,5 


162,5 


11,0 


106,8 


24 


160,0 


156,0 


4,0 


102,5 


25 


169,0 


159,0 


10,0 


106,3 


27 


167,5 


163,5 


4,0 


102,4 


28 


176,5 


171,5 


5,0 


102,9 


29 


162,5 


163,5 


-1,0 


93,9 


31 


169,5 


156,5 


13,0 


108,3 


33 


174,5 


165,5 


9,0 


105,4 


34 


163,5 


157,5 


6,0 


103,8 


35 


177,0 


169,0 


8,0 


104,7 


36 


161,0 


158,5 


2,5 


101,6 


39 


162,5 


159,5 


3,0 


101,9 


40 


163,0 


159,5 


4,5 


102,2 


42 


173,5 


165,5 


8,0 


104,8 


47 


170,0 


161,0 


9,0 


105,6 


48 


160,5 


158,5 


2,0 


101,3 


50 


165,5 


162,5 


3,0 


101,8 


51 


167,5 


160,5 


7,0 


104,4 


54 


168,0 


162,0 


6,0 


103,7 


55 


157,5 


155,5 


2,0 


101,3 


57 


165,0 


154,0 


11,0 


107,1 


58 


170,0 


162,0 


8,0 


104,9 


59 


165,0 


157,0 


8,0 


105,1 


60 


169,0 


162,0 


7,0 


104,3 


61 


160,0 


154,0 


6,0 


103,9 


62 


171,0 


161,0 


10,0 


106,2 


63 


161,0 


151,0 


10,0 


106,6 


65 


178,0 


170,0 


8,0 


104,7 


66 


169,5 


164,5 


5,0 


103,0 



Études Atithropologiqnes. 



43 



Hauteur du conduit auditif au-dessus du sol. 

La hauteur moyenne est de 147™', d'après les mensurations 
prises sur une série de 25 sujets. 

Les variations extremes sont de 140™, et IST'^^jo. 



Numéros dordre 


Haut, du cond. audit. 


Eapport de la haut, du 
cond. audit, à la taille 




cm. 




4 


141,0 


91,3 


5 


144,0 


93,2 


11 


147,0 


91,9 


12 


149,5 


93,4 


13 


157,5 


93,8 


17 


150,0 


91,7 


18 


143,0 


91,7 


21 


140,0 


90,3 


23 


145,0 


89,2 


24 


140,5 


90,1 


25 


144,5 


90,9 


27 


143,5 


87,8 


28 


153,0 


89,2 


29 


147,0 


89,9 


31 


143,0 


91,4 


32 


151,0 


93,1 


33 


154,0 


92,1 


34 


145,0 


92,3 


35 


156,0 


94,3 


36 


149,5 


90,7 


43 


143,5 


89,0 


47 


146,0 


92,3 


48 


141,0 


89,9 


50 


150,0 


— 


67 


142,0 


— 



44 



Art. 4.— Torii 



Hauteur clu bord inférieur du menton au-dessus du sol. 

La hauteur moyenne, sur 25 sujets, est de ISO*""-,!. 

Les variations extrêmes sont de 13P™',5 et 152™', 5. 

Le rapport de la hauteur du menton au-dessus du sol à la 

taille est de 8G,7. 



Xuméros d'ordre 


Haut, du menton 


Rapport de la haut, du 
ment, à la taille 




cm. 




4 


132,5 


85,8 


5 


135,0 


87,4 


11 


137,5 


85,9 


12 


149,5 


93,4 


13 


149,0 


88,7 


15 


142,0 


87,1 


17 


141,5 


86,5 


18 


135,5 


86,9 


21 


132,5 


85,5 


23 


139,5 


85,7 


24 


131,5 


81,3 


25 


137,0 


86,2 


27 


137,5 


84,1 


28 


145,0 


84,6 


31 


135,5 


86,6 


32 


141,5 


92,2 


33 


152,5 


87,3 


34 


137,5 


87,3 


35 


147,5 


86,1 


36 


136,5 


85,1 


43 


135,0 


85,5 


47 


137,0 


87,1 


48 


135,5 


84,2 


50 


141,5 


— 


67 


133,0 


— 



Études Anthropologiques. 



Hauteur de racromion au-dessus du sol. 

Hauteur moyenne: 133''"-, 1 (sur une série de 21). 
Variations : 123^-^-, 5 et U5'^\0. Rapport de la hauteur de 
r acromion à la taille : 82,9. 



Numéros d'ordre 


Haut, de racrom. 


Rapport de la haut, de 
l'acrom. à la taille 


4 


cm. 

130,5 


84,5 


11 


130,5 


81,6 


13 


143,5 


85,6 


17 


137,5 


84,1 


18 


127,5 


81,7 


21 


131,5 


84,8 


28 


135,0 


83,1 


24 


127,5 


81,7 


25 


130,5 


82,1 


27 


134,5 


82,3 


28 


145,0 


84,6 


31 


123,5 


78,9 


32 


133,5 


85,7 


33 


135,0 


82,0 


34 


138,5 


83,6 


36 


132,5 


81,1 


43 


130,5 


83,6 


47 


130,5 


83,1 


48 


132,5 


82,0 


50 


135,0 


— 


67 


129,5 


— 



46 



Art. 4. — Torii 



Hautour de l'extrémité inférieure du médius au-dessus du sol. 

Hauteur moyenne : 57°"'-, 3 (sur une série de 24). Variations 
extrêmes: 49""-, 5 et 65°'"-,0. 

Le Rapport de la hauteur de l'extrémité inférieure du médius 
à la taille, sur une série de 22, est de 35, 8. 



Xuméros d'ordre 


Haut, de l'extrém. du 
médius 


Eapport de lu haut, du 
med. à la taille 




cm. 




4 


56,5 


36,6 


5 


55,5 


35,9 


11 


58,0 


36,3 


12 


62,0 


38,8 


13 


61,5 


36,6 


15 


58,5 


35,9 


17 


61,5 


37,6 


18 


62,0 


39,7 


21 


55,0 


35,5 


24 


49,5 


31,7 


25 


62,5 


39,3 


27 


60,0 


36,7 


28 


57,0 


33,2 


31 


56,0 


35,8 


32 


60,5 


32,6 


33 


54,0 


36,5 


34 


57,5 


38,5 


35 


65,0 


35,6 


36 


55,5 


31,1 


43 


50,0 


33,1 


47 


50,0 


36,0 


48^ 


52,5 


34,8 


50 


58,5 


— 


67 


55,0 


— 



Études Anthropologiques. 



47 



Hauteur de l'ombilic au-dessus du sol. 

Hauteur moyenne : 95°""-, 3 (sur une série de 23). 
Variations extrêmes: 88°"^, et 103°™-,5. Rapport de la hauteur 
de l'ombilic à la taille, (sur une série de 21): 59,3. 



Numéros d'ordre 


Haut, de rombilic 


Rapport de la haut, de 
î'ombil. à la taille 




cm. 




4 


88,0 


57,0 


5 


92,5 


59,9 


11 


94,5 


59,1 


12 


99,5 


62,2 


13 


103,5 


61,6 


15 


98,5 


60,4 


17 


93,5 


57,0 


18 


89,5 


57,4 


21 


92,5 


59,7 


23 


96,0 


59,1 


24 


92,5 


59,3 


25 


94,5 


59,4 


27 


97,5 


59,6 


28 


99,5 


58,0 


32 


94,5 


61,9 


33 


102,5 


58,4 


34 


92,0 


60,1 


35 


101,5 


57,7 


36 


91,5 


57,5 


43 


92,5 


60,3 


47 


92,5 


59,4 


48 


95,5 


— 


50 


96,5 


— 



48 



Art. 4.-Torii 



Hauteur du grand trochanter au-dessus du sol. 

Hauteur moyenne: 92"'', (sur une série de 20.) 
Variations extrêmes : SS'^^'^O et lOO^^'^O. 

Rapport de la hauteur du grand trochanter à la taille : 57, 2 
(sur une série de 19). 



Numéros d'ordre 


Haut, du grand troch. 


Eapijort de la haut, du 
gd. troch. à la taille 




cm. 




2 


84,5 


53,1 


4 


87,5 


56,6 


5 


91,5 


59,2 


11 


83,0 


5L9 


12 


96,5 


60,0 


13 


100,0 


59,5 


15 


93,5 


57,4 


18 


87,5 


56,1 


21 


87,5 


56,5 


23 


95,0 


58,5 


24 


89,5 


57,4 


25 


91,5 


57,6 


27 


93,5 


57,2 


28 


98,5 


57,4 


31 


90,0 


57,5 


32 


93,0 


60,4 


33 


100,0 


55,9 


34 


88,0 


58,0 


35 


98,0 


56,8 


47 


91,5 


— 



Études Anthropologiques. 



49 



Hauteur du vertex dans la position assise. 

Hauteur moyenne: Sô^'^jQ (sur une série de 25). 
Variations extrêmes: SS'^^^O et 93'='°-,5. 

Rapport de la hauteur du vertex dans la position assise à la 
taille : 54,0 (sui- une série de 24). 



Numéros d'ordre 


Haut, du vertex dans la 
posit, assise 


Eapport de la haut, du 
vertex pos. ass. à la taille 


2 


cm. 

84,0 


52,8 


3 


85,0 


51,5 


4 


86,5 


56,0 


5 


88,5 


57,3 


6 


85,0 


52,2 


11 


85,0 


53,1 


l'2 


83,0 


51,9 


15 


86,5 


53,1 


17 


88,0 


53,8 


18 


86,5 


55,5 


21 


85,5 


55,2 


23 


89,5 


55,1 


24 


84,0 


53,9 


25 


85,5 


53,8 


27 


85,5 


52,3 


28 


88,5 


51,6 


31 


88,5 


56,6 


32 


90,5 


55,6 


33 


92,0 


55,2 


34 


87,0 


55,3 


35 


93,5 


55,2 


36 


87,5 


53,4 


47 


86,0 


54,3 


48 


86,0 


51,7 


50 


84,0 


— 



50 



Art. 4.-Torii: 

Distance bi-acromiale. 



La moyenne est de 40°°"-, 5 (sur une série de 39,) les variations 
extrêmes étant de Sl'^^^O et48'=™-,0 

Le rapport de la distance bi-acromiale à la taille est de 25,3 
(sur une série de 33). 



Numéros d'ordre 


Dist. bi-acromiale 


Eapport de la dist. bi- 
acrom. à la, taille 




cm. 




2 


43,0 


27,1 


4 


42,5 


27,5 


5 


38,5 


24,9 


9 


39,0 


26,9 


11 


43,0 


28,6 


13 


48,0 


25,6 


18 


40,0 


25,2 


21 


39,0 


24,6 


23 


40,0 


25,0 


24 


39,0 


25,8 


25 


41,0 


25,7 


27 


42,0 


23,9 


28 


41,0 


25,5 


30 


39,0 


27,6 


31 


40,0 


25,7 


32 


44,0 


23,3 


34 


43,5 


23,8 


35 


43,5 


26,0 


36 


37,0 


24,5 


39 


38,0 


24,3 


42 


43,0 


26,2 


44 


43,0 


24,9 


47 


39,5 


23,5 


48 


38,5 


28,8 


50 


42,5 


25,0 


51 


40,0 


26,2 


54 


38,0 


25,5 


55 


37,0 


24,7 


57 


38,5 


23,9 



Études Anthropologiques. 



51 



Numéros d'ordre 


Dist. bi-acromiale 


f apport de la dist bi- 
aorom. à la taille 




cm. 




58 


42,5 


26,2 


59 


40,0 


23,5 


61 


38,0 


24,3 


62 


38,5 


26,9 


63 


39,5 


— 


64 


37,0 


— 


65 


40,0 


— 


66 


40,0 




67 


42,5 




74 


39,0 


— 



Circonférence de la poitrine. 

Moyenne prise sur une série de 37 .'individus: Bô^'^^^O. Varia- 
tions extrêmes: 78"", et 94"", 



Numéros d'ordre 


Circonf . de la ijoitr. 


Numéros d'ordre 


Circonf. de la poitr. 




cm. 




cm. 


2 


85,5 


42 


9],0 


4 


84,0 


43 


90,0 


9 


94,0 


47 


89,5 


n 


85,0 


48 


83,5 


13 


86,0 


50 


84,0 


17 


88,5 


51 


82,0 


18 


81,0 


54 


86.0 


21 


92,0 


55 


87,0 


23 


89,0 


57 


87,0 


24 


85,0 


58 


87,5 


25 


85,0 


59 


88,5 


27 


92,0 


61 


78,0 


28 


89,0 


62 


84,5 


30 


93,5 


63 


86,0 


32 


83,5 


64 


80,5 


33 


89,0 


65 


910 


34 


86,0 


66 


84,0 


35 


91,0 


77 


88,0 


39 


86,0 


— 


— ■ 



52 



Art. 4.-Torii: 



Longueur du membre supérieur. 

(de l'acromion à l'extrémité du raédius\ 

Longueur moyenne: To™", 2 (sur une série de 19). Variations 
extrêmes : ßö'™- et 82'='^-,5. 



Numéros d'ordre 


Long, du memb. sup. 


Rapport de la long, du 
m. sup. à la taille 




cm. 




4 


74,0 


47,2 


11 


72,5 


45,3 


13 


82,0 


48,8 


17 


75,5 


46,2 


18 


65,0 


41,7 


21 


76,0 


49,0 


24 


78,0 


50,0 


25 


68,0 


42,8 


27 


77,5 


47,4 


31 


67,5 


43,1 


33 


72,5 


43,8 


34 


77,5 


49,2 


35 


73,0 


43,2 


36 


77,5 


48,9 


40 


80,0 


50,2 


47 


82,5 


51,2 


48 


79,5 


50,2 


50 


76,5 


47,1 


67 


74,5 


47,1 



Longueur du membre inférieur. 

(hauteur du grand trochanter au-dessus du sol.) 

Longueur moyenne: 9P",9 (sur une série de 20). Variations 
extrêmes : SS'^'^O et lOQ-^^^^O. 



Numéros d'ordre 

4 
5 



Longueur du m. infér. 
cm. 

87,5 
91,5 



Études Anthropolo^ques. 



53 



Numéros d'ordre 


Longueur du m. infer. 




cm. 


11 


83,0 


12 


96,5 


13 


100,0 


15 


93,5 


18 


87,5 


21 


87,5 


23 


95,5 


24 


89,5 


25 


91,5 


27 


93,5 


28 


98,5 


31 


90,0 


32 


93,5 


33 


100,0 


34 


88,0 


35 


91,5 


47 


90,0 


48 


90,0 



Rapport entre la longueur du membre supérieur et du 
membre inférieur. 

La moyenne de ce rapport est de 82,5 sur une série de 14. 
Les chiffres extrêmes sont 72,5 et 91,7. 



Numéros d'ordre 


Longueur du m. super. 


Longueur du m. infér. 


Eapport entre ces 
2 long. 




cm. 


om. 




4 


74,0 


87,5 


84,6 


11 


72,5 


83,0 


87,4 


13 


82,0 


100,0 


82,0 


17 


75,5 


? 


? 


18 


65,0 


87,5 


74,4 


21 


76,0 


87,5 


86,9 


24 


78,0 


89,5 


87,2 


25 


68,0 


91,5 


74,3 



54 



Art. 4.— Torii : 



Numéros d'ordre 


Longueur, du in. super 


Longueur du m. infér. 


Eapport entre ces 
2 long. 




cm. 


cm. 




27 


77,5 


93,5 


82,9 


31 


67,5 


90,0 


75,0 


32 


'? 


93,5 


? 


33 


72,5 


100,0 


72,5 


34 


77,5 


88,0 


88,1 


35 


73,0 


91,5 


79,8 


36 


77,5 


? 


? 


43 


8,00 


? 


? 


47 


82,5 


90,0 


91,7 


48 


79,5 


90,0 


88,3 


50 


76,5 


? 


? 


67 


74,5 


? 


? 



Circonférence du bras. 

Moyenne : 26''"',0 (sur une série de 43). Dimensions extrêmes; 

20'='"-,5 et 29""-,0. 



Numéros d'ordre 


Circonf. du bras 


Numéros d'ordre 


Circonf. du bras 




cm. 




cm. 


4 


26,0 


39 


27,5 


5 


24,5 


41 


25,5 


6 


25,0 


42 


27,5 


8 


28,0 


43 


27,5 


9 


27,0 


47 


26,5 


11 


26,0 


48 


23,5 


12 


26,5 


50 


24,0 


13 


26,5 


51 


26,5 


17 


28,0 


54 


26,0 


18 


25,0 


55 


27,0 


21 


25,5 


57 


25,0 


23 


26,0 


58 


25,0 


24 


25,0 


59 


26,5 


25 


26,0 


60 


27,0 


27 


27,0 


61 


23,5 


28 


29,0 


62 


24,0 



Etudes Anthropolo^quGs. 



55 



Numéros d'ordre 


Circonf. du bras 


Numéros d'ordre 


Circonf. du bras 




cm. 




cm. 


30 


28,5 


63 


26,0 


31 


27,0 


64 


22,0 


33 


20,5 


65 


26,5 


34 


27,5 


66 


26,0 


35 


26,0 


67 


28,0 


36 


25,0 


— 


— 



Circonf éreD ce de la cuisse. 

Moyenne : 47°", 3 sur une série de 43. Dimensions extrêmes: 
39"°^-, 5 et 5r™-,0. 



Numéros d'ordre 


Cire, de la cuisse 


Numéros d'ordre 


Cire, de la cuisse 


4 


cm. 

46,5 


41 


cm. 

46,0 


5 


46,5 


42 


47,5 


9 


47,0 


43 


50,5 


11 


48,5 


47 


48,5 


12 


49,5 


48 


45,0 


15 


45,5 


50 


47,0 


18 


49,5 


51 


49,5 


21 


51,0 


54 


45,0 


23 


50,0 


55 


50,0 


24 


47,0 


57 


47,0 


25 


47,0 


58 


44,0 


27 


50,0 


59 


46,0 


28 


48,5 


60 


43,0 


30 


49,0 


61 


44,5 


31 


49,0 


62 


49,0 


32 


43,0 


63 


48,0 


33 


47,5 


64 


39,5 


34 


48,0 


65 


49,0 


35 


49,0 


66 


46,0 


36 


44,5 


67 


48,5 


39 


45,5 


74 


48,5 


40 


50,0 


— 


— 



56 



Art. 4 — Torii ; 



Circonférence du mollet. 

Moyenne: 32°'"-,3 sur une série de 44. Dimensions extrêmes; 

28'"-,5 et 36°"-, 0. 



Numéros d'ordre 


Cire, du mollet 


Numéros d'ordre 


Cire, du mollet 




cm. 




cm. 


2 


31,5 


39 


32,0 


4 


31,0 


40 


31,0 


5 


32,5 


42 


33,0 


9 


33,0 


43 


36,0 


11 


32,5 


47 


33,0 


12 


32,5 


48 


31,0 


13 


32,0 


50 


31,0 


17 


35,5 


51 


30,0 


18 


33,0 


54 


31,0 


21 


83,0 


55 


32,0 


23 


33,0 


57 


33,5 


24 


29,0 


58 


31,0 


25 


32,0 


59 


31,0 


27 


33,0 


60 


31,0 


28 


32,0 


61 


30,0 


30 


35,5 


62 


35,0 


31 


33,0 


63 


33,0 


32 


32,0 


64 


28,5 


33 


35,0 


65 


32,0 


34 


33,0 


66 


33,0 


35 


33,5 


67 


32,0 


36 


30,5 


74 


33,5 



Études Anthropologiques. 



57 



Longueur totale du pied. 

Les indigènes de Kô-tô-shô marchant toujours pieds-nus, la 
plante de leur pied est très large. 

La longueur moyenne est de 25°°'', 1 (sur une série de 43), les 
variations extrêmes étant de 'IV'^.O et de 29°"^-, 5. 



Numéros d'ordre 


Long. tot. du pied 


Numéros d'ordre 


Long. tot. du pied 




om. 




cm. 


4 


23,0 


40 


25,0 


5 


21,0 


41 


25,5 


9 


24,5 


42 


25,5 


11 


27,0 


43 


25,5 


12 


26,0 


47 


25,0 


13 


26,5 


48 


24,0 


15 


24,5 


50 


24,5 


16 


25,5 


51 


24,5 


18 


23,5 


54 


•25,5 


21 


29,5 


55 


25,5 


23 


25,5 


57 


24,5 


24 


24,5 


58 


25,0 


25 


24,5 


59 


24,5 


27 


25,0 


60 


25,5 


28 


29,0 


61 


2.5,5 


30 


25,5 


62 


26,5 


31 


24,0 


63 


24,5 


32 


26,5 


64 


23,5 


34 


24,5 


66 


25,0 


35 


25,0 


67 


25,0 


36 


25,5 


74 


24,5 


39 


25,0 


— 


— 



58 



Art. 4.-Torii 



Largeur maxima du pied 

Largeur moyemie: Q"""', 36 (sur une série de 43). Variations ex- 
trêmes: 8°'"-,0 et 10°'"-,5. 



Numéros cVordre 


Larg. uiax. du pied 


Numéros d'ordre 


Larg. max. du pied 




cm. 




cm. 


4 


8,5 


40 


9,5 


5 


10,0 


41 


8,5 


9 


10,0 


42 


10,0 


11 


9,0 


48 


10,0 


12 


9,0 


47 


9,0 


13 


9,5 


48 


9,5 


15 


9,5 


50 


9,0 


16 


8,5 


51 


9,5 


18 


9,0 


54 


9,0 


21 


9,5 


55 


9,5 


23 


10,0 


57 


9,0 


24 


9,0 


58 


8,0 


25 


9,5 


59 


8,5 


27 


10,0 


60 


10,0 


28 


10,0 


61 


10,0 


30 


10,5 


62 


9,0 


31 


9,5 


63 


9,5 


32 


9,0 


64 


9,5 


34 


10,0 


66 


9,0 


35 


10,0 


67 


8,0. 


36 


8,5 


74 


10,0 


39 


10,0 


— 


— 



Etudes Anthropologiques. 



59 



TABLE DES MENSURATIONS ET INDICES D'ABORIGENES DE KÜTÖSHÖ 



Numéros. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 

mm 

172 

137 

171 

111 

125 

65 

43 

45 

28 

36 

54 

61 


7 


3 
'S 

d 

3 S 

■3 ^ 

ci '^ 
u ^ 

fl 1 

œ 

•Il 
'^ 

o 

PI 
2 . 

.2 3 

to 
Ö 

S 


i Diam. ant. post. max. ... 

Diam. transv. max 

Jjong. tot. du visage 

Long. tot. de la face 

Larg. tot. de la face 

Haut, du front 

Long, du nez 

Larg. du nez 

Larg. palpébrale 

Larg. bicaroncul 

Larg. buccale 

^ Long, des oreilles 


mm 

176 

130 

183 

108 

137 

75 

36 

41 

60 
62 


mm. 
184 
137 
182 
107 
136 
75 
45 
46 
28 
3H 
60 
65 


mm 

180 

J37 

185 

10! 

131 

82 

46 

38 

31 

37 

40 

52 


mm. 

175 

139 

164 

101 

127 

63 

46 

35 

24 

36 

51 

59 


mm 

170 

144 

161 

101 

128 

60 

41 

34 

35 

39 

49 

61 


mm. 
182 
139 


^Taille ... 

Gr. enverg 

Haut, du cond. audit. ... 

Haut, du menton 

Haut, de Tacrom 

Haut, de l'extrémi. du 
médius 

Haut, de l'ombil 

Haut, du gr. troch 

Haut, du vertex, dans la 
posit, as&ise 

Dist. bi-aciomiale 

Circonf. de la poit 

Long, du memb. sup. . . . 

Long, du memb. inter. ... 

Circonf. du bras 

Cii'c. de la cuisse 

Cire, du mollet 

Long. tot. du pied 

^Lars:. max. du pied 


cm. 
161,0 
171,0 


cm. 
159,0 
165,5 

84,5 

84,0 
43,0 

85,5 

31,5 


cm. 
165,0 
173,0 

85,0 


cm 
154 5 
156,5 
141.(1 
132,5 
130,5 

56,5 
88.0 
87,5 

86.5 
42,5 
84.0 
74,0 
87,5 
26.0 
46 5 
31,0 
23.(1 
8.5 


CDl 

154,5 
156.5 
144,0 
135,0 

55,5 
92,5 
91,5 

88,5 
38.5 

91,5 
24,5 
465 
32.5 
210 
10,0 


cm 
163,0 
165,5 

85,0 
25,0 


cm. 
155.0 
165,0 




Indice céphal 

Indice du visage 

Indice facial 

Indice nasal 


73,9 

74,9 

126,9 

113,9 


74,5 

74,7 

127,1 

102.2 


76,1 

69,3 

127.2 

82,8 


79,4 

77.4 

125,7 

76,1 


84,7 

79 5 

126,7 

82,9 


79,7 

73,1 

112,6 

104.7 


76,4 


p 


^Rap. entre la gr. enverg. 

et la taille 

Rap. de la haut, du cond. 

audit, à la taille 

Rap. de la haut, du ment. 

à la taille 

Rap. de la haut, de 

Tacrom à la taille 

Raj). de la haut, du méd. 

à la taille 

Rap. de la haut, de l'omb. 

a la taille 

Rap. de la haut, du gd. 

troch. à la taille 

Eap. de la haut, du ver- 
tex pos. ass. à la taille. 
Rap. de la dist. bi-acrom. à 

la taille 

Rap. de la long, du m. 

sup. à la taille 

''Raj). entre ces 2 long. ... 


106.2 


104,1 

53,1 

52,8 
27,1 


104,9 
51,5 


101,3 
91,3 

85,8 

84,5 

36,6 

57,0 

56,6 

56,0 

27,5 

47,2 
84,6 


101,3 
93,2 

87,4 

35,9 
59,9 
59,2 
57,3 
24,9 


101,5 
52,'/ 


106,5 



60 



Art. 4. — Torii 



Numéros. 


8 


9 


10 


Il 


12 


J3 


14 




mm. 


lum. 


nmi 


mnj. 


mm. 


lum 


mm. 




' Diam. ant. post. max. . . . 





169 





172 


18) 


174 





o 


Diam. transv. max 





149 





140 


153 


150 





-JJ 


Long. tot. du visage 


191 







171 


173 









Long. tot. de la face 


100 








104 


104 








ni c8 


Larg. tût. de la face 


125 


127 





127 


135 


_ 







Haut, du front 


91 








67 


69 







2 m 


Long, du nez 


42 


— 





42 


42 


_ 


__ 


ts-S 


Larg. du nez 


40 








41 


35 


— 


. 




Larg. palpébrale 





29 


_ 


29 


32 


_ 


, 




Larg, bicaroncul 


— 


40 


— 


30 


34 


— 


— 


0) 


Larg. buccale 


47 


50 





55 


;8 


_ 





\ Long, des oreilles 


60 


60 


— 


62 


57 


- 


— 






cm 


cm. 


cm 


CUi. 


cm. 


cm 


cm. 


/Taille 


154,0 


— 


— 


160,0 


160,0 


168,0 






Grr. enverg 


— 


— 


— 


165,0 


167,U 


176,5 







Haut, du cond. audit. ... 


— 


— 


— 


147,0 


149,5 


157,n 





■OQ 


Haut, du menton 


— 


— 


— 


137,5 


149,5 


149,0 





13 


Haut, de Tacrom 


— 


— 


_ 


130,5 


— 


143,5 





-1-3 

0) 


Haut, de Textrémi. du 
















o 
C 
g 


mécUus 


— 


— 


— 


58,0 


62,0 


61,5 





Haut, de l'ombil 


— 


— 


— 


94,5 


99,5 


103,5 





•*^ «J 


Haut, du gr. troch 


— 


— 


— 


83,0 


S6,5 


100,0 


. — 


S a 


Haut, du vertex, dans la 
















posit, assise 


— 


— 


— 


85,0 


83,0 


— 


— 


II 

"S 


Dist. bi-acromiale 


— 


39,0 


— 


43,0 


- 


48,0 





Circonf . de la poit 


— 


94,0 


— 


85,0 


— 


b6,0 


— 


^ 
ö 


Long, du memb. sup. ... 


— 


— 


- 


72,5 


— 


82,0 


— 




Long, du memb. infér. ... 


— 


— 


— 


83,0 


96,5 


100,0 


— 


« 
g 


Circonf. du. bras 


28,0 


27,0 


— 


26,0 


26,5 


26,5 


— 


Cire, de la cuisse 


— 


47,0 


— 


48,5 


49,5 


— 







Cire, du mollet 


— 


33,0 


- 


32,5 


32,5 


32,0 


— 




Long. tot. du pied 

^ Larg. max. du pied ... 


— 


24,5 


— 


27,0 


26,0 


26,5 


— 




~ 


10,0 


— 


9.0 


9,0 


95 


— 


CQ 


Indice céphal 


_ 


87,6 




81,4 


85,0 


86,2 





S J lu dice du visage 


65,4 


— 





74,3 


78,0 


- 


— 


^ Indice facial 


125,0 








l:i2,l 


129,8 


— 


— 


l-H 


Indice nasal 


95,2 


— 


— 


97.6 


83,3 




— 




/Eap. entre la gr. enverg. 
et la taille 


















— 





_ 


103,1 


104,4 


105,1 


— 




Raj). de la haut, du cond. 


















audit, à la taille 


— 


— 





91,9 


93,4 


93,8 


— 




Rap. de la haut, du ment. 


















à la taille 


_ 








85,9 


93,4 


88,7 


— 




Rap. de la haut, de 


















l'acrom à la taille 


— 


— 


— 


81,6 


— 


85,6 


— 




Raj). de la haut, du méd. 
















to 


à la taille 


— 


— 


— 


36,3 


38,8 


36,6 


— 


ft^ 


Rap. de la haut, de l'omb. 
















§: 


à la taille , . 


— 





— 


59,1 


62,2 


61,6 


— 




Rap. de la haut, du gd. 


















troch. à la taille 


— 


— 


— 


51,9 


60,0 


59,5 


— 




Rap. de la haut, du ver- 


















tex pos. ass. à la taille. 


— 


— 


— 


53,1 


51,9 


— 


— 




Rap. de la dist bi-acram à 


















la taille 


— 


26,9 


— 


28,6 


— 


25,6 


— 




Kap. de la long, du m. 


















sup. à la taille 


— 


— 


— 


45,3 


— 


48,8 


— 




^Raj). entre ces 2 long, ... 


— 


■ — 


— 


87,4 




8i',0 — 



Études Anthropologiques. 



61 



Numéros. 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 20 


21 




lUIQ 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm. 


„ /Diam. an t. post. max. ... 


176 


— 


174 


175 


__ 





177 




Diam transv. max 


130 


— 


145 


141 




_ 


139 


-»^ 


LoDg. tot. du visage 


182 


— 


176 


172 







184 


c3 , 


Long. tot. de ]a face 


107 


— 


104 


101 







103 




Larg. tot. de la face 


121 


— 


130 


124 


_ 





116 


2 cä 


/ Haut, du front 


75 


— 


72 


71 




._ 


81 


§'! 


\ Long, du nez 


34 


— 


45 


50 




_ 


41 


1^ 


Larg. du nez 


33 


— 


41 


39 








41 




Larg. palpébrale 


30 


— 


28 


31 








33 


œ 

01 


Larg. bicaroncul 


37 


— 


37 


36 







33 


Larg. buccale 

VLong. des oreilles 


59 





57 


54 







52 


S 


69 


— 


61 


60 


— 


— 


57 






cm 


cm 


cm 


cm 


cm 


cm 


cm. 




/Tnille 


163,0 


— 


163,5 


156.0 




172,0 


155,0 




Gr. enverg 


165,5 


— 


173,0 


157,0 





— 


157,5 




Haut, du cond. audit. ... 


— 





150,0 


143,0 








140,0 


O! 


Haut, du menton 


142,0 


__ 


141,5 


135,5 








132,5 


'S 


Haut, de l'acrom 


— 





137,5 


127,5 








131.5 


<» 


Haut, de l'extrémï. du 
















2 . 


médius 


58,5 


— 


61,5 


62,0 








55,0 


Haut.de l'ombil 


98,5 


— 


93,5 


89,5 








92.5 


^J 00 


Haut, du gr. troch 


93,5 








87,5 





_ 


87,5 


=1 ä 


Haut, du vertex, dans la 
















c» s 


posit, assise 


86,5 


— 


88,0 


86,5 








85,5 


2 a 


Dist. bi-acromiale .. ... 


— 


— 


- 


40,0 








39,0 


^ 


Circonf. de la poit 


— 


— 


88,5 


81,0 








92,0 


s 


Long, du memb. gup. ... 


— 


— 


75,5 


65,0 


— 


. — 


76,0 


m 

p 


Long, du memb. infér. ... 


93.5 


— 


— 


87.5 








87,5 


03 


Circonf. du bras 


— 


— 


28,0 


25,0 








25,5 


Cire, de la cuisse 


45,5 


— 


— 


49,5 





— 


51,0 




Cire, du mollet 


— 


— 


35,5 


33,0 


— 


— 


33,0 




Long. tot. du pied 


24,5 


25.5 


— 


23,5 


— 


— 


29,5 




^Larg. max. du pied 


9,5 


8,5 


— 


9.0 


— 




,5 


XQ 


Indice céphal 


73,9 





83.3 


80,6 


_ 




78,5 


S Indice du visage 


66,5 


— 


73,9 


72,1 


— 


— 


63,0 


'g ' Indice facial 


113,1 


— 


125,0 


122,8 


— 


— 


112.6 


h- 1 


Indicenasal 


97,1 


— 


91.1 


78,0 


— 


— 


100,0 




^Eap. entre la gr. enverg. 


















et la tiille 


101,5 


— 


106,1 


100,6 


— 


— 


101,6 




Eap. de la haut, du cond. 


















audit, à la taille 





— 


91,7 


91,7 




— 


90,3 




Rap. de la haut, du ment. 


















à la taille 


87,1 


— 


86,5 


8a.9 


— 


— 


85,5 




Eap. de la haut, de 


















l'acrom à la taille 





— 


84,1 


81,7 


— 


— 


84,8 


. 


Eap. de 1 a haut, du méd. 
















CO 


à la taille 


35,9 


— 


37,6 


39,7 


— 


— 


35,5 




Rap. de la, haut, de l'omb. 
















à la taille 


60,4 


— 


57,0 


57,4 


— 


— 


59,7 


p^ 


Eap. de la haut, du gd. 


















troch. à la taille 


57,4 


— 


— 


56,1 


— 


— 


56,5 




Eap. de la haut, du ver- 


















tex pos. ass. à la taille. 


53,1 


— 


53,8 


55,5 


— 


— 


55,2 




Eap. de la dist. bi-acrom. 


















à la taille 


— 


— 


— 


25,2 


— 


— 


24,6 




Rap. de la long, du m. 


















sup. à la taille 


— 


— 


46,2 


41,7 


— 


— 


49,0 




^Eap. entre ces 2 long. ... 


— 


~ 


— 


74,4 




— 


86,9 



62 



Art. 4— Torii ; 



Numéros. 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 




mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


miu. 


mm. 


mm 


mm. 




Diam. ant. p^st. max. ... 


— 


179 


1Ö4 


172 


— 


182 


176 


S 


1 iam. transv. max 





— 


— 


151 


— 


161 


140 


■-S 


Long. tot. du visage 





170 


181 


164 


— 


189 


179 




Lonii. tot. de la face ... 


— 


105 


106 


95 


— 


109 


106 




Larg. tot. de la face 


— 


121 


109 


125 


— 


125 


129 




Hiut. dufront 


— 


65 


75 


69 


— 


80 


73 


Long, du nez 


— 


89 


41 


39 


— 


44 


42 


•H O 


Larg. du nez 


— 


35 


37 


32 


— 


42 


41 


Larg. palpébrale 


28 


32 


25 


33 


— 


33 


36 


CO 


Ijarg. bicaroncul 


30 


35 


30 


28 


— 


32 


35 





Larg. buccale .. 


— 


52 


52 


51 


— 


64 


56 


^ Long, des oreilles 


— 


59 


63 


46 


— 


4« 


56 






CQl. 


cm 


cm 


cm cm. 


cm 


cm. 


/Taillft 




162,5 


156.0 


159,0 


— 


163,5 


171,5 




Grr. enverg 


_ 


173,5 


160 


169,0 


— 


167.5 


176,5 




Haut, du cond. audit. ... 





145,0 


140,5 


144,5 


— 


143,5 


153,0 


CO 


Haut, du menton 





139,5 


131,5 


137,0 


— 


137,5 


145,0 


-ö 


Haut, de l'acrom 





135,0 


127,5 


130,5 


— 


134,5 


145,0 


0. 


Haut, de Textrémi. du 
















CJ 


médius 





— 


49,5 


62,5 


— 


60,0 


57.0 


§ 


Haut, de l'ombil 





96,0 


92,5 


94,5 


— 


97,5 


99,5 


^ œ 


Haut, du gr. troch 


— 


95,0 


89,5 


91,5 


— 


93,5 


98,5 




Hiut. du vertex, dans la 
















es 
m a 


posit, assise 





89,5 


84,0 


85,5 


— 


85,5 


88,5 


o g 


Dist. bi-acromiale 





40,0 


39,0 


41,0 


— 


42,0 


41,0 


^ 


Circonf. de la poit 





89,0 


85,0 


85,0 


— 


9i,0 


89,0 


g 


Long, du memb. äup. ... 





— 


78,0 


68,0 


— 


77,5 


— 


00 


Long, du memb. infér. ... 





95,5 


89,5 


91.5 


— 


93,5 


98,5 


Circonf. du bras 





2K,0 


'25.0 


26,0 


— 


27,0 


29,0 


S 


Cire, de la cuisse 





50,0 


47,0 


47,0 


— 


50,0 


48,5 




Cire, du mollet 





33.0 


29,0 


32,0 


— 


33,0 


32,0 




Long. tot. du pied 


— 


25,5 


24,5 


24,5 


— 


25,0 


29,0 




1 Larg. max. du pied 


— 


10. <> 


9.0 


9 5 


— 


10.0 


10.0 


m j 


Indice céuhal 





— 





87,8 


— 


88,5 


79,6 


.1] Indice du visage 





71,2 


60,2 


76,2 


— 


66,1 


72,1 


'S / Indice facial 





115,2 


102,8 


131,5 


— 


114,7 


121,7 


^ 


Indice nasal 


— 


89,7 


90.2 


82.1 


— 


95.5 


97,6 




/Rai3. entre la gr. enverg. 


















et la taille 





106,8 


102,5 


106,3 


— 


102,4 


102,9 




Eap. de la haut, du cond. 


















audit, à la taille 


— 


89,2 


90,1 


90,9 


— 


87,8 


89,2 




Rap. de la haut, du ment. 


















à la taille 


— 


85,7 


84,3 


86,2 


— 


84,1 


84,6 




Rap. de la haut, de 


















Tacrom. à la taille 


— 


83,1 


81,7 


82,1 


— 


82,3 


84,6 




Rap. de la haut, du méd. 
















oo 


à la taille 


— 


— 


31,7 


39,3 


— 


36,7 


33,2 


o 


Rap. de la haut, de l'omb. 
















è 


à la taille 


— 


59,1 


59,3 


59,4 


— 


59,6 


58,0 




Rap. de la haut, du gd. 
















troch. à la taille 


— 


58,5 


57,4 


57,6 


— 


57,2 


57,4 




Rap. de la haut, du ver- 


















tex pos. ass. à la taille. 


— 


55,1 


53,9 


53,8 


— 


52,3 


51,6 




Rap. de la dist bi-acr jm. 


















à la taille 


— 


25,0 


25,8 


25,7 


— 


23,9 


25,5 




Eap. de la long, du m. 
sup. à la taille 


_ 





500 


42,8 





47,4 


— 




^Rap. entre ces 2 long. ... 





~ 


87,2 


74,3 


' 


82,9 





Études Anthropologiques. 



63 



Numéros. 


29 


30 


31 


32 


33 


34 


1 35 

1 




mm 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm 


mm. 


S 

^ 


' Diam. ant. post. max. . . . 


— 


175 


178 


176 


175 


178 


184 


Diam. transv. max 


— 


145 


145 


139 


141 


140 


153 


Long. tot. du visage ... 


— 


— 


165 


172 


177 


167 


181 


c3 


L-^ng. tot. de la face 


— 


110 


103 


107 


112 


104 


106 


0) o 


Larg. tot. de la face 


— 


132 


127 


122 


114 


135 


139 


05 - 


Uaut. du front 


— 


— 


62 


65 


65 


63 


75 


2 CD 


Long, du nez 


— 


49 


45 


41 


53 


41 


42 


l-ë 


LarJ^. du nez 


— 


50 


37 


38 


42 


42 


50 


2^ 


Larg. palpébrale 


— 


— 


30 


30 


36 


37 


37 




Larg. bicaroncul 


— 


— 


39 


35 


44 


39 


40 


a) 


Larg. buccale 


— 


57 


51 


46 


55 


53 


59 


, Long, des oreilles 


55 


57 


57 


65 


67 


59 


68 






cm. 


cm 


cm 


cm 


cm. 


cm 


cm. 




/Taille 


163,5 


— 


156,5 


_ 


165,5 


157,5 


169,0 




Gr. enverg 


162,5 


— 


169,5 


— 


174,5 


163,5 


177,0 




Haut, du coad. audit. ... 


147,0 


— 


143,0 


151,0 


154,0 


145,0 


156,0 


03 


Haut, du menton 


— 


— 


135,5 


141,5 


152,5 


137,5 


147.5 


■^ 


Haut, de l'acrom 


— 


— 


123,5 


133,5 


135,0 


13S,5 


— 


+2 


Haut, de l'extrémi. du 
















o 

d 

o 


médius 


— 


— 


56,0 


60,5 


54,0 


57,5 


65,0 


Haut, de Tombil 


— 


— 


— 


94,5 


102,5 


92,0 


101,5 




Haut, du gr. troch 


— 


— 


90,0 


93,0 


100,0 


88,0 


98,0 


-1' 

2 § 


Haut, du vertex, dans la 
















posit, assise 


— 


— 


8S,5 


90,5 


92,0 


87,0 


93,5 


d S 
•2 '^ 


Dist. bi-acromiale 


— 


39,0 


40,0 


44,0 


— 


43,5 


43,5 


r^ 


Circonf. de lapoit 


— 


93,5 


— 


83,5 


89,0 


86,0 


91,0 


2 

3 


Long, du memb. sup. ... 


— 


— 


67,5 


— 


72,5 


77,5 


73,0 




Long, du memb. infer. ... 


— 


— 


90,0 


93,5 


1000 


8S,0 


91,5 


11 


Circonf. du bras 


— 


28,5 


27,0 


— 


20,5 


27,5 


26,0 


Cire, de la cuisse 


— 


49,0 


49,0 


43,0 


47,5 


48,0 


49,0 




Cire, du mollet 


— 


35,5 


3(,0 


32,0 


35,0 


33,0 


33,5 




[jong. tot. du pied 


— 


25,5 


24,0 


26,5 


— 


24,5 


25,0 




^Larg. max. du pied 


— 


10,5 


9,5 


9.0 


— 


10,0 


10.0 


EQ 


Indice céphal 





82,9 


81,5 


79,0 


80,6 


78,6 


83,2 


O Indice du visage 


— 


— 


77,0 


70,9 


64,4 


80,8 


76,8 


'^1 Indice facial 


— 


120,0 


123,3 


114,0 


101,8 


129,8 


131,1 


d 

h- 1 


Indice nasal 


— 


102.0 


82.2 


92.7 


79.2 


102.4 


119,0 




y Rap. entre la gr. enverg. 


















et la taille 


93,9 


— 


103,3 


— 


105,4 


103,8 


104,7 




Rap. de la haut, du cond. 


















audit, h la taille 


89,9 


— 


91,4 


93,1 


92,1 


92,3 


94,3 




Rap. de la haut, du ment. 


















à la taille 


— 


— 


86,6 


92,2 


87,3 


87,3 


86,1 




Rap. de la haut, de 


















racrom à la taille 


— 


— 


78,9 


85,7 


82.0 


83,6 





03 


Rap. de la haut, du méd. 
















O 


à la taille 


— 


— 


35,8 


32.6 


36,5 


38 5 


35,6 


|< 


Rap. de la haut, de l'omb. 


















à la taille 


— 


— 


— 


61,9 


58,4 


60,1 


57,7 


Rap. de la haut, du gd. 


















troch. à la taille 


— 


— 


57,5 


60,4 


55,9 


58,0 


56,8 




Rap. de la haut, du ver- 


















tex pos. ass. à la taille. 


— 


— 


56,6 


55,6 


55,2 


55,3 


55,2 




Rap. de la dist. bi-acrom. 


















à la taille 


— 


27,6 


25,7 


23,3 


— 


23,8 


26,0 




Rap. de la long, du m. 


















sup. à la taille 


— 


— 


43,1 


— 


43,8 


49,2 


43,2 




^Rap. entre ces 2 long. ... 


■ — 


— 


75,0 


— 


72,5 


88,1 


79,8 



64 



Art. 4.— Torii : 



Numéros. 


36 


37 


38 


39 


40 


41 


42 




jym 


mm. 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm 


mm. 


, Diam. ant. post. max. ... 


174 


— 


— 


177 


180 


182 


182 


-2 

'S 


Diam. transv. max 


140 


— 


— 


146 


140 


145 


138 


Long. tot. du visage 


172 


— 


— 


176 


198 


184 


191 


es , 


Long. tit. de la face 


103 


— 


— 


107 


m 


112 


111 


01 u 


Larg. tot. de la face 


122 


- 


— 


130 


128 


138 


133 


"5( 

13 QJ 


Haut, du front 


69 


— 


— 


69 


87 


72 


80 


Long, du nez 


43 


— 


— 


45 


43 


47 


45 


Larg. du nez 


41 


— 


— 


46 


40 


42 


39 


Larg. palptîbrale 


33 


— 


— 


33 


32 


31 


31 


to 

Ö 
0) 


Larg. bicaron cul 


34 


— 


— 


36 


34 


38 


33 


Larg. buccale 


55 


— 


— 


— 


41 


63 


54 


s 


Long, des oreilles 


63 


— 


— 


64 


59 


58 


63 




cm- 


cm. 


cm 


cm 


ciu 


cm. 


cm. 




/Taille 


158,5 


— 


— 


159,5 


159,5 


— 


165,5 




Gr. enverg 


161,0 


— 


- 


162,5 


163,0 


— 


173,5 




Haut, du cond. audit. ... 


149,5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




Haut, du menton 


136,ri 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


-0 


Haut, de l'a crom 


132,5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




Haut, de l'extrémi. du 
















o 


médius 


55,5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2«> 


Haut, de l'ombil 


91,5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




Haut, du gr. troch 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


TS g i 


Haut, du vertex, dans la 
















posit, assise 


87,5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


§a 


Dist. bi-acromiale 


37,0 


- 


— 


38,0 


— 


— 


43,0 


•i-i 


Circonf . de la poit 


— 


— 


— 


86,0 


— 


— 


91,0 


1 


Long, du memb. sup. ... 


77,5 


— 


— 


— 


80,0 


— 


— 




Long, du memb. infér. ... 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


ai 


Cii"co:f. du bras 


25,0 


— 


— 


27,5 


— 


25,5 


27,5 


g 


Cire, de la cuisse 


44,5 


— 


— 


45,5 


50,0 


46,0 


47,5 




Cire, du mollet 


30,5 


— 


— 


32,0 


31,0 


— 


33,0 




Long. tot. du pied 


25,5 


— 


— 


25,0 


25,0 


25,5 


25,5 


^ Larg. max. du pied 


8,5 


-- 


— 


10,0 


9.5 


8.5 


10,0 


rn 


Indice céphal 


80,5 








82,5 


77,8 


79,7 


75,8 


.^ Indice du visage 


70,9 


— 


— 


73,9 


64,6 


75,0 


69,6 


'^ ' Indice facial 


118.4 


— 


— 


1215 


115,3 


123,2 


119,8 


>-i Indice nasal 


95.3 


— 


— 


102,2 


93,0 


89.4 


86.7 




^Rap. entre la gr. enverg. 


















et la taille 


101,6 


— 


— 


101,9 


102,2 


— 


104,8 




Rap. de la haut, du cond. 


















audit, à la taille 


90,7 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




Rap. de la haut, du ment.- 


- . -, 
















à la taille 


85,1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




Rap. de la haut, de 


















l'acrom. à la taille 


81,1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


œ 


Rap. de la haut, du méd. 
















f-< 


à la taille 


31,1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


l< 


Rap. de la haut, de l'omb. 
















i' 


à la taille 


57,5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


P^ 


Rap. de la haut, du gd. 


















troch. à la taille 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




Rap. de la haut, du ver- 


















tex pos. ass. à la taille. 


53,4 


— 


— 


-- 


— 


— 


— 




Rap. de la dist. bi-acrom. 


















à la taille 


24,5 


— 


— 


24,3 


— 


— 


26,2 




Rap. de la long, du m. 


















sup. à la taille 


48,9 


— 


— 


— 


50,2 


— 


— 




^Rap. entre ces 2 long. ... 

















Études Antbropologiques. 



65 



Numéros. 



0,5 



/ Diaui 
l 'iau!. 
Long. 
Long-. 
Larg. 
Haut. 
Long-. 
Larg. 
Larg-, 
Larg. 
T.arg". 
Lonof. 



. ant. post. max. 

transv. max. ... 

tot, du visage 

tot. de la face 
tot. de la face 
du fi-ont 

du nez 

du nez 

p^ilpébrale 

bioaroncul 

buccale 

des oreille-! ... 






^Taille 

Gr. envèrg 

Ilaut. du cond. audit. ... 

Haut, du menton 

Haiit. de Tacrom 

Haut, de l'extrémi. du 

médius ... 

Haut, de l'ombil 

Haut, du gl', troch 

Haut, du vertex, dans la 

posit, assise 

Dist. bi-acromiale 

Circonf . de la poit 

Long, dvi meml). sup. ... 
Long, du memb. infér. ... 

Circonf. du bras 

Cire, de la cuisse 

Cire, du mollet 

Long. tot. du pied 

.Larg. max. du pied 



43 



mm 

183 

140 

182 

113 

139 

65 

48 

40 

34 

38 

54 

66 



143,5 
135,0 
130,5 

50,0 
92,5 
92,5 



90,0 



50,5 
36,0 
25,5 
10,0 



44 



45 



46 



43,0 



47 



iiiin 

188 

138 

177 

112 

136 

65 

44 

34 

39 

35 

51 

56 



cm 
161,0 
170,0 
146,0 
137,0 
130,5 

50,0 
92.5 
91,5 

86,0 
39,5 
89,5 
82,5 
90,0 
26,5 
48.5 
33,0 
25,0 
9,0 



48 



mm 

174 

138 

180 

105 

125 

75 

40 

42 

29 

31 

53 

56 



cm 
158,5 
160,5 
141,0 
135,5 
132,5 

52,5 
95,5 



83,0 
3S,5 
83,5 
79,5 
90,0 
23,5 
45,0 
31,0 
24,0 
9,5 



49 



Indice céphal 

S J Indice du visage... 
'Ö j Indice facial 

Indice n^sal 



/Rap. entre l;i gj*. enverg. 

et la taille 

Rap. de la haut, du cond. 

audit, à la taille 

Eap. de )a haut, du ment. 

à la taille 

Eap. de la haut, de 

l'acrom à la tai lie 

Rap. de la haut, du méd. 

à la taille 

Raj:). de la haut, de lomb. 

à la taille 

Rap. de la haut, du gd. 

troch. à la taille 

Rap. de \% haut, du ver- 
tex 130S. ass. à la taille. 
Eap. de la dist. bi-acrom. 

à la taille 

Eap. de la long, du m. 

sup. à la taille 

Rap. entre ces 2 long. ... 



76 5 

76,5 

123,0 

83.3 



1^ 



89,0 
85,5 
83,6 
33,1 
60,3 



24,9 



73,4 

76,8 

121,4 

77,3 



79,3 

69,4 

119,0 

105.0 



105,6 
92,3 
87,1 
83,1 
36,0 
59,4 

54,3 

23,5 

51,2 
91,7 



101,3 
89,9 
84,2 
82,0 
34.8 



51,7 

23,8 

50,2 
88,3 



66 



Art. 4.— Torii : 



Numéros. 


50 


51 


52 


53 


54 


55 


56 




inin. 


mai 


miu. 


lllUl. 


nui). 


iiiiii 


Ullll. 


o 


^ Uiaui. ant. post. max. ... 


177 


180 










1V5 




-l-i 


Diam. trausv. max 


— 





_ 







138 




+3 


Long. tot. du visage 


183 


176 


__ 


_ 


_ 


181 




■—1 O 


Long. tot. de la face 


107 


104 





_ 


_ 


106 







Larg. tot. de la f^ice ... 


J25 


137 








134 


135 





s e i 


Haut, du front 


76 


72 





71 










Long, du nez 


4ti 


45 







51 


39 





"^ "* 


Larg. du nez 


40 


43 








41 


42 





Ë o 


Larg. palpébrale 


34 


33 


29 


30 


31 


34 







! arg. bicai-oncul 


34 


34 


32 


29 


42 


3! 





CD 


Larg. buccale 

\ Long, des oreilles 


!■)? 


55 







54 


r»7 





«2 


58 


— 


59 


61 


r^H 


— 






CUl. 


tin. 


cm. 


cm. 


OUI 


cm. 


cm. 


/'l'aille •■■ 


162,5 


160.5 





_ 


162,0 


155.5 







(jr. enverg 


16.5.5 


167,5 







168 


157,5 







Havit. du cond. audit. ... 


15'\0 
















Haut, du menton 


141,5 


_ 












ns 


Haut, de Tacr im 


1:55.0 
















■+3 


Haut, de l'extrémi. du 
















o 

sa 


médius 


58,.=^ 


_ 













o 


Haut, de rombil 


96,5 
















Haut, du gr. troch 
















'S -2 


Haut, du vertex, dans la 
















•S ^ 


Ijosit assise 


81,0 


_ 


_ 










Dist. bi-acromiale 


42,5 


40 








3S,0 


37,0 





1^ ■ 


Circonf . de la poit 


84.0 


82,0 







86.0 


87,0 







Tiong. du memb. sup. ... 


76,5 



















Long, du memb. iofér.... 

















O 


Ci rconf . du bras 


24,0 


26,5 







26,0 


27,0 





f^ 


<'irc. de la cuisse 


47,0 


49.5 





. 


45,0 


50,0 







Cire, du mollet 


31,') 


30 








31,0 


32.0 





1 


Long. tot. du pied 


24,5 


24,5 








25,5 


i'5.5 





l 


, Lars". max. du pied 


90 


9.5 


— 


— 


9.0 


9.5 


— 


»j 


Indice céphal 













74,6 




2 Ind'ce du visage 


68,3 



















'g ' Indice facial 


116,8 


131,7 


_ 


_ 





127,4 


_ 


>— ( 


Indice nasal 


87.0 


95.6 


— 


— 


8^.4 


107.7 


— 




fRap. entre la gr. enverg. 
















!' et la taille 


101.8 


104,4 


._ 


_ 


103,7 


101,3 







Kap. de 1+ haut, du cond. 


















audit, à la taille 


















Rap. de la haut, du ment. 


















à la taille 


_ 
















Rap. de la haut, de 


















l'acrom. à la taille 

















. 


Rap. de la haut, du méd. 
















o 


à la taille 
















_ 


a.' 


Rap. de la haut, de l'omb. 
















^ 


à la taille 














_ 




f-H 


Rap. de la haut, du gd. 


















troch. à la taille 





._ 

















Rap. de la haut, du ver- 


















tex pes. ass. à la taille. 















_ 







Rap. de li dist. bi-acrom. 


















à la taille .. 


25,0 


26,2 


_ 





25,5 


24,7 


— 




Rap. de la long, du m. 


















sup. .à la taille 


47,1 











_ 








\Eap. entre ces 2 long. ... 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 



Etudes Authropologinvep, 



67 



Nuinevop. 


57 


58 


59 


60 


61 


ez 


<ôà 




luiu 


mill 


11. m 


i,iiii 


IMIIJ 


mm 


iiini. 




( Diam. an t. post. max. ... 


\li 


171 


184 


18i 


179 


179 


170 


-S 


1 Diam, transv. max 


13S 


132 


143 


145 


13 > 


139 


130 


-i3 


Long-, tot. du visage 


— 


174 


ISG 


189 


171 


174 


175 


^^ O 


Long. tot. de la fa.ce 


107 


101 


108 


111 


107 


103 


lü5 


1- o 


Larg. tot. de la face 


122 


124 


127 


138 


130 


128 


128 




Haut, du front ..- 


— 


73 


78 


78 


64 


71 


70 


Long, du nez 


44 


38 


41 


45 


37 


42 


43 




Larg. du nez 


43 


42 


3S 


41 


38 


44 


37 


ë-ë 


Larg. palpébralo 


31 


31 


31 


33 


i8 


33 


34 




Larg. bicaroncul 


35 


29 


34 


35 


32 


35 


32 


Larg. buccale 


54 


54 


47 


49 


56 


56 


52 


S 


\ Long, des oreille =■ 


67 


63 


61 


•=•1 


54 


65 


62 






(JIU 


cal 


cm. 


Ciu 


cm 


cm 


cm. 




/Taille 


l.ï4.,0 


162.0 


157,0 


162.0 


154,0 


161,0 


151,0 




Gr. enverg 


IG>,0 


170,0 


165,0 


169,0 


160,0 


171,0 


161,0 




Haut, du cond. audit. ... 


— 











— 


— 


— 


50 


Haut, du men toi 


— 








_ 


— 


— 


— 


t) 


Haut, de Tacrom 


— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


-P 


Haut, de l'extrîmi. du. 
















O 


médius 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


g 


Haut, de lombil 


— 


_ 





— 


— 


— 


^ 




Haut, du gr. troch ... ... 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— ^ 


Haut, du vertex, dans la 
















'^ 3 ' 


posit, assise ... 


— 


— 


— . 




— 


— 


— 


•2 ^ 


Dist. bi-acromiale 


38,5 


43.5 


40,0 


— 


38,0 


33,5 


3J,5 


Circonf . de la poit 


87,0 


87,5 


88,5 


— 


78,0 


84,5 


86,0 


a 


Long, du me mb. sup. ... 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


m 


Long, du memb. infJr. ... 


— 


— 





— 


— ' 


— 


— 


a 


Circonf. du bras 


25.0 


25,0 


2(5,5 


27,0 


23,5 


24,0 


26,0 


s 


Cire, de la cuisse 


47,0 


44,0 


46,0 


43,0 


44,5 


49.0 


48,0 




Cire, du mollet 


33,5 


31,0 


31,0 


31,0 


30,0 


35,0 


33.0 




LoDg. tot. du pied 


24,5 


25,0 


24,5 


25,5 


25,5 


26 5 


24,5 




^Laro-, mix. du pied ... 


n.o 


8.0 


85 


10.0 


10.0 


90 


9,5 


=«•( 


' Indice céphal 


80,6 


77,2 


77,7 


78,3 


77,6 


77,6 


70,6 


5 l Indice du visage 


— 








— 


— 


— 


— 


^ J Indice facial 


114.0 


122,9 


1 17,6 


124,3 


121,5 


124,3 


121,9 


^( 


Indice nasal 


97.7 


110.5 


92.7 


911 


102.7 


104 8 


86.0 




/Rap. entre la gr. enverg. 


















et la taille 


107,1 


101,9 


105,1 


104,3 


103,9 


103,2 


106,6 




Rap. de la haut du cond. 


















audit, à la taille 













— 


— - 


— • 




Rap. de la haut, du ment. 


















à la taille 


— 








— 


— 


— 


— 




Rap. de la haut, de 


















Tajroui. à la tai lie 





_ 








— 


— 


— 


M 


Eap. de la haut, du méd. 
















-U 


à la taille 


— 








^- 


— 


— 


^ 




Rap. de la haut, de Tomb. 
















Cu\ 


à la taille 


— 








— 


— 


— 


— 


M ; 


Rap. de la haut, du gd. 


















troch. à la taille 


— 








— 


— 


— 


— 




Rap. de la haut, du ver- 


















tex, pos. ass. à la taille. 


— 








— 


— 


— 


— 




Rap. de la dist. bi-acrom. 


















à la taille 


•-'3,9 


26,2 


23,5 


— 


24,3 


26,9 


— 




Rap. de la long, du m. 


















sup. à la taille 


— 1 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


> 


Rap. entre ces 2 long. ... 


" 


— 


— 


i 


~ 







68 



Art, 4.— Toi ii: 



Numéros. 


64 


65 


66 


67 


68 


69 


70 




niiu 


mm 


mm 


mm 


ujm 


lUlIl 


n.tû. 


a> 


,'' Uiam, ant. post. max. ... 


176 


172 


]8S 










•o 


Diam. transv. max 


111 


139 


144 










-4-i 


Lont!'. tot. du visage ... 


176 


186 


191 


177 








'~' 6 


Long. tot. de la face ... 


94 


110 


116 


100 






_ 


"^M 


Larg. tot. de Iq, face 


12i 


136 


123 


136 










) Haut, du front 

Long, du nez 


82 
37 


76 
39 


7^ 
47 


77 
40 


- 


- 


— 


1'^ 


Larg. du nez 


40 


43 


44 


41 









D 0) 


Larg. loalpébrale 


34 


32 


35 


36 








§ 


Lai'g. bicaroncul 


35 


35 


38 


32 








<D 

'S 


Larg. buccale 


46 


49 


61 


52 









r=H 


, Lono-. des oreilles 


.59 


59 


56 


59 


— 


— 


— 


/Taille 

Gr. enverg 


cm. 


cm. 
170,0 
178,0 


cm. 
164,5 
169,5 


OUI. 

158,0 


cm 


cm. 


cm. 


CO 

a; 
-(J 


Haut, du cond. audit. ... 

Haut, du menton 

Haut, de lacrom 

Haut, de 1 extrémi. du 








142,0 
133,0 
129,5 





— 





o 
d 

2 . 


médius 

Haut, de lombil 


- 


- 


- 


55,0 


- 


— 


- 


-&S 


Haut, du gr. trocli 
















3 t' 
CO ? ■ 

.2 ^ : 


Haut, du vertex, dans la 
















posit, assise 

















List, bi-acromiale 


3,70 


40,0 


40,0 


42,5 






_ 


"S 


Circonf. delà poit 


8,05 


91,0 


84,0 











p 


Long, du memb. sup. ... 





. 




74 5 








S 


Long, du memb. infer. ... 

















® 

^ 


Circonf. du bras 


22.0 


26,5 


26,0 


28,0 




z 





Circ. de la cuisse 

Cire, du mollet 


39,5 

28 5 


49,0 
32,0 


46,0 
33,0 


48,5 
32,0 


— 


— 


— 


1 Jjong. tot. du pied 

\ Lars', max. du pied 

^ f Indice céphal 


23.5 
9..Ö 





25,0 
9.0 


25,0 
8,0 


— 


— 





80,1 


80,8 


76,6 










.^ _ Indice du visage 


















'^1 Indice facial 


131,9 


123,6 


110,3 


136,0 









^ i^ ^• 


indice nasal 


108.1 


110.3 


93,6 


102.5 


— 


— 


— 




^Bap. entre la gr. enverg. 


















et la taille 





104,7 


103,0 








_ 




Eap. de la haut, du cond. 


















audit, à la taille 


















Kap. de la haut, du ment. 


















à la taille 


















Eap. de la haut, de 


















l'acrom. àlataille 

















'f- 


Eap. de la haut, du méd. 








1 








il la taille 

















o 


Bap. de la, haut, de l'omb. 
















a 


à la taille 


_ 













_ 


Ph 


Eap. de la haut, du gd. 


















troch. à !a taille 




















Eap. de la haut, du ver- 


















tex pos. ass. à la taille. 








_ 













Eap. de la dist. bi-acrom. 


















à la taille 




















Eap. de la long, du m. 


















sup. à la taille 











47,1 







— . 




^ Eap. entre ces 2 long. ... 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


— 



I 



Etudes Anthropoloü'iqnes. 



69 



Numéros. 






3 Ol 



f Diain 

Diani, 

Long-. 

Lono-. 

Larg. 

Haut. 

Long. 
\ Larg. 

Larg. 

Larg. 

Larg. 
\ Loner. 



. ant. jxist. max. 

, transT. max. . 
tot. (lu visage 
tot. de la face 

tot. de la face 

du front 

du nez 

du nez. 

palpébrale 

bicaroncul... .. 

buccale 

des oreille^ ... 



o a 



Taille 

Gr. enverg 

Haut, du cond. audit. ... 

Haut, du menton 

Haut, de Tacrom 

Haut, de l'extrémi. du 

médius 

f Haut, de Tombil 

Haut, du gr. troch 

Haut, du vertex, dans la 
posit, assise 

Dist. bi-acromiale 

Circonf . de la poit 

Long, du memb. sup. ... 

Long, du memb. inf«r. ... 

Circonf. du bras 

Cir(3. de la cuisse 

Cire, du mollet 

, Long. tot. du i-)ied 

\Larj-. max. du pied 

f Indice céphal 

Indice du visage 

Indice facial 

Indice nasal 



71 



/RajD. entre la gr. enverg. 

et la taille 

Rap. de la haut, du cond. 

audit, à la taille 

Rap. de U haut, du ment. 

à la taille 

Ri.p. de la haut, de 

racrom. à la taille 
. Rap. de la haut, du méd. 

à la taille 

Rap. de la haut, de l'omb. 

à la taille 

^ Rap. de la haut, du gd. 

troch. à la taille 

Rap. de la haut, du ver- 
tex pos. ass. à la taille. 
Rap. de la dist. bi-acx-om. 

à la taille 

Rap. de la long, du m. 

sup. à la taille 

VRap. entre ces 2 long. ... 



72 



73 



74 



muj 

189 

143 

187 

113 

129 

74 

42 

36 

31 

38 

51 

«1 



39,0 



48 5 
33,5 

24,5 
10.0 



75.7 

114,2 
85.7 



75 



76 



77 



83,0 



70 



Art. 4.— Torii 



Numéro-. 


78 


79 


eo 


81 


82 


£3 


84 




llIUi 


mill 


mai 


11111,. 


uiai.; mm. 


mm. 


/Diam. ant. post. max. ... 


— 


— 


— 


— 





— 





-M 


Dism. trans V. max 























■"■ a. 


Long. tot. du visage 























Long. tot. de la face 














_ 








0) Ü 

'0^ 


l.arg. tot. de la face 


— 




















Ö ^' 


Haut, du front 


, 


— 
















.o '^ ) long, du Lez 





- 








_ 








"ë'^ ä Lai-o-. du nez 


— 1 


— 














3 * 


Larg. palpéljrale 


— 


— 


— 


— 





— 


_ 




Larg. bicaroncul 


— 


— 


— 














Ol 

13; 


Larg. buccale 























f^ 


..Long-, des oreilles 


— ! — 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




/Taille 

Gr. euverg 


cm. cui. 


cm. 


cm 


cm. cm. 


cm. 


















Haut, du cond. audit. ... 








_ 









m 


Haut, du menton 
















-è 


Haut, de Tacrom 








_ 









^ 


H^ut. de lextrémi. du 

















g 


mrdius 




_ 







_ 







Hiut.de l'oml il .. 


















^A 


Haut, du gr. troch 






_ 








_ 


^■%i 


Haut, du vertex, dans la 
















.!§ 


posit, assise 























Dist. bi-acrou:iale 



















"ce 


Circonf. de la puit 


._ 


_^ 





_ 


_ 







K 

p 


Long, du meml). sup. ... 





_ 

















œ 
PI 


Long, du memb. inéir, ... 





. 














_ 


Ä 


Circonf. du bras 


1 










_ 





ë 


Cire, de la cuisse 




















— 




Cire, du mollet 

























Long. tot. du pied 

^Laro-. max. du pied 














_ 










— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




Indice céphal 
















.2 F Indice du vi.sage 

'^ ' Indice facial ... 





















__ 


_ 





_ 




._ 





•-^ 


Indice na.sal 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


- 




/•Eap. entre la gr. enverg. 


















et la taille 

















_ 







Rajj. de la haut, du cond. 


















audit, à la taille 







_ 


_ 













Ryp. de la haut, du ment. 


















à la taille 











_ 


__ 





. 




Eap. de la haut, de 


















l'acrom. à la taille 


— 





— 








— 


— 


^ 


Eap. de la haut, du méd. 
















■i 


à la taille 


— 




















Eap. de la haut, de Tomb. 
















ce 


à la taille 








— 











_-. 


W 


Eap. de la haut, du gd. 


















troch. H la taille 





.. 


— 
















Eap. de la haut, du ver- 


















tex pos. ass. à la taille. 


— 





— 








— 







Eap. de la dist. bi-acrom. 


















à la taille 


— 


• — 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


— 




Eap. de la long, du m, 


















sup. à la taille — 


— 


— 


-- 


— 


— 


— 


\ K'ap. entre ces 2 long. ... — 


— 


— 


— 


— 


-- 


— 






Etudes Anthropolojii |u( s. 



71 



Numéros. 


85 


86 


87 


88 1 


-p 

Cä "^ 

C Ü 

CO 

Ö 

o; 

o 
o 

Ö 

p 
P '-' 

m a 
o S 
.2 a 
'-fi 
ce 
u 

ta 

a 

o 


f' Diam. ant. jjost. max. ... 

Diam. transv. max 

Long. tot. du visage 

Long tot. de la face 

Larg. tot de la face 

Haut du front 

Long, du nez 

Larg. du nez 

Larg palpébrale 

Larg. Iiicaroncul 

Larg. buccale 

^Lono". des ore lie« ... ... 


iiiiii 


mm. 


iiiiii 


IIIIU. 

- 

_ ! 

-i 

-S 


/Taille 

Gr. enverg 

Haut, du cond. audit. ... 

Haut, du menton 

Haut, de Tacrom 

Haut, de Textrémi. du 
médius ... 

Hant.de l'ombil 

HauT. du gr. troch 

Haut, du vertex, dans la 
posit, assise 

Dist. bi-acromiale 

Circonf. de li poit 

Long, du memb. sup. ... 

Long, du memb. infér. ... 

Circonf. du bras 

Cire, de la cuisse 

Cire, du mollet 

Long. tot. à\\ pied 

\LaT£r. ma.y. du pied 


cm. 


cm. 


cm 

z 


cm.J 


g (■ Indice céiîhal 

^ Indice du visage 

'g 1 Indice facial 

^ Indice nasil 


— 


— 


— 




Kapports. 


K 1 p entre la gr. enverg. 

et la taille 

Eaj). de la Vaut, .du cond. 

audit, à la taille 

Rap. de la haut, du ment. 

à la taille 

Knp. de la haut, de 

1 acrom. à la 1 aille 

Ka-iJ. de la haut, du méd. 

à )a taille 

Eip. de la haut, de Tomb. 

à la taille 

Kap. de la haut, du gd. 

troch. à la taille 

Kap. de la haut, du ver- 
tex pos. ass. à la taille. 
Ri) p. (le la dist. bi- acrom. 

à la taille 

Kap. de la long, du m. 

snp. M II. taille 

Rip. entre ces 2 long. ... 


— 


— 


— 


— Il 

J 

J 



.^) 



73 



Table des Matières. 

Page. 

Introduction 1 

Chapitre I. Caractères descriptifs 6 

Couleur de la peau 6 

Couleur du front 7 

Couleur de la paume de la main : — 7 

Couleur des yeux 7 

Cheveux 8 

Barbe 9 

Poils du corps 10 

Sourcils 11 

Insertion des cheveux sur le front 12 

Face 12 

Yeux 13 

Nez 13 

Dents 15 

Oreille 15 

Dimensions de l' index et de l' annulaire 16 

Forme de l' ongle 16 

Courbe du bras 17 

Degré d' écartement des membres inférieurs 17 

Dimensions des P""' et 2me. orteils 17 

Noms des villages et des Aborigènes ••• 17 

Chapitre IL Mensurations 21 

A. Mensurations de la tête et de la face 21 

Diamètre antéro-postérieur maximum 21 

Diamètre transversal-maximum 22 

Longueur totale du visage 23 



74 Tal. le des Matières. 

Longueur totale de la face 24 

Largeur totale de la face (distance bi-zygomatique 

maxima) 25 

Hauteur du front 26 

Longueur du nez 27 

Largeur du nez 28 

Largeur palpébrale 29 

Largeur bicaronculaire 30 

Largeur buccale 31 

Longueur des oreilles .- 32 

Indice céphalique 33 

Indice du visage 35 

Indice facial 35 

Indice nasal 37 

B. Mensurations du tronc et des membres 38 

Taille 38 

Grande envergure 40 

Rapport de la grande envergure à la taille 41 

Hauteur du conduit auditif au-dessus du sol 43 

Hauteur du bord inférieur du menton au dessus du sol ... 44 

Hauteur de V acromion au-dessus du sol 45 

Hauteur de l'extrémité inférieure du médius au-dessus du 

sol 40 

Hauteur de l'ombilic au dessus du sol 47 

Hauteur du grand trochanter au-dessus du sol 48 

Hauteur du vertex dans la position assise 49 

Distance bi-acromiale 50 

Circonférence de la poitrine ol 

Longueur du membre supérieur (de 1' acromion à l'extré- 
mité du médius) 52 



Tal)le dos Matières. 75 

Longueur du membre inférieur (hauteur du grand tioch- 

anter au-dessus au sol) 52 

Rapport entre la longueur du membre supérieur et du 

membre inférieur 53 

Circonférence du bras 54 

Circonférence de la cuisse 55 

Circonférence du mollet 56 

Longueur totale du pied 57 

Longueur maxima du pied 58 

Table des mensurations et indices d'aborigènes de Kôtô- 

shô 59 



I 



K. TORII. 

LES ABOBICENES DE FORMOSE. 



PLANCHE I. 



Explication de la PI. I. 

A. Carte montrant les montagnes, les rivières et les villages des 
Aborigènes de Kö-tö-sbö (Botel-Tobago). La petite Carte qui 
est annexée à la carte de Kô-tô-sliô, montre la situation relative 
de Kû-to-slif) et de Formose. 



B. Carte montrant la situation respective de Kô-to-sbo (Botel- 
Tobago) et des îles qui sont situées au Nord des Pbilipines. 



ft- 



>< 



Co 





o 







4. 









Ä — -3 m 






a: 



5 7D 



O 

Q 



< 

a 

o 

H 



pa 



•3 







H. TORI I. 

LES ABORICÈBES DE FORMOS? 



PLANCHE IL 



Explication de la PI. II. 

A. Aborigène de Kô-t5-sli5 (Botel-Tobago). 

B. Le même, de profil. 

C. Aborigène de Kô-to-sliô (Botel-Tobago). 

D. Le même, de profil. 



/?. Torii. 



Jour Sei. Coll., Vol. XXXII., Art. 4. PI. II. 







\ 




3D 



I 

i 



R. Tomi. 

LES ABOBIGEBES DE FORMOSE. 



PLANCHE III. 



Explication de la Pi. HI. 

A. Aborigène de Ko-to-shô (Bote! -Tobago). 

B. Le même, de profil. 

C. Aborigène de Kö-tö-shö (Botel-Tobago). 

D. Aborigène de Kö-tö-shö (Botel-Tobago). 



/?. Torii. 



Jour. Sei. Coll., Vol. XXXII., Art. 4. PI. III. 





kTimmmmim 





ä 




R. TORII. 

LES ABORIGÈNES DE FORMOSE, 



PLANCHE IV. 



Explication de la PI. IV. 

A. Aborigène de Kô-to-slio (Botel-Tobago). 

B. Le même, de profil. 

C. Aborigène de Kô-tô-sliô (Botel Tobago). 

D. Le même, de profil. 

E. Femme de Kô-tô-shô (Botel Tobago). 

F. La même, de profil. 



ft. 






O 












R. TORII. 

LES ABORIGÈKES DE FORMOSE. 



PLANCHE V. 



Explication de la PI. V. 

A. Groupe d'Aborigènes (hommes) de Kö-to-shö-(BoteJ-Toba- 
go.) — On voit, en bas de la photographie, un modèle des 
" maisons de travail " — La plupart des aborigènes possèdent 
deux maisons: une où ils habitent et une autre où ils travail- 
lent. Celles-ci sont plus élevées, et ont:généralement un étage. 
Ceux qui sont pauvres, n'ayant pas de " luaison de travail," 
travaillent en plein air, devant leur maison d'habitation. 

B. Groupe d'aborigènes. Les 2 individus qui sont accroupis, 
en bas, au premier rang, sont des hommes. Devant eux, se 
trouvent 2 spécimens d'une sorte de coiffure en argent, de 
forme conique, qu'ils mettent à l'occasion des cérémonies 
religieuses .Le 2*" rang est entièrement composé de femmes. 
A droite, sont de jeunes garçons. 



/?, Torii. 



Jour. Sei. Coll., Vol. XXX 1 1., Art. 4. PI. V. 



.=i^L^^ 





R. TORIl. 

LES ÂBORICÈBES DE FORMOSE, 



PLANCHE VI. 



Explication de la PI. VI. 

A. " Maison de travail." 2 indigènes sont occupés à fabriquer 
un modèle de pirogue. Celui du bas qui, se nomme Shika- 
shi, a les cheveux frisés, particularité dont il est parlé au 
cours de cette étude. 

B. Aborigènes occupés à produire du feu par le frottage. 



/?. Torii. 



Jour. Sei. Coll., Vol. XXXII., Art. 4. PI. VI. 





Explication de la PI. VII. i 

A. Un Village de Ko-tô-shô (Botel-Tobago). En bas, à droite 
de la photographie est une maison d'habitation. Celles qui, 
dans le village, sont plus élevées que les autres, sont des 
" maisons de travail." Au premier plan, on voit des femmes 
et des petites filles. 

B. Groupes d'aborigènes (hommes et femmes), devant une 
'* maison de travail." 



/?. Torii. 



Jour. Sol. Coll., Vol. XXXII., Art 4. PI. VII. 





B 



JOURNAL OF THE COLLEGE OF SCIENCE, TOKYO IMPERIAL UNIVERSITT. 

VOL. XXXII., ARTICLE 5. 



Climatic Changes in Japan since the Pliocene Epoch. 

By 
Malajiro Yokoyama, B'Kjakuhakuski. 

Professor of Pahrontolony, Imjjci'ial Univertiit)j of Tohjo. 



With 1 Plate. 



As is well known, one of the striking features of the climate 
of the primEeval world was the occasional interruption of a com- 
paratively warm and uniform climate by one of intense cold. The 
time during whicli such a cold climate prevailed is called an ice-age, 
because of the enormous quantities of ice which in the form of 
glaciers covered the land, smoothing, polishing and scratching the 
rocks over which they moved, and carrying with them erratics and 
moraines, just as they do to-day in the Alps and in Arctic 
countries. Geologists have ascertained that such ice-ages have 
visited the earth at least tliree times during the past. The first 
visit was during the Eozoic or Precambrian, the period in which 
the first dawn of life appeared in the world. Evidences of this age 
have been discovered in China, Canada and Northern Norway. 
The second was toward the close of the Palœozoic era, in a period 
called Permian. This time the ice chiefly invaded the countries 
around the Indian Ocean — India, Australia and Southern Africa. 
The so-called Glussopteris flora, which resembles that of the succeed- 
ing Mesozoic more than that of the Palaeozoic and which flourish- 
ed during the Permian period in the above named countries, is 
often brought into connection with this second glaciation, on the 
assumption that it was the result of the transforming power of the 
cold acting on j^lants of the Palaeozoic which remained unchanged 
until its close in places where there was no glaciation. 



'^ Art. 5.— Matajiro Tokoyama : 

The third and the last ice-age was of a comparatively late 
date. It was m the Diluvial. During the Tertiary, a period 
which immediately preceded this age, the climate of Europe and 
America was very warm, so warm in the beginning that tropical 
plants grew in Southern England and chelonians and crocodiles 
inhabited its waters. This great heat, however, gradually 
diminished as time went on, becoming subtropical in the 
Miocene and temperate in the Pliocene, the last subdivision 
of the Tertiary. Within this Pliocene, too, the lowering of 
temperature still went on from tlie beginning to the end, a sure 
indication of the approacl) of an ice-age. And this is nowhere 
more clearly mirrored than on the molluscous animals of the 
so-called Crag Formation of England which belongs to the above- 
said Pliocene Epoch. The Mollusca in the lowest division of this 
Crag, called the Coralline Crag, in spite of an admixture of a few 
northern or boreal forms, still bears in general the stamp of a very 
genial climate. But in the Bed Crag, the Crag next above it, the 
number of boreal forms increases to 10% and in the still higher 
Norwicli Crag to still more, until at last in the uppermost Crags, — 
the Chillesfonl and Weghowiie Crags — their number is so great that 
the fauna may be called really Arctic, and there is even a doubt 
whether these Crags might not be better classed among the 
deposits of the ice-age itself. 

With the dawn of the Diluvial Epoch, the whole aspect of 
Europe and America was changed. Enormous glaciers were 
moving everywhere. They formed a continuous sheet of ice 
several thousands of feet in thickness and covering the greater part 
of the two continents. They looked very much like those now 
found in the interior of Greenland or on the Antarctic continent. 
This ice-age, however, was not one continuous age of ice. There 
were also times in which the ice partly melted and shrunk and 
the climate became comparatively mild. Such times are called 
Inter glacials, their number varying in different regions but amount- 
ing to as many as six, as has been ascertained in America. Thus 
the ice-age after several fluctuations in the extent of the ice at last 
disappeared, and in the Alluvi'àTlSF' ]\r6dern EpÔcTr"wT'see*tKe 



Climatic Changes in Japan since Pliocene Epoch. 3 

once ice-covered Europe and America again covered with 
meadows and woods, and quite as inviting as in by-gone ages. 

Hereupon a thinking mind is naturally led to ask whether 
this state of things was limited to the above two continents, or 
was more world-wide in nature, in which case the old remains of 
erratics and moraines and of polished and scratched rocks should 
also be found in other parts of the world. And so when Japan 
Avas opened to international traffic and geologists, both foreign 
and native, began to scour the country, they naturally looked for 
■evidences of glaciers. But strange to say, they were nowdiere to 
be found. They were not found in Honshu, nor in the Hokkai- 
do, nor even in the cold island of Sakhalin where even in the 
southernmost part the mean January temperature falls far below 
the freezing point, to — ^13°C, a temperature w^hich w^e find in 
Labrador and Southern Greenland. From this negative evidence 
they were obliged to infer that glaciers had never existed in Japan, 
probably because the climate had never been cold enough to 
generate them. But why had it not been cold? There was no 
one who could answer this question. 

Since about a year ago, I have been studying our Pliocene 
fossils found at a place called Koshiba, some eleven kilometres 
south of Yokohama and beautifully situated on the shore of the 
Tokyo Bay. Tlie rock in which the fossils are entombed is a 
coarse tufaceous sandstone, sometimes so coarse as to look like a 
conglomerate, thus betraying the shallowness of the sea in which 
it was deposited. The fossils are chiefly Molluscs and Molluscoids 
with some Ecliinodcrms^ Tiibicolous Annelids, Balanids, Fish-teeth, etc. 
The Molluscs seem to be very rich in species, while the case seems 
to be quite the contrary with the Molluscoids, though they are rich 
in individuals. The number of the species of these two groups of 
animals which I have been able to distinguish up to this time, 
amounts to seventy-one,^-' of which the following thirty-nine are 
living ones: — 

1. Cylichna cylindracea Pennant. 

1) Detailed descriptions of these fossils will appear in a future numbar of this journal. 



Art. 5.— Matajiro Yokoyama : 

2. Conus siehokli Reeve. 

3. Pleurotoma hamahirana Pilsbry. 

4. Mangilia rohiisticostata Smith. 

5. Admete viridula Fabricius. 

6. Voluta megaspim Sowerby. 

7. Mitra ehenvs Lamarck. 

8. Chrysodoimis pliœniceiis Dali. 

9. Chrysodomus pericochlion Schrenck. 

10. Troplion dathratus Linné. 

11. Priene orcgonensis Redfield. 

12. Natica clausa Broderip et Sowerby. 

13. Leptotliyra amussitata Gould. 

14. Puncturella conica Orbigny. 

15. Acmœa heroldi Dunker var. pygmcca Dunker 

16. Patella pallida Gould. 

17. Dcntalium lücinkaiiß Dunker. 

18. Corbula veniista Gould. 

19. Lucina horcalis Linné. 

20. Cardium modcstum Adams et Reeve. 

21. Aiiomia cijtœum Gray. 

22. Lima goliatli Smith. 

23. Lima smitlvi Sowei'by. 

24. Lima japonica A. Adams. 

25. Pectcn swiftii Bernardi. 

26. Pectcn yessoensis Jay. 

27. Pectcn vesiculosits Dunker. 

28. Pectcn similis Lasky. 

29. Pectcn iircgidaris Sowerby. 

30. Pectcn tujerrimis Müller. 

31. Ostrea gigas Thunberg. 

32. Area hohcltiana Pilsbry. 

33. Area decussata Sowerby. 

34. Area stcarnsii Pilsbry. 

35. Limopsis crenata A. Adams 

36. Lcda ramsayi Smith. 

37. Nucida insignis Gould. 



Climatic Changes in Japan siac9 Pliocene Epoch. 5 

38. Terehmtidina crosm Davidson. 

39. Terehratidina cailleti Crosse. 

I also found three forms which, if not quite identical with, 
are at least close to, living species. They are 

40. Sipho cf. gracilis Da Costa. 

41. Natica cf. pallida Broderip et Sowerby. 

42. Fissuriaea cf. tanncri Verrill. 

The remaining twenty-nine species are those which are not 
yet known to be living, and belong to the genera Conus, Pleurotoma, 
Drillia, Mangilia, Mitra, Troplion, Bittium, Trichotropis, TurriteUa^ 
Solarium, Acrilla, Scala, Dentaliwn, Diplodonta, Liicina, Astarte^ 
Cardita, CrassateUa, Mijodora, Pcctcii, Östren, Neniodon, Terehratidina^ 
etc. They amount to about 40% of the whole, and even when 
reduced by future discoveries, can hardly be imagined as falling 
below 20%. From this we may safely infer that the fauna can 
not be younger than the Mildle Pliocene. 

But it is not this high percentage of extinct forms which has 
struck me most. It is the decidedly boreal character of the 
entire fauna. The following species are those which point to it: — 

1. Admete viridida. 

2. Chrijsodomus phœniceus. 

3. Chrysodomus pericocldion. 

4. Sijjho gracilis. 

5. Trophon clathratus. 

6. Priene oregoncnsis. 

7. Natica clausa. 

8. Natica pallida. 

9. Leptothyra amussitata. 

10. Puiicturella conica. 

1 1 . Corhula veniista. 

12. Pectcn yessocnsis. 

13. Pecten siüiftii. 

14. Leda ramsayi. 

15. Nucula insignis. 

Troplion clathratus and Admete mridula are well known circum- 
boreal species. Chrysoloivis phoe:ilceus is now found on the coast 



Ö Art. 5. — Mata jiro Yokoyama : 

of British Columbia near 51° N. Lat. and at a depth of 240 fathoms 
where the temperature of the water is 7°C. Puncturella conica is 
now living only near the Falkland Islands. Leda ramsayi is found 
in New South Wales, but at a depth of 950 fathoms. Also all the 
others are now living north of Tokyo Bay, and the three species 
of Lima before mentioned, though existing near Central Japan, 
have never yet been met with in the shallow waters of the 
coast. Although the boreal forms together with these deep-water 
ones make up about one-half of the living species, there is not a 
single one which is limited to the warmer seas. Moreover, the 
occurrence of such genera as Tricliotropis and Astarte among the new 
species clearly indicates that the tempei'ature of the waters in which 
the Koshiba shells had lived must have been a pretty low one. 

Now what makes this boreal character of the Koshiba fauna 
the more important is the less boreal nature of the MollusccC-^ of 
the upper Pliocene found in the immediate neighbourhood of 
Tokyo, at Oji, Shinagawa, Tabata, etc., which, when compared 
with the recent, are still boreal enough. From these facts, I am 
forced to conclude that the climate of Central Japan during the 
Pliocene Epoch was on the whole colder than now, and indeed, 
colder in the earlier than in the later part of it. This is quite in accord- 
ance with the conclusion already arrived at by Prof. Nathorst"-^ 
from studying our Pliocene plants. This eminent palœobotanist 
recognized plants of the said epoch occurring in a rock exposed at 
the sea-coast near Yokohama and also at Mogi*-* as corresponding 
to those now growing on our higher mountains and not on the 
lowlands, as the situation of the fossils would naturally suggest; 
and although he does not touch the question of the rise of tem- 
perature in the course of the Pliocene, he advances the view that 
the Yokohama plants are probably upper Pliocene and are younger 

1) These fossils have been studied by Dr. Tokunaga and the results given in bis " Fossils 
from the Environs of Tokyo," article 2, vol. XXI of this journal. TJd fortunately he took them 
for Diluvial, probably led by the boreal nature of the fossils of the same age in Europe, which 
can not be, for they contain at least about 10% of extinct form=. Tokunaga himself describe» 
more than 20% of extinct species. 

2) Contribution à la flore fossile du Japon, 18S3. Zur fossilen Flora Japans. 1888. 

3) Xear Nagasaki. 



Climatic Changes in Japan since Pliocene Epoch. 7 

than those of IMogi, a view wliich can partly be proved both 
geologically and palseozoologically. 

As soon as I became aware of the above stated increase of 
temperatm-e, it occurred to me that the so-called coral-bed of Noma^^ 
in the southern part of the Sôbô Peninsula might belong to the 
succeeding Diluvial age. The bed is a muddy sand filling the 
valley-bottoms between the hills of the Pliocene rocks and not far 
from the sea. The fossils consist of large masses of corals mixed 
with shells and possess a very young looking aspect, on which 
account they were hitherto supposed — quite vaguely of course— to 




be Prehistoric. But, as we do not find now such large corals in the 
neighbouring seas, no one could tell how they happened to be 



1) Near the town of Tateyama in Awa ; latitude 35° N. and Longitude 139° 50' E. 



ö Art. 5. — Matajiro Yokoyaina : 

found there. Therefore I immediately took up the examination of 
the shells of the bed and was agreeably surprised to find them to l^e 
such as can only be interpreted as Diluvial, not younger, not older; 
for, although the thirty-five species'^ which I have been able to dis- 
tinguish are all living, yet fourteen of them are now living only 
south of Kyushu — in the China Sea, in the Philippines and the 
tropical portions of tlie Pacific and Indian Oceans, etc. Such are 

1. Purpura alveolata Reeve. 

2. Cuma rugosa Born. 

3. Triton ohscurus Reeve. 

4. Cyprœa carneola Linné. 

5. Trochus atropurpureus Gould. 

6. Fissuridea rupellini Sowerby 

7. Cytherca tigrina Lamarck. 

8. Venus lacerai a Han ley. 

9. Venus cf. juhesi Deshayes. 
10. Chama multisquamosa Gmelin. 
IL Cardita cf. guhernaculnm Reeve. 

12. Area kraussi Philippi. 

13. Arcafusca Brugiere. 

14. Perna marsupium Lamarck. 

Of the remaining twenty-one species, fourteen are those living 
in tropical as well as in Japanese seas, while only six are purely 
Japanese. 

As to the corals which are found together with these shells, I 
have not yet been able to determine their species; but this much 
is certain that they are true reef-building corals belonging to such 
genera as Ileliastraea, Cijpliastraea, Prionastraea, 3Iussa, Goniophora, 
Stylophora, Alveopora, Domoseri^, Madrepora, several genera of 
Fungidœ, etc., all which we do not find now living north of the 
Ryukyus (the northernmost is 28" 20' N. Lat.) or of tlie Bonins 
(about 27° N. Lat). 

From this we see that we have here a layer which corres- 
ponds to the Diluvium of Europe. Just as the latter contains 
many forms which have since retreated to the north, the Noma 

1) These will be described in a future number of this journal. 



Climatic Changes in Japxn since Pliocene Epoch. 9 

bed contains those which now inhabit tropical seas only. This is 
an unmistakable sign of the very warm climate which then 
prevailed in that part of Japan, much warmer than that of to daj^, 
for the sea near Noma now cools down to about 10°C, while 
the minimum temperature of the water in which the reef-corals 
live is 19^G. Indeed I am quite sure that while the Occident was 
buried under the heavy burden of ice millions of tons in weight, 
Centra] Japan was exposed to the lieat of tlie tropical sun. 
Beyond in the West, one speaks of the ice-age; here in the Far 
East we can talk only of tlie coralline. Such being the case it is 
quite natural that geologists should have been unable to find any 
glacial remains in this part of the world. 

It may perhaps be asked whether in Japan there are no beds 
which are the equivalents of the Interglacials and Postglacials of 
the West. I think there are. Several years ago I was passing by 
the town of Mobara in Kazusa situated on the Pacific side of the 
Söbö Peninsula and much to the north-east of Noma, when I 
discovered a sand-layer exposed along the two sides of a stream 
flowing through a coastal plain at the foot of the Tertiary hills. 
In this layer I found about sixty species of marine Mollusca all 
living. Some of these are either tropical or are at least not yet 
known to exist in the neighbouring seas. Such are Area symmetrica 
Reeve, Tapes d. quadriradiata Deshayes, Venus cî. listeri Gray, Eulima 
solida Sowerby and Suhemarginiila carinata Reeve. I also examined 
shells brought from a sand-layer at Cape Daito, somewhat to the 
south-east of the above mentioned place, and found them to 
contain, besides one or two tropical forms, a species of Turritella 
which hitherto has l)een known to occur only in the Koshiba 
Pliocene. And as these layers contain no snch large corals as 
those found at Noma, they must be considered to be deposits 
of a time or tim^es in which the climate was much more 
temperate. This leads us to ask, if they are not IntercoraUine or 
PostcoraUine. ' ^ 

From all that I have stated above, it follows quite naturally 
that the temperature in Central Japan has gradually increased 

1) Similar shell-layers seem to occur also on the coast between Xoma and Kachiyama. 



10 Art. 5. — Matajiro Yokoyama : 

silice the earlier Pliocene, attaining its maximum in the Diluvial 
and then again decreasing down to the present time. This is, as 
every one can see, a state of things just the reverse of what we find 
in Europe and America, a singular contrast for which there must 
surely be a cause. 

But before entering into the discussion of this cause, let us go 
back a little to the Miocene Epoch when Switzerland is said to 
have enjoyed a climate such as we find now in the southernmost 
cape of Kyushu (Sata-no-misaki in Osumi with a mean annual 
temperature of 18°C) and Amami-Oshima (the northenmost of the 
Ryukyu Islands with 20,8°C). The Japanese fauna of this epoch 
has not yet been fuU}^ studied, but we know something of its 
plants from the investigations of Nathorst.^' This palaeobotanist 
found them to consist of a njixture of the European Miocene and 
of the so-called Arctic-Tertiary flora, indicating that the climate 
of Japan, at least between 35° and 40° N. Lat. in which the plants 
were collected, was not in the least warmer than now. This \vould 
naturally lead us to assume that a difference in climate had 
already at that time existed between Europe and Japan, but that 
this difference was not so marked as in later epochs. And I think 
this is quite in accordance with the already known fact that the 
further back we go into the past, the more uniform the climate 
becomes throughout the world. 

About the Pre-Miocene Tertiary fossils of Japan we do not 
yet know much. And the few that I myself have lately described^-* 
are not enough to enable us to dra^v any conclusion as to the 
climate of those times. 

The phenomena of Nature which have been already set forth 
as the probable causes of the climatic changes of the past, and 
especially of the ice-age, are partly astronomical and partly physical. 
Among the former we may mention the change in the eccentricity 
of the earth's orbit or in the obliquity of the ecliptic, the preces- 
sion of the equinoxes, the displacement of the poles and the 
formation of the smaller planets. Among the latter we may count 

1) Zur fossilen Flora Japans, 1888. 

•J) Some Tertiary Fossils from the Miike Coal-fielJ; 1911. 



Climatic Changes in Japan since Pliocene Epocb. iJ 

the variation of the quantity of carbonic acid gas in the air due to 
the greater or less frequency of volcanic eruptions and the different 
distribution of land and water in past times. 

Among these supposed causes, those which can be brought 
into connection with oar Coralline Age are only three, viz., the 
displacement of the poles, the quantity of carbonic acid gas and 
tlie distribution of land and water; as for the others, if they were 
ever real causes, they must have been of a more general character, 
either affecting the whole earth at once, or at least one-half of it, 
the Northern or the Southern Hemisphere, and not one-lialf of 
the same hemisphere as in our case. 

That carbonic acid gas is very effective in keeping the air 
Avarm b}^ preventing the too rapid radiation of heat from the 
ground, is quite true. Therefore, if it is used in explaining the 
occurrence of our Coralline Age only, it seems to work very well; 
for we may assume that the volcanic eruptions were quite violent 
at that time, so many active volcanoes still exist in our country. 
But then, how can we explain the temperate climate of our 
Miocene and the cool climate of our Pliocene, when volcanic 
eruptions were at least equally as violent as in the later times? 
That such was the case, we know by the profuse occurrence of 
liparites and andésites and of their respective tuffs containing 
either jMiocene or Pliocene fossils, tlave we any evidence that 
the European Miocene and Pliocene were richer in volcanic 
eruptions than ours? Can any one prove that the quantity of 
carbonic acid gas has been increasing in Europe and decreasing in 
Japan since the Diluvial Epoch? I think this gas, if it ever be 
used to explain the change of climate in the past, can be more 
advantageously applied in the case of the Pre-Tertiary or at least 
the Pre-Miocene period, when the climate of the world was more 
uniform throughout. 

The distribution of land and water also can hardly be said to 
give a more satisfactory explanation ; for the Diluvial was a time 
in which the configuration of the land was not much different 
from the present. Looking at our Pacific side, the ocean itself 
must then have been long in existence, since it is a great 



12 Art. 5. — Matajiro Yokoyama : 

géosynclinal, as the geologists call it, whose formation is said to go 
back at least as far as the Mesozoic. Then the American and the 
Asiatic coast-regions, Japan, Formosa, the Philippines and even 
the greater part of the Eyukyu Islands were already in a form 
very nearly as we see them to-day. And if any one expects to 
find out any great change in the form of the land, it would be just 
at the head of the Tokyo Ba}^. This place is coloured in our 
geological maps as Diluvial which, if marine, would transform the 
Söbö Peninsula at that time into an island. But what is here 
called Diluvial is a thick layer of subaerial loam evidently derived 
from a volcanic ash which had fallen on the preexisting land made 
up of Pliocene strata. From this we know that, in the Diluvial 
Epoch, the topography of the region surrounding the Tokyo Bay 
was not much different from wdiat we see at present. 

It is a well known fact that ocean-currents exercise a great 
modifying influence on the climate of a country near which they 
flow. And as the Kuroshio'^ flows just south of the Söbö Penin- 
sula, one might think that by a little change of its course, it might 
come to wash the shores of the Peninsula, thus raising the tempera- 
ture of the water to a degree sufficient to fit it for the growth of the 
reef-corals. But such a change in the course of the current can 
never have been brought about without a marked change in the 
configuration of the surrounding countries. Those who look only 
on maps and are not well acquainted with actual meteorological 
conditions are easily misled by the proximity of the Kuroshio 
and over-estimate its warming power on our country. One must 
always bear in mind that in winter in Japan a cold wind sets in 
from the Asiatic continent either as a north wind or a north-west 
wind, which not only cools down the land to a temperature quite 
low in comparison with its latitude, but also prevents the warm air 
floating ov^er the Kuroshio from ever approaching it and even 
causes the current itself to deviate a little to the south. Therefore 
the warming power of this current at this season is reduced to a 

1) Kuroshio means black current or black salt-w.iter, and not black salt as often trans- 
lati'd in European books. This mistake is undoubtedly due to our shio |g salt and shio JU salt- 
water being phonetically the same, though different in written characters. Another name for 
Kuroshio is Ivurosegiwa which signifies dark rapid rinr. 



Climatic Chaiigf s in Japan since Pliocejio Epoch. 13 

minimum, and if there is an}^ influence from it, as Prof. Schott 
rightly remarks, ^^ it would be on the Japan Sea side, where flows 
a branch stream along the coast Avhose influence, however, is of 
course much weaker and only limited to that side. As the result 
of this cooling power of the wind on the land, the waters of the 
immediate neighbourhood of the coast are also cooled down, 
often to about 10°C as has been already mentioned. Also we 
must not forget to mention that, except in midsummer, there 
is always a counter-current intervening between the coast and the 
Kuroshio which is taken b}^ Schott for its backset, but which from 
its comparatively low temperature was formerly even thought to be 
a southern continuation of the cold Kurik Current which comes 
down at least to the north-eastern shores of Honshu. Under such 
circumstances it would be impossible to attribute a spcciallij Kcirmincj 
power to the current just for the Diluvial age. But supposing that 
we can do it for some reason or other, can we then attribute a 
great cooling power to the Gulf Stream which now exercises such a 
great influence on the climate of Western Europe, simply because 
there was an ice-age on that side of our Northern Hemisphere? It 
goes without saying that such an arbitrary way of explaining 
things is of no value at all in science. 

Accordingly only one cause remains, viz., the displacement 
of the poles or, as it may perhaps better be expressed, a change 
in the position of the earth's axis. This is, I believe, the most 
plausible explanation in a case like ours. 

Neumayr^ in 1887 and Nathorst^^ in 1888 already attempted 
to explain the curious geographical distribution of the Arctic- 
Tertiary flora of the Miocene period by this change of the earth's 
axis. The plants of this flora which betray a rather temperate 
climate of 8° — 10°C in the yearly average, a climate roughly 
corresponding to that of our Southern Hokkaido, were found in 
Grinell Land (81° 45' N.L.), Greenland (70' N.L.), Spitzbergen 
(77 J and 77§ N.L.), the Lower Lena (65° N.L.), the Lower Amoor 

1) Oberflächen-Temperaturen und Strömungen der ostasiatischen Gewässer, p. 45. 

2) Erdgeschichte IL p. 511. 

3) Zur Fossilen Flora Japans, p. 53. 



14 Art. 5. — Matajiro Yokoyama: 

(Bureja), Sakhalin (51° N.L.), Kamtchatka. Alaska, etc., forming 
so to say a wreath around the present North Pole, but far nearer 
to it on the Atlantic side than on the Pacific. Neumayr wislied 
to bring the pole ten degrees nearer to the Asiatic side on the 
meridian of Ferro, while Nathorst increased the displacement to 
twenty degrees on the meridian of 120° E. long., which would 
bring the position of the supposed North Pole in the lower region 
of the Olenek just west of the Lower Lena. Nathorst also sought 
to account for the smallness of the leaves of the fossil plants found 
at Lena by the proximity of the pole and the temperate character 
of our Miocene plants, whicli according to him contain not a single 
element whicli points to a climate warmer than the present. But 
Neumayr in the second edition of his Erdgeschichte'^ seems to be 
inclined to renounce his former assumption, because of the dis- 
covery of ordinary Arctic-Tertiary plants in one of the New 
Siberian Islands which are not far off from the supposed North 
Pole of Nathorst. 

Now, if I may be allowed to express my own opinion on the 
above subject, I would say that it is not at all necessary to fix the 
position of the pole so as to make it as equidistant as possible from 
the various fossil localities. It may as Avell be taken as lying 
more to the east, nearer to a meridian passing through the Bering 
Strait. In saying this, however, I am by no means trying to 
establish the position of the Miocene pole. On the contrary, I 
think it is very difficult to locate this, because the distribution of 
land and water was then very different from what it is to-day. 
Furthermore, other factors which determined the geographical 
distribution of plants at that time are utterly unknown to us. 
Therefore I simply say that the North Pole may have been then 
in a different position from now, but that the data, now at our 
disposal, are too scanty to justfy us even in guessing at it. 

The case becomes different in the succeeding ages. Here the 
climatic contrasts in the East and the West are very strong, and 
always in such a w^ay that when it is cold on one side it is warm 



1) Vol. II, p. 385, 1895. 



Cliuialic Changes in Japan since Pliocene Epoch. 15 

Oil the other, and vice versa. This, I think, can only be explained 
by the movement of the poles to and fro. We may assume that 
during the earlier Pliocene, the North Pole was more to the 
Asiatic side. Then it began to move to the Atlantic side until 
the Diluvial, when that side fell into ice-age and the Asiatic side 
into coralline age ; after that it may be taken as having made a 
backward movement, that is to say, back again to the Asiatic side. 
So far as I know, this mode of explanation meets with no serious 
objection. Therefore, if theories are made to explain a phenome- 
non whose cause is unknown, and if, among these theories, the 
one which explains it in the easiest and most unconstrained way is 
the most plausible, then the movement of the poles to and fro must be 
regarded as the most plausible explanation of the climatic changes 
of the Northern Hemisphere since the Pliocene Epoch. 

It is a singular coincidence that Prof. Simroth of Leipsic, led 
by a peculiar geographical distribution of the organisms in the 
present creation, had already tried to explain it also by the so- 
called " Theory of the Oscillation of the Poles," first propounded 
by Reibisch to account for the displacement of the beach-line. In 
tliis theory, '-^ the North and South Poles are made to swing to and 
fro on the meridian of 10° E.L. which corresponds to 170° W.L. 
on the Pacific side, a line just passing through the Bering Strait. 
This meridian has been calletl by Reibisch the circle of oscillation. 
Now Simroth had recognized a more or less symmetrical distribu- 
tion of similar or vicarious foi'ms either east or west of this circle or, 
if under the same circle, north and south of the equator. The first 
is called by Simroth the transversal sijininetrtf, and is said to be 
caused by the organisms diverting to the east or the west as the 
quickest means of evasion of the approach of a pole or of the 
equator. The second is called by him meridial s)jmmetrij, and is 
thought to be caused by organisms on the approach of the equator, 
climbing up high mountains on which they can wander south and 
even cross the equator beyond which they can again come dow^n to 
the low-land, where the climate is suited for their existence. As 

1 ) Simroth. Die Peadnlationstheorie, 1907. 



16 



Art. 5.— Matajiro Yokoyama ; 



examples of the transversa] symmetry he mentions, among others, 
the occurrence of the giant salamander in Japan and of Menopoma in 
the United States, of the genus Alligator in China and America, of 
Ceratodus in Queensland and of Lepidosiren in South America, etc. 
Of course it is not my object here to reproduce all the details 
given by Simroth in his book. I only mention them to show 
how this eminent naturalist was led to assume the movement of 
the poles from the distribution of recent organisms, just as I have 
been led by that of the fossils. 

Lastly, it may perhaps be asked: If the poles ever moved, 
in what position were they during the Japanese Coralline Age? 
To such a question, I can only say that I have found only enough 
evidence to suggest the movement of tlie poles and no more. I 
even doubt if palaeontologists will ever be able to establish the 
position of the poles in the past b}^ simply studying the fossils. 
Tlierefore, let it suffice for me to say that during our Coralline 
Age, the poles were in such a position as to cause the sun to shine 
on the Sübö Peninsula with about the same intensity as it now 
shines at least on the Ryukyus or the Bonin Islands. 



m. TiOKOVASI/V. 

CLIMATIC CHANCES IN JAPAN SINCE THE PLIOCENE EPOCH, 



PLATE I. 



Explanation of the Plate il). 
Some of the Noma Fossils. 

Fig. 1- Heliastnea sp. ^/^ nat. size. 

Fig. 2- Do. A fragment in natural size. 

Fig. 3. Madrepora sp. A fragment. 

Fig. 4- Perna marsupium Lam. (Tropical species). 

Fig. 5- Cyprsea carneola Linné. (Tropical species). 

Fig. 6. Cytherea tigrina Lam. (Tropical species). 

Fig. 7. Triton obscurus Rve. (Tropical species). 

Fig. 8- Area fusca Brug. (Tropical species). 

Fig. 9. Triton costatus Born. (Tropical and Japanese species). 



i 



Jour. Sei. Coll., Vol. XXXII., Art 5, PI. I. 




M. Yokovawa : Xowa Fossils. 



h 



JOU r.NAL OP THE COLLEGE OP ECIP.KCP, IMPEHTAL TTNIVEIISTTT, 
TOKYO, JAPAN. 

VOL. XXXII., ARTICLE 6. 



On Nepheline-basalt from Yingé-mên, Manchuria 

By 

B. Koto, Ph. D., Rhjakithakushi 
rrofesaor of Gi'ology, Science College, Imperial University, Tôki/ô 



With 2 Plates 



The present short paper deals with the first genuine occurrence, 
so far as I am aware, of nepheline-basalt in the Koreo-Japanese 
and Chinese regions. For this reason it may be of some interest 
to petrologists, who seem at present to attach special importance to 
any new find of feldspathoid rocks in the subalkaline circum- 
Pacific region. 

It is the current opinion that the "Pacific region" is charact- 
erized by the predominance of subalkaline igneous rocks in contrast 
to the alkaline rocks of the " Atlantic region "^'*; but as there are 
many exceptions in tlie latter, so we find alkaline rocks also in 
the former ; and these apparently aberrant forms seem to be in- 
creasing in number, as our petrological knowledge of their dis- 
tribution in the " Pacific region " by degrees accumulates. 



] ) W. Cross in. his recent paper seems to discredit broad generalizations concerning the 
genetic relations and regional distribution of igneous rocks, termed the Atlantic and Pacific 
kindred. After closely examining the existing analyses of the Hawaiian lavas, he was forced to 
the conclusion that " the Hawaiian magmas tend to show that the generalizations as to 
geographic distribution or the genetic relations of the alkali and mhalkali grouj^s included in 
current definitions of the Atlantic and Pacific branches or Si'ppen are far from correct. Hence in 
their present form they can have no place in a pétrographie system." Whitman Cross, " The 
Lavas of Hawaii and Their Relations." Jour. IVasliington Acad. Sei., vol. 1, Xo, 3, August, 1911. 
How far Becke's view on the Sippe, endorsed by Harker, can withstand the criticism of age, I 
cannot toll now. {Added while in press.) 



2 lî. Eotô : 

Referring mainly to the western Pacific, WiCHMANN'Mong ago 
made known a melilite-nepheline basalt from Oalui in the Hawaiian 
Islands, and Ceoss^^ has acquainted us with the occurrences of a 
trachyte (acid phonolite) and a nepheline-basalt from one of the 
same island group. Alkaline rocks are said to occur in Tahiti, in 
the Viti Archipelago, and also in Timor^-*; while leucite-basalts are 
found in Java^\ in the southern Celebes^\ and also in Masbate, 
one of the Philippine islands*'^ A limburgite is known in the 
Samoa group, and a nepheline-basalt in the Caroline islands'^-*. 



As to the alkaline rocks of Japan, I noticed some fifteen years 
ago^^ an allied rock from the Nemuro headland at the east end of 
Hokkaido, where it is said to occur in the terrane of the Cretaceous. 
In 1907, I found the same kind of rock occurring in the Shirétoko 
promontory in Japanese Sakhalin, making a sheet or dyke in the 
coal-bearing Tertiary. Lately I have received dioritic-looking 
specimens, sent by Déguchi, from Tendai-san, in the islet of 
Hattaku-to, in the Pescadores, and from Reisuiko near Taihoku, 
Formosa. They all proved to be the same kind of rock as that 
above mentioned. Tbese are doleritic both in mineralogical 



1) Neues Jaltrhich f. Min. etc., 1S75, \i. 172. 

2) Jour. Geol., vol. xii., 1901, p. 510. 

3) E. Daly, " Origin of the Alkaline Eocks." Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. xxi., 1910, p. 105. 

4) Verbeek et Fennema, " Description géologique de Java et Madoura," 1896. 

5) Harker, " Natural History of Igneous Eocks,'' p. 98. Details are given in W. Bucking, 

" Leucitbasalt aus der Gegend von Pangkadjene in Süd-Celebes." Berichte <1. Nuturforsch. Gessel- 
z. Freiburg i. Br. Bd. XI. Heft 2, 1899. 

C) Iddings,. " The Petrography of Some Igneous Eocks of the Philippines." Philipinne Jour. 
Set, section A. (1910) 5, p. 164. 

7) Harker, loc. cit., p. 98. M. Weber recently acquainted us with the occurrences in the 
Samoa group, of an alkaJi-trachyte, phonolite, trachydolerite, nepheline-basalt and nephelino- 
basanite besides the visual plagioclase-basalt and andésite. Ahh. h. Bayr. Akad. d. TF/ss. II. Kl. 
24. II. Abt. 1909, S. 290-310. 

8) " Notes on the Geology of the Dependent Islands of Taiwan." Jour. Coll. Sei. Imp. Univ. 
Tokyo, vol. xxii., p. 44. 



On Neplicliuc-basalt from Yingc-mcn, Manchuria. 3 

composition and texture, the cuneiform spaces left by fresli, 
polysynthetic tabular plagioclase being filled up with analcime. 
They may be analcime-diabase (basalt) or teschenite, and seem to 
be akin to those of California, described by Fairbanks^-*, and 
many others. Since I could not examine the mode of their 
occurrence, and also as I was unable to find a sure trace of either 
nepheline or leucite, I have simply left them undescribed. A 
short description has, however, already been given of the analcimc- 
hasalt of the Pescadore group (HOko-tô) iu Taiwan^'. 

Three years ago, I found in a Geological Survey specimen from 
the islet of Matsushima, Kyushu, a rock ]-esembling an aegirine- 
trachyte on which Kozu^^ has very recently given a preliminary 
note. It is a grayish, trachytic-lookiug laurvikose soda-trachyte 
with calcium-bearing anorthoclase. The alkali-feldspar-bearing 
basalts from northern parts of Kyû-shû are also brought to our 
notice by the same writer'^ What seem to be barkevikite-bearing 
rhyolites or andésites, I have several times observed from Kodzn- 
shima, one of the Idzu islands, and also from the islet of Koto-sho 
(Botel-Tobago), Taiwan. From the above brief account, which 
might be multiplied if careful searcli were made, we see that even 
alkaline effusives of basic and acid natures are by no means rare in 
Japanese islands. 



1) " On Analcite-diabase from San Luis Obispo County, California." Bull. Geol. Depart. Univ. 
Cal., vol. T., p. 273. I am always watching with keen interest the progress on the knowledge of 
the Miocene analcite-diabase (augite-teschenito or basalt) of California by American writers. If 
there is any thing which may be called a petrographical province, it is this very rock -group 
which unites both sides of the Xorth Pacific. There are, as it is already stated, many localities 
m Japan where the so-called analcime-diabase occurs in dykes or sheets, and one of the allied 
rocks is the " don " which produced natural cokes by its contact action in many collieries in 
northern Kyûshû. The most interesting point in the studies of these rocks centers in the 
presence of analcime which was at one time supposed to be dirived from nepheline, and at other 
times from decomposition of labradoiite. The latter view is, I think, still entertained by L, 
Haehl and E. Arnold. (Proc. Philos. Soc. vol. XLTII. Xo. 175.) 

2) Koto, loc. cit., p. 42. 

3) Preliminary Xotes on Some Igneous Eocks of Japan." J. Jour. Geol., vol. xix. 1911, p. 555. 

4) " Preliminary Notes etc." III. Loc. cit., p. 566. 



4 B. Koto : 

We have as yet scarcely any information respecting the 
alkaline rocks in China and the lands adjoining that part of the 
continent. But so far as the writer's knowledge of them goes, the 
granitic rocks on the southern border of the Mongolian plateau, 
extending from In-shan to Manchuria (Jwidii-slian), are mainly of a 
reddish, coarse-aplitic, microdine-YlGh variety^-. The same group 
which is often mylonitized, forms the foundation of the Koreo- 
Manchurian highland in contrast to the granodiorites which are 
l^revalent in Japan. A nepheline-syenite is said to occur in 
southern China' \ I have a specimen of riebeckite-granite from a 
quarry near the city of Foo-cliou, in the province of Fokien. 

As to effusives, lack of knowledge is also deeply felt here. It 
is well known since the explorations of R. Pumpelly"-* and the ]ate 
VON RicHTiioFEN^^ that basalt is widely distributed over the southern 
Mongolian plateau as the counterpoise of the vast basaltic mesa of 
the east Koreo-Manchurian landmass. P. Vénukofï*^ gave a 
description of Mongolian basalts^-* collected at several widely 
separated localities by tlie celebrated travellers, M. Potanin, and 
General PREjEVALSKy. They all proved to be plagioclase-basalts, 
and no mention was made of aiiy feldspathoid variety. However, 
in this connection it may be of special interest to cite from the 
paper referred to, the occurrences of tachylite and limburgite, with 
the chemical analyses made of them : 

t) The so-called gneiss that built np the core of the Tsin-liny Shan range, lying to the 
south of the city Si -nan Fu {M^M), the well-known ancient capital, is found, on microscopic 
exauaiuation, to be a sheared modification of this variety. 

1 ) R. Daly, loc. cit., p. 103. 

2) " Geological Researches in China, Mongolia, an I Japan." Sviithsonian Contribution 
Publication, 1886. 

3) "China." 

4) " Les roches basaltiques de la Mongolie." Bulletin de la société BeUje de (jéoloyic de 
ixdeontolO(jie et dliydroloaie, Bruxelles, tome II., 1888, p. 441. 

5) According to V. A. Obrutschew (" Central Asia," I.), there is a large basaltic field, 
500 m thick near Kaigan. resting on a great thickness of loose conglomerates and sandstones 
belonging to the Gobi series— the fresh-water Tertiary with Bhinoceros—-with. trachyte at its 
base. There is another large basaltic area in Morgen in northern Manchuria. 



On Ncphclinc-basulfc from Yingc-mcn, Manchuria. 



Tachylito du lac Kyri/-iior'^), 


Liiiiburgi 


to du lac Doloij-nor-'i, 




41° lat., 83° long. 


43° 25 


lat., 86° 30' long. 


SiO, 


49.37 




41.69 


AlA 


17.67 




14.85 


Fe^Os 


6.28 




10.39 


FeO 


4.81 




5.43 


FeO. 


0.28 







CaO 


9.12 




11.20 


MgO 


5.02 




9.84 


NasO 


3.27 . 




3.71 


K2O 


1.41 




1.05 


H,0 


2. 15 




1.06 




99.38 


99.32 


Sp. Gr. 


2.522 




2.851 



To mention the only remaining locality, an occurrence of a 
nepheline-basalt was cited by A. Lanick'^ from Yami-slian^ whicli 
lies to the west of the town of Wei-lidcn in Kiau-clian, It is an 
amygdaluidal rock in which nepheline is present not in the form 
of crystals, but as a leptomorpliic mesostasis. So much for our 
present knowledge of the alkaline rocks within the western Pacific 
territory. 

Localities of the MancUurian NepJieline-hamlt. — It may not be 
out of place here to I'emark briefly on the region in which the 
present nephline-basalt is found. So far as I know, it is the first 
occurrence in Manchuria of this kind of rock ever recorded in 
petrographical literature. As the region is entirely unknown to the 



1) Kir-)ior? (lake), 2 degrees west of Kahjan. The longitude is probal>ly referred to a 
Russian meridian. 

2) Dalai-nor? lying to the X.X.E. of Dolon-nor (Lauia-miau). 

3) " Beitrage zur Pétrographie von West-Schantung." Inaugural-Dissertation, Leipzig, 
1908, S. 32. 



6 B. Koto : 

outside world, a few lines may be proper to serve as an orientation 
of the localities of my find. 

During my seven months' journey last winter through Man- 
churia and Korea, I happened to pass over a water-shed (PI. I. 
fig. 1) of the Siuigari and the Hiin-ho, the latter Ijeing a tribuar}- 
of the well-known Lian-ho. I struck the road'^ leading southwest- 
wards from the city of Kirin^^ to Mopan-shan^\ and then to the 
intermontane plain of S]ian-chên(j-tzii^\ a fertile and populous flat 
on one of the upper courses of the Sungari, drained by a large 
tributary, the llui-fcv'\ Following the river course upstream in 
Mat land and diviating from the high road (PI. II.) to Kai-ijuaif>, 
I rude directly south to a very low and lonely snow-clad water- 
.shed, and at the end of December last, came down to the source 
of the Hiui-ho'\ which 1 followed downstream southwestwards as 
far as Miihden. 

On the south of the above-mentioned granitic water-divide on 
tlie low spur of a hih, called the Nien-yii-Ung^^ pass, is located 
the noted ancient Gate of Yingc-mcii^^ in the long palisade, now 
ruined, which runs through the heart of the Manchurian hinter- 
land. It is 200 kilometers from Kinn, and 140 from Miikden. 

The " Yingc-mcn area " with all the surrounding districts is an 
elevated granite peneplain of 490 ?»., flanked on the east by the 
overlying volcanic mesa of common basalt 150 m. thick, and limited 
on the west by hills of nepheline-hasalt (PI. I. ßg. 1) which poured out 
probably at the junction of the microcline-granite and the Lower 



1) In Stielei's Hand-Atlas, No. 65, and Debcs' Hand- Atlas, No. 44, the region is very 
imperfectly représente.!. The best maps ever published in Europe and accessible to general 
readers are Karte von Ost-China, scale 1 : 1,000,000, Berlin, Sheet Mukden, and Paul Langhan's 
Neuere Tageskarte von Ost-Asien, scale 1 : 5,000,000, Gotha. 

2) Properly speaking the name is Chi-lin, and the people call it Cliuang-chang. Kirin is 
the anglicized name, just as Mukden stands for Fcng-tien. 

3) m^\u 1) iijj^iF 5) Ht ^) mm 7) mm 
8) ¥mm '-)) %mn 



On Nepheline-basalt from Yingé-mt'n, Mnnclunia. 7 

Cambrian and Tertiary terranes. The present paper deah with thü 
neplieline-hamlt . It was impossible for me to ascertain exactly the 
mode of occurrence of tlie basalt in my hasty journey through the 
snow-covered region in tlie cold Manchurian winter with the 
mercury at -36°C; and moreover the presence of nepheline in the 
basalt was discovered only after I had reached home and was able 
to examine slides of the rocks collected during my trip. The age- 
relation between the more basic, sodic nepheline-basalt on the west 
and the calcic plagioclase-basalt on the east was not ascertained, but 
the former is probably older than the latter. This may be conjec- 
tured from the incised character of tlie topography resulting from 
denudation ; while the common basalt on the east builds up a long 
monotonous mesa (Cliang-hang^^) with sharp escarpment. (PI. I. 

fig- 1.) 

One specimen was struck at Tsao-shih-crr^ (PI. II.) in the upper 
Shan-sliêng-tzu plain, at the forking of the road to Kai-yuan and Yingê- 
wên, and another specimen was picked up quite by chance by 
H. Murakami in the gravelly bed of the Hun-lio river near the 
already-mentioned Yingé-mên gate. The geology of the " lingê-mên 
area " is roughly indicated in the annexed sketch map (PI. IL). 

The geologic formations, cartographically represented, are as 
follows: 

1) The flesh-red, coarse-aplitic, microcline-rich orthogneiss 
(^), greatl^^ mylonitized, forming the basement of the overlying 
complex. 

2) Diorite (o), probably a differentiation-product of an 
alkaline granitic magma, No. 1. It is a grayish, medium-grained 
quartz-diorite, composed of short prismoids of deep greenish- 
In'own hornblende, and bent lamellae of oil-brown biotite, besides 
plagioclase with the characteristic zonal structure. Quartz fills 

(I ^Ig 2) !^]fi^ lu Plate II. it is erroneously spelled Tsaos/tKT, 



8 B. Koto : 

up angular spaces, or forms myrmekitic bodies with the plagio- 
clase. Locahty: Nien-yii-ling. 

3) The Middle Cambrian limestone (-Ga) and the Lower 
Cambrian red breccia (-G). The latter is a rather fine, grayish and 
reddish variegated breccia, consisting of subangular fragments of 
microcline and quartz, plagioclase and orthoclase, and lastly, 
melaphyre, cemented with reddish granitic sand and calcareous 
matter. The breccia contains slightly pinkish, flattened marly 
nodules of the size of 4 to 8 cm. with a thickness of r/2 ^'"^ with 
no trace of organic structure. Localitj^: Hsiao-mai-pu-tzu. 

4) The Miocene Tertiary (t) of the type of the Mu-shun 
colliery, composed of shales and medium-grained gray sandstone 
with a poor seam of coal. 

5) Plagioclase-basalt (/9,). 

C) Nepheline-basalt (y9...). Localit}^: Yingc-men and 
Tsaoshiherr. 

7) Alluvium (a). 

Nepheline-basalt 

CoiiiiMisition : Essential: Augite, nepheline, olivine. 

Accessory : Magnetite, titanomagnetite, picotite. 

Accessory part : Base. 
.^facrotextiire : Compact with minute phenocryst (less than 1 

mm.) of olivine. 
ifiicro texture : Holocrystalline with a few^ patches of brown 

base, microporphyritic. 

Macroscopically, the rock appears uniformly gi'ayish-black, 

and is heavy and aphanitic, though, strictly speaking, finely 

granular. It is sometimes crumbly, falling into dull, polygonal, 

incoherent coccolitic clods on a slightly weathered portion, which 



On Xepbt'lir.e-)ias;vlt from \'ingé-uu>u, Manchuria. /■ 9 

character .seems to be a ^^pecial feature of this rock. Tliere occur in 
the general mass glittering flecks (0.9 by 0.:] mm.) of oHvine witli 
conchoidal fracture and vitreous luster, seen only by reflected light. 
The rock weathers into an ash-gray earthy mass with brown 
limonitic spots of decomposed olivine projecting from the general 
ground . 

Macroscopically, the rock is hjqîocrystalline, varying in degree 
from percr3^stal]ine to docrystalline ; and microcrystalline in cry- 
stallinity and ranging in size from decimillimeter to micron in 
granularity; it has inequigranular, prismoid (augite) and equant 
(nepheline), diverse and seriate (augite, nepheline) fabric. As 
in all basaltic rocks, the olivine is of a relatively large size as 
compared with the other constituents of tlie groundmass. So the 
fabric may properly be called seriate-porphyritic. On account of 
the isometric habitus of the microphenocrysts of both the augite'^ 
and the olivine, the texture of the rock is orthophyric, showing 
no signs of fluidal arrangement of components. The rock pro- 
bably crystallized out from an undisturbed magma. (PL I. 
ß(ß. 1 and 2.) 

Titanaiujite is a dominant ingredient occurring in the form of 
rnicrohte of variable size, the largest being 0. 17 iinii. long and 0.037 
broad. The larger ones, rarety seen in slides, are anhedral and 
tabular with the cleavage-plane toward (Oil); the smaller ones, on 
the other hand, are microlitic and euhedral. The extinction of 
the former on (010) is 43°41' toward the obtuse angle. The color 
is yellowish-brown with a tinge of violet-green, and then zonally 
colored, the interior being of a violet shade; non-pleochroic, the 
polarization-color being a grayish-yellow of a low order. The 
crystals are often transversely cracked, and are full of air-pores 

I) 'rhe larger anhedra are nut seen in the photomicrogra;)hs, PI, T.figs, 2 and 3. 



10 B. Eotô : 

and granules of magnetite. Next in abundcnice is iron-ore, which 
occurs in octahedra or clumps, periplierally changing into leu- 
coxene (titano-magnetite). 

Nepheline is the characteristic ingredient occuri'ing in short 
prisms, the basal section of which is hexagonal and the longitudinal 
section rectangular. These colorless crystals (the largest being 
0.13 by 0.11 mm.) occur in large quantities (30% of the volume) 
and are fresh with a vitreous lustre ; tliey enclose rounded augite- 
microlites arranged parallel to the contour of tlie host — a cliarac- 
teristic habitus by Avhich the presence of nepheline can be easily 
recognized. Through atmospheric decomposition the mineral 
substance becomes parallel-fibrous by zeolitization along the 
vertical axis, and in basal section the change is seen advancing 
from the periphery. Low polarization-colors and other optical 
behaviors are normal. With HCl and methylviolet the mineral is 
easily ascertained by the staining method. 

Olivine. — The minutely porphyritic or minophyric phenocr^^sts 
of olivine of variable size (usually less than 0.8 mm. by 0.5) occur 
abundantly in euhedral or corroded subhedral shape, and occasion- 
ally in glomeratic clusters. It often changes into a yellowish or 
greenish fibrous substance, from which it may be inferred that it is 
of a variety rich in magnesia. The olivine is colorless in section, 
and encloses copious octahedra of hroirn spinel. Polarization- 
colors are indigo-blue, purple, brown, and gray according to the 
thickness and orientation of given sections. 

No sanidine or any other feldspars are pi-esent. Apatite is also 
absent. Sporadic patches of a brownish basaltic base, granulated 
and sometimes fibrous, fill up the interspaces left between the 
idiomorphic nepheline'-*, and the overcrowded augite-microlites 

1) For example, around the hexagonal section of nepheline, PI. I. Jig. 2. 



On Nepheline-basalt from "i'ingc-mon, Manchuria. 



11 



swim in this scanty base, being rudely arranged tangentially 
around the nearly isometric crystals (see PL l.ßg. 3) of nepheline, 
thereby producing the appearance of a leucite-melilite rock. 

The rock is nearly holocrystalline, a variety typically rich in 
nepheline and simple in mineralogical composition. If the 
nepheline were absent, the mineralogical composition of the rock 
would correspond to a limburgite, to which the texture has a close 
resemblance, as may be seen in the photomicrographs, PI. l.ßgs. 2 
and 3. The order of crystallization of the rock-components is 
shown in the following scheme: 

Relative Duration 





Magnetite 

Olivine 

Nepheline^^ 

Augite'-'^ 

Base 
























'S 




O 

'S 






o 











The chemical analysis of the rock from Tsao-sluli-err was 
undertaken by ^lessrs. S. Shimidzu and T. Ohashi, of our Geolog- 
ical Survey, to whom I would acknowledge my indebtedness. The 
result is given below : 



1) Two generations. 

2) Two generations (not seen in the photomicrograph). In the older and larger ones 
crystals of nepheline are poikilitically enclosed in the substance of augite (0.6 mm long) which 
sometimes suffers magmatic corrosion. The augite is so fully stuffed with octahedra of 
magnetite that the whole presents the appearance of some rhonite crystals, though the substance 
of the host is here pyroxenic 



12 



B. Koto: 



SiO, 44.98% 

ALO3 ....15.50 
FeXX.... 5.15 



FeO.... 


.. 7.30 


MgO... 


01 
.. o.oi 


CaO.... 


.. 9.20 


Na^O.. 


.. 5.34 


KX).... 


.. 1.29 


H,0.... 


. . 3.77 


TiO,.... 


.. 2.89 


P.O5... 


.. 0.43 


MnO.. 


.. 0.23 


S 


. 0.04 



Norms. 

Orthoclase (K.OAlAôSiOo) ... 7.8 

Albite (NaoOALOsßSiO.) 23. 1 

Anortliite (CaOAL032Si02).... 14.G 

Nepheline (Na20A]o032SiO,)... 11.9 

rCaOSiOO 

Diopside iMgOSio.,> 93 

iFeOSiO,,') " 

rw ' (2MoOSiO..) -, A 

Magnetite (FeOFe.Oa) 7.4 

Ilmenite (FeOTiOJ 5.5 

Apatite (3CaOP.A\) ••. 1.0 



Total 99.49 Sp. Gr. 2.947—2.950. 

From the ratios expressed b}' the above norms, om' rock findti 
its final position in the C.I.P.W. quantitative system, as in the 



following'^: 








Sal 57.4 5 3 
Fem ""38.3 "^3 ^5 






Class III. Salfemane. 


L 11.9 3 1 
F 45.5^^5^7 






Order 0. Portngare. 


K.O' + Na^O' 100^7^ 5 
CaO' ~ 53 "^ 1 ^ 3 






Eang 2. jMonchiquase. 


K2O' 14 3 1 5 

Na20'~8G^5''7''^'^3 


> 





Subrang 3-4. Shonkinose 
Monchiquose. 



In sampling the material for the chemical analysis, all the 
necessary precautions were taken by the writer. The analytical 
result shows near approach to that of the basalt from Franklin 
Island, Antarctic. The ]Manchurian rock has. however, a 



1) Calculations made by Kôzii. 



On Nepheline-basalt from Yingé-mên, Manchnria. 13 

specific peculiarities worthy of note, showing exceptionally high 
percentages in CaO, and H2O. Microscopic volumetric analysis 
made with J. Hirschwald' s planimeter-ocular showed 30 per 
cent of nepheline and nearly 15 per cent of olivine, the latter 
value heing only approximative, due to the phenocrystic habit 
and irregular distribution of the crystals in the microscopic field 
(PL I.ßgs. 2 and 3). 

The presence of large amounts (45.5%) of feldspars, as they 
are expressed in the above norms, is to my mind a paradox, as 
basaltic glass is scantily present in the rock in which at least the 
feldspar molecules must be assumed to exist. Otherwise they must 
be looked for in the composition of nepheline. 

The chemical composition of nepheline has long been a problem 
much discussed among mineralogists. Lately Foote and Brad- 
ley'-* have offered an explanation, namely, that a substance on 
crystallizing may form ' ' a solid homogeneous solution with foreign 
matter," and that the mineral nepheline consists of a pure com- 
pound, probably NaAlSi04, with a varying amount of dissolved 
silica. Very recently, W.T. Schaller^^ has proposed still another 
explanation, viz., that the mineral nepheline is an isomorphous 
mixture of the compounds crystallizing in the hexagonal modifica- 
tion, which are AlNaSiOj (essential component), AlKSiO* (kalio- 
philite), and AlNaSisOg, the last being only in mixture in 
nepheline, and being best known in its triclinic form as albite. 
He says "the remarkable fact that the compound KAlSi04 is 
always present to the extent of about 20 per cent has as yet 
received no adequate explanation." The albite molecule in 
nepheline, however, varies from 5.6 to 10.6 per cent. At all 

1) "On solid solution in minerals with special reference to nephelite." Amer. Jour. Sc/i., 
4tli ser., 31 : 25. 1911. 

2) " The chemical composition of nephelite." Jour. Washinftton Acad. Sei., Vol. 1. No. 4. 
September, 1911, pp. 109-112. 



14 B- Koto : 

events, the feldspars in the norms seem to enter largely into the 
composition of our nephehne. A portion of water may be present 
in combination with zeolitized products of the nepheline. 

The present rock is a simple unique nepheline-basalt in regard 
to its mineralogical components. As it seems to me the present 
rock is neither a plutonic nor a dyke-rock, I cannot call it a 
shonkinite nor a monchiquite. Moreover, the. essential attribute of 
alkah -feldspar is wanting in the Manchurian rock as to be classed 
among the former, and a brown biotite and barkevikitic amphibole 
is not present so as to be included among the latter. But I learn 
from petrological literatures that each of both rocks assumes 
various phases of crystallinity even within the same mass, ex- 
tended researches of our Manchurian rock are necessary in regard 
to its geognostic relation and chemical composition in order to 
give the final decision as to what species it belongs. Since, how- 
ever, in mineralogical composition and in appearance, it is most 
closely related to nepheline-basalts, it is here referred to that 
group. It is a noteworthy fact, especially in regard to the Sino- 
Japanese region, that up to the present time no leucite-rocks have 
ever been recoi'ded from north of the Philippine islands. 

My thanks are due to Mr. Swift, of our University, for read- 
ing through my Englisli manuscript. 

Dcecuiher, 1911. 



B. KOTO: 

NEPHELINE-BASALT FROM MANCHURIA. 



PLATE I. 



PLATE I. 

Tig. 1. — View southwards from Tsaosbiér (PI. II.) toward the low granitic water-slisd 
of tlie Nie a-yii -lying pass, wliicli separates the waters of two mighty Asiatic 
rivers ; the rivulet running toward us is the upper course of the Hui-fa river, 
a tributary of the Kirin-ula, which ultimately joins the great Amur ; while 
the valley beyond the water-parting is the source of the Hun-ho, which runs 
south westwards to meet the well-known Liao-ho. The plain in the fore- 
ground is an elevated granite peneplain of 490 ;//, flankeJl on the east (left) 
by an overlying mesa {Chanii-kani/) of common basalt, 150 m. thick, and 
bounded on the west by denuded hills of the nepheline-basalt which is the 
subject of the present paper. (Page 6.) 

Tig. 2. — Nepheline-basalt from Tsaoshièr, magnified 260 diameters, set in with a large 
anhedron of olivine (on the left) and a basal hexagonal section of nepheline 
with zonally arranged prismoids of augite. The groundmass is a plexus of 
short prisms of nephehne, prismoids of augite, and minute speck-like crystals 
and clumps of titanomagnetite, floating on sporadic brown patches (on the 
left of the hexagonal section of nepheline) of basaltic base. (Pages 9-10.) 

Fig. 3. — The same, magnified 130 diameters, showing the general appearance of the 
diverse, seriate fabric of the rock under weak powers. (Pages 9 and 11.) 



Kot 5 : Nephel i n c-bn sa 1 1 . 



Jour. Sei. Coli. Vol. XXXII. Art. 6. PI. I. 



NiEN-YÜ-LING PASS 




Fio-. I. 





















Author, Photo. 



B. KOTO: 

NEPHELINE-BASALT FROM MANCHURIA. 



PLATE II. 



PLATE II. 

Map showing the general distribution of the geologic formations represented in 
tlie Yingé-mèn area (p. 7), the land-feature being seen in PI. I., fig. 1. As to its 
pétrographie elements the Koreo-Manchurian hinterland is, broadly speaking, built up 
of the two opposite poles — the pinkish granites and the black basalt ; and this is 
typically exemplified in this small limited area. 

The region is also of historical interest, as the Pohais, the Mancluis and other 
ancient highlauders of eastern Manchuria took the road in the intermontane plain of 
Shan-chéng-tzu (see Map) for their expeditions into the Manchurian plain with bold 
intent of swollowing gigantic China. With this aim, these peoples marched along the 
high road from Tsaoshitr (see Map) either westwards through the Tukoutzu-mcn gate 
to Kai-yiian, or southwestwarcis through the Yinge-min gate to Mukden. At these 
two gates the road was cut by the loug mound of the ancient palisade (see Map), now 
ruiued, which was built to keep back the swarms of " northern barbarians." The 
Russians did the very same thing, as the ancient highlanders did. They followed the 
same track in the Piusso-Japanese war on their march from, and retreat to^ the' 
secluded and safe cil y of Kirin. 

This region is geologically interesting as well ; for besides the 03currence of 
iiepheline-basalt there is a narrow band of the Cambrian with Tertiary beds fulded in 
what is apparently old granite-gueiss in the N.E.-S.W. direction. The Tertiary here 
is the north end of the well-known coal seam series of Mushun. The above-mentioned 
trend is the guide-line of the geologic structure that governs the whole Manchurian 
hinterland. The diorite region marked on the south is probably a difierentiation- 
product of an alkaline granitic magma. This region (the Hei-niu goldfield) is also 
one of the richest auriferous areas in Manchuria. 



Koto : Nepheline-basalt. 



Jour. Sei. Coll. Vol. XXXII. Art. 6. PI. II. 



GEOLOGIC MAP OF THE YINGEMEN AREA 




HEI-\IU GOLD FIELD s„u^^ «y //u„:h^ 



1 : 1< «)<>.( M t 



SMHi E]M1 



-t* 



ïï 



'."I 



JOURXAL OF THE COLLEGE OF SCIENCE, IMPERIAL UNIVERSITY, 
TOKYO, JAPAN. 

VOL. XXXII., ARTICLE 7. 



The Systematic Motions of Sun-spots. 

BY 

S. Hirayama, Bigahuhalcusln 
Professor of Astronomy, Scieuce College, Imperial University, Tokyo. 



With 3 plates. 



The Systematic Motions of Sun-spots. 

1. The object of this paper is to call attention to the possible 
existence of certain systematic motions of the sun-spots, which 
has not, so far as I know, been hitherto noticed. It was 
suggested to me by ]\Ir. and Mrs. Maunder' s paper ''The Solar 
Rotation Period from Greenwich Sun-spot Measures," (Monthly 
Notices, vol. LXV, pp. 813-825) in which they summarized various 
important results relating to the solar rotation period. Among 
others, the following statement is made: "The rotation periods 
given by different spots in the same zone of latitude differ more 
widely than do the mean rotation periods for different zones of 
latitude." This is based on their Table II, which shows the 
number of the spot-groups, arranged in zones of latitude 5° wide, 
giving different synodic rotation periods. Graphical study of that 
Table led me to think that there is a tendency in the spot-groups 
to concentrate upon two particular periods. I was also able to find 
a similar tendency in Carrington's and Spörer's observations of 
the sun-spots. 

2. To begin with the Greenwich sun-spots observations 
(1879-1901), I simply took the said Table II prepared by Mr. and 
Mrs. Maunder, and combined the zones of the same latitudes north 



12 



s. Hirayaina. 



Table I. 



Greenwich Numbers of Spot-groups, arranged in Zones of Latitudes 5" wide, 

giving Different Rotation Periods 

(1879-1901). 



Synodic 

Rotation 

Period 


0° 
to 
5° 


5« 
to 
10° 


10° 
to 
15° 


15° 

to 
20° 


20° 
to 
25° 


25° 
to 
30° 


30'' 
to 
35° 


>35° 


d 

23.4 






1 












G 


















8 


















24.0 






2 


2 










2 




3 




3 










4 


2 


2 


3 


1 










6 


3 


3 


4 




1 


1 






8 


2 


4 


5 


4 










^5.0 


5 


G 


5 


8 


3 


1 






2 


6 


10 


11 


4 


2 








4 


3 


G 


18 


8 


1 


1 






6 


4 


12 


17 


12 


5 


2 






8 


G 


20 


25 


18 


3 


1 






^6.0 


12 


22 


26 


15 


12 


1 






2 


6 


41 


39 


23 


11 


3 






4 


IG 


33 


45 


29 


9 


1 






6 


24 


33 


49 


29 


17 


5 






8 


16 


46 


61 


30 


10 


G 






27.0 


14 


59 


82 


48 


15 


1 






2 


5 


41 


76 


63 


25 


3 






4 


2 


27 


52 


51 


20 


6 






G 


2 


5 


20 


41 


26 


7 




1 


8 


1 


8 


13 


21 


24 


10 






28.0 


1 


G 


8 


6 


8 


11 






2 


2 


4 


5 


7 


12 


4 






4 


1 


2 


5 


5 


10 


G 






6 




1 


4 


1 


1 


2 







The Systematic Motions of Sun-spots. 



Synodic 

Rotation 

Period 


0'' 

to 
5° 


5° 

to 
10' 


10° 
to 
15° 


15° 
to 
20° 


20° 
to 
25' 


25° 
to 
30° 


30° 

to 
35° 


>35° 


8 






2 


G 


3 


2 


1 




29.0 






1 


1 


3 


o 






2 






1 


1 




2 






4 






1 


1 


1 








G 
















1 


8 






1 


1 










m.o 






2 


1 


1 








2 


















4 


















Ü 










o 








8 


















31.0 


















2 






1 












Mean 

Rotation 

Period 


a 
2(3.36 


d 

26.59 


d 

20.73 


d 

2 ).89 


d 

27.22 


27.''48 







^and south. The resuUing numbers are given in Table I, which 
therefore exhibits the distribution of the spot-groups in two ways, 
the horizontal lines showing the numbers of groups yielding 
■different synodic rotation periods, and the vertical columns the 
number of groups in each zone of latitude 5° Avide. The numbers 
of Table I are represented graphically in Plate T, a series of curves 
being drawn, one for each zone. Considering now these curves 
shown in Plate I, each small circle represents the number of spot- 
groups corresponding to the given rotation period. They are 
connected by straight lines, while the heavy continuous lines 
indicate the smoothed values. 

This Plate shows at a glance that, while there are minor 
differences between the curves for different zones, yet the main 
features are repeated in a remarkable way in all six series. We 



4 - s. Hirayama. 

may observe that there is a tendency in the spot-groups to concent- 
rate upon one particular period, but each curve is not symmetrical 
about the ordinate of maximum number. Another important 
point is the existence of a secondary concentration. At first I 
thought that if there existed a gi-eater numljcr of recorded 
observations, then I could get a sort of probability curve, but 
actually it seems likely that each curve will be a combination of two 
probability curves. Because of the impossibility of determining 
rigorously the values of several constants Avith non-linear equations 
by the method of least squares, and moreover because of the 
doubtful nature of the problem, I have endeavoured to determine 
the positions of the principal and secondary maxima by graphical 
method. When the maximum is not well pronounced, I have 
derived the smoothed curves by compounding two sjaiimetrical 
curves about the directions marked I and II. All doubtful cases 
(marked? on the plates) have been excluded. I have thus obtained 
the following results: 

Taele II. 

Angular Velocity corresponding to Maximum I. 



Heliographie 
Latitude 


Synodic 

Rotation 

Period 


Observed 
Ang. Vel. 


Xumber of 

Spots in 
Maximum 


Smoothed 

Ang. Vel. 

Ig 


Maunders 
Ang. Vel. 




2.5 


26.60 


14!52 


22 


14^45 


14^44 


7.5 


27.00 


14.32 


54 


14.88 


14.41 


12.5 


27.075 


14.28 


68 


14.29 


14.34 


17.5 


27.25 


14.20 


51 


14.19 


14.25 


22.5 


27.55 


14.05 


26 


14.05 


14.13 


27.5 


27.90 


13.88 


11 


13.88 


13.99 



The Systematic Motions of Sim-spots. 

Table III. 

Angular Velocity CDrrasponding t3 Maximum II. 



Heliographie 
Latitude 


Synodic Rotation 
Period 


Observed Angular 
Velocity 


Number of Spots 
in Maximum 


Smoothed Ang. 
Velocity. 

IlQ 




2.5 


? 

(J 


? 


9 


(14J2) 


7.5 


26.225 


\4.n 


28 


14.71 


12.5 


26.275 


14.69 


80 


14.69 


17.5 


26.35 


14.65 


20 


14.65 


22.5 


26.45 


14.60 


10 


14.59 


27.5 


26.70 


lAAl 


6 


14.49 



The value in Ijrackets is one obtained by extrapolation. 



Angular Velocities of Maxima I and II for Different Zones of Latitude, 
deduc3d from Grsenwicli Observations. 



Fig. 1 



30° 




1 1 1 1 ! 




' '••-'■ '^ 


I 1 1 




- 


>o 




,-' ^^^ 


- 


25° 




X 


,. 


y ^0^ 




f 

p. 





o/jLo 




^Ic 


- 


10° 


' 


[ 


// 






5° 


.^ 












- 


1 1 i 1 /i 


1 1 1 1 1 


•1 1 1 1 


1 1 



.30 



25' 



ir. (^ 



10' 



14°8 14°7 14°0 14''3 14°4 14°3 14°2 "'"1 14°0 rrn ^?,'^H ""-^ l-TG 

Angular Velocity 



Figure 1 shows diagvammatically the numerical results of 
Tables II and III. 

In the last column of Table II, I have added Maunder' s 
values of daily angular velocity derived from his formula 



(3 S. Hirayaira. 

^=866'. 6± 128' sin^/, where ç denotes the angular velocity and ?^ the 
latitude. TJiese values obtained by his formula are generally 
greater than iny results. That is, they do not correspond exactly 
to the angular velocities for my Maximum I. As to the second 
Maximum, I have obtained a pretty good continuous curve by 
merely connecting the successive positions of Maximum II, 
corresponding to different zones. 

3. Next I pass on to examine Carrington's observations of 
the spots on the sun so far as they bear on the question of the 
existence of a secondary maximum. All the materials from which 
Carrington deduced his formula for the daily motion of the surface 
of the sun in different solar latitudes are condensed in his " Table 
of Resulting Diurnal Motions" contained in pp. 213-219 of his 
work. I have availed myself of the same materials, and deduced 
Table IV which shows the distribution of tlie sun-spots observed by 
him in each zone of latitude 5° wide, with different daily drifts. 

Table IV. 

Carrington's Numbers of Sun-spots, arranged in Sones of Latitudes 5° wide, 
giving Different Diurnal Motions (1853-1861). 



Daily Drift 


0° 

to 
5° 


G° 
to 
10" 


11° 

to 
15° 


16° 
to 
10° 


21° 
to 
25° 


26° 
to 
30° 


31° 
to 
35° 


From + 80' to -H 76' 


1 














„ +75 „ +71 


















, +70 


,+66 


















, +65 


,+61 


















, +60 


,+56 




1 




1 






1 




, +55 


,+51 










1 








, +50 


,+46 




1 














, +45 


,+41 


1 
















, +40 


, +36 


1 


2 


2 












, +35 


, +31 




2 


1 


2 










, +30 


,+26 




6 


1 


1 









The Systematic Motions of Sun-spots. 



Daily Drift 


0° . 

k) 

5° 


6° 
to 
10" 


11° 
to 
15' 


16° 
to 
20' 


21° 
to 
25° 


26° 
to 
30° 


31° 
to 
35° 


From +25' to + 21' 


3 




4 


2 


1 






„ +20 „ +10 


i 


G 


6 










„ +15 „+11 


1 


8 


5 


4 








„ +10 „ + 6 


3 


11 


7 


7 


2 






,, + 5 „ + 1 


1 


15 


7 






] 




„ - 4 


2 


5 


23 





7 


1 




,. - 5 „ - 9 




5 





11 


4 


2 




„ -10 „ -14 




2 





15 


10 


2 


1 


„ -15 „-19 






3 


7 


7 


4 




„ -20 „ -24 








5 


11 


4 




„ -25 „ -29 








2 





2 


1 


„ -30 „-34 








1 


5 


10 


5 


„ -35 „ -39 








1 


2 


4 




„ -40 „ -44 










2 


4 


2 


„ -45 „ -49 














1 


„ -50 „-54 












2 


2 


„ -55 „-59 












1 




„ -60 „ -04 












1 


1 


,, -05 „ -09 
















„ -70 „ -74 
















,. -75 „-79 














1 


Mean Daily Drift 


+ 17/7 


+ lO.'S 


+ 3/3 


-3/9 


-1/0 


-29/1 





The first column of Table IV requires further explanation. It 
represents Carrington's diurnal motions. According to his words, 
"The signs prefixed to the diurnal motions are such that + in 
longitude indicates rotation faster than 14° 11' per diem (cor- 
responding to the assumed period of 25. 380 days) and — rotation 
slower than that." The plotted numbers are shoAvn graphically in 



8 



s. Hirayama. 



Plate II. The method of treatment of the material in Plate II is 
just the same as before. Here again, as in the previous case, the 
secondary maximum is clearly brought out in each curve. Graph- 
icalty determined maxima may be tabulated as foUows : 

Table V. 

Angular Velocity corresponding to Maximum I, deduced from 
Carrington's Observations. 



Heliog. 
Latitude 



Observed Angular Velocity. 



Number of 
Spots in 
Maximum 



Heliog. 
Lati ude 



Smoothed 

Ang. Vel. 

Jc 



Carring- 
ton's Ang. 
Vel. 



8° 
13 
18 
23 

28 



851'+ 5'=856'=14.''27 
„ - 2 849 14.15 
„ -11 840 14.00 
„ -20 831 13.85 
„ -33 818 13.63 



13 

19 

13 

9 

8 



2.5 
7.5 
12.5 
17.5 
22.5 
27.5 



(14.°36) 
14.27 
14.16 
14.02 
13. b6 
13.67 



14.°42 
14.35 
14.21 
14.06 
13.90 
13.73 



Table VI. 

Angular Velocity corresponding to Maximum II, deduced from 
Carrington's Observations. 



Heliog. 
Latitude 


Observed Angular Velocity 


Number of 

Spots in 

Maximum 


Heliog. 
Latitude 


Smoothed 

Ang. Vel. 

lie 


8° 
13 
18 
23 

28 


85r + 30'=881'=14.°68 
„ +18 869 14.48 
„ +10 861 14.35 
„ - 7 844 14.07 
„ -19 832 13.87 


4 

5 
6 

2 
4 


2.°5 
7.5 
12.5 
17.5 
22. 5 
27.5 


(14.°81) 

14.67 
14.51 
14.34 
14.13 

13.88 



'J'he Systematic Motions of Sun-spots. 

Angular Veloc ties of Maxima I and II far Différent Zon3s of Latitude, 
deduced from Carrington's Observations. 

Fig. 2. 



-r.2.0 




ira I'l "7 14?6 14.6 



1-4 °4 14°3 14°2 14° 1 14°0 
Angular Velocity 



l.'5°9 i;i°8 i;r7 13?6 



Carrington's angular velocity given in the last column of Table 
V is derived from his formula for the angular velocity, ^=865'+ 
165' sin'/. 

4. Similarly I have examined Spörer's observations. The 
data for our discussion of the spots as observed by him have been 
taken from the same source as that from which he deduced his 
expression, 8°. 548 + 5°. 798 cos /Î, for the daily motion of the sun- 
spots in different solar latitudes, namely his " Beobachtungen der 
Sonnenflecken zu Anclam."^'^ The observations comprise the 
period 1861-71, the number of the spots whose angular velocities 
are computed being 264. To increase this number, I have 
extended the discussion of his observations^"^ up to the end of the 
year 1878. So the total number of spots employed became 334. 
Similarly to the others, Table VII and Plate III were prepared. 
It is unfortunate that none of the curves in Plate III show 
so striking a secondary maximum as in the previously con- 
sidered cases, although there is no doubt that each curve 



(1) Publicationen. der Astronomischen Gesellschaft. XIII 1874 pp. 139—146. 

(2) Publicationen des Astro-physikalis:heu Observatoriums zii Potsdam. Xr. 5. p. 06. 



10 



s. Hirayama. 



Table VII. 

Sporer's Wumbers of Sun-spots, arranged in Zones of Latitudes 5° wide, 
giving Different Diurnal Motions. (1861-1878) 



Diüly 
Motion 


0° 
to 
5" 


5° 
to 
10° 


10° 
to 
15° 


15' 
to 
20° 


20° 
to 
25' 


25° 
to 
30° 


VSM 












2 


13.5 






1 






1 


13.(5 










5 


3 


13.7 












7 


13.8 








7 


9 


5 


13.9 






4 


11 


12 


1 


14.0 


o 




17 


2i 


8 


2 


14.1 


1 


16 


41 


24 


4 




14.2 


3 


30 


35 


10 


5 




14.3 


5 


33 


20 


7 


1 




14.4 


11 


10 


8 


3 






14.5 


(■) 


6 


2 




1 




14. Ü 


3 


4 


;-5 








14.7 


3 


3 


1 


1 






14.8 


2 


2 










14. U 


1 


1 










15.0 




2 










15.1 






1 








aJean Daily 
Motion 


14°.43 


I4.°3l 


14.^18 


14.^07 


13.°94 


13.°71 



is not symmetrical about the ordinate corresponding to jNIaxi- 
nium I. In fact, the sun-spots selected by Sporer are best 
suited for finding Maximum I, but not so favourable for finding 
Maximum II. However, so far as Plate III shows, I can deduce 
the following results. Better results M'ould perliaps be reached by 
discussing the angular velocities of all the spots observed by 
him. 



The Systematic Motions of Sim-spots. 



11 



Table VI 11. 

Angular Velocity corresponding to Maximum I. 



Heliog. Latitude 


Observed Ang. 
Vel. 


Number of Spots 
in Maximum 


Smoothed Ang. 
Vel. 


Sporer's Ang. 
Vel. 


2.''5 
7. 5 
12.5 
17.5 
22.5 
27.5 


14.°40 
14.25 
14.14 
14.05 
13. 89 


10 
31 
38 
23 
11 


14.'3() 
14.28 
14. 17 

14.03 
13. 90 

(13.77) 


14.°34 
14.30 
14.21 

14.08 
13. 90 
13.69 



Table IX. 

Angular Velocity corresponding to Maxmum II. 



Heliog. Latitude 


Observed Ang. Vel. 


Xumber of Spots in 
Maximum 


Smoothed Ang. 
Vel. 
lis 


2.*'5 
7.5 
12.5 
17. 5 
22.5 
27.5 


14.°71 

9 
14.35 
14. 30 
14.20 


1 

? 

6 

7 
4 


14.^6.-) 
14.53 
14. 42 

14.30 
14.18 

(14.07) 



Angular Velocities of Maxima I and II for Diiï'erent Zones of Latitude, 
deduced from Spörer's Observation. 




ira Wl 14°c; 14"5 14°4 



14°3 U°2 j-ri 
-Vii.rnl.ir Vi'l'tit.1 



o « 



10 cc 



Il II l.Tf) iXH ]?.'l 13°6 



]2 



s. Ilirayamn. 



5. 1 can DOW compare Ihc results arrived at from these 
various observations as follows: 

Table X. 

Angular Velocity corresponiiog to Maximum I. 



Heliog. 
Latitude 


Deduced from 
Greenwich 

Observations 

(1879-1901) 

Ig 


Deduced from 

Spörer's 

Observations 

(1861-1878) 

Is 


Deduced from 

Carrington's 

Observations 

(1853-1861) 

Ic 


Simple 

Mean 

I 


Mean Ang. Vel. 
coniputed from 

Maunders, 

Spörer's, and 

Carrington's 

Formulae 


2.^5 


14.°45 


14.°36 


(14.°36) 


14.°39 


14.°40 


7.5 


14.38 


14.28 


14.27 


14.31 


14.35 


12.5 


14. 29 


14.17 


14. lu 


14.21 


14.25 


17.5 


14. 19 


14.03 


1J.02 


14.08 


14.13 


22.5 


14.05 


13 90 


13.86 


13-94 


13.98 


27.5 


13.88 


(13.77) 


13.67 


13.77 


13.80 



Table XL 

Angular Velocity corresponding to Maximum II. 



Heliog. 
Latitude 


Deduced from 
Greenwich 

Observations 
(1879-1901) 

IlG 


Deduced from 

Spörer's 

Observations 

(1861-187?) 

lis 


Deduced from 

Carrington's 

Observations 

(1853-1861) 

lie 


Simple 

Mean 

II 


Mean SynocU c 

Rotation 

Period 


2.°5 


(14.°72) 


14.''65 


(14.°81) 


14.°73 


26.^9 


7.5 


14.71 


14.53 


14.67 


14.64 


26. 37 


12.5 


14.69 


14.42 


14.51 


14.54 


26. 56 


17.5 


14.65 


14. 30 


14.34 


14.43 


26. 78 


22.5 


14.59 


14.18 


14. 13 


14.30 


27.04 


27.5 


14.49 


(14. 07) 


13.88 


14.15 


27. 35 



The values in brackets have been obtained by extrapolation. 

The mean values corresponding to Maximum I and Maximum 
II respectively of angular velocities in zones of solar latitude each 
5° wide, are shown under the heading 'Simple Mean' of Table 



The Systematic Motions of Sun-spots. 



13 



X and Table XI. These velocities are plotted gra2)liically in Fig. 
4. Thé dotted curve in the same figure represents the mean 
angular velocity, as computed from Maunder' s, SjoOrer's, and Car- 
rington' s formula}. Its numerical values are given in the last 
column of Table X. For the sake of convenience, the two drifts 
corresponding to Maximum I and Maximum II will in the 
remainder of this article be called. Drift I and Drift II respectively. 

Angular Velocities of Drift I and Drift II. 

Fig. 4. 




10 ^ 



14°H 14° 



14° 



14°4 



\Td 



i3°a 'i'^'i ^X(^ 



w?. 14°?. ]4°i wo 
Angular Vtlocity 

6. On the whole, the angular velocities of Drift I, as 
represented in Table X, accord very Avell with the mean values as 
computed from the formuhie of the three investigators, though 
there is a small systematic différence of about 0°.04 on the average. 
In fact, the values obtained by these authors do not exactly rep- 
resent the angular velocities of spot-groups of maximum occur- 
rence. 

7. As to Drift II, it will be noticed from Table XI that there 
is a rather considerable discrepancy in the values derived from the 
Greenwich observations and from the other two, although there is 
no great difference between the results deduced from Spörer's and 
Carrington's observations. It is evident that the values at 
latitudes 2°.5 and 27°.5 are of low vreights, the first being based 






] 4 s. Hirayama . 

upon only a single determination, and the second upon but two. 
A comparison of Table X and Table XI shows a faster rate of 
daily angular motion for Drift II than for Drift I. The mean 
acceleration of the angular velocities is about 0°.35, within the 
limits of observation, the corresponding acceleration in the rota- 
tion period being O.'^Tl. For the lower latitudes, the rotation 
periods of the spots belonging to Drift II agree approximately 
with the recent spectroscopic results obtained by Messrs. Storey 
and Wilson. "^'^ Perhaps certain groups of spots by a proper motion 
of their own come to the same level as the reversing layer and 
attain its angular velocity. 

As to the peculiar motions of sun-spots Prof. Sporer sa3^s: 
"Die Beobachtungen haben ergeben, dass im östlichen Theile 
einer Gruppe niemals übergrosse Rotationswinkel vorkommen. 
Man findet daselbst X'erkleinerung der Rotationswinkel, aber selten 
mit bedeutenden Betrage. Uebergrosse Rotationswinkel kommen 
vor an der Westgrenze der Gruppen und bei neu entstandenen 
Flecken." He then mentions 6G cases of great angular velocities 
during the period 1880-84. This excess comes out to be about 
0°.5 on the average. Perhaps such spots and those of short 
duration niay greatly contribute to the existence of Drift II. 

8. Since the ratio of the amplitudes of the two drifts 
depends on the choice of spots by each investigator, it is difficult 
to find the true ratio from the investigations hitherto made. 
By examining the tables in this article, it will be found that 
it is actually different for different investigators. It also varies 
irregularly in different zones. The mean ratio of the amplitudes 
of the two drifts is about J, J, and 7 in Maunder' s, Carrington's 
and Sporer's observations respectively. The researches of Mr. and 
Mrs. Maunder were made on spots in general. They say: '' There 
has been no selection of spots because they seemed to be steady in 
motion or regular in shape, no rejection because of unsteadiness or 
irregularity. The only criterion for the inclusion of a group in the 
discussion has been that it lasted for six consecutive days " . This 



(I) storey and Wilson, Spectroscopic Observations of the Sun's Rotation, etc. MonfMy 
Notices LXXI p. 674. 



The Systematic Motions of Sim-Spots. 



15 



fact lias led me to assume that the sun-spots belonging to Drift II 
are about ^ of the whole. 

9. If we adopt Faye's empirical formula fur solar motion, 
then our results may be expressed as follows: 
? = 14°.37-2°.97 sin;., for Drift I. 
ç = 14°.69-2°.65 sin;, for Drift II. 
In order to exhibit how these formulœ satisfy the obser- 
vations, I give the following table. 



Table XII. 
Comparison of Computed with Observed Angular velocities. 





Drift I. 


Drift II. 


X 


Observed 


Weight 


Computed 


0-C 


Observed 


Weight 


Computed 


0-C 


2.°5 


1 4.°39 


o 
3" 


14."36 


+ 0.°03 


14.°73 


1 
3 


14.°6S 


+ 0.°05 


7.5 


14.81 


1 


14.32 


- 1 


14.64 


1 


14.04 





12.5 


14.21 


1 


14. 23 


- 2 


14. 54 


1 


14. 57 


- 3 


17.5 


14.08 


1 


14.11 


- 3 


14. 43 


1 


14.45 


_ 2 


22.5 


13.94 


1 


13.94 





14.30 


1 


14.30 





27. 5 


13.77 


2 
3 


13.75 


+ 2 


14. 15 


3 


14.13 


+ 2 



It will be noticed that the above formula for Drift I nearly coin- 
cides with the expression, ^=14°.37-3°.10 sin'; deduced by Faye. 

10. By examining all the spots which lasted for more than 
six consecutive days, Mr. and Mrs. Maunder (loc. cit. p. 818) have 
deduced another formula, ç=875'. 7=^164' sin';, which nearly 
corresponds to the mean values in the last line of Table I. This 
formula may be analysed as follows: 
i(ç of Drift I)-l-|(,- of Drift II) 

=Kl4°.37-2°.97 sin';0+l(l-i°ö9-2°.65 sin';) 
= 14°.61-2°.73 sin';=876'.6-163'.8 sin'A 

That the last expression practically coincides with their 
formula shows that the latter is greatly influenced by Drift II. 



^ß s. Hirayama. 

The mean value of é, (column G of Table X), as computed from 
Carrington's, Spörer's, and Maunder' s formulœ, is nearly expressed 
by the formula, ç = 14°.40-2°.83 sin';, which may also be analysed 
as follows : 

r\,(c of Drift I) + A(ç of Drift II) 

= ^(14°.37-2°.97 sim;0+TV(14°.69-2°.65 sin^;) 

= 14°.40-2°.94 sin';. 
11. The present investigation, though cursory, leads meto 
conclude that there are two apparent drifts in the motions of the 
sun-spots. The angular velocity of Drift I is represented by 

. ç = 14°-37-2°.97 sin-/ 
and that of Drift II by 

ç=14°.69- 2°.G5sin';-, 
showing a mean rate of about (/.35 greater than that indicated 
by Drift I. The mean ratio of the number of sun-spots in 
Maximum II to those in Maximum I is 1 : 2. This hypothesis of 
assuming the existence of a secondary drift may be considered a 
tentative explanation of the phenomena of the distribution of 
sun-spots with different rotation periods in any particular zone of 
latitude, and I do not claim tliat the conclusion I have arrived at 
do more than approximate to quantitative precision. 

Tokyo : 

1912, January 20. 



Publ. June 7th, 1912. 



Jour. Sei. Col I., Vol. XXX 1 1., Art. 7, PI. I. 

Greenwich Number of Spot-groups with Different Rotation Periods 
in Zones of Latitude 5° wide. 




Jour. Sei. Coll., Vol. XXXll.,Art. 7, PI. II. 

Carrington's Number of Sun spots, arranged in Zones of Latitude 5^ 
wide, giving Different Diurnal Motions. 



-62-57'-5Z'-47'-42'-37'-32-Z'7'-Z2'-n'-JZ-T -2' *3' *8' *J3' *1&'*Z3' *Z8' *J3*38'*43*46'*53' *B6' 




-6Z'-ST-32'-47-4Z'-37'-3Z'-ZT-2Z'-J7'-JZ' -T -2' +3' +8' +73 +J8 ♦23'+28 +33'*38V43'+ 40 V53' 



Jour. Sei. Col I., Vol. XXX 1 1., Art. 7, PI. III. 



Spörer s Number of Sun spots with Different Angular 
Velocities in Zones of Latitude 5° wide. 




13 5 13'6 13'7 13°ô 13°9 14"0 I4°l 14°2 14°3 I4!4 J4°5 14°6 14°7 I4°a ]4?9 15°0 15°1 






T ' 



JOUIiNAL OF THE COLLEGE OF SCIENCK, TOKYO IMPERIAL UNIVERSITY. 

VOL. XXXII., ARTICLE 8. 



The Metallogeny of the Japanese Islands. 

By 
C. Iwasaki, niqahushi. 



With 1 Map. 



1. Magmalic Emanations and their Petrification. 

Since SvanteArrhenius^^ made public the results of his studies 
on the chemical properties of water in high temperatures, the 
world's geologists have been more or less influenced by him, their 
views on metallogeny changing gradually from the hydrothermal 
to the magmatic theory, Heavj" metals were formerly supposed 
to have been brought up by hot springs in the form of mineral 
solution. But at present ore-deposits are believed to have been 
deposited by gas, or by a mixture of gas and liquid, or by liquid 
only, emitted from magma while cooling. This is asserted by 
J. H. L. VoGT,'^ who calls this ''eruptive after-action." This view 
naturally leads us to believe that where ore-deposits exist, there 
must be found igneous rocks, near or distant, from which the 
materials of the ore-deposits were emitted. Prof. Koto,^^ in 
his recent paper entitled " Geology anà Ore-deposits of the Holgol 
Mine,'' 1910, calls these rocks '' ore-bringers." 

It had already been recognized by Matteucci, Lacroix,*^ 
Gautier,^ and others that a great many elements always exist in 
emanations. When the latter cool, these elements form different 
kinds of minerals. It is in this way that petrification of emanations 
takes place. 

1) Svante Arrhenius : " Zur Physik des Vulkanisms," Stockliolm, 1900. 

2) The Genesis of Ore Deposits," p. 642. 

3) B. Koto : Jour. Coll. Sei. Imp. Univ. Tokyo, Vol. XXVII., Art. 12, 1910. 

4) Matteucci and Lacroix: The Digest in Economic Geolor.u, Vol Tl., No. 3, p. 25S, 1907. 

5) Gautier : Economic Geolomj, Vol. I., p. 690, 1906. 



Iwasaki 



The petrification may often be seen distinctly in recent lavas. 
As an example, let me explain here the occurrence of tridymite in 
Ishigami-yama, a hillock in the environs of the city of Kumamoto. 
This hill is a part of a lava flow extruded from Kibo-san, a now 
extinct volcano, and is composed of amphibole-pyroxene andésite. 
The rock is fresh in composition, whitish in color, with conspicuous 
phenocrysts of amphibole converted into the pseudomorphs 
of magnetite and augite grains by the resorption of the 
original crystals. In the miarolitic fissures and cavities formed 
during the consolidation of the lava, several minerals are found, 
such as tridymite, phlogopite, breislakite,^^ specular iron, and 
calcite, all forming very fine crystals. The tridymite is in 
hexagonal plates, sometimes attaining 5 mm. in diameter. The 
mineral, when picked out of the rock cavities, is transparent, but 
very soon becomes whitish and translucent on exposure to the air. 
The change of color may be clearly explained by microscopic study. 
The trid3aiiite occurs in the form of a pile of thin larainse, and has, 
when it is picked out of the rock cavities, a light-brownish liquid 
in the interspaces between the plates. When exposed to the air, 
the liquid immediately evaporates and the tridymite becomes 
whitish by total reflection of light. The liquid contained in the 
tridymite is supposed to be what is left of juvenile water extruded 
from the cooling lava. 

The presence of calcite as an emanation-product in recent 
lava is, so far as known, extremely rare. The other minerals in 
the miarolitic cavities are also supposed to be all of juvenile origin, 
and not of the vadose formation ; in other words, all belong to the 
so-called fossil emanations of Lincoln."^ To prove it, I shall give 
here the following three data: (1) the side-wall of the miarolitic 
cavities and fissures presents the slaggy aspect usually seen on 
the surface of lava, (2) the cavities and fissures are perfectly closed 
as if to prevent the infiltration of vadose water, (3) the andésite 
in which the cavities and fissures are found is quite fresh, showing 
that the minerals in question are not decomposition-products. 

1) It was so determiaed by B. Koto. 

2) Liacoln : " Economic Geology," Vol II.. No. 3, p. 253,1907. 



-Metallos'ény of tho Japaneso Islands. 



2. Classification of Ore-deposits. 

vox Waldensteix^^ and vox Cotta'^ were the first geologists 
to try (in 1824 and in 1859) to classify ore-deposits. Since then, 
many methods of classification liave been proposed from time to 
time. Groddeck's system, "^^ which takes as the basis of classifica- 
tion the origin of the deposits, is perhaps the best of all. He 
divided ore-deposits into two groups, viz., original and fragment- 
::ary deposits. 

Van Hise*^ a little later classified them into three groups, 
namely, those of igneous origin, those which are the direct result 
•of sedimentation, and those which have been deposited by under- 
ground water. A classification based on the magmatic theory is 
perhaps the best for us, when looked at from the standpoint of 
the theory. Tlie greater part of the ore-deposits in the case of 
the heavy metals is of igneous origin, and also since there are, 
in my opinion, hardly any other deposits of heavy metals found in 
•Japan. Accordingly I shall here classify them into five categories, 
based on the magmatic theory: 

a) INIagmatic segregations. 

b) Contact deposits. 

c) Mineral veins. 

d) Replacement deposits. 

e) Impregnation deposits. 

This classification has been made quite independently by me 
for the special treatment of Japanese ore-deposits. I am, however, 
ver}^ glad to notice its close resemblance to that of Richard Beck, 
made public in the third edition of his ' ' Lehre von den Erz- 
lagerstaetten," 1909. 

Magmatic segregations are heavy metals accumulated in a 
magmatic body. Contact deposits are the so-called fossil ema- 

1) von Waidenstein : " Die besonderen Lagerstätten der nutzbaren Mineralien," 1S24. 

2) von Cotta : "' Lehre von den Erzlagerstätten," 1859. 

3) von Groddeck :" Die Lehre von den Lagerstätten der Erze " 1869. 

4) Van Hise : " The Genesis of Orj Deposits," pp. 2S2-432. 

5) Lincoln : Loc. cit. 



4 Iwasaki : 

nations of LI^x'OLx,^^ deposited between the ore-bringers and the- 
preëxisting rocks, the latter of which obstructed the passage of the 
emanations from the former. When the emanations force them- 
selves into the fissm-es of the rocks and deposit heavy metals there, 
we have mineral veins. When the magmatic emanations, by their 
strong rush and chemical action, dissolve part of rocks, make 
cavities of various forms, and deposit heavy metals therein, then 
we have replacement deposits. Impregnations are the ore-bodies 
disseminated in the rock-masses. 

3. The Order of Petrification of Emanations. 

Lincoln'^ has classified emanations into four groups, i. e., 
actual, fossil, repressed, and potential emanations. '^ Actual 
emanations may be observed as gases and vapours from lava 
streams exi:>elled from volcanic vents." "Fossil emanations are 
the more or less well-preserved remains and traces of actual ema- 
nations. The complete preservation of past emanations is often 
seen as inclusions in minerals, while partial preservation is com- 
mon in druses and in lithophyses, at contacts and in veins." " It 
is well to remiember in this connection that the mineral veins and 
contacts frequently appear to be in whole or in part of magmatic 
origin." 

As the emanations begin to get cool, the minerals begin to be 
formed, and petrification occurs. From frequent observations, I 
have come to the conclusion that the order of petrification of ema- 
nations is similar to that of the formation of rock-forming minerals 
in magma; for in both cases, the falling of temperature is the chief 
agent in forming minerals from liquids or gases at high tem- 
perature. The following list shows the order of petrification of 
emanations observed in Japanese ore-deposits:—!, magnetite, 2. 
chromite, o. hematite, 4. garnet, 5. augite and hornblende, 6. 
scheelite, 7. pyrite, 8. cobaltite, 9. chalcopyiite, 10. barite, 11. 
argentite, 12. gold, 13. quartz, 14. tetrahedrite and enargite, 
15. calcite. The minerals at the head of the series are those 

1) Lincoln : Economic GcolOffij, Vol. II., No. 3, ix 258, 1907. 

2) Loc. cit. 



Mot illog'ony of the Japanese Islamls. 5 

formed at liigh temperature, and, as we go downwards, the tem- 
perature of tlieir formation is lower. Minerals having a high 
position in the petrification order are spoken of as " of the higher 
order of petrification." Not only does the order indicate the order 
of the formation of the minerals, but also their position in certain 
deposits. The liigher the order of petrification, the lower is the 
position of the minerals in the ore-deposits, for it is natural that the 
temperature of emanations in rock fissures should become higher the 
lower we go. The I'eason of the constant association of quartz with 
.gold, and the transition of quartzose gold ores into sulphides in the 
bottom of mineral veins may be readily understood in the order of 
petrification of emanations above cited. Lindgren^^ enumerated 
persistent minerals according to their positions, ranging from the 
contact metamorphic or igneous condition to the surface of the 
earth, as shown in tlie following list, viz: — pyrite, chalcopyrite, 
bornite, arsenopyrite, galena, zincblende, molybdenite, gold, 
quartz, calcite, etc. The reader will easily recognize the essential 
coincidence between my petrification order and the above list. 

In magmatic segregations found in Japan, only the first two 
minerals in my petrification order occur, of Avhich chromite in 
serpentine is the only one workable. Contacts constitute the best 
reservoirs for all the magmatic emanations, and therefore various 
minerals are found there. Of these minerals, magnetite, chalcopy- 
rite, cobaltite, and sometimes gold are being worked. In mineral 
veins which are located far from the source of the ore-bringer, the 
temperature must be lower than in magmatic segregations and con- 
tacts, and initial products such as magnetite and chromite can not 
journey through so long a passage. Accordingly there occur only 
pyrite and such minerals as are of a lower order than it, of which 
the copper and gold ores are chiefly being Avorked. Ores occurring 
as impregnations and replacements do not present many points of 
difference from those in veins, but are very complex in their 
composition; for all elements of the emanations are shut up in 
them as in the case of contacts. This is especially true of replace- 
ments, such as those in the Kosaka Mine. 

1) Lindgren : Ezonomic. Geology, Vol. II., p. 122, 1907. 



Iwaaaki 



4. Metallogenetic Provinces. 

In Japan, there are several kinds of ore-briiigers, such as granite^ 
diorite-porphyrite, liparite, and andésite ; serpentine is also suppos- 
ed sometimes to have a genetic relation to ore-deposits. All these 
rocks occupy their own areas, which we call here metallogenetic- 
provinces, after A. M. Finlaysox,^^ who made similar divisions of 
the British Isles. Granite is very extensivel}' exposed in Japan, 
but it is not always associated with ore-deposits. As an ore-bringer 
it is most frequent in Korea, and also in many places in northern 
Kyûsliû as well as in western Honshu (the Main Island). Quartz- 
porphyry associated with ore -deposits in central Japan is also 
asserted to be the marginal facies of this particular province includ- 
ing Korea and other regions. Tliese localities therefore may be- 
called the Korean Province. 

Diorite is not scanty in Japan, and a noteworthy fact is that 
diorite-porphyrite is rather better suited to be an ore-bringer tlian 
diorite proper. The ore-deposits formed by emanations from 
diorite-porphyrite are chiefly found in the Paleozoic formation in 
the outer zone of North Japan, with their center in the Kitahami 
Mountain-land, which, possessing most numerous deposits of this 
sort, may give the name to this Province. Liparite lava is not 
very often met with in this country, but the rock doing the function 
of an ore-bringer is found more frequently in the form of dykes or 
necks, nearly always in the inner zones of North and South Japan, 
which are put together under the name of the Kosaha Province, 
the Kosaka Mine being its exponent. Besides liparite, propylite- 
is somiCtimes found doing the work of an ore-bringer in this 
province. Andésite is the volcanic rock of widest occurrence in 
Japan, but it is not always associated with ore-deposits. The rock 
which serves as an ore-bringer is rather the older rock of this kind, 
recent andésite lava being always barren of the useful heavy 
metals. The greater part of the andésite that acts as an ore- 
bringer is supposed to have erupted in the later period of the 
Tertiary and the earlier portion of the Diluvial, and intrudes 
Tertiary sediments, forming dykes, necks, or denuded volcanoes. 

1) Finlayson : Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, p. 281, 1910. 



Metallogeny of the Japanese Islands. 7" 

The andésite of this kind is chiefly fonnd in the inner zone of the 
Ryûkyû (Loo-choo) arc, where gohl mines are very hopeful, 
especially in Satsuma, and to this nietallogenetic province the name 
Satsuma is given. The Sado island, famous on account of the 
rich Sado gold mine, is also supposed to helong to this province, 
judging from the properties of the ores from the mine. 

Pyrite beds in Japan have for a long time been supposed to 
be of aqueous origin, but at present they arc treated as bedded 
veins. Their ore-bringer is not yet definitely known, but the 
author believes that it may be serpentine or a like rock, just as 
VoGT^^ explains the origin of the pyrite deposits of Norwaj^ as 
related to gabbro. Such beds occur in the outer zones of South 
Japan and the Eyû-Kyû arc. The largest of the kind is in the 
Besshi mine, for which reason the author calls these regions the 
Besshi Province. 

5. The Korean Province. 

The mineral resources of the Korean Province are gold and 
copper, sometimes with cobalt, zinc, lead, arsenic, and tungsten. 
The origin of the deposits in the Korean Province is most clearly 
explained in "The Geology and Ore-deposits of the Holgol 
Mine," an instructive paper by Prof. Koto."^ The Holgol mine 
is situated in the northeastern portion of Hoan-haiclô in Korea. 
The geology of Holgol and its neighborhood is composed of 
highly metamorphosed argillite, calcareo-siliceous slate, limestone, 
porphyritic granite, and basalt. Prof. Koto describes these rocks 
in a most elaborate manner ; and, from various facts obtained by 
this study, he comes to "the conclusion that the gold is juvenile, 
and must have come from deep in the interior as an exudation 
from the eutectic mixture of the granitic magma." 

Ores of the Korean Province occur in veins, or in contacts. 
The gold ores in mineral veins are always quartzose. The quartz 
is hard and translucent, generally being very poor in gold content, 
except when sulphide minerals such as pyrite, galena, or zinc- 

1) Vogt : The Digest in " The Genesis ■ f Ore Deposits," p. 652. 

2) Koto : Loc. cit., p. 2. 



3 Iwasaki : 

blende are present. It is a question whether the gold was deposi- 
ted with sulphide minerals as a primary product, or has been 
accumulated around the sulphides by secondary enrichment in 
process of time. 

Copper ores in this province are often found in contacts, as at 
Kapsan in Korea, and Naganobori and other places in Japan proper, 
where gold veins of the Korean type are very scanty. The author 
studied contacts in the Naganobori Copper Mine in the prefecture 
of Yamaguchi. This mine is thirteen miles distant from the 
Ogori railway station, near the western extremities of Honshu. 
There is an extensive 'karst\ called Akiyoshi-dai. Through the 
limestone a small granite boss ^bOOO feet long and 1,700 feet wide, 
is exposed forming a hillock named Hanano-yama. All around 
the boss, contacts are found, Naganobori being one of them. 

The deposits of tlie Naganobori Mine are 30 feet tliick, the 
hanging-wall l)oing limestone and the foot-wall granite. The 
greater part of the ores consist of radially aggregated augite, which 
is either mixed with garnet crystals, or planted upon garnet 
nodules. The ground-mass of the ore is a mixture of quartz and 
calcite, in which eol)altite crystals and chalcopyrite masses are 
imbedded. The chalcopyrite is always amorphous, but the 
cobaltite crystallizes in pentagonal dodecahedrons, showing 
cubical cleavage. Throughout the ore body, mineral veins with 
symmetrical structure are frequently met with. I'hese consist of 
quartz in the salband, calcite in the middle, and tetrahedrite on 
both sides. Branching out from the main body of the contact 
deposit, veinlets of chalcopyrite traverse the limestone. In my 
opinion, the ore of the deposit was petrified from the emanations 
emitted fron^. the granite magma. First, ferromagnesian silicates 
have crystallized out as garnet and augite, then cobaltite, 
chalcopyrite, quartz, tetrahedrite and calcite were formed one 
after the other. 

6. The Kitakami Province. 

This province gets its name from the fact that the metal mines 
in it are most flourishing in the Kitakami Mountain-land, situated 



Metallogeny of the Japiniese Islands. 



between the Kitakami Valley and the Pacific Ocean. The mines 
are nearly always in the Paleozoic formation and are associated 
with such ore-bringers asdiorite, diorite-porphyrite, and sometimes 
granite. The diorite-porphyrite, green and compact, with 
phenocrysts not very distinct to the naked eye, is the most favorable 
rock for ore-deposits. Under the microscope, the felspar is seen to 
be kaolinized or to form epidote in combination with the decom- 
position-products of horn].)lende turned into chloritic matter. 
Magnetite is always present, l)eing particularly abundant toward 
the margin of the eruptive masses. I observed a very interesting 
phenomenon between the diorite-porphyrite and the limestone in 
the Kamaishi Iron Mine. This mine is the most hopeful one in 




A B c 

Fig. 1. — Intrusion of diorite- 
porphyrite into limestone, in 
Kamaishi Mine. A, Diorite- 
l^orphyrite. B, Magnetite 
crystals. C, Limestone. 




Fig. 2. — Contact of diorite-porphyrite with limestone in 

the Kamaishi Mine. H, Hornblende. E, Epidote. CH, 

Chlorite. L, Limes^on"^. M, Magnetite. 



this province, and is well known as the only private iron-smelting 
work in Japan. The deposits belong either to the contact of the 
<liorite-porphyrite with paleozoic limestone, or to that of the 
diorite-porphyrite with granite, or else the magnetite is wholly 
enclosed in granite masses. Where the diorite-porphyrite is in 



10 



Iwasaki : 



contact with limestone, magnetite lamolke, perhaps flattened 
rhombic dodecahedrons, are seen projecting from the porphyrite 
into the hmestone (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2). While the porphyrite 
was in the deep as fused magma at high temperature, it was a 
eutectic compound with the iron content uniformly diffused 
throughout. But Avhen the magma Avas erupted and came into 
contact with the limestone, its temperatm-e fell and its chemical 
properties became entirely different from those it had in the deep. 
Magmatic differentiation took place at the niargin of the magma. 
Magnetite was driven out of it to form the thick deposit between 
it and the hmestone, ^y[nch finally attained a thickness of 30 feet. 

The arrangement of 
minerals in this contact 
deposit is highly instruc- 
tive as to the order of 
the petrification of emana- 
tiojis (Fig. 3). Magnetite 
is found on the side of the 
diorite-porphyrite, garnet 
constituting the central 

A B C D E F , T 

■^. „ . , , , . , zone comes next, and 

Jig. 3 — Arrangeirent or ii.merals in the contact deposit 

of the Kamaishi Mine. A, Dioriteporpyrite. quartZ OU the sidc of tho 

B, Magnetite. C, Garnet. D, Quartz. limCStOUe. lu the qUartz, 

E, Cakite with gold. F, Limestone. ... ,, t 

calcite masses are scattered 
about, and in them the gold is remarkably rich. The gold grains 
are usually microscopic, being sometimes as large as ] cm. 
in length, and 0.2 cm. in diameter. They are of two kinds. 
One is like granulated zinc in form, and is supposed to have 
been solidified from the fused drops of gold in the liquid 
emanations exuded from the diorite magma. The colour of the 
gold is very fine being almost like that of pure gold. The other 
kind of gold is always in long prismatic crystals, acutely pointed 
at both ends. These are perhaps rhombic dodecahedrons, elong- 
ated on an axis. They are paler in colour, are found in the 
cleavage of calcite, and are supposed to be of secondary origin in 
contrast with the former, which are of primarN' origin. 




Metallogeny of the Japanese Is-land?. ] ji 

Arguing from the arrangement of the minerals in the ore- 
deposit, I have come to the conclusion that the order of the- 
petrification of emanations in the Kamaishi Mine must have been 
as follows: magnetite, garnet, quartz, gold, and calcite. 

As a typical example of the mineral veins in the Kitakami 
Province, I shall here choose the Shikaori Mine, not very far from 
the Kamaishi Mine. The deposits of this mine are bedded veins 
running S. 5° W. along the stratification of the Paleozoic formation. 
As in the case of the Korean Province, the ores are composed of 
the hard translucent quartz of a whitish colour, Avhich is characte- 
ristic of the so-called old vein of Prof. Vogt. The gold content in 
the ore is very variable. As a whole the ore is not very rich, l)ut 
big nuggets have sometimes been found in the veins. A nugget 
called " monster "^^ consists of thick plates of gold in the cracks of 
the quartz ore. The fineness of the gold is estimated at 882.844 
and the nuggets 910 grammes in weight. From the specific- 
gravities of the quartz, the gold, and the nugget, I have estimated 
its value at 950 yen. This is one of the largest nuggets ever got 
from mineral veins in Japan, and is considered to be one of the- 
best specimens of the kind in the world. Gold veins containing 
coarse grains of gold disposed in an irregular manner are also often 
found in this province, and constitute the source of gold placers. 

7. The Besshi Province. 

This metallogenetic province comprises the entire outer zones^ 
of South Japan and the Ryûkyû Arc, and the southern part of the 
outer zone of North Japan. In this province, the pyrite beds are 
most important — stibnite and gold veins as well as manganese beds 
being of rather subordinate value. The Besshi Copper Mine con- 
tains the best of the pyrite beds in this province, and for tliis- 
reason it is called the Besshi Province in this i)aper. 

The pyrite beds are chieflj^ found in the so-called crystalline 

1) The description of " Monster " is given in detail in uiy work " Gold," p. 284, Tôkyô,. 
1910. (Japanese) 



\ 2 Iwasaki : 

schists, the Sarnbagawan Series of Prof. Koto.^^ '^'hey are also 
sometimes met with in the Paleozoic formation. As mother 
rocks, basic rocks such as chlorite schist'^ and graphite schist are 
the most favorable; serpentine is often found near the beds. 
P^^'ite beds occur in the crystalline schists in nearly concordant 
stratified form, cutting them crosswise in a few instances. The 
pyrite beds consist of an intimate admixture of pyrite and chal- 
copyrite. They are so compact that these two minerals can only be 
distinguished from each other under the microscope after polishing, 
•or in a few cases by the naked eye. According to Sakawa,^^ 
the pyrite in the ore is usually in rounded grains, but sometimes 
it is crystallized, when it attains 0.7 cm. in diameter. The 
interspaces between the pyrite grains are filled with massive 
■chalcopyrite, which often enters even into the cracks of the 
former. 

Pyrite beds sometimes form lenticular bodies or rounded 
nodules. When they are found in tlie decidedly younger forma- 
tion, i. e., the Paleozoic, they are usually roundish. The 
structure of the pyrite beds in the so-called crystalline schists is of- 
ten very complex. In the central portion, there are very rich 
■copper ores containing rock fragments, the outline of which is 
either rounded or indented. On one or both sides of the rich zone 
of the pyrite beds, there are found highly contorted ores, with 
regularly stratified schists on their outer sides. These contorted 
■ores constitute the " shear zone " of Sakawa. 

From the facts above stated, and after very careful examination 
•of a great many pyrite beds in Japan, he comes to the conclusion 
that they are bedded veins of epigenetic origin. In my opinion, 
however, the original form of the pyrite beds must have been that 
of replacements Ijrought up in different successive periods. After 
their deposition, a strong mountain-making force flattened them 

1) Koto "On the »o-called Crystalline Schists of Chichibu." Jour. Sei. Coll. Imp. Univ. 
Tokyo, Vol. IL 

2) It is said that greater part of the so-called chlorite schist near the pyrite lieds is 
amphibole-schist. 

3) Saka-v\'a : "Report on Cufriforous Pyrite Beds." Bull. Imp. (leol. Stin: Japan, Vol, 
XXII., Xo. 1. (Japanese). 



Metallogen y of the Japanese Islands. 13 

into the form of beds, at the same time causing regional meta- 
moi'i^hism of the country rocks. After such a geological change, 
a fissure was formed along the middle line of the bed, and the 
side-rock masses slipped down, producing the sliear zone on the 
exterior part of the bed. Finally, a secondary enrichment took 
place around the faulted rocks, filling up the interspaces of the 
fissure. Thus the rock fragments in the beds are rounded or 
indented on their exterior by the dissolving action of the vadose 
water. This explanation will, I think, solve the varied structures 
of the pyrite beds in a very natural way. S. Ishikawa,^^ a Mining 
Inspector, enumerates 59 copper mines of this species in Japan, 
namely, 27 in crystalline schists, and 32 in the Paleozoic 
formation. 

Quite recently very interesting gold deposits have been dis- 
covered in central Kijûslm, which, upon investigation, seem to l)e 
an isolated block from the Besshi Province. The region is billy 
Avith an altitude of about 400 to 2000 ft. above sea level, and is 
geologically composed of a thick complex of amphibolite and 
phyllite belonging to the Lower Paleozoic. The amphibolite 
is a pale green homogeneous rock. The phyllite is a highly 
contorted lamellar rock, gray to black in colour, showing pearly 
luster by the presence of the abundant quantity of mica. The 
latter rock sometimes contains very conspicuous cubic phenocrysts 
of pyrite, which measure up to 0.5 cm. in diameter, and is usually 
converted into limonite pseudomorph. Examined under the 
microscope, the amphibolite consists of elongated green crystals of 
amphibole and greenish -yellow grains of epidote, cemented by a 
transparent quartz matrix. Phyllite shows beautiful contortion, 
microscopically as well as macroscopically, forming alternate layers 
of quartz, mica and graphite. It is a very noticeable feature that, 
so much gold exists throughout the rocks for several miles, that 
sometimes the}^ practically become gold ore themselves. Now, it is 
a question whether the gold is a primary constituent of rocks, or it 
had been carried into them at the time of the formation of quartz 

1) Isbikawa: " Geology and Ore-deposits of Oshima." Jour. Gcogr. Soc. Tohyo, Xo. 260, 
1910 (Japanese). 



î) 4 Iwasaki : 

veins, which traverse the rocks everywhere. The quartz veins some- 
times produce very rich gold, but it is most hopeful when the gold 
forms placers. The placers may be divided into two distinct 
kinds, original and alluvial. The former is seen on the surface of 
the mountain region, forming the primary soil. The latter forms 
the placer beds in the valley. The bedded deposits are found in the 
form of successive river terraces, the highest and most promising 
measuring about 200 ft. in height; the next is on a hillside and is 
:about 80 ft. high ; while the lowest is only (> ft. from the valley 
level and forms part of valley ground. These terraces cover more 
than several hundred acres, and form horizontal strata of gravels 
'Composed of pebbles of amphibolite, ]:>hyllite, quartz and andésite 
cemented Ijy reddish clay, sand of the above stated rocks, and 
limonite pseudomorph after pyrite. The conglomerate becLcontains rOA-^A 
gold in the high proportion of from 3/1,000,000 to 9/100,000 or " 

1/100,000 on the average and measures from 6 to 120 ft. in thickness. 
The gold grains are similar in form to those from old veins, and 
may be classified into two groups, granular and crystallized. The 
«colour of the granular gold is very fine, being like pure gold, and 
is much larger in size usually measuring as much as 3 mm. in 
diameter. Gold nuggets weighing 131 gr. and 67 gr. were once 
found in the valley. The peculiarity of this granular gold is that it 
is of a flattened form with cracks in it. The cr^^stallized gold 
thought to be of a secondary origin is inferior in grade, and usually 
«mailer in size, being not quite 0.5 mm. in diameter. The com- 
paratively large size and flattened form of the granular gold is 
explained by the fact that the gold was formed in amphibolite or 
other crystalline schists in old time and subjected to intense 
mountain-making force during the metamorphosis of these rocks. 
The ore-bringer of this gold is not yet definitely known; but it is 
probable that the amphibolite is a rock metamorphosed from the 
diabase or like rocks which brought up the gold from the interior 
<Â the earth, thus doing the work of the ore-bringer itself. 

8. The Kosaka Province. 

This is the region containing plagioliparite and propylite as 



^letallogeny of the Japanose Tslantls. 15 

ore-bringers, and has Kosaka as its largest and most important 
mine. The ore-deposits fonnd in this province are chiefly 
replacements, bearing the so-called "black sulphide ore"; but 
there are also famous veins of various other kinds. It is a 
characteristic of this province that abundant sulphide minerals are 
always present in the ores. The presence of this character may be 
•due to the strong acidity, or high fusing point of the ore-bringer. 
Even where andésite is the ore-bringer, the emanations emitted 
from the rocks must have been at a high temperature, and thus 
andésite itself was changed into propylite. Such a high tem- 
perature compels the formation of sulphide minerals, which belong 
to the liigher order of petrification of emanations; in other words, 
sulphides were formed only in a temperature higher than that in 
which gold, quartz and calcite (all common minerals in the 
Satsuma Province) must be formed. 

The deposits in the Kosaka Province belong to the younger 
veins, formed in the later period of the Tertiary or the earlier part 
of the Diluvium. They are most frequent in the Tertiary sediments 
or in the ore-bringer itself, forming replacements or veins. The 
province includes nearly the whole of the inner zone of North 
Japan, as well as isolated points in the inner zones of South Japan 
and the Ryûkyû Arc. The deposits in the Kosaka Province may 
be classified into mineral veins, black sulphide ores, and dis- 
seminations. 

Mineral Veins: — These veins are of several kinds. They 
always bear a greater or less quantity of sulphides, but some are 
composed of auriferous quartz, some of quartzose copper ore, and 
some rich in lead or zinc. Generally speaking, the deposits in 
the province are the sulphide-rich, ''younger" veins of Vogt. 

As a type of the auriferous quartz veins, let me describe the 
Hasami Gold Mine, for I know it better than any other of these 
veins. It is situated about five miles to the south of the Arita 
Station on the Nagasaki line of the Kyushu Railway. The mine 
was discovered only fifteen years ago, but at present it is one of 
the most important and hopeful gold mines in Japan. The 
deposit is of the true fissure-vein type traversing the Tertiary 



IG 



Iwasaki ; 




80 X 

Fig. 4.— Qnartzose gold ore of the Hasami Mine. Q, Quartz 
containing liquid enclosures, in parallel or radial arrange- 
ment. P, Pores connected by passages with 
a lining of siderite. 



sandstone and sliale, the 
former being the more 
important of the country 
-rocks. Quartz-trachyte 
is found in this con- 
cession, and is supposed 
to he the ore-bringer of 
the gold A'eins. Several 
veins are met with run- 
ning N. 45° W., and dip- 
ping 70°-80° SW. They 
are mostly simple veins, 
about 5 feet thick, but 
sometimes assembled 
together, attaining even 
100 feet in thickness. 
Usually the simple 



veins are reg 



ular 



m 




80X 

Fig. 5. — Colony of gold in the quartzose gold 
ore of the Hasami Mine. 



extent, with distinctly 
banded or brecciated 
structure. The ores 
now being worked are 
stained by limonite, 
for they belong to 
the weathered zone. 
When the working 
proceeds deeper, much 
sulphide is expected. 

Under the micro- 
scope, the quartz in 
the gold ore shows a 
granular or hyp- 
idiomorphic struc- 
ture. (Fig. 4.) The 
outline of the quartz is 
always smooth, in 



Metnlloft'ouy of tho Tapanose Islands. ],',7 

contrast witli the indented grains in the old veins. Ronndisi-i 
pores with narrow connecting passages are very noticeable. Both 
the pores and passages are lined with brown siderite. These 
phenomena show that, dining the formation of the veins, the 
emanations from tlie qnartz-trachyte (liparite) contained very large 
quantities of gases which were for the greater part carbonic 
acid remaining as siderite in some interspaces between quartz 
gi-ains. This is surely one of the most important properties of the 
ores. '.:^. 

The gold grains from this mine may be divided into two 
classes, granular and crystallized. Tlie former is covered with 
siderite, while the surface of the latter is fresh and brilliant. The 
gold grains are grouped together in colonies (Fig. 5). 

Blach sulphide ores: — Ores of this kind are found in the 
inner zone of Nortli Japan. They were not investigated until late 
years, and Hirabayashi, ^^ Geologist to the Mining Bureau, was 
the first to treat their origin and characteristics in detail. Accord- 
ing to him, the black sulphide ore is an intimate admixture of 
galena, zincblende, and barite. It occurs most frequently in the 
form of replacements, but, in a few cases, as mineral veins or 
impregnations. Tlie ore-bringers are quartz-trachyte or andésite, 
the latter being generally altered into propylite. Hirabayashi gave 
a single example of basalt taking the place of an ore-bringer, but I 
believe it was only an eruptive succeeding the formation of the 
deposits, as in the case of the Hol-gol Gold Mine, described by 
Prof. KoTÔ.'^ 

The occurrence of the black sulphide ores furnishes us with 
materials for making clear the magmatic theory. According to 
Hirabayashi, there are 43 mines in Japan, in which these 
ores are worked. They are all in Tertiary beds, and always 
associated with younger volcanic rocks. In 14 mines, quartz- 
trachyte is found, in 10 mines andésite or propylite, and in 14 
mines both these rocks together. Basalt has been found only in 

1) Hirabayashi: "Report on Black Sulphide Ore-deposiis," I. and IT., Mining Bureau, 
Tokyo, 1908 and 1910. 

2) Loc.cit. 



18 Iwasaki: 

one mine. In the remaining three, their existence was doubtful. 
When the ore-deposit is in contact with the volcanic rocks, the 
deposit becomes thinner and thinner as we descend changing at 
last into a network or dissemination, and passing by imperceptible 
changes into the volcanic rock itself. 

Impregnations: — One of the characteristics of the ore-deposits in 
the Kosaka Province is the abundance of impregnations. This 
type of ores is perhaps evidence of the intense pressure and the 
high temperature of the emanations. The emanations form 
massive deposits by impregnation in the igneous rocks such as 
quartz-trachyte or andésite ; and sometimes they produce bedded 
deposits by dissemination in sandstone. When the rocks are 
traversed by numerous veinlets, the result of emanation is em- 
bodied in networks. Sometimes whole masses of igneous rock are 
changed into metasomatic ores. From these deposits gold is 
usually worked ; copper and iron also are sometimes got from such 
ores. The vein-stufïs are chiefly quartz and clay; besides, pyrite, 
hematite, chalcopyrite and barite are found as accessory com- 
ponents. I shall take the Washinosu Gold Mine as an example 
of impregnation in the Kosaka Province. 

The Washinosu Gold Mine^^ is situated in the prefecture of 
Iwaté in the inner zone of North Japan. The largest part of the 
deposits in this mine consists of impregnations in quartz-trachyte 
(plagioliparite) erupted through the Tertiär}^ beds; only a small 
portion belongs to the Tertiary formation. The hill of quartz- 
trachyte is about 900 feet above the lowest water level in the con- 
cession. Veinlets traversing the eruptive are usually 1 or 2 inches 
thick, but sometimes they become as much as one foot in thick- 
ness, and 300 feet in length. Where the veinlets are ver}^ 
densely crowded, the impregnations are very rich. In the veinlets, 
quartz and chalcopyrite are most abundant, while barite and 
micaceous iron exist in small amounts. Gold is rich in the 
pyritic quartzose ore, but very poor in the chalcopyrite. 

There are numerous gold deposits like those of Washinosu 
in the environs of the mine. They are also developed in the 

1^ Nishiwada : The Digest of " Report on Gold and Silver Deposits," 1907. (Japanese) 



Metallogeny uf the Jai>ancse Islands. 19 

southern extremity of the Satsuma Peninsula in Kyushu, where 
there is an extensive lava plain of loose andésite, through 
which nine independent rocky hills project, rising from 500 
to 900 feet above the sea level. They are composed of a hard 
compact rock of a whitish colour, the petrographical properties 
of which are not definitely known. One geologist says it is a 
quartz-trachyte, but others treat it as an andésite silicified. Although 
all of the rocks are not quartz-trachyte, at least a part of the hills 
belongs toit; besides, the properties of the ore-deposits are like 
those of the Washinosu Mine. Nearly all the silicified rock 
masses of the hills contain a trace of gold. In the Kasuga Gold 
Mine, which has one of these deposits, the whole rock mass con- 
tains 0.0002% gold, but in the cla^^ey veins running through it 
the gold content is richest going up to 0.02% and even more. In 
this ore-deposit, I recently discovered barite, which is always 
present in black sulphide ores, but as yet has not been found in 
other gold mines in the Satsuma Province. 

9. The Satsuma Province. 

The ore-deposits belonging to this province are associated 
with andésite as their ore-bringer. In contrast to the Kosaka 
Province, they are characterized by a scantiness of sulphides. The 
ores are chiefly composed of auriferous quartz and calcite, both 
belonging to the loivesf^ order of petrification and are generally 
worked for gold. Transition is seen, however, between the 
Satsuma and the Kosaka Province. For example, in the Sado 
Gold Mine, which is supposed to belong to the Satsuma Province, 
quartzose gold ores are associated with some sulphides, and in the 
Kinkwaseki Gold Mine in Taiwan (Formosa), auriferous enargite 
masses occur in the form of chimneys, while the Tasei Lode in the 
Ikuno Mine, which is supposed to belong to the Kosaka Province, 
is a true quartz vein. Generally speaking, the deposits in the 
Satsuma Province are true veins, with banded, ring or brecciated 
ores. The ring ores are most beautifully developed in the 

1) Perhaps gold and quartz are of colloidal origin. 



20 Iwasaki : 

Serigano and other gold mines. 

First of all, after the formation of fissures, gold, argentite and 
pyrite were deposited around andésite horses, at the same time 
that the quartz veins were formed, after that, secondary enrichment 
took place, and gold together witli other minerals was formed upon 
the andésite nucleus in the inner side of the first ring. Thus double 
rings were produced there. Together with the above-described 
processes, silicification also took place in the andésite horses, which 
were all or nearly all changed into quartz. Although such ring 
ores are also found in the Kosaka Province, they are most frequent 
in the Satsuma Province. This is perhaps due to the greater basic 
property of andésite, compared with quartz-trachyte, shale, and 
sandstone, which are the most important mother rocks in the 
Kosaka Province. 

The so-called replacement veins of Lindgren^' are also often 
found in the Satsuma Province, and are, as Emmons"'^ stated, dis- 
tinguished by their unsymmetrical structure, variable size, complex 
arrangement of minerals, and the preservation in the ore of the 
microscopical structure of the original rocks. I have studied the 
replacement veins in the Okuchi and Kushigino Gold Mines, in 
the Satsuma Peninsula, southern Kyûsyû, and therefore will state 
here the results of my observations. 

The andésite, which is the mother rock of the mines, seems 
to have erupted in the Tertiar,y or the Diluvial epoch, usually 
forming low undulating hills due to erosion. The rock is grey 
and compact, with augite and felspar phenocrysts. The former 
is conspicuous to the naked eye, but the felspar is not so distinct. 
Under the microscope, the felspar is seen to be very large, usually 
twinned in the Carlsbad type, enclosing augite and magnetite. 
The augite is monoclinic, its pleochroism being very strong. 
Magnetite is so abundant that the ground-mass often seems black 
and opaque. Brown coloured glass is abundant in the ground- 
mass containing microlites of felspar and augite in the fluidal- 
arrangement. The andésite is the pyroxene-andesite, very com- 

1) " The Genesis of Ore De^josits,'' p. 517. 

2) Loc. cit., p. 517. 



IMetallogeny of the Japanese Islands. 21 

mon in Japan, but in the Satsuma Province it is frequently rich 
in the precious metals, notwithstanding the fact that the andésite 
of other provinces is generally barren of these metals. I made a 
microscopic study of the ores in the replacement vein in the and- 
ésite of tliC (Jkuchi Gold Mine. 

This andésite is generally fresh, but the felspar phenocrysts 
are decomposed from the central portion into brownish chloritic 
matter. By the penetration of a mineral solution into the 
fissures of the rock, felspar is kaolinized, and augite and a part 
of the felspar are chloritized. The groundmass is at the same 
time transformed into a mixture of chlorite, kaolin, and 
quartz. Then sihca, separated from tlie constitution of the rock- 
forming minerals, is deposited in the rock masses in the shape 
of veinlets or rounded masses. Magnetite is dissolved, and its 
iron together with that secreted from the other components is 
deposited again as pyrite by the chemical action due to the 
introduction of hydrogen sulphide. The auriferous solution is 
reduced by the ferrous oxide formed during the decomposition of 
the felspar and augite, and is deposited in colonies around the 
chlorite pseudomorph after the augite and felspar, or is imbedded 
in tlie kaolin-silica mixture. Thus gold in rich ores exists in 
colonies, as in the case of the Hasami Gold Mine already referred 
tu. In ores in the replacement veins, gold is never found in tlie 
chlorite pseudomorphs or in the quartz veinlets running through 
the decomposition-products of the mother-rock. It will be seen, 
therefore, that the introduction of gold began after the chloritiza- 
tion of the rock-forming minerals, and finished before the forma- 
tion of the veinlets. It is, however, not well estabhshed whether 
tlie metasomatic cliange took place at the same time as the forma- 
tion of the mineral veins, or after the completion of the vein- 
making and during the period of its secondary enrichment. I am 
of opinion that the latter is the more probable theory. 

10. Summary. 

The above statements may be summarized as follows: — 

a. During the consolidation of magma, various magmatic 



22 



Iwasaki : 



emanations are exuded, by the petrification of which ore-deposits 
are formed. 

h. A definite process of deposition of emanations determines 
the order of petrification, as stated in Section 3, p. 4. 

c. The ore-deposits of igneous origin may be classified into 
five divisions; magmatic segregations, contacts, replacements, 
mineral veins and impregnations. 

d. There are several kinds of igneous rocks called ore- 
bringers, which produced the ore-deposits by their "eruptive 
aft er- action." 

e. The Japanese empire is divided from the metallogenetic 
point of view into five provinces, according to the difference of the 
ore-bringers. They are as follows: — 



Frovinces. 


Ore-deposits. 


Ore-hringers. 


Korean. 


Contacts, veins. 


Granite. 


Kitakami. 


Contacts, veins. 


Diorite-porphyrite. 


Besshi. 


Beds. 


Serpentine ? 


Kosaka. 


Replacements, veins. 


Quartz-trachyte, and 
propylite. 


Satsuma. 


Veins, impregnations. 


Andésite. 



/. The minerals in the ore-deposits in the difïerent provinces 
are distributed in the order of petrification as in the folloAving 
table : — 



Minerals. 
Provinces. ^^ 


-4-1 

1 

s 


o 

g 
2 

O 


g 


0) 

i 


a 
o 

< 


-4-1 

'S 




(D 

o 
O 


•4-1 

'S 

P4 
O 




-4J 

< 




-g 


II 

1^ 


.2 

o 


Korean, 


















1 




1 






Kitakami. 
































Besshi. 






























Kosaka. 










Satsuma. 




















1 1 1 1 



Metallogeny of the Japanosft Islands. 23 

As the reader will see, in the pertrification order all the 
minerals except calcite are found in the Provinces of Korea and 
Kitakami. This is because they all belong to the older veins, 
which means that the formation of the minerals took place in the 
deep, where the temperature of the emanations was very high, the 
petrification continuing until the emanations got entirely cool. 
The pyrite beds in the Besshi Province are supposed to have been 
emitted from the most basic rocks such as serpentine or gabbro, 
and therefore only the minerals of the lower position in the 
petrification order are deposited there. The scantiness of quartz in 
the pyritic beds is explained by the basic character of the supposed 
ore-bringers. In the Provinces of Kosaka and Satsuma only the 
ore-deposits of younger formation are distributed and therefore 
such minerals as iron oxides or ferromagnesian silicates are never 
found there. Sulphides are more abundant in the Kosaka Province 
than in the Satsuma Province, for the fusing point of quartz- 
trachyte is higher than that of andésite. In the gold veins in the 
Satsuma Province, sulphides are very scanty, but if we go deep 
down we shall find much more of the sulphides which are of a 
higher petrification order than quartz and calcite, the two pre- 
dominating vein-stuffs of the Satsuma Province. 

Tokyo: 

1912, October 20. 



Publ. Nov. 3rd, 1912. 



JOURNAL OF THE COLLEGE OF SCIENCE, TOKYO IMPERIAL UNIVERSITY. 

Vol. XXXII., Art. 9. 



Oogonium Liberation 

and 

the Embryogeny of Some Fucaceous Algae. 

By 

M. Tahara, Fdijakushi. 

With o Plates and 5 Text Fvjures. 

It had long been my wish to make some biological as well as 
cytological observations on the representative members of Japanese 
Fucaceae, as om* knowledge of this family especially in respect of 
these points is still very imperfect. 

Taking the opportunity of a short stay at the Misaki Marine 
Biological Station of the Tokyo Imperial University in the winter 
of 1908-1909, I made some observations on Sargasswn, especially 
on the liberation phenomena of oogonia. The results were 
published in a preliminary note in the Botanical Magazine, Tokyo, 
Vol. XXIII. 1909. 

To carry out more extensive studies, I made a second visit to 
the station at the end of December, 1909 and stayed there for 
about three months. The present paper presents the results of 
that visit. The substance of it was reported on the 28th of April, 
1910, before a meeting of the Tokyo Botanical Society^^; and 
briefer accounts were given in Japanese in the Bot. Mag. Tokyo. 
VoL XXV. 1911. 

According to Yendo's well known monograph on Japanese 
Fucaceae'^ there are eight genera of this family in Japan, namely, 
Fiicits, Pelietia^, Ishige^, Cystoseira^ Cystophyllum, Coccophora, Turbi- 

1) Proceedings of the Tokyo Bot. Society. Bot. Mag. Vol. XXIV., P. (246). 

2) Yendo, The Fucaceae of Japan. Journ. Coll. Sei., Imp. Univ. Tokyo. Vol. XXI., 
Art. 12. 



2 M. Tahara. 

naria^ and Sargasstmi^ ^ but only the four with asterisk are found 
at Misaki. Of these genera only a few species were available for 
my studies, as the other species did not come to maturity during 
my stay there. Sargassum énerve, Sargasswn Horneri and Cystophyl- 
lum sisymhrioides furnished the principal materials of my investi- 
gation. All these three species are dioeceous. At Misaki Sarga- 
ssum énerve grows in such profusion as often to present a serious 
obstacle to the navigation of smaller craft. The liberation of 
oogonia begins usually at the end of December. 

Sargassum Horneri is also common at Misaki. The receptacle of 
this species are very large and well-suited for investigation. The 
liberation of oogonia begins at the end of December. 

Cystophyllvm sisijmhrioides is not so common at Misaki as the 
former two, but it is by no means rare. The liberation of oogonia 
begins at about the middle of February. 

First let me give my observations on oogonium liberation. 

I. Oogonium Liberation. 

In the preliminary paper mentioned above, I gave the 
following acount of my observations on the oogonium liberiation 
of Sargassum. — At that time I used the term 'Oosphère liberation' 
intead of ' Oogonium liberation.' But strictly speaking, the 
products liberated from the female receptacle on the day of the 
so-called ' Oosphère liberation ' are not oosphères but oogonia 
containing in their bodies one oosphère initial. 

"On the 24th of December 1908, the next day after the full 
moon, almost all individuals of Sargassum énerve of the coast dis- 
charged their oosphères simultaneously. The discharged oosphères 
stayed on the receptacle for about three days and then dropped 
off also simultaneously, so that on the 28th there was not a 
single stock that bore the sporelings on the receptacle. 

'' After a fortnight, i. e. on the day of new moon, the next 
general liberation of oosphères occurred." 

These facts reminded me of the periodical liberation of sexual 
products in Dictyota dichotoma and led me to the conclusion that, 
"The liberation of oosphères in Sargassum takes place simultane- 



Oogonium Liberation and the Embryogeny of Some Fucaceous Algae. 



ously, not only for a given plant, but also for all plants of the 
same locality. This simultaneous liberation proceeds in fort- 
nightly crops on a particular day with a fixed interval after the 
highest spring tide, the interval varing however in different 
species." 

As this conclusion was based on observations made during a 
relatively short time, naturally entire confidence could not be put 
in its validity. My second visit to Misaki was made mainly to 
determine this point. 

I arrived at Misaki on the 27th of December, 1909, which 
was just the day before the highest spring tide. To my disappoint- 
ment I found that most of the Sargassum growing in that locality 
had not yet attained their maturity and for some time no general 
oogonium liberation could be observed. 

The first general oogonium liberation of Sargassum énerve 
occurred in fact on the 12th of January, the next day after the 
highest spring tide. Three days later, on the 15th of January, 
the first general oogonium liberation of Sargassum Horneri also took 
place. 

So far these observations confirmed in the main the record of 
the preceding year. But the liberation went on thereafter quite 
irregularly, without showing any fixed relation to the highest 
spring tide. The actual state of things is shown in the following 
table. 



Species^"^---^^^ 


Jan. 


Feb. 


*S'. enerve 


12* 21 31 


11* 16 


S. Horneri 


15 23 


2 


14 21 



The numbers in the table denote the dates of general oogo- 
nium liberations. The intervals between two successsive libera- 
tions is quite irregular, for example, the intervals in Sargassum 
enerve are 5, 6, 9, 10 or 11 days. But the intervals between the 
two corresponding liberations in Sargassum enerve and Sargissum 
Horneri are, as is seen from the table, tolerably constant; namely, 



4 M. Tahara. 

two or three days after the liberation of Sargasswn énerve occurs 
almost always the liberation of Sargasswn Horneri. Tlie same 
relation is given in my record of the previous year. 

The highest spring tides occurred on the 11th and 25tli of 
January and on the 10th and 24th of Februar3^ The dates with 
asterisk in the table correspond to the days next after the highest 
spring tides. 

I have also observed such oogonium liberation in Sargassum 
Kjellmanianum, Sargasswn tortil, and CystophjUiim sisymbrioides. In 
these algae too, the successive liberations do not seem to show a 
fixed relation to the highest spring tide; for example, in S. 
Kjellmanianum the liberations took place on» the 7th, 15th and 23rd 
of February and in Cyst, sisymbrioides on the 17th of February and 
the ord and 20th of March. 

All these facts led me to the conclusion that the liberation of 
oogonia in Sargasswn and CystophyUum takes place periodically and 
simultaneously among individuals of the same species growing in 
the same locality ; but the intervals between two successive libera- 
tion vary in an irregular manner, without having at least any fixed 
relation to the highest spring tide. Thus the liberation phe- 
nomena in our plants are somewhat different from those in Dictyota 
dichotonia^ the periodicity of which was studied first by Williams'-* 
and recently by Hoyt"'-* and Lewis. ^^ Probably owing to differences 
in local conditions, the result of the observations of these authors 
do not agree in details, but all of them agree that the liberation 
phenomena of this alga have a certain relation to the highest 
spring tide. 

To ascertain how the liberation of oogonia proceeds under 
artificial conditions, I kept some branches of S. Humeri and Cyst. 
sisymbrioides in a glass vessel filled with sea- water. To prevent 
contamination the culture Avater was renewed almost every day. 
The liberation did not occur as in nature at all; but after about a 



1) Williams, Studies in the Dictyotaceae. Ann. Bot., XIX. 1905. 

2) Hott, Periodicity in the production of the sexual cells of Dictyota dichotom:i. Bot. 
Gaz., XLIIL 1907. 

3) Lewis, Periodicity in Dictyota at Naples. Bot. Gaz. L. 1910. 



Oogonium Liljeration and the Emljryogeny of Some Fucaceous Algae. 5 

month's culture the branches Kberated the oogonia in a very 
feeble manner. 



I often observed the actual mode of oogonium liberation in 
Sargassimi and Cijstoplujllum in common sea-water under the micro- 
scope. But when I collected some small l)ranches on the day 
before the day of an oogonium liberation and put them into a 
mixture of sea-water and fresh water (one volume of sea-water to 
four of fresh water proved to be the best proportion). I could 
quite easily observe the mode of the oogonium liberation. I 
studied the mode of oogonium liberation in S. Hörnen more 
minutely than in other species, and the following description refer 
to this plant. 

Generally speaking, the paraphyses of Sargassum do not 
protrude from the conceptacle as they do in Fucm. In 5'. Horneri 
they compose a disklike plug at the opening of the conceptacle. 
In a fcAv seconds after immersion in the mixtui'e medium above 
mentioned, the plug comes out slowly, with some broken pieces 
of paraphyses on its inner surface (Text. Fig. 1); and then the 

conceptacle commences to discharge 
its oogonia one after another. The 
discharged oogonium has a thick 
outer layer of gelatinous substauce, 
which trails out a tail fastened to 
the interior of the conceptacle 
(Text Fig. 1). In one or two days 
the gelatinous substance becomes 
less rigid and the tail can no more 
be recognized with certainty, but 
still for a time the discharged oogo- 
nium remains attached to the recep- 
tacle. 

As already stated in my preliminary note, the oogonia in one 
receptacle are not liberated at one time, but in succession, one 
zone after another in acropetal order. Fig. 1 of Plate I shows the 




Fig. I. X 140 



6 M. Tahara. 

receptacle in its first oogonium liberation: the black spots on the 
receptacle are oogonia. The area in which the discharged oogonia 
have already dropped off shows a remarkable contrast to the area 
in which the oogonia are in situ in the conceptacle (Fig. 2, PL. 
I). Fig. 3, PL. I shows the second oogonium liberation. The 
older part of the receptacle becomes more slender and the surface 
has the appearance of a young pine cone (Figs. 2, 3, 4, PL. I). 

The mode of oogonium liberation in Ci/stojûylhim sisymhrioides 
differs considerably from that of S. Hoineri and deserves special 
mention. The receptacle of Cijst. sisymhrioides is rather small and 
slender and what is remarkable is that it shows no trace of 
the conceptacle opening on its outer surface. As above stated 
S. Horned has something like a plug at the conceptacle opening, 
but the outline of the conceptacle opening on its outer surface can 
be seen under the microscope without any difficulty; this however, 
is not the case with Cyst, sisymhrioides. 

On the day before the oogonium liberation, paraphyses in 
this alga begin to grow very rapidly. As there is no opening, 
paraphyses must make their way through the outer wall of the 
conceptacle. The tips of paraphyses peeping out through the 
cracks on the outer surface of the receptacle are disposed quite 
regularly in a line parallel to the main axis of the receptacle. 
And in the mean time, the oogonium liberation takes place in the 
same way as in Sargassim-, paraphyses continue to grow and 
entangle with one another about the oogonia, giving an appearance 
of a mycelium growing on a nutritive substratum (Fig. 1, PL. 
III). As in the case of Sargasswn, the liberation at one time is 
always restricted to a zone of receptacle, the liberation proceeding 
acropetally. The discharged oogonia remain attached to the 
surface of the receptacle for about five days and then drop off, 
when the paraphyses protruded from the conceptacle and entangled 
about the oogonia are also cleared away from the surface of the 
receptacle.* 



* The protruded paraphyses are at first relatively stiff, but become gradually slushy. 



Oogonium Lil»eration and th9 Embryogeuy of Some Fucaceous Algae. 7 

I often came across some detached branches of Ciist. Tumeric 
floating on the sea near the Marine Biological Station ; and the 
receptacle on the branches bore many discharged oogonia within 
the mass of entangled paraphyses. Thus the rapid growth of 
paraphyses at the time of the oogonium liberation appears to be a 
characteristic of the genus CystopliiiUum. 



II. Early Stages of Embryogeny. 

Since the appearance of Oltmanns' classical work on 
Fucaceae'\ it has been generally beheved that in tiie Fucaceae in 
general the three successive nuclear divisions in the oogonium 
take place before the formation of oosphères, no matter how many 
oosphères come to function in one oogonium. 

At this stage of the discussion Miss E. B. Simons' paper on 
Sargasswn filipemlula-^ attracted the attetion of plant morphologists. 
According to her, in this alga the three successive nuclear divisions 
before the oosphère formation are entirely suppressed and the one 
nucleus of the oogonium initial remains in a resting condition 
throughout the entire period of growth of the oogonium and 
becomes directly the nucleus of the single oosphère, 

During my stay at Misaki, I paid special attention to this 
point and was so fortunate as to be able to observe the successive 
developmental stages of the oosphère in the oogonium of Sargas- 
swn and Cystophyllmn. The result of my observations differs, 
however, remarkabley from that of Miss Simons; namely the 
oogonium development in these algae is quite normal, showing 
the usual three successive nuclear divisions in the oogonium. 

As a matter of course, the periodical oogonium liberation is 
accompanied by the periodical development of the oogonium. 
All the oogonia in one conceptacle are liberated at one time, so 
the developmental stage of all the oogonia in one conceptacle is 
always the same. In other words, differing from the other cases 

1) Oltmanns, Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Fucaceen. Bibl. Bot. Cassel, 1898. 

2) Simons, A morphological study of Sargasmm ßlipendnla. Bot. Gaz. XVIX. 1906. 



8 M. Tahara. • 

in Fucaceae^^ in Sargassum and CystophyUwn one can not observe 
several developmental stages of the oogonium in the same con- 
ceptacle. Not only the same conceptacle, but also all the materials 
collected on the same place, on the same day, do not show in 
general the several developmental stages of the oogonium. 

After the occurrence of an oogonium liberation, the single 
nucleus of the oogonium, which is to be liberated for the next 
period, remains in a resting condition for a time and for the first 
time on the day before the day of the next oogonium liberation, 
the nucleus begins to divide to form the nuclei of oosphères, and 
the oogonium attains the di- or tetra-uucleate condition. On the 
day of the liberation, the oogonium contains eight nuclei evenly 
distributed in its substance; the dense mass of chromatophores 
assembled around each nucleus facilitates the counting of the 
number of the nuclei. Fig. 1, PL. II, Fig. 3, PL. Ill show this 
condition of the oogonium in S. Horncri and Cyst, sisymhrioidcs re- 
spectively. Nienburg' s recently published paper on C y stoseira and 
Sargasswir^ states also that three successive nuclear divisions take 
place in the oogonium before the formation of oosphères. While 
the result of my observations is based on living materials, 
Nienburg made his study on the microtome-sections of fixed 
materials. At aii}^ rate the occurrence of the three successive 
nuclear divisions in the oogonium development seems to be general 
in Fucaceae. The eight nuclei formed in one oogonium have at 
first the same appearance. But Sargassum and CystophyUwn develop 
only one egg in one oogonium, so ouly one of the eight nuclei 
becomes the functional nucleus of the oosphères and the others are 
destined to degenerate in the course of future development. Fig. 
4, PL III shows a stage in which some of the eight nuclei are 
about to degenerate. The degeneration of the seven nuclei does 
not proceed simultaneouly. 

In other Fucaceae the superfluous nuclei are regularl}^ thrown 
out into the space between the oogonium wall and the oosphère. 
But it seems to me that this is not the case in Sargassum and 

1) Oltmanns, Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Fucaceae, Bibl, Bot. 1889. p. 84. 

2) Nienburg, Die Oogonentwicklung bei Cystoseira und Sargassum. Flora Bd. I. 1910. 



Oogonium Literation and the Embryogeuy of Some Fucaceous Algae. 9 

Gystophylhnn^ for in living materials I liave very often had the 
chances to observe the stage of oogonium development, in which 
such cast off plasma-masses would likely be found, had they ever 
been present, but I failed to find any trace of such a body. 

It is rather a curious fact that none of the foregoing observers 
have succeeded in observing not only the fertilization but even 
the moving spermatozoids in Sargasswii and Cijstophyllwn. Miss 
Simons writes in her paper already cited that, "A study of 
fertilization in Sargassum is surrounded by serious technical 
difficulties, because both eggs and sperms develop upon the same 
plant, thus making it difficult to isolate the sexual cells." As 
above described, the common species of Sargassum and CystopkyUum 
in our coast are all dioeceous, so the difficulty pointed out by Miss 
Simons does not occur in our materials. Nevertheless the study 
of the fertilization of these algae, both in living and fixed materials, 
is not an easy task. I have never succeeded in observing even 
the spermatozoid itself. From the phenomena of the periodical 
development of the oosphères, one naturally presupposes the 
periodical development of spermatozoids, but I could find no sign 
of such a phenomena in the antheridia of these plants. 



Now let me give my observations on the development of the 
sporelings of Sargassitm and Cystophylluin. The early development 
of these algae goes on within the oogonia which after having been 
discharged from the conceptacle, are attached to the surface of the 
receptacle: this condition fascilitates the investigation in no small 
degree. The later development may also be studied easily in 
materials cultured in a glass basin. The method is very simple. 
I collected some small branches of these algae which carried many 
hundreds of attached sporelings on their receptacles and cultured 
them in natural sea-water, some of the sporelings may in the 
course of development fall to the bottom of the glass basin but 
many remain attached to surface of the receptacle for a long time 
and still persue the normal course of development. The detached 



] M. Tahara. 

sporeliiîgs become fastened to the bottom of glass basin and may 
also be used for investigation. 

Generally speaking, the oosphères of S. Honieri, S. énerve and 
Cyst, sisymhrioides are equally oval or elliptical and common to all 
of them the first segmentation wall runs perpendicular and about 
midway to the long axis of the oosphère (Fig. 2, PL. Ill; Fig. 5, 
PL. Ill): the second wall runs parallel to the first, cutting ofï a 
small lens-shaped cell at one end of the sporeling. Nienburg 
states in his paper, " Die erste Wand steht senkrecht zur Läng- 
sachse. Die zweite steht senkrecht auf der ersten und teilt das 
Vorderende in zwei gleiche Hälften. Darauf wird von der unteren 
Spitze durch eine Wand, die der ersten parallel ist, eine schmale 
Rhizoidzelle abgeschnitten." Thus his observations do not agree 
with mine. 

Further development differs in Sargasswn and Cystophyllum, 
and would better be described separately. 

Sargassum. 

The lens-shaped cell, cut off by the cecond segmentation wall 
will hereafter be called for the sake of convenience the ' Rhizoid 
cell.' This cell divides simultaneously with the segmentations of 
the other cells, until the eight-celled stage is reached. The segmen- 
tations of the rhizoid cell are quite regular and the segmentation 
wall are all perpendicular to the outer surface of the sporelings. 
(Figs. 5, 8, 9, PL. II) clearly show this regularity. While the 
segmentation of the other cells proceeds further, the rhizoidal 
portion remains in the eight-celled stage, and in the mean time 
the rhizoid formation begins. At the outset, we see the papilla- 
like protuberances, eight in number (Fig. 11, PL. II). These 
protuberances grow gradually and become a group of rhizoids 
arranged in a circle. But later there arises in the central region 
another group of rhizoids which elongate with greater rapidity so 
that they become longer than those of the first and outer group 
(Figs. 13 and 14, PL. II). This difference in length becomes, 
however, obscure in the further development of the rhizoids, the 
outer group of rhizoids also growing rapidly (Fig. 15, PL. II). 




Oogonium Liberation and the Embryogeny oï Some Fucaceous Algae. H 

To ascertain, if possible, the origin of this central group of 
rhizoid I made some microtome-sections of the sporehngs in this 
stage. Text-Fig. 2 was drawn from one of such 
sections. The two rhizoids in shade are the 
descendants of the rhizoid cell formed by the 
second segmentation wall. Other rhizoids situated 
in the central portion seem to have been derived 
from the body cells, without having any direct 
relation to the above mentioned rhizoid cell. In 
T.- o ^^Af^ the later development the number of rhizoids 
gradually increases. The rhizoids are at first 
unicellular but later we find several partitions here and there (Fig. 
16, PL. II). Under a strong magnification we see pecuhar thicken- 
ings on the cell walls of the rhizoids, which remind us of the 
spiral thickenings of tracheids of higher plants (Fig. 16 b, PL. II). 
The cells contain small granules of what seems to be a fat-like 
substance, so far as can be seen by the reactions of osmic acid and 
Sudan III. The same substance is found not only in the rhizoids 
but also very abundantly in the body cells in general. 

For a long time, the shape of the sporelings remains oval or 
elliptical, but later becomes like a flask and at last at the boundary 
between the slender and the swollen part of the sporeling, there 
grows a neAv branch (Figs. 17-20, PL. II). This is the last stage 
that I observed at Misaki. 

Cystophyllum. 

The segmentation process in the rhizoid 
cell of this plant difïers considerably from 
that above described ; that is, in this plant 
before the rhizoid formation begins, the 
rhizoid cell is already divided into about 30 
small cells. Text-fig. 3 is the surface view 
of the rhizoidal potion of the sporeling and 
text-fig. 4 presents a median longitudinal 
section of the same. In the latter figure, 
we can see the two-storied arrangement, a Fig. 3. x24o 




12 



M. Tahaw. 




Fig. 4. X140 



state which is never found in Sargassum. 
The rhizoid cells elongate to form a numebr 
of rhizoids; similar to what has been 
described in the case of Sargassum, the 
rhizoids originating from the central region 
grow more rapidly than those originating 
from the outer region (Fig. 8, PL. III). 
But in this case the central group of 
rhizoids are also derived from the rhizoid 
cell formed by the second segmentation 
wall, although in later development there 
may be some rhizoids derived from body 
cells as in Sargassum. 



^t\ 




\ 



\ 




Wß 



V 



Fig. 5. X 175 



As already stated, the early development of sporelings, both 
in Sargassum and CijstophyUum^ is carried out while they are 
enveloped in the oogonium wall. But in the course of develop- 



Oogonium Liberation and the Embryogony of Some Fucaceous Algae. 13 

ment the wall ruptures at one end by the pressure of the growing 
rhizoids (Fig. 14, PL. II) and the sporeling becomes free 
thereafter. 

During the study of the sporeling-development I often met 
with different abnormities and some which are interesing are 
shown in text-fig. 5. These abnormities are often found, especially 
in *S. encrvc, and all these figures were sketched from the sporelings 
of this alga. Fig. 5,« represents an abnormity in which the first 
segmentation wall is oblique to the long axis, fig. 5, /> is the later 
stage of this abnormity, c and d of the same figure show something 
like ' Simultan-dreier' and 'Simultan- vierer.' Superfluous nuclei 
in the oo;_onium often fail to degenerate, and this results in the 
formation of a curious abnormity in the later development (Fig- 
5/). 

In conclusion I wish to express my hearty thanks to Professor 
K. Fujii for his v^'Juable suggestions and assistance given me 
during the progress of this work and to Professor Iijima, the 
director of the Misaki Marine Biological Station through whose 
kindness many facilities were afforded me in the course of my 
investigations. 

Botanical Institiitc, 

College of Science, 

Tokyo Imperial University. 



Publ. March. 31st, 1913. 



31. TAHAltA. 

OOGONIUM LIBERATION AND THE EMBRYOGENY OF 
SOME FÜCACEOUS ALGAE. 



Plate I. 



Explanalion of PL I. 



Female receptacle of Sarçiassinn Horneri. All figures were drawu 
with the aid of camera Incida from living materials. Magnification: ca. 
10 times. 

Fig. 1. Fiist oogonium liberation. 

Fig. 2. After the oogonia discharged in the first liberation had 
dropped off. 

Fig. 3. The second oogonium liberation. 

Fig. 4. After the oogonia discbarged in the first and second 
liberations had dropped off. 



Jour. Sei. Coll. Vol. XXXII., Art. 9. 



PI. I. 




M.^1 



M. Tahara del. 



■I 



]>I, TAHAKA. 

OOGONIUM LIBERATION AND THE EMBRYOGENY OF 
SOME FUCÄCEOUS ALGAE. 



Plate II. 



Explanation of PI. 11. 

Sporeling-development of Saninssnui, Ilonieri. All Figures were 
drawn with tlic aid of camera lucida from living materials. Magni- 
fications : liigs. 1-lGa ca. 140 times; figs. 17-20 ca. 50 times; fig. 
l()b ca. 500 times. 

Fig. 1. Oogouinin with eight nuclei, chromatophores grouped 
around the nuclei. 

Fief. 2. First segmentation. 

Fief. 3. Second segmentation, forming the rhizoid cell at one 
•end. 

Fief. 4. Beginning of the third segmentation. 

Fiö. 5- Completion of the third segmentation. 

Fig. 6, a. Side view at the hegimiing of the 4th -iegmeatation. 

Fief. 6, b. Tolar view of the same. 

Fig. 7- First segmentation of the rhizoid cell. 

Fig. 8. Second segmentation of the same. 

Fig. 9. lîhizoid cell in the eight-celled stage. 

Fig. 10. Further segmentation of body cells. Khizoid cell 
Temains in the eight-celled stage, a, side view ; b, polar view. 

Fiö". 11. Beginning of rhizoid-formation. 

Fig. 12. Khizoids somewhat elongated. 

Figs. 13-16 a. Further development of rhizoids. 

Fig. 16 b. '-f he terminal portion of a rhizoid. 

Figs. 17-20. Development of the body of a sporeling. 



Jour. sa. Coll. Vol. XXXII., Art. 9. 



PI. II. 




M. Tahara del. 



I 



.•»I. TAIIVUV. 

OOGONIUM LIBERATION AND THE EMBRYOGENY OF 
SOME FUCACEOUS ALGAE. 



Plate III. 



Explanation of PI. III. 

b'emale receptacles aiul sporeliug development of Cißtoj)hi/Uii)ii 
sisi/ijibriniiles. All figures were drawn with the aid of camera lucida 
from living materials. Magnifications : figs. 1 and 2. ca. 10 times ; 
figs. 2-0 ca. 170 times. 

Fig. 1. Female receptacle in the first oogonium liherations. 
Paraphyses protruding from the conceptacle and forming a mass 
resembling a mycelium. 

Fig. 2. After tlie oogonia discharged in the first liberation 
had dropped oô'. 

Fig. 3. Oogonium with eight nuclei. 

Fig. 4. Some of the eight nuclei in the oogonium about to 
degenerate. 

Fig. 5. "The first segmentation. 

Fig. 6. The second segmentation. 

Fiö"S. 7-9. Later stages of the sporeling development. 



i 



Jour. Sel. Coll. Vol. XXXII., Art. 9. 



PI. m. 




M. Tahara deL 



I 



JOURNAL OF THE COLLEGE OF SCIENCE, TOKYO IMPERIAL UNIVERSITY. 

VOL. XXXCI., ART. 10. 



Beiträge zur Kenntnis der 
Morphologie und Stammesgeschichte der Gorgoniden. 

Von 

Kumao Kinoshita, lUgakushi. 

{Zoolopisches Institut der Kaiserlichen Universität zu Tokio). 



Mit 13 Textfiquren. 



I. Einleitung. 

Die Gorgoniden waren früher für eine ganz natürliche Gruppe 
gehalten worden. Heutzutage werden sie jedoch auf Grund der 
Forschungen von v. Koch, Studer und vielen anderen allgemein 
als diphyletisch angesehen. Sie zerfallen nämlich in die Ordnung 
Gorgonacea, Axifera v. Koch oder Holaxonia Studee, bei welchen 
die Skeletachse, wie bei Primnoa, Isis, Gorgonia, etc., lamellöse 
Struktur zeigt, und in die Ordnung Pseudaxonia v. Koch oder 
Scleraxonia Studer, bei welchen das Innere der Kolonie zur 
Skeletachse, die in sich spikuläre Struktur erkennen lässt, 
differenziert ist. 

Während die Trennung in diese zwei Gruppen fast 
allgemeine Anerkennung gefunden zu haben scheint, ist doch die 
morphologische Bedeutung der Kolonie von den verschiedenen 
Forschern ungleichartig angedeutet, und infolge dessen sind 
die Ausgangspunkte dieser beiden Gruppen bei verschiedenen 
Formen gesucht Avorden. Und es dürfter wohl klar sein, wenn 
man einmal die Litteratur durchsieht, dass diese Verhältnisse noch 
von niemand ganz endgültig aufgeklärt worden sind. 

In dieser Abhandlung nun beabsichtige ich also einige 
Tatsachen zu schildern, welche geeignet sein dürften auf diese 



2 K. Kinosbita : Beiträge zur Kenntnis der 

Fragen Antwort zu geben. Hier möchte icli mir erlauben, auch an 
dieser Stelle, den Herren Professoren Ijima und Goto für ihre viel- 
fachen Ratschläge und ihr stetiges Interesse während der Ausfüh- 
rung dieser Arbeit, meinen herzlichsten Dank auszusprechen. 

Milne-Edwards (1) 1857 schloss in der Familie Gorgonidae 
diejenigen festsitzenden Alcyonarien zusammen, bei denen das 
Innere der Kolonie durch die Skeletachse, welche entweder 
homogene oder lamellöse Struktur zeigt, eingenommen ist. Als 
ein anderes Hauptmerkmal der Familie hob er besonders hervor, 
dass alle Polypen kurze Magenhöhlen besitzen, wodurch sie 
sich von denjenigen der Alcyonaceen, welche stark verlängert 
und nach der Basis der Kolonie allmählich verschmälert sind, 
deutlich auszeichnen. 

Diese Familie teilte Milne-Edwaeds in drei Unterfamilien, 
Gorgoninae, Isidinae und Corallinae, ein. 

Die Skeletachse der Gorgonaceen nun hielt er, ebenso wie 
Lamarck (1), Ehrenberg (1) und Dana (1,2), für ein Sekret des 
Ektoderms der Basis. Dieselbe tritt nun nach ihm anfänglich an der 
Kontaktfläche des Ektoderms mit dem Substratum in der Form 
einer dünnen Lamelle auf; sie wird jedoch durch wiederholte 
Ansätze neuer Lamellen allmählich erhoben, sodass endlich eine 
einfache oder verzweigte Skeletachse zustande kommt. 

Neben den typischen Formen, welche die Skeletachse eben 
erwähnter Art besitzen, führte er in die Familie Gorgonidae auch 
diejenigen Formen ein, deren Skeletachse suberöse Struktur 
erkennen lässt {Briarcum^ Solanderia, Faragorgia), und dazu auch 
noch eine solche Form, bei welcher Stamm und Zweige von einer 
zentralen weiten Höhlung durchsetzt sind (Goeloqorgia). Alle diese 
einbezogenen Formen gruppierte er in "Briarées," welche eine 
" Agèle " der Gorgoninae bildeten. Nun, wenn man nach seiner 
Bemerkung über die Gattung Faragorgia schliesst, welche ich 
folgends anführe, scheint er diese Gruppe als die primitivste 
der Gorgoniden betrachtet zu haben. 

"Ce genre établit le passage entre les Gorgoniens et les 
Alcyoniens. Il tient de ces derniers par la texture de son axe 



Morphologie u. Stammesgeschichte der Gorgoniden. 3 

qui paraît être formé par un coenenchyme très développé, et 
non par un tissu sclérobasique, comme chez les Gorgones, le 
Corail, etc. ; mais il se rattache à ceux-ci par la conformation des 
polypes, dont la cavité viscérale ne se prolonge pas inferieurement 
dans le coenenchyme, et se termine brusquement en forme de 
cul-de-sac arrondi." 

Lacaze-Duthiers (1) 1863 wies nach, dass die Skeletachse 
von CoralUum rubrum nicht durch die Ausscheidung eines Epithels, 
sondern durch die Aggregation der Skleriten im Innern des 
Coenenchyms gebildet wird. 

Eine ähnliche Entwicklungsweise der Skeletachse wurde von 
KöLLiKER (1) 1866 bei der Skeletachse der Sderogorgia und bei 
den harten Achsengliedern von Melühaea und Mopsea mit aller 
Bestimmtheit bewiesen. Weiter wandte derselbe Autor die Idee, 
dass die Skeletachse bei diesen Gorgoniden im Innern des 
Coenenchyms entsteht, auch auf diejenigen Formen der Gor- 
goniden an, bei welchen die Skeletachse eine einfach lamellöse 
Struktur erkennen lässt. Kölliker betrachtete also die Gor- 
goniden ganz als eine einheitliche Gruppe. 

Er klassifizierte die Alcyonarien folgendermassen: 

Ordo: Alcyonaria M. E. 
Farn. I. Alcyonidae M. E. Festsitzende Alcyonarien mit 
langen Leibeshöhlen. 
Subfam. I. Cornularidae M. E. 
Subfam. IL Alcyonidae. 
Fam. IL Pennatulidae M. E. Freie Alcyonarien mit langen 

Leibeshöhlen. 
Fam. III. Gorgonidae M. E. Festsitzende Alcyonarien mit 
kurzen Leibeshöhlen. 
Subfam. I. Gorgonidae M. E. Mit ungegliederter hor- 
niger oder verkalkter Axe, die eine Aus- 
scheidung des Parenchyms ist. 
Subfam. IL Isidinae. Axe gegliedert, aus hornigen 
und verkalkten Stücken zusammengesetzt, 
von denen die letzteren einen lamehösen Bau 



4 K, Kinoshita : Beiträge zur Kenntnis der 

besitzen und nach dem Ausziehen der Salze 
in ihrer Form sich erhalten. 
Subfam. III. Briareaceae M. E. Gorgoniden, deren 
Inneres aus verschmolzenen Spicula besteht, 
die zum Theil eine ziemlich gut begrenzte 
Axe bilden. 
Subfam. IV. Sclerogorgiaceae Köll. Gorgoniden mit 
ungegliederter Axe, die aus Horn Substanz und 
verschmolzenen Kalkkörpern besteht. Coenen- 
chym wie bei Gorgonia. 
Subfam. V. Melithaeaceae. Axe gegliedert. Die 
weichen Glieder bestehen aus getrennten 
Kalknadeln, umgeben von Hornsubstanz und 
Bindegewebe, die harten Glieder aus ver- 
schmolzenen Kalkkörpern. 
Subfam. VI. Corallinae M. E. Axe ungegliedert aus 
krystallinischer Kalkmasse und mit derselben 
verschmolzenen Kalkkörpern gebildet, die 
beim Auflösen der Erdsalze in der Form sich 
nicht erhält. 
In dieser Klassifikation ist besonders zu beachten, dass Kölli- 
KEE, unter den Charakteristiken der Familie Gorgouidae den gröss- 
ten Wert darauf legte, dass die Polypen alle kurze Magenhöhlen 
besitzen, und auch dass er in die Unterfamilie Briareaceae die krie- 
chenden Formen wie Sympodium und Enjthropodium , welche sonst 
in die Familie Alcyonidae gestellt worden waren, hineinbrachte.'^ 
Dies scheint die Ansicht Kölliker's über die Abstammung der 
Gorgoniden anzuzeigen, dass die baumförmigen Briareaceae direkt 
von den kriechenden Briareaceae ohne irgend eine Zwischenform 
in der Alcyonidae abgestammt seien. 

Später jedoch beschrieb Kölliker (3) 1870 seine neue Gattung 
Siphonogorgia, die er, seiner früheren Meinung Avidersprechend, 
für eine Zwischenform zwischen den Gorgoniden und Alcyoniden 
hielt. Darüber sagt Kölliker Seite 22 folgendes : 

1) Vergl. auch Kölliker (2). 



Morphologie u. Stamme sgesctiichte der GorgoaLioti. 5 

"Erwägen wir nun nach der Beschreibung von Siplionogorgia 
ihre Stellung im Systeme und ihre Verwandtschaften, so ergibt 
sich, dass dieselbe weder den Gorgoniden, noch auch den 
Alcyoniden eingereiht werden kann, vielmehr eine Zwischenform 
zwischen diesen beiden grossen Abtheilungen der achtarmigen 
Polypen oder Alc^^onarien darstellt. Mit den Gorgoniden 
und zwar mit der Unterfamilie der Briareaceen stimmt dieselbe 
durch den Gesammthabitus so überein, dass sicherlich jeder, der 
Siplionogorgia zuerst sieht, diese Form den Gattungen Para- 
gorgia oder Semperina Köll. anreihen und selbst im Zweifel 
sein wird, ob sie nicht zu der einen oder andern dieser Gattungen 
gehört. Wie bei den Gorgoniden ist aucli das Sarcosoma von 
Siplionogorgia durch Kalknadeln sehr hart und zerfällt wie bei 
den Paragorgiaceae mihi in eine Rinden- und in eine Kernsubstanz. 
Ganz abweichend von den Gorgoniden ist auf der anderen Seite, 
dass die Darmhöhlen (Leibeshöhlen der Aelteren) der Polypen 
von Siplionogorgia nicht kurz sind, sondern wie bei den Alcyo- 
niden in lange Kanäle, die von mir sogenannten Darmröhren 
auslaufen, die durch den ganzen Stock sich erstrecken, und kommt 
dieser Thatsache die grösste Wichtigkeit zu, die nur in etwas 
dadurch abgeschwächt wird, dass von den acht Septa der Polypen 
nur 4 in dieses Röhrensystem übergehen, und nicht alle acht, wie 
bei den Alcyoniden. Ausserdem ist der grosse Reichthum des 
Sarcosoma an Ernährungsgefässen und an Bindesubstanzzellen auch 
etwas, das bei den Gorgoniden selten sich findet (bei einigen 
Briareaceen), bei den Alcyoniden dagegen sehr häufig ist." 

Auf diese Gattung errichtete Kölliker eine besondere 
Unterfamilie, Siphonogorgiaceae, welche er in die Familie 
Gorgonidae, und zwar neben die Briareaceae stellte. 

Klunzinger (1) 1877 schloss sich über die Ableitung der 
Gorgoniden gänzlich Kölliker an. Auch er meinte nämlich dass 
die Gattung Siplionogorgia den Uebergang von den Alcyoniden 
zu den Gorgoniden, und zwar spezieller von den Spongodes zu 
den Briareaceen, bilde. Die Briareaceen soll Klunzinger nur auf 
die Paragorgiaceae Köll. (Köll. 2, S. 11) beschränkt haben, da er 



g K. Kinoshita : Beiträge zur Keuntnis der 

SijmpocUum^^ aus den Briareaceen ausschied und in die Cornu- 
lariden stellte. 

Die bis jetzt angeführten Forscher betrachten die Gor- 
goniden als eine einheitliche Gruppe, indem sie diese Formen 
nach den Beschaffenheiten der Skeletachse, welche sie bei allen 
Gorgoniden für morphologisch homolog hielten, wenn sie auch 
dieselbe als mesogloeales oder ektodermales Sekret ansahen, nur 
in einige Untergruppen teilten. 

V. Koch (2) 1878 wies jedoch bei Gorgonia verrucosa zwischen 
dem Coenenchym und der Skeletachse eine Epithelschicht nach, 
die er Achsenepithel nannte und für eine solche hielt, welche 
zweifellos die Skeletachse ausgeschieden hatte, da die Bindesub- 
stanz überhaupt gar nicht mit der Skeletachse in Berührung 
stand. 

Die Existenz einer solchen Epithelschicht konnte er (3) auch 
später in demselben Jahre noch bei einigen anderen Gorgoniden 
konstatieren. Da er sich nun durch diese Untersuchung davon 
überzeugte, dass die Skeletachse bei diesen Gorgoniden von der- 
selben bei 3ïeUtho les, Coralliwn, etc., welch letztere spikuläre Struk- 
tur zeigt, morphologisch gründlich verschieden ist, so nahm er die 
Gorgoniden als eine diphyletische Gruppe an, und demgemäss teilte 
er dieselbe in zwei Familien ein : namentlich Axifera und Pseud- 
axonia, von welchen die erstere den Unterfamilien Gorgonidae 
und Isidinae, die letztere den Unterfamilien Sclerogorgiaceae, 
Melithaeaceae und Corallina in der Klassifikation von Kölllker 
(1) entspricht. Ueber die Ableitung der Pseudaxonia schloss sich 
V. Koch den Ansichten von Kölliker (-3) und Klunzinger (1) 
an. Die Axifera aber wollte er von den Cornulariden oder von den 
Alcyoniden ableiten. Darüber sagt er Seite 476 folgendermassen: 
" Vni. Die Berechtigang dieser Familie (Axifera) liisst 
sich wohl nach der vorhergegangenen Auseinandersetzungen 
nicht mehr bezweifeln. Ihre näheren Verwandtschaftsverhältnisse 
zu den übrigen Gruppen lassen sich vor der Hand nicht mit 
Genauigkeit angeben, doch ist zu vermuthen, dass sich entweder 

1) Eri/tJtropodium ist hiervon Klunzinger nicht behandelt. 



Morphologie n. Stammesgeschichte der Gorgoniden. 7 

bei den Cornularien oder bei den Alcyoniden (im letzteren Falle 
Avolil in Verbindung mit den Pennatuliden) Anknüpfungspunkte 
finden lassen." 

V. Koch (5) 1882 berichtete vorläufigerweise die Resultate 
seiner Untersuchung über die Entwicklung von Gorgonia cavolini, 
die er (6) später 1887 in einer Monographie der Zoologischen 
Station zu Neapel ausführlich beschrieb. 

In derselben Untersuchung konnte er feststellen, dass das 
Achsenepithel, welches er vormals bei den verschiedenen Gorgoni- 
den nachgewiesen hatte, in den früheren Stadien der Entwicklung 
sich von dem Ektoderm der Fussscheibe des Primärpolypen 
ableitet. Unter den übrigen Resultaten, welche v. Koch in dieser 
Untersuchung erlangte, ist auch besonders zu beachten, dass die 
Skeletachse bei ihrem Wachstum in die Magenhöhle des Primär- 
polypen hineintritt, und dass der Stamm selbst eine modifizierte 
aborale Hälfte des so von der Skeletachse durchgezogenen 
Primärpolypen darstellt. Was die Verhältnisse des Polypen und 
der Skeletachse anbelangt, so fasse ich hier aus den Schilderungen 
V. Koch's folgendes zusammen: 

Das Ektoderm der Fussscheibe des fertig gebildeten Primär- 
polypen scheidet die Hornlamellen wiederholt aufeinander aus, 
welche allmählich einen kleinen Höcker, den Anfang der Ske- 
letachse, bilden. Der letztere dringt in die Magenhöhle des 
Primärpolypen ein, indem er die drei primären Gewebsschichten 
vor sich treibt. Der so entstandene Hügel liegt immer exzentrisch 
in der Pol^^penhöhle und verschmilzt teilweise mit der Körperwand, 
teilweise mit den benachbarten Mesenterien. Ob die Lage der 
Skeletachse in Bezug auf die Mesenterien eine konstante ist, 
wurde nicht festgestellt, doch fiel sie nicht in die Sagittalachse. 
Ehe der Hügel die Höhe der Mundscheibe des Polypen erreicht, 
beginnen die um ihn liegenden Teile der ursprünglichen 
Polypenhöhle mehr Selbständigkeit zu zeigen und sich als 
Anfänge der späteren Ernährungskanäle zu dokumentieren. Im 
Vei'laufe des weiteren Wachstums werden die Ernährungskanäle 
noch selbständiger und erhalten auf der dem Schlundrohr entgegen- 
gesetzten Seite der Skeletachse schon nahezu die Anordnung wie 



8 K^. KinosHta : Beiträge zur Kenntnis der 

an einem älteren Busche. Später grenzt sich der Polyp von dem die 
Skeletachse umschliessenden Teile durch eine Furche ab, und 
wird, da er bald im Wachstum hinter dieser zurückbleibt, und 
diese geradeaus wächst, auf die Seite gedrängt und erscheint bald 
nur als ein Anhängsel des wachsenden Stammes. Der zweite 
Polyp bildet sich aus einer Erweiterung eines Ernährungskanals, 
in die gewöhnlich noch zwei benachbarte Kanäle münden, auf der 
dem ersten Polypen, oder eigenthch nur oraler Hälfte desselben, 
entgegengesetzten Seite. Auf ähnlicher Weise entstehen weitere 
Polypen. Der Stamm und auch die Zweige der Gorgonidenkolonie 
also stellen je die aborale Hälfte der Axialpolypen dar. In den 
Zweigen, wie bei Muricea in welcher die acht Stammkanäle 
gleichmässig um die Skeletachse angeordnet sind, ist der Bautypus 
der Polypen selbst sehr gut beibehalten. 

Obgleich V. Koch nun sich damit die Gorgonacea von der 
Rhizoxenia ausgegangen zu sein dachte, ergibt sich doch aus 
seinen Schilderungen dass die Gorgonidenkolonie gerade einen 
Bautj^pus der Telesto besitzt, und auch dass es nicht Rhizoxenia^ 
sondern Telesto ist, welche als die Ahnenform angenonmien 
werden darf. 

In derselben Abhandlung äusserte v. Koch auch ausführlicher- 
weise seine Ansicht über die Ableitung der Pseudaxonia, welche 
er vorher (3) in Kürze ankündigte. Er schloss sich nämlich 
KöLLiKER (3), Klunzinger (1) uud HrcKsox (1) gänzlich an. 
Er sagt darüber Seite 7 folgendes : 

"In derselben Richtung schreitet dann die Ausbildung der 
Gestalt weiter fort, begleitet von einer Regularisierung der 
Polypenhöhlungen und ihrer sie verbindenden Gefässe, deren 
Veränderungen in der Lage der Skelettheile zur Seite gehen, 
und es entstehen Buschformen, die sich denen der echten Gorgo- 
nien nähern. Von solchen sind anzuführen Siplionoijorgia und 
Verwandte. Wird durch weitere Vermehrung oder durch Ver- 
schmelzung der Skelettheile die Colonie immer mehr geeignet, sich 
selber zu tragen, so werden die A este schlanker und ihre 
Verzweigung reicher und die Gefässe werden immer regehnässiger 
in ihrem Verlaufe, so dass sie zuletzt einen regelmässigen Zylinder 



Morphologie u. Stammesgeschichte der Gorgoniden. 9 

(Kreis in Querschnitt) bilden, welcher den Axentheil von der 
Peripherie trennt. Ersterer behält dann bloss die Function des 
Tragens, letzterer dient als Schutz für die Polypen und ihre 
Verbindungskanäle. Eine Anschauung von dieser allmählichen 
Umwandlung geben am besten die in Figur 19-21 dargestellten 
Querschnitte von Siphomgorgia, CoraUium (Zweigspitze, weiter 
unten ähnlich wie bei folgender Gattung), Mopsea (Hornglied). 
Von anderen dieser Reihe angehörenden Formen sind noch zu 
erwähnen Briareiim, Seniperina, Sclerogorgia, 3Ielitliaea etc." 

Diese Ansicht v. Koch's über die Struktur der Kolonie der 
Scleraxonia und über die Stellung derselben in den Alcyonacea 
ist in der folgenden Synopsis der Familien, welche er (7) 1890 in 
seinen vorläufigen Mitteilungen über die Alcyonaceen des Golfes 
von Neapel gab, bestimmt ausgesprochen: 

I. Polypen miteiuander durch basale Stolonen oder Stolonenplatten verbunden. 
Die Länge der vollständig ausgebildeten Polypen einer Colonie nahezu gleich. 

Farn. Coriiularidae. 

II. Polypen mit einander durch verästelte Eöhren verbunden, die in verschie- 
dener Höhe über der Basis einer Kolonie verlaufen und deren Wände zu einer 
gemeinsamen Masse verschmolzen sind. Die Länge der vollständig ausgebildeten 
Polypen kann sehr ungleich sein land ist dann von deren relativem Alter abhängig. 

1. Spicula von einander getrennt. Fam. Alcyonidae. 

2. Spicula entweder durch Hornsubstanz oder durch krystallinische Kalk- 
ausscheidung zu zusammenhängenden Skeletten vereinigt. 

Fam. Scleraxonidae. 

V. Koch meinte nämlich dass die Pseudaxonia den Alcyoni- 
den ähnlich gebaut seien, indem die Pol3^pen, wenn vollständig 
gewachsen, Langendifïerenz zeigen und also in verschiedenen 
Ordnungen stehen. 

Etwas früher als die Veröffentlichungen der letzteren zwei 
Arbeiten v. Koch's, hat Hickson (1) 1883 mit besonderer 
Berücksichtigung auf die Schlundrinne, Siphonoglyph, einen 
Versuch gemacht, die Alc^^onarien systematisch zu klassifizieren. 
Was nun die Stammesgeschichte der Gorgoniden anbelangt, so 
stand er auch Kölliker (3) und Klunzinger (1) nahe. Er nahm 
die Siphonogorgia als die gemeinsame Ahnenform von Paragorgia 
und CoraUium an. Von einer hypothetischen Alcyonium-shnlichen 



10 K. Kinoshita : Beiträge zur Kenntnis der 

Ahnenform (x^) wollte er Briarcns ableiten, von welchem er wieder 
Siplionogorgia, Coelogorgia etc., und anch die übrigen Gorgoniden 
abgestammt dachte. 

Gorgoniden 
Coelogorgia, etc. Briarcus — 



^ 


C-i- 


"-^ 




:-^ 


^ 














rCt 


^ 


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r - 




/-^ 


^ 


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f"-! 




■O 







Stüder (2) veröffentlichte 1887 seinen Versuch eines Systèmes 
der Alcyonarien, welches auf das umfangreiche Material des Chal- 
lenger basierte. Im demselben hielt er die Gorgoniden ebenso wie 
V. Koch für eine diphyletische Gruppe und teilte sie ein in zwei 
Sektionen, Scleraxonia und Holaxonia, welche resp. beinahe den 
Familien Pseudaxonia und Axifera v. Koch' s entsprechen. Was 
die Ableitung dieser Gruppen anbelangt, so war er jedoch der 
Meinung, dieselben von den anderen Ahnenformen, als denjenigen 
in der Auffassung v. Koch's, abzuleiten 

Als den Bautypus der Holaxonia stellt sich Stucer eine Tdcsio- 
Kolonie vor, deren Stamm und Zweige je einen verlängerten 
Axialpolypen darstellen und zahlreiche Seiten poly pen mit kurzen 
Magenhöhlen tragen. Die Gorgonienkolonie, meint er, lasse sich 
von der Telesto-ls^oioniQ leicht ableiten, wenn man bei der letzteren 
die zentrale Höhlung der Axialpolypen von unten her von einer 
zur Skeletachse sich differenzierenden Mesodermwucherung, welche 
sich am besten mit der Kolumella der jMadreporarier vergleichen 
lässt und natürlich das Entoderm der Axialpolypen — Achsenepithel 
— vor sich herschiebt, ausgefüllt denkt. Die Radialfächer der 
Verdauungshöhle der Axialpolypen könnten dabei direkt zu in 
Achtzahl auftretenden Stammkanälen umwandeln. 

Diese Auffassung, dass die Stämme und Zweige je die Axial- 
polypen darstellen, stimmt gewissermassen mit den Schilderungen 
V. Koch' s (5, 6) überein. Der Unterschied zwischen den Ansichten 
beider Autoren liegt nur darin, dass die Axialpolypen nach Stüder 



MorphoJoyie u. Stammosgeschichto der GorgonicU-n. ^^ 

meist nicht mehr vollständig geformte, sondern reduzierte, rein 
vegetative Individuen sind, Avährend dieselben nach v. Koch sich 
den gewöhnlichen Polypen vergleichen lassen. 

Betreffs der Herkunft der Skleraxonier äusserte Studer die 
folgende Idee: 

"Eine solche Anordung ist aber nur von Vortheil 
unter günstigen Nahrangsverhältnissen, unter denen nicht 
nur den Randpolypen, sondern auch den im Centrum der 
Colonie befindlichen gleichmässig die Beute zugeführt wird, 
oder wo die Colonie mannigfach gestaltete Körper überzieht, welche 
bewirken, dass die Einzelthiere in verschiedene Lage zu einander 
kommen, und verschiedene Wasserschichten beherrschen. Immer 
wird dieses abhängig sein von dem Vorkommen der Fremdkörper, 
welche als Unterlage dienen. Der Vortheil der Vertheilung der 
Einzelthiere wird jedoch bei höheren Formen in anderer Weise 
erreicht. Die Colonie, statt Fremdkörper zu überziehen, erhebt 
sich von einer Basis, welche sich überrindend an fremde Körper 
anheftet, frei in die Höhe in Form eines Blattes, dessen eine 
Fläche die Polypen einnehmen, während die andere der Basalseite 
der Rasenkolonie entspricht. Aus statischen Gründen bleibt aber 
die Colonie nicht fläche nh aft, sondern rollt sich röhrenförmig 
zusammen, so dass die polypentragende Seite nach aussen kommt, 
die frühere Basis die Innenw^and der Röhre darstellt. Zugleich 
gruppiren sich im Coenenchym besonders differenzirte Spikula 
dicht an einander, um eine aus Spicula gebildete stützende Axe 
darzustellen. Diese Verhältnisse zeigen noch niedere Briareiden, 
so Solenocaulon, bei höheren Typen ist diese Axe mehr ent- 
wickelt, rückt ins Innere der Colonie und bildet einen cylind- 
rischen Stab, der rings von polypentragendem Coenenchym 
umgeben ist. In dieser Weise können wir uns die Ableitung der 
Scleraxonia, deren höchste Form CoraUktm darstellt, entwickelt 
denken." 

KÜKENTHAL (1,2) schloss sicli Über die Ableitung sowohl der 
Gorgonacea als auch der Scleraxonia beinahe gänzlich der ilnsicht 
Studek's an. Die Gattungen Tdesto und Enj ihr opo ilium nahm 
er resp. als die Ahnenformen der Gorgonacea und Scleraxonia 



12 



K. Kinoshita : Beiträge 7,ur Kenntnis der 



an. Diese Auffassung ist in dem folgenden Schema, welches 
er Seite 99 gab, leicht zu ersehen : 



Scleraxonia 



L'njthropodiwn 



Pennatulacea 

Holaxonia 




Telesto 



Coelogorgia 



Pseudogorgia 



Sclerantlielia 



Anthelia 



Cormdana 



Wenn er Seite 52 bemerkt, dass Alcijonium (Enjthropo- 
diiim) contortum, welches einen durch die Kutikula gefüt- 
terten basalen Hohlraum zeigt, die Zwischenform zwischen den 
Alc3^onaceen und den Gorgonaceen bildet, bezog sich dies 
wahrscheinlich auf die Scleraxonia und nicht auf die Axifera hin, 
da er (3) später eine ähnliche Umbildung bei Solenocaidon stechet 
berichtete, von der er glaubte, dass sie für die Solenocaulon- 
Hypothese eine neue Stütze liefere. 

Im Gegensatz zu den übrigen neueren Forschern betrachtete 
HicKSON (3) 1906 die Gorgoniden, welche nach ihm sich von den 
Alcj^onacea nur durch die von den Polypenhöhlen nicht durchzo- 
gene Skeletachse unterscheiden, als eine monophyletische Gruppe. 
Er fasste also die Pseudaxonia und die Gorgonacea als Unter- 
ordnungen in der Ordnung Gorgonacea zusammen. Die Ansicht 
Hickson's über die Abstammung dieser beiden Gruppen ist in 
den Sätzen, welche ich folgends wörtlich anführe, wohl ersichtlich : 



Morphologie u. Stainmesgeschichte der Gorgoniden. 13 

* ' It has been suggested that as the Axifera represent a line 
of descent distinct from that of the Pseudaxonia they should be 
placed in a separate order. Apart from the character of the axis, 
however, the two suborders show so man}^ affinities in their general 
anatomy that it is better to regard the two lines of descent as united 
within the Gorgonacean limit. It is very improbable that the two 
groups sprung independent^ from a stoloniferous ancestor." 

Wie schon angedeutet, scheinen die neueren Forscher mit 
alleiniger Ausnahme von Hickson alle darin übereinzustimmen, 
die Gorgoniden als diphyletisch zu betrachten. Während diese 
Trennung wohl ausser Zweifel gesetzt zu sein scheint, bleibt 
jedoch die Frage, ob bei den beiden Gruppen die Axialpolypen 
vorkommen oder nicht, ganz unentschieden. Uebrigens ist die 
morphologische Bedeutung der Skeletachse beider Gruppen von 
den verschiedenen Forschern verschieden beantwortet, so dass 
ihre Ableitung auch verschiedenartig versucht worden ist. 

In dem folgenden also möchte ich nunmehr über die morpho- 
logische Bedeutung der Kolonie und über die Stammesgeschichte 
der Gorgoniden, besonders von dem Standpunkte meiner 
Auffassung aus, diskutieren. 

II. Gorgonacea. 

Wie im vorigen Kapitel angeführt, ist die morphologische 
Bedeutung der Gorgonidenkolonie sowie die Abstammung 
der Gorgonacea von den verschiedenen Forschern abweichend 
aufgefasst worden. 

KöLLiKER (3) und Hickson (1), welche beide die Gorgoni- 
den als einheitlich betrachteten, meinten dass die Gorgonacea, 
durch Zwischenformen wie Siplionogorgia oder Briareum, von 
den Alcyoniden abzuleiten seien. Diese Auffassung beruht 
jedoch auf die Voraussetzung dass alle unter den Gorgoniden 
zusammengefassten Formen phyletisch einheitlich seien, v. 
Koch (2, 3, 5, 6) jedoch stellte fest, dass die echten Gor- 
goniden einen anderen Entwicklungszweig als die Skleraxonier 
darstellen ; er glaubte dass dieselben von der Rhizoxenia 



24 ^- Kinoshita : Heiträge zur Kenntnis der 

ausgegangeil seien. Studer (2), der die Gorgoniden auch als 
diphyletisch betrachtete, war der Ansicht, dass dieselben, ganz 
wie es sich aus den Schilderungen v. Koch's (6) ergibt, von 
den Telestiden abgeleitet werden müssen. Während man Grund 
hat, die Auffassung der ersteren zwei Forscher als veraltete 
anzunehmen, scheint doch die Idee, dass die Gorgonacea aus 
den Telestiden ausgegangen seien, jetzt allgemein zu herrschen. 
Der Grund, weshalb diese so allgemeine Annerkennung 
fand, liegt wahrscheinlich darin, dass v. Koch und Studer, 
obgleich sie die Skeletachse niorphologisch ganz verschieden 
andeuteten, doch gleich übereinstimmend die Existenz der Axial- 
polypen behaupteten. Diese hier in Bezug genommene Idee 
scheint mir jedoch, wie ich im folgenden zeigen möchte, nicht 
ganz statthaft zu sein. 

Beim Studium der Stammesgeschichte der Gorgonacea nun 
ist es dringend wichtig die folgenden zwei Punkte voraus 
festzustellen: 1) Die morphologische Bedeutung der Skeletachse; 
und 2) die Art und Weise, wie die Polypen sich an der 
Kolonienbildung beteiligen, oder in welcher die Polypen und das 
Coenenchym im Zusammenhange stehen. In dem folgenden 
beziehe ich mich nun auf diese Fragen. 

i. 3Io)'p}iologisc]ic Bedeutung der Sheletachse. 

Lamarck (1), Ehrenberg (1), Dana (1,2) und Milne- 
Edwards (1) sahen die Skeletachse der Gorgoniden als ein epithe- 
liales Sekret an. Diese Annahme war jedoch nicht auf wirkliche 
Beobachtung gestützt. Kölliker (1) konstatierte die Tatsache, 
dass die Teilnahme der Skleriten an der Ausbildung der Skelet- 
achse, was schon bei Coralliwn ruhrum von Lacaze-Duthiers 
(1) nachgewiesen worden war, auch bei denjenigen Formen der 
Gorgoniden, welche man jetzt in den Melitodiden und Suberogorgi- 
iden zusammenfasst, der Fall ist. Da es ihm aber nicht gelungen 
war, bei den echten Gorgoniden ein Epithel zwischen der Skelet- 
achse und Mesogloea nachzuweisen, sah er diese Skeletachse als 
ein mesogloeales Sekret an. 



Morphologie u. Stammesgescliichte der Gorgoniden. 25 

Als Stütze dieser Annaliiiie führte Kölliker die folgenden 
fünf Gründe an: 

" 1) Manche Axen dieser Abtheilung schliessen, wenn auch 
nur zufällig, im Innern vereinzelte Kalkkörper des Coenenchyms 
ein, was zu beweisen sclieint, dass der Zusammenhang zwischen 
Coenenchvm und Axe ein viel grösserer ist, als man bisher 
anzunehmen geneigt war. 

" 2) In der That habe ich auch nirgends als Begrenzung des 
Coenenchyms gegen die Axe eine Epithelschicht gefunden, wie 
sie doch dasein müsste, wenn die gang und gäbe Auffassung der 
Axen die richtige wäre. 

" 3) Scheinen die netzförmigen Verbindungen, die die Axen 
vieler Gorgonien eingehen (Eliipidogorgia etc.) zu beweisen, dass 
die Axen innere Productionen des Coenenchyms sind. Wenn 
nämlich Aeste verschmelzen, so verschmilzt erst das Coenenchym 
derselben und erst dann bildet sich eine Vereinigung der Axen 
auf Kosten des Coenenhyms, wie man am besten daraus sieht, dass 
diese Axentheile häufig viele Kalkkörper einschliessen. 

' ' 4) Der Bau der fraglichen Axen ist derart, class sie viel 
mehr an Bindesubstanz als an Cuticularbildungen sich schliessen, 
und erinnere ich vor Allem 1) an die feinen Fasernetze im 
Central strange und dem Schwammgewebe der Rinde bei vielen 
Gattungen mit hornigen Axen und 2) an den Bau der Weichtheile 
der Pennatulidenaxen mit ihren feinen Fäserchen und sie 
durchsetzenden Radialfasern. 

'* 5) Endlich erwähne ich noch eine Thatsache, die im 
Allgemeinen zeigt, dass auch Hornsubstanz für sich allein im 
Innern des Coenenchyms sich bilden kann. Bei Alcijonium 
pabnatuni fand ich in Einem Falle in den oberen Theilen des 
Stammes eine kurze Axe aus lamellöser Hornsubstanz, rings 
umgeben von der gewöhnlichen Bindesubstanz des Coenenchyms, 
eine Bildung, die sicher nicht auf eine Epithelialausscheidung 
zurückzuführen ist." 

Kölliker verglich somit die Skeletachse mit den Kalk- 
körpern. Darüber drückte er Seite 167 aus: ''Zum Schlüsse 
kann ich die Bemerkung nicht unterdrücken, dass die Bildung 



2^g K. Kinoshita : Beiträge zur Kenntnis der 

einer Gorgoniden- und Pennatulidenaxe, sofern sie aus homogener 
Substanz besteht, im Grossen das wiederholt, was ein spindel- 
förmiger Kalkkörper im Kleinen zeigt." 

Stüder (1 y^ trat dann an die Seite von Kölliker. Nach ihm 
bildet sich die Skeletachse folgendermassen : Die Spicula dringen 
aus dem Coenenchym in die Tiefe, dienen als Centra für die 
Hornablagerung ; sie werden aber dort später resorbirt und an ihre 
Stelle treten mit spongiöser Substanz ausgefüllte Lücken; sie 
bleiben nur in seltenen Fällen erhalten. 

V. Koch (2, 3) jedoch zeigte, dass diese Auffassung von 
Kölliker und Stüder ein Irrtum ist. Er fand nämlich bei einigen 
Gorgonien das Achsenepithel um die Skeletachse, welches er (5, 
6) nachher embryologisch als vom Ektoderm der Fussscheibe des 
Primärpolypen herstammend feststellte. 

Stüder (2) aber mass diesem Befunde keinen Glauben bei. 
Obgleich er auch das Vorkommen eines Epithels um die Skelet- 
achse bestätigte, nahm er dasselbe doch nicht als das Ektoderm 
an. Diese Auffassung Stüder' s wurde 1905 von Schneider (1) 
abermals durch wirkliche Beobachtungen zu stützen versucht. 
Wenn er jedoch sagt, dass das Achsenepithel die Zellauskleidung 
des axialen Hohlraumes sei, so ist ihm hierin keinen Glauben 
zu schenken. 

Diese Frage nun glaube ich durch meine Untersuchungen 
über die Entwicklung von Antliopkxaura dimorpha beinahe 
entschieden zu haben. -^ Hier ist das Achsenepithel, ganz wie die 
Befunde v. Koch's, entschieden ein Derivat vom Ektoderm der 
Fussscheibe, mit welcher der junge Primärpolyp an dem Substratum 
anwächst. Da beim Wachsen des jungen Primärpolypen die 
Erweiterung der Fussscheibe an der Peripherie nicht gleichmässig 
stattfindet, so rückt die Stelle, wo das Achsenepithel und das Sekret 
desselben, die Skeletachse, sich befinden, nach einer Seite zu, was 
auch bei den v. Koch' sehen Exemplaren als allgemein angegeben 
worden ist. 



1) Diese Arbeit Studeb's stand mir leider nicht zur Gehote, darum habe ich mich mit den 
Zitaten in den Abhandhingen von v. Koch (6), Studeb (2) und Schneider (1) begnügen müssen. 

2) Kinoshita (1). 



Morphologie ii. Stammesgeschicht'^ der Gorgoniden. 17 

Das Achsenepithel ist von der Form eines blinden Sackes 
and setzt sich weder in das Entoderm der Solenia, welche sich in 
der Mesogloea um das Achsenepithel reichlich entwickeln, noch in 
dasjenige der Magenhöhle des Primärpolypen fort. Es ist also 
ganz unmöglich, dass dieses Achsenepithel entodermal ist, wie 
dies von Studer und Schneider behauptet wurde. Auch kann 
dasselbe bei den Zweigspitzen der erwachsenen Kolonien, falls 
das Achsenepithel dort nachweisbar ist, ebenso mit Sicherheit 
behauptet werden. 

Das Achsenepithel scheidet die dünnen Hornlamellen wieder- 
holt aus, Avelche nur in ihrem zentralen Abschnitt durch die gal- 
lertartige Substanz getrennt, doch durch ein diese durchziehendes 
Fasernetzwerk, verbunden sind. Eine gute Vorstellung von 
der Skeletachse gewinnt man, wenn man diese Hornlamellen mit 
Probiergläsern vergleicht, welche derart tief in einander 
gesteckt worden sind, dass an den Boden derselben enge 
Zwischenräume zurückbleiben. Aus dem Verhalten des Fasernetz- 
werks in der interlamellären Gallerte könnte man schliessen, 
dass die Hornlamellen zuerst dicht auf den vorhergehenden 
ausgeschieden, und erst nachher durch die Anschwellung der 
dazwischen vorhandenen Gallerte auseinander getrennt worden 
sind. Die Tatsache, dass die Skeletachse, soweit meine Erfahrung 
reicht, immer mit der Hornlamelle, aber nie mit der Gallerte 
endet, macht diese Vermutung wahrscheinlich. 

Es ist nun beinahe nicht mehr zu bezweifeln, dass bei den 
gewöhnlichen Gorgoniden die Skeletachse, welche die lamellöse 
Struktur besitzt, das Sekret des Achsenepithels ist. Dieses letztere 
ist jedoch nicht immer gleich leicht nachweisbar, da dasselbe 
nicht selten Umbildung zu erleiden scheint. 

V. Koch (2, 3, 6) beschreibt dass das Achsenepithel am 
Zweigende im allgemeinen aus den höheren Zellen besteht, die 
aber proximalwärts immer niedriger werden, um endlich ganz 
flach zu werden. Nach meinen Erfahrungen scheint das Achsen- 
epithel auch in den unteren Abschnitten der Zweige sich ähnlich 
zu verhalten. Darin dass das derart membranartig gewordene 
Epithel noch die Sekretionsfähigkeit beibehält, darf einiger 



J^g K. Kinosliita : Beiträge zur Kenntnis der 

Zweifel gesetzt werden. Dieser nimmt im Grade zu, wenn man 
hierbei das Verhalten der Skeletachse von Keroeidcs^^ in Betracht 
zieht. Diese Gattung, obgleich sie diagnostisch von den ge- 
wöhnlichen Gorgonaceen sehr weit abweicht, scheint doch eine 
allgemeine Tendenz zur Reduktion des Achsenepithels zu zeigen. 
Bei Keroeides verhält sich die Skeletachse folgendermassen: 

Dieselbe besteht aus zwei Komponenten gänzlich 
differenten Ursprungs. Es sind nämlich der hornig lamellöse 
Zentralstrang und die sklerogorgische Rindenlage. 

Der erstere, welchen schon Hiles (1) 1899 gesehen, aber 
nicht näher studiert hat, zeigt deutlich die eigentümliche Struktur, 
welche bei den gewöhnlichen Gorgonaceen ganz allgemein zu 
sehen ist. Die Rindenlage, die den ersteren dicht und direkt 
umschliesst, ist von ganz typisch sklerogorgischer Struktur, 
sodass Weight und Studer diese Gattung in die Suberogorgiidae 
hineinstellte, da die Existenz des Zentralstranges ihnen un- 
bekannt blieb. Sie besteht aus den spindelförmigen Skleriten 
und der dieselben verkittenden Hornsubstanz, welch letztere 
allmählich ohne Grenze in die Substanz der Mesogloea übergeht. 
Verfolgt man nun die Skeletachse nach der Zweigspitze hin, 
so sieht man sie die Scheidewand hindurchziehen, welche die 
Magenhöhlen der meist gegenüber stehenden Apikaipolypen 
von einander trennt, und gerade unterhalb der oberflächlichen 
Skleritenschicht des Zweigapex terminieren. Dieselbe besteht 
auf einige Länge nur aus dem Zentralstrange und ist, soweit 
es nackt bleibt, von dem fingerhutförmigen Achsenepithel 
bekleidet. Die spindelförmigen Skleriten, welche die Rindenlage 
aufbauen, sieht man schon in der Mesogloea der oben erwähnten 
Scheidewand, wohin das Achsenepithel noch reicht, sich 
ausbilden. Unten aber werden diese Skleriten um den Zentral- 
strang durch die Hornsubstanz gebunden, wobei die Zellen des 
Achsenepithels in die Mesogloea sich verlieren und wahr- 
scheinlich schliesslich zugrunde gehen. 



1) KiNOSHITA (2). 



Morphologie ii. Stammesgeschichte der Gorgoniden. 19 

Durch Betrachtung der erwähnten Verhältnisse der Keroeides- 
Skeletachse wird man gewahr von der Analogie welche zu 
bestehen scheint zwischen diesen und der Tatsache dass bei 
manchen Gorgoniden, in der Rindenlage der Skeletachse im 
unteren Abschnitte der Zweige, zahlreiche Rindenskleriten sich 
eingebettet zeigen, was wohl einer anderen Erklärung zu bedür- 
fen scheint, als dass sie nur aus mechanischen Gründen in die 
Rindenlage hineingekommen sind. 

Ein etwas differenter, doch ähnlicher Fall der Umbildung der 
Skeletachse wurde neuerdings von Müller (1) bei Corallium 
berichtet. Diese Gattung ist nach ihm, wie schon v. Koch (3) 
vermutete, eine echte Gorgonie mit einem vollkommenen 
Achsenepithel, welches die Kittsubstanz ausscheidet, während die 
Skleriten, welche die Skeletachse aufbauen, anfangs im Coen- 
enchym gebildet werden und dann durch das Achsenepithel in 
den Abschnitt der Skeletachse hineinkommen. 

2. Morphologische Bedeutung der Polypen. 

KöLLiKER (1) gab der Familie die Charakterisierung, dass 
die Polypen kurze Magenhöhlen besitzen, und er brachte in diese 
Familie die kriechenden Formen, Symjwdnun mid Enjtliropodium, 
hinein. Köllikee also scheint gemeint zu haben, dass die 
Polypen der Gorgonidenkolonie alle gleichwertig sind, und dass 
die Stämme und Zweige alleinig aus dem Coenenchym bestehen, 
ohne Beteiligung der Polypen. Diese Auffassung hat er jedoch 
später fallen lassen. Er nahm nämlich die Sijihonogorgia, wegen 
der vier bleibenden Mesenterien in den unteren Abschnitten der 
Polypenhöhlen (Stammkanälen) als eine Zwischenform zwischen 
den Gorgoniden und den Alcyoniden an. Nach dieser Auffassung 
stellen die Stämme und Zweige deutlich nicht das eigentliche 
Coenenchym, sondern die Bündel verlängerter Polypen (Axial- 
polypen) dar. 

V. Koch (5, 6) erlangte in seiner Untersuchung über die 
Entwicklung von Gorgonia cavolini unter anderm ein wichti- 
ges Resultat, dass nämlich die wachsende Skeletachse in das 



20 ^- Kinoshita : Beiträge zur Kenntnis der 

Coelenteron des Primärpolypen eindringt. Obgleich v. Koch 
selbst die Gorgonien nicht von den Telestiden, sondern von der 
Rhizoxenia ableiten wollte, ergibt sich doch offenbar aus diesem 
Resultate, dass der Aufbau der Gorgonienkolonie, ganz wie Studer 
behauptet, dem Telesto-Ty^ius angehört. 

Diese Idee hatte wahrscheinlich auf Studer (2) Einfluss, 
wenn er, auf das Challenger-Material basierend, seine Hypothese 
vorschlug, dass die Gorgonien in ihrem Aufbau der Kolonie vom 
Telesto-TyTpus seien und demnach von der Telesto abzuleiten 
seien. Die Stämme und Zweige stellen nach ihm je die Axial- 
polypen dar. In normalen Fällen werden die acht Radialfächer 
der Magenhöhle der Axialpolypen direkt zu den acht Stamm- 
kanälen. Die Fälle, in welchen die letzteren weniger als acht 
zählen, hielt Studer für Umbildungen. Obgleich v. Koch sich 
darauf beschränkte, die Axialpolypen nur bei den jungen Kolonien 
zu beschreiben, versuchte Studer dieselben der Zweigspitzen 
bei erwachsenen Kolonien zu schildern. Er sagt nämlich Seite 
37: 

"Fernere Analogieen mit den Pennatuliden zeigen sich darin, 
dass der als axialer Polyp aufgefasste Stamm selten an seinem 
Ende in einen Polypen mit Mund und Magenrohr ausläuft sondern 
ein rein vegetatives Individuum darstellt, das am Ende blind 
geschlossen ist, resp. immer auf dem Stadium eines Stolonen 
bleibt. Selten sind übrigens die axialen Polypen radiär, wie in 
den erwähnten Fällen, meist macht sich eine Tendenz zur bilate- 
ralen oder biradiären Symmetrie geltend. So können sich, wie bei 
DasTjgorgia, die Längskanäle auf zwei reduciren, welche auf zwei 
Seiten der Axe verlaufen, oder es können, wie bei den meisten 
Gorgonelliden, zwei Hauptkanäle vorhanden sein, welche an zwei 
Seiten verlaufen, während zwischen diesen eine Anzahl kleinerer 
entwickelt sind. Mit diesem primär biradiären Bau des axialen 
Stammpolypen steht dann gewöhnlich auch ein nach demselben 
Princip angeordnetes System von Aesten und Zweigen im Zusam- 
menhang." 

Diese Annahme Studer' s, dass rein vegetative Axial- 
polypen an den Zweigenden auftreten, ist nichts als eine 



Morphologie u. Stammesgeschichte der Gorgoniden. 21 

Hypothese. Das ist auch klar zu schhessen aus dem Satze 
Schneider's (1), welcher folgendermassen lautet : "Dieser 
Befund stimmt in geradezu frappierender Weise mit der 
auf rein theoretischen Erwägungen beruhenden Darstel- 
lung der Achsenbildung Studer's überein, die er in 
seinem Versuch eines Systèmes der Alcyonaria niedergelegt 
hat." 

Schneider (1) beschrieb bei Eunicella cavolini einen am 
Stammapex vorhandenen axialen Hohlraum als einen Axi- 
alpolypen. Den Grund, weshalb er diesen Hohlraum als einen 
solchen ansieht, gab er aber niemals an. Menneking (1) beschrieb 
auch Zweige gewisser Primnoiden als umgewandelte Axialpolypen. 
Es ist jedoch auch nicht angegeben, warum er die Scheidewände 
der Stammkanäle als die Mesenterien der Axialpolypen, ansieht. 
Das Vorhandensein eines solcherweise reduzierten Polypen kann 
nur durch die Untersuchungen derselben im Anfange der 
Knospung, im Zusammenhang mit der Knospung von den 
Zweigen, bewiesen werden. 

Kükenthal (1, 2) schloss sich Studer auch darin an, dass 
er die Gorgonienkolonie als dem Telesto -Typus angehörend 
ansah. 

Wie angeführt, stimmen die neueren Forscher alle merkwür- 
digerweise darin überein, dass sie in der Gorgonienkolonie 
die Existenz der Axialpolypen behaupten. Die Schilderung 
V. Koch's, dass die wachsende Skeletachse in das Coelenteron des 
Primärpolypen eindringt, lag wahrscheinlich den Auffassungen 
der späteren Autoren zugrunde. Es könnte sein dass v. Koch 
seine Schilderung auf direkte Beobachtungen basierte; gleich- 
wohl scheint es unläugbar zu sein dass seine Angabe mit vielen 
anatomischen Verhältnissen leider kaum in Einklang steht. 
1. Kommen wirklich Axialpolypen vor, welche nicht wie nach 
Studer rein vegetative, aber wie nach v. Koch normal gebaute sind, 
so ist kaum erklärbar, dass die Mesenterien der oberst gelegenen 
Polypen sich ganz wie bei den gewöhnlichen Polypen verhalten 
und niemals in die Scheidewände der Stammkanäle übergehen. 



22 



K. Kinoshita : Beiträge zur Kenntnis der 




A-bbildnng 1. 
Primnoa pacißca Kinoshita. 



2. Sind die Stammkanäle in der Tat direkte Fortsetzungen der 

Radialfächer von den Magenhöh- 
len der Polypen, so sollen einige 
Mesenterien ebenfalls in den 
Stammkanälen, wenn auch in 
zufälliger Weise, gefunden wer- 
den, falls natürlich die lezteren 
in weniger Anzahl als acht vor- 
kommen. Das ist jedoch nicht 
der Fall, soweit berichtet ist 
oder meine eignen Erfahrungen 

Querschnitt eines Zweiges gerade ober- hinreichen. 3. DaSS bei PlimnOa 
halb des obersten Polypen. Ektoderm und , , 

Entoderm mit dicker Linie, Lacunae der paClflCCl dlC mclir apikalen Ab- 

^^^:t^r^^Z^S:^^'^SSê:rl schnitte der Zweige als bei dem 
^^^'S^^^ISStîl^ obersten Polypen auch acht 

genden Mesenteric zu sehen, welch erster g^ammkauäle Zeigen (Abbildung 
in eins der acht Hauptkanale sich tortsetzt. o v o 

X20. 1), darf nur entweder durch die 

Annahme Stüder s dass die Axialpolypen rein vegetative Indivi- 
duen darstellen, oder durch eine andere Annahme dass der acht- 
strahlige Bau die Eigenschaft der Zweige selbst ist, aber nicht durch 
die Annahme v. Koch's, aufgeklärt werden. 4. Der Einwand, 
welchen Versluys (1) 1907 gegen die Hypothese Studer's 
anführte, ist auch durch die v. Koch' sehe Annahme nicht leichter 
zu beseitigen, als durch diejenige von Stüder. Der hier in 
Betracht genommene Einwand lautet nämlich folgendermassen: 
"Auch stehen bei den Telestidae die Magenhöhlen der Seiten- 
polypen immer nur mittels Solenia in Verbindung mit der 
Magenhöhle der Mutterpolypen, aus denen sie sich entwickelt 
haben. Bei den Gorgoniden dagegen können die Magenhöhlen 
der Polypen unmittelbar übergehen in die geräumigen Rinden- 
kanäle, welche nach Stüder den jMagenhöhlen der Mutter- 
polypen der Telestidae entsprechen. Diese deutet aber darauf 
hin, dass die Rindenkanäle der Gorgoniden selbst Solenia sind." 

Während die Annahme v. Koch's, ungeachtet dessen dass 
sie auf die direkte Beobachtung basiert sein dürfte, doch kaum 
hinreicht, die angegebenen anatomischen Verhältnisse zu erklären, 



Morphologie u. Stammesgeschichte der Gorgoniden. 



23 



giebt das Resultat meiner Untersuchung über die Entwicklung 
von Anthoplcxaura dimorpha, wie es mir scheint, genügend klare 
Hinweisung zur Beseitigung der angeführten Einwände. 




Abbildung 2. 
Anthoj>le.vaura diinorplia Kükenthal. 

Rekonstruierte Abbildung von einer Schnittserie einer jungen 
Kolonie. Ein Primärpolyp mit 7,wei auf Stolonen gebildeten Sekundär- 
polvpen ; die distale Hälfte der Polypen nicht gez?ichnet; Achsenskelet 
schraffiert. X30. 



Die Skeletachse, welche, wie auch bei der v. Koch' sehen 
Untersuchung, in der Basis des Primärpolypen exzentrisch liegt, 
ragt nicht ins Coelenteron desselben hinein, sondern bleibt 
immer unterhalb der Fussscheibe, indem dabei ihre Umgebung 
mehr vaskulär wird, je mehr sie in die Höhe wächst. Die Spitze 
derselben also bleibt immer ausserhalb der Polypenhöhle und 
richtet sich schief dazu (Abbildung 2). Obgleich das obige Ver- 
hältnis bei meiner Untersuchung nur durch ein einziges Exemplar 
dargestellt worden war, liegt doch kein Grund vor, dieses Ver- 
hältnis als anormales anzusehen, denn es fehlte nicht an Fällen 
der Skeletachse, welche, wenn auch in jügeren Ausbildungsgraden, 
in Zustimmung mit jener Beobachtung standen. 

Durch die Annahme, dass die Skeletachse immer ausserhalb 
des Primärpolypen bleibt indem die Stämme und Zweige beson- 
ders ausgebildetes Coenenchym darstellen, dürfen die bisher 
angeführten Einwände gar leicht entfernt werden. Die Tatsache, 
dass die Hauptkanäle in Zweigen an der Zahl nach den Spezies 
bestimmt sind, möchte ich vor allem auf die Eigenschaft der 



24 ^- îfinoshita : Beiträge zur Kenntnis der 

Zweige zurückführen. Dahin weist die Tatsache, class bei Primnoa 
pacißca in den mehr apikalen Abschnitten der Zweige als bei dem 
obersten Polypen auch acht Kanäle zu finden sind. 

Schlussbemerkung zu den Gorgonacea. 

In den vorgehenden Paragraphen habe ich dargetan, erstens 
dass die Skeletachse der Gorgonien nicht, wie Kölliker (1) und 
Studer(1,2) es behaupten, im Innern des Coenenchyms. entsteht, 
sondern wie v. Koch (2, 3, 6) angibt, ein Ausscheidungsprodukt 
des Achsenepithels ist ; und zweitens, dass die Polypen sämmtlich 
gleichw^ertig sind, und unter sich nicht Differenz in Länge oder 
in Ordnung zeigen, sodass die Stämme und Zweige, wie v. Koch 
(6) und Studer (2) es schilderten, durch die Umbildung der 
Axialpolypen gebildet worden sind. Diese zwei Resultate künden 
offenbar dass der Aufbau der Gorgonienkolonie nicht, weder wie 
Stüder (2) und Kükenthal (1 , 2) meinen noch wie es aus den 
Schildeiiingen v. Koch' s (6) hervorgeht, vom Telesto-Typus ist, 
und also auch dass man die Gattung Telesto nicht als die Ahnenform 
betrachten kann, aus welcher die Gorgonien entsprungen sind. 

Sieht man nun in der Gorgonienkolonie von der Skeletachse 
ab, welche das Sekret des Ektoderms ist und also zur 
Organisation des Tierkörpers von unwesentlicher Bedeutung ist, 
so darf man die Gorgonienkolonie direkt mit den auf dem 
Boden flach kriechenden Kolonien vergleichen. Wenn man 
jedoch noch einsieht dass die Rinde der niederen Gorgonien meist 
ein einfaches Kanalsystem besitzt, so wird man sich gerechtfertigt 
finden, die Gorgonien, wie v. Koch dieselben von Rhizoxenia 
abzuleiten versuchte, von den Stolonifera hergestammt zu 
denken. 

III. Scleraxonia. 

Wie in den vorigen Kapiteln angeführt, ist die Gruppe 
der echten Gorgoniden von v. Koch (3, 6) unwiderlegbar 
nachgewiesen als einem phyletisch besonderen Stamm der 



Morphologie u. Stammofgescliichto der Gorgoniden. 25 

Entwicklung angehörend, als die Gruppe der Scleraxonia 
oder Pseudaxonia. Studer (2) stimmt auch darin mit v. Koch 
überein, dass er die Gorgoniden als diphyletischen Ursprungs 
ansieht. 

Ueber die Herkunft der Gruppe der Scleraxonia scheint nun 
KöLLiKER (1 , 2) der Meinung gewesen zu sein, dass die Paragorgia- 
ceae mit den Sympodiidae, welche er auf den Gattungen Sijmpo- 
diiim und Erijtlirojmdiuiii errichtete, in direkter Verwandtschafts- 
beziehung standen, da er diese beiden Gruppen in eine Unter- 
familie, Briareaceae, zusammenstellte. In einer späteren Abhand- 
lung aber äusserte er seine neue Ansicht über die Ableitung der 
Scler-axonia. Er hielt nämlich die Siphonogorgia für die Zwischen- 
form zwischen den Alc^^oniden und den Paragorgiaceae, was 
sich auf die Gründe stützt, dass die Siphonogorgia im äusseren 
Habitus den Gorgoniden sehr stark ähnelt, und dass die Mesen- 
terien bei dieser Gattung in den Stammkanälen, welche die 
proximalen Abschnitte der Polypenhöhlen darstellen, bis zu 
vier reduziert sind, während sie bei den Alcyoniden in Achtzahl 
erhalten bleiben. 

Diese Ansicht aber bedarf noch vielfacher Beweisführungen, 
da zwischen der Siphonogorgia und den Briareiden eine zu weite 
Lücke vorhanden ist, während darin, dass die Siphonogorgia sich 
aus den Nephthyiden entwickelt haben, kein Zweifel mehr zu 
setzen ist. 

Studer (2) machte 1887 einen Versuch, die Scleraxonia von 
einer kriechenden Ahnenform wie SympOilium und Erythro- 
podium durch die Erhebung des Coenenchymrandes und durch die 
Einrollung und Solidifizierung der erhobenen Abschnitte abzu- 
leiten. Diese Ansicht, welcher Kükenthal (1 , 2) sich anschloss, 
ist von derjenigen von Kölliker (3) gründlich verschieden. 
Wenn man nämlich bei den kriechenden Stammformen wie 
Sijmpodium oder Erythropodiwu, von welchen die Skleraxo- 
nier allerdings direkt oder indirekt hergestammt vsind, die 
Hauptachse des Coenenchyms in vertikaler Richtung auf 
dem horizontal ausgebreiteten Coenenchym annimmt, so stimmt 
diese Hauptachse, nach der Auffassung Kölliker' s, mit der 



26 ^' Kinoshita : Beiträge zur Kenntnis der 

Starnmachse überein, während sie nach dem Studer' sehen 
Bauplan mit der letzteren senkrecht zusammenstösst. 

Die Hypothese von Studer basiert sich nur auf die Tatsache, 
dass die Gattung Solenocaidon neben den kompakten, auch noch 
rinnen- sowie röhrenförmige Zweige aufweist. Obgleich Küken- 
thal (2, 3) von selten des Erythrojjodium zu dieser Hypothese eine 
weitere Stütze liefert, doch ist sie nicht endgültig bewiesen, 
sodass die folgenden Einwände dadurch noch kaum überwindbar 
erscheinen. 

HiCKSON (2) gibt nämlich an, dass es sich bei den rinnen- oder 
röhrenförmigen Zweigen der Gattung Solcnocaulon um eine 
pathologische Umformung handele, welche durch parasitische 
Krebstiere von der Gattung Alphciis verursacht würde, und auch 
dass solche Formen kaum als die Grundform der höheren Skler- 
axonier angenommen werden können. 

Die Frage, ob diese Umformung der Zweige eine eigen- 
tümliche Charakteristik von Solenocaidon odei* eine pathologi- 
sche Erscheinung ist, kann nur durch entweder eine genauei'e 
anatomische oder eine expérimentale Untersuchung auf leben- 
den Exemplaren entschieden werden. Wenn man jedoch 
das folgende Verhältnis in Betracht zieht, so wird man nicht 
im geringsten zögern, diese Umformung mit Hickson auf 
eine pathologische Erscheinung zurückzuführen, welche für die 
Kolonienbildung von keiner Bedeutung wäre. 

Die Zweigneubildung in Solenocaidon, wenn diese Form 
wirklich nach dem Studer' sehen Bauplan aufgebaut ist, kann nur 
an den Zweigspitzen oder an den Rändern der flachen rinnenför- 
migen Zweige stattfinden, da nach ihm das Wachstum der Zweige 
die Ausdehnung des Coenenchyms an den Randsäu- 
men bedeuten und diese letzteren bei Solenocaidon nur an den 
gegebenen Stellen anzutreffen sind. Die Aeste von Solenocaidon 
tortosum und cervicorne, wie sie von Jaxower (1, PI. VIL, Fig. 1, 
PL VIIL, Fig. 4, 5) dargestellt wurden, scheinen dieses Verhältnis 
wahrscheinlich zu machen. Aber in den Abbildungen von den 
Solenocaidon- Arten, welche in den Schriften von Germanos (1), 
und besonders von Nuttixg (1, PI. L, Fig. 1) gegeben sind, 



Morphologie u. Stainmesgoscliichte der Gorgoniden. 27 

findet man Aeste, welche zweifellos durch Knospung gebildet 
worden zu sein scheinen. Da man denn unter Knospung allgemein 
die Verdickung eines Coenenchymabschnittes in der 
senkrechten Richtung zur Oberfläche versteht, so ist zwi- 
schen den durch die marginale Extension des Coenenchyms 
gebildeten und den durch Knospung entstandenen Zweigen ein 
gründlicher Unterschied zu erwarten. Es ist nun kaum denkbar, 
dass in einer selben Kolonie nach zwei solcherweise gründlich 
verschiedenen Bauplänen gebildete Stämme und Zweige vorkom- 
men. Aus diesem Widerspruche schliesst man wohl mit Recht, 
dass die Kolonienbildung bei Solenocaidon nur durch die Verdickung 
des Coenenchyms in der Richtung der Hauptachse vor sich geht, 
und dass die gegebenen Umformungen der Zweige ganz auf eine 
pathologische Erscheinung zurückführbar sind. 

Was nun die Resultate meiner Untersuchung anbelangt, so 
scheinen die Skleraxonier, wie schon angegeben, durch die Ver- 
dickung des Coenenchyms in ihrer Hauptachse von einer kriechen- 
den Stammform wie ErytJiropodium ableitbar zu sein, was ganz 
anders zutrifft als die Hypothese von Siuder, aber mit derjenigen 
von KöLLiKER sehr viel Uebereinstimmung zeigt. Meine Befunde, 
dass bei den Gattungen Briarewn. und Paragorgia die Terminal- 
polypen an ihrer Basis je zu einem Längskanal führen, welcher 
durch den Zentralstrang der Skeletachse hindurch bis zum Aus- 
gangspunkt der betreffenden Zweige reicht, scheinen uns gewiss zu 
der Auffassung zu führen, dass die Stämme und Zweige dieser 
Formen, ähnlich wie bei der Gattung Siplionogorgia, je eine 
Syndete^-* darstellen. Die Lücke zwischen der Gattung Sipliono- 
gorgia und diesen Formen, ist jedoch immer noch zu weit, um 
die erstere als eine Ahnenform der letzteren anzunehmen. Es 
wird nun noch beim jetztigem Stande der Kenntnis gerechtfertigt 
sein, die Skleraxonier aus den Erythroiioclium-i\hi\\iQ\\e\\ niederen 
Alcyonaceen, parallel mit den höheren Formen der letzteren, 
abgestammt zu denken. 

In dem folgenden gebe ich nun die Beschreibung derjenigen 

1) Siehe Bourne (1). 



28 ^- Kinoshita : Beiträge zur Kenntnis der 

anatomischen Verhältnisse einiger Skleraxonier, welche haupt- 
sächlich den theoretischen Betrachtungen über ihre Stellung im 
Systeme wichtig zu sein scheinen. 

Briareidae. 

Diese Famihe umfasst die niedersten Formen der Scler- 
axonier, bei denen die Differenzierung der Rinden- und Ach- 
senteile in einem noch sehr primitiven Zustande verharrt. Die 
Mitglieder dieser Familie werden darnach in zwei Unterfamilien 
eingeteilt, ob der Achsenabschnitt von Solenia durchzogen ist 
(Briareinae), oder derselben entbehrt (Spongioderminae). 

Von dieser Familie habe ich nur zwei Gattungen Briareum 
und Paragorgia, welche beide der Unterfamilie Briareinae 
angehören, untersucht. Leider habe ich jedoch keine Formen aus 
der Unterfamilie Spongioderminae untersuchen können. 

Briareum B L AIK VILLE. ^-^ 

Der Typus dieser Gattung ist Gorgonia hriareiis Ellis & 
Solander. Studer (2) gab 1887 dieser Gattung eine erneuerte 
Charakterisierung, welche folgendermassen lautet: 

'^ Bei Briareum endlich, das unregelmässig lappige, aufrechte 
Colonie bildet, ist die von Kanälen durchzogene Axe wenig 
begrenzt, die regelrecht am Stamme verteilten Polypen sind ohne 
Kelche und ganz in das Coenenchyma zurückziehbar." 

Wie ein Vergleich mit dem Originale von Blainville (1) 
zeigt, deckt diese Diagnose nicht den Typus von Ellis und So- 
lander. Es ist auch nicht sicher ob Briareum hriareum. eine von 
den Solenia durchzogene Skeletachse besitzt, was im Sinne 
von Studer als die Haupteigentümlichkeit der Gattung Bria- 
reum gilt. Daneben scheint die Differenzierung der Skelet- 
achse bei B. hriareum, B. suherosum und B. ßelei, von welchen 
die letztere bis jetzt die einzige genau beschriebene Art ist, 
weiter gerückt zu sein, als Studer in seiner Diagnose angab. 

1) Briareum Blainville, 183i ; Dana, 1846 ; Milne-Edwakds, 1865; Briarea Düchassaing 
et MiCHELOTTi, 1860 ; Briareum Kölliker, 1866 ; Studer, 1S87 :Wright & Studer, 1889. 



Morphologie u. Stammesgeschichte der Gorgoniden. 



29 




Abbildung 3. 
Briareiim asbesthim (Pallas) 
Aeusserer Habitus. Nat. Gr. 



Wenn man diese Tatsachen in 
Betracht zieht, dürfte man wohl 
sagen, dass diese Diagnose alleinig 
auf B. ashestinum (Pallas) basiert 
ist. 

Von dieser Gattung nun steht 
mir ein Exemplar, welches aus 
den Bahamas stammt und den 
Namen Briar eum ashestinum trägt, 
zur Verfügung. Die Richtigkeit 
der Bestimmung dieses Exem- 
plares ist mir nicht positiv 
sicher, da die Beschreibungen der 
Autoren alle dazu kaum hinrei- 
chend sind. Es liegt jedoch kein 
genügender Grund vor, jene Be- 
stimmung zu verwerfen. 

Briar eum ashestinum (PallAs). 

Das vorliegende Exemplar weist 
zwei verschieden grosse Stämme auf, 
welche von einer gemeinsamen 
Basalausbreitung emporsteigen. Sie 
sind einfach, fingerförmig, im Quer- 
schnitte gerundet, zeigen jedoch 
einige leichte Anschwellungen, von 
welchen die eine, die im Drittel 
vom Apex beim grösseren Stamme 
auftritt, offenbar als ein hervortre- 
tender Ast anzusehen ist. 

Die monomorphischen Polypen 
sind auf die ganze Oberfläche der 
Kolonie uniform dicht verteilt. Ihr 
vorstülpbarer Abschnitt entbehrt 
durchaus der Skleritenbewehrung, 



30 



K. Kinoshita : Beiträge zur Kenntnis der 



\ll 



und im zurückgezogenen Zustande werden da auf der glatten 
Coenenchymoberfläche kleine gerundete oder längsspaltförmige 
Oeffnungen gelassen, weil eben da die Kelche gar nicht oder 
ganz rudimentär entwickelt sind. 

Die Magenhöhlen sind, von dem Niveau der Rindenoberfläche 
gemessen, 3 Mm. tief, und sind etwas schräg nach unten gerichtet. 
Sie enden nicht am Boden blind abgerundet, sondern führen je zu 
einem schmalen Kanal, welcher, bald sich verschmälernd, gerade 
hinunter läuft und sich in das Netzwerk der Solenia verschwindet. 

Dieses Verhalten ist bei dem am Stammapex 
befindlichen Polypen viel stärker betont. Die 
Magenhöhlen bei diesen Pol^^pen sind näm- 
lich viel tiefer als bei den Lateralpolypen. 
^^^^m\M A \ und gehen in den Kanalabschnitt, der den 
^^^« I 1^^ Stamm hinunter durchläuft, ganz allmälich 
j^^M 11 ^\ über (Abbildung 4). 

j^^l 11 W^ Der Stamm oder das Coenenchym, 

welcher durch seinen plumpen Bau ausge- 
zeichnet ist, weist in sich zwei Abschnitte, 
den Rinden- und den Achsenabschnitt, auf, 
welche beide auch wieder in zwei Schichten 
zerfallen (Abbildung 5). Es sind nämlich : 

Î^. ^ 1 1 . CAeussere Rinde 
RmdenabschnittX^. „ ^. . 
(iieiere Kmde 
AchsenabschnittH'^^^^^^^^^^S® 

(Zentralstrang. 

Die Differenzierung in diese vier Abschnitte bleibt aber in 
einem sehr primitiven Zustande. Die Grenzen dieser Schichten 
sind nämlich nicht ganz deutlich und die Skleriten stimmen, 
zwar nicht in der Farbe und Grösse, doch in der Form und 
Skulptur beinahe überein. 

Aeussere Pdndenschiclit. — Diese die ganze Kolonie ununter- 
brochen überziehende Schicht beträgt durchschnittlich 0.5 Mm. 
in der Dicke und ist von einem Netzwerke feiner Solenia durch- 
zogen. Die Skleriten, welche diese Schicht aufbauen, sind 



/' 



Abbildung 4. 
Briarem ashestinum (Pallas). 
Medianer Längsschnitt des 



Mori)hologie u. Stauimesgeschichte der Gorgoniden. 



31 




Abbildung 5. Briareum ayhcstinum (Pallas). 
Querschnitt des Stammes. Polypenhöhlen, Lüngskaniile und 
Solenia schwarz gemalt ; gefärbte Skleriten schraffiert ; a iiussere, 
b tiefere Kindenschicht, c Kindenlage der Achse, d Zentralstrang der 
AchsL^ X 20. 



32 ^' Kinoshita : Beiträge zur Kenntnis der 

klein und in der Mehrheit tief jDurpurn gefärbt. Sie sind 
parallel der Rindenoberfläche, sonst unregelmässig gelagert. 
Ihre Grösse nimmt in der Regel je nach der Tiefe zu. 

Tiefere Piindenschiclit . — Diese Schicht ist dick und durch 
dünne sowie mittelweite Solenia durchzogen. Die Polypen- 
höhlen erreichen beinahe die innere Grenze der Schicht. 
Die Skleriten sind gross und meist farblos, selten leicht 
purpur. Sie sind den Wandungen der Polypenhöhlen parallel, 
also in der Mehrheit senkrecht zur Stammachse gelagert. In 
diesem Falle auch nimmt ihre Grösse durchschnittlich von aussen 
nach innen zu. 

Die beiden Rindenschichten jedoch sind am Apex des 
Stammes wenig differenziert, und die dort tief gelagerten Skleriten 
sind auch tief purpurn gefärbt. 

Rindenlage der Achse. — Dieser Abschnitt der Achse ist von 
den grossen Skleriten, welche in harten Längsbündeln ge- 
lagert sind, aufgebaut. Er enthält nicht das Netzwerk der 
Solenia, sondern eine Anzahl einfach längs verlaufender 
Längskanäle, welche distalwärts in die tiefere Rindenschicht 
hineintreten. 

Zentralstrang der Achse. — Das Zentrum der Achse ist durchaus 
von Skleriten anderer Art besetzt. Wie in der Rindenlage 
greifen dieselben aneinander und so bilden die harten Längs- 
bündel, aber zeichnen sie sich dadurch aus, dass sie viel 
kleiner und in der Mehrheit tief purpurn gefärbt sind. Die 
Längskanäle, welche auch diesen Abschnitt durchlaufen, besitzen 
meist weiteren Kaliber wie diejenigen der Rinde. Verfolgt man 
nun diesen Abschnitt nach den Apex, so findet man, dass er 
dort zur Rindenschicht übergeht, indem die Skleritenbündel loser 
werden. Dass die Längskanäle je zu einer Polypenhöhle sich 
fortsetzen, habe ich schon angegeben. 

rtiragcrgia Milne-EdwARDS. 

Von dieser Gattung stehen mir einige Exemplare zur Ver- 



■Morphologie u. St inimesgesohichte der Gorgoniden. 



33 



>: 




fügung, Avelche aus der Sagami-Bai stammen, und in drei oder 
vier Arten oder Varietäten teilbar zu sein scheinen. Von diesen 
Formen scheint die eine zu Pamgorgia arhorea (L.), die zweite 
zu Pamgorgia nodosa Korejst & Danielssen einbezogen werden 
zu dürfen, während die anderen neu zu sein scheinen. Die 
eine von diesen möchte ich hier provisorisch P. granulosa, die 
andere P. tenuis nennen. 

Ueber die Struktur der Kolonie bemerke ich folgendes. 

Siphonozooiden. — Stüder (2) bemerkt in seiner Diagnose 
der Gattung, dass ' ' neben den Polypen bei Paragorgia nodosa 
auch noch Siphonozooiden ohne 
Tentakel vorkommen." Es könnte 
dieser Satz zur Annahme misleiten, 
dass Paragorgia arhorea (L), die 
Typenart der Gattung und die einzige 
von ihm anerkannte Art neben P. 
nodosa, der Siphonozooiden entbehrt. 
Dieses Misverständnis beruht wahr- 
scheinlich darauf dass die letzteren bei 
P. arhorea nicht über die Rindenober- 
fläche hervorragen. Das weist deut- 
lich die Abbildung (PI. IX., fig. 5) 
eines Schnittes von P. arhorea auf, 

welche Koren und DanIELSSEN (1) zahlreichen siphonozooiden. X 6 

zum Vergleich mit ihrer Art gaben. Dasselbe ist auch der Fall 
bei meinen Exemplaren, P. afïînis arhorea (Abbildung 6) und 
P. tenuis. Also die Tatsache dass die Polypen bei allen Arten 
dieser Gattung, soweit bekannt, dimorphisch sind, scheint nicht 
mehr zu bezweifeln. 

Autozooiden. — Milne-Edwards (1) schon bemerkte dass die 
Polypen bei Paragorgia Magenhöhlen besitzen, welche kurz und 
blind terminieren. Dies bezieht sich jedoch nur auf die 
Seitenpolypen. Die Polypen, welche sich auf den Zweigspitzen 
finden und Köpfe bilden, führen, wie wir es bei Briareum 
ashestinum gesehen haben, direkt je in die Längskanäle welche 
durch den Zentralstrang bis zur Ausgangsstelle der betrefïenden 






Abbildung 6. 
Paragorgia äff. arhorea (L). 
Vordere Ansicht eines Zweigab- 
schnittes mit fünf Autozooiden und 



il 






34 



K, Kinoshita : Beitrüge zur Kenntnis der 




Abbildung 7. 
Parafjorgia temiis, n. sp. 
Medianer Läng^chnitt 
eines Zweigapex. X 5. 



Zweige hinunterlaufen (Abbildung 7). Hierbei auch bleiben die 

Mesenterien kurz uud gehen nicht in die Kanalabschnitte ein. 

Das Coenenchym ist auch hier wie in 
Briareuin ashestimim in vier Schichten diffe- 
renziert, was aber in viel deutlicher Weise 
vor sich geht (Abbildung 8). 

Aeiissere Fàndensch'clit. — Diese, die ganze 
Kolonie, sogar die Polypenkelche, über- 
ziehende äussere Schicht ist kaum 0.15 Mm. 
dick. Sie entbehrt in sich gänzlich der 
Solenia. Diese, welche von geringerem 
Kaliber sind und im ganzen der Länge nach 
verlaufen, bilden ein einfaches Netzwerk 
und trennen die in Rede stehende Schicht 
von der tieferen Rindenschicht ab. Die 

Skleriten, welche dieser Schicht eigentüm- 

hch sind, sind kleine Achter'^ von roter 

oder gelbroter Farbe. 

Tiefere Rinde nschiclit. — Diese Schicht 

weicht in der Struktur und Spikulation von 

der letzteren bedeutend ab. In ihr ist die 

proximale Hälfte der Polypenhöhlen auf- 
genommen. Darum hangt die Ausbildung 

der Schicht sehr viel von der Verteilung der 

Polypen ab. Sie ist nämlich in der Proxi- 

mität der Polypen, also an der Vorderseite 

. - T rr ' • . ^ Querscîhnitt eines Zweiges. 

der Kolonie und an den Zweigspitzen, sehr zwei Autozooiden und 

,.,,. ^nT i'iij. "1 1 • ïtint Siphonozooiden gerade 

dick-bis 2 Mm. -entwickelt, wahrend sie 

sich in den polypenlosen Stellen sehr wenig 

ausbildet, sodass oft die Solenia gerade 

unterhalb der äusseren Rindenschicht 

beinahe den Achsenabschnitt zu berühren scheinen. Von den 

vorliegenden Exemplaren ist bei P. granulosa diese Rindenschicht 

sehr gering entwickelt, infolge dessen die Polypen hoch konisch 








■M 







Abbildung 8. 
ParagOTßia äff. arborea (L.). 



getroffen ," Polypenhöhlen, 
Längskanäle und Solenia 
schwarzangegeben ; Areae, wo 
die gefärbten Skleriten sich 
befinden, jjunktiert. X 6. 



1) KöLLiKER (1), Seite 122. 



Morphologie u. Stammesgesjhichte der Gorgoniden. 35 

hervorragen, während dieselben bei den andern Exemplaren meist 
niedrig bis beinahe flach bleiben. 

Diese Rindenschicht ist von den weiten, Netzwerk bildenden 
Solenia durchzogen. Die Skleriten lassen sich in zwei Typen 
unterscheiden: 1) Diejenigen Skleriten, welche von den der 
äusseren Rindenschicht eigentümlichen Achtern durch Weiter- 
entwicklung der Achsensprossen abzuleiten sind. Obgleich sie 
sehr oft beträchtlich verlängert sein können, sind sie doch an 
ihren medialen sechs Warzen, welche am Scheitel pilzhutförmig 
ausgebreitet sind, erkennbar. 2) Diejenigen Skleriten, welche 
typisch spindelförmig, mit zerstreuten Stacheln besetzt und an 
den beiden Enden zugespitzt sind. Oft jedoch zeigen die Stacheln 
eine Andeutung von mehr oder weniger regelmässigen Gürteln. 
Was die Färbung dieser Skleriten betrifft, so sind sie farblos oder 
schwach rötlich. 

Von diesen beiden Arten der Skleriten ist nur die erste als 
die eigentlichen Rindenskleriten anzusehen. Die zweite betrachte 
ich als die eigentlich der Rindenlage des Achsenabschnitts 
angehörige, da jene Lage für die grössten Teile durch die Skleriten 
dieses Typus gebildet ist. 

Pdndenlage des Achsenahschiütes. — Diese Schicht stellt wie 
bei Briareuni ashestiiuim den eigentlichen Achsenabschnitt dar. 
Sie besteht aus den in festen Längsbündeln gelagerten Skleriten, 
welche in der grossen Mehrheit farblos, sonst sehr schwach 
rötlich gefärbt sind, und denjenigen des zweiten Typus in 
der tieferen Rindenschicht ganz gleichen. Neben diesen Skleriten 
kommen auch diejenigen Skleriten, welche ich ebenda als die 
der tieferen Rindenschicht eingentümlichen angegeben habe, 
vereinzelt oder meist in konzentrischen unregelmässigen Grup- 
pen vor (Abbildung 8). Diese Skleriten sind mit Recht als solche 
anzunehmen, welche sich an der Peripherie dieses Abschnittes 
zufällig hinzugefügt haben. Diese Eindringung geht bei P. granu- 
losa auch noch rege vor sich, sodass die Achter, welche der 
äusseren Rinde angehören, auch manchmal in diesem Abschnitte 
angetroffen werden. Das Verhältnis, dass die äussere Rinde bei 
dieser Art wegen der schwachen Ausbildung der tieferen Rinden- 



Qg K. Kinoshita : Beiträge zur Kenntnis der 

Schicht beinahe die Achsen berührt, wird diese Tatsache leicht 
verständlich machen. 

Dieser Achsenabschnitt ist von den rnittelweiten Längska- 
nälen, welche vereinzelt oder meist in mehreren konzentrischen 
Reihen sich anordnen, dm'chzogen. 

Zentrahtrang. — Der Zentralstrang zieht sich inmitten des 
Achsenabschnittes der Stämme mid Zweige hindurch. Es ist 
jedoch an der Basis jedes Zweiges von dem Zentralstrang des 
Stammes oder des Zweiges höherer Ordnung durch die Rinden- 
lage getrennt, wie es durch die Wandung der Axialpolypen bei 
Teksto-Kolonie mit Axialliöhlen geschieht, da bei der Zweig- 
bildung nicht die Gabelung wie bei den Melitodiden, sondern 
allein Knospung stattfindet. 

Der Zentralstrang weist eine ganz gleiche Struktur wie die 
Rindenlage auf. Der Unterschied liegt nur darin, dass die Skleri- 
ten Rindenskleriten sind, und dass die Längskanäle, welche 
einen weiteren Kaliber besitzen, dichter gedrängt vorkommen. 
In jeder Schnittfläche quer durch die Zweige ist der Zentralstrang 
an den gewöhnlich als ' 'Hauptkanäle' ' bezeichneten Längskanälen 
und der roten Area, welche sich von der Umgebung deutlich 
unterscheiden lässt, zu erkennen (Abbildung 8). An dem Zweig- 
apex, Avo eine Anzahl Polypen den Kopf bilden, geht der 
Zentralstrang ganz vollkommen zur Rindenschicht über. Die 
Rindenlage oder der eigentliche Achsenabschnitt kommt erst 
unterhalb des Kopfes in der Form einer Röhre zum Vorschein. 

Bemerliungcn über die Gattungen Briarcum und Paragorgia. 

Wie es in den vorhergegangenen Beschreibungen ersichtlich 
sein dürfte, stimmen Briarewn und Faragorgia im wesentli- 
chen Aufbau der Kolonie mit einander ganz überein, sodass es 
keinem Zweifel unterliegt, dass diese beiden Gattungen in 
einer sehr innigen Verwandtschaftsbeziehung stehen. 

Die Kolonien dieser Gattungen zeigen nun unter anderm 
zwei Verhältnisse, welche besonders beachtenswert sind. Nämlich, 
erstens dass im Zentrum der Skeletachse ein Zentralstrang, welcher 



Morphologie u. Staumiesgeschiclite der Gorgoniden. 37 

aus den Rindenskleriten besteht und am Zweigapex in die Rinde 
übergeht, vorhanden ist (Abbildungen 5 und 8), und zweitens 
dass die Terminalpolypen an ihrer Basis je zu einem den Zentral- 
strang durchlaufenden Kanal, der bisher nur als "Hauptkanal" 
bezeichnet worden war, führen (Abbildungen 4 und 7). 

In den Kolonien beider Gattungen darf die Rindenlage der 
Skeletachse als der eigentliche Achsenabschnitt angesehen werden, 
da der Zentralstrang seiner Struktur nach der Rinde zuzurechnen 
ist. Die Form der Skeletachse bei diesem Typus ist dann ein 
Hohlzylinder. 

In der »S'o/c'/i06"t<»/o;i- Hypothese von Stüdek ist jedoch die 
Skeletachse der höheren Skleraxonier nur als " ein zylindrischer 
Stab" vorgestellt, welcher im Zentrum der Zweige liegt. Dies 
trifft aber derselben beim Biiareiim-Pamgonjia-Typus durchaus 
nicht zu. Da jedoch dieselbe in der Studer sehen Hypothese als 
eine solche gedaclit ist, welche sich einst im Stadium von Solcno- 
caulon an der Innenseite der rinnen- oder röhrenförmigen Zweige 
in derselben Form wie die Zweige selbst ausgebildet haben sollte, 
so dürfte man auch wohl annehmen, dass der als zylindrisch 
angesehene Stab in Wirklichkeit ein Hohlzylinder ist. Dann 
scheint der Briareiim-Pamgorgia-Ty pus dieser Hypothese nicht zu 
Avidersprechen. Wenn man jedoch die Längskanäle im Innern 
des Zentralstranges in Betracht zieht, welche je zu einem 
Terminalpolypen führen, wird man kaum den Zentralstrang mit 
der Rinde der Innenseite der hohlen Zweige bei Solcnocanlon 
homologisieren können. Diese Kanäle, nämlich, möchte ich 
doch nicht einfach als die Solenia, sondern als einen Abschnitt 
der Polypenhöhlen ansehen, obgleich sie niemals Mesenterien 
enthalten. Der Grund liegt darin, dass bei Paragorgia diejenigen 
Lateralpolypen, welche noch nicht in die Länge gewachsen sind, 
keine mit ihnen zusammenhängende Kanal Verlängerung aufweisen, 
und dass bei Briareiim asbestinum anderseits, welches phj^letisch in 
einem jüngeren Stadium als Paragorgia zu stehen scheint, die 
Lateralpolypen auch basalwärts verlängert sein können, eine 
starke Stütze zu liefern. 

W'ie schon angedeutet ist es kaum denkbar dass in einer und 



38 



K. KinosLita : Btiträge zur Kenntnis tier 



derselben Kolonie die Stamme und Zweige nach zwei verschie- 
denen Bautypen aufgebaut sind. Aus diesem Grunde können 
wir den Modus der Kolonienbildung im allgemeinen durch das 
Verhältnis, in welchem die Zweige sich bilden, klar stellen. Die 
Zweigbildung geht, wie schon angegeben, durch Knospung vor 
sich. Bei der Knospung hebt sich eine Gruppe der Lateral- 
polypen, [deren kurze Magenhöhlen 
proximal abgerundet enden, und bildet 
den Kopf, indem unterhalb desselben 
ein Stiel allmählich zutage tritt. Beim 
Erheben bleibt das proximale End jeder 
Polypenhöhle in der Form eines Kanales 
zurück, da die Zone des Längenwachstums 
nicht unterhalb der Polypenbasis, sondern 
etwas oberhalb derselben liegt. Darauf 
im Stiele und zwar um das Bündel dieser 
Kanäle wird die eigentliche Skeletachse in 
der Form eines Hohlzylinders von unten 
her gebildet. Bei einer jungen, kaum 1 
Cm. hohen Kolonie (Abbildung, 9), welche 
wahrscheinlich J'arcKjorgia nodosa angehört, konnte ich auch 
konstatieren, dass die Terminalpolypen sich gleich wie bei den 
Zweigen erwachsener Kolonien verhalten. 




Abbildung 9. 
Farafjorgia äff. nodosa 

KoB, & Dan. 
Aeusserer Habitus einer 
jungen Kolonie. X 6. 



Melitodidae. 



Die Melitodidenfamilie umfasst deutlich ausgezeichnete For- 
men, deren Stamm und Aeste die Skeletachse aufweisen, welche 
aus den durch Verschmelzung besonderer Spikula entstandenen 
harten, und den die Nodien bildenden weichen Gliedern besteht. 
Die Mitglieder dieser Familie stimmen in Avesentlichen Eigen- 
schaften mit einander überein. Nur l'ansis weicht nicht 
unerheblich von den übrigen ab, indem bei ihr der Zentralstrang 
beinahe reduziert ist und die Verzweigung, im Gegensatz zu den 
übrigen Gattungen, nur in den harten Gliedern stattfindet. 

Die Anatomie der Melitodiden war schon vor längerer Zeit 



Morphologie n. Stammesgeschichte der Gorgoniden. 39 

ziemlich klar gestellt worden. Kölltker (1) 1866 wies nämlich 
nach, dass die harten Achsenglieder hei Mopsea und Melithaea aus 
verschmolzener Skleriten bestehen, und dass ein Zentralstrang, 
welcher aus den Coenenchymskleriten vergleichbaren Skleriten 
besteht, sich durch die Skeletachse ganz hindurch zieht. Auf 
diese neuen Befunde basierend, stellte sich Küllikee, gegen die 
Hypothese von Milne-Edwards vor, dass die Skeletachse der 
Gorgoniden ein ektodermales Ausscheidungsprodukt sei, und 
hob besonders hervor, dass dieselbe im Coenenchym entsteht. 
Er hat aber die Frage nicht verfolgt, wie diese kompliziert 
gebaute Skeletachse im Coenenchym entsteht, oder was der 
Zentralstrang morphologisch bedeutet. 

Von dieser Familie habe ich nun die Gattungen Mopsella, 
Melitodcs^ Acaharia und Parisis untersuchen können. Zuerst gebe 
ich die Resultate der Untersuchung an Mclüoles, Mojjsella und 
Acaharia, und zuletzt dieselben an Parisis an. 

Verzu-eKjimg.— Bei den Gattungen Mclitodes, Mopsella und 
Acaharia werden die Zweige gewöhnlich durch typische Spitzen- 
dichotomie gebildet. Die Zweigbildung durch Knospung findet 
aber nur ausnahmsweise statt. 

An den Apikalal)schnitten der Zweige stehen die Polypen 
in zwei gegenseitigen Streifen, und zwar bei den typischen Fällen 
gewöhnlich beinahe in Paaren. In der Regel stehen die Paaren 
von kleineren und grösseren Polypen in Abwechselung, und das 
oberste Paar ist immer von den vöUig erwachsenen, grossen, 
sogar oft in der Grösse die allen übrigen weit übertreffenden 
Polypen gebildet. Durch die angedeutete Verteilung der jungen 
Polypen kann man schliessen dass das Längemvachstum der 
Rinde nicht am Scheitel, sondern in einer Zone unterhalb der 
Apikaipolypen stattfindet, indem neue Polypen in den erweiter- 
ten Zwischenräumen zwischen den schon vorhandenen Polypen 
ausknospen. Bei den Formen mit gedrängt stehenden Polypen, 
z. B. bei Melitoiies fiahellifera, ist diese regelmässige Abwechselung 
mehr oder minder undeutlich. Dennoch lässt es sich immer 
einblicken dass auch hier dasselbe Verhältnis in gewissem Masse 
Geltung hat. 



40 



K. Kinoshita : Beiträge zur Kenntnis der 




Abbildung 10. 
Acabaria sp. 
Neu gegabelter Zweig. 
X5. 



Der Apex der Zweige ragt gewöhnlieli ein wenig über die 
Apikaipolypen- bei Acabaria 8p. (Abbildung 10), die in der 
Nachbarschaft der Biologischen Station zu Misaki ziemlich 
allgemein vorkommt, oft bis 1 Mm.- hervor. Der Apex weist 
in der Mitte der Spitze eine kleine, mehr oder minder seichte, 
kraterförmige Vertiefung auf, welche uns an 
einen zurückgezogenen Polypen erinnert. 
Beim Verzweigen gabelt sich der Zweig an der 
Spitze in zwei. Die zwei obersten Polypen 
schreiten je an die äussere Seite der neu gebil- 
deten Zweige über, und darnach wird, an der 
Innenseite gerade ihnen gegenüber, je ein 
neuer Polyp gebildet, welcher bald aufwächst 
und den an der Aussenseite gelegenen alten 
Polypen gleich kommt. Diese zwei neuen 
Polypenpaare an den Zweigspitzen behalten 
ihre endständige Stellung bei, während alle nachträglich sich 
bildenden Polypen unter ihnen auftreten. 

Zentralstrang. — Wie es in den Abbildungen von Köllikeu (1) 
und Kükenthal (4) deutlich angegeben ist, ist der Zentralstrang 
bei den Gattungen Melitodcs, Mojisdki und Acabaria immer sehr gut 
ausgebildet. Er läuft die ganze Länge der Stämme und Zweige 
ununterbrochen mit gleicher Dicke durch. 

Die Skleriten, welche diesen Zentralstrang aufbauen, sind 
natürlich von denjenigen der Rindenlage verschieden. Bei 
Melitodcs und Acabaria sind sie bedornte Spindeln, welche denen 
der Rinde ganz gleichen. Bei Mopse la jedoch werden auch 
Stachelkeulen, untermengt in den Spindeln, sehr häufig ange- 
troffen (Abbildung 11). Wie man deutlich nach der Form 
schliessen kann, gehören diese Skleriten eigentlich zur Rinden- 
schicht, wo sie einst an der Oberfläche derart angeordnet waren, 
dass die Stacheln sich nach aussen richteten und so der Rinde 
Schutz bieteten. Von da aus sollen sie zufällig in den Zentral- 
strang hineingekommen sein. 

Der Zentralstrang nun ist in der Nähe der Zweigspitze ganz 
ähnlich gebaut wie die Rinde. Die Rinde an der Zweigspitze 



Morphologie u. Stammesgeschichte der Gorgoniden. 



41 




ist von einem Netzwerke dünner Solenia durchzogen und weist 
meist kleine, nicht ganz ausgebildete, aber dicht gedrängt 

auftretende junge Skleriten auf. 
Im obersten Abschnitte lässt sich 
der Zentralstrang kaum von diesem 
Rindengewebe unterscheiden, aber 
nach abwärts fangen die Skleriten 
allmählich an, durch kalkige Ab- 
lagerung fest an einander verkittet 
zu werden, indem die Solenia 
degenerieren und sich schliesslich 
spurlos verschwinden. 

Diese Verkittung findet in den 
weichen Gliedern, wie schon Köl- 
LTKER bemerkt, nicht statt. 

Die harten Achsenglieder 
werden gerade unterhalb der 
Rinde der Zweigspitze durch An- 
sätze neuer Skleriten, und zwar 
von Anfang an in der Form einer 
Röhre, gebildet. Die Röhrenform 
kommt daraus zustande dass die Rinde, welche jene Achsenglieder 
von aussen umgibt, an die Zweigspitze in die letzteren als den 
Zentralstrang hinein dringt. 

Von der Gattung Pansis habe ich Parisis fruticosa und Parisis 
affinis minor untersuchen können. Diese Formen weichen in 
mancher Hinsicht von den übrigen Mitgliedern der Familie ab. 
Es liegt jedoch kein positiver Beweis vor, diese Gattung als solche 
zu betrachten, welche von den letzteren ph^letisch sehr fern 
steht. 

Der Zentralabschnitt der harten Achsenglieder von Parisis 
besteht aus dornigen Skleriten, welche von denjenigen der 
Umgebung in der Form unterscheidbar sind. Ich habe jedoch 
nicht genau ermitteln können, welche Form dieselben besitzen, 
da sie wie die letzteren ganz durchsichtig sind. In den meisten 
angefertigten Schliffen habe ich gefunden, dass zwischen den 



Abbildung 11. 
Schematischer Längsschnitt eines 
Zweigapex von einer Mojj.'^el la-Kolonie. 
Polypenhöhlen und Solenia schwarz ; 
obertiächliche Rindensklpriten mit dicken 
Konturen, tiefere Eindenskleriten mit 
dünnen Kontaren gezeichnet; Kiudenlage 
der Achse längs schraffiert. 



42 ^' Kinoshita : Beiträge zur Kenntnis der 

Skleriten zahlreiche kleine Luft enthaltende Lücken existieren. 
Der Zentralstrang, wenn man auch hier diese Bezeichnung 
brauchen darf, scheint in den weichen Gliedern unterbrochen zu 
sein, denn das Zentrum derselben ist auch durch die den weichen 
Gliedern eigentümlichen Skleriten besetzt, welche so dicht vor- 
kommen dass der Abschnitt sich von der Umgebung sehr leicht 
unterscheiden lässt. 



BemcrhiüKj über die MeUtodidae. 

In einem vorhergehenden Kapitel, in welchem ich über die 
Gattungen Briareum und Paragorgia Bemerkungen gegeben habe, 
habe ich folgende drei Verhältnisse als Einwände gegen Studer' - 
sehe Hypothese hervorgehoben: 1) dass die Skeletachse im 
Zentrum den aus Rindenskleriten bestehenden Zentralstrang 
aufweist; 2) dass die sogenannten Hauptkanäle in diesem 
Zentralstrange nicht als Solenia, sondern als Verlängerungen der 
Polypenhöhlen anzusehen sind; 3) dass die Neubildung der 
Zweige bei Pamgorgia (wohl auch bei Solenocaulon) alleinig durch 
Knospung unterhalb der Zweigspitze stattfindet. Von diesen drei 
Verhältnissen wurden die zwei letzteren als besonders unüber- 
windbare Einwände gegen Studer' sehe Hypothese angegeben. 
Bei den Melitodiden jedoch zeigen sich dieselben etwas anders, 
da der Zentralstrang nämlich ganzlicli der Hauptkanäle entbehrt, 
und die Zweigbildung gewölnilich (mit einer Ausnahme von 
Parisis) durch Spitzen gabelung, nur ausnalnnsweise durch Knos- 
pung, vor sich geht. 

Dass bei der Zweigbildung Spitzengabelung vorherrscht, 
scheint für die Solenocaulon-Hyjyothese eine gewisse Stütze zu 
liefern, da nach dieser Hypothese die Randsäume des eigentlichen 
flachen Coenenchyms nur an der Zweigspitze ausgesteht sind, und 
das Wachstum des Coenenchyms nur an den Randsäumen 
stattfinden sollte. Jedoch falls die Zweige, wenn auch ausnahms- 
weise, unterhalb der Zweigspitze durch Knospung gebildet 
Averden, so kann man diese Zweige, bezw. die Kolonie, auch als 



Morphologie n. Stammesgeschichte der Gorgoniden. 



43 



M 




i 



Abbildung 12. 
Meli indes sp. 
Hartes Achsenglied mit 
einem sekundären Zweig. 
Zentralstrang punktiert. 



solche annehmen, welche durch Verdickung des Coenenchjmis 
in der Richtung der Hauptachse ausgebildet sind. 

Die durch Knospung gebildeten Zweige wurden manchmal 
bei verschiedenen Mclitodes- und ilIo^)se//a-Arten angetroffen. 
Sie sind alle dünn und kurz, aber tragen Polypen in gewöhn- 
hcher Weise. Dass diese Zweige durch Knospung gebildet 
worden sind, ist daran deutlich zu erkennen 
dass der Zentralstrang der harten Achsen- 
glieder gerade hinweggeht und von demselben 
des Zweiges durch eine dicke Rindenlage 
getrennt sind (Abbildung 12). Solche Zweige 
weisen in ihrem Basalabschnitte eine Menge 
in den Achsenskleriten untermengt auftre- 
tender Skleriten auf, welche bald in die 
Mittellinie der Achsen dicht ansammeln, 
um endlich einen typischen Zentralstrang zu 
bilden. An der Spitze des Zweiges ist auch 
sogar die Apikaivertiefung zu finden. Also 
ist der Apikaiabschnitt der Zweige ganz normal gebaut. 

Aus dieser Tatsache ist zu ersehen dass der Zentralstrang bei 
den Melitodiden nicht mit der Rinde, welche nach der Solenocaulon- 
Hypothese die Innenwand der rinnen- oder röhrenförmigen 
Zweige bilden soll, sondern mit dem Zentralstrange des Briareum- 
Paragorgia-Typus zu vergleichen ist; denn dieser Zentralstrang ist 
auch in normaler Weise in den Skeletachsen derjenigen Zweige 
entwickelt, welche nicht durch Spitzengabelung, sondern durch 
Knospung gebildet worden sind. 

Die Tatsache, dass die Hauptkanäle im Zentralstrang, welche 
als proximale Verlängerungen der Magenhöhlen der Terminal- 
polypen anzusehen sind, bei den Melitodiden nicht erhalten 
bleiben, scheint allerdings nicht völlig mit dieser Homologisierung 
zu stimmen. Aber wenn man in Betracht zieht, dass die 
Terminalpolypen etwas seitwärts von der Zweigspitze gerückt 
sind, und wenn man weiter annimmt, dass bei diesen Terminal- 
polypen die Kanalabschnitte sich infolge der Ortveränderung 
reduziert haben, aber der Zentralstrang zurückgeblieben ist, so 



44 K' Kinoshiti : Beitrüge zur Kenntuis der 

kann nmn wohl vermuten dass die Melitodideu demselben Typus 
wie Briareiim und Paragorgia angehören. Jedenfalls ist es nicht 
vernünftig, den Bautypus der Melitodidenkolonie durch die 
Soleiiocaidon-JlypoÜ-ieeQ zu erklären, solange diese als gar statthaft 
nicht gestützt wird. 

Suberogorgiidae. 

Von dieser Familie sind drei Gattungen, Siiherogorgia, Keroeides 
und Dendrogorgia^ bekannt. 

Wie ich (2) schon dargetan habe, ist die Gattung Kcrueldes 
keine Skleraxonie, sondern eine aberrante Gorgonie, bei welcher 
nur der Zentialstrang der Skeletachse von einem denselben an 
der Spitze fingerhutförmig bekleidenden Achsenepithel ausge- 
schieden wird, aber die Rindenlage derselben von mesogloealen 
Skleriten und Hornsubstanz aufgebaut wird. 

In demselben Jahre, aber etwas früher als ich die obige 
Ansicht veröffentlichte, gab Simpsox (1) die Beschreibung seiner 
neuen Gattung Dendrogorgia^ welche er, wegen der sklerogorgi- 
schen Struktur der Skeletachse, auf eine früher als JunceUa capeitsis 
bezeichnete Spezies errichtete. Üeber den Zentralstrang der 
Skeletachse von dieser Form nun machte Simpson keine Bemer- 
kung. Aber soweit man nach den von ihm gegebenen Abbil- 
dungen schliessen kann, scheint die Skeletachse einen deutlichen 
Zentralstrang zu besitzen. Es ist jedoch nicht sicher, ob der 
Zentralstrang bei seinem Exemplare demselben Typus Avie bei 
Keroeides oder bei den Melitodiden und Siiherogorgia angehört. 

Subevogorgia 

Der Tj^pus dieser Gattung ist Pterogorgia suherosa. Kölliker 
(1) wies nach, dass die Skeletachse dieser Art eine sklerogorgische 
Struktur zeigt, und demnach errichtete er auf diese Form eine 
neue Gattung Sderogorgia die in seiner Klassifikation eine 
besondere Unterfamilie bildete. Dieser Gattungsname soll aber 
mit dem älteren Namen Siiherogorgia von Gray ersetzt werden. 



Morphologie u. Stammrsgeschicbte der Gorgonick-n. 



45 




Von dieser Gattung nun habe ich zwei Arten, Suberugorgia 
hüUikeri und Subcrogorgia affinis appressa untersuchen können. 

Die Skeletachse bei diesen 
Formen besteht aus glatten Spin- 
dehi, welche dicht mit einander 
verschmelzen, sodass meistens ihre 
originale Form verloren geht. Sie 
zeigen in Querschnitten der Achse 
deutliche konzentrische Anordnung. 
KüLLiKEE, (1) schilderte schon das 
Vorkommen der Rindenskleriten in 
der Skeletachse. Darüber sagt er: 
' ' Auch die Axe der Scierogorgia 
enthalt wie die der Melithaeaceen 
vereinzelt oder in kleinen Nestern 
warzige Kalkkörper von der Form, Grösse und Farbe derer des 
Coenenchyms." Bei meinen Exemplaren habe ich auch in der 
Mitte der Skeletachse beinahe unfehlbar eine geringe Anzahl 
von Rindenskleriten finden können (Abbildung 13). Diese 
Skleritenreihe möchte ich mit dem sehr wohl entwickelten 
Zentralstrang der Melitodiden und auch der Briarewn und 
Paragorgia vergleichen, denn diese Skleriten sind es, welche auch 
von der Spitze in die Skeletachse hineingelangt sind. 

Bei den vorliegenden zwei Formen dieser Gattung scheint 
die Verzweigung nur durch Knospung vor sich zu gehen. 

Wenn man die oben erwähnten Verhältnisse in Betracht 
zieht, so wird man finden dass diese Gattung auch demselben 
Typus wie die Melitodiden, sowie auch wie die Gattungen Briareum 
und Paragorgia angehört. 



Abbildung 13. 

Subcrogorgia äff. appressa Xutt. 

Querschnitt eines Zweiges. Poly- 
penhöhlen und Stammkanäle 
schwarz ; Rindenskleriten mit dik- 
ken (Konturen, Achsenskleriten mit 
dünnen Konturen gezeichnet. X20. 



Schlussbemerkung zu den Scieraxonra. 

In den vorhergehenden Kapiteln habe ich geschildert, dass 
die untersuchten Skleraxonier sich in drei Typen zerfallen, welche 
resp. von Briarewn, Melitodes und Svôerogorgia repräsentiert werden, 
und Avelche ph3detisch in einer direkten Verwandtschaft mit 



46 ^' Kinosliita : Beiträge zur Kenntnis der 

einander stehen würden. Den Bnareiim-Pamgorgia-Typus, welcher 
den anderen T3q3en zugrunde liegt, möchte ich, wie schon 
angeführt, nicht durch die Solenocaidon-'RyYiOtheëe von Studer, 
sondern durch die Verdickung des Coenenchyms in der Richtung 
der Hauptachse erklären. Diese Auffassung scheint mir beinahe 
unwiderlegbar zu sein, da die Verhältnisse, welche die Stämme 
und Zweige bei dieseii beiden Gattungen zeigen, nur erst dadurch 
erklärt werden können. 

Von den ICigentümlichkeiten, wodurch sich der Briarewn- 
Paragorgia-Typus auszeichnet, gilt die Existenz der sogenannten 
" Hauptkanäle " im Innern des Zentralstranges als die wichtigste 
für Erwägung der systematischen Stellung der Gattungen Briareum 
und Pamgorgia, oder vielmehr der ganzen Skleraxonier. Dass 
es sich dabei nicht um Solenia handelt, habe ich schon erwähnt. 
Wenn man nun die Hauptkanäle als proximale Abschnitte der 
Terminalpolypen betrachtet, so muss man die Stämme und Zweige 
natürlich als die Bündel der Axialpolypen ansehen. Diese 
Eigenschaft der Axialpolypen, d. h. dass dieselben Syndete^-* 
bilden, bildet eine Eigentümlichkeit der Ordnung Alcyonacea. 
Da die Scleraxonia nach den bisherigen Auffassungen^^ als solche, 
bei denen alle Polypen, wie bei den Gorgonacea, kurze Magen- 
höhlen besitzen, charakterisiert worden sind, so sollen die beiden 
Briareidengattungen theoretisch aus der Ordnung Scleraxonia 
entnommen und in die Ordnung Alcyonacea gebracht werden. 
Aber in der letzteren Ordnung sind keine Formen bekannt, bei 
welchen die Anthostele^^ gänzlich der Mesenterien entbehren. 
Weiter es existiert zwischen dem Briarewn-Paragorgia-Typus und 
der Siplionogorgia. welch letztere Kölliker (3) wegen der nur in 
Vierzahl bleibenden Mesenterien in den "Stammkanälen" als 
eine Zwischenform zwischen den Alcyoniden und den Paragor- 
giaceae annahm, noch eine zu weite Lücke, um die beiden 
Briareiden in die direkte Nähe von Siplionogorgia zu bringen. 



1) Siehe Bourne (1). 

2) V. Koch (7) schildert deutlich die Differenz der Polypen in der Länge, also in der 

Ordnung der Polypen bei Skleraxoniern. Es ist jedoch nicht klar genug, auf welche 
Tatsachen sich diese Auffassung stützt. Siehe Seite 9. 

3) Siehe Bourne (1). 



Morphologie u. Stauiinesgeschichto der Gorgoniden. 47 

Schliesslich ist noch eine Möglichkeit nicht ausgeschlossen, dass 
dieselhen durch einen mit der Entwicklungsbahn der höheren 
Alc3"onacea parallel gehenden Weg aus den Enjtliropodium- 
ähnlichen, niederen Alcyoniden abstammten, da Briarewn 
asbestinum und wahrscheinlich auch noch viele andere niederen 
Skleraxonier, in den Beschaffenheiten der Skleriten sowie im 
Modus der Polj^Denverteilung, mehr den niederen als den 
höheren Alcj^oniden verwandt sind. 



48 



Lilteratur. 

Blainville {1) : Maunel cV Actiuologie ou de Zoopbytologie. 1834. 

Bourne (1) : On the Genus Lemnalia Gbay with an Account of tbe Branching 
System of the Order Alcyonacea. Transact. Linn. Soc. London, Vol. vii, 1900. 

Bourne (2) : Anthozoa. Treatise on Zoology, Part ii, 1900. 

Dana(l) : Report ou the Zoophytes of tbe United States Exploring Expedition. 184G. 

Dana (2) : Structure and Classification of Zoophytes. 1816. 

Ehrenberg (1) : Beiträge zur Physiologischen Kenntniss der Korallentbiere im All- 
gemeinen, nnd besonders des Pioten Meeres, nebst einem Versuche zur Physiolo- 
gischen Systematik derselben. Abb. d. K. Ak. d. AViss. z. Berlin a. d. Jahre 
1832, I. Tbeib 1834. 

Qenth (1) : Ueber Solenogorgia tubulosa (eine Neue Gattung der Gorgoniden). 
Zeitschr. d. Wiss. Zool., xvii. Bd , 1867. 

Qermanos(l): Gorgonaceen von Ternate. Abhandl. d. Scnckenb. Nat. Gesell., 
xxiii. Bd., i, 1896. 

Hickson (1) : On tbe Ciliated Groove (Sipbonoglyphe) in the Stomodaeiim of the 
Alcyonarians. Phil. Trans. Pioy. Soc. London, Part iii, 1883. 

Hickson (2) : The Alcyonaria of the Maldives. I. Genera Xenia, Telesto, Spongodes, 
Nephthya, Paraspongodes, Chyronephtbya, Siphonogorgia, Solenocaulon, and 
Melitodes. The Fauna and Geography of the Maldive and Laccadive Archi- 
pelagoes, Vol. ii, pt. i, 1903. 

Hickson (3) : Coelentera and Ctenophora. The Cambridge Natural History, 

Vol. i, 1906. 
Hiles (1) : Gorgonacea collected by Dr. Willey. Willey's Zool. Fiesults, Part 

ii, 1899. 
Janover (1) : Die Gattung Solenocaulon. Inaug. Dissert., Bern, 1904. 
Kinoshita (1) : Ueber die Postcmbryonale Entwicklung von Anthoplexaura dimorpha 

IvtJKENTH.AL. Jour. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ., Tokio, Vol. xxvii. Art. xiv, 1910. 
Kinoshita (2) : On the Keroeididae, a New Family of Gorgonacea, and Some Notes 

on tiie Suberogorgiidae. Annot. Zool. Jap., Vol. vii, Part iv, 1910. 
Klunzinger (1) : Die Koralltbieie des Boten Meeres. I. Theil. Alcyonarien und 

Malacodermen. 1877. 
V. Koch(lj: Anatomie von Isis neapolitana. Morph. Jahrb., iv. Bd., 1878. 
V. Koch (2) : Mittheilungen über Gorgonia verrucosa. Morph. Jahrb., iv. Bd., 

1878. 
V. Koch (3} : Das Skelett der Alcyonarien. Morph. Jahrb., iv. Bd., 1878. 
V. Koch (^4) : Die Morphologische Bedeutung des Koralleuskeletts. Biol. Zentralb., 

ii. Bd., 1882. 
V. Koch (5) : Vorlaufige Mittheiluugen über die Gorgonien (Gorgoria axifera) von 

Neapel und über die Entwicklung der Gorgonia verrucosa. Mitth. a. d. Zool. 

Stat. zu Neapel, iii. Bd., 1882. 
V. Koch (6) : Die Gorgoniden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres- 



49 

iibscluùttc. Fauna nnd Flora des Golfes von Neapel und der aiip;venzenden Mee- 

resabsclniitte, 15, 1887. 
V. Koch (7) : Die Alcyonaceeii des Golfes von Neapel. Mittli. a. d. Zool. Stat. z. 

Neapel, ix. Bd., iv. Heft, 1890. 
V. Koch (8) : Kleinere Mittlieilungen über Antliozoen. 7) Ueber Kolonien von 

Bebryce mollis Phil., welches Cornulariden iihnlicli sind. Morph. Jahrb., xviii. 

Bd., i. Heftf, 1896. 
Kölliker(l) : Icônes Histiologicae oder Atlas der Vergleichenden Gewebelehre. II. 

Abtheilung, 1860. 
Kölliker (2) : Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Polypen. A^erh. d. Phys. Med. Gesell., 

Neue Folge, iL Ed., i. Heft, 1870. 
K' Iliker (3): Die Pennatulide Unibellula und zwei Neue Typen der Alcyonarien. 

Festscbr. z. Feier d. fiinfundzwanzigjährigen Bestehens d. Phy. Med. 

Gesellsch., 1875. 
Koren og Danielssen (1) : Nye Alcyonider, Gorgonider og Pennatalider, tilhörende 

Norges Fauna. Bergens Museum, 1883. 
Kükenthal (1) : Die Stammesgeschichte und die Geographische Verbreitung der 

Alcyonaceen. Verh. d. leut. Zeel. Gesellsch., 1906. 
Kükenthal(2) : Alcyouacea. Wiss. Ergeb. d. Deut. Tiefsee Exped. xiii. Bd., 

1906. 
Kukenthal (3) : Diagnosen Neuer Gorgoniden (4. Mitteilung). Zool. Anzeig., 

xxxiii. Bd., Nr. i, 1908. 
Kükenthal (4) : Japanische Gorgoniden. 11. Die Familien der Plexauriden, Chryso- 

gorgiden und Melitodiden. Doflein's Beiträge z. Naturgesch. Ostasieus, 1909. 
Lamarck (1) -. Histoire Naturehe des Animaux sans Vertèbres. 1816. 
Lacaze=Duthiers (1): Histoire Naturelle du Corail. 18f)4. 

Lacaze=Duthiers (2) : Polypiers des Gorgones. Acad. d. Sei. Nat. T. iii, 1808. 
Menneking (1) : lieber die Anordnung der Schuppen und das Kanalsystem bei 

Stachyodes ambigua (Siuder), &c. Arch. f. Nat. Gesch., Lxsi. Bd , i. Heft, 1905. 
Miîne=Edwerds (1) : Histoire Naturelle des Coralliaires ou Polypes proprement dits. 

1857. 
Müller (1) : Über die Bildung des Achsenshelets von Corallium. Mitth. a. d. Zool. 

Stat. Neapel, xx. Bd., i. Heft, 1910. 
Nutting (1) : The Gorgonacea of the Siboga Expedition. VIII. Scleraxonia. Siboga 

Expeditie, XIII. b, 5, 1911. 
Pallas (1) : Elenchus Zoophytorum (Deutsche Uebersetzung). 1760. 
Schneider (1) : Das Achsenskelet der Gorgoniden. Arch. f. Nat. Geseh , Lxxi. Bd., 

i. Heft, 1905. 
Simpson (1): On a New Pseudaxonid Genus Dendrogorgia. Proc. Pioy. Phys. Soc. 

Edinburgh, Vol. xviii, No. i, 1910. 
Studer (1) : Ueber Bau und Entwicklung der Achse von Gorgonia Beitoloni Lamx 

Mitth. d. Naturforsch. Geseh. Bern, 1874. 
Studer (2) : Versuch eines Systèmes der Alcyonaria. Arch. f. Naturgesch., LÜi. 



50 



Bd., i. Heffc, 1887. 
Studer (3) : La Squelette axiale des Gorgonacea. Arch. Sei. Nat, T. xx, 1905. 
Versluys (1) : Pseudociadochonas hicksoni n.g., n.sp. Siboga Expeditie, XIIIc, 

ii. Teil, 1907. 
Wright and Studer (1) : Report on the Alcyonaria collected by the Challenger. 

1889. 



Published Mar. 31st, 1913. 



JOURNAL OF 'niK COLLEGE OP SCIENCE, TOXYO IMPERIAL UNIVERSITY, 
TOKYO, JAPAN. 

VOL. XXXII. , ART. 11. 



Ueber die charakteristische Mannigfaltigkeit 

der partiellen Differentialgleichungen 

erster Ordnung. 

Von 
T. Yoshiye, liU/aJcushi, 

Professor der Mathei)iatik, Tokyo Kaiserl. Universität. 

Die vorliegeDcle Arbeit ist eigentlich als eine Fortsetzung 
meiner Arbeit* in den "Mathematischen Annalen," Bd. 57, 
anzusehen. Es wird jetzt durch die Variationsmethode die charak- 
teristische Mannigfaltigkeit eines Systems partieller Differential- 
gleichungen erster Ordnung mit einer einzigen abhängigen 
Variabein hergeleitet. 

I. 

Es sei 

(1) 

das vorgelegte System partieller Differentialgleichungen erster 
Ordnung, wobei z die zu bestimmende Funktion von x^, ..., x„ 

und Pi ihre Ableitung -^ — bezeichnet. Man kann offenbar fest- 

yf p" ... TP \ 

setzen, dass die Determinante ~\r^ — ' — . nicht identisch ver- 
schwindet, denn mindestens eine Determinante von der Form 

7i( TP ... TP ') 

-^^ — ' "' ■ nicht identisch verschwindet, sobald die Gleichunsren 

* „ Anwendungen der Variationsrechnung auf partielle Differentialgleichungen mit zwei 
unabhängigen Variabein." 



2 T, Yoshiye : 

von (1) von einander verschieden sind: wir nehmen sogar an 

Das System (1) definirt eine Schar von 00-'^-"'+^ Flächenele- 
mente (z, oTi, •-., Xn, Pi, ■■■, Pn) im n+1 dimensionalen Räume. 
Wir mögen nun den eindimensionalen Elementverein aus dieser 
Schar finden, nämlich das Funktionensystem z, x^^ ..., a:„, p^,---, p„ 
einer einzigen Variabein t, welches die Beziehung 

^'-2>,a-/=0 (2) 

befriedigt, z', x- stehen für die Ableitungen von z^ Xi nach t. 
Zu diesem Zwecke bilden wir das Integral 



y" f n m 

«0 i=i ^=1 



wobei ?. und //j, •••,//« beliebige Funktionen von t, und ^0, h ge- 
wisse bestimmte Werte von t bezeichnen. 

Dieses Integral verschwindet offenbar, wofern die Glei- 
chungen (1) und (2) erfüllt sind. Daraus folgt unmittelbar die 
Gleichung 

§ f \X (/_ 2>^ x!) + 2 ^, F,] dt=0, 

J ta i = i k = l 

sobald die Variationen den Bedingungen 

oV-2o>,a;/)=0, 

i = l 

genügen. 

Diese Gleichung und die Bedingungsgleichungen können wir 
folgendermassen umschreiben: 

K-! t^^ 'OQ U/^ ^ -^'] '' '' (3) 

oV-2>, oV + a:/ o>,)=0 



^dz+î^dx,+ i^dp,=0 ik = h2, ■■■m) 

ÙZ i=i dXi i=l opi ' 



(4) 



Charakt. Mannigfaltigkeit d. part. Differentialgleichungen. ^ 

Man erhält ein Funktionensystem z, x, p, welche die Glei- 
chung (3) befriedigt, wenn man 0, x, p so bestimmen kann, dass 
jedes Glied der Gleichung (3) identisch verschwindet.* 

Wir unterscheiden nun zwei Fälle, nKzn und m=n. 

Der Fall m<^n. Könnte man nun jeden Ausdruck unter dem 
Integralzeichen aus dem letzten Glied von (3) verschwinden 
lassen, dann müssen die Grössen z^ x, ii die folgenden n—m Glei- 
chungen befriedigen : 



aF„ 



s Fl 


aF, 


Ip^ 


^Pi 


S Fl 


3 F., 


^P'i 


Ip., 


SF, 


3F, 


^Pm 


^P,n 


3Fi 


SF, 



3^1 
^P-i 



X; 



^Pi 



^F„ 

^Pr. 

IF,,, 
^Pi 



:0 (i = W+l,--w) 



(5) 



Wir setzen also diese n—7ii Gleichungen (5) fest als die 
Bedingungsgleichungen für die Grössen z, x, p. Dann sind nur 
m Gleichungen aus den folgenden ?i Gleichungen 

i = l àpi 

Avesentlich . 

Wir betrachten also die ?i + l Gleichungen 



I 



IFk 
SF.. 



•A' = 0, 



2>,-^ -;.x/=0 (^=], 2,- ••70 

als die Bestimmungsgleichungen von m + 1 Grössen ?., ^i, •••,//, 
Nach den Beziehungen (5) sind die m + 1 Ausdrücke 



(6) 



rr/opi+- ••+j:-„'^P„, 



fc ,^^ ,^ , ^F, .^^^ Ck = \ß,...m) 



Ipi ^Pn 



* Da (1) eine Differentialgleichung enthält, kann man nicht ohne weiteres, wie im 
gewöhnlichen Variationsproblenie, das Verschwinden jedes Gliedes von (3) scbliessen. 



T. Yoshiye : 



in den Bedingungen (4) nicht von einander linear unabhängig, 
und daher folgt die Gleichung: 



dz'—I'p^dx! 

i = l 

cz ,=1 dr.- 



W^ 






Ipi S/>2 



}F\_ 



OZ + -i -.^ ~ OX; 



Iz 



^X; 



^F^ 



IF^ 






(7) 



Denkt man sich die Variationen oXi,--,dxn gegeben, dann 
ist (7) die Bestimmungsgleichung von dz, welche die Form der 
linearen Differentialgleichung 

dz' + Xdz+X^=0 

besitzt. Wie man leicht sieht, ist À gleich e , und daher 
kann die Integrationskonstante von oz nicht immer so gewählt 
werden, dass [/o2;]Jj gleich Null wird. 

Wir nehmen also an, dass 00:1, •••, dx„ an einem Endpunkte 
to verscliAvinden. Man kann offenbar die Integrationskonstante 
von dz so bestimmen, dass Xdz am Punkte ^0 verschwindet. Am 
anderen Endpunkte ti nehmen wir an: eins aus dx^^ •••, ox„, etwa 
^Xj, wird immer so eingerichtet, dass der Wert [dz—pjdxj]t^ gleich 
Null wird, während alle anderen an diesem Punkte verschwinden. 
Dann verschwinden die von Integralzeichen freien Glieder von 
(3). Diese Annahme für oxj ist immer möglich, sobald Pj am 
Punkte ti nicht verschwindet, und da der Parameterwert ^1 beliebig 
gewählt Averden kann, ist diese Annahme immer möglich, wenn 
Pj nicht identisch Null ist. Die Schwierigkeit tritt also nur dann 
ein, wenn alle p identisch Null sind. Im letzten Falle wird z, 
wegen der Beziehung (2), gleich konstant. Diesen Fall schliess- 
en wir aus. 

Die Gleichung (0) nimmt nun die Form an: 

Alle Variationen ux,-^ ausser ox,, verschwinden an den Punk- 



Charakt. Mannigfaltigkeit cl. part. Differentialgleichungen. 5 

ten ^) und ^i, sonst willkürlich; die Variation àxj verschwindet am 
Punkte ^0, ^^ei" nicht am Punkte ^. Wenn man alle o.r., ausser 
^.f , identisch gleich Null denkt, dann erhält man 



./."[l'''^+'^^')']"^''"=°- 



Obgleich dXj am Punkte t: einen von Null verschiedenen Wert 
annimmt, doch kann man aus der letzten Gleichung, in ähnlicher 
Weise wie bei der Herleitung der Eulerschen Gleichung in der 
Variationsrechnung, schliessen 

Das Verschwinden von den anderen Integranden ^ /^i- -s— ^ + te)' 

° k=i aXi 

kann gewöhnlicherweise bewiesen werden. Wir haben nämlich 

^>^-47^+^^^^)-ö (*=l,'2,--n) 

i = l OX: 



welche sich durch die Gleichung 
in die folgenden 






umschreiben lassen. Das Symbol ( ~v^ ) steht für den Ausdruck 



3F, ^^, SF, 



+Pi 



IXi ^' Iz 

Setzt man die durch (G) bestimmten Werte von A, ^i, •••,//„. in 
die letzten Gleichungen ein, so erhalten wir n Gleichungen, 
welche mit (5) zusammen 2n—m Bedingungen für die Funktio- 
nensystem z, a'i, ■••, ar„, pi, ..., p„ bilden. 

Dieselben Bedingungen erhalten wir offenbar von den Glei- 
chungen 

fc = l àXi 



6 T.';,Yoshiye : 

durch Elimination von k, fx^, •••,/^,„. Wir haben nämlich 



'^Pl 


^Pi 


w. 


ÔF2 


^P,n 


^P,n 


^F, 


SF., 


^Pi 


^Pi 


èFi 


3F, 



^Pl 



Ô/J1 



Ipl 



IF 

■^ III 

^Pi 

OF 

¥1 



= (î = W+l,"-7t)* 



(8) 



_aFi 



'^Pm 



IF.„ 
Ml. 



m) m m --' 



=0 (z = l,2, --w) 



Die Gleichungen (8) sind hinreichend fürs Bestehen der 
Gleichung (3), wenn -^^ und /^ geeignet bestimmt sind; die Glei- 
chungen (1) und (2) folgen aber nicht notwendig daraus. Wir 
dürfen also zu den Gleichungen (9) noch die Gleichung 



z'-Ip,x/=0 



(2) 



oder was dasselbe heisst: 

öFi IF.2 



IF\_ 



IFi 



i=i ' "àp, i^i^' Ip 



IF, 

^Pin 

^t IF. 

^Pi ^ 



IF,„, 

IF„, 
^Pii, 



=0 



hinzufügen. 

Wir gehen nun über in den 

Fall iii=zn. Das Gleichungensystem (4) besteht aus « + 1 
Gleichungen. Von den n letzten Bedingungen lassen sich die n 
Variationen dp^, ..., op,, als lineare Funktionen von ^z, ox^, ..., ôx„ 



Die Gleichungen (5) selbst. 



Charakt. Mannigfaltigkeit d. part. Differentialgleichungen. 7 

ausdrücken, da wir am Anfang die Determinante ^, \ V nicht 

gleich Null vorausgesetzt haben. Setzt man diese Ausdrücke in 
die erste ein, dann erhält man fin- oz eine lineare Differentialglei- 
chung erster Ordnung wie früher. Man kann daher die von 
Integi-alzeichen freien Glieder von (3) als verschwunden anneh- 
men. 

Die Bestimmungsgleichungen von ^^ und fi lauten hier 






-//=:0 



n ■\-ni 

Wir brauchen keine Bedingungsgleichung wie (5). 

Wegen der Willkür von ^.r,, •••, dx„ folgen die Gleichungen 

i/^lt' +(^^') -^ (t=l,2,.-.n) 

Durch die Elimination von -^ und ft ergiebt sich das Gleichungen- 
system 






^Pl 



^Pl 



IF., 

^Pn 



^F„ 

^Pa 



m (t) ■ ■ m - 



=0 (i = l,2,--n) (8') 



In diesem Falle haben wir zu bemerken, dass das System (8') 
die notwendige Folge von (1) und (2) ist, welches für m<zn nicht 
der Fall war. 



II. 



Bezeichnet man, wie gewöhnlich, den Ausdruck 
^ r IF, (^FA_ C^^FA^FA 



3 T. Yoshiye : 

mit dem Symbol [Fi, Ff,], dann folgt aus (2) und (8) die Beziehung 












IFi 



IF, 



[F,F,] [F,F,] 



[F,„F^] F/ 



=0 



Soll nun der Ausdruck F^ für die Lösungen des Systems 
der Gleichungen (2) und (8) einen konstanten Wert annehmen, so 
muss die folgende Beziehung identisch bestehen. 



2>Fi 
2>Pi 



IF, 



IF„., 
^Pi 



^Fy 
^P,n 






^F„„ 

^Pr. 


X 


[F„F,-] 






= 



[F,F^ [F,F,] 



Nach den Gleichungen (8) sind a-„/+i, •••, x„', p^', •••, p„' 
lineare Funktionen von a-/, •••, xj und die letzteren Grössen sind 
von einander unabhängig, und daher können sie sich willkürlich 
verändern. Daher müssen die Koeffizienten von x^\ •••, xj in 
der letzten Determinante identisch verschwinden. Wir haben also 
m Gleichungen 

an \f,f;\ + 4. [f.f;\ + • • • + J,„, [f,„f;\ =o 

4i [F,F:\ + J.« [F,F,] + • • • + J,,. [i^.F,] =0 



^„IFif;\ + â„,if,f;\ +•■ + j,„„[f„fj =o, 



"^F, . 



wobei Jik das algebraische Komplement des Elementes y^ in der 
Determinante 



Clurakt. Mannigfaltigkeit d. part. Differentialgleichungen. 



J = 












IFi 



3F., 



bezeichnet. 

Da nun die Determinante der Koeffizienten der letzteren 
Gleichungen gerade //'"' gleich ist und daher nicht verschwindet, 
so folgt, dass jeder von den KlammerausdrUcken [Fj i^',], [F^, FJ 
..., [F„„ FJ verschwindet. 

Umgekehrt, wenn alle Klammerausdrücke [Fi F;,] für ein 
Lösungssystem von (2) und (8) identisch verschwinden, so ist un- 
mittelbar ersichtlich, dass alle F/ identisch verschwinden müssen, 
d.h. dass dann F^, ■•■, F,„ konstante Werte erhalten. 

Dieser Fall tritt offenbar ein, wenn alle Ausdrücke [F^ F,,] 
als Funktionen der Veränderlichen -T], •••, .t,„ 2^1, •••, p„ identisch 
verschwinden, d.h. wenn die vorgelegten Gleichungen (1) ein 
Involutionssystem bilden. 

Im folgenden setzen wir also fest, dass das System (1) zuerst 
zu einem Involutionssystem gebracht worden ist. 

Wählt man nun, bei der Integration vom System (2) (8), die 
Anfangswerte so, dass dafür alle Ausdrücke -F,, ••, F,„ gleich Null 
werden, dann befriedigen die Lösungen dieses Systems das 
vorgelegte Involutionssystem (1). Nennen wir ein solches 
Lösungssystem eine charakteristische Mannigfaltigkeit, so haben 
wir im Ganzen 2n—2m + l fach unendlichviele charakteristische 
Mannigfaltigkeiten. 

Die gesammten go^""'"^' Elemente, welche dem Involutions- 
system (1) entsprechen, schliessen sich zu cc-""^'"^^ charakteris- 
tische Mannigfaltigkeiten zusammen. 

Da wir die simultanen Gleichungen (2), (8) nach 

'^m +1» ■ ■ ■ > -^n » ■^ ' Pi > ' ■ *> Pn 

auflösen können, wobei die rechten Seiten eindeutig bestimmt 
werden, können wir folgendermassen schliessen: 



10 



T. Yoshiye ; 



Jede charakteristische Mannigfaltigkeit wird durch 2n—2m + l 
Anfangswerte von a'„,+,, •••, rr„, z, pj, ■■-, Pn eindeutig bestimmt. 

Wir möchten nun zeigen, dass die so definirte charakteris- 
tische Mannigfaltigkeit mit der gebräuchlichen übereinstimmt. 

Bezeichnet man die 2n—2m + l von einander und von jPj, ..., 
F^ verschiedenen Lösungen des Gleichungensystems 



[F„^I>]=0, [F,,^l>]=0, ■■■, [i^„„<I>]=0 



(9) 



durch •!>„ •••, *2„_2m+i, so ist die charakteristische Mannigfaltigkeit 
gewöhnlich durch die Gleichungen 



F, = 0, ■'■, F„=0, a>i = Ci. •••, 'K,-:,„.+l = C-M-2m + U 



(10) 



wobei Cj, •••, 6'2„_2,„+i Konstanten bezeichnen, gegeben.* 

Es sei * (z, x^, •••, a-„, p„ •••, i)„) irgend eine Lösung des 

Systems (9). 

Wenn n:ian irgend ein Lösungssystem z, .r, p vom System (2) 

(8) in die Funktion * einsetzt, dann gilt identisch die Gleichung 



IFi 

^P,n ^P,n 

[Fl*] [F,<ï>] 



IF. 



SF,„ 

î>F,„ 

^Pm 

[F,„*] «!>' 



= 



Da aber alle Klammerausdrücke in der Determinante ver- 
schwinden, so folgt unmittelbar die Beziehung 

«Ii=Konst. 

Diese letzte Beziehung zeigt uns, dass jede Lösung * von (9) 
für jedes Lösungssystem z, x, p von (2) (8) konstant wird, d.h. 
$i=Cf(«=l, 2, ■••, 2/i— 2»i+l) sind Lösungen vom System (2) (8), 
und daher bildet das System (10), welches im Ganzen 2«— ?»+l 



* Goursat, Leçons sur l'intégration des équations aux dérivées partielles du premier 
ordre. §94. 



Charakt. Mannigfaltigkeit d. part. Differentialgleichungen. Jl 

Gleichungen mit 2n—2m+l ! Integrationskonstanten enthält, 
dieselbe charakteristischen Mannigfaltigkeiten, welche durch das 
System (2) (8) definirt sind. 

Da die Gleichungen (8) nichts anders als die Gleichungen 
für Extremalen des Variationsproblems 






sind, bekommen wir den folgenden Satz: 

Die charakteristischen Mannigfaltigkeiten eines 
Involutionssystems der partiellen Differentialgleichun- 
gen erster Ordnung 

Fi(z, xi, ■■■, x„,p„ ...,2)„) = 



FJ^> Xly ■'•, X„,Pi, ■■■,p„) = 



sind die Extremalen des Variationsproblems, dass das 
Integral 

r'Ä{z'-Ip,xncU 

ZU einem Extremum zu machen, dabei die zulässigen 
Funktionen den Nebenbedingungen 

unterworfen sind, und ^ eine geeignet zu bestimmende, 
nicht mitvarierende Funktion von t ist.* 



III. 

Von den charakteristischen Mannigfaltigkeiten kann man, 

* Von den GHeichungen (6) und Sju- (-JT^) + ^Pi =0 erhält man sofort : 

àFu 



L=l ( °~' i = l ) 



daher folgt, wegen der Nebenbedingungen, z' — ^pi xî =0. 



J^2 T. Yoshiye : 

nach Caucby und Lie, die allgemeine Lösung des vorgelegten 
luvolutionssystems ableiten. * 

Wir nehmen nämlich an, dass ein Litegralgebilde des vor- 
gelegten Involutionssystems (1) für die Anfangswerte x°^ •••, x^ 
von x^, •••, x„, sich auf das Gebilde 

"7= * (a:;,„+i, • • • a-J 

reduzirt. Das genannte Integralgebilde ist dann umgekehrt 
durch das letzte Gebilde im Allgemeinen eindeutig bestimmt.** 
Für dieses Wertsystem x°, ■■■, xj" erhalten wir 

die Werte ^^i, ••■,'p,,, lassen sich durch die Beziehungen 

F,=0, F,=0, •••, F„=0 

bestimmen. 

Hierdurch sind längs des Gebildes V= $ alle diese Elemente 

L'^i > ■■■> a%„ , x„,^i, ■■■, x„, z, pi, "•", 2^„j 

an einander gereiht und wir machen jetzt jedes einzelne Element 
zum Ausgangspunkt für die Konstruktion einer charakteristischen 
Mannigfaltigkeit. 

Alle so konstruirten charakteristischen Mannigfaltigkeiten 
bilden zusammen wieder das ganannte Integralgebilde. 

Wenn man die Funktion «I» als willkürlich betrachtet, so 
erhält man die allgemeine Lösung des vorgelegten Involutions- 
systems. 

Wir haben nun zu verifizieren, ob die partiellen Ableitungen 
der eben gewonnenen Lösung wirklich mit pi der charakteris- 
tischen Mannigfaltigkeiten übereinstimmen. Den Beweis dafür 
kann man ahnlicherweise wie in Goursat's ,, Leçons" §50 führen. 

* Goursat, Leçons. § 95. 
** Goursat, Leçons. § 71. 



Charakt. îlannigfaltjgkeit d. part. Differentialgleichungen. 



13 



Braucht man, nämlich, die dort benutzten Bezeichnungen, 
dann wird 

U = OZ—pi OXi — ■■■ — Pn 0X„ 

dU = fl{dz) - ^„„+1 d{dx,„^{) - ■■■ - p„ d{dx„) 
— dpi . oxi — • • • — dp,, ' o jr„ 

n 

= 2" (opi, ' dXi — dpi • oxj. 
Aus den Gleichungen (8) leitet man leicht die Beziehung ab: 






Ip, 



dxi 



U^ u 



IF., 






u 



^F„ 

^P>. 
IF 

~ä7 



dx, 



-dU 



= 0, 



welche sich in der folgenden Form schreiben lässt: 
dU 



ü 
Man erhält daher 



= Zi dxi + Zn ' dx., + ••• + Z„, dx. 



U=U, 



i = \J 



Falls alle Zi endlich bleiben, kann man, da U^ für unsere An- 
fangswerte gleich Null sein muss, daraus schliessen 

C7=0, 
was zu beweisen war. 

Tt' F • ■ -F 'i 

Sollte aber weiterhin durch VerschAvinden von -~ H- sich 

^{Pvp,n) 

eine Schwierigkeit ergeben, so bemerke man, dass man bei In- 
tegration längs einer charakteristischen Mannigfaltigkeit statt 
(^1, '", ^m) irgend m der Variabelen 



^> ^l> ■■■> S"«, Pi, •••, Pn 



14 



T. TosHye : 



gerade so gut als unabhängig ansehen kann. Eine Schwierig- 
keit kann also nur dann eintreten, wenn auf dem gerade betrach- 
teten Gebilde eine Stelle erreicht wird, an welcher alle Determi- 
nanten m-ieY Ordnung aus der Matrix 




im 



^'"û) 



verschwinden. 

Die bisherige Methode gibt also kein Integral, für welches 
alle diese Determinanten gleichzeitig verschwinden. Ein solches 
bezeichnet man als singulare Lösung. 

Wählt man jetzt für $ eine bestimmte Funktionsform, so 
ergibt sich ein bestimmtes Integral gebilde. Eine Schar von 
c»"""' charakteristischen Mannigfaltigkeiten bildet ein Integi'alge- 
bilde. Da es nun im Ganzen 00""-^'"+^ charakteristische Mannig- 
faltigkeiten gibt, so haben wir Scharen von cc"""'"^^ Integralgebil- 
den, welche man die vollständige Lösung nennt. 

Um also eine vollständige Lösung zu erhalten, wählen wir für 
* eine bestimmte Funktionsform mit n—m + 1 wesentlichen Para- 
metern. Die so gewonnene Lösung mit n—m-\-l Parametern ist 
eine vollständige Lösung. 

Wir wollen nun ein Beispiel geben, welches sich leicht durch 
diese Methode integrieren lässt. 

Beispiel. * Es sei das System 

p.2Pi—xiXi=0 



Goursat, Leçons p. 15ö. 



Charakt. Mannigfaltigkeit d. p.xrt. Differentialgleichungen. 15 



vorgelegt; wir bilden daraus das Involutionssystem 

i>4 



Pi - ^^^^ =0, 



X.y 



p,-^ =0. 



I 



Das Gleich ungensy stem (2) (8) besitzt, ausser dieser drei die drei 
folgenden Integi'ale: 

PlPs-X2X^ = ß, 

mit den Integrationskonstanten «, ß, y. 

Nehmen wir für die Anfangswerte die folgenden: 

x,^=~l, x:=l, 0^4°= 0, 

dann erhalten wir die Beziehungen zwischen den Konstanten 

a = z — '2iXiPi, 

ß=—Xi, 

r--=x,{pj. 

Die Gleichungen für charakteristische Mannigfaltigkeiten 
lassen sich in der folgenden Form schreiben: 

^_ 1 XiX<, + Xi(pi)- 



z ^ z + 

Pl= 
p 



2^1 a^s 



Pi 

Pi 

_ x^x^-\-Xi{p,Y 



Vi • X-z 



X, ' 

Pi 

Pi=Pi 372 



-[ß T. Yoshiye . 

Um die allgemeine Lösung zu erhalten haben wir nur zu 
setzen : 

wo <I> eine willkürliche Funktion und *' ihre Ableitung nach Ici 
bezeichnet, und dann sind die zwei ersten Gleichungen aus dem 
letzten Systeme als die allgemeine Lösung zu betrachten, wenn 
man a\ als Parameter denkt. 
Setzt man speziell 

z — a Xi -r b, 

SO erhält man gerade diejenige vollständige Lösung wie man im 
,,Goursat's Le<^ons" p. 157 findet, Avelche lautet: 

z = — i— ^ + a X., Xi + b. 
a 



IV. 

Ein spezieller Fall ist die Integration eines Involutions- 
systems linearer partieller Differentialgleichungen erster Ordnung.* 
Jede Gleichung ist von der Form 

worin Pj, Pg, •", -P», P^ Funktionen von z, x^, ..., x„ sind. 

Das Gleichungensystem von (2) und (8) sind offenbar 
Beziehungen zwischen z, x^, ■■■ x„, und enthält kein p drin. 

Schreibt man die Integrale dieses Systems in der Form 



Z = (p{Xi, ■•■,Xn,z), 

und setzt man, wie früher, 



* Vgl. Gouisat, Leçons. §97. U. 



Charakt. Mainiij-faltigkeit «1. parr. DilTiToutialg-leichiiugen. jy 

dann erhält man die allgemeine L(')^ung des vorgelegten Systems 
in der Form 

Wenn man, im x'\llgemeinen, irgend welclie n — m + l von 
einander unabhängigen Lösungen 



mit den Integrationskonstanten c,, ••., 6'„_„,+, findet, dann liefert, 
wie man leicht sieht, die Gleichung 

*(f^,•■•,^^-..-.l)=0 

die allgemeine Lösung, wobei ^t auch eine willkürliche Funktion 
bezeichnet. 

Beisj^iel. 1. Das vorgelegte S3^stem sei 

+ Xo *T~ JLa 

. . P-i = .. , 

, ^1 "p X--) 

Diese beiden Gleichungen bilden ein Livolutionss^^stem. Da hier 

-^^^ — l-identi.-ch verschwindet, nehmen wir -Tg, .Tg, anstatt .r,, a-^, 

für unabhängige Variabein an. 

Man findet leicht die folgenden drei Litegrale vom System 
(2) und (8): ' 

iTj — a-.^ = Konst. 
ir., — .r^ = Konst. 

-^ — i\ .-r^ — .r^ .T., = Konst. 
Die allgemeine Lösung des vorgelegten Sj'stems lautet also: 

2 

—s~ ~ ^i ^i ~ ^--i ^'-i — *!■* (•'^'i~" A', x. — x^). 
Beispiel 2. Das vorgelegte System sei 



18 



T. Yoshiye : 



Durch Hinzufüguiig der Gleichung 

erhalten wir ein vollständiges System. Löst man diese Glei- 
chungen nach 7^1, ;>2, ih '"^^if, dann bekommt man das Jacobische 

System : 

Ih + (-ys + '^.Ti") 2^4=0, 
Vi + a:'2 2^4 =0, 
i?s + ^iP^ =0. 

Man findet leicht die zwei Integrale 

z = Konst. 

Xi + -;^ ■\- Xy_x^ — Xi = Konst. 

z 

Die allgemeine Lösung unseres Systems lautet daher: 

X ^ 

Z = *^{x^+^^-X^X^-X^). 

Ich fühle mich Herrn Geheimrat Hubert in Göttingen für die 
wertvollsten Ratschläge zu grossem Danke verpflichtet. 

* Goursat, Leçons, p. G2. 



Publ. Aug. 25th, 1913. 



JOUENAL OF THE COLLEGE OF SOENOE, TOKYO IMPERIAL UNIVERSITY. 

VOL. XXXII., ABTICLE 12 



On Cyathocormus mirabilis nov. gen., nov. sp., 

the Type of a New Family of Compound 

Ascidians from Japan. 

By 
Dr. Asajiro Oka. 



With 3 Plates and 6 Text-figures. 



Although the Ascidiae Salpaeformes or Luciae have all along 
been regarded as a subdivision of the Order Ascidiacea, the 
difference between the free swimming Pyrosoma and an ordinary- 
fixed compound ascidian is certainly very striking. No form has 
as yet been made known which might be considered intermediate 
between these two groups. Even the curious unattached colony, 
Coelocormus huxleiji, which w^as believed by Prof. Herdman to be 
a transition form between them, has in reality nothing in common 
with Pyrosoma beyond the tubular shape of the colony. On the 
other hand, there are some recent investigators who regard 
Pyrosoma as more closely related to Salpa and Doliolum than to the 
ascidians. Neumann ('09), for instance, in Beonn' s Klassen und 
Ordnungen des Tierreichs, has transferred the family Pyrosomidae 
to the Thaliacea in which it constitutes the group Synthaliacea ; 
and Paeker and Haswell ('97 & '10), in their excellent text- 
book, have also adopted a similar view. 

The new genus of compound ascidians described in the 
present paper is quite unique in combining the characters of the 
compound ascidians and the Ascidiae Salpaeformes. In shape and 
general appearance of the colony it very much resembles the 
latter, while it agrees with some of the former in the possession of 



2 Dr. Asajiro Oka : 

a peduncle by which it is attached to some foreign body. The 
colony proper or head, which alone is composed of zooids, has the 
form of a short hollow cylinder, about as long as it is wide and 
closed at one end where it joins the stalk. Unlike Fyrosoma there 
is no diaphragm at the open end, so that the terminal aperture is 
of the same width as the central cavity. The peduncle is short, 
columnar, and dilated at the lower extremity to form a base of 
attachment. The entire animal, in consequence, is so perfect- 
ly cup-like in appearance that I could think of no better 
generic name than the one given in the title of this paper. 

The zooids forming the wall of the hollow cylinder are 
arranged in vertical lines which run distinctly in pairs. Looked 
at from inside each double row of zooids with their common 
investing mass is found to form a cushion-like longitudinal ridge 
projecting into the central cavity and separated from its neigh- 
bours on both sides by narrow deep furrows. The zooids are 
imbedded in the common test in such a manner that the branchial 
apertures all open on the outer surface of the colony, and the 
atrial cavities all communicate directly with the longitudinal 
furrows just mentioned, which, of course, are nothing but the 
peripheral portions of the central cavity. There are no definite 
atrial apertures present, since the wall of the peribranchial cavity 
is wanting in the greater part of the thoracic region and the 
stigmata of the branchial sac as well as the anal and genital 
apertures open immediately into the adjacent longitudinal furrow. 
Thus the central cavity serves, as in the case of Fyrosoma^ as the 
common cloaca of the whole colony which may be regarded as 
consisting of a single system of zooids, but this S3^stem is, in the 
present case, divided into groups of zooids whose atrial cavities 
are partly fused together to form a large continuous peribranchial 
space. 

It is perfectly obvious that a compound ascidian with such 
characters as those mentioned above can not be included in any 
of the recognized families, and I consider myself fully justified in 
forming a new family for its reception. Since, how^ever, only one 
genus of this family is at present known, I believe it would be of 



Cyathocormus mirabilis n. g, , n. sp. 3 

no use to consider the diagnostic characters of the family and the 
genus separately. They are naturally the same and may be 
summed up as follows : 



Cyathocormus nov. gen. 

Colony fixed, stalked; the head having the form of a 
short hollow cylinder closed at one end and open at the 
other. 

Systems — only one present, the terminal aperture being the 
common cloacal opening, and the central cavity the 
common cloaca. 

Zooids placed in a single layer with their anterior ends 
external and their posterior ends internal. Body 
divided into two regions, thorax and abdomen, the latter 
provided with a long vascular appendage. Branchial 
apertures opening on tlie outer surface of the colony, not 
lobed. Peribranchial wall imperfectly developed, stig- 
mata of the branchial sac as well as the anal and 
genital apertures opening directly into the centrally 
placed common cloaca. 

Test soft, gelatinous, and transparent; no calcareous spicules, 
bladder cells very numerous. 

Branchial sac large and well developed, with four rows of 
stigmata ; no internal longitudinal vessels present. 
Stigmata very long and narrow. 

Tentacles simple. 

Dorsal lamina represented by a series of languets. 

Alimentary canal forming a simple loop placed posteriorly to 
the branchial sac. Stomach ellipsoidal and smooth 
walled, no coecum. Duodenal portion of intestine dis- 
tinctly bounded, fine tubular intestinal gland Avell 
developed. 

Reproductive organs not conspicuous. Incubatory pouch pre- 
sent. Larva tailed. 



4 Dr. Asajiro Oka: 

It will be seen at once from the above diagnosis that the 
present genus exhibits in certain essential points a close relation- 
ship to the Pyrosomidae, while in other characters no less 
important it markedly approaches the Distomidae (Polycitoridae) 
among the compound ascidians. It agrees with Pyrosoma, on the 
one hand, not only in the form and general appearance of the 
colony already referred to, but also in the structure of the alimentary 
canal, which is practically the same in both forms. On the other 
hand, the presence of numerous bladder cells in the test naturally 
reminds of the condition found in the genera Colella (=:Sycozoa) 
and DistapUa (^Holozoci) among the Distomidae (Polycitoridae), 
in some members of which these cells form by far the greater part 
of the investing mass. The stalk, too, much resembles that of 
some species of the genus Colella. e.g. C. quoyi ; but this is unim- 
portant, as similarly stalked forms are also met with in some other 
families. 

One of the most notable jDoints about this form is without 
doubt the partial fusion of the peribranchial cavities in a number 
of zooids. So far as I am aware, there is but one member of the 
Ascidiae compositae in which all the zooids exhibit a similar 
structure. According to Lahille ('90), the zooids of Diplosomoides 
lacazei (= Polysyncraton /.) have their peribranchial walls very 
imperfectly developed so that the greater part of the branchial 
sac is uncovered. Since other species of the genus do not 
present the same condition, this character ought to be looked 
upon as simply specific. In the present family, however, of 
which no other genera or species are known yet, it must be left 
doubtful whether this peculiarity should be regarded as a family 
character or as of only generic or even specific importance. 

This genus contains the single species C. miraUlis. 

Cyathocormus mirabilis nov. sp. 

The colony is cup-shaped and is attached by the base of a 
short peduncle. The head has the form of a short hollow cylinder 
nearly as long as it is wide. The outer surface shows a number of 



Cyathocormus mirabilis n. g., n. sp. 5 

very shallow longitudinal depressions separating as many slightly 
elevated longitudinal zones upon which double rows of very short 
branchial siphons are placed. The inner surface has a number of 
deep longitudinal furrows corresponding to the shallow depres- 
sions on the outer surface. In the ridges separated by them the 
dark coloured contents of the intestines look conspicuously 
through the test and bod}^ wall. The stalk is shorter than the 
head, columnar in shape, and is dilated at the lower end to form 
the base of attachment. 

Size — head 18 — 22 mm. in length and 15 — '21 mm. in width; 
the stalk about 12 mm. in length and 4 — 5 mm. in diameter. 

The test is soft, gelatinous, and perfectly transparent in the 
head, and considerably harder and more or less opaque in the 
peduncle. 

The zooids are of moderate size and are entirely imbedded in 
the common test. They are 3 — 4 mm. in length and about IJ 
mm. in greatest breadth. The body is divided, though not very 
distinctly, into thorax and abdomen, the latter provided with a 
long vascular appendage. 

T]ie mantle is very thin, muscle fibres being found only in the 
anterior region where they form a sort of sphincter around the 
branchial aperture. 

The Irœnchial sac is well developed but delicate. The trans- 
verse vessels are narrow and are all of the same size. The stig- 
mata are very long and narrow with rounded ends. 

The endostijle is consj^icuous. It is plicated dorso-ventrally 
through the greater part of its length. 

The dorsal lamina is represented by three short pointed 
languets projecting from the dorsal parts of the transverse 
vessels. 

The tentacles are usually sixteen in number. Four are long 
and meet in the centre of the branchial aperture when laid flat; 
four others alternating with these are somewhat shorter, while 
the remaining eight are onl}^ half as long as the former. 

The dorsal tubercle is very prominent, being unusually large 
in proportion to the size of the branchial sac. The aperture is a 



ß Dr. Asajiro Oka: 

simple oval slit placed transversely on the anterior wall of the 
tubercle. 

The alimentary canal forms a simple loop lying almost entirely 
behind the branchial sac. The stomach is only moderately large 
and is rather thick walled. The duodenal portion of intestine is 
somewhat pyramidal in shape with the base next the stomach, its 
wall is very thin. Anal aperture without lobes. 

The reprochictive organs are mostly atrophied in fully grown 
individuals. A large oval incubatory pouch containing a single 
larva is seen alongside the branchial region. 

There are at present only two examples of this species known 
to me, both attached to a colony of a white coral. According to 
the statement of the collector, K. Aoki, they were obtained in 
the deeper parts of the Sagami Sea together with Euplectella, 
Metacrinus, etc., but the label having been lost, the exact date and 
locality of their capture can not be ascertained. A brief account 
of these colonies with remarks upon the systematic position of 
the species was given by me at the meeting of the Tokyo 
Zoological Society in January of the year 1907. The type spec- 
imens, partly injured by dissection, are deposited in the 
zoological collections of the College of Science, Imperial Univer- 
sity, Tokyo. They are preserved in a mixture of alcohol, 
glycerin, and water, and seem not to have lost much of the 
original transparency. 

Description of the Colony. 

General appearance. The colony has exactly the shape of a 
drinking cup (PI. I., fig. 1.) and may, for convenience of descrip- 
tion, be divided into the stalk and the head. The stalk is attached 
by its lower extremity to some foreign body, and bears the head 
on its upper end. It is short and rather thick. It is of equal width 
throughout from the point of junction with the head to within a 
short distance of the lower end, where it expands to form a base 
of attachment. The diameter of the base measures 8 — 12 mm., 
that is, nearly as much as the length of the stalk and more than 
twice its diameter in the upper part. Its surface is quite smooth. 



Cyathocormus uair.ibilis n. g., n. sp. Y 

showing neither longitudinal striae nor transverse wrinkles. It is 
almost transparent except the axial portion which is more or less 
opaque and whitish with a tinge of pale yellow, especially near 
the lower end. The stalk is made up entirely of the test sub- 
stance, and no zooids, whether adult or in developmental stages, 
are found imbedded in its tissue. 

The head has the form of a hollow cylinder open at one end 
and closed at the other. Viewed from the side, the lateral walls of the 
cylinder are nearly straight. At the open end the wall terminates 



I 



^/ 




^m-i. 





Text-fig. 1. Text-fig. 2. 

Diagram showing the longitudlinal Diagram showing the cross 
section of a colong. section, of a colong. 

quite abruptly, there being no thinning out of the investing 
mass to form a particular marginal zone (text-fig. 1). The 
bottom of the cylinder is somewhat lens-shaped, convex on both 
outer and inner surfaces. It is at the centre of its outer 
or lower surface that the peduncle joins the head. Like 
the stalk this part is entirely composed of the common 
test and contains no zooids. Near the periphery of the basal 
surface, however, a number of very small zooids, apparently in 
early stages of development, are to be seen. The side wall of the 
cylinder shows on its external surface a number (12 and 16 in the 
two colonies examined) of very shallow longitudinal depressions 
separating as many slightly elevated longitudinal zones. Under 
a low power of microscope these zones are found each to be 
composed of a double row of hexagonal areas representing the 



3 Br. Asajiro Oka: 

anterior ends of zooids with a short Ijranchial siphon at the 
centre. Looked at from inside, each double row of zooids forms 
a cushion-like ridge projecting into the central cavity and 
separated from its neighbours by narrow deep furrows. These 
furrows correspond in position to the shallow longitudinal 
depressions on the outer surface of the colony. A cross section 
through the middle of the head has therefore the shape repre- 
sented in text-fig. 2. Jt consists of thick and thin portions placed 
alternately in a circle, the former being each a mass of the 
investing substance containing two rows of zooids, while the 
latter are nothing but a thin layer of the common test forming 
the bottom of the deep longitudinal furrows just referred to. As 
the test and body-wall are transparent the intestines with their 
dark coloured contents stand out very conspicuously on the inner 
surface as dark brownish loops (see PI. I., fig. 1). Under a lens 
the stomach is also very clearly visible. 

Arrangement of zooids. As stated before, the zooids are 
arranged in longitudinal rows which run distinctly in pairs. In 
one of the two colonies examined by me there are sixteen of such 
double rows present, while the other one, which is somewhat 
smaller, though not much shorter, has only twelve. Each row 
begins at the very margin of the lateral wall of the head and ends 
on the basal surface at some distance from the top of the peduncle. 
The number of zooids which form a longitudinal row is 
generally twelve or thirteen, not counting a few small buds 
situated on the basal surface of the head. The zooids in a pair of 
lines are placed alternately, and as the amount of the test sub- 
stance intervening between them is proportionally very small, the 
anterior ends of the zooids are visible externally as hexagonal 
areas with the branchial siphon projecting from the centre. The 
whole external surface of the head therefore looks like a 
pavement composed of equal sized polygons (PI. I., fig. 2) in 
which, however, the longitudinal rows are grouped in pairs 
separated from one another by narrow zones free of zooids. 

The thoracic regions of the zooids are as a rule placed nearly 
at right angles to the outer surface of the colony. At the bound- 



CyathocormuS mirabilis n. g., n. sp. 

aiy between the thorax and abdomen the body is generally bent 
downwards, i.e., towards the closed end of the cylinder, in 
consequence of which the individuals overlap, so that the 
abdomen of one zooid covers the thorax of its neighbour below on 
the inner surface (PL I., fig. 4). For the same reason a cross 
section passing through the branchial sac of one individual cuts 
also the alimentary canal of one or even two individuals lying above 
it (PL I. , fig. 3). Moreover, the median plane of each zooid does 
not lie parallel to the main axis of the colony, but, as shown in 
PL I., fig. 2, the zooids in a pair of rows have their endostyles 
turned toward one another, while their dorsal edges are next the 
space between that row and the adjacent one. In this respect the 
arrangement of zooids in the present form exactly agrees with that 
found in some species of Colella (=Sijcozoa, Less), e.g. C. jmklira 
('86, Herdman, Challenger Reports, Part 2, PI. XV., fig. 6) and 
G. temiicaulis ('99, Herdman, Australian Museum Catalogue, PL 
Dist. I., fig. 3). As will be described further on, the course of the 
intestinal loop is not the same in all the individuals, but is 
different according to the position of the zooid in a double row. 
Those of the left side have their intestines opening into the 
longitudinal furrow lying on the left side, while those belonging 
to the right hand row have their anal apertures looking to right, 
although in both cases the intestine is bent invariably to the left 
side of the stomach (see PL, I. fig. 3). 

Test. The test is only weakly developed in the side walls of 
the head. Here the bodies of the zooids themselves form by far 
the greater part of the mass, while the test exists only in the form 
of thin covering round each zooid. In some places it forms an 
exceedingly thin partition between the zooids, so that the latter 
seem to be separated only by a delicate membrane. Along the 
median line of the longitudinal ridges formed by double rows of 
zooids, however, the test substance is found to take the shape of 
more or less thickened masses. On the outer surface of the head 
the test forms a thin layer of nearly uniform thickness (0,035- 
0,045 mm.) covering the anterior ends of the zooids. 

The extent and relative amount of the investing mass in the 



10 ßr. Asajiro Oka : 

wall of the head may be most clearly understood by examining 
the transverse and longitudinal sections of this region. In PI. I., 
fig. 3, representing a part of cross section of the head, the test is 
found to comprise the following parts: 1) a superficial layer cover- 
ing the outer surface of the head, 2) thin partitions separating the 
thoracic regions of various zooids, and 3) more or less thickened 
masses in which their abdominal regions are imbedded. The 
superficial layer, which is nearly of the same thickness through- 
out, not only covers the external surface of the anterior ends of 
the zooids, but is turned inwards at the branchial aperture and 
reaches the bases of the tentacles so as to form an internal lining 
of the branchial siphon. The walls of test substance forming 
partitions between the thoracic regions of the zooids are in some 
places much thicker than the superficial layer, but in other places 
they are exceedingly thin. Their thickness depends on the 
configuration of the zooids the interstices between which they fill 
up, but on the whole the test is not particularly well developed 
in these parts. It is in the inner half of the longitudinal ridges 
that the common test attains its highest development. Here it is 
found to form masses of more or less considerable thick- 
ness in which the abdominal parts of the zooids are completely 
imbedded. The masses also contain blood vessels to be described 
further on. The extent of the common investing mass in the 
longitudinal ridges is perhaps better shown in PI. I., fig. 4, which 
represents a part of longitudinal section through the side wall of 
the head. From this figure it will be seen that the posteror 
halves of the abdomens are imbedded in a continuous mass of 
test substance running longitudinally, Avhile the anterior halves 
containing the oesophagus and stomach are covered separately by 
a thin layer of test. Where the peribranchial wall is wanting, 
as shown in the figure, the branchial sacs as well as the 
anterior portions of abdomens are separated from one another 
simply by the common peribranchial space (p'"&.) directly 
continuous with the adjacent longitudinal furrow. The trans- 
verse walls of test intervening between the anterior regions of the 
branchial sacs are as a rule of the same thickness as the super- 



Cyathocormus mirabilis n. g., n. sp. 2^1 

iicial layer, and terminate quite abruptly at the level where the 
first row of stigmata begins to appear. As already motioned, the 
basal part of the head as well as the whole peduncle is entirely 
composed of test substance which is somewhat firmer and a little 
more opaque than that of the side w^alls of the head. 

The test consists of a hyaline homogeneous matrix in which 
two kinds of cells are imbedded, the bladder cells and the test 
cells. The former are very large, oval, spherical, ellipsoidal, or 
polygonal in shape, and have only a thin layer of protoplasm 
lining the inner wall, against which the nucleus lies (PI. I., fig. 5, 
h.c). The nuclei are veiy distinct, oval or fusiform in shape, and 
are always situated close to the inner wall of the cell. There is 
often a little mass of protoplasm at the point where the nucleus 
lies. The bladder cells are exceedingly numerous throughout, 
forming by far the greater part of the test tissue. In some places 
they are so numerous that the matrix exists only in the form of 
delicate membranes surrounding the large vesicles which have 
become polygonal by mutual pressure. The test cells are found 
wherever a small patch of matrix can be seen (PL I., fig. 5, t.c). 
They are small (0.005 — 0.006 mm. in diameter), oval or ellipsoidal 
in shape, and consist of a large nucleus surrounded by a small 
quantity of protoplasm. 

In the superficial layer of test forming the external covering 
of the head the tissue consists mainly of bladder cells generally 
arranged in a single layer with onty a little mass of matrix about 
them (PL I., figs. 7,9,10,11). This layer, therefore, is throughout 
its whole extent only just as thick as the greater diameter of the 
bladder cells. The walls of test substance intervening between 
the branchial regions of the zooids are in some places much 
thicker than the surface layer and may contain a large number of 
bladder cells grouped irregularly, but in other places they are 
extremely thin and are entirely composed of matrix, being in fact 
too thin to contain a bladder celL In the thickened masses of 
common test enclosing the abdominal regions of the zooids the 
bladder cells are also abundant, but small patches of matrix are 
found here and there, and in such places the test cells are very 
clearly visible (PL I. , fig. 5). 



12 Dr. Asajiro Oka: 

Discription of the Zooid. 

Form. As the zooids are attached to the common test rather 
firmly at the branchial apertm'e and at certain regions of the 
thorax, it is almost impossible to dissect out a zooid uninjured 
from the investing mass. It invariably breaks in the middle of 
the branchial region where it is weakest, since the body wall is 
here very imperfectly developed and the delicate longitudinal 
vessels of the branchial sac lie exposed on the outer surface. At 
other places, however, the body wall seems to be only loosely 
attached to the common test, since in sections of preserved speci- 
mens empty spaces are commonly found surrounding the zooids, 
apparently in consequence of contraction of the latter. 

The body of the zooid may be divided into two regions, the 
thorax and the abdomen. They are about of the same size, and 
the boundary between them is not very distinct. The thorax 
comprises chiefly the branchial sac and its accessory organs, while 
the abdomen is composed of the remaining parts of the alimentary 
canal together with the heart and the reproductive organs. A 
vascular appendage springing from the posterior end of abdomen 
traverses the common test towards the base of the colony. The 
zooids, without the appendage, are 3 — 4 mm. in length and 
nearly half so much in breadth ; when fresh and fully expanded 
they measured, of course, somewhat more. 

The thorax is roughly cylindrical in shape. The anterior end 
is only slightly convex and hexagonal in outline, with the bran- 
chial siphon placed at the centre. The side walls of the thorax 
are very incomplete, as the external wall of the peribranchial 
space is developed only on the ventral side. Dorsally as well as 
laterally there is no body wall, and consequently the branchial 
sac is quite exposed on these sides (Pl. I., fig. 3). This condition 
may perhaps be considered as the result of the atrial aperture 
having become disproportion ally widened so as to occupy the 
gi'eater part of the surface of the thoracic region. As mentioned 
before, there is only one species of compound ascidians in which a 
similar condition is met with. Lahille, in his "Recherches 
sur les Tuniciers " ('30) describes the thoracic region of the zooids 



Cj-athocormus mirabilis n. g., n. sp. 13 

of Diplosomoides lacazel Giard in following words : "La paroi 
péribranchiale, fort réduite, laisse la branchie presque entièrement 
à découvert ", and this is exactly what takes place in our species, 
though very probably we have here a case of convergence rather 
than that of a direct phylogenetical affinity. The posterior limit 
of the thorax is marked for the most part by the bottom of the 
branchial sac, at one point of which the funnel-shaped oesophagus 
commences. The terminal portion of intestine lying just beneath 
the branchial sac is also comprised in the thorax (PL II., fig. 8). 

The abdomen is irregularly ellipsoidal and somewhat flattened 
from side to side. Its shape is determined principally by that of 
the intestinal loop, since the heart and other organs contained in 
the abdomen are all placed between the stomach and ascending 
part of the intestine. As the investing mass as well as the thin 
body-wall is perfectly transparent and colourless, the external 
form of the abdomen is hardly recognizable to the naked eye, 
while the intestine itself is rendered very conspicuous by its dark 
coloured contents. The vascular appendage, whose lumen is 
continuous with the blood spaces of the zooid, starts from the 
posterior end of the abdomen and runs, as will be more minutely 
described hereafter, inwards and dow^nw^ards through the common 
investing mass to the base of the colony. 

Body ivall. The body w'all or mantle forms the outer covering 
of zooids and lies immediately under the test, with which, however, 
it is in the greater part of its extent not closely connected. In 
preserved specimens a cavity in which the zooid lies is distinctly 
visible (PI. I., fig. 3; PL IL, figs. 7, 8; PL IIL, fig. 20, sp.). In 
the living animal, however, when the contractile tissues were 
relaxed and the viscera were filled with water, the body Avail was 
doubtless in contact with the test throughout, and there was 
therefore no cavity around the zooid. In those places where the 
test ends with a free margin, the body w^all is more firmly 
attached to the test and remains closely connected with it even 
when preserved. Such places are found at the base of the branchial 
siphon and along the border of the body wall in the thoracic 
region. 



1 ^ Dr. Asajiro Oka : 

The body wall is composed inainl}^ of three elements — the 
ectodermal epithelium, the connective tissue, and the muscular 
fibres. The ectodermal epithelium is present throughout the 
whole extent of the mantle and is in direct contact with the test. 
The cells of this layer are generally flattened (PL II., fig. 7, ect.), 
especially so in the walls of abdomen where they form a thin 
pavement epithelium, but at the margin of the branchial siphon 
they are considerably thicker and almost cubical in shape (PL II., 
fig. 9, ect.). The connective tissue is present in the form of a 
hyaline homogeneous mass containing scattered cells and per- 
forated by blood spaces. The cells are fusiform or stellate in form 
and have distinct nuclei. The stellate cells are found generally in 
such places where the layer of connective tissue is rather thick, 
and are then scattered equally all over. Where the connective 
tissue forms a thin layer more fusiform cells are met with, some- 
times with their longer axes perpendicular to the plane of the 
adjacent ectodermal epithelium. 

The musculature is on the whole very feebly developed. 
Over the abdomen not a fibre is visible, and on the thorax the 
body wall has only a few scattered fibres here and there except on 
the anterior surface where they are more numerous. In the wall 
of the branchial siphon the fibres are placed transversely, forming 
a sort of sphincter round the external opening. Longitudinal 
fibres are also present, but are much less numerous. Compact 
bands of muscle fibres, such as are frequently met with in other 
genera, do not occur in any part of the body wall. 

Branchial sac. This organ occupies tlie greater part of the 
thorax, and is only partly covered by the body wall. When fully 
expanded it is somewhat barrel-shaped and extends from the 
anterior wall to the basal part of the thorax (PL I., fig. 3, hr. s.) 
In most zooids examined by me the branchial sac was strongly 
contracted, and it was with great difficulty that the exact form and 
structure of the organ could be made out. In a few exceptional 
cases, however, it could be satifactorily observed under a dissect- 
ing microscope. 

The endostyle runs along the ventral, and the row of languets 



Cyathocornius mirabilis n. g., n. sp. 15 

along the dorsal edge of the branchial sac, while the circlet of tenta- 
cles, the dorsal tubercle, and the peripharygeal band are situated 
at its anterior extremity (PL II., fig. 8). All these organs will be 
described further on. Very often one or two small copepod crus- 
taceans were found living in the branchial cavity as commensals. 

The stigmata occur over the whole extent of the sac, from 
the peripharyngeal band anteriorly to the base where the oeso- 
phagus opens posteriorly, with the exception of a narrow band 
along the dorsal and ventral edges, where the median dorsal vessel 
and endostyle are placed. They are arranged in horizontal 
(transverse to the aiitero-posterior axis) rows, and are separated by 
transverse and longitudinal vessels (PL II., fig. 12). There are 
four such rows and more than twelve stigmata in a row on each 
side. In shape they are elongated slits with parallel sides and 
rounded ends. The width of the stigmata is about equal to that 
of the fine longitudinal vessels separating them. 

Examined under a moderate power of microscope, each 
longitudinal vessel is found to have the form of a rectangular 
pillar, the sides of which are made of two kinds of cells. On the 
sides facing the branchial and atrial spaces the wall is very thin 
and is composed of flattened polygonal cells. On the sides sur- 
rounding the stigmata, on the contrary, the cells are of consi- 
derable height. Seen from the interior or exterior of the 
branchial sac each of the stigmata appears to be surrounded by a 
single row of ciliated cells (PL II., fig. 12). A transverse section of 
the longitudinal vessels, however, shows most clearly that what 
looked like a single cell is in reality a group of very narrow cells 
placed side by side (PI. II. fig. 13), and consequently what 
appeared as a single row of cells is in reality a longitudinal band 
of ciliated epithelium extending down the side of the vessel. The 
ciliated cells vary somewhat in shape, being taller and more 
columnar at the ends of the stigmata. The most common form is 
nearly semicirculer, the flat face being next the vessel and the 
curved one next the stigma. As they are grouped regularly in 
transverse rows they look somewhat like a pile of coins cut in 
halves. The nuclei are distinct and placed rather below the 



lg Dr. Asajiro Oka: 

middle of the cells. The cilia are long and delicate. They are 
from five to ten on each cell, attached to the more or less convex 
outer edge, and when fully extended they are more than twice 
the height of the cells. 

The transverse vessels are three in number and are all of the 
same size. They are about twice as wide as the fine longitudinal 
vessels and contain delicate muscle fibres (PL II., fig. 12, tr. v.). 
When contracted the branchial sac is always strongly constricted 
along these vessels. The zone devoid of stigmata along the 
dorsal edge of the branchial sac is very narrow, so that the rows of 
stigmata of one side appear to pass over to the opposite side 
without much interruption. The median dorsal vessel also 
contains muscle fibres in its walls and is found strongly contracted 
in most zooids. 

Endostyle. The endostyle runs along the ventral edge of the 
branchial sac (PL IL, fig. 8). It begins anteriorly at the base of 
the branchial siphon immediately behind the peripharygeal band 
and runs backwards to the base of the sac, ending at a short 
distance from the oesophageal aperture. The ends are bluntly 
conical, otherwise it is of the same width throughout. In the 
greater part of its course it forms a series of minute dorso- 
ventral undulations. Whether or not this is a result of contrac- 
tion of the branchial sac I am not able to say. At any rate, in all 
the zooids examined by me the endostyle invariably showed this 
character. The anterior end of the endostyle is turned inw^ards 
forming a sort of blind sac at the point of bending (PL IL, fig. 7, 
end.), so that in certain sections passing through this region the 
endostyle appears as a canal. 

The endostyle is a groove with greatly thickened sides 
formed of columnar epithelium, w^hile the base is covered with 
somewhat shorter cells (PI. IL, fig. 14). The summits of the 
edges are continued up as lip-like folds. A tract along each 
side and the base are richly ciliated. As shown in the figure 
several kinds of cells can be distinguislied in the wall of the 
endostyle. Those forming the base stain deeply with haemalaun 
and are provided with very long cilia, reaching, if not exceed- 



Cyathocormus mirabilis n. g., n. sp. \'J 

ing, the free edge of the lateral lips. On each side of the 
base there is a zone of large columnar cells without cilia which 
stain only faintly and seem to be glandular in nature. Beyond 
this glandular zone the cells are again ciliated, but the cilia 
are very short, and the cells bearing them become successively 
shorter as they are traced away from the base. On the inner 
surface of the lips there is again a zone of ciliated epithelium 
composed of cubical cells. The cilia are very short. On tracing 
these zones anteriorly they are found to be continuous with the 
band of ciliated epithelium covering the peripharyngeal ridge to 
be described below. Seen from the dorsal or ventral aspect, 
the endostyle shows a pair of thick semi-opaque bands separated 
by a more translucent area (PI. I., fig. 6, end.). The opaque 
bands are caused by the thickened sides, separated by the less 
massive floor of the groove. The narrow dark lines seen along 
both sides of the endostyle are the zones of ciliated epithelium 
on the lateral lips of that organ. 

Dorsal lamina. The dorsal lamina is represented by a series 
of three short triangular languets springing from the dorsal edge 
of the branchial sac. Each languet is placed at the intersection 
with a transverse vessel and is ciliated at the sides. They seem 
to arise directly from the inner wall of the vessel, there being 
no ridge or membrane present to unite their bases. 

Tentacles. The tentacles are placed in a circle round the base 
of the branchial siphon just at the entrance of the branchial sac. 
The branchial siphon is a short funnel with the rim turned out- 
wards, and when wide open its diameter is about double its height. 
Its inner surface is lined by an invagination of the superficial layer 
of test, which is nearly of the same thickness as that layer and 
extends as far doAvn as the tentacular circlet. 

The tentacles are simple and rather stout. When directed up- 
Avards they project beyond the external opening of the branchial 
siphon (PL IL, fig. 8, 10). They are generally sixteen in number 
and are of three different sizes. Four are long and meet in the 
centre of the branchial aperture even when the latter is wide open. 
Four others alternating with these are somewhat shorter, while 



IQ Dr. Asajiro Oka : 

the remaining eight are only half as long as the longest ones. Two 
of the longest tentacles are placed in the median plane of the zooid, 
the other two making right angles with them. At the level of 
their attachment a sphincter composed of loose circular muscle 
fibres encircles the base of the branchial siphon (PL II., figs. 9 & 
10). 

Each tentacle is attached separately and has a round tapering 

and generally curved stem and a rather blunt apex. The wall of 
tentacle is formed externally by an epithelium of flattened or 
cubical cells and is nowhere ciliated. The interior of the tentacle 
is filled with the homogeneous matrix of connective tissue with 
some scattered cells. A few delicate longitudinal muscle fibres are 
sometimes distinguishable under the epithelial layer. Whether 
the blood spaces are continued into the interior of the tentacles, 
though very probable, could not be ascertained. 

Periphanjngeal hand. In the present species the peripharyn- 
geal band is remarkably well developed, resembling in many 
respects that of simple ascidians. It consists of two parts, a thin 
membrane and a ciliated ridge (PL IL, fig. 9, piyh. m., prph. r.) 
For the greater part of their course they run close to and parallel 
with each other, forming between themselves a narrow groove, the 
"gouttière péricoronale " of French authors. They encircle the 
top of the branchial sac at a short distance from the bases of 
tentacles. The peripharyngeal membrane, called the " Ring- 
falte ' ' b}^ German writers, is a thin membrane of nearly equal 
breadth throughout, and is composed of flattened cells without 
cilia. At the ventral median line the membranes of both sides 
meet each other at the pointed anterior extremity of the endostyle. 
Dorsally the membrane reaches the dorsal tubercle where it is 
continued for some distance along the lateral region of that organ 
(PI. II., fig. 11, j)rp]i. m.). Throughout its whole extent the 
breadth of the peripharyngeal membrane is about equal to the 
height of the ciliated ridge forming the other lip of the groove. 

The peripharyngeal ridge is composed of a band of ciliated 
epithelium running parallel with the peripharyngeal membrane on 
its posterior side. It is connected at its ventral and dorsal ends 



Cyathocormus mirabilis n. g., n. sp. lg 

with the anterior extremity of the endostyle and the dorsal tubercle 
respectively. By tracing the ridge ventrally it is found to be 
directly continuous with the ciliated band on the inner surface of 
the ]ip of endostyle. Near the dorsal end the ridge forms the 
greater part of the side wall of the dorsal tubercle and gradually 
disappears towards its free extremity. The cells composing the 
ridge are high and columnar, and the cilia are very short through- 
out. 

Dorsal tubercle. This organ is placed at the anterior end of 
the dorsal edge of the branchial sac, and is very conspicuous on 
account of its unusually large size. As shown in PL IL, figs. 8 and 
10, it projects into the branchial cavity just below the base of the 
branchial siphon on the dorsal side and is clearly visible from 
outside when the branchial orifice is moderately open. It is 
conical in shape, with blunt apex, and attached obliquely to the 
anterior wall of the thorax in such a manner that the apex is 
directed towards the axis of the body. The aperture of the 
neural gland is situated on its anterior surface about half way 
between the apex and the base of the organ where it joins the base 
of the median dorsal tentacle (PI. II., fig. 10). The aperture is 
simple, oval in outline, and is placed transversely in reference to 
the axis of the organ. As the peripharyngeal ridge is continuous 
with the ciliated patch covering the apex of the dorsal tubercle, 
and the peripharyngeal membrane almost reaches the anterior 
surface of the organ before it is lost to sight, these two components 
of the peripharyngeal band well deserve the names of "anterior 
and posterior lips' ' , as they are sometimes called in simple ascidians. 
At the apex and on both sides the wall of the organ is made up 
of cubical or columnar cells. In the immediate neighbourhood of 
the aperture the cells are rather high and ciliated. In other 
places the tubercle is covered with an epithelium of flattened 
cells. 

Nerve ganglion. The nerve ganglion is in its usual position on 
the dorsal side of the branchial sac immediately beneath the ecto- 
dermal epithelium of the body wall. It is oval or elliptical in 
outline and sends out nerve trunks both anteriorly and posteriorly. 



2Q; Dr. Asajiro Oka : 

The nuclei of the cells are found mostly in the peripheral parts, 
the centre being mainly composed of fibrous substance (PL II. , fig. 
10). The longer diameter, which is placed antero-posteriorly, 
measures almost 0, 1 mm. 

Neural gland. The neural gland lies immediately beneath the 
nerve ganglion and is nearly of the same size as that organ. It is 
bladder-like in structure with uniformly thick wall and a large 
cavity in the interior. The wall is composed throughout of a 
single layer of cells, the cytoplasm of which, however, seems not 
to be clearly bounded, forming rather a sort of syncytium. The 
dorsal portion of the wall is in close contact with the nerve gan- 
glion, but the boundary between them is everywhere quite distinct, 
and there is no area in which the tissues of the two organs 
gradually pass over to each other^ (PI. IL, fig. 10). 

The central cavity of the neural gland communicates with 
the exterior by means of a short duct which opens on the anterior 
surface of the dorsal tubercle. This duct is of the same 
width throughout except the terminal portion which is somewhat 
widened so as to form a sort of funnel. At the very margin of the 
opening, however, the duct is again a little constricted (PL IL, fig. 
10). The wall of the duct is made up of cubical cells all over. 
In the terminal portion of the duct, where it is widened, the cells 
are provided with long vibratile cilia. 

A cross section though the middle part of the dorsal tubercle 
is shown in PL IL , fig. 11. At the centre of the figure the ciliated 
terminal portion of the duct of the neural gland is seen cut across. 
On both sides the wall of the dorsal tubercle is formed for the 
greater part by an epithelium of ciliated columnar cells, which is 
the direct continuation of the epithelial layer of the peripharyngeal 
ridge mentioned above. The peripharyngeal membrane is also 
seen immediately on the dorsal side of this epithelium. The 
posterior wall of the dorsal tubercle is formed of a thin epithelium 



1 According to M. M. Metcalf ('00), who made a special study of the intersiphonal organs 
of various groups of Tunicata, there is in all the compound asoidians a region where the cells of 
the ganglion and the neural gland merge into one another and are indistjnguishaole. 



Cyathocormus mirabilis n. g., n. sp. 21 

of simple flat cells. The undulations of this epithelium shown in 
the figure are, I l>elieve, due to contraction incident to preserva- 
tion. 

Aliiucntarij canal. The alimentary canal is contained partly in 
the thorax and partly in the abdomen. Excluding the branchial 
sac, which is the foremost portion of the canal, it may be divided 
into three parts, the oesophagus, the stomach, and the intestine 
(PL III., fig. 15). 

The oesophageal opening is placed at the posterior end of the 
branchial sac, nearer the dorsal than the ventral edge (PI. IL, fig. 
8, oe.). It is separated from the hind end of the endostyle by a 
narrow space where the bottom of the branchial sac is lined with 
thin epithelium. As shown in the figure, the terminal portion of 
intestine lies immdiately beneath this part in close contact with 
the oesophagus. The oesophagus is rather short and funnel-shaped, 
with the wajl thrown into irregular longitudinal folds (PL III., fig. 
15). Generally the course of the oesophagus is a little curved. 
The anterior margin of its wall is somewhat raised and forms a 
distinct ridge or lip (PL III., fig. 18). Posteriorly the oesophagus 
projects into the cavity of the stomach considerably and seems to 
perform the function of a valve (PL III., fig. 16). The wall of 
the oesophagus is lined with columnar epithelium and is finely 
ciliated all over. In sections stained with haemalaun the zone 
formed by inner halves of these cells is coloured dark blue and 
stands out very conspicuously. In the part projecting into the 
interior of the stomach the cells do not show any such differen- 
tiation. 

The stomach is oval-shaped with smooth and uniformly 
thick Avail. The anterior end of the organ is rounded with an 
invagination at the centre, forming a sheath for the oesophagus 
which proceeds a short distance into the interior (PL III., fig. 16). 
The posterior end, on the contrary, terminates quite abruptly and 
without any constriction. The stomach, therefore, is comparable 
in form with an egg from which the posterior third (next the 
pointed end) has been cut away. The wall is of considerable 
thickness being lined with an epithelium of tall columnar cells. 



22 Dr. Asajiro Oka: 

It is perfectly smooth both externally and internally, and no folds 
or thickenings, such as are frequently met with in other compound 
ascidians, are to be seen. The stomach is nowhere ciliated. 

The intestine begins at the posterior end of the stomach, runs 
backwards for a short distance, then turns to left and runs for- 
wards till it reaches the bottom of the branchial sac; here it is 
curved either to right or to left and opens into the longitudinal 
furrow^ separating the double rows of zooids. xV short tract of the 
intestine lying immediately behind the stomach and clearly 
bounded by a costriction posteriorly differs from the rest of the 
canal in many respects, and may, for the sake of convenience, be 
distinguished as "duodenum." It corresponds exactly to the 
" post-estomac " of some French authors and the " Mitteldarm " 
of German writers. The remaining portion of the canal exhibits 
nearly the same character throughout, though it may conveniently 
be divided into three regions in referrence to the area occupied by 
the intestinal gland. 

The duodenal part of intestine has the shape of a truncated 
cone attached by the broad base to the posterior end of the 
stomach. The wall, which is generally a httle wrinkled, is lined 
with a layer of cubical cells without cilia and stains very deeply 
with haemalaun. The alimentary canal has thinnest wall in this 
part, and, as the stomach lying immediately in front of it is the 
thickest walled part of the canal, the contrast in thickness of the 
Avails is very striking. 

The intestine, exclusive of the duodenum, may be divided 
into three regions of nearly equal length. The first third lying 
next the duodenum occupies the hindmost region of the abdomen 
and is bent somewhat in the form of the letter U. Next comes 
the middle third which is distinguished by the presence of the fine 
tubular intestinal gland covering the outer surface of the wall. 
The last third, which may be called the rectum, is simply tubular 
in form and opens by the anal aperture into the common peribran- 
chial space. In microscopical structure of the wall, however, 
there is no noticeable difference between these parts. The course 
of the rectum is a little different according to the position of the 



Cyathooormus mirabilis n. g., n. sp. 



23 




Text-fig. 3. 
Two zooids placed side by side 
to stow the difference in the course 
of intestine. 



zooid in the colony. In those zooids 
situated on the left side in a pair of rows 
the rectum turns to left and terminates 
in the anus without crossing the oesop- 
hagus. In those belonging to the right 
half of a pair of rows, on the other hand, 
the rectum turns to right and crossing the 
oesophagus on its dorsal and right side, 
opens into the longitudinal furrow lying 
next it on that side (see textfig 3). 
That the intestine lies mainl^^ on the 
left side of the stomach in either case 
is clearly seen in a cross section through 
the lateral wall of the colony (PI. I., fig. 3). 

The intestine, with the exception of the duodenum, is nearly 
of the same width through its entire length. Its diameter is a 
little less than that of the stomach, but is greater than 
that of the posterior end of the duodenum. The relative sizes 
of these parts are shown in PI. III., figs. 15 and 16 (st.^ d., 
int.) For the greater part of its length the intestine is smooth 
walled, exhibiting only slight wrinkles at the place of bending and 
in the terminal region just in front of the anus. The wall of the 
intestine is lined with low columnar cells with the nuclei situated 
near the base, and is, in comparison with that of the stomach, 
considerably thinner. A glance at PI. III., fig. 20, representing a 
cross section of the abdomen, will suffice to make clear the 
difference in the thickness of wahs of these organs. On the lips 
of the anus, however, the cells are taller. At the anal opening 
the wall of the rectum is turned outwards so as to form a sort of 
lip (PI. III., fig. 17). Just in front of the anus the rectum is 
surrounded by a set of ring muscle fibres which no doubt perform 
the function of a sphincter. 

In the middle third of its course the intestine is embraced 
externally by a system of fine branching tubules, corresponding to 
the digestive gland found in many simple ascidians. The duct 
from this system runs across from the intestine and opens into the 



24 Dr. Asajiro Oka : 

stomach (PL III., fig. 19). The tubules are round or oval in cross 
section and measure 0,02-0,025 mm. in diameter. They are placed 
on the outside of the intestinal epithelium and are generally in close 
contact with it (PL III., fig. 21). The course of these tubules is 
wavy throughout. For the greater part they run parallel with the 
axis of the intestine. In the part lying nearest to the stomach, 
however, they are found to form two or three rings encircling the 
intestine. The duct is lined with cubical cells (PL III., fig. 19), 
but the tubules themselves are composed of much flatter cells. 

Blood vascular system. The heart lies in the loop formed by 
the alimentary canal between the stomach and the ascending 
portion of the intestine. It is a fusiform tube with undulating 
walls, and is enclosed in an outer delicate membranous sac, the 
pericardium, which fills the greater part of the space between the 
stomach and the intestine (PL III., fig. 20). The heart is attached 
to the pericardium along a line on that side which lies next the 
intestine. The wall of the heart is not of the same thickness 
throughout, but is thinnest along the line where it joins the peri- 
cardium and becomes gradually thicker as it is traced to the other 
side, where it is sometimes as thick as the wall of the intestine. 
(Pl. III., fig. 25). A number of muscle fibres are clearly discernible 
in its tissue. In some sections it can be distinctly made out that 
the walls of the heart and pericardium are directly continuous 
witli each other, and that the heart is simply an invagination of 
the pericardium. 

The heart is open at both ends. The blood flowing out of 
the heart passes into definite canals channeled out in the connec- 
tive tissue filling the space between the body wall and the internal 
organs (PI. II., fig. 14; PI. III., figs. 18 and 25, hi sp.). The blood 
corpuscles are round or oval cells with distinct nuclei (PL III., fig. 
23). They are gathered in some of the blood spaces while they 
are wholly absent in others. 

As stated before, each zooid sends out from the posterior end 
of abdomen an ectodermal appendage. This is a thin walled tube 
of varying width divided longitudinally into two cavities by a 
delicate septum, so that in reality it is formed of two vessels run- 



25 

ning side by side (PL III., fig. 24). It passes through the test 
substance of the longitudinal ridge downwards towards the base of 
the colony. The lumen of these tubes is continuous with the 
blood spaces of the zooid to which they belong. Their number 
increases as they are traced downwards. They run mostly parallel 
with one another and, so far as I could ascertain, there is no 
anastomosing among them. In sections the vascular appendages 
are found to be surrounded by a space separating them from the 
test substance, but this is no doubt the result of contraction of the 
neighbouring tissues. 

Reproductive Organs. Unfortunately in all the zooids examin- 
ed by me the reproductive organs were not in full develop- 
ment. Neither the testes nor the ovaries could be made out with 
certainty. The genital duct, however, was tolerably large and 
very clearly visible. This fact, I believe, renders it very probable 
that the zooids examined by me had already passed through the 
period of sexual maturity rather than that they were still on the 
way of development. The duct runs along the rectum for some 
distance and opens quite near the anus, somewhat covered over 
by the expanded margin of that aperture. Its wall is lined with 
cubical cells (PL IIL, fig. 22). 

Incubatory Pouch. In one of the colonies examined by me 
nearly all of the zooids situated near the free margin of the head 
are provided with an incubatory pouch . It is an appendage to the 
mantle, being merely an enormous diverticulum of the peribran- 
chial or atrial cavity. It is oblong in shape, nearly twice as long 
as it is wide, and contains only a single embryo in the middle 
where it is widest . The tadpole-like larva has three large adhesive 
papillae and a long tail, and looks very much like that of Diplosoma. 
Since the other colony, though somewhat larger, shows no indivi- 
dual provided with a pouch, it is highly probable that the species 
is dioeceous. 

Systematic Position. 

The external form of colony is, generally speaking, not a 
character of much importance in determining the systematic posi- 



26 Cyathocormus mirabilis n. g., n. sp. 

tion of a compound ascidian, but it should certainly be taken into 
consideration when it is so highly specialised as in the present 
species. It is in fact one of the chief diagnostic characters by 
which the family Cyathocormidae differs from all the other 
recognized families of the Ascidiae compositae. 

The hollow cylindrical form of the colony of Cyathocormus is so 
utterly different from that of other compound ascidians that it 
seems at first sight almost impossible to reduce it to one of the 
typical forms of colony prevalent among these animals. On the 
















•^ r 



^v^ 



Text-tig. 4. Text-tig. 5. Text-tig. 6. 

Coelocormiis C tjathocormus Pijrosovia 

contrary, its extraordinary shape recalls the arrangement seen in 
Fyrosoma, where the zooids and their investing mass form the walls 
of a hollow cylinder closed at one end. As shown in the 
accompanying woodcuts (text-figs. 4, 5, and 6) the mode of ar- 
rangement of the zooids is practically the same in Cyathoconmis 
(text-fig. 5) and Pyrosoma (text-fig. 6), whereas in Coelocorimis (text- 
fig. 4), which was considered by Prof. Herdman to be the most 
Pyrosoma-]ike compound ascidian, the arrangement is quite 
different. Here the whole surface, both the outside of the colony 
and also the lining of the axial cavity, is morphologically the 
outer surface, and the branchial apertures of the zooids are found 
distributed all over it. It is therefore evident that although the 
form of the colony in Coelocormiis huxleyi somewhat resembles that 
of Pyrosoma, still the inner surface lining the central cavity is 
homologous with part of the outer surface of an ordinary compound 



Dr. Asajiro Oka: 27 

ascidian and not with the inner surface lining the central cavity of 
Pyrosoma. In Cyathocormus the case is wholly different. The 
central cavity of C yathocormus-eolouy exactly corresponds with 
that of Pyrosoma both morphologically and functionally, the 
cavity in question representing in both cases the common cloaca of 
the whole colony. That a diaphragm is present in one form and 
lacking in the other is not of much importance, since the mode of 
life is entirely different in these aninials, and the diaphragm, 
though highly useful in making the jet of water more powerful in 
a swimming animal, would be of no use in a sedentarj^ colony. 

So far as I can judge, the form of colony of Cyathocormus might 
most naturally be deduced from that of Diplosoma, such as is figured 
in Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs, III. Suppl. p. 
184, or in Lahille's work (' 90) p. 112. If we imagine the base 
of attachment of such a colony to become smaller and the common 
cloacal opening larger, until the shape of the colony has become 
cylindrical, we would have practically the same form of colony as 
it really occurs in Cyathocormus. In all probability, the thoracic 
region, lying nearest the superficial layer of test, would have kept 
its position perpendicular to the w^alls of the cylindrical head, while 
the abdomen, being connected with the base of the colony by 
means of the vascular appendage projecting from its posterior end, 
would be bent downwards and cover the thorax of the zooid 
lying next below on the inner side. In like manner, the test 
substance enveloping the vascular appendages of various zooids 
now arranged in longitudinal rows would fuse together to form 
compact masses. In short, the colony would be converted to one 
exactly similar to that of Cyathocormus. 

It is, however, equally possible that the colony of Cyatlwcormus 
has been produced in the following way. Suppose a club-shaped 
colony of compound ascidian, such as Colella murrayi or C. quoyi, 
for example, has lost a part of the test substance at the top as w^ell 
as in the interior of the head. The colony would in this case also 
become cup-shaped and would very much resemble a Cyathocormus 
colony. Moreover, the mode of formation of the colony might, 
in all probability, be much the same. In Cyatlwcormus, as in the 



28 Cyathocormus mirabilis n. g., □. sp. 

genus Colella, the buds seem to be produced near the base of the 
colony and gradually pushed to the outer surface of the head. 
Here, probably, they soon reach maturity, the female individuals 
producing also a tailed larva from an egg fertilized by the sper- 
matozoa of the older zooids. They are then constantly pushed 
upwards, and finally, having lived through the entire length of 
the head, they reach the free margin as old zooids, die and drop 
off. This is, I believe, the reason why we do not find young 
buds or functionally active reproductive organs in the zooids 
situated in the distal part of the head. 

The similarity in the arrangement of zooids within the colony 
in Cyathocormus and in some members of the genus Colella 
(j=Sycozoa)^ such as C. pidclira, C. temiicaulis^ etc. is also very 
striking. The zooids form, in both cases, longitudinal rows 
grouped in pairs, in which they are placed alternately in such a 
manner that the endostyles are turned towards one another. 
Moreover, in the last species the head is sometimes truncated at 
the top and much resembles that of Cyathocormus, so that if the 
head became hollow inside the colony would have exactly the 
same form as that of our species. 

Turning now to the anatomy of the individual zooids we 
again find that the present genus is closely related to Coklla among 
the Distomidae and to Diplosoma. In all these forms the body is 
divided into thorax and abdomen, to which a vascular appendage 
is attached. The branchial sac has four rows of stigmata. The 
intestine forms a simple loop lying posteriorly to the branchial 
sac. The stomach is smooth walled. In the possession of a 
large incubatory pouch, however, Cyathocormus agrees with Colella 
and differs from Diplosoma. If, in addition, the colonies of 
Cyathocormus should turn out to be really dioeceous, which 
is very probable, the relationship between the two genera 
would become decidedly closer.^ In the unlobed condition of 
the branchial aperture, on the other hand, Cyathocormus differs 

1. According to the researches of Caullert ('95) members of the genus Colella {^Sycozoa), 
with the single exception of C. thompsoni, are all dioeceous. 

2. Axtrallium ^spongiforme Giard (72) has unlobed branchial aperture. 



Dr. Asajiro Oka: 29 

from both ColcUa and Diplosoma,^ but agrees with Pyrosoma. As 
stated before, the only other compound ascidian in which the 
peribranchial wall is so imperfectly developed as to expose the 
greater part of the branchial sac, is found among the family 
Diplosomidae. 

In short, it seems highly probable that the new family is 
more closely allied to some members (genus Colella) of the Dis- 
tomidae than to any other group of the Ascidae compositae. 
Though it is sufficiently characterised by the hollow cylindrical 
form of the colony with a large centrally placed common cloaca, this 
form might be regarded as a modification of the colony form 
actually met with in certain genera. If, in future, transition forms 
should happen to be discovered, it might of course become neces- 
sary to unite the Cyathocormidae with one of the closely related 
families. At present, however, it seems best to consider our form 
as the type of a distinct family and place it, in a phylogenetic 
classification of the Tunicata, somewhere in the neighbourhood of 
the Distomidae, representing a special branch leading in the 
direction of the Pyrosomidae. By the intervention of the present 
family the Ascidiae Salpaeformes would be much more closely 
connected with the rest of the Ascidiacea than was hitherto the case, 
rendering it doubtful whether we are justified in separating 
Pyrosoma from other compound ascidians and placing it along with 
Salpa and Doliolum in a difïerent order, the Thaliacea. 



Publ, Mar. SOth, 1913. 



30 



Cyathocormus mirabilis n. g., n. sp. 



Works referred to. 

Caullery M. Contribution à l'étude des Ascidies composées. Bulletin scientifique 

de la France et Belgique, Vol. XXYII. 1895. 
Delage, Y. et Hérouard, E. Traité de Zoologie concrtéte. Tome VIII. 1898. 
Delia Valle, A. Nuove Contribuzioni alla Storia Naturale délie Ascidie Composte 

del Golfo di Napoli. Atti Ace. Lincei Mem. Ser. 3, Vol. X. 1881. 
Giard A. Kecherches sur les Synascidies. Arch. Zool. expér. T. I. 1872. 
Herdman, W. A. Report on the Tunicata. Keport on the Scientific Eesults of the 

Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger. Zool. Vol. XIV. 188G. 

■, Descriptive Catalogue of the Tunicata in the Australian Museum. 1899. 

Lahille, P. Recherches sur les Tuniciers des Cotes de France. 1890. 

Metcalf. M. M. Notes on the Morphology of the Tunicata. Zool. Jahrb. Anat. Bd. 

XIII. 1900. 
Neumann, G. Tunicata, 2te. Abteilung, in Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des 

Tierreichs. 1909. 
Seeliger, 0. und Hartmeyer, R. Tunicata in Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen 

des Tierreichs. 1893-1911. 



List of the Abbreviations used in the Plases. 



a. 


Anus. 




b.c. 


Bladder cells. 


bl. c. 
bl.v. 
br. s. 


Blood corpuscles. 
Blood vessel. 
Branchial sac. 




bl. SJ). 
bl. ajK 
d. n. (jl. 


Blood spaces. 
Branchial aperture. 
Duct of neural gland. 


d. int. 
d. t. 
ect. 


r/l. Duct of intestinal 
Dorsal tubercle. 
Ectoderm of body 


gland, 
wall. 


da. 

end. 

h. 


Duodenal portion of intestine. 

Endostyle. 

Heart. 


g. d. 
int. 


Genital duct. 
Intestine. 




int. gl. 
n. gl 


Intestinal gland. 
Neural gland. 


n.g. 


Nerve Ganglion. 




jjrb. 


Peribranchial cavity. 


ce. 
pre. 


Oesophagus. 
Pericardial cavity 




j)rjjh. vi 
ret. 


Peripharyngeal membrane. 
Eectum. 


2>rj}h. 

sg. 

St. 


r. Peripharyngeal ri( 
Stigmata. 
Stomach. 


Ige. 


sjy. 
t. 


Space between test and body 
wall produced by shrinking. 
Test. 


t. c. 


Test cells. 




in. 


Tentacles. 


tr. V. 


Transverse vessel o 


f branchial sac. 







Plate I. 



I 



PLATE I. 

Fig. 1. Two colonies attached to a coral. Nat. size. 

Fig. 2. External surface of colony. 8/1. 

Fig. 3. Part of cross-section of colony. 15/1. 

Fief. 4- Part of longitudinal section of colony. 15/1. 

Fig. 5- Section of test. 400/1. 

Fig. 6, Branchial aperture, seen from inside. 80/1. 



Jour. Sei. Coll. Vol. XXXII. , Art. 12, PI. I. 




A. Oka : Cyathocormus viirabüis. 



Plate IL 



PLATE II. 

Fig. 7. Longitudinal section tlivougli endostylo. 'iUO/l. 

Fig. 8- Longitudinal section througli thorax. 40/1. 

Fig. 9. Longitudinal section tliroiigh the wall of branchial siphon. 200/1. 

Fig. 10. Longitudinal section through dorsal tubercle. 200/1. 

Fig. 11. Cross-section through dorsal tubercle. 200/1. 

Fig. 12. Part of branchial sac. 200/1. 

Fig. 13. Cross-section of longitudinal vessels. 200/1. 

Fig. 14. Cross-section of endostyle. 200/1. 



Jour. Sei. Coll. Vol. XXXII., Art. 12, PI. II. 



fil f. 7. 



tiff. 8. 



bCt; 





Fifj. 11. 



Fiff. IZ. 



Fiff. 9 




it-.yl 



d.i. 



ect. ^nd. 



A. Oka : Cyathocormuf mirabilis. 



( 






Plaie III. 



I 



PLATE III. 

Fig. 15' Alimentary canal. 25/1. 

Fig. 16. Longitudinal section throngli oesopLagus, stomach, 

and intestine. 40/1. 

Fig. 17. Longitudinal section through rectum. 80/1. 

Fig. 18- Longitudinal section through oesophogus. 80/1. 

Fig- 19- Opening of intestinal gland into stomach. 200/1. 

Fig. 20- Cross-section through abdomen. 80/1. 

Fig- 21. Section through intestinal wall with gland. 200/1. 

Fig. 22. Section through genital duct. 200/1. 

Fig. 23. Blood cells. 400/1. 

Fig. 24. Blood vessels in test. 200/1. 

Fig. 25. Section through heart and pericardium. 200/1. 



Fig. 15 



Jour. Sei. Coll. Vol. XXXII. , Art. 12, PI. III. 



Fit,. I fi. 




Fui. J 






iL.utt. (ft. 



""* inL. a L. 



Fif). 25. 



UJ.^+. 





A. Oka : Cyathocormus mirabilis. 



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