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XJ 

•0876 



Vol. 2 
19a 









UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



JOURNAL 

OF THE DEPARTMENT OF 

AGRICULTURE 



INDEX 



TO 



Volume IL-JANUARY to JUNE, 1921 



Piiblislied h[i the 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRIGULTUKE 

PRETORIA 



PUETOKIA 

Thk Government Printing and Station i:ky Office 

1921 






Printed by the Government Printer, Pretokia. 
4686—7/7/21—7,000. 



JOURNAL OF THE DEPARTMENT 
OF AGRICULTURE. 



INDEX 

TO 

Volume II.-JANUARY to JUNE, 1921 



[Items marked (N.) indicate Notes — Editorial and other — as distinguished from 
articles ; those marked (*) are illustrated.] 



AchaPM lienardi : Fruit Moth in Transkei (N.) 496 

African Hor.se-Sicknrss (N.) 394 

Agricultural Advisory Board 24 

Acrricultural Implements, Piit-es of (N.) \ . . . 339 

Agiicultural Organization (N.) I9r5, 25'i 

Agiicultural Produce, Export of (N.) .520 

Agricultural Societies. Seventh Tonaress of Co-operative (X.) 3. 69 

Alcides erythropterus, Cheo. : Bean Stem Gall Weevil (N.) 403 

Anthrax (N.) 208 

Anthrax Infection, Preventives of (N.) 487 

Anthrax Spore Vaccine (N.) 114, 207 

Anthrax, Sprea,d of (N.) 26, 208 

Anthrax Vaccine, Australian (N.) 497 

Ants, Ladybird Larva that preys upon (N.) 494 

Ants. White, Notes on 266, 462 

Aphdinus mxili : Woolly Aphis Parasite (N.) 15, 1 10, 20.5 

Aphycus lomisburyi : Black Scale Parasites (N.) 109 

Apple Scab (N.) 17 

Apiicot, Shot-hole in Leaves of (N.) 17 

Argentine, J. Chalmers' visit to (N.) 308 

Arsenical Poisoning of Stoc k 5.57 

Arsenite of Soda versus Lead Arsenate in Codling-Moth Control (N.) 501 

Atriplex : Salt Bush (N.) ." 10 

Avocado Pears and Egg-plant Fruit, Market for (N.) 291 

Avocado Pears, Mangoes, and Papaws "538 

Bacterial and Fungus Diseases (N.) 210 

Bacterium malvacearum : Bacteriosis in Cotton (N.) 310 

Barley Production for Brewing — Hints to Farmers 521 

Barosma betulina : Buchu (N.) 197 

Barosma betulina — The Cultivation of Buchu (*) 223 

Bean Pod Butterfly (N.) ^3 

Bean Stem Gall Weevil (N.) i03 

Bee Louse, The Common (N.) -3 

Bee, The South Africjan Honey (N.) 290, 353 

Beetle Damage in Plantations (N.) 495 

lieetle. Fruit (N.) 399 

Beetle, The Vegetable Ivory (N.) 305 

Birds, Destruction of Grain-Eating ^N.) 502 



ii JOURNAL OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



PAGE 

Black Mould {Rhizopus nigricaiis Ehr.) — A Storage Rot of Soft Fruits — Plant Diseases 

in the Western Province 529 

Black Scale Parasites in California (N.) 109 

Blowfly, The Sheep (N.) 301 

Blue-Tongue (N.) 48« 

Blue-Tongue or Bekziekte — Catarrhal Fever of Sheep 517 

Boll- Worm, Pink (N) 110, 485 

Bon Chretien Pears, Breakdown in Exjiort of (N.) 556 

Bordeaux Mixture • Its Effect on the Efficiency of the Control of Codling-Moth (N.) 500 

Borer in ^Vheat (N.) 303 

Borer, Maize Stalk (N.) 298 

Borer, Potato Stem (N.) 303 

Botanical Survey— Committee Meeting at Capetown (N.) 496 

Branding Laws 25 

Braula caeca : Bee Louse (N. ) '. 23 

Brazil, Experimental Stations in (N.) 576 

Brewing, Barley Production for — Hints to Farmers 521 

Buchu (N.). . . .' 19" 

Buchu, The Cultivation of (*) 223 

Bulletins lor Distribution (N.) 136 

Butter and Cheese Exports (N.) 209 

Butterfly, The Bean Pod (N.) 403 

Butterfly, The Ceranium (N.) 402 

Cactus, Propagation of Sjnneiess (*) 387 

Calcium Arsenate Powder versus Lead Arsenate Paste and Powder in Codling-Moth 

Control (N.) 500 

Calf -Feeding Expcriu'.tnts, Potehefstroom (N.) 119 

Canadian Importations of Wool and Hair (N.) 481 

Cane Disease, A Dreaded (N.) 490 

Canker. Citrus — A Warning (N.) 371 

Cankei-, Tomato (N.) 404 

Cape Wine, Export of (N.) 298 

Cape Wine, Export of — Observations by a Prominent London Wine Merchant 333 

Catarrhal Fever of Sheep : Blue-Tongue or Bekziekte 517 

Caterpillars on Lupins (N.) .- 402 

Cattle, The importation of, from Great Britain (N.) 99 

Chalmers, J. M., M.R.C.V.S.— Visit to Argentine, etc. (N.) 308 

Charcoal (N.) 22 

Cheese and Butter Exports (N.) 209 

Cheese, Gouda (N.) 209 

Cheese. Grading of (N.) 19, 115 

Cheese Mites (N.) 305 

Cheese, Poor Grade Australian (N.) 486 

Chinese Lucerne Seed (N.) 503 

Chlorosis of Kelsey Plums (Chlorosis) (*) — Plant Diseases in the Western Province.. 525 
Chrysanthemum Rust (Puccinia chrysanlhemi Roze.) (*) — Plant Diseases in the Western 

Province 53 1 

Citrus Canker — A Warning (N.) •. 371 

Citrus Canker Eradication (N.) 25. (N) 405 

Citrus Fruits, Investigations into the Cause of ^\'astage in Export of 434 

Citrus Industry Development (N.) 114 

Citrus Scak- Insects (N.) 276 

Clavlnps pn.ypali : (lerminating Stierotia (N.) , 310 

Coccotri/pas ilacljiliperda F. : Vegetable Ivory Beetle (N.) 305 

Codhng-Motii and Red Scale Control Investigations (N.) 500 

Codling-Moth, Imported Larvae for Parasites of (N.) 20 

Codling-Moth Parisites (N.) 14, 492 

Codling-Moth" Restrictions on Fruit for Japan (N ) 169 

Codlijig-Moth. The Falsi- (N.) ;..... 105 

Cold Storage Conditions for Export Fruit (N.) 104 

Cold Storage Conditions for Export Fruit (*) 13;^ 

Conference at Potehefstroom — Union's Maize Industrv (N.) 321 

Co-operation, True, at Kopjes (N.) ! 532 

Co-operative Agricultural Societies' Seventh Congress (N.) 3. 69 

Co-operative Agi-ieultural Societies, Control of (N.). 27 



Index to Volume IL 



PAGE 

Co-operative Wheat Experiment, Gamha River (N.) 407 

Co-ordination of the Department's Work (N.) 196 

Co-ordination of the Department's Work (Conference) 218 

Cost of Production of Maize Investigations (N.) 101 

Cotton, Baeteriosis in (N.) 310 

Cotton Culture — Practical Advice for the South African Grower 160 

Cotton Gins^ — Kinds to Use (N. ) 265 

Cotton Growers' Competition — Awards of Prizes of British Cotton-Growing Association 

(N.) 497 

Cotton Growing — Great Possibilities for the Union (N.) 106 

Cotton, Improvement of, by Seed Selection (N.) 482 

Cotton, Improvement of, by Seed Selection (*) 505 

Cotton Insects (N.) 205 

Cotton — Pink Bollworm in Angola (N. ) 110 

Cotton — Pink Bollworm in the West Indies (N.) 485 

Cotton Seed, etc., Restriction on. Introduction from Southern Rhodesia (N.) 561 

Cotton Seed, Undecorticated and Meal, as Stock Feeds (N.) 498 

Cotton, World Conference (N.) 433 

Cow Peas and Kaffir Beans, Comparisons (N.) 504 

Crop Report 94, 379, 472, 570 

Crop Yields of the Northern Hemisphere, 1920 (N.) 5 

Crops, Average Yields of Certain (N.) 239 

Crops of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, 1920-21 (N.) 456 

Crops, Results and Prospects of World's (N.) 100 

Crops, World 196, 274, 371, 473, 573 

Crops, World Prices and (N.) 296 

Cuicivation of Buchu (*) 223 

Cultivation of the Sweet Potato along the Southern Coast Belt (*) 229, 340 

Cupido [Lycaena) haeUca (L.) : Bean Pod Butterfly (N.) 403 

Curing of " Turkish Tobacco (*) 409 

Curl, Peach Leaf (N.) 17 

Currants, Union's Deficient Production (N.) 203 

Cyanide Gas Remedy for Scale Insects (N.) 392 

Cyanide Gas Remedy for Scale Insects (*) 437 

Dairy Course, Special, Grootfontein (N.) 214 

Dairying in the Union (N.) 38, 82 

Dairy Produce — Grading of Cheese 19, (N.) 1 15 

Dairy Show, 1920, Union Successes at the London (N.) 2 

Dams, Construction of Earthen (N.) 202 

Dams, Construction of Earthen (*) 244 

Deciduous Fruit Trees, Pruning of (N.) 103 

Deciduous Fruit Trees, Pruning of (*) 177, 268, 358, 457 

Departmental Activities : — 

Notes from the Divisions 14, 109, 204, 301, 399, 492 

Notes from the Schools 20, 116, 211, 311, 40G, 498 

Department's Work, Co-oidination of the (N.) 196 

Department's Work, Co-ordination of the (Important Conference) 218 

Deterioration of Sugar in Stoi'age (N.) 390 

Dip, Fluid, Analysis of, Cedara (N.) 23 

Dipping, Compulsory (N.) 24 

Dips — Stock and Pest Remedies 7, (N.) 56 

Disease, A Dreaded Cane (N.) 490 

Diseases, Outbreaks of AnimrJ (N.) 81, 121, 281. 384, 466. 516 

Diseases, Sugar-Cane (N.) 100 

Diseases — Ticks and their Eradication , (N.) 103, 141 

Diseases, Various Plant (N.) 405, 496 

Dried Fruit, Export of (N.) 299 

Dried Fruit, Export of vSouth African — Regulations ControUing the Trade 536 

Dusting versus Spraying in CrdUng-Moth Control (N.) 500 

East Coast Fever 25 

East Coast Fever (N.) 208 

Egg-Laying Competition, Potchefstroom (N.) 408 

Egg-Laying Tests, Fourth, Cedara (N.) 499 

Egg-Laying Tests, Grootfontein (N.). ... 118 



Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



Egg- Plant Fruit and Avocado Pears, Market for (N.) -^1 

Eggs, Export of South African, 1920 422 

Erinose. Tomato (N.) ^^ 

Eurocystis tritici : Flag Smut of Wheat. Tulp Brand (N.) 1 ' 

Euzophera villoru : Potato Stom Borer (N.) 303 

Exhibition of Union Products, London (N.) 9 

Exhibition, South African, at Amsterdam (N.) 488 

Experiment Stations in Brazil (N.) 57(5 

Export of Agricultural Produce f N.) -^^O 

Export of Cape ^^^ine— Interesting Obseivaticm-s by a Prominent London Wine Merchant 333 

Export of Citrus Fruits — Investigations into the Cause of Wasta,ge 434 

Export Fruit, Handling of (N.) 4.52 

Export Grain, etc., Now Tariff for (N.) 5"-> 

Export of Dried Fruit (N.) 299 

Export of South African Dried Fruits — Regulations Governing the Trade 536 

Export of South African Eggs, 1920 422 

Export of Sr.uth African Produce— Present Freigh.t Rates ^ 453 

Exports and Imports— The Union's External Trade 475, 476, 477 

False Codling-Moth (N.) 105 

Farmers' Meeting, Rustenburg (N.) 29" 

Farmers, Private Training for Prospective (N.) 371 

Farming, Successful, on the High Veld (N.) 3 

Farming, Successful, on Government Small Holdings 52 

Peed. Winter, Value of, for Stock (N.) 121, 140, 312, 314 

Fertilizer Mixtures, Loss of Water Soluble Phosphate in Certain 552 

Fertihzers, Purchasg of (N.) 212 

Fertilizers— Unit Values (N.) 212 

" Fiji Disease " of Sugar-Cane — Advance Report 554 

Flag Smut of Wheat (Tulp Brand) (N.) 17 

Fodder and Pasture Grasses of South Africa (N.) 390, 404 

Fodder and Pasture Grasses of South Africa : I. Sudan Grass (Smykum Sudanense 

Stap.) (*) 425 

Forest Department, Meeting of Officers of (N.) 97 

Freight Rates — Export of South African Produce 453 

Fruit Beetle (N.) 399 

Piuit — Cold Storage Conditions for Export (N.) 104 

Fruit — Cold Storage Conditions for Export (*) 133 

Fruit Exports (N.) 13, 267, 321, 421, 524 

Fruit, Export of Dried (N.) 299 

Fruit, Export of 'South African Dried — Regulations 536 

Fruit-Fly (N.) 302 

Fruit for Japan— A Prohibition (N.) 169 

Fruit, Handling of Export (N.) 452 

Fruit Moth in the Transkei (N.) 496 

Fruit Tree, Nurseries — Registration and Inspection (N.) 371 

Fruit Trees, Pruning of Deciduous (N.) 103 

Fruit Trees. Pruning of Deciduous (*) 177. 268, 358, 457 

Fungus and Bacterial Diseases, Various (N.) 210 

Fungi and Mushrooms, Determination of (N.) 576 

Fusicladium : Pear Scab (N.) 17 

GaU W^eevil, Bean-Stem (N.) 403 

Gazette, Notes from 89, 187. 279, 375, 469, 566 

Geneva Conference (N.) 27 

Geranium Butterfly (N.) 402 

Gins, Cotton— Kinds to Use (N.) 265 

Goods, Markina', Addressing and Packiui; of. for Conveyance by Rail (N.) 489 

Gouda Cheese (N.) ' " 209 

Government Scholarships (N.) 483 

Government Veterinary Surgeons, Services to Public (N.) 25, 98 

Grain Bags, Misuse of Sheep-Dip Powder on (N.) 289 

Grain, etc.. Export of (N.) 51. 132. 2.52. 436, 535 

Grain, ot«.— New Tariff for Export (N.) 573 

Grass Fires — A Warning (N.) 421 

Gra-ss, Kikuyu (N.) 211,311.406 



Index to Volume II. 



PAGE 

Grasses of iSouth Africa, Fodder and Pasture (N.) 390, 404 

•Grasses of South Afi-ica. Fodder and Pasture : I. Sudan Grass (Sorghum Sudanen-?e 

'^tapf.) (*) 425 

Heliothis obsoleta : RisiX' Caterpillar (N.) ' 20 

Hemp or Flax, New Zealand — Possibilities in the Union (N.) 293 

Holopterna valga : Tipwilters (N.) 302 

Honey Bee, The South African (N.) 290 

Honey Bee, The Soutii African (*) 353 

Horse Sickness (N.) 208 

Horse Sickness, African (N.) 394 

Horse Sickness — Inoculation (N.) 11.5. 207 

Implements, Prices of Agricultural (N.) 339 

Importation of Cattle from Great Britain (N.) 99 

Imported Plants. Inspection of (N.) 374 

Imports and Exports — Union's External Trade 475, 476^ 477 

Imports of Maize and Barley — Restrictions (N.) 387 

Improvement of Cotton by Seed Selection (N.) 482 

Improvement of Cotton by Seed Selection (*) 505 

Insects, Cotton (N.) 205 

Insects, Scale, of Citrus (N.) 276 

Insect Troubles (N.) 206, 306 

Inspection of Vine Nurseries (N.) 49I 

Inter-School Stock Judging Competition, 1921 (N.) 397 

Kaffir Beans and Cow Peas — Comparisons (N.) 504 

Kikuyu Grass (N.) 211, 311, 406 

Ladybird for Brazil (N.) 110 

Ladybird Larva that preys upon Ants (N.) 494 

Le7na bilineata- Germar ; Tobacco Leaf Slug (N.) 3. 28, 113, 303, 400, 403 

Literature. Recent Agricultural 90, 286, 383, 479, 574 

Lithiasis in Pears (Lithiasis) (*) — Plant Diseases in the Western Province 528 

Local Market Prices — Rise and Fall of the Market 253 

Locust (Locustn pardalina) (N.) 492 

Locust Outbreaks, etc. (N.) 15, 205, 304, 401 

Locust Poison (N.) • 112 

Locusts in Asiatic Turkey (N.) 43 

Locusts in Canada (N.) 484 

London Dairy Show, 1920, Union Successes at (N.) 2 

Loss of Water Soluble Phosphates in Certain Fertilizer Mixtures 552 

Lucerne (N.) 22, 118, 211, 313 

Lucerne Seed, Chinese (N.) 503 

Lycaenu palemon : Geranium, Butterfly (N.) 402 

Maize and Barley — Restrictions on Imports (N.) 387 

Maize Experiments — High and Low Veld Seed (N.) 504 

Maize Export— 1919-20 Crop (N.) 199 

Maize Growers' Conference, Potchefstroom (N.) 392, 502 

Maize Industry of the Union — Potchefstroom Conference (N.) 321 

Maize in Rotation — Notes on Co-operative Experiments in Natal 533 

Maize, Investigations into Cost of Production (N.) 101 

Maize, " Minnesota 133 " (N.) 313 

Maize Stalk Borer, The (N.) 298 

Mangoes, Papaws, and Avocado Pears 338 

Manuring of Vineyards (N.) 1, 59, 163 

Marketable Peaches (N.) 332 

Market Prices (Local) 95, 191, 283, 380, 478, 571 

Market Prices (Local) — Rise and Fall of Market 253 

Market, The Local 96, 192, 284, 381, 474, 572 

Market — See "Overseas Market." 

Marking, Addressing and Packing of Goods for Conveyance bv Rail (N.) 489 

Marking Sheep with Tar (N.) ' 535 

Mealie, Potchefstroom Peail (N.) 292 



Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



Meat Export^Note bv J. Chalmers (N.) 308- 

Meat Statistics ". 81, 190, 285, 382, 480. 520 

Mildew in Oak (N.) : 17 

Milk Records (N.) 210 

Minister of Agriculture (N.) 289 

Mites, Cheese (N.) 305 

Mushrooms and Allied Fungi, Determination of (N.) 576 

Mystery Worm (N.) 305, 402 

Nagana and Tsetse Fly (N.) 7 

National Herbarium (N.) 16, 310 

New Wool Scheme — Abortive Negotiations in Germany 275 

New Zealand Hemp or Flax — Possibilities in the Union (N.) 293 

Nodular Worm (Oesophagostormim columbianwni Curtice) and the Lesions caused 

by it (*) 44 

Nodular Worm, The (N.) 4 

Notes on Some Sugar-Cane Matters {*) 122 

Nurseries, Inspection of Vine (N.) 491 

Nurseries, Fruit Tree, Registration and Inspection of (N.) 371 

Nut, The Pecan (N.) 108 

Nut, The Pecan 129 

Oak Mildew (N.) 17 

Oe^ophngo.sto7num columbianum Curtice ; The Nodular Worm and the Lesions caused 

by it (*) 44 

Ophthalmia in Stock (N.) 502: 

Organi7,a,tion, Agricultural (N.) 196 

Organization, Agricultural 256 

Ortalia pallens : Ladybird Larva that preys upon Ants (N.) 494 

Oversea Market — Present Position of Wool Market 85 

Oversea Market— Cabled Advices 86, 189, 282, 378, 472, 57a 

Oversea Market for South African Produce (N. ) 396 

Overstocking and Veld Burning (N.) 200 

Pachnoda impressa : Fruit Beetle (N.) 399 

Papaws, Mangoes, and Avocado Pears ; 338 

Peach Leaf Curl (N.) 17 

Peaches, Marketable (N.) 332 

Pear Scab (N.) 17 

Pears, Bon Chretien — Breakdown in Export (N.) 556 

Pearl Mealie, Potchcfstroom (N.) 292 

Pecan Nut, The (N.) 10& 

Pecan Nut, The 129 

Pennisetum : Kikuyu Grass (N.) 211 

Pernicious Scale at Parys, etc (N.) 1 1 2, 496 

Pest Remedies and Stock Dips 56 

Pheidole punctulata, Meyr. : Ladybird Larva preying upon (N.) 494 

Phosphates, Water Soluble, Loss of, in Certain Fertilizer Mixtures 552 

Phymaieus leprosus : Stink sprinkhaan (N.) 205 

Physarum cinereum : Myxomycete (N.) 210 

Pica Survey (N.) 194, 310 

Pink Bollworm in Angola (N.) 110 

Pink Bollworm in the West Indies (N.).' 485 

Pirbright Testing Station (N.) 26, 99 

Plant Diseases in the Western Province : — 

Chlorosis in Kelsey Plums (*) 525 

Lithiasis in Pears {lithiasis) 528 

Black Mould (Rhizopus nigricans Ehr.) — A Storage Rot of Soft Fruits (*).. 529 

Chrysanthemum Rust (Puccinia chrysanthemi Roze.) (*) 531 

Plant Diseases, Various (N.) 405, 496 

Plant Inspections (N.) 16 

Plant Nurseries in Quarantine 88. 108, 228. 370. 473, 504 

Plant Nurseries — Registration, Inspection, Number, and Acreage in Union (N.).... 371 

Plant Removals to Portuguese East Africa (N.) 55 

Plants, Inspection of Imported (N.) 374 



Index to Volume IL vii 



Poison. Locust (N.) 112 

Poisoning of Stock, Arsenical 557 

Poor Grade Australian Cheese (N.) 4g6 

Potato Stem Borer (N, ) 3O3 

Potatoes from East Africa (N.) I4 

Potatoes, Imported and Infected (N.) 16 

Potchefstroom Peail Mealie (N.) 292 

Poultry Division (N.) 27 

Poultry Week, Port Elizabeth (N.) [[ 407 

Poultry Yard Month by Month 92, 185, 278, 373, 468, 565 

Poultry Yard and Vegetable Garden (N.) 297 

Pretoria Quartzite Sandy Soils, Representative Transvaal Soils, II 170 

Preventives of Anthrax Infection (N.) 4g7 

Principal Veterinary Officer. Retirement of (N.) I95 

Problem of Scab, The (N.) .[[ I93 

Produce, Oversea Exhibition of, in London (N.) 9 

Produce, South African, Export of — Present Freight Rates 453 

Produce, South African, Oversea Market for (N.) 396 

Proprietary Articles, Examination of (N.) 104 

Protostrophus amplicGllis : Beetles in Plantations (N.) 495 

Pruning" of Deciduous Fiuit Trees (N.) 103 

Pruning of Deciduous Fruit Trees (*) 177, 268, 358, 457 

Puccinia chrysanthemi , Roze : Chrysanthemum Rust (*) — Plant Diseases in the Western 

Province 531 

Pyrameis cardui : Caterpillar on laipins (N.) 402 

Red Scale and Codling-Motli — Control Investigations (N.) 500 

Representative Tran=ivaal Soils (N.) 104 

Representative Transvaal Soils: II. Pretoria Quartzite Sandy Soils 170 

Restriction of Introduction of Cotton Seeds, etc., from Southern Rhodesia (N.) 561 

Restriction on Imports of Maize and Barley (N.) 387 

Retirement of Principal Veterinary Officer (N.) 195 

Rhizopus nigricans Ehr. : Black Mould — A Storage Rot 01 Soft Fruits (*) — Plant 

Diseases in the Western Province 529 

Rustenburg Farmers' Meeting (M.) 296 

Rye (Scale cerealc), with Note by the Government Agronomist 39 

Rye, Available Supplies of Wheat and, for Importing Countries (N.) 8 

Rye Growing and Wheat Conservation (N.) 7 

Saissetia oleae : Black Scale (N.) 109 

Sale of Pure-Bred Stock (D.N. ) 474 

Salt Bush (N.) 10 

Scab, Apple (N.) 17 

Scab in Sheep Kraal« (N.) 306 

Scab, Pear (N.) 17 

Scab, The Problem of (N.) 193 

Scab, The Problem of — A New Policy Outlined 240 

Scale cereale : Rye, with Note by Government Agronomist 39 

Scale Insects, Citrus (N.) 276 

Scale Insects, Cyanide Gas Remedy for (N.) 392 

Scale Insects, Cyanide Gas Remedy for (*) 437 

Scale Parasites (N.) ' 109 

Schedorhinotermes Damage — White Ant Notes (N. ) 266 

Scholarships, Governm( nt (N.) 483 

Scutdlista cyanea : Black Scale Parasite in California (N.) 109 

Secrctarj' for Agriculture, The (N.) 1 

Seed, Chinese Lucerne (N.) 603 

Seed for Disposal (D.N.) - 470 

Seed Wheat, for Distribution (N.) 408 

Seed Wheat, in the Western Province (N.) 116 

Seeding Rates of Wheat, Rye, etc., per Acre (N.) 312 

Sesamia calamistis : Borer in Wheat (N.) .~ , 303 

Sheep and Goats, Trekking of (N.) 491 

Sheep and Wool Course, Spe^'ial Second, Grootfontein (N.) 21 

Sheep-Dip Powder, Misuse of, on Grain Bags (N.) 289. 

Sheep — Drought in the Eastern Piovime (N.) 19 



JOI-HXAL OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGKICULTURK. 



PAGE 

Shi-ip, Markinji. with Tai (N.) 535 

Shot-liolo in Apricot Leaves (N.) 17 

Slui,'. The Tobacco Leaf (N.) 3 

Slug. The Tobacco, in Bathuret (N.) 113 

Slug, The Tobacco, in Middelbura (T.) (N.) 303 

Shig. The Tobat CO, in Queenstown, et-j. (N.) 403 

Slug, The Tobacco, Spraying Demonstrations (N.) 400 

Small Holdings. Successful Farming on Governiueut 52 

Smut, Flag (Tuln Brand), of Wheat (N.) 17 

Smut Treatment of AVIie.it Seed (N.) 503 

Snotziekte (N.) 1S< 

Soil Survey of the Uruon (N. ) li 

Soils, Representative Transvaal (N.) 104 

Soils, Representative Transvaal : II. Pretoria Quartzite Sandy Soils 170 

Sorghum midanen'^e Stapf. : Sudan Grass (*) — Fodder and Pasture Grasses of South 

Africa 425 

Sorghum versus Maize and Cowpeas and Soya Beans in Dry Sfascns (N.) 217 

South African Exhibition at Amsterdam (N.) 488 

South African Honey Bee, The (N.) 290 

South African Honey Bee, The {*) 353 

South AustraUan Vineyard Soil, A (N.) 104 

South Australian Vineyard Soil, A 1 37 

Spineless Cactus Propagation (*) (N.) ■ 387 

Spirits, Production and Consumption of, in the Union (X.^ 4 

Sprinkliaan, Th^ Stink (N.) ' 205 

Staff— Appointments, Transfers, etc 88, 189, 280, 376, 569 

Stirk Sprinkhaan (N.) 205 

Stock, Arsenical PoiBoning of 557 

Stock Dips and Pest Remedies .* 56 

Stock Feeds, Undecorticated Cotton-Seed Cake and Meal as (N.) 498 

Stock-Judging Competition, 1921, Inter-School (N.).' 397 

Stock, Sale of Pure-Bred (D.N.) • 474 

Strophosomus : Beetle in Plantations (N.) 495 

Sudan Grass {Sorghnm sudanense, Stapf.) (*) — Fodder and Pasture Grasses of South 

Africa 425 

Sudan Grass for the Karroo (N.) 313 

Sudan Grass versus Teff in Dry Seasons (N.) 217 

Sugar-Cane Diseases (N.) \ 100, 490 

Sugar Cane — Experiments with New Varieties (N.) 215 

Sugar Cane, " Fiji Disease " of — Advance Report 554 

Sugar-Cane Matters, Notes on Some (*) 122 

Sugar-Cane Yields from Different Varieties (N.) 216 

Sugar-Cane Yields per Acre (N.) 216 

Sugar, Deterioration of, in Storage (N.) 390 

Sugar Production and Consumption in the LTnion (N.) 11 

Survey, Botanical, Committee Meeting, Capetown (N.) 496 

Survey, Pica (N.) 194, 310 

Survey, Soil, of the Union (N.) 6 

Sweet Potato and Its Cultivation along the Southern Coast Belt (*) 229,340 

Sweet Potato— Its Extended Uses (N.) 198 

Tar, Marking Sheep with (N.) 535 

Tariff for Export Grain, etc.. New (N.) .573 

Toff, Sudan Grass versus, in Dry Seasons (N.) 217 

Terarclona suimacula, Wk. : Woolly Bears (N.) 403 

Ticks, Diseases, and their Eradication (N.) 103, 141 

Tip Wilters (N.) 302 

Tobacco, Curing of Turkish (*) 409 

Tobacco Disease, Verterende Roest (N.) 210 

Tobacco Leaf Slug (N.) ! 3 

Tobacco Slug {Lema bilineaki Germar) (*) 28 

Tobacco Slug in Bathurst (N ) 113 

Tobacco Slug in Middelburg (T.) (N.) 303 

Tobacco Slug in Queenstown, etc. (N.) 403 

Tobacco Slug Spraying Demonstrations (N.) 400 



Index to Volume II. 



Tobacco, Turkish (N.) 385 

Tomato Canker (N.) 404 

Tomato, Erinose (N.) 303 

Tractor Demonstrations at Elsenburg (N.) 5. 20 

Trade, The Union's External — Imports and Exports 475, 476, 477 

Training Farms (N.) 27 

Training, Private, for Prospective Farmers (N.) 371 

Transvaal Soils, Representative (N.) 104 

Transvaal Soils, Representative : II. Pretoria Quartzite Sandy Soils 170 

Trekking of Sheep and Goats (N.) 491 

True Co-operation at Kopjes (N ) 532 

Trypanosomiasis : Tsetse Fly and Nagana (N.) 7 

Tsetse Flv and Nagana (N. ) 7 

Tulp Brand, Flag Smut in Wheat (N.) 17 

Turkish Tobacco (N.) 385 

Turkish Tobacco, Curing of (*) 409 

Union's External Trade — Imports and Exports 475, 476, 477 

Urocijstis tritici, Keorn: Flag Smut of Wheat (N.) 17 

Vaccine, Anthrax Spore (N.) 114, 207, 497 

Vaccines, Supply of, to Public 575 

Vedaha for Brazil, etc. (N.) 110 

Vegetable Garden and Poultry Yard (N.) 297 

Vegetable Garden, The ' 93, 186, 277, 372, 467, 564 

Vegetable Growing (N. ) 486 

Vegetable Ivory Beetle (N.) 305 

Vegetables on the High Veld, Chart showing Seasons for Growing 562 

Vegetables on the Low Veld, Chart showing Seasons for Growing 563 

Veld Burning and Overstocking (N.) 200 

Veterinary Education (N.) 404 

Veterinary Surgeons, Government, Services to Public (N.) 25, 98 

Vine Nurseries, Inspection of (N.) 491 

Vineyard Soil. South Austrahan (N.) 104 

Vineyard Soil, South Australian , 1 37 

Vineyards, Manuring of (N.) 1 

Vineyards, Manuring of 59, 1 63 

Walnuts 80 

Weather— Extracts of Monthly Reports 188, 281, 377, 471, 568 

Weeds of South Africa (N.) 293, 394 

Weeds of South Africa, I.. II. (*) 315, 541 

Weevil, Bean Stem Gall (N.) 403 

Wheat and Its Cultivation in the Union (N.) 290 

Wheat and Its Cultivation — Extracts from Bulletin No. 22, Department of Agriculture, 

Victoria, Australia ; with Notes. 322 

Wheat and Rye — Available Supply for Importing Countries (N.) 8 

Wheat, Borer in (N.) 303 

Wheat— Change of Seed (N ) 339 

Wheat Conservation and Rye Growing (N ) 7, 39 

Wheat, Co-operative, Experiments at Gamha River (N ) 407 

Wheat, Cost and Economics of Production (N ) 291 

Wheat, Flag Smut of, Tulp Brand (N ) 17 

Wheat Seed for Distribution (N ) 408 

Wheat Seed in the Western Province (N ) 116 

Wheat Supplies and Rye available for Importing Countries (N ) 8 

Wheat, Treatment of. Seed for Smut (N ) 503 

Wheat under Irrigation (N ) 314 

Wheat, Yeoman (N ) 118 

White Ant Notes .266 462 

Wine, Export of Cape (N ) 298 

Wine, Export of Cape — Observations by a Prominent London Wine Merchant 333 

Wine Show at Capetown, 1920 (N ). . ." _ 8 

Wine, South African, in Competition (N ) 13, 103 

Winter Feed for Stock, Value of (N ) 121, 140, 312, 314 

Witch Weed Eradication (N ) 504 



Journal of the Department op Agriculture. 



PAGE 

Wool and Hair, Canadian Importations (N ) 481 

Wool, Position of Market (N.) 38, 85 

Wool Schemej New — Abortive Negotiations in Germany 275 

Woolly Aphis, Parasites (N ) 15, 110. 205, 304 

Woolly Boars (N ) 403, 495 

World Cotton Conference (N ) 433 

World Crops, Results and Prospects (N.) 100 

World's Crops 196, 274, 371, 473, 573 

World's Prices and Crops (N ) 296 

Worm, Mystery (N ) 305, 402 

Worm, The Nodular (N ) 4 

Worm, The Nodular {Oesophagostomuni coluinAianum Curtice) and the Lesions caused 

by it (*) 44 



AUTHORS' INDEX. 



PAGE 
Bourlay, R., Poultry Instructor, School of Agriculture, Potchefstroom— Export of 

South African Eggs, 1920 T 422 

Challis, Ed. 0., Superintendent of Dairying — Dairying in the Union 82 

Compton, R. H., M.A., Director, and J. W. Mathews, F.R.H.S., Curator, National 

Botanic Gardens, Kirst^nbosch — The Cultivation of Buchu (*) 223 

Dixon, R. W., M.R.C.V.S., Senior Veterinary Officer, Cape — Catarrhal Fever of Sheep : 

Blue-Tongue or Bekziekte 517 

Du Toit, H. S., Government Agronomist — Note on Rj^e 41 

Fuller, Claude, Assistant Chief, Division of Entomology — White Ant Notes..-. 462 

Hall, W. H., Assistant Experimentahst, Cedara^Maize in Rotation : Notes on 

Comiaarative Experiments in Natal 533 

Juritz, Cl'.arles F., M.A., D.Sc, F.I.C., Agricultural Research Chemist — 

A South Australian Vineyard Soil 137 

The Sweet Potato and its Cultivation along the Soutliorn Coast Belt (*). ...229, 34(1 

Kieyn, I. J. P., C.E., Department of Irrigation — Construction of Earthen Dams (*). . 244 
Koch, Pieter, B.Sc. (Agr.), Elsenburg Tobacco Station — Curing of Turkish Tobacco (*) 409 

Lansdell, K. A.. Botanical Assistant, Pretoria— Weeds of South Africa (*) 315, 541 

Lounsbury, C. P., Chief, Division of Entomology- — Cyanide Gas Remedv for Scale 

Insects (*) ^ 437 

Mathews, J, W., F.R.H.S., Curator ; and R. H. Compton, M.A., Director, National 

Botanic Gardens, Kirstenbosch — -The Cultivation of Buchu (*) 223 

Melle, H. A., B.A., Division of Botany — Agricultural Organization 256 

Melle, H. A., B.A., and Sydney M. Stenr ; Division of Botany — Fodder and Pasture 

Grasses of Sonth Africa : I. Sudan Grass (*) 425 

Parish, E., B Sc— Wheat and Its Cultivation : Extracts from Bulletin No. 22, 
Department of Aari culture, Victoria, Australia ; with Notes on Applicability 
in South Africa. . T 322 

Ross. J. C, Ph.D., Research Chemist ; and S. W. van Niekerk, Government Viticul- 

turist, Elsenburg — Manuring of Vineyards 59, 163 

Smit.. B J., B.A., Division of Chemistry — Representative Transvaal Soils : II. Pre- 
toria Quartzite Sandy Soils 170 

Stent. Sydney M., and H. A. Melle, B.A., Division of Botany — Fodder and Tasture 

Grasses of South Africa: I. Sudan Grass (Sorghum sudanense Stapf.) (*) 425 

Terry, H. B., Cert.R.H.S.— Pruning of Deciduous Fruit Trees (*) 177, 268, 358, 457 

Theiler, Sir Arnold, K.C.M.G,, Director of Veterinary Education and Research — 

The Nodular Worm and the Lesions caused by it (*) 44 

Diseases, Ticks, and their Eradication 141 

Tribolet. I., Chief, Division of Horticulture- 
Walnuts ; 80 

The Pecan Nut 129 

Mangoes. Papaws, and Avocado Pears 33S 

Van der Byl, Paul A., M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S., Mycologist, Natal ner^)arium — Notes on 

Some Sugar-Cane Matters (*) 122 

Van der Merwe, C. P., Government Entomologist, Durban— White Ant Notes 266 

Van Niekerk, S. W., Government Viticulturist ; and J. C. Ross, Ph.D., Research 

Chemist, Elsenburg — Manuring of Vineyards 59, 163 

Webb, Jas. L., F.R.C.V.S., Government Veterinary Officer, Ixopo — Arsenical Poisoning 

of Stock 557 



VOL. II. 



JANUARY, 1921 



NO. I. 




PRINCIPAL CONTENTS. 



The Manuring of Vineyards — I. 

The Nodular Worm. 

The Tobacco Leaf Slug. 

Rye. 

Successful Farming on Government Small Holdings. 

Co-operative Agricultural Societies. 

Walnuts. 

Dairymg in the Union. 

Agricultural Advisory Board. 

Pest Remedies and Stock Dips. 




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12/21 



CONTENTS. 



JANUARY, 1921. 



NOTE-S 



Page 
1 



The Secretary for Agriculture- — The Manuring of Vineyards — Union Successes 
at the London Dairy Show, 1920 — Co-operative Agricultural Societies — The 
Tobacco-Leaf Slug — Successful Farming — The Nodular Worm — Production and 
Consumption of Spirits in the Union — Tractor Demonstration at Elsenburg — 
Crop-yields of the Northern Hemisphere in 1920 — A Soil Survey of the Union 
— Wheat Conservation and Rye Growing — Stock Dips — Tsetse Fly and Nagana — 
Supplies of Wheat and Ky^e available for Importing Countries — Wine Show at 
Capetown, 1920 — Oversea Exhibition of Union Produce — Salt-bush — Sugar 
Production and Consumption in the Union — Fruit Export — South African 
Wine in Competition — Dairying in the Union (page 38) — The Wool Market 
(page 38) — Locusts in Asiatic Turkey (page 43) — Export of Grain (page 51) — 
Plant Removals to Portuguese East Africa (page 55) — Outbreaks of Animal 
Diseases in the Union (page 81) — Meat Statistics (page 81) — Cabled 
Advices from London during the Month of November, 1920 (page 86) — 
Plant Nurseries in Quarantine as at Ist December, 1920 (page 88). 

Departmental Activities 

Agricultural Advisory Board ... 

The Tobacco Slug 

Rye 

The Nodular Worm and the Lesions Caused by it 

Successful Farming on Government Small Holdings 

Pest Remedies and Stock Dips ... 

The Manuring of Vineyards 

Co-operative Agricultural Societies 

Walnuts... 

Dairying in the Union ... 

The Oversea Market 

Staff : Appointments, Transfers, etc. 

Notes from the "Gazette" 

Recent Agricultural Literature... 

The Poultry Yard Month by Month 

The Vegetable Garden 

Crop Report 

Local Market Prices 

The Local Market 



14 

24 
28 
39 
44 
52 
56 
59 
69 
80 
82 
85 
88 
89 
90 
92 
93 
94 
95 
96 



DEPARTMENTAL NOTICES. 



Courses al the School of Agriculture. — The Jiew session for the diploma 
courses commences about the third week in January at all the five schools. 
Prospectuses of the respective schools and forms of application may be obtained 
by applying to the — 

Principal, School of Agriculture, Elsenburg, Mulde-s Vlei, Cape Province; 

Principal, School of Agriculture, Grootfontein, Middelburg, Cape Province; 

Principal, School of Agriculture, Ccdara, Natal; 

Principal, School of Agriculture, Potchefstrbom, Transvaal; 

Principal, School of Agriculture, Glen, Orange Free State. 

Applications for the new courses have in most cases been heavy, and 
students who arc writing foi' exaininittions ai'c ad\isv'd not to await the results 
of their examinations but to apply immediately, informing the principal in 
each case of the circumstances, when it may be possible to reserve accommoda- 
tion. 



IMPORTATION OF ORANGE, LEMON, AND 
OTHER CITRUS PLANTS. 



ThI', public is hereby notified that under the provisions of the .Agricidtural 
Pests Act, 1911, and of Government Notice No. ?!>() of 1912. iK>rmits for th<' 
introduction of citrus plants from oversea must limit such introductions by 
any person in a calendar year to a m.aximum of ten trees or one hundred scions 
in any one variety, and will not be issued in respect of a variety procurable 
from nurserymen in the Union, except under special justifying circumstances, 
the chief of which is convincing evidence being brought to show the strain of 
the variety procurable in the Union to be an inferior one or untrue to type. 

The issue of any permit lies in the discretion of Ihe Department of .\gricul- 
ture. It has been decided that all applications for i)ermits to introduce citrus 
plants will be considered by a Departmental Committee, consisting of the 
Chiefs of the Divisions of Entomology, Botnny, and Horticulture, and that the 
Department will accept the advice of this committee^ when its several members 
agree. Any rooted plants will only be admitted >()nditionally on any foliage 
and young growth that comes on them being removed and destroyed, and, in 
addition to being cyanide fumigated as long as required by regulations, on their 
being disinfected with copper sulphate solution of one-half per cent, strength 
(one pound of sulphate in 20 gallons of water). Tlie introduction of scicms is 
considered to be attended with more risk of bringing disease than the intro- 
duction of heavily cut-back young trees, in part because they cannot be sub- 
jected to equally efficient precautionary treatments, and hence api)lications for 
permission to import scicns are less likely to receive favourable consideration. 
No permits for trees or for scions will be given unless the apjjlicant makes satis- 
factory arrangements for growing the plants and any plants propagated from 
them in quarantine for a period of two years. The Government has no recog- 
nized (luarantine ground; and, in general, the place of (|narantine will have 
to be a suitably isolated site under the immediate coiitrol of the applicant, who 
must pledge himself to see that no growth from tiie plants is removed from 
the site during the quarantine period, and to consent, in case disea.se becomes 
manifested, without any claim to compensation, to the destruction, under orders 
from the Minister of Agriculture, of any and all plants the Department may 
consider likely to have become infected. No site will be accepted as suitable 
if less than two hundred yards sejparate the quarantined plants from other 
citrus plants, and a far greater degree of isolation must be provided when 
practicable. During the period of quarantine the plants shall be subject to 
inspection by the Division of Botany, and shall remain in quarantine for two 
. full years from the date of the arrival of the introduction at the quarantine 
site, unless a formal release is granted earlier by this Division. The owner 
of the ijlants shall meanwhile have them kept und(>r close observation, and at 
once report any unusual development. 

The Department of Agriculture views any introduction of citrus plants to 
he attended by some risk of establishing new diseases in South Africa, notwith- 
standing precautions of inspection, cutting back, fumigation, disinfection, and 
quarantine; and, in the issue of a permit to authorize an introduction of 
plants, the Government assumes no responsibilitv whatever for any loss from 
or through a trouble that might incidentally g(>t into the country. 

P. J. DU TOIT.- 

vSecretary for Agriculture 
Pretoria, 1.5th December, 1920. 




^e^V vo;;k 



Journal of the Department 
OF Agriculture. 



Vol. II. JANUARY, 1921. No. 1. 



Published monthly in English and Afrikaans by the Department of Agriculture, 

Union of South Africa. 

Editor: G. W. Klerck. 

Subscription: Within the Union and South- West Protectorate, 5s» (otherwise GSm) 
per annum, post free, payable in advance. 

Applications, with subscriptions, to be sent to the Government 
Printer, Box 378, Pretoiia. 

NOTES. 



THE SECRETARY FOR AGRICULTURE. 

The Appointment of Mr. P. J. du Toit as Secretary 
for Agriculture, has now been confirmed by the Government, 
as from 1st October, 1920, from which date he has been 
filling the Office in an acting capacity. 

The Manuring of Vineyards. 

All article on the above subject by Dr. A. I. Perold was published 
in 1911 and has proved of great value to viticulturists. The publica- 
tion is out of print, but arising out of Dr. Perold's article the 
subject has now been exhaustively written up by Dr. Ross, the 
Research Chemist, at Elsenburg, and Mr. S. W. van Niekerk, the 
Government Viticulturist, and is published in this issue of the 
Journal. The ideal system of manuring is one which provides for a 
return to the soil of at least as much of each of the important plant 
foods as are removed by the crop ; this will maintain the fertility of 
the soil from year to year and, indeed, may even increase it. In 
this respect the requirements of the vine are dealt with at length in 
the article and also the various fertilizer materials which are available 
to the farmer and the use thereof, the systems of manuring and the 
use of lime in vineyards. The authors strongly advise farmers who 
are wine producers on a large scale to obtain their own experimental 
evidence by carrying out tests, and in their article furnish plans for 
manurial experiments, a practice which we commend, for our vine- 
yard soils are of many different types and a system of fertilizing 
which may give the best results in one locality may not be the best or 
most econornical in another. We feel sure that the publication of 
this article is timely and will prove of the greatest value to viticul- 
turists to whom we recommend its careful perusal and application. 
1 



Journal of the Department of Agricultore. 



Union Successes at the London Dairy Show, 1920. 

The London Dairy Sliow was held at the Agricultural Hall, 
Islington^ on the 19tli to 22nd October last, and for the second year 
in succession South African exhibitors scored several striking 
successes. In 1919 the gold and silver medals were secured for cheese, 
but at the last show, in addition to these, the bronze medal and 
reserve ticket were also won. South Africa thus obtained the first 
four places in competition with exhibits from Canada, Australia, and 
New Zealand, an achievement to be proud of. The successful 
exhibitors were: G. W. Young, jun., The Meadows Cheese Factory, 
Franklin, East Griqualand — Gold Medal. The Aliwal North and 
Districts Creameries, Ltd., Aliwal North — Silver Medal. Eocky 
Ridge Chee'se Factory Co-operation, Ltd., Kokstad, East Griqualand — 
Bronze Medal. Jack Moxham Co-operative Industries, Ltd., Kok- 
stad — Reserve. 

East Griqualand cheese manufacturers have thus justified the 
high position they have held for several years in the cheese industry 
of the Union. Mr. G. W. Young, jun., was a consistent winner 
during our last show season, and his success at the London show 
comes as a fitting climax. 

These successes should act as a stimulus to the already promising 
cheese-making industry of the Union, and it is hoped that, given a 
favourable season, the farmers producing the raw material and 
factories manufacturing cheese, will make every effort to increase pro- 
duction and enable a steady expert trade to be maintained. There is 
no doubt that the grading scheme in operation in East Griqualand 
has had much to do with the improvement in the quality of the cheese 
produced in that area, and its extension to other districts is at present 
under consideration, and it may be possible to provide facilities 
whereby any factory in the Union can have its cheese graded, before 
placing it on the market, by a Government grader at a small charge. 

In addition to the cheese successes. South Africa secured the gold 
medal for the best collection of Colonial produce in competition with 
other Dominions. The outstanding features of the exhibition were 
butter, cheese (both Cheddar and Gouda), bacon, hams, poultry, eggs, 
honey, fruit, cotton, hides, fibres, etc., all of which were con- 
tributed by local producers or manufacturers, and staged by the Trade 
Commissioner. The Exhibition attracted considerable attention, and 
afforded a valuable advertisement for South African industries. 

Further successes were obtained by our bacon, the Farmers' 
Co-operative Bacon Factory, Estcourt, Natal, winning both the gold 
and silver medals and also the reserve ticket in this class, while 
Messrs. Lurie Bros.. Capetown, won the gold medal for eggs, and 
Messrs. Tollman & Davies, Johannesburg, that for poultry. 

Only two South African creameries entered in the butter classes 
but were not successful, which is hardly surprising as the month of 
September, during which the butter had to be made, is about the 
worst in the year, owing to the fact that farmers are then generally 
producing cream only in small quantities, and in consequence collect 
it over too long a period before sending to the creamery, and it is not 
possible to manufacture show butter from such cream. Butter manu- 
factured at that time of the year does not possess the flavour, colour, 
or bloom of butter made during the spring and summer. 



Notes. 3 

Co-operative Agricultural Societies. 

The Seventh Congress of Co-operative Agricultural Societies in 
the Transvaal and Orange Free State was held last June, and we 
publish in this issue the minutes of the proceedings. There are many 
problems which arise in connection with the administration of these 
societies in securing the best interests of co-operators, and these are 
discussed from time to time at these congresses. The spirit of 
co-operation is growing in the Union, the subject being one of 
moment to every farmer, and a perusal of the minutes will be helpful 
in throwing light on some matters which have exercised the minds of 
farmers recently, and interesting in disclosing the growth of the 
movement under direct Government control in the Transvaal and 
Orange Free State. 



The Tobacco Leaf Slug. 

Yet another pest with which the farmer has to contend has made 
its unwelcome presence in the form of a beetle which is attacking 
tobacco plants. Until recently this plant had been considered free 
from particularly dangerous pests in the field, and the advent of the 
beetle, which has been given the popular name of Tobacco Leaf Slug, 
will be viewed with concern by all tobacco growers. Prompt measures 
have been taken by the Department in controlling the pest and an 
article (with illustrations) on the subject by Mr. C. P. van der Merwe, 
of the Division of Entomology, is published in this issue of the 
Journal, and should be carefully studied. The article gives a brief 
sketch regarding the occurrence of the pest in the Union from the 
time it was first observed at Cedara, JNatal, up to Iho present, its 
appearance having now been noted in a number of tobacco centres. 
The nature of the injury from the beetle, its life history and habits, 
the plants other than tobacco it feeds on, natural enemies, as well as 
other observations, are carefully set out by Mr. Van der Merwe. 
Special attention is drawn to the clear directions given for controlling 
the pest which, it is pleasing to state, can successfully be kept down. 
We would specially request farmers and others who may observe the 
insect, whether feeding on tobacco or other plants in localities other 
than those referred to in the article, to communicate with the Division 
of Entomology. 



Successful Farming. 

We draw attention to an article we publish elsewhere giving some 
interesting figures concerning a season's farming on the high veld by 
a farmer having a Government small-holding. The season was not 
exceptionally favourable, but the returns for the year show a handsome 
return a -ad afford an encouraging example of what real honest toil, 
common-sense methods, and sufficient though modest capital can win. 
Farming systems are daily becoming more intensive and farmers are 
more and more constrained to watch, as of primary importance, the 
economic aspect of their operations. The figures of production, 
income, and expenditure have been carefully collected and should 
prove of special interest to farmers with small propositions, to whom 
they will doubtless be welcome in view of the dearth of statistical 
data which prevails in connection with the economy of farming in the 
Union. 



4 Journal of the Department op Agriculture. 

The Nodular Worm. 

This issue of the Journal contains a valuable contribution by 
Sir Arnold Theiler od the Nodular Worm and the lesions caused by- 
it. The effects of the nodular worm infection show themselves both 
in lambs "and sheep, but more acutely in the former, and many farmers 
have been puzzled as to the cause of the wasting condition and death 
of their stock, not connecting it with the presence of the worm. 
Others have seen the worm, some drawing special attention to the 
fact that although our remedy was very effective against wireworm 
it was not so against the nodular worm in tlie large intestines. This, 
the author states, was known, as, at the time of the first issue of the 
drug, efficacy against wireworm only was claimed, though it stands 
to reason that, with the removal of the wireworm, a sheep will stand 
parasitic infection much better, therefore, sheep dosed regularly with 
the wireworm remedy are less subject to the effects of worm infection. 
The article sets out very clearly the description of the disease, the 
complications resulting from infection, the life-history of the worm, 
and contributes valuable data on a matter of considerable importance 
to sheep farmers, and calls for their special study, for, qtioting the 
author, " the only effective way to deal with the nodular worm infec- 
tion is to prevent the entry of the worm into the sheep." 



Production and Consumption of Spirits in the Union. 

The report of the Superintendent of Excise for the year 1919 
contains most interesting information which should be studied by all 
concerned in our viticultural industry. Referring to the consumption 
of Cape spirits (produce of the vine) the Superintendent points out 
that, as expected, the consumption, as ordinary liquor, of Cape wine 
spirits in 1919 was 2.5 per cent, less than in 1918. He is of opinion 
also that the inordinately high prices obtained for wine vspirit and 
wine, only explained by trade rivalry and speculation, will prove in 
the end to be most detrimental to the industry, for a lowering of prices 
will not bring a return of the trade which has been lost on account of 
the high prices. Some of the effects resulting from these high prices 
are (a) the utilization of Natal spirits for making gin hitherto made 
from wine spirits; (6) the substitution of Natal spirits for wine or wine 
spirits in vinegar-making; (c) the non-production of canteen or 
other cheap wine ; and (d) the conversion of good wine — even sherries, 
ports, etc. — into spirits. The manufacture of whisky in the Union, 
preparations for which were made as a result of certain tariff condi- 
tions, was substantially encouraged by the high price of wine. In 
respect of the export of spirits from the Union to countries oversea 
rendered possible on account of conditions set up by the war, it is 
disappointing to learn that the hopes of retaining this market on the 
removal of these conditions have not been realized. Our production of 
Cape wine spirits has increased from 2,201,392 proof gallons in 1918 
to 2,248,782 proof gallons in 1919, and the latter quantitj^ exceeds the 
consumption for the year by 30,925 i)roof gallons, and at the end of 
1919 the stock on hand was equal to about five months' supply. On 
the other hand the production of Natal spirits (produce of the sugar- 
cane) has decreased from 1,934,040 proof gallons in 1918 to 1,576,619 
proof gallons in 1919, on account of the demand by the Imperial 
Government for spirits having disappeared since April, 1919. 



Notes. 5 

Tractor Demonstration at Elsenburg. 

On 15tli November, 1920, a tractor demonstration was given at 
Elsenburg by Messrs. Chalmers & Fraser, Ltd., with their 5-ton Holt 
caterpillar tractor. The trial was begun in the morning on a par- 
ticularly hard piece of hilly land, which contained a medium amount 
of young bush, when the work of the tractor was considered fairly 
satisfactory, taking into consideration the nature of the soil. In 
the afternoon a further test was made on an equally hard piece of 
level vlei land, the result being clearly evident more satisfactory than 
that of the morning. In both cases the tractor drew a 4-furrow 
mouldboard plough, working to a depth of from 6-8 inches, though 
•on the hilly land this depth was often not maintained. 

The type of plough used was not suited to the tractor, nor to the 
severe conditions of the soil to be ploughed. 

The consensus of opinion was that the 4-furrow disc plough would 
liave done infinitely better work, and would also have required less 
power. 

The Holt caterpillar tractor has a 12-20 horse-power engine, and 
appeared to have plenty of reserve power, particularly when in low 
gear. In both morning' and afternoon trials the land was broken up 
in rather big lumps owing to the hard nature of the soil. Extra 
weight was required to keep the plough into the ground, while on 
the hillside it was noticed that the wheel attached to the rear of the 
plough occasionally ran on the top of the furrow, and so caused the 
shears to be lifted slightly from the ground. 



Crop-yields of the Northern Hemisphere in '1820. 

The October Statistical Bulletin of the International Institute of 
Agriculture announces the results of cereal crops in most of the 
countries of the northern hemisphere. Data are now to liand from 
almost every quarter, with the exception of Russia, and the totals 
resulting from available and comparable data amount to 56.8 million 
metric tons (2200 lb.) of wheat and 5.6 million of rye. This cjuantity 
is slightly larger tlian the yield in 1919 (61.7 million), and identical 
w'ith the average of the preceding five years. 

The comparable data for barley dealing with a number of 
countries producing just under one-half of the world's yield, make a 
total of 12.7 million tons, 8 per cent, larger than the production of 
1919, and 5 per cent, below the five years' average. 

The yield of oats in countries furnishing all the required data 
(affording about 60 per cent, of the world's yield) is estimated at 
<58.8 million tons, showing an increase of 21 per cent, over last year, 
and 9 per cent, over the average. 

The maize crops of south-eastern Europe are reported as good, 
that of Italy as fair, while the United States yield amounts to 81.7 
million metric tons, 10 per cent, over last year's, and 16 per cent, 
above the average. 

Reports on the probable yield of beet sugar are favourable from 
Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Sweden, and 
Canada, also for both cane and beet sug-ar from the United States. 

The export from British India of 400,000 tons of wheat has been 
sanctioned and will take place unless internal prices advance beyond 
the purchase limit officially fixed. The weather in October has not 
heen favourable for crop developments 



Journal op the Department op Agriculture. 



A Soil Survey of the Union. 

Farmers are aware that an enormous amount of research has 
been carried out for years past by officers of the Department in con- 
nection with the analyses of the many types of soil found throughout 
the Union and the problems connected therewith. The results of the 
analyses and the lessons arising therefrom have been published from 
time to time, but the work has hitherto not been carried out on any 
systematic basis or under a paramount control embracing all effort 
and guiding it to the fruition of a single aim — the complete sui*A^ey 
of the agricultural soils of the Union. The need for carrying out 
this object has been advocated for many years, and it is patent to all 
that its fulfilment will mark one of the great epochs in the forward 
movement of agriculture in South Africa. It is pleasing to say, 
therefore, that a definite stage has been reached in the furtherance 
of a scheme of such importance to the country, for emerging from the 
labours of the past there is every likelihood that a commencement 
will be made at an early date of the great work of collating, indexing, 
and bringing into one connected system the data already available, 
and inaugurating the first step in a systematic soil survey of the 
Union. Making the fullest use of past investigations, future work 
will be carried out under a clearly defined programme calculated in 
time to cover the whole country. And this definite stage in the 
movement may be said to be the result of the conference of chemists 
of this Department, held at Pretoria on the 18th November last, for 
the purpose of discussing the subject of a soil survey and of formu- 
lating proposals in regard thereto. At this conference the following 
resolutions, among others, were passed: — 

(1) That a soil survey is desirable as the basis of the agricul- 

tural development of the country, in order to indicate the 
agricultural potentialities of different localities. 

(2) That the scope of the survey should include soil classifica- 

tion, which, to be of the largest value, must effect the 
accurate separation of materials with reference to all 
important agricultural differences. It should therefore 
embrace the following heads : — 

(1) Careful survey of the country with the view of 

delimiting the areas covered by the various types of 
soils, and including the construction of large-scale soil 
maps. 

(2) The field characteristics of such sojIs as regards depth, 

drainage, water capacity, aspect, climate, etc. 

(3) The physical, chemical, and biological investigation of 

the soil. 

(4) The botanical and agi icultural characters of the various 

soil types. 

(5) Field experiments on each type of soil in various 

parts of the Union. 

Matters concerning the use of information already available and 
the machinery necessary for carrying out the survey were also 
discussed. 

The matter is at present receiving the attention of the Govern- 
ment, and we express our confidence that circumstances will permit 
of the work being taken in hand at no distant date. 



Notes. 7 

Wheat Conservation and Rye Growing. 

We do not grow sufficient wheat to supply our population with a 
wheaten loaf and the shortage has to be imported from other countries. 
When a prospect of poor harvests and other circumstances caused 
much anxiety recently as to the means of obtaining supplies to meet 
the Union's requirements, the question of our bread supply was a 
topic of general discussion. We publish elsewhere in this issue a 
short article on the subject in which the suggestion is put forward 
that any occasion for anxiety regarding our bread supply in the 
future should l)e removed by engendering a habit for rye bread or 
for bread containing a proportion of rye. Rye growing is not 
extensive in the Union but there are large areas very suitable for the 
crop, and given the demand iheve seems no reason why it 
should not prove a remunerative undertaking and solve the problem 
of our bread supply, placing us in an independent position in that 
matter of supreme importance. 



Stock Dips. 

We draw the attention of importers, manufacturers, dealers, and 
others concerned to the draft regulations, i)ublislied in this issue, which 
it is proposed to introduce in connection with the sale of stock dips. 
It is intended to put these regulations into force as from the 1st April, 
1921, but in the meantime the Department will be prepared to give 
consideration to any representations which may be made in regard 
to any of the terms thereof. The dipping of live stock has become 
a matter of general necessity, and it is trusted that the opportunity 
now afforded manufacturers and others of becoming acquainted with 
the proposed regulations governing the sale of stock dips will be 
availed of so that the adequate fulfilment of the object of the Act in 
this connection may be ensured from the start. 



Tsetse Fly and Nagana. 

In connection with the serious losses in live stock suffered by 
settlei\s and farmers in Zululand through the disease nagana (Trypano- 
somiasis), it has been decided to widen the scope of the investigation 
into the matter. We referred in our last issue to the investigations 
being undertaken by the Division of Entomology into the life-history 
of the tsetse fly, for which purpose an entomologist is to be stationed 
in Zululand with the dual object of investigating the local problem 
and of combining in a general scheme inaugurated by the Imperial 
Government to investigate the bionomics of the tsetse fly simul- 
taneously in six widely separated "fly belts" in Africa. But, in 
addition, the Government has now decided to carry out an investiga- 
tion into the disease itself, and for this purpose a veterinary research 
officer will be stationed in the infected area in Zululand. This ofiicer 
will work in collaboration with the entomologist, studying the relation- 
ship between the tsetse fly, game, and nagana, and will also carry 
out therapeutic tests on animals affected with the disease in the hope 
of saving stock that would otherwise die. Houses, offices, etc., are to 
be erected, if possible, near the Empangeni Settlement on the Lower 
Umfolozi Eiver for the accommodation of the investigators. At 
present the infected area is vi.sited regularly by a Government 
veterinary officer, who spends a fortnight in each month there. 



8 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

It will thus be seen tliat the matter is being thoroughly' dealt 
with, and, while the investigations are expected to run over a number 
of years, it is hoped that as a result we will thereafter be able to deal 
effectively with nagana as well as other trypanosome diseases, and so 
achieve yet another success in our campaign against the stock diseases 
found in South Africa. 



Supplies of Wheat and Rye available for Importing 
Countries. 

A recent publication by the International Institute of Agricul- 
ture, Rome, furnishes data of very great interest as to the quantities of 
wheat and rye which importing countries may obtain during the 
season from 1st August, 1920, to 31st July, 1921. 

On the basis of data now available, and of forecasts of an average 
yield from the grooving crops in Argentina and Australia, it is 
estimated that Bulgaria, the Serb-Croat-Slovene State, Canada, the 
United States, British India, Argentina, and Australia should be able 
to export during the season 17.5 million tons (metric tons of 2,200 lb.) 
of wheat and 800,000 tons of rye, making a total of 18.3 million tons 
of breadstuffs. Taking into account the fact tliat the quantity afloat 
on 1st August, 1920, was very large, the aggregate quantities at disposal 
of im])0]'tiiig countries are estimated at 18.6 million tons of wheat and 
900,000 tons of rye; the complete total is therefore 19.5 million metric 
tons, against a quantity amounting to 18.5 millio,' tons of wheat and 
rye, forming the actual receipts of importing countries during last 
season. 

On the other hand, the total production of the two cereals in the 
importing countries comes out very nearly the same as it was last year 
(33.2 million tons against 33.5 million). 

It follows that overseas requirements should not be much greater 
than last year's, while potentially about 1 million tons more than 
they imported last season will be at the disposal of importing countries. 

But there is no positive assurance that the potential exportable 
surplus will in its entirety reach the countries that may need it, 
inasmuch as it is not certain that India will export all its apparent 
surplus, wjjilo present expectations regarding harvests of x\rgentina 
and Australia may need to be modified. Prudence dictates absten- 
tion from undue optimism in view of these uncertain factors of the 
situation. 



Wine Show at Capetown, 1920. 

Commenting on the Wine Show held by the Western Province 
Agricultural Society at Capetown last year, Mr. S. W. van Niekerk, 
the Government Yiticulturist, says that in the number of entries the 
show was a success as compared with previous years, entries amount- 
ing to 179, as against 30 in 1919. The quality generally was good, 
although it was noticeable that, on the whole, the condition of the 
wines was not up to the standard of previous years. This may be 
due to the fact that the samples had to be forwarded in August 
instead of towards the end of October, as in previous years. 

The increase in entries was due not to the earlier show date, but 
to the appointment of a wine expert by the AVynboere Ko-operatiewe 
Vereeniging van Zuid-Afrika, in the person of Mr. F. Myburgh, who 



N0TE8. y 

persuaded farmers to enter and helped them to prepare their wines. 
In going over the prize list, it is noticeable that under light dry white 
wines for Classes 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, all the prizes were 
awarded to farmers in the Paarl and Tulbagh districts, whereas the 
Constantia area took all the first prizes for light dry red wines for 
Classes 11, 12, 16, and 17. From the above it must be concluded 
that for light dry white wine, Paarl, Tulbagh, and probably Stellen- 
bosch are more suitable, and the Constantia area for light dry red 
wine. That the Constantia area produces such excellent red wines is 
usually attributed to its climate and soil, but in that area a large 
amount of Carbernet Sauvignon is grown, and there is no doubt that 
"this grape produces an outstanding quality wine. It is well known 
"that a Hermitage can be improved in quality with a blend of 20 
per cent. Cabernet. It is hoped that otber districts will start to grow 
Cabernet, as very little is grown at present outside Constantia. 
Blends with Cabernet made at Elsenburg and the Paarl Viticultural 
Station have been submitted to merchants, who expressed the opinion 
that these wines ran the Constantia wines very close if they were not 
as good. Particularly with a view to export, owners of large vine- 
yards of Hermitage should plant a certain amount of Cabernet with 
which to improve their whole crop of red wines. 

Two types of wine which are usually very disappointing at the 
show are Sherry and Port, and Mr. Van Niekerk does 
not remember ever having tasted a wine with a good| 
Sherry character at these shows. This i-j not surpising, as 
very fe\\' farmers ever try to produce a wine with a true Sherry 
character, and 1 esides very few wines will develop that 
character within twelve months, and more so if not specially made. 
The 1920 show showed no improvement. The so-called Port types 
are usually a collection of sweet wines with traces of no Port 
character. In 1918 and 1919 Mr. R. Cloete, of Constantia, exhibited 
a sample of Port. Many readers will remember that the judges in 
1918 expressed the opinion that it was one of the best samples of this 
"type ever exhibited. For some reason or other the 1920 sample wsts 
not up to the standard of the two previous years, and it did not even 
get the first prize — although it must be stated that many of the public 
who visited the show did not agree with the judges' decision. Mr. 
Yan Niekerk suggests that prizes be offered for Sherry and Port types 
•of not less than 15 months old, as in the case of brandy. Then 
probably samples with more of the true character of these types than 
at present will be shown. 

Another class that seems to be regrettably neglected is the Sweet 
Muscadel. It is hoped that the districts of Montagu, Robertson, and 
Worcester will in the near future take up seriously the matter of 
making these wines and produce a class of sweet wine as good as can 
he produced anywhere. 



Oversea Exhibition of Union Produce. 

To advertise the products of the Union, the Trade Commissioner 
is arranging a permanent exhibition in London. One is also being 
held this year in Amsterdam. In this connection sheep and Angora 
breeders have been asked by the Department to co-operate in the 
collection of a creditable exhibit in advertisement of their products, 
and it is trusted that they will grasp the opportunity offered and rise 
to the occasion. 



10 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



Salt-bush. 

Co-operative experiments, conducted by the Government Agrono- 
mist with the aid of farmers over a number of years, have shown the 
merits of the undermentioned Australian varieties of salt-bush: — 

(a) Atriplex nuinviularia, Lindl. (Round-leaved or Old Man 

Salt-bush) ; 
(6) Atriplex semihaccata, R. B. (H'alf-berried or Creeping 

Salt-busli) ; 
(c) Atriplex halinwules, Lindl. (Haliinus-like or the Grey Salt- 
bush) ; 
{d) A triplex leptocarpa ; 

(ej Atriplex holocarpa, F. v. M. (All-fruited Salt-bush) ; 
(/) Atriplex visicariinn ; 

{g) Atriplex angulata, Benth (Angular-fruited Salt-bush) ; 
in regard to which the following points are noted : — 

(a) A perennial, erect shrub ; resists drought to a remarkable 

degree, reaching a height of 5 to 8 feet in four years, and 
grows on very brack soils. 

(b) Habit of growth is prostrate and branching, forming a 

dense grow^th on the surface of the land. Also grows on 
soils too alkaline to support any other form of cultivated 
plants. It is a perennial, but some farmers are of opinion 
that it should be treated as an annual in districts where the 
winter is exceptionally severe. 

(c) A low bush creeping along the ground, described by some as 

a perennial and by others as an annual ; dependent pre- 
sumably on the winter temperature. It is recommended 
to sow this variety in the spring. 
id) (e), (/), (g) These varieties are, more or less, annuals, and 
although they make excellent stock feed, farmers prefer 
the perennials. The Holocarpa (e) is highly recommended 
by some farmers for land liable to be flooded. 
All salt-bushes prefer moist brackish land, but are able to accommo- 
date themselves to a great variety of conditions. Seed may be sown at 
any time during the spring or summer months when the soil is moist. 

Manner of Planting. — Some people loosen the soil with a spade 
or a hoe in patches some little distance apart, and six to twelve seeds 
are planted in each plot, according to the size of the patch. Others 
plough the ground and harrow the seed in. The bush will naturally 
spread much faster on properly tilled land. The quantity of seed 
required will vary with the distance apart of the patches or rows, as 
the case may be. About 20,000 seeds go to the lb., so that ten seeds 
every 2 yards means only 1{ lb. per morgen, while at 10 yards apart 
about I lb. per morgen will be required. Various methods of planting 
salt-bush seed are employed by farmers, and 1^ to 1| lb. is generally 
used per morgen, or half that amount per acre. The seed is covered 
from i to i inch deep (the shallower the better), and young plants 
must be protected from the too-assiduous attention of live stock. 
When once well established salt-bushes require very little care, beyond 
being occasionally protected so as to permit them to f ower and resow 
themselves. The ATistralian salt-bushes seem to possess a more vigorous 
growth and seed more freely than our own, although some farmers speak 
very highly of our Atriplex eapensi-s (Cape salt-bush) and claim that it 
is more drought-resistant than any of the exotic species. Salt-bush 
will also grow from cuttings, but this is a somewhat slow method. 



Notes. 



11 



Sugar Production and Consumption in the Union. 

The cultivation of sugar-cane in the Union is confined to the 
coastal districts of Natal and Zululand. In the former place, about 
the year 1850, was commenced an industry which in recent years 
has developed rapidly and liow occupies an important position in the 
country's agricultural and industrial production. 

Up to as recently as two years ago local sugar production was 
insufficient to meet the Union's requirements, and the shortage had 
to be met by importation, principally from Mauritius and Mozam- 
bique. Like several other Union products, however, a most gratifying 
change has since taken place, the 1918-19 season marking an epoch 
in the history of the industry, for it produced suffi^cient sugar for our 
own needs and a surplus for export, notwithstanding a considerable 
increase in local consumption. 

The following statement shows the total quantity of sugar 
imported and of the South African product exported each calendar 
year since Union: — 



Estimated Production. 




Outside Trade — ' 


Tons. 


Seasonal Year „ 
(May to At^il). ^°"^- 


Calendar 


Imports. 


Exports 


Year. 


{ S.A. Produce). 


1910-11 82,000 


1911 


36,482 


141 


1911-12 1 9;i,000 


1912 


19,385 


237 


1912-13 96,000 


1913 


29,227 


178 


1913-14 92,100 


1914 


23,516 


118 


1914-15 102,600 


1915 


8,428 


1,269 


1915-16 


113,300 


1916 


3,512 


1,762 


1916-17 


114,700 


1917 


12,642 


2,007 


1917-13 


105.000 


1918 


21,239 


2,671 


1918-19 


1 50,000 


1919 


2,827 


18,974 



(Note. — The above figures exclude the quantity of imported 
sugar exported, which was negligible excepting in 1918, when it 
amounted to 2324 tons. Nor are ships' stores included in the exports 
since 1917, the tonnage being: 1917, 316; 1918, 188; and 1919, 189.) 

Sugar Consumption. 
The quantity of sugar consumed in the Union (and Rhodesia) 
prior to the year 1917 was, generally speaking, not more than 120,000 
tons per annum, but there commenced a rapid increase in 1917, accord- 
ing to the statistics hereunder furnished by the Controller of Customs 
and Excise at Durban, and it is estimated that our requirements this 
year will amount to something like 160,000 tons of sug^ar, viz. : — 

South African Consumption, including Rhodesia. 



Seasonal year ended 30th April, 1914-15 

1915-16 
1916-17 



114,454 tons. 

118,835 ,, 

114-348 ,, 

125,533 ,, 

143,639 ,, 

165,715 ,, 



1917-18 
1918-19 
1919-20 

A Record Yield and a Set-back. 
The Union's sugar industry established its record in the 
1919-20 season, which is estimated to have yielded 190,000 tons of 
sugar, sufficient to furnish a surplus for export and adding something 



12 



Journal op the Department op Agriculture. 



like £5,000,000 to the value of the country's production. Unfortu- 
nately this gratifying progress has been arrested by droughty condi- 
tions, and, according to reports received at the time of writing 
from the South African Sugar Association, the 1920-21 season will 
produce approximately 150,000 tons of sugar only, 10,000 tons short 
of the Union's estimated requirements that year. 

The rapid increase in the Union's consumption of sugar is due 
chiefly to our large native population steadily developing a demand 
for sugar; also local jam and sweet factories, which are extending 
in the Union, as shown in the following statement: — 





Jams and Jellies (Short Tons). 


Sweets* (Short Tons). 


Calendar 
Year. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


Excess of 
Imports 

over 
Exports. 


Excess of 
Exports 

over 
Imports. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


Excess of 
Impoi-ts 

over 
Export's. 


1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
19U 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 


1,122 

1,165 

894 

1,107 

676 

t438 

354 

302 

31 

134 


68 

133 

175 

217 

94 

160 

909 

1,165 

1,650 

4,318 


1,054 
1,032 
719 
890 
582 
278 


545 

863 

1,619 

4,184 


2,106 

2,663 

2,641 

3,015 

2,323 

3,065 

2,334 

629 

316 

844 


41 

32 

26 

27 

22 

51 

98 

103 

165 

146 


2,065 
2,631 
2,615 
2,988 
2,301 
3,014 
2,23& . 

526 

151 

698 



* Confectionery N.O.U. 

This shows that in 1919 local sugar was obtainable for the manu- 
facture of all jams and jellies consumed in the Union, and also a 
surplus of 4000 tons, while, compared with 1910, exports replaced 
imports, a reversal of trade amounting to 5200 tons. Similarly the 
confectionery trade in 1919 compared with 1910 shows a reversal in 
favour of the Union of 1369 tons. When the increased internal con- 
sumption in these commodities is taken into account it will be seen 
that they have an imi)ortant bearing on the Union's mounting sugar 
consumption. 

By-products . 

A by-product of sugar manufacture is molasses, which is of two 
main kinds, namely : That derived from the process of refining and 
that obtained as a residue at the sugar-mill. In Natal the former is 
chiefly exported as "refined treacle," and there is also manufactured 
goblen syrup. The table below gives the imports of golden syrup 
and the export of refined treacle, but it should be noted that these 
are not identical. The former is entirely a foodstuff for direct 
consumption, while the Litter is only partly so used, the balance 
having special uses peculiar to importing countries, mainly the 
United Kingdom. 



1910. 



1911. 



1912. 



1913. 



1914. 1915. 



1916. 



1917. 1918. 



1919. 



t Golden Syrup Im- 
ports, tons 

{Refined Treacle 
Exports, tons ... 
(S.A.P.) 



4,802 
3,330 



6,185 
3,687 



7,291 
5,164 



7,204 
5,845 



.3,255 
6,213 



2,064 
5,490 



817 
4,285 



186 
212 



16 

378 



226 
4,459 



t Includes molasses and treacle. J Includes molasses. 



Notes. 13 

Molasses, the residue from the manufacture of sugar at the 
mills, are being utilized in increasing quantities in the manufacture 
of rectified spirits, industrial alcohol (including* methylated spirits), 
motor fuel (Natalite), ether (anaesthetic and commercial), chloroform, 
and a specialized article known as " Instanto," used as a liquid soap. 
A wax is derived from the sludge obtained from filter presses, and 
this residue is, in its turn, used as a fertilizer in the cane fields. 

The cane itself, after the extraction of the jviice, is used as fuel 
in the mill furnaces, and in an efficiently running mill this 
■"' bagasse " is usually sufficient for all steaming purposes. There is 
an impression that this use of " bagasse " is wasteful, as it is under- 
stood paper could be made from it, but it is calculated that to replace 
the bagasse would require 250,000' tons of coal which, at to-day's 
prices, would cost, delivered at the mills, £375,000. At present 
bagasse has a fuel value, compared with coal, of 10s. per ton. 

Acreage and Yield. 

The area under cane was returned in the 1918 census as 87,035 
morgen. During* last season the area cultivated could not have been 
less than 100,000 morgen. The cane used to produce the sugar output 
was 2,278,000 tons. The yield of cane per acre varies considerably, 
but is generally taken to average 20 tons per acre every 20 to 24 
months. The quantity of cane required to produce a ton of sugar 
also varies from year to year on account of climatic conditions, and 
the duration of the crushing period; but the class of sugar made and 
the efficiency of plants are the chief factors governing this figure. 
Last season's practice showed that raw sugar could be made from as 
low as 9.87 tons of cane, and white sugar made from as low as 10| 
tons of cane. Taken as a whole (refining losses being excluded) the 
average was approximately 11^ tons of cane to a ton of sugar. 

In this connection it is of interest to learn from a Renter message, 
dated 31st August, published in the Press, that an official estimate 
places the season's sugar production in Australia at 160,000 tons, 
leaving a shortage in that country of 100,000 tons which will have 
to be met by impoitations. 



Fruit Export. 

. The following is a return of the fruit shipped overseas on the 26th 
November and 3rd December last, being the first shipments of the 1920-21 
deciduous season. 

Variety. 

Apricots 
Peaches... 
Plums ... 

Total ... 

South African Wine in Competition. 

We are advised that at the recent Brewers' Exhibition, held in 
London, Messrs. J. Sedgwick & Co., Capetown, were awarded nine 
first and three second prizes, and Messrs. E. K. Green & Co., Cape- 
town, two first, two second, and two third prizes for their exhibits 
in the Colonial Wine Competition. 



Ex 


Ex Port 


Ex 




Durban. 


Elizabeth. 


Capetown. 


Total. 


Boxes. 


Boxes. 


Boxes. 


Boxes. 


— 


— 


112 


112 


— 


— 


i;)7 


197 


— 


— 


(i?;) 


679 


— 


— 


988 


988 



14 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



DEPARTMENTAL ACTIVITIES 



November, 1920. 



(Note. — The wurk (if the several Divisions and Schools of Agriculture covers a wide 
range of agricultural industry in the Union, and we give hereunder notes and observations 
from certain of them treating with matters of special interest coming under their purview 
during the month. The object of these notes, which are not concerned with general routine 
work, is to inform the farmer of such matters as are calculated to be of interest and helpful 
to him at the present time. — Editor.) 



THE DIVISIONS. 



ENTOMOLOGY. 

Potatoes froTTh East Africa. — A number of consignments 
o^' potatoes, aggregating- 1400 to 1500 bags, reached Durban 
from Kenya (British East Africa) during October and Novem- 
ber. Every one arrived in a filthily rotting state. 01 one 
lot of 170 bags the health authorities condemned 110 outright, 
and the remaining 60 bags, on being sorted over, yielded only 35 bags 
of sound tubers. The clearance of several consignments was seriously 
delayed owing to the non-production for a time of the necessary 
"consignor's declaration" under the plant import regulations; but 
from the inspector's reports it appears the decay is chiefly attributable 
to the potatoes having been carried in bags stored in the holds of the 
ships. The potatoes have been a source of much complaint at the 
port, owing to the horrible stench arising from them. The entomo- 
logist and botanist had anything but an enviable time inspecting them. 

Codling-moth Parasites. — When visiting Naples in June 
last, Mr. C. P. Lounsbury, Chief of the Division of 
Entomology, arranged with Professor F. Silvestri, the chief 
of the Italian entomological service for soutliern Italy, to 
have codling-moth larvae collected during the autumn months and 
sent to South Africa with the view of introducing Italian parasites 
of the codling-moth into this country. In Italy the codling-moth is 
of slight importance as a pest compared to what it is in South Africa, 
due in a large measure, it is thought, to the presence of parasites in 
the former country and not in the latter. However, to get the major 
Italian codling-moth parasites established in South Africa may prove 
a most difficult and perhaps impractical task ; and if they do become 
established it does not follow that they will do satisfactory work. 
Dt. F. W. Pettey, the entomologist at the Elsenburg School of Agri- 
culture, who for several years has made a special study of the codling- 
moth, has been entrusted with the responsible and arduous work of 
dealing with the project at the South African end, and on 24th 
November he received the first batch of material from Professor 
Silvestri. 



Departmental Activities. 15 

Woolly Aphis Parasites. — The Division of Entoinolog-y is 
making" an effort to introduce a certain woolly aphis 
parasite (Aphelinus viali) from America. No internal parasite 
of the pest insect is known in South Africa, and none 
appears to be known in Europe or Australia, but the species named has 
long been recorded to infest woolly aphis in eastern America without, 
however, much being known of its importance. It attacks various 
aphides other than the woolly aphis, and it may be that it might 
prove a beneficial insect and worth a great deal of trouble to get it 
established in South Africa. When Mr. A. E. Lundie went from 
South Africa to Cornell University a year ago to take advanced studies 
in entomology, he was asked to search for the parasite, make a special 
study of its work, and, if practicable, breed and ship material to the 
Division. Mr. Lundie has had gratifying success, and Mr. C. W. 
Mally, the senior entomologist at Capetown, recently received from 
him a shipment of woolly aphis parasitized under observation. The 
material was carried from New York to Capetown in the cool-room of 
the s.s. " Eten," through the kindness of the captain, and arrived in 
apparently excellent condition, although up to the time of writing 
this note none of the parasites has emerged. The temperature of the 
cool-room of the ship varied from 34 degrees to 48 degrees. Mr, 
Mally was prepared for handling the material when it arrived, having 
been advised by cable when it left New York, and fruit-growers may 
rest assured that no effort will be spared to breed the parasite. 

Locusts. — Outbreaks of voetgangers in swarms occurred 
during November in the districts of Graaff-Reinet, Aberdeen, 
Pearston, Jansenville, Steytlerville, and Willowmore. From 
not one of these districts did the Department receive any 
report from a resident that any winged locusts at all 
occurred before winter, when it must be supposed the eggs 
were laid. Despite all that has been said and published, it is 
still the exceptional farmer who distinguishes ordinary grasshoppers 
from the true locust when the latter insect is not in proper swarm 
formation. Yet the winged locust has milky white under-wings and 
a peculiar flight, when away from a swarm, by which it is readily 
recognizable. The locust has persisted year after year in the Karroo, 
to the certain knowledge of the Division of Entomology, and it is 
now breeding up rapidly in that area, as the Division apprehended it 
would after the recent big drought. Great numbers of flyers must 
have gathered together to lay their eggs to account for the true swarms 
of voetgangers that are now in evidence; and breeding "in open 
formation " and as widely scattered individuals is also continuing to 
take place. The latter type of breeding up is doubtless also occurring 
in many districts other than those mentioned. The district locust 
officer of Richmond in the investigation of a rumoured outbreak 
reported many flyers in his district ; the district locust officers in the 
west of the Grange Free State have reported numbers, while enough 
scattered flyers to form a considerable swarm, were they to gather 
together, were reported early in November to be near Conway, in the 
south-east of the Middelburg district, and somewhat later some were 
reported on the farm Rocklyn, in the Tarka district. The last report 
would not be fully credited, on account of the locality being so far 
east from where locusts have been recorded for many years, were it 
not substantiated by specimens of the insect. The swarms of voet- 



16 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



gangers are the most numerous in Graaff-Reinet district, where up to 
26th November 132 swarms were reported to have been destroyed. 
The outbreaks in Willowmore district are fortunately less serious than 
was at first supposed when a kind of " stinksprinkhaau," occurring 
extensively in Baviaanskloof, was mistaken for the locust. Reports 
of outbreaks in central districts of the Orange Free State have also 
been found to be based on stinksprinkhane, insects which in all 
stages are strikingly coloured and quite unlike the locust to any one 
at all familiar with it. The stinksprinkhane hoppers are black with 
bright yellow markings. At Rustenburg, Transvaal, a reported out- 
break was found to be due to a remarkable abundance of a grass- 
hopper voetg'anger so closely resembling the genuine locust voet- 
ganger that experienced locust officers at first sight of a specimen 
mistook it for the latter insect ; no similar case has ever before come 
to the notice of t])e Division. 



BOTANY. 



During the month Mr. Melle toured the Cape Province, obtaining 
information about lucerne growing. He visited the Sundays River 
Settlement at Addo, Oudtshoorn, and Robertson. In the valley of 
the Sundays River Settlement he was much impressed with the vast 
possibilities for lucerne growing. In the Oudtshoorn district he 
considers Mr. Edmeade's farm, where the g-rowing of lucerne is under- 
taken on scientific lines, an object lesson to all growers. At Robertson 
Mr. Melle foiind that much lucerne land had gone out of cultivation 
and that cereals and fruit trees had taken its place. 

Miss A. M. Bottomley, B.A., relieved Dr. v. d. i3ijl at 
Durban during part of the month and undertook the inspec- 
tion of potatoes imported into the T'nion on the mail 
boats. She found these infected in varying degrees with 
RhizoctoTna, Actinomyces, Cliromogenus (scab), and Fusnriinn. 
Seed potatoes, chiefly the varieties " Up-to-Date " and 
" Early Rose," especially those from France, were for the most 
part in excellent conditions. Potatoes imported from British East 
Africa for eating purposes were in a disgraceful condition — about 60 
per cent, being absolutely rotten. Miss Bottomley attributed this 
to the fact that they were packed in sacks and not in cases, and were 
unsuitably stored on the boats. 

National Herbarium. — Dr. Phillips is revising the group of 
plants known as the Red Pear, Thorn Pear, etc. (Scolopia) ; Miss 
Davison is busy on the descriptions of the various species of Cape 
" Saffrons " (Elaeondendron spp.) ; Miss Verdoorn is completing her 
account of the native " Ironwoods " (Olea spp.); and Miss Hofmeyr 
is studying the genus Cyclopia, which is the source of many of the 
commercial bush-teas; she hns also completed an account of the so- 
called Knysna and Mountain Hard Pears (OJinia spp.), and has 
established the fact that three species occur in South Africa. 
Hitherto only two species were known to foresters. 

Mr. Putterill, Government Mycologist at Capetown, furnishes 
the following notes on plant diseases in the Western Province: — 

Pla7it I7i.spectiu7i at Capetown Docks.— This Division and that of 
Entomology are working in active co-operation. Potatoes come in 



Departmental Activities. 17 

by almost every mail, chiefly the varieties Up-to-Date and Early Rose 
from France. Five per cent, of a mark are examined. The quality on the 
whole has been good — the percentage of affected tubers being very small. 
Pear Scab or Ftisicladtum.- — Scab (Venturia pyrina) is fairly 
common this season, especially on varieties which are known to be 
susceptible. Beurre Bosc, Jargonelle, and Clapp's Favourite are 
varieties suffering rather severely, with a little on William's Bon 
Chretien, and the Christmas Pear at French Hoek, but none on the 
Keiffer. The Beurre Bosc crop seems to be poor ; this is ascribed to 
the cold spring. Spraying experiments on the control of this disease 
are being carried out at Mr. P. R. Malleson's farm, Ida's Valley, 
Stellenbosch, in collaboration witli Capt. W. H. Larmutb. 

Apple Scab. — I have not yet seen a single specimen of Fusi- 
cladium on apples ; this is contrary to expectation, as the season seemed 
to be ideal for it. The reason is perhaps delayed blossoming, which 
is about two weeks later than usual in some parts. I was told by a 
prominent grower in French Hoek that the varieties White Winter 
Pearmain, Red New Year, and Wemmers Hoek are more susceptible 
than others in that locality. 

Oak AfildeuK — Many incjuiries have been received lately about a 
mildew on the leaves of oaks throughout the Peninsula. There seems 
to be quite an epidemic of this disease this season, owing to the 
unusually favourable conditions. (Jnly the Oidivm stage has-been 
found so far. 

Peach Leaf Curl and Shot hole in apricot leaves have been par- 
ticularly prevalent this year. Owing to the sporadic nature of many 
diseases growers are apt to get lulled into a false sense of security, 
and think only of control very often when a disease is beyond control. 

Flag Smut of Wheat.- — This disease caused by the fungus 
Utocystis tritici Keorn. has been known in the Western Province for 
about 15 years, though no great loss is attributed to it. I should not 
be surprised, however, if the total loss caused by it for this period is 
very much greater than is supposed. A short account of this disease 
and of its occurrence in the Zeerust District, is given in the June 
number of the Journal. A common name for this disease in South 
Africa is Tidp Brand. I should be very grateful for any information 
from wheat growers in the Western Province on this disease, such as 
when it was first noticed, extent of damage caused by it, etc. 

Any one in the W^estern Province interested in the growing of 
plants, whether it be on a large scale or only in the flower or the 
kitchen garden, who is troubled by unknown plant diseases, is 
requested to communicate with and send specimens for identification 
fo the Government Mycologist, Department of Agriculture, 71 
Parliament Street, Capetown. 



TOBACCO AND COTTON. 

On account of the early rains of this summer most tobacco and 
cotton crops were planted or in course of planting by October and 
November, and early plantings are making good growth. Work at 
the various centres of the Division was in full swing during the month, 
and a great deal of instruction was given in the culture of the crops. 
Spraying experiments were carried out at tlic Piet Retief Experiment 
Station in connection with the tobacco beetle. 



18 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

veterinary education and research. 

Some interesting' experiments have just been concluded on a 
disease in cattle known to the farmers as Snotaiekte. This disease 
was present in South Africa before the time that rinderpest made its 
appearance, and when the latter disease broke out many farmers con- 
cluded from the fact that there were many symptoms common to the 
two diseases that they had to deal with snotsiekte. It was a general 
belief amongst farlners that snotsiekte was in some way connected with 
the black wildebeest. As the big game receded from the Union out- 
breaks of snotsiekte became less freqvient, until at the piesent time 
it has almost entirely disappeared. 

The disease was recently brought to the notice of this Division by 
a Free State farmer, who has a herd of some 200 head of black 
wildebeest running on his farm. In the first outbreak, which 
occurred several years ago, a black wildebeest cow died and left a 
calf, which was put with a domestic cow. The foster-mother promptly 
contracted snotsiekte, and this case formed the nucleus of a serious 
outbreak amongst the cattle on the farm. 

A second outbreak occurred about a year ago. During the 
drought the black wildebeest and the cattle were forced to drink water 
from the same pool. This circumstance seems to have been the cause 
of another outbreak of the disease amongst the cattle. 

A sick cow was then sent to Onderstepoort and the disease repro- 
duced by the inoculation of blood or serum of the sick animal into 
healthy cattle. Later on a few apparently healthy black wildebeest 
were shot on the farm, and again it was possible to produce the disease 
by inoculating their blood into healthy cattle. The fact was thus 
conclusively established that the black wildebeest acts as a host for 
the virus of the disease. The remarkable part is that the wildebeest 
itself does not appear to be affected at all by the virus. 

In the course of our experiments it was established that the cause 
of snotsiekte is an invisible virus, but will not pass through a 
bacterial filter (the same as in the case of rinderpest). We do not 
know yet how the disease is spread ; it is certainly not contagious ; 
healthy animals can remain in close contact with diseased ones with- 
out ever contracting the disease. It is very probable that some insect 
acts as transmitter of the virus. The disease seems to be transmissible 
to cattle only. 

The chief symptoms are high fever and changes in the mucous 
membranes. Lacrymation sets in, the eyelids become swollen, and 
complete blindness may result. There is a profuse discharge from the 
nose; the nostrils may be closed up almost entirely. Ulcers and 
diphtheroid deposits are generally present on the mucous membranes 
of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, etc. The aninnil finally refuses to 
eat, lies down, and dies. It is of importance to note that the profuse 
diarrh(Ea, which is a main symptom of riiiderpest, is generally com- 
pletely absent in snotsiekte. 

On post-mortem examination the mucous membranes of some of 
the internal organs show similar lesions to those in the mouth and 
throat. The most characteristic change in the body is the tremendous 
enlargement of the lymph glands and the swelling of all lymphatic 
tissue (for instance, in the spleen). 

The disease is almost invariably fatal for cattle. No cure is 
known, but the prevention would seem to be simple, inasmuch as it 
is merely necessary to keep the black wildebeest away from the cattle 
and no snotsiekte will occur. 



Departmental Activities. 19 

DAIRYING. 

For some time past the grading of cheese for local consumption 
has been undertaken only through the East Griqualand Cheese Manu- 
facturers' Association, the Government paying huU the salary of the 
grader and the balance being paid by the members of the associaciou 
who, in addition, supply the necessary transport from factory to 
factory. This scheme in itself served a very useful purpose, but since its 
inauguration other bodies of cheesemakers, with no such organization, 
also required their cheese graded for the local markets. Authority has 
now been obtained, however, to engage extra graders, and the Divi- 
sion of Dairying is prepared to undertake grading for local consump- 
tion, in any part of the Union, at a charge of ^d. per lb. for all cheese 
graded. This is considered a move in the right direction, and, as all 
officers engaged in the work will be under the direct supervision of 
the Dairy Division, it is anticipated that the dissatisfaction which has 
prevailed during the past twelve months or so will disappear entirely. 

It should, however, be borne in mind, that grading for the export 
trade will be, as in the past, absolutely compulsory, and the question 
as to whether cheese graded for local consumption will be accepted 
for export depends entirely on the period at which it was graded, 
before application for export is made. For example, it is intended 
to grade cheese for the local markets on similar lines to those adopted 
for the export trade, so that if cheese has been graded for local con- 
sumption within three weeks (or, if the report of the grader is 
satisfactory, within five weeks) of the date on which it is desired to 
export same, such grading will be accepted; on the other hand, if 
regrading is deemed necessary, a further charge of ^d. per lb. for 
grading for export will be made. 

The following are the present headquarters of the staff of the 
Division: Orange Free State: Dairy Inspectors Veenstra and Allison, 
Bloemfontein ; Eastern Division of the Cape : Dairy Inspector 
Wilkinson, Queenstown ; Natal and East Griqualand, Dairy Inspector 
Gow, Pietermaritzburg ; Transvaal: Dairy Inspector Oosterlaak, 
Pretoria, assisted from time to time by other officers, when available. 
The staff of the Division is not at full strength at present, but when 
it is these arrangements may be subject to alteration, and it is quite 
possible that an extra officer will be stationed in the Cape Province. 



SHEEP. 

Mr. McCall, Senior Sheep and Wool Expert of the Eastern 
Province of the Cape reports that the drought there is very severe, 
causing great loss to the farmers. The mortality amongst sheep in 
the Port Elizabeth and Uitenhage districts is very high, notwith- 
standing the fact that food and water were never really scarce There 
seems to be no particular specific disease, but a kind of fever and 
lung trouble (including nasal catarrh) seem to be the outstanding 
causes of Ict-s. He states that as one travels from the coast towards the 
midlands the country becomes increasingly dry, and the areas sur- 
rounding Albany resemble a parched desert. The district of Bedford 
is a little better, but still very dry. Owing to scarcity of grazing and 
water some farmers have been obliged to move their stock to the 
coast, East London way, and others to the Sneeuwberg. The situation 
is very grave, and. unless rain falls early, farmers will suffer severely 
in those parts of the Union. 



20 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

THE SCHOOLS OF AGRICULTURE AND EXPERIMENT 

STATIONS 



ELSENBURG. MULDERS VLEI. 

The first coiisigiiinent of cocUiiig-motli larvae from Italj", in con- 
nection with the attempted introduction of codling ])arasites from 
Italy into South Africa, has arrived. Eighteen hundred codling larvae 
have already been collected from orchards in the district, and these, 
as well as others, will he exposed to parasites which may be success- 
fully reared from the imported material in the first endeavour to 
establish more parasites of codling-moth in the country. Owing tO' 
the small amount of material Avhicli arrived, however, it is feared 
that few parasites will be obtained. 

Insect pests are especially abundant in the Cape this year, because 
the long period of cold weather has doubtless prevented parasites 
from breeding as rapidly as normally. Heliothis ohsolefa, the risper 
caterpillar, is particularly numerous, and has caused much damage to 
rape, vetches, and tobacco. Advantage is being taken of the large 
numbers to collect hundreds of the larvae for the purpose of deter- 
mining the parasites. Considerable work was done in spraying for 
control of codling-moth and Fusicladium. 

Cereal crops are still showing up exceptionally well on the farm 
lands. Hariesting of early-maturing wheats was commenced during 
the middle of the month. The condition of all live stock at present is 
highly satisfactory. There is a further falling off in e^^g production 
this month, due partly to the approaching end of the laying season 
and also to the large amount of broodiness in the laying-house. 

On the 15th a demonstration was given at Elsenburg in the use 
of the "Holt" caterpillar motor-tractor. The attendance was some- 
what smaller than expected. Close upon eighty visitors were present 
and were conducted over the various areas on which the ploiigbing was 
carried out. 

During the month the senior students were taken ovei- the 
National Botanical (wardens at Kirstenbosch, the Viticultural Station 
and Tobacco Warehouse at Paarl, also the Royal Dairies at Worcester, 
and the students obtained verv useful instruction. 



GLEN, ORANGE FREE STATE. 

ScJiool. — The first stud(mts comi)leting their diploma course leave 
about the middle of Decemlier. Last year only 22.4 per cent, of the 
total students came from the Orange Free State. Applications from 
intending students for next year are now being received and con- 
sidered. It is hoped that a larger percentage of Free State students 
will take up residence when the new year begins. 

General. — Activities both in the farming operations and 
experimental and research work are extending. This is due mainly to 
considerable increases in the staff. The tAvo officer-, recently appointed 
for extension work in the Orange Free State, viz.. Miss. R. Oosthuizen 
for domestic science and Mr. Oliver for poultrj!- ore engaged in travel- 
ling round the country districts giving lectures and advice. The 
effect of their activities is already being felt, and has resulted in a 
substantial increase in correspondence on these two subjects. 
Associations or groups of individuals requiring the services of these 
officers* should apply to the Principal of the school. 



Departmental Activities. 21 

grootfontein, middelburg (cape). 

Special Sheep and Wool Course. — Mr. E. N. S. Warren, 
Lecturer in Sheep and Wool, reports that the second sheep 
and wool course was, if anything, even more successful than 
that of the previous year. Like the former, it started in 
April and finished in November. The number of students was limited 
to thirteen (13) and two (2) apprentices, all of whom completed the 
course, while the number of applicants for the course numbered 
seventy-eight (78). The thirteen elected were those who passed 
highest in the entrance examination. 

The course was conducted in the main by Messrs. Warren and 
Mellet, who gave all the sheep and wool lectures, demonstrations, and 
judging lessons; and those pertaining to animal nutrition, sheep dips 
and their properties were given by Mr. A. Stead. The course 
included also the histology of the wool and other textile fibres, 
external and internal parasites affecting sheep, by Mr. Wahl ; the 
principles of breeding, and foods and feeding, bv Mr. Cooke ; sheep 
diseases, by Mr. Fourie ; and fodder crops, by Mr. Donkin. 

Whenever either Messrs. Mellet or Warren visited sheep breeders 
to class or mate sheep, a few students accompanied them; in this way 
every student was given an opportunity of seeing other studs and 
flocks. 

During July all the students were taken by Mr. Mellet on a 
circular tour among some of the leading stud breeders of the district, 
where much useful knowledge was gained, as the students were given 
every opportunity by the breeders to inspect their studs. The places 
visited were : Onbekend (Max Von Below), Gordonville (R. P. 
King well), Haartebeestefontein (H. A. Peterson), and Sunny dell (E. 
Staples). Later on in the course the students were shown over those 
well-known stud farms Hillmoor (F. W. Southey) and Waterfall 
(H. L. Southey), in the Steynsburg district, and Grassdale (J. S. 
Minnaar), in the Graaff-Eeinet district. The value of such visits is 
very great, and we are indebted to all these breeders for their kind 
hospitality and assistance in helping forward the education of the 
special sheep students. Roderick's Bloemfontein ram sales were 
also attended during the term. 

Towards the end of the course, first-hand knowledge was gained 
of wool-selling conditions and methods of arriving at valuations, 
among the wool brokers of Port Elizabeth, and one of the first stages 
of manufacture was seen at Richardson's Wool Washeries ('Port 
Elizabeth). The Produce Association of Port Elizabeth did every- 
thing to ensure the success of the visit, both from the educational 
and social aspect, and this under verv different circumstances to those 
during the " boom " prices of last year. 

The final examinations were held early in November. Mr. G. J. 
Schuurman examined the students in sheep judging, and set a written 
paper in the theory of the subject. The results were most satis- 
factory, as shown below :^ — 

First-class Diploma. — Wyche, C. R., Grahamstown ; Dirck, 
A. E., East London; Rider, J. F. V., Graaff-Reinet ; Wessels, N. G., 
Winburg, Orange Free State; Du Toit, T. A., Belfast, Transvaal; 
De Wet; J. F., Cradock. 

Second-class Dijiloma. — De Zwaaii, C, Pretoria; Lipschitz, J., 
Oudtshoorn; Hensley, A. E., Graaff-Reinet; Connock, C. 0., East 



22 Journal op the Department of agriculture. 



London; Bartmann, A., Johannesburg; Badenliorst, I. P- J., Graaff- 
Reinet. 

The following students have been recommended for scholarships : 
Messrs. Wyche, Eider, and Du Toit for further study of sheep and 
wool; Mr. Wessels for Angora goats and mohair. These students 
showed great promise and much benefit is expected to result from 
their further studies. 

It is intended to hold a similar course in 1921, commencing 
immediately after Easter, which will again be limited to twelve (12) 
students. All candidates will be required to pass an entrance exami- 
nation before being admitted. There is no doubt that this special 
sheep course occupies a unique position, and it is very much doul)ted 
if there is any other institution in existence in the world which gives 
students so good an opportunity of gaining special and general know- 
ledge so suitable to sheep farming in South Afiica. 

Lucerne. — In the Hankey area, iluuter River and French 
Provence have both, up to the present, given 2^ ton per cutting per 
acre. Spanish lucerne has been attacked by rust. In the Fitenhage 
area, Chinese lucerne which was sown on the 28th May, VdZ{), was cut 
for the fourth time on the 9th of November; the foliage was remark- 
ably good, and the cuts throughout the winter gave heavy yields. 
There is no doubt that this lucerne, which has now been under test at 
Grootfontein for the past ten years is the finest variety that has ever 
been imported into the country. 

The experiments in the Sundays River Valley are progressing 
slowly, due to the lack of water. 



POTCHEFSTROOM, TRANSVAAL. 

An investigation in the use of charcoal , made from different 
varieties of eucalyptus woods, for producing gas in the suction gas- 
engine has been begun by the Lecturer in Engineering. Tests in 
duplicate have now been carried out, using as a fuel charcoal from 
five different varieties of eucalypts during a 6-hour run at slightly 
over 7 brake-horsepower The results of these duplicate tests have 
been consistent. The fuel consumption showed no further difference 
than 3 per cent, in any duplicate test. Gas analysis and test for the 
volatile matter in each charcoal were made. 

Most of the experiments in summer crops have been laid down. 
Winter cereals have been harvested. The wheat crosses developed 
satisfactorily, and selections have been made for the continuation of 
this work, whicli has for its principal objct the production of a rust- 
resistant wheat. Breeding plots of Potchefstroom Pearl and Chester 
County maize have been planted on the " ear to row " plan. In the 
orchard, cherries have proved a failure. Apricots, some varieties of 
peaches, Japanese plums, and pears promise a good crop, but the fruits 
will be small, due to the lack of rain. 

Live stock are in good condition. The drop of spring calves has 
not been very satisfactory, due to the drought of last year. A calf- 
feeding experiment in the hand-feeding of calves, using different sub- 
stitutes for the fat in milk, has been got under way. 

Shearing has just been compleied. The Wanganella flock, of 
approximately 150 head, averaged llf lb. wool per sheep. The 
Romney Marsh flock yielded an average of 10 lb. The Romneys are 
proving shy breeders, only 16 lambs being obtained from 26 ewes. 



Departmental Activities. 23 



Unoxidized Arsenic. 


Total Arsenic 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


.056 


.098 


.084 


.143 


.081 


.146 


.054 


.105 


.061 


.162 


.101 


.201 


.091 


.147 



CEDARA, NATAL. 

Chemical Lahoratory. — Some dip fluid from a tank in the 
neighbourhood was analysed. This tank has not been used regularly 
during- the past year. Although either some arsenite of soda oi fresh 
raw dip has been added to the tank several times during this period, 
a large proportion of the arsenic present in this tank when analysed 
was always in the oxidized state, as shown by the following table : — 



28th October, 1919 
1st November, ]919 
23rd January, 1920 
12th March ,^ 1920 

3rd June, 1920 

26th August, 1920 

8th November, 1920 ... 

The above figures prove that very often in practice a large pro- 
portion of the arsenic in the dipping tank has become oxidized, and 
the presence of this oxidized arsenic is not shown when testing with an 
isometer or similar instrument. It is estimated that the oxidized 
arsenic (in the form of arsenate of soda) has about half the killing and 
scalding effect of unoxidized arsenic (in the foim of arsenite of soda). 
It is therefore very important that farmers should periodically forward 
a sample of their dip fluid to one of the laboratories of the department 
to be analysed as a check on their own tests. 

Apiculture. — Studies of the life-history of the common bee louse 
(Braula caeca) made during the month have cleared up some long- 
standing errors in connection with our knowledge of this minute- 
parasite of the bee. In the textbooks this louse is said to be nearly 
allied to the sheep ked and to have a similar life-history. But this is 
not so ; the eggs do not hatch inside the body of the female louse, but 
are deposited on the brood combs where they are easily visible as 
minute white specks. The eggs hatch out into minute maggots very 
similar in general form to the common housefly maggot. The 
maggots make their way into cells containing bee larvae and feed on 
the food supplied to the bee larvae. Beyond robbing the brood of a 
little of their food they do no harm. The Braula maggots change into 
chrysalids inside the cells beside the bee pupae. In a few days the 
adult bee louse leaves the chrysalis and makes "ts way on to a young 
bee. The adult louse feeds on honey. Unless they become very 
numerous in a hive, their presence may be disregarded. 



Keep your Jovrrwls'. The contents will be indexed every six 
months and a copy of the index sent to each subscriber. 

Read the Journal ! It acts as a link between you and the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, which is charged with the furtherance of your 
interests. It publishes information for the most part of an official 
nature not otherwise readily accessible. An index will be sent you 
every six months, so keep the Journ^al. It will jirove useful as a book 
of reference. 



21 .Journal op the Department op Agriculture. 



AGRICULTURAL ADVISORY BOARD. 



Important Proposals regarding Disease Eradication, 
Citrus Canker, the Anthrax Danger, Proposed 
Poultry Division, Agricultural Co-operation, etc. 



The Agricultural Advisory Board met at Pretoria on the 2nd and 
'3rd December, 1920, the Minister of Agriculture (Hon. F. S. Malan) 
presiding, and the members present being Messrs. C. H. Mackay, 
P. R. Malleson, T. T. Hoole, II. A. Hockley, Jno. Venter (Cape 
Province); Major R. 13. Doyle, Major E. ^V . Hunt, Messrs. D. 
Allam, H. van der Merwe (Transvaal Province) ; Messrs. G. A, Kolbe, 
C. H. Olivier (Orange Free State); Mr. G. H. Bridson (Natal 
Province); with the Secretary of the Board (Mr. D. M. Eadie). 

The Secretary for Agriculture (Mr. P. J. du Toit) was present, 
and other officers of the Department attended as required. 

The Minister welcomed the members of the Board, and on the 
first item of the agenda, i.e. resolutions passed at the Durban 
Congress, raised the question of procedure in connection with resolu- 
tions passed by Provincial Unions. His attention had been called 
to this by the fact that a few days before the Transvaal Agricultural 
Union had inet him, and placed certain resolutions before him. He 
felt that the delegates were speaking for the Transvaal, whereas he 
v/as Minister for the Union, and what applied to the Transvaal must 
apply to other parts of the Union. There was a distinct difference 
between having these resolutions presented by a Provincial union and 
a body which could guarantee that it could deal with them from a 
Union point of view. He asked the Board to suggest some principles 
by which work could be co-ordinated and sent through the Board 
as the executive of the South African Agricultural Union. At a 
later stage of the conference the Board brought up the following 
resolution covering this matter: — 

1 . All resolutions passed by agricultural organizations, which 
affect move than one Province, or the Union as a whole, must be 
presented to the Government through the medium of the executive of 
the South African Agricultural Union. 

2. All delegalions presenting resolutions to tlie Government of a 
purely Provincial nature must be accompanied by at least one member 
of the executive of the South African Agricultural Union and Pro- 
vincial secretaries must send to the secretary of the S.A.A.U. copies 
■jf such resolutions prior to presentation, also copies of decisions 
arrived at. 

3. The Board considers that in order to provide the necessary 
continuity and cohesion, it is desirable that the Advisory Board 
should meet at least four times in the year. 

('oiiipuUory Dipping. — Pesolutions passed at the Durban 
Congress Avere then taken seriativi, the first dealing with compulsory 
dipping and the second with the method of putting compulsory 
dipping into effect. 

The Minisier i)()inted out that the resolutions brought forward 
for the first time the policy of dealing with ticks instead of with tick 



Agricultural Advisory Board. 25 

diseases, and the question arose: who was to pay for it? If the 
Board favoured this policy, were they prepared to recommend means 
by whicli it coidd be financed ? 

Discussion turned upon the eradication of scab, the Secretary for 
Agriculture describing the additional services which the Department 
was asked to give, involving a considerable increase in the vote for 
scab control, and drawing attention to a recommendation which had 
been made by the Public Accounts Committee of Parliament for 
defraying the expenditure on scab eradication. 

The Minister asked the Board to go into the question raised in 
so far as it affected scab and East Coast fevei in order to see if a 
feasible scheme could be devised on the lines suggested, and at a later 
stage an important resolution was accordingly presented, which will 
be dealt with, in a later issue of the Journal. 

Citrus Canker. — The Board discussed very fully the position of 
citrus canker, the position being that three farms were infected, that 
Government was being urged to spend a large sum in destroying the 
infected orchards, and that Government hesitated to do this, because 
there was no guarantee that with this destruction there would be an 
end to expenditure of this nature. In this case also the Board post- 
poned a decision, and at a later stage brought up the following 
resolution : — 

1. That Government be asked to immediately destroy all infected 
or suspected orchards, the estimated cost being based at £4 per tree, 
the total cost being estimated at about £70,000. 

2. On condition that Government agrees to immediate destruc- 
tion the growers and exporters of the Union shall contribute one-half 
the cost by one or other of the following means — - 

(a) That a tax be levied on all citrus and deciduous trees per 
1000, the tax on deciduous to be half that on citrus. 

(6) If Government considers this method too cumbersome, it 
is proposed that a tax be levied on all fruit exported per 
ton in the same proportions as in (a). 

3. That the tax be spread over a period of two or three years. 
Branding Laws. — On a resolution dealing with branding the 

questions stated were (1) whether it was advisable to bring in a 
uniform law, (2) whether it ought to be compulsory, and (3) whether it 
should be laid down by law or regulation the place where a brand 
should be put. The last point arose out of complaints of deteriora- 
tion of value of hides on account of brands being put on the more 
valuable parts. On this subject the Board was informed that a Draft 
Bill was in existence, and copies are to be circulated among the 
members. 

Veterinary Surgeons. — The need for an increased number of 
veterinary surgeons raised the question of public expenditure again, 
and a suggestion being made to make the profession in South Africa 
more attractive by allowing private practice, the Board confirmed a 
proposal to appoint as an experiment Government veterinary surgeons 
in two or three districts, who would be allowed to attend to non- 
scheduled diseases when called upon by private individuals on a 
schedule of fees to be fixed, the fees to be paid into revenue. 

East Coast Fever. — A resolution requesting further investiga- 
tion into the tick as a carrier of East Coast fever, curative measures 



26 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

for the disease, and the effectivity of modern methods of dipping was 
discussed, and brought the information that these things were being 
done. 

Pirbright Testing Station: — In reply to a resolution urging more 
accommodation at Pirbright Station and another station in the north 
of the United Kingdom, it was stated that congestion took place 
because of the habit of importers wanting their animals passed 
through at the same time, and to assist in remedying this the good 
offices of the breed societies are to be requested. 

Spread of Anthrax. — The Board discussed proposed measures for 
dealing with this disease which is now being recognized as a serious 
danger not only on account of animal mortality, but also on account of 
the threat to hide, skin, and wool export. It was stated that it was 
proposed to bring about disinfection before exportation, but this 
was a very difficult matter, and the co-operation of exporters and 
Chambers of Commerce had been asked. So far as farmers were 
concerned, the Veterinary Department would lose no opportunities of 
impressing the danger of the disease, and the uigent necessity of 
burning or deep burying of carcasses. 

Nagana. — A resolution requesting investigation into Nagana and 
condemning the action of the Government in placing settlers on farms 
subject to this disease, elicited the information that the settlement 
was made by the Lands Department ; the Agricultural Department 
had nothing to do with it. The Minister explained what was being 
done about killing off game and double fencing the northern boundary 
of the settlement. In regard to investigation, the life-history of the 
tsetse was comparatively unknown, and they were appointing an 
officer of the Entomological Section to go down to Zululand and 
investigate this. The Imperial Government had a scheme in hand 
for investigating tropical diseases, to which the Union was asked to 
contribute. The Union Government was taking up this work of the 
tsetse fly, and that would be their contribution to that investigation. 
They also wanted a man who would investigate the disease. That was 
a matter for the Research Department, and he was arranging with 
that Department to send down a man. They wanted also a veterinary 
surgeon to advise the farmers, but they had not been able to place one 
nearer than Eshowe. They had appointed a good stock inspector to 
go to the settlement at frequent intervals, and the veterinary surgeon 
would also proceed there when requested. The Minister promised to 
make inquiries whether the settlers had been warned about the fly 
before taking up the lands. 

Among other resolutions of the Durban Congress dealt with were : 
Advertising of South African products, regarding which the Minister 
explained the Government's forward programme ; the limitation of 
prices, which, the Minister thought, was over; the appointment of an 
agricultural economist, about which the Minister said they would be 
guided by the circumstances arising out of increasing necessity for 
scientific knowledge in the country; the wool position, on which 
subject the information already made public was given ; banking 
facilities, in speaking about which the Minister explained that the 
alleged financial support given by Government to a manufacturing 
inciustry merely amounted to a contract with the Pretoria Iron Works 
that the Railways would take half its requirements from them 



Agricultural Advisory Board. 27 

provided their prices were no higher than those for similar imported 
goods ; weights and measures, about which the Minister said that a 
Bill was prepared ; grain elevators, in connection with which it was 
explained that these were being proceeded with, and that Mr. 
Littlejohn Philips had been engaged as consulting engineer ; and a 
promise was made to consider a suggestion to send officers to America 
to become familiar with the practical working of grain elevators. 

Co-operative Societies. — The Board having had placed before 
them by the Secretary for Agriculture the Department's estimates for 
next year, a discussion arose on the position of agricultural co-opera- 
tion as affected by non-limited co-operative societies, and a pro- 
posal to take them out of the control of the Agricultural Department 
and place them under the Land Bank. It was pointed out that the 
Agricultural Department acted as advisers and guides to these 
societies, and not merely as inspectors. The Board took the view 
that the original bargain under which these societies were started 
placed an obligation on the Agricultural Department to see them 
through, and passed a resolution in the following terms: — 

That this Board is of opinion that while the present system 
obtains, it is essential that the Agricultural Co-operative Divi- 
sion of the Department should be maintaioed. 

Training Farms. — The Secretary for Agriculture announced that 
Government proposed to establish three training farms in connection 
with land settlement, one at Indwe, one at Standerton, and one at 
Oakdale (south Cape Province). These would rank as agricultural 
schools for a type of men who wanted practical training for about a 
year. Hartebeestpoort, which had been used as a farm for returned 
soldiers, would be transferred to the Phthisis Board. 

Conference of Departmental Officers. — The Secretary for Agri- 
culture explained that a system had been established of holding 
monthly meetings of the principal officers of the Department, with a 
view to informing each other what they were doing. 

Poultry Division. — Considerable discussion arose regarding a 
suggestion to create a Poultry Division. While recognizing the 
glowing importance of the poultry industry, it was made apparent 
that to establish an effective Division would require the appointment 
of a man with scientific as well as practical attainments in poultry 
culture, and such a man was not available. However, the Board 
recommended that with the staff available, and without creating a 
special Division, organization could be commenced and steps taken 
to provide for the suitable training of a young man for ultimate 
control of this particular class of agriculture. 

Geneva Conference. — By resolution of the Board and on the 
invitation of the Minister to recommend a delegate to the Geneva 
Conference on Labour, Major R. D. Doyle was nominated to represent 
employers. Going fully into the agenda of the Conference, it was 
apparent that 75 per cent, of the items bore directly on agricultural 
labour, and therefore it was important that some one well acquainted 
with South African conditions should be appointed. 

{Note. — The question relating to veterinary surgeons will be 
elaborated in a later issue. — Editor.) 



2S Journal op the Department of Agriculture. 



THE TOBACCO SLUG (LEMA BILINEATA GERMAR). 



By C. P. VAK DER Merave, Division of Entomology, Durban. 



Tobacco, an introduced plant, has i-intil recently been considered 
free from particularly serious pests in the field. Our native insects 
have not been found to give much attention to it, probably because 
no plants of the genus to which tobacco belongs are indigenous to 
South Africa ; but now a beetle has come to the front which may 
have to be taken very seriously into account. It is given the popular 
name of Tobacco Leaf Slug, from the appearance of the larvae. It 
appears to have its native home in South America, and the 
probabilities are that it was introduced into South Africa during 
the Boer war, when large quantities of forage and other such military 
supplies were shipped from the Argentine. Tbe adults of the tobacco 
slug rest during the winter for several months, and bales of produce 
or other articles from infested countries might transport beetles which 
had gone into them to hibernate. 

The insect was first observed bj^ the writer in Durban in 1916 
feeding on Physalis lobata, an introduced plant and a common 
weed. When it was recognized as a potentially dangerous pest, he 
undertook to make it a subject of special study, and is still engaged 
upon the question of control. 

The determination of the species as Lev^a hilineata was made by 
the Imperial Bureau of Entomology, London. 

Occurrence in Sol'th Africa. 

As far as is known, the insect v/as first observed during 1911 at 
the Cedara Agricultural School, Natal, and was brought to the notice 
of the Natal Entomologist of the time, Mr. Claude Fuller, to wdiom 
it did not then appear more than a potential pest of tobacco. In 
January, 1913, it was again reported from Cedara, and the following 
year brought to the notice of Mr. W. B. Wilson, Tobacco and Cotton 
Expert, from Richmond, ISTatal. In the beginning of 1915 it was 
reported to the editor of " Izindabu Zabantu " by a native correspon- 
dent from the Ixopo Division, Natal, who stated it to be new to the 
natives of the district. The pest was also reported from Swinburne, 
Orange Free Slate, in Febiuary, 1915, and in Ajtril a report re{,'eived 
showed that it had been injurious to tobacco at Tarkastad, Cape Pro- 
vince. About the same time the beetle was collected by Mr. C. 
Barker, of the Durban Museum, at Malvern, near Durban; and it is 
likely that it has been there for a much longer period. During 
1917 the insect was reported from Pietvlei, !Mooi River District, 
Natal, where, it was said, it bad been injurious five years previously. 
Towards the beginning of 1919 the manager of the .Piet Relief 
Government Tobacco Station reported the pest; but from inquiries 
aftei wards made it appeared that it had been known in the 
district two or three years before. It was first noticed, as far as could 
be determined, on two farms about 21 miles apart, which indicates 
that it was then widely distributed in the district but not present in 



The Tobacco Slug. 29 



great numbers, and, therefore, not drawing attention. In 1919 it 
was further reported by the Magistrate of Paulpietersburg, Natal, 
.and its presence in the adjoining district of Wakkerstroom, and in 
Swaziland, became known. 

In 1920 it was located by officers of the Division of Entomology 
near Bathurst, and also near East London, Cape Province, and at 
Verulam and Umkomaas, Natal. 

Farmers and others who may observe the insect in new localities, 
whether feeding on tobacco or other plants, are requested to commu- 
nicate with the Division of Entomology. 

Nature of Injury. 

The damage done to tobacco in the field is thus described by 
Mr. G. C. Haines, of this Division : " At first the lower leaves of 
the plant are attacked. The eggs are laid almost invariably on the 
under-sides of the leaves in close masses of 15 to about 40. The 
slugs, on hatching, start to feed near the old egg mass, feeding in an 
enlarging circle, and lined up side by side. At first tbey are 
gregarious and attack only the lower surface of the leaf. Later 
tliey separate and eat large ragged holes through the leaf. If many 
larvae are present on a leaf in a short time only the midrib and a 
few large side ribs will be left. In the seed-beds the mode of attack 
is similar, the centre plants, which are close together, being attacked 
first. In some seed-beds half the plants were destroyed, dozens of 
larvae being found on every leaf, and I was told that, at other places, 
the plants, both in the seed-beds and in the fields, were completely 
destroyed." Mr. Haines was informed that tobacco in the curing- 
sheds, and even in the bales, was also attacked; but, as was suspected 
by him, and afterwards confirmed by Mr. J. C. Faure, of the Divi- 
sion, this only takes jdace whilst the tobacco is still green. 

The method of harvesting tobacco in the Piet Retief District is to 
cut the whole plant and hang it up in the shed to dry. The drying 
takes more than a month, and there is time for larvae brought in on 
the plants to develop to maturity. The damage done in sheds is very 
great, and, perhaps, relatively greater than in the field, as the 
insects are better protected from natural enemies and unfavourable 
climatic conditions. Such damage can be prevented by other methods 
■of drying the tobacco, but it is thought that the damage in the shed 
will be trifling if the pest is properly controlled in the" field. 

Description^ of Stages. 

The Egg. — The eggs are oval in shape, about one-twentieth of 
an inch long and iialf of that in width. They are dirty white to 
yellow in colour, the latter colour being more prevalent. They are 
covered with slime, which does not dry but remains a long time 
sticky, though it may change to a dark colour. In appearance the 
•eggs somewhat resemble those of ladybirds, but they often show black 
tips. This may be due to either of two causes. Sometimes there is 
at the tip a little excess of the slime with which the eggs are covered, 
and, when this turns dark, the tips appear black. Then, again, when 
the eggs are ready to hatch, the black heads of the larvae inside show 
through the shells at the tips. 

The Slug and Cocoon. — When hatched the slug-like larva is 
about as long as the egg from which it emerged. It is also sticky, 
though it has not yet a visible slime upon it. It is greenish in 



30 Journal of the Department op Agriculture. 



colour, with a shining black head. It is full grown when it is about 
three-tenths of an inch long, and ready to enter the soil to pupate. 
It constructs a papery cocoon almost as long as its body, white in 
colour, but usually appearing of the colour of the soil which clings to 
it. 

The Adult. — The adult is a small black and white beetle, about 
one- fourth inch long. The females are, as a rule, slightly larger than 
the males, and can usually be reco^ized by their more distended 
abdomens. The pale markings of the beetles aie not pure white ; they 
are more or less a creamy colour on the M'ing cases and a light lemon 
on the other part of the body. 

The most conspicuous character is found in the two pale stripes 
on the wing cases. These run parallel down the back, bending out- 
wards, before they reach the end, to join a narrow white margin on 
the outside edge, and thus leaving the tips black. 

There are two black spots on either side of the thorax. Those 
vary in size, and beetles are not uncommon which have the thorax 
all black. The bases of the antennae and of the thighs, and certain 
areas on the under-side of the body, are usually light coloured : but 
specimens are found which have these all black. Some, again, have 
pale wing cases, the black only showing slightly or not at all. 

Life-history and Habits. 

The Egg. — The eggs are laid standing up close together in 
clusters, usually on the under-side of the leaves; but, in breeding 
jars, eggs may be laid also on the upper surface, or on the stems, 
fruit, or flowers, and sometimes on the sides of the jar. Up to as 
many as 57 have been found together: but clusters of 10 to 30 are 
more common than larger ones. Earely are eggs found singly. 

The beetles under observation in Durban in 1919 laid their last 
eggs on the 10th of April. In 1920, beetles kept in jars on the north 
side of the room, where the temperature was higher, continued active 
much longer. On a visit paid to Piet Retief, 15th April, 1920. only 
one full-grown larva could be found, and the conclusion was arrived 
at that there the latest eggs deposited were laid about the end of 
March. Some beetles were already in hiding; but others were still 
present on the tobacco plants, no doubt recently emerged beetles feed- 
ing preparatory to going into winter quarters. 

At Durban the period during which the beetles did not feed was 
about four months. Eggs were found again from the 4th September, 
and beetles were observed to be feeding two days before any eggs were 
seen. 

The c^^ stage varies in Durban from four to seven days. At 
the beginning of the season the period was seven days, and as the 
season advanced it diminished, though not regularly, as at times it 
somewhat lengthened again, till in the middle of summer tlie eggs 
took only four or five days to hatch. Climatic conditions evidently 
govern the length of the egg stage to a great extent; but otlier 
factors are also concerned, as shown by the fact that eggs from 
different beetles varied in their periods of incubation, a difference of 
as much as two days having been observed in the times of hatching 
of eggs laid by different females at the same time. "As will be pointed 
out later the duration of the egg stage is of some practical interest. 

Some eggs do not hatch, and it was observed that certain beetles 



The Tobacco Slug. 31 



laid more eggs tliat failed to hatch than others. Under natural con- 
ditions it may be expected that the number of eggs laid and their 
vitality will be greater than in breeding jars. We have, therefore, 
no reason to discount the egg-laying powers of the beetles. 

AVhen the female has started egg-laying, she lays practically 
every day. The greatest number of eggs found for one day was 69, 
and the average for the whole egg-laying period 22. The greatest 
number of eggs obtained from one female was 2421, and the average 
number 1225. The egg-laying period lasted from fifteen to one 
hundred and twenty-four days, with an average of sixty-five, the 
time spent in hibernation not included. 

The Larva. — The larva, on hatching, starts feeding at once, and 
grows rapidly. The first moult takes place when it is two to four 
days old and about one-tenth of an inch long. The second when it 
is from four to seven days old and about an eighth of an inch long, 
and the last moult when it is from six to ten. days old and about a 
quarter of an inch long. The larva is ready to enter the ground two 
to four days later. The actual period of larval life before entering 
the soil was found to be from seven to fourteen days. In summer 
eight to ten days was the general rule. 

Tbe larva collects its excrement in a soft mass on its back, and 
from time to time the excess drops off. The excrement is moved 
forward from behind by undulating motions of the body. The mass 
appears to be kept moist by a liquid from the anus. The slimy cover- 
ing increases the slug-like appearance of the larva. When disturbed 
the larva flings back its head, and a greenish liquid issues from its 
mouth. When the disturbance has passed off, it slowly sucks this 
liquid back, moving its jaws during the process. 

The Cocoon.- — When ready to pupate the slug enters the soil and 
forms a cocoon with a white froth from its mouth. It must be more 
or less covered to be able to construct its cocoon, as on the surface, or 
when only slightly covered, it wastes much of the foam without 
succeeding in surrounding itself theiewith. If it cannot form a 
cocoon, the larva may pupate naked. 

In the field cocoons occur at the base of the tobacco plants, from 
one-half inch to one inch down in the soil. Larvae maturing in the 
tobacco sheds usually drop to the ground, and their cocoons have been 
found in loose soil on the floor. Some may form their cocoons in the 
hanging tobacco. Cocoons have been observed in cracks in a rafter 
of a tobacco shed, but this is an unusual position, aud probably at 
some time infested tobacco had been hanging in contact with the 
rafter. 

The Piipa.—Vw^diQ were found in the cocoons three days after 
these were constructed. The pupal stage of naked insects was found 
to be from six to eight days. Beetles which develop in cocoons 
apparently wait a few days before they emerge, if undisturbed. The 
time from when the slug enters the soil to the emergence of the 
beetle has been found to be from ten to nineteen days, and the full 
period from the hatching of the egg to the emergence of the beetle 
from seventeen to thirty days, the longer developments being those 
early in the season and the shorter those in summer. 

The Adult.— T^ie beetles are comparatively long lived, but occa- 
sionally an exceptional one is found dead after a few days. Under 
observation the long-est lived females were those which hibernated. 



32 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

They were observed to live from 194 to 284 days, with an average of 
230 days. Females, emerged in spring, lived up to 131 days, with an 
average of 80 days. Males under observation lived up to 219 days, 
with an average of 87 days. iNo males have been carried alive 
through the M'inter; but it is considered tliat some also hibernate. 
It must be borne in mind that the observations were made in Durban, 
which has a comparatively hot climate, and that the periods may be 
more protracted where the climate is cooler. It is quite probable that 
the life-history on our high veld is considerably longer. 

Females were found to lay their last eggs from one to nine days 
before dying. Except in the case of those which emerged late in 
the season and hibernated before egg-laying, the females usually 
started to lay from the fourth to the seventh day after emerging; 
but in some cases the first eggs were laid from the eighth to the 
fourteenth day. 

Beetles copulate before any -food has been taken, often on the 
hrst day after emerging, but, apparently, no eggs are laid before 
the female has fed. Unmated females may lay eggs. Their eggs are 
fewer in number and laid more scattered, and more single eggs are 
laid. No unfertilized eggs have been found to hatcli. A female 
which laid only unfertile eggs after hibernation, was put with a 
male six months after emerging, and was then fertilized. Fertile 
females may hibernate and then, without having mated again, lay 
eggs which will hatch. This is of some importance, as it shows it is- 
possible that hibernating females may set up new centres of infesta- 
tion. 

When hibernating, the beetles may rest for months on the same 
spot, and in cold situations they probably remain in one place all 
the time; but in Durban they have been observed to move about 
occasionally, although not to feed, even when placed on their food- 
plant. They must feed first to be able to hibernate. Beetles emerging 
late in the season, when others were already hibernating, died after 
two to four days when not supplied with food, while those which were 
fed hibernated successfully. 

The kind of situation chosen by the beetles as hidings-places for 
the winter is indicated by Mr. David Gunn, of tlie Division, in these 
words : — 

"When at Bathurst District a few days ago (June, 1920), I 
visited the farm where I had found L. bilineafa last summer, and was. 
informed by the owner that the insect was hibernating in thousands, 
in his cupboards, wardrobes, clothes, m bedrooms, and in every tivail- 
able place where warmth could be obtained. I Avaj able to confirm 
his statements." 

At Piet Retief hibernating beetles were found iinder stones and: 
in the sheds amongst both loose and baled tobacco. 

When handled, the beetles give off a rather offensive odour. 
Sometimes they make a cheeping noise. They can fly well, but,, 
when disturbed, they usually drop to the ground and often feign 
death. Occasionally, however, they at once take flight. In the 
early morning and on dull days they are more sluggish, and are 
then more easily collected. The males aie more active than the 
females. 

Number of Gemoeations. 

In Durban the possible maximum number of generations in the 
year appears to be eight; but the average number from one 



The Tobacco Slug. 



33 



overwintered female will be smaller, owiDg to the extended egg-laying 
period, it being possible for a female to be still laying long after 
her first progeny have become parents. In cooler climates, too, the 
number of generations will be less. In Durban the time from the 
laying of an egg till the resulting beetle that egg develops lays its 
first eggs has been found to vary from twenty-eight days in summer 
to thirty-six days in September. 




Fig. 1.— The Tobacco Slug. a. b. Injured tobacco leaves, c. The beetle enlarged; 

a. the same, natural size. e. The cocoon, enlarged. /./. Beetles escaping from cocoons. 

(J. An assassin bug, an enemy of the pest. 

During the last winter some beetles in a jar near a window on 
the north side, where they were warmed up during the day, con- 
tinued egg-laying up to the 22nd of June, and started again on the 

9. 



34 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

20th of July. The eggs in the cold weather took up to nine days 
to hatch, the larvae up to five days to the first moult, up to five for 
the second moult, four days to the third moult, eight more days to the 
time of entering the soil, and twenty-eight days before the adult 
emerged. The conditions were abnormal ; but the observations are 
interesting as showing the maximum periods for the different stages 
so far recorded. 

Food-plants. 

Besides on tobacco, the slugs have been observed either in the 
field or in the laboratory to feed on Cape gooseberry (Phy sails peru- 
viana), the wild Cape gooseberry {Nicandva jyhysaloicles), Vhysalis 
TniniTna, Phy sails lobata, and on other species of Pixy salts, and thorn- 
apple, or stinkblaar {Datura stramonium) and D. tatula; while 
Salpichroa rliomhoidea is reported from the Argentine as a food-plant. 
All these are solanaceous plants, and none of them known as natives 
of South Africa. 

The insect seems to be somewhat restricted in its range of food- 
plants, as not all solanaceous plants can serve as food. Tomato, 
potato, capsicum, brinjal {Solanum melongena), inkberry [Cestruin 
aculeata), Solanum aculeatissimum, S. auriculatum, and two other 
solanums were tried as food-plants and found not suitable. A few 
plants, not belonging to the solanaceae, including sweet potato and 
lucerne, were also tried, and were refused. 

However, speaking of the insect at Cedara, Mr. S. H. Skaife, 
Lecturer in Entomology there, says: ''The beetle occurs on potatoes, 
although the damage it does is slight. I notice that in the potato 
fields Datura stramonium is almost defoliated, whilst the surrounding 
potatoes are hardly touched." 

Some food-plants seem to be much preferred to others. In Piet 
Retief serious damage to tobacco is being done, but Mr. Faure found 
Datura and Phy sails growing close to infested tobacco, practically 
free, while Nicatndra physaloides was more infested than the other 
two weeds growing in the same garden. 

The adults appear to have the same food-plants as the larvae, 
but they are not so voracious and do not do so much damage. 

Means of Distribution. 

The beetle must have been artificially transpoited from South 
America, but we do not yet know enough of its distribution in South 
Africa to say whether its range has been extended by natural spread 
or whether it has also been carried by traffic from one place to 
another. That the beetles will enter mine-props, bales of wattle bark, 
and tobacco, or other produce, is quite likely. The greatest danger 
would appear to lie in bales of tobacco. Beetles emerging in a 
tobacco-shed and finding there tobacco still green, would feed and 
hibernate in the shed, and possibly enter the tobacco bales. Beetles 
have been found in bales brought from farms into Piet Relief. The 
greatest danger of transporting beetles is no doubt during the time 
they aie liibernating. In the summer, it has been observed, 
the beetles may also enter a resting stage for as long as two M-eeks, 
but such resting periods are exceptional; and, further, tobacco bales 
then shipped would most likely be from the previous season's crop. 
Hibernating beetles would have gone from them, and no fresh beetles 
would vet have emerged in the sheds. 



The Tobacco Slug. ^f) 



Effect of Drought, 

According to certain reports, the pest is greatly favoured in 
Piet Retief by wet weather, and during dry spells it is said to do 
little damage. It was also observed at Umkomaas by Mr. R. H. 
Harris that over moist soil the pest was much worse than on dry. 
The explanation at the latter place might liaA^e been that ants were 
numerous on the dry soil but not wliere the ground was wet. In 
the laboratory at Durban there was no greater mortality of the slugs 
during hot dry weather than at other times ; but heat and evaporation 
are greater in the open than under a roof; and it is drier in most 
inland tobacco areas than at Durban. There remains a hope that 
the pest will not thrive in the drier parts of the country. 

Natural Enemies. 

The insect being an introduced species and the larva being pro- 
tected by an offensive excretion and the beetle by an offensive smell, 
probably accounts for the small number of natural enemies which as 
yet have been observed attacking it; but it belongs to a genus which 
is well represented in South Africa, and it is therefore likely that 
we shall find native parasites taking to it in increasing numbers. 
However, they may never keep it down sufficiently to make control 
measures unnecessary. 

The most effective enemy observed is the '' Bighead " ant 
{Pheidole punctulata), and in Durban no infestation by larvae of 
the insect lias been found on dry friable soils, whicli this ant seems 
to prefer. Larvae put amongst these ants were soon destroyed. 
Another ant, Myrinecaria eumenoides, has also been found to carry 
off the slugs, but not so readily as P. punctulata, and it may not be 
an effective enemy. The coramoii " Malmier " (Plagiolepis custo- 
diens) is apparently useless against the pest. Sometimes one of these 
ants has been seen to touch a slug, but to recoil from it with actions 
expressive of the utmost disgust. Other ants, no doubt, will attack 
the pest; but the question whether ants can be profitably encouraged 
in tobacco fields has not been in A^esti gated. 

At Piet Petief, and also near Durban, assassin (Reduviid) bugs 
of different species have been seen attacking both beetles and slugs. 
A spider was once observed carrying off' a young larva, and at another 
time a spider got into a breeding jar, and was found spinning up a 
beetle. Droppings of a bird were seen with what appeared to be 
elytra of this beetle, and an aphis lion has been observed attacking 
the larva. Chickens and turkeys are reported to feed on the slugs, 
and may prove useful in keeping the pest down. Cocoons exposed 
outside to attract possible parasites were found eaten out, apparently 
by a rat or a mouse. 

Control Measures. 

Though many experiments have not yet been carried out on the 
control of this insect, it is considered sufficiently proved that it can 
be kept down successfully. 

Hand-crushing. — The crop at the Piet Eetief Experiment 
Station was kept free this year entirely by hand-crushing. This 
method is expensive ; but that it can be effective is shown by the fact 
that the shoots which sprung from the stumps, though not attended 
to, grew up uninjured. This would seem to show that thorough con- 
trol early in the season may prevent later trouble, providing there 



36 



Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



be no nearby sources from which a heavy reintestatiou may come. 
The question of the weeds, on which the insect lives, may, therefore, 
be of importance. It is necessary to go over the plants frequently. 
I was told that at the Experiment Station the examination was made 
every three days. Apparently only the slugs and beetles were 
destroyed. As the eggs take from four to seven days to hatch, and 
the larvae from two to four days before tliey moult the first time, 
and become seriously destructive, it will be seen that if the eggs 
could be destroyed too, an examination once a week or once in ten 
days should be sufficient. 

It seems worth while to try and kill as many of the beetles as 
possible when searching through a field, though it is not yet known 
what proportion of those present can thus be destroyed. In sunny 
weather some are likely to take flight ; but it is said that if the beetle 
is shaded with the hand it can be easilv secured. 




Fig. 2.— The Tobacco Slug. 
Slugs on leaf of datura. 

Spraying. — As the insect is a leaf-feeder it may be killed by 
applying a stomach poison, like arsenate of lead, to its food-plant, 
and this method of controlling it will probably become more and more 
popular. Arsenate of lead is recommended, because it is safe for 
the plant, sticks well, and its readily piocurable. It is also now 
manufactured in the country. It is obtainable in paste form and as 
a dry powder, and is applied as a spray, used at the rate of 2 lb. 
of paste or 1 lb. of dry powder in 50 gallons of water. The powder 
is double the strength of the paste, and is generally preferable, except 
when the paste is relatively cheaper. 

Some people have tried arsenite solution from the cattle-dipping 
tank. Usually one trial was enough to prevent another, but, as it 
has been stated that good results have been obtained with weak dilu- 
tions, it may be that others may still be led to experiment with it. 
It is, therefore, necessary to utter a warning against the iise of cattle 
dip. A poison like arsenite of soda should stop in the dipping tank 



The Tobacco Slug. 



37 



and not be carried about the farm, where either the poison itself or 
the vessels in which it was contained may be a danger to animals 
and men. When put on plants it causes severe injury, if not complete 
destruction. Arsenate of lead is also an animal poison, but it is 
much less virulent; of course, it must not be used carelessly. It is 
insoluble in water, and, therefore, the mixture must be frequently 
stirred during- its application to plants. The simplest method of 
applying the spray is probably that of sprinkling by means of a 
small broom, as carried out by Mr. Geo. lleid, of Piet Retief. 
He states that when the plants are about a foot high, in his expe- 
rience the most important time to spray, two plants can be treated 
with one dip of the broom, and the method is effective and compara- 
tively rapid and economical of material. It seems doubtful whether 
this method can be recommended for large plants. 

Knapsack pumps should prove to be the most popular under our 
conditions. Bucket pumps are rather slow and laborious for field 
work. A garden syringe should not be used, as a spray cannot be 
properly applied with it. 




Fig. 3. — ^A field sprayer for treating tobacco. The attachments for spraying 
the undersides of the leaves, although desirable, are not absolutely necessary 
when spraying for the tobacco slug, and may be omitted. 



The most economical apparatus in time and labour will uo doubt 
be a proper field sprayer. As far as is known, such an implement is 
not at present for sale in South Africa ; but it is possible to have 
one made by fixing nozzles at suitable intervals along a lengih of 
metal pipe and attaching this to a barrel pump mounted on wheels. 
I'or all the pumps used it would be necessary to have nozzles which 
throw a fine spray to get the poison evenly distributed. 



38 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



Diisting. — The dry application of arsenate of lead powder may 
prove good practice on the tobacco crop, the leaves of which are 
sticky and hold the poison well. A simple appliance for dusting the 
plants is a tin and bag as is used for sulphuring vines. It is made 
by taking a tin of suitable size, such as a 1 lb. coffee tin; numerous 
small holes are made in the bottom; a small bag is made of some 
loosely woven material, and tied over the bottom of the tin, allowing 
a few inches to hang free. The tin is closed with a lid after the dry 
insecticide is put inside, and tlie poison is sifted tlirough the holes 
and shaken through the bag on to the plants. The application should 
he made when the air is still, and, if possible, when the plants are 
moist with dew or after rains. Only a very little of the poison 
should be used to a plant, but the distribution should be as rmiform 
as possible. 

Sulphuring bellows and hand-dusters, as used for vines, are 
obtainable, and they work far more rapidly than the tin. Large 
machines on wheels for applying powders have been tried with success 
in the cotton fields in America, but are not yet obtainable here. 

For dusting it is an advantage to mix the arsenate powder with 
its own bulk or more of some other fine dry material, like wood-ash 
or lime. The dilute poison may be applied more liberally to secure 
a more even distribution. Great care should be taken to mix the 
materials thoroughly. 

Dusting with fine sifted lime or fine dry earth has been recom- 
mended where other insecticides are not obtainable. Experiments 
in the laboratory have shown that the number of larvae can be 
reduced by these means, but whether the results in the field will be 
good enough, and whether there would be any advantage over hand- 
crushing has not yet been determined. 

Dipping Transjjlants. — The young tobacco plants, before they 
are set out in the field, may be dipped in arsenate of lead and water 
of the strength recommended for spraying. The tops of the plants 
only should be dipped. The protection enables the plants to get a 
good start. 



Dairying in the Union. 

Our dairying industry has emerged from its infancy, and with 
its advance has to face broadening issues. There are certain phases of 
the industry which call for special attention at the present juncture 
which is pregnant with possibilities, though displaying symptoms of 
danger. Mr. Challis, the Superintendent of Dairying, who, as is 
well known. Las for many years guided the destinies of the industry, 
makes a number of observations, published elsewhere in this issue, 
which should carefully be studied by all concerned in the supply of 
the raw material and in the manufacture of butter and cheese. 



The Wool Market. 

In view of the stagnant state of the wool market, producers will 
read with interest a report on the subject, published in this issue, by 
Mr. Canham, our Trade Commissioner in London, who briefly sum- 
marizes the position as appearing a few weeks ago and holds out 
promise of improvement. 



Rye. 89 



RYE. 



A brief statement regarding- the use of rye in the Union in relation to 
wheat conservation, together with a note on the subject by 
H. S. Du ToiT, Government Agronomist. 



Although the Union produces insufficient wheat to meet its total 
requirements, we have hitherto had no difficulty in making good the 
shortage by importation from other countries. Once only in our 
history, and that only recently, have we been compelled to resort to 
the expediency of modifying our consumption of wheat because of a 
deficient supply. This happened, it will be remembered, when the 
Wheat Conservation Act of 1918 was enacted, which required an 
admixture of maize or certain other cereals with wheaten flour in 
order to conserve our supply of wheat. Apart from this incident, 
our experience shows that under normal conditions we need fear no 
difficulty in obtaining from other countries the wheat necessary to 
make good the shortage of production in our country. But the 
necessity of watching our wheat supplies with extreme care was again 
in evidence a few months ago and much anxiety was felt, for 
circumstances arose which threatened to cut off, in a large measure, 
the usual oversea sources of our wheat supply, and the position became 
so acute that the Government had to obtain supplies which otherwise 
should have come into the country in the ordinary course of trade. 

That a large country which claims to be an agricultural one 
should be dependent on other lands (economic reasons notwithstand- 
ing) tor the bread of its small population, is most unsatisfactory, and 
even with a return to normal conditions and a free supply of oversea 
wheat and flour, it is a matter for serious consideration whether we 
should ever be open to the necessity of depending on producers in other 
countries to help us supply our daily bread. And the trouble need 
not exist. The question is not one of short supply but of habit. We 
produce sufficient cereal crops, notably uiaize, to meet not only the 
bread requirements of our population but have a surplus for export. 
But South Africa demands a wheaten loaf, and the need, moreover, 
for any change in the composition of our loaf has, until recently, 
not been seriously questioned. In the light of past events, however, 
can we not, with advantage, now consider the introduction into our 
daily loaf of a cereal in addition to wheat P If this were done we 
could produce all we require and be in that independent position 
which can view with equanimity circumstances which to-day would 
make us anxious. Another point worthy of thought is that we should 
also be relieved of sending large sums of money out of the Union to 
pay for the products of other countries. The solution of our trouble 
is simple : it can be brought about by a change of habit. Once create 
the habit or custom of using a bread not necessarily all of wheaten 
flour, the demand will follow, and production in the Union will 
respond and supply the cereals required. 

The recent Departmental Committee on Wheat Growing shows 
that greater wheat production in the Union cannot, for various 



40 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

reasons, be expected in any marked degree. On the other hand we 
have large areas unsuitable for wheat, oats, and barley, but on which 
rye can with profit be grown. This is the cereal we advocate for 
supplementing our deficient wheat supply, for it makes a wholesome 
and palatable bread, either as a rye loaf or as an admixture with 
wheaten flour. But in this country the value of rye as an article of 
human diet is practically unknown; yet its use, even to a moderate 
degree, would solve our difficulty. 

While wheat is undeniably the best bread cereal, other cereals 
are often undervalued. Rye is little inferior to wheat; indeed many 
people who have the choice between wheat and rye bread take the 
latter in preference. Thousands of people in Europe depend on rye 
bread as their staple form of sustenance. 

"We know what was done in other countries to conserve their 
wheat supplies at a time of universal shortage. In this connection 
the work of the United States Food Administration afi^ords a valuable 
lesson in the practical use of cereals other than wheat. This Govern- 
ment body was charged, among other duties, with the reducing of 
wheat consumption in the United States for the purpose of supplying 
the Allies with as much wheat as could possibly be spared. In the 
course of their duty the question arose as to what extent the wheat 
to which the people of the United States were accustomed in their 
diet could be reduced without injury to the individuals of the nation. 
The matter was laid before a committee composed of the highest 
physiological authorities in the country and their answer, as follows, 
to the question was direct and unequivocal. "It is the scientific 
opinion of the committee that in a mixed diet wheat may be entirely 
replaced, without harm, by other available cereals, namely, rice, 
barley, oats, and corn (maize). However, we should not recommend 
this except as an emergency measure." This pronouncement should 
dispel the fear which many people may have as to possible ill-health 
or malnutrition following any disturbance in the composition of their 
wonted daily loaf. But we do not need to consider such drastic 
action as entirely replacing our wheaten loaf; the position is amply 
met by a moderate use of other cereals, in particular rye, which, under 
local conditions, is the one most closely resembling wheat that can 
profitably be produced in the Union. To attain this end the old 
habit of demanding the pure wheaten loaf will need to be modified. 
It is merely a matter of what we are accustomed to. We affirm, 
therefore, that we can with advantage introduce an article of diet 
which hitherto has not been placed before us, by popularizing the use 
of rye meal in our bread. The matter lies primarily in the hands of 
the consumer. 

This suggested means of making good the shortage of our wheat 
supply, was one, it will be observed, recommended to a hundred 
million people of the United States after careful consideration by the 
Government of that country, for in their campaign the United States 
Food Administration advocated the following means of conserving 
wheat : — 

" (1) By eliminating waste in the use of all breads and cereal 
products. 

(2) By eating more vegetables in place of other foods, especially 
during the summer months. 



Rye. 41 

(3) By substituting for wheat breads whicii, whether made at 

home or by the baker, combine with wheat flour from 
10 to 25 per cent, of other cereal products or suitable 
flours or meals, as peanut flour, soy-bean flour, or with 
potato or sweet potato. 

(4) By using* other cereals for bread-making — for instance, rye, 

which will make a yeast-raised bread, and others, like corn, 
oatmeal, kaffir, and buckwheat, which can be used without 
flour to make quick breads. . . ." 
While an extended local market for rye and rye meal depends 
in the first instance on the consumer, we recommend to the earnest 
consideration of producers the statement hereunder by the Govern- 
ment Agronomist who urges farmers of the Union seriously to con- 
sider the advisability of giving greater attention to the growing of 
rye than they have hitherto done. Experiments with rye conducted 
at the Potchefstroom School of Agriculture have shown that very 
favourable yields are obtainable. In this connection it is pointed out 
that the Mammoth is a winter type and of slow growth, requiring 
early planting, say, in April. Early Rye is to be preferred as it can 
be sown as late as the end of June with good prospects of a full crop, 
or if the ground is ready for early planting the seed may be sown in 
May and the crop matured before affected by dry, hot weather in 
November. In the Potchefstroom trials of 1919, Early Rye returned 
1450 lb. grain per acre. A new variety, O.A.C. 61, has proved a 
good cropper and is also early in reaching maturity; the yield has 
amounted to 1720 lb. seed per acre. In addition to the value of its 
grain, rye is one of the hardiest winter feed crops for grazing, and 
it may also be allowed to come into ear and be cut and drawn to the 
stable, where it maj^ be used very successfully as a green feed, 
especially for dairy cows. 

When it is considered therefore that rye can be cultivated 
profitably in areas not so suitable to wheat, oats, or barley, that it is a 
greater drought and rust resister than wheat and is less open to; the 
attacks of birds (a serious pest in parts of the country), that rye both 
green and as a meal is also an excellent feed for stock, and that it 
is one of the best crops for soiling purposes on the poorer soils, it 
seems strange that it has not yet come into greater favour. Sowings 
of rye in the Union are comparatively small. The 1918 Census shows 
that in 1917-18 our total production of rve was onlv 260,428 muids 
(200 lb.) compared with wheat 3,044,856 muids, maize 12,640,091 
muids, kaffir corn 1,801,415 muids, oats (grain) 2,296,657 muids. 



NOTE BY H. S. DU TOIT. GOVERNMENT AGRONOMIST. 



Rye (Scvle Cereale). 



De Candolle says that the original home of rye was between the 
Caspian Sea and the Austrian Alps and that it is doubtful whether it 
now exists in the wild state. He further maintains that the wild rye 
reported by travellers was either plants which were self-sown or a 
rye-like grass of an allied genus. According to Hackel, however, 
the original form of rye (Sereale montanum) grows wild in mountains 
of the Mediterranean countries and as far east as Central Asia. The 



42 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

wild rye is perennial with a jointed rachis, both of which characters 
have disappeared in cultivation. It is further said that the culture of 
rye, while more than two thousand years old, is not as ancient as that 
of wheat and barley. It would seem that the Greeks were not 
acquainted with it, ond Homan writers in the time of Pliny spoke of 
it as a new plant grown by certain barbarian tribes. No rye remains 
are found in the middens of the Swiss lake-dwellers, while wheat, 
barley and spelt occur. 

Botanical and Agricultural Characters. 

In its botanical relationship, physiological characters, manner of 
growth, and method of cultivation, rye is closely comparable 
with wheat. 

Percentage Composition of Rye and Wheat Grain. — The following 
are averages of many analyses taken from different reliable sources : — 

Nitrogen 
Water. Ash. Protein. Fiber. (Free Fat. 

Extracf). 

Rye 11.6 1.9 10.6 1.7 72.5 1.7 

Spring wheat . 10.4 1.9 12.5 1.8 71.2 2.2 

The composition of rye-straw is almost identical with that of 
wheat-straw, with the exception that the former is much tougher in 
fiber, which gives it a special value for papermaking, thatching, 
bedding and packing purposes. 

Culture and Soil. — The preparation of the seed-bed, rate of 
sowing*, harvesting, etc., is nearly the same as for wheat. Rye will 
make a fair growth on soils which are too light and poor for the 
successful growing of wheat, barley, oats, or maize. It thrives best 
on lighter fertile loams and does not grow so well on wet or heavy 
clay soils. 

The yields are according to fertility of soil and climatic condi- 
tions. Eight to fifteen bags of grain (200 lb.) per morgen is not 
uncommon. Rye also resists more drought and rust than most of the 
softer types of wheat and its value as green pasturage during autumn, 
winter, or spring is well known in this country. 

Varieties. — Rye, unlike most other cereals, has developed very few 
varieties. "White" rye, "Common" rye, "Winter" rye, 
"Mammoth White AVinter " and "Spring" rye, etc., often figure 
in catalogues of seedsmen, but the distinction between the so-called 
varieties is not at all well marked, and the writer is inclined to believe 
that there are, at the most, only two varieties, and that soil and 
climatic conditions are really responsible for the rest. 

Bread. — Rye giain, mixed with wheaten or other chaff, is often 
used in certain parts of this country as a feed for horses and mules, 
but never, to my knowledge, has the rye berry, even to a limited 
degree, been regulaily used for bread-making purposes in South 
Africa. In Europe, according to statistics, rye constitutes the main 
bread grain of considerably more than one-third of the inhabitants. 
Rye flour carries some of its protein in the form of gluten, and unlike 
maize, makes a nice porous, but rather dark-coloured bread. In 
oversea countries rye flour is now also made by the roller process 
similar to the methods employed in wheat milling, and it is said that 



'Rye. 



43 



rye bread made from tloiu so treated is not so dark in colour as that 
of the old milling system. 

The writer and many of his compatriots, while on the Continent of 
Europe, learned to eat rye bread, and ultimately liked it even 
better than bread made from pure wheaten flour. Eye meal used as 
an admixture with wheaten flour certainly makes a very palatable 
loaf. Rye can be grown in the drier parts of the Union with more 
safety and less care than wheat. Before the world war, wheat and 
flour from oversea countries were comparatively cheap, and that is 
perhaps why the preaching (on the subject under review) of the 
writer and of other South Africans has not, in the past, received the 
attention it should have had. The position of the Union in regard to 
its wheat supply is well known ; part of our requirements has to be 
imported, a circumstance attended by difficulties which could be 
removed -by the use of rye, and it is to be hoped that our farmers 
throughout the Union will now take up this rye problem in all 
earnestness. 



Locusts in Asiatic Turkey. 

The Union Department of Agriculture has carried out some 
extensive campaigns against locusts, but its work seems small in 
comparison with work carried out against locusts under German 
supervision in parts of Asiatic Turkey during the war. A German 
publication reviewed in a recent issue of Review of Ai^pUed 
Entoinologyy states that in 1915 Anatolia, Syria, and Palestine 
suffered greatly from locusts. An anti-locust campaign was then 
organized, with a staff of 14 directors, 72 officers, 2000 supervisors, 
and about 11,000 men from labour battalions and compulsory levies 
from the population. An average of 450,000 to 500,000 workers, it 
is stated, were employed daily from March to May, 1916, in western 
Anatolia, and 6000 tons of locust eggs and 11,000 tons of locusts were 
actually collected. The barrier and pit system of trapping was the 
chief measure used against the voetgangers. Poisoning was also 
resorted to with success, but no practical results were obtained with 
fungoid and bacterial diseases. For work in the following season 
250 non-commissioned officers and 2500 men were detailed as 
instructors, while provision was made for the supply of about 300 
miles of zinc strips to serve as barriers and 50 tons of arsenic and 
paris green for use in preparing poison baits. 




Treating Turkish Tobncco. 



44 Journal of the Department op Agriculture.. 



THE NODULAR WORM AND THE LESIONS 
CAUSED BY IT. 



(Oesophagostomum columbianum, Curtice.^ 



By Sir Arnold Tiieiler, K.C.M.G., Director of Veterinary Education 

and Research. 



In the course of the past winter a condition of lambs was 
brought to the notice of the Division of Veterinary Education and 
Research, which is caused by the presence of a nematode in the caecum 
and the first portions of the colon. Many farmers have seen this 
worm and drawn our attention to it. Some of them were particularly 
struck by the fact that this parasite was present, notwithstanding the 
regular and systematic dosing with the drug recommended and issued 
by this Division, all the more so, because at the same time they had 
also noted the entire absence of wireworms in the fourth stomach of 
the sheep. Some farmers emphasized this fact, stating that although 
our remedy was very effective against the wireworm, it was not so 
against this particular worm in the large intestines. This, of course, 
we knew already at the time of the first issue of the drug, and we 
claimed only efficacy for wireworm and some effect against tapeworm, 
which effect was noted quite incidentally during the course of our 
investigations. As far as the nodular disease is concerned the state- 
ment was made that sheep suffering from it, when dosed regularly 
with the wireworm remedy, are less subject to the effects of worm 
infection generally, viz., become less debilitated. This still holds 
good as far as the ordinary course of events is concerned. It stands 
to reason that after removal of the more important invasion of wire- 
worms, a sheep will stand other parasitic infection much better. 

Not all farmers have, however, connected the wasting condition 
and death of their lambs with the presence of this nodular worm, nor 
have they noticed the lesions produced by it, although the statement 
was made by some that wireworms were absent in the stomachs. 
Probably they had not been making the post-mortem examination with 
sufficient care. 

The effects of the nodular worm infection show themselves both in 
lambs and sheep, but more acutely in lambs than in adults. This 
observation has already been made in previous years and again this 
year in various parts of South Africa, but more particularly in the 
Western Transvaal and in Bechuanaland, also in certain parts of the 
Cape Province, viz., the south-eastern. There seem to be certain 
years in which this worm causes more damage than in others, and it 
is possible that the climatic conditions of those years favour the 
evolution of the worms. It is most likely that the distribution and 
amount of rainfall are responsible. It is generally stated that lambs 
under one year of age are most susceptible and that adults running 
under identical conditions thrive well. 



The Nodular Worm. 4:5 



The disease may be desoi ibed to be of a wasting nature ; lambs 
simply do not thrive, they lose condition, look thin and miserable, 
and die in great numbers. On posl-mortem the presence of an anaemia 
and hj^draemia is markedly pronounced, the carcases are bloodless, 
the organs and tissues pale, and the fat has completely disappeared, 
and its place is taken by watery substance. The collection of liquid 
is also pronounced in the connective tissue of the muscle. The cause 
of the trouble is found in the alimentary canal, both in the end of the 
small intestines and the commencing portion of the large ones (caecum 
and the first part of the colon). In the walls of the small intestines 
nodules are present which are more numerous towards the end. They 
are not always equally frequent ; sometimes they are fairly scanty, in 
other cases they occupy practically the whole wall. Invariably, 
however, the lesions are most pronounced in the caecum. The wall of 
this intestine is thickened and is almost rigid. The mucous membrane 
has a corrugated rough appearance ; the different layers are infiltrated 
with watery liquid, which is most pronounced in the submucous 
portion of the wall. On closer observation it will be found that the 
thickening of the wall is caused by the presence of nodules sometimes 
so closely packed that frequently they touch each other. The surface 
of the mucosa is covered with a viscid, sometimes milky deposit, 
occasionally tinged with blood. Attached to the mucosa are small 
conspicuously white worms which are usually curved and reach about 
half an inch in length. 

Different types and sizes of nodules are noted, their characters are 
most easily recognized in the small intestines, where they are more 
frequently solitary, although a number of them may be crowded 
together. 

Arbitrarily we may distinguish three principal and pronounced 
types, viz., the reddish nodule, the greenish nodule, and the hard 
nodule. Thej vary in size from a kaffir corn seed to that of a pea or 
more. They are sometimes quite hidden under the mucosa and can 
only be found on palpation or else stand out prominently over the 
surface forming a small hemisphere; others bulge out into the outer 
M^all of the intestines, the serosa, and are easily recognized. All the 
nodules show on or near the summit, bulging into the intestinal lumen, 
a small pit. It is through this pit that the entry of one of the larval 
stages of the worm in the mucosa has taken place which led to the 
formation of the nodule. The red nodules are the initial stages and 
still show injection of the vessels of the areas involved, on section they 
are moist and glistening. The Jarvae being very small, cannot be 
seen by the naked eye. Their presence produces the accumulation 
of white corpuscles (Eosinophile leucocytes) which undergo disintegra- 
tion around the larva and so form a greenish abscess. Pus in this 
stage escapes through the pit when a slight pressure is applied to the 
nodule. The hard nodules are calcified, they have an irregular shape. 
They are most frequently seen bulging out in the outer wall. They 
are the old nodules, from which the larvae have escaped at an earlier 
stage or in which the larvae have succumbed. The oldest nodules are 
the hardest ones and have a tendency to decrease in size and become 
angular tlie older they are, but they will never entirely disa,ppear. 
The content is a hard concrement resistant to the knife, sometimes it 
is as hard as a stone. In the caecum of lambs the nodules are rarely 
found in this last stage, they are usually in the first and second 



46 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



stages ; the whole wall being involved in the inflammatory process 
they do not stand out in relief and the whole organ becomes uniformly 
thickened and rigid. In the adjoining colon these lesions gradually 
vanish, when crowded, and solitary nodules then appear again. 

Sequels of the Nodular Worm Infection. 

There are two complications, which may result from the infection 
with nodular worms, mostly in the adult stage. One is the rekziekte 
or knopderms, the olher one is a septic infection of the serous cavities 
(peritoneum, pleura, pericardium). In rekziekte or knopderms we 
find that a portion of the end part of the small intestines (ileum) has 
slipped into its own lumen and is secured there and cannot return. 
This happens most frequently within the last two yards of the 
intestines. The invagiuated portion swells and so blocks the passage. 
Invariably we find in the telescoped portion the presence of the 
nodules, and it is thought that these form a mechanical obstacle to 
the proper peristaltic action of this section of the bowels. It is 




Plate J. 

Nodules ill the bowel wall (portion of ileum) 

from the serosa of the one portion of the intestine on to the serosa of 
the other, both lying in intimate contact and are soldered together. 
The invagiuated bowels are described by the farmer as a knot, hence 
the Dutch name " Knopziekte." During life the sheep affected take 
up a stretching position, tlie forelegs are brought well forward, the 
possible that the inflammatory process associated with a nodule creeps 
neck extended, the hindlegs placed backwards, and the back hollowed, 
hence also the name " Rekziekte." The sheep is disinclined to move 
and either stands or lies. The head is sometimes turned towards the 
flank. A complete stoppage of the intestines takes place, at certain 
times black or blood mixed faeces are passed. Recoveries are rare. 
Rekziekte may sometimes cause considerable losses. Its presence in 
South Africa has been recorded since 1894, and its increase has been 



The Nodular Worm. 47 



explained with the increa&e of the nodular worm infection. It is of 
interest to mention that the parasite causing the nodules in the 
intestines of sheep has first been described by American investigators, 
yet the intestinal invagination has not been recorded from that country 
so far as the writer is aware. One is therefore justified in thinking 
that the presence of the nodules is not the only cause of the trouble, 
although it may be a contributory one. This view has some support in 
the fact that knop or rekziekte is not observed throughout South 
Africa, whereas a moderate nodular worm infection is found 
practically everywhere. Yery few sheep pass our post-mortem table 
in which they are absent. Knopziekte is found in sheep of all ages 
and of all conditions, although some farmers record its frequency 
mainly in two-tooth sheep. The youngest animal noted by us was a 
fifteen-months-old lamb. 

The septic infection apparently has been overlooked by farmers, 
at least it was not brought to our noitice by them. We have 
frequently observed it amongst sheep sent to us from the Karroo, 
utilized for the production of blue-tongue vaccine. For this 
purpose the sheep were placed in stables and the temperatures taken 
regularly. We then found some abnormally high temperatures, 
reaching 106° F. and more, and extending over a number of days. 
When the daily records were plotted on paper a curve was obtained of 
quite an irregular type. The animals during life showed no, or very 
few, symptoms. Most frequently they were found dead in their 
stable, having given no warning whatever; sometimes they were dull 
and lying down ; their flanks appeared empty. The disease could not 
be diagnosed with ceitainty during life. 

On post-mortem the striking lesions were tliose of a fibrinous or 
purulent inflammation of the serous membranes of the abdominal 
pleural and pericardial cavities. A turbid exudate was present and 
a fibrinous to purulent deposit on the abdominal wall, the intestines, 
and all other organs. The pleural cavity contained sometimes a con- 
siderable quantity of turbid liquid, with threads of fibrin, and the 
lining of both the costal as w^ell as the pulmonary pleura was covered 
with a membrane of fibrin, that could easily be removed. The pleura 
underneath was roughened and injected, sometimes diffusely, some- 
times the larger vessels most distinctly. The lung tissue below the 
inflamed parts in its superficial portions was sometimes collapsed and 
had a bluish purple appearance. The pericardium also contained 
fibrinous exudate which was deposited on the heart itself. The deposit 
in most cases could be scraped off. It was also found on the inner and 
outer wall of the pericardium, whose vessels then were injected, the 
surface roughened and opaque. In other cases the deposit could no 
longer be removed, it was adherent to the surface, and partial 
organization had taken place. This also applied to the exudate in the 
pleural and abdominal cavities. These cases represented a more 
chronic course of the infection. In addition to these striking changes 
other less striking ones were found in the parenchymatous organs, 
which showed degenerative changes. Invariably in cases of septic 
infection the presence of parasitic nodules was recorded in both the 
small and large intestines, and amongst these some were found that 
were nothing less than a small abscess that had burst into the 
peritoneal cavity. This abscess could usually be found by careful 



48 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



examiuation of the intestinal walls, it was broken and pus was still 
protruding tlirougli the opening, the circumference was much injected, 
much more than in the case of a nodule in its early stage after the 
invasion of the larvae. Microscopical examination of pus had shown 
the presence of cocci, which could be obtained in pure culture, and 
they probably were the cause of the infection. Cocci may be found 
at any time and in any sheep, but so long as they are within the 
intestines they are hanuless and only become so when outside their 
proper place. Since, however, the septic infection has been noted in 
some batches of sheep very frequently and even alarmingly, less so in 
others and not at all in the majority of sheep that show nodules, one 
is forced to conclude that they represent a specific infection, which is 
present on some farms and not on others. The infection is quite an 
accidental one, the bacteria find their way into the nodules, perhaps 
at the time the larva has bored its hole to enter the mucosa or sub- 
sequently after it has left it. It then produces a local inflammation, 
so to say, a pimple, that ends as an abscess, penetrating either the 
inner or outer surface of the intestines, in which latter case it spreads 
into the peritoneal cavity and from there into the other serous cavities. 

Septic infection has been found in sheep of all ages, but more 
frequently in adults than in lambs, and in sheep of all conditions. 

Nodular worm infection is accordingly a very serious trouble and 
not affecting lambs alone, although in these the disease is most strik- 
ing. So far three pathological conditions, that at first sight appear 
to have no connection with each other, may be distinguished, viz. : 
(1) The parasitic inflammation of intestines in lambs with the sequel 
of anaemia and cachexia ; (2) the invagination of the ileum ; (3") thf 
septic infection of the serous cavities. 

We must make it clear that we have no cure for any of these. 
Experience has shown that the worms are present in sheep regularly 
dosed with the wireworm remedy, the explanation simply is that the 
arsenic or sulphate of copper does not reach the place where the worms 
are situated. Experiments undertaken by Dr. Green of this Division, 
in connection with the absorption of arsenic, distinctly show that this 
drug is absorbed in the first part of the intestines and only traces 
reach the large intestines, but not sufficient to kill the worms. A 
series of other drugs have been tried, all so far with equally unsatis- 
factory results. The experiments, however, will be continued. In 
Knopziekte a surgical operation might be thought of, but its applica- 
tion is out of the question. The septic infection cannot be diagnosed 
with certainty and, a priori, treatment appears hopeless and 
impractical. Under such conditions and for general scientific reasons 
prevention must be thought of. In order to suggest such measures the 
life-history of the responsible worm must be known when deductions 
for a possible interference can be made, which must aim at preventing 
the entry of the worm into the sheep. 

The Life-history of the Nodular Worm. 

The adult worms are found, as already stated, attached to the 
surface of the mucous membrane in the places mentioned. Male and 
female worms can be recognized, the latter being slightly larger than 
the former. The period the worm in the adult stage remains in 
the intestines has not been determined yet, but to judge from 
sheep that came on the post-mortem table at Ondersfcepoort which 



The Nodular Worm. 



49 



had been under observation without having- liad a chance of reinfec- 
tion, this period must be of considerable length. It is during this 
period that the female is fertilized by the male and then begins to 
lay eggs. The life-history has partly been worked out by Dr. Veglia 
of this Division, and the data given here are taken from his observa- 
tions made as a corollary to his investigation into the life-history of 
the wireworm {Haemonchus contortus). The eggs leave the sheep 
with the faeces and can easily be brought to hatch when put up under 
suitable conditions in a glass jar. In the life-history of a parasitic 
nematode, such as the one under discussion, we can distinguish four 
different larval stages through which the worm has to go before it 
reaches maturity, two of these stages are passed outside the final 
hosts and two inside. The larva which hatches out of the egg soon 
surrounds itself with an envelope which it casts and a second one is 
formed. It is now called a mature larva. Its destiny is to reach the 
sheep, and since it has to wait for its chance to be eaten in by the 
sheep, it possesses certain qualities that achieve it. The larva is 




Plate II. 

Eekziekte. — Small intestines (ileum) cut in half ; 
the arrow indicates a nodule. 

endowed with longevity. It may safely be stated that it can live at 
least one year under favourable outside conditions. It is able to crawl 
about and does so mainly in two directions ; one is the upward one by 
which it reaches the tufts and grasses, the other one is the downward 
one, which enables it to return to the ground. The larvae can only 
crawl on a moist surface; this is, of course, the case during rain and 
at a time of heavy dew when the blades of grass are wet. Further- 
more, the larvae cannot stand the action of the direct sunlight and try 
to escape from it without delay. Hence the migration of the larvae on 
the grass can only take place under certain conditions, viz., when 
moisture enables them to do so, in the summer and in the absence of 
sunlight, during night, the early morning, and when the sky is over- 
cast, particularly on rainy days. Moisture, of course, is retained in 
"the portion of grass tufts near the soil, and sheep feeding very close to 
the ground are thus exposed all through the summer to infection 



50 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

and particularly on places where moisture is more or less permanent, 
viz., vleis, along springs, rivers, etc. In the winter, however, the 
surface moisture disappears and the larvae crawl into the ground. 
They have been found as deep as one foot and more. With the new 
rains in springtime, they return to the surface and again find their 
way on to the grass. Furthermore, below a certain temperature the 
larvae cease their activity and remain dormant. A temperature of 
10° C. arrests their activity, hence this activity in winter cannot be 
great. 

There are thus two important facts to be noted, viz. : (1) The 
longevity of the larvae in the veld, and (2) their absence from the 
grass during the winter. Based on these two facts a method of sheep 
rearing could be arranged by which lambs would escape the nodular 
worm infection and incidentally the infection of any worm with an 
identical life-history. It would be wise to begin by cleaning a piece of 
pasture (preferably one fenced in) of the infection, by simply keeping 
the sheep away for at least one year, preferably longer ; probably 
fifteen months will be sufficient. This piece of pasture could be 
utilized for the grazing of cattle. Cattle do not harbour the nodular 
worm and hence would not maintain the infection. Cattle, however, 
harbour wireworms, and this fact must be borne in mind. Into this 
cleaned area no old sheep should be allowed to enter, as with their 
faeces they would spread the eggs of the nodular worms and in due . 
time the ground would be infected again. The ewes must lamb out- 
side the clean area, but, of course, not during the period when the 
larvae can infect the lambs, i.e. not during the spring or summer. 
The lambing season must be arranged for during the winter when the 
infection is at a minimum or absent. It is the experience of many 
sheep farmers that winter lambs do well where summer lambs will not 
thrive, and when the ewes at the end of the summer are in good con- 
dition and winter grazing is good no fear need be entertained about 
rearing lambs. In order to escape the infection arising out of the 
spring rains the lambs should be weaned about that time and then 
placed into the clean paddocks until they have reached an age when. 
the sheep will stand the infection better. This age is not less than 
one year. In applying this measure systematically and in a definite^ 
rotation a sheep farmer should be able to clean his whole farni of the 
infection, or at least reduce it to a minimum. The lambs in the clean 
paddocks should be treated for wireworms in case cattle have been 
grazing there, and also because other parasites, such as tapeworm, will 
still be present. The M'ireworm remedy is recommended for this pur- 
pose. Until he has obtained a clean paddock a farmer cannot entirely 
protect liis sheep from the nodular worm infection, but he can reduce 
the danger considerably. The infection is only present in moist places 
and on wet grass, accordingly ho should not allow the sheep to graze 
on such places, but should water them from a place with a dry 
approach ; he should not allow them into the pasture before the dew 
has dried up, and during rainy days he should keep them on the 
highest ground he possibly can find. Where a farmer grows crops for 
his sheep he should arrange his feeding so that the sheep receive their 
supplementary rations at such times, when otherwise they should sub- 
sist on wet grass and so take up the infection. Winter feeding may 
also be arranged for, but if green crops, from irrigated lands, are 
intended to be fed to lambs, tbev should onlv be cut when no moisture 



The Nodular Worm. 



51 



is on them. Green crops should not be fed to lambs when wet. A 
farmer will have to arrange his plans to meet the particular local and 
seasonal conditions of his farm. The underlying principles as set 
forth are, however, always the same. 

Once the larva has reached the stomach of the sheep it passes down 
the intestinal canal, and it has to go throug^h two more larval stages 
in order to reach the final adult one, when it will either be a male or a 
female. These stages, or one of them at least, are passed in the 
intestinal nodules, ^Mit accurate information is not yet at our disposal. 
The damage to the sheep is thus not so much done by the adult worm 
as in the case of the wireworms, which may be present in thousands 
and after the removal of which the effects cease, but by the larvae in 
producing the nodules and the inflammatory condition of the caecum 
and colon. It is evident that no drug will reach these larvae well 
hidden within the nodule, and any attempt to reach them there by 
• dosing will be futile at the present stage of our knowledge concerning 
vermicides. It is evident alsc that a vermifuge killing the adult 
worms in the caecum would hardly b 'ng about an immediate improve- 
ment in the condition of the sheep. The adults probably cause the 
least trouble, the damage being done by the larvae. The idea might 
be conceived to get at the larvae before they burrow into the intestinal 
wall, but no information is at hand how long they will remain in the 
intestinal lumen, and even if there would be such a stage, the locality 
is entirely out of reach as already explained. Even if we should 
succeed in finding a drug which kills the adult worms in the large 
intestines, the sheep will still suffer from the effects of the larvae 
until such time as, by killing off the adults, no more eggs and larvae 
are produced and the farm becomes clean. Theoretically such a state 
of affairs might be reached one day, practically it will be difficult or 
almost impossible. The only effective way to deal with the nodular 
worm infection is therefore to prevent the entry of the worm into the 
sheep. — 




DrilliDg Oats. 

^Export of Grain. 

The exports of grain, etc., for the month of November were as 
follows: Maize, 145,622 bags; maize meal, 96,471 bags; maize 
flour, 300 bags; maize grit (rice), 3061 bags; hominy chop, 14,708 
bags; Kaffir corn, 154 bags; oats, 99 bags; beans, 1075 bags. The 
total number of bags exported from 1st July last to 30th November 
was: Maize, 204,289 bags; maize meal, 135,325 bags; maize flour, 
300 bags; maize grit, 3061 bags; hominy chop, 32,220 bags; Kaffir 
corn, 164 bags; oats, 1054 bags; beans. 1213 bags; lucerne seed, 366 
bags. Stocks on hand at all ports on 30th November, 1920, were in bags : 
Maize, 49,488; maize meal, 71,001; hominy chop, 3650; beans, 70. 



52 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



SUCCESSFUL FARMING ON GOVERNMENT 
SMALL HOLDINGS. 

An Object-lesson from the High Veld. 



The histoiy of South Africa's agricultural progress conjures in the 
mind a picture of vast areas and isolated homesteads. After two 
hundred and sixty years of occupation we still find a sparse popula- 
tion and extensive farming, and generations of these conditions have 
imbued the idea that it is the big proposition only which is likely to 
afford financial success in this country. But the country is slowly and 
surely being taken up by a growing community of farmers and, as 
surely, the days of the earlj' pioneer whose huge farm " farmed itself " 
are passing. The value of good farm land is rising and the man con- 
tent with a small return from his numerous acres is gradually retreat- 
ing to the remoter parts, impelled by the irresistible approach of the 
intensive farmer whose every acre gives its carefully calculated 
return. And with the approach of the intensive farmer comes the 
need of greater attention to the economy of farming. It is in this 
field that there is a dearth of information, yet, as in all enterpri&e, 
the first essential is knowledge as to the payability or otherwise of 
the proposition. No matter how sound our theories may appear or 
how attractive the picture we paint of the many opportunities open 
to the agriculturist in the Union, the prospective farmer wants 
practical demonstration in the shape of a reliable profit and loss 
account. It is, therefore, with much pleasure that we publish the 
following figures obtained by Mr. Mason, of this Department, who, 
as Director of Training Farms, has had the opportunity of going 
closely into the matter. The data he furnishes will serve a valuable 
lesson to the man already on the land and illustrate to those Avho 
wish to take up farming what can be done, not on the large farm 
usually associated with South African agriculture, but on the small 
holding and with a modest capital. 

The illustration we give concerns a settler on the Government 
Settlement at Strypan, in the Pretoria District, who owns a holding 
of 94 morgen situated between the Germiston-Witbank and the 
Germiston-Breyten railways, land typical of thousands of acres suit- 
able for the same class of farming in the high veld portions of the 
country. The soil is a greyish loam varying in depth from 5 inches 
to 11 inches and is underlaid by an ironstone gravel. On this hold- 
ing certain improvements have l)een effected; there are a house, store, 
borehole, and windmill, and the lands and grazing camp have been 
fenced. The farm was purchased just over two years ago. and the 
price is set down as follows : — 

Paid to previous owner for goodwill £300 

Paid to Government to liquidate previous owner's 
liabilities for loose assets and accrued rent and 

interest 116 

Purchase price of ground (including cost of borehole 

and windmill, under Land Settlement Act. 1912) 361 

£777 



Successful Farming on Government Small Holdings. 53 

The loose assets on the farm consist of 2 mowers, 2 rake§, 4 
ridging ploughs, 1 disc harrow, 2 planters, 4 cultivators, baling press 
with horse gear, 2 harrows, wagon and trek gear, 2 bucksails, 1 cart 
and harness, spades, picks, shovels, etc., and the live stock are 20 
oxen, 4 cows, 1 bull, 6 heifers, and 2 horses. The value of these 
assets is placed at £1000. 

The area under cultivation during the 1919-1920 season was 75 
morgen, and the income from the farm that season was as follows: — 

960 bags mealies at 23s.* £1104 

90 bags kaffir corn at 23s 103 10 

1800 bales teff at 9s. per 100 lb 810 

600 bales manna at 9s. per 100 lb 270 

800 bales mealie hay at 4s. 6d. per 100 lb. ... 180 
700 bales mealie leaves (kept for feeding 

oxen, but could have been sold) — 

Green mealies, no account kept, but say 20 

Poultry, eggs, milk, butter, etc., consumed on 

farm. — not valued — 



£2487 10 



The expenses incurred in obtaining the above income are given 
as follows : — 

Two boys kept throughout the year at £3 per 

month £72 

Cost of extra labour, harvesting, threshing, 

baling wire, bags, etc 194 10 



£266 10 



In addition to these expenses there was the farmer's labour for 
the whole year, which is not included. The out-of-pocket expenses 
are remarkably low, and in most cases would be 20 per cent, higher, 
so the total expenses, not allowing for depreciation, may be placed at, 
say, £320. 

The 1919-1920 season on the Transvaal high veld was not excep- 
tional ; indeed, the rainfall was below the average, though it fell 
nicely over Strypan and its immediate vicinity, as shown in the 
following returns, viz. : — 

September, 1919, .01 inch (2 days). 
October, 1919, 2.70 inches (3 days). 
November, 1919, 4.00 inches (9 days). 
December, 1919, 2.66 inches (3 days). 
January, 1920, 4.16 inches (10 days). 
February, 1920, 2.77 inches (5 days). 
March, 1920, 1.58 inch (7 days). 
April, 1920, .40 inch (2 days). 
May, 1920, .46 inch (2 days). 

* Note.— 600 bags of mealies had not been sold but as the other had realized 27s. and 
25s. 6d., the price taken seems reasonable. 



54 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



The satisfactory returns disclosed cannot, of course, be expected 
year after year unless the soil is replenished ; the statement does not 
include any specific item in this respect, so that in drawing our 
conclusions an allowance must be made under this head in calculating- 
future returns. 

Thus we see what can be produced in one season on a small farm 
under high veld conditions with a capital of £2000. And the only 
complaint the owner made was as to the ground available for grazing 
being too limited. Even allowing for interest on capital, deprecia- 
tion, the high value of produce, etc., by halving the gain, we still 
are faced by a return of £1000 over actual working expenses from a 
94-morgen proposition. There are some 40 settlers on the same 
settlement, and whilst the above may be the best return there are at 
least seven or eight others who could show very similar returns for 
the season. 

Here are actual figures; what are the lessons? Every profession 
has its advantages and disabilities, its successes and failures. No 
doubt some of the failures are due to overwhelming ill fortune, but, 
given reasonably propitious conditions, the outstanding factor is the 
man himself. He must know his calling and apply his knowledge; 
without this knowledge and application he must be content with 
such reward as he may get here and there, a precarious existence. 

But however energetic and well equipped with knowledge of 
farming the man may be, the handicap is severe and often insur- 
mountable if he does not possess the needful capital and material 
(capital goods) for his operations. A small team of weak oxen and 
a shortage of implements limit the acreage which can be handled, 
render deep ploughing difficult, and make thorough cultivation at 
the right season almost impossible. All operations are inefficiently 
performed. Thus it follows that the risk of farming under such 
conditions is considerably increased and the result is a diminished 
return. Inadequate capital is not fair to the man nor to the reputa- 
tion of farming as a sound, business proposition. 

While energy, thrift, and sufiiciency of capital are, therefore, 
essentials to success, the equipment is not complete unless a know- 
ledge of good farming is added. Agriculture is the most ancient 
of sciences, and there are certain principles which centuries of 
practice have shown to be inseparable from good and successful 
farming. The bounty of virgin nature is soon exhausted. And so 
in the older countries of the world the millions of people who depend 
upon the fruits of a soil, limited in extent, have learned that 
continued sustenance for themselves and their fellow-men can only 
be won by the most scrupulous attention to the fertility of the soil. 
This is a subject which demands the first consideration of every 
farmer, and its preaching in this country becomes more necessary as 
time passes and the richness of the unreplenished soil is squandered. 
On many high veld farms the result of continuous cropping is 
becoming evident. Unless other methods are introduced, disaster 
will follow a system aptly termed " land robbery." This Depart- 
ment insistently publishes information as- to the most approved 
methods of maintaining soil fertility by means of rotation, legu- 
minous crops, and manure; to this end it advocates the more general 
introduction of live stock and the conservation of all farmyard 
manures as a prime necessity. The soil lives, and just as we see to 



Successful Farming on Government Small Holdings. 55 

the well-being of our live stock, so the life and friiitfiilness of our 
soil must be maintained by judicious feeding. 

Farming conditions are never uniformly propitious, and the 
marketable value of farm produce is not constant. There are good 
and bad seasons, and returns must be averaged. Nevertheless, we 
give the above example of what can be done in a season which was 
not exceptionally favourable. It is clear that the very satisfactory 
result of the year's operations was due not so much to a happy com- 
bination of circumstances, but to real, honest toil, common sense 
methods and sufficient though modest capital. It is an example 
worthy and capable of emulation by all settlers similarly situated. 




Spraying an Orchard. 



Plant Removals to Portuguese East Africa. 

Nurserymen and others who have occasion to dispatch plants, 
cotton seed, etc., from the Union to Portuguese East Africa, are 
reminded that the Portuguese regulations prohibit any introduction 
unless accompanied by a permit which must be obtained from the 
Entomological Section of the Department of Agriculture, Lourenco 
Marques. All consignments should be addressed via Lourenco 
Marques for inspection and any fruit or ornamental trees from a 
nursery must be fumigated immediately before dispatch. 



56 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



PEST REMEDIES AND STOCK DIPS. 



The following regulations (under Act No. 21 of 1917), which it is 
proposed to introduce in connection with the sale of stock dips are 
published for the information of all concerned. 

It is proposed that these regulations shall come into force as 
from the 1st April, 1921. In the meantime the Department of Agri- 
culture will be prepared to give consideration to any representations 
which may be put forward in regard to any clause or clauses embodied 
in these draft regulations. 

Registration. 

1. " Stock dip " shall mean any substance sold or intended or 
offered for sale for the prevention or destruction of any parasitic pest 
of animals. - 

Every importer of a stock dip and every proprietor or manufac- 
turer of a stock dip made in the Union shall register such dip with 
the Department of Agriculture in the manner required by these 
regulations, and no person shall sell, keep for sale, or offer for sale, 
any stock dip not so registered. 

On registiation, a certificate shall be delivered to the person 
registering. 

Each certificate shall in every case expire on the 31st December, 
if not renewed on application made after the 1st December, but may, 
in special circumstances, be renewed as from the date of expiry, if 
application for such renewal is made before the 31st January. 

2. Every person required to register a stock dip in accordance 
with these regulations shall make application on the form 
following : — 

Form of Application for Registration of Stock Dips. 

(1) Name of person or firm registering 

(2) Address of person registering 

(3) Whether applicant is importer or manufacturer 

(4) Name under which the dip is to be sold 

(5) Brand and any special designation of dip 

(6) Guaranteed composition 

(7) Directions to the consumer for use, if any 

(8) Under this heading shall be stated fully specifically what pre- 

ventive or remedial properties are claimed for the stock dip 



Signature of person or firm registering. 
Date of registration 



Secretary for Agnculture. 



Pest Remedies and Stock Dips. 57 

3. Under " composition," item (6) of the iorm of registration, 
Clause 2 of these regulations, shall be stated the names of each and 
every ingredient for which efficacy is claimed, together with the 
minimum percentage amounts in which they are guaranteed to be 
present, and the form in which they are claimed to occur. 

4. In making a statement of composition or analysis under Clause 
2 of these regulations, recognized analytical terms shall be employed 
wherever possible. A considerable degree of latitude in expression 
may be recognized, but the Department shall reserve the right to 
refuse registration on grounds of inadequate description of the dip. 

5. In the case of dips containing arsenic, there shall be stated 
under Clause 2 of these regulations, in addition to any other form the 
vendor may choose to adopt : — 

(a) The percentage amount of total arsenic expressed in terms 
of the element arsenic, and 

(h) the percentage amount of arsenic in water-soluble form 
expressed in terms of the element arsenic. 

The term " water-soluble " shall be understood to mean freely 
soluble under the conditions prescribed for making up the tank fluid ; 
that is to be such as to be present wholly in solution in the finished 
dip. 

6. In the case of tobacco dips, tobacco extracts, and nicotine 
products, there shall be stated under Clause 2 of these regulations a 
guaranteed minimum percentage of nicotine. 

7. In the case of dips in which sulphur is combined with calcium, 
sodium, potassium, or other basic element, and forming therewith 
a water-soluble sulphide, there shall be stated, under Clause 2 of 
these regulations : — 

(a) The percentage amount of sulphur present in the form 
of water-soluble sulphide, and 

(6) the percentage amount of the basic element or elements 
with which sulphur in the form of water-soluble sulphide 
is combined ; or alternatively, the ratio of mono-sulphur 
equivalent to total suphide sulphur. 

8. In the case of dips in which terms such as cresols, creosote, tar- 
oils, and the like, are claimed as active ingredients, there shall be 
given, under Clause 2 of these regulations, either the true chemical 
designation or the range of boiling points of the mixed tar distillates, 
or such other specifications as shall be acceptable to the Department. 

9. In the case of solid dips declaration of guaranteed percentage 
composition, under Clause 2 of these regulations, shall be by weight, 
and in the case of liquid dips declaration shall be by volume, i.e. 
grammes of constituents per hundred cubic centimetres. A semi- 
Suid dip shall be regarded as a liquid dip if recommended by the 
vendor for use in a volumetric basis, and as a solid dip if recom- 
mended for use on a gravimetric basis. 

10. In the case of sulphur sold for dipping purposes, there shall 
be declared, under Clause 2 of these regulations, the minimum degree 
of fineness by Chancel's test. 



58 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



11. The acceptance for registration of any proposed brand or 
brands shall be subject to the approval of the Department, and no 
brand shall in any case be accepted for registration, if deemed by 
the Department to be similar to one already registered or to be of an 
insufficiently distinctive nature. 

Receptacles. 

12. All receptacles in which any stock dips are sold or offered for 
sale shall in addition to the markings otlierwise prescribed be legibly 
and durably marked with the registered " brand." 

13. All receptacles in which any stock dips are sold or offered ■^or 
sale shall be legibly and durably labelled to show : — 

{a) The minimum net weight or, alternatively in the case of 
liquid dips, the minimum volume of the dip contained in 
such receptacles. 

{b) The chemical composition of the contained dip as 
registered. 

(c) The information required undei' (8) of Clause 2 of the 
regulations. 

Provided that where the nature of the receptacle is such that it 
cannot be satisfactorily labelled as provided under this regulation, 
the person who sells any stock dip shall give or send to the purchaser 
at the time of delivery an invoice stating the quantity sold, together 
with a printed form of guarantee, giving the name or brand under 
which the dip is sold, the information required under (8) and also 
the chemical composition as registered in terms of that regulation. 

Sale of Stock Dips. 

14. Whenever any stock dip analysed in accordance with the 
provisions of the Act is certified to contain less than any essential 
constituent, or more of any inert constituent, than the quantity 
or proportion thereof stated in the guaranteed composition as regis- 
tered or to disagree therewith, the importer, proprietor, manu- 
facturer, or vendor thereof shall be liable, upon conviction, to the 
penalties provided. 

15. No person shall tamper with any parcel of stock dip with 
intent that any sample thereof taken in pursuance of the Act shall 
not correctly represent the contents of such parcel. 

General. 

16. Any person who sells, keeps, or offers for sale, a stock dip 
not registered under his own name or brand, shall when required by 
an officer authorized by the Department produce for inspection a 
statement of the composition guaranteed under these regulations or 
other satisfactory proof of registration. 

17. Any person contravening any of these regulations shall be 
liable to a fine not exceeding £10. 

18. The prescribed tariff for the analysis of stock dips referred to 
in Section 24 of the Act shall be £1. Is. for a determination of any 
constituent with a maximum of £5. 5s. per sample. 



The Manuring of Vineyards. 59 



THE MANURING OF VINEYARDS. 



By J. C. Ross, Ph.D., Research Chemist, Elsenburg School of 
Agl'icultiire, and S. W. van Niekerk, Government Viticulturist. 



The Requirements of the Vine. 

The vine, in common with all farm crops, takes from the soil 
certain chemical substances termed plant-foods, which are 
indispensable to its proper growth and development. The average 
soil contains all the essential plant-foods, though not always in 
sufficient amount or in proper form for the production of the best 
crops. The problem of manuring consists in adding to the soil, in 
a form which is easily available to the crop, those plant-foods of 
which it shows a deficiency, or which are present in a form not suit- 
able for the use of the crop. Fortunately, there are only a few 
plant-foods whose supply is liable to be insufficient to meet the 
requirements of the crop. These are iiifrogen, phosphoric oxide, and 
potash, and occasionally lime. 

It is obvious that the ideal system of manuring will be one in 
which provision is made for returning to the soil at least as much of 
each of the important plant- foods as is removed by the crop. In this 
way the fertility of the soil will be maintained from year to year, and 
may even be gradually increased. If adequate provision is not made, 
the store of plant-foods in the soil becomes less and less, until finally 
a point is reached where it fails to produce a profitable crop. To 
improve such a depleted soil will be a far more costly business than 
the taking of proper precautions in the first place to keep up its 
fertility from year to year. 

In order to maintain fertility, there are two important factors 
to be considered: — 

(1) The plant-foods removed by the crop. 

(2) The plant-food content of the soil. 

Unfortunately we have no local data as to the plant foods 
removed by the vine, but the following figures are stated by Dr. A. I. 
Perold to represent the average per morgen for the vineyards of 
France (according to M. Miintz in his '' Les Vignes," 1895): — 

Nitrogen. Phosphoric Oxide. Potash. 

Vine leaves 55 lb. 9.5 lb. 48 lb. 

Vine shoots 13 lb. 3.7 lb. 22 lb. 

Grape crop 18 lb, 5.8 lb. 24 lb. 

Whole vineyard 

Wine produced from the 
grapes 



86 lb. 


19 


lb. 


94 lb. 


2 lb. 


2 


lb. 


5.5 lb 



60 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

The most striking features of this table are the very small 
amounts of plant-food in the wine and the very large amounts in the 
leaves. If it were practicable to return to the vineyard soil, the 
leaves, shoots, and husks of the grapes, very little plant-food would 
be lost from the soil, because these materials, when ploughed in, 
would soon decay and yield their plant-food to the growing vines. 
The coarser woody portions pruned off could even be burned and the 
ash returned to the soil — the nitrogen would be burned off but the 
phosphoric oxide and potash would remain in the ash. In the natural 
course of events a portion of the plant-food in the leaves does ulti- 
mately find its way back to the soil, but it is possible that this aspect 
of the matter might with benefit receive more attention. However, 
in ordinary farm practice, the vineyard undoubtedly loses a large 
amount of plant-food annually. For this reason, and also because we 
wish to increase the fertility of our naturally poor soils, and thereby 
improve our vineyards in respect of both quantity and quality of 
yield, manuring will alwaj^s be necessary. 

Taking the figures which indicate the plant-food removed by the 
whole vineyard, we obtain an idea regarding the quantities of the 
different plant-foods which should be returned to the soil, and it 
would seem that the manure used should contain four to five times 
as much of both nitrogen and potash as of phosphoric oxide. But 
various other factors have to be taken into consideration, and these 
will modify our decision in regard to the best type of fertilizer. 

As far as the plant-food content of the soil is concerned, in 
general the soils of the south-west Cape, derived largely from rocks 
of the Table Mountain series, Malmesbury series, and granite, are of 
rather poor fertility. According to the 1918 Census, the most 
important viticultural districts are Paarl, Worcester, Stellenbosch, 
Robertson (including Montagu), and Malmesbury. In 1911 these 
districts produced over 80 per cent, of the total crop of the Union 
Among the larger producing districts, Worcester and Robertson have 
soils of greater fertility than Paarl, Stellenbosch, Malmesbury, and 
the Cape. However, with very few exceptions, the soils of all these 
districts show a marked deficiency in phosphoric oxide, and the 
supplies of nitrogen and potash are also low on the whole. In parts 
of Robertson and Worcester areas there is abundance of lime in the 
soils, but the soils of the other four districts mentioned are very 
deficient in lime. 

With regard to the maintenance of fertility, it is necessary it 
this point to make a distinction between vineyard lands on one hand 
and grain lands on the other. In the case of grain farming we are 
dealing with crops whose demands upon the plant-foods in the soil 
are considerably smaller than those of the vine. A wheat crop giving 
a return of 20 bags of grain per bag of seed (i.e. 8 bags per morgen") 
will remove from the soil per morgen, approximately: — 

Nitrogen. Phosphoric Oxide. Potash. 

Grain (26 bushels) 36 lb. 14 lb. 8 lb. 

Straw m tons) 12 lb. 5 lb. 27 lb. 



Entire crop 48 lb. 19 lb. 35 lb. 

Moreover, we practise a rotation, and thus do not have the same 
crop making the same demands year after year; and. usualh\ there 
is a period of fallow in each rotation, when the soil has a rest. The 



The Manuring of Vineyards. 61 

soil will actually lose only the plant-foods contained in the grain, 
as either the straw or its equivalent in animal manure will be returned 
to the soil. 

On account of these facts, it is found in the case of grain farm- 
ing that the composition of the soil is the most important factor upon 
which to base the composition of the fertilizer used. The chief 
requirement of a grain fertilizer is phosphoric oxide, and in most 
cases nitrogen is also needed, but to a less extent. With regard to 
potash, though the average grain soil does not contain an abundar.ce 
of this plant-food, its supply is very easily maintained in the soil, 
smce the grain itself contains very little potash. Thus, as a rule, 
we find it is not necessary to use a "complete" artificial fertilizer 
(i.e. one containing nitrogen, phosphoric oxide, and potash), but 
rather an essentially phosphatic fertilizer, containing also more or 
less nitrogen. 

In the vineyard, however, we have an extremely exhaustive crop 
growing year after year on the same soil and always drawing heavily 
upon the same plant-foods. The problem of maintaining the produc- 
tiveness uf the soil in this case is different from the above, and needs 
careful consideration. Experience in this country and in France 
seems to indicate that a " complete " fertilizer or manure is neces- 
sary in order to obtain the best results. 

In order to decide how much of each plant-food should be applied 
to the vineyard per morgen, perhaps the safest general guide in 
regard to nitrogen and potash is the amount of each of these removed 
by the crop, viz., approximately 86 lb. per morgen of nitrogen and 
94 lb. per morgen of potash. The composition of the soil should 
also be taken into account, for in some cases the supply of either 
nitrogen or potash, or both, may be so abundant that the quantity 
used in the manure could with benefit be considerably reduced, at 
least for a number of years. In other cases the soil may be so 
impoverished that it will be necessary to apply more than the quanti- 
ties suggested above. 

A word or two concerning the special functions of nitrogen an I 
potash in relation to the growth of the vine might not be out of place. 
Nitrogen appears to be actively associated with the rate of growth 
of the leaf and vine. A strong vigorous growth of leaves and shoots 
invariably indicates a good supply of nitrogen. An important point 
to observe is that an excess of nitrogen must be avoided. Large 
arid rapid early growth of leaf and vine is to be encouraged, and the 
nitrogen supply should be adequate for this purpose. But this rapid 
growth should not be extended through the ripening season, because 
it is the fruit, not the leaves and wood which constitutes the crop. 
Too rank a growth and too extended a growing period will render the 
vines more liable to disease and will produce fruit which does not 
ripen well. Thus the nitrogenous fertilizer should be such as will be 
available during the early growing period of the vine. Dark brown 
and black soils, which owe their colour to the presence of humus in 
the soil, generally contain a fair supply of nitrogen. Caution should 
be exercised in applying nitrogen to such soils, as the supply may 
already be adequate or very nearly so. 

Potash, while absolutely essential, and though taken up by the 
vine in large quantities, appears to be of relatively less importance 
than either nitrogen or phosphoric oxide. It is supposed to play a 
significant part in the formation of sugar in the plant, and it 
also forms the base of the fruit acids. 



62 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

With regard to the amount of phosphoric oxide to be applied, 
the case is somewhat different. With the exception of a few rare 
cases, all our vineyard soils are deficient in this plant-food, most of 
them very markedly so. Thus we should aim to supply an excess of 
phosphoric oxide over what the crop requires, in order to grade up 
the soil in this respect. Further, it seems to be the opinion of 
certain French authorities that a large amount of phosphoric oxide 
in the manure insures a good quality of wine, a more regular produc- 
tion, makes the vines more resistant to disease, and causes the grapes 
to be of good standard and to ripen well. 

These considerations and a study of the manurial practice of the 
French viticultural areas led Dr. Perold (''The Manuring of Vine- 
yards," Union Agricultural Journal, July, 1911), to recommend an 
application of 120-130 lb. phosphoric oxide per morgen annually. 

Thus we have as our general manurial standard for vineyards- 
the following, approximately : — 

Nitrogen, 85 lb. ; phosphoric oxide, 120-130 lb. ; potash, 90 lb. 
per morgen per annum. 

It must be admitted, however, that this standard is somewhat 
arbitrary. Whether or not the proportions and quantities of the 
plant-foods are the best and most economical is a matter which can 
be decided only by experiment, and, unfortunately, our local experi- 
mental data are very scanty. The proportion of phosphoric oxide to 
nitrogen and potash is rather low, and it is possible that better 
results may be obtained by increasing tlie phosphoric oxide still 
further. In any case there is, of course, liable to be some variation 
according to the nature and fertility of the particular soil concerned. 
Farmers who are wine producers on a large scale are strongly advised 
to obtain their own experimental evidence by carrying out tests as 
described at the end of this article. 

Manures oe Fertilizers. 

We can now proceed to discuss briefly the various fertilizer 
materials which are available to the farmer, and which he can use 
in making mixtures of the required composition. 

In the practice of manuring we must consider the effect upon 
the mechanical condition of the soil as well as the plant foods added. 
The use of artificial fertilizers alone year after year is unsatisfactory 
for several reasons. In the first place it is very costly to maintain 
fertility in this way, and secondly continued use of artificial 
fertilizers as a rule does not improve the mechanical condition of the 
soil; in fact, some of them may have a definite injurious eff'ect upon 
the soil. Artificial fertilizers generally contain little or no humus 
(i.e. organic matter), and humus is a most important factor in the 
problem of keeping up the fertility of the vineyard. If the soil is- 
inclined to be somewhat heavy, humus helps to open it up, while in 
the case of light sandy soils it gives body. It also supplies to the 
vines the most expensive of all plant-foods, nitrogen, in a most 
economical form. Light coloured soils in particular are in need of 
humus as a rule. 

The two main ways of adding humus to the vineyard are by- 
liberal use of kraal or stable manure, and by green manuring. 



The Manuring of Vineyards. 63 

Kraal or Stable Manure. 

This material, produced on the farm, is the most economical and, 
perhaps, the best of all manures. Every farmer should produce as 
much manure on his farm as possible. 

The composition and value of farmyard manure is affected by 
several factors, such as the composition of the materials used for 
feed and bedding, the kind of animals producing the manure, the 
am.ount of water in the manure (the drier the richer), and the age 
and treatment of the manure. 

American authorities state, as a general average, that fresh 
mixed cattle and horse manure contains about 10 lb. nitrogen, 6 lb. 
phosphoric oxide, and 10 to 12 lb. potash per ton. 

The keeping of live stock to consume products and convert them 
into manure has long been recognized as one of the easiest and most 
efficient methods of maintaining the fertility of the soil. A large 
proportion of the plant-foods eaten by the animals is recovered in 
the manure, and is returned to the soil in a readily available form 
for crops; further, it adds a great deal of valuable humus to the soil. 

It is impossible to discuss the subject fully here, and for more 
detailed information the reader is referred to the bulletin, " Farm- 
yard Manures," Local Series No. 79, by T. D. Hall (obtainable from 
the Department of Agriculture, Pretoria, at Id.). 

The outstanding points to be borne in mind are, firstly, that the 
liquid excrement of farm animals contains more valuable plant-food 
than the solid, so that great care should be observed to prevent loss 
of the liquid. Liberal amounts of straw and little or other absorbent 
material should be used for bedding, so that the liquid will be 
absorbed. Secondly, the handling and storage of the manure before 
it is carried to the lands is of great importance. 

If it is carelessly thrown into a heap and left exposed to the 
weather, very serious losses take place, due to fermentation nnd 
leaching. In an experiment at Cornell University, it was found that 
4000 lb. of manure (horse) after five months exposure lost 2230 lb. 
weight, and the material left was worth but little more than one-third 
of its original value. Many other investigations have confirmed this. 
To avoid such losses, the manure should be allowed to accumulate in 
covered sheds in compact and moist condition, and carefully watched 
to see that it does not heat and ferment. In the case of kraals, 
abundance of straw, chaff, vine shoots, etc., should be carted into 
the kraal, and a cement pit should be built near the lowest point, so 
that any liquid which drains off will be collected in the pit, and can 
be baled out and spread over the surface of the kraal again. 

The farmer should take every possible precaution to get the most 
out of his manure. The money value of the annual loss throughout 
the country due to improper methods of handling runs into millions 
of pounds. 

It should be noted that manure is not a " complete " or properly 
balance fertilizer when used alone, but requires additional phosphoric 
oxide to balance it up (see the formulae below). 

Eight to nine tons per morgen will supply as much nitrogen and 
potash as we require, but less than half as much phosphoric oxide. 

Assuming that the manure contains 10 lb. nitrogen, 6 lb. phos- 
phoric oxide, and 10 lb, potash per ton, its plant-food value to-day 
is approximately 15s. to 16s. per ton, and it has a great additional 
value due to the humus it contains. 



64 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



It is said that for mature vineyards ivell rotted manure is prefer- 
able to fresh manure, as the latter causes too rank a growth of leaves 
and shoots. Eotted manure will usually contain more plant-food 
per ton than fresh manure, though in the process of rotting a con- 
siderable amount of humus and plant-food is lost (2 tons of fresh 
manure yield approximately 1 ton of rotted manure). Fresh manure 
is said to be very useful for young nursery stock. 

Green Manure. 

A green manure is a crop seeded in between the vines, and subse- 
quently ploughed under. It is grown purely for the purpose of 
improving the soil, not for obtaining any harvested product. Green 
manuring should find a place in all kinds of farming, whether grain, 
fruit, or wine, especially where the soils are light, of poor fertility, 
and deficient in humus. In this country, as far as vineyard lands 
are concerned, the practice is as yet almost untried. 

Any kind of crop may be used for green manuring, but the best 
crops for this purpose are the legumes, such as peas, beans, lupins, 
clover, etc. Legumes contain relatively more nitrogen than other 
crops, and they obtain a considerable portion of this nitrogen from 
the atmosphere, through the agency of bacteria which live in the 
nodules on the roots of the plants. The poorer the nitrogen-content of 
the soil is the greater will be the proportion of nitrogen taken from 
the atmosphere. Thus we have a ready means of adding nitrogen to 
the soil in an inexpensive, yet very useful form, and at the same 
time a large amount of valuable humus is also added. 

In the main viticultural areas, field peas would probably form 
the best green manure, as the crop is succulent, not too fibrous, and 
decays rapidly in the soil. A good growth of peas in the vineyard 
would probably contain at least 100 lb. nitrogen per morgen (roots 
included). This would correspond roughly to a green growth of 
about 5^-6 tons per morgen. It has been estimated that the crop 
obtains from two-thirds to three-fourths or more of its total nitrogen 
from the air (provided the soil is deficient in nitrogen), i.e. in the 
above case, say, 75 lb. of nitrogen. Thus by ploughing under this 
crop we enrich the soil to the extent of 75 lb. of nitrogen and several 
tons of humus per morgen. The market value of the nitrogen alone 
to-day would be over £4. 10s. 

Where green manuring is practised, the crop must be ploughed 
under as early as practicable, so that it will not interfere with the 
growth of the vines, and also that it may have a chance to decay 
in time to yield nitrogen to the vine roots. 

The seed must be sown as early as possible after the first rains 
in April, so that the crop may be ploughed under at the end of July 
or early in August. If the ordinary green or white field-pea be 
sown early in April, it will be in full bloom toward the end of July, 
and can then be turned under. After two to three w-eeks the crop 
as a rule will have rotted to such an extent that the vineyard can 
be cross-ploughed or cultivated (i.e. the rotting material will not 
impede the implements). The best time for ploughing the crop under 
is when it is in full bloom; but should the rains be late so that the 
peas cannot be sown until May it may be advisable to turn the crop 
under before it is in full bloom. Unless the season is exceptionally 
late, the green manure crop should never be ploughed under later 



The Manuring of Vineyards. 65 

than the middle of August. Towards the end of August all plough- 
ing operations should have been completed and the vineyard ready 
for summer cultivation. 

It is probable that one of the chief reasons why green manuring 
of vineyards is not more generally practised is because the ploughing 
under of the crop presents certain difficulties, especially when the 
vines are planted 5 feet by 5 feet, or even closer together, for then 
the farmer cannot use a disk-plough or a disk-coulter attached to a 
big plough. In such vineyards the following procedure is recom- 
mended : Draw a furrow down the centre of each row by means of a 
double mouldboard plough and sow the peas in this furrow. A small 
5-tooth cultivator, set as narrow as possible and with the back arm 
removed, leaving only the two front and middle arms, is now run in 
the furrow, thus covering the seed without closing up the furrow too 
much. When ready to be turned under, the peas are simply trampled 
into the furrow by labourers and then covered in by running the 
plough along each side of the furrow. If the growth of peas is not 
very vigorous, it may not be necessary to tramp them down before 
ploughing. 

When the vines are planted further apart, it is advisable to 
broadcast the seed and then plough it in, leaving a furrow down 
the centre of each row. The furrow will be of great help when the 
crop is to be turned under, as the growing peas can be worked into 
it and easily covered in by the plough. 

If the farmer has sufficient farm manure for his vineyards, he 
will probably not trouble about green manuring, but if he has only 
a small supply, or no manure, he is advised to try green manuring, 
especially if his soil is light and deficient in humus. 

When it is used it will be necessary to supplement with fertilizers 
containing the required amounts of phosphoric oxide and potash. 

Artificial Fertilizers. 
With regard to the purchase of fertilizers for vineyards, the 
farmer will always need to purchase phosphates, and in most cases 
also nitrogen and potash fertilizers. It will be as well to consider 
the available sources of each of these three plant-foods separately. 

(a) Nitrogenous Fertilizers. 

Government Guano takes first place among these (though strictly 
a " mixed " fertilizer, containing phosphoric oxide and a little potash 
in addition to nitrogen), as it is tlie cheapest and one of the best 
sources of artificial nitrogen. The supplies are controlled by Govern- 
ment, and, unfortunately, there is only a limited quantity available 
each year. Failing farm manure and green manure, the farmer is 
strongly advised to purchase all his nitrogen in the form of guano, 
if he can get it. A good sample of guano will contain about 10 per 
cent, nitrogen, 11 per cent, phosphoric oxide, and 1-2 per cent, 
potash, all in a readily available form, and it is sold at £10 per 
ton to-day. If we value the phosphoric oxide and potash at current 
market rates, we find that the nitrogen costs the farmer just about 
one-half the price he would have to pay for it on the open market. 

Blood-meal is a fairly popular nitrogen fertilizer at present. It 
consists simply of the dried and ground blood of animals, and con- 
tains about 12 per cent, nitrogen in a fairly quickly available form, 
and practically no phosphoric oxide or potash. The demand for 
nitrogen fertilizers in this country daring the war period sent its 

8 



66 Journal op the Department of Agriculture. 



price up rapidly, and to-day it sells at about £15 per ton. This makes 
it rather an expensive source of nitrogen, viz., 25s. for 1 per cent, of 
nitrogen per ton, or 25s. per "unit" of nitrogen. In guano the 
nitrogen costs to-day not more than 12s. per unit. (1 unit = 1 per 
cent, per ton = 20 lb.) 

Meat-meal, Whale Meat, WJiale " Guano, '^ Fiah " Guano, ^^ 
Crayfish " Gua?io," are all products appearing on the market from 
time to time in limited quantities, and contain varying percentages 
of nitrogen and phosphoric oxide. Their nitrogen is usually some- 
what slower acting than guano or blood nitrogen, but if their cost 
is reasonable they might well be used in making uji fertilizer mix- 
tures. The intending purchaser should always obtain a guaranteed 
analysis, give the phosphoric oxide a value of about 7s. per unit (at 
to-day's market rates), and calculate the price per unit of nitrogen. 
In this way he can judge if he is getting good value for his money. 

Nitrate of Soda is a " mineral " fertilizer found in enormous 
deposits in Chili (South America). It contains about 15 per cent, 
nitrogen, and has the advantage of being soluble in water and imme- 
diately available to the vine roots. On the other hand, it is easily 
washed out of the soil by rains, and is, therefore, usually applied 
somewhat later than other forms of nitrogen. Prior to the war it 
was sold at about £14. 10s. per ton, but in recent years has been 
practically unobtainable. Limited quantities are now obtainable at 
about £25 per ton, i.e. over 30s. per unit of nitrogen. 

Sulphate of Annmonia is another mineral fertilizer obtained as a 
by-product in the coal-gas, coke, and coal-tar industries. It contains 
20-21 per cent, of nitrogen, and is also soluble in water, but some- 
what slower than nitrate of soda. Prior to the war it cost about £18 
per ton (imported), but in recent years has also been practically 
unobtainable. At present we understand this material is being manu- 
factured locally. If the price is reasonable it may well have a place 
in the fertilizing of our vineyards. Sulphate of ammonia shows its 
best effect on soils which contain a good supply of lime, or which 
have previously received an adequate dressing of lime. At present 
tlie quoted price is £35-£36 per ton, i.e. about 35s. per unit of 
nitrogeji. 

Nitrate of Livie and Calcium, Cyanam^ide {Lime Nitrogen) are 
manufactured fertilizers whose nitrogen is obtained from the 
atmosphere. The former contains about 13 per cent, nitrogen, readily 
available, and the latter about 18 per cent, nitrogen, rather slower 
in its action. These have been used very little as yet in this country. 
Nitrate of lime was recently quoted at £22. 6s. 5d. per ton at Cape- 
town, i.e. about 34s. per unit of nitrogen. 

(6) Phosphatic Fertilizers.. 
SuperpJiospJtate or Acid Phosphate is manufactured from finely 
ground rock phosphate of lime, or bone-ash by the action of sulphuric 
acid. The good grade article should conUiin from 17 per cent, to 
22 per cent, of phosphoric oxide, of which practically all is water- 
soluble, and, therefore, quickly available. This, however, is not 
such an important consideration for vineyards as in the case of 
grain crops, and slower-acting phosphates may give quite as good 
results as superphosphate. Prior to the war large quantities were 
imported from overseas and the price was as low as £5 per ton. 



The Manuring of Vineyards. 67 

Dining' the war the price soared up to an enormous figure, but at 
present it is gradually coming down again. Towards the end of 1919 
the lowest quotation received was about £15 per ton for superphos- 
phate containing 19 per cent, water-soluble phosphoric oxide, i.e. 
about 15s. 9d. per unit. This price is still much higher than that 
of other forms of phosphate available to the farmer. There is every 
likelihood that superphosphate will be manufactured locally in con- 
siderable quantities in the near future, and the price will then 
probably be much lower. Superphosphate is a strongly acid 
fertilizer, and should be used on soils which either contain sufficient 
lime or which have previously received a dressing of lime. 

Double Super phosphate is a concentrated form of superphosphate, 
containing about twice as much phosphoric oxide as ordinary super- 
phosphate, and usually costing twice as much. Its only advantage 
over superphosphate is its smaller bulk and the consequent saving 
of freight. 

Bone-dust is one of the best and safest of phosphatic fertilizers. 
It consists of finely ground sterilized animal bones. The fineness is 
a most important factor. Under the Fertilizer Act at least 50 per 
cent, must pass through a sieve of 1/25-inch mesh. It contains 3| to 
4| per cent, nitrogen and 23 to 25 per cent, phosphoric oxide in a 
fairly available form. During the war period there was a very great 
demand for local bone fertilizers, and, as was the case with all fertili- 
zers, its price rose considerably. Recent quotations for bone-dust 
range from £11 to £13 per ton, whereas the pre-war price was about 
£7 per ton. We assume that the nitrogen in bone-dust is slower 
acting than the other common forms, and give it an arbitrary value 
of 20s. per unit. This means that phosphoric oxide in bone-dust 
to-day costs about 7s. per unit. In general the finer the bone the 
quicker it acts. Bone-meal is very coarse and, therefore, slow in its 
action. Bone-flour is even finer than bone-dust, thus more rapid in 
its action. 

" Dissolved Bones " is a form of superphosphate prepared from 
bones. It contains from 2 to 3 per cent, nitrogen and 15 to 16 per 
cent, phosphoric oxide, most of which is water-soluble. Its market 
value will be regulated according to the market value of superphos- 
phate and nitrogen. 

Basic Slag {Thomas Phosjjhate) is a phosphatic fertilizer obtained 
as a by-product in the manufacture of steel. Before the war large 
quantities were imported into this country, and the trade will 
probably be re-established in the near future. It is an extremely 
fine grey-black powder, containing, if of good quality, 15 to 20 per 
cent, phosphoric oxide and about 40 per cent, of free lime. It is 
slow in its action and therefore applied early. It is especially 
suitable for acid soils and for heavy, wet soils. Prior to the war its 
price was about £4 per ton ; to-day, of course, the price is greatly 
inflated. In order to decide what price he should pay for slag to-day, 
the farmer is advised to give the phosphoric oxide a value at most 
equal to that of bone-dust phosphoric oxide, i.e. 7s. per unit, and 
to allow about 10s. to 15s. per ton for the lime present. Thus 20 per 
cent, slag to-day is worth not more than £7. 15s. per ton, and 15 per 
cent, slag £6 per ton. 



68 Journal of the Department op agriculture. 

Caye Cross Phosphate is a material which has been put on the 
market recently in limited quantities, and a good sample may contain 
about 2 per cent, nitrogen and 22 to 23 per cent, phosphoric oxide, 
both in a good form apparently. At the present market value of 
bone-dust, this material is worth about <£10 per ton (if of good grade, 
as above). 

(c) Potash Fertilizers. 

Karroo Sheejj Manure or Karroo Kraal Manure is the material 
dug out of the old kraals in the sheep areas. Most of it is many years 
old, so that a large part of the organic matter has decayed, and the 
material left is generally mixed with more or less earthy matter. It 
is much richer than ordinary farm manure, and contains on an 
average 20 to 30 lb. nitrogen, 15 lb. phosphoric oxide, and 60 to 
100 lb. potash per ton. It also contains a good deal of organic matter, 
but iisually in a rather inactive form, in the case of very old kraals. 
Karroo sheep manure is essentially a potash fertilizer, and still a 
very cheap form of potash in spite of the fact that its price has 
advanced considerably of late. It can be purchased to-day at £5 
per truck load of about 8 tons f.o.r. at various Karroo stations, and 
railage to stations near Capetown will cost about £4 to £5 per truck. 
Thus it will cost the farmer at most 25s. per ton, which is probably 
not more than the value of the nitrogen and phosphoric oxide alone, 
even allowing a reduced value for nitrogen. This means that the 
potash costs nothing. 

The coarse, lumpy material should be broken down to a finer 
condition before applying to the soil. This will pay the farmer better 
than purchasing fine sifted Karroo manure in bags. 

Kraal Ash is obtained by burning Karroo sheep manure. Most 
of the organic matter and all the nitrogen is lost in burning, and the 
ash remaining contains on an average 2 per cent, phosphoric oxide 
and 12 per cent, potash, as well as a certain amount of carbonate of 
lime. It seems to us that the burning of the manure is an unfor- 
tunate practice, and one not to be recommended, for it amounts to a 
deliberate destruction of a considerable portion of its plant-food 
value. 

It is, however, an economical source of potash, as it costs only 
£2 per ton f.o.r. at stations near Capetown. Thus the cost of the 
potash, after allowing for the phosphoric oxide, is 2s. 3d. per unit. 
Kraal ash is probably best used on acid soils. Its continued use on 
soils well provided with lime may have a harmful effect in the end, 
on account of the alkaline salts of potash and soda present. 

Sulphate of Potash, Muriate of Potash, and Kainit are potash 
fertilizers obtaine'd from the huge salt deposit at Stassfurt, in 
Germany. They contain respectively about 50 per cent., 45 per cent., 
and 12 per cent, of readily available potash, but even at pre-war rates 
are much more expensive forms of potash than our local products. 
Of the three, the sulphate is the most preferred. 

[To be concluded in next month's Journal, when systems of 
mgnuring, time and methods of applying manures, use of lime, and 
manurial experiments in the vineyard will be discussed. — Editor.] 



Co-operative Agricultural Societies. 69 



CO-OPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. 



The Seventh Congress of Co-operative Agricultural Societies 
in the Transvaal and Orange Free State, held at Pretoria 
ON the ITth June, 1920. 

Minutes of Proceedings. 



The Seventh Congress of representatives of Co-operative Agricultural 
Societies operating in the Transvaal and Orange Free State Provinces 
met in the Provincial Council Chamber, Pretoria, on Thursday, 
17th June, 1920. 

Mr. Johs. Retief (Registrar of Co-operative Agricultural 
Societies) was elected chairman, and, in addition to the delegates, 
there were also present: Mr. G. N. AVilliams (Acting Under-Secretary 
for Agriculture), Mr. Louis Esselen (Land Bank), Mr. John Dougall 
{Land Bank), Mr. J. Webb (Land Bank), Mr. G. Oettle (South 
African Railways), Mr, J. F. Muller (Secretary to the Congress). 

The following societies were represented : — 

Bethlehem Ko-operatiewe Landbouw Vereniging. 

Centraal Westelijke Co-operatieve Landbouw Vereeniging. 

Clocolan Ko-operatieve Landbouw Vereniging. 

Ermelo Co-operatieve Vereeniging. 

Frankfort Ko-operatieve Landbouw Vereniging. 

Heidelberg Co-operatieve Landbouw Vereeniging. 

Hoogeveld-Eendracht Boeren Ko-operatieve Vereeniging. 

De Kestell Ko-operatieve Zuivel Vereeniging. 

Koster Co-operatieve Landbouw Vereeniging. 

Ladybrand Ko-operatieve Landbouw Vereniging. 

Lichtenburg Ko-operatieve Landbouw Vereniging. 

Lindley Boeren Ko-operatieve Vereniging. 

Lijdenburg Ko-operatieve Landbouw Vereniging. 

Magaliesberg Ko-operatieve Tabakplanters Vereniging. 

Middelburg Landbouwers Co-operatieve Vereeniging. 

Pretoria Landbouw Ko-operatieve Vereeniging. 

Reitz Ko-operatieve Landbouw Vereniging. 

Rustenburg Boeren Ko-operatieve Vereniging. 

Senekal Ko-operatieve Landbouw Vereniging. 

Standerton Co-operatieve Boeren Vereeniging. 

Vrede Ko-operatieve Landbouw Vereniging. 

Waterberg Landbouwers Ko-operatieve Vereniging. 

Wepener Ko-operatieve Landbouw Vereniging. 

Wolmaransstad Co-operatieve Landbouw Vereeniging. 

Central Agency for Co-operative Societies. 
In opening the proceedings the Acting Under-Secretary for 
Agriculture drew attention to three important points which were 
of special interest to co-operative societies, namely, the publication 
of the report on elevators by Mr. Littlejohn Philip, the progress made 
during the past year in respect of the federation of co-operative 



70 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

societies, and the estimated maize surplus of 600,000 bags of the 
current season's crop. 

From a brief report submitted by the Registrar of Co-operative 
Societies, it appeared that 8 new societies had been registered since 
the holding of the last Congress — 5 in the Orange Free State and 
3 in the Transvaal. Three societies were dissolved, without occasioning 
any financial loss to the members, and 2 were not yet actively engaged 
in the transaction of business. The total number of active societies 
at date was 37, as compared with 18 four years previous, and the 
total membership 10,122. The turnover of the societies during 1918 

and 1919 was as follows: — , 

1918. 1919. 

Maize sold ... 784,615 bags. 739,595 bags. 

Tobacco sold 1,534,6211b. 2,795,6411b. 

Dairy products — £4,384 

Other produce £142,537 £153,317 

Farming implements and 
machinery supplied to 

members.'. £172,356 £152,268 

Cattle supplied to members ... £16,473 £3,950 

At the present rate of expansion the turnover is likely to be 
considerably more next year. 

The total reserve fund of the societies (exclusive of the reserve 
forbad debts) amoimted to £94,844, as compared with £81,300 in the 
previous year. 

The first item on the agenda was : — 

1. (a) That resolution No. 6, passed hy the last Co-operative 
Congress, be again discussed, viz. : — 

That the Railway Adviinistration he held responsible for 
the number of bags of grain delivered to it for transport 
to the viills as tvell as to the ports. 

Several delegates complained that the attitude of tlie Railway 
Administration in regard to this matter was most unreasonable, and 
cited instances of unfair treatment on the part of the Administration. 
The societies were constantly suffering heavy losses as the result of 
maize being lost in transit, but the Railway Administration refused 
to accept any responsibility in regard to such losses unless an extra 
charge of Id. per bag was paid. In consideration of the fact that 
the societies built stores and undertook the loading of their maize 
themselves — whereby the Administration was being spared a good 
deal of trouble and expense — the societies contended that the 
Administration should provide a checker and accept responsibility 
for losses without any extra charge being paid. Even in cases where 
the extra penny per bag had been paid, the Administration had 
refused to entertain the claims of some societies for compensation. 
The attitude of the Administration generally, while not actually 
hostile, was most unsympathetic towards an organization which had 
always proved a considerable source of income to the railways by 
reason of the large volume of business provided by the societies. 

In reply, the representative of the Railway Administration (Mr. 
Oettle) said that, far from placing obstacles in their way, the 
Administration was only too eager to assist the societies in every 
possible manner. If the societies could not obtain redress of their 
grievances from the local station staff, let them communicate with 



Co-operative Agricultural Societies. 71 

the head office, and the matter would be thoroughly investigated. 
The Railway Administration, after all, was bound to carry out the 
Railway Act, which had been formulated, not by the Administration, 
but by Parliament. The Administration's attitude in regard to losses 
on the railways was simply this, that it was carrying the goods at 
^ucli a low rate that it could not possibly undertake responsibility 
for losses without an extra charge being paid. Such losses were due, 
not only to bags dropping off the trucks, but also to thefts, which 
the Administration had done its best to prevent, but without success. 
He would suggest that each of the societies furnish the Administra- 
tion with a statement indicating the number of bags lost in transit 
during the past year, so that it could be seen what ground there was 
for their complaint. The charges made by some of the delegates 
regardiDg the non-payment of compensation in cases where the extra 
Id. per bag had been paid, etc., would be investigated by him upon 
his return to headquarters. 

Item No. 1 (h). — Lower raihvay tariffs for agricultural machinery 
and requirements. 

The delegates expressed the view that the existing railway tariff 
for agricultural machinery and requirements was excessive. The 
transport on a consignment of IT bales of grain bags from Port 
Eljzabth to Leeuwdoorns amounted to £28, and on 1500 rolls of wire 
from Delagoa Bay £44, while on wood the transport charges were 
more than the market value of the wood itself. Such a state of 
affairs did not tend to encourage production, and a reduced tariff 
was highly necessary. 

Mr. Oettle pointed out that agricultural implements took up 
about five times as much room as other articles, and were being 
conveyed at an exceptionally low rate. The expenses of the railways 
had increased to such an extent that it had been found necessary to 
increase the tariff charges by 33^ per cent., and he could not hold out 
much hope of a reduction. 

The following resolution was then passed unanimously : — 
" That the Railway Administration be requested to make pro- 
vision for a lower tariff in respect of agricultural implements." 
IteTTi No. 1 (c) and (d). — 

(c) The provision of more facilities by the railivays to 

co-operative societies. 

(d) Discussion of the report of the Central Agency in con- 
nection ivith the resolution passed by a previous congress 
concerning the hiring of stands by co-operative societies 
on railway ground, the construction of railway lines to 
the stands, and the payTnent therefor. 

The report of the Central Agency was, briefly, to the effect that 
a deputation from the agency interviewed the General Manager of 
Railways in connection with this matter. Figures were submitted 
to them to prove that co-operative societies were being treated much 
more leniently than the general public as regards rent for railway 
stands, and the Railway did not see its way clear to reduce the rent. 
As far as the construction, maintenance, and repair charges of the 
sidings were concerned, only the actual costs incurred by the 
Administration were recovered from the societies, and the Admini- 
stration would not be able to reduce the charges without incurring 
a loss itself. 



72 Journal op the Department of Agriculture. 

In disciission of the report a number of grievances against the 
railways, such as lack of shunting facilities at the societies' private 
sidings, preferential treatment to merchants in the matter of alloca- 
tion of stands, the raising of the rent of railway stands in cases where 
the status of the station was raised, etc., were brought forward by 
the delegates, who maintained that co-operative societies should at 
least be afforded the same privileges as those allowed by the Admini- 
stration to the shopkeepers. 

The Administration's representative pointed out that the difficul- 
ties of the societies in these respects were mostly due to the fact that 
the societies usually came into the field after the station ground had 
been allocated to other persons, and the Railway consequently very 
often found it difficult to meet tlie societies, who, as a rule, required 
a larger piece of ground than the merchants did. In the matter of 
rent the societies were being treated much more leniently than the 
siiopkeepers. The specific grievances voiced by the delegates would 
be carefully investigated. 

The following resolution was passed unanimously: — 

'" That more facilities be granted by the Railway Administration 

to co-operative societies, in conformity with the discussions of the 

Congress." 

Item No. 1 (e). — That permits for the export of mealies he 
furnished to co-operative societies direct. 

In view of the large surplus of maize which would probably be 
available for export, the delegates urged that the societies should not 
have any difficulty in obtaining the necessary permits. 

The Administration's representative replied that the permit 
system had been introduced owing to the limited accommodation at 
tJie. coast and the shortage of railway trucks. Where an exporter 
could prove that he had sufficient accommodation at the coast, the 
Department issued a permit, but the maize could not be consigned 
before the station master had received orders to that effect. Permits 
were being issued only to exporters. 

The Congress resolved : — 

" That before issuing permits for the export of maize, the 
Government should satisfy itself that the persons applying for such 
permits are actually in possession of the maize." 

Item. 1 (/). — That the railways he requested to apply a lower 
tariff in respect of produce received at branch stores and 
which must he reconsigned to the main store for treatment. 

It was pointed out that raw material consigned from stations for 
treatment at the societies' main store, as well as maize delivered at 
sidings where there was no stofe, had, when sold, frequently to pass 
over the same line twice, in consequence of which the societies were 
required to pay double transport charges. The Congress resolved: — 

" That the Railway Administration be asked to apply a lower 
tariff in respep.t of produce passing twice over the same railway line." 

Item No. 2. — That the legislation in connection with the liahility 
of resigned tnemhers of co-operative societies for Land Bank 
loan he clearly explained. 

A good deal of discussion took place on this point. In accordance 
with a resolution passed by the previous Congress, the Registrar read 
the legal opinion obtained by the Agricultural Department regarding 



Co-operative Agricultural Societies. 73 

the liability of resigned members for Land Bank loans. This was 
brielly to the effect that a resigned member remained liable for all 
loans raised by his society from the Land Bank on any authority 
granted during the period of his membership until such time as that 
authority was cancelled. One of the delegates referred to the 
difEculty this would entail in closing off the estate of a deceased 
member, as it would prevent creditors from filing their claims within 
the required time. The Eegistrar also explained to the delegates 
that the provisions of the Co-operative Act, to the effect that a 
resigned member was free from liability as soon as the society's 
balance-sheet showed a profit, were specially over-ruled by the Land 
Bank Act as regards societies obtaining their funds from the bank. 
Finally it was resolved that a committee be appointed out of the 
Congress to confer with the Land Bank with a view to the elucidation 
of Section 32 of the Land Bank Act. 

Item i\o. o. — The desirability of making provision in the Co- 
operative Act to the effect that a viemher, upon relinquishing 
active farming operations, will be allowed to transfer his 
entire share or interest in the society to one of his sons, sub- 
ject to the approval of the Board of Directors; and tJiat, in 
the event of a 7nember's death, the amount to which his heir's 
are entitled and ivhich must be determined by the Board of 
Directors, but ichich in no case shall exceed 75 j)er cent, 
of such share, shcdl only be fixed at the end of the financial 
year, wlien the books shall have been audited. 
In regard to the first portion of the motion, the delegates appeared 
to-be divided in their opinion as to the desirability of adopting such 
a measure. It was pointed out by some delegates that a member who 
had assisted in building up his society's reserve fund should, upon 
retirement from farming operations, have the right to transfer his 
share therein to one of his sons, without the latter having to pay 
entrance fee. In the opinion of other delegates, however, the fact 
that any one member had done much for the society should not 
entitle his son to the privileges of membership free of charge. The 
son might not prove a desirable member, and all sorts of difficulties 
might arise. 

The Registrar pointed out that from a legal point of view, if it 
was merely desired to transfer a member's share in the reserve fund, 
this could perhaps be effected by altering the regulations of the 
society to that effect; if it was the intention also to transfer a 
member's liability to his son, the Act would have to be altered. But 
he thought that creditors would undoubtedly object to such transfer. 
Finally it was resolved that the matter be left to the discretion of 
the boards of the different societies. 

As regards the second portion of the motion, the proposer said 
that in the event of the death of a member it was impracticable to 
determine his legitimate share in the reserve fund as at date of death 
without a proper audit, and for that reason it w^as thought advisable 
that such share should only be paid out at the end of the financial 
year, when the books would ordinarily be audited. Mr. Retief 
explained that in the case of resignations, the resigned members' 
liability ceased only at the end of the financial year, but it was 
obviously impossible to apply the same principle in respect of deceased 
members, whose estates would in that case remain liable for obliga- 
tions incurred after a member's death. If this was contemplated, 



74 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

then an amendment of the Act would be necessary, but if it was 
merely desired to defer payment of a deceased member's share until 
the end of the financial year, this could be done by an alteration of 
the regulations. The Congress thereupon resolved: — 

" That the estate of a deceased member shall not have the right 
to claim payment of his share until after the expiration of one month 
after the close of the financial year." 

Item, No. 4 (a) and (b). — Necessity of appointinig additional 
insjyectors for the Co-operative Division of the Agricvltural 
Departineni, to ensure Tnore frequent and more searching 
inspections of the hooks of co-operative societies. 

(b) That arrangements be rnade for the appointm-ent of more 
inspectors for the Co-operative Division, and that a larger 
sum be granted for organization purposes. 

These motions were adopted by the Congress without discussion. 

Item No. 4 (c). — That the Minister of Agriculture be requested as 
early as possible to submit to Parliament an amendjnent of 
the Co-operative Act, whereby societies ivhich so desire u'ill 
be enabled to appoint the Inspector of the Registrar of Co- 
operative Societies as their Auditor. 
The delegates referred to the vital importance of efficient book- 
keeping and to the difficulty experienced by some societies in getting 
suitable auditors with a thorough understanding of the business 
methods of co-operative societies. Even if such men could be secured, 
the costs involved frequently proved a serious drawback to newly 
established societies. It was thought that the inspectors of the 
Co-operative Division, who were thoroughly versed in the business 
conducted by -the societies, would be best suited to act as auditors, 
and the Congress resolved: — 

"That the Minister of Agriculture be requested to introduce to 
Parliament at the earliest possible date an amendment of the Co-opera- 
tive Act enabling societies, who so desire, to appoint the inspectors 
of the Registrar of Co-operative Societies as their auditors, and that 
co-operative societies are willing to pay half of the fees." 

IteTU No. 5 (a) .—-Desirability of making provision in future for 
the sale of all grain at gross iceights and not at net weights, 
as the prevailing custom provides for, whereby no payment 
is made for the container in which the grain, wool, or other 
pi'oduce of the farmer is delivered. 

(h) That it is desirable in future that a bag of m-aize, wheat, etc., 
shall be understood- to iveigh 200 lb. gross, and of oats and 
lighter grain 150 lb. gross. 

(c) That the laio be so amended tliat the present weight of a bag 

of mealies he decreased to 200 lb. 

(d) That the desirability be discussed of taking steps to introduce 

the principle that \chen grain is sold the bag shall not be 
included but shall be returned by the buyer, o-r the value 
thereof shall be refunded. 

(e) That farrners should obtain some payment (if not in full) for 

the bags in which ther grain and wool are delivered, a^ m 
the case of most other kinds of goods. 



Co-operative Agricultural Societies. 75 

After discussion, the following resolution was adopted unani- 
mously : — 

" This Congress approves of the principle laid down in items 
b (a) to (e), and refers the m.atter to the Maize Conference for con- 
sideration." 

Item No. 6. — The necessity for strict compliance toith the pro- 
visions of the Co-operative Act, in connection ivith iiotifica- 
tion to the Registrar of any changes in the Tnembership. 

The Reg'istrar complained that this important matter was being 
very lightly treated by several societies. Although the law provided 
a heavy penalty for non-compliance with this provision, considerable 
laxity existed in many societies in regard to notifying him of the 
changes in their membership. It had frequently happened that he 
had been informed of such changes only after a lapse of two or three 
years, and in some cases not at all. 

Lists sent to societies for certification were sometimes only 
returned after months had passed, which caused delay in the publica- 
tion of the names in the Gazette. All changes in the membership 
should be reported to him immediately they take place, and particu- 
lars of resignations should not be kept over until the end of the 
financial year before being submitted to him. The books of the 
societies should at all times indicate who was a member and who 
was not. Very grave consequences could result from neglect of this 
important dutj^ on the jjart of societies. The delegates agreed with 
the views expressed by Mr. Retief, and the following resolution was 
passed : — 

" That each delegate undertakes to urge upon his society to take 
such steps as will ensure that changes in the membership will imme- 
diately be dealt with by the Directors, and the Registrar be notified 
thereof without any delay." 

Item No. 7. — Collection of outstanding accounts of Tnemhers and 
non-members. 

The Registrar pointed out that this matter had already been 
discussed by previous Congresses, and, although an improvement was 
noticeable, the position left much to be desired. The practice of 
some societies of giving long credit to non-members was also very 
undesirable. It was a matter which deserved the earnest attention 
of the Directors. 

The item was duly noted. 

Item^ A'O. 8. — Retaining Land Bank loans for longer periods than 
they are actually required. 

The Registrar explained the two kinds of Land Bank loans, viz. : 
(1) Fixed loans, in respect of which interest was paid on the amount 
granted, and (2) cash credit loans, on which interest was paid on the 
daily balance outstanding. As soon as the societies received the 
money for members' produce sold, they should immediately repay the 
instalment on the cash credit loan, otherwise unnecessary interest 
charges would be incurred. The representative of the Land Bank 
fully endorsed Mr. Retief's recommendation, and pointed out that in 
the previous week the societies owed the Land Bank £109,000 in 
respect of cash credit loans, the interest on which amounted to about 
£100 per week — which must all be subtracted from the price of the 
societies' produce. 



76 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

The point was duly noted. 

Itevi No. 9. — The appointment of efficient graders for co-opera- 
tive maize societies. 

The Registrar informed the delegates that the Department had 
agreed to give effect to the resolution passed by last year's Congress 
to conduct a yearly course of instruction in the grading of maize tor 
the storemen of societies. The course would be held at the coast 
during the months of June, July, and August, when the storemen 
would have ample opportunity of making themselves familiar with 
dry as well as damp maize; the instruction would be given free of 
charge, but travelling and subsistence expenses would have to be 
borne by the societies concerned. The months suggested would 
probably be an inopportune time for the societies to do without their 
storemen, but this was the most suitable time for the course. The 
delegates were unanimous in the view that during the months of 
June, July, and August the societies could not possibly release their 
storemen for this purpose, and it was suggested that the Department 
should send graders to the societies to give the storemen the required 
instruction. The Congress accordingly resolved: — 

" That the Department be requested to send efficient graders 
up-country to instruct the storemen of co-operative societies in the 
grading of maize, the work to commence during the months of July 
and August." 

The Acting Under-Secretary assured the delegates that the 
Department would make every effort to meet the societies in this 
matter. 

Item No. 10. — Stocktaking at the end of the financial year, and 
the transfer of mealies to the new pool accounts. 

Mr. Retief touched upon the necessity of taking stock at the 
end of the financial year, the only time when the stock of maize 
was sufficiently low to permit of its being counted. It was very neces- 
sary that this should be done before the maize was transferred to the 
new "pool" account. Some years ago it was arranged that such 
stocktaking should take place under supervision of the inspectors of 
the Department, but owing to the rapid increase in the number of 
societies this had to be discontinued, with the result that some of the 
societies were not giving this matter proper attention. 

The point was duly noted. 

Item No. 11. — Discussion of the Report of the Central Agency in 
connection with the resolutions of the previous Congress 
regarding — 

{a) Treatment of Wool {Resolution No. 11, 1919) ; 
(6) Importation of Agricultural Implements (Resolution 
No. 13, 1919). 

The report submitted by the representative of the Central Agency 
was to the following effect : — 

(a) Treatment of Wool. — This has received the very serious con- 
sideration of the Board. As the result of its efforts, the wool of 
co-operative societies was being handled at Durban since September 
last under the supervision of the Agency's own expert, with the result 
that the societies' wool had fetched almost the same price in Europe 
as Australian wool. Within a short time the Central Agency would 



Co-operative Agricultural Societies. 77 



be in possession of its own warehouse at the coast, which would 
undoubtedly prove a great advantage. In order to ensure concerted 
action by all wool-growers in this matter, it had been decided to float 
a large wool company, the prospectus of which would shortly be 
issued. The Agency itself was going to subscribe for 10,000 shares 
in the company, and support had been promised by persons outside 
the Agency. There was not the slightest intention to establish a 
"ring" of wool-growers, but to ensure that the farmer secured the 
world's market price for his product. 

(b) Importation of Agricultural Implements. — Owing to the 
abnormal conditions caused by the war, the Central Agency had not 
yet been successful in establishing the necessary agencies for the 
direct importation of the requirements of farmers ; it has, neverthe- 
less, been able to procure some articles direct from the manufac- 
turers at very reasonable prices. It had been decided to send_ a 
deputation from the Central Agency to Europe in connection with 
this matter, and this deputation would depart on its errand as soon 
as conditions overseas became a little more settled than at present. 
Item No. 12. — TJiat the tvords "during the last preceding three 
years" rii Section 24 (2) of Act No. 17 of 1908 and in 
Section 25 (2) of Act No. 1 of 1910, be deleted. 
The proposer of the motion pointed out that the present law 
provided that in the event of a society liquidating, the reserve fund 
was to be distributed among the members in proportion to the turn- 
over of each member during the last preceding three years. The 
effect of this provision was that the member who had loyally sup- 
ported his organization for many years would, upon liquidation 
thereof, receive exactly the same share of the reserve fund as the 
member who had only belonged to the society for the three years 
immediately preceding such dissolution. Moreover, such a member's 
turnover might be very small during those particular three years 
through adverse circumstances, and a large turnover during the 
previous period of the society's existence would not count when 
the reserve was being distributed. This matter had been brought up 
at the 1918 and 1919 Congresses, and it had been decided to have the 
law altered in the manner indicated, but it had not yet been found 
possible to introduce the necessary amending legislation. This should 
be done at the earliest possible date. The motion was unanimously 
passed. 

Item No. 13 (a) and (b). — That this Congress expresses its dis- 
approval of the fixing of prices of the produce delivered by 
the farmer, and requests the Go'vernment not to stop the 
export of maize, 
(b) Disapproval of Government interference in connection with 

the grain trade. 
The Acting Under-Secretary for Agriculture, in reply to a ques- 
tion, informed the Congress that no permits were being granted at 
the present time for the export of maize, and that it was difficult to 
say whether any portion of the coming season's crop would be 
exported. The consensus of opinion, as expressed by the delegates, 
was strongly against the stopping of the export of maize and any 
interference on the part of the Government with the grain trade. 
One delegate contended that Government interference in regard to 
wool had resulted in heavy losses to farmers, while the restrictions, 
placed on the export of grain had occasioned the farmers a loss of 



78 Journal of the Department of agriculture. 



3s per bag An open market was desired, not only for our surplus 
products, but for the whole crop. Finally the following resolution 
was passed by the Congress : — 

" Seeing that the export of maize has been stopped by the refusal 
of the Government to issue permits, the Congress resolves to request 
the Government to issue permits for the export of maize and other 
products; the Congress further requests the Government not to fix 
the prices of grain and other products." 

Item No. 14. — Better co-operation hetiveen all co-operative 
societies in South Africa in connection with imjwrt and export. 
The representative of the Central Agency explained that the 
motion referred to the proposed federation of co-operative societies m 
the various Provinces. The proposed deputation to Europe would 
carry more weight if it could proceed on its mission as representing 
the whole Union. 

The Congress resolved : — 

" That an endeavour be made to secure better co-operation 
between all co-operative societies in South Africa in connection with 
import and export." 

I tern. No. 15. — Discussion of the rate of exchange. 
Several delegates attributed the losses incurred annually by their 
societies in connection with the export of hides, wool, etc., to the 
existing rate of exchange. A deputation from the Central Agency 
had interviewed the Minister as well as the General Manager of the 
National Bank, and it appeared as if the rate of exchange was 
improving. A delegate suggested that the trouble could possibly be 
overcome by the introduction of a system of barter with other 
countries. The Congress resolved unanimously: — ■ 

" That this matter be referred to the Government for earnest 
consideration, and that the Government's attention be drawn to the 
fact that the present rate of exchange is seriously handicapping the 
export of produce." 

Item. No. 16 (a). — Discussion of the desirability of the establish- 
ment of a pension fund for ofiicials of co-operative societies, 
and the appointment of a coiuTnittee to draft a scheme for 
this purpose. 
The majority of the delegates expressed themselves in favour of 
the establishment of a pension fund for the officials of co-operative 
societies, and argued that this would attract the right class of man, 
and induce the present officials to remain with their societies. Other 
delegates were opposed to the motion, as they feared it would involve 
too much extra expense and tend to discourage ideas of thrift on the 
part of the officials ; if they could not make ends meet wi'th their 
present salaries tliey should be paid more ; a reasonable remunera- 
tion, and not the prospect of a pension, was the best attraction for 
men who proposed joining the staffs of the societies. After a lengthy 
discussion the following resolution was passed: — 

" As this Congress realizes that the time has arrived to secure 
the services of the best officials for co-operative societies, it recom- 
mends that the Central Agency draft a scheme making better pro- 
vision for such officials, such scheme to be submitted to the various 
societies for consideration." 



Co-operative Agricultural Societies. 79 



Item Ao. 16 (6). — With a view to securing uniformity of action 
stivralating the co-operative movement in South Africa and 
ensuring the future of co-operative officials, this Congress 
expresses itself in favour of technical examinations for all 
secretaries, emhracing the three following subjects at least : 
(a) hook-keeping , (b) secretarial practice, and (c) co-opera- 
tive legislation and principles, equivalent to the senior grade 
of the National Com^mercial Examinations ; the administra- 
tion thereof to he vested in the Registrar of Co-operative 
Societies and not in the Advisory Board for T echnical Educa^ 
tion. 
In introducing' the motion, a delegate said tliat the failure o£ 
some societies could be directly attributed to maladministration, due 
to the appointment of incompetent officials. Very often directors 
were not in a position to judge as to whether an applicant for the 
secretaryship of their societies possessed the necessary qualifications. 
The introduction of a test such as was indicated in the motion would 
not only result in societies getting qualified and capable men, but 
would ensure uniformity of administration. The Congress resolved : 
" To adopt Item No. 16 (b) and to request the Registrar to ascer- 
tain whether the proposal can be carried out." 

Itein No. IT. — The desirability of the Government'' s fostering to 
the best of its ability the manufactiire of maize into food- 
stuffs, as carried ont in America, as the export of 7naize 
foods should be of greater benefit to the country than the 
export of the grain itself. This also ajjpHes to wool and hides. 
Accepted without discussion. 

Item No. 18. — That the Central Agency should open an office for 
fire and general insurance business on behalf of all co-opera- 
tive societies. 

The representative of the Central Agency informed the Congress 
that his Agency had been appointed as agent of the London and 
Liverpool Assurance Company and had secured a discount of 5 per 
cent, for societies doing business with that company. Other delegates 
were opposed to the societies starting an insurance business them- 
selves, as the premiums would, as yet, be too little to enable the 
undertaking being conducted with success. 

The item was noted. 

This concluded the agenda. 

The following motion was then proposed by one of the delegates 
and accepted nem. con.:- — 

" That this Congress resolves to send a telegram to the Minister 
of Finance requesting him to increase by £1,000,000 the funds of 
the Land Bank, whose functions have lately been greatly extended." 

In reply to a question, Mr. Retief informed the Congress that it 
had been decided to establish a federation of the central agencies of 
the different Provinces. Some trouble had been experienced owing to 
the articles of association of some of the central agencies being in 
conflict with the Act. He had been delegated to draft a set of regula- 
tions for the agencies, and until such time as these were accepted by 
the agencies concerned, the question of the establishment of a federa- 
tion TTOuld have to remain in abeyance. 

Alter the usual motions of thanks had been passed, the Congress 
closed. 



80 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



WALNUTS. 



Note by I. Tribolet, Chief, Division of Horticulture. 



A GOOD, deep, fairly loamy soil, with a certain percentage of lime, 
and a consistent water content provided either by the heavens or by 
irrigation, are required to grow the walnut to the best advantage. 
Drainage must be good, but a uniform and abundant supply of soil 
moisture is necessary in winter as well as in summer. This is one 
of the main requirements of the tree. With abundance of water 
groves are sometimes very successfully g*rown under sward, or with- 
out much cultivation, but if water is not very plentiful good cultiva- 
tion should be practised. The softer-shelled varieties are somewhat 
more delicate than the hard-shelled varieties. 

When propagating from seed, especially if the trees are to bear 
as seedlings, only the finest well-matured nuts should be used, and 
these should be selected from the best and most prolific trees in the 
grove. About June and July the nuts are spread out in a single 
layer on a well-drained piece of ground dug out to a depth of 3-4 
inches. For good drainage a slope is preferable. After digging out 
the ground spread a layer of sand an inch or so thick in the hole 
and put down the first layer of nuts, then another layer of sand a 
couple of inches thick, then another layer of nuts, and so on until 
there are three or four layers of nuts ; the sand will then be forming 
a moimd some few inches above the general level of the soil. This 
must be watered now and again to keep the sand fairly moist. As 
soon as the nuts begin to split and throw out shoots they may be 
planted out in the nursery rows, 3 feet between the rows and about 
1 foot 6 inches apart in the lines, and allowed to grow in this state 
for a season or two, when they are planted out in orchard form. If 
seedlings are required for grafting in the nursery rows to other 
varieties they should be left for another season or two, and then 
planted in the orchard and tended after the manner of any other 
standard orchard trees. Although most of our groves now in bearing 
are seedlings, the tree is much improved by grafting on suitable 
stocks. One of the best stocks at present known is the Northern 
Calif ornian Black Root (Jtiglans liindsii). Varieties grafted on 
selected seedlings of this tree give thrifty vigorous plants, more 
resistant to excessive moisture and drought than when grafted upon 
almost any other root. It is not susceptible to root rot, and in every 
way gives satisfaction. In the case of walnuts grafting is more 
practised than budding. When budded, the flute or whistle bud is 
mostly used. A good grafting wax is as follows: 3 to 4 lb. of resin, 
1 lb. beeswax, 1 pint boiled linseed-oil. The resin and wax are 
thoroughly melted and mixed with the oil when in a liquid condition. 
Very little pruning is required after the tree is shaped. Pruning 
out where too thick is about all that is needed. Where the tree does 
well, the distance when planting should be from 30 to 50 feet apari, 
and even more under very favourable conditions. 

From the rather limited experiments that have been carried out 
in manuring, the results go to show that ordinary stable marnre is 
as good as anything that can be used. The principal requirements 
are nitrogen and phosphoric oxide ; these are generally supplied by 



Walnuts. 



81 



plougliiug under green crops such as peas, beans, or vetclies, and 
using stable manure, dried blood and superphosphate or basic slag. 
To get any appreciable increase in crop, the manuring requires to 
be heavy — say, 10 to 15 tons of stable manure, or a ton to a ton and 
a half of concentrated fertilizer, to the acre. 

After washing and drying the nuts they are usually bleached 
to give them a good bright appearance. The following formula is 
used: 6 lb. bleaching' powder (chloride of lime), 12 lb. washing soda, 
50 gallons of water. Dissolve the bleaching powder in about 4 gal- 
lons of water. Dissolve the washing soda in about 4 gallons of water. 
Add one solution to the other and stir well, let sediment settle to the 
bottom, draw off the clear liquor and add water to make 50 gallons. 
Put the nuts in a large dipping box, immerse in the fluid, and then 
add Ij lb. of 50 per cent, sulphuric acid and agitate by raising and 
lowering the dipping box. The bleach should be reached in 5 to 
10 seconds ; the nuts are then washed in clear cold water and put out 
to dry. 




OJd Dutch Canal, Elsenburcr School of Asjriculture. 



Outbreaks of Animal Diseases in the Union 

During November, 1920, there were reported 11 outbreaks of 
East Coast fever (6 Transvaal, 5 Natal), 35 of mange (mostly in the 
Cape), 148 of anthrax (Transvaal 70, Cape 11, Transkei 40, Orange 
Free State 22)^ 1 of tuberculosis (Orange Free State), and 2 of lung- 
sickness in the Transvaal. 



Meat Statistics. 

During November, 1920, 3909 quarters of beef were exported and 
lb79 carcasses of pork, while 7047 head of cattle were imported from 
territories adjoining the Union, 772 being for breeding purposes and 
the balance for slaughter. Compared with previous years, there is 
a considerable shortfall in the quantity of beef exported this year, 
while, on the other hand, there is a large increase in the number of 
cattle imported. 



82 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



DAIRYING IN THE UNION. 



Report by E. O. Challis, Superintendent of Dairying, 
on certain matters of interest connected with the 
year ended 31st March, 1920:— 



Production of Butter and Cheese. 

19)8. 1919. 

Butter — lb. 11). 

By creameries 13,939,558 9,335,219 

Sold on markets 2,781,490 2,453,240 

Sold to merchants 2,500,000 2,000,000 

Totals 19,221,048 13,788,459 

Cheese — 

Factories and clieeseries 6,816,314 3,756,145 



There was a very serious reduction of 5,432,589 lb. in the 1919 
output of butter, as compared with 1918, and in cheese of 3,060,169 
lb. The decrease in butter was due, in a great measure, to the after- 
math of influenza and the caterpillar plague, followed by a severe 
drought in all parts of the Union during the months of November 
and December. 

This, to a certain extent, also applies to the output of cheese, 
but another factor which mitigated against its greater production was 
the terms clferei by the Imperial Government not being sufiiciently 
attractive to encourage export. The first contract was arranged for 
Is. Id. per lb. f.o.b. and payment after the end of 30 days' storage, 
whereas the second contract only provided for lOfd. being paid per lb. 
f.o.b. and two months' storage at the seller's expense. This, combined 
with the high price demanded by farmers for their milk, made it 
almost impossible to produce cheese for export, except at a loss. 
Consequently most factories curtailed the purchase of milk to the 
extent of meeting local requirements only, and the balance, which 
otherwise would have been converted into cheese, was generally 
separated, and the resulting cream manufactured into butter. By 
quite a number of cheese producers it was considered that manufac- 
turing butter and the feeding of the skim milk to pigs was a more 
paying proposition than making cheese at lOfd. per lb. 





Imports 


AND Exports. 








1918. 


Imports. 

1919. 


Iiupo: 


rts Re-exported. 
1919. 


Exports. 
1919. 




lb. 




lb. 




lb. 


lb. 


Butter 

Cheese 

Margarine ... 
Ghee 


... 67,275 
... 197,621 
... 19,702 
... 540,858 




356,035 

20,334 

102,613 

336,224 




29,503* 
21,330 


493,914 
1,525,638 



Including butter substitutes. 



Dairying in the Union. 83 



Tlie somewhat alarming increase in 1919 in the importation of 
margarine, viz., 82,911 lb., was largely due to the scarcity of butter 
during certain months in the period under review, and also the 
prohibitive price of butter at that time. The decrease in ghee is 
explained in a measure by the fact that a quantity of this commodity 
was manufactured locally. 

With regard to the export of cheese from the Union, the bulk 
of cheese exported was, no doubt, that purchased by the Imperial 
Government in 1918, but not shipped until about February or Marcli, 
1919. 

Farm Butter. 

Large quantities of farm butter still continue to be produced, 
but individual effort is of no assistance to the dairy industry, and had 
the several millions of pounds manufactured by farmers been handled 
by the various creameries, a uniform article with far superior keep- 
ing qualities would have resulted. It is difficult from a business 
point of view to understand what advantage the farmer gains by 
going to the expense and trouble of converting his own cream into 
butter, and then selling same on the open market at a very unremu- 
nerative price as compared with that offered by the creameries for 
the butter-fat content of his cream. Further, the farmer has to 
provide his butter-making utensils, butter-boxes,' paper, etc., pay 
railage on his butter as well as market dues, expenses which could all 
have been avoided if his cream were dispatched to a creamery, which, 
in addition, pays railage on same. In the pioneer stages of dairy- 
ing in South Africa farm butter was a necessity, as the creamery 
movement was at that time in its infancy and practically unorganized, 
but to-day it is quite different. It is only by co-operation and 
combined effort that we can possibly hope to hold our own in the open 
markets of the world. 

Milk and Cream Producers' Unions. 

There is a general tendency throughout this country for pro- 
ducers of both milk and cream to form themselves into Unions, with 
the object of controlling the prices of these commodities. There is 
no reason why such unions should not exist in the same spirit as 
chambers of comiiierce, which are highly organized and useful institu- 
tions, but I would utter the warning that producers' unions miist be 
conducted not only on sound business principles, but also on reason- 
able lines. I am not so concerned with milk producers' unions 
regarding prices paid for milk for retail purposes as I am with the 
fixing of definite prices for milk and cream for purposes of cheese 
and butter. The war being now over, milk and cream producers 
must realize that prices paid for their raw material are governed 
entirely by those obtained in the world's markets, and if they insist 
upon being paid higher prices than the finished article realizes in 
open competition, it simply means that the dairy industry will be 
brought to a complete standstill and this country will be flooded with 
dairy products from overseas ; indeed, this, to a certain extent, is 
now happening. Another point which producers should bear in mind 
is that the consuming public are only kept supplied all the year round 
with cheese and t utter, owing to factories and creameries conserving 
large stocks of these commodities for distribution in the " off season," 
and these stocks have to be paid for at the time of purchase, a big 
financial strain on the factories and creameries concerned. 



84 Journal op the Department op agriculture. 

General. 

The dairy industry of the Union is in a somewhat peculiar posi- 
tion at the present time, owing- to the excessively high prices being 
paid for both milk and cream for cheese and butter production, and 
a fall in prices for the manufactured article, which is bound to come 
sooner or later, will, I am afraid, lead to heavy financial losses. 
There is also a tendency to erect creameries in districts which are 
already fully provided for, and a still greater tendency to erect what 
might be termed " one horse shows," which, in many instances, are 
badly equipped and still worse managed. Of course, under the Dairy 
Industry Act of 1918, such premises could be refused registration, 
but it is extremely difficult to know where to draw the line, and I 
consider it will be necessary in the near future to define clearly, by 
Proclamation, what a registered creamery must consist of, requiring 
all buildings erected thereafter to comply therewith. 

In many directions, however, improvements are noticeable, and 
f aimers are paying more attention to winter feeding than was 
formerly the case. Increased and better shedding accommodation is 
being provided, and there is a steady improvement in the quality of 
dairy stock generally. The progress of dairying in the Transvaal 
Province is perhaps not quite as rapid as that of the other Provinces ; 
there is room for considerable development in winter dairying in the 
northern Transvaal, which, in my opinion, is one of the best winter- 
dairying areas m the Union. 

The keeping of milk records of pedigree stock continues to make 
rapid strides, and its benefit is now being fully realized by those who 
have participated therein. Although the present system of keeping 
records applies, with one or two exceptions, to Friesland breeders 
only, it is hoped that before long all pure-breed societies will 
amalgamate and so considerably reduce the present expenses. 




Entrance Drive, P6tchcfstroom School of Agriculture. 



The Oversea Market. 85 



THE OVERSEA MARKET. 

PRESENT POSITION OF WOOL MARKET. 



Writing under date of 4th November, 1920, the Trade Commissioner in- 
London reports : — 

The wool trade is in a most unsatisfactory state. The Continental demand 
has fallen off owing to difficulties of exchange. As soon as attempts to buy are 
made it is found impossible to trade owing to exchange. London wool brokers 
freely express the opinion that wool must come down in price, even below 
the cost of production. In South America buyers are already purchasing wool 
below the cost of production. Germany has been purchasing a few coarse cross- 
breds, but only at a very low price. Australian sales show that best greasy 
wools have been selling at lOd. per lb. below the London price, and that the 
only competition which is being experienced there is between American buyers 
and the local manufacturers for the best class of wool. Generally speaking, 
wools other than the best are practically unsaleable here. Proposals are now 
under consideration, as a measure of philanthropy, for sending to Austria 
about £800,000 worth of wool which is to be worked up there,' whilst it is 
further possible that about 100,000 bales of the poorest quality may be sent to 
Germany. If these transactions turn out satisfactorily, further supplies of the 
coarse and poor quality may be disposed of. 

As regards the position in Germany, there is at present no scarcity of raw 
wool in that country. Approximately two-thirds of the looms in the various 
factories are standing idle, due not so much to the shortage of raw material 
as to the scarcity of coal, as well as capital, the latter being a very important, 
factor as can well be imagined, having regard to the fact that the German mark 
is to-day only one-twelfth of its pre-war value. German manufacturers are 
getting a fair supply of wool locally, and they have no trouble in getting 
supplies through Holland. My informant, who has recently visited Germany, 
tells me that he saw piles and piles of raw wool stacked away. He also states 
that the value in Germany of South African wool, 12-months' growth, is approxi- 
mately 16d. to 17d. per lb. for the best qualities delivered on board. South 
African ports. 

The position of the trade so far as Bradford is concerned is obviously a 
very difficult one. At the moment the mills are working only twenty-four hours 
per week instead of the full forty-eight hours, but the hope is expressed in 
some quarters, now that there is a possibility of the coal strike ending, that 
the whole position will be reconsidered with a view of placing more machinery 
into commission. Although topmakers are turning out large quantities of yarns, 
they cannot get these yarns taken up, and there are enormous stocks on hand. 
Manufacturers are in a worse plight, and at least 70 per cent, of the cloth they 
are making must be taken into stock, whilst they have to find the necessary 
money to finance it. The financial position, however, is considered to be sound, 
and it is hoped that in the new year the market will improve. I recently took 
the opportunity of discussing the position with a Bradford topmaker, who 
pointed out that South African holders are asking about 46d. per lb. clean 
scoured basis for 12-months' wool delivered London, 42d. for 10-months, and 38d. 
for 8 to 10 months' wool. They cannot sell at this price, declared my informant, 
and would probably have to reduce their limits by at least Is. per lb., when 
there would possibly be more chance of a sale being effected. He further con- 
tended that the tendency was for prices to go lower in Australia, and that it 
practically resolved itself into the question as to whether South Africa was 
going to take the lower price before Australia and to get clear of the accumu- 
lated stocks of wool. I mention these statements as indicating the views of 
certain sections of the Bradford wool industry. 

It is freely expressed that the finest wools are still wanted by the Home 
trade, who will go on to them as soon as conditions improve, but inferior wools 
and crossbreds will probably have to be sold below cost of production. Excel- 
lent crossbreds from South America are said to have quite recently been pur- 
chased at 8id. per lb. in the grease, delivered Liverpool, similar to New 
Zealand wool which the British Government purchased at 20d. per lb. clean. 



S6 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

To summarize the position, which presents obviously many difficult and 
even illusive features, it should be borne in mind that at the time of the 
armistice the general opinion in the wool trade was that the Continent would 
purchase any quantity of wool which the Allies had to offer, the result being 
that prices advanced even higher than during the period of the war. Owing 
to the economic conditions of Germany and Austria and certain parts of 
Russia and Poland, the demand for wool which was anticipated did not 
materialize. This fact has been the dominating feature of the market during 
the past year, and, as the Continent has not been able to purchase either 
supplies of raw wool or manufactured yarns, the result has been that large 
stocks 6f wool have accumulated both in the countries of origin and in the 
United Kingdom for which there has been practically no demand. 

The position to-day is that a good proportion of the stocks of low-class wools 
cannot be sold to the Continent, either in the form of tops and yarns or in 
the raw state, and there does not appear to be any likelihood of an immediate 
demand being created in the absence of some unforeseen development in the 
political and economic situation. The wool trade, as well as others, is suffering 
from the effects of over-speculation and fictitious prices, which we shall have 
to live down, but in the best informed trade quarters it is felt that there is 
already promise of better things and that, perhaps, the worst of the crisis has 
been passed. 

COMMISSION TO GERMANY. 

In view of the serious firancial position of the wool farmers, due to the 
depression in. the wool market, the Government, being anxious to render such 
assistance as can practicably be cai ried out, has appointed n Commission to 
investigate the prospects of disposing of South African wool in Germany and 
other continental countries. The prevailing adverse conditions of exchange has 
hitherto made it impossible for continental countries to purchase wool to their 
full requirements, but it is thought possible to establish some arrangement 
for the exchange of our products for manufactured articles. The Commission, 
consisting of Mr. E. C. Reynolds, General Manager of the National Bank, and 
Mr. Chappel, of Johannesburg, left London on the 6th December. They are 
accomparied by Mr. Canham, Trades Commissioner for the Union, who will 
also take the opportunity to inquire into the possibilities of trade generally. 

Cabled Advices from London during the Month of 
November, 1920. 



Wool. — Extra super scoured 34d. to 45d. per lb ; snow whites, 20d. to 
33d. per lb.; super long deep grown, 12^d. per lb; super sorted, \2 n.onths, 
16^d. per. lb. ; super long, 14^d. ; long combings, 14d. ; Cape long wools, 64d. ; 
tops, 54d. Remainder, greasy combings, range down to : Heavy faulty, 6 to 9 
months, lOd. per lb. ; croi5sbreds, 4d. to lOd. per lb. nominal. The postponed 
17th series of Government wool sales opened on the 9th and closed on the 
20th, the available quantity being 90,000 bales. On the opening day 12,000 
bales were catalogued. The attendance was very large, but competition was 
marked by considerable hesitation, comparatively few lots of Merinos passing 
the hammer. Judging from the character of the competition superior sorts 
were 10 per cent., and average and inferior 15 per cent, to 20 per cent., below 
the close of last sale. Crossbreds declined 20 per cent, to 25 per cent., and 
there was very little demand for coarser qualities. 

At the sales on the 11th and 18th inst., at which about 23,000 bales free 
wools, including about 10,000 bales Cape wools, were offered, there was a good 
attendance of buyers, but the demand was poor, a large proportion of the offer- 
ings being withdrawn. Compared with the last series prices of all descriptions 
declined 20 per cent, to 25 per cent., with prospects doubtful. 

A cable dated 27th November quotes Cape long wools 64d., tops 54d. 

Mohair. — There is no demand, and prices are continuing downwards, with 
little prospect of any improvement in the tone of the market. 

Cape Hides (15th). — Best heavy dry, IS^d. per lb. ; dry salted, 14^. pet 
lb. ; wet salted, ll^d. to 12d. per lb. (25th) Sun dried, sound, 15d. per lb. 

Sheep Skins (25th).— Sound, lOd. to lid. per lb. ; Cape salted, 120s. per 
dozen; Cape sun dried. 80s. per dozen; coarse and coloured skins, sound, lOd 
per lb., prices nominal. 



The Oversea Market. 87 

Angora Goat Skins (25th). — Light, lOd. per lb. ; heavy ,ind sun dried, lOd. 
per lb. ; bastards, sound, 20d. per lb. ; prices nominal. 

Goat Skins (25th).— Heavy, 20d. per lb. 

Seal Skills (25th).— 30s. to 60s. each. 

Ostrich Feathers (25th). — Extremely quiet and very little business. Stocks 
still heavy, and tendency towards lower values. The last receiving date for 
auction to be held on 7th February next has been fixed for the 24th December, 
1920. 

Wattle Bark (15th). — Small sales of ground bark lately at £14. 15s. to £15, 
otherwise no business passing. Some sales to the Continent have been made at 
£13. 10s. c.i.f., with bids at £12.10s. (25th) Chopped, £13 per ton e.i.f. 
(nominal). Extract, £42 per ton (nominal). 

Maize (8th). — La Plata November-December shipments, 58s. ; cargo of 
South African yellow (loading) was sold at 61s. ; (16th) white flat, grade 2, 
60s. ; yellow, 53s. ; La Plata parcels are quoted at 52s. 3d. ; (18th) South 
African yellow maize, November-December shipments, sold to-day at 55s. ; La 
Plata November-December shipments sold at 47s. 6d. ; (23rd) parcels of La 
Plata November-December shipments sold at 46s. ; (27th) La Plata December- 
January shipments quoted at 44s. 6d., and South African white flat quoted at 
53s. afloat and November-December shipments at 54s. ; (30th) La Plata Decem- 
ber-January shipments, 47s. 6d. 

Maize Meal (30th). — No demand. There are sellers at about £16 afloat. 
The market is depressed. 

Sugar. — Since the last report the market has steadily declined. Peru and 
Brazil sugar 32s. to 34s. f.o.b. The approximate present price of Java sugar 
is 46s. to 47s. f.o.b. The outlook is uncertain, being dependent upon financial 
considerations. A rough estimate of the world production in 1921 is 16,000,000 
tons, compared with 18,000,000 tons before the war. 

Citrus Fruits. — Oranges, 40s. to 55s. per case; lemons, 8s. to 12s. per case. 

Eaisins and Currants. — Raisins, common, sold at 62s.; fair, 65s. to 67s.; 
good, 70s. to 73s. ; choicest, 95s. Cape raisins were slow of sale : 95s. was 
asked for large bags Market quiet. Currants market steady. 

Cotton (13th). — American, 14.56d. ; East African, 23d.; (20th) American 
good middlings, 17.43d.; American middling, 12.41d. ; Egyptian, 41d. ; East 
African maximum, 30d. ; East African good and fair, 20d. 

Sisal. — £53 to £54 per ton; prime lots, £56; market firm. 

Tobacco. — Market continues lifeless and prices remain unchanged. 

Arrowroot. — Petal, 7d. per lb. 

Ground Nuts. — Decorticated, £31 per ton. 

Gum Animi. — £5 to £20 per cwt. (price nominal). 

Kapok. — 6d. per lb. ; demand is slow. 

Sunflower Seed. — £28 per ton (price nominal). 

Aloes.- — Zanzibar 210s. to 250s. per cwt. ; Cape, 60s. to 75s. per cwt. ; 
prices are inflated. 

Butter. — No hope of situation improving while article remains under control. 

Eggs. — Market quieter and stiff rates ruling. South African eggs realized 
42s. to 44s. finest selected, and 30s. to 40s. for poor grades. 3160 cases of 
South African eggs arrived on the market early in the month. 



Eead the Journal ! It acts as a link between you and the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, whicLi is charged with the furtherance of your 
interests. It publishes information for the most part of an official 
nature not otherwise readily accessible. An index will he sent you 
every six months, so keep the Journal. It will prove useful as a book 
of reference. 



88 



Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



STAFF: APPOINTMENTS, TRANSFERS, ETC. 



(1) Agriculture. , 

29/10/20 E. M. Jarvis, F.R.C.V.S.: Appointed Temporary District Veterinary 
Surgeon and stationed at Middelburg, Cape. 

27/11/20 T. G. Hess: Appointed Technical Assistant, Tobacco and Cotton Divi- 
sion. 

(2) Agricultural Education. 

5/11/20 Mark Burt, B.Sc. (Engin., Cape): Appointed Lecturer in Engineer- 
ing at the School of Agriculture, Elsenburg. 

Miss E. Ferguson, who was granted an Oversea Scholarship for the 
study of Domestic Science in Canada, has returned to South 
Africa, and been ajjpointed Lecturer in Domestic Science at the 
School of Agriculture, Elsenburg. 



MOVEMENTS OF OFFICERS. 



11. T. Falgate, Instructor in Cotton and Tobacco, has returned to duty at 
Durban from his holiday visit to Europe. 

Mr. W. G. Mason, Director of Training Farms, left in the beginning of 
December on a two-months' visit to St. Helena. His services have been tem- 
porarily placed at the disposal of the Imperial authorities for the purpose of 
inspecting and reporting upon the agricultural potentialities of the island. 

Mr. E. iV. S. Warren, Lecturer in Sheep and Wool at the Grootfontein 
School of Agriculture, left about the middle of December on long leave for 
Australia. 

Mr. E. Parish will be engaged during the greater part of January in 
visiting and discussing with farmers arrangements for compiling statistics in 
connection with the cost of maize production. 



Plant Nurseries in Quarantine as at 1st December, 

1920. 



Name of Nurseryman. 


Address. 


Cause of 
Quarantine. 


Extent of Quarantine. 


Mrs. A. W. Godwin ... 


Durban 


Red scale, Dlctyos- 
perm i, Eriococnis 
arauctrriae 


Palms, Araucarias. Roses. 


D. A. English & Co. ... 


Pietermaritzburg 


Red scale 


Portion of citrus. 


W. T. Attwood 


Capetown 


„ „ 


Whole nursery. ' 


C. F. Marais 


Wellington 


Red scale 


All citrus. 


Municipal Nursery ... 


St. George's Park, 
Port Elizabeth 


C. iieu.s ... 


Palms. 


F. Grace 


Berlin, C.P. 


Red scale 


Portion of citrus. 


P. Gay lard 


» 


» » 




J. Hobsdn & Co. 


Kingwilliamstovvn 


» 




J. Clark 


Koch Street, Pre- 


C. rossi and 


Whole nursery. 




toria 


C. dictyo.tpenni 





Notes from the " Gazette." 89' 



NOTES FROM THE "GAZETTE." 



Attention is drawn to the following matters of interest which appeared 
in the Union Government Gazette: — 

(Abbreviations: " Proc." — Proclamation; "G.N."- — Government Notice.) 

Gazette. 

No. Date. Items. 

1104 12/11/20 A levy of two shillings and one penny has been fixed for each 
adult male inhabitant of Tyefu's Location in the Peddie 
district, in respect of the erection of a dividing fence between 
the farm Gqora Poort and the said location, in terms of 
Section 3 (2) of the Fencing Act, 1912. (Proc. No. 189.) 

1104 12/11/20 Additional regulations relating to the introduction of slaughter 
cattle into the Union from certain jjortions of the 
South-West Protectorate through the port of enti-y at Nakop, 
are now published. (G.N. No. 2015.) 

1104 12/11/20 Crown Lands in the Molteno Division will be offered for sale 
at 11 a.m. on Monday, 17th January, in front of the Magis- 
trate's Office, Molteno. (G.N. No. 2019.) 

1104 12/11/20 The appointment of Mr. Reenen Jacob van Reenen, B.A.C.E.,. 
As.M.Am.Soc.CE., as an additional member of the Drought 
Losses Commission is announced. (G.N. No. 2034.) 

1104 12/11/20 The compulsory dipping of cattle has been ordered (a) every 

1105 19/11/20 three days (in the tliree-day dip) for portions of Barberton, 

1107 26/11/20 Pretoria, and Pietersburg Districts; (b) every five days (in 

1108 3/12/30 the five-day dip) for portions of Richmond, Alfred, Umvoti, 

Pretoria, Flagstaff, Idutywa, and Pinetown districts ; (c) 
every seven days (in the seven-day dip) for portions of the 
Pretoria District. (G.N. Nos. 2035, 2087, 2130, 2198.) 

1105 19/11/20 For the purposes of Section 16 (a) of the Diseases of Stock Act, 
No. 14 of 1911, certain farms have been declared to be in the 
Witwatersrand District. (G.N. No. 2083.) 

1105 19/11/20 Crown Lands in the Division of Gordonia will be offered for 
sale by public auction in front of the Magistrate's Office, 
Upington, at 10 a.m., 23rd February, 1921. (G.N. No. 2097.) 

1107 26/11/20 The farms Strydfontein (except native portion) and Uitkyk 
have been declared to be in the Alfred district for the pur- 
poses of paragraph (a), Section 16, of the Diseases of Stock 
Act. (G.N. No. 2115.) 

1107 26/11/20 Applications for brands, in terms of the Brands Registrations 
Acts, Nos. 12 of 1890 and 4 of 1897 (Cape of Good Hope), are 
published in G.N. No. 2133. A list of stock brands is pub- 
lished in terms of Section 5 of the Orange River Colony 
Brands Registration Ordinance of 1903. (G.N. No. 2156.) 

1107 26/11/20 Up to the 7th January, 1921, applications will be received 
by the Department of Lands, Pretoria, for various holdings 
in the District of Hoopstad, to be disposed of on conditional 
purchase lease. (G.N. No. 2158.) 

1107 26/11/20 The Districts of Piet Retief and Wakkerstroom have been 

excised from the Natal Land Board Area, and the Districts 
^y of Bloemhof, Wolmaransstad, and Vryburg from the Orange 

Free State Land Board Area, and have been included in the 
Transvaal Land Board Area. (G.N. No. 2129.) 

1108 3/12/20 For the purposes of the Diseases of Stock Act, the farm 

The Peak, in the Lions River District, Natal, has been 
declared to be in the Estcourt District. (G.N. No. 2182.) 

1108 3/12/20 A return of brands allotted and registered in the Transvaal 
during the quarter ended 30th September, 1920, is published 
in G.N. No. 2200. 



90 Journal op the Department op Agriculture. 



RECENT AGRICULTURAL LITERATURE. 



I— UNION GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS. 



Miscellaneous Reports, etc., of Intekest to Farmers. 
{Obtainable from the Government Printer, Pretoria.) 

Number of 
Price per copy. Publication. 

35s. Evidence taken by the Provincial Administration U.G. 8/17. 

Commission. 

Is. 9d. Reports (Majority and Minority) of the Provincial U.G. 45/16. 
Administration Commission. 



11.— SELECTED LIST OF BOOKS ADDED TO THE DEPARTMENT'S 

LIBRARY. 



[Note. — The first number is that of the class to which the hook belongs, 
the last number is that of the book itself.] 



GENERAL. 

110 Van Gelderen. Duitsch Handwoordenboek, Iste Dcel. Den Haag, 

1915. No. 7244. 
160 Scherl, von August. Wandkarte von Mittel-Europe. 3 auflage. 

Berlin, N.D. No. 7245. 
240 Bullock, Ch. Selected Readings in Economics. Boston, 1907. 

No. 7237. 
240 Vanderlip, F. A. Reconstruction. New York. 1918 No. 7300. 

270 U.S.A. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics. Joint 

Industrial Councils in Great Britain. Reports of Committee on 

Relations between Employers and Employed, and other Official 

Documents. Washington, 1919. No. 7290. 
350 Searle, A. The Ceramic Industries Pocket-book. London, 1920. 

No. 7238. 
352 Conference Internationale du Froid. L'Institut Internationale du 

Froid, Paris, 1920. No. 7256. 
352 Institut International du Froid. Convention Internationale pour 

la Creation a Paris d'un Institut International du Froid. No. 

7289. 

AGRICULTURE, LIVE STOCK, AND ALLIED SUBJECTS. 

411 Hummel, W. G. and B. R. Materials and Methods in High School 

Agriculture. New York, 1913. No 7242. 

430.1,68 The Sussex Cattle Breeders' Society of South Africa. Constitution, 
Rules, and Regulations. The Sussex Cattle Breeders' Society of 
South Africa. Heidelberg, Transvaal, 1920. No. 7250. 

430.2,94 Australia, Parliament of the Commonwealth. Wooltops Agreement 
between the Commonwealth Government and the Colonial Comb- 
ing, Spinning, and Weaving Co., Ltd., of 12th March, 1920. 
Report by the Central Wool Committee in Relation to the Agree- 
ment, and the Prime Minister's Reply thereto. Melbourne, 1920. 
No. 7251. 

430.5 Authority of the Council of the Clydesdale Horse Societv. The Clydes- 

dale Horse. Glasgow, 1920. No. 7299. 

430.7 Jull, M.A. (MacDonald College, McGill University). Farm Poultry, 

1915. No. 7252. 



Recent Agricultural Literature. 91 

430.7 Reliable Poultry Journal Publishing Co. Profitable Culling and 

Selective Flock Breeding. Quincy, Illinois, 1920. No. 72G2. 

430.7 Reliable Poultry Journal Publishing Co. (Robinson, J.). How to 

Feed Poultry for any Purpose with Profit. Quincy, Illinois, 1920. 
No. 7263. 

430.7 Reliable Poultry Journal Publishing Company. Poultry Houses and 

Fixtures. 8th Edition. Quincy, Illinois, 1920. No. 7264. 
431 Roberts, M. Feeding and Management of Dairy Cattle for Official 

Production. New York, 1920. No. 7297. 
4.50.8 Fritsch, J. The Manufacture of Chemical Manures. London, 1920. 

No. 7294. 

450.8 Van Godtsenhoveu, E. M. Recherches sur la valeur Cultrale des 

Engrais Phosphates. Louvain, 1914. No. 7235. 
460 Lecouteux, E. Principes de la Culture Amiliorante. Paris, 1880. 

No. 7247. 
465 Great Britain, Government of. Report to the Board of Trade of the 

Empire Flax-growing Committee on Substitutes for Flax (Cmd. 

672). London, 1920. No. 7302. 

467 Buller, R. H. Essays on Wheat. New York, 1919. No. 7265. 

468 Knapp, A. W. Cocoa and Chocolate. Their History from Planta- 

tion to Consumer. London, 1920. No. "296. 
474 Jekvll, G. Wall and Water Gardens. With Chapters on the Rock 

Garden and the Heath Garden. London, 1920. No. 7236. 
491. Robertson, Wm. Meat and Food Inspection. 2nd Edition. 

London, 1920. No. 7261. 
492 Savage, Wm. G. The Methods used for the Inspection of Canned 

Foods and their reliability for this purpose (Special Report No. 3, 

Food Investigation Board, Department of Scientific and Industrial 

Research). London, 1920. No. 7234. 

SCIENCE (GENERAL), CHEMISTRY, ETC. 

500 De Nationale Pers, Bepkt. Populair-Wetenskaplike Leesboek. Deel 

I— VI. Kaapstad, 1919-1920. No. 7255. 

540 Attack, F. W. (Edited) The Chemist's Year-Book. Vol. 1 and 2. 

Manchester, 1920. No. 7292. 

541 Clark, M. W. The Determination of Hvdrogen Ions. Baltimore, 

1920. No. 7258. 

544 Maerker, Dr. Max. Handbuch der Spiritusfabrikation. Berlin, 

1890. No. 7249. 

545.1 Durft, Otto. Handbuch der Preshefefabrikation. Berlin, 1896. 

No. 7248. 

BIOLOGY, ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, MEDICINE, ETC. 

610,68 Fitzsimons, F. W. The Natural History of South Africa. Vol. Ill 

and IV. London, 1920. No. 7241. 
630 Zoologie, Congres Internationaux de Regies Internationales de la 

Nomenclature Zoologique (in the Revuo Critique de Pateozoologie, 

July, October. 1914). Paris, 1914. No. 7232. 
630,68 Skaife, S. H. Animal Life in South Africa. Capetown, n.d. No. 

7243. 
6.30.1 Zwaardemaker, Dr. H. Leerboek der Physiologic. 3de Druk, Iste 

Deel. Haarlem, 1920. No. 7254. 
6.30.7 Davenport, C. B. Heredity in Relation to Eugenics. New York, 

1911. No. 7246. 
635.33 Fitzsimons, F. W. The House Fly. A Slayer of Men. London, 

1915. No. 7239. 
651 Greenish, H. G. A Textbook of Materia Medica. 3rd Edition. 

London, 1920. No. 7260. 
671.6 Ewart, A. J. Plants Indigenous to Victoria. Melbourne, 1910. 

No. 7301. 
671.6 Hardy, M. E. The Geography of Plants. Oxford, 1920. Clarendon 

Press. No. 7233. 
675. Small, J. The Origin and Development of the Compositae. London, 

1919. No. 7293. 



Keep your Journals ! The contents will be indexed every six 
mouths and a copy of the index sent to each subscriber. 



-92 



Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



THE POULTRY YARD MONTH BY MONTH. 



By J. J. JoRDAAN, Lecturer and Instructor in Poultry, Orange Free State,, 



January. 



Moulting. — Frequently handle the birds that are being forced through the 
moult. Do not be alarmed if they are becoming a little thin and poor in con- 
dition ; if so, stop the epsom salts in the drinking water. If the feathers 
come out easily when they are caught, or if feathers are seen lying about the 
runs, lift up some of the old feathers on the saddle or the neck hackle, and 
if new feathers are showing (which should be the case about the end of the 
second week) start feeding on the following lines, or do so as soon as the above 
conditions are noticed. Begin with a small quantity and increase the amount 
daily until the usual amount is given. 

Morning : 4 parts bran, 1 part mealie meal^ \ part sunflower meal, | part 
linseed-meal, 6 parts lucerne hay or meal, and 1 tablespoonful of sulphur for 
•each twelve birds twice a week. Midday: Green food. Evening: Above mash 
and grain on alternate evenings. 

Give as large a variety of grain as is obtainable at reasonable prices. Avoid 
hot or wet mashes and meat meal or other forcing feeds. 

Showing. — Birds at this stage of feathering that may be wanted for show- 
ing later must be shaded to prevent sun tan. Young birds will want shade to 
keep their colour, those with white lobes protection from wind, and those of 
yellow leg colour will want attention. For the lust, keep them in a run with 
plenty of plant undergrowth if available, or during the dry hot weather 
frequently rub the legs with a little salad oil. If the comb wants to go over 
in the heavy-combed varieties do not hesitate to put it into a combguard at 
once. Combguards are obtainable from all poultry appliance dealers. If there 
is a twist in the comb, it can be much improved by placing warm compressors 
on it nightly and then gently massaging it in the way desired. 

Feeding. — Keep a paraflBn tin into which all egg shells, bones, cabbage 
leaves, potato peelings, etc., are thrown, and every day or two have the lot 
boiled and mixed with the mash food fed to the chickens. This is generally 
the cheapest month of the year to buy wheat and oats, so endeavour to get 
them direct from the farmer, who generally sells this month. Mix your own 
feeds. It is much more economical than buying those already mixed. 

Colonies. — After wheat and oat crops are harvested get all the young stock, 
turkeys, goslings, and fowls out on to the stubble. They will pick up a large 
quantity of food. The roaming is good exercise and the fresh soil a tonic. 
Their manure is also of slight benefit to the lands. Make handy sleeping houses 
for colony birds, 2 feet 6 inches high, 8 feet long, and 2 feet 6 inches deep, 
standing on a brick at each corner. There must be a floor in them to ensure 
that the birds are sleeping dry. The house should be cleaned out daily. 

General. — Any hens going broody should be given dummy eggs for a few 
weeks, as it helps them over the moult. Permanganate of potash should be 
•continued in the drinking water as well as the fortnightly epsom salts, excepts 
ing in the case of birds coming through the moult. 




mn^ m 



@, 



Feeding Calves. 



The Vegetable Garden. 93 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN. 



January, 1921. 



By H. B. Terry, Cert. R.H.S. (Lond. and S.A.), Lecturer in Horticulture, 
School of Agriculture, Potchefstroom. 



This is recognized as the rainy month inland, whereas at the coast it is one of 
■maximum sunshine and heat ; under these peculiar conditions the opportunity 
should be taken to stock the inland gardens with vegetables for autumn and 
early Avinter, and at the coast to wait until February for cooler weather, except 
for cabbage and cauliflower. 

Beans. — Runner beans, such as Everbearing, St. Fiacre, Scarlet Runners, 
White Kidney, Italian Runner, Lima Dwarf, or French Beans should be sown 
largely, as under general conditions it will be the last sowing. 

Cabbage. — Sow Early Savoy, Surehead, Castle, Mammoth for early maturing, 
also Brunswick, Drumhead Savoy, Spitzkool for late winter supplies. 

Catjliflower. — ^Make a good sowing for late and winter supplies, if not 
already sown, using Autumn Giant, Late Italian, Reliance, Southern Cross, 
Large Algiers. 

Broccoli. — It is a little late for sowing, still, if not already in, sowing 
should be done; April Queen, Sutton's Winter, and Leamington will be useful 
now. 

Carrot. — Make large sowings to carry over the winter, if there is room; 
sow Chantenay, Altringham, Scarlet Intermediate, Nantes Improved. 

Celery. — Transplant in trenches or rows for Ijlanching as the plants grow. 

Sweet Corn. — Make at least two sowings tiiis month, using Golden Bantam, 
Early Mammoth, Bothnia, Country Gentleman, Stowell's Evergreen in rows 
three feet apart. 

Cucumber.- — Keep all old plants free from ripening fruits, and make another 
■sowing now. White Spine, Fordhook, Long Green, Cool and Crisp are suitable 
•early sorts. For pickles sow Paris Gherkin ; the fruits are only two to three 
inches long. 

Lettuce. — Continue to sow cabbage varieties, sow thinly where they are 
to head, and thin out the plants later on; do not transplant now. 

Melons. — Do not allow these to suffer should a dry spell of weather occur 
anywhere. If the vines are not bearing pinch the growing points out. Too 
late to sow. 

Onions.^ — Too early to sow, but attention to growing crops is essential; 
weeds prevent the development of good bulbs. 

Parsley. — Should be sown along edges or in odd places; if possible, throw 
some long grass over the rows until germinated. 

Parsnips. — This useful winter stand-by should be sown largely. Sow the 
seeds thicker than most other seeds, as the percentage of germination is usually 
about 65 per cent. 

Peas.— Make a sowing of Black-Eyed Susan, as this variety stands heat 
V/ell; in cooler districts try American Wonder, Gradus. 

Radish. — Continue to sow for quick use, say thirty days. 

Spinach. — New Zealand Spinach should be providing ample supplies where 
it was planted. Swiss Chard or Spinach Beet is the best to sow now, as it 
carries through autumn and winter. 

Marrows and Squash. — Make a final sowing of the bush types of Custard 
Squash and Long Marrows. Where mildew has attacked older plants, have 
these burned. 

Tomatoes. — Plant out any strong plants if available, push them along and 
thin out side growths; keep plants off the ground, and where necessary spray 
against leaf blight with bordeaux mixture. 

Turnips. — A start may be made with Turnips and Swedes, though it is a 
trifle too hot yet; Snowball, Jersey Six Week, Red Top Globe, and Red Leaf 
Strap are useful turnips. 

Potatoes. — Make main crop planting on high veld; plant good-sized seed; 
see that only healthy tubers are used. Up-to-date, Factor, Five Towers, 
Scottish Triumph, German Blues are suitable. 



94: Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



CROP REPORT. 



November, 1920. 



In the course of his monthly weather report, the Chief Meteorologist states : — 
Taken as a whole, weather conditions during November were favourable to 
agriculture over the Transvaal, except in the western section, particularly the 
District of Lichtenburg, where some farms have had no ploughing rain yet ; 
also parts of Potchefstroom and Rustenburg. In Natal rain is badly needed 
for ploughing, but growing crops and stock seem generally in good condition, 
and the veld is looking well; also in Zululand. Although the weather condi- 
tions were, generally speaking, not too favourable to ploughing operations in the 
Orange Free State, the good rains of the previous month, in conjunction with the 
showers that fell in November, prevented crops from suffering to any serious 
extent, and stock generally are in good condition, although the veld was getting 
dry towards the end of the month. In the Cape Province the fruit crop is 
ripening earlier than usual, whilst the harvest in Namaqualand is described as 
satisfactory. The unusual heat and strong winds prevented full advantage 
being taken of the occasional good showers for sowing, and the drought is 
making itself felt over an increased area ; crop prospects poor generally over 
the summer rainfall area. Cut-worms are attacking the young mealies in the 
Winburg District of the Orange Free State, whilst insect pests are more trouble- 
some than usual in the Weenen District of Natal. 



WHEAT, OATS, AND BARLEY. 

The reports received at the end of November from correspondents are the 
final ones in respect of the wheat, oats, and barley crops, which by this date 
have generally reached maturity. The season in the south-western districts of 
the Cape Province, Avhere the greater portion of these cereals is produced, was 
favourable, and as a rule correspondents reported very little variation from 
normal, although slight rust has occurred in parts. In the north-west also the 
season was favourable, but in the other portions of the Cape Province the crops 
have suffered from the drought, very seriously in some districts. In the Trans- 
vaal and Orange Free State some parts received favourable rains, while others 
were not so favoured, which, combined with damage from hail, birds, and insect 
pests, has reduced the estimated final yield. The following statement shows 
the condition of the crops on the 30th November, 1920, indicating the extent 
to which the yield, wh,ich should have been obtained had the season been an 
ordinary favourable one, has been affected by adverse conditions — 

Province. 



."heat. 


Percentage below Ni 
Oats (Grain). Oats (Hay). 


iinual. 
Barley. 


8 


8 16 


16 


15 


12 10 


— 


22 


23 25 


— 



Cape 

Transvaal 

Orange Free State ... 

Average for the Union 10 9 16 16 

The estimated crop yields this year which are in excess of that estimated 
last season, especially in the case of wheat, are as follows: — Wheat, 2,434,000 
bags of 200 lb. ; oats (grain), 1,662,000 bags of 150 lb. ; oats (hav), 38,279,000 
bundles of 7 lb. ; barley, 364,000 bags of 1-50 lb. 



Crop Report. 



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96 



Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



THE LOCAL MARKET. 



November, 1920. 



(Note. — The local market prices of certain other agricultural produce and stock 
are published elsewhere in this issue. 



WOOL. 



The depression in the wool market still continues and the latest reports leceived from- 
London show a further decline in prices of from 20 to 25 per cent, as compared with the- 
October sales. There is no competition amongst buyers, and large quantities of wool at 
the local markets had to be withdrawn owing to no offers being received. Buyers seem 
disinclined to purchase wool even at the present low prices as there is no certainty if these- 
will be maintained or if a further decline may be expected. 

The following prices are quoted at our local markets : — 



Extra super Kaffrarian skirted 

combings and similars 
Extra super long skirted 
Super combing 
Average combing ... 
Inferior 12 months wool 
Medium 10 to 12 months skirted. 



d. 


d. 


17 to 20 


15 , 


, 17 


14 , 


, 16 


11 , 


, 13 


8 , 


, 10 


7 , 


, 9 



Superior! Kaffrarian skirted 

months and similars 
Good shorts 6 to 8 months 
Average shorts 6 to 8 months 
Inferior shorts 
Super Natives 

Medium Natives and Basutos 
Inferior Natives and Basutos 



G d. 


d. 


... 9 to 


9* 


... 8 „ 


H 


... 6 „ 


7 


... 4 „ 


H 


... 7 „ 


8 


... 5 „ 


6^ 


... 4 „ 


5 



MOHAIR. 

The mohair market continues weak, but lately there has been a moderate demand for 
good summer iirsts, good mixed summer kid and good mixed hair ; other descriptions are 
neglected. 

The following prices are quoted : — 

d. d. 
Super summer kids ... ... 22 to 24 

Average summer kids ... ... 17 „ 20 

Super summer firsts ... ... 15 „ 16 

Good average firsts ... ... 12 „ 14 



Good mixed hair ... 
Average mixed hair 
Winter hair 
Good winter kid ... 



d. 
to 11 
„ 8 



18 „ 22 



SKINS AND HIDES. 



The market is still depressed and the bulk of the offerings show yet lower prices thatt 
obtained during previous sales. The cable advices in regard to the skin and hides market- 
are very disappointing, and buyers anticipate a still lower basis of prices lieing reached. 

The following average prices have been realized at the latest sales : — 

Sheepskins. 



Sheepskins, isound ... 

Sheepskins, damaged 

Pelts, sound ... 

Pelts, damaged 

Coarse woolled skins, sound 

Coarse woolled skins, damaged 



Angora, light... 

Angora, heavy aod sun-dried 

Angora, shorn 

Angora, damaged 

Bastards, sound 



Sun-dried, sound 
Sun-dried, damaged 
Dry-salted, sound 



per lb. 
... 6d. 
... 3Jd. 


Capes, salted 

Capes, sun-dried 


each 
69d. 
33d. 


... 6 Id. 

... Hd. 

... oid. 


Capes, damaged 

C. and C. skins, sound 


8d. 

per lb, 

8d. 


... lid. 


C. and C. skins, damaged 


l^d. 


Goatskins. 




per lb. 
... 6|d. 


Bastards, damaged 


per lb. 
4fd. 


... 5id. 


Goatskins, light salted 


14id. 


... 3|d. 


Goatskins, sun-dried 


12^d. 


... 2d. 
... 9id. 


Goatskins, heavy 
Goatskins, damaged,.. 


lUd. 
64d. 


Hides. 




per lb. 
... lOfd. 


Dry -salted, damaged 


per lb. 
. 7id. 


... 9d. 


Fourths 


. 3^d. 


... lOid. 


Horse hides 


. 12d. 




Diseases, Ticks, and their Eradication. 

Notes on some Sugar-Cane Matters. 

The Pecan Nut. 

Representative Transvaal Soils — II. 

The Manuring of Vineyards — II. 

A South Australian Vineyard Soil. 

Pruning of Deciduous Fruit Trees. 

Cotton Culture. 

Cold Storage Conditions for Export Fruit. 



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CONTENTS. 



FEBRUARY, 1921. 



Page 
Notes ... ... ... ... ... ... 97 

Meeting of Forest Department Otficers — Services of Clovernment Veterinary 
Surgeons to the Public — Importation of Cattle from Great Britain — World 
Crop Results and Prospects — Sugar-cane Diseases — Cost of Production of Maize 
Investigation — Pruning of Deciduous Fruit Trees — Diseases, Ticks, and their 
Eradication — South African Wines — A South Australian Vineyard Soil — 
Examination of Proprietary Articles — Representative Transvaal Soils — Cold 
Storage Conditions for Export Fruit — False Codling Moth — Cotton Growing : 
Great Possibilities for the Union — The Pecan Xut — Plant Nurseries in 
Quarantine as at 1st January, 1921 (page 108) — Outbreaks of Animal Diseases 
in the Union (page 121) — Export of Grain, etc. (page 132) — Bulletins for 
Distribution (page 1.^6)— The Value of Winter Feed for Stock (pa!j,e 140)— 
Fruit for Japan : A Proliibition (page 169). 

Departmental Activities ... ... ... ... ... ... 109 

Notes ox some Sugar-Cane Matters ... ... ... ... ... 122 

The Pecan Nut ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 129 

Cold Storage Conditions for Export Fruit ... ... ... ... 133 

A South Australian Vineyard Soil ... ... ... ... ... 137 

Diseases, Ticks, and their Eradication... ... ... ... ... 141 

Cotton Culture ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 160 

The Manuring of Vineyards ... ... ... ... ... ... 163 

Representative Transvaal Soils — II ... ... ... ... ... 170 

Pruning of Deciduous Fruit Trees ... ... ... ... ... 177 

The Poultry Yard Month by Month ... ... ... ... ... 18.5 

The Vegetable Garden ... ... ... ... 186 

Notes from the "Gazette" ... ... ... ... ... ... 187 

The Weather ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 188 

Staff : Appointments, Transfers, etc. ... ... ... ... ... 189 

The Oversea Market ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 189 

Meat Statistics... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 190 

Local Market Prices ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 191 

The Local Market ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 192 



AGRICULTURAL SHOW SEASON, 1921. 



List of Agricultural Show Dates for 1921, compiled from details furnished by the 
Agricultural Unions. Dates of further shows will be published as soon as details are 
available. 



CAPE PROVINCE. 



Paarl — 2nd February. 

Wellington — 2nd February. 

Stellenbosch — 4th February. 

Robertson and Montagu — 8th and 9th 

February. 
Worcester — 10th and 11th February. 
Molteno — I6th and 17th February. 
Caledon — 22nd and 23rd February. 
Beaufort West— 23rd and 24th Februaiv. 
Middelburg— 23rd and 24th February. ' 
Malmesbury — 24th February. 
Eosebank — 1st to 4th March (inclusive). 



Graaff-Reinet — 2nd and 3rd March. 
Humansdorp — 2nd and 3rd March. 
Aliwal North — 2nd to 4th March (inclusive). 
Cvadock— 7th March. 

Port Elizabeth— 8th to 1 1th March (inclusive). 
Queenstown — 9th and 10th March. 
Dordrecht— 15th and 16fh March. 
Komgha — 1st and 2nd April. 
Kingwilliamstown — 27th to 29th April (in- 
clusive). 
East London — 4th and .otli May. 



ORANGE FREE STATE. 



Smithfield— 1.5th and 16th February. 
Marquard — 23rd and 24th February. 
Lady brand — 1st and 2nd March. 
Winburg — 1st and 2nd March. 
Bethlehem — 2nd and 3rd March. 
Thaba 'Nchu— 8th and 9th March. 



Senekal— 9th and 10th March. 

Vrede-9th and loth March. 

Central Show (B'oenifontein)— 16th to 19th 

March (inclusive). 
Harrismith — Early April. 



TRANSVAAL. 



Middelburg — 22nd and 23rd February. 
Amersfoort — 2nd and 3rd March. 
Carolina — 8th March. 
Ermelo— 16th and 17th March. 
Johannesburg — 23rd to 28th March (in- 
clusive). 



Standerton— 13th and 14th April. 
Heidelberg— 27th and 28th April. 
Klerksdorp— 10th and 11th May. 
Pietersburg — 24th to 26th May (inclusive). 
Pretoria — 31st May and 1st June. 




Journal of the Department 
OF Agriculture. 



Vol. II. FEBRUARY, 1921. No. 



Published monthly in English and Afrikaans by the Department of Agriculture, 

Union of South Africa. 

Editor: G. W. Klerck. 

Subscription: Within the Union and South- West Protectorate, 5Sm (otherwise 6Sm) 
per annum, post free, payable in advance. 

Applications, with subscriptions, to be sent to the Government 
Printer, Box 378, Pretoria. 



NOTES. 

Meeting of Forest Department Officers. 

There are many problems connected with forests which can 
only be solved by the close co-operation of the botanist and the 
forester, e.g. the correct determination of forest trees, the causes 
responsible for their distribution, their fungous and bacterial diseases, 
etc., and the co-operation existing' between the Forest Department 
and the Botany Division was more closely knit on the 6th January last, 
when the officers attending the Forestry Conference in Pretoria were 
entertained by Dr. I. B. Pole-Evans and his staff. At tlie meeting. 
Dr. Pole-Evans briefly reviewed the work of both scientific and 
economic importance carried out in co-operation between his Division 
and the Forest Department. Reference was made to the investiga- 
tions of Dr. Phillips, Miss Hofmeyr, and Miss Verdoom at the 
National Herbarium on important groups of forest trees, which have 
elucidated some of the confusion which has hitherto existed. A 
number of interesting lantern slides were sliOAvn by Dr. Pole-Evans 
illustrating the vegetation of the various botanical regions of South 
Africa. Mr. Legat, Chief Conservator of Forests, referred in the 
course of a speech to the co-operation and goodwill which has 
hitherto existted between the two departments and foreshadowed 
greater assistance still in the future from one 1o the other. In one 
direction alone this was assured, and that was in connection with the 
botanical survey, the speaker having been appointed to the commiftee 
to watch forest interests. 

The visitors were shoAvn the various laboratories, the Botanical 
Museum, and the National Herbarium. The meeting was most 
successful, and it is felt much benefit will ensue from the mutual 
understanding it has further engendered between the officers of the 
two departments of the many directions in whicli they are inter- 
dependent. 

4 



98 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



Services of Government Veterinary Surgeons to the 
Public. 

It is well known that, until comparatively recently, veterinary 
surg-eons were not in any great demand in South Africa, and those 
that were in practice were nearly all in Government service, dealing 
with what may be termed the ordinary contagious diseases. But the 
country is fast leaving behind it the practices which might have 
suited past conditions, and with the general forward trend and 
increasing expansion of fainiing in tlie Union we need to adopt new 
methods to keep pace with the requirements of our basic industry. 
And in no other branch of the industry than that of our live stock 
does this apply with more force. South Africa is primarily a pastoral 
country, and the care of our live stock is of paramount importance. 
During- the past years there has been a steady stream into the country 
of pedigree live stock, and the standard of our herds and flocks is 
rapidly improving. Combined with this we have the benefit of the 
investigations of our Veterinary Research Division in the light con- 
stantly thrown upon epizootic diseases, together with the rigorous 
control of contagious diseases by our Veterinary Division, so that as 
a natural outcome we have most perceptible evidence of the progress 
of our live stock industry in all branches. And as a consequence the 
demand becomes more and more insistent for services which veterinary 
surgeons alone can render. In years gone by the individual animals 
of our farmers were not of very great value, and the farmer as a rule 
attended personally to the maladies of his stock, but now that 
breeding stock have reached a high standard their owners realize the 
need of the veterinary surgeoii and are anxious to be in such a 
position as to be able to call for his services when required, and to 
pay for them. 

The various ways of meeting the increasing demand for veterinary 
services have been very carefully considered, and the matter has 
periodically been discussed by the Agricultural Unions and other 
farming bodies, the Government being urged to introduce some scheme 
to meet the changing times. The Acting Principal Veterinary 
Ofhcer, Mr. Borthwick, has proposed that a scheme by which Govern- 
ment veterinary surgeons will give their services to farmers in connec- 
tion with work not ordinarily required of them under the Stock 
Diseases Act, on payment of fees according to a tarift*, be given a 
trial in order to ascertain to what extent the services of Government 
veterinary surgeons, if charged for, will be made use of by stock- 
owners for veterinary work other than in connection with scheduled 
diseases. As a beginning, it has been decided to choose one centre in 
each Province, and for a certain period to allow the Government 
veterinary surgeon therein to perform outside services for farmers on 
payment of a fee. The names of the areas in which this trial will 
operate, the tariff of charges (which will he reasonable), and other 
particulars of the scheme will be published in a later issue of the 
Journal ; but it may now be said that the transport will need to be 
motor, and must be paid for by the stockowner. The income obtained 
from the services of our othcials will be paid into Revenue. 

We hope that farmers in the areas concerned will avail them- 
selves of the facilities provided. Depending on the success of the 
trial is involved a principle which may have far-reaching results in 



Notes. 99 

directing' the policy of Government assistance and control in connec- 
tion with animal diseases, and we trust that the worth of the system 
will be demonstrated in no uncertain manner as a result of the 
coming' trial. 



Importation of Cattle from Great Britain. 

In the May, 1920, number (page 159) we outlined the events 
which led to the issue of Government ]^otice Xo. 1140 of the 27tli 
Auo'iist, 1919, making" it compulsory for all cattle from Great Britain 
arriving' at the l^nion ports to pass through the Government testing 
station at Pirbright, Surrey. We referred also to the causes leading 
to a measure of congestion at Pirbright, and stated that the Depart- 
ment had been approached in the matter by Sir Henry Dundas, a 
member of the Council of the Highland and Agricultural Society, 
Scotland, who, on pointing out that difficulties were being experienced 
by Scottish breeders in sending cattle to Pirbright, was informed that 
the Union Government was agreeable to such cattle being tested in 
Scotland provided a station was established there under Government 
control similar to the one at Pirbright, but that under no circum- 
stances would it be satisfied with tests carried out on the premises of 
the breeder. 

Since the above was written negotiations in the matter have been 
proceeding, the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries being prepared 
to approve of the establishment in Scotland of a testing station, and 
having, indeed, instituted inquiries with a view to the acquisition of 
a suitable site in that country for the station. We are now informed, 
however, that the proposal has been abandoned by the Ministry owing 
to the action of the Scottish live stock breeders, who requested the 
Ministry not to establisli such a station in Scotland as they were not 
in agreement with the principle of requiring animals intended for 
exportation to pass through a Government testing station. 

The reasons which actuate this Government in insisting on the 
testing of animals for tuberculosis prior to export to South Africa 
still hold good. The measure is one calculated to protect importers 
from the loss sustiuned by them under the old method when cattle 
from Great Britain were allowed to be tested at the Union ports of 
entry. This country is still prepared, of course, to accept cattle 
passed through a duly approved Government testing station in Scot- 
land or the north of England, or anywhere else, but in view of the 
failure at present to establish one additional to Pirbright it is 
necessary to make tlie best of the latter station. In this connection 
a discussion took place at the last meeting of the Agricultural 
Advisory Board on the subject of accommodation at Pirbright, when 
it was stated that congestion took place because of the habit of 
importers wanting their animals passed through ixt the same time. 
Importers are urged, therefore, to assist in remedying this difficulty, 
as it lies largely in their hands. The Ministry of Agriculture and 
Fisheries, however, in advising the failure of its negotiations 
respecting the station in the north of Great Britain, says that it is 
endeavouring to relieve the existing pressure on the Pirbright testing 
station by the provision of additional accommodation there. With 
such accommodation and the co-operation of importers in the Union it 
is trusted that the inconveniences now being complained of will be 
reduced to a minimum. 



100 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



World Crop Results and Prospects. 

Accoidiug to the November, 1920, report of the Statistical 
Bureau of the Interuational Institute of Agriculture, there is little 
change, as compared with October, in the position of the 1?20 cereal 
crops. 

Wheal and rye show a slight increase on last year's figures [62.3 
million metric tons (2200 lb.) in 1920; 61.7 million in 1919]. These 
totals comprise about three-fourths of the entire yield of wheat and 
rye in the northern hemisphere, and are exclusive of Russia. The 
quality of the 1920 wheat crop in the Fnited States is on the average 
2 per cent, better than last year's. 

The yield of barley is 8 per cent, larger than in 1919, while oats 
show a substantial increase of 21 per cent, as compared with last 
year. 

The sugar-beet crops of Prussia, Belgium, Spain, Finland, Italy, 
Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland. Canada, and the United States 
amounted in 1920 to 22.2 million tons, which is 36 per cent, more 
than in 1919. 

Turning to the future, the wheat crop prospects, now almost 
realized, are still reported as very good in Australia. An almost 
rainless October in the chief wheat areas of British India has delayed 
sowings for the 1921 crop on unirrigated land, and the growing rice 
in parts of Northern India has also suffered from the drought. In 
the United States seeding of winter wheat has been carried on under 
fairly favourable conditions ; in Canada the usual ploughing in pre- 
paration for the next crop is very well advanced. 

In Argentina offers of new crop wheat have been made at some- 
what lower prices than those of mid-October. 



Sugar-cane Diseases. 

The production of sugar forms an important part of our agri- 
cultural wealth, and it is estimated that the sugar output for the 
season 1919-20 added something like £5,000,000 to the value of our 
agricultural production. It is fortunate, therefore, that at present 
there is no very serious cane disease threatening the existence of the 
industry. There are, however, several sugar-cane diseases found in 
Natal and Zululand which have to be closely watched. Some of 
these diseases are of such a nature as to reduce the standard of the 
cane and so aft'ect the yield ; some interfere with or reduce the forma- 
tion of sugar by the leaves of the cane plant ; while others cause the 
inversion of the sucrose accumulated in tlie cane stalk, resulting in 
a loss of sugar, and may also be responsible for troubles with crystal- 
lization in the mills. Dr. Paul A. van der Byl, the Mycologist in 
charge of the Natal Herbarium, Durban, whose investigations into 
the diseases and other matters connected with the sugar-cane are well 
known, gives us further valuable information on the subject in an 
article published elsewhere in this number, entitled " Notes on some 
Sug-ar-cane Matters." The article is illustrated and reviews briefly 
the fungi found by him associated with cane, and indicates the 
symptoms by which they can be recognized in the field. 



Notes. 101 

Cost of Production of Maize Investigation. 

The first stage lias now been reached of an investigation under- 
taken by the Department, at the request of the Maize Breeders' 
Association, the object of which is to determine the cost of producing 
maize on representative farms in the chief maize-growing districts of 
the Union. Mr. E. Parish, B.Sc, Technical Assistant, who is in 
charge of the investigation, has paid an initial visit to all of the 
forty odd farmers who are participating in the scheme (except a few 
in outlying districts). It is hoped that a second and final visit to 
these farmers will be made at the end of the present maize season in 
order to collect the inforination recorded by them regarding their 
maize crop. In connection with the work alreadj^ carried out by him 
Mr. Parish furnishes the following interesting notes: — 

The readiness on the part of the farmers to assist in this in- 
vestigation by keeping detailed records of all the costs concerned in 
the production of their maize has been most encouraging. For the 
most part they have been very keen on the work, and have, moreover, 
made available the information already in their possession in a most 
gratifying manner. A few have been difficult to convince that there 
is no ulterior motive behind the investigation — such as the obtaining 
of information for income tax purposes or for fixing the price of 
maize — but these, for the most part, have been ready enough to assist 
when once convinced that the object is solely to obtain information 
on the economics of maize production in South Africa. 

The scheme has been so arranged as to include farms varying 
in productive capacity from 500 to 20,000 bags of maize, and on 
which the kind of farming varies from "all maize" to "mixed." 
and, further, on which the intensity of the farming ranges from Ibe 
most extensive type of maize growing possible, viz., with land at £2 
per acre, with the field operations limited to ploughing, broadcasting, 
and harvesting, and with no cultivation, rotation, or manure, and a 
yield of two bags per acre, to the more advanced type of mixed farming 
with higher costs of production on selected land worth £10 per acre 
and a yield of ten to twelve bags. 

The preliminary inquiries now completed have served to 
emphasize the diversity of the nature of farming, the climate, the 
price of land, the pay of labour, and the spirit in which the farming 
is carried on in the different parts of the country. This diversity 
may be indicated by reference to the climate and to the spirit 
animating the farming in the various districts. At the end of 
November the crops in the eastern Transvaal were looking well and 
grazing was plentiful. In the western Transvaal many districts were 
suffering from a shortage of rain, while in the south-west, at Wol- 
maransstad and Leeuwdoorns, practically no rain had fallen, and 
the land was still unploughed and the maize unplanted. A belt 
through the south of the Free State was almost as dry, while in the 
districts of Ladysmith, in Natal, even up to the middle of December, 
the season had been one of the driest within memory, and only a very 
small proportion of the maize crop had been planted. In some 
districts there is a progressive spirit abroad, and the farmers are keen 
and eager and ready to consider new ideas and methods. In others, 
farmers are farming as their fathers farmed — vv'ithout planter, with- 
out cultivator, without rotation, and without manure. 

With this diversity in the factors which affect the yield of the 
maize crop or the cost of producing it there is consequently a great 



102 Journal op the Department of Agriculture. 

diversity in its cost of production, and one figure, or even average of 
figures, cannot adequately represent the cost in all districts and under 
all conditions. 

Tlie investigation is also revealing the num})er of remarkably 
good farmers there are in the country, who would compare favourablv 
with those of any country in the world. Some of these, starting with 
little or nothing, have within twenty years, by dint of energy, intelli- 
gence, and liard work, become well-to-do and influential members of 
the community, and are to-day by their example exerting a most 
beneficial influence on the farming in their districts. 

Everywhere the difiioulty of obtaining f-ufficient satisfactory 
labour prevails, and the effect of this on maize production has been 
apparent. In many cases farmers are not planting as much as their 
land and equipment entitle them to do by reason of their inability to 
obtain labour. And it is not entirely a question of pay and system 
of hire and treatment of their native labourers. A few farmers have set 
themselves against the principle of part-payment in kind and hire 
only cash-paid labourers, and they, even though paying £3 and pro- 
viding half a muid of meal per month, find difficulty in obtaining 
sufficient, while the farmer who pays only from 15s. to 25s. per 
month in cash and provides land for cultivation — and often the culti- 
vation itself — and grazing for ten or twenty cattle, and maybe twenty 
or thirty sheep for each native, has also many complaints to make of 
the unsatisfactory labour supply. The system of contracting the land 
to natives or whites in return for part of the crop is not likely to 
disappear while these difficulties remain. 

Some points of economic importance are being made evident. 
Many farmers have farms larger than they can work or have 
suificient capital to work, and thus have spare grazing land. This 
land is frequently not fully stocked or is stocked with cattle owned by 
natives. In either case the cost of production on the land under crop 
is higher than it ought to be owing to the high cost of rent or interest 
on capital and of ox labour. Other farmers again with insufficient 
capital at their command, and only able to cultivate a comparatively 
small acreage, have their crops burdened with a high management 
charge per acre and per bag;, in some cases as high as 6s. per bag, 
even when the salary is placed at the lowest cost of living figure. 

Some interesting and valuable farm practices have been observed. 
In one district kraal manure is powdered and drilled in with the 
seed. In another, a farmer of a mechanical turn of mind has adapted 
two cultivators into one, and has thus produced a machine whereby 
two rows of maize can be cultivated instead of one. This implement, 
which is set to the two-planter rows, is similar in principle to the 
horse-hoe used in other parts of the world, in which the hoes are set 
to correspond to the drill rows, and whereby the risk of cutting up 
the plants is reduced, the task of manipulation of the implement 
lightened, and the amount of work performed increased. Other 
farmers again save time in the planting season — when it is all 
important — by attaching one section of a harrow to their double- 
furrow ploughs. Others again, it is gratifying to note, are learning 
to appreciate the value of cow-peas, both to their land and to their 
stock, and are planting them with the last cultivation of their maize, 
thereby improving, in their own words, the value of the after-grazing 
to a threefold extent. 



Notes. 103 

Pruning of Deciduous Fruit Trees, 

A useful, practical article dealing fully with tlie subject of the 
pruning of deciduous fruit trees was written by Mr. Terry, our Horti- 
culturist at the Potchefstroom School of Agriculture, and published 
as a bulletin in 1917. It has met with a large demand and our stock 
has become exhausted. The nature of the advice Mr. Terry gives is 
such as to ensure the constant need and call for it, and we propose, 
therefore, commencing with this number, to pu])lish the article in the 
Journal. It is clearly written and well illustrated, and should be 
studied not only by the large orchardist but also by every householder 
who owns a few trees. The art of pruning is not generally known, 
yet is so essential to the production of full and good crops, and 
Mr. Terry's article is designed to assist the owner to get the best 
return from his fruit trees. There are thousands of trees in South 
Africa whose fruitfulness is sadly diminished by lack of a little care. 
What an appreciable addition to our fruit production would follow 
were they given the asisstance which nature requires of their owners ! 



Diseases, Ticks, and their Eradication. 

We publish in the current issue a revised (third) edition of a 
most interesting and informative article by Sir Arnold Theiler on 
the subject of tick-borne diseases and their eradication through 
destruction of the tick. The article appeared originally in the 
Transvaal Agricultural Journal (Vol. VII, No. 28, July, 1909) and 
subsequently in the Union, Agricultural Journal (Vol. I, No. 4, May, 
1911). Since then our experiments and investigations have 
continued bringing extended knowledge of the subject, and Sir 
Arnold Theiler's article in this issue includes the latest data avail- 
able. The matter is of paramount importance to farmers, and the 
article should be carefully studied. The author's wide experience 
enables him to write authoritatively, and his remarks on the lest 
means of removing the cause of our trouble, that is the destruction 
by dipping of the tick, should be taken to heart by all stock owners, 
advice summarized in the concluding sentence of the article : " lose 
no time, but put up a tank and use it." 



South African Wines. 

We referred in our last issue to the success of our wines in the 
Colonial Wine Competition at the recent Brewers' Exhibition in 
London, when South African wines secured eleven first, five second, 
and two third prizes. We have now seen the published list of 
awards, which shows that out of fourteen classes our wines were beaten 
in two only, the red, light Claret type, and the red full-bodied 
Burgundy type (two years old or more), in which classes South 
Ai:stralian wines were placed first, and South African wines secured 
second and third prizes. This is most gratifying when it is reiuem- 
bered that at the previous competition in 1919 all the first prizes 
were carried off by Australian wines, while ours managed to secure 
only one second and four third prizes. 



104 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

A South Australian Vineyard Soil. 

Dr. Jiuitz, the Agricultural Research Chemist, furnishes an 
interesting article, published in this issue, on a sample of vineyard 
soil obtained by him from the widely famed Chateau Tanunda estate 
in South Australia. He compares the results of an analytical 
examination of this soil with those obtained from a large number 
of samples taken from the Malmesbury, Paarl, Stelleubosch, and 
other districts, drawing attention to the manurial needs of our vine- 
yard soils. The subject is dealt with, also in this issue, in the article 
' Manuring of Vineyards," which, together with Dr. Juritz's con- 
clusions, furnishes wine growers with very valuable advice on the 
important matter of maintaining the fertility of their vineyard soils. 



Examination of Proprietary Articles. 

In anticipation of any contemplated applications to the Depart- 
ment to carry out tests with any proprietary article, it is notified 
that the Government cannot undertake the examinaion of proprietary 
articles except for official purposes. When examined for such 
purposes a report can only be made available when it is considered 
necessary to do so in the public interests and in a public manner. 



Representative Transvaal Soils. 

Another valuable addition to our data of the more important soil 
types of the country is contained in the article under the above 
heading published elsewhere in this number. It is written by 
Mr. B. J. Smit, B.A.. of the Division of Chemistry, and deals with 
Pretoria quartzite sandy soils which occur principally in the Pretoria, 
Krugersdorp, and Witwatersrand Districts. It contains analyses of 
several samples of this type of soil and gi%7es practical advice on the 
fertilizing thereof gathered from experiments. 



Cold Storage Conditions for Export Fruit. 

It will be remembered that considerable wastage occurred in 
shipments of citrus fruit exported during the 1919 season, and that 
a report on the investigations into the cause thereof was published in 
Bulletin No. 2, 1920 ("Wastage in Citrus Fruit Shipped for 
Export"), which drew attention, among other things, to an 
unsatisfactory condition prevailing at the Imperial Cold Storage 
Company at Capetown. Since the publication of this bulletin the 
Division of Botany has lieen engaged in further investigation into 
the transit of citrus fruit for export from the orchards to the overseas 
market and, in the course thereof, occasion arose to make use of the 
cold storage of the Imperial Cold Storage Company, and upon a 
mycological examination of the chamber formerly reported unsatis- 
factory, it was found that its condition is now quite satisfactory. 
A report on the subject appears elsewhere in this issue. 



Notes. 105 

False Codling-Moth. 

For some years past the attention of Mr. D. Gunn, of the Division 
of Entomology, has been deyoted to the study and control of the False 
Codling'-Moth, an insect which is often troublesome in the orange 
orchards of parts of the Union. The results of Mr. Gunn's inquiries 
have been embodied in a bulletin which is to be printed for the purpose 
of preserving a record (scientific) thereof, and we give hereunder a 
summary of Mr. Gunn's findings. For further pai ticulars regarding 
these experiments inquirers are referrt>d to the Chief, Division of 
Entomology, who will keep copies of the publication (printed in 
English only) for office purposes. 

1. The False Codling-Moth is a native insect distributed through- 
out much of the Union, but more prevalent in certain districts than 
in others. 

2. It injures oranges, naartjes, g-uavas, pomegranates, apricots, 
peaches, plums, walnuts, olives, and persimmons. It also feeds on a 
number of native fruit trees such as zuurpruim, wilde mispel, morula, 
boerboon, etc. Acorns are also commonly infested. 

3. The influence of moisture appears important in restraining 
its increase and in reducing the amount of its injury. 

4. Eggs are deposited principally on the rind of the fruit, and 
hatch in from ten to fifteen days, according to the prevailing 
temperature. 

5. When the larva emerges it feeds for a brief period upon the 
rind, and then burrows into the tissue of the fruit. 

6. Infested fruits ripen prematurely and fall to the ground, and 
when the larva leave the fallen fruit it makes a cocoon on the surface 
of the soil. 

7. What may be called the spring moths begin to emerge early 
in September, and continue to do so until about the end of C'ctober. 
They may deposit eggs on any oranges that are still on the trees. 

8. The succeeding moths begin to emerge in numbers early in 
January, and continue to emerge until about the end of February. 
Eggs are deposited by them within a few days after their emergence. 

9. Spraying with arsenate of lead powder in the proportion of 
one and a half pounds to fifty gallons of water gave good results, and 
is recommended for the control of this insect. 

10. Cloth bands placed around the trunks of infested citrus trees 
proved to be ineffective in attracting the larvae to spin their cocoons 
under them. 

11. Light traps failed to attract the moths, none being caught by 
this method. 

12. All native food plants should be destroyed as far as possible. 
Cultivated food plants such as apricot, guava, oak, olive, peach, 
persimmon, plum, pomegranate, and- walnut had better not be grown 
near citrus orchards. Guava, pomegranate, and oak are the most 
objectionable. ' 

13. The flooding or heavy irrigation of citrus orchards during 
the months of July or August is destructive to larvae and chrysalides 
in cocoons on the surface of the soil. 



106 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



14. If the flooding- of oicliaids caniiot be done on account of lack 
of water, the thoroug'h cultivation of the soil, especially during July 
and August, is recommended as an alternative measure. 

15. Infested fallen fruit should be collected and buried in deep 
I)its and covered with packed soil to prevent the emergence of moths. 

16. By marketing citrus fruit before the end of August much 
damage to ripe fruit will be avoided. 

17. Suitable spraying machinery should be provided for the 
orchard. If a hand-power spray pump is used it should be fitted with 
a pressure gauge, and at least one hundred pounds pressure should be 
maintained when spraying. 

18. In order to control the spring infestation of rii)e oranges it is 
recommended that the trees should be sprayed twice, viz., about the 
middle of September and the middle of October. 

19. For the control of the early infestation of the crop the first 
spraying of citrus trees should be made before the middle of January; 
the second three weeks later (or the first week of February) ; and the 
third during the last week of February. If native food plants are 
growing nearby, the orchard should be sprayed for the fourtli time 
about the middle of March. 



Cotton Growing: Great Possibilities for the Union. 

Cotton is an article classed among the primary necessities of civili- 
zation, and South Africa is fortunate in possessing vast areas suitable 
for the cultivation of the crop. Tlie Avorld demand for cotton is far 
in excess of the supply, and the prospects are that it will so continue 
for many years to come. There are several factors which justify 
this view. The needs of the increasing population of the world must 
be met, and requirements of European countries are growing owing 
to woollen articles largely being substituted by cotton mixtures on 
account of the cotton manufactured article being more suitable for 
wear in warm climates. Civilization and settlement of the remote 
areas of the world proceed apace, and with the forward movement 
comes the demand for clothing: when one considers the millions of 
natives of Central Africa alone it is borne upon one that the market 
for the product of the cotton plant is an ever-widening one, stretching 
far ahead into the future. It can be understood that the manufac- 
turers of the world are clamouring for the raw material, and South 
Africa is faced with an opportunity of becoming a recognized producer 
of no mean portion of the world's cotton output. Our position is most 
favourable. In America, where the great bulk of the world's yield 
is now obtained, the cultivation of the crop is becoming increasingly 
dependent upon white labour, bringing in its train a mounting cost 
of production. In the areas of our country destined to be the future 
cotton fields of the Union there is a teeming native population, 
eminently suited for the labour requirements of cotton growing, 
M'hich could be profitably enlisted and employed. Indeed, there is 
every reason to anticipate that the Union will favourably compete 
with the present great supplier of the world's cotton. 

Looking further ahead it is to be expected that in the course of 
time, as is now happening in America, the Union will cease to be a 
producer of raw material only, for wider industry will follow and 



Notes. 107 

delinting, ginning, and ultimately the manufacture of cotton fabrics 
in South Africa will become established, while from these industries 
again others would arise in the form of by-products, supplying articles 
for which both here and in other parts there is a constant demand. 

The Department has evidence of a stirring among our agricul- 
tural producers occasioned by the hopeful outlook in cotton growing, 
and, as far as its capacities permit, is making every effort to foster 
the industry and seize the golden opportunity of procuring a good 
portion of the world's cotton trade. We have demonstrated that 
without a shadow of doubt this country has the possibilities of pro- 
ducing great quantities of cotton. We have passed the experimental 
stage and a bold, forward movement now awaits us. The Division 
charged with the furtherance of the industry is, under the guidance 
of its Chief, Mr. W. H. Scherffius, M.S., widening its activities and 
supplementing its staff by the addition of qualified technical officers. 
Two have recently been engaged in the United States, the home of 
modern cotton culture, while two others, Mr. Lloyd Worrall and 
Mr. Hesse, have now been appointed, both being South Africans 
trained oversea : the former is an itinerant officer for the eastern 
Transvaal, being stationed at Barberton, and Mr. Hesse is Technical 
Assistant, to deal with the commercial side of the industry, being 
located at headquarters, Pretoria. 

Much literature on the various phases, cultural and economic, of 
cotton growing in South Africa has been published and distributed 
by the Department, and in this issue we give a few notes of a lecture 
recently delivered by Mr. Scherffius on the subject. We would 
emphasize Mr. Scherffius' advice on the necessity of striving after 
the production of quality before quantity. This is most essential for 
a country on the eve of a campaign which projects the capture of a 
goodly portion of the markets of the world. We are alive to the 
position that good seed, which produces good lint, is difficult to 
obtain, and that our present supplies are of a mixed type, and 
arrangements have therefore been made to supply farmers with the 
best seed available. But in our anxiety to procure the desired seed 
we must strenuously endeavour to avoid jeopardizing the Avhole 
future of an industry for which such high hopes are entertained by 
importing cotton pests with seed from outside our boundaries. At 
present we are happy in being free from any of the serious pests 
which have devastated the cotton fields of other countries. We 
have referred to this matter in earlier issiies of the Journal. In view 
of the great risk which has to be faced from this source the introduc- 
tion of seed by private persons is limited at present to consignments 
of 10 lb., and then only where permit has previously been obtained 
from the Chief, Division of Entomology, while provision is b • ig 
made for the erection of two vacuum fumigators for the purpose of 
treating imported seed and guarding against the risk of introducing 
insect pests. 

Cotton is therefore one of the crops which this Department 
recommends to agriculturists in those parts of the Union suitable for 
its cultivation. Convinced of a constant demand for the raw material 
at remunerative prices, and the possibility of suitable labour organiza- 
tion by farmers, we are satisfied that success awaits the cotton grower 
who studies the subject and is properly equir)r)ed for raising one of 
the primary necessities of the human race. 



108 



Journal of the Department of agriculture. 



The Pecan Nut. 

Until recently the pecan nut, which is closely allied to the 
walnut, grew wild in America, being found in the territories adjacent 
to the Gulf of Mexico, and it is only comparatively recently that it 
has been cultivated as an ordinary orchard tree. But of late years 
pecan growing has become increasingly popular in parts of the United 
States, orange groves being eradicated in some areas in order to plant 
pecans, and it is now one of the most important nuts grown in 
America. Mr. Tribolet. the Chief of our Division of Horticulture, 
describes the pecan as the "' finest edible nut grown in any part of 
the world," being superior in quality and delicacy to the walnut, and 
states, in an article which we publish in this issue, that at the rate 
the trees are being put down in the United States their output of the 
pecan nut will speedily equal and surpass that of the walnut. The 
pecan tree is found growing here and there in many parts of the 
Union, but in most cases the name of the tree and its great possibilities 
are not known by those on whose farms it is found. So far as walnut 
cultivation in the Union is concerned we have no figures as to local 
production and consumption, but our importations are not heavy, 
averaging — for the five years 1915-1919 — 6625 lb., valued at <£258 
(not allowing for a large importation from the Argentine Republic in 
1918 of 88,866 lb., valued at £3635, the only year during this period 
in which the nut was imported from that country). Mr. Tribolet's 
article deals with the cultural aspect of the nut, and is published with 
a view to awakening the interest of some of our farmers to the possi- 
bilities of this wonderful nut, which it is considered should prove 
highly remunerative in many parts of the Union, and especially in 
Natal. 




Group of Ca'aloniaii Donkeys. 



Plant Nurseries in Quarantine as at 1st January, 1921. 

The nurseries in quarantine remain as published in the January, 
1921, Jaurnal (page 88), except that the quarantine on Mr. Jas. 
dark's nursery has been removed. 



Departmental Activities. 109 



DEPARTMENTAL ACTIVITIES 



December, 1920. 



(Note. — The work of the several Divisions and Schoolftnf Agriculture covers a wide 
range of agricultural industry in the Union, and we give hereunder notes and observations 
from certain of them treating with matters of special interest coming under their purview 
during the month. The object of these notes, which are not concerned with general routine 
work, is to inform the farmer of such matters as are calculated to be of interest and helpful 
to him at the present time. — Editor.) 



THE DIVISIONS. 



ENTOMOLOGY. 



Black Scale Parasites in Cahfoniia. — The black scale (Saissetia 
oleae) is much the worst scale pest of citrus trees in California, and 
it is primarily for its suppression that most fumigation of citrus trees 
is carried out in that State. The scale occurs widely in all four 
Provinces of the Union, but is nowhere a pest and is seldom found in 
an orchard. Its unimportance in South Africa is attributed by the 
Division of Entomology to the efficiency of native parasites which, 
for nearly twenty-five years, official entomologists of this country have 
made intermittent efforts to get introduced into California. One of 
the important parasites, Scutellista cyanea, was established in the 
State from a sending of material made twenty years ago, but although 
't proved a A^aluable introduction, its good work was soon found to be 
insufficient materially to obviate the need to fumigate citrus trees. 
The efforts to get other of the parasites established, through the 
assistance the Division was able to give, not being successful, the 
California State Board of Agriculture finally adopted a recommenda- 
tion long urged by the Division to send a special entomologist to 
South Africa to collect and forward material. For about eighteen 
months a California officer has been located in South Africa, with 
headquarters at the Division's field station at Eosebank, near Cape- 
town, and much is still expected from his work. Meanwhile one 
of the much-wanted South African parasites has been bred out and 
colonized in California from some material collected in Australia. 
In a recent letter to the Division of Entomology, the Chief Ento- 
mologist of the Board of Agriculture wrote : — ■ 

" You may be interested to know that the black scale 
parasite, Apltycus lounsbuiyi, has become established in southern 
California and is doing a very remarkable work, particularly 
along the coast. I have visited the orchards near Santa Paula, 
where we have been colonizing the parasite, and the work of this 
insect is exceeding my fondest expectations. In my opinion, 
there is no question but that the black scale is going to be handled 
by the use of natural enemies in the coast region of California, 
thus resulting in a saving of a good manv hundred thousands of 
dollars." 



110 Journal op the Department of Agriculture. 

Vedalia for Brazil. — The present activity of the Division in 
connection with heneficial insects biing-s to mind that in the last year 
it was successful in having sendings of the Vedalia ladybird reach 
Ceylon and Brazil m satisfactory condition. In both of these 
countries outbreaks of the Australian bug were causing apprehension, 
and South African help in getting the Vedalia was officially requested. 
Many sendings of the ladybird were sent to Ceylon before any of the 
insects reached there alive, while success very quickly crowned the 
Brazil efforts, a sending by the Senior Entomologist at Capetown 
being reported on by the State of Sao Paulo Chief Entomologist, 
under date of 7th April, as follows : " We have received the fine large 
sending of the Vedalia from the captain of the " Samatra Maru." 
It came in cold storage and reached us in splendid condition — nothing 
whatever dead, but all alive and in all stages from eggs to adults 
including every size of larva. There must have been thousands of 
the Vedalia in all stages. . . . The Secretary and the Director of 
Agriculture both request me to say that the State of Sao Paulo very 
deeply appreciates your great kindness and untiring efforts in getting 
the Vedalia to us in good condition. This shipment is a perfect 
success from every point of view. . . . We now have a shipment of 
the Vedalia en route here from Florida. . . . We also have an expert 
in Italy who will make shipments from that country and Portugal 
later on. . . . We have an inspector in Montevideo now securing 
material there. Smith, of California, has just sent word that lie can 
make us a sending. So we are literally getting the Vedalia from the 
four corners of the world, but your shipment is the first to arrive 
and cannot be surpassed if even equalled by any other." 



Pink Boll Worvi in Angola. — The menace of pink boll worm, 
the most feared pest of cotton, has been further emphasized by the 
finding of the pest by Mr. C. B. Hardenberg, the Portuguese East 
Africa Entomolcgist, in a consignment of cotton seed which arrived 
at Lourenco Marques in the middle of December from Mossamedes 
(Angola) en route for a Mozambique destination. The Division of 
Entomology is unable to find any record indicating that the pest is 
recognized in Angola. 



Woolly Aphis Parasite. — The arrival of parasitized woolly aphis, 
sent from the IJnited States by A. E. Lundie, a South African student 
at Cornell University, was chronicled in the last issue of the Journal. 
The material was at first in charge of C. W. Mally, Senior Ento- 
mologist at Capetown. Adult parasites began to emerge on 6th 
December, 17 days after the material was taken from the cool-room 
of the vessel by v/hich it arrived. By the 14th about 1870 %vere out 
and then, to increase the chances for making the introduction a 
success, the remaining material was transferred to Pretoria. It was 
thought that the material was practically spent when it left Cape- 
town, but to the glad surprise of every one concerned, parasites have 
continued to emerge from it, the total yield to the time of writing 
being about 8400. Unfortunately woolly aphis is at present uncom- 
monly scarce for it, both in the south-western districts and in the 
Transvaal, and difficulty has therefore been experienced in finding 
suitable trees in which to place the parasites. Liberations have been 
made in an orchard at Stellenbosch and in one near Pretoria and also 



Departmental Activities. 



Ill 



in five Pretoria town gardens. Some of the parasites were turned 
io( se in tiie trees and others confined in long- narrow bags of fine 
muslin drawn over infested branches. Some hundreds were put on 
infested cuttings being kept standing in water under close cover in 
the office laboratory at Pretoria. The parasite seems to be quite an 
important enemy of woolly aphis in America. It is still too early 




American Woolly Aphis Paeasite. 

Many specimens were liberated within bags of fine muslin drawn over 
branches heavily infested with woolly aphis. 

to predict Avhether or not the attempt to establish it in South Africa 
will succeed, but hope is at present running high, and by the time 
these lines are printed sufhcient time will have elapsed for one South 
African generation of the insect. 



112 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

Pernicious Scale at Parys. — A Division of Entomology nursery 
inspector recently found a single small apple tree infested with 
pernicious (San Jose) scale in the course of the ordinary inspection 
of a new fruit tree nursery at Parys, Orange Free State. A super- 
ficial inspection of gardens in different parts of the town has since 
been made by the Senior Nursery Inspector, and it has been discovered 
that the pest occurs over a considerable area, and has probably been 
present in the town unrecognized and unsuspected for quite a number 
of years. What appeared to be the oldest infestations were found 
near the centre of the town about a mile and a half from the nursery 
premises, which are in a suburb. However, no trace of the scale was 
found in some of the town gardens. It was found in several gardens 
in the suburb, but not in abundance, while there is reason to suppose 
that numbers of " diseased " trees said to have been cut out several 
years ago from gardens in the town were really its victims. Most of 
the trees in the infested gardens are alleged to have come from Cape 
nurseries, and some of the owners incline to think that Cape trees 
brought the scale. But the Division of Entomology has never found 
nor suspected the scale in any Cape Province nursery, and is of the 
opinion it must have got to Parys with suspected untraced trees sold 
in the Orange Free State about ten years ago, or else have been taken 
in on scions or trees from some one of the numerous infested private 
gardens and orchards of the northern Transvaal, northern Natal, and 
northern Free State. Four Orange Free State centres of infestation 
are now known, namely Viljoen's Drift, Kroonstad, near Harrismith, 
and Parys. The occurrence near Harrismith illustrates how long a 
time may elapse before the scale becomes really bad. The Division 
of Entomology in 1912 learned that the farmer had received some 
suspected trees, and wrote to him describing the scale and suggesting 
a careful inspection. The farmer replied that the trees appeared 
perfectly healthy. Seven years later he found the scale, and then 
took it for a new thing which killed trees in a few weeks. Sometimes, 
however, quite large trees get infested and practically killed within 
two or three years. In general, the less a tree lacks for water and 
attention, the worse the scale attacks it. Many fruit trees in Pretoria 
that were known to be infested eight to nine years ago still live on 
little the worse for the infestation, while others of the same kind have 
died to tbe roots in a few years. Difference in care is the explanation. 
The scale is fairlj- easily controlled by winter spraying, but quite 
commonly trees die of its attack without the cause being discovered. 
Fruit-growers are warned to be careful where they get trees and 
scions. 



Locust Poison. — At the time of writing, 29th December, voet- 
gangers have not been reported in any further districts. The swarms 
were most numerous in the Graaff-Reinet district, where, in addition 
to the town commonages of Graaff-Reinet and Adendorp, twenty-five 
farms were infested. The farms in the area are particularly large. 
The District Locust Officer, J. H. Smith, reported under date of 
22nd December, that about 382 swarms had been destroyed. He 
classed these as 5 very large, 28 large, 131 medium, and 218 email. 
He goes on to state: "The north, west, and south of the Graaff- 
Reinet district was infested, and the outbreak was quite serious. 



Departmental Activities. 113 

fortunately most of the farmers were very keen in operating, and the 
few that treated the matter of destroying as of no great importance, 
after having been warned and matters explained to them by myself, 
got busy at once with good results. The position is very favourable. 
and all swarms of hoppers have been destroyed. A small percentage 
of stragglers got to the wing stage, these being chiefly on farms where 
guinea fowls are scarce. Yet I have to report that there are quite a 
lot of scattered fliers on most of the Graaff-lleinet farms, as well as 
in the eastern Aberdeen and northern Jansenville. These must have 
hatched from the light showers that fell on 6th October or before, 
because they were seen as early as 1st December. They took on a 
greyish colour and never gathered into swarms. On 10th December 
it was reported to me that these odd fliers were mating, and on the 
15th December I myself saw the same, so they must have hatched out 
before the 25th October rains. They escaped notice by farmers on 
account of their grey colour and their being widely spread in ones, 
twos, and threes. It was impossible to operate on them. During 
my visits I also noticed scattered hoppers of grey and green colour 
in all stages of life, from very small to almost wing stage, and often 
I found these off-coloured forms mixed up and trekking with a swarm 
of voetgangers 

" There is an increase of pauws in this district. I also notice a 
lot of hav.^ks of a dark grey colour, about the size of a well-grown 
homing pigeon. They are seen mostly amongst the odd fliers. There 
are also large locust birds (European stork), but not very many. I 
saw a few days ago about 25 together along the river. Mr. Walter 
Rubidge, of Dalham, reported having a few thousand small locust 
birds (starling) on his farm. Guinea-fowl also seem to leave their 
usual bush-veld and take to the open flat country during the day to 
get amongst these fliers. The scattered fliers in this district, if they 
could gather together, are enough to form a very big swarm. In 
some places you find them in greater numbers than in others, but 
they seem to be content to stay where they are, and will only fly up 
when approached, and will soon sit down again. The supplies on 
hand are enough in case another outbreak occurs." 



Tobacco Slug in Bathurst. — The tobacco slug (Lema hilineata), 
the small yellow and black striped South American beetle, that with 
its slug-like larva has caused extensive damage to growing tobacco 
in the Piet Retief District, Transvaal Province, is now causing 
uneasiness amongst growers of Cape gooseberries in the Bathurst 
district. Cape Province. Entomologist David Gunn, who has his 
headquarters at Port Elizabeth, recently addressed a meeting of the 
growers at Scottsbottom on the subject of the insect and its control. 
The insect feeds on Cape gooseberry in common with tobacco and 
also a number of weeds of the same family as these plants. Entomo- 
logist Van der Merwe, working from Durban, is conducting demon- 
strations in various parts of the Piet Retief District to show that 
spraying with arsenate of lead is an efficient means for controlling 
the insect in tobacco lands. 



114 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



HORTICULTURE. 



The citrus iiichistiy is rapidly developing, especially in the 
Transvaal, and orchards of thousands of trees vt^ill soon come into 
hearing, considerably increasing the quantitj^ of export fruit. 
During his recent tour of the principal fruit-growing districts of the 
Transvaal and Cape Provinces, Mr. Eoworth, the Fruit Inspector at 
the Table Bay Docks, made special note of the anticipated expansion 
of the citrus export trade, and reports, as an instance, that the 
increased production next year from two estates alone in the north- 
eastern Transvaal will be equal to half the total quantity of citrus 
fruit exported in 1920. Exports of South African citrus fruit 
totalled 50,000 boxes in 1919 and 120,000 in 1920, and Mr. Eowwth 
estimates that 250,000 boxes will be available for export this coming 
season, while it is expected that during the next few years the 
increase will continue, though not. perhaps, at the same rate as 
during the 1919 to 1921 seasons. In the eastern districts of the 
Cape the drought has greatly affected the position and, apart from 
pines, it is not anticipated that there will be any appreciable increase 
in fruit export from that portion of the coimtry for some years 
to come. But pine-growing is going ahead. In the Bathurst district 
the Langholm Estates have 27 million pines just coming into bear- 
ing, producing something like 100 tons of pines per week fen' ship- 
ment . 

Mr Roworth did not find this f-;eason's soft fruit croj)s of the 
western Cape districts too good and classed them as " fair average." 
It is expected that grapes will be exported in large quantities. 

During his tour Mr. Eoworth gave instruction in fruit-packing. 
While packing last season showed a great advance on that of previous 
years, there is room for more improvement. Packing is one of the 
essentials in an overseas trade, and grade must be strictly adhered to. 
Growers mu)st aim at reaching an excellence in their packing, and 
must remember that the first necessity of successful fruit export is 
standardization. 



VETERINARY EDUCATION AND RESEARCH. 



The new Anthra^x Spore Vaccine that was referred to in the 
December issue of this journal has now been issued to farmers for 
some considerable time in the place of the old Pasteur Vaccine. It 
is too early yet to give a definite verdict on the result of these inocula- 
tions. In the meantime, however, an extensive test has been carried 
out in the Boshof District by an officer of this division, and has given 
complete satisfaction. Over 1000 animals were inoculated without 
any untoward results. Any outbreaks of anthrax seemed to be effec- 
tively checked by the inoculation. Some of the inoculated horses 
showed rather large swellings, extending in some instances from the 
neck to the chest. This was particularly the case on farms where the 
disease was actually present at the time the inoculation was carried 
out. Animals showing such swellings should, of course, be given a 
complete rest for a few days, but otherwise there is no cause for any 
alarm. The sw^ellings will disappear in a few days. As a matter of 



Departmental Activities. 115 

fact some, farmers are pleased to see the swellings, because they 
^contend (and very probably they are correct) that animals developing" 
-Swelling's will possess a stronger degree of immunity than others. 

Up to the end of the old year the issue of Blue-Tongue Vaccine 
and Wire-Worm E,emedy was smaller than has been the case in recent 
,years. ThivSi fact proves that these diseases were not very prevalent 
up to that time, and must be ascribed to the drought that prevailed 
in many parts of the country. As soon as the heavy rains set in 
these diseases, as well as horse-sickness, will appear and the demand 
for vaccines will increase. 

The inoculation of private Jtorses against horse-sickness has now 
been restarted at the Laboratory. About 100 horses arrived about the 
middle of January and are now undergoing treatment. Owners are 
advised, in the order in which their applications were received, of 
the possibility of getting a limited number of horses inoculated. It 
is, of course, inevitable that many farmers will be disappointed over 
this matter. It should be borne in mind, however, that the stabling 
accommodation at the Laboratory is very limited, and even the 
inoculation of 100 horses at a time entails a larg-e amount of extra 
work. We are only accepting a small number of animals from each 
•owner so as to g'ive as many people as possible a chance of getting a 
few of their horses immunized. 

Farmers who make application after the publication of these 
notes will probably have to wait until July before their horses can be 
received. 



DAIRYING. 



With regard to the note appearing in January's issue of the 
Journal, we are pleased to state that Mr. J. F. Stephenson 
has been appointed as the first official grader under the scheme of 
grading cheese for local consumption throughout the Union, ai'd 
will be stationed in East Griqualand with headquarters at Kcistad. 
Mr. Stephenson wn/s formerly attached to this Division as grader to 
the East Griqualand Cheese Manufacturers' Association, and 
although under the supervision of the Division, received half salary 
from the association, the balance being paid by Government. He is 
now a whole-time officer of the Division of Dairying, and will under- 
take grading for the public generally. Mr. StepheiiBon is fully 
acquainted with the conditions and requirements of East Griqua- 
land and with all cheese factories in that area. 

Mr. Rae, who succeeded Mr. Stephenson in 1919, now leaves to 
take up an appointment as lecturer in dairying at the School of 
Agriculture, Elsenburg, Cape. Mr. Rae has done excellent work, 
especially as the country and conditions were entirely new to him. 

Dairy Inspector Wilkinson, stationed at Queenstown, Cape 
Province, reports as follows : Speaking generally, the outlook of the 
dairy industry in the Cape Province is at the time of writing not too 
bright. Lack of seasonal rains in the Midlands and Border district 
tas its reflection in a restricted butter and cheese output. Those 
creameries and cheese factories depending upon supplies from the 
Cape Midlands are, almost without exception, either closed down for 
the present or working at a lof|s ; as instance, at one small creamery, 



116 Journal op the Department op Agriculture, 



visited a few days ago, the total supply did not exceed 10 cans cream 
per week, each can of roughlj^ 10 lb. butter-fat, whereas in a good 
season the output is 5000 lb. butter per week. On the other hand^ 
the north-eastern districts of the Cape give every promise of a record 
output, and this has been verified by recent reports from these areas. 
"Another interesting feature is that the slump in the wool market has 
been the means of inducing farmer's, who have hitherto been in the 
habit of practically confining all their energies to the production of 
wool, to now giving serious attention to the development of the dairy- 
ing industry, no doubt with the object in view that it is not advisable 
io have " all eggs in 02ie basket." 

With regard to the cheese industry, owing to the fact that the 
cheese market in England has been decontrolled, our surplus cheese 
from here must now compete with that from the other ])ominions 
and the open market, consequently cheesemakers are somewhat 
dubioU\S as to what price they will pay for milk. 

The butter market is still under control, and creameries which 
have a firm offer from the Imperial Government for their surplus 
supplies of butter are in a more favourable position to know exactly 
Avhat they can afford to pay to their cream suppliers for the raw 
material. 



THE SCHOOLS OF AGRICULTURE AND EXPERIMENT 

STATIONS. 



ELSENBURG. MULDERS VLEL 



Seed Wheat in the Western Province. 

Change of iShed. — It is a mistaken theory that a change of seed 
from one locality to another is conducive to higher returns or that it 
is necessary in order to prevent deg-eneration. So far no evidence is 
available to show that wheat necessarily degenerates or "runs out" 
when grown continuously on the same ground, and on the other hand, 
numerous cases are known where the same variety has been grown for 
twenty and more years with excellent results. 

Pure Seed. — A coramcn practice to-day is that of mixing two or 
more varieties of wheat when planting, irrespective of whether the 
varieties have similar maturity, quality, and colour of grain. Several 
reasons are advanced in support of this practice. The most usual 
explanation is that this system provides the best insurance against 
loss from infection with rust. Another explanation is that it facili- 
tates harvesting operations in varieties such as Gluyas Early, which 
are liable to lodge if these be sown together with a wheat that has a 
strong erect straw. 

Provided the varieties are properly chosen, no advantage is to be 
gained by mixing the seed. Pure seed of the right variety will yield 
as well as mixed seed, and the resulting crop will moreover command 



Departmental Activities. 117 

a better price than mixed wheat when sold for milling- purposes. 
Millers have often expressed a preference for imported wheat because 
of its uniformity and superior grading-. 

Grading Wheat for Seed Purposes. — It is highly essential that 
wheat be winnowed and graded for seed purposes. Xot only does 
this operation free the seed of all weed impurities, but it also segre- 
gates all the small pinched kernels from the plump grains — a matter 
of vital importance in securing a good stand of wheat. 

hnportance of Wheat being True to Name. — Endless trouble is 
caused by the variety of names under which the same wheat is known 
in different parts of the country. Considerable progress has been 
made at this institution in the naming of wheats, and farmers in the 
Western Province are urged to send samples for identification 
purposes whenever they have any doubt in regard to any variety. 
All that is necessary is to address a 1-lb. sample of grain and a small 
bunch of ears to the Principal, Elsenburg School of Agriculture, 
Mulders Vlei, when the variety will be identified. 

Varieties Reeommended by the Elsenburg Sehoo] of Agricul- 
ture. — Early to medium early varieties: — 

Florence. — Very early, beardless wheat, white grain, tillers 

well, but is liable to shatter. 
Gluyas Early. — Medium early, beardless wheat, white gram, 

tillers well, but is liable to lodge. 
Primrose. — Medium earlv, beardless wheat, wliite grain, tillers 

well. 
Union Selections Nos. 17, 33, 28, 52, 81, 94-1, and 116.— 

Medium early white wheats. ISTos. 17, 28. and 52 are 

about ten to fourteen days earlier. All these Union 

wheats tiller well, have strong erect straw, and are 

beardless. 

Mid-season varieties : — 

Spring Early. — Bearded wheat with dark coloured kennel. 

Tillers well. The straw, however, is weak. 
Red Egyptian or Rooi-beentje. — Bearded with soft dark grain. 

Tillers very well. 
Kleintrouw. — Tip-bearded with small white grain. Tillers 

exceedingly well. 
Darlcan. — Tip-bearded with plump white grain. Tillers 

exceedingly well. 
Rieti X Gluyas Cross No. 81. — Bearded with large white grain. 

Tillers well and holds the grain well. 

Late varieties : — 

Rieti. — Bearded, large dark grain. Tillers very well, but is 

liable to shatter. 
Bobs X Rieti Cross No. 10. — Bearded grain. Tillers very well 

and holds the grain better than Eieti, and is also about ten 

davs earlier. 



118 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



GROOTFONTEIN, MIDDELBURG (CAPE). 



Wheat. — " Yeomaii," a wheat produced by Professor Biffen at 
Cambridge, combining- the heavy cropping powers of certain English 
wheats with the high-milling qualities of Canadian wheats, and 
having, moreover, valuable rust-resistant characters, is considered to 
be one of the heaviest cropping wheats generally known. It is, 
however, late maturing, and is therefore somewhat at a disadvantage 
when planted in the Karroo, owing to the necessity' for late irriga- 
tion, and its liability to attack by birds. An attempt has been 
made at Grootfontein to combine its valuable cropping and rust- 
resistant characters with earlier maturity by crossing it with early 
maturing varieties. Some of the crosses obtained have given good 
promise, which, it is hoped, will be fully justified by the results of 
further trial. 

Reports from farmers, who are using the Bird Proof variety of 
wheat obtained from this institution are to the effect that it is 
proving very satisfactory. 

Lucerne. — From the Chinese Lucerne, which after several years' 
trial continues to give more satisfaction generally than other varieties 
at this institution, some 1700 root selections liave been made and 
planted out. In September last a few selections were made and 
transplanted, and on these seed is now setting well. 

Poultry. — At each of the Schools of Agriculture attempts are 
being made to build up high producing strains of birds of the various 
breeds of poultry by selection and careful mating and testing of the 
progeny in single joens. At Grootfontein a nine-mouths' egg-laying 
test of the first generation of the birds selected at this institution for 
building up good egg-laying strains was recently completed. The 
numbers of birds, breeds represented, average monthly records, and 
order of merit, were as follows: — 

• Number ' Average 

of Hens in Breed. Monthly 

Test. Record. 

13 ... White Leghorns 14.7 

13 ... Brown Leghorns 13.5 

17 ... White Wyandottes 12.3 

6 ... Buff Orpingtons 8.7 , 

7 ... White Orpingtons 8.6 

6 ... Speckled Sussex 5.1 

The White Leghorns scored all along the line, the best and 
poorest layens of this breed being better than the best and poorest 
respectively of any of the other breeds. Both the Brown Leghorns 
and the White Wyandottes, except for two birds in each group, also 
gave consistent results. The numbers of eggs laid by the birds of 
these three breeds were satisfactory, but the grade of eggs left much 
to be desired, the greater proportion not attaining first grade. 
Attempts will be made by judicious mating to rectify this under- 
grade character, and the result of this mating to be seen in the next 
generation will be awaited with interest. 



Departmental Activities. 119 



POTCHEFSTROOM, TRANSVAAL. 



The School. — The school closed on the 14th December. Out of 
the 30 feecond-year fetudents, 28 secured the diploma, and among 
these 20 secured one or more distinctions. The two failed by a small 
margin only, and were g-iven the choice of re-examination. Twenty- 
nine of the 31 first-year students passed, and of the 6 one-year 
students only one failed in one subject. Almost all the successful 
candidates are already engaged to take up farming for themselves or 
with others as managers, foremen, and assistants in agricultural 
propositions. 

Live Stock. — The continued drought is beginning to tell on crops 
and stock. The amount of rain that fell during the month amounted 
to only 1.68. The grazing is getting very poor and additional feed- 
ing- with hay and other farm foods is given to dairy heifers and cows 
with calf at foot. 

It should be a farmer's greatest care to save valuable young stock 
during such periods ; any stunting of their development now is a 
permanent setback; a little lucerne hay, silage, or other farm-grown 
feeds goes a long way in assisting growth. On no account should 
dairy heifers be allowed to fall into poor condition. Under present 
condition's the price of milk is increased and dairy calves are given 
gruels as substitute for the butter fat lacking in skim milk. 

Calf-feeding experiments are now being conducted with two 
different gruels; No. 1, 2 parts pollards, 1 part linseed; No. 2, 2 
parts mealie meal, 2 parts oatmeal, 1 part linseed meal. 

The calves run on pasture in the day time and are given a feed of 
dry lucerne hay in the evenings. In addition to the gruel they 
receive a ration of dry meal, consisting of 3 parts mealie meal, 3 
parts oatmeal, 1 part bran. Approximately f lb. of meal per 100 lb. 
live weight is fed. 

The calves are given portions of the gruels above mentioned with 
skim milk according to age, and seem to thrive well. They lose in 
body fat, but have sufficient material in their rations (gruel and 
skim milk, dry meal, and hay) to grow all the bone and muscle 
necessary for proper development. 

The grading experiment in Sussex and Hereford cattle has also 
been started. It is proposed to grade all culled cows with bulls of 
these breeds and to study very carefully each grade of successive 
generations. 

In spite of the drought, the stock keeps remarkably well owing 
to the proper use of grazing paddockis, pastures, and all kinds of 
feeds available on the farm. 

Stock intended for show purposes are taken in hand now. The 
pastures are too poor to improve their condition much or even to 
keep them going. A good feed, conisisting mostly of good hay 
(lucerne, teff, etc.), some succulents (silage, green lucerne, etc.), and 
a fair grain ration, consisting mostly of mealie meal, will get them 
on to stall-feeding the first week. 

Crops. — Wheat and oat crops have been harvested. Some 
varieties suffered heavily from birds, but on the whole the yields are 
very satisfactory. A fair amount of seed of different varieties i|6 



120 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

available for distribution and will be advertized shortly. Uwing to 
ihe drought it was impossible to establish teff and it will be necessary 
to re-sow after the next raiu\s. Most of the maize for silage has been 
planted, w'hile ground is being prepared for potatoes and mangels. 

Experimental Section. — Favourable reports on the American 
No. 8 wheat distributed last autumn are coming to hand. This wheat 
has so far proved to be the best bird-resistant variety and yields very 
well. A breeding plot of Eureka maize was planted ; also 
miscellaneous crops. Lack of rainfall has been a serious drawback this 
month. 

Poultry.- — A large numl)er of White Leghorns and White Wyan- 
dottes are available for disposal. 

The 100 Bird Intensive House, which was fitted up during 
November, has now been filled with 40 White Leghorns and 
White Wyandotte pullets ; the remaining birds are to be put in when 
the weather is cooler. 

Horticulture. — A good deal of fruit-drying will be done to 
prevent waste in the orchards. Where fruits have been damaged by 
hail or growers consider that prices realized on the markets do not 
compensate them, the dried article has much to commend it. 

Spraying trees against fruit-fly (using Mally fruit-fly remedy) 
should be continued, particularly w-ith late-ripening peaches, 
nectarines, and plums. At this time of the j^ear the greatest danger 
is that of side-injury. Budding over undesirable varieties to more 
suitable ones may now be done. Suckers should be removed from 
all trees (i.e. those growths which >spring from the root below the bud 
or graft). They are of no value and retard grow-th in the tree itself. 
All fallen fruit should be picked up and destroyed by boiling or 
burning, to assist in controlling pests. Cultivation of the orchard 
should be practised as often ais possible to check w^eeds and conserve 
moisture. 



GLEN, ORANGE FREE STATE. 



All the senior students, thirteen in number, passed their final 
examinations, and were awarded the Diploma in Agriculture. This 
is the first batch of students to complete their two years' course at 
this institution. On the eve of their departure a farewell was given 
to them by the members of the lecturing staff, at which the newly- 
appointed Secretary for Agriculture was present. Mr. H. A. Curling 
was presented with a gold medal by the Technical Ofiicers' Associa- 
tion for being the best all-round student, while Mr. E. Kemm was 
awarded a gold medal by the Friesland Breeders' Association for 
being the best Friesland judge at the inter-school contest which was 
held at the Bloemfontein Show in March last. Next year's senior 
class will number about thirty. 

Namerous applications are being received for the special course 
in dairying which will be conducted here instead of at Grootfontein 
as heretofore. The course will commence on 15th Februarv. 



Dkpartmental Activities. 



121 



CEDARA NATAL. 



Winter Feeding. — The opportunity is taken of reminding farmers 
that during- the month of February attention should be devoted to 
the planting of root crops for stock food during the winter months. 
For these crops lands sliould be chosen which are handy to the home- 
stead in order to facilitate transport of stable manure to the fields, 
and also the green crops from the land back to the homestead. The 
importance of the provision of green succulent food material for all 
classes of farm stock through the winter months cannot be over 
estimated, and is an absolute essential where pedig*ree cattle are 
raised. It is a little late at present to commence ploughing up land 
for this purpose. The selection and ploughing of the soi] should 
have taken place about September or October last, so that now there 
should be a stale furrow. The class of land to select is fresh land, 
or land which has not been under crop, save grass, for several years. 
Root^ are much healthier on fresh ground than on land which has 
been cultivated foi- a number of years. Prior to the ploughing*, which 
shoubl be as deep as circumstances will permit, the land should have 
been heavily manured with rotted farmyard manure, as root crops 
are gross feeders, and a large growth of leafy succulent bulky food is 
required. Plougbed m September or October, the land will be ready 
for a cross-plougliing in February and harrowing, etc., to bring the 
s'oii into a proper tilth for the sowing of the various seeds. 

The following crops can be sown: — Po+atoe-s, rape, kale, turnips, 
swedes, and mansolds. 




Students Working on Grafted Vines. 



Outbreaks of Animal Diseases in the Union. 

During the month of December, 1920, there were reported 5 
outbreaks of East Coast fever (3 Natal, 1 Transvaal, 1 Transkei), 31 
of mange (9 Transvaal, 22 Cape). 182 of anthrax (86 Transvaal, 36 
Orange Free State, 30 Transkei, 22 Cape, 8 Natal), 2 of dourine 
(Cape), 2 of glanders (1 Transvaal, 1 Cape), and 2 of tuberculosis 
(Cape). 



122 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



NOTES ON SOME SUGAR-CANE MATTERS. 



By Paul A. van der Bijl, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.8., Mycologist, Natal 

Herbarium, Durban. 



I. — The FuNca of Cane. 



The statement is often heard that there are no diseases in cane in 
Natal and Zululand. True, we have at present no disease threatening 
the extermination of the sugar industry, but there are here, never- 
theless, several diseases in cane. According to their nature some 
reduce the stand of the cane and thus indirectly the yield per acre, 
others interfere or reduce the formation of sugar by the leaves of the 
cane plant, while others are responsible for the inversion of the 
sucrose accumulated in the cane stalk, resulting in a loss of ^ugar. 
These latter may also be responsible for troubles with crystallization 
in the mills. 

It is our intention in this caption to briefly review the fungi we 
have found associated with cane and, through illustrations, to iudicato 
the symptoms by which they can be recognized in cane fields. 

Roof Disease (Fig. 1). 

A soil fungus common in cane fields is Hiiiiantia stellifera, " the 
stellate-crystal fungus." This fungiis is evident at the base of the 
cane, cementing the ])asal leaves together, and when the cane stool is 
opened interwoven white threads of the fungus arc also seen in the 
ground between the cane roots. 

In smotliering the young buds tlie fungus lessens the stand in 
ratoon crops, and it has also been observed to i)revent the growth of 
planted cuttings. 

It is responsible for killing the rootlets of the cane, and it thus 
weakens the plants and makes them more liable to attacks by other 
fungi ; and with a diminished root system the plants are in periods 
of drought not in the best position to obtain from the soil the water 
it still contains. Plants having their roots attacked by this fungus 
invariably suffer more from the effects of drought. 

Under the microscope this fungus is easily distinguislied from 
all others by the stellate crystals which are borne on branches of the 
vegetative threads of the fungus. These crystals have given the 
fungus the popular name of " Stellate Crystal fungus.'* 

In addition to cane, the fungus has been observed on the " um- 
thente " grass {Imperata arundinocea), and it probably occurs and 
vegetates on other grasses as well. 

On cane the fungus is of the nature of a weak parasite and 
control methods sliould aim at thorough cultivation to ensure a 
vigorous growth of cane, conservation of soil moisture, and aeration 
of the root system. 

Needless to say, cuttings with leaves cemented together by this 
fungus should not l)e used for planting purposes. 



Notes on some Sugar-Cane Matters. 



123 



Leaf Diseases. 

Leaves of tlie sugar-cane are subject to a luunber of leaf spot 

diseases caused by fungi. The two most commonly niet with here 

are the "ring-spot" (Fig. 2), caused by the fungus Leptosphaeria 

sacchari, and the " eye-spot " caused by the fungus Hclminthosponum 

sacchari. . • , i i 

These diseases are especially bad during moist, cool seasons and 




Fig. 1. — Root disease of cane. Tbe fungus is evident on the 
cutting and on the basal leaves of the young shoots. 

in noist, cool localities. A Phoma fungus is usually associated with 
the Leptosphaeria, and is only a stage in the life-cycle of the \attei\ 

Killing areas of the leaf tissues, these fungi interfere with the 
normal function of leaves as builders up of starch and of sugar trom 
the carbonic acid gas of the atmosphere. 



124 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



In bad infec-tions the plants are seriously affected and even the 
leaves wither. 

As a general rule treatment for these two diseases is not found 
necessary, but observations should be given to the different cane 
varieties in cultivation here to see which are the less susceptible to 
these leaf funoi. 




Fig. 2. — " Eye-spot" di.scase of cine leaves. 

Stalk Diseases. 

The stalk of the cane is the region from which sugar i,-, manu- 
factured and fungi occurring on or in it should be viewed from two 
aspects: (1) their effect on the plant as such, (2) their elfect on the 
sugar stored up in the cane, any loss in sugar which may be caused 
by their presence, or products formed by them which may later cause 
trouble in the mills. 



Notes on some Sugar-Cane Matters. 



12.") 



Stalks suffering from fungoid attacks usually show tlieir diseased 
condition by a reddening of the internal tissues. Stalks red inside 
should be viewed with suspicion, should be sent preferably to a plant 
pathologist for examination and report and should most certainly not 
be used for planting purposes. 

In Natal and Zululand we have two widely distributed fungi 
which are responsible among other symptoms for a reddening of the 
interior of the stalks and the inversion of the sugar stored there. 



Fig. 3. — The fruitiap; pustules of the " Rind Disease" 
fungus breaking through the rind of attacked 
stalks. 



They are Melanconium sacchari — the " rind disease " fungus — and 
{Jephalosporiuvi sacchari. 

The former fungus is easily recognized by the way the spores 
break through the rind of the cane (Fig. 3) and form either long 
kinky, black threads or velvety black patches, depending on moisture 
conditions prevailing at the time. 



126 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

The second fiinous has not been nhserved to fruit on standing" 
cane, but its spores ])robablY form in alnmdance when infected cane- 
decays. 

Cane is a crop which, owin*';' to the huifi' period it remains on the 
ground, often not under the best conditions for growth, is very 
susceptible to drought and other adverse conditions when the cane is 
weakened and the stalks are especially susceptible to attacks by fungi. 
We have also noted that the root disease, by weakening the plants, 
makes them more liable to fall a prey to other fungi. 

Practically in no other plant crop is it as necessarj% in considering 
the diseases to which it is subject, to take into careful consideration 
external influences and conditions of growth. Any one fungus 
wepkening the cane may make it more liable to attack by another 
and, periiaps, more serious one. Instead, therefore, of considering the 
individual fungus only a wider view should be taken, and the influence 
on the plant of the fungi individually and in combination with others, 
and the various conditions in which the plant may occur at the time- 
of infecii(ui, should be taken into account. 




Fig. 4. — A fungus (Sohizophijllum commiaie) common on old cane stalks. 
A. seen from above ; B. from below and showing the gills. 

It will readily be admitted that fungus whicli attacks a cane- 
stalk and, while not being deadly to the plant, inverts the sucrose or 
causes other undesirable disintegration products, is of serious 
consequence to the sugar industry. Therefore the presence of fungi 
in stalks of cane is of the greatest economic importance to the 
industry. 

The yearly loss in sucrose caused by stalk fungi is not easily 
estimated, but it is probably considerably higher than the majority 
will imagine, and an inspection of cane arriving at the mills would 
soon reveal a fair percentage of stalks with these fungi in them and 
the sucrose inverted. 

AVhen cane is allowed to over-mature the stalks become less- 
resistant to attacks bv fungi. 



Notes on some Sugar-Cane Matters. 



127 



It is remarkable that thus far we have not observed the fungus 
Colh'totricliuvi falcatum here, since it has been recorded from nearly 
all the cane-growing countries. 

A fungus, known by the name ScJiizophyllum commmie is illus- 
trated in Fis" 4. I have conimonlv found this fungus in Zululand on 




Fig. 5. — A physiological trouble of cane stalks. The centre 
has strips of spongy tissue or cavities surrounded by 
spongy tissue. 



old cane stalks lying on the ground, but never on standing cane. It 
is, however, mentioned here because it has been recorded as a wound 
parasite of cane from Java and the West Indies. The fungus is 
common everywhere on old stumps and logs of various trees, and 
occur also as a wound parasite of fruit trees. 



128 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



2. — A Physiological Tkouble. 



Plants, like animals, are subject to constitutional derangements 
brought on by external influences and conditions of growth. One 
such derangement in sugar-cane is the occurrence in the inteinodes 
of strips of spongy tissue or cavities surrounded by spongy tissue 
mg 5). 

This condition is also recorded from Java, and is t'ouiid in cane 
in which for some reason the growth has been irregular, such as a 
set back followed by a subsequent rapid growth. 

The cells in the spongy tissue are dead, filled with air, and na 
suciose can collect in them. It is hence readily evident that a stalk 
composed largely of this tissue has less sucrose than a normal stalk- 
Such spongy stalks readily fall a prey to the attacks of fungi. 



3. — The Non-Setttnc; or Seed in Uba and Other Cane Varieties 

IN South Africa. 



Not long ago I listened to a most interesting lecture, when the 
full details for cross-pollinating the flowers of cane were minutely 
described, and the desirability of raising seeds of cane here were 
carefully entered into. Unfortunately with our present knowledge 
not much success can be expected in this direction with the varieties 
which have arrowed here. The reason is evident when the anthers 
and pollen of the Uba or some of our other varieties are examined. 
It can be summarized as follows: — 

(1) The anthers appear to have lost the power to open, and 

such pollen as they may contain is not liberated. 

(2) The pollen is remarkably scanty in the anthers. 

(3) vSuch pollen as is present differs from normal pollen in the 

following aspects, which lead to the conclusion that tliey 
are sterile : — 

(a) The pollen grains are irregular in si/e (norinal pollen 
of cane is circular). 

(6) The pollen grains are devoid of starch ajid, compared 
with normal grains, appear like empty shells (normal 
pollen of cane is rich in starch). 

Until such time as we procure a variety with normal, viable 
pollen not much success (if any) can be expected from attempts at 
either cross-pollinating or selling. 

It will be evident that making a microscopic examination of the 
flowers of any cane variety, with the object of determining whether 
the essential parts are fertile or sterile, is essential before the variety 
is used for attempts at seed production. Such an examination will 
give an idea of the degree of success that may be expected and will 
save much time. 



The Pecan Nut. 129 



THE PECAN NUT. 



(V I. Tribolet, Chief, Division of Hnrtirullnre. 



The pecan unt is closely allied to the walnut, in fact it belonofs to 
the same natnral order (JufjJandarea). It is one of the hickories and 
ihe generally accepted botanical name is Hicorw pecan. It groMs 
wild in Texas, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and other adjacent 
territories aroiuid the Gulf of Mexico. Until quite recently this 
fruit tree was not cultivated as an ordinary (;r(diard tree, the whole 
of the pecan output being obtained from the trees growing wild in 
forests. Of late years pecan growing has become increasingly popular 
in parts of the IJnited States, to such an extent that orange groves 
are being eradicated in order to plant pecans, and consequently it is 
now one of the most important nuts grown m America. The trees 
lieing put down from year to year will soon bring the yield of pecan 
nuts up to that of the walnut, which it will, as things are at present 
progressing, soon surpass in output, as it does m quality and delicacy. 

These few notes are not intended as a treatise on this wonderful 
nut, but are simply written to awake an interest in some of our more 
progressive fruit growers who may see fit to take up the culture of 
the finest edible nut grown in any part of the world. 

The pecan tree is not altogether foreign to this country as it is 
found growing here and there in a great many parts of the Union. 
The history of the first introduction of the tree into South Africa 
is obscure, but it is known that a few years ago introductions were 
made by the late Mr. Watkinson, of Cairn, Transvaal, mostly seedling 
types, and since then several good varieties of trees have })een intro- 
duced by different growers, one being Mr. J. Bell, of Krantzkloof, 
TS^atal. One comes across odd trees in Natal, Drakenstein, Oudts- 
hoorn, Potchefstrocm, ]\'elspruit, and other places. In some, if not 
most cases, the name of the tiee is not even known by those on whose 
faims it is found. 

Proparjation. — The propagation of this tree from the seed is not 
difficult, and is similar to that of the walnut, exce'<l that as ^-lou 
as the nuts are ripe those required for seed should be stratified in 
beds of slightly moist sand mixed with a little wood-ash; should they 
become very dry, it is advisable to soak them for two or three days in 
water before placing them in beds to germinate, i^s soon as the nuts 
.start to show life by splitting, they are planted out in nursery rows, 
about 3 to 4 feet apart and a foot in the lines. The ground should be 
well worked and must be naturally fertile or made so by the addition 
of manure, well rotted, and worked into the soil. The rows in which 
the nuts stand are usually sunk to the depth of 2 to 3 inches, and, 
after setting out the embryo plants around which the soil must be 
well pressed, a layer of ash or weak stable manure is spread in the 
hollowed out rows. 

5 



130 Journal of the Department op Agriculture. 



Wlien the seedling is about a foot above ground, the tap root, 
which is enormous, will be found to be from 2h to 3 feet long ; during 
the season, when the tree is dormant, this root may be severed at 
about 1| foot below the surface, and the tree allowed to remain in 
the ground for another year and then planted out in the orchard a1 
distances of from 30 to 60 feet apart, according to the type of soil 
in which the tree is to remain. It reaches in 10 to 15 years under 
favourable conditions a height of 50 to 70 feet, and specimens are in 
existence 9 feet in diameter and 100 to 170 feet high. Although a 
few nuts are borne after 4 to 5 years of growth, anything like a crop 
is not expected till the tree reaches the age of from 8 to 12 years, 
when the yield may reach anything from one to three bushels of fruit, 
increasing as the tree gets older, up to say 20 bushels. 

The pecan, like the walnut, is very long lived, and in dee\) fertile 
eoil will grow and bear for a century or so. 

Soil. — It thrives best in deep fertile sandy or clayey loams, 
l>ottom lands near river-beds and on alluvial deposits. But althoTigh 
it favours this type of country, it has a fairly big range of growth, 
and fine specimens are found where the soil is deep and of sTich a 
nature as to admit the roots easily, on foot hills, and even up the sides 
of what may be termed mountains. Though partial to fairly moist, 
the soil must be well drained and the water-content always kept on 
the move. The tap root has the reputation of seeking water at great 
depths. 

Planting.- — If the rainfall is not abundant, moisture must be 
supplied by irrigation. In planting out, a hole 3 feet square and 
about the same depth should be dug, the best soil being placed in 
contact with the roots and well stamped throughout, except the few 
inches of the uppermost layer. Care must l)e taken that the trees are 
not planted too shallow. The nursery mark should even be a little 
below the general surface of the ground and the soil piled somewhat 
up the stem and allowed to remain so. 

Grafting and Budding. — As with most other trees, the product 
of seedlings, however carefully selected, is variable, so that the work- 
ing over of proved varieties is resorted to. In the infancy of what 
might be called the domestication of the pecan, great difficulty was 
experienced in obtaining a fair percentage of "takes" in either the 
grafting or budding method of working over varieties to seedling 
stocks. This difficulty has now Ifeen practically overcome, and with 
a little extra care good results are obtainable. After some study and 
experimentation it was found that bud-wood should be taken from 
the previous year's growth, that the bud should be surrounded by a 
large area of bark and that the plate or patch bud gave better results 
than almost any other kind of bud, and instead of the T slit, as used 
for shield budding, the H or side W gave the best results. The old 
annular ring or flute bud is also good. The science and art of the 
whole operation consists in cutting the buds exactly to fit the incision 
made on the stocks. The " Metrogreffe " or bud-cutting calipers 
might be used effectively in this operation. The patch or plate bud 
is simply a square or parallelogram of bark cut from the stock, and. 
a similar piece cut from the scion, with the bud in the centre and 
fitted exactly into the wound made by removing the piece of bark 
from the stock. In the upright H bud the flaps of bark from the 



The Pecan Nut. 131 



transverse cut are turned upwards and downwards and the bud 
inserted, the upper and lower edges of the bark surrounding the 
bud being levelled down with a sharp knife. In the side M bud the 
flaps are turned from the transverse cut, the one to the right and the 
other to the left, the side edges being levelled. It is understood that 
all this has to be done rapidly, so that no drying out takes place in 
either stock or scion, that a very sharp and clean knife is used, and that 
the flaps in both the upright and side slits are pulled over the bark 
portion of the bud and firmly tied with raffia or some such material ; 
and, further, that a certain amount of cold mastic (grafting wax) is 
pressed over all parts of the incisions. As a further precaution gum- 
edged paper is bound, starting from the bottom and working to the 
top, in a spiral fashion, covering the whole of the part operated on; 
this forms a sor'^ of frilled petticoat that carries off any drip of rain 
or dew that might injure the bud, and also protects from cold winds 
or glaring sun. Over and above that, a sheet of paper is sometimes 
tied tightly round the stem of the stock three or four inches above 
the bud, which is thus covered by the loose lower part of the paper, 
assuming somewht the shape of a crinolene or inverted funnel. There 
are various other types of budding practised that need only be men- 
tioned here, such as the " chip bud " and the " triangle bud," but if 
success is not attained by using those already described it is not likely 
that it will be with other types of buds. 

Grafting. — Various kinds of grafts are used, but one of the most 
successful and popular is the "rind or bark" graft. The "whip 
tongue " is also largely used in top grafting old trees. It is unneces- 
sary to describe the operations of grafting, which are the same as for 
other fruit trees. 

The one important point is that both buds and scions for grafting 
are taken from wood of the previous season. A terminal bud, that 
is, the fruiting bud, should not be used as a scion, as from the habit 
of the tree's growth the bud or the second bud below the terminal 
takes up and continues the main vertical growth of the tree, and 
becomes a leader for the time being. 

Stocks. — The stocks on which to work selected pecans are varieties 
of hickories or seedling pecans. The affinity of pecans with many of 
the hickories is good, and the range of adaptability to various soils 
may be somewhat greater than that of the pecan seedling itself, 
althoughj taking all things into consideration, pecan on pecan 
seedlings are probably better than those on hickories. 

Varieties. — There are somewhat over 100 varieties of selected 
pecans, some, as in other trees, doing better in certain soils and situa- 
tions than others. A few of the most approved and tested varieties 
are Stuart, Mantusa, Van Deman, Money-maker, Achley Pabst, 
James, President, Carmen, and Sovereign. 

Up to about 50 nuts to the pound is considered a fair-sized 
sample, although as few as 25 to the pound of some varieties may be 
selected. The tree is monoescious, as is the walnut in its flowering 
habit, that is, the staminate and pistilate blossoms are borne 
separately upon the same tree. The staminate'' blossoms appear in 
clusters of catkins upon the last season's growth, somewhat in advance 
of the pistilate blossoms, which are found only at the terminals of 
the new branches. 



132 



Journal of the Department of Agriculture, 



The tree may be expected to thrive in most of the regions adapted 
to the culture of ordinary tree fruits of the temperate zones. As a 
rule, if left to grow at will, it does not stand up well against strong 
winds; no douht pruning to give a better scaffolding and greater 
stiiliility to a certain extent will modify this defect. 

Ov^iijg to the trees being planted at so great a distance apart, 
culturos of different sorts are cariied on between them during tlie 
early period of flic orchard's development. 

Like all other cultivated plants, the pecan tree has its enemies 
in the shape of insect pests and fungoid diseases, but as yet probably 
not as many as most orchard trees have. 

There is no reason why the growing of the pecan should not prove 
highly remunerative in many parts of this count iv and especially in 
Xf-.tal. • 




In the Cow Byre, Cedara School of AgricuUure. 



Export of Grain, etc. 

The exports of grain, etc., for tlie month of Dec ember, 1920, were 
as follows, in bags: — Maize, 92,213; maize meal. 85,709. maize iiour. 
899; maize grit (rice), 50; hominy chop, 16,096; oats, 83: and 
kaffir corn, 500; total, 195,550 bags.' 

The total number of bags exported for the six months ended 31st 
December, 1920, was maize, 296,502; maize meal. 221.034: maize 
grit (rice), 3111; maize flour, 1199; hominv chop, 48,316; oats, 
1137; kaffir corn, 664; beans, 1213; lucerne seed, 366; total, 573.542 
bags. 

Stocks on hand at all ports on 31st December, 1920, were in 
bags:— Maize, 36,644; maize meal, 22.440; oats. 11:39; beans, 70; 
kaffir corn, 302; and millet, 11; total, 60,606 bags. 



Cold Storage Conditions for Export Fruit. 133 



COLD STORAGE CONDITIONS FOR EXPORT 

FRUIT. 



Report, dated 28tli December, 1920, by the Chief, 
Division of Botany, to the Secretary for Agriculture. 



Last year a report dealing with the channels through which export 
fruit passed was published as Bulletin No. 2 of 1920 ("■ Wastage in 
Citrus Fruit shipped for Export "). Since then the matter has been 
gone into more fully as regards the transit of citrus fruit for export 
from the orchards to the overseas market, and a detailed report on 
the same is at present in the printer's hand. 

Recently, however, thi^ (icveinment cool chambers, owing to re- 
construction, were not available for the storage of fruit, and use was 
made of Chamber No. 20 of the Imperial Cold Storage Company for 
the storage of export fruit. 

In lesponse to requests from the Government Fruit Inspector, 
Mr, Eoworth, and various fruit-growers' societies, that periodical 
examination should be made by this Division of the chambers used 
for export fruit, arrangements were made, with permission of the 
manager, to make a mycological examination of the atmosphere in 
the cool chamber of the Imperial Cold Storage Company at Cape- 
town during the early part of December. The examination was 
carried out by Mr. V. A. Putterill, M.A., Government Mycologist. 
Capetown, and Miss M. R. H. Thompson, B.A. M.Sc.,' F.L.S., 
Mycologist, Pretoria, in the presence of Dr. Marloth, consulting 
chemist and bacteriologist to the Imperial Cold Storage Company. 

The following report has been furnished by Miss Thompson, who 
subsequently took charge of the work as Acting Government 
Mycologist at Capetown during the absence on leave of Mr. 
Putterill : — 

'■ Chamber No. 20, in which the culture plates were exposed, 
is large with a floor-space of 2632 square feet. It is cooled by 
}neans of ammonia. The pipes containing this ammonia are 
exposed and cover the roof of the chamber; an electric fan 
keeps a constant current of air circulating throughout. The 
temperature is maintained at 36° F. A mycological examina- 
tion of the atmospliere of Cool Chamber No. 20 was made on the 
13th December. The appearance of the chamber then left little 
to be desired. It was tidy and clean; the walls were white- 
washed, and there was a thick layer of clean sawdust on the 
floor. A faint smell of ammonia could be detected. Fruit boxes 
were stacked along the wall on the left of the door. 

" During a visit to this chamber a few days previously 
there was no sawdust and the floor was then damp owing to 
leakage from the overhead pipes. The odour of ammonia was_ 



134 



JOURNAL Of THE I)EPARTMfiNf Of AGRlCULfURfi. 



very distinct. Plates were exposed at four points in the 
chamber for 5 aud 15 seconds, and these after incubation showed 
an almost negligible amount of contamination. Five out of the 
eight plates showed no infection whatsoever, while only two 
growths of Penicillium italicvm. were obtained. 

" Two plates exposed just outside the chamber door, how- 
ever, were very heavily infected. The one exposed for 5 seconds 
showed some 26 bacterial and fungus growths, while that exposed 
for 15 seconds showed 54 growths. Of these there were two 
growths of Aspergillus niger, six growths of Penicillium 
italicuvi, and several other species of Venicilliuiii, some bacteria, 
and some yeasts. 

" Plates exposed in Parliament Street showed practically 
nothing. 

" On the whole, therefore, judging from the appearance of 
the chamber and the condition of the atmosphere as revealed 
by the culture plates, the state of affairs in Chamber No. 20 
of the Imperial Cold Storage Company is quite satisfactory. 
With proper precautions this necessary condition can be 
maintained, but attention in particular will need to be directed 
to conditions prevailing outside the chamber, otherwise constant 
opening and closing of the door will be the means of permitting 
ingress of this air, and thereby bring about contamination of 
the chamber. 

" The following table shows the amount and nature of the 
contamination found : — 

3 p.m., I3th December, 1920. 



Locality. 



Length of 
Exposure. 



Total 
Number 

of 
Colonies. 



Nature of Colonies. 



Centre of chamber 
Floor level ... 

Far corner 

Floor level ... 
On step at door 

On pile of fruit boxes 
3 feet high 

Outside chamber, floor 
level, near door 



On curb Parliament 
Street 



5 sec. 

15 sec. 

5 sec. 

15 sec. 

5 sec. 

15 sec. 

5 sec. 

15 sec. 

5 sec. 

15 sec. 
(fig- 2) 



5 sec. 



15 sec. 



1 mixed colony of P. italicum and Bacteria. 
Bacterial colony forming centre. 



P. ltd I i cum, 
4 Yeast. 



4 Bacteria, 1 Hoi'modendron. 

4 /-•. ita/iciiin. Rest other species of Peni- 
cillium. Certainly no P. digitatum, 

2 A.spergillu.s niger. 5 Yeast. 

4 Bacteria. 1 mixed colony of Penicillium 
and Bacteria. 

1 mixed colony of Penicillium and yeast. 
2 P. itaUcwm. Rest I'enicillium other 
species. Certainly no P. digitatum. 

1 Spluici'oneiaa. 



1 Sterile mycelium. 



Cold Storage Conditions for Export Fruit. 



135 




IPlioto M. n. n. Thomiton. 
Fifi. 1, — Contamination on plate exposed for 5 seconds at floor 
level near door outside cool chamber No. 20. 




[Photo^M. B. B. Thomson. 
Fig. 2. — Contamination on plate exposed iot 15 seconds at flcor 

IcTTol iioQ^ rIr,/^^. rMifci.^o nnn^ nhrtmhoT No. 20. 



i;u; 



Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



It is clear from the results of the examination made tliat the 
Imperial Cold Storage Company at Capetown have spared no pains 
to put their cold storage accommodation for export fruit in ])erfecj 
order and under as sanitary conditions as it is possible to obtain. 

If this stale of affairs is maintained and atleiit.on is also direi-ted 
to conditions outside and in the immediate A'ieinity of the cool 
ciiiiinbers. fruit growers and fin it merchants can have no complaints 
to make with legaid to the conditions under which ex])Oi t irnit is 
stored at Capetown. 




Students Packing Oat Sheaves. 




Students 'I'lu'eshiu"- Oat.--. 



Bulletins for Distribution. 

This office holds a stock of bulletins dealing with various braiiches 
of agriculture. A list of them will be posted to any one applying 
therefor to the Editor, Journal of the Department of Agriculture, 
Pretoria. According to the list it will be seen that certain of tiie 
bulletins are priced, and in applying for such the payment must 
accompany the application. Postage stam])s, postal orders, etc., are 
accepted in payment, 



A South Australtan Vineyard 8oil. 137 



A SOUTH AUSTRALIAN VINEYARD SOIL. 



By CiiAS. F. JuiuTZ, M.A., D.8c., F.I.C., Agiicultural 
Research Chemist, Capetown. 



JiiKiNc; my brief tour in Australia in the latter haif of 1914, 1 
had the opportunity of visiting, amongst other localities of interest, 
the district of xing*aston, about 40 miles north-east of Adelaide, South 
Australia. The State of South Australia has about 20,000 acres under 
vines. Some of these are situated on the slopes of the Mount Lofty 
Ranges, and others at the foot of the Barossa Ranges. To the latter 
belong the vineyards around the town of Angaston and the estates of 
the widely-famed Chateau Tanunda. The late E. T. Bullen, the 
well-known author and lecturer, after visiting- these South Australian 
vineyards wrote: "This strong, red soil, bearing evidence of 
abundance of iron on every hand, seems to be the natural home of 
the grape, and to be free in an amazing degree from those insect 
pests which have made the lot of the French and Italian vignerous 
such a weary one. Every A^ariety of grape seems to flourish here in 
such wonderful luxuriance and fecundity, and witlial in such health- 
fulness of foliage and fruit, that the eye wearies of admiring- their 
prolific masses." 

jS'ot far from Angaston and Tanunda is the Seppeltsfield estate, 
which has some TOO acres of vineyards and the largest winery in the 
world. The Chateau Tanunda Company, on the other hand, lays 
itself out for the distillation of brandy rather than t1ie production of 
wine, but the feature that claimed my attention while walking across 
the Company's vineyards was the character of the soil, and it seemed 
to me desirable to obtain some of it for comparison with the soils of 
South African vineyards. 

Geologically the Angaston district belongs to what is known as 
the lower members of the Cambrian series, with pre-Cambrian scliists 
and igneous intrusions in places. The lowest limestones of the 
Cambrian rocks of vSouth Australia also occur in this district in the 
form of highly crystalline marbles. The estates of the Chateau 
Tanunda, from whicli I procured a soil sample, are on the Cambrian 
formation, comprising clay-slate, shale, sandstone, grit, and con- 
glomerate, with limestone and dolomite. The Barossa Range, to the 
east, consists of pre-Cambrian boulder beds, with slate, quartzite, and 
quartzitic conglomerate. 

One of the most important discoveries yet to be made in South 
African geology," said Dr. Rogers nine years ago (presidential 
address to Section B of the S. A. Association, Capetown, 1910, p. 31), 
" is the position of the stratigrapluLsl succession of the equivalent of 



13S Journal of THfi t)EPARtMENT op AGKicuLfuiifi. 



the Cambrian system of other coutiuents. Until Cambrian beds are 
recognized there can be no thorough comparison of the ancient rocks 
with the pre-Cambriau of other countries." 

Moulle in 1885 correlated the Malmesbury geological series with 
the Cambrian formation, and, like E. J. Dunn and others, looked 
upon the Table Mountain series as lower Devonian. This would mean 
that the vineyards of the south-western Cape have been established 
mainly upon soils derived from Cambrian and pre-Cambrian rocks. 

The Manager of the Government Wine Farm, Groot Constantia 
(which lies partly on granite and partly on Table Mountain sand- 
stone), pronounced the South Australian soil to be totally different in 
character from the soils of the Constantia Estate, being very much 
lighter. It compared very favourably, he said, with the soils further 
away from the mountain slopes, such as some of those at Berg Vliet 
and Sillery, but as these form only a small area, his general summary 
was that the Constantia soils are far heavier than that from Chateau 
Tanunda and nearer to clay in character. 

Some of the Australian soil was sent by me to Dr. A. I. Perold, 
Professor of Viticulture at the University of Stellenbosch. Dr. 
Perold applied some physical tests to the soil and said that he con- 
sidered it very sandy, fine-grained, and containing a fair amount of 
silt. " If the elements of plant food are present in fair amount," 
he wrote, " it should be a ]3roductive soil under favourable condi- 
tions." But he added that under suitable conditions vines grow in 
almost any soil. 

I sent a quantity of small stones sifted off from the Australian 
soil by means of a 3 mm. sieve to Dr. A. L. du Toit, geologist to the 
Irrigation Department, for an expression of his opinion. He replied 
as follows : — 

" The sample that you forwarded contains ' large ' fragments of 
quartz, lumps of a ferruginous material rather like that known as 
the laterite of the Cape, e.g. small grains of quartz sand cemented 
with a little ferric oxide, and small pieces of a recent calcareous sand- 
stone or impure limestone, like those found in the Van Hhynsdorp 
district, or in the northern Karroo. I think the sample could be 
matched with soils found in the coastal part of Clanwilliam or Van 
Ehynsdorp." 

Many of the Cape vineyards are situated on granitic soil, for 
instance, in the Paarl district and at the base of Table Mountain. 
The old settlers did wisely when they selected the granite soils for 
constituting their vineyards; instinctively they selected a geological 
formation capable of supplying potash to the potash-loving grape. 
It is, however, not with such soils that the Angaston soil is to be com- 
pared, as the sequel will show, but with the sandier and poorer soils 
derived from the Table Mountain sandstone and quartzite. 

The weight of the entire sample brought from xingaston was 
28.8 lb., and it consisted of: — 

Per cent. 

Stones (larger than 3 mm.) .51 

Coarse gravel (3 to 2 mm.) 1.25 

Soil (below 2 mm.) 98.24 



A South Austra.lian Vineyard Soil. 139 

After sifting off the stones and coarse gravel the residual soil, 
upon mechanical analysis, was found to be composed as follows: — 

Per cent. 

Fine gravel (2-1 mm.) .60 

Coarse sand (1-.5 mm.) .75 

Medium sand (.5-.25 mm.) 25.97 

Fine sand (.25-. 1 mm.) 43.35 

Very fine sand (.1-.05 mm.) 15.58 

Silt (.05-. 01 mm.) 6.33 

Fine silt (01-. 005 mm.) 5.26 

Clay (below .005 mm.) 2.16 

The soil may be classed as a medium sand, light brown in colour. 
It is very uniform in texture, about 85 per cent, consisting of particles 
between one-half and one-twentieth of a naillimetre in diameter. 
There is practically no coarse material and but little silt and clay in 
its make up. The general appearance of the soil and also its character, 
as shown by the mechanical analysis, is not unlike that derived from 
Table Mountain sandstone, and, like the latter, it is made up very 
largely of fragments of quartz from .1 to .5 mm. in diameter. 

As regards the chemical composition of the Angaston soil, it is 
indicated in the following table : — 

In 1 ram. product — Per cent. 

Moisture .63 

Loss on ignition (organic matter)... 1.47 
mtrogen 082 

hi I 7n7n. product — 

Lime .163 

Magnesia .040 

Potash ... ... 069 

Phosphoric oxide — 

soluble in cold hydrochloric acid .017 

soluble in strong boiling acids... .030 

Here, except for a somewhat larger proportion of lime, there is 
a great similarity to the soils of the Table Mountain and Malmesbury 
series in the neighbourhood of the Cape Peninsula. The moisture 
content — as may be expected in so sandy a soil-^is low, and so is the 
proportion of organic matter. The soil has consequently but little 
nitrogen. It is not more than fairly provided with potash and is 
decidedly poor in phosphates. The only plant food constituent 
present in satisfactory amount is lime. 

By way of comparison the following tables of averages are 
appended. The Malmesbury averages represent 14 soils from the 
Paarl and Stellenbosch Divisions ; those of the Table Mountain series 
represent 46 analyses of soils taken from 12 districts of the south- 
west Cape Province. 

Malmesbury Table Mountain 

Series. Seiies. 

Nitrogen 087 .132 

Lime 039 .034 

Potash 039 .031 

Phosphoric oxide .039 .036 



140 



Journal op the Department of Agriculture. 



Soils such as these want all-roimd manuring if grapes are to 
be successfully cultivated, and especially is there a need for potash, 
a form of plant food required by all sugar or starch-containing crops. 
They also need to be well supplied with stable or kraal manure, 
which would add to the deficient humus cdiitent of the soil, and 
increase its watei-retaining power in a manner that the l;are addition 
of artihciais can never do. 




General View from Vineyanl, Elsenburg School of Agriculture. 
Stables on right, Classrooms and Laboratories on left. 



The Value of Winter Feed for Stock. 

The following information, which has been brought to the notice 
of the Department, provides a striking instance of the value of winter 
feed for stock : — 

In an eastern district of the Orange Free State were two farmers 
on adjoining farms, each cultivating 500 morgen of land. In the 
season 1919 the one spent £120 in growing winter feed for his stock. 
During the severe drought of 1919 he lost no stock, and further had a 
good crop of calves in the following year. The other farmer grew no 
winter feed, and owing to the scarcity of grazing due to thi^ drought 
had to trek with his cattle. He had to pay £87 in grazing fees, and 
moreover lost forty head of cattle, and obtained in the following 
season only half a normal crop of calves from those cows which 
survived. By losses through death and by grazing charges the 
drought cost this farmer £487 (if the animals which died be valued at 
£10 per head), which is £367 in excess of the cost to the other farmer 
cf growing winter feed. In addition to this, there was ccnsiderable 
loss through not getting a good calving ser.son in 1920. 



Diseases, Ticks, and their Eradication. 141 



DISEASES, TICKS, AND THEIR ERADICATION. 



By Sir Arnold Theiler, K.C.M.G., Director of Veterinary 
Education and Research. 



One of the results of scientific investigation into the cause of .stock 
diseases contracted in the veld of South Africa Avas the cognizance 
that ticks play an important role in their maintenance and proi)aga~ 
tion. It is advisahle to review our knowledjjre concerning- these 
diseases, as well as that of the life-history of the ticks which transmit 
them. Such a review will illustrate the utility and necessity of 
eradicating' ticks ; it will guide us in our recommendations of methods 
to be adopted for their control and eradication. It will further be 
demonstrated that it is possible to prevent disease and save cattle by 
transferring the stock from an infected area into a clean one, 
according to a carefully worked out method, based on accurate know- 
ledge of the life-history of the tick. 

All tick-borne diseases are caused by micro-org-anisms present in 
the blood stream. These organisms belong to diftejf nt groups ct blood 
parasites, and are all visible under the microscope witli the exception 
of one, the causal agent of heartwater in ruminants, wnich belongs to 
tlie group of ultra-visible viruses. 

Biliary Fever of Horses. 

The cause of this disease in South Africa is NuttaUia cqin 
(formerly called Piroplasvia equi). A similar disease caused by an 
allied parasite, Babesia cahalli, is found in Europe. It has not yet 
been definitely demonstrated whether the allied parasite is present in 
Soaith Africa, but it may be expected to be found at any time. Our 
biliary fever affects all equines. The disease, hovrever, varies some- 
what in severity of symptoms in the horse on the one side and the 
donkey and its hybrids on tlie other. It is laiown over the greater 
])ortion of South Africa; certain areas, however, i.e. parts of the 
Karroo, seem tO' be exempt. Animals born and bred on the veld of 
the infected parts, once they are grown uji, are not so liable to suffer 
from the disease, and they do so only under specird conditions. This 
observation is due to the fact that young equines (foals), although 
they contract the infection as soon as they are turned into the veld, do 
not readily die from tlie disease. They recover and acquire a con- 
sideral)le amount of immnnity. The chief suffer.^r is the animal bred 
either on uninfected farms or in stables, or imported from oversea. 
The parasite that causes the biliary fever lives within the red 
corpuscles of the blood, where it multiplies and subsequently invades 
a smaller or greater number of other corpuscles. Its action is the 
destruction of the red corpuscles, and the more j^arasites present or the 
quickei' they multiply the more dangerous becomes the disease. The 
destruction of the corpuscles becomes apparent in the anaemia whicli 
follows. In the horse, however, this anaemia is bidden, so to say, by 
fi bilious condition. The destrnction of the red corpuscles leads to 



142 Journal op the Department op Agriculture. 

the separation of the colouring matter from the corpuscles, which is 
deposited in the liver, and there undergoes a change into bile stain. 
An over-production of bile takes place, which is carried into the 
blood stream and absorption into the tissue follows. Hence we 
recognize biliary fever in the horse principally by the yellow dis- 
coloration of the mucous membranes. It is very rarely that the 
destruction of the red corpuscles leads to colouring of the blood plasma 
and to subsequent red urine. In the mule and in the donkey tiie 
jaundice is not pronounced, and the white membranes indicating 
anaemia are typical of the disease. 

The remarkable fact has been established that an animal, say a 
horse, which has recovered from this disease retains the infection in 
its blood. We cannot see the organism microscopically in the blood 
of such an animal. The corpuscles have an absolutely nonnal aspect 
and the animal to all appearances is healthy, but when we inject its 
blood into a susceptible imported horse, mule, or donkey, we promptly 
produce the diseavse, which can end fatally and be of such a virulent 
character that it differs in no way from that contracted naturally. This 
fact has been made use of to prove that tlie various piroplasms of the 
horse and the donkey and of the hybrids are identical. 

In our experiments we have proved that the blood of an animal 
which has recovered, and which for eighteen months has been kept in 
a stable, still proved to be infective; and it can be concluded that 
once an animal has recovered its blood remains infective for the 
remainder of its life, ,at least if such an animal remains exposed in 
the veld. 

This disease is carried by ticks, the ticks being the real hosis of 
the parasites. Our experiments show that the common blue tick 
(Boophilus decoloratus) is not implicated in the propagation of the 
disease, but that the red tick (RJiipicephalus evertsi) acts as a trans- 
mitter. 

We have transmitted the disease with ticks which have been 
feeding on sick animals and on animals which had recovered. The 
incubation time of the disease, when contracted from ticks, averages 
abmit three weeks. 

Red WATER IN Cattle. 

South African redwater is due to the j/resence of Babesia 
higemina (formerly called PrroplasTna higentimun), a parasite similar 
to that of the horse, which invades the red corpuscles, multiplies and 
increases in numbers, and causes the destruction of the corpuscles. 
Whereas in biliary fever of the horse discoloured urine, due to the 
breaking down of the red corpuscles, but rarely occurs, it is almost 
an invariable symptom of redwater in cattle. 

As regards susceptibility, the conditions are similar to those 
referred to above under biliary fever in horses. Cattle born and bred 
on redwater-infected veld become immune. Tlie animals bred in 
stables and imported from areas free of redwater contract the disease 
easily and in many cases die. The calf is susceptible, but it usually 
contracts the disease in a mild form and recovers comparatively 
easily. It is then immune. Only under special conditions are break- 
downs of immunity noticed. 

American investigators were the first to prove in a convincing 
way that Texas fever, i.e. redwater, is a tick-transmitted disease, 



Diseases, Ticks, and their Eraeication. 143 

and we in South Africa have repeated the experiment on imported 
stock and with ticks sent to Paris and London. It is the blue lick 
which carries the disease, although subsequent experiments have 
shown that the brown and the red ticks can also act as hosts of 
Babesia bigemina. These two form the exception rather than the 
rule, whereas practically every one of the blue ticks can transmit the 
infection. 

We can also show from experiments that blue ticks collected from 
horses can occasionally transmit redwater to cattle, a fact previously 
noticed in the transmission of human tick fever, wliere the prog-eny of 
an infected tick remained infective for several generations. 

We have stated that the animal born and bred in Soutli Africa 
is immune, and what we have said about immunity in biliary fever 
of the horse applies to redwater in cattle. The immune animal 
retains the infection in its blood. This has been proved by tapping 
an animal born on the veld and injecting an imported susceptible 
one. An animal which recovered from redwater in 1902 proved still 
to possess virulent blood in 1909. American investigators have even 
proved that the blood of a cow which had recovered from Texas fever, 
and had remained for twelve years out of the infected area, still 
produced the disease. This observation does not, however, apply to 
all recovered animals which are subsequently stabled ; it has been 
experienced that blood of immune cattle, when used for inoculation, 
is not always virulent, at least when used in quantities of 5 c.c. per 
dose. 

The incubation period of this disease, when naturally contracted 
by ticks, is about seventeen or eighteen days. 

The progeny of blue ticks collected from cattle recovered from 
redwater, and of ticks collected at random from any full-grown cattle 
born in the infected veld of South Africa transmit redwater when 
placed on susceptible imported cattle. 

Redwater is a curable disease, and an injection of 100-150 c.c. of 
a 1 per cent, solution of trypan blue in the early stage of the disease 
is most effective. 

Gall- SICKNESS in Cattle. 

Gall-sickness is a term for a disease in cattle, the chief symptoms 
of which, on post-mortem, are an abnormal bile, usually of a viscid, 
thick crimson and yellow to dark green colour, and a jaundiced 
condition of the body. This jaundiced condition can frequently be 
recognized during life in examining non-pigmented parts of the skin, 
particularly the ears. In other cases jaundice is absent and an acute 
anaemia is noted, revealing itself by white mucous membranes, par- 
ticularly a white tongue. In addition to these symptoms a dis- 
turbance of the digestive organs is present. During life, symptoms 
indicating such a disturbance are frequently found. In the absence 
of other changes they are interpreted as those of gall-sickness. 
Accordingly, under the term " gall-sickness " a number of ailments 
are understood. Many conditions caused by plant poisons are 
included under the same term. The disease very frequently taken for 
gall-sickness is redwater, or rather the sequel to redwater, when the 
urine is no longer noted to be coloured red. In this sequel the lesions 
of jaundice during life and on post-mortem may be very pronounced, 
and if the disease is of some standing the causative micro-organism 



144 Journal of the IDEPARTMENt of Agriculture. 

may no longer he present. The first outbreaks of East Coast fever on 
a farm are also very frequently mistaken for g-all-sickness. Although 
gall-sickness resembles in many respects the redwater under discussion, 
it is a definite disease caused by a micro-organism. In the blood 
corpuscles of sick animals small chromatic dots are found, ^luated 
usually on the margin which are interpreted by us to be of parasitic 
origin and were called Anaplnsnui viai-fjinaJe ; the scientific name for 
the disease would then be anaphismosis. The maiii dilference 
between anaplasmosis and redwatei is the absence of red urine in the 
former, otherwise it resembles it in many details, and the two diseases 
are frequently maintained by farmers to be siste]- diseases. It has 
been experimentally transmitted by blue ticks (tho same batch of ticks 
were capable of tiansmitting both redwater and gall-sickness), but 
there are otlier ticks also responsible, probably some or all of the genus 
IJhipicephalus, which includes the brown and red ticks. At least the 
black-pitted tick lias transmitted the disease in experiments. Wlien 
the tides are infected, both with redwater and gall-sickness, the 
organism of redwater appears first, the incubation peiiod being about 
seventeen to twenty-one days ; gall-sickness, with a long incubative 
period, from sixty to eigdity days, appears later. Eecovery from gaJl- 
sickness does not protect against redwater or .ice versa. This fact 
proves the non-identity of the two diseases. As in the case of red- 
water in cattle or biliary fever in horses, i lie animal which has 
recovered from the disease retains the infection in the blood, and such 
blood wlien injected into susceptible cattle produces the disease. The 
progeny of ticks which drop off immune cattle also propagate the 
disease; in this way a farm l)ecomes permanently infected. The 
young calves, suffering less from the disease than adults, " salt " in 
iliQ Dreatest number of cases. 

Fevers caushd by Gonderia mutatis (eokmehly Fiioplasina niutans). 

Cattle born on the veld of South Africa sometimes show in their 
blood a small parasite in the red corpuscles lieionging to the Piro- 
plasnui gTOup. The scientific name is now Gonderia 7nutans (pre- 
viously Piyoplasma iinifans). Morphologically it. so mi;ch resembies 
the East Coast fever parasite that its identification in a blood-smear 
occasionally causes difhculties. When a susceptible animal becomes 
freshly infected with this parasite it will show a slight irregular fever 
of varying duration and aiaaemia may become markedly pronounced, 
and symptoins of illness with loss of appetite and condition may show 
themselves during its course. Death is only rarely noted. The 
disease was experimentally transmitted by means of red and brown 
ticks. It appeared after a jjrolonged incubation period lasting fiom 
twenty to fifty days. Similarly to what is known in redwater and 
gall-sickness, the parasite is present in the blood of a recovered animal, 
but contrary to the former diseases it can be found microscopically m 
quite a number of cases long after recovery. This parasite may 
reappear in considerable numbers when an animal is suffering from 
an inter-current disease and so mask the original ailment. The 
disease caused by Gonderia tnutans may conveniently be called the 
" benign " or " mild form " of gall-sickness. 

Fevers caused by Spirociiaetes (SpiiocJiacta tJicileri). 

Spirochaetes are blood parasites in the shape of small cnrves, 
looking like a corkscrew, swimming in between the red corpuscles of 



Diseases, Ticks, and their Eradication. 145 

the blood. They have been found m horses, cattle, and sheep in 
Sonth Africa. Their injection into a susceptible ouimal gives lise to 
a high fever which, however, has never been noted to end fatally, yet 
symptoms which point to the destruction of the red corpusclos are 
present and are easily recognized miscroscopically. We have trans- 
mitted the parasite artificially by inoculation. Tbe fact interests us 
that not only the animal which is suffering frojn such a fever, but 
also the recovered animal, retains the infection in its blood, and such 
blood proves infective at any time. 

The disease is transmitted by the blue tirdv. We have proved 
this beyond doubt in several instances, and it lias been verified by 
Laveran, of the Pasteur Institute in Paris, to w^inm we sent a number 
of the ticks, which p?;omptly produced the disease in Paris. This 
parasite does not play an important role as a cause of disease, but may 
occasionally be responsible for fever and loss of condition in any of 
the ruentioned animals. We have met with this parasite occasionally 
in smears sent to u-s from cattle supposed to be suffering from gall- 
sickness. 

East Coast Fever. 

This formidable disease has, since its introduction into South 
Africa, played considerable havoc. It is still ])revalent and threatens 
to spread. It is due to a parasite resembling the group of Piro- 
plasms. It multiplies within the lymphatic system of the body; 
from there it invades the blood in such enormous numbers that liiially 
almost every corpuscle contains one or more parasites. Uniike the 
other Piroplasms which we have described, it canses the destruction 
of the red corpuscles to a slight degree only, and the cause ol death 
of an animal is due not to an acute anaemia as in the other diseases, 
but to intoxication by the metabolic products of' the parasite. The 
disease differs in various respects from the before-described piroplas- 
mosis and anaplasmosis. It cannot be transmitted by inoculation of 
blood, but only by intrajugular and intralymphatic injectioji of the 
juice of lymph glands and spleen tissue taken from a sick nnimal 
which contains the evolutionary stages of the parasite. The striking 
difference, however, is that the animal which Jias lecovered from East 
Coast fever, although immune, does not retain the infection in its 
blood, hence the immune animal does not spread the disease. In 
East Africa, where East Coast fever has become enzootic, a chronic 
foTin of the disease has been noticed, characterized by the enlargement 
of the lymphatic glands, which have been found to contain the 
evolutionary stages of the parasite (the so-called blue or Kochs 
bodies). It is thus probable that chronic cases may maintain the 
infection of the tick, which, as many experiments have shown us, is 
not maintained by the immune animal. The presence of evolutionary 
stages, Kochs bodies, are the chief distinguishing factor between 
Gonderia m,utans, the benign form of gall-sickness, and East Coast 
fever, the parasites found in the blood being otherwise morphologically 
identical. The parasite of East Coast fever represents a diifercnt 
genus (and family) which received the name of Theileria (family 
Theileridae), and the parasite is called Tlieilenn parro. The lisease 
is transmitted by ticks, namely the red tick, the blown tick, and the 
black-pitted tick, as Mr. Lounsbury, Chief of the Division of Ento- 
mology, and I have proved in numerous experiments. The incuba- 
tion period when transmitted by ticks varies from six to eighteen 



146 Journal op the DBi*ARTMfiNf oP Agriculture. 

days and averag-es about thirteen days. The disease, whicli is 
characterized by high fever, lasts from six to about twenty days, and 
averag-es about twelve days, hence an animal may die as soon as twelve 
days or as late as thirty-seven days after it was bitten by ticks, the 
usual period being- about twenty-five days. A typical syrnptom of 
this disease is the enlargement of all lymphatic glands which stand 
out markedly, loss of condition may be rapid, and in the dead animal 
froth is frequently exuded from the nostrils. 

Heartwater in Cattle, Sheep, ind Goats. 

This is a disease caused by a non-visible organism. We prove its 
existence by the inoculation of the blood of a tiick into a susceptible 
animal, which promptly produces the disease. The action of the 
parasite must be interpreted as an intoxication, as a result of wliJcli 
the animal may die. 

The disease is tick-transmitted, as Lounsbury first proved. The 
experiments undertaken for this purpose have shown that the bont 
ticks {Ainhlyoiiima hebraeum) play an active role in the propagation 
of it, but only when they have been sucking Hood from an animal 
suffering from the disease and not from an immune animal. The 
incubation period varies from five to fifteen days in goats and about 
twenty to twenty-five days in cattle. It is of special interest to us 
that immune animals do not retain the virus in their blood. 

Biliary Fever in Dogs. 

This disease is caused by Babesia canis (formerly Pirojdasina 
canis), a parasite very closely allied to Babesia higeviina, the cause 
of ordinary redwater. Like this species it lives in and destroys the 
red corpuscles of the blood, and so causes the jaundiced discoloration 
and anaemic condition, frequently accompanied with brown, yellow, 
or reddish staining of the urine. This disease, like redwater, can be 
cured by the injection of a 1 per cent, solution of trypan blue. The 
disease is transmitted by the dog tick (Haemaphysalis leachi), as 
Lounsbury demonstrated. The first symptom to appear is the fever, 
which is noted after a typical incubation period. One of the brown 
ticks (the European brown tick) has also been found to be a carrier, 
viz., Rh. sanguineus. In this country it is the common tick of the 
kennels, whereas the dog tick is picked up in the veld. 

Paralysis in vSheef. 
In the Cape Province, and also in the Orange Free State, a paralysis 
of sheep and lambs is known to occur which is connected by farmers 
with the presence of a tick, Ilvodes pilosus, and it is stated that after 
removal of the tick recovery is soon effected. These statements have 
not yet been experimentally verified and accordingly no explanation 
as yet can be given — if the observation is correct — as to what the real 
action of the tick would be. A priori it would look as if some toxic 
action is produced through the bite of the tick. 

Eeservoir of Virus. 

The diseases which are tick-transmitted in South Africa may be 
classified into two groups. The first one, in which the immune 
animal retains the infection in the blood, in other words in which the 
recovered animal acts as a constant reservoir for the virus, and the 
second group where the blood of a recovered animal becomes sterile 



Diseases, Ticks, and their Eradication. 147 

aud therefore harmless. The former condition explains the reason of 
the constant infection of African veld by redwater, biliary fever, and 
gall-sickness. The animal which recovers from the disease continues 
to act as a host for the ticks. The ticks become infected with the 
parasites, and in turn carry them back to the animal. In this way a 
circle is formed between the animal, the micro-organism of the 
disease, and the tick. The tick and micro-organism are dependent on 
the animal; without it their life-cycle would come to an end. They 
require the hosts for the multiplication of the species. Accidentally, 
through the invasion of a great number of parasites such an animal 
becomes sick and may die. An adaptation between the host and the 
micro-organism has resulted. The hosts act as virus reservoirs. Both 
seem to benefit from this infection — the animal with its immunity 
and the parasite with a permanent home. It is evident that diseases 
caused by blood parasites and transmitted by ticks would disappear if 
we were able to break the life-cycle of the parasite. It must reason- 
ably be expected that the easiest way to achieve this is to attack the 
tick ; to attack it successfully the method to be adopted must be based 
on its life-history, which has to be explained. 

Ltfe-iiistory or the Ticks. 

The ticks belonging to the order of Acarina are easily recognized 
by the naked eye. They possess flat bodies when not engorged, or 
they are more or less swollen when engorged with blood. We dis- 
tinguish males and females in the adult stages. The body of the male 
is always flat, whereas the female engorges and ctows in size ; in this 
country the latter is usually known as the tick proper. Male and 
female meet on an animal for copulation, and as soon as the fertiliza- 
tion has taJven place the female engorges. Underneath this engorged- 
female the male can usually be found. Before repletion the female 
is about the same size as the male. The presence of the small tick 
underneath the female, especially in the case of the blue tick, has led 
to the poipular opinion that this is a young one. After the female 
has repleted herself she drops and hides in the grass or in the sand, 
and soon after begins to lay eggs. The process of oviposition varies 
in length of time according to the season in which the ticks drop. 
After a lapse of a certain period the eggs begin to hatch and the 
young larvae, commonly known as seed ticks, appear. They seek 
their way to the top of the grass or bushes, from which they attach 
themselves to a suitable host which may be passing. So far the ticks 
with which we have to deal behave similarly, but the various species 
differ in their habits, and according to these l-obits we can divide 
them into three groups. 

Firstly. — The ticks which, for the completion of their life-cycle, 
require only one host. To this group belongs the blue tick (Boophilus 
decoloratus). It reaches the host as a larv^a ; it moults (changes its 
skin) on the animal from the larval into the nymphal stage, and again 
from the nymphal to the adult stage. In the adult stage the sexes 
meet again and the life-cycle begins afresh. 

Secondly. — Ticks which require two hosts for the completion of 
their life-cycle. To this group belongs the red-legged tick (Rhipice- 
phalus evertsi). It comes as a larva, it moults into the nymphal 
stage, and leaves the animal as an engorged nympha. The moulting 



148 Journal op the Department of Agriculture. 

process from the nymphal to the adult stage takes place in the oTomid, 
and the sexes meet again on the host. 

TJiirdly. — Ticks which require three hosts for the completion of 
their life-cycle. To this group belong the brown licks (RJiipiccphaius 
(ippendiculatus), the black-pitted tick (R. siinus), the Cape brown 
tick (R. capensis), the European brown tick (R. sanguineus), the bont 
tick (Amhlijoinma hehraeum) , and tlie dng tick (Haemaphy.^alis leachi). 
The larva reaches the animal and engorges, and as soon as it has 
done so drops to the gTound, where it moults (after a lapse of a certain 
time) into the nymphal stage. The nynipha seeks a second host, also 
engorges, and after repletion drops to moult into the adult on the 
ground. The -sexes seek a third host, where tii'\v n;eet and the whole 
life-cycle begins again. 

Of interest to us from our point of vieAv arc ibe dates reqaiicd — 

(1) for laying the eggs and hatching into larvae; 

(2) for the completion of the life-cycle on the host in the case 

of the one-host tick (the blue tick) ; 

(3) the time the larvae and nymphae require to replete on a 

host ; 

(4) the length of time the engorged lar\ae and nymphae 

require to moult on the ground ; 

(5) the length of time the adult femab^s remain on the host 

before they drop ; and 

(6) the length of time these various ticks and stages of ticks 

may live. 

Concerning these the following facts are kn(>v>n : — 

Blue Tick. — Tlie whole length of time lliis tick requires from 
larval to adult stage averages three weeks. From the third week the 
engorged blue females begin to drop, and about the end of the fourth 
week the greater number has left the host. In other words, wlien we 
remove an ox or a horse out of the veld and place it in a stable we 
must constantly expect, during the four following weeks, the 
ajjpearance of blue ticks whicb have attached tliemselves up to the 
day when the animal left the veld. This applies to the suiijmer 
season only; in the winter it is delayed. The eggs hatch in the 
warmer season in about three to six weeks, and on an average ai'ter 
about thirty-six days; in the winler it will take longer. The young 
larvae kept in g-lass bottles have been known to live six months. If 
they do not reach a host they die; on reaching the host they continue 
the life-cycle. During this time they sit on the grass. No food is 
obtained from the plant (as the popular belief is), +lierefore it follows 
that the blue tick must finally die if no host is found after the above- 
stated lapse of time. 

The Red-leg Tick. — The hatching period of Hie eggs of this tick 
is (in summer) about thirty days on an average. We have known the 
young larvae to live for a period of seven months. The young- 
larvae which find a host" generally hide themselves in the 
interior of the ear, rarely in the flanks, and soon begin to replete. 
They undergo the change from larvae to nymphae on the liosl. The 
nymphae attach themselves near the place where the larvae were and 
replete themselves quickly, so that as early as leu days after attach- 
nient of the larvae the nymphae may be 'eplete and dro]), but 



Diseases, Ticks, and their Eradication. 149 



generally this period averages fifteen days. The second moulting 
process takes place in the ground, and requires an average period of 
twenty-four days. In our experiments adult red-leg ticks have jived 
up to a year, and have after that time attached themselves to a beast. 
Such longevity seems, however, to be the exceplion, and the usual 
period is less. 

The Broicn Tick. — Under this name v\'e include the common 
brown tick {Rh . appendiculatus) and the CaT)e brown tick (Rh. 
capensis). The European brown tick (RhipicepJialus sangiiinetis) of 
the dog also belongs to this group ; they all have a similar life-histor3^ 
The female bro.wn tick, after it has been placed on a host, may be 
observed to drop already fnlly engorged on the fourth day. and by 
the end of a week it has usually left the host. The laying of eggs 
usually begins after six days. The hatching period averages in the 
warm season twenty-eight clays ; in the winter time the liatching takes 
several months. The young larvae readily attacli themselves io cattle 
and engorge rapidly, and may drop oh: the host in as brief a time as 
three days ; after a lapse of (^ight days all engorged larvae have 
dropped. The moulting process takes place in the ground and 
averages twenty-one days. Tiie shortest period recorded was sixteen 
days. The larvae have in our experiments lived up to a period of 
•seven months, and the nymphae to six and a half inonths. For some 
days after moultine; these creatures are not able to feed. They are 
colourless and weak, and refuse to bite if placed on animals. About 
a week later they eagerly seek attachment when jdaced on the skin 
of a host. The nymphae also require a period of about three days to 
engorge, and within a week have dropped oft' the animal. In summer 
time these nymphae moult into adult ticks after an average period of 
eighteen days. Like larvae and nymphae, they are almost colourless 
and very weak. A few days later they assume the characteristic 
colour, become more vigorous, but require some time before they will 
readily attach themselves to a host. In our experiments the adults 
have been known to live up to a period of fourteen months; thiis is, 
however, an exception. 

The BJackpitted Tick (Rhipicephalus siinus). — The hatching 
period of this tick averages thirty days. The larvae do not attach 
themselves readily to cattle or horses but to other animals, in par- 
ticular the dog. and the intermediate stages are found on smaller 
animals. The first moulting usually takes place after twenty days, 
and the second one, from nymphae to adult, after twenty-five days. 

TJte Font Tick {Amhlyomma hehroeum). —The female begins the 
laying of eggs in summer time about two weeks after dropping from 
the host, but under certain conditions over 'hree months may soine- 
times elapse before eggs are deposited. The shortest hatching period 
is about ten weeks, but it may last as many montiis; it averages from 
four to six months. In our experiments larvae have been known to 
live seven months. The young larvae replete themselves on a host in 
from four to twenty days', and the majority always drop between the 
fifth and seventh clay. " The first moulting takes place after twenty- 
five days, but sometimes four months may pass. The nym];hae 
replete themselves on a new host in from four to twenty days. Viy 
engorged nymplme have been known in our experiments to live six 
months. ' The last moulting process takes place after an interval of 



150 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

about twenty-five days as a minimum and 160 days as a maximum. 
The adult female drops from about the tenth to the twentietli day 
after attaching-. Adults have been known in our experiment to live 
up to a period of seven months. This tick is known to produce severe 
ulcerating sores on the place of its attachment, and is frequently 
responsible for the loss of one or more teats. 

The Dog Tick (Haemaphysalis leacTii). — The female begins to lay 
eggs three to seven days after it has left the host. The period varies 
according to the season in which it drops. The eggs require about a 
month to hatch. The young larvae remain on their host for n period 
of two to seven days. When engorged they drop to the ground and 
moult into nymphae. In about a month's time the nymphae seek a 
host and remain on it for two to seven days, and then drop engorged 
to the ground ; they change into adults in about ten to fifteen days. 
The female adult requires about ten to fifteen days for repletion. 

The Striped-leg Tick (Bontpoot) (Hyalomma aegj/ptium). — 
Though not a disease-transmitting tick, it frequently is the cause of 
lameness in sheep and goats, the adult attaching itself between the 
hoofs; it is sometimes known to produce ulcerating sores in cattle. 
Only adults are found on domesticated animals, the larval and 
nymphal stage are passed on different smaller wild animals, including 
birds. 

The Sheep Paralysis Tick (locodes pilos'us). — The life-history of 
this tick has not yet been studied. 

The Spinose Ear-tick. — It has been known in South Africa 
since 1910, and was probably introduced from America. It 
is a tick which thrives best in dry areas, hence its 
prevalence is recorded • in the Karroo and western South 
Africa. It is not known to transmit n definite disease, but 
its presence is decidedly harmful. The death of calves, sheep, 
and goats has been put down to its effects. The female ticks lay 
their eggs in sheltered places. The eggs hatch out in twenty-four to 
fifty-six days. The young larvae after reaching a suitable host settle 
in the ears. A larva can live about two to four months without 
feeding. The larvae engorge in five to seven days and then moult 
into nymphae. These engorge themselves after about one week, but 
they can remain for many weeks and months before they finally 
engorge and leave the host. The engorged nymphae drop off the host, 
crawl into a sheltered place, where they moult into adults after from 
seven to thirty-five days. They are then fertilized by the males and 
subsequently lay eggs. The adults can live for a long time. Megnin 
states tliat he kept some alive for two years. 

Transmission op the Disease. 

From the life-history, as outlined above, the following possi- 
bilities may be observed in the transmission of a disease: — 

Firstly. — The transmission is effected by means of young larvae 
whose mothers have been sucking blood from infected animals. This 
has been known to be the case in redwater, spirochaetosis, and anaplas- 
mosis. It is the principal mode of propagation of redwater by the 
blue tick; the larvae of the brown tick may transmit redwater, and 
the larvae of the red tick have proved to be hosts of spirochaetosis. 

Secondly. — The transmission is effected by one of the succeeding 
stages, either by the nymphae which infected themselves as larvae or 



Diseases, Ticks, and their Eradication. 151 

by adults which infected themselves as nymphae. The adult red tick 
has been proved to transmit biliary fever of horses, spirochaetosis, 
benig-n g-all-sickuess, and East Coast fever, after it had been sucking 
blood of an infected animal in the previous two stages. The group 
of brown ticks and the black-pitted tick transmit East Coast fever. 
It has been proved that this group of ticks transmits the disease in 
their nymphal stage after sucking blood in the larval stage from a* 
sick animal. Further, the brown ticks and the red-leg tick have been 
proved to transmit the disease in the adult stage after feeding in the 
nymphal stage on an infected animal. The adult brown tick has 
also been proved to transmit redwater and benign gall-sickness in this 
way. The bont tick has been shown by Lounsbury to transmit 
heartwater in the nymphal and in the adult stage after the 
respective larval and nymphal stages had fed on sick animals. 
It has further been proved that the bont tick can pass 
its nymphal stage on an animal not susceptible to heart- 
water without losing the infection it acquired in the larval stage, and 
can transmit it in the adult stage to a susceptible animal. This is 
not the case in East Coast fever, where experience has shown that 
after a tick has bitten and discharged the infection it can no longer 
transmit the disease. 

Thirdly. — The transmission is effected by ihe adult tick only, 
viz., as male or female, the mother of which became infected. The 
infection then passes from the adult female through the egf^^ the 
larval and the nymphal stage into the adult. The larval and nymphal 
stages when attached to susceptible animals do not dischaige the 
infection, and only the adult is capable of infecting animals. The 
dog tick also transmits the disease in this manner. It must be 
emphasized here that this is also the case with the European brown 
tick, which can infect in the following three v/ays, viz., from the 
adult to nymphae, from nymphae to adult, and from adult to adult 
stage. The popular opinion that ticks pass from one animal to 
another and communicate the disease in this way is wrong. The 
destiny of females is to lay eggs, and of engorged larvae and nymphae 
to moult, and. this process makes it impossible for them to reach new 
hosts before they have reached the next stage; therefore only males 
could pass from animal to animal. Indeed, males of any species of 
ticks which we have mentioned can live for majiy weeks on a host, 
but their peculiarity is to remain on that host, which they only leave 
accidentally, e.g. when rubbed off. A most important and far- 
reaching fact must be recorded here, which was first noted by Pitch- 
ford and subsequently verified by us, that the adtilt brown tick which 
transmits East Coast fever does so only after it has been biting for a 
period of not less than sixty hours, and is only then infective for a 
period of sixty hours, so that after the lapse of 120 hours 
it no longer transmits the disease. An infected tick removed from 
any animal during the period of five days after its first attachment 
and placed on susceptible cattle will, therefore, transmit the disease 
if it is able to bite and to attach itself again. Such removal may 
accidentally happen in saddling and inspanning horses and mules. 
Of its own will a tick once attached does not let loose, and if it does 
will not leave its host except by accident. When the animal is dead 
ticks have been noted to crawl off the carcass. It is most likely that 
the ticks also which transmit redwater, biliary fever, and gall-sickness 



l52 Journal of the Department of AGRicuLTURtl. 



require first a i)eriocl of attacliiuent lic'fore tliey disciiarg'e the infec- 
tion. 

The Hosts of the Ticks. 

From our point O'f view it is very important to know wliicli 
animal, in addition to those which we have considered to be subject 
to the diseases, may act as hosts for the ticks, and the following- notes 
liave accoTding'ly been recorded: — 

The Blue Tick has been found on equines, cattle, sheep, goats, 
dogs, and antelopes. 

The Red 'Tick has been found to occur on equines, cattle, sheep, 
and g'oats ; the reedbuck, other antelopes, and the Cape hare. 

TJie Brown Tick has been foiund on cattle, equines, sheep, goats, 
dog's, various antelopes, the Cape hare, and the lion. 

TJie European Brown Tick has been found mainly on dogs, but 
also on cattle, sheep, cats, hares, etc. 

The Black-pitfed Tick has been found on cattle, horses, sheep, 
goats, dogs, the wild dog, the jackal, bushpig, and the hedgehog. 

The Bont Tick has been found on cattle, horses, sheep, goats, 
dogs, the wild dog, antelopes, and the ostrich. 

The Dog Tick is found on dogs, cats, and wild canines. 

The Spivose Ear-tick is found on cattle, calves, sheep, goats; als(i 
horses, donkeys, dogs, cats, ostriches, and occasionally on man. 

The Striped-leg Tick -is found on all domesticated animals ; also 
(in antelopes, hares, pigs, and birds. The nymphal stage is 
frequently found on birds. 

The Prevaleace of Ticks in the Various Regions of the Cot xtry 
AND in the Different Seasons. 
Generally speaking, ticks are more frequent in summer than 
winter. This stands to reason, since a certain moisture and warm 
temperature are required for the i)rocess of hatching and moulting. 
The spinose ear-tick is an exception to this rule as it prefers dry 
countries. The striped-leg tick is frequently found in the dry parts 
of South Africa. The various species are, however, not equally dis- 
tributed throughout the country. We may state that the higher the 
altitude and the barer the veld the less frequent are the ticks, hence 
tJie bushveld is practically the home of the tick, and the name " bos- 
luis." as given by the Dutch farmer, iiidicates this. The red tick 
may be considered as the most cosmopolitan tick of Soutli Africa, 
and is found at all altitudes and in all climates. Next to.it is the 
blue tick, which is more frequently met with in the low and middle 
veld, but also goes to the high veld. It is absent in the driest parts 
of South Africa. The group of the brown ticks, especially the 
brown tick proper, is not frequent on the plateau of the high veld, 
but it may be found there in protected valleys where the vegetation 
is higher. Tlie same applies to the black-pitted tick. The European 
brown tick is found in many parts of South Africa. Its main abode 
is the dog kennel. The sheep paralysis tick is found in the eastern 
part of the Cape and the south of the Orange Free State. 

The Number of Ticks in Proportion to the Number of Cattle. 
Under the most favourable conditions the number of ticks 
increase in direct proportion to the number of hosts found on a farm. 
Thus the more stock and wild animals there are the more the ticks 



Dtreases, Ticks, and their Eradication. ];l.'i 

v\^ill increase, and under such conditions may become so troublesome 
tbat, apart from their role as carriers of disease, they do an enormous 
amount of damao-e by tlie withdrawal of blood from the stor^k nnd by 
the irritation tliey cause, f?enerally known, ns " tick worry." Indeed, 
the ticks can kill an animal without even transmitting- a disease. 
Tliis \A e have ^een in an experiment in wiiicli a lioise was infested 
Avith 1.1 ue ticks. It died from acute nnaemia as a result of this 
infestation owino" to the withdrawal of blood. Witliin three days 
14 lb. weig-ht of blue ticks were collected which had dropped off this 
horse, and this amount only represented about half of the ticks which 
eno'orged themselve-; on it. A similar observation was made on a 
heifer ihat died of acute anaemia, being- bled M'hile bv licks. 

Influence of Climate. ■ 

"We liave stated that ticks are unequally distributed over high 
and low veld, and it may be expected that this fact finds an explana- 
tion in the unequal temperature to which ticks are exposed. It is 
g'enerally thoug-ht that cold kills the ticks. This is to a certain 
extent true. Ticks which thrive best in the low veld, when brought 
to the higdi veld by the removal of animals, will not develop there. 
Expeiience has proved that the cold in itself is not a liarrier for the 
development of the lilue and red ticks in the hig'h veld. At freezing 
point the moulting of the red nymphae into adults is only retarded, 
but the ticks are not killed. This temperature did not affect the blue 
larvae at all; these latter only died when exposed for some 
time to a temperature considerably below freezing point. A drougdity 
condition is probablv the inhibiting- factor for the development of 
some species of ticks. 

Eradication of Ticks and Disease. 

From a practical ijoint of A'iew we shall consider the two points 
separately, the eradication of ticks and consequently the eradication 
of disease. 

The eradication of ticks can be attempted in several ways:-- 
1. Bulging of Grass. — XTp to the present time the burning of 
grassS has always been considered to be of great help for the destruc- 
tion of ticks. Farmers have always distinguished burning of gTass 
in season and out of season. If burning is not carried out at the 
proper time the farmers hold this fact to be responsible for various 
diseases, such as redwater and gall-sickness. These observations have 
probably a certain foundation. Nevertheless the great importance 
attached to it from the point of view of tick destruction is generally 
exaggerated. Burning of grass, undertaken at a time when most of 
the ticks have hatched and moulted and are sitting on the top of the 
grass, must undoubtedly destroy them. We note that the principal 
tick season is the summer, and with the cold tick-life is more or less 
at a standstill. The ticks which up to the end of the summer iiave 
moulted and are. sitting on the top of the grass will still fasten 
themselves on to a passing host, and they are responsible for the tick- 
life which we notice during the winter months. During the cold 
weather the laying of eggs and hatching- are retarded, or 
even absent. If. therefore, burning is undertaken at the beginning 
of the cold weather we would onlv reach tliose ticks sitting on the 



154 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



grass, and not those which sit underneath. The latter would, under 
the influence of the sun on the bare veld, probably hatch quicker, and 
when the young- grass shoots up they will be found on the top of this 
grass. When, however, the burning of ihe grass is undertaken later 
in the season it would probably destroy the majority of the ticks, 
and the later the burning is undertaken the better the results would 
be. Grass burning alone, although carried out in the proper season, 
will not eradicate ticks ; it only reduces their number. Cattle which 
graze over the same veld maintain tick-life, and ticks buried in the 
ground and not affected by fire continue the cycle. 

2. 7)? p7?/w,(/.— Dipping has been made use of and continues to be 
a very efiicient means of destroying ticks, and undoubtedly it is so 
wherever it is carried out properly witli a good dip. But dipping 
can only be effective when the dip reaches the tick. This is not the 
case with the spinose ear-tick, which on account of its seat in the ear 
is not reached by the dip. For our purpose we can assume that all 
ticks will be killed after the dip has reached them. One point must 
be emphasized, namely, that the death of the ticks as a result of 
dipping is not always immediate. Female ticks can even continue to 
lay eggs, although the eggs do not hatch. In arranging the method 
of dipping the life-cycle of the species of tick with which we wish to 
deal must be taken into consideration, in order to determine the 
intervals of the process. 

The blue tick requires three to four weeks for the completion of 
its life-cycle on an animal. It follows therefore that one dipping 
within that time, say every third week, is quite sufficient to destroy 
the crop of ticks collected during that period. The blue-tick larvae 
on the veld can only live for a certain number of nronths, hardly 
exceeding eight; within these eight months an animal would 
constantly pick up these ticks, and by dipping at three-week intervals 
these would be destroyed. Finally the time would arrive when an 
animal no longer picks up blue ticks, and the young larvae which have 
not reached a host will in the meantime have died. Thus dipping 
every third week to destroy blue ticks will have a certain successful 
issue, always providing that no tick escapes wetting bj^ the dip. 

Referring to the red tick, we find that in its life-cycle it seeks the 
host twice — once as larva, from which it moults into a nympha and 
remains on the host for about sixteen to twenty-one days before 
dropping; the second time as an adult, the female rernaining on the 
host from six to ten days. It follows from this that a three-weeklj' 
dipping M'ould not reach all the stages. In order to accomplish this 
it would be necessary to dip at least every eighth day. Dipping 
continued in this way during the period the nymphae, larvae, and 
adults live in the grass would finally lead to their eradication. 
Destroying the red tick is very difficult because of its place of attach- 
ment ; a nympha in the ear or an adult under the tail is protected 
against dips. Hand-dressing, in addition to dipping, is essential in 
order to eradicate them completely. 

The Group of the Brown TIeks. — For the completion of their life- 
cycle they seek the host three times ; as larvae they replete in from 
three to five days. The same period is required as nymphae, and the 
adult female requires about a week before it drops engorged to the 
ground. The quickest results c?m be expected when dipping is 



iDisBASEs, Ticks, and their ^Eradication. 155 

repeated every third day and is continued as long- as the different 
stag'es can live in the grass, viz., at least a year. 

In the case of the bont tick, which also requires three different 
feedings on an animal, the case is very similar to that of the brown 
tick. The larvae remain on the animal from about four to five days, 
the nymphae about the same period, and the adult about a fortnight. 
To be most effective, therefore, dipping would have to be done at 
least about every four days. 

From the above notes it will be seen that dipping at long intervals 
is not effective in the destruction of the red, brown, and bont ticks. 
If dipping is adopted to eradicate a disease transmitted by brown or 
bont ticks it must be repeated at short intervals. The intervals 
between dippings should not exceed the periods' of attachment of the 
ticks on the animal ; in order to catch all ticks intervals would have to 
be as short as three days. In practice it has been proved that dipping 
at intervals of five days is effective when supplemented by hand- 
dressing of the depths of the ear, the sheath, anus, and brush. 

Once dipping is commenced it will have the effect of destroying 
most ticks during the first few months. It is advisable to continue 
the dippings energetically during the summer time. All changes in 
tick-life take place more rapidly during this season, and ticks eagerly 
seek attachment on the cattle. This season ought to be selected for 
the dippings at short intervals. Lounsbury and Dixon were the first 
to observe that arsenite of soda can advantageously be used for the 
eradication of ticks. The dips which were subsequently more 
frequently used are known as " laboratory dips." They were intro- 
duced by Pitchford in Natal, who designed dips for an interval of 
three days, seven days, and fourteen days. 

The formulae are as follows : — 

3 Days' 7 Days' 14 Days' 

Interval. Interval. Interval. 

Arsenite of soda, 80 per cent. ... 4 lb. 8 lb. 12 lb. 

Soft soap 3 lb. 6 lb. 6 lb. 

Paraffin 1 gal. 2 gal. 2 gal. 

Water 400 gal. 400 gal. 400 gal. 

The arsenite and soft soap are dissolved separately in sufficient 
hot water, the soap and paraffin beaten into an emulsion, and the 
arsenite solution then mixed in. Cold water is then added to make 
up the 400 gallons and the whole is stirred vigorously. Most farmers 
now omit the soft soap and paraffin and use a plain aqueous solution 
of arsenite of soda, adhering to the strength laid down in the Pitchford 
formula and using 1 lb., 2 lb,, or 3 lb. per 100 gallons of water 
according to whether three-day, five to seven day, or fourteen-day 
dipping is contemplated. 

The reason for the different strengths of dip at different intervals 
is of course, in the first instance, a consideration for the animal to be 
dipped, a weaker solution interfering less with its skin and health 
than a stronger one. The different species of ticks and the various 
stages show a different resistance to arsenic — some are killed more 
easily than others. From the point of view of East Coast fever the 
three-day dip has not always proved to be effective, and instead a 
seven-day dip strength used in five days' interval, supplemented with 
hand-dressing, is now frequently made use of, and with success. 



156 Journal op the Department op Agriculture. 



Ill Older to main tain a constant strength of the dip the use of a dip- 
tester, a so-railed isometer, is advisable. Instructions for the use of 
the instrument are sold with it. If the dip is not diluted by rain it 
generally does not lose much in streng'tli. and the more frequentlj- it 
is used the less strength it will lose. It is only in dips that are out 
of use foT a long period that a change of aisenite to arsenate may take 
place, which then has a bad effect on the skin. Therefore a dip whicli 
has been out of use foi- some time should be stirred up before cattle 
are sent in. 

Although dipping can be stated io be generally harmless for 
cattle, it will be advisable to accustom the cattle to the dip by using 
first the weaker solution and later on the stronger ones. Such a 
])rocedure will prevent cracking of the skin. Oxen appear to be 
l)articularly affected by the arsenic dip when worked. The effects 
show themselves usually three to four days after dipping, and the 
oxen are noted soon to tire when in wagon or plough and to show 
dyspnoea, in severe cases stretching out the tongue and finally falling 
down when not outspanned. These symptoms are particularly noted 
in liot weather. Apoplectic death has also been seen in such cases. 

Dii)ping has a good effect generally on the animals: it improves 
their condition and gives them a sleek and glossy skin. It has, of 
course, also an influence on skin diseases generally, and prevetits hair- 
balls in calves which are the result of licking the tick-infested skin. 
AVherever it is intended to reduce the ticks to a minimum in the 
sliortest possible time the dipping of horses running on the veld is 
also advisable. Horses get accustomed to' dipping just as cattle 
do. Neither should goats and the smooth-haired Africander 
and Persian sheep be omitted. Tliese inimals are to a great extent 
the hosts of the red tick, which, as stated before, it is difficult to 
reach on cattle. It should therefore be destroyed on all its hosts. 

Animals running on the veld that for some reason or other cannot 
be dipi)ed — such as cows heavy in calf, etc. — should at least be 
sponged or dressed at short intervals. The use of fatty substances 
with an addition of tar or resin is recommended for a dressing. It 
must, however, be borne in mind that tlie object of dipping is to get 
rid of ticks from the farm ; cattle and other animals act as collectors, 
the codlected ticks are then destroyed by means of the dip. Fatty 
substances will prevent ticks attaching. It would thus appear that 
the cleaning of ears, sheath, brush, and anus is better carried out 
with the di})ping liquid itself, care being taken at the same time that 
the ticks are mechanically removed. 

3. Sfarrin// ilie Ticl-.s. — The third metliod of eradicating ticks is 
the starving process, and this must undoubtedly lead to success in 
every case where we are able to keep the place, for a sufficient length 
of time, free of such animals as act as hosts. AVe note that the blue 
tick will live about eight months only, therefore keeping a pasture 
free of animals for this period must starve out the ticks. If it is oui' 
intention to rid a farm of red, brown, and bont ticks this period must 
be extended over a year. From observations made in connection with 
East Coast fever, where the freeing of an area from the disease is due 
to starving out the ticks, it can be deduced that a safe period is fifteen 
months, and we can assume that this period will free any farm from 
tick-life provided no host lias access to it. 



Diseases, Ticks, and their Eradication. 157 

Stock broug'lit on to the tifk-free piece of grouiul will naturally 
bring' with them the ticks again, which will increase in the usnal 
manner and after clue time be present in g'reat numbers. If it is oud' 
intention to completely get rid of the ticks precautions must be taken 
not to bring' ticks with the cattle into the clean veld. This can be 
done by dii)ping- or spraying- the animals and immediately removing- 
them on to the clean farm, but it can also lie done without dipping and 
spraying'. For this purpose the cattle should be placed on a smaller 
piece of tick-free ground, sufficiently large to carry them for about 
four tosix weeks, and should be kept there for this period. AVe will 
call this the quarantine paddock. During this time all blue ticks 
will have dropped off, and if it rs only intended to eliminate these the 
removal of the clean beasts into the final clean area can be done. 
AVithin four weeks engorged larvae and nyniphae of the brown and 
red ticks which dropped off during the first days of the removal 
into the quarantine paddock develop to a succeeding stage (nymphae 
or adult), in which they seek a new host, and these might be carried 
by the stock into the clean veld if this removal is done later than four 
weeks after the introduction of the cattle into the quarantine paddock. 
It is therefore advisable to transfer the cattle after about eighteeji 
days to an adjoining clean piece, where they must be kept for a 
further period of eigditeen days; there the remainder of the blue ticks 
will drop off and no new ticks can get on. After this period the .stock 
can safely be moved to a clean area. The quarantine camps are then 
closed for all stock for at least fifteen months. It is also possible thai, 
liy the same procedure the bout tick would be got rid of, so thai, 
theoretically speaking, it is within the range of possibility — wiihout 
the use of dips and sprays — to get rid oi all ticks. In practice this 
would have to be carried out by splitting the farms up into fenced 
paddocks, which for a period of about fifteen montlis would have to 
be kept free of animals. Dipping, however, is a much safer method 
of clearing a farm of ticks, and should be adopted in preference to 
other measures. 

Ekadication and Prevention of Diseases. 

Eiuulinitioii (if diseases in witicli tJte aninials do not act as a 
i-esen-<iii\ ciz.. East Coast fever and heartwater. — It may be taken as 
an axiom that destroying ticks means eradicating disease. How this 
can be done has just been demonstrated. It may safely be said that, 
as far as the most formidable tick-borne disease — East Coast fever — 
is concerned, we have no better remedy for saving cattle and eradi- 
cating the disease than dipping. It has been pointed out before tluit 
an infected tick does not discharge the infection before it has been 
attached for at least sixty hours, but frequently later than this time 
and up to 120 hours. Hence if East Coast fever lireaks out on a 
farm and the cattle are immediately put into a dip, and this dipping 
is repeated every third O'r fourth day, all cattle that have not been 
infected on the date of dipping will be safe. The disease can thus be 
suddenly arrested and only the animals already infected will die off. 
If the dipping is now systematically carried out in as short an 
interval as three to five days (in the latter case in a seven-day-stiength 
dip and su))i)lemented by dressing) the disease will be eradicated after 
the lapse of hfteen months. Since, however, all farnrs do not yet 



15B Journal of the Department of AGRicULTtiRE. 



possess dipping tanks, and saving the cattle once the disease has broken 
out is the first and immediate object, another and temporary plan may 
be adopted by shifting the cattle from the infected to a non-infected 
area through a quarantine camp where sucli is obtainable. For this 
purpose it is advisable to bring the cattle first on a portion of clean 
ground sufficiently large to contain grazing for about thirty days. 
This area should be divided into two portions. The cattle are brought 
on to one portion and the disease will appear in the already infected 
animals and these will drop ticks — new animals can only become 
infected after the ticks have moulted. Accordingly we move the 
cattle into the second clean portion before the ticks have moulted, 
viz., after eighteen days. The disease will now beconie less evident 
and only appear in a few animals ; these again will drop infected 
ticks. Accordingly the movement must be made before they have 
moulted, viz., after another eighteen days. The cattle can now safely 
be moved into the clean area. In a period of one month all infected 
cattle will have developed the disease and can be destroyed or removed 
back to the infected veld. With the help of a thermometer the 
disease can be recognized at an early date, infected animals showing 
high temperatures. By removing sick animals at an early date the 
risk of infecting the quarantine g*round is greatly reduced. It is 
understood of course that subsequently cattle are not to graze over 
the infected area for a period of at least fifteen months, during 
which time the infected ticks will have died out, or if grazing over 
the infected area is contemplated, the erection of a dipping tank 
and the introduction of short interval dipping are necessary. 

Heartwater. — If we want to trek out of a heartwater-infected 
area for the purpose of saving the stock not yet infected two ways 
are open, depending upon what ground is available and whether such 
ground is infected with bont ticks. Moving out of the infected area 
into ground where no bont ticks are present means that the disease 
must stop. This has been the experience of many bush veld farmers 
who, with their stock, went down to the low country, and when 
troubled with heartwater simply moved back again to higher-lying 
ground. The fact was known for a long time, but the explanation 
could not be given since no connection between tick and disease was 
surmised. If, however, ground free from bont ticks is available then 
the same procedure can be resorted to as explained in the case of East 
Coast fever, i.e. moving on to a place which is known to be free of 
heartwater, remaining there just over the incubation period of the 
disease and moving out of it before the ticks which dropped have 
moulted and are capable of attaching themselves, for which purpose 
two quarantines of three to four weeks each will be sufficient. 

Eradication of diseases in ivhich the animal acts as a virus 
reservoir. — The diseases which are maintained in the recovered 
immune animals are biliary fever in horses and dogs, redwater and 
the gall-sickness in cattle. As already stated the ticks which drop off 
such animals are infected, both maintain the infection, and new- 
susceptible animals introduced contract the disease in a virulent 
form. Hence it is not possible to eradicate these diseases without 
eradicating all tick-life. It is, liowever, possible to save stock. This 
can be done bj^ dipping. As pointed out before, in the case of East 



Diseases, Ticks, and their Eradication. 159 



Coast fever ticks do' not immediately discliarge the infection after 
biting-; a short interval is reqiiired. Hence by applying short-interval 
dipping- as well fnrther outbreaks of the disease can be arrested, and 
in maintaining the dipping- the ticks will finally be eradicated. 
Althougli it would be desirable to eradicate all ticks by concerted 
measures the day is still far off when it will be achieved. Meanwhile 
it is necessary to draw attention again to one important fact mentioned 
before. If, for instance, cattle are bred on a non-tick-infected area 
they will not acquire immunity against redwater and gall-sickness, 
and when moved into tick-infected areas will contract the disease. 
The same is the case with biliary fever in horses. Earmers who adopt 
dipping and who wish to raise immune stock must take this fact into 
consideration. Hence, under the present conditions of non-com- 
pulsory dipping they should maintain at least a moderate tick infec- 
tion just enough to ensure the acquisition of immunity. This difficulty 
can, in the case of redwater and gall-sickness, be overcome by artificial 
inoculation of the young* stock against these two diseases. Since this 
is possible complete tick destruction should be aimed at. 

Saving of cattle from redwater and gall-sickness infection without 
dipping, once the disease has broken out, is also possible on the lines 
indicated above for East Coast fever. Since, however, practically the 
whole of Africa is infected with redwater and gall-sickness such 
moving is of little use ; the movement merely takes place from one 
infected area into another one. There are, however, different degrees 
of infection, hence moving of stock may nevertheless be a practical 
expedient. 

Eor the eradication of the ear-tick, dipping is of little use. In this 
case hand-dressing has to be applied when the animals are suffering 
badly from the infection. This dressing is, however, done previously 
to relieve the animals ; as a method of eradicating ticks from the 
farm it would be too cumbersome. Hence the tick should be attacked 
in a different way, viz., by destroying the hiding-place of the adults, 
by putting them out of use until all ticks have died out, which may 
take as long as three years. The erection of bush kraals — which can 
be destroyed or simple wire kraals which can be removed— would be 
a simple expedient. Naturally with the shifting of the kraal a 
cleaning of the ears must take place as well. 

Outlook, 

Tick eradication has now been carried out in South Africa for 
the last twelve years or more, and yet East Coast fever has not been 
eradicated on all farms where clipping- was introduced. This is not due 
to the inefficiency of the dipping method, but to the human factor 
that interferes with the regular and systematic procedure. Hipping 
is such a certain remedy for saving cattle that the fear of East Coast 
fever has greatly disappeared. Indeed the proverbial familiarity 
with the disease has produced its results. From the point of view of 
the State this position is not satisfactory; complete eradication of 
East Coast fever and all other tick-borne diseases is desirable. It 
would appear, however, that such destruction is frustrated by this 
human element. The best advice that can be given to a farmer at 
the present time is to lose no time, but put up a tank and use it, 



160 Journal of the Department op ApxRiculture. 



COTTON CULTURE. 

Practical Advice for the South African Grower 



Mr. W. H. SciiP:RFFii-s, Chief of llie Division of Tobai^co and ("oiton. 
lias fuiiiislied the following' main notes of his lecture to the j^elsi)iuit 
Fannei's' Association on llth December, 1920, for the iniOiiiiatioii 
hoili of inlen(lin<i' g^roweis and Ihose already engaged in the 
industry : — 

('o?ul it/on of Soil. — Cotton, like every other crop, to give go(<d 
results must be ])lanted on good ground. 1 am not prepared to say 
that tlie soil cannot be too fertile for cotton, bnt under average field 
conditions one will not find the soil too fertile, while on the other 
liand a soil that has been cropped till the fertility is rather low will 
give a fair crop of cotton even though it might not pay to giow other 
crops, such as mealies. 

When practicable, I would advise farmers to breal; their lands 
in the autumn and allow iheni to lie fallow during the wiutei'. This 
procedure has a three-fold advantage : it g'ives oj)portunity for earlier 
planting*, reduces insect trouble, and pro^'ides a better seed hed for 
the crop. 

Cultural MetJiotJs. — Planting should be done as early as possible 
after the spring- rains set in, say 15th October to tlie 15th November. 

The ground should be worked lo a good tilth, the rows made 
3 ft. G in. to 4 ft. apart, and the seed sown at the rate of approxi- 
mately 25 lb. per acre; at this rate the young plants should stand 
thick in the drills like beets. Start the cultivator as soon as the rows 
can be followed, and continue cultivation as long- as the cultivator 
can pass between the rows without damaging the bushes. If weeds 
or gTass appear in the drills they must be removed by hand-hoeing. 
When the plants attain a height of 6 to 8 inches they should be 
tliinned, leaving only one in a place, and tliey should be from 
12 to 18 inches apart in the drill, depending on the fertility of the 
soil — the more fertile the soil the greater the distance required. 
Care should be taken to de/stroy any blackjacks that may appear, as 
they will become attached to the cotton and considerably reduce it in 
value. 

Harve«tin,g should begin when the field is fairly white, and 
continue till the cotton is practically all harvested. It usually takes 
three or four pickings to complete the harvest, and these pickings will 
come about ten to twenty days apart, depending on the weather. The 
day the cotton is picked it should be spread on a bucksail so that it 
will be thoroughly dry in the evening : then it is ready to tramp into 
a wool pack ; when the wool pack is full it can be shipped to a gin or 
stored. 

Qudlifij. First Consideration. — The tendency of most beginners 
is to plant more acreage than they can manage. A small acreage 



Cotton Culture. ■ IGl 



well attended to is far more profitable and satisfactory than a large 
acreage wliicli has to be neglected. I^et your motto be quality rather 
than quantity. This brings us to the question of good seed. I am 
quite aware of the fact that there is very little seed in the country 
which is not moie or \e?is mixed, but of this mixed seed there are 
portions which are better than others. We propose next season to 
start a vigorous campaign with the object of improving the grade of 
our cotton by selecting the best strains in the field. No doubt some 
of the cotton grown in the country is good, but it is rather badly 
mixed. In my opinion we can materially improve the grade of lint 
we are producing, and this can be done very quicldy, but we must 
have the hearty co-operation of the growers. 

Iwporlafion of Scrd. — We have found it necessary to severely 
restrict the importation of fresli seed into the countrv as there is grave 
danger of introducing Pink Boll AVorm. Several parcels of seed 
introduced from Egypt have had to be destroyed on account of being 
infested with this insect, and one parcel from Nyasaland, received in 
Portuguese East Africa, was found to contain a very suspicions 
moth — if not Pink Boll Worm Moth it was very similar to it, 

I iiave recently visited the principal ginning plants and found 
that they were winding up their j^ear's work, after having handled 
something like 1250 bales at Durban, 600 bales at Rustenburg, and 
450 bales at John Jack, Ltd. With the output of the smaller ginning 
plants we can reckon on 2200 to 2500 bales, or about 1,000,000 lb. of 
lint, which is an increase of something like 200,000 lb. of lint over 
last season. 

There has been considerable complaint in regard to the lini 
shipped oversea; this is due to the mixed quality of indivulnal 
growers' cotton and also on account of the mixed condition of the 
lint after it passes through the gins, i.e. long and short lint mixed. 
This is attributable to two causes, first, the mixed condition of the 
seed sown and, secondly, to the mixing of different crops at the gin. 
No doubt the mixed seed is largely a fault of our own, as a farmer 
frequently plants two or three varieties and these are either mixed in 
the harvesting or get mixed at the gin. 

Up to the present too little regard has been given to the length, 
strength and lustre of the lint by the buyers. 1 must warn groweis 
that the time is appro'aching when buyers will look carefully into 
these qualities, and growers of the ])oo]er grades may expect n reduced 
price for their cotton. 

British Cotton Groirinr/ Association's Prizes. — I have received 
up to the present samples from about fifty of last year's competi- 
tors, and there are about ten more to come in. Immediately on receipt 
they will be dispatched to Manchester for final adjudication. 

A second competition has been arranged for the 1920-21 crop 
along similar lines to those of the last competition. The prize-money 
will be the same, and as follows: — 

For best 50 acres or more. £100; for second best 50 acres or 
more, £50 ; for third best 50 acres or more, £25 ; for best 
10 acres or more, but less than 50 acres, £50; for second 
best 10 acres or more, but less than 50 acres, £25 ; for 
third l)est 10 acres or more, but less than 50 acres. £12 10s. 
6 



162 



Journal of the Department op Agriculture. 



The scorino- has been slipfhtly chanp-ed, anrl Tvill be: — 
^0 per cent, for ciiltivatioii. 
oO ppi' cent, for quantity. 
40 per ceni. U)v ([uality. 

Tlie entries are coming in now. We hope to liave a larger 
competition this year than we had last year. 

A Danger to he Faced. — Farmers, I fear, do not fully realize the 

importance — or should I say the absolute necessity — of not only 

district co-operation but of national and international co-operation. 

South Africa, fortunately, may not have reached the critical stage of 

other countries, where production is reaching a liigher cost than the 

market or selling piice of the produce, but this danger seemS' to be 

facing the world to-day, and should it get established we will be faced 

M'ith serfdom in its worst form. A short while ago Senator Smitli, of 

South (-arolina, warued the public of the dangerous position into 

which the farming jmblic were fast drifting. The following are 

figures which he gave, and must have been obtained from reliable 

sources : — 

Average Cost of n^ i .. r> • 

n J ,. Market Prico. 

Production. 

Cents. Cents. 

Cotton P,7^ .18 

Briglit tobacco .27 .10 

Dark tobacco 20 .IT) 

Wheat 2.77 1.05 

Monkey nuts 09 .04 

Beef 13 .07 

In regard to cottcni, the above figures converted into British 
money would be 18^d. and 9d. in America, and accountino- for freight 
and ex'diange the Liverpool value of the same figures would be about 
Is. lid. and Is. Hd., or an actual loss of about 9^id. per lb. in the 
I)rodu(>tion of cotton. 




Friesland Herd, 



The Manuring of Yineyards. 



1^3 



THE MANURING OF VINEYARDS. 



By J. C. Ross, Pli.I)., Kesearch Chemist, Elsenburg School of 
Agriculture, and S. W. van Niekerk, Government Viticulturist. 



[The first part of this article appeared in last month's Jimninl. — Editor. 



Systems of Manuring. 

Keeping in mind the requirements of our vine fertilizer (approxi- 
mately 85 lb. nitrogen, 120 to 130 lb. phosphoric oxide, and 90 lb. 
potash per niorgen), we can make up a suitable mixture in many 
dilt'erent ways. It must again be pointed out, however, that a 
mixture of the above composition can hardly be expected to be the 
best and most economical for all vineyards. For instance, there may 
l)e cases where the amount of nitrogen should be reduced, as in the 
case of vines which are found to make an exceptionally rank and 
vigorous growth. Then the nitrogen might be reduced by one-half 
or two-thirds for the first few years, and this will mean a great 
reduction in the cost of manuring. It may also be found that the 
quantity of potash used need not be so great. As stated before, the 
only way to settle these points is by carrying out manurial trials in 
the vineyards, as described later in this article. 

For a definite working basis we assume that tiie fertilizers men- 
tioned have the following composition and prices: — 





Nitrogen. 


Phosphoric 
Oxide. 


Potash. 


Valuation Basis. 




Fer cent. 


Fer cent. 


Fer ceul. 


A S. 


d. 


Stable or kraal manure ... 


0-5 


0-3 


0-6 


*U 3 


6 per ton. 


Karroo sheep manure 


1-5 


0-75 


4-0 


1 5 


(.) „ „ 


Kraal ash 


— 


2-0 


12-0 


2 (1 


() „ „ 


Government guano 


10 MJ 


11-0 


2-0 


10 U 


„ 


Bone dust 


4-0 


24-0 





12 


(1 „ „ 


Superphospiiale 


— 


20-0 


— 





„ „ • 


Basic slag 


— 


15-() 


— 


(.) 


„ „ 


Cape cross 


2-U 


22-0 


— 


1) 


•J ,. „ 


Blood meal 


12-0 


— 





15 


„ „ 


Sulphate of ammonia 


20-0 


— 


— 


(J 


„ „ 


Nitrate of soda 


15-0 


. 





U 


^ „ 


Sulphate of potash 


-~ 


— 


50-0 


tl8 


, „ 


Green manure (peas) 


(•') 






JO 19 


(jpcr morgen. 



* This is calculated as the approximate cost of production on the average faim, and 
includes cost of cartage to the vinej^ard and spreading, at a liberal estimate. The manure is, 
however, worth considerably more to the farmer. 

t This is the pre-war price. Very little obtainable during or since the war, and then at 
a greatly increased price. 

J 'i'liis includes cost of the seed and the seeding, including one ploughing and one culti- 
vation. Value of seed alone taken at 13s., 8U lb. per morgen. 



164 Journal of the Department of Agriculture:. 

The following mixtures, in quantiiies per morgen, will conform 
approximately to the requirements: — 

1. (a) Green Manure — 

450 lb. bone-dust (or 550 lb. supeii)hosph;iie, or TOO lb. 

slag, or 500 lb. Cape Cross). 
750 lb. kraal ash. 

(h) Green Manure — 

500 11). bone-dust, oi' GOO lb. superphosphate, or 800 lb. 

slag, or 550 lb. Cape Cross). 
180 lb. sulphate of potash. 

2. 7^ tons stable or kraal manure. 

350 lb, bone-dust (or 400 lb. superphosphate, or 550 lb. slag, 
or 370 lb. Cape Cross — but when these are used, the manure 
should be increased to about 8 or tons. If the mauure is 
of inferior quality, more should be applied). 

-'). (a) 800 lb. Government guano. 

100 lb. bone-dust (or 120 lb. superphosphate, or 150 lb. 

slag, or 110 lb. Cape Cross). 
GOO lb. kraal ash. 

(6) 450 lb. GoA^ernment guano. 

250 lb. bone-dust (or 270 lb. superphosphate, or ^JGO lb. 
slag, or 250 lb. Cape Cross — but when these are used 
the guano should be increased to 500 lb.). 

2000 lb. Karroo sheep manure. 

{c) 800 lb. Government guano. 

150 lb. bone-dust (or 175 lb. superphosphate, or 240 lb. 

slag, or 165 lb. Cape Cross). 
150 lb. sulphate of potash. 

4. 500 lb. blood-meal (or 300 lb. sulphate of ammonia, or 400 lb. 
nitrate of soda). 
500 lb. bone-dust. 
180 lb. sulphate of potash. 

(Other forms of phosphate can be used here, but then the 
amount of blood or other nitrogen fertilizer will have to be 
increased. If kraal ash is used to supply potash, the amount of 
phosphate will be slightly reduced ; and if sheep manure is 
used the amount of nitrogen fertilizer will be considerably 
reduced, and the amount of phosphate slightly reduced.) 

It will readily be seen that a great number of different systems of 
fertilizing can be adopted, depending on the raw materials at the 
disposal of the farmer. Economy, of course, is a most important 
factor. Bone-dust has been taken throughout as the source of phos- 
phate, as it is probably the most economical form to-day. But 
market values are liable to fluctuate, and alternative quantities of 
other forms of phosphate are given, in case they should, in the future, 
prove more economical than bone-dust. In the following table the 



The Manuring of Vinbyaeds. 



165 



composition and cost per morgen of eacb of tlie above formulae is 
listed : — 





Nitrogen. 


Phosphoric 
Oxide. 


Potash. 


Cost. 




lb. 


lb. 


lb. 


,C s. d. 


No. 1 (ji) 


(?) 


128 


90 


4 8 (3 


„ li'O 


(?) 


120 


90 


5 12 


„ 2 


approximate 89 


approximate 129 


approximate 90 


3 8 3 


» 3 00 


81 


124 


88 


5 4 


„ 3(//) 


f 85 


124 


89 


6 


„ 3(r) 


86 


124 


90 


6 5 


„ 4 


80 


120 


90 


8 7 6 



(The costs are, of course, liable to variation according to market 
conditions.) 

The cost of formula No. 4 shows clearly that where artificial 
fertilizers alone are used the expense is by far the greatest. Note 
also in formulae Nos. 1(b) and 3 (c) the increased cost due to using 
sulphate of potash as the source of potash instead of kraal ash or 
Karroo sheep manure. Formula No. 2, where stable manure is used, 
is outstandingly the most economical, and then follows No. 1 (a), 
where green manure is used and potash is supplied in the form of 
kraal ash. After these, formulae Nos. 3 (a) and 3 (h), where guano 
is used, are the cheapest. 

Systems 2 and 1 (a) are strongly recommended, for they add a 
great deal of humus to the soil, and are also economical. If it is 
impossible to use one or other of these every year, they should at least 
be used as frequently as possible. Failing these, Nos. 3 (h) and 3 (a) 
are recommended. The formulae where kraal ash is used are 
especially suitable for acid soils, as the ash contains a fair amount 
of lime. Basic slag is also a useful kind of phosphate for acid soils 
on account of t.he lime it contains — but its price must be favourable. 
If the farmer should decide to use superphosphate or sulphate of 
ammonia, he should see that his vineyard receives a dressing of lime^ 
unless it is already well provided with lime. 

Time and Methods of Applying Manures. 

Attention must be drawn to the fact that certain fertilizer 
materials must never be mixed before applying to the soil. Lime, 
basic slag, or kraal ash should never be mixed with guano, manure, 
or sulphate of ammonia, as this would cause a loss of valuable 
nitrogen in the form of ammonia gas (the loss can be detected by the 
smell of ammonia). These fertilizers can, however, be used on the 
same soil, for the soil holds the ammonia and prevents it from 
escaping — but they must be applied separately. 

Similarly, superphosphate must not be mixed with lime or basic 
slag, or kraal ash, because the water-soluble phosphoric oxide will be 
changed to an insoluble form, and thus made less quickly available. 
This, however, is not as important a consideration in fertilizing vine- 
yards as in the case of grain lands, where a quick acting fertilizer 
i.'j desirable. 

With regard to the method of applying manures, the custom of 
burying it in holes or in furrows between the vine rows is not a good 
one, for then the vine roots do not develop evenly in every direction 



166 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



ill the soil and are not able to use to best advantage the plant-food 
and moisture distributed tlirouf^hoiit the soil. If possible all manures 
should be spread evenly over the soil and plou<^hed, cultivated, or 
duf>' under. 

Fonnvhic 1 (n) and 1 (/>). — Hone-dust and kraal ash or sulphate 
of potash mixed and applied in April to manure the pea crop. Peas 
sown in April (as early as possible) and phnio-hed under towards the 
end of July, or early in August. 

Formula 2. — Spread manure in April-May, bone-dust over this, 
and plough under immediately. 

For^nulae 3 {o), 3 (b), and 3 {c). — Bone-dust and kraal ash. 
Karroo sheep manure or sulphate of potash mixed and ap])lied in 
April-May, guano in July-August. 

Formula Al. — All mixed and applied in April-May, or part of 
the blood-meal can be held over and applied in July-August. If 
sulphate of ammonia is used it should be applied over the surface in 
July. Nitrate of soda should not be applied before August (spread 
over surface). 

U»E or LiMK IN Vineyards. 

Vineyard soils which are acid or sour should receive occasional 
dressings of lime. Though lime is one of the essential plant-foods it 
is not applied as a fertilizer or manure in the correct sense of the 
w^ord, and it is important to bear in mind that it cannot take the 
place of other fertilizers. If the soil should be deficient in lime as 
a plant-food (which very rarely occurs), the crop will obtain suiiicient 
lime in the various phosphatic fertilizers used. 

Lime is a soil improver rather than a fertilizer, and its useful 
functions are as follows: — 

1. It neutralizes acidity and keeps the soil sweet. AVhen humus 
decays in tlie soil, a considerable amount of acid substances is pro- 
duced and these afterwards interfere with the bacterial activities 
which bring about the decay of humus and the production of available 
nitrogen for the crop. But if lime is present it destroys the acidity 
and encourages the bacterial activities in the soil. Thus an applica- 
tion is especially necessary when large amounts of humus (stable or 
kraal manure, and green manure) are ploughed into the soil. Dark 
brown or black soils which are rich in humus are generally greatly 
improved by applying lime. 

2. It lo()sens up heavy, compact soils, making tluMu easier io 
M'ork and more porous, so that air and water can penetrate more 
easily. 

3. It increases the availability of the mineral jilant-foods in ihe 
soil, especially potash and phosphoric; oxide. Thus it is a stimulant, 
and unless pliosphatic and potash fertilizers are used along with 
the lime it will cause the soil to become rapidly depleted of these 
plant-foods. 

Lime can be obtained in the following forms: — 

1. Burnt or quick lime (lumps). 

2. Slaked lime (fine powder). 

3. Finely ground limestone, or carbonate of lime, or " agricul- 

tural " lime. 



The Manuring of Vineyards. 1G7 

By adding water to quicklime we get slaked lime, and if this 
is exposed to the atmosphere for a long* time it is changed almost 
entirely to carbonate of lime in a very tine form. One ton (2000 Ih. of 
])ure quicklime contains as much lime as 2642 Ih. of ]inrp shiked lime. 
()!■ as much as ;^)5T1 lb. of pure limestone. 

Limestone or carbonate of lime is the mildest form, and is recom- 
mended for all ordinary soils, especially light soils. The limestone 
should be very finely ground, and spread at the rate of 2 to 4 tons 
per morgen every fourth or fifth year. It should be applied early 
(April-May), and either ploughed in or cultivated in on the ploughed 
land. Failing this, it may be ax^plied later, at the time of the second 
])loughing* in August, but it will not have niucli action in the soil 
until the following winter. 

Slaked lime should be used only in the case of very heavy soils, 
or soils containing abundance of liumus (as indicated by a black 
colour). In this case it is generally more economical to purchase 
quicklime ('in lumps) and slake it (by adding water) on the farm. 
Or it may be carted direct to the vineyard, placed in small heaps at 
regular intervals at the rate of 2 tons per morgen, and allowed to 
slake of its own accord when the rains come. When the lumps are 
all fine it should be spread by means of spades and cultivated or 
plouglied in. 

Where limestone, or lime Avhicli has already been slnked, is to 
be applied, a lime-spreader may be used if the rows are not too close 
together. Otherwise the lime may be placed in a basket suspended 
from a pole carried between two men. I\v gently shaking the basket 
as the men walk along a fairly even distribution of the lime is 
ftbtained. 

Liming is particularly necessary in connection with the use of 
large quantities of kraal or stable manure, and with the practice of 
green manuring. In the former case it should be applied shortly 
after the manure has been ploughed in, and the vineyard then culti- 
vated. In the case of green manuring, several alternatives are open. 
Where convenient, it is an excellent plan to spread the lime before 
sowing the peas, as this will encourage a more luxuriant growth of 
green manure. Otherwise the lime may be applied at the time of 
ploughing under the green crop, either immediately before, wlien 
it will be spread over the pea crop and ploughed in togethe]' with tlie 
lattei', oi' shortly after turning undei' the peas. 

MaNUEIAL ExPKTiljSIKNTS IN THE ViNEYAKD. 

As previously pointed out, our vineyard soils are of many 
different types in the different districts. For this reason it is very 
likely that the system of fertilizing which gives the best results in 
Paarl district, say, will not be the best or most enconomical in 
Robertson district, and so on. 

Analysis of the vineyard soils will help us to decide upon the 
most suitable fertilizer for a particular soil, but the only really 
leliable method is by means of actual manurial experiments, oucli 
experiments are very easily carried out and do not involve nuu'h 
extro irouble. Every vinegrower sliould devote a [)ortion of his 



11)8 



Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



^•ineyard to such experiments. The follnwinp' is a simple plan which 
might be adopted: — 







P 












N 




P 






- 


Slope 







N 




P 









P 
K 




K 

■ 







- 


' vineyard 
if any. 


(1) (2) G-5) (4) ('->) 


(^) (7) 






Ind'cates no treatment. P 


ndicate^ ])ho'^|)lioric (}xide. 








N Inc 


li Gates nitrogen. 




K 


In. 


.icatcs 1 


01 c1 


sh. 







This choice or arrangement of plots is based upon the fact ihat 
we know tliat the prime requirement of all vineyards is phosphoric 
oxide. 

The average of the yields of Plots (1), (4), and (7) will give us 
the yield without fertilizer, i.e. the check. The increased yield of 
Plot (3) over this check shows the effect of phosphoric oxide alone. 
The effect of nitrogen we derive in two ways. Plot (2) -Plot (3) shows 
whetl;er nitrogen gives any increased yield over P alone, and Plots 
(5)-('6) show the additional increase due to N when both P and K 
are added. 

The eft'ect of potash is also obtained in two ways. Plot (6)-Plot 
(3) shows the increase over P alone due to using K, and Plot (5)- 
Plot (2) shows whether K produces a further increase over P plus N. 

If Plot (5) gives the highest yield of oil, evidently the "com- 
plete " mixture is best. Whether it pays or not can be ascertained by 
subtracting the check yield and calculating the money value of the 
increase. 

If Plots (5) and (2) are practically the same, it is evident tliat a 
complete mixture is not necessary at i)resent, though it may be in 
future as the soil becomes poorer in potash. 

If Plots (5) and (6) are practically the same, nitrogen is evidently 
not necessary at present, and so on. 

The size of the plots will be a matter of convenience, but 
ordiiiarily the larger the better. Al)out 100 vines per jjlot would be 
a good number, i.e. each plot about 1/36 morgen where the vines 
are planted 5 feet by 5 feet. The most important point is to select 
as uniform a strip of vineyard as possible, and, if the vineyard is on 
a slope, the strip chosen should cut evenly across the slope (not up 
and down). The strip is then divided cross-wise into seven plots as 
shown in the illustration, each containing, say, 100 vines (10 x 10) 
or 96 vines (8 x 12 or 6 x 16), or any other suitable number. 

Between each plot and the next one should be left at least one 
row of vines, preferably two, so that the vines in one plot cannot 
get food from the plot next door. 

Apart from the manures added, the treatment of all the plots 
must be identical. Observations should be made as to growth, and, 
finally, the weight of grapes from each plot carefully recorded. If 
a good site has been chosen, the growth and yields of the three 
untreated plots should be about the same. 



The Manuhing of Vineyards. 160 



The separate fertilizers used sliould not contain more than one 
plant-food each. The following are suitable: — 

Tor nitrogen: Blood-meal or sulphate of ammonia. 

For phosphoric oxide : Superphosphate or basic slag (prefer- 
ably superphosphate, because slag contains free lime, 
which may have an effect of its own). 

For potash : Sulphate or muriate of potash. 

The quantiti^ applied per plot Avill, of course, depend upon the 
size of the plots. Assuming the vines are planted 5 feet apart, and 
each plot contains 96 or lOU vines, the quantities applied should be : 

Nitrogen: 20 lb. blood-meal (12 per cent.) or 12 lb. sulphate 
of ammonia (20 per cent.). 

Phosphoric oxide : 18 lb. superphosphate (20 per cent.) or 
24 lb. basic slag (15 per cent.). 

Potash : 5 lb. sulphate or muriate of potash (50 per cent.). 

Such an experiment is capable of a large number of variations. 
If the plots are large enough, one-half of each plot might receive a 
dressing of lime in order to determine the beneficial effect of liming. 
Or the entire series might be duplicated and lime added to each plot. 
Green manure could be used as a source of nitrogen and compared 
with blood or sulphate of ammonia, but then extra plots will be 
needed. The proportions of the plant-foods added might be varied. 
An extra plot. No. (8), could be added with NPK, using twice as 
much phosphoric oxide as in the other plots. Or it may be found 
that results equally as good as that of Plot (5) can be obtained on 
certain soils by cutting down either the nitrogen or potash, or both, 
to half quantities. 

Whatever the plan of the experiment, it should be carried on for 
a number of years. The results of the first year or two will indicate 
the nature of the immediate requirements of the soil, but after a 
few years these may be quite diherent. 



In conclusion the writers wish to acknowledge the use made of 
Dr. A. I. Perold's publication on "The Manuring of Vineyards" 
(1911), which is now out of print. In fact, the present article was 
undertaken with a view to replacing Dr. PerokVs original publication. 



Fruit for Japan: A Prohibition. 

The Japanese Government has issued an Ordinance by which the 
importation from South Africa (and other countries) into Japan of 
apples, pears, quinces, peaches, plums, apricots, and nuts, and 
materials used for packing them, is prohibited, the object of the 
Government being to prevent the introduction into Japan of the 
codling-motii. 

i 



170 Journal op the Department of Agriculture. 



REPRESENTATIVE TRANSVAAL SOILS. 



II. 



Pretoria Quartzite Sandy Soils. 



Bv B. J. Smit, B.A., Division of Clieniistiy 



Occurrence. — Tlie soils classed under tlic al)ove lieadiuj;' ocliu' in 
ilie I'retoria, Krugersdorp, a'.J(l Witwateisvaiid Distiirts, and jjiobably 
Avherevei- outcrops of tlie beds of the Mag-aliesberg", ])aspoort, and 
Timeball Hill quartzites appear. 

The outcrops of these three quartzites of the Pretoria series form 
three distinct ranges of hills in the Pretoria District, south and north 
of the tovTU. On the south is the Timeball Hill range, immediately 
north the Daspoort range, and farther north the Magaliesberg range. 
The intervening hollows consist chiefly of shales aiid intrusive igneous 
rocks. The Pretoria series \vith these quartzites run tJirough many 
districts in the Transvaal, and generally speaking the Magaliesbeig 
and Dasi)oort quartzites are the most imjjortant as regards the forma- 
tion of the typical quartzite soils, since the beds are thicker than is 
the case witli the Timeball Hill beds, presenting a larger area from 
which the soil type under discussion is formed. The Magaliesberg 
quartzites form, almost wherever the Pretoria series occur, the 
broadest quartzite outcrop of the three. The Timeball Hill outcrops 
again consist mainly of bands of quartzites witli shales and Jiaematite 
or some other iron ore, so that the true type of quartzite 
soil is best developed on or near the Magaliesberg quartzites. The soils 
formed from these beds ■;ire often influenced to some extent by the 
neighbouring shales and diabase. The actual samples discussed in 
this paper were obtained from the three districts mentioned above, and 
the analysis of at least one sample from each of the three quartzite 
horizons, Magaliesberg, Daspoort, and Timeball Hill is quoted. 

Nature and Origin. — The quartzite soil is a red or brown to light- 
grey very sandy soil, and is derived from the quartzite rocks which 
consist chiefly of quartz grains cemented together with silica. These 
rocks sometimes contain muscovite and nearly always some iron ore to 
which the led colour of many of the quartzite soils is due. Some 
quartzite rocks are almost white, and give rise to a light-grey soil, 
Avliich may gradually, with the accumulation of organic matter, 
become a darker colour. The quartzite being a sedementary rock 
consists of particles which have previously to being cemented 
together undergone denudation, and with the subsequent disintegra- 
tion of the rock, and formation of the soil, they suffer a further 
reduction in size, giving finally a soil in wliich there are hardly any 
stones (by stones are meant those particles which are larger than 
o mm. in diameter) and only a very small proportion of fine gravel 
(particles greater than 1 and less than 3 mm. in diameter). On 
dividing the sand and tine gravel into grades it is found that the 
soil consists for tlie greater part of particles between 1 and ^ mm. in 
diameter. The average of 12 quartzite soils gave 69 per cent, of 
particles between 1 and ^ mm. in djamcter. 



Representative Transvaal Soils. 



171 



1 ho sand and fine grave] 


divided into 


grades :- 


- 




No. of Soil. 


1267. 


1485. 


2.554. 


1620. 


Diameter of particles in m.m. — 

Less than 3 and areater than 2 

„ 2 „ „ „ I 

„ 1 » ,. „ i 

„ „ i „ #„ „ i 


per cent. 

0-9 

3-5 
11-0 
50-2 


per cent. 

trace 

0-1 

5-1 

76-6 


per cent. 

0-2 

0-9 

1-9 

63-9 


per cent. 

trace 

0-3 

8-4 
68 -.0 



Soils Nos. 1267 and 1620 are from the Mngnliesberg quartzites, 
No. 1485 is derived from the Uaspoort, and No. 2554 from the Time- 
ball Hill quartzites. 

These sand particles on being washed clear of the finer soil 
particles appear as more or less rounded quartz grains with peculiar 
little red and yellowisli pits. The pits are probably due to the removal 
of part of the iron ore. On the whole the soil is much too open and 
sandy, but its texture may vaj-y somewhat, when the true type is 
infiuenced by the adjacent diabase rocks or beds of shales, or, con- 
tinuous cultivation and the incorporation of organic matter have 
improved and altered its physical properties. 

Mechanical Coviposition.—3elow are given the complete 
mechanical analyses of two of these quartzite soils: — 



No. of Sample 



1901. 



2179. 



Stones 

Moisture... 

Loss on ignition (organic matter) 

Fine gravel 1 to 8 m.m. in diameter ... 

Sand 0*2 to 1-0 m.m. in diameter ... 

Fine sand 0*04 to 0"2 m.m. in diameter 

Silt 0-01 to 0-04 m.m. in diameter ... 

Fine silt 0'004 to 0*01 m.m. in diameter 

Very fine silt U"0()2 to 0*004 m.m. in diameter 

Clay smaller than 0*002 m.m. in diameter containing 

Iron oxide soluble in acid 

Alumina... 



per cent. 


per cent 


Nil 


Nil 


0*47 


0-66 


2*78 


2 -85 


9-17 


0-61 


68*01 


09-33 


9-43 


10-46 


1*9.5 


3-02 


0*93 


2-02 


0*29 


2-06 


8*13 


9-16 


1*04 


1-40 


3*00 


2 • 3.-) 



No. 1901 is a samj^le of red sandy soil from Zuurplaats No. 822, 
Rustenburg District, and is derived from the Magaliesberg quart- 
zites. 

No. 2179 is a brown sandy soil from Koedoespoort No. 299, 
Pretoria District, and is derived from the Daspoort quartzites. 

There is no marked difference in the mechanical analyses of 
these two soils. They both contain a high percentage of sand, very 
little clay, and less than 3 per cent, organic matter; consequently 
their water retaining capacity is very small, the analyses showing 
them to contain only about A per cent, of moisture. 

Sample No. 1901 is slightly coarser in texture than is sample 
No. 2179, since while the former contains 77.2 per cent, of the two 
coarser fractions fine gravel and sand together, and only 8.4 per cent, 
of very fine silt and clay, the latter contains lesg'tha'n 70 per cent.. 



172 



Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



fine gravel and sand put topetlier, and 11.2 per cent, clay and very 
fine silt. 

The greater part of tlie total amount of iron oxide and alumina 
present in these soils is contained in the clay fraction, in sample 
No. 2179 about 50 per cent, and in sample No. 1901 practically all 
of it. 

In sample No. 1901 the fine gravel fraction is rather high for the 
quartzite type of soil. From the farmer's point of view these soils 
are lig-ht and easily Avorked, they will allow water to drain through 
quite freely. 

Chemical Composition. — The following analyses are quoted to 
illustrate the chemical composition of this type of soil: — 







ki 


12 


a 




cc 




^ 

c; ■>*< rt 
Oi 




«5 


22 c . 


5«T3 


{III 


? 1 1 1 


1 


000 




(M 






a. 














1 6 


ci 










<M to 
t£ IM IM 










C5 IM "O 


«c 00 w la 


u:; 


f 




Oi 


C« tH . 




.-H 10 O' 00 


C C -H 


O; 


000 




(M 


a o o 
















o o o 


(D 




(M IM OS IC 


0000 


Oi 


000 










q; 


CO 




Oi 








S 


Qj 
















a 


































GO 


4J CO 


el • 


a 


CO ^ 00 


-* 00 (M to 


M 


t^ 'i- e>) 

ic c 




00 




Ir- Oi CO (M 

IM «Ci 


0^00 
— 00 


10 




000 
c 






<u 
















P5 


^ 






'"' 








o . 

Si "O 

C CO 
o . 

'a o 

CO 




-tj 






• 


00 <M -^ 




-* 


c . 




(M i-l ^ 


l^ iC ^ (M 


(M 


MOO 




N 

■* 


5 bX) 


IC Tf ^ -t< 

r- 1 m IM 


0000 

c 


Oi 
Oi 


00c 
000 






tf-^ 




C5 




Oi 








C A 












-f CO 






° ,2 


, 










to tc IM 




l^ 


a . 


^ 'i* 10 <0 


^ CO c -^ 


t^ 


la 




^ 


Jo) d OD 


CLI M 


■^ CO t^ 


^ -H ,-H 


Oi 


000 




iM 
















r-i 


s« "S .o 


JO 3 


t-, 


.-( (M — -* 


<= 


Oi 


'O 






S -S "O 


<u 


Oi 




Oi 








pa 


a. 














Koedoes- 
poort No. 
299. 


cS 


a 








iM (M 

•+ C — 




C5 


O 


to iC ■M t^ 


IM t^ eo CO 


ZC 


yi 




t^ 


«0 00 CO l> 


^000 


X 


000 




IM 


OJ 




iM Oi tc 


0000 


Oi 


c 






cu 


CD 

a, 


cc 




Oi 






O 


4i . 


d 


■:: 


-f t^ Oi 


tc IM =0 't: 




CO IM C<» 

to ^ 








o 


t- Oi Oi 


^000 





000 








OJ 


;_, 


(M IM rt 


C' 


00 


000 








0) 


C5 




Oi 








&H 


ft 














Koedoes- 
poort No. 
299. 


c3 


-l-j 








Oi X 




^ 


•7" 


«D 10 IC 10 


■— 1 tc to IM 


to 


lo 






c 


So 
;- 


lO -f X I-- 
IM -^ ■* 


c c 

0000 


Oi 


c 
000 






p.. 




Oi 




Oi 






. 








. . .^ 






: -a jj 










a 


• • • c 






"a- 

^ CD 




a> 


. 




« 


i : :l te ^ 

■s 5 a^ 


• • • yi 






0-. 

S 








: : : 


• 


^ ^ ^ 




O 


a 






a: 
V 


3 cu •- ^ 

I25-S 


■5 -i 

a s^-a 

3 OJ fl 2 S' 


iS 




ogen 
ailab 
ailab 
loric 




6 








- .22 ^ fl 


IS a ^1 







Representative Transvaal Soils. 173 

Soils Nos. 760, 1620, and 2179 are derived from the Uaspoort 
quartzites, and they are pracncally similar in their chemical composi- 
tion to samples Nos. 1267, 1424, ']818, and 1294, which are derived 
from the Magaliesberg- quartzites. Sample No. 2554 is from the 
Timeball Hill quartzites and has unfortunately been only partially 
analysed, its lime and available potash content is the same as the 
average for the other quartzite soils, while its nitrogen is slightly 
higher and a/ailable phosphate slightly lower than any of the other 
soils, the analyses of which are quoted above. From their chemical 
composition it will be seen that these soils are deficient in all the 
essential plant foods — in fact they belong to the poorest class of soils in 
the Transvaal. They are all of them particularly poor in nitrogen 
and available phosphoric oxide, and with the exception of No. 1620 
and possibly No. 1267 their potash content is also very low, they are 
also in need of organic matter which must be worked into the soil to 
improve their water retaining capacity. It is obvious from the 
chemical analysis that in order to grow crops successfully on this type 
of soil, the farmer would have to increase its plant food content by 
gradually building up the soil, and in doing this lime would have 
to be applied occasionally so as to avoid turning the soil acid. It 
seldom pays on our Transvaal soils to apply a potash fertilizer so 
that small dressings of this fertilizer are advised only when it becomes 
clear by manurial experiments that potash is the limiting factor in 
the particular soil under cultivation. Soils Nos. 760 and 2179 are 
very low in available potash and would probably need a potash 
fertilizer, in addition to fertilizers containing the other plant food 
constituents, before a good vield can be expected The above state- 
ments are made as a result of an interpretation of the chemical com- 
position and a consideration of the mechanical analysis of the soil. 

Mmiurial Experiments. — Particulars as regards the crop returns 
given by this soil may be gathered from the following manurial 
experiments which were carried out by Mr. K. D. Watt (1). The 
experiments were continued for two years and were carried out on the 
farm Koedoespoort on a ooil from which sample No. 760 was taken. 
The analysis of this sample is given in the above table. The crops 
were maize (variety Chester County Mammoth) and cowpeas (variety 
Black-eyed Susan) and were grown on two pieces, of land A and B, 
respectively. The fields A and B were each divided into nine plots, 
which were manured as is shown in the table. 

Unfortunately during the first year the rainfall was very low, and 
probably quite inadequate for the requirements of the plants on such 
a sandy porous soil. Plot No. 2 of field A was damaged, but the 
following yields were obtained from the other plots. 

The yield of maize from field A is given in lb. of grain per acre, 
while in the case of the cowpeas from field B the weight of the green 
crop as well as the weight of the hay calculated to yield per acre is 
ffiven : — 



174 



Journal op the Department of Agriculture, 



Manurial Treatment on Fields A and B. 



Plot 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
G 



No manure 

Nitrate of soda, 20011). per acre... 

Sulphate of ammonia, 1601b. per acre , 

Superphosphate, 40011). per acre 

Basic slau;, 4001b. per acre 

No manure 

Lime, 4001b. per acre 

Sulphate of potash, 1501b. per acre 

Nitrate of soda, 2001b. per acre... 

Superphosphate, 4001b. per acre 



Maize ion 
Field A. 



iio;i). 

spoilt 

22011). 

36011). 

28011). 

1301b. 

20011). 

54.5 lb. 

13451b. 



Cowpeas on Field B. 



Green Crop. 



5300 lb. 
.-.60011). 
492011). 
57001b. 
4900 lb. 
39401b. 
46801b. 
550011). 

6380 lb. 



Hay. 



18401b. 
20201b. 
170011). 
21601b. 
18201b. 
17801b. 
16201b. 
19001b. 

21201b. 



Field A. — By far the best yield of maize wa.s obtained from plot 
No. 9, wiiich was manured witli a nitro<?enous and phospliatic 
fertilizer. It g-ave a yield twelve times as o-^eat as the yield on 
unmanured plot No. 1 and eleven times as great as the averag*e yield on 
nnmanured plots Nos. 1 and G. The plot manuied with sulphate of 
potash gave a g^ood increase over the nnmanured plot, but it must be 
remembered that this soil is exceptionally poor in potash, containing 
only 0.0009 per cent, of available potash. The soil is so poor that 
the addition of any of the three plant food constituents will probably 
show an increase in the crop, and there can be little doubt that had a 
tenth plot been added, manured with all the three plant food con- 
stituents, the yield would have been still greater. 

Field B.^ — The results of the experiment with the cowpeas show 
very little difference in yield on the various plots. It certainly would 
not pay to manure cowpeas, even when grown on a very poor soil, if 
the above results represent the effects of manuring-. 

In the second year maize was grown on both the fields without 
the addition of any fertilizer and the yields on the various plots show 
the residual value of the manures very clearly. The following table 
gives the yield of maize in the second year on fields A and B as well as 
the total yield of maize on field A for the two years : — 



No. of Plot and Manurial Treatment 
during first year only. 


Yield of Maize 

on Field A 
in second year. 


Total Yield of 

Maize on Field A 

for two years. 


Yield of Maize 

on PMeld P> 
in second year. 


1 and 6 No manure (average)..! 
2 Nitrate of soda 
.S Sulphate of ammonia 

4 fc-uperphosphate 

5 Basic slag 

7 Lime 

8 Sulphate of potash 

^A Nitrate of soda 

' 1 Superphosphate 


200 
spoilt 
spoilt 
680 
840 
290 
360 

1 1310 


320 

1040 

1120 

490 

905 

2655 


360 
500 
440 
1370 
1800 
970 
820 

1 540 



These results show that field B on which cowpeas were grown in 
the first year gave much better results all along in the second year 
than field A on which maize followed maize. In fact on all, except 
two plots, namely, No. 8 and 9, there was a greater yield of maize 



Rbpres^entative Transvaal Soils. 



175 



in one year after cowpeas tlian in two years in botli of which maize 
was jj'rown. The dih^erence on plot No. 8 in the total yield of maize for 
two years and the yield of maize in the second year only after cow- 
peas is very small, and this difference in the last plot (No. 9) is due to 
the effect of the nitrate of soda which supplied the necessary nitrogen 
in the first yc^ar. The increase in the yield of maize after coAvpeas 
on field B would probably have been still greater had the crop of cow- 
])eas been ploughed under instead of reaped in the first year. 

The geiy:'ral conclusions drawn from these experiments are: — 

(1) That on very poor soils of this nature, in other words on 
the quartzite soils, the best fertilizer is one containing 
phosphates. 

(2) That since the soil also requires lime, in order to promote 

nitrification, basic slag would be the best form in which to 
supply the necessary phosphates. 

(o) That it pays better to enrich the soil with nitrogen by 
growing a leguminous crop than by applying* expensive 
nitrogenous fertilizers. The leguminous crop also improves 
the soil by supplying organic matter. 

(4) That if a phosphatic fertilizer is used, a greater yield of 
maize may be obtained after a crop like cowpeas than would 
l)e got in two years during which maize is grown con- 
tinually. 

A manurial experiment on wheat was carried out on soil No. 1818, 
the analysis of which is given elsewhere, with the following 
results (2): — 



Plot. 



Manuri.al Treatment per Acre. 



I 


20n lb. superphosphate 


2 


'20i) „ superphosphate 




100 „ nitrate of soda 


3 


100 „ sulphate of potash ... 
200 „ superphosphate 
100 „ nitrate of soda 


i 


200 „ superphosphate 
SO „ calcium cyanamide ... 


5 


300 „ bouemeal 


(J 


200 „ bonenieal 


7 


100 „ superi)liosphate 

300 „ basic slag 


8 


No manure 



Yield of Grain in 
lb, per Acre. 



150 

700 

750 

770 

.520 

730 

620 
260 



The soil on which this exi)eriment was carried out contains the 
same percentage of nitrogen as soil No. 760 on which Mr. Watt 
carried out maize experiments, it is richer in available phosphoric 
oxide and contains much more available potash. The results of the 
experiment again point io the need of phosphatic and nitrogenous 
manures. Curiously enough the plot manui-ed with superphosphate 
and nitrate of soda gave a greater yield than the one manured with 
the same quantity of these two fertilizers, plus 100 lb. of sulphate of 
potash. On this soil it certainly would mean a waste of money to 
apply a potassic fertilizer. This soil would have given better results 



176 Journal of the Department op Agriculture. 

with maize or potatoes. It is much too open auJ saudy for the wheat 
crop, which requires a rather heavy loam. Tlie chemical composition 
of this class of soil and the results of the nianurial experiments point 
to th(; fact that the soils are so poor that it is hardly possible to grow 
a profitable crop in the first year, even with the help of artificial 
fertilizers. During the first couple of years the object of the farmer 
should be to improve the texture of his soil and to gradually strengthen 
it as regards plant food constituents. This can only be done by 
proper cultivation, crop rotation, and the judicious use of artificial 
fertilizers. The manui'ial experinuuits have given a clue as to the 
manner in which the soil should be dealt with and tlie following 
treatment is suggested for this class of soil: — 

F'irsl. Y ear. — After having ploughed up the land apply agricub 
tural lime at the rate of about 1000 lb. per acre, then put 
in a leguminous crop like cowpeas, velvet beans, or kafiir 
beans. This crop may be harvested or ploughed under. 
The cowpeas mature in about seventy-seven days from 
sowing, so that it may be possible to reap two crops in one 
season provided, however, that there has been a good rain- 
fall. 

Second Year. — Apply 300 lb. superphosphate per acre. Then 
l)ut in maize. 

Third Year. — Apply a dressing of well-rotted kraal manure, 
about 10 tons per acre, and plant potatoes. 

Fourtli Year. — Sow cowpeas without manure. 

Fifth Year. — Apply 300 lb. basic slag per acre. If necessary, 
a small dressing of sulphate of potash may also be used, 
say, about 100 lb. per acre. Plant maize. 

Or the following four-course rotation may be tried: — 
Mixnurial Truatmeiit. Crop. 

1st year 1000 lb. lime ... ... Leguminous ci'op like cowpeas or 

velvet beans. 
2nd year 1)00 lb. bonemeal ... Potatoes. 

8rd year 10 tons kraal manure ... Cotton or mai/e. 
4th year 300 lb. superphosphate ... Maize. 

The above rotations are only suggestions of how this class of poor 
soil should be built up. If the farmer experimented for himself by 
trying both these rotations he would probably soon be able to work out 
a more suitable rotation for his particular soil. There are many 
other factors, such as the depth of the soil, the nature of the sub- 
soil, the situation of the land, the rainfall and climatic conditions 
generally, which may modify the treatment of a particular soil, and 
these should be taken into consideration by the farmer himself in 
order to discover the best and cheapest way by which first of all to 
improve his soil and finally to grow profitable crops. 

Refeeences. 

(1) Watt, P. D., Transvaal Agricultural Journal, VI, 24, p. 551, 

and VII, 28, 628. 

(2) Annual Report, Division of Chemistry, 1910-11, p. 404. 



Pruning of Deciduous Fruit Trees. 177 



PRUNING OF DECIDUOUS FRUIT TREES.* 



By H. B. Terry, Cert. E.H.S., Loiielon and South Africa, Lecturer 
in Horticulture, School of Ag'riculture, Potchefstroom. 



As there 'exists a pressing need among fruit growers for some infor- 
mation about the pruning of trees, this short article has been pre- 
pared. While an endeavour has been made to illustrate and render 
the text as explicit as possible it must not be regarded as the final 
word on the subject. 

Pruning Tools. 

Before commencing operations it is as well to be equipped with 
implements of good quality and capable of allowing the work to be 
carried on with tiie minimum amount of damage to the trees. Many 
trees are ruined everj^ year by bruising, splitting, etc., and where 
profit is sought such action by decreasing the output increases relative 
cost of production. It is possible to- secure the best saws, secateurs, 
and knives at any hardware emporium in the Union, and none other 
should be used. All tools should be clean and sharp, and kept in 
this condition whilst the work proceeds. 

The California bow-saw possesses a reversible blade, rendering 
it possible for the operator to sever a branch at any angle close to 
the stem or main branches ; the blade is also detachable and easily 
replaced. The secateur (shear) should have a removable blade for 
convenience, as most of the cutting is done with it. A good pruning 
knife,' capable of retaining a keen edge, is necessary for light work 
and trimming the bark smooth after saw-cuts. 

When to Prune. 

The correct time to commence winter pruning depends upon the 
state of the trees and the amount to be done. When only a small 
area is under cultivation July will be found a suitable month. In 
large commercial orcliards pruning is seldom delayed long after the 
leaves have fallen, and is continued until the buds begin to swell. 
It can be said that pruning niay be done at any time during the 
dormant season to assist in shaping and renovating trees, promote 
wood growth, and equalize sap distribution, thus keeping the trees in 
a vigorous and healthy condition. 

The selection of many types, the tracing of subsequent ^rowth, 
successful photography, and other factors all tend to delay the pro- 
duction of a complete work on this subject. The pruning of a tree 
for commercial purposes begins immediately after the tree has been 
firmly planted in its allotted place in the orchard. The first pruning 
is usually termed "heading back." In every instance where some- 
thing is being developed towards its ultimate purpose a proper plan 
of treatment and procedure is, or should be drawn up, so that chance 



* Originally published as Local Series Bulletin No. IG, Department of Agriculture, 
Pretoria. 



178 



Journal op the Department of Agriculture. 



is not allowed to have much share in the process. Yet we see 
iliousands of trees planted througliont the Union that have received 
little or no attention in the way of pruning-_ at an early and most 
important stage. Nurserymen, unless otherwise instructed, send out 
their young trees with the past season's growth uncut, thougli this 
cannot always be said of the roots, which usually suffer a little when 
the trees are dug out. If the trees are planted as received, and not 
cut back, buds will be called into activity during a warm spell of 
weather, sustained by the reserve material in the tissues, and, unless 
new root action is taldng place, no sap can be pumped up to sui)p()rt 
llie growth. Under these conditions many trees die every year, \\hilst 
the vitality of others is impaired to such a degree that com])lel(> 
recovery is impossible. Sometimes a tree has already formed a head 




Fig. L— Pruning Tools. 



in the nursery row, and one is dubious aboiii reiiidx ing it; in ])iaclic(> 
tlie head is removed entirely when the stem is too long or lacking m 
stability so that new growths may arise lower down and form a more 
substantial foundation for the future tree. Year-old trees with 
straight stems are also cut back to the height of one's knee (about 
18 to 20 inches), the object being to develop a low head built on 
short, sturdy main arms, capable of carrying regular heavy crops of 
fruit without l)reaking down. The trees are thus prevented from 
breaking into vigorous growth before the shortened roots ha^'e formed 
a new set of feeders to obtain nourishment necessary for tiie new 
growths, and a standard of uniformity is obtained throughout the 
orchard. 

It is generally recognized that the best shape or form for 
deciduous trees under South African conditions is that known as the 
" goblet " or " vase " form. To obtain tliis form it is necessary to 



Pruning op Deciduous Fruit Trees. 



179 



remove the central leader, and tins is done when " heading back " at 
planting- time. The advantages claimed for the '' lowhead '" system 
are that the branches are strong- and well spaced, thus facilitating all 
cultural operations such as picking, pruning, and spraying; cultiva- 




FiG. 2. — Types of year-old trees sent out by nurserymen. 



tion is more easily and economically carried on, as animals can be 
brought closer to the trees than would be the case where horizontal 
branches are met with. Loss of fruit and damage to trees by strong- 
winds is reduced to a minimum owing to the strength of the main 



180 



Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



and secondary arms. The fruit-producing' area is doubled, because 
fruit-bearing' wood is encouraged inside as well as on the outside of 
the trees. Protection from sun is given to the centre by an abundance 
of healthy foliage due to free circulation of air and light. The stem 
is short, and, after the second season's growth, sufficient shade has 
developed around the trees to prevent sun-scald of the stems, thus 
removing a source of anxiety to which the grower of untrained trees 
is liable. During tlie growing season following after planting, it is 
desirable that the growth of the young trees should be interfered with 




Fiu. 3.—" Heading back." 



as little as possible. After the three shoots have been selected 1o form 
the main arms and other superfluous growths have been rublied off, 
an abundance of healthy foliage is necessary for the development of 
root and top. Suckers, of course, must always be removed, as these 
rob the tree of nourishment. It is as well to arrange that the seJccted 
growths do not start from the stem too close to one another, as weak- 
ness would be produced at this point. Some varieties, especially 
amongst apples and pears, often fail at the outset: to push out three 
well-spaced growths, and in such cases it will be necessary to pinch 



Pruning of Deciduous Fruit Trees. 



18] 




Fig. 4. — Diagram illustrating a tree after the'first winter prnniiig. 




Fig. 5. — Diagram showing a tree after the second winter pruning. 



182 



Journal op the Department of Agriculture. 



out the oTowing point of tlie strong-est leader and so pnt sap pressure 
on the growtli or bud immediately below it ; where two strong growths 
liave developed it may be necessary to pinch out both terminals to 
temporarily check them, then by cutting a notch in the stem imme- 
diately over the bud desired, it invariably pushes into growth and, 
at the end of the sea^son, is equal in length to the others. 




KK4. fi. — Diagram sbowiuu' a tree after the third winter priming. 



During the winter following planting, Ihe young trees will need 
careful pruning with the object of forming the main arms; this is 
illustrated in the accompanying diagram. The strong growths are 
cut back to 9 or 12 inches from their base ac(>ording to their strength, 
all other surplus growths being cut away close to the braucli or 
stem. When selecting buds to cut back to, select those on the sides 
of the leaders with the object of developing two main growths on each 



Pruning of Deciduous Fruit Trees. l8o 



arm, so placed as not to interfere witli each other in subsequent 
growth. By devoting- a little time during the growing season which 
follows to stopping any strong shoots that may break out below the 
terminal buds, the trees should present tJie appearance depicted in the 
plate above after the next or second winter pruning. 

The second winter after planting, the bearers, of which there 
should be six, are again cut back 12 to 15 inches from where their 
growth began, all side shoots being removed. As in the previous 
year, select buds on the sides of the leaders which will produce two 
more growths well spaced. This is considered drastic treatment for 
youil^' trees, but it cannot be too strongly emphasized that iiic sole 
object during the hrst three years after planting is to encourage 
growth and build up trees with strong risi'id limbs, hence all the 
energy of the trees should be directed to the formation of wood, so 
that when the bearing stage is reached the crop is borne without any 
breaking down of branches. 

In the third winter after planting the trees having been carefully 
attended to, at least twelve strong, evenly spaced growths should be 
found awaiting treatment, also an abundance of side growtJis along 
the arms lower down. Up to this stage no wood has been letained 
for producing fruit, the sole aim having been to shape the tree. The 
desired form having been obtained on well-spaced arms and branches, 
some attention can be directed to securing a crojD during the incoming 
season. The twelve leaders are pruned back to a length compatible 
with stability, as further growths will arise on these after pruning. 
The remaining growths should l)e thinned out, if too crowded, others 
shortened back to carry a medium crop of fruit. This will only occur 
in some varieties of stone fruits, as most varieties of apples and pears 
do not arrive at the fruiting stage until they are much older. From 
now onward the winter pruning will never be as severe as formerly. 
The trees are reaching the stage when regular annual crops may be 
expected ; the object then will be to keep the trees in healthy growth 
so that the shape is maintained and fruiting wood is freely produced 
or renewed. All trees will increase in size year after year, the leaders 
will become crowded and prevent the sunlight from ripening the 
wood and fruit unless annually reduced. It is best not to increase 
the number of leaders after the third winter pruniug, for not only do 
they prevent light entering, but weaken and spread the tree too much 
when loaded with fruit. With many varieties of trees — especially 
vigorous growers — over-pioduction of laterals (side growths) occa- 
sionally happens; these may be thinned out, and others cut back or 
left alone according to their position on the tree. Care must lie 
exercised when cutting', otherwise many laterals are pruned too 
severely and only vigorous growth results, defeating the aim of the 
grower wlio desires regular fruiting. 

Reasons for Pruning. 

The fundamental ])rincii)le of pruning demands that an even 
distribution of foliage shall be maintained, encouraging an even dis- 
tribution of fruit-bearing wood, so that no one part of the tree will 
suffer at the expense of the other. Any cutting performed whilst the 
tree is dormant tends to promote vigorous growth by reason of the 
same am-ount of root action expending its energy over a reduced 
number of branches. New buds, too, possess greater energy rhan old 
ones, and where their development is forced direct channels are made 



184 Journal of the Department of AGRictJLTuRE. 



for the flow of su]). It must alf^o be borne in mind that the more 
upright a shoot is the stronger will be the growth, and the likelihood 
of it bearing fruit is reduced ; the nearer a shoot approaches the 
horizontal so its vigour diminishes and its fiuiting possibilities 
increase. 

Bearing these facts in mind when pruning fruiting trees -he risk 
of cutting away useful wood is minimized. The following reasons are 
advanced in support of annual winter pruning : — 

(a) To maintain the shape of trees and prevent overcrowding of 

branches. 
(h) To regulate the amount of light throughout the trees. It 
nalurally follows that where loaders are crowded together at 
the to}) of trees light is witliheld from weaker growths lower 
down; consequently they never mature, but perisli. Fruit 
inferior in size and colour is due to lack of light ; over- 
shadowing is also responsible for barren lengths of wood 
being retained close to the main stems for the sake oE the 
new wood on them further out. 

(c) To produce fruiting wood and renew vv^orn-out portions. This 
is essential if good quality fruit is desired, as in many 
instances the new wood is the most productive. The removal 
of old and barren wood tO' force new growths must always 
be borne in mind. In spur-bearing trees, spurs often sub- 
divide and lack vigour ; these require shortening back. Some 
apples, such as Jonathan, Rome Beauty, Northern Spy, 
Cleopatra, and in pears Bon Chretien, produce fruit buds on 
the terminals of short laterals. If they are left unpiuned 
very little wood growth is made, but spurs are developed 
closer into the main stem for fruiting during subsequent 
years. 

(d) To increase size and regulate production of fruit. It 

naturally follows that the fewer fruits there are on a tree 
the better the size and quality will be. Advantage is taken 
of this fact when reducing the amount of bearing wood at 
pruning time, and, later on, when the crop has set, 
"thinning" is resorted to, so that the remaining fruits 
receive a larger share of the nourishment absorbed by the 
tree. Exhaustion is prevented and regular crops are secured. 

(c) To assist in carrying out cultural operations at minimum 
expense, low-headed trees, whose main arms and branches 
rise obliquely from the stem, are more easily cultivated than 
trees with horizontal branches; trees with branches built 
high enough to permit animals passing underneath sacrifice 
all the conveniences and economies which determine profit in 
a commercial orchard. In dealing with the pruning of trees 
in bearing it may he advisable to draw attention to what 
appears to be the most common error in this phase of fruit 
culture, tliat is, the density of heads of trees. It is a mistake 
one can easily fall into, especially when the non-setting of 
fruit has been attributed to frost or other contingencies. 
However, when trees are built up on the low-head system 
these corrections are speedily made with practically no loss 
of symmetry. 

(A further instalment, dealing ivitJi certain varieties of fruit 
trees, will appear in neitt vionth's Journal.) 



The Poultry Yard Month by Month. LSS 



THE POULTRY YARD MONTH BY MONTH. 



liy J. J. JcmnAAN, Lecturer and Instructor in Poultry, Glen, 
Orange Free State. 



February. 



Moulting. — The moulting birds' treatmoiit of feeding, etc., should be 
continued as advised last month. This is a most trying time for most birds, 
as they are either heavy in moult or are too fat to get through it readily. 
Mixing a tablespoonful of sulphur for each twelve birds in the mash twice 
a week, allowing about one teaspoonful of linseed meal per bird daily in the 
morning mash, and epsom salts given weelily at this time, will prove of great 
assistance in getting them over this period. Green food should be fed in 
abundance. 

Buns. — It will be found convenient, especially if the runs are old, to dig 
the ground over in the breeding pens and to get in a crop that will provide 
shade and green food for the breeding pens during April and May. 

Slioiuing. — In feeding birds intended for show the following hints will be 
found useful : Linseed meal or crushed sunflowers add lustre to their plumage. 
Warm soft food produces abundance of long fluff and featlier. Beans and 
peas and iron in the drinking water help towards hard feathering as in game. 
To improve condition and make birds muscular obtain from the butcher the 
windpipe of an ox with a small quantity of meat on it, and tie this in the 
run — the birds pull at it all day long ; also dig their grain-food into the 
ground. White birds should not have iron in their drinking water and, like 
buff birds, they require shade. 

Feeding. — Damaged fruit makes excellent food for poultry. 

Egg Production.- — Shift pullets as frequently as possible, but keep them 
in good condition. It is not desirable that they should lay this month if they 
can be kept back. 

Eggs. — Start selling all stored or preserved eggs, as prices generally rise 
from now on. 

General. — Young turkeys grow wonderfully if allowed to run on ^le lucerne 
plots and, incidentally, they destroy numbers of insects and grubs. If no 
lucerne plot is available they should be sent out with a herd-boy, who, by 
breaking open ant heiips, will provide an excellent food for the turkeys to the 
benefit or the veld. Young goslings should not be sent out to graze. 




Pedigree Cows. 



ISfi Journal of the Departmknt of Af:RicuLTURE. 

THE VEGETABLE GARDEN. 

February. 



By II. B. Tkrky, (^crL. H.H.S. (Loud, and S.A.), Lecturer in Horticulture, 
School of Agriculture, Potchefstroom. 



This month is the best to mukc final preparations to ensure a i)lentifu] supply 
of vegetables throughout the winter and early spring. February also marks 
the time for sowing and j)lanting of winter crops in the warmer districts. Try 
;ind get every available i)iece of land in th(> gaiden sown to produce sonu- 
vegetables for winter. 

Beetroot. — Sowings should bo made fen- succession, using Kclipse, Egyptian, 
Turnip-rooted, Half Long. 

Beans. — Dwarf beans may be sown in Eastern Province and where no I'ear 
of frost exists for the next three months. 

Beans, Broad. — Make small sowings only of Long Pod. Johnson's Wonder- 
fid, "Windsor; generally the weather is too warm. 

Brussels Spro}its. — Not very successful as a rule; now is a good time in the 
colder localities. Treat like cabbage. 

Cahbaffe. — "Sow earlv maturing sorts on ridges where th(\v are to head. Too 
late to sow generally. In the warmer districts early heading varieties may 
be sown and transplanted. 

Cauliflower. — Where this vegetable succeeds under severe conditions, trans- 
planting should be completed. Broccoli should be grown where cauliflower fails. 

Carrot. — Make a large sowing of almost any variety. 

Celery. — In Cape Provinces this may be sown for transplanting. 

Kohl Bahi. — As a substitute for turnips this is uneqiiallcd. In districts 
where turjiips fail this should be tried ; Wliito Vienna, Purple Vienna, Goliath 
are useful. 

Lettuce. — vSowings should be made of cabbage or cos varieties, according 
to desire; of the former, Boston, Iceberg, Continuity, Neapolitan; of the 
latter, try Green Paris, Trianon, London White. 

Leehs. — On the high veld only should these be sown; use Musselburgh, 
Italian Giant, Large Flag. 

Onions. — Make a general early sowing to transplajit during Aoril and May. 
vSow Early Cape Straw, Flat Red, Bermuda White, Bed, Italiari Tripoli, Extra 
Early Globe. 

Parsley.- — A sowing for succession shoidd be made now; this is a little 
dillicult to germinate at times. Shade helps. 

Parsnip. — No time should be lost in sowing this on the high veld; sow 
Hollow Crown, Stxident, Guernsey, and, for quick grower, Turni})-rooted. 

Peas. — -In Natal and the high veld sowings may be made. (Jradus, Black- 
Eyed Susan, American Wonder, William Hurst, and Daffodil shotiid be used. 

Badish. — Sowings may be general; as a change from smill turnip-rooted 
sorts try half-long varieties. They do not bolt to seed so readily, and are 
firmer. vSow French Breakfast, Olive Shape, Long Red, White Vienna. 

Spinacli.- — Continue to sow summer varieties for succession. Where a 
permanent crop is desired sow Swiss Chard in drills 2 feet apart, allowing 18 
inches apart in the rows. 

Tomatoes. — Too late to sow except under low veld conditions. Growing 
plants elsewhere should be kept off the sod if possible to prevent disease? and to 
prolong the bearing. 

Turnips. — Where this crop can be successfully grown, a large sowing should 
be made for autumn use. Suitable varieties arc Red Top, White Qlobe, Six 
Weeks, Strap Leaf, Green Globe. 

Swedes may be sown where ample supplies of water are assured. 

Potatoes should be kept well cultivated and earthed up as growth proceeds, 
Karly varieties may still be planted at the coast only. 



Notes i'rom the " Gazette." 



187 



NOTES FROM THE "GAZETTE." 



Attention is drawn to the following matters of inter 
the Union Government Gazette: — • 

(Abbreviations: " Proc "— Prochimation ; " G.N. 
Gazette. 

Items. 



st which appeared in 
Government Notice.) 



No. 
1109 



1112 
1109 
1114 



Date. 

10/12/20 



1109 10/12/20 



1109 10/12/20 



1110 17/12/20 



1110 17/12/20 



31/12/20 
10/12/20 

7/1/21 



nil 24/12/20 



nil 24/12/20 



nil 24/12/20 



1112 31/12/20 



1114 7/1/21 



1114 7/1/21 



1109 
1110 

nil 

1112 
1114 



10/12/20 
17/12/20 
24/12/20 
31/12/20 
7/1/21 



The Schednle to G.N. No. 647, 1920, having reference to the 
protected area (scab) of Smithfield, is amended by the inclu- 
sion of the farm Waterford No. 70, District Rouxville. 
(G.N. No. 2227.) 

For the purposes of the Diseases of Stock Act, the farm 
Beaulieu (sub-division of the farm Witpoort No. 551), 
Pretoria District, has been declared to be in the Witwaters- 
rand District. (G.N. No. 2228.) 

Tenders are invited by the Secretary for Lands, Pietermaritz- 
burg, for the lease, for grazing or other agricultural purposes 
for which the ground may be suitable, of portions of land 
situated in the Divisions of Impendhle and Vryheid, which 
land is unsuitable for permanent occupation by European 
settlers. (G.N. No. 2225.) 

A list of applications for the registration of brands in the 
Cape and Orange Free State Provinces is published. (G.N. 
Nos. 2133 and 215G.) 

The Secretary for Lands has notified that Lot No. 316, 
Fmpangeni, Zululand, advertised for disposal, is reported 
to be affected wath nagana. (G.N. No. 2265.) 

Crown lands will be offered for sale at the Stock Fair Pens, 
Tarkastad, 9th M:irch, 1921 (G.N. No. 2345), and at 
Upington on the 23rd February, 1921 (G.N. No. 2097), as 
amended in terms of G.N. No. 6 of 1921. 

Paragraph (2) of G N. No. 1617, hnving reference to the 
declaration of a portion of the Kenhardt District to be a 
senii-prote^ted area, has been cancelled and an amended area 
substituted. (G.N. No. 2293.) 

Under the Diseases of Stock Act tlie Minister has ordered that 
all cattle running within a portion of the Pietersburg 
District shall be branded. (G.N. No. 2294.) 

A portion of the Inconza Forest Reserve has been withdrawn 
from the demarcated forest area declared by unnumbered 
Natal G.N. dated 24th August, 1909. (G.N. No. 2301.) 

Tenders are invited by the Secretary for Lands, Pietermaritz- 
burg, for the lease of a piece of land near irmhlali Station, 
Division of Lower Tugela, Natal. (G.N. No. 2346.) 

Applications are invited for the purchase of live blesbok and 
springbok on the Grootkuil Estates, Winburg, Orange Free 
State (G.N. No. 32.) 

Ci.N. No. 647, 1920, having reference to the Protected Area 
of V.'inbarg, has been amended by the inclusion of the farms 
Commandants Pan and Tafelbaai, Kroonstad District. (G.N. 
No. 26.) 

The compulsory dipping of cattle has been ordered (a) every 
three days (in th§ three-day dip) for portions of Barberton 
and Pietersburg Districts (G.N. Nos. 2231, 2198, 2342); {h) 
every five days (in the five-day dip) for portions of Weenen, 
Idutywa, Pinetown, Ngaeleni, Richmond, and Krantzkop 
Districts (G.N. Nos. 2231, 2198, 2310, 2342, and 16); (c) 
every seven davs (in the seven-diiy dip) for a portion of 
Pretoria and Richmond Districts (G.N. Nos. 2231, 2198); 
(rf) every thirty davs in the Municipal Area of Kestell, 
Orange Free State. ' (G.N. No. 2342.) 



188 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

Gazette. 
No. Date. Items. 

1109 10/12/20 Compulsory dipping of sheep and goats under the Scab 
Regulations and the Stock Diseases Act has been ordered in 
the Districts of Graaff-Reinet, Aberdeen, "NVillowmorc, 
Albert, Wodehouse, Barkly East, and Elliot within the 
period 2nd January, 1921, and 28th February, 1921; for 
the Districts of StMtterheim, Stockenstrom, and Adelaide 
within the period 2nd January to 31st March 1921 (G.N. 
No. 2230); for the Districts of Aliwai North, Herschel, 
Wolmaransstad, and Lichtenburg within the period 2nd 
January to 30th April, 1921 (G.N. No. 2255); for the District 
of Hoopstad within the period 2nd January and 31st March, 
1921 (G.N. No. 2255). 

1114 7/1/21 Sections 36, 37, and 38 of the Stock and Produce Theft 
Repression Consolidation Act, 1893, has been put in force 
in the Division of Calvinia. (Proc. No. 8.) 

1114 7/1/21 Under the provisions of Fencing Act, No. 17 of 1912, contribu- 
tions towards the cost of dividing fences in Ward Palala, 
District of Waterberg, are declared to be obligatory. (Proc. 
No. 6.) 



THE WEATHER. 



Extracts from the Monthly Report of the Chief 
Meteorologist for the Union. 

Taken as a whole, the rainfall for December, 1920, was very partial in many 
districts, the showers being so highly localized in some instances that only 
portions of a farm benefited from the precipitation. Although rainfall was 
mostly associated with thunderstorms, which occurred on twenty-six days of 
the month, showers were comparatively light, with but little run-off. Although 
some good rains, exceeding one inch, were experienced at a number of stations, 
the beneficial effect was neutralized to a great extent by succeeding hot days 
with strong winds. The result of these conditions is that although in most 
cases crops were able to survive, growth was but slight, whilst a number of 
insect pests, particularly the mealie-borer, made their appearance in a number 
of places. In a limited number of cases crops promise a record yield, but, 
generally, heavy rains are still required for storage purposes. Late ploughing 
and planting were seriously interfered with owing to droughty conditions, 
particularly in the neighbourhood of Dundee (Natal) and the Waterberg 
(Transvaal). Hailstorms, frequently accompanied by very strong winds, caused 
in some instances not only considerable damage to crops, but also killed sheep, 
poultry, etc. 

The total rainfall for the year was below the average over the greater 
part of the Transvaal, poi'tion of the north and south-west of the Free State, 
and the west and north of Natal, and more particularly the south and south- 
east coastal areas of the Cape Province, where a severe drought was experienced 
throughout the greater part of the year. The deficiency varied from 3 to 
about 11 inches between Swellendam and Umtata, and was little short 
of these amounts over portions of the east and north of the Transvaal. In 
the western Transvaal, Orange Free State, and Natal, the shortage was 
mostly between 1 and 2 inches. On the other hand large excesses of 6 to 
20 inches were recorded in Natal, 3 to 10 inches at a few places in the south 
and east of the Transvaal, and 3 to 11 inches at several stations in the 
central and western portions of the . Cape Province. Excesses less 
than 2 inches were the exception over these areas. The cumulative rainfall 
since 1st July last was in excess of the normal by 1-4 inches over the greater 
part of the eastern and central Transvaal, Natal, and west and south-west 
of the Cape. A shortage of approximately equal amounts occurred over the 
north and west Transvaal, Orange Free State, and the central, south, and 
south-eastern portions of the Cape including the Traiiskei. The deficit was 
greatest along the south and south-east littoral and part of the north-east 
section of the Cape Province. 



Staff : Appointments, Transfers, etc. 189 



STAFF: APPOINTMENTS, TRANSFERS, ETC. 



(1) Agriculture. 

1/10/19 E. G. Hardy, Senior Dairy Inspector: Appointed Assistant Superin- 
tendent of Dairying. 
31/12/20 P. A. Steenekamp, Senior Sheep Inspector, retired. 

1/1/21 /. L. Coetzee, Senior Sheep Inspector, transferred from Gordonia 

to Aliwal North, vice P. A. Steenekamp. 
1/1/21 P. L. Swart, Humansdorp, promoted Senior Sheep Inspector, 
Gordonia, vice, J. L. Coetzee. 

(2) .Agricultural Education. 

30/11/20 A. C. Pigott, Farm Manager, Potchefstroom School, resigned. He 

is at present nianging his estates in Ireland. 
31/12/20 S. H. Skaife, Entomologist, Cedara ; Resigned in order to accept 
post of Inspector of Technical Education, Cape Province. 
15/1/21 Miss E. Ferguson (returned Oversea Scholar), appointed Demonstra- 
tor in Household Science, Elsenburg. 
31/1/21 /. G. Boss, Research Chemist, Elsenburg: Resigned in order to 
accept the Professorship of Chemistry, Transvaal University 
College. 

MOVEMENTS OF OFFICERS. 



Rfr. Theo. Potgieter, of the Orange Free State Education Department, is 
acting as Lecturer in Botany at Glen during 1921. 

Mr. V. A. Beckley, who has been studying at Cambridge, England, as a 
Government Oversea Scholar, has returned, and is to be appointed as Lecturer 
in Chemistry at Grootfontein, vice Mr. I. P. J. du Plessis, transferred to an 
analogous post at Glen. 

Mr. G. van Foreest, Live Stock Officer, has engagements at Smithfield, 
14th-17th February, and Dewetsdorp, 21st-26th February. 



THE OVERSEA MARKET. 



Cabled Advices from London during the Month of 
December, 1920. 



Maize (1st). — December-January shipments, African white flat, afloat, 
sellers, /i7s. 6d. (4bh) White flat, afloat, 57s., sellers; yellow, November- 
December shipments, 53s., sellers; loading, 54s. 9d. paid; No. 2 Rhodesian 
December, steamer, 58s. 6d. quoted. (7th) White flat, afloat, second grade 
sold at 56s. paid, and third grades 55s. paid; yellow December-January ship- 
ments were quoted at 54s. 6cl. (11th) Yellow African maize, afloat, sold at 
56s. 6d. paid; Rhodesian maize, December shipment 61s. was quoted. (24th) 
White flat December shipment, 57s. ; yellow, 54s., sellers. (4th January) South 
African white flat, afloat, 56s. ; parcels of yellow, December-January shipments, 
52s. sellers: La Plata, January-February shipments, 50s. 6d. paid. 

Wool — 4200 Bales of South African wool offered at December auctions, and 
1400 sold, but poor doraand. Greasy quality declined 20 per cent., snow- 
whites 25 per cent. Present current prices are as follows: Snow-whites, extra 
superior, 2s. 9d. to 3s.; superior, 2s. to 2s. 8d. ; medium. Is. 7d. to Is. lid.; 
inferior. Is. 3d. to Is. 6d. ; greasy combing, long, 9^d. to Is. 6d. ; medium, 
8d. to Is. Id.; clothing, light, 8d. to Is.; heavy, 5d. to 7d. 



190 



Journal of the Department op Agriculture. 



Mohair.— Summer kids, 25d. to 30d. per ]b. ; summer firsts, 15d. per lb.; 
mixed, 12d. ; Basutos, lid. ; winter kids, 17d. ; winter hair, 9d. ; prices are 
purely nominal and market remains depressed. 

Hides. — Sun dried, sound, 13jd. per lb.; salted, 12^d. per lb. 

Sheep Skins. "SoK^nd, B^d. per lb.; Capes, salted, 80s. per doz. ; Capes, 
sun dried, 60s. per doz.; coarse and coloured skins, sound, C^d. per lb. 

Angora Goat Slrins. — T.ight, 8d. per lb. ; heavy and sun dried, 8d. ; bastards, 
sound, 12d. 

Goat Skirhs. — Light, 16d. per lb.; sun dried, 16d. ; heavy, 18d. ; prices of 
Angora and ordinary goat skins are nominal. 

Ostrich Feathers. — Very little business is passing. 

Aloes. — Cape, 50s. to 683 per cwt. ; the market is weak. 

Tohocco. — -Nyasaland, 16d. to 30d. per lb. The stock of Nyasaland tobacco 
in bond in the United Kingdom at 30th ultimo was 11,000,000 lb. 

Wattle Jkuk.- — Chopped, last price £11 per ton c.i.f., Hamburg, for 
January-February shipments. Ground, small sales at £14, ex store. Extract, 
about £35, c.i.f., quite nominal. 

Maize Meal. — White, £12. 10s. \y'v ton; yollow, £12 per ton. 

Dried VrvAts (tth). — 500 Boxes of vSouth African pears were sold at 
4(js. a box; (18th) 357 packages of Cape sultanas were partly sold for 80s. 
to 97s. 

Eggs (4th). — South Afiican eggs realized 40s. to 44s,; (18th) 23i)0 cases of 
eggs arrived from South Africa and were sold at 42s. to 46s. 



MEAT STATISTICS. 



I. — Beef Inspected and Passed for Export, December, 1920. 

534 carcasses inspected, 36 rejected, 49S passed for shii):nent (Durban). 

Beef actually exported : e,c Durban, 721)1 quarters ; cm Capetowu, 430 (juartcrs. Total, 
7721 quarters. 



Total shipments of Beef in quarters — 

)91G ... 115,992 1918 ... 123,354 
1917 ... 309,214 191-9 ... 285,367 



1920 



69,885 



II. — Other Meat Exported December, 1920. 

Pork — 1935 carcasses inspected, 266 rejected, 1669 passed fur shipment. 
Total shipment of other meat 1st March, 1920, to 31si. December, 1920 : 

Pork — Carcasses, ex Capetown, 1464 ; e.v- Durban, 63. Total, 1527 carcasses. 
*Bacon— /;,<• Capetown, 80.637 lb. ; ex Durban, 435,023 lb. Total, 515,660 lb. 

III.— Return of Cattle Imported into the Union from adjoining Territories. 



Calendar Year. 


For Slaughter. 


For Breeding. 


Total. 




No. 


No. 


No. 


tl916 


26,580 


— 


26,580 


1917 


47,970 


5,440 


53,410 


1918 


36,767 


13,386 


50,053 


1919 


40,574 


16,693 


57,267 


1920 


64,333 


24,794 


89.135' 



(Note. — All beef exported is under the supervision of the Veterinary Division of this 
Department, and the above figures show the total quantity of South African Beef 
exported. Similar supervision was extended to pig products in March, 1920. — Editor.) 



* Approximate : including shipments in bales taken at 100 lb. per bale. 
1 1st July to 31st December only. 



Local Market Prices 



191 



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17 

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192 



Journal op the Department op Agriculture. 



THE LOCAL MARKET. 



Position at Mid-January, 1921. 

(Note. — The local market prices of certain other agricultural produce and stock 
are published elsewhere in this issue.) 

WOOL. 

The market continues very inactive, the demand is poor and very few transactions are 
taking place. Buyers are very particular in their selection and reluctant to make offers on 
any wools unless they are full-grown twelve months superior combings, well skirted and of 
uniform length and growth. Heavy and faulty wools are difficult to realize even at very 
low prices. Since the issue of the previous report a fair amount of business has lieen done, 
but the tendency all the way through has been towards a lower basis. 

The following quotations may he regarded as the ruling prices as at the L'th January, 
1921 :— 



12 months 



peril) 
1.5d. 



12 months'. 



1. Extra super combine 

skirted, choice ... 

2. Superior eombino-, 

skirted ... '. 13|d. 

3. Superior combing, 12 to 14 months' 

growth, skirted, deep stapled 13id. 

4. Good average combing, 12 months" 

growth ... 
T). Superior combing, 10 to 1 2 months' 
growth, skirled 



Hid. 



ILkl. 



6. Average, 10 to 12 Jnonths' growth, 

skirted ... 

7. Extra super medium. 8 to 10 

months' growth, well skirted... 

8. Super medium, 8 to 10 months' 

growth, skirted 
!). Average medium. 8 to 10 months' 

growth ... 
10. Superfine shorts, 8 months' and 

less, skirted 
12. Average shorts 



per lb 

9d. 
lOd. 

7id. 

8^d. 

9d. 
7U1. 



MOHAIR. 

The market remains extremely dull and very little Imsiness has been done. There are 
a few buyers, Init their orders are small and prices offered are low. Good long Basuto Hair 
has been sold at 9d. jier lb. and good average winter hair at 6d. per lb. The following 
prices are quoted : — 

per lb. per lb. 

Super summer kids ... ... 22d. to 24d. Mixed hair ... ... ... 8d. to 9^d. 

Good super kids 17d. „ 18d. Winter kids 18d. „ 20d. 

Superfine firsts 12d. „ 13d. j Winter hair fid.,, 8d. 

Average firsts ... ... lOd. „ lid. 



HIDES AND SKINS. 

The market is still weak and prices have declined considerably during the last few 
months. The following prices are quoted : — 



Sun-dried, sound 
Sun-dried, damaged 



Sound ... 
Sound ... 
Sound ... 
Sound ... 



Hides. 



per lb. 
. 8d. 



Dry-salted 
Fourths 



Sheepskins. 
^>ld. I Damaged 

Pelts, 
3d. I Damaged 

Goatskins. 
1 Od. I Damaged 

•Angora Skins. 
5d. I Damaged 



per lb. 
. 8d. 
. nd. 



.. 3id. 

.. Id. 

.. 2Jd. 

.. lid. 




w 



PRINCIPAL CONTENTS 



The Problem of Scab. 

Co-ordination of the Department's Work. 

The Sweet Potato and its Cultivation along the Southern Coast Belt. 

Construction of Earthen Dams. 

A New Wool Scheme. 

The Cultivation of Buchu. 

Agricultural Organization. 

White Ant Notes. 

Local Market Prices : The Rise and Fall of the Market. 

Pruning of Deciduous Fruit Trees — II. 



STEWARTS AND LLOYDS (SOUTH AFRICA), LTD, 



TUBES AND FITTINGS. 



P.O. Box 1195, 
JOHANNESBURG. 


P.O. Box 74. 
PRETORIA. 


P.O. Box 131, 
DURBAN. 


P.O. Box 296, 
MARITZBURG. 


AGENTS FOR : 

National Gas Engine Co., 
Gas, Oil, and Petrol 
Engines. 


RRIGAT ON 
AND WATER 
SUPPLY OUR 
SPECIALITY. 


AGENTS FOR : 

John Blake, Ltd., 
Hydraulic Rams. 


Eagle Engineering Co., 
Ltd., Petrol Paraffin 
Engines. 


Thomas & Sons, 
Windmills and Pumps. 


Davey Paxman & Co., 
Steam Engines and 
Boilers. 


PUMPING PLANTS, 

PIPE LINES 

AND 

POWER UNITS 

OF EVERY 

DESCRIPTION. 


Bell Bros., Ltd., Filter 
and Water-Softening 
Plants. 


Gilbert Gilkes & Co., 
Water Turbines and 
Centrifugal Pumps. 


1 
Glenfield & Kennedy, 

Hydraulic Specialities. 




Mirrlees, Bickerton & 
Day, Diesel Oil Engines. 


ESTIMATES t 
FREE OF 


AND ADVICE 
COST. 


Clydesdale Steel Plates. 



r/c 



2: 7 to 18. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



STANDARD BANK OF SOUTH AFRICA, ^ 

i-im:ited. 

(With which is incorporated the African Banking Corporation. Ltd.) 



Authorized Capital ... £10,000,000. 

Subscribed Capital ... £8,1)16,()G0. 

Paid-up Capital ... ... £2,229,165. 

Reserve Fund ... ... £2,S1),3,33.5. 



Over 4-60 Branches and Agencies in Africa. 



AGENTS AND 
CORRESPONDENTS 
THROUGHOUT THE WORLD, 

rpC=3[ZD[Z=]C=aC=]l==lu=l[I=3IZ=lCZI[ZI]C=]C=lC=DCZllZ=III=IC=ll=Z)[=ZlL^ 

D D 

□ TME D 

D ' n 

D South African Breweries, Ltd-^ d 

LI ARE THE LARGEST . U 

Bl_JYEF5S 5 

□ '"^ ■ ■ r D 

Q South African Malting BARLEY q 

D D 

j] — FOR brewing the — [] 



D. FAMOUS ... . D 

D • D 

D 

D 

n_ ^/^ -^^ J] 

l±3 C3 CZl CZD CZH CZl CZl CZl en Cm CD C31 dl CZD CD dH CD CD IZZl CZ) CZI CZ] CD CD CD CU 



CASTLE BEERS. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



THE END OF THE SEARCH. 



THE . . 
BATES STEEL 
MULE 

TRACTOR. 




THE . . 
BATES STEEL 
MULE 

TRACTOR. 



HOWARD'S FAMOUS PLOUGHS. 



BUFFALO 
PLOUGHS, 

ELEPHANT 
PLOUGHS, 

DISC 
PLOUGHS, 

Etc. 




DISC 
HARROWS, 

DRAG 
HARROWS, 

CULTI- 
VATORS, 

Etc. 



THE FAMOUS BARB WIRE. 

BARB WIRES, ^B,^xr^__ ^^^^^' 

PLAIN WIRES, ^^1^^^^^'^^'^'''''''^'^''^!^^ / f'OS^S' 
STANDARDS, %!{C®^Q/\RBA|N| I A^^t STRAINERS, 



DROPPERS, 
Etc. 



CORNER 
POSTS, Etc. 



WILLIAM BAIN & Co. (S.A.), Ltd., 

JOHANNESBURG. 



Telegrams: "LOCHRIIN." 
P.O. Box 2724. 



Also at SALISBURY, 
Rhodesia. 



TELEPHONES: 
3962 and 3963. 



CONTENTS. 



MARCH, 1921. 



Page 
Notes ... ... ... ... ... ... 193 

The Problem of Scab — Pica Survey — Retirement of tlie Principal Veterinary 
Officer — Agricultural Organization — Co-ordination of the Department's Work 
— The World's Crops — Buchu — The Sweet Potato : Its Extended Use — Export 
of Maize : The 1919-20 Crop — Veld Burning and Oyerstocking — Construction 
of Earthen Dams — Currants : The Union's Deficient Production — Index of 
"Journal" (page 222) — Plant Nurseries in Quarantine (page 229) — Average 
Yields of Certain Crops (page 239) — Export of Grain, etc. (page 252) — Kinds 
of Cotton Gins to Use (page 265) — Fruit Export (page 268) — World Crops : 
Special Cabled Advice from the International Institute of Agriculture, Rome, 
respecting the position of certain world crops (page 274) — Citrus Scale Insects 
(page 276) — Outbreaks of Animal Diseases : January. 1921 (page 281) — Meat 
Statistics : January, 1921 (page 285). 

Departmental Activities ... ... ... ... ... ... 204 

co-okdination of the department's work ... ... ... ... 218 

The Cultivation of Buchu ... ... ... ... ... ... 223 

The Sweet Potato and its Cultivation along the Southern Coast Belt 229 

The Problem of Scab ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 240 

Construction of Earthen Dams... ... ... ... ... ... 244 

Local Market Prices : The Rise and Fall op the Market ... ... 253 

Agricultural Organization ... ... ... ... ... ... 256 

White Ant Notes ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2(36 

Pruning of Deciduous Fruit Trees ... ... ... ... ... 268 

A New Wool Scheme ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 275 

The Vegetable Garden ... ... ... ... 277 

The Poultry Yard Month by Month ... ... ... ... ... 278 

Notes from the "Gazette" ... .... ... ... ... ... 279 

Staff : Appointments, Transfers, etc. ... ... ... ... ... 280 

The Weather ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2S1 

The Oversea Market ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 282 

Local Market Prices ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 283 

The Local Market ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 284 

Recent Agricultural Literature ... ... ... ... ... 286 



DEPARTMENTAL NOTICE. 



There is a quantity of the following wheat, barley, and early rye seed 
available for di&posnl at the School of Agriculture and Experiment Station, 
Potchefstroom. Applications, with remittance, should be forwarded to the 
Principal: — 

■Wheat. — American No. 8 (a medium late variety of good milling quality 
and resistant to- attack by birds), to be sold in quantities not less than or 
exceeding 1 bag at £2. 10s. ; Comeback, Spring Early, Fourie, Bombay (very 
similar to Klein Keren;, and Lalkasarwali (an early, bearded variety, short- 
strawed, and a. very good yielder under irrigation), in quantities not less than 
or exceeding 60 lb., at 18s. 

Early Rye,. — In quantities not exceeding or less than 60 lb., at 12s. 6d. 

Barley. — Variety, Smj'rna (an early, high yielding, six-row barley), in 
quantities not exceeding or less than 50 lb., at 10s. 



AGRICULTURAL SHOW SEASON, 1921. 



List of Agricultural Shows 
Unions, still to be held. 



compiled from details furnished by the Agricultural 



CAPE PROVINCE. 



Rosebank — 1st to 4th Maich (inclusive). 

Graaff-Reinet — 2nd and 3rd March. 

Aliwal North — 2nd to -ith March (inclusive). 

Cradock — 7th March. 

Port Elizabeth — 8th to 1 1th March (inclusive). 

Queenstown — 9th and 10th March. 



Dordrecht— 15th and 16th March. 
Komgha — 1st and 2nd April. 
Kingwilliamstown — 27th to 29th April (in- 
clusive). 
East London — ith and 5th May. 



ORANGE FREE STATE. 



Lady brand — 1st and 2nd March. 
Winburg — 1st and 2nd March. 
Bethlehem — 2nd and 3rd March. 
Thaba "Nchu— 8th and 9th March. 
Senekal— 9th and 10th March. 



Vrede — 9th and lOth March. 
Central Show (Blocmfontein)- 

March (inclusive). 
Harrismith — Early April. 



-16th to 19th 



TRANSVAAL. 



Amersfoort — 2nd and 3rd March. 
Carolina — 8th March. 
Ermelo — 16th and 17th March. 
Johannesburg — 23rd to 28th ilarch (^in- 
clusive). 



Standerton — 13th and 14th April. 
Heidelberg— 27th and 28th April. 
Klerksdorp— 10th and 11th May. 
Pietersburg— 24th to 26th May (inclusive). 
Pretoria — 31st May and 1st June. 




Journal of the Department 
OF Agriculture. 



Vol.- 11. ; MARCH, 1921. , No. 3. 



Published monthly in English and Afrikaans by the Department of Agriculture, 

Union of South Africa. 

Editor: G. IV. Kterck. 

Subscription : Within the Union and Sonth-West Protectorate, 5s, (otherwise 6Sm) 
per annum, post free, payable in advance. 

Applications, with subscriptions, to be sent to the Government 
Printer, Box 378, Pretoria. 



NOTES. 

The Problem of Scab. 

The eradication of scab is a subject which has engaged the atten- 
tion of farmers and officials for many years past, yet our best efforts 
iiave not succeeded in ridding the country of a pest which is costing 
us vast sums of money annually. In Australia the disease was tackled 
and disposed of in a comparatively short time, while here we still 
labour under the burden which the baneful presence of scab imposes 
on us. But public opinion has been intensifying in recent years 
against the continuance of this great disability and demands lare 
insistently being made that other means should now be found ;for 
effectually and finally extirpating the disease, seeing that our present 
policy has not proved entirely effective. A definite stage in the 
increasing desire for new methods in dealing with scab was 
reached at the last meeting of the Agricultural Advisory Board 
(representative of organized farmers), when' a resolution was passed 
recommending the adoption of the principle of direct taxation. Very 
few farmers realize what the present system for the control of scab 
is costing them eveiy year, because they are paying for it in indirect 
taxation, but if each sheep farmer had to pay a direct tax until his 
district was free of scab, the incentive to remove the cause of the tax 
would be so great that scab, it is held, would speedily be eradicated. 
The matter is dealt with at length elsewhere in this issue ; it is One 
of supreme importance to farmers for the policy outlined fore- 
shadows the adoption of new methods in South Africa, confidently 
anticipated to have far-reaching, beneficial results. 

The Department wishes to have the benefit of the views of the 
farming community, and an invitation is now extended to all farmers' 
associations and other agriculturaU bodies in the Union to give an 
expression of opinion on the suggested policy for dealing with sc^b. 
All cominunic^li(;iis sl)( uld be addressed to the Secretary for Agri- 
culture, Pretoria, 

7 



194 Journal of the Department op Agriculture. 



Pica Survey. 

The term "pica" in the ordinary dictionary sense means a 
depraved appetite of any sort and of any origin. There are various 
forms of pica which is found in the human as well as in the animal. 
As to the latter it is well known that over large areas of South Africa 
cattle show an abnormal craving, particularly for bones, being indeed 
of such common occurrence in some districts that it is becoming 
accepted by farmers as a natural feature in their animals. In some 
districts the craving is mild, while in others it becomes so acute that 
cattle are found to gather around the homestead or the hut, devour 
washing, bags, clothes, riems, skins, and miscellaneous rubbish, and 
persistently return when driven away. At present abnormal craving 
is regarded as a nervous disorder and its vagaries are many, for the 
best-conditioned animals are usually those which show the worst 
craving, and as their condition falls off their craving abates. While 
the Department possesses a degree of information on pica and its 
relation to the lack of phosphorus in the pasture, there is need for a 
much extended knowledge of an occurrence which may have a direct 
bearing on many of our animal diseases. The investigations into 
the disease of lamziekte and the discovery of Sir Arnold Theiler that 
it is connected with a craving for bones on the part of animals in 
certain areas of the Union, have convincingly proved the extreme 
importance of pica in the causation of one at least of our dreaded 
diseases, and it is considered that the time has arrived when a com- 
prehensive survey of the Union should be undertaken Avith a view to 
ascertaining the districts in which pica exists and the connection 
between this craving and the various types of veld found in the 
Union. It is known, for instance, that certain differences in regard 
to pica in its relation to lamziekte exist on the various types of South 
African veld, such as sour grass veld, sweet grass veld, etc., but 
what these differences are and what they have to be ascribed to is at 
present unknown. The matter is of great importance to this country, 
and in order to clear up the problems surrounding pica it Avill be 
necessary to consider all factors bearing on the chemical composition 
of the pasture, the veld flora, soil composition, and the behaviour of 
animals towards bones. 

The question has been before the Government, and the Minister 
of Agriculture has approved of what is to be known as the " Pica 
Survey " being undertaken in all parts of South xifrica and under 
all possible conditions. The survey will include (1) the actual pica 
test, i.e. the bone-eating test on the cattle present on the farm; (2) 
a chemical analysis of representative samples of the pasture, collected 
at different periods of the year; (3) a botanical survey of the area, 
in order to establish definitely the differences between the various 
types of veld ; and (4) a soil survey of the farms on which the tests 
are carried out. 

The data which will be collected as a result of the Pica Survey 
will undoubtedly be of the utmost value in the further study of animal 
diseases in South Africa, more especially that group of diseases which 
the farmer, since early times, has vaguely associated with the veld. 
And not only in this direction will benefit follow, for it can reason- 
ably be expected that the work will be of Aalue to other branches of 
science as well. The Department is in the fortunate position of being 



iio'tm. 195 

able to undertake the survey which entails the co-ordination and co- 
operation of those of its Divisions concerned, and an endeavour is 
being made to commence operations immediately. 



Retirement of the Principal Veterinary Ofl&cer. 

Mr. C. K Gray, M.E.C.Y.S., the Principal Veterinary Officer 
for the Union, is now on leave of absence and will retire from the 
Public Service on the 9th May, 1921. Son of the Controller of Tele- 
graphs of the General Post Office, Edinburgh, Mr. Gray was born 
and educated in Scotland, and in 1879 entered the Scottish Postal 
Telegraph Service, in which he spent seven years. He subsequently 
entered the Royal (Dick) Veterinary College, Edinburgh, and after 
qualifying and spending some time in practice in the Midlands went 
to the United States, where he practised for several years as a 
veterinary surgeon. 

Mr. Gray came to South Africa in 1895, and finding no suitable 
opening in a veterinary capacity joined the Phodesian Telegraph 
Service, remaining in it until the rinderpest invasion of 1896 when, 
on the recommendation of Dr. Hutcheon, then Chief Veterinary 
Surgeon for the Cape Colony, he was employed by the Chartered 
Company to investigate the disease, the subsequent operations under- 
taken for its eradication being carried out on his recommendations. 
But the Matabele rebellion put a stop, unfortunately, to these opera- 
tions, and Mr. Gray served in the ensuing campaign, and at the close 
of the war again took up work with the Ehodesian Telegraph Service. 
Shortly afterwards, however, he was commissioned by the Chartered 
Company to acquaint himself with the new method of dealing with 
rinderpest discovered by Professor Koch, and upon completion thereof 
was employed in Phodesia in a veterinary capacity. Further service 
in connection with rinderpest was rendered by Mr. Gray in 1897, 
when he was lent to the Native Affairs Department of the Cape Colony 
for that purpose. From then onwards he was placed in charge of, 
and was mainly responsible in building up, the Rhodesian Veterinary 
Division. 

Mr. Gray's association with our veterinary service dates from 
April, 1905, when he accepted the appointment of Principal 
Veterinary Officer for the Transvaal. He served in this capacity 
until Union, when he was appointed to the post which he is now 
relinquishing. 

Mr. Gray was called upon to perform many arduous and exacting 
duties connected with his important office, and his name will be 
closely associated with the control of the live stock pests of South 
Africa during an important stage of the country's development. Of 
his special services, we may mention his last, when he directed the 
operations of the Rinderpest Expedition sent to German East Africa 
in 1917 by the joint administrations of the South African Govern- 
ments. The object of the expedition was to check the southward 
spread of rinderpest, a task of considerable difficulty owing to the 
East African campaign then in progress. The efforts of the expedi- 
tion were crowned with success and the southward trend of the 
disease checked, but it meant the inoculation of close on one hundred 
thousand head of cattle, in a zone of country practically unexplored, 
extending from Lake Nyasa to Lake Tanganyika. 



196 Journal op the Department of Agriculture. 



Agricultural Organization. 

It is very evident that farmers of South Africa are 
realizing- more and more the great importance of organization 
and the benefits co-operation brings. The agricultural industry, 
like practically every phase of industrial activity, depends for 
full success on efficient organization. This has been very patent 
during the past few years and the spirit of co-operation is 
spreading" far and wide. The Department has constantly urged the 
necessity of farmers' organizations and endeavoured to promote the 
well-being' of our agriculturists through this agency. At this stage 
of our development when co-operation is recognized as an essential to 
success, the article on " Agricultural Organization," by Mr. Melle, 
of the Division of Botany, published in this issue, will be read with 
benefit by all interested in the matter. In discussing the subject, the 
author takes three heads, viz., (1) organization of the farm; (2) 
organization of farmers in regard to the purchase of their require- 
ments and the disposal of their produce ; and (3) organization in its 
relationship between the State and the farmer. The article is written 
in a plain, practical manner, and is designed to add to the cumulative 
evidence of the necessity for proper organization in our agricultural 
industry. 



Co-ordination of the Department's Work. 

An important conference of Chiefs of Divisions and Principals of 
the Schools of Agriculture and Experiment Stations took place at 
Pretoria in January, 1921, as a result of which certain broad 
principles were agreed upon for the future working of the Depart- 
ment. The agricultural industry of South Africa is so intimately 
concerned with the work of the Department that the subject is of 
direct importance to every farmer, and we publish elsewhere a brief 
account of the conference and the matters discussed. The Depart- 
ment desires to keep in close touch with the farmer, and to this end 
wishes to make known its aspirations and work through the medium 
of the Journal and other channels at its command ; it is felt, there- 
fore, that the importance of the conference will be realized by all, and 
that the principles agreed upon will prove wise and enduring. 



The World's Crops. 

According to the December, 1920, report of the International 
Institute of Agriculture the estimated cereal crops for 1920 show no 
material change in quantity ; the quality of Canadian grain is reported 
as excellent. The 1920-21 wheat crops of Argentina, Australia, and 
South Africa were grown on an aggregate area 13 per cent, greater 
than that of 1919, but 10 per cent, below the five years' average. 

The autumn-sown crops of Europe and the United States have, 
generally speaking, made favourable progress. In Egypt an 
increased area will be available for cereals, as it is expected that 
cotton growing will be reduced owing to the decline in the price. 

Between 12th November and 10th December all the important 
rates of ocean freight for grain declined by 25 per cent, to 30 per 
cent., while the prices for North American wheat were also rather 
lower. 



Notes. 197 

Buchu. 

As is well known, biichii leaves contain valuable medicinal pro- 
perties widely used as a diuretic and stomachic. It has lono- been 
known at the Cape as a remedy for stomachic troubles, being taken as 
an infusion in brandy, and is now being extensively used in South 
African medical practice. Of our exports the bulk goes to the United 
States, where it is used as a compound in certain proprietary 
medicines ; among English and continental chemists, however, it is 
not -generally known. The first exportation of buchu from South 
Africa was in 1821, and since then there has been a steady trade in 
this commodity. Up to the time of the war the quantity exported 
did not show very great variations, but in recent years there has been 
a falling off in export trade. The average annual export for the 
five years 1910 to 1914 was 204,271 lb., valued at £30,394, while the 
average for the five years 1915 to 1919 was 130,161 lb., valued at 
£23,937. In 1900 the average price of export buchu was 4d. per lb., 
gradually rising to 8d. in 1909. The next year there was a large 
increase, the price being Is. 9d. per lb., followed by 2s. 9d. per lb. 
in the succeeding year. Since then the price has never been below 
3s., while in 1919 it was nearly 5s. per lb. These prices are the 
average, of course, for all grades exported, but for the best variety 
(Barosma hetulina) much higher prices were obtained; for instance, 
in 1917 good round leaf {B. hetulina) obtained 6s. 3d. per lb., while 
the Capetown market price in 1920 ranged from 9s. to lis. per lb. 
In the 1919-20 Annual Report of the Capetown Chamber of Commerce 
it is stated that " our market here opened with quotations of 6s. per 
lb., but little business was done until prices advanced to 7s. and 
7s. 6d. Even these figures were not long maintained, and soon 8s. 
was not considered a high price." In London the average price 
during 1914-19 was 2s. 5d. to 5s. 6d. per lb., according to quality. 

In a valuable article on the subject which appeared in the South 
African Journal of Industries (Vol. I, No. 1), Dr. Phillips (now of 
the Division of Botany) remarks that the questions which should 
occupy the close attention of those interested in the buchu trade 
are: — " (1) Whether it will pay to cultivate the various species of 
Barosma, for which there is an outlet, especially B. hetulina; (2) 
the gathering of the leaves at the right time and the proper curing, 
so as to obtain a good, dark, green leaf with the maximum quantity 
of essential oil ; (3) the proper grading of consignments, which should 
be quite free from adulterants." 

An interesting article on buchu by Mr. G. R. von Wielligh was 
published in the Agricultural Journal of July, 1913, in which the 
author referred to the manner in which this valuable plant has been 
injudiciously exterminated, and to the detrimental effect of continual 
veld fires in destroying seedlings and young plants, the result being 
that farms once possessing lucrative fields of buchu have been 
devastated to such an extent that to-day plants are found on them in 
isolated places only, and do not pay the cost of gathering the leaves. 

The world demand for both the buchu herb and oil is rapidly 
increasing, and the future prospects of buchu as a field crop are good, 
so that increased interest is being taken in the cultivation of the 
plant, and experiments in this direction have recently been carried 
out at the National Botanic Gardens at Kirstenbosch, with very 
satisfactory results, and we publish in this issue an article which 



198 Journal of the Department op Agriculture. 

affords valuable and up-to-date information on the subject. The 
greater part of the article, including the whole of the information 
on the practical methods of cultivation of the buchu plant, has been 
written by the Curator of the National Botanic Gardens, while certain 
other details have been added by the Director, who will be pleased 
to assist growers with further information arising out of the experi- 
ments at Kirstenbosch. 



The Sweet Potato: Its Extended Use. 

At present the sweet potato is used in South Africa solely as a 
human and stock food, and the area under the crop suffices to meet 
the demand. But given a wider use for the tuber, there are areas of 
land suitable for its production which could meet a demand far in 
excess of the present one. In view, therefore, of the shortage and 
high cost of petrol, Dr. Juritz, the Agricultural Research Chemist, 
draws attention to the possibilities of utilizing the sweet potato in 
the production of alcohol on a large scale in order to serve as a basis 
for liquid fuel. A cheap, industrial alcohol is needed, and Dr. Juritz, 
who has considered the possibilities of the prickly pear fruit and the 
sugar beet, is of opinion that in South Africa the sweet potato 
probably offers the best facilities for producing a raw material for 
the purpose. Particularly there is an extended belt of country 
between Riversdale and Humansdorp, an outside limit of nearly 200 
miles, available for sweet potato culture and in view of the possibi- 
lities facing it. Dr. Juritz has prepared a valuable article, the first 
part of which we publish elsewhere in this issue, on the sweet potato 
and its cultivation, which will prove of great benefit to growers. In 
supplying the law material for the manufacture of a cheap, industrial 
alcohol, the cost of production is a most important item; in the 
eastern sweet potato section of the United States the cost of produc- 
tion is given at £16. 10s. 2d. per acre (not including the cost of 
hauling to market), while in many sections of the southern States 
the corresponding cost would not exceed £8 per acre. Against this 
the produce of an acre has often realized as much as from £20 to 
£30. From information obtained from the largest grower of sweet 
potatoes in the Union, it is found that it costs him approximately 
£6. 12s. per acre, excluding costs of bags and cartage, cuttings, and 
manure. This farmer has obtained a yield as high as 16,000 lb. per 
acre, but the average Union yield, according to the 1918 Census is 
3390 lb. For various reasons the latter figure is considered unduly 
low. Taking individual districts, we find that the average in Oudts- 
hoorn was 7632 lb. per acre, while others produced an average rang- 
ing from 4600 to 5700 lb. The average in the United States is 
approximately 5340 lb. per acre. 

The sweet potato is already used in other countries for the produc- 
tion of alcohol, and Germany offers a striking example of what can 
be done in this respect with the common or Irish potato and the ways 
in which agriculture benefited as a result. Dr. Juritz refers to this 
in his article. Altogether the author opens up a wide field of 
enterprise and his observations and advice, largely based on the 
information gleaned from a practical grower in the George district, 
will enable the farmer to acquaint himself w^ith the economic and 
cultural aspects of the subject, preparing him to cope Avith such 
increasing demands for his product as may follow activity in the 
local manufacture of industrial alcohol. 



Notes. 199 

Export of Maize : The 1919-20 Crop. 

On the 19tli August, 1920, the Controller of Imports and Exports 
called for applications for the export of 500,000 bags of maize or 
maize meal. On the 13th October he asked for applications for the 
export of a further 500,000 bags. 

Allotments were made of 498,433 bags on the 9tli and 10th Sep- 
tember, 1920, and of 591,250 bags on 27th and 28th October, a total 
of 1,089,683 bags. 

Of the first allotment only 25,000 bags went to the co-operative 
societies, and of the second allotment 250,000 bags. Of the total 
allotment of 1,089,683 bags, 275,000 went to co-operative societies. 

According to the Railway Administration the following quantities 
V ere railed : — 

September, 74,551 bags; October, 211,383 bags; November, 
160,566 bags; December, 105,116 bags; a total of 551,616 
bags. 

The Administration says that it was in a position to rail much 
more than these quantities, but they were not asked by exporters to 
rail more. 

The following were the oversea and Johannesburg prices respec- 
tively, betAveen May, 1920, and 6th January, 1921: — 

- Oversea. Johannesburg. 

May, 1920 32s. 3d.— 33s. 4d. 28s.— 33s. 3d. 

June, 1920 29s. 2d.— 30s. 3d. 20s. 6d.— 23s. 9d. 

July, 1920 — 21 s. 6d.— 23s. 7d. 

August, 1920 ... 32s. 3d.— 33s. 4d. 19s. 3d.— 21s. 6d. 

September, 1920 33s. 4d. 21s.— 22s. 6d. 

October, 1920 ... 27s. 6d. 18s.— 20s. 2d. 

November, 1920 . 23s. lid. 13s. 9d.— 16s. 9d. 

December, 1920 . 23s. 9d. 13s.— 15s. 9d. 

6th Jan., 1921 .. — 12s. 9d.— 13s. lOd. 

It will be seen that prices dropped considerably and consistently 
since September, and that railings for export dropped similarly since 
October. 

The Argentine is the biggest exporting country, and the price 
of maize in Europe depends almost entirely on Argentine production. 
The production of the Argentine and the Union in 191.9 and 1920 
was as follows : — 

1919. 1920. 

Argentine 62,840,000 bags. 72,497,000 bags. 

South Africa 11,598,000 bags. 12,327,000 bags. 

There seems to be no doubt that this large increase in the 
Argentine production in 1920 over 1919, combined with increased 
shipping facilities, chiefly caused the decline in prices. 



200 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

Of 814,683 bags allotted to private exporting firms, applications 
for railing 551,610 bags were made to the end of December, while 
the Railway Administration states that it was able and willing to rail 
at any time more than it was asked to do. 

The system of permits for the export of maize was withdrawn on 
the 23rd November, 1920. Between 1st December, 1920, and the 
31st January, 1921, the quantity railed to the coast for export was : — 

Maize 292,207 bags. 

Maize products 100,390 bags. 

Total 392,597 bags. 



Veld Burning and Overstocking. 

It is not surprising that a matter of such moment to a pastoral 
country as the preservation of its pasturage should form the subject 
of much discussion and speculation by those whose prosperity depends 
principally on the vegetation of the veld. Indeed, it is strange that 
more serious thought has not been given to the proper study and 
investigation of the many problems connected with the veld which 
mean so much to stock raising- in South Africa. As it is, veld burn- 
ing for the purpose of assisting nature in replenishing the pasturage, 
a practice which has been in vogue since the early days of South 
Africa's history, has been discussed by generations of our farmers, 
and while some are convinced that the practice is beneficial, there 
are others again who strongly denounce it and join to their own 
experience the evidence seen in parts of the country, formerly covered, 
according to the writings of early travellers, with luxuriant vegeta- 
tion, and now of sadly diminished stock-feeding capacity, due, so it 
is ascribed, to veld burning and overstocking, each producing sub- 
sidiary effects leading eventually to a changed vegetation. 

The keen obseiwation of the farmer has led to many shrewd theories 
on some of the problems which still confront us and on those which, 
happily, have now been solved, but on the subject of veld burning- 
there is no general consensus, and the question is likely to be a vexed 
one until it has been thoroughly investigated in a scientific manner. 
It is pleasing to know, therefore, that a problem which has exercised 
the minds of our farmers for many years, and of which the solving 
will be fraught with incalculable benefits to the country, is now 
receiving the special attention of the Department, and the necessary 
research is being carried out by the Botanical Survey under the 
directorship of Dr. Pole Evans, Chief of the Division of Botany. The 
investigation is in progress, and two stages have already been reached 
in a series of experiments on veld burning which are being conducted 
by Dr. Phillips, of the Botanical Division. The results so far obtained 
are published (a) in the South African Journal of Science, Yol. 
XYI, January-March, 1920, under the title, " A Preliminary Eeport 
on the Veld-burning Experiments at Groenkloof, Pretoria," and 
(b) in Science Bulletin No. 17 (1920), " Veld-burning Experiments 
at Groenkloof " (Second Report).* Both articles are written by Dr. 
Phillips. 

* Obtainable from this office, price Sd.. prepaid. 



Notes. 201 

In discussing tlie matter with Dr. Pliillips, particularly the many 
opinions which exist as to the soundness or otherwise of the practice 
of veld burning, this officer states that when it is considered that the 
divergent views expressed are those of our most practical farmers, 
one is almost forced to the conclusion that there is more than an 
element of truth in the theories advanced by both sides. He points 
out that the work recently undertaken by Dr. Bews, in Natal, shows 
that the grass A^eld in some cases is only a stage in the succession to 
tree veld, which means that burning must be practised to keep back 
the succession in order to graze stock, while in other parts of the 
country the veld in its final stage is a grass veld, where the practice 
of burning may prove harmful. It is clear, therefore, that no 
general principle can be applied, and in the research now being 
carried out each area will need to be studied and investigated 
independently, and not until the response of the natural flora to 
external factors is thoroughly understood will it be possible to make 
any suggestion as to the proper treatment of each particular area. 

There can be no doubt that when once the changes occurring in 
the veld through the various causes which operate in practical farm- 
ing to-day are understood, it will be possible to control them, with 
the result that stock-farming in all its branches will advance consider- 
ably. The value of investigations on the natural flora of agricultural 
and pastoral countries is now being recognized, especially in America. 
In that country during the past decade the grazing value of farms 
has received attention and the areas have been divided into various 
grazing types, the maximum carrying capacity estimated, the results 
of overgrazing investigated, and suggestions put forward for the 
improvement of the grazing ranges. Dr. L. Cockayne, a well-known 
New Zealand Botanist, remarks: "If the reaction of a plant to the 
outer world be sufficiently known, it should be possible to so change 
the conditions of its environment that its frequency in an association 
could be so increased or decreased as its agricultural value may 
suggest." Dr. Cockayne has remarked also that ''' once the different 
classes of agricultural land are segregated for the next scientific 
process — intensive ecological investigations and experiment — then it 
can be truly said that the day of intensified national prosperity has 
dawned." 

Equally important and allied to veld burning, is the question of 
stocking a farm to its optimum capacity, which we do not thoroughly 
understand, as no systematic and detailed work has yet been done to 
determine the effects of grazing by stock on the natural vegetation. 
The four kinds of stock usually handled, viz., cattle, horses, sheep, 
and goats, have not only a more or less definite preference for certain 
types of grazing, but the effects of their grazing differ markedly. 
It is patent, therefore, that in view of the various and diversified 
stock areas of South Africa the investigation of the problem opens up 
wide possibilities and calls for the most careful attention, and to 
this end the experiments now being conducted by the Division of 
Botany at Pretoria have been started. Arrangements are being made, 
also, for a similar series of experiments in respect of the different 
types of veld throughout the Union. When once the effects of burn- 
ing and grazing are fully understood, suggestions will naturally 
follow as to the best methods of preserving and controlling the veld 
in such a way that it will yield its maximum grazing, and land 



202 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

which has become poor or worthless grazing- veld as the result of harsh 
treatment may then be restored to good pasture. Dr. Sim, in a 
recent paper on " Soil Erosion and Conservation," rightly points out 
that vegetation as a preservative covering is protective against 
(1) isolation, (2) drought, (3) radiation, (4) wind, (5) flood, and 
(6) donga formation. It is not an extravagant statement that in 
almost every problem which confronts the South African farmer 
to-day, the primary cause may be traced back to the native vegeta- 
tion : it is the starting point at which all investigations must com- 
mence. 

Now that we are on the road leading to a definite pronouncement 
on a matter striking to the roots of our pastoral system, we feel sure 
that the progress of the experiments wnll be followed by our farmers 
with the greatest interest. These experiments involve a great deal 
of research and studying of the many factors affecting the 
subject, and the data collected as the work proceeds will be published 
from time to time and reference made thereto in the Journal; farmers 
wishing to study the development of the experiments stage by stage 
should obtain the publications referred to above and those which will 
be issued by the Department in the future. It will be understood, 
however, that a matter requiring so much research and piecing 
together of evidence will be a lengthy process, and, while the Depart- 
ment will immediately make known any facts of practical use which 
its investigations may reveal as the experimental data accumulate, it 
is likely that considerable time will elapse before the final experiment 
is carried to a conclusion, when we shall be able definitely to decide 
upon the treatment of a problem which has remained unsolved for 
so many years. 



Construction of Earthen Dams. 

The story of irrigation enterprise in South Africa shows how the 
early methods of flood irrigation in vogue in the Cape Colony have 
given way to the need of securing a more -secure supply of water 
during critical seasons of the year, and to-day conservation is the 
keynote of the Government's policy. In like manner the individual 
farmer requires his own conservation scheme, a matter of supreme 
importance and one calling for the consideration of many factors, 
each of which is essential to the success of the scheme. As a guide to 
farmers contemplating the construction of earthen dams, we publish 
in this issue an article on the subject by Mr. I. J. P. Kleyn, C.E., of 
the Irrigation Department, who, with the help of diagrams, points 
out the various factors to be observed and describes the progressive 
processes in the construction of a dam. One of the steps to be taken 
is, of course, the careful investigation of the proposed site for the 
reservoir, and it is here, Mr. Kleyn states, that expert advice may 
become necessary. The Government offers this assistance, and 

application forms may be obtained from the Irrigation Department, 
Pretoria, for use by any bona fide farmer who requires such assistance. 
The object of the article is to assist the farmer to a right appreciation 
of what should be done and much of what should be avoided, and 
will form a valuable addition to the existing informati^on on a subject 
of such general interest in South Africa. 



Notes. 203 

Currants: The Union's Deficient Production. 

Are the climatic and economic conditions of Australia so mucL 
more favourable than ours that that country is able to g-row currants 
and transport the product thousands of miles by land and .'ea to tlie 
heart of the Union in successful competition with the locally u'rown 
article? We think not, yet the Customs returns reveal the fact that 
the great bulk of the Union's supply of currants, a commodity o; 
general and constant use, is obtained from Australia. The total 
quantity of currants recently imported into the Unioa was as 
follows : — 

1918 179,819 lb. Value £5891. 

1919 1,214,914 1b. Value £39,463. 

Against these importations must be shown the quantity of the 
imported article sent out of the Union, mostly to adjacent territories 
such as South- West Protectorate, Portuguese East Africa, British 
East Africa, etc., amounting to 8143 lb. in 1918, and 13,674 lb. in 
1919. Deducting these re-exported quantities, we find that the net 
importations into the Union representing our consumption of the 
imported cunrant was in 1918, 171,676 lb., valued at £5496; and in 
1919, 1,201,240 lb., valued at £38,756. 

We live in a country bountifully endowed by nature to raise the 
produce of the vine, yet our farmers are apparently content to lose a 
market at their doors worth nearly £40,000 in 1919, while at the same 
time our trade in currants with adjacent markets, which are surely 
the natural outlet for our own product, is largely met by re-exporting 
the imported article. 

Our local production, and that not of tbe best variety of currant, 
is small. The 1919 census shows that for the year ended xlpril, 1919, 
the output was 68,600 lb. At the valuation placed on our exports of 
locally grown currants, which is negligible in quantity, our 1918-19 
production of currants was worth about £5000. 

These figures will enable us to gauge the present dimensions of 
our market. The matter is worth the consideration of those 
sufficiently enterprising to take the opportunity of reaping the benefit 
of a local market for currants which is now supplied by a country 
thousands of miles distant. But a change in our methods is necessary 
before this can be attained. Our local production is almost 
entirely from what is known as the South African currant, whilst the 
article of commerce is obtained from the Zante or Grecian vine. 
This is the vine grown in Australia. It is a far heavier bearer than 
our small South African currant. 

We make the suggestion, therefore, that a profitable enterprise 
in currant growing* for the markets of the Union and adjacent terri- 
tories, at least, awaits the grower in those parts suitable for the 
cultivation of the Zante currant vine. The vine is being propagated 
at this Department's Viticultural Experiment Station at Paarl, and 
cuttings are available for those wishing to take up currant culture. 
The Zante vine cultivation does not call for any special treatment, 
although it may be mentioned that in order to produce heavy crops 
it requires cincturing. 



204 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



DEPARTMENTAL ACTIVITIES 



January, 1921. 



(Note. — The work of the several Divisions and Schools of Agriculture covers a w^ide 
range of agricultural industry in the Union, and we give hereunder notes and observations 
from certain of them treating with matters of special interest coming under their purview 
during the month. The object of these notes, which are not concerned with general routine 
work, is to inform the farmer of such matters as are calculated to be of interest and helpful 
to him at the present time. — Editor.J 



THE DIVISIONS. 



ENTOMOLOGY. 



Locusts. — At the time of writing, 1st February, the brown locust, 
ix) all hopper stages, is present in great numbers over an extensive 
area of the Karroo, embracing more or less of the Graaff-Reinet, 
Aberdeen, Pearston, Jansenville, and Steytlerville districts. The 
outbreak is decidedly worst in the Graaff-Reinet district. These 
locusts are descendants of scattered locusts that occurred in the area 
a few months ago. For a time it seemed quite probable that the new 
generation Avould be only in trifling numbers, owing to the good work 
doni; with poison, supplemented by the depredations of birds. But, 
ewmg to the insects being so scattered, it was impracticable to fore- 
cast with any certainty what was in store ; and almost the worst fears, 
not the highest hopes, have materialized. The present hoppers seemed 
disposed to gather into genuine swarms at first, but now to be spread 
out to so great an extent that the effective use of poison is difficult. 
However, along with the scattered individuals and small clusters, there 
are a great many real swarms, large and small, and these are being 
combatted energetically. Hundreds of drums of poison were rushed 
to the area by passenger train, and the farmers are proving themselves 
tl oroughly progressive and public-spirited in their use of it. Many 
t)f the farms are of enormous size and much infested. One holding of 
80,000 acres is leported to be overrun with the pest to about one- 
quarter its extent. In coloration the insects are variable, having some 
protective resemblance to their environment as we now recognize to 
be normal in individuals of this species of locust when not bred in true 
swarms. Senior Locust Officer F. Thomsen is in the Karroo to 
exercise general oversight over the locust work there on behalf of the 
Division. The several magistrates concerned are ably doing their 
part to make the work successful ; and they have been very fortunate 
m having men of tact, energy, and ability as locust officers. J. H. 
Smith is the district officer for Graaff-Reinet and P. Theron and J. A. 
Watermeyer local officers. A. E. Lee is the district officer for Jansen- 
ville and W. Musto a local officer. G. T. Graham is district officer' 
for Pearston, and J. P. Terblanche the district officer for Steytler- 
ville. White storks are said to be giving important assistance. 



Departmental Activities. 205 

Stinksprinkhaans : From reports reaching tbe Division in 
January there seems to be a general recrudescence of the elegant 
grasshopper in the Transvaal and elsewhere, and this insect 
roay be even more troublesome next summer in areas that have been 
lelatively free during the past few seasons. From Basutoland we 
learn of an unusual abundance of a large green locust of the foetid 
group {Phymatius leprosus). Regarding it the agricultural officer, 
Mr. L. F. Wacher, writes: "This insect has been clearing gardens 
in the south of Basutoland and doing a good deal of damage. ... 
It has been reported to me that in certain parts this insect is moving 
dcwn from the hills and eating the leaves of pumpkins and peach 
tiees." Concerning the same insect, Mr. C. E. Maitin-Casalis, of 
Ladybrand, Orange Free State, writes, in effect: "This locust is 
very destructive, this year at all events. This farm is on the border, 
and apparently the locusts have come over from Basutoland. Here 
they have done little or no damage. They are for the present confined 
ti a small kloof, and are to be found on small dense bushes which 
grow there. As soon as they are attacked, they resort to the simple 
and very safe expedient of bolting to the base of the bush. At various 
trading stations in Basutoland and in certain gardens in Maseru they 
have not only destroyed all vegetables (lettuce, cabbage, peas, beans, 
etc.), but have also attacked fruit trees. I have seen them feeding 
and afterwards there was nothing but peach stones remaining on the 
trees." 

Wooly Aphis Parasite. — Very satisfactory progress continues to 
be made by the Division in its eiforts to establish the Woolly Aphis 
parasite, Aphehnus mali. The Senior Entomologist, Capetown, reports 
that the colony he started in a Stellenbosch apple orchard is doing 
splendidly, and colonies placed in and around Pretoria are also flourish- 
ing. During January liberations were made in and near Johannes- 
burg and at Middelburg, Standerton, Heidelberg, and Yentersdorp. 
Transvaal Province, and at Clocolan, Orange Free State. Out of 
doors, the period from giving newly emerged adults opportunity to 
breed to the time their first progeny begin to appear on the wing has 
proved to be only about 21 days in December and January. It is, 
therefore, evident that when and where conditions are favourable, the 
insect can multiply with extraordinary rapidity. Some colonies have 
been reared in bell jars at the laboratory and these have 
been kept warmer at night than were the out-of-door colonies. The 
development of the insect is evidently greatly accelerated by such 
circumstances, for in two generations in succession the life-cycle in 
the jars has required only 10 to 13 days. 

Cotton Insects. — During the last week in January Entomologist 
Geo. C. Haines accompanied the Chief of the Tobacco and Cotton 
Division on a tour of inspection of cotton fields in the bushveld of the 
E/Ustenburg District. On the whole the general condition as to insect 
pests was good. As usual, bollworms were the most serious, but the 
average percentage of infestation was very low, about 5 per cent. 
Ratooned fields uniformly showed a higher infestation than first-year 
fields, some having fully 25 per cent, of the bolls infested. On the 
whole, the Sudan bollworm predominated, but the American boll- 
worm was decidedly the more prevalent in some fields. The spiny 
bollworm was found in most fields, but nowhere as abundant as the 



206 Journal op the Department op Agriculture. 



ether species. A few other pests were noted, but no instance of 
material damage by any of them. It was noticed that there seems to 
be an inclination toward more thorough cultivation methods. Good 
cultivation and thorough preparation of the land before planting are 
to be encouraged, as they do much toward keeping the bollworm in 
check. The Division of Entomology is continuing the investigation 
of cotton pests ; and this work includes observations on the effect of 
cultivation methods on bollworms and experiments on the control of 
bollworms by dusting with arsenate of lead. 

January Insect Troubles. — During the month of January letters 
have been received and dealt with by the Pretoria office of the Divi- 
sion of Entomology upon the following pests and matters appertaining 
to insect control. White ants : Destroying thatch, young gum trees, 
willow wood, and citrus trees. Cotton insects : Giant crickets, 
millipedes, and slugs destroying seedling plants ; caterpillars mining 
in foliage; caterpillars feeding on foliage; Sudan bollworm. Maize 
insects : Black beetles (Heteronychus arator) ; ants destroying seeds 
planted in black turf. Orchard insects : Codling-moth ; pernicious 
scale ; chafer beetles (Cetonids) ; elegant grasshoppers ; fumigation 
for scale insects. Field crop insects : Tomato erinose due to mite 
attack ; small cabbage moth ; plant bugs on beans ; caterpillars of 
death's head moth on potatoes ; fly maggots (Dacus) in pumpkins ; 
caterpillars on peas; melon aphis; veld grasshoppers; elegant locvists; 
stmkvlieg. Flower-garden insects : Beetles destroying sunflowers ; 
tortoise beetles on convolvulus ; elegant locusts destroying carnations ; 
scale insect on orchid ; Australian bug on broom ; mealy bug on fern ; 
tip-Avilter bugs; cockchafer grubs on roots. Miscellaneous: Bee 
pirates ; hunting spiders ; beetle larvae in imported oil cakes ; pepper 
trees as harbours for insect pests; bowling green troubles; Aveevils in 
grain ; uses of carbon bisulphide ; sodium fluoride and fowl lice ; 
cockroaches ; tampans in dwelling houses ; chafer beetles (Adoretus) 
and processionary caterpillars on wattles ; robber flies ; borers in poles ; 
giant scale (Aspidioproctu s) on cassia roots ; scale (Chionaspis 
glohosus) on euphorbia. 



CO-OPERATION. 



January was a quiet month with the co-operative agricultural 
societies. At this time of the year the disposal of the maize and 
wool crops is the main business engaging the attention of the 
directors. The recent marked decline in prices has made this a 
('ifficult matter, more especially as, following on the glowing results 
attained by societies last season, many new members have joined, 
and a record quantity of maize was delivered at the stores. 

This Division is extending to societies what help is possible in 
the matter. General inspections have been carried out by officers of 
the Division at several places. 

In response to a long-felt need, a Union Bill to provide for the 
formation and management of both consumers' and producers' co- 
operative societies and companies throughout the Union is now being 
prepared. Arrangements are being made for a general conference of 
all co-operative organizations in the Union to discuss the Draft Bill. 



Departmental activities. 207 



VETERINARY EDUCATION AND RESEARCH. 



The inoculation of the first batch of private horses against horse- 
sickness, referred to in our last issue, has passed off very successfully ; 
108 horses, belonging to 48 owners, were accepted for inoculation, and 
two only died as a result of the inoculation. This is considered 
extremely satisfactory, and it is hoped that future tests w^ill pass off 
equally well. 

In this connection a few interesting facts may be recorded. The 
conditions under which horses are accepted for inoculation state very 
definitely that horses showing any sign of an infectious disease will 
be returned to the owners. In spite of this, no less than 77 of the 
108 horses were affected with mange and about 90 per cent, of the 
total number carried ticks, some of them being literally covered with 
these parasites. In its dealings with farmers, this Division has 
always been particularly anxious to give no cause for complaint. In 
seme instances, however, where a farmer thought he had a grievance 
against any officer of the Division, very full use was made of the 
opportunity of censuring the Department. But here we have an 
instance where the Division has every reason to be dissatisfied with 
the treatment it has received at the hands of the farmers. In some 
cases the owner may have been unaware of the fact that his animals 
were infected with mange, but many cases point to gross negligence. 
It is not in a spirit of retaliation that these facts are recorded 
here, but rather with the idea of warning owners who intend sending 
horses for future inoculations. Naturally these horses cannot be 
stabled separately; they all stand together in one or two large stables. 
It is therefore impossible to prevent clean horses from getting in 
direct or indirect contact with infected ones. If such horses are 
returned to the owners infected with mange, the blame will probably 
again be laid on the Government ! 

The very serious outbreak of horse-sickness in the Herbert 
district, mention of which has repeatedly been made in the papers 
recently, was investigated by this Division. The point at issue was 
wl ether it was actually horse-sickness or possibly some other disease. 
A private veterinary surgeon who examined a few cases expressed the 
idea that it was pernicious (infectious) anaemia. An officer of this 
Division was sent to investigate the matter, and further tests were 
then carried out at this laboratory. As a result of these experiments, 
it can now be stated definitely that there is absolutely no doubt that 
the disease is horse-sickness. The investigations (that are still in 
progress) seem further to prove definitely that it is horse-sickness 
onh/ . 

The anthrax spore vaccine has now been issued in very large 
quantities. In a small percentage of cases complaints came in about 
the swellings already referred to. Some owners also complained of 
the fact that dairy cows yielded less milk for some days after inocula- 
tions. Steps have been taken to reduce these occurrences to a 
minimum. Many farmers who used the spore vaccine wrote to the 
laboratory testifying to the very good results. In some instances, 
animals that actually showed signs of anthrax at the time of inocula- 
tion are reported to have recovered. In other cases, where very 
serious outbreaks had occurred on farms, deaths stopped two or three 
days after inoculation. 



208 Journal of the Department op Agriculture. 



VETERINARY. 



Anthrax. — With a view to strengthening the hands of the 
Government in its campaign against the spread of anthrax, the sub- 
.joined regulation, providing for the reporting of all deaths of cattle 
and the proper disposal of the carcasses, has been approved and is 
now in force : — 

{a) It shall be the duty of any owner or person in charge of 
stock travelling along any public road to immediately 
report any case of illness or death of any cattle 
from any cause whatever to the magistrate, Govern- 
ment veterinary officer, or justice of the peace 
of the district, area, or ward, or at the nearest 
police station or police post, and to the resident, owner, 
or occupier of the land on which the animal or animals 
may have died or been left behind on account of any sick- 
ness. Such report made to a magistrate. Government 
veterinary officer, justice of the peace, or at a police 
station or police post shall be made in manner provided by 
paragraph 1 of Minister's Orders, published under Govern- 
ment Notice No. 637 of 1915 and Section 15 of the regula- 
tions issued under Government Notice No. 638 of 1915, 
and all and several the provisions of such regulations shall 
Tnutatis mutandis and in so far as applicable apply in 
respect of such report and of the steps to be taken there- 
upon. 
(6) The owner or person in charge of such stock shall be 
responsible and liable for the proper burial or destruction 
of such dead animals or such animals as may be sick and 
subsequently die upon the farm. 
Any contravention of or failure to comply with these regulations 
will render the owner or person in charge of the stock liable to the 
penalties provided under section twenty-one of the Stock Diseases Act 
and for any loss or expense which the resident owner or occupier may 
incur through such non-compliance. 

East Coast Fever. — In the Pietersburg District the disease is 
considered to be so well in hand that arrangements have been made 
to permit cattle to be moved to the open markets from the western 
portions of the district, and it is hoped shortly to be able to open a 
large tract of the Zoutpansberg. In the Piet Retief and Barberton 
Pistricts satisfactory progress is being made, but the Pretoria District 
still remains a menace to the surrounding districts, the majority of 
stock owners still being unconvinced that the tick is the root of 
the evil and consequently the erection of dipping tanks progresses 
slowly. The Transkei has had a disconcerting outbreak in the Elliot- 
dale district, which has been clean for over two years, but as the 
district is well tanked, it is hoped that the outbreaks will be promptly 
overcome. 

Horse-sickness. — Most serious losses from horse-sickness have 
been taking place for the past few months in the Kimberley, Modder 
Hiver, and Douglas areas. Many owners who suffered losses from 
the disease have expressed the opinion that it was not horse-sickness, 
but both the Government Veterinary Officer and the officer from the 
Research Laboratory who investigated the outbreaks declare the 
disease to be horse-sickness. 



Departmental-activities. 209 

dairying. 

The position of the dairy industry did not undergo any marked 
change during January, and the output of butter and cheese by 
creameries and cheese factories has hardly increased to the extent 
anticipated at the end of last year. Natal factories are doing fairly 
well, but drought is still severe in the dairying districts of the Orange 
Free State and Cape Province. There is, however, still time for a 
considerable improvement should good rains fall during February, 
as in several previous years March and April have been two of the 
best months for the creameries in those areas. But in any case there 
is not likely to be any considerable quantity of either butter or cheese 
available for export this season. 

E.Tport. — The Imperial Government have, as a result of represen- 
tations made to the Ministry of Food, agreed to advance the price of 
this season's South African butter to 257s. per cwt. (112 lb.) f .o.b. for 
first grade, and 252s. per cwt. (112 lb.) f.o.b. for second grade. These 
prices, however, only apply to butter delivered into cold storage at 
Durban or Capetown on or before the 31st March, 1921. It is under- 
stood that the Government control of butter in Great Britain will 
cease as from the 1st April, 1921, and after that date any butter 
shipped there will be sold on the open market at competitive prices. 

A cable has been received from London intimating that the 
Imperial Government are now buying first quality Argentine butter 
at 200s. per cwt. f.o.b., and Danish at 266s. per cwt. f.o.b. Very 
heavy supplies are being received from Australia and New Zealand, 
and in view of these facts, it is reasonable to suppose that butter 
shipped to the open market subsequent to the end of March will 
realize considerably lower prices than those at present offered by the 
Imperial Government. 

The market for cheese has been released from control for some 
time, and the latest information received indicates that prices are 
somewhat lower, being in the neighbourhood of 150s. to 156s. per 
cwt. for large size and 144s. to 154s. for the smaller sizes. 

Cheese factories having in view the export of their surplus stock, 
should bear in mind that the size of cheese required by the oversea 
market is from 70 to 90 lb. each, and higher prices are obtainable for 
such sizes, than for 25 to 40 lb. cheeses, which are most popular in 
our South African markets. It should also be remembered that either 
a deep colour, or white cheese, is required, and not a light-coloured 
one, as desired here. 

Gouda Cheese. — Yery large quantities of South African Gouda (or 
sweet milk) cheese are at present being manufactured, principally in the 
Transvaal and Orange Free State, from milk which may be described as 
" surplus " produced by farmers supplying fresh milk to the towns, 
but who at this time of the year have more than is needed for their 
contracts. This has resulted in a fall in the price of this commodity, 
and there would appear to be some danger of the market being flooded. 
This type of cheese, as made under ' South African conditions, is 
hardly suitable for export, while the cost of placing it in cold storage 
for sale during the winter is likely to eat up all profits, unless the 
factory has its own cold storage. It is suggested, therefore, that 
factories making Gouda should consider turning at least a portion of 
their milk into cheddar, which stands storing longer, and is more 
suitable for export. 



210 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

Milk Recoj'ds. — The official milk record scheme supervised by 
this Division has been strengthened by the Ayrshire, Shorthorn, and 
South Devon Breeders' Societies taking part on the basis, and under 
the same conditions as the Friesland Breeders' Association. The 
value of the scheme bas been very much emphasized by the visit to 
South Africa of Mr. Trevor Williams, ex-president of the British 
Friesian Association, who is touring the country in connection with 
the contemplated export of Frieslands to Great Britain. In the 
event of export being arranged, it is understood that only animals, 
or the progeny of animals, which have produced a fixed standard of 
milk, containing a minimum percentage of butter-fat officially cer- 
tified, would be accepted. It is obvious therefore that breeders who 
are not in possession of official records of their cows would be 
debarred from exporting. 



BOTANY. 



During December Dr. Polo Evans visited the Tygerberg district 
in connection with the death of horses which was suspected of being 
due to some plant poison. He also visited Bredasdorp on account of 
a suspected outbreak of lamziekte in sheep. 

The Pathological Section reports the occurrence of a large number 
of fungous and bacterial diseases in the vegetable and fruit crops. 
"Blossom end rot" in tomatoes has been unusually severe in certain 
localities, in particular Pretoria, and is attributed to unfavourable 
weather conditions. So far as is known the trouble is not due to any 
disease organism, but to physiological causes and can be controlled to 
a large extent by regular irrigation and the selection of varieties of 
tomatoes resistant to the disease. 

Other diseases of economic and special interest recorded include 
" mildew " and Exohasidiiim vitis on vines (the latter a rare disease 
in this country), peach freckle on apricots, walnut blight and bacterial 
diseases of peas, beans and tobacco. Several interesting mycological 
specimens were received, in particular three new ergots occurring on 
native grasses near Capetown. It is hoped that these may prove of 
some economic importance as a substitute for the rye ergot (Clamceps 
purpurea) if they are found to occur in sufficient quantities. The 
widespread occurrence of the myxomycete, Physarum. cinereum, 
auring the month of January is also of considerable interest. It has 
been reported from several parts of the Union and Rhodesia on grass 
and on lucerne, and has been suspected of being injurious to young 
stock. So far as can be ascertained, however, it is harmless in this 
lespect, although it may cause some damage to the grass and lucerne 
on which it grows, by injury through causing suffocation. The 
organism is not a parasite and does not cause direct injury to the 
plants on which it grows. 

Several phalloids — rather rare fungi — were found during 
January, including Lysurus horealis in a potato patch in Johannes- 
burg. This is only the second occurrence of this fungus recorded in 
the mycological herbarium. 

A tobacco disease occurring in the Piet Retief District and known 
to farmers as " verterende roest," was brought to our notice by the 
Chief of the Tobacco and Cotton Division. An officer of this Division 
was detailed to investigate the matter ; the disease starts in the lower 
leaves which at first appear to be maturing prematurely, and spreads 



Departmeistal Activities. 211 



to the upper leaves. The disease was prevalent on the experiment 
station as well as on neighbouring farms, and it was stated that only 
10 per cent, of the 1920 crop reached its normal development, the 
remaining plants being stunted. Considerable losses had also been 
suffered on other farms which were visited. The " verterende roest " 
is due to a bacterium which is being carefully studied in the 
laboratory, with a view to devising preventive measures which may 
bs tested on a practical scale next season. Specimens of tobacco 
affected by a similar trouble have also been received from Rhodesia ; 
these are also under investigation. 

Tn the National Herharium the study of the thorn pears (Scolopia 
spp.) has been completed and an account of this genus is ready for 
publication. A collection has been made of the Trifoliiimx growing at 
Groenkloof, and these have been sent to Kew for accurate identification. 

The Agrostolofiist supplies the following interesting note on the 
nomenclature of kikuyu grass: " We received last mail an answer to 
a letter addressed to Mr. Stapf on the subject of kikuyu grass, which 
appeared to have been wrongly named at Kew. I wrote suggesting 
that the grass was Pennisetmn, inclusum, Pilger, and at the same time 
sent a sijecimen of a Pennisetuvi which had been collected on a vacant 
erf at Brooklvn. Mr. Stapf replied that after re-examination of the 
material of kikuyu and of related species he had established the fact 
that kikuyu g*rass was not Pennisetum Jongist'l/Ium. as he had pre- 
viously supposed, but was P. inclusum, Pilger; however, as the grass 
had been previouslv described under the name of P. claridestivum , 
kikuyu must henceforth be known scientifically under that very appro- 
priate name. The grass collected at Brooklyn is an entirely new 
introduction, P. rillosnvi. nearly related to kikuvu grass. It is a 
North African grass, which is much cultivated in Europe as an orna- 
mental plant in gardens, and has probably been introduced mixed 
with other grass seed. It is reported as a good fodder grass and 
may be of economic value in this country." 

There has been a great deal of correspondence during the month 
on the subject of impurities in lucerne seed. Samples submitted 
were found to contain a variety of impurities, amongst which was 
the seed of the goosefoot (Chenopodium), a weed which has caused 
considerable trouble in the lucerne crop. 



THE SCHOOLS OF AGRICULTURE AND EXPERIMENT 

STATIONS. 



GLEN, ORANGE FREE STATE. 



Owing to the prolonged and continuing drought, the variety trial 
test with the maize has failed entirely, and a great many experiments 
planned have not been laid down. 

The school opened on the 24th January. The number of students 
enrolled being as follows : Juniors. 16 ; seniors, 29 ; one-year practical, 
P.; total, 48. 

In addition, fifteen students, all well qualified, have been 
accepted for the special course in dairying, commencing on the 15th 
February.* Several applicants for this course had to be refused on 
account of lack of accommodation. 

*See note under "Grootfontein" in this section. 



212 Journal op the Department of Agriculture. 



ELSENBURG. MULDERS VLEI. 



Furcliase of Fertilizers. — The present condition of the market for 
fertilizers is still far from normal, and there exists considerable dis- 
crepancy between the agricultural value and the commercial value of 
many fertilizers. In the statement of the guarantee which accom- 
panies any fertilizer frequentlj^ no mention is made of the quality 
of the ingredients of the same kind in different fertilizers, so that 
the farmer has often to pay top price for material that is very 
ir soluble and slow in its action. Further, the purchaser should take 
into account the state of fineness of the ingredients in those fertilizers 
where the constituents are of a nature insoluble in water. In such 
fertilizers as basic slag, bone meal, and bone dust the availability 
of the phosphoric oxide increases with the fineness. 

At present the bulk of the fertilizers on the market are mixed or 
compound, hence the importance of the statement of the quality of 
the valuable constituents. For many reasons farmers have had to 
fall back on these fertilizers, which supply in greater or less degree 
most or all of the ingredients that the crop requires. The fault with 
regard to most of these mixed fertilizers is that no attempt has been 
made to compound a mixture suitable to the soil or crop. 

It is usually advisable that the farmer should purchase the 
necessary ingredients and mix them himself or get a reliable fertilizer 
merchant to compound the mixture according to his specification. 
The farmer ought to know the manurial needs of his laud better than 
the fertilizer merchant, and if he is not certain on the point, he can 
get reliable information from the agricultural school in his area. It 
is usually more economical for the farmer to mix his own fertilizers, 
as there are often slack periods when the farm labour could be turned 
to this work, thus saving the farmer the charges, sometimes very 
heavy, that the merchant makes for mixing. 

In making up these mixed fertilizers, it is very necessary that 
all the materials should be in a fine condition and possess as nearly 
as possible the same degree of fineness. If heavy, finely ground 
material is mixed with light, coarsely ground material by the 
merchant, they may become almost entirely separated in transit to 
the farm. This would give a fertilizer very uneven in composition 
and consequently in its action on the crop, since all the coarse 
material tends to work to the top of the bag and the fine stuff to the 
bottom. 

If the farmer makes up his mixed fertilizers on the farm the 
different materials should be thoroughly mixed in small quantities. 
Any lumpy materials should be sifted before mixing and the mixed 
material should be sifted and lumps broken up before bagging. 

In some commercial mixtures and in most mixtures that the 
farmer would make up, superphosphate would be one of the 
ingredients. This fertilizer can be mixed with bone dust, bone meal, 
or guano and produce no serious loss unless the mixture is allowed to 
lie for a long time, or the store is damp. This mixture on many of 
our sour soils is preferable to superphosphate alone and a further 
advantage is that it is easier to sow than superphosphate owing to its 
drier condition. 



Departmental Activities. 213 

Superphosphate should not be mixed with ground rock phosphate 
or basic slag-, because this mixture renders the water-soluble phosphate 
of the super less soluble and slower in its action. Farmers do some- 
times use a mixture of superphosphate and slag to counteract the 
acidity of the superphosphate, especially when used on light sour 
soils, but bone dust is certainly preferalale to slag for mixing with 
superphosphate. 

Superphosphate should not be mixed with nitrate of soda, as 
apart from the loss of nitrogen, the mixture soon gets pasty and 
difficult to sow. It can be mixed with sulphate of ammonia, but at 
present the price of sulphate of ammonia and nitrate of soda is pro- 
hibitive and their use is limited to special purposes. 

In purchasing fertilizers, the farmer must make up his mind 
what ingredients the crop requires on his particular soil, and then 
find where he can get these at the cheapest rate. 

From a knowledge of the percentage amounts of the valuable 
constituents in a fertilizer and its market value, it is easy to calculate 
the cost of the actual valuable ingredient "per unit," i.e. the value 
per ton of each per cent. For example, if phosphates in the water- 
soluble form are required and the following quotations are obtained — 

Superphosphate. Water SoliiVe F,^.. Pr-ce \)>-v Ton. 

No. 1 15.2 per cent. £10 5 

No. 2 18 per cent. 11 10 

No. 3 17 per cent. 15 10 

the value per ton of each per cent, of the required constituent, i.e. 
the value per unit can be calculated by dividing the price per ton by 
the percentage of material in the fertilizer, i.e. : — 

No. 1, ^*^V|^ = 1-^s. 5d. per unit : No. 2, ^l-ii*?: =12s. 9d. 

., ., o £15. 10s. io '^1 
per unit : No. o, — = INs. del. per unit. 

By comparing the above unit values, No. 2 is seen to be much the 
cheapest; if the three are f.o.r. the same station it has the further 
advantage of being high grade, and thus less expensive in transit to 
the farm. 

At present the unit values of citric-soluble phosphoric oxide in 
basic slag vary from 13s. 4d. to 16s. 4d., a very wide range in the 
market value. 

Ill the purchase of bone meal and bone dust, etc., the fineness 
must be taken into account when comparing the values, as well as the 
amounts of the different constituents present. Here we are dealing 
with fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphoric oxide soluble in 2 
per cent, citric acid and phosphoric oxide which is insoluble. The 
phosphoric oxide is sometimes expressed as lime phosphate, which to 
the uninitiated gives the fertilizer an inflated analysis, but the farmer 
should take no notice of this figure, as it simply represents the 
chemical combination of the phosphoric oxide with a portion of the 
lime, and is arrived at by multiplying the real percentage of phos- 
phoric oxide by 2. 

The nitrogen in bones costs about 20s. per unit at the present 
time. Citric-soluble phosphoric oxide costs about '8s. 6d. per unit. 



214 Journal op the Department op Agriculture. 

Insoluble phosphoric oxide costs about 4s. 3d. per unit. With these 
unit values the following two bone meals may be compared : — 
No. 1 Bone Meal : — 
Analysis — 

Nifr) pn Phosphoric Oxide Soluble in Phosphoric Oxide 

^ ■ 2 per cent. Citric Acid. Total. 

5"3 percent. I(v5 percent. 18 per cent, quoted at 

£12. 10s. per ton. 
Calculation — 

Nitrogen 5*3 x 20s £5 6 

Phosphoric Oxide soluble in 2 per cent. Citric Acid 

16-5 X 8s. 6d 7 3 

Phosphoric Oxide insoluble (18:l(i:.5) l-,5 x 4s. 3d. 6 5 



£12 12 8 



This sample is therefore quoted actually at 2s. 8d. under its market 
value. 
No 2 Bone Meal : — 

Nitro n Phosphoric Oxide Soluble in Phosphoric Oxide 

° ■ 2 per cent. Citric Acid. Total. 

4 per cent. 20 per cent. 22 per cent, quoted at 

£14. 10s. per ton. 
Calculati(»i — 

4 per cent. Nitrogen at 20s. ... ... ... ... £4 

20 per cent. Phosphoric Oxide soluble in 2 per cent. 

Citric Acid, at 8s. 6d 8 10 

22-20 = 2 per cent. Phosphoric Oxide insoluble, 

at 4s. 3d 8 (> 



£12 18 G 



This fertilizer is therefore quoted at £1. lis. 6d. above its actual 
value, so that No. 1 is much the cheapei>. 

In conclusion we would remind farmers of the necessity of 
having their fertilizers analysed especially iu the case of basic slag 
which is at present very scarce, of variable composition, and very 
liable to be adulterated. 



GROOTFONTEIN, MIDDELBURG (CAPE). 



The Special Dairy Course. — The course commenced on 1st March 
and finished on 14th December; the two previous courses being each 
of six months only. Many applications were received for this course, 
but owing to lack of facilities and accommodation, only twelve could 
be accepted. The course was especially arranged for men who desired 
to become factory managers, and included lectures and practical work 
ir dairying, dairy chemistry, dairy bacteriology, engineering, book- 
keeping, and animal husbandry. Upon completion of the course at 
the school, the candidates are required to perform at least six months' 
work in factory dairying and management at an approved butter or 
cheese factory. At the conclusion, if their work has been of a satis- 
factory nature, they undergo an examination in these subjects, this 
examination being conducted by the Dairy Division, 



Departmental Activities. 215 

Unfortunately, owing to the prolonged drought, little practical 
v.ork was possible and consequently the 1920 course was, in the main, 
a theoretical one, the major portion of the time being devoted to 
lectures. 

By courtesy of the management of the Tweespruit Dairies and 
the Bloemfontein Creamery, the students were allowed to see the 
working of a butter and cheese factory under commercial conditions ; 
and were further given an opportunity of making cheddar and Gouda 
cheese, and also practice in cheese and cream grading. Such visits 
are of great educational value to the men, and this opportunity is 
taken of thanking Messrs. Fischer and Dalldorf for making the trip 
the success it undoubtedly was. 

The final examinations began on 1st December, and the results 
are as follows : — 

Diploma, with Honours. — G. Pote. 

First-class Diploma. — E. T. St. George, A. Jones, W. Dalldorf. 

Second-class Diploma. — G. Lake, C. G. Taylor, P. van der 
Merwe,A. Morton, C. S. van der Walt. 

Eight of the men have already begun their practical work in the 
various factory dairies. 

There can be no doubt that these courses are of immense value 
not only to the men who attend the course, but to the dairy industry, 
since the trained man can assist the farmer by giving him technical 
advice which brings benefit to both producer and consumer. 

The dairy course will be held this year at the School of Agricul- 
ture, Glen, Orange Free State, commencing on the 15th February. 



CEDARA, NATAL. 



Ea;periments ivith New Varieties of Sugar Cane. — The first six 
^arieties dealt with in this investigation are those introduced about 
two years ago from the Argentine Republic by the Natal Sugar 
Association. These were planted out on the Winkle Spruit Experi- 
ment Farm on 7th November, 1918, and harvested on 8th December, 
1920. 

All the Argentine varieties made very vigorous growth and 
compared well with the stands of Uba and other varieties growing in 
the immediate vicinity of the plots. All these varieties of cane, 
however, were more or less inclined to lodge, although they were 
raised in a well-sheltered spot on the farm. The plots were com- 
paratively small, so no undue importance should be attached to the 
figures in the following tables giving the yields per acre for each 
variety, but the figures are sufficiently accurate to warrant the state- 
ment that each variety is a good cropper. Since these Argentine 
canes have been haiwested it has been observed that they are all 
ratooning fairly well. 

The cane known as Agual is about the only one left of the nine 
varieties imported from India in 1911. It seemingly belongs to the 
same group as the Uba, and like the latter thrives very well indeed 
under local climatic conditions; it ratoons well, does not lodge, and 
is not subject to attack by the " borer " insect. 

The Cheribon cane is one of the three varieties received in March, 
1909, from Egypt, and is the only one that thrived sufficiently well 



216 



Journal op the Department op Agriculture. 



to make it wortli wliile to keep it on permanently. This cane lodges 
rather badly, but ratoons better than the ordinary soft '<^arieties of 
cane that have been tried from time to time at Winkle Spruit. 

1. Yields of Sugar Cane per Acre frovi the various Plots. — All 
the crops given in this table are from plant canes which had been in 
for approximately two years before being harvested : — 

(1) Argentine: J.213 52 tons. 

(2) Argentine: No. 2 45 tons. 

(3) Argentine: E.G. 719 (first lot) 60 tons. 

(4) Argentine: R.G.719 (second lot) .... 41 tons, 

(5) Argentine: J. 36 39 tons. 

(6) Argentine: J. 139 37 tons. 

(7) Egyptian: Cheribon 41 tons. 

(8) Indian: Agual 51 tons. 

(9) TJba Over 30 tons. 

(2) Fields of Sugar frovi the different Varieties of Sugar Cane. 
— In this investigation six typical canes were selected from each plot 
and weighed. Each lot separately was then passed three times in 
succession through a hand-power three-roller laboratory cane mill, 
and all the juice carefully collected, weighed, and then analysed. 
The results obtained are given in the following table : — 



No. 


Variety. 


Percentage 

of 

Juice 

by Mill. 


Compos 
inl 

Sucrose. 


ition of tl 
b. per ,2;al 

Glucose. 


le Juice 
Ion. 

Solids 
not Sugar 


Glucose 
Ratio. 


Quotient 

of 
Purity. 


1 


J. 213 


per cent. 
57-0 


lb. 
1-76 


lb. 
0-01 


lb. 
0-17 


0-05 


per cent. 
90-6 


2 


No. 2 


59-9 


1-82 


0-01 


0-23 


0-65 


88-4 


3 


R.G. 719 (1st Lot) 


65-4 


1-65 


0-01 


0-46 


0-74 


77-6 


4 


R.G. 719 (2n.l Lot) 


58-1 


l-7o 


O-Ol 


0-22 


0-63 


88-6 


n 


J. 36 


65-1 


1-74 


0-01 


0-38 


0-fi8 


81-7 


6 


J. 139 


65-9 


1-76 


0-01 


0-34 


0-64 


83-4 


7 


Cheribon 


70-6 


1-86 


0-01 


0-12 


0-60 


93-6 


8 


Ag:ual 


56-9 


2-01 


0-01 


0-16 


0-72 


92-1 


'.) 


Uba 


61-0 


1-90 


0-04 


0-19 


1-98 


89-2 




Harvestel in 1013 















In the above table the following terms may require some 
explanation: — 

Sucrose. — This is the crystallizable cane sugar. 

Glucose. — The uncrystallizable sugar, which is all left in the 
molasses. 

Solids not Sugar or Non-Sugars. — These are the soluble 
solids, other than sucrose and glucose, contained in the juice. 
The sum of the sucrose, glucose, and non-sugars in the juice is 
known as +he total solids. 

Glucose Ratio. — The proportion of glucose in the juice to 
every hundred parts of sucrose. 

Quotient of Purity. — The proportion of sucrose to every 
hundred parts of total solids in the juice. 



Departmental Activities. 217 



With regard to the composition of the juice obtained from each 
of these varieties, no safe comparison can be made with the results 
obtained from the unmanured plots of Uba (fourth ratoons) harvested 
in 1913, seeing that the conditions as regards climate, soil, period of 
growth, etc., would be different. We are, however, fairly safe in 
assuming that the quality and purity of the juice from each of the 
varieties does not differ very greatly from that obtained from the 
TJba, and since the yields of cane are probably in most cases higher 
than from the Uba, it is safe to state that the amount of sugar obtain- 
able per acre compares favourably with the amount from the latter 
and standard type of cane. 



POTCHEFSTROOM, 1 RANSVAAL. 



School. — The term commenced with lectures on 19th January. 
The number of students enrolled up to date is 84 and all available 
accommodation is now taken up. There are 31 second-year diploma 
students and 41 first-year diploma students in Hostel No. 1 ; 12 one- 
year soldiers' course in Hostel No. 2 ; total, 84. 

Sudan Grass vs. Te;ff in Dry Seasons. — The month has proved an 
extremely dry one, resulting in the loss, as grain crops, of those fields 
of maize sown in November. It has been found practically impossible 
to establish fields of teff in this and the preceding month. One field 
was sown partly to teff and partly to Sudan grass in December. A 
good stand was obtained from the vSudan grass, but the teff was a 
complete failure. Although this portion of the field was resown to 
this crop later, at the time of a light shower, the results \yere again 
negative. The whole field was sown, in consequence, with Sudan 
grass at the end of January. On the experiment division, Sudan 
grass planted on the same piece of land and at the same time as teff' 
in December produced a good stand ; while the stand of teff was very 
poor. These experiences confirm our knowledge of the relative value 
of Sudan grass, in comparison with teff, as a hay crop in dry years 
and for dry localities. 

SorghuTTi vs. Maize and CoiojJeas vs. Soya Beans in Dry Seasons. 
— On the experiment division cowpeas have shown a far greater 
degree of drought resistance than soya beans. Incidentally the variety 
trials of sorghums (kaffir corns, etc.) and maize have illustrated the 
drought-resistant qualities of the former. The sorghums have made 
a very vigorous growth and have apparently not suffered from the 
drought. Turkestan and Jap Panicle (Proso & Broom) millets have 
shown a remarkable drought resistance compared with other varieties. 
Birds have shown a marked preference for the Panicle millets as 
compared with the Foxtail, Barnyard, and Pearl millet types. 

Winter Cereals. — Threshing of winter cereals has been completed 
and the results in general are very satisfactory. " Rate of sowing " 
tr-als, run in duplicate with the Indian variety Lalkasarwali, showed 
that the quantity of 45 lb. of seed per acre Avas the best amount sown 
in this season. The quantities sown were the following : 30, 45, 52^, 
60, and 75 lb. per acre. The crop was irrigated three times. 



218 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



CO-ORDINATION OF THE DEPARTMENT'S WORK. 



An Important Conference. 



A CONFERENCE of great importance to the Department, and tlie result 
of wliicli is likely to serve as a plan of its future development, took 
place at Pretoria on the 26th, 27th, and 28th January, 1921, when 
the heads of divisions and principals of the schools of agriculture 
and experiment stations met at the instance and under the chairman- 
ship of the Secretary for Agriculture, for the purpose of discussing 
the relationship between the work of the divisions and that of the 
schools. 

The organization of the Department to-day is well known to 
farmers. Under the direction and control of a permanent secretary, 
it is composed of a number of technical divisions and schools of 
ag-riculture, the latter also serving the purpose of experiment 
stations, while attached to certain of the divisions is also a number 
of experiment stations. The history of the evolution leading to the 
present composition of the Department need not be traced here. It 
is sufficient to say that the most pressing needs and problems of the 
country were the compelling factors in the establishment of the 
various divisions and schools as they exist to-day. Those responsible 
for the building up of the Department had before them the example 
of other countries with the different systems adopted by them, and 
while in this respect the famous system of the United States enters 
largely into t(he plan fashioned for the Union's Department of 
Agriculture, there are problems peculiar to South Africa to which 
the exj)erience of other countries is not applicable; consequently, like 
other countries, our Department must develop along lines best suited 
to our extremely varying conditions, and so work out its own sah^a- 
tion. South Africa's unified system of Government, under \vhicli 
authority is exercised from a single centre, is favourable for effective 
organization. To aid us in surmounting our present problems, which 
are many, and also new ones arising with the expansion of the country, 
we possess both our past experience and the example furnished by 
other countries, which will enable us to organize according to a definite 
design and so to cope with our expanding needs. The conference 
was, therefore, important, for arising from it certain broad lines of 
organization were agreed upon, and it is confidently hoped that upon 
this foundation will be built an enduring structure. 

The Department as constituted to-day has involved the establish- 
ment of the several divisions and schools ; and to obtain the greatest 
economy and co-ordinate all effort and activity, it is essential that 
their duties should be so arranged as to avoid unnecessary overlapping 
and ensure development on right lines. The diverse and numerous 
activities of the Department present an intricate webwork of organiza- 
tion, and the proper control and guidance thereof calls for the 
greatest care and foresight. It is gratifying to state, therefore, that 
a free discussion marked the conference, and agreement was 



Co-ordination of the Department's Work. 213 

111 rived at on the main issues. Some of the chief points discussed 
are set out hereunder; they indicate the guiding- principles which 
will be followed in directing the future development of the Depart- 
ment. 

Co-ordination of Research. — The great vitalizing factor in the 
Department is the nature and scope of its research work. From it 
emanate the life and growth of its activities. At present research is 
carried out both by the divisions and the schools. It is recognized 
that the value of the teacher is intimately bound up with research, 
enabling him to have at his command a knowledge of the latest 
developments in the science he has to teach. The lecturers at the 
schools deal, of course, with many different sciences. In most cases 
also there are divisions, each of which deals with a specific science, 
and at the head of which are the country's leading experts in their 
respective subjects. As with the schools, so with the divisions; each 
is directly engaged in research work. It is evident, therefore, that 
the need for the control and guidance of research work in every 
branch, with definite objects in view, is essential. The schools, with 
their own peculiar local problems, are carrying out certain classes of 
research work, while in some cases the same or an allied 
class of research is being conducted directly by the division 
concerned. A very useful discussion arose on this subject, in the 
course of which the various classes of research now in operation, and 
their objects, were described by the heads of divisions and the prin- 
cipals of the schools. As an outcome the definite understanding was 
arrived at that the control and guidance of research work would be 
vested in the chiefs of the divisions, each of whom is recognized as 
the chief authority on the science concerned, and that the services of 
the technical officers at the schools would be utilized in their respec- 
tive spheres, to the greatest extent possible, to assist the heads of 
divisions. Thus, with the greatest benefit to the teacher stationed 
at the schools, research work in his science will be conducted by him- 
self, but the work of himself and other teachers in the same service 
will be inspired and co-ordinated by the chief of the division. At 
the same time, the school staff will have wide freedom in carrying 
out, and every opportunity for initiating research, so that their 
individuality may have full scope. For disciplinary purposes the 
school staff will be under the direct control of the principal. 

Expervment Stations and Laboratories. — By " research " is meant 
seeking after principles and facts. Allied to research work are the 
various experiments carried out at the experiment stations. These 
experiments are designed to improve general farni practice. The , 
following are the present stations: — 

Agricultural Education. — School of Agriculture and Experi- 
ment Station at (1) Elsenburg, Mulders Vlei, Cape; (2) Groot- 
fontein, Middelburg, Cape; (3) Potchefstroom, Transvaal; (4) 
Glen, Orange Free State; and (5) Cedara, Natal, with sub-station 
at Winkle Spruit, Natal. 

Tobacco and Cotton Division.. — Experiment Station at (1) 
Rustenburg, Transvaal ; (2) Elsenburg, Mulders Ylei, Cape ; and 
(3) Piet Hetief, Transvaal. 

Botany Division.- — Groenkloof Experiment Station, near 
Pretoria. 



220 Journal of the Department op Agriculture. 

Agronomy Division. — Experiment Station, Pie'tersburg, 
Transvaal. 

Viticultural Division. — Headquarters, Oenological Institute, 
Elsenburg, Mulders Ylei, Cape, under which the Government 
Wine Farm, Groot Constantia, falls, also the Experiment 
Station, Paarl, Cape. 

General. — In addition, the property " Prinshof," near the 
Union Buildings, Pretoria, recently acquired, will be used by 
certain of the divisions for experiment purposes, but chiefly by 
the Division of Botany. 

As indicated, such experiments are being carried out both by 
some of the divisions and at all the schools, and here also arises the 
iiecessity for co-ordination of present work and a policy for future 
development. As mentioned above, the present organization of the 
Department is a result of urgency arising out of certain problems 
and, to some extent, expediency to meet them. Thus we have a 
Tobacco and Cotton Division dealing independently of the schools 
with all phases of the crops indicated, carrying out its own research 
and experiments and having experiment stations for the specific 
purpose. It was admitted at the conference that the necessity for 
the present arrangement was justified, and that it would continue so 
for some time to come, but it was agreed that the policy in experi- 
ment work would aim at building up the strength of the schools (and 
sub-stations), so that in the course of time all such experiments would 
as far as practicable be centred at the schools, under the guidance 
of the principal, while the divisions would in time be concerned only 
with administration and research. In view of the diverse conditions 
to be dealt with by the various schools, some of these experiments 
would be peculiar to certain schools only, but all experiments of a 
more general nature would be co-ordinated and unnecessary over- 
lapping avoided, it being recognized at the same time that duplication 
or even multiplication of certain experiments was essential. 

The policy affecting the conduct of experimental work having 
been agreed upon, the important question of the work to be done was 
discussed. Again the special problems of atmosphere and soil have 
to be taken into consideration. For this purpose the school centres 
only are manifestly inadequate and our markedly varying conditions 
call for experimentation in different parts of the country. To meet 
this need, the conference was unanimously of opinion that the 
establishment of a number of sub-stations was essential to good work. 
Both before and since Union, sub-stations (some resembling the nature 
of those proposed) have come and gone. Their vicissitudes need not 
be entered into here ; some were not efficiently staffed, others were not 
well situated, while a number were abandoned owing to change of 
policy. But with the expansion of the country and the advance of 
agricultural science, the need of efficiently staffed and controlled sub- 
stations is insistently brought home to those charged with South 
African agricultural enterprise, and the work they are eager to carry 
out is at present being delayed by the lack of such facilities. 

Closely related to the experiment station is the system known as 
" co-operative experiments." These comprise certain experiments 
carried out by the farmer on his own farm under a plan formulated 
by the Department to test results obtained at the station. This 



CO-ORDINATJON OF THE DEPARTMENT'S WORK. 221 



ieystem lias been in operation for many years, but rather as taking 
the place of fully equipped and manned stations than as supple- 
menting" the work of such stations. The principle of co-operative 
experiments is sound, but as a means of furnishing experimental data 
of a reliable nature, these co-operative experiments are unfortunately 
a failure. While there are happy exceptions, it is generally 
experienced that the private experimenter, however willing, is unable 
to give the experiment the attention it needs. It is not always under- 
stood that an experiment calls for most careful attention and the 
scrupulous noting of apparently insignificant details throughout the 
course of the experiment and of which only the scientifically trained 
experimentalist knows the value. Thus it is that while the experience 
to the farmer himself has not been lost and may justify the con- 
tinuance to some extent of the co-operative experiment, the Depart- 
ment has not added materially to its agricultural data as a result 
thereof, while such data as have been collected cannot be accepted 
as being of scientific exactitude. It is evident, therefore, that the 
only way in which the needs of the country can be properly met in 
this direction is by the work of the trained experimentalist in 
localities typical of the main features of the country. The Depart- 
ment's aim will be first of all to build up the strength of the schools 
where most of the experimental work will emanate and from which 
later will radiate the sub-stations of the future. 

Extension Work. — The efforts of the Department would be 
restrained unless the farmer, who has to put its advice into practice, 
is easily reached. From far and wide comes the request for practical 
advice on the farm. At present both the divisions and the schools 
perform a measure of extension work, i.e. give advice on the farm by 
personal visits, arrange lectures and demonstrations in various parts 
of the country, publish articles in the Department's Journal and 
other agricultural papers, and give information by correspondence. 
It is admitted that the Department is greatly understaffed for this 
purpose and at present can only touch the fringe of this field of work. 
But with the building up of the schools and experiment stations, 
irore facilities will become available for extension w^ork. In the 
meantime officers who carry out extension work under the 
direction of the division will continue their activities, while 
the various schools will also endeavour to extend their present 
system of extension work, and an arrangement will be devised whereby 
the work of the various officers concerned will be co-ordinated, so 
that overlapping will be prevented and what may now savour of 
haphazard methods be guarded against. But with the development 
of the Department, the tendency will be to place under the control 
of the schools more and more extension work. It is inevitable, how- 
ever, and even desirable, that officers attached to divisions do some 
extension work, though not as a regular systematic course. 

Relation of Agricultural Education at the Schools to the Agri- 
cultural Education at the Universities. — The establishment of two 
faculties of agriculture, one at Stellenbosch and one at Pretoria, and 
the apparent prevalence of a desire for the establishment of at least 
another, have a direct bearing on the aims and objects of the schools 
of agriculture. The need for instruction in the higher branches of 
science is obvious ; the country needs exponents of agricultural science 



SJ22 JOTjRifAL OP TfiE DbpaRTMbNT OE' AGftlCtJti'fUftE. 



trained locally, and with all the advantages which only local associa- 
tion can give. But the country's population is small and its resources 
limited, and there is danger that its needs in this direction may be 
over-supplied, while lack of funds may detrimentally affect the high 
standard and thoroughness of instruction which will be expected 
from a University conferring a degree of Bachelor of Science (Agri- 
culture). The Department is experiencing great difficulty in supplying 
its scientific staff, and the difficulty is increased by the advent of 
the faculties, which also require men of a similar standard. In how 
far these faculties will overlap the work of the schools is not yet 
apparent ; the matter is under consideration at present. But various 
projects have been put forward by the faculties involving the services 
of officers of the Department, and the Rhodes University College has 
also submitted a scheme. Further comment need not be made at 
present, pending the result of further inquiry, but one thing emerges 
from the discussion which took place at the conference, namely, the 
fact that the standard of the technical staff of this Department is 
such that the Universities recognize the ability of the staff to give 
instruction to University students qualifying for a Bachelor of Science 
degree. This is a compliment which is appreciated and should be 
a happy augury to the public, in that the teaching of the coming 
farmers of South Africa is in the hands of such capable instructors. 
Outstanding Features. — The conference was composed of officers 
of long standing and experience, and their views and aspirations bear 
a great deal of weight in the future development of the Department. 
Arising out of the discussion on the several matters before the con- 
ference, the following features were outstanding: — 

(1) The present inadequacy of staff and equipment, and the 
pressing need for expansion in this direction in view of 
the forward movement of agriculture and the importance 
of solving many problems so as to make farming in South 
Africa increasingly popular and remunerative. 

(2) The Department's future development will tend to confine 

the activities of the divisions to the broad issues of policy 
and to the administration of laws, combined witJi 
specialized scientific research bearing on matters of general 
or national importance. Concurrently the schools will 
broaden out and will be the centres for teaching, research, 
and experiment; from them will radiate the necessary sub- 
stations and under their control most of the extension work 
will be carried out. It is laid down as a principle that the 
teacher at the school, in order to be of most value to the 
co-untry, must combine research with his teaching. 

(3) The divisions and the schools are inseparable and inter- 
dependent. 



Index of " Journal." 

With this number the index to Volume I of the Journal is being 
issued. This index embraces the nine months, April to December, 
1920, but in future it is proposed to issue an index for the six months 
ended June and December in each venr. 



The Cultivation of Buchu. 223 



THE CULTIVATION OF BUCHU. 



By E. H. CoMPTON, M.A., Director, and J. W. Mathews, 
F.E.H.S., Curator, National Botanic Gardens, Kirstenboscli. 



(Reprints of this article will be issued as "National Botanic Gardens : Economic Bulletin 
No. 1," and correspondence on the subject should be addressed to the Director. The 
greater part of the article, including the whole of the information on practical methods 
of cultivation, has been written by the Curator of the National Botanic Gardens, certain 
othsr details having been added by the Director. — Editor.) 



Owing to tlie increased intere.st taken in the cultivation of bucliu,* 
it is found desirable to publish the conditions under which such 
satisfactory results have been obtained at Kirstenbosch, with impres- 
sions gained from observations thereon. 

The site is that of an old vineyard and is on a sunny slope, with 
almost a true north aspect. The gradient is about 1 in 15, which gives 
a rapid run-off for heavy rains. 

The soil is a deep red sandy loam, rather adhesive when wet, and 
caking somewhat on drying. It is evidently rich in iron but some 
what deficient in lime for general crops. The sub-soil is a reddish 
clay, with here and there seams of ironstone and quartz gravel. It 
is " dry," that is, there is no "water-table," and consequently T^heie 
is no stagnation of moisture around. Good peach, apricot, vine, or 
hillside lands would suit buchu well. There is an abundant rainfall, 
and the atmosphere is decidedly moist at all times, with an absence 
of those scorching days under which some districts labour. 

Partial shade is beneficial, so that sites with an eastern or western 
aspect would be advantageous. Dense shade is detrimental. 

"Dry" cultivation is practised, and is generally the most suit- 
able for the western and south-western districts. Deep trenching, 
2 to 3 spades deep, is essential to resistance to di-ought and the 
longevity of the plantation. On " foul " lands the surface soil should 
go under and virgin soil come to the top to obtain a " clean " surface. 
Any hollows and humps should be remedied during the trenching, 
which is best done in March. During April, after decent rains, 
harrowing and light rolling should be carried on until a 'ine tilth 
is obtained. 

No manure has been used, but where good rotten farmyard manure 
is obtainable its use should be beneficial, either incorporated with the 
soil or as a mulch. 

Sowing should follow as soon as the land is fit. Mark off the 
ground in lines 3 feet apart. Where a Planet Junior sower is not 
available drills must be drawn out 1 inch deep, and the seed spaced 
therein not more than 2 or 3 inches apart by hand. Return the fine 
soil as a cover with the back of a rake. The Planet Junior set as for 
spinach will do all these operations at one trip at the speed of a 
moderate walk. 

* The market price in Capetown of dried Barosma hetulma leaves in 1920 ranged from 
ys, to lis. per lb. 



224 



Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



Germination takes place in about a montli, and is invariably poor, 
the average being from 40 to 50 per cent. 

Should the plants not be sufficieutly even throughout, the blanks 
can be resown the following season. About 7 lb. of seed are required 
per acre for the above distances. 

Experiments performed by Miss Davison, B.A., show that no 
improvement in the germination is effected by treatment of the seed 




Fig. 1. — Part of the Plantation of Barosma hetulina at Kirstenbosch, 
January, 1921. (The small trees in the rows aie Carob Beans.) The 
Buchu plants show part of one season's growth. 



before sowing with hot water, ether, sulphuric acid followed by soda, 
or by filing or cracking the seed-coats. A certain percentage of good- 
looking seed always seems to contain shrunken non-viable embryos. 

Some growers sow the seed in tins and transplant to open ground, 
but a large pioportion of the seedlings are always lost or stunted in 



The Cultivation of Buchu. 



225 



transplantation, and the final result seems inferior to that obtained by 
sowing in situ. 

Propagation by cuttings is being tried this season. 

After germination the cultivator and scuffler must be kept going 
to keep down weeds as well as to secure a surface mulch to conserve 
soil moisture. 

At a year old the young plants can be cut back to three inches 
from the ground to induce a bushy habit. 

At two years cut back again from one to two inches above last 
year's cut, and so on annually, the resultant bush slowly increasing 
in surface area, and yielding a maximum of leafy twigs. 




Fig. 2. — Twigs of the three coiumercial Buchus. Left to 
right, Baroioiui xrrrafiJiiJid, Ji. crrniildtd. Ji. letidlnx. 

The best all-round time for harvesting is March or April, as soon 
as a rain has washed the foliage clean. Grasp a fair handful of 
shoots just above the point where they are to be cut, and a good pair 
of secateurs will quickly do the remainder. The shoots can be laid 
on a sack flat on the ground, or in a truck. 

Harvesting should not be performed by the method of tearing or 
bieaking off the branches, as is usually the case in the collection of 
wild buchu : this causes injury or death of the plant. 

Drying should be done as quickly as possible, and to keep a good 
colour it is essential it should be done in shade. A corrugated iron 

8 



226 



Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



roof, with open sides, or latticed with spars or leafless branches, would 
approach the ideal. The layers should not be more than 15 or 18 
inches thick, and should be shaken loose as they are placed in position. 
The layers should be turned over and shaken loose daily until it is 
found tliat the leaves are separating, when a gentle thrashing with a 
pliable rod or fir-spar will separate them readily in two or three daily 
applications. The drying takes from ten days to a fortnight, accord- 
ing to weather conditions. Great care must be taken to avoid sweating 
when bulked, as a considerable loss of oil is occasioned thereby. It 




Fig. .3. — Leaves of the eoTiraercial P.ucbus and of some 
other aromatic South African Iiutaceae. 1, Barosina 
serratifulia Wilkl., upper surface ; 2, do. under 
surface ; 3, B. crenulata Hook., upper surface ; 4, 
do., under surface ; .5, B. hctulimi B. & W., upper 
surface ; 6, do., under surface ; 7, B. x opar'ia E. & Z. ; 
8, B. PerilerueYi'Amm^v, 'd.Adpnandrafraijntnx R. 
&; Sch. ; 10. Agathoama apicnlata Meyer ; ll, CoIpo- 
nema pnlrhfum Hook. 7 to II, under surface. All 
drawings magnified two diameters. (Del. Miss M. M, 
Tar'.'.) 



is well to turn over the sacks or bales daily for a further week or so 
before dispatching. 

The dried buchu siiould be as green as possible. A whitish colour 
indicates that the leaves have been dried in the sun and have, in 
consequence, lost a large amount of their nil-contents, 



The. CULTIVATION' of Buchu. 2^7 

For export purposes the bucliu sliould not contain more than 
10 per cent, of the small green twigs and none of the larger cres. 

The produce is usually marketed in wool packs, and is mainly 
exported to England, Australia, and America. 

To secure a crop of seed from cut-backs it is necessary to allow 
the bushes to develop unchecked and uncut for two years, or three 
years if a good crop is desired. AVlien the seed is ripe the capsule 
bursts and the seed is thrown some distance. In gathering this stage 
must be anticipated a little, and the capsules dried iii the sun on trays 
or sheets, with light hessian laid over to prevent loss by the explosions. 

The climate of the " winter rain belt" is naturally suited to the 
requirements of buchu, and generally throughout the western and 
south-western districts it will thrive with a minimum of attention. 
Un the Karroo or other arid regions it is doubtful if the plant would 
thrive, though here irrigation may ensure success. It is a moot point 
as to whether or how much frost it will withstand. In districts with 
good summer rains there is a possibility of its doing well if not allowed 
to dry out during the winter. Jiut just what amount of success can 
be attained can only be learned from actual trials. It is hoped to 
obtain reports of the results from seeds distributed to districts through- 
out all tlie Provinces of the Union. 

The future prospects of buchu as a field crop are bright in that the 
demand for the herb and oil is increasing rapidly throughout the 
world. The supply of seed is very limited, so that the acreage cannot 
rapidly increase, as propagation is limited to this means up to the 
present. 

The dried leaves of Barosnia hetulijia are official in the British 
Pharmacopoeia under the name of Buchu Folia. Admixture with 
other species depreciates the market value of the herb. In the United 
States there is also a good sale for Barosma creivulata. Barosma 
serratifolia is the only other species of commercial value at present, 
the value of the three species being in the order named. 

Under distillation buchu yields a resin and also a volatile oil. 
0. J. S. Thompson gives the following yields for the three commercial 
varieties, calculated as peicentages of the weight of dried leaves: — 

Pusin. Oil. 

B. hetulina 4.25 1.45 

B. crenulata 3.75 1.6 

B. serratifolia 3.45 1.0 

Pluckiger gives the percentage of volatile oil derived from dried 
B. hetulina as 1.56 per cent. — the higher yield being doubtless due to 
more careful drying. 

The oil can be obtained from green leaves as well as from the 
dried herb, and Mr. P. M. Williams states that the yield of oil from 
green B. hetulina leaves is about 1 per cent. Moreover, the green 
twigs give a yield of about 0.5 per cent. As the herb loses about half 
its weight in drying it is clear that a considerable waste of oil takes 
place in this process; and this is evident from the dtrong scent of a 
heap of drying branches as compared with the almost imperceptible 
scent of the growing plant. The most economical way of extracting 
the oil, therefore, would be by distillation of the green shoots shortly 
after cutting, and this could best be done as one of the operations in 
an essential oil industry in South Africa. 



228 



Journal op the Department of Agriculture. 



The oil derived from B. betulina leaves is a clear yellowish mobile 
liquid, which deposits a mass of colourless needle crystals of 
diosphenol or " Barosma camphor" in the cold. The oil from the' 
twigs of B. betulina is inferior, no diosphenol crystallizing out on 
freezing; and the oil from B. crenulata leaves is also deficient ^n 
diosphenol. 

The volatile oil of buchu, taken internally, is eliminated by the 
kidneys. It is said to produce no increase in the volume of the urine, 
and is, therefore, of no value in dropsies. It has, however, a marked 
effect upon the mucous membrane, and is, therefore, employed in the 
treatment of various diseases of the genito-urinary tract. It is also 
said to be an ingredient in certain patent medicines. Steeped in 
brandy, the leaves are widely used in South Africa as a remedy for 
many complaints; and the dried and powdered leaves were formerly 
used by the Hottentots for rubbing on the skin. 

Buchu, when first introduced into England, about 1823, was 
considered to be a mixture of Ba-rosma crenata, Barosma crenulata, 
and Barosina serratifolia. The two first are now considered 
synonymous. Thunberg mentions B. betulina and B. pulchella as 
being used by the Hottentots. The natural order, Rutaceae, is rich 
in plants with essential oils of varying odours and pungency, and no 
doubt some at least under test would prove to be of practical value. 
Many other species belonging to this order (genera Barosma, 
Agathosma, Diosma, Adenandra, Coleonema, etc.) thaa those men- 
tioned are in use locally where they are found wild, but at the present 
time are not of any commercial value. As some aromatic and 
medicinal species are not yet represented in the collection at Kirsten- 
bosch, seeds would be greatly appreciated. 

The National Botanic Gardens will be pleased to identify 
specimens of the varieties of buchu occurring wild : correspondents in 
the Union can send specimens or seeds free by post or rail if addressed 
O.H.M.S. to the Director. 

The National Botanic Gardens distributes sucti buchu seed as 
may be available, preference being given to Members and Associates 
of the Botanical Society of South Africa. Applications for seed should 
be made to the Director, and for membership either to him or to the 
Honorary Secretary of the Botanical Society, P.O. Box 70, Capetown. 



Plant Nurseries in Quarantine. 

The following nurseries were placed in quarantine during 
January last and must be added to the list published in the January, 
1921, Journal (page 88): — 



Name of Nurseryman. 


Address. 


Cause of 
Quarantine. 


Extent of Quarantine. 


C. Starke & Co. 
Chas. Ayres *: Co. 


Mowbray 
Capetown 


Red scale, Eri- 
ococcus 

C. dictyosipervii and 
Red scale 


Veronicas, Euonymus & 
Balsam : Araiicarias. 

Block "B," Courville St. 

Nursery. 



The Sweet Potato and its Cultivation. 229 



THE SWEET POTATO AND ITS CULTIVATION 
ALONG THE SOUTHERN COAST BELT. 



By Chas. r. JuRiTZ, M.A., D.Sc, E.I.C., Agiicultural llesearcli 

Chemist, Capetown. 



In collection with the production of alcohol on a large scale, in order 
to serve as a basis for liquid fuel, in view particularly of the scarcity 
of petrol, attention has lately been turned to the possibilities of 
utilizing' the sweet potato, which is fairly extensively cultivated along 
the southern coast belt of the Cape Province.* At present the extent 
of this cultivation adequately suffices to meet the demand, which is 
restricted to the employment of the tuber as human and stock food, 
but it is practically certain that the area indicated has potentialities 
for sweet potato production far in excess of the demands now made 
upon it. 

Climatic Conditions and Sweet Potato Soils. 

Sweet potatoes are best grown under climatic conditions which 
afford sunny days and warm nights, a rainfall which is neither scanty 
nor excessive, and which is available during a growing period of 
from four to six months annually. Although the crop adapts itself 
readily to other soil conditions, it attains perfection preferably in 
light sandy loam with a more clayey, but nevertheless well-drained, 
sub-soil. The soil must be well drained, because standing water 
around the developing tubers is most harmful ; at the same time the 
sub-soil should be sufhciently clayey to prevent the leaching away of 
fertilizers and the consequent formation of long stringy tubers. 
Fortunately for some of our southern coastal soils, which consist of 
almost pure sand, even unpromising areas give good yields of tubers, 
provided a reasonable supply of suitable manure be forthcoming. In 
fact, such poor sandy soils are in some respects better suited to sweet 
potato culture than fertile soils in which the tubers become sacrificed 
to a profuse growth of vines or runners. If, however, sweet potatoes 
are to be grown on poor sands, the locality should be so chosen that 
sufficient organic matter is present in the soil, and that there is a 
possibility of the crop obtaining such mineral plant food as suits its 
natural tendencies. 

Mr. Robertson's Farm. 

I have drawn attention elsewhere to the fact that within the 
Union of South Africa the Division of George and the areas adjacent 
thereto exceed all other districts in the abundance of the sweet potato 
crop. That statement I may now supplement by saying that no 
planter in the Union harvests more sweet potatoes every season than 
Mr. W. E. Robertson, whose farm is situated about three miles from 
Little Brak River railway siding and eight miles from Mossel Bay. 

* See ar'icle on " A New Motor Spirit " by the writei', in the South African Jvurnal of 
Industries, October, 1 920, pages 889-894. 



230 Journal op the Department of AGRicuLfURfi. 

Mr. Robertson and his four brotliers own farms whicli are not, it is 
true, actually in the George Division, but lie in the adjoining Divi- 
sion of Mossel Bay; they are, however, so near to the George 
))oundary — only some six miles west thereof — that they may well be 
considered as belonging to the area which excels all others in sweet 
potato production. As regards rainfall, however, Little Brak River 
is less favourably situated than George, and east of George the rain- 
fall is even higher. 

In order personally to inspect the harvesting of the sweet potato 
crops and to collect samples both of the ~ different varieties of the 
plant under cultivation as well as of the soil on which it is grown, a 
visit was paid towards the end of September last to Mr. W. E. 
Robertson's farm with its 80 acres of sweet potatoes. Apart from sweet 
potato culture, there are many points of interest about this farm 
which suffice in themselves to repay inspection. In passing, it may 
be mentioned that the now sub-divided farm, whereof it formed a 
part, at one time belonged to Mr. Robertson's father, the late Mr. 
Donald Robertson, whose brother, the late Mr. Alfred G. Robertson, 
used to represent the Division of George in the old Cape House of 
Assembly. The part now held by Mr. W. E. Robertson is situated 
between the two tributaries of the Little Brak River,* and is unique 
in respect of its successful growing of a number of sub-tropical plants. 
The household has been accustomed to the use of coffee from actual 
coffee trees which are still thriving excellently on the farm. For 
a number of years pawpaws flourished there, and the dried stems 
remain to bear some evidence to the size they attained. Several 
avocado pear trees may still be seen profusely laden with young fruit, 
and a little plantation of sugar-cane adds to the Natalian features of 
the surrounding scenery ; nor must I omit reference to the fact that 
a cr.)|) of 3000 custard apples was harvested this season, while mangoes 
are also being grown on the farm. 

The homestead stands some way up the southern slope, and near 
the eastern end of a long low hill. The hill does not much exceed 
100 feet in height and stretches east and west for nearly a mile. The 
Moordkuil stream, which is the eastern affluent of the Little Brak, 
after turning the flank of this hill, winds some distance further in 
a southerly direction, and then flows west towards the confluence of 
the two tributaries. Within the space enclosed between hill and river 
a semi-circular level plateau extends below the homestead to a 
distance of about 700 yards. Outside the semi-circle the level 
suddenly drops some 9 feet to an alluvial deposit, and thus continues 
to the river. On this lower level, between the plateau and the river, 
the best sweet potato harvests are gathered from a field lying in a 
direct line between Mr. Robertson's homestead and Rooiheuvel farm. 
The soil of this field used to be cultivated at least 35 or 40 years ago, 
and has ever since lain fallow until four years ago, when a somewhat 
more intensive cultivation was begun. First of all the field was put 
under wheat; then mealies were grown on it; next it bore a crop of 
sweet potatoes, followed by peas, and then again sweet potatoes. At 
the time of my visit, beans had recently been sown on the land, and 
were about 3 inches high. The soil, which is represented by No. 2 
(see fig. 1), is dark in colour and has never been manured. 

* oee Fig. 1. 



The Sweet Potato and its Cultivation. 



231 



Soil Collection on the Faem. 

Further from the Moordkuil River than No. 2, and more to the 
west, a sample of reddish soil (No. 3) was collected from the same 
stretch of alluvium ; it represented a portion of the alluvial stretch 
about If morg-en in area, on which oats were g-iowing-. This field has 
been under cultivation, according to Mr. Harold llobertson, for 




^ 



J_^c 



•Scale of Cape Roods . 
ClSC.feef-= I C. Rood ) ■ 

Fia. 1. 



about 15 years, and had been manured once every other season with 
manure from the cattle kraal. During those 15 years it has grown 
principally sweet potatoes under irrigation, swedes, barley, beans, 
and peas being used, however, as rotation crops. Up to about four 
years ago the sweet potato crops were quite good, but since that time 
the tuhei's have deteriorated, although the production of runners has 
continued quite satisfactory. Latterly it has been found, moreover, 
that the peas do not germinate well, 



232 



Journal op the Department of Agriculture. 



By way of contrast to the soil types referred to above, it was 
Ihouglit desirable to examine a sample from alluvial lands, where 
sweet potato culture is less successful. A small field of this type, 
represented by sample No. 1, was found behind (i.e., to the north of) 
the hill on which the homestead stands, in a bend or elbow of the 
eastern tributary, or Moordkuil River, at Kleindoorn (The Causeway). 
The crops yielded by this soil are said to be poor, not only as regards 
sweet potatoes, but also with cereals and vegetables. For some 
years past these lands have been manured every six months with 
cattle manure at the rate of about one wagon-load per f morgen. 

The physical character of the soil on Mr. Robertson's farm may 
be gathered from the results of the mechanical analyses, which are 
given below. The soils sampled were entirely free from stones and 
coarse gravel, their percentage composition being as follows: — 

No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. 

Fine gravel 64 Nil. Nil. 

Coarse sand 2.50 Trace. .52 

Medium sand 13.98 1.56 44.22 

Fine sand 23.92 12.54 7.11 

Very fine sand 39.20 41.35 21.49 

Silt 11.30 26.87 14.83 

Very fine silt 7.08 15.67 9.68 

Clay 1.38 2.00 . 2.14 

The above figures show the considerable differences that exist 
between these types of soil. No. 1 is a sort of transition between a 
fine sand and a fine sandy loam, inclining, however, more to a sandy 
than to a loamy character. No. 2 is a silt loam and physically far 
the best soil of the three. The above mechanical analyses would 
also imply its chemical superiority over the other two. No. 3, a soil 
of somewhat peculiar type, may be called a sandy loam. 



Sweet Potato Soils, 

In the North American Union the principal sweet potato growing 
States are Alabama and Georgia, which have respectively 153,000 
and 130,000 acres under the crop. The sandy loams of the Norfolk 
series, which are specially adapted to sweet potato culture, cover 
543,000 acres in those two States. The average percentage composi- 
tion of these soils is given below, and for the sake of comparison I 
repeat, in summarized form, the results of the Little Brak 
analyses : — 





Norfolk, 


Lit lie Brak, 


Norfolk, 


Little Brak, 


Little Brak 




Sandy 


Sandy 


Fine Sandy 


Fine Sandy 


Silt 




Loam. 


Loam. 


Loam. 


Loam. 


Loam. 






No. 3. 




No. L 


No. 2. 


Fine gravel 


. 4 





1 


1 





Coarse sand 


. 5 


1 


3 


3 





Medium sand 


. 14 


44 


5 


14 


2 


Fine sand 


. 31 


7 


38 


24 


13 


Very fine sand 


. 18 


21 


24 


39 


41 


Silt 


. 11 


24 


22 


18 


42 


Clay 


7 


9 


8 


1 


o 



The Sweet Potato and its Cultivation. 233 



The agricultural cliemical analyses of Mr. Eobertson's soils are 
tabulated below: — 

No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. 

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. 

Moisture 1.15 3.44 1.07 

Organic and volatile matter 3.37 5.34 2.64 

Nitrogen 126 .147 .070 

Potash 099 .205 .076 

Lime 144 .216 .114 

Magnesia 185 .323 .069 

Phosphoric oxide — 

Soluble in cold hydrochloric acid .041 .049 .034 

Soluble in strong boiling acids ... .081 .069 .072 

These results confirm the deduction already drawn from the 
mechanical analyses, namely, the decided superiority of No. 2 over 
the other two soils. It is well furnished with nitrogeneous material 
and has a satisfactory proportion of potash, its humus-content is 
higher than either Nos. 1 or 3, and its moisture-retaining power is 
also better. In respect of lime it is likewise the best of the three 
soils. No. 3, on the other hand, is chemically the poorest soil of 
the three. It is only moderately supplied with nitrogen, potash, and 
lime, and its proportion of humus and capacity for retaining water 
are comparatively low. Its available supply of phosphate is also 
scantier than in the other two soils, although it must be said that in 
respect of phosphate there is not much to choose between the three ; 
all alike have no more than a " fair " reserve of phosphoric oxide. 

Varieties of Sweet Potato. 

Four varieties of sweet potato were being grown on the farm at 
Little Brak River on the occasion of my visit: — 

1. Common six-months. 

2. Red-skinned three-mouths. 

3. Yellow-skinned three-months. 

4. British East African white-skinned. 

The six-months variety is the kind for which the demand is 
greatest all over the Union, on account of its keeping qualities. This 
variety, moreover, is said to stand transport and rough treatment 
better, and, under adverse circumstances, to give a larger yield per 
acre, than any of the other kinds. The tuber, however, is stated to 
be more fibrous than in any other variety. The midribs and veins 
on the underside of the leaves of this class of sweet potato are purple. 

The red-skinned type is the most delicate potato of the four, and 
the demand for it is only one-ninetieth of that for the six-months 
variety. Its tubers require the greatest care in handling, and the 
cultivation of the plant itself gives more difficulty than the other 
varieties do. This variety has the leaf-ribs wholly green on both 
s^'des- 

The yellow three-months tuber also needs special cultural care, 
but not to the same degree as the red-skinned. Both these quick- 
growing three-months varieties, however, are said to be more watery 



234 



JOUliNAL OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AoiiiCULl'URfi. 



than the six-moiiths type. The sweetest potato of the four grown on 
Mr. Robertson's farm is supposed to he the yellow (Cape) three- 
months variety, the next in order being the red tuber. 

The East African potato is said by Mr. Robertson to be the least 
sweet of his four kinds, but intermediate in general characters 




Fig. 2. — Plantint;- Sweet Potato Slips. 

between the six-months and the more watery three-months varieties. 
Lnternally the tuber is very white in colour, and even the skin is of 
a lighter shade than any of the other varieties. It is also more 
luxuriant m growth and hardier, and is reputed to stand drought and 
frost better. On account of its trident-shaped leaves this variety is 
kj'own locally as hoenderpoot. 




Fui. 3.— Sweet Potatv Dibble. 

Method of Propagating. 



There are two methods of propagating sweet potatoes ; they are 
grcwn either from plants or slips produced by allowing the seed 
tubers to sprout in warm sand, and planting the slips with the eyes 
from which they are developed; or by making cuttings from the 
runners or vines of the sweet potatoes and planting those cuttings. 



The Sweet Potato and its Cultivation. 



235 



The latter is the method which is principally adopted wlierever sweet 
potato culture is carried on in the Union of South Africa. In the 
northern United States the sprouted slips are employed for the main 
crop while the runners are used only to provide the seed tubers for 
the following season; south of Virginia, however, the main crop is 
grown from runner cuttings ; sufficient tubers are planted in the first 
instance to jirovide slips for about one-eighth of the area to be 
eventually planted. When these slips develop runners, enough 
Clottings are made to plant the rest of the field. Good sweet potato 
land in the United States will readily support 10,000 plants per acre, 
and wlitn everything is in good condition from 7000 to 10,000 slips 
per day, or one acre, may be planted by three workers (fig. 2), i.e. 
a boy going ahead to drop plant slips on the ridges, a second operator 
following with a dibble (fig. 3) to make holes to receive the slips, 
while a third inserts the plants and closes up the holes again. When 
a large acreage has been planted, the work is greatly facilitated by 
the use of transplanting machines (fig. 4), which under reasonably 
favourable conditions may plant from 3 to 4 acres of sweet potato 
slips per day. 




Fig. 4. - Sweet Potato Transplanting Machine. 

Notwithstanding their proximity to the sea, large portions of the 
George and adjacent Divisions, where sweet potatoes are cultivated, 
are subject to frosts. Further inland, this condition is accentuated. 
Hence such districts are unable to propagate fresh crops of sweet 
potatoes from those of the preceding year, because the frost nips all 
the young shoots before there is any possibility of their developing 
into vines or ^runners. On Mr. Robertson's farm, although frost 
does prevail on a considerable extent thereof, about twenty acres 
seem to be quite immune, and on this frost-free stretch luxuriant 
runners are formed without restraint. The result is that from all 
parts of the Union, far and near, requests for supplies of runners 
come streaming in season after season — demands more numerous, at 
times, than the potentialities of the season's crop can cope with. As 
an instance, it may be mentioned that within an hour of my arrival 
on the farm, on the 2Tth September, 50 bags of sweet potato runners 
were dit^patched to the railway siding, three empty trucks were tele- 
phoned for to Mossel Bay, and at least two fresh orders had to be 
declined. 



23G 



Journal of the Department op Agriculture. 



Harvesting. 

Ml. Robertson practises two methods in the harvesting of his 
street potato runners for sale and planting: — 

1. The tubers and runners are taken up simultaneously. This 
method provides the best tubers for human consumption. 

2. The runners are cut off separately (to a certain extent late in 
August, but principally in September) and sold as a first crop, the 
tubers being left in the ground to provide a second crop of runners; 
these are taken off a month later — generally some time in October — 
when the tubers, which have deteriorated in the meanwhile and 




Fid. :"■).— Bascginsf Sweet Potato Runners at Little Brak. 



become fit only for cattle food, are dug up. This second crop of 
runners is not sold off the farm, but is used by Mr. Robertson for 
his own planting. 

At the time of my visit, the farm hands were all busy harvesting 
tubers and roots by the first of the two methods above described. 

Bagging Runners for Sale, and Preservation. 

It was interesting to watch the operation of bagging the runners 
or vines for export to other districts by rail. Four posts (fig. 5), 
each from 9 to 11 feet high, are erected at the corners of a square of 
4-feet side; from these posts an open bag is suspended by means of 



The Sweet Potato and its Cultivation. 237 

four iron hooks ; each leng-tli of runners is rolled up as tiglitly as 
possible in order to economize bag- space and thrown into the bag, in 
which a native labourer keeps treading them down until the receptacle 
is packed as full as it can hold. . 

Sweet potato runners are reckoned very poor feeders for working- 
animals, but good for ostriches and sheep. Mr. Harold Robertson 
considers the runners an excellent remedy for wire-worm in the latter. 
Of the tubers only the large ones are collected for human consump- 
tion, the small ones being used for feeding stock, including horses, 
cows, and fowls. Cattle are reputed to prefer sweet potatoes, after 
having once been accustomed thereto, to any other class of feed. 

The practice in planting runners on Mr. Robertson's farm is 
first of all to cut them into lengths of about 11 inches, and then to 
plant them 15 inches apart in rows, with only one-fourth of each 
cutting showing above ground. The parallel rows themselves are 28 
inches apart. 

In order to preserve the runners of the sweet potato over a frosty 
winter it has been recommended to set them in early in Autumn, and 
shield them from frost, while allowing them free air supply, by 
erecting a horizontal thatch-screen on a frame about 2 feet above the 
runners. 

Propagation Methods in Other Countries. 

No doubt many who srrow sweet potatoes in South Africa will 
read with interest the following account of a method of planting 
adopted in Ohio, U.S.A. The writer besrins bv remarking that ground 
intended for sweet potato cultivation should be put under some hoed 
crop the previous season, and kept free from weeds, a procedure which 
will enable the sweet potatoes to be much more easily raised. After 
removal of the hoed crop the ground should receive a coat of well- 
rotted manure, and it will be an ideal place for sweet potatoes the 
next season. He continues as follows: — 

■* Sweet potatoes require a long season for their growth ; 
therefore as soon as danger of frost is past they should be set 
out. Do not plough the ground over 4 inches deep ; if ploughed 
deeper there is too much loose soil, and the potatoes will grow 
lonsr and slim. On the other hand, they will grow downward 
until they strike the solid bottom, and will then grow thicker and 
shorter, making a potato that will sell better than a long potato 
will. In making the ridges, make but slight elevations; these 
can very easily be made by placing the shovels on the double 
cultivator to throw the earth to the middle. This will almost 
complete a ridge; if it be not complete in all places, it will take 
but a short time to give it a few finishing touches with the hoe. 
Make the ridges 3 feet apart from centre to centre. If one 
wishes to raise only enough for home consumption, he can best 
buy his plants ; but if raising them for market, by all means 
make a hotbed and raise the plants. In setting the plants, it is 
best to choose a cloudy day. The ridges should be made a few 
days beforehand, so as to become somewhat compact. Scatter 
the plants along the ridge about 18 inches apart (not too far 
ahead, as they will soon wilt) ; use a pointed stick to make the 
hole and place the plant in it the same depth as it was in the 



238 Journal of the Department of Agriculture, 

hotbed. If the ground be dry, pour in a little water and press 
the soil down firmly around it. If the ground be moist, there 
is no need of using the water. Plants set in this manner will 
scarcely show that they have been moved. They should be 
cultivated after each rain until the vines cover the ground ; they 
will then take care of themselves. Use the cultivator between 
the ridges. In cultivating the ridges until the plants get started, 
I find nothing better than a common garden rake. After the 
vines cover the ground I do not disturb them." 

In Queensland, Australia, some sweet potato growers have been in 
the habit of planting so thickly that the ground becomes ore mass of 
"oots and tubers, which require to be ploughed up. This was 
condemned by the Australian Agriculturist, that journal charac- 
terizing the practice as a method not of cultivating sweet potatoes, 
but of filling the soil with a mass of inferior tubers. The Queensland 
farmers were advised to plant 10 feet apart, for the reason that sweet 
potatoes in open soil will spread their roots upwards of 10 feet each 
way, bearing as they run, and therefore 10 feet apart for plants 
cannot be excessive. Farmers at one time used to represent to the 
Queensland Department of Agriculture that, although no disease was 
apparent in the sweet potato crop, the vines failed to yield tubers.* 
The Department attributed this failure to the common custom of 
continuously planting the same piece of ground, and raising potatoes 
from vines, instead of obtaining a change of roots and growing the 
crops upon fresh ground from young shoots. The system in operation 
was i)ronounced to be altogether wrong, having a tendency to weaken 
the constitution of the plant. The real nature of the malady was 
ascribed in the Annual Report of the Queensland Department to what 
was there called '' the pernicious system of constant propagation by 
suckers, instead of from seed." The method recommended to the 
Qi-!eensland farmers was that about the end of July or the beginning 
of August a few fairly large tubers of good varieties should be planted 
and covered with not more than 2 inches of soil. These would then 
throw up many young shoots, and when the shoots are about 6 inches 
above ground the tubers should be lifted, and the e^/es from which 
the young shoots spring should be carefully cut out with a sharp 
knife. The eye with the young shoot should then be planted in the 
ground slightly ridged, and, if the season lie at all a favourable one, 
potatoes of good quality would be ready for lifting at least one month 
earlier than by the method of planting a piece of the runner, and 
the plants would be all the stronger. It maj^ be added, however, 
that danger of transmitting disease to the new crop is less if tubers 
from cuttings are used for seed. 

In the United States of America, where sweet potatoes are very 
largely grown, irrigation is often resorted to with success in regions 
of scanty rainfall, but it is recognized that the greatest caution should 
be exercised not to apply too much water during the latter i)art of the 
growing season, lest runners should lie formed at the expense of 
tubers; moreover, proper ripening of the tubers is best achieved if 
water be entirely witliheld for some time prior to harvesting. It 
foUow'S from the above that, if it be at all possible to grow two crops 
annually, the time of planting should be so arranged that the 

- '^ Similar occm'rences have been noticed in the Cape Province. 



1'he Sweet Potato and its Oultivation. 



2^9 



lu: nuriiig of one crop may wholly anticipate the rainy season, and 
that of the other fall well after its close. 

Irrigation of the planted cuttings is not advised by Mr. 
llohertson, unless absolutely necessary. For open crumbly soils it 
is best to plant the cuttings in a damp soil, and for stiff soil irriga- 
tion should not follow but precede planting; sandy soils, however, 
may be irrigated after the cuttings are in. 

When the young plants have started growing, the important 
point is the continuous use of the cultivator for getting rid of weeds, 
ani hand-scuffling must also be practised. This is specially necessary 
in the early stage of growing, for later on the crop itself, with its 
interlacing runners and leaves, chokes all further growth of weeds. 

{To he continued in next month'' s issve.) 



Average Yields of Certain Crops. 

The following comparative statement of the average yields per 
acre of cereals and potatoes has been drawn up from available 
information. The South African figures have been taken from the 
Census of Agricultural Production, 1918. The average for oats 
(given in brackets) has been calculated by assuming that the weight 
of "oats green in bundles" given in the Census w^ould yield 40 per 
cent, grain, while the average for barley (given in brackets) is 
obtained by assuming that the green barley consisted of 25 per cent, 
dry matter, and that if grown to maturity it would have yielded 50 
per cent, grain. These figures are. only rough approximations. 

The figures for foreign countries are either the average of the 
last five years (where obtainable) or for 1917 or 1918. 

The weights per bushel taken are those adopted by the United 
States, as it is considered they are best suited for comparative 
purposes for most of the countries enumerated hereunder. 



Weigl't i)cr Kushel. 



Wheat-, 60 1b 

Rye, 5f) lb 

Maize, 56 11; 

Kaffir Corn, 56 lb. 

Oats, 32 lb 

I (S.A.41t71b.Oatsplus6-H)lb. "Green") 
Barley, 48 lb 

(S.A. 737 lb. Barley plus 371 lb 

"Green") 

Potatoes, 60 lb 

Sweet Potatoes, 60 lb. ... 



Average Yield per Acre in Bushels. 



■J2 -I 



9-9 
6-4 

7-8 
7-1 
23) 

16-5) 



33 
50 



11-7 
26-8 



16-8 
19-5 

103 






15-0 
14-4 

25-6 



35-3 

26-0 



95 
95 



15-7 
32-1 



29-3 
22-3 

143 





a 


, 


o 






OJ 


br, 


G 


n 


t^M j 



9-2 


32-3 


20-3 


— 


12-2 


43-7 


5-4 


33-7 


71 


227 


— 


— 



o 
31-5 



85-1 
36-0 

160 



24:0 Journal of the IDepartment of AcRictiLTviRfi. 



THE PROBLEM OF SCAB. 



A New Policy Outlined. 



Since the early days of our history scab has been a thorn in onr flesh, 
retarding our progress and sapping our energy and wealth in the 
ceaseless and, unhappily, unavailing efforts to clean our country of 
the scourge. The problem is one which exercised the minds of our 
fathers and their fathers before them, and to-day we face it still. 
To what extent the presence of the scab insect in South Africa has 
impeded its development and well being, none can tell. It is a 
subject which, as far as our memory goes, has been discussed in 
Parliament and throughout the wide stretches of our land, yet all 
our plans and labours have not attained a definite end : the thorn 
remains in our flesh, nor does its smart lessen with the passing of the 
years. When we consider the successful handling of the problem in 
another continent — how a disease which continues menacingly with 
us has been removed and forgotten in Australia — it is surely a matter 
to give pause to every farmer of South Africa, and imbue each of 
us with a strong desire to do what others have done, and, in removing 
the stigma which its continuing presence attaches to us as a people, 
place in its stead, yet another monument of success in our campaign 
against the obstacles with which agricultural South Africa has 
contended. 

South Africa has taken her place in the world's forward move- 
ment which science and experience make possible, yet our progress 
is being hampered by the cloud resting over us in the form of the 
scab insect seriously affecting the 'chief of the country's pastoral 
industries. Scab decreases the value of our avooI, brings down the 
condition of our stock, engages the energy of hundreds of our men, 
and burdens the country with an ever-increasing expenditure amount- 
ing at present to £200,000 annually. Notwithstanding all our efforts 
the scab insect continues to exact its toll from us and requires our 
constant vigilance lest it should finally conquer us and so ravage our 
flocks as to break down an industry on which our prosperity in a large 
measure depends. 

That is the position to-day, but happily we have not become dis- 
couraged with the non-success of our efforts, nor are we submitting to 
a condition of things which reflects discredit on us. We feel that the 
obstacle can be overcome by a change of methods. There is evidence 
that the progressive farmers of South Africa are becoming impatient 
of the incubus which is for ever bearing them down, and within 
recent years public opinion has increasingly clamoured for a more 
drastic means to remove the evil of scab from our midst. And this 
Ewakening of the farmer to the great need of personally grappling 
with the problem is the vitalizing spirit which we feel will bring 
about the consummation we all devoutly wish. The rising tide of 
opinion has at last taken shape in no uncertain manner. What may 
perhaps be the beginning of a new era in our scab eradication 
campaign emanates from the principle involved in a recommendation 



The Problem of Scab. 2-11 

to Parliament by the Select Committee on Public Accounts last year, 

that : — 

" Your Committee, having taken evidence, has come to the 
conclusion that the time has come for this cost (the expenditure 
incurred in the control and eradication of scab) to be borne by 
flock owners and not by the general taxpayer." 

The recommendation has speedily borne fruit, for the principle 
has been affirmed by the Agricultural Advisory Board (representing 
the organized farmers of the country), which advocates a change in 
our present policy in the following resolution of the Board passed at 
its last meeting : — 

" The Board recommends that, in order to effectively clear 

the country of scab a system of direct taxation of so much per 

100 sheep shall be imposed throughout the Union. 

' That stringent minimum penalties be imposed in respect 

of contraventions of the Stock Diseases Act and regulations 

thereunder in so far as scab is concerned." 

Herein, it seems to us, lies the germ of success. The person 
most affected must realize, through direct taxation, that he is bearing 
part of the cost of eradicating the disease, so that it may be his aim 
to free himself from the burden of the tax by cleansing his stock from 
scab. 

Tlie trend of events leading to the realization of the principle of 
direct taxation has long been foreseen by those whose life-work has 
placed them in close contact with the problem of scab eradication. 
The value of ihe present policy of protecting areas which are clean 
or nearly clean, and the placing of restrictions on areas in which there 
IS much infection, is probably recognized almost generally. But, 
however excellent this policy, experience shows that restrictions only 
(which form the basis of the present legislation and regulations) will 
n-?ver be the means by which scab can be eradicated. Restrictive 
measures can, indeed, be the means of controlling an undesirable 
thing within certain limits, but they will never entirely free a country 
of that thing. Restrictions impose difficulties which affect the 
methods of some, and so run counter to their personal interests. Thus 
a restrictive measure not furthering the direct interests of an indivi- 
dual is viewed askance and, in the nature of things, sometimes 
e^^aded, so that a temporary gain by the individual propagates an 
evil to the community which it is desired to overcome. To counter- 
balance this tendency it is evident that, while maintaining the restric- 
tions or punishment as now obtains, there should be a system which 
induces the individual to keep a law which provides a direct reward 
to those who do so. 

The control and eradication of scab is the duty primarily of the 
farmer, not of the sheep inspector. The latter is appointed for the 
purpose of aiding the farmer in the proper performance of this duty 
and of protecting the careful farmer against the indifferent or the 
unscrupulous one. In the same way the good citizen is expected to 
observe the laws of the land he lives in and the policeman is 
appointed to protect him from the danger of the lawbreaker and 
thus aid him in duly carrying out his obligations to the State. A 
very prevalent idea is that sheep inspectors are the people who are 
chiefly concerned with the eradication of scab and that if their efforts 
are unavailing the farmer cannot be blamed. This is an entirely 



24^ Journal op the Department op Agriculture. 

mistaken idea, and so long as the efforts of officials are not supple- 
mented by the best efforts of the sheep owner, scab will never be 
eradicated. Therefore, the Advisory Board considers that the time 
has come for inducing the closest co-operation of the sheep farmer by 
holding out direct reward for success, and a personal loss, through 
direct taxation, for failure, in the country's campaign against scab. 

The manner in which a direct tax will need to be imposed, taking 
into consideration the fact that at present the cost of scab control is 
paid for by the whole community through indirect taxation, appears 
to be the levying of a direct tax from each sheep owner in a district 
in which scab exists and according to the number of sheep owned at 
a late, either fixed or sliding, to be agreed upon. Foi- instance, if 
the cost of eradication is £2UU,0U0, a rate fixed at £5 per lUOO sheep 
would cover the whole cost. But as the community as a whole 
benefits from the measures adopted to extirpate the disease, it is 
considered that not more than half the cost should be borne directly 
by the farmers in scab-infested districts, and, therefore, that a tax 
Oi about £2. 10s. per 1000 sheep should be levied upon them. The 
remaining half of the cost could be met out of general revenue. The 
main point is that while the farmer, under the present system, also 
contributes, of course, towards the expenditure, he does so indirectly 
in the same way as other members of the community, and is, speaking 
generally, not aware that he does pay, and does not realize what the 
presence of scab in the country is costing him as an individual. 

The proposal is that the direct tax would be levied on every 
district which has not been clean for twelve months and on every 
sheep owner within such district. As soon as any district thereafter 
becomes clean and remains so for twelve months, the tax on that 
district would be removed and the amount previously paid by that 
district in direct taxation be made good out of revenue, if necessary. 
If the district becomes reinfected the direct tax would be reimposed 
until the district is again clean for twelve months. But at the same 
time, once a district is declared to be clean, it would be the duty of 
the Government to give it all the protection in its power to prevent 
reinfection. 

That, in brief, is the system which has been recommended. At 
the first glance it might give the appearance of penalizing the 
innocent for the wrongdoing of the guilty and would be resisted for 
this reason alone. This can be understood, for a fault of indirect 
taxation is that the persons so taxed are either ignorant of the fact 
or do not fully realize to what extent they are being taxed. As 
already indicated, every sheep owner to-day is taxed for the eradica- 
tion of scab, but few seem to appreciate the fact. If it were reckoned 
out how much is paid out in indirect taxation for each large service 
rendered by the Government a different impression would prevail. 
It is maintained that, reckoned as a business proposition, the direct 
tax should be welcomed by all. Under such a system, instead of all 
the responsibility practically being upon sheep inspectors, it would 
be thrown primarily on the owners themselves. Thus a man who is 
a breeder of scab or negligent would, on conviction, be considered 
a danger and expense to his district and be dealt with by the district 
accordingly. At present it is not unusual for a man convicted and 
fined to receive the sympathy of his fellow-farmers instead of the 
opprobrium his action deserves, because his misdemeanour does not 
affect directly in taxation the other farmers of the district. Under a 



The Problem of Scar. 243 

direct tax every sheep owner in a taxable district v.-ould not only keep 
his sheep clean, but would do his best to make his neighbour do like- 
wise, so as to escape the direct tax. The tax on individuals might be 
small, yet the mere fact that it is paid would, it is urged, be the 
greatest possible inducement to get rid of it. 

At present the inspector is liable to be punished for neglect of 
duty or bad service, while his chances of reward are small. We must 
face ilie fact that in an organization which gives no special reward 
for individual effort and in which the greatest benefit is that acquired 
by length of service and the pension it carries, the human tendency 
is to keep an appointment as long as possible. Here, also, is a 
matter which calls for a change of policy, namely, the introduction 
of the principle of awarding bonuses. But the bonuses will need to 
be such as to be a real inducement to an inspector to do his utmost, 
and to attract the right class of man. A scheme considered by the 
Board was that an inspector would receive a substantial bonus, in 
the form of an increase in salary, as soon as his area had been declared 
clean for a period of, say, twelve months and if he kept it clean for, 
say, three years an additional bonus would be paid. When as a 
resvilt of the greater efforts which would ensue, a sufficiently large 
portion of the country were clean to permit a reduction in the number 
of inspectors, those whose services might accordingly be dispensed 
with would have the option of receiving a large bonus or of being 
transferred at their own salaries to another area which was not clean, 
with the same ultimate prospect of another substantial bonus when 
finally their services were no longer required by the Government. If 
it be objected 'hat the expenditure involved would be too great, the 
system holds out the prospect of speedily eradicating scab and even- 
tually saving the hundreds of thousands of pounds which are now 
expended year after year on a scourge which cannot be removed. And 
with the passing of scab, there will be available the vast sums now, 
in a large measure, fruitlessly expended which could be used in 
developing our agricultural industry. 

We go on from year to year with the high hope that each will 
see the diminution of scab, but each year seems to bring a train of 
circumstances which frustrates our best efforts. Indeed we have 
become familiar with the presence of the disease, and many have 
become lethargic in their fight against a pest which is causing great 
loss to the community. We have an army of sheep inspectors charged 
with assisting the farmer in his dipping operations, educating him, 
and generall}^ controlling the spread of scab, but many farmers do 
not give sufficient attention to their dipping, and in other ways are 
responsible for the continuance of the insect in our flocks, nor are 
the penalties inflicted by our laws sufficiently stringent apparently 
to act as a deterrent or corrective. We need new methods. 

The Advisory Board gives a lead, therefore, to the sheep farmers 
of the Union. Our past efforts having met with little success, can 
the scab problem be tackled from the new vantage afforded by the 
lessons of the past? 

The Department wishes to have the benefit of the views of the 
frrming community on the subject, and an invitation is now extended 
to all farmers' associations and other agricultural bodies in the 
Union to give an expression of opinion on the suggested policy for 
dealing with scab. All communications should be addressed to the 
Secretary for Agriculttire, Pretoria. 



244 Journal of the Department op Agriculture. 



CONSTRUCTION OF EARTHEN DAMS. 



By I. J. P. Kleyn, C.E., Department of Irrigation. 



General. 

StccEssFUL farming in South Africa is very much dependent on the 
water supply available on any selected farm, no matter what class of 
farming is practised. The natural water supply of this country, 
however, is erratic. Rivers having a perennial flow are few and far 
betv/cen and are t)nly found in those regions where the rainfall is 
sufficient for agricultural requirements appropriate to the local rainy 
season. With a few exceptions the flow in these rivers decreases to 
such an extent in the dry season that there is barely enough flow in 
them for agricultural operations, and frequently what little water 
there is flows for long distances literally underground below the sandy 
bed of the channel. The best conditions are found in a narrow strip 
along the coast of the Cape Province, Natal, and the portion of the 
Transvaal east of the Drakensberg. The summer rainfall over the 
greater part of the Transvaal and the northern and eastern portion of 
the Free State is usually sufficient for summer crops, such as mealies, 
millet, etc. For spring crops, fruit and permanent crops, irrigation 
is necessary. Unfortunately, when spring or summer crops require 
water badly, the rainfall throughout the country cannot be relied 
upon ; this period is from August to the end of October, and irrigation 
must be resorted to. As most of our rivers are intermittent streams, 
i.e. rivers that only flow during the rainy season or after a heavy 
rain, it is essential that provision be made to conserve the flow, or 
some of it, during the wet season, in order to carry out operations 
when it is dry. 

It will thus be seen that the most important factor in irrigation 
in South Africa is conservation, and that successful agricultural 
operations are almost entirely dependent on adequate storage works. 

Before deciding on the extent of the works necessary for any class 
of farming, one should know what is the amount of water required 
to bring any particular crop or fruit to maturity. In a country where 
the climate and rainfall vary so considerably, it is impossible to lay 
down a hard and fast rule. In the Karroo aod the north- 
west of the Cape Province the annual rainfall is often not 
more than 8 inches per annum, and the country is subjected 
to very dry and hot winds, while in the Transvaal the 
annual rainfall is 28 inches on the high veld, and hot and dry winds 
are unknown ; it is therefore clear that the amount of water required 
to bring a crop to maturity in the latter area will be totally in- 
adequate for the same purpose in the former area. As a general 
rule it can be taken that the amount of water required to mature a 
crop by means of irrigation and rainfall combined varies from 18 
inches to 36 inches. 

No matter in which part of South Africa agricultural operations 
are carried out, provision must be made to give the crop at least one 



Construction of Earthen Dams. 245 

watering between the months of August and October. An assured 
watering in December is needed in most cases in the high veld of 
the Transvaal to ensure a successful crop of mealies. 

Having arrived at the approximate amount of water required for 
any given cultivated area, it will be necessary to carefully study the 
question of the adequacy of the water supply. This is dependent on 
the area draining into our storage works, the annual rainfall over 
that area, and the intensity of individual rains. Unfortunately, the 
data collected by the different Government Departments are mostly of 
such recent date that it is not advisable to apply them without 
caution. Generally speaking, it would not be wise to estimate the 
run-off from a small catchment area at more than 5 per cent, and 
for large areas 2h to 3 per cent, will be found safe. 

The water stored will be subject to heavy losses from the reservoir 
from evaporation, which amounts in many cases to from 15 to 20 per 
cent. Again, when distributing the water from the reservoir to 
the lands a large amount is lost in the conduits by evaporation and 
percolation. This amount may reach from 35 to 45 per cent., and is 
dependent on the distance the lands to be irrigated are situated from 
the storage works. If the lands are immediately below or in the 
near neighbourhood of the works, this loss will be very much less. 

Having estimated the probable loss under the above headings 
and determined the depth to which the acreage to be irrigated will 
require flooding, the least volume of water to be stored can be readily 
calculated. The next step to be taken is the careful in- 
vestigation of the proposed site for the reservoir, and it is here 
that expert assistance may become necessary. The Union Govern- 
ment offers this assistance wherever wanted, and printed application 
foims can be obtained from the Irrigation Department, Union Build- 
ings, Pretoria, when any bona fide farmer requires such assistance. 

It is not proposed to describe here the methods of preparing for or 
constructing large and far-reaching storage works. The methods of 
constructing now described, it is hoped, will be sufficient to assist the 
ordinary farmer to a right appreciation of what should be done and 
much of what should be avoided. 

Earthen Dams. 

(1) Selecting Site. 
In selecting the site for storage, the following points must be 
observed : — 

(a) CatcTiTnent area or source of supply. 

(b) The basin to store the loater. 

(c) Froximity and svitabiUty of materials inth which to 

construct. 

(d) The suitability of the foundations. 

(e) The waste tceir. 

(f) The proximity of the lands to be irrigated. 

(a) Catchment Area or Source of Supx)ly. — It is obvious that the 
amount of ground that can be irrigated is entirely dependent on the 
volume of the water supply, and that this again is governed by the 



246 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



mean annual rainfall over the area draining into the selected site for 
storage, the extent of this area, and its topography. The rainfall can 
be arrived at from observations taken by the Meteorological Branch at 
stations inside the catchment area, or, failing these, by approximation 
from, snrronnding stations, and as near as possible to the selected site. 
Local inspection and information obtained from farmers living 
around will suffice to determine the extent of the catchment area, 
and it is also clear that the water draining from hillj-, rocky country 
will be more than that draining from gentle slopes well covered with 
grass, or some other dense vegetation. The percentage to allow for 
the run-off should not exceed 5 per cent, for small catchments, and 
2| to 3 per cent, for larger ones. As an example, if we have a 
medium catchment area, with a rainfall of 20 inches, from which 4 
per cent, may be expected to run off, and if the losses by evaporation 
in the reservoir be 20 per cent., and 30 per cent, of the remainder is 
lost in the canals, it will require the storage of the water from 27 
morgen to irrigate 1 morgen of ground with four 3-inch waterings. 

In many cases it will be found impossible to select a suitable site 
for a storage dam in an adequate catchment area ; but outside the 
main drainage course a suitable site may be available. li may then 
be possible to construct diversion works in the main drainage course 
and lead the water by means of a canal to the selected site. This, of 
course, is a more expensive procedure than having Ih'^ selected site on 
the main drainage course. 

(b) The Basin. — The catchment area being large enough to give 
the required amount of water, it is necessary that the works will retain 
this amount. As the cost of an embankment increases considerably 
with its height, it is essential to endeavour to obtain our purpose 
with a low wall. In selecting the basin it will be necessary that the 
site of the wall be as narrow as possible, i.e. a narrow contraction in 
a depression. Behind the wall where the water has to stand the 
depression should preferably widen out and the slope of its bed should 
be even and not steep, so that the edge of the water will be a good 
distance away from the wall. 

It is, however, unwise to carry out these principles to the extreme 
as a too shallow wide basin is subjected to excessive losses in 
evaporation. 

In order to find out the volume of water a basin will store, a contour 
survey of the basin is required. But as farmers are unable to carry 
out such work themselves a rough idea of the volume of water can 
be obtained by taking the area of the water at full supply level of 
the dam (i.e. the level of the sill of the waste weir) and multiply 
this by one -third of the depth of water above the outlet-pipe. 

All the water stored in the basin is not available for irrigation, 
as during the period of storage a large amount is lost by evaporation 
and percolation. This loss varies from 15-30 per cent. 

(c) Pro.TWiity and Suifabilit]/ of Material. — The soil to be used 
in the embankment must be such as will consolidate and form, ns 
far as possible, an impervious homogeneous mass. A sandy loam 
containing clay is very suitable for this purpose. Black turf or any 
other earth containing vegetable matter should not be used. The 
ntarer the place where such suitable soil can be found to the seat of 
the wall, the lesser the expense in constructing the embankment will 
be. Avoid excavating below the dam. 



Construction op Earthen Bams. 247 



{d) Suitability of Foundations. — The foundations at the selected 
site should be carefully inspected. Very often when the surface of 
tlie selected site seems suitable, by digging a few trial holes in the 
site it is found that the soil o.verlays a very deep stratum of gravel and 
sand, making the work impossible. Trial pits should always be sunk 
in order to find the impervious foundation, such as rock or potclay. 
If such foundations are not obtainable at a reasonable depth, the site 
mist be abandoned. 

(e) Waste Weir (Oversjyill). — The site available for the waste 
weir often determines the feasibility of the storage work. The 
requirements for the waste are : Sufficient length, a flat longitudinal 
pnd gently sloping cross-section, hard foundation, proper elevation, 
and good outfall. The length is necessary to get the discharging 
capacity, the flat section and hard foundations to do away with costly 
works in the channel, the elevation of the crest is determined by the 
full-supply level of the reservoir, and a good outfall is required to 
pi event damage by floods. The ideal site for a waste weir is generally 
a low " nek " near to the embankment, but separated from it by a 
-kopje." 

It is necessary that the waste weir should discharge the maximum 
flood expected. If it cannot do this, the safety of the works is 
endangered. In determining the maximum discharged, it is unwise 
to assume or guess the amount, and farmers wanting to construct a 
storage work are urged to obtain the required information from the 
Hydrographic Surveyor, Irrigation Department, who makes it his 
duty to gather this information all over the Union of South Africa 
by taking actual measurements. It is far better to construct a waste 
weir that is several feet too long than one I foot too short. 

If it is impossible to have a waste weir over a " nek " away from 
the embankment it will be necessary to construct a wingwall up- 
stream and a lining wall on the down-stream side to prevent the 
flood water coming over the waste weir scouring away the toe of the 
embankment. 

(/) Froxiniity of Lands to he Irrigated. — The loss of water in 
the canals conveying the water from the storage works to the lands is 
considerable, and very often this loss reaches 60 per cent. The further 
the lands are away from the reservoir, the greater will be the loss, 
and in determining the site for the works, this matter is of much 
importance, as far as expensive works may be required, in order to 
compensate for the losses in the canals, and these losses may show the 
supply to be inadequate. 

(2) Davi Einhankinent. 

The construction of the earthen embankment here described, 
refers only to such as will retain water to a maximum depth of 15 
feet against the wall. If it is desired to construct works for storage 
of a greater depth, expert technical advice should be obtained. 

In constructing an earthen embankment the following points 
must be observed : — 

{a) Section of dam, {h) setting out of dam wall, (c) cleaning 
seat of dam wall, (d) puddle core, (e) outlet, (/) earthen 
embankment, (g) pitching, (/i) waste weir or overspill. 



m 



Journal op the Department op AoRicuLTUfiE. 



(a) The Section of the Dam. — The following section for dam 
walls may be adopted with safety for ordinary good and properly 
consolidated soils resting on good foundations. For depths of water 
not exceeding 10 feet the top width of the dam must be 5 feet, the 
up-stream slope IJ to 1 foot, the down-stream slope 1| to 1 foot, and 
the top of the dam above the full-supply level 4 feet. For depths of 
water from 10 to 15 feet, the top width of the wall must be 5 feet, the 
up-stream slope 2-1 foot, and the down-stream slope 1\ to 1 foot, and 
the top of the dam above the full-supply level must be 5 feet. 




-CT/O/V /^o/^ OAAfS uf 7-a 



/^// S^^^/<y /. £^'<e/ 




3* ^b-yS^a^TC^^^tAy^^ ^ 






(b) Setting out Dajn Wall. — On each side and above the top level 
of the dam the top width must be staked off, so that when the dam is 
completed the up-stream and down-stream edges of the top will be in 
line with these stakes. Stakes defining this line should also be put 
in at the flanks of the dam marking the ends. The up-stream and 
down-stream toes must be staked on the ground, and these stakes well 
protected by beacons built up with loose stones, in order to prevent 
tlem being interfered with during construction. 

(c) Cleaning Seat of Dam.- — The seat of the dam must be cleaned 
from all vegetation and loose rock, and if the embankment has to 
cross over a gully or donga, care must be taken to remove all silt 
deposited there and to slope down and step the banks of the gully 
or donga in order to ensure a proper bond with the new work. The 
seat must now be deeply ploughed over. 

(d) Puddle Trench. — The trial holes described in section (d) 
above will show whether or not an impervious core is required. In 
the majority of cases it has been found that a layer of gravel and 
sand underlies the surface soil, necessitating the construction of a 

In many cases good retentive clay can be procured in the 



core. 



neighbourhood where the core may be constructed of clay. A trencli 
is now excavated in the centre line of the dam and across the area 



Construction of Earthen Dams. 



249 



of pervious stratum, and through this stratum well into impervious 
k yers of either potclay or rock below it. The section of this trench is 
as shown in the sketch below. 

This trench is now filled with clay. The filling must be con- 
structed as a compact mass filling the whole section of the trench, 
care being taken to avoid badly consolidated joints or porous layers. 
This can be prevented by constructing the different layers as rapidly 
as possible and by keeping wet the surface attained whenever the 
work is stopped. The clay must be damp and plastic, but not wet. 
This puddle filling is generally carried up to 2 feet above the surface 
of the ground. 

If good retentive clay cannot be pj'ocured, a core wall of concrete 
is generally substituted, having a section as shown above. 

The concrete used for the core is made in the following propor- 
tions : 1 part cement, 2 parts sand, and 4 parts broken stone. 



s.^^/^c,; o/ Sp// 




^^=^7^^/>. 










coA'C/i£r£ ca-^^: t4^>iLL 



(e) Outlet. — For our requirements, a 6-inch pipe with a valve 
on the down-stream side will suffice. In very rare cases a delivery 
exceeding that of a 6-incli pipe will be needed. The position of the 
outlet pipe should be so chosen that settlement in the dam wall will 
ha«/e no injurious effects on it, and the best place will be where it can 
be laid in rock or in hard sound insoluble material. If these are 
not available, the outlet pipe should be laid in a trench well carried 
down into the ground, and the pipe embedded in a casing of concrete 
with a wide base. Whether laid in rock or otherwise the pipe should 
be encased in at least 6-inch of concrete. When deciding where the 
outlet pipe is to be put, it should be borne in mind that space should 
be provided below the outlet for the accumulation of silt in the 
reservoir; the capacity of the reservoir below the outlet is smaller 
relatively than the capacity above the outlet; it is, therefore, not 
worth much extra expense to utilize the former, the lower the sill 
the greater the cost of the outlet and the danger of damage through 
settlement of the dam ; generally the canal will gain command of 
the ground quicker and will be shorter for a higher sill than for a 
lower one. At the inlet the pipe should have a head wall and if the 
pipe is level with the ground a channel should be excavated from the 
pipe into the reservoir basin to ensure the tapping of the reservoir 
down to the level of the intake. A staunching ring round the outlet 
pipe, situated in the centre of the dam will prevent any percolation 
of water along the sides of the pipe. A head wall at the outlet of the 
pipe is also required. A basin 5 feet wide and 12 feet long excavated in 
front of the outlet and paved with a 9-inch grouted pitching will 
pheck the rush of the water from thp outlet pipe into the canal, and 



250 



Journal op the Department of Agriculture. 



so prevent scouring of the canal. The bed of this basin must be 
12 inches below the bed of the canal. 

(/) Earth Bank. — On the up-stream side of the dam the ground 
must be ploughed over, and all soil containing any vegetation or 
vegetable matter removed. Only soil free from these must be used 
in the earth bank. The soil in the down-stream side of the dam 
should not be disturbed. It will be well to commence operations 
after some rain has fallen, or if this cannot be waited for to give the 
seat of the earthen wall a wetting in order to ensure a proper bond 
between the foundation of the earth bank and the soil being deposited 
on it. It is wrong to bring absolutely dry soil on or into the earth 
bank, as this will only be pulverized by the draught animals, and 
no proper consolidated mass can be obtained. It is, therefore, well 
not to plough over more ground than can be used in one shift of say 
4 hours in order not to lose all humidity in the loosened ground. The 
ground is conveyed to the wall by means of dam-scrapers pulled by 
oxen or donkeys. 



C f'^s/- O^ IXo^ri 







A better consolidated wall will be made by using oxen instead 
of donkeys as draught animals, for they are much heavier in weight 
and have split hoofs. For bringing the earth into the wall endeavour 
must be made to let the animals follow a course as much as possible 
parallel to the centre line of the wall. The wall should be carried 
out in layers of 6-incli thickness spread over the whole width of the 
wall, having a slight dip towards the centre of the wall. These dams 
are generally commenced after the rainy season and finished before 
the wet season starts again. It may happen that the dam cannot 
be completed before the rainy season starts, and in this case it will be 
necessary to take precautions to allow floods to pass without doing 
damage to the works already carried out. Any water gathered in the 
storage basin can be tapped by means of the outlet pipe, and the 
works can be resumed. No matter how thoroughly the work has 
been carried out, settlement in the embankment must be anticipated 
and provision made therefor. The embankment should, therefore, be 
carried out 12 inches, higher than originally designed to allow for 
this. 

{g) Pit clung. — The up-stream slope of the embankment is 
provided with a 6 or a 9 inch dry-stone pitching resting on 4 or 6 
inches of gravel. The stone mnst be hand-packed and must rest well 
into the gravel. All openings in between the stone must be filled up 
with smaller stone, and then rammed in with a 4-lb. hammer. The 
idea of the pitching is to prevent the wave action drawing away thp 



ConstkUct^io]^ op HartHen Damj^. 



251 



soil from the embankmeut and so weakening the structure. Only a 
well-packed and properly built pitching will therefore suit the 
purpose. 

(h) Waste Weir or Overspill. — If the conditions laid down in 
section (e) of part (1) above are present and the ideal site for the 
Wtjste weir, a " nek," is available, the only work necessary will be 
to excavate this nek to the full-supply level of the reservoir and to 
such a width as to enable the expected maximum flood to pass 
through. The bed of the waste weir must be of rock or hard souiid 
insoluble material, otherwise masonry check walls, along the length 



^'^A f^Jr^ocf Ze^^^ 



\ "h^/tTm^V.'b/^M^'ii'i/^^yt tbJJf^//s//^s. • »^Jm 



C/^OSS S£:C7-/OA/ 








of the waste weir and carried down to good hard foundation, will be 
needed to prevent the flood water scouring the bed and thus lowering 
the full-supply level of the reservoir. If the foundations for these 
check masonry walls are not present or are too deep to justify the 
expense of carrying them out, a dry-stone wall hand-packed in a 
wire net made of No. 8 galvanized wire, and having a 6-inch mesh, 
may be substituted. Behind these dry-stone walls a dry-stone pitch- 
ing made in a similar wire net, and about 15 feet wide, is made to 



253 Journal Op the Department of AGRlcuL'ftJRE. 



prevent erosion and possible undermining behind them. Ideal waste 
weirs are very seldom met with, and mostly a waste weir immediately 
adjoin mg the earth bank must be made. The earth bank is then 
rfiiried to a point where the ground surface is about 12 inches above 
the full-supply level of the reservoir, and it then swings round and 
ran i along the waste weir forming a lining wall. From this point 
U.^ ground is excavated to a width corresponding with the length of 
llii waste weir. The depth of the waste channel is level in the line 
n the centre of the dam and above this line towards the reservoir. 
i'h i down-stream side of the waste channel is excavated to a slope 
of 1 in 100, and the bed of the down-stream channel is a little deeper 
on the side farthest from the dam wall, in order to throw the current 
away from the dam. The tendency of the flood water to flow down 
the steep slope and probably damage the toe of the embankment is 
checked by the above-mentioned lining wall extending for such a 
'ength that the flood water cannot possibly harm the dam any more 
see sketch-plan). The height of the lining wall must be such that 
ne flood water cannot possibly top it. 

The pitching of the dam wall is carried round to the lining wall 
.^nd all along the inner side of this wall. As a rush of water may 
be expected round this point of the dam, the pitching is carried well 
down into the ground resting on very large stones or on a mason wall 
and is grouted or laid in a wire net with a 6-inch mesh. A better, 
but more expensive, construction is to let the earth bank abut against 
a wing wall carried down to good foundation. The lining wall is 
then an extension of this wing wall on the down-stream side. The 
roinarks made above with regard to the bed of the waste weir are 
applicable here. 

It is not uncommon to see the flank waste weir excavated in 
rock, and, though this is very expensive, it gives a very good waste 
weir, and generally the rock so excavated can be used for the pitching. 



Export of Grain, etc. 

The following quantities of grain, etc., were exported during 
January, 1921 (in bags): — Maize, 59,499 ; maize • meal, 33,020; 
hominy chop, 4400; oats, 10,869; bran, 500; kaffir corn, 302; and 
millet, 11; total, 108,601. 

The total number of bags exported for the seven months from 
the 1st July, 1920, to 31st January, 1921, was: — Maize, 356,001; 
maize meal, 254,054; maize flour, 1199; maize grit (rice), 3111; 
h' miny chop, 52,716; kaffir corn, 966; oats, 12,006; beans, 1213; 
jucerne seed, 366; millet, 11; bran, 500; total, 682,143 bags. 

The stocks in hand at all ports at 31st January, 1921, were (in 
bags): — Maize, 97,322; maize meal, 22,650; oats, 451; rye, 498; 
hominy chop, 275; kaffir corn, 200; total 121,396. 



Keep your Joxirnals\ The contents will be indexed every six 
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Local Mahket Prices. 25;] 



LOCAL MARKET PRICES. 



The Rise and Fall of the Market. 



We publish hereunder, as a matter of general interest, a compaiative 
statement showing the market rates for a number of local products 
ruling at certain centres of the Union at mid-January in 1919, 1920, 
and 1921. In the absence in our marketing system of any definite 
standard of quality for the commodities concerned, the minimum and 
maximum prices are given, and as. the quality of each commodity 
would be, in a large measure, of similar standard at the same period 
of the season in each year, the prices afford some indication of their 
value on the municipal markets at the dates stated. The bulk of the 
produce so disposed of passes through the Johannesburg market, and 
the prices obtained there may be taken as representative of the larger 
portion of our locally sold production ; the other centres are also 
important marketing ones, and the prices ruling there also indicate 
the state of the produce trade. In the statement hereunder the follow- 
ing main features are observed : — 

Wheat. — At Johannesburg there was a sharp rise and almost as 
sharp a decline, the 1920 prices being about double those of 1919, 
falling in 1921 to very near the 1919 level. Prices at Capetown and 
Bloemfontein followed the same trend. 

Maize. — This was fetching at Johannesburg 100 per cent, more 
in 1920 than 1919, but in 1921 prices had receded to about the 1919 
level with a lower tendency, the maximum 1921 price being Is. 9d. 
less than that of 1919. This can be applied to the other markets as 
well, excepting that the rise in price was somewhat greater than at 
Johannesburg, while 1921 maximum rates were still about 3s. 6d. 
higher than those of 1919. 

Oats. — Prices in 1920 were about double those of 1919 on the 
Johannesburg market, and, while 1921 saw a considerable decline, the 
price was still about 5s. greater than that of 1919. In Capetown there 
was the same great increase between 1919 and 1920, but this year the 
prices ruling are at the same level of 1919 ; this applies also to 
Bloemfontein, excepting that the 1921 price has not quite fallen to 
che 1919 level. 

Lucerne. — On the Johannesburg market the 1920 price was double 
that of 1919, while in 1921 it had fallen practically to the 1919 level. 
The same fluctuation is observed at Bloemfontein, similarly at Cape- 
town and Durban, though at the two last-named markets the 1921 
price was still somewhat higher than that of 1919. 

Potatoes. — The 1920 Johannesburg (maximum) price was double 
that of 1919, and while there was an appreciable decline in 1921, the 
latter price was still 8s. 6d. in excess of 1919. This is applicable to 
Capetovv^n also. At Bloemfontein the increase of 1920 over 1919 was 
much greater, the maximum being almost treble that of 1919, and 
although 1921 shows a big drop, the price remains almost double that 
of 1919. At Durban the maximum 1920 price was 24s. in excess of 
the 1919 maximum, falling only slightly in 1921, when the excess 
over 1919 was 21s. 



'254: Journal op the Department oe Agriculture. 



Eggs. — At Johanuesburg the 1919 prices were higliest, being 
from od. to 9d. higher than the 1920 ones, which again were about 
the same in 1921. In Capetown the maximum price shows a pro- 
gressive rise of 3d. each year, at Bloemfontein the same tendency as 
at Capetown is observed, except that the increase between 1919 and 
1921 is greater, being from 9d. to Is., and at Durban the maximum 
prices of 1920 and 1921 are 8d. and 5d. greater respectively than 
1919. 

Butter. — There was a large difference in the Johannesburg prices 
of 1919 and 1920, the latter being more than double the former, but 
tliere is a decided decline again in 1921, when the price was greater 
than that of 1919 by from 4d. to 9d. only. At Capetown the 1920 
prices were exactly 100 per cent, greater than those of 1919, and 
although there has since been a decline the maximum 1921 price is 
still Is. greater than that of 1919. The ]31oemfontein prices reflect 
those of Johanesburg, excepting that the difference between the 1919 
and 1921 prices is somewhat larger at the former centre. Durban is 
more or less similar to Capetown, but the decline between 1920 and 
1921 is negligible, being 2d. per lb. for best butter. 

Beef. — Compared with 1919, the maximum 1920 Johannesburg 
price was 50 per cent, greater and the 1921 price 30 per cent, greater. 
At Capetown the maximum 1920 and 1921 prices are identical, each 
being Id. in excess of 1919. This is the position in Bloemfontein, 
the excess on 1919, however, being 3d. Similarly in Durban, the 
1920 and 1921 prices are the same, but the increase on the 1919 price 
is greater than at the other centres. 

Mutton. — At Johannesburg minimum and maximum prices 
moved in svmpathy : the 1920 maximum was 7d. higher than the 

1919 one, but had fallen in 1921 to Id. lower than in 1919. At 
Bloemfontein the 1919 and 1921 maximum price is identical, that of 

1920 being 3d. higher. At Durban there w^as a progressive increase 
of about 4d. each year, the 1921 price being 7fd. higher than the 
1919 one. At Capetown the minimum price of 8d. in 1919 was 9d. 
in 1921 and lOd. in 1920, but unlike most other commodities the 
maximum 1920 price was 2d. and 4d. less respectively than those of 

1921 and 1919. 

Sii/innary. — The prices at mid-January shown in the statement 
were obtained from market reports and are actual prices ruling at a 
definite date and are not averaged in any way. It is possible, there- 
fore, that there may have been certain local factors affecting prices 
at any or all of the centres on the dates in question of which this 
J'epartment is not aware. But the outstanding feature the returns 
reflect is the great effect on our production of the 1918-19 drought at 
its height, when prices generally were double those of a year previous ; 
wheat, maize, oats, lucerne, and butter show this, and though in 
some cases the present-day prices have reached the pre-drought level, 
there is still a tendency for prices to remain somewhat higher than 
those of 1919. Potatoes showed a great increase in 1920, and while 
prices have fallen they are still far in excess of 1919. Beef increased 
jn 1920, but no decline is seen in 1921, but in mutton Johannesburg 
and Bloemfontein prices show a decline to-day over those of 1919 ; 
the position is reversed in Durban, while at Capetown at the height 
of the drought the price was lower than both that of 1919 and 1921. 
In regard to eggs the general tendency has been towards an increase 
in price, due in a measure to the export trade in this article. 



Local Market Prices. 



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256 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATION. 



By H. A. Melle, B.A., Division of Botany. 



Up to twenty years ago South Africa was regarded as the most back- 
ward dominion in the British Empire. A writer in 1901, comparing- 
it with the others, showed that South Africa was the second oldest 
dominion and yet lagged far behind the other British colonies in 
every industry with the exception of those of gold and diamonds. 
He attributed this backwardness to the adverse conditions prevailing 
in South Africa, and went on to say that if the early settlers of South 
Africa had gone to any other British colony they would have fared 
infinitely better. Thanks, however, to the unremitting efforts of the 
farmer and the Department of Agriculture, numerous plagues, pests, 
and droughts have been mastered and many economic problems 
solved, establishing our agriculture on a firm basis and removing the 
element of gambling formerly associated with farming in South 
Africa. Agriculture is now recognized as the premier industry of 
the Union, and farming in South Africa has made more comparative 
progress in recent years than any other country in the world. This 
was evident at the last Royal Agricultural Show at Darlington. 
South Africa has been notorious for its poor exhibits abroad, but this 
year, thanks in a large measure to the enterprise of the Trade Com- 
missioner, Mr. Canham, the South African exhibit was one of the 
chief features of the show. 

Our agricultural progress is reflected in increased production, 
decreasing imports and increasing exports of farm produce, improved 
methods of farming, the rising value of farm land, etc., and one of 
the most marked features of our forward movement is the recognition 
of the importance of organization 

For convenience we can divide agricultural organization under 
three heads : — 

(1) Organization of the farm ; (2) organization of farmers in 
regard to the purchase of their requirements and disposal 
of their produce, i.e. co-operation ; (3) organization in the 
relationship between the State and the farmer. 

(1) Organization of the Farm. 

It is not the purpose of this article to go into the details of 
organizing a farm, but merely to emphasize the importance of running 
a farm on business principles. 

Strict book-keeping is one of the essentials of sound farm manage- 
ment. The average farmer is primarily an open-air man. He works 
hard all day and does not concern himself much with account keeping. 
He likes to be out and about and hates to sit down to figures. He 



Agricultural Organization. 257 

looks on outdoor work as productive and account keeping as unpro- 
ductive. Book-keeping- is a subject which lias not been included in 
the farmer's education ito the extent that it ought to have been, and 
even in our agricultural schools and colleges this all-important subject 
does not receive the attention it should, Mr. Rayman, Chairman of 
the Legislative Committee of the Wisconsin Society of Equity, very 
suggestively remarks: " I believe that it will repay an agricultural 
college many fold to understand that farmers will be quicker to apply 
scientific methods to their industry after they have learnt the value 
of science in the conduct of their own business activities, such as in 
co-operative societies, creameries, and cheese factories, and in associa- 
tions organized for the purchase of their agriculttiral requirements.^^ 

The ascertaining of agricultural costings involves only the 
keeping of such financial records as are kept by many farmers, plus 
" departmental " accounts for the various branches of his farm. 
These extra "departmental" accounts require the keeping of labour 
records, of statements of food consumed on the farm, of records of 
how artificial manure and dung are used, and the analysis of all other 
expenses chargeable over the various fields or branches of the farm. 

AVithout strict book-keeping and costings one cannot hope for 
efficiency in one's farming operations. The farmer's books show him 
whether his past management has been on the best lines, and by 
judging from results he can vary his present and future policy. A 
farmer, therefore, who is desirous of obtaining the best possible results 
must keep books if his farm management is to attain the highest 
standard. 

In England a number of progressive men have commenced 
farming on industrial lines. While in England I visited Mr. S. E. 
Edge, of Gallops Homestead, Sussex, who has become world famous 
for his pedigree pigs and shorthorn cattle and is held up as a model 
farmer. He, too, is one of the pioneers of farming on industrial lines. 
Mr. Edge, it may be explained, was well known in the motor world, 
but owing to indifferent health exchanged his motor business for 
that of farming. Having acquired efficiency in the former he applied 
this knowledge to the business of farming. What is the result? He 
has been farming for only nine years and is already recogniized as the 
most successful pig breeder in the world, and it is expected that his 
shorthorns will soon come into great prominence. When Mr. Edge 
commenced farming he was blissfully ignorant of the principles of 
agriculture, but, guided by his former business knowledge, has had 
an uninterrupted success in farming. 

How many of our farmers keep a record of their costings or even 
keep books at all? If not, how can they possibly tell which branch 
of their farming is paying or not? Costings is admittedly more 
complicated than ordinary book-keeping, but if no accurate account 
is kept of the expenditure in each branch of farming it is at the best 
a g-amble. 

South Africa is so often stricken with drought, and yet how many 
farmers consider it worth while to improve their veld by tillage, 
fertilizers, etc., and so produce more and better fodder and store it 
up for the lean years? Let us for a moment compare the English 
and the South African farmer. The English farmer sows every year 
a certain portion of his land down to grass in order to provide fodder 





£2 





4 10 





2 10 





1 8 





1 10 





£11 18 






258 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

in winter iu the shape of bay. His expenditure approximately is per 
acre : — 

Eent 

Seeds 

Fertilizers 

Ploughing 

Harrow, seeding, and jolling... 



Return: li tons first cutting and 1 ton i'or second cutting; total 
2^ tons of hay.* 

How many South African farmers are there who will spend £12 per 
acre in growing grass and be content with a return of 2 to 2h tons of 
hey? In teff we have an infinitely better hay grass than rye grass, and 
in kikuyu grass we can grow a better permanent pasture than the old 
English pastures. The English farmer has an outlay of £13 to £15 
per acre in establishing his permanent pasture, whereas the South 
African farmer grudges a single ploughing in putting down land to 
kikuyu and complains that it does not come iip to expectations. The 
English farmer grows root crops at the cost of £28 an acre and gets 
a return of 20 tons roots per acre. The South African farmer can 
grow spineless cactus and elephant grass, both permanent crops, at 
the cost of. say, £5 an acre and have a return of up to 60 tons of 
fodder per acre. Does the South African farmer make full use of his 
advantages? Is there any excuse why his stock should succumb to 
drought or die when sick solely for the want of some succulent and 
palatable food? 

Another important item in the management of the farm is labour. 
The war has placed the much debated question of labour upon an 
essentially different footing to that which it occupied before. 
Xowhere has the effect been more marked than in the British Isles. 
Labour is mainly responsible for the establishment of the Agricultural 
AVages Board in England. Before the war the agricultural labourer 
received from 18s. to 21s. a week : now he receives a minimum wage 
of 50s. for a 48-hour week, with extra pay for any overtime work. 
Has this adversely affected the British farmer? Leading farmers 
like Mr. Edge and Major Amos say " no," and further, that it is 
one of the stimulating causes of the recent development of agricul- 
tural co-operation in England. The Scotch farmer has not been 
affected by this increase of wages ; his labourers are educated and are 
worth more than £3 a week to him. A Scotch shorthorn breeder 
admitted to me that he was paying his labourers £10 a week, and he 
could afford to increase their wages. 

The war has shown how serious was the mistake of undervaluing 
the agricultural labourer, and has happily knocked a good many old 
prejudices and misconceptions out of people's heads. The mistake 
was the more serious, since it is by no means difficult to evolve an 
industrial labourer out of an agricultural one, but extremely difficult 
to reverse the process and turn an industrial labourer into an agri- 
cultural one. The war has taught the British farmer that in stinting 

* If the reader i? interested in these figures I would refer him to the evidence given by 
the witnesses before the Royal Agricultural Commission in 1919. 



Agricl'LTUral Orgaxizatiox. 259 

labour lie lias starved agriculture itself. The world in tlie past set 
down the agricultural labourer as a "yokel," an ''unskilled hand," 
whose labour could not be highly appraised, but recent history has 
shown that his labour is as skilled as that of his industrial brothers. 
The difference between the two is one not of degree but of kind. 

Profit-sharing in agriculture has been tried by progressive 
farmers in England, e.g. Major Amos, and has met with success. 
Mr. Edge has a different system. He gives his labourers every 
opportunity and encouragement to learn their particular job 
thoroughly. Any labourer in his employ has the right to go to the 
office and obtain information as to how a particular branch of the 
farm is run. Then if he has any suggestion to make he submits it in 
writing and hands it in at the office, and for any of practical value 
to the business, a bonus is paid. 

It is well known that cheap labour does not necessarily mean 
economic output. Mr. Hockaday, a great American practical expert 
in the sale of agricultural produce, urges farmers rather to employ an 
expert packer at 5 dollars a day than an ordinary man at 1 dollar. 
"Highly graded produce,'" so he adds, "in proper packing sells 
itself, the trouble lies with culls, low-graded, and mixed shipments." 
It is still an open question whether the farm tractor can economically 
replace the span of oxen in South Africa, but there is a general 
consensus of opinion that it soon will, and what preparations are we 
making for that time? What proportion of oui' agricultural labourers 
is able to work with machinery, let alone a complicated machine like 
a tractor? 

(2) CO-OPERATIOX. 

Smith-Gordon says " Co-operation represejits the reaction of the 
spirit in ordinary men of humble position and small resources against 
the tyranny of a social order which has thrown all the advantages of 
combination into the hands ""of the rich and the powerful. It is in 
fact the weapon of those who strive towards a democratic control." 

True co-operation requires a certain type of human material both 
for leaders and for followers, and this type must be built up (usually 
out of adversity) by patient training. A co-operative society must 
deal only in pure goods at clean prices — there is no room for fraud, 
trickery, adulteration, or extortion. The greatest of all underlying 
principles, however, is undoubtedly that when a man becomes a 
member of a co-operative society he binds himself to support it — not 
only by his trade but by his lively interest in its affairs. The careful 
limitation of voting power to one vote for every member, be his 
interest large or small, does more than confer a privilege upon the 
member ; it lays upon him the responsibility and duty of exercising 
his share of the control. Co-operation is based upon sound business 
principles; the bond of association is primarily a material one. and 
the form of constitution is built up exactly to correspond to practical 
needs and to safeguard concrete rights. On the other hand, it offers 
a method of bringing idealism into business and of training men to 
help one another and the State through rational citizenship. Such 
a movement demands that its pioneers must have, on the one hand, 
business knowledge, clear judgment, foresight, intelligence; on the 
other, honesty, faith, and, above all. loyalty. As the American 
Senator, Mr. Gronna. remarked, "' there is no industry except farming 



260 Journal op the Department op Agriculture. 



in \\liicli a man lias to accept the price offered by the buyer," and yet 
tliere is no liusiness like agriculture which responds to success better 
when orf^anized. At the same time, however, co-operation is not a 
panacea for all ills. If one examines the history of co-oj)eration 
in any country one will find that it is a touch of necessity that has 
broug-ht farmers together to work and, if necessary, to fig-ht in unison. 

Agriculture may have been poor as in the case of Denmark. 
Up till the year 1864 Denmark was a country of large-scale cultiva- 
tion, depending mainly on the export of grain for its foreign trade. 
In that year, however, as the result of an unsuccessful war with 
Prussia, the Danes lost the large mainland Province of Schleswig- 
Holstein, and found themselves confronted by a tariff barrier which 
effectually cut them off' from their German markets in which they had 
been accustomed to sell the greater part of their produce. Farmers 
everywhere were in distress, and the position was rendered worse by a 
banking crisis. The Danish farmers were not slow in changing their 
mode of farming and successfully supplying the English market with 
poultry, eggs, bacon, and butter. This result has been achieved 
almost entirely by means of the co-operative system. The Danes 
early grasped the fact that the chief factor in establishing produce on 
the market is uniformity both of quality and, as far as possible, of 
quantity. They realized also that such nniformity could not be 
brought about by individual farmers working withoiit organization. 

It was the " gombeen man " or midleman who was the cause of 
agricultural co-operation in Ireland. The middleman with other 
business interests very naturally tries to make a profit at either end of 
his bargain. The middleman serves a most useful purpose where the 
two factors of supply and demand cannot oth.erwise be brought into 
touch with one anotiier, otherwise his presence is Imrdensome and 
inimical to the community. 

Organization is not merely an effective weapon for defence 
against profiteering and waste; it is an extremely iiseful aid to 
business in circumventing waste of time, and failure to produce at 
(heapest rates in best quality, and in quantities which command a 
market. To quote Mr. Hockaday again, " For the marketing of perish- 
able products an organization is al).tolufe]y iicressari/, for the many 
questions arising in community shipping (i.e. transport) of such 
products can only be handled satisfactorily through an organization." 

Dr. J. A. Hyan, a recognized authority in the United States on 
questions of social economy, to which he has devoted much study, 
writes : " Co-operation is a golden mean between individualism and 
socialism. It includes all the good features of both. On the one 
hand it demands and develops individual initiative and self-reliance, 
makes the rewards of the individual depend upon his own efforts and 
efficiency, and gives him full ownership of specific pieces of property. 
On the other hand, it compels him to submerge much of the selfishness 
and indifference to the Avelfare of his fellows, which characterizes our 
individual economy. It embraces all the good that is claimed' for 
socialism, because it induces men to consider and to work earnestly 
for the common good, eliminates much of the waste of competitive 
industry, rediu'es and redistributes the burdens of profits and interests, 
and puis tlie workers in control of capital and industry. At the same 
time it avoids the evils of an industrial despotism, or bureaucratic 



Agricultural Organization. 2(;i 



inefficiency, of individual indifference and of an all-pervadino- owner- 
ship." 

Conditions Faronrahle to Successful Co-operation. 

There is no mag-ic about co-operation ; it is not worth while to 
co-operate just for the sake of co-operating. There must be some real 
service to perform — either because of a lack of marketing facilities, 
or dishonesty of local buyers, or some other vital reason, before a 
farmer's economic organization should be called into existence, and 
then only after steps have been taken to ensure efficient management 
— at least as efficient as that of the individuals or firms with which 
the new organization has to compete. 

Other essential features are that a co-operative organization must 
have sufficient business to make it worth while; sufficient capital to 
carry on its business efficiently ; sufficient loyalty on the part of its 
members to stick to the organization in the face of the fierce competi- 
tion to which it will he subjected ; and sufficient patience to build up 
the organization gradually and not expect it to be a whirlwind success 
from the start. Most farmers have exaggerated ideas about the 
possible saving's through co-operation, and are disappointed with the 
results of the first few months of it. Unless marketing facilities are 
actually non-existent, a farmers' organization mast compete with 
experienced specialists already in the field, and unless it can perform 
the service with greater efficiency, or by eliminating some wasteful 
method, there is no reason for its existence. These things cannot be 
accomplished without efficient management and improved business 
methods, which are among the principal essentials to success. 
" There are many failures of co-operative enterprises, largely due 
to inefficient management. Education of farmers in the fundaments 
of marketing, education of managers in the technique of marketing 
methods, and the perfection of simple and efficient accounting 
systems, are all necessary before we may expect a more wide-spread 
development of co-operative marketing."* 

Benefits Derived from Co-operation. 

In the first place there are certain commodities where proper 
grading and packing cannot be accomplished except through co- 
operative endeavour. The best example is perhaps in the fruit 
business, where growers cannot hope to attain the highest efficiency 
through individual effort. The accomplishments of the California 
Fruit Growers' Exchange furnish valuable object lessons. By pro- 
viding efficient means of marketing, co-operative organizations also 
serve as an inducement to farmers to raise larger and better crops. 
In addition to improvements in quality and grading and packing, 
co-operation also saves money to the farmer (if the management is 
efficient) both by retaining the profits otherwise taken by local buyers 
and by concentrating a larger business through a shipping agency, 
thereby reducing (unit) handling costs. 

In addition to the direct economic gains derived from organiza- 
tion, important social and business benefits result. The individu- 
alistic tendencies of farmers are partly broken down through associa- 
tion ; they have more in common, and their coming in contact with 

* " The Marketing of Farm Products," by Weld, 



262 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

each other at business meetings makes it easier for them to approach 
each other in social intercourse. Experience in a marketing associa- 
tion gives farmers a more rational outlook on marketing methods, and 
also both business experience and a higher sense of business responsi- 
bility. But none of these fortunate results occurs unless the farmers 
meet with, at least, a fair degree of business success, which in turn 
is possible only if their organization has undertaken to perform a real 
economic function and if it is managed efficiently. 

" True co-operation," says Mr. Henry, " consists in organization 
based on mutual understanding to further community interests. 
Being a good neighbour is the first essential for being a good 
American " — and a good South African too, so one may add, or a 
good Christian. And Mr. C. W. Thompson, of the American Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, v.rites : "In the farming processes, from the 
first stage to the last, from the selection of the seed to the marketing 
of the product, as well as for the promotion of general social well- 
being in farm life, organization has proved its value, and, as this 
field is being reclaimed more and more fully, organized methods are 
being employed in increasing measure." 

One of the brightest jewels in the crown of co-operation is the 
remarkable stimulating effect it has upon the pursuit of Education. 
Without exception wherever true co-operation has been practised it 
has been found to exercise the same power. And that power is 
compelling, constituting one of co-operation's best claims to our 
coi sidei'ation in promoting national agriculture by means of educa- 
tion. 

('4) Oeganization in the Relationship between the State and the 

Farmer. 

" It may be asked, if co-operation is so advantageous to agri- 
culture and to rural folk generally, in both an economic and a social 
sense, how is it to be organized? The question has, of course, 
attracted the attention of Governments claiming to be ' paternally ' 
interested in the welfare of those whom they govern. Governments, 
appreciating its value, have tried to promote agricultural co-operation, 
and have in some cases set up imposing structures of organization 
having the title ' co-operation ' conspicuously blazoned on their 
fagade ; but they have never j^et succeeded in producing quite the 
right article. It is indeed difficult to see how they could produce it. 
For co-operation, to he worth anything, requires to he the production 
of those who participate in it, heing based upon pure self-help and 
self-reliance, qualities which the Government, he it ever so powerful, 
cannot produce in others. Apart from that, the mere fact that co- 
operation which consists in persons doing for themselves what other- 
wise necessarily others would have to do for them, of necessity 
involves competition with other established interests, and so from the 
very outset in justice places a bar in the way of Government 
assistance."* 

At the outset it is well to point out that the origin of Govern- 
ment aid, where such has been given, has not been the desire to assist 
co-operators as such, but rather to develop agriculture as a basic 
industry. Proof of this is to be found in the fact that there is 



* The Future of Our Agriculture," by H. W. Wolff.] 



Agricultural Organization. 263 

practically no instance of such aid having been given to distributive 
or industrial societies. 

Sir Horace Plunkett was the first to state clearly the limitations 
of Government action in the organizing of farmers and to formulate 
a policy for co-ordination between a State department and a voluntary 
ag-eucy. For this reason the Irish movement, which has always 
maintained its original theory, has been the subject of much study 
on the part of inquirers from other countries. Briefly stated, this 
policy consisted in the creation of two bodies, a State Department of 
Agriculture for the giving of technical instruction in the production 
of crops, and a voluntary organization whose business it would be — 
working hand in hand with the State department — to instruct farmers 
in the principles of combination for business purposes. In the words 
of Sir Horace Plunkett, " State action was desired to evoke and 
supplement, but not to provide a substitute for organized self-help." 

While Germany is by no means the most thorough-going example 
of a State-aided movement in Europe, organization, with Government 
assistance, initiative, and control, has there been carried to a high 
pitch of efficiency. A masterly memorandum,* written by Sir Thomas 
Middleton, on the condition of agriculture in Germany as compared 
with that of England, where until recently organization was lacking, 
brings out some significant facts, viz. : — 

1. The ascendency of the German has been gained in the past 
forty years. 

2. The soil and climate of Germany are less favourable to agri- 
culture than those of Britain. 

3. The German farmer now produces about the same weight of 
cereals and potatoes per acre as the British farmer, but much greater 
weight per 100 acres of cultivated land. The German produces about 
the same weight of meat, and nearly twice as much milk per 100 acres 
as the British farmer. The German feeds from 70-75 persons per 100 
acres of cultivated land, the British farmer feeds from 45-50. 

4. The actual methods of tillage adopted in the growing of corn, 
potatoes, etc., in Britain are not inferior to the methods adopted in 
Germany. The difference in production is chiefly due to the circum- 
stance that in Britain more than two-thirds of the cultivated land is 
now in grass', while in Germany it is less than one-third. There has 
been a slight decrease in the area ploughed in Germany ; in England 
and Wales the area annually ploughed decreased by about 26 per cent, 
during the forty years prior to the war. 

5. German land is mostly tilled by peasant owners; British land 
by tenants. The German depends to a great extent on woman labour, 
provided by the families of the occupiers. Wages are relatively low 
in Germany, and rural industries help to provide winter employment 
and tend to cheapen summer labour. 

6. Much attention has been given to organizing production from 
German soil. The credit system is well adapted to promote good 
farming. Co-operation is largely resorted to. Education has been 
well developed. Statistics have been created to provide leadership. 

7. German economic policy in recent years has favoured agricul- 
turists, who have benefited partly from the higher prices resulting 
from tariffs and partly from the steadying effect which tlio kncwn 
]:olicy of the Stnte lias had upon the industry. 

* Recent Development of German Agriculture, pub. 1917. 



2u-t Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

8. The general effect of the agencies and influences mentioned in 
tlic two preceding paragraphs has been to produce a very rapid 
improvement in the technical methods of the German farmer ; the use 
of manures and feeding stuffs has greatly increased. Superior strains 
of l)oth plants and animals have been raised. Business methods have 
been introduced and important rural industries have been developed. 

Apart from direct aids, the Prussian Government has created 
special macliinery by which governmental and local agencies work 
harmoniously together, namely, the system of Chambers of Agricul- 
ture (Landschaftskammern). This system is semi-ofhcial, and its 
income is derived from a tax levied on every agriculturist whose land 
is valued at a certain figure; grants are also made to them for special 
purposes by the State. The part played by these agencies is, in 
theory at least, a perfect example of the working out of the dual 
policy of State and voluntary action; the Chambers of Agriculture, 
being constituted on a semi-official basis, are able most advantageously 
to act as a connecting link between the official and the non-official. 
The local chamber ascertains the views of co-operators and small 
farmers with accuracy, while the central body can exert a very con- 
siderable influence on the policy of the officials in charge of agricul- 
tural legislation, by whom it is always consulted. The central body 
or German Agricultural C^ouncil (Deutsches Landwertschafstrat). 
function is to represent and foster the interests of agriculture in the 
whole of the German Empire. 

The great respect which the German Agricultural (Council 
enjoys to-day in tlie widest — and not merely agricultural — circles and 
among the administrative bodies rests on the strict attention to fact 
and the extreme thoroughness which are characteristic of its meetings, 
its resolutions, and its publications.* 

It would appear from this account that the policy of State aid 
to co-operation in Germany had proved an unqualified blessing. But 
there is another side to the picture, and during the few years previous 
to the outbreak of war the other side was becoming more and more 
noticeable. The State Bank (Pressenkaise) absorbed most of the 
other co-operative credit banks. Within three years of its establish- 
ment grievances developed owing to the State Bank raising its rate 
of interest and adopting more stringent regulations without consulting 
the co-operative leaders. 

Mr. Cahill, in his report on German co-operative credit, writes : 
" It is also felt that, as a result of the foundation of the State Bank, 
the sovereignty over Prussian co-operative credit has been taken out 
of the hands of co-operators, that office has been ossvmed hy the 
State. It is sometimes urged that the State Bank is too bureaucratic 
in its methods; that it is not sufficiently elastic in its administration; 
and that it requires extremely minute and detailed information as a 
basis for its granting of credits. Finally there is ihe fact that the 
banking profits of a successful great central co-operative bank would 
return to co-operation, whereas under present conditions any resultant 
profits accrue to the State." To summarize Mr. Cahill's argument. 
State aid, carried to the point of direct financial intervention, 
necessarily brings with it State control, and what is controlled by the 
State cannot be controlled by its own members and therefore cannot 
be co-operative. 

* Recent Development of German Agriculture. 



Agricultural Organization. 2G5 



In Eng'land duiiug the past eighteen months (-o-operation has 
made phenomenal progress, mainly due, as in all other countries, to 
necessity, the chief reasons being- unstable market in farmers' require- 
n:ents, a feeling' of uncertainty about prices when control was 
removed, the minimum wage and standardized working hours, and the 
prospect of foreig-n competition. There is now the Agricultural 
Organization Society, whose principal aim is to establish in every 
county one or two large and well capitalized societies for the purchase 
of the farmer's requirements and the sale of his produce, and, in the 
case of counties where societies already exist, to get them strengthened 
by increase of capital and unified by amalgamation. All societies 
are formed under the Industrial and Provident Societies Acts. Then 
there are other co-operative bodies such as the Farmers' Union, pig 
breeding societies, milk testing societies, etc. At Oxford, the 
Institute for Besearch in Agricultural Economics has been established, 
where the farmer may obtain information on the cost of manuring and 
the value of manure correctly applied, the cost of his milk per gallon, 
and the allocation of that cost between food, labour, transport, and 
management. There he can ascertain beyond doubt where a certain 
method of farming pays and where need of a change is indicated. It 
often happens that a farm makes a bad return because profitable and 
unprofitable operations are carried out side by side. Above all, 
costing's will show what wages the individual can afford and the 
extent to which labour may hope to participate under some enlightened 
system of profit-sharing. 



Kinds of Cotton G-ins to Use. 

The United States Department of Agriculture furnishes the 
following information regarding the use of roller gins for ginning 
long-staple cotton : " It is the custom in this country to gin only Sea 
Island and Arizona Egyptian cottons on roller gins. The minimum 
length of these varieties is about 1 r", ■ inches. 

" According to the American custom, only cottons with slick black 
seed, that is those varieties which originate from the botanic variety 
' Barbadense,' are suited for ginning on roller gins. Long staples 
vith fuzzy seed (' Hirsutum ' variety) are commonly ginned on saw 
gins, even though the staple is sometimes as long as If or 1-jV inches. 
It is found that saw gins will give a much larger out-turn than roller 
gins. It is said that a good day's work on a saw gin on long-staple 
cotton is about 8 bales of 500 pounds each, while a day's work on a 
single roller gin is about li bales. 

"It is known that some damage is done to the staple of cotton 
thiough the use of saw gins, but the greater production is supposed 
to more than counterbalance this loss. It is the custom among 
American ginners in ginning long staples on saw gins to slow down 
the saws, to speed up the brush, and to run a light roll in the gin 
box. The cotton should be reasonably dry, but not excessively so. 
By following these simple rules, the damage done through ginning 
long staples on saw gins is reduced to a minimum, and the best 
economic results are accomplished, all things considered, through the 
use of saw gins." 



266 JOUENAL OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 



WHITE ANT NOTES. 



By C. P. VAN DER Merwe, (Tovernment Entomologist, Durban. 



A CASE of damage to the floors of a building' by a termite ordinarily 
found inhabiting standing trees was recently brought to the notice of 
the writer by Mr. W. E. Butcher, of Eidge Hoad, Durban. The 
termite concerned is known as Schedorhinotermes putorius, Sjostedt, 
and is fairly common in Durban. This species only exists along the 
East Coast and has not before been recorded as injuring the wood- 
work of buildings. Though nests are usually found in hollows of 
living trees, the insects feed only on the dead wood thereof, and do 
not attack the live portions. The most common feeding grounds are 
in the dead wood of trunks and of large limbs from which branches 
have broken off. The w^hite ants make superficial galleries over the 
trunk and limbs from one place to another, and also down the trunk 
to the ground. These galleries are quite characteristic of the insect 
and made of a carton-like material mixed with particles of soil and 
other matter. The nearer the ground, the more the soil in the com- 
position of the material. 

Though these termites are usually found on standing trees, these 
are not the only places where they occur. The strongest colonies 
observed by the writer were in dead logs and dead trees. On one 
occasion a tree in Avhich there was a nest was cut down, and when 
the wood dried the termites seemed to increase abundantly, probably 
on account of the ample food supply which had become available. 
It is possible that the reason why this termite is mainly a tree 
inhabiting species, is because dead trees and logs do not last long 
enough on the Natal coast for colonies of this particular white ant 
to become established in them. Such soon decay or are destroyed by 
other termites and by fungi. As the species lives in wood, it can 
have more or less permanent colonies only where its home is not too 
soon destroyed by other factors. 

Except for the unusual aspect, it is not surprising that 
Schedorhinotermes should destroy the floor of a house ; but as it differs 
so much in its habits from other termites to find a building attacked 
was unexpected. The attack must have started in a way different from 
the common casea of termite damage. 

First the floor of one large room was found to be infested, and 
the damaged portions were replaced ; but after some time the floor in 
an adjoining room was found being attacked. Then it was noticed 
that the insect concerned was not one of the termites which commonly 
damage buildings, and specimens were submitted to the writer. 
Further examination showed that the pest was in the floor and in 
the moulding of a door in a passage near the rooms first attacked, and 
had spread to the other side of the wall of the passage, and there 
started to attack the skirting boards. Subsequent examinations by 
the writer showed that several feeding places were connected, under 
the floor, by those characteristic galleries this white ant constructs on 
the surface of trees. 



White Ant Notes. 267 



The damage done somewhat resembled that of the Natal 
termite {Terraes natalensis). The timber was eaten out, leaving a 
thin shell on the under-side and one of greater thickness above. 
Where the wood was destroyed, the space was not filled with earth, 
as is the case with the Natal and other termites, but with a papery- 
substance. The space is also not so closely filled up as in the case of 
T. natalensis, the material being divided into thin perforated layers, 
so that it presents a more or less spongy appearance. 

When the surroundings of the house were searched for a possible 
outside source of infestation, the dead stumps of eight loquat trees 
were found in a bamboo hedge above the house. These trees had been 
cut down several years ago. In all of the stumps this Schedo- 
rldnotervies was found or indications of its workings. One of 
the stumps was eaten down into the ground ; of the others greater or 
smaller portions were still remaining. 

In the stump nearest the room in which the infestation was first 
discovered, and about 8 feet removed from the outside wall, a par- 
ticularly strong colony was located. The probability that the infesta- 
tion in the house was connected with this colony at once suggested 
itself, and the most likely way by which the insects could have got 
under the floor seemed to be by following the dead roots. An exami- 
nation was therefore made of the roots, and it was found that, as 
far as the roots extended, 2 to 3 feet, the termites were present. The 
roots could not be traced further, their ends having decayed or having 
been eaten away. Possibly the roots formerly extended below the 
bouse and had led the insects there. 

In view of the abundance of the insects in the immediate vicinity, 
it is also possible that a colony originated in the house from a pair 
of winged adults. Numbers of these flying males and females must 
have escaped from the surrounding nests each year, and pairs entering 
the house might readily find a suitable place in which to establish 
themselves and their brood. 

The house in question is an old one, built before the principles 
on which a house should be put up to secure protection from white 
ant attack were understood. The floors are not much raised above 
the ground level, and sufficient air is not admitted below the flooring. 
Though it was not possible to prove how the infestation originated, 
it was evident that had those precautions been taken, which we now 
know to be necessary to prevent other termite damage, the attack 
by Schedorhinotermes would not have occurred, or else it could have 
been easily dealt with, access to below the floor being possible. 



Fruit Export. 

The following fruit was shipped overseas during the month of 
January, 1921: — Ex Capetown (boxes): Peaches, 24,703; plums, 
18,755; pears, 22,151; nectarines, 8982; apricots, 177; grapes, 951; 
melons, 4; total, 75,723. Ex Durban (boxes): Pineappples, 563. 
Total shipments from all ports during present 1920-1921 deciduous- 
fruit season : November, 1920, 42 boxes ; December, 1920, 27,422 
boxes; January, 1921, 76,286 boxes; total, 103,750 boxes. The total 
shipments during the 1919-20 deciduoiis season amounted to 265,300 
boxes. 



268 



Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



PRUNING OF DECIDUOUS FRUIT TREES. 

By H. B. Tekkv, Cert. 1J.H.S. (London and Snntli Aiiica), Lecturer 
in Horticulture, School of Ao-riculiure, Potchefsiroom. 



{First instalment, Fehruary, 1921, Jouinal.) 

Thk Apricot. 
This tree is treated according- jo the general instructions given 
for trees up to the third winter pruning. A short stem and well- 




I'^Ki. 7. — Aja-icol, ''j;oy;il" aJicr pjimiiifi-. 

designed tree is essential, as the wood is stiff and biittle, and when 
left long breaks under the tstiess of t^tornis or a heavy crop. The tree 



Pruning of Deciduous Fruit Trees. 



269 



has a natural tendency to form forks — this should be checked as much 
as possible, because these forks are always weak points. Each branch 
should have a separate and distinct hold on the main or secondary 
arms to secure stability Most varieties come into bearing during 
the third or fourth year, the fruit being produced on one-year-old 
wood, oi' on spurs two or more years old; this class of wood siiould 
be found spread over the framework of the tree from the crutch to 
the tips of the leaders. 

The accompanying photograph will convey a clear idea of the 
distribution of fruiting wood on the apricot. Once the trees have 
borne a fair crop the tendency to rush into strong rambling growth 
is arrested, and the amount of cutting is reduced. The fruit-bearing 




Fig. 8. — Illustrating Apricot leadeis and manner of treating. 

1. Point of origin on previous season's leader. 

2. Where to prune the leader in winter. 

d. Showing development of lateral fiuiting wood between 1 and 2, as seen in the 
following season. 

laterals that are too long (say over 1 foot) should be shortened liaclc 
to 9 inches. Take care to cut just above a growth bud, otherwise 
the lateral may die after fruiting. Any wood under incjies in 
length should bo left uncut. If laterals are too nununous suppress 
a few altogether, so that the J-einainder liave room for development. 

Tltc apricot leaders i)reseiit a difficulty to the uninitiated. It 
will be noticd by glancing at the photograph (fig. 8) that a series of 
laterals arise about half-way up; pay no attention to their fitiiting 



270 



Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



abilities, but cut the growth back below them. By so doing further 
strong leaders are obtained to keep the tree vigorous. The lower buds 
will break into lateral growth, thus furnishing the tree with more 
fruiting wood. 

The Apple. 

Until a few years ago the apple was considered an easy tree to 
prune, the main objects being to preserve shape, promote growth, and 
establish fruit spurs throughout the tree; old methods are I'eing 




Fig. 9. 

superseded gradually, and each variety is being treated according to 
its needs. As this class of tree takes longer to come into bearing 
than stone fruits, the severe pruning may be continued until a good 
shape has been obtained and a sure foundation built to carry regular 
crops. About five to six years elapse before anything approaching 
a crop is borne, then light pruning should be practised. Some 
varieties, as Five Crown, Pippin, Ohenimuri, produce spurs freely 
and are not difficult to prune, whilst others, like Jonathan. Rome 



Pruning of Deciduous Fruit Trees. 



271 



Beauty, Cleopatra, and Irish Peach, do not develop spurs as readily, 
and fail to do so when severely winter pruned. The latter type of 
tree produces a number of thin laterals usually furnished with a 
terminal blossom bud. To prune it away means the sacrifice of 
immediate fruit and induces strong growth. When summer pruning 
is not practised in conjunction with winter pruning, these laterals 
are left uncut; if too numerous towards the centre of the tree they 
are thinned ont. When this practice of leaving the laterals uncut 




Fia. 10. 

is adopted a greater sDur development takes place along the laterals 
and tends to slow down the vigour of the shoot. When they need 
strengthening to carry the fruit they have to bear they can be 
shortened back to six or eight inches. It is a great mistake to presume 
a tree to be unpruned unless each individual growth has been cut. 
The protographs illustrate a spur-producer [Fig. 9 (apple) Ohenimun] 
and a typical lateral bearer [Fig. 10 (apple) Irish Peach]. 



272 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

The leaders should he shnitened to about half of the previous 
season's growth. This stimulates the tree roots and assists in distri- 
Initin"!' the sap evenly throup-jiout the tree. It is an accepted rule 




Fig. 11. — Laterals found on Apple "Jonathan," showing treatment. 

that when growth is sluggish hard cutting back of leaders calls the 
roots mto activity. When growth is vigorous long pruning tends to 



Pruning of Deciduous Fruit Trees. 



273 



assist this, and enables the grower to control his trees. The treat- 
ment of laterals may be stated thus : — ■ 

When it is desired to check their growth and induce fruiting 




Fto. 12. — Showing Spur Development on Apple " Ohenimnri." 

they are left uncut or pruned long ; where growth is required -'rune 
short; after a number of spurs have developed between the top and 



274 



Journal op the Department op a Agriculture. 



base of the laterals, shorten back according to their strength and 
ability to produce good fruit from the remaining spurs. No l)ranches 
should be allowed to cross, and dead wood must be removed and burnt. 

Fig. 11 illustrates the laterals taken from a Jonathan apple tree. 
"A" shows two seasons' growth with absence of spurs, except a 
solitary spur on the two-year-old wood ; it was pruned too short. 
" B " illustrates the advantages of allowing the laterals to lemain 
uncut — note the fruit spurs; this growth can now be pruned at " D." 
" C " shows the short type of lateral peculiar to this class of tree — 
the terminal bud is a blossom bud. 

Fig. 12 gives a clear idea of the spur development which takes 
place along the main arms of varieties such as Ohenimuri, Stone 
Pippin, Five Crown Pippin, etc., thus producing a large bearing 
surface when the top is kept fairly open. 

(A furfhpr ivMalment vnll appear in next VTOvfh'<; iftsve.) 



WORLD CROPS. 



Special Cabled Advice from the International Institute 
of Agriculture, Rome, respecting the position 
of certain world crops. 



9th February, 1921. 



Crop. 


Season. 


Estimated Production and 
Percentage it Represents 
of the World's Total Yield. 


Percentage of Season's 

Estimated Production 

compared with 


Production 

(1 metric ton 

= 2200 lb.). 


Percentage.* 


The Previous 

Season 
(which = ' 00). 


The Five Years' 
Average prior to 
Previous Season 
(average =100). 


Northern lie 


in Isphere — 


metric tons. 


per cent. 


per cent. 


per cent. 


Wheat ... 


Oct., 1920 Aug., 1!>2I 


«2.(;28.O00 


.'52 


101 


9fi 


Oats ... 
Tobacc' > 


(Autumn sown) 
Do. do. 
April-Sept., 1920 


48,020,000 
772,000 


76 
32 


121 
10.5 


107 
126 


Maizo ... 


(Summer sown) 
Do. do. 


SS.'lBl.OOO 


84 


111 


115 


Southern lie 


mi-yihcrr — 










Wheat ... 
Oats ... 


April, 1920-.Jan., 1921 
(Winter sown) 
Do. do. 


9,490,000 
833,000 


8 
1 


127 

87 


122 
92 



* The estimated production is ba«ed on reports sent to the Institute by certain producing 
countries. At the date of the cablegram the estimated production of the group of countries 
from which advice was received (as shown above), represented aj)in'oximately the stated 
percentage of the world's yield. 



A New Wool Scheme. 275 



A NEW WOOL SCHEME. 



Abortive Negotiations in Germany— Imperial 
Government's Offer. 



The stagnation in the wool trade with its effect upon the wool 
producers and other business interests in the Union, has engaged the 
serious attention of the Government for some time past. In view of 
the abnormal accumulations in the United Kingdom, and the fact 
that prior to the war Germany was a very large buyer of South 
African wool, the first step to be taken appeared to be the re-establish- 
ment of the continental market. The instability of the German 
monetary system obviously set great difficulties in the way of such a 
etep, and various schemes for obviating difficulties in regard to 
exchange were considered. These schemes included {a) barter of 
wool for articles manufactured in Germany, such as iron and steel, 
and (b) financing of the wool manufacturers in Germany by an out- 
side agency which would recoup itself out of the proceeds of sale of 
the manufactured article and would show profits to the manufacturer. 
These schemes were found to necessitate the most highly skilled com- 
mercial management and were, therefore, not readily adaptable to 
operation by Government. 

In these circumstances the Government requested Mr. Chappell, 
of the firm of Mosenthal & Company, and Mr. Reynolds, General 
Manager of ths National Bank, who were in England, to associate 
themselves with the Union Trade Commissioner and investigate the 
possibility of re-establishing our continental markets. These gentle- 
men proceeded to Germany, where they interviewed textile manufac- 
turers, bankers, and Government officials. Their negotiations, which 
at the outset seemed to offer prospects of success, were fruitless owing 
to a number of considerations which need not here be detailed. Con- 
sequently, conversations were opened with the Imperial Government, 
and as a result the Union Government is able to announce that the 
Imperial Government is willing to purchase up to 100,000 bales of 
last season's crop, the schedule of prices for various types of wool to 
be the schedule of 1913-14 prices used for the 1917 wool scheme, but 
th^' 55 per cent, addition to 1913-14 prices given in 1917 is now with- 
drawn ; 50 per cent, of any profit realized on the re-sale will be 
credited to the Union Government for account of sellers. 

Arrangements for valuing and paying for wool, and generally 
for carrying out the scheme, will be the same as those adopted in 
1917. No cash payments will be made by the Imperial Govern- 
ment, but the cash disbursements by the Union Government will be 
deducted from that Government's indebtedness to the Imperial 
Government. 

Investigations are proceeding with a view to the disposal of the 
new crop which it is fully recognized is a matter of far more moment 
than the disposal of the 100,000 bales, more or less, of the old crop 
still in the country, but before this question could be tackled seriously 



276 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

it was necessary to find a means of getting tlie old crop out of the 
way and the offei of tlie Imperial Government, providing the means 
of doing this, t ffords the prospects of substantial and immediate 
relief, since it vill release capital of banks, brokers, and others 
presentlj^ locked up, and permit its re-employment in financing pro- 
ducts of the country. 

The above offer, it will be observed, is in respect of last season's 
clip, and the Government is now in communication with the Imperial 
authorities, as an outcome of which it is anticipated that satisfactory 
arrangements will soon be concluded. 

In view of any expectations, however, which may be held, that 
there is a possibility of similar satisfactory arrangements being made 
with the Imperial (iovernment in regard to the present season's crop, 
farmers are warned that difficulties face the success of such negotia- 
tions, and consequently no reasonable means of selling their wool 
should be neglected or refused. 



Citrus Scale Insects. 

X considerable number of potentially important scale insects ha\e 
been found on citiiis trees in the Union, most of them introductions 
from oversea, and ilie folloAving list of them is thought by Mr. 
Jjounslmry, Chief, Division of Entomology, to be almost though not 
entirely complete: — 

1. Aspidiutus licili'Kir. 13. Ceroplustcs tlestniLinr. 

2. Aspiiliotus maskcUi. 14. Lecanium africanum. 

3. Aspidiotus silvuticus. 15. Lecanium heftperiduvi. 

4. Chrysomphalus aurantii. 16. Saissetia ohae. 

5. Chrysomp>halas dictyospeiini. 17. Fulvinaria flocclfera. 

6. Chrysomphalus ficHs. 18. 'Filtppia chUianihi. 

7. Chrysomphalus rossi. 19. Pseudococcus citri. 

8. Lepidosajjhes pinniforrnis. 20. Pseudococcus filamentosits. 

9. Lepidosaphes gloveri. 21. Pseudococcus fragilis. 

10. Ischnaspis longirostris. 22. Pseudococcus rirgatus. 

11. Parlnfnrin zhiphi. 23. Tadiardid tictiiu'lla. 
12 Paiiaiorid pergandW. 

No. 4 ranks as the most importaul ; it does far more damage than 
all the others together. 

It is strongly suspected tliat most of the imported species came 
from oriental countries, chiefly from India through Durban. No. 4 
seems likely to have entered at Capetown in the days of the Dutch 
East India Company. No. 12 is suspected to have come in with a 
few trees introduced from Japan in 1897. Were it not for our care- 
fully conducted nursery inspection, there would be grave fear that 
quite a number of the insects listed would soon get spread about the 
Lnion with movements of nursery stock and in the course of time 
become considered very serious citrus pests. 



Do not lose your coi)y of the Jouituil. A full index will he sent 
subs(!ribers every six months. The Journal will prove a useful book 
of reference to every farmer. In time it will be a valuable com- 
pendium of advice and information on farming in kSouth Africa. 



The Vegetable Garden. 277 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN. 



Marcli. 



By H. B. Terry, Cert. B.H.S. (Lond. and S.A.), Lecturer in Horticulture, 
School of Agriculture, Potchefstrooni. 



There are two more moderately good months for growth, after that the dry 
season and cold nights may be expected inland. At the coast, however, where 
conditions are different, gardening goes on with more regularity. But the 
growing season is rapidly declining and the garden must be filled up with 
transplants and seeds. The ground should be well prepared by ploughing or 
digging and liberally enriched with stable or kraal manure which is thoroughly 
decayed. When the preparation of the soil is complete, dust a little super- 
phosphate over the surface and rake it in; it is a great help at all times. 
Where crops are growing, every effort should be made to keep the soil clean 
by frequent hoeings ; the use of the ho3 stimulates growth by allowing air to 
enter the soil, keeps down insect pests by exposing them to the light and birds, 
checks fungoid growths, and in every way makes for heavy yields. The use 
of the garden hoe is not sufficiently appreciated. 

Brussels Sprouts. — These succeed best under Cape Province conditions 
owing to the winter rainfall. 

Ca3B.\ge. — Should be transplanted immediately. Set out large growing 
sorts, such as Castle, Mammoth, Drumhead, Savoy, and Brunswick, 3 feet 
apart between the rows by 2 feet 6 inches in the rows. Seed may be sown 
where it is to mature, taking care to thin out sufficiently to enable the heads 
to develop. Try Surehead, All Head, Webb's Emperor, Spitzkool. 

Cauliflower. — Should be transplanted now for winter and spring; Gilt 
Edge, World Beater, Veitche's Autumn Giant, or Snowball as early sorts except 
on high veld, and broccoli for late maturing. Broccoli is much hardier than 
ordinary cauliflower and should be grown when failures have occurred with the 
latter. 

Celery. — May be sown in the Cape Province only. 

Carrot. — May still be sown, using Dutch Horn, Chanteney, Danvers, and 
Maincrop. The soil for this crop should be in good condition, not recently 
manured (unless very old stuff), as the roots are liable to fork. Sow in rows 
15 inches apart, and thin out the seedlings later on. 

Turnips. — Turnips are a reliable winter vegetable and should be sown at 
intervals of three weeks for succession. Use Snowball, Jersey Lily, Red Top, 
White Globe, Red Strapleaf. 

Lettuce. — Good sowings should be made. Sow All-the-Year-Round, Boston, 
Iceberg ; also Cos varieties. The great secret of obtaining large crisp heads is 
rich soil, plenty of water, and frequent cultivation. The rows should be 15 inches 
apart. 

Beetroot. — Make a big sowing of Eclipse or Egyptian Turnip-rooted. Sow 
in rows 15 inches apart, thin out to 6 inches apart, and hoe frequently. 

Kohl Rabi. — Kohl Rabi or Knol Kohl should be sown everywhere as a 
substitute for turnips ; it is a good vegetable in itself. 

Leeks. — A good sowing should be made if not already done. 

Onions.- — This is the best month to sow for the early spring crop; keep the 
beds free from weeds until the seedlings are large enough to transplant in May. 
Sow Early Cape Straw, Silver King, Red Flat, Bermuda, White Barlotta. 
Italian Tripoli. 

Peas. — May be sown for succession. Dwarf varieties, such as Daisy, 
Stratagem, Sutton's Matchless, Pride of the Market, should be sown in drills 
2 feet 6 inches apart; two drills about 3 inches apart is the general practice; 
then use the space for cultivation. 



278 Journal of the Department of agriculture. 

Radish.- — Should be grown quickly to be palatable. Use Red aud White 
Turnip-rooted for a thirty-day crop,' French Breakfast to follow, and then 
China Rose. Seeds of the first two should be sown at intervals of fourteen days, 
a little seed at a time to save waste. 

Spinach. — Sow winter varieties on rich soil in drills 18 inches apart; sow 
the seed ^ inch deep ; grow it quickly, otherwise it will be leathery. Swiss 
Chard is an excellent substitute for sowing now ; it is perennial and keeps 
growing all through winter and spring. 

Salads. — Sow Mustard and Cress under shade for salads. 

Broad Beans. — As cooler weather approaches this crop has better chances 
of succeeding; a light sowing should be made. 

Parsnip. — Continue to sow except on high veld. 



THE POULTRY YARD MONTH BY MONTH. 



March. 



By J. J. Jordaan, Lecturer and Instructor in Poultry, Glen, Orange Free State. 



Moulting.- — The moulting breeding birds should by this time have progressed 
sufficiently in regard to new feathering to be almost completely feathered. 
During this month every effort must be made to excite the egg organs so 
as to get the hens laying by the end of the month, or at the latest next month 
before the first frost falls. Feed as follows: — 

Morning Mash: 4 parts bran, 1 part crushed oats, 1 part mealie meal, 
1 part pollard, 1 part meat meal or Crayferine, 8 parts lucerne-hay or meal. 
Midday : Green food. Evenings : Oats, sunflower, Japanese millet, and crushed 
mealies alternatively. 

To the drinking water add Douglas Mixtuie daily for two or three weeks 
until the comb and face show signs of reddening up. 

Egg Production.- — Early hatched pullets should also be fed as above to 
assist them in getting to the paying stage this month. The smaller the number 
of birds in a flock the better the results will be as regards egg production. 
New laid eggs rule high, and therefore the flock;5 should be kept small. Have 
the roofs of all houses covered with soil or stable manure to break the effect 
of early frosts which would stop egg production almost instantaneously. 

Breeding Pens. — Cockerels intended to be used in the breeding pens should 
also be penned up and fed well to get them into good condition. Always keep 
an extra one as a reserve bird in case of accidents. Discard from the breeding 
pen any birds that have developed vices such as feather or egg eating during 
the moulting period and also any that have been backward in the moult. 

Showing. — The agricultural shows are now in full swing; the wideawake 
poultryman will exhibit even more strongly here than at poultry shows, because 
he is more certain of getting into touch with buyers than at the latter shows. 
By exhibiting at agricultural shows the breeder indirectly assists in furthering 
the industry by helping to make a good exhibition which creates interest in 
and respect for the industry. 

General.— Only birds that are required for breeding purposes and egg 
production should be kept. All others should be disposed of; this is a splendid 
month for sales. The pullets that are to be tested for egg production, in view 
of possible use the following year in breeding pens, rhould now be selected and 
penned in individual runs or in pens in which trap-nests are provided. 

Advertise young turkey cocks for sale. "When selling pens, sell old hens ; 
this will give better results and more satisfaction to customers. 



Notes prom the " Gazette.' 279 



NOTES FROM THE "GAZETTE. 



Attention is drawn to the follo\\in<2; matters of interest which appeared in 
the Union 'Government Gazette : — 

(Abbreviations: " Proc." — Proclamation; " G.N." — Government Notice.) 

Gazette. 
No. Date. Items. 

1115 14/1/21 Under the Stock Diseases Act the Minister has approved of the 

withdrawal of paragraph (2) of G.N. No. 1049, 1920, restrict- 
ing the movements of cattle in so far as a certain portion of 
the Pretoria Municipal Area is concerned. (G.N. No. 67.) 

1116 21/1/21 The appointment of members of the District Woodcutter Boards 

for the Divisions of George, Knysna, and Humansdorp is 
notified in G.N. No. 105. 

1116 21/1/21 All brands for horses, cattle, ostriches, sheep and goats regis- 
tered under the Brands Registration Acts (C.G.H.) during 
the quarter ended 31st December, 1920, are published in 
G.N. No. 124, and for brands registered during the same 
quarter under the Orange River Colony Brands Registration 
Ordinance of 1903 in G.N. No. 125. 

1116 21/1/21 The Minister of Lands has authorized an amendment to G.N. 
No. 865, 1919, regarding the Tariff for Government Surveys 
in the Provinces of the Cape of Good Hope, Transvaal, 
Orange Free State, and Natal. (G.N. Nos. 86 and 87.) 

1116 21/1/21 Regulations under section 3 of the Land Settlement Acts 
Further Amendment Act, 1920, to govern advances to groups 
of lessees of holdings leased in terms of the Land Settlement 
Act, 1912, are published in G.N. No. 92. 

1116 21/1/21 A Commission to inquire into and report upon matters concern- 
ing the surveys of land has been appointed. (G.N. No. 106.) 

1116 21/1/21 Tenders are invited by the Secretary for Lands, Pretoria, for 

a grazing lease on a holding on Majuba, Barberton District. 
(G. N. No. 117.) 

1117 28/1/21 Under the provisions of the Fencing Act, No. 17, 1912, contri- 

butions towards the cost of dividing fences in the Ward 
Elands River, District Rustenburg, are declared to be 
obligatory. (Proc. No. 17.) 

1117 28/1/21 Under the provisions of the Agricultural Pests Act, No. 11 of 
1911, cotton seeds with lint attached and cotton lint contain- 
ing cotton seeds have been added to the list of plants which 
may not be introduced into the Union from overseas except 
under certain prescribed precautions. (Proc. No. 18.) 

1117 28/1/21 Regulations under the Statistics Act, 1914, are published in 
connection with the rendering of particulars relating to 
figri cultural, horticultural, viticultural, dairying, and 
pastoral productions. (G.N. No. 148.) 

1117 28/1/21 A portion of G.N. No. 1934, ordering the removal of all cattle 
from certain farms in the Lydenburg District, has been 
withdrawn in respect of certain of the farms mentioned. 
(G.N. No. 159.) 

1117 28/1/21 The Secretary for Lands has published a list of approved leases 
granted under the Crown Lands Disposal Ordinance, 1903 
(Transvaal). (G.N. No. 169.) 

1119 4/2/21 The Minister has ordered amendments to Government Notices 
having reference to protected and semi-protected areas 
(scab) in the Districts of Malmesbury, Fraserburg, Rivers- 
dale, and Estcourt. (G.N. No. 187 and 223.) 



280 Journal op the Department of Agriculture. 

Gazette. 
No. Bate. Items. 

1119 4/2/21 Lists of brands registered under the Orange River Colony 
Brands Registration Ordinance, 1903, and of applications 
for brands under the Brands Registration Acts of 1890 and 
J897 (C.G.H.), are published. (G.N. Nos. .'?00 and 201.) 
Also a list of brands allotted and registered in terms of 
Great Stock Brands Ordinance (Transvaal) for the quarter 
ended 31st December, 1920. (G.N. No. 221.) 

1119 4/2/21 The Secretary for Lands notifies that the hcmiestead on farm 

Boven Campbell, Hay Division, will be offered for lease at 
Campbell on the 17th' March, 1921. (G.N. No. 204.) 

1120 11/2/21 In terms of the Forest Act, No. 16, 1913, a certain piece of 

land, portion of the Salt River Forest Reserve, in the 
Division of Knysna, has been withdra'vn from the demar- 
cated forest area declared by G.N. No. 11(5. (G.N. No. 225.) 

1120 11/2/21 Regulations under the Diseases of Stock Act, section 23, in 
i-egard to the reporting of deaths of cattle, are published. 
(G:N. No. 226.) 

Ill;") 14/1/21 Crown lands are offered for sale as follows: At Kingwilliams- 

1117 28/1/21 town on 9th April; at Windsorton on 8th March; at 

Williston oi. 23rd March; at Still Bay on 30th March; at 
Oudtshoorn on 26th March ; at L^pington on 16th March ; 
at Knysna on 29th March; at CapetoAvn, Civil Commis- 
sioner's Office, on 13th April; at Fraserburg Road on 27th 
April. (G.N. Nos. 70, 175, and 194.) 

1120 11/2/21 .Applications will be received by the Secretary for Lands, Pieter- 
maritzburg, up to the 25th March, for certain farms situated 
in the IJmvoti and Ixopo Divisions, and by the Lands 
Branch, Windhoek, up to the 7th March, for certain farms 
situated in the South-West Protectorate, to be disposed of 
on terms of conditional purchase lease. (G.N, Nos. 251 and 
252.) 

1115 14/1/21 The compulsory dipping of cattle has been ordered (a) every 

1116 21/1/21 three days in the three-day dip for portions of Zoutpans- 

1117 28/1/21 berg District; (6) every live days in the five-day clip for 

1119 4/2/21 portions of Pretoria Municipal Area and portions of EUiot- 

1120 11/2/21 dale. (Jmzimkulu, Babanango, Richmond, Pretoria, Tsolo, 

Willowmore, and Ipolela Districts. (G.N. Nos. 67, 101, 158, 
222, and 237.) 

1116 21/1/21 Compulsory dipping of sheep and goats under the Scab Regu- 

1117 28/1/21 lations and Diseases of Stock Act has been ordered for the 
1119 4/2/21 Districts of Vredefort and Kroonstad within the period 

25th January to 30th April; for the Districts of Jacobsdal, 
Philippolis, and Fanresmith within the period 1st February 
to 30th April; for the District of Caledon within the period 
14th February to 14th March, 1921. (G.N. Nos. 102, 160, 
188.) 



STAFF: APPOINTMENTS, TRANSFERS, ETC. 

(1) Ageicultukb. 
1/10/20 Lieut. -Colonel Q. N. Williams, D.S.O., appointed Under-Secretary 

for Agriculture, vice P. J. du Toit. 
1/10/20 F. IF. Green, appointed Chief Clerk, vice Lieut.-Colonel G. N. 

Williams, D.S.O. 
15/12/20 G. V. d. W. de Koch, appointed Senior Research Officer, Onderste- 

poort. 
23/1/21 .7. F. Macintyre, District Veterinary Officer, transferred from Potchef- 
stroom to Umtata. 

(2) Agricultural Education. 
15/1/21 Andre Marais, M.Sc. (Stell.), appointed Assistant Chemist, Groot- 

fontein. 
15/2/21 11'. G. Mason, Director of Training Farms, returned to duty in 

Pretoria from his visit to St. Helena for the purpose of advising 

the Imperial Authorities on the agricultural potentialities of the 

island. 



The Weather. 



281 



THE WEATHER. 



Extracts from the Monthly Report of the Chief 
Meteorologist for the Union. 

The weather of the mouth of January, 1921, was characterized hy a practically 
general serious shortage of rainfall — absolute drought prevailing at many 
stations in the Karoos and Northern Border; persistent cool, cloudy weather 
over the south-west of the Cape; good light rains over the greater part of the 
Transvaal, Orange Free State, Natal, and south-east Cape m the early part 
of the month, followed by a hot droughty spell broken only by highly localized 
thunderstorms, hot drying and occasionally destructive winds, and some severe 
hailstorms causing damage to crops and fruit. 

Precipitation in excess of the normal was confined to a few areas of very 
limited extent, notably the south-west nf the Cape including the Peninsula, 
the neighbourhood of Knysna, Port St. Johns, and Umtata and Durban, along 
the coast; inland excesses were confined to the neighbourhood of Rustenburg 
and Nylstroom, where the monthly totals were 2.02 and 3.02 inches respectively 
above the normal, and Heidelberg, where the surplus was only 0.03 inch. Else- 
where large shortages were experienced, ranging from 0.01 inch to more than 
three inches over the Cape; from a few tenths to about three inches in the 
Orange Free State; from three-quarters of an inch to more than six inches 
in Natal; and from about a third of an inch to seven inches over the Transvaal, 
where the shortage was greatest in the east, south-east, and south-west. 
Absolute drought prevailed throughout the month over large sections of the 
Karoos and Northern Border. The early portion of the month Avas very favour- 
able to agriculture, light rains falling from the 1st to 12th over the south-east 
Cape, Natal, Orange Free State, and Transvaal. These rains were particularly 
favourable, falling mostly during the latter part of the evening and throughout 
the night, thus not interfering with the day's work. Unfortunately this was 
succeeded by a spell of hot, droughty weather, relieved only by very lociil 
thunderstorms, occasionally of considerable intensity. In consequence, agri- 
cultural reports this month arc of the gloomiest description, veld dried up, 
crops, particularly mealies, burned up or partially destroyed, and even dams 
and vleis dried up, with jivers down to tlie normal winter flow. 

The cumulative rainfall since 1st July, 1920, still shows an excess over 
the south-west and west of the Cape, the west of the Northern Karoo, and the 
East Central Karoo. Surplus amounts of 2-5 inches are also met with between 
Durban and Howick. A precipitation in excess of the normal for the period is 
confined in the Transvaal to a few stations in the south-east centre and north- 
west. In Swaziland there is an excess of more than 65 inches at Mbabaan. In 
all other parts of the Union there is a considerable deficit, ranging from 
1-7 inches over the Cape, but mostly between 3 and 5 inches ; generally 
2-3 inches in the Orange Free State; about .3 inches in Natal, but reaching 
9.19 inches at Vryheid ; usually 2-4 inches over the Transvaal, but amounting 
to 9.36 inches at Woodbush. 



Outbreaks of Animal Diseases: 


January, 


1921. 
















Total. 


Disease. 



















'3 


a. 



i-t 






January, 
1921. 


December, 
1920. 


East Coast Fever 


10 


4 




_. 


4 


18 1 5 


Mange.., 
Anthrax 


2 

89 


1 
6 


7 
17 


20 


44 


10 ! 31 

182 ' 182 


Dourine 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


1 2 


Glanders 


— 


— 


3 


— 


— 


3 i — 


Epizootic Lymphangitis 
Tuberculosis 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


1 1 — 
— 2 



282 



Journal of the Department op Agriculture. 



THE OVERSEA MARKET. 



Market Prices of South African Produce cabled by the Trade 
Commissioner, London, on the 11th February, 1921. 



Wooi. — January sales just closed, 6393 bales South African free wool being 
offered, which experienced demand better than at the December auctions. 
Prices of all descriptions at opening of auction ruled from par to 5 per cent, 
below previous rates, but Avith increased Continental and American competition, 
brokers were able to make fair clearance at the close. Best qualities were above 
December rates, with snow-whites in better demand; other descriptions 
recovered initial decline. Current prices : Snow-white, extra superior, 2s. lOd. 
to 3s. Id. ; superior, 2s. 2d. to 2s. 9d. ; medium. Is. 9d. to 2s. Id. ; inferior. 
Is. 4d. to Is. 8d. ; greasy combings, long, lOd. to Is. 7d. ; medium, 8d. to Is. Id. ; 
clothing, light, 8d. to Is. ; heavy, 5d. to T^d. 

Mohair. — No business is being done. Nominal price in store, London: 
Summer, first, Is. 2d. to Is. 3d.; Basuto, ll^d. to Is.; winter hair, 9d. 

Hides. — Auction held yesterday, but no sales. Nominal price: Cape hides, 
wet-salted, Johannesburg, best heavy, 7d. ; dry, best heavy, 9id. ; Cape hides, 
dry-salted, best heavy, 8Jd. ; other selection in proportion. 

Cape Merino Sheep Skins. — There was some inquiry for Capetown combing 
wool, best, 9d. ; long, l^d. ; no demand for others. 

Oracle Cape Goat Skins were extremely quiet. Capetov.ai selections, light, 
Is. Id.; extra light, Is. Ijd-; heavy. Is. 3d. per lb. 

Natal Wattle Bark. — Small business was done; £10 c.i.f. for chopped, but 
practically no demand; only slight demand for ground at £11. 10s. c.i.f.; 
extract, £29 c.i.f. 

Maize. — 45s. and 46s. was paid for quantities South African maize, flat 
yellow. No. 4, and round yellow. No 6, January-February shipments. Parcels 
of South African flat white. No. 1, and Hat white, No. 2, January-February 
shipments, quoted 46s. 6d. and 46s. respectively. 

Ostrich Feathers. — The market is unchanged. Auction to be held on 7th 
March. 

Fruit. — The " Norman " consignment, which left Capetown on the 14th 
January, arrived in good condition. Average prices: Peaches and nectarines, 
6s. to i2s. ; plums, 6s. to 10s., extra choice variety, 14s., 17s.; pears, 7s., 8s., 
10s. The market is likely to go down lower on account of large shipments 
near to hand. 




South Devon Bull, Glen School of Agriculture. 



Local Marke'T Prices 



283 









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284 



Journal op the Department op agriculture. 



THE LOCAL MARKET. 



Position at Mid-February, 1921. 



(Note. — The local market prices of certain other agricultural produce and stock 
are published elsewhere in this issue.) 



WOOL. 

Since the issue of the last report there has been a more general competition for good and 
average combing and medium wools, and also for good coarse and coloured wool, at prices 
tlightl}' above those quoted last month. The demand for the better classes of combing wools 
has principally been from American buyers who are anxious to fill their orders and ship the 
wool so as arrive in the United States before the anticipated new Customs tariff comes into 
operation. Some thousands bales of wool of the better tj^pes have been bought duiing the 
last weeks at very satisfactory prices. A demand has also arisen on Japanese account for 
really superior clips of Kaffrarian and similar wools and exceptional prices have been paid 
I'or special lots. The highest record prices so far are from Hid. to 17|d. per lb. Bradford 
buyers are operating more freely but there is no tendency on their part to force prices. For 
heavy and seedy wools there is no demand whatsoever. 

There are still large stocks of old season wool at the ports and the disposal of these is a 
most difficult problem as buyers arc reluctant to touch old wools. 

The Part Elizabeth catalogue sales were resumed on the 4th February; 841 bales were 
put up for sale, but only 181 baks changed hands. The sale was well attended by both 
l)uyers and sellers. 

The following are the latest quotations of prices : — 



1 . Extra supei ior combing, 1 2 

months', skirted, choice... 

2. Superior combing, 12 

months', skirted... 

3. Superior combing, 12 to 14 

months' growth, skirted, 
deep stapled 

4. Good average combing. 12 

months' growth... 

5. Superior combing, 10 to 12 

months', skirted 

6. Average combing, 10 to 12 

months', skirted 



per Ih. 
l.id. to 17d. 
I.Sd. „ 14(1. 



13d. 
lOd. 



14(1. 



11( 



lOd. „ lid. 
Ski.,. 'J.id. 



7. Extra super medium. 8 to 10 

months', well skirted ... 

8. Superior medium, 8 to 10 

months', skirted ... 

9. Average medium, 8 to 10 

months' ... 

10. Superfine shorts, 8 months' 

and less, skirted ... 

11. Good average shorts, 8 

months' and less, skilled 5d. 

12. Average shoits, 8 months' 

and Icfs ... 



per 


lb. 


9\d. to lO^d. 


8Jd. , 


, 9. Id. 


7d. , 


^8d. 


8id. , 


, 9^d. 


5d. 


, Cd. 


4d. , 


, 5(1. 



The freight ratea for wool to England and the continent have been reduced by §d. to ^d. 
per lb., but the benefit derived from this reduction will be somewhat counteracted by the 
increased rates of exchange. 

MOHAIR. 

There is no change to report, the market remaining in a very depressed condition. There 
are a few enquiries for super mixed hair at 9d. Winter hair is wanted at 6d. and Basuto 
hair at 9d., but sellers are reluctant to dispose of their stock on this basis. Biadford reports 
state that in spite of the low prices there has been practically no business doing. The 
following nominal quotations are given : — • 



Summer kids 
Summer firsts 
Winter kids 
Winter hair 
Basuto ... 



per lb. 



20d. 


to 24d. 


lOd. 


„ 13d. 


14d. 


„ 20d. 


6d. 


„ 7d. 


8id 


. „ 9d. 



per lb. 

Mixed hair 5d. to lOd. 

Long O.F.S. Blue (12 months') 8d. „ lid. 
Grey and seconds ... ... .'Sd. „ 6d. 

7d. ! Locks 4d. „ 4^d. 



The Local Market. 



285 



HIDES AND SKINS. 

There is a better tone in the market and a slight increase in prices has taken place 
diiring the month. Buyers show a more ready inclination to purchase on a tirm basis at 
ruling current rates. Damaged skins are entirely neglected other than at very low rates. 
The following prices are quoted : — 

Hides. 



Sun-dried, sound 
Sun-dried, damaged 
Sun-dried, fourths 



per lb. 
8d. to 8id. 
r)id. „ 6d. 
Id. „ Ud. 



Salted, sound 
Salted, damaged 
Salted, fourths . 



per lb. 
6|d. to 73d. 
4id. „ Bd. 
Id. „ Ud. 



Sheepskins, sound, per lb.... Ojd. 

Sheepskins, damaged, per lb. 2d. 

Pelts, sound, per lb. ... 4d. 

Pelts, damaged, per lb. ... Hd. 

Coarse wools, sound, per lb. i^d. 
Coarse wools, damaged, per lb. Id. 

Capes, sound, each ... 3s. 7d. 

Capes, sundfied, each ... Is. 6d. 



to 



Sheepskins. 

5|d. 
.3d. 
4 id. 
Id. 



6id. 

l|d. 

4 s. Od. 

2s. 2d. 



Capes, damaged, each 

Capes, staked 

Capes, slinks 

Coarse and coloured, sound, 

per lb 

Coarse and coloured, 

damaged, per lb. 



6d. 



4id. 
id. 



to 



Goatskins 



Angora, light, per 11 
Angora, heavy and 
Angora, ^orn ... 
Angora, damaged 
Ba.stard, sountl 
Bastard, damaged 



sundried, per lb 



4^d. 
3fd. 
2id. 
id. 
T'd. 
2-M 



Goatskins, light 

Goatskins, sundried 

Goatskins, heavy 

Goatskins, damaged ... 

Goatskins, badly damaged and staked 

Goatskins, slinks and bastards, each 



9d. 
Id. 
id- 

4fd. 
Id. 



9d. 
84d. 
8d. 
3^d. 
id. 
U(l. 



OSTRICH FKATHELIS. 



The following information has been furnished by Messrs. Dunell, Ebden & Co , Port 
Elizabeth : — 

Sales were held on 10th, 17th, 24th, and 31st January, 1921. The total quantity sold 
was 15,057 lb. which realized £17,070. There was little change in the prices and the 
quantity of feathers offered by farmers was comparatively small. A large percentage of the 
featiiers sold consisted of old stock, which accounts for irreguhiritv of the market. 

The London sale should have been held on 7th February, but, owing to trade depression 
and unfavourable rate of exchange, has been postponed until 7th Marcli. Not much improve- 
ment in regard to the markets is anticipated until affairs in Europe become more settled 
and the exchange improves. 



Meat Statistics: January, 1921. ^ 



Exports— 

Beef, 437 quarters ; Pork, 1.53 carcasses: Bacon and Ham, 34,134 lb. 
Cattle Imported from adjoining Territories — 

For slaughter, 3563 : for breeding, 77. Total, 3640. 

Summary. 









Cattle Imported from Adjoining 


Calendar Year. 


Beef Expor 


ted. 


Territories for 
Slaughter and Breeding. 




(Quarters. 




No. 


1916 


115,992 




26,580* 


1917 


309,214 




53,410 


1918 


123,354 




50,053 


1919 


285,367 




57,267 


1920 


69,885 




89,135 



1st July to 31st December only. 



286 Journal Op the Department op Agriculture. 



RECENT AGRICULTURAL LITERATURE. 



SELECTED LIST OF BOOKS ADDED TO THE DEPARTMENT'S 

LIBRARY. 



[Note. — The first number is that of the class to which the book belongs; 
the last number is that of the book itself.] 



GENERAL. 



017,94.4 Hawkesbury Agricultural College. Catalogue of Books available for 
use of the Staff and Students. Sydney, 1906. No. 7352. 

050 68 2 Governor-General's Fund. Report on Work and Position of the 
Fund, 1914 to 1920. 1920. No. 7353. 

050,68.27 Van Riebeeek Society. The Memorandum of Commissary J. A. de 
Mist. Containing Recommendations for the Form and Adminis- 
tration of Government at the Cape of Good Hope, 1802. (With 
an English version by Kathleen M. Jeffreys and a preface by 
S. F. N. Gie, Ph.D.) " Capetown, 1920. No. 7363. 

250,94 Australia, Commonwealth Government of. List of Permanent Officers 
of the Commonwealth Public Service as on 30th June, 1919. 
(Commomoealth of Aiistralia Gazette No. 133.) Melbourne, 1919. 
No. 7354. 

018 American Library Association. Cataloging Rules on Cards. Madi- 

son, Wis., n.d. No. 7403. 

018 Pay, L., and Eaton, A. Instruction in the Use of Books and 

Libraries. 2nd Ed. Rev. (Useful Reference Series No. 23.) 
Boston, Mass., 1919. No. 7381. 

018,74 Missouri Library Commission. Handbook of Missouri Libraries 

(Tenth Annual Report of the Missouri Library Commission for 
the Year 1916). Jefferson City, Missouri, 1917. No. 7393. 

250,42 Great Britain, Government of. Special Investigation Committees 

on Staffs. Reports of the Committees appointed to Investigate 
the Staffing and Methods of Work of the Ministry of Labour, 
the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, and the Royal Com- 
mission on Sugar Supplies. London, 1920. No. 7417. 

260 Nederlandschen Tuinbouwraad, Centraal Bestuur. Rapport der 

Commissie tot Bestudeering van bet Pachtwezen. 's Gravenhage, 
1920. No. 7411. 

270,42 Great Britain, Government of. Departmental Committee on Two- 

Shift System. Report on the Employment of Women and 
Young Persons of the Two-Shift System (Cmd. 1037). London, 
1920. No. 7374. 

270,42 Great Britain, Government of. Ministry of Labour. Report of the 

Committee of Inquiry into the Work of the Employment 
Exchanges. London, 1920. No. 7377. 

290,42 Great Britain Boaid of Trade. Department of Overseas Trade. 
London, n.d. No. 7416. 

350 Rhodesia Resources Committee, 1921 (Report). Bulawayo. No. 

7402. 

350,42 Great Britain, Government of. Development Commission. Tenth 
Report of the Development Commissioners for the year ended 
the 31st March, 1920, with a Review of the Work of the Com- 
mission during the past Ten Years. London, 1920. No. 7418. 

380,42 Great Britain, Government of. Profiteering Acts, 1919 and 1920. 

Report on Costings in Government Departments made by the 
Standing Committee on the Investigation of Prices (Cmd., 1047). 
London,^ 1920. No. 7375. 



Recent Agricultural Literature. 287 



AGRICULTURE, LIVE STOCK, AND ALLIED SUBJECTS. 

400 Woll, F. W. A Handbook for Farmers and Dairymen. 6th Revised 

Edition. New York, 1914. No. 7338. 
400 Wrightson, J., and Newsham, J. C. Agriculture, Theoretical and 

Practical. London, 1919. No. 7307. 
400 68 Dowsley, Rev. W. G. Farming for South African Schools. (Book II.) 

Capetown, 1920. No. 6357. 
410 Mead, E. Helping Men Own Farms. New York, 1920. No. 7314. 

430.4,42 Long, James. British Pigs. The Art of Making Them Pay. 

London, 1919. No. 7335. 
430.5 Kendall, Dr. B. J., & Co. A Treatise on the Horse and His Diseases. 

Revised Edition. Claremont, N.H., 1882. No. 7351. 
431,42 Great Britain Government Agricultural Costings Committee (Cmd., 

1028). Interim Report on an Investigation into the Cost of 

Milk Production. London, 1920. No. 7349. 
466 Palmer, T. G. Sugar Beet Seed. History and Development. 1st 

Edition. New York, 1918. No. 7337. 
463,94 McAlpine, D. Handbook of Fungus Diseases of the Potato in 

Australia and their Treatment. Melbourne, 1911. No. 7346. 
467,54 Imperial Institute. Indian Trade Enquiry Reports on Rice. London, 

1920. No. 7305. 
472.70 Budd, J. L., and Hansen, N. E. American Horticultural Manual. 

1st Edition. Parts I and II. New York, 1914, 1911. No. 7339. 

474.70 Clements, F. and E. S. Rocky Mountain Flowers. New York, 1920. 

No. 7334. 

475 Lyle, Wm. Parks and Park Engineering. 1st Edition. New York, 

1916. No. 7336. 

475 Maynard, Samuel. Landscape Gardening as applied to Home Deco- 

ration. 2nd Revised Edition. New York, 1915. No. 7316. 

477 Bryant, R. C. Logging. 1st Edition. New York, 1913. No. 7315. 

477 ChapmaJi, H. A. Forest Valuation. 1st Edition. New York, 1914. 

No. 7319. 

477 Graves, H. S. Forest Mensuration. 1st Edition. New York, 1906. 

No. 7318. 

400.71 Minister of Agriculture. The Province of Quebec and its Agricul- 

tural Possibilities. Quebec, 1919. No. 7401. 
400.4 Widtsoe, J. Western Agriculture. St. Paul, Minn., 1918. No. 

7383. 
410 Balfour, Col. Farmer's Account Book. Leith, n.d. No. 7387. 

410 Grondin, P. Comptabilite Agricole et Domestique pour les 

Cultivateurs. Quebec, 1920. No. 7421. 
412,42 Great Britain, Government of. Agricultural Bill. London, 1919. 

No. 7419. 
412,42 Great Britain, Government of. Agricultural Bill (as amended by 

Standing Committee) (Bill No. 242). London, 1920. No. 7373. 
431 Larson, C. Exercises in Farm Dairying. New York, 1913. No. 

7396. 
465,42 Daniels, G. W. The Earlv P^nglish Cotton Industry. Manchester, 

1920. No. 7394. 
465,54 Indian Cotton Committee, Report of. Calcutta, 1919. No. 7414. 

(Maps and Plans.) Calcutta, 1919. No. 7415. 
Hunger, Dr. F. W. Cocos nucifera. Amsterdam, 1920. No. 7389. 
Rohinson, W. The Vegetable Garden. 3rd Ed. London, 1920. 

No. 7412. 
472,73 Barbedetto, M. F. (President, Finance Commission of Algeria), 

translated by Mr. Mills, Trades Commissioner's Office, London. 

Cultivation and Preparation of Citrus in the United States (also 

a French copy). Algeria, 1918. No. 7405. 
475 Jenkins, E. H. the Rock Garden. London, 1920. No. 7382. 

483 Newell, F. H. Water Resources, Present and Future Uses. New 

Haven, 1920. No. 7399. 
490 i^merican Academy of Political and Social Science. Reducing the 

Cost of Food Distribution. Philadelphia, 1913. No. 7390. 
492,42 Great Britain, Government of. Profiteering Acts, 1919 and 1920. 

Interim Report on Meat, (Cmd., 1057.) London, 1920. No. 

7376. 



469 
471 



28S Journal of the Department op Agriculture. 



SCIENCE (GENERAL), PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY, GEOLOGY, ETC. 

542 Cole, Sydney AV. Practical Physiological Chemistry. 6th Edition. 

Cambridge, 1920. No. 7S(n. 

542 Jones, AValter. Nucleic Acids. Their Chemical Properties and 

Physiological Conduct. (Monographs on Biochemistry.) 2nd 
Edition. London, 1920. No. 7355. 

544.1 Gildemeister, E. The Volatile Oils. Vol. II. 2iid Edition. London, 

1916. No. 7356. 

546. Peters, Ch. The Preparation of Substances important in Agri- 

culture. New York. No. 7312. 

550 Emerson, Fred. V. Agricultural Geology. New York, 1920. No. 

7326. 

540 Roscoe, Sir H. E. Treatise on Chemistry. 5 Parts. London, 

1890-2, 1913, 1920. No. 7367. 

545.23 Simon, Andre. The J31ood of the Grape. (The Wine Trade Text- 

book.) London, 1920. No. 7420. 

BIOLOGY, ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, MEDICINE, ETC. 

620.4 Russell, E. S. Form and Function. London, 1916. No. 7362. 

620.7 East, W., and Jones, J). Inbreeding and Outbreeding. (Monographs 

on Experimental Biology.) Philadelphia, 1919. No. 7311. 

630.41 Ritchie, James. The Influence of Man on Animal Life in vScotland. 

Cambridge, 1920. No. 7321. 

630.6 Medical Reseaich Committee (app. Lister Institute and Medical 

Research Committee). Report on the Present State of Knowledge 

Concerning Accessory Food Factors (Vitamines). Oxford, 1919. 

No. 733^. 
630.6961 Underbill, B. M. Parasites and Parasitosis of the Domestic AniiiiJils. 

New York, 1920. No. 7317. 
635.2,94.5 J^'rench, C. A. Handbook of the Destructive Insects of Victoria. 

Parts I. II. Ill, IV, V. Melbourne, 1904, 1893, 1900, 1909. 

1911. No. 7350. 
654.31 Rideal, S. and E. K. Water Supplies. London, 1914. No. 7340. 

670.42 Moss, C. E. The Cambridge British Flora. Vol. Ill, in 2 parts 

(1 text and 1 plates). Cambridge, 1920. No. 7310. 
671.6,91.4 Merrill, E. D. A Flora of Manila. Manila, 1912. No. 7320. 

620.7 Punnett, R. C. Mendelism. .5th Ed. London, 1919. No. 7407. 
630.1 Pekelharing, C. A. Voordrachten over Weefselleer. 2de DruU. 

Haarlem, 1917. -No. 7408. 
635.3 Balfour-Browne, F. Keys to the Ordcis of Insects. Cambridge, 

1920. No. 7388. 

651.3 Barrowcliff, M., and Carr, F. Organic Medical Chemicals. London, 

1921. No. 7392. 

671 Bose, Sir J. C. Life Movements in Plants. Vol. 1 and 2. Calcutta, 

1918, 1919. No. 7384. 
677 Church. Elementary Notes on the JMorphology of Fungi (Hot. Mem. 

No. 7). London, 1920. No. 7409. 
677,94 McAlpine, D. Systematic Arrangement cf Australian Fungi, 

together with Host-index and List of AVorks on the Subject. 

Melbourne, 1895. No. 7380. 




Cattle Dipping, G-len School of Agnciiltiux 



Aninu rvi. 




^^^^^^, 



ISSUED BY AUTHORITY OF THE 

(VViNiSTER OF Agriculture. 



PRINCIPAL CONTENTS. 



Weeds of South Africa — I. 

Wheat and its Cultivation. 

Export of Cape Wine. 

The South African Honey- Bee. 

Mangoes, Pawpaws, and Avocado Pears. 

The Sweet Potato and its Cultivation along the Southern 
Coast Belt — II. 

Pruning of Deciduous Fruit Trees — III. 




STEWARTS AND LLOYDS (SOUTH AFRICA), LTD, 



TUBES AND FITTINGS. 



P.O. Box 1195. 
JOHANNESBURG. 



P.O. Box 74, 
PRETORIA. 



P.O. Box 131. 
DURBAN. 



P.O. Box 296, 
MARITZBURG. 



AGENTS FOR : 

National Gas Engine Co., 
Gas, Oil, and Petrol 
Engines. 



Eagle Engineering Co., 
Ltd., Petrol Paraffin 
Engines. 



Davey Paxman & Co., 
Steam Engines and 
Boilers. 



Gilbert Gilkes & Co., 
Water Turbines and 
Centrifugal Pumps. 



Mirrlees, Bickerton & 
Day, Diesel Oil Engines. 



IRRIGATION 
AND WATER 
SUPPLY OUR 
SPECIALITY. 



PUMPING PLANTS, 

PIPE LINES 

AND 

POWER UNITS 

OF EVERY 

DESCRIPTION. 



ESTIMATES AMD ADVICE 
FREE OF COST. 



AGENTS FOR : 

John Blake, Ltd., 
Hydraulic Rams. 



Thomas & Sons, 
Windmills and Pumps. 



Bell Bros., Ltd., Filter 
and Water-Softening 
Plants. 



Glenfield & Kennedy, 
Hydraulic Specialities. 



Clydesdale Steel Plates. 



r/c 



CONTENTS. 



APRIL, 1921, 



Page 

Notes ... ... ... ... ... ... 289 

The Minister of Agriculture — The Misuse of Sheep-dip Powder on Grain 
Bags — Wheat and Its Cultivation in the Union — The South African 
Honey- Bee — Wheat : Cost and Economics of Production — A Market 
for Egg-plant Fruit and Avocado Pears — The Potchefstroom Pearl Mealie 
^Weeds of Soutli Africa — New Zealand Hemp or Flax: Possibilities in 
the Union — Farmers' Meeting at Rustenburg — World Prices and Crops — The 
Vegetable Garden and the Poultry Yard — Export of Cape Wine — Maize Stalk 
Borer — Export of Dried Fruit — Fruit Export (page 321) — The Union's Maize 
Industry : Conference at Potchefstroom (page 321) — Marketable Peaches (page 
332) — Wheat : Change of Seed (page 339) — Prices of Agricultural Implements, 
etc. (page 339) — World Crops (page 371) — Private Training of Prospective 
Farmers (page 371) — Citrus Canker: A Warning (page 371) — Fruit-tree 
Nurseries (page 371) — Inspection of Imported Plants (page 374) — Plant 
Nurseries in Quarantine as at 1st March, 1921 (page 379) — Meat Statistics 
(page 382)— Outbreaks of Animal Diseases : February, 1921 (page 384). 

Departmental Activities ... ... ... ... ... ... 301 

Weeds of South Africa — I ... ... ... ... ... ... 315 

Wheat and Its Cultivation ... ... ... ... ... ... 322 

Export op Cape Wine ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 335 

Mangoes, Pawpaws, and Avocado Pears... ... ... ... ... 33S 

The Sweet Potato and its Cultivation along the Southern Coast 

Belt— JI ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 340 

The South African Honet-Bee ... ... ... ... ... ... 353 

Pruning of Deciduous Fruit Trees— III... ... ... ... ... 35» 

The Vegetable Garden ... ... ... ... 372 

The Poultry Yard Month by Month ... ... ... ... ... 373 

Notes from the "Gazette" ... ... ... ... ... ... 375 

Staff : Appointments, Transfers, etc. ... ... ... ... ... 376 

The Weather ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 377 

The Oversea Market ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 37& 

Crop Report ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 379 

Local Market Prices ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 380 

The Local Market ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 381 

Recent Agricultural Literature ... ... ... ... ... 383 



DEPARTMENTAL NOTICES. 



SALE OF PDRE-BKED STOCK. 



An unreserved -sale of pure-hred stock will he held at the School of AgricHlture andE.rperlment 
Stnt'wn. Cedara, on Saturday, 2oth June, 1921. 

Frieslands about 7 Hulls and 4 Cows and Heifers. 

Shorthorns » ^ •' " 1*^' » " " 

Aberdeen-Angus ., ^ Balls. 

Ayrshires ,. -i Cows- and Heifers. 

Also a number of pedigree Large Black and Berkshire Pigs, and pens of pure-bred P.iultry, 
as well as a few individual birds, will be offered. 

All animals sold will be forwarded carriage paid to buyer's nearest railway station. 

For catalogue and further particulars apply to the Piincipal at the above address. - - 

SEED FOR DISPCSAL. 



There is a quantity of the following wheat, barley, and early rye seed 
available for disposal at the School of Agriculture and Experiment btation, 
Potchefstroom. Applications, with remittance, should be forwarded to the 
Principal: — 

^'heat --American No. 8 (a medium late variety of good milling quality 
and resistant to attack bv birds), to be sold in quantities not less than or 
exceeding 1 bag at £2. lOs. ; Comeback, Spring Early, Fourie, Bombay (very 
similar to Klein Korenj. and Lalkasarwali (an early, bearded variety, short- 
strawed. and a very good yielder under irrigation), in quantities not less than 
or exceeding 60 lb , at 18s. 

Early Byp.—ln quantities not exceeding or less than 60 lb., at 12s. 6d. 

BarZey.— Variety, Smyrna (an early, high yielding, six-row barley), in 
quantities not exceeding or less than 50 lb., at 10s. 

AGRICULTURAL SHOW SEASON, 1921. 

List of Agricultural Shows, compiled from details furnished by the Agricultural 
Unions, still to be held. 

CAPE PROVINCE. 
Kingwilliamstown— 27th to 29th April (in- I ^^^st London— 1th and 5th May. 
elusive). I Komgha— 6th and 7th May. 

ORANGE FREE STATE. 
Harrismith — Early ^ pril. 



TRANSVA.AL. 

Standerton-l.Sth and Uth April. I Pretoria-31st May. 1st and 2nd .June. 

Heidelberg— 27th and 28th April. | Barberton -10th June. 

Pietersburg— 24th. 26th. and 27th May. i Rustenburg— 1.5th June. 

NATAL. 
Dundee Agricultural Society (Dundee)— I Newcastle Agricultural Society (Newcastle) 
14th and 1.5th June. | —29th and SOth June. 



Vryheid Agricultural Society (Vryheid) 

7th June. 
Klip River Agricultural Society (Ladysmith) 

—9th and 10th -lune. 
Umvoti Agricultural Society (Greytown) — 

14th and loth June. 
Weenen Agricultural Society (Estcourt) — 

16th and 17th June 



RichnioDd Agricultural Society (Richmond) 
—13th and 14th July. ' 

Victoria County Farmers' Association 
(Stanger)— 12th July. 

Drunk Vle"i Agricultural Society— 19th July. 

Camperdown Agricultural Society (Camper- 
down)— 20th July. 

Ixopo Agricultural Society (Stuartstown) — 



Royal Agricultural Society (Maritzburg)— i 21st July. _ 

21st, 22nd, 23rd, and 24th June. Alexandra County Aericultural Society 

I (Umzinto)— 15th July 




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Journal of the Department 
OF Agriculture. 

Vol. II. APRIL, 1921. No. 4. 



Published monthly in English and Afrikaans by the Department of Agriculture, 

Union of South Africa. 

Editor.- G, W. Klerck. 

Subscription : Within the Union and South-West Protectorate, 5Sm (otherwise 6Sm) 
per annum, ]3ost free, payable in advance. 

Applications, with subscriptions, to be sent to the Government 
Printer, Box 373, Pretoria. 



NOTES. 



THE MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE, 



It is announced (lOtli March, 1921) that the 
Honourable Sir Thomas Smartt, K.C.M.G-., has taken 
over from the Rt. Hon. F. S. Malan the Portfolio of 
Agriculture in the newly-formed Cabinet. 



The Misuse of Sheep-dip Powder on Grain Bags. 

Merchants, traders, farmers, and others concerned are warned of 
the danger attending the use of poisonous compounds in the treat- 
ment of grain bags as a preventive against weevil development or the 
depredations of rats and mice in the stacks and stores. An instance 
has recently come to the notice of the Department. Large consign- 
ments of maij'e arriving at one of the Union's ports for shipment 
oversea were found to contain a great number of bags bearing a yellow 
stain, suggesting the use of a dipping powder apparently for the 
purpose of guarding against weevil infection. On examination it 
was found that the poison had penetrated the bags, and a sample of 
the grain revealed, on analysis, that it contained an appreciable 
amount of arsenic, which precluded its use as a human or animal 
food. 

Apart from the danger to life which this practice entails, it is 
pointed out that, should it become known that powders of a poisonous 
nature are being used on bags, the Union's maize export trade, which 
has attained such a high standard and is so well thought of overseas, 
may be affected. No opportunity should be lost by all whose interests 
are concerned to discourage this practice. 

10 



290 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



Wheat and Its Cultivation in the Union. 

Many articles on the subject of wheat growing in South Africa 
dealing with various problems in connection therewith, have been 
published from time to time, but no complete collection of informa- 
tion has appeared under one cover in the nature, more or less, of a 
text-book for the student and the producer. A bulletin (No. 22) has 
been published, however, by the Department of Agriculture, Victoria, 
entitled "Wheat and Its Cultivation," which covers very fully the 
whole ground of wheat cultivation in Australia, and as the climate 
of Victoria is somewhat similar to that of the main wheat-producing 
area of the Union, the south-western districts of the Cape Province"^ 
much of the information given in the bulletin is directly applicable 
to wheat growing in these districts and of outstanding interest to 
farmers there. It is written by Mr. A. E. V. Richardson, M.A., B.Sc, 
who is well known for valuable contributions on various agricultural 
matters, both from an economic and cultural point of view, and the 
bulletin in question contains a remarkable collection of information, 
treating with detail and interest such subjects as seeding 
operations, methods of cultivation, manurial problems, wheat 
improvement, wheat varieties, seed wheat and its treatment, 
and concluding with a general summary of the essential factors in 
successful wheat cultivation. Indeed the bulletin (which contains 
160 pages, and is obtainable on application to the Department of 
Agriculture, Victoria, Australia) is of so much value to the South 
African wheat grower that a prominent grower in the Caledon 
district, Mr. J. J. de Villiers, of Dunghye Park, has written to this 
office urging the publication in the Journal of extracts from the 
bulletin, and in the course of his letter states: "In my farming 
experience of over twenty years I have not handled a publication of 
greater practical value, to my mind, to the Western Province grain 
farmer than this excellent work." While it is difficult adequately 
to summarize a publication, practically all of which is useful to the 
farmer of this country, Mr. Parish, of this Department, has taken 
certain extracts from it of general applicability to local conditions, 
and has supplemented them by adding certain remarks and informa- 
tion based on South African experience. This is published else- 
where in this issue, and should be of direct benefit at this season to 
wheat growers in the south-western Cape. 



The South African Honey Bee. 

Apiarists will be interested in an article in this issue of the 
Journal by Mr. Skaife, at one time Entomologist at Cedara and now 
Inspector of Technical Education, Cape Province, on the subject of 
the honey bees of South Africa, especially in connection with the 
question of securing colonies of Italian bees or pure-bred Italian 
queens. The question is important in view of the fact that the 
presence of European foui brood is now recognized in South Africa. 
The article discusses the 'races of honey bees occurring in South 
Africa and shows that the pure adansoni race is an excellent one 
ior our conditions, which should be noted by bee-keepers as present 
circumstances preclude the possibility of obtaining pure-bred Italian 
queens. 



Notes. 291 

Wheat: Cost and Economics of Production. 

The Department is anxious to obtain some information relative 
to the cost of production of wheat, and a scheme similar to that now 
in operation with maize has been drawn up, a few farmers in the 
chief wheat-growing* areas being asked to keep records, on prepared 
schedules supplied by the Department, of all costs concerned in the 
production tliis season of a crop of wheat on their farms. 

It is anticipated that the information furnished by the records 
as to the cost of growing and marketing wheat in representative areas 
will benefit not only the wheat industry in general by indicating the 
minimum cost per bag at which the crop can be grown under specified 
conditions, but also to a very great extent the individual farmer, 
by providing detailed information of the costs involved in producing 
wheat, and indicating means of avoiding some portion of this expen- 
diture or of cheapening his methods or otherwise lowering the cost 
of production in succeeding seasons. 

Schedules have now been addressed to some forty farmers in the 
Bredasdorp, Malmesbury, Galedon, Paarl, Cape, Humansdorp, 
Queerstown, Middelburg, Wodehouse, Uniondale, Alexandra, and 
Albert districts of the Cape Province, and to a few farmers in the 
Orange Free State and Transvaal. 

It is proposed that an officer from the School of Agriculture serving 
the area concerned, will visit each farmer participating in the scheme 
at the beginning of the coming season, in order to explain the method 
of entering up the labour record sheets and any difficulties that may 
arise; and at the end of the season, probably November or December, 
it is hoped that the officer in charge of the investigation, Mr. E. 
Parish, Technical Assistant, will be able to make a final visit to each 
farmer in order to collect the information recorded, and work out the 
cost of production. 

Farmers interested in the scheme are invited to apply for further 
particulars, and to submit figures they may possess relative to the 
cost of producing wheat. 



A Market for Egg-plant Fruit and Avocado Pears. 

The egg-plant fruit (Solanum exculentuni) grows readily and to 
perfection in many parts of the Union, and as there is a considerable 
demand for it, the Department is anxious to test the overseas market 
which, once established, should prove a very lucrative outlet for 
growers of the fruit. It is intended, therefore, to send some trial 
shipments oversea during the coining season, and the Chief, Division 
of Horticulture, Pretoria, is anxious to get in touch with growers of 
the fruit for the purpose of obtaining and making arrangements for 
the packing and shipping thereof of some first-class samples. With 
the same purpose in view, it is intended also to send a few shipments 
of avocado pears. Growers of either or both of these fruits are 
requested, therefore, kindly to communicate with the above officer, 
so that the required supply may be obtained, and bearing in mind 
the benefits to growers which will follow the establishment of a 
regular overseas market, it is trusted that this request will meet with 
a ready response. 

For the benefit of growers, it may be added that the varieties of 
egg-plant fruit recommended by this Department are (purple) New 
York Purple, Black Pekin, New York Spineless, and (white) Long 
White. 



292 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

The Potchefstroom Pearl Mealie. 

The variety of maize now well known as the '* Potchefstroom 
Pearl," is growing in popularity and each year sees an increasing 
demand for the seed. It has been found suitable to a wide range of 
soils and is now grown in most districts of the Transvaal, in the 
moist, low country as well as in the drier parts. In the course of its 
supervision of the trials with this variety carried out by farmers, 
the Potchefstroom School of Agriculture has received reports show- 
ing that on a large number of farms the average jaeld has ranged 
between 10 and 12 bags per acre, while in some instances yields of 
from 15 to 25 bags per acre have been obtained. 

In view, therefore, of the favour it is finding with maize growers, 
it is interesting to learn from Mr. Sellschop, Assistant Experimen- 
talist at the school, that the Potchefstroom Pearl has been developed 
from a single ear — which may be regarded as a sport — selected in 
1909 at the Potchefstroom School of Agriculture from a plot of the 
Champion White Pearl, a rough medium-early variety introduced 
from the United States. The progenj^ of this single ear was care- 
fully observed each year, and selections continued to be made, until 
in 1913 a field crop was grown. After this date it appeared on the 
market as the Potchefstroom Pearl. The aim kept in view when the 
annual selectio'.is were made was the production of a variety of white 
maize possessing the following features : — 

(a) Quality equal to that of the Hickory King for export 

purposes., 
(6) A smaller proportion of waste for milling purposes than 

Hickory King, 
(c) A good cropper during normal and droughty seasons with 
better resistance to drought than Hickory King. 

During the experimental stages this variety was considered a 
medium early, but it is now classed as a medium to late, and ripens 
in from 145 to 150 days, according to the season, and usually is 
earlier than Hickory King. It is robust and vigorous, and reaches a 
height normally of about 7 feet 6 inches. 

The ears have twelve rows which are very regular. The 
length is 9 inches, the circumference at butt 7 to 1\ inches and the 
tip 6 to Q\ inches. The butts and tips are well covered with grain. 
The ear is cylindrical and compact with narrow sulci ; show ears 
generally weigh from 14 to 15 ounces. 

The grain is broad, flat, and thicker than Hickory King. 
It is a little longer than broad, and should show good width. It is 
slightly wedge-shaped and is crease-dented. The grain may show 
wrinkles in the crease, but should not be rough. The colour is 
pearl white; the bushel weight averages 64 lb. 

As shown by recent milling tests, it makes meal of the first 
quality. A prominent miller who kindly carried out the tests reported 
as follows : — 

" This maize grinds well, producing an excellent granulated 

meal with good flavour and suitable for table use. The meal 

yielded 54 per cent, flour of good colour and fine even grain. 

" The contents of the seed do not appear to be of so horny a 

nature as m some white flat varieties and therefore more friable." 

The effort to produce a maize with the characteristics kept in 
view appears to have been attended with gratifying success. 



Notes. - 293 

Weeds of South Africa. 

Like other countries, South Africa has awakened to the menace 
which the occurrence of noxious weeds presents, and the problem of 
their control and eradication is receiving close attention. During 
the past ten years the appearance and spread of harmful weeds have 
alarmingly increased, and correspondingly there is the growing danger 
to our pasturage and wool and other agricultural pursuits which the 
unchecked presence of these weeds engenders. Recognizing that every 
farmer of South Africa should be acquainted with the nature of the 
weeds likely to be found on his farm so as to be able to distinguish 
them and cope with the danger, this Department has published from 
time 10 time articles on certain of these plants. But the problem is 
becoming increasingly serious and the time has arrived for publishing 
all available information on the subject of our noxious weeds, and to 
gather it into one publication which will be of use to the farmer, 
the student, and the general public. This work has now been under- 
taken by Miss X. A. Lansdell, of the Division of Botany, and the 
opening contribution to the series, the first publication of its kind in 
South Africa, appears in this issue of the Journal. The work will 
appear in instalments in the Journal and eventually be issued under 
one cover in bulletin form. 

The author has compiled an illustrated glossary of tlie terms used 
in describing the weeds and has drawn all examples from the weeds 
found in this country. For some time past Miss Lansdell has been 
studying the life-history of local weeds from the germination of the 
seed to the adult plant, a phase of the subject which has hitherto 
received little or no attention in South Africa. The publication of 
this information, therefore, will be of great interest and value to 
farmers, and in placing it before them we would ask for the co-opera- 
tion of all in assisting to complete our knowledge of South Africa's 
noxious weeds by sending, O.H.M.S., to the Chief, Division of Botany, 
Pretoria, specimens of suspected weeds with full particulars regard- 
ing them, as in this manner much valuable knowledge will be obtained 
and serve to add to our information on this very important subject. 



New Zealand Hemp or Flax : Possibilities in the Union. 

Mr. W. G. Mason, Director of Training Farms, who has recently 
returned from St. Helena, visited by him for the purpose of advising 
the Imperial Government on the agricultural potentialities of the 
island, is impressed with the success obtained there by cultivators of 
hemp, which has proved a highly remunerative enterprise. He is 
convinced that the same success awaits the cultivator in the IJnion . 
in those parts where climatic and economic conditions are suitable, 
particularly throughout the whole coastal area. The prospect appears 
bright for New Zealand hemp, with its high yield of fibre as compared 
with other varieties (a most important and, indeed, deciding factor 
in the proposition), which can be cultivated in a part of the country 
where land at present of little agricultural value is available. The 
introduction of the crop, moreover, in parts such as Knysna, where 
the poor- white problem is serious, would create a demand for labour 



294 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

at the mills, while the establishment of a number of subsidiary 
industries would in all probability follow. The cultivation of hemp 
does not call for hig'hly specialized agricultural skill, and the capital 
involved both in culture and manufacture is comparatively small. 

Mr. Mason considers, therefore, that New Zealand flax {Phormiunn 
tenax) is a fibre plant worthy of consideration as a possible addition 
to the agricultural activities of the Union, and offers the following 
comments for the information of all who may be interested in. and 
desirous of considering, what seems a good proposition. 

In the Journal of Industries for February, 1919, a report appears 
by Mr. E. Holmes-Smith, B.Sc, on investigations into fibre plants, 
and PhormiuTn is one of the crops which the author recommends 
should be encouraged and extended as far as possible. He also states 
that, generally speaking, the whole coastal area passed through from 
the Transkei to Mossel Bay offers great possibilities for the develop- 
ment of fibre-growing and fibre industries. 

The fibre of New Zealand flax flnds a regular market, and is being 
commercially produced in that country, also in California, St. Helena, 
a'nd the Azores. It is mainly used in the manufacture of binder 
twine, rope, string, and coarse mats, whilst some of the finest samples 
are woven into cloth. In the United States it is mixed with plaster 
to form a fibrous material used for the walls of sheds and other similar 
buildings. The tow, which is the refuse from the scutching and 
hackling processes, is used for upholstering work and can also be used 
in the manufacture of oakum. The plant is found growing almost 
wild at many places in the coastal regions stretching from Ixopo in 
Natal to Capetown. The climatic conditions required for its growth 
are an equable cKmate, plenty of sunshine, a reasonable rainfall, and 
at a distance not too far removed from the sea. 

It will grow in almost any soil, but succeeds best in light soils by 
the sides of rivers and brooks protected from the wind : it should 
not be planted in swamps unless they have been previously drained. 
It does not thrive under shade, and should only be planted in 
localities free or almost free from frost. The climate and soil condi- 
tions around Plettenberg Bay, Knysna, and George seem all that 
could be desired for its growth. 

In these districts the plant is growing wild and without a doubt 
could be cultivated on an extensive scale with every prospect of 
success. Propagation can be effected by means of seed or by the 
division of the roots of established plants. The latter is the method 
most commonly employed, as the growth from seed is said not to 
be uniform. The usual plan is to plant out the suckers at 5 feet apart 
between the rows and 2 feet in the rows. On good soil the latter 
distance might with advantage be extended to 3 feet. 

No cultivation is given beyond keeping down the more prolific 
weeds : protection against fire must be provided. Should the land 
become exhausted, manuring must be resorted to, and this may be 
done by returning to the land the refuse from the mill. 

The crop is cut once every third year, and a fair average return 
may be taken at about 20 tons to the acre, though under exceptionally 
favourable conditions more than twice this return can be obtained. 

The cost of production varies according to locality and conditions. 



Notes. 295 

The initial expenses are the price of the land, the establishing of the 
crop, and a small charge for attention during the first three years. 

In St. Helena the price paid to the farmer by the mills for flax 
is calculated at 5 per cent, on the London market price of fibre. If 
fibre is selling at £30 per ton, the grower would receive 30s. per ton 
for his flax, delivered at the mill, and the arrangement appears to 
be a satisfactory one. The pre-war price of fibre varies between £20 
and £40, but was usually between £24 and £32 per ton. The latest 
average market prices have been in 1917, £81. 9s. per ton; in 1918, 
£91. 17s. ; in 1919, £48. 15s. ; in 1920, £47. 

It would be useless for any one to attempt to grow PhorTtiium 
unless milling facilities were obtainable. The mill requires to be 
as near the plantation as possible in order to reduce the cost of 
transport to a minimum ; it must have a good water supply for the 
washing process. A suitable piece of ground is required adjacent to 
the mill on which the fibre can be bleached and a cheap supply of 
fuel is desirable. The chief machinery required is a 30-40 horse- 
power engine, a stripper, a scutching and hackling machine, and 
a hydraulic press. The cost of the building and plant may be 
gauged from the provision made by the Imperial Government in St. 
Helena of £3500 for the establishment of their mill. 

The leaves of the flax are first weighed and sorted into sizes, 
and are then fed to a machine called the stripper at the rate of 100 to 
120 per minute. The drums of the stripper are driven at from 1000 to 
2000 revolutions per minute. After passing through this machine, 
the partially cleaned fibre is hand-washed in hanks of about 20 leaves, 
and the bundles are suspended in water for about 2 hours. The fibre 
is then carted to the fields, where it is spread out for bleaching for a 
time, which varies according to the weather. In wet periods it is 
hung on lines to prevent it from becoming discoloured. After bleach- 
ing it is brought back to the mill, where it is scutched and hackled 
and then put up into bales for export. 

The quality of the fibre depends upon the green leaf being in a 
proper condition and upon the care with which the various operations 
are performed. 

The milling costs include the ordinary running expenses of the 
engine and mill, and if two strippers are employed from 25 to 30 
hands are required. 

With two strippers 8 to 10 tons of flax can be handled per day, 
and will produce about 1 ton of fibre and ^ ton of tow. 

To keep such a plant fully employed, about 600 acres would need 
to be under the crop, a third of which would be cut each year. 

Most fibre ventures in the Union have failed on account of the 
heavy transport charges which have been involved, and in this respect 
New Zealand flax has a distinct advantage over either sisal or 
Mauritius hemp. 

The amount of green leaf required to produce a ton of fibre is 
stated by different authorities at from 5^ to 8 tons, whereas with 
Mauritius hemp from 40 to 50 tons have to be transported and milled 
in order to give the same weight. Sisal yields 3 per cent, of fibre, 
Mauritius hemp 2| per cent., whilst New Zealand flax gives at least 
14 per cent. 



296 Journal op the Department of Agriculture. 



Farmers' Meeting at Rustenburg. 

Organized by the Division of Tobacco and Cotton, gratifying 
success met tbe demonstration held at tbe Government Tobacco and 
Cotton Experiment Station at Rustenbnrg, Transvaal, on the 24th 
Febrnary last, when over one hundred and fifty farmers, some 
coming from parts 75 miles awaj^ in the bush veld, and a number of 
other visitors, including a few from Johannesburg, availed themselves 
of the invitation of the Department to attend a series of short lectures 
and of demonstrations on the classes of farming carried on in the 
district. Rustenburg is the largest tobacco and cotton growing 
district in the Union, producing last year about four million pounds 
weight of tobacco and three hundred thousand of cotton lint, and 
these two crops received special attention. It is likewise foremost in 
the production of citrus fruit, and this subject was also dealt with in 
particular. 

Mr. Du Toit, Secretary for Agriculture (having as chairman 
Mr. G. Otterman, one of the directors of the Magaliesberg Tabak 
Planters' Yereeniging, Rustenburg) addressed the visitors on certain 
broad principles of agricultural policy and enterprise. He was 
accompanied by the Under-Secretary, Mr. G. N. Williams, while Mr. 
Lounsburj^ Chief of the Division of Entomology, attended for the 
purpose of giving general information on the work of his division, 
which forms such an important part of the Department. Mr. 
Scherffius, Chief of the Division of Tobacco and Cotton, assisted by 
Mr. Oosthuisen, the manager of the experiment station, and Mr. 
Tribolet, Chief of the Division of Horticulture, were the principal 
speakers on the particular cultures with which they are concerned 
and which are practised so extensively in the district. 

The visitors were entertained at the experiment station, and 
were shown round by Mr. Oosthuisen, who explained the nature of the 
work being carried out and the varieties of crops growing there. This 
ocular evidence, with the presence of several of the Department's 
officials and the advice they were able to give, added to the lessons 
of the day. Much good is expected to result, and there is no doubt 
that the Department's action was fully appreciated by all who were 
present. 



World Prices and Crops. 

Hastened in a great measure by the upheaval of normal trade 
movements and the disturbance of economic laws caused by the war, 
there is a healthy spirit of inquiry in the farming community regard- 
ing the marketing of produce. The farmer recognizes the necessity 
of being well acquainted with the prices ruling for his products, not 
only on the local market, but oversea as well. In the latter respect 
the information hitherto available has been most meagre, a dis- 
advantage accentuated in a country of distant reaches remote from 
sources of information, so that such intelligence as has in the past 
been available^ is frequently belated when it reaches the farmer, and 
the world prices, which largely affect the local prices of his produce, 
may have materially altered. To be of the greatest A^alue, market 



Notes. 297 

intelligence must, of course, be up to date, and it is not possible in 
a monthly publication of the nature of the Journal to place before 
the farming community the latest market rates. The publication in 
the Journal of the best available market information serves, however, 
a useful purpose, besides being valuable as a record of the trend of the 
market, and will therefore be continued, but, in addition, the Depart- 
ment has arranged, with the co-operation of the Press, to publish 
weekly throughout the Union cabled information from the Trade Com- 
missioner, London, regarding the prevailing prices of the Union's 
principal agricultural products on the oversea market, together with 
those obtaining for the products of other countries of interest 
to the South African producer. "While the London market remains 
the chief index of the trend of world prices, information will also be 
given from time to time of the rates ruling on certain continental 
markets. This intelligence will enable the local producer to gauge 
the state of the oversea market and its relation to the prices to be 
obtained on his home market, and we trust that every farmer will 
avail himself of the opportunity thus afforded of being acquainted 
with the position. 

In order further to assist the farmer in taking an intelligent 
interest in the production of crops outside the Union, the Department 
has arranged with the International Institute for Agriculture, Rome, 
which is supported by and obtains advice from most of the civilized 
countries of the world, to furnish a monthly cablegram show- 
ing the latest information on the world's estimated production 
of certain crops which are grown in this country. The figures of 
the estimated production are based on reports received from pro- 
ducing countries at the time the cablegram is dispatched, and in 
order to accurately gauge their significance, the advice will include 
also the estimated percentage of such production to the total world's 
production. In addition, a comparison will be made between the 
present crop and the crop of the previous season, and also the average 
crop of the prior five seasons. The first cablegram received was 
published in last month's Journal, and while at the time of writing 
the. next has not arrived, it is hoped that the Institute will be able 
to furnish the information at such dates as will enable it to be 
published regularly every month in the Journal. 



The Vegetable Garden and the Poultry Yard. 

We conclude with this issue a series of monthly notes, published 
regularly during the twelve months now ended, giving practical 
hints on the cultivation of the farm vegetable garden and the care of 
poultry throughout the year. The seasonable advice contained in 
these notes should prove useful to the farmer wishing to have a 
constant supply of fresh vegetables and to ensure the best results 
from his poultry, branches of the farming system frequently 
neglected, but which well repay the care they call for. The monthly 
publication of these notes will be continued, and further information 
which may be desired will be furnished on application to the nearest 
School of Agriculture 



298 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

Export of Cape Wine. 

Mr. Cuthbert Buigoyne, member of the well-known London firm 
of P. B. Burgcyne & Co., which has played such a prominent part 
in creating an export trade in Australian wine, recently visited 
South Africa in connection with our viticultural industry and the 
possibilities of finding a market overseas for our wine. He has been 
in touch with many of our leading wine farmers, and has placed 
before them his views on our wines and the widening of our very 
limited markec. We are indebted to him for kindly supplying us 
with a copy of the notes of an address given by him, during his visit, 
to a representative body of South African viticulturists, and which 
we publish in this issue. Mr. Burgoyne's statements are valuable in 
being an expression of opinion of a large distributor of wine, and 
demand the careful attention of all concerned in an industry which 
can be of great worth to the country and which calls for the vitalizing 
stimulus of an expanded market. 

In this connection it is interesting to read the Jurors' Report 
on the Colonial Wine Competition of the Brewers' Exhibition held in 
London towards the close of last year (when South African wines 
secured eleven first, five second, and two third prizes), which states, 
inter alia, that " there were quite a number of rich, sweet wines with 
distinctive styles, some very pleasing, but those that found the most 
favour were the samples with not too much colour." The report 
continues : " Although not generally known on this market, there is 
no reason why a demand could not be created. The Cabernet and 
Hermitage were of good quality, and the red fuller wines, more 
resembling Burgundies, were sound and useful, but in some cases 
might have been older. The best specimens were in the lighter white 
wines of the type used mostly at meals, the Drakenstein and Reisling 
showing very well." Thus, while Mr. Burgoyne was advocating in 
South Africa the reed and good prospects of finding an extended 
market in the United Kingdom, South African wines were meeting 
with conspicuous success in an oversea competition, evoking from the 
judges a favourable comment regarding the possibilities of certain of 
our wines securing a footing on the oversea market. 



Maize Stalk Borer. 

Maize can be grown in the Union under a wide range of varying 
conditions, and being easy of preservation as a food both for man and 
beast, and having great industrial possibilities, is the most important 
of the cultivated crops of South Africa. Of all the pests with which 
growing maize has to contend in South Africa, the stalk borer is the 
most formidable. Almost entirely unknown in some seasons, it 
assumes serious proportions in others, destroying 50 per cent, or more 
of the plants — and in parts as much as 75 per cent. — while in addition 
the mature grain is reduced in weight. The subject has for many 
years received the attention of Mr. C.W. Mally, Senior Entomologist, 
Capetown, and we now have the great benefit of his investigations in 
a work entitled "The Maize Stalk Borer," to be published by this 
Department as Bulletin No. 3, 1920.* Mr. Mally has dealt with the 
subject from a scientific, practical, and an economic standpoint, the 

* Obtainable on application to this office, price Is. 6d. prepaid. 



Notes. 299 

result being- a valuable, comprehensive exposition wliicli is likely to 
became a standard work in South Africa, and indeed in all maize- 
growing" countries of the world. The subject has been treated so 
exhaustively that it is not possible adequately to summarize the 
contents of the publication. Moreover, it is of so much value that 
it should be in the hands of every maize grower of South Africa, for 
anything that is intimately concerned in an increase or decrease of 
yield per acre in the Union's chief crop is of national importance and 
calls for careful attention. The loss inflicted by the stalk borer is 
estimated by Mr. Mally to be well over half a million pounds sterling 
annually, and is, in effect, an indirect tax levied on the public. 
Eliminate the loss and the saving effected would in two years cover 
the cost of the elevators for handling the grain crops of the country. 
Complaints continue to be received from farmers that their lands 
have been devastated to siich an extent by the stalk borer and other 
pests that they had to be ploughed and sown two, and even three, 
times. Happily we have means of overcoming the pest, and 
Mr. Mally gives a clear account of the control and remedial measures 
to be employed in doing so. Briefly, the control measures are divided 
into the following five groups, each one of which is complete in itself 
and, under some circumstances, adequate for the suppression of the 
insect : — 

1. X^proot over-wintered stubbles and stumps and burn them 
together with any remnants of the stalks before moths emerge there- 
from in spring. The farmer is then free to plant and to harvest as he 
pleases. 

2. Plant trap maize early and sow main crop late. Destroy 
traps immediately the first pupae are formed, about 10th December. 
Unless destroyed, traps do more harm than good. Trap maize should 
be used as a supplementary measure rather than as a control measure. 

3. The young larvae in the top of the plant can be poisoned or 
crushed. Repeated applications may be necessary. 

4. Make the most complete use possible of the crop by preserving 
it as grain, fodder, and silage, and thereby avoid waste in the form 
of pest-harbouring remnants. The burning of remnants will then be 
necessary only as a " finishing touch " where a certain amount of 
waste is unavoidable. 

5. On some farms it may be an advantage to plant the silage 
maize early so that it will serve as a huge trap to protect maize 
planted as late as possible for grain. 

Each maize farmer must, however, decide for himself which line 
of action is best suited to his conditions and to what extent there 
should be a combination of the above measures. We trust, therefore, 
that farmers will obtain and study Mr. Mally's very valuable article 
and carry out the advice he tenders, when a marked diminution in 
the great losses caused by the maize stalk borer will speedily follow. 



Export of Dried Fruit. 

South Africa with its comparatively small population depends 
largely on the oversea market for the sale of its products and the 
consequent expansion of its agricultural industries. Therefore the 
requirements of that market must carefully be studied and every 
endeavour made to supply an article according to the tastes, and 
sometimes the idiosvncrasies, of the consumer catered for. It is well 



300 Journal of the Department op Agriculture. 



known how conditions prevailing as a result of the war have helped 
this country to open up a market oversea for its dried fruit, as well 
as for other products for which formerly no market there existed. 
But with the opportunities which thus arose of finding a wider outlet 
for our produce and building up a much-needed oversea trade, there 
have arisen also obstacles in the way to success through the action of 
exporters sending forward inferior goods. We refer in particular 
to the criticism which has recently been levelled by oversea and local 
merchants at the poor quality of raisin produced in the Union and 
placed on the London market. Prior to decontrol, the Imperial 
Government paid the same price for all raisins, irrespective of quality 
or package. Since the removal of control, however, the South 
African raisin has commanded a smaller price than the product of 
other countries, and the demand for it has seriously fallen off, the 
principal cause lying in the failure to pack or grade the article with 
sufficient care. Many complaints have been made in this respect, 
and the oversea sale is seriously affected, the consequence of failure 
to study the requirements of the market. During the war, when 
supplies were short, the market was content to take anything provided 
it was sound, irrespective of how it was graded, but now that trade 
has reverted more or less to the ordinary competitive system, the need 
is urgent for the marketing of our produce in the most attractive 
manner and in conformity with the wishes of the market we wish to 
secure. Other exporters, indeed, who recognized this in the past are 
awake to the necessity of even greater care than previously in pre- 
senting their articles for sale; Valencia packers are now doing this, 
with the result that their goods are eagerly sought after by retailers, 
while the sale of Cape raisins languishes. And it is expected that 
there will be a heavy production of raisins this season, and producers, 
merchants, and others concerned in the raisin trade have strongly 
represented the urgent need for a change of methods to save the situa- 
tion on the London market. 

With a view, therefore, to fostering the trade in South African 
dried fruit, the Department convened a conference of fruit 
growers and others concerned, for the purpose of discussing the 
question of inspection, grading, etc., of dried fruits for export, and 
considering the regulations proposed to be issued in this connection. 

The conference took place in Capetown on the 4th March, 1921, 
and was most representative. Mr. Du Toit, Secretary for Agricul- 
ture, was in the chair, and m his opening address outlined the present 
position of the trade and the need for its proper control. Mr. H. E. Y. 
Pickstone moved and Mr. Heatlie, M.L.A., seconded: "That this 
meeting of delegates, interested in the export of dried fruit, is 
unanimously in favour of the same being placed under Government 
supervision, and under such regulations as may be decided upon 
later." 

The conference then proceeded to deal with the various clauses 
of the draft regulations, drawn up by the Department, copies of which 
had previously been sent to producers interested in the industry. 
The matter was fully and freely discussed, and it is certain that the 
regulations finally adopted, details of which will duly appear in the 
Journal, will be the means of securing for South African dried fruit 
the same excellent name on the oversea market that our inspected 
produce now enjoys. 



Departmental Activities. 301 



DEPARTMENTAL ACTIVITIES 



February, 1921. 

(Note. — The work of the several Divisions and Schools of Agriculture covers a vi'ide 
range of agricultural industry in the Union, and we give hereunder notes and observations 
from certain of them treating with matters of special interest coming under their purview 
during the month. The object of these notes, which are not concerned with general routine 
work, is to inform the farmer of such matters as are calculated to be of interest and helpful 
to him at the present time. — Editor.; 

THE DIVISIONS. 



ENTOMOLOGY. 



The Sheep Blow- fly. — One of the principal stock problems in 
Australia of recent years has been the control of the sheep blow-fly. 
The losses from this pest have been enormous. Unfortunately, it is 
not altogether unknown in South Africa, and several correspondents 
of the Division of Entomology have suggested that the trouble is 
upon the increase. The Division has been in communication with the 
Queensland authorities with a view to ascertaining the progress in 
the investigations in hand there, and, as a result, has been favoured 
with the following suggestions for the solving of the problem, made 
by the Queensland Special Blow-fly Committee of the Commonwealth 
Institute of Science and Industry. 

The jetting of sheep mentioned is accomplished with a high- 
pressure spray pump delivering a solid jet of fluid. The poisonous 
dip referred to is believed to be one well known on the South African 
market, but here we would use five pounds of arsenite of soda in 
place of the arsenic and carbonate of soda recommended. 

" These suggestions are the outcome of seven years' investigations .... The problem is 
a very complex one. It has been found, for instance, that out of somewhere about forty-nine 
specifics used as preventives most were laseless, some fairly efEective, and several effective 
for a longer or shorter period. It has been found, too, that sometimes a specific has been found 
effective in one season and useless in another. 

"Sick or wormy sheep are more susceptible to blowfly attack thanlhealthy animals. It is 
wise, therefore, to keep the flock healthy. In the case of wormy sheep, they may be drenched 
two or three times, with an interval of seven days, with arsenic and cpsom salts. 

"Segregation of flyblown sheep should be always carried out. It is found that 'once 
struck, always in danger' applies most certainly even in a moderately mild attack. We 
consider that stricken sheep should be drafted off from sound sheep at the beguming of the 
fly season. 

"It has been estimated that even one dead sheep at watering places, camping grounds, 
etc., will breed as many as 10,000 maggots, and is consequently quite sufficient to stock a 
large paddock with flies within a month or six weeks. Therefore, where practicable, all 
carcasses should be destroyed at such places as sheep congregate. 

" The Orion Downs method of jetting a poisonous solution into the breech of the sheep 
has been found very effective up to two and a half to three months. This was proved at 
Gindie, where the Orion Downs formula of four packets of poisonous dip to 100 gallons of 
water was used. But it was evident that the sulphur was in excess in that proportion of 
dip, and as it appeared to us that it was the arsenical content of the various dips which was 
the chief factor in poisoning the wool, it was decided to use only one-fourth quantity of the 
Orion Downs formula to 100 gallons of water, sttpplemented by the addition of 4 lb. of 
arsenic dissolved by 8 lb. of carbonate of soda, boiled for three-quarters of an hour in a 
sufficient amount of water, say 5 gallons. This formula was used at Dalmally in April, 1920, 
in the form of a jet at 100 lb. pressure. Not one sheep in about 3000 ewes was struck until 
July, the flies laeing very active everywhere, thus putting the ewes over lambing without 



302 Journal op the Department op Agriculture. 

any trouble. Mr. Linton, of Mount Abundance, bad a similar experience with 12,000 full- 
wooUed hoggets. He despaired of getting bis sheep shorn without serious losses. He wrote 
Dalmally, and Mr. Russell gave him the formula as above. He had only three sheep struck 
in isix weeks. Other cases are known to this Committee quite as convincing, so we say 
positively — the use of the above method will save serious losses if applied in time, and it 
may be repeated at intervals of, say, two and a half months without injury to fleece or health 
of sheep. The cost, labour included, runs to about one farthing per head. One gallon will 
jet about eight sheep if carefully used. We believe that the cleansing effect of a strong jet 
is a big factor in the protection given. 

"This method of jetting at the above strength only protects the breech of the sheep. 
The Committee knows from experience that dipping in a poisonous solution will give a 
certain amount of piotection. It was found in the Gindie experiments that three dippings 
at intervals of three months minimized fly attack. The Committee is experimenting with 
dips, with the object of protecting the whole body of the animal as has been accomplished 
by jetting for the breech. To that end Mr. W. A. Russell, of Dalmally, has erected a shower 
dip and 50-ft. swim dip to try and discover some method which will protect the animal from 
the fly without injuring the health or the fleece. 

"Many dressings for flyblown sheep have been tried out and found in the great majority 
of cases useless. None of the naphthalene or carbolic preparations has been found of any 
use. The Committee regrets that at present it is prohibited from publishing the results and 
names of the dressings tried. Very few have been found effective, and it is hoped that in the 
near future permission will be obtained for publishing the names of these di-essings, as the 
Committee realizes that much money and time are being wasted by sheep-owners in using 
dressings already known to this Committee to be useless. This is the worst season for fly 
this Committee has known. 

"A cheap and effective dressing for lambs' tails has come under our notice. We have 
not tried it out yet, but many practical men are using it successfully. It is as follows : — 
15 lb. of fat, beef or mutton ; 
IJ pints of paraffin oil. Mixed together. 
To be warmed before using on the purse and tail of marked lambs." 

Tipwilters. — These large, long-legged dark brown plant-bugs 
{Holopternu valga) have, as usual, been much in evidence this summer, 
and many garden-flowers have suffered from their attack. They are 
very familiar creatures, and the name " Tipwilter " well describes 
them. In the veld they have been noticed on small yellow flowering 
composites, and in the garden they have been numerous on dahlias 
and sunflowers, the latter seeming to be a preferred food-plant. 

There is no other way of dealing with this evil-smelling creature 
than that of collecting and destroying as many as possible. It may 
be a bit discouraging at first, but a good deal of annoyance can be 
avoided if the insects are regularly destroyed. The simplest means 
to this end is a tin can with water and paraffin oil in it or some 
carbolic disinfectant. The bugs can be knocked into the can from 
the plant, and this is of easy accomplishment if done early in the 
morning whilst the creatures are sluggish. 

Fruit-fiy. — Upon the whole, the summer fruits in the Pretoria 
District have escaped destruction by fruit-fly, but early in February 
the inroads of the pest on yellow peaches became very marked in 
some gardens. In one, where all the stone fruits were destroyed last 
summer only the yellow peaches have been attacked this year, the 
damage running to very nearly 100 per cent, of the fruits. This 
instance seems to show how enormously this insect may breed up in 
a few months, even after it has had a decided set-back. It will be 
remembered that in Pretoria the damage was very great last summer; 
it started early and continued to be severe all through. This is 
attributed to the mildness of the preceding winter (1919), whilst the 
relative freedom of attack during the earlier part of this summer 
seems due to the frosts of the 1920 winter. 



Departmental activities. 303 

Tomato Erinose. — This is a disease of the tomato plant often 
mistaken for an attack of mildew. In bad cases of attack the stems 
and leaves, and even parts of the green fruits, become covered with 
white patches, and before long the plant is seen to be thoroughly 
diseased and collapses more or less rapidly. The mildewed-like 
appearance is due to abnormal growth of plant hairs, and this again 
is due to the presence of a multitude of minute mites, which shelter in 
the protection of the hairs and can only be detected with a microscope. 
Tomato erinose usually starts in a small way as whitish patches on 
the main stems, but, as the mites breed with great rapidity, it does 
not take long for them to spread over the greater part of the plant, 
carrying destruction with them. Badly diseased plants may not die 
outright, but linger on in a withered, useless condition for quite 
a while. 

This seems to be a summer trouble and to be more in evidence 
from the middle of summer onwards. It is reasonably supposed to be 
the main cause leading to the failure of summer crops of tomatoes in 
some parts where winter crops are quite successfully grown. 

It has not yet been found possible to conduct experiments for its 
control, but the application of nicotine extract or greatly diluted lime 
sulphur, in the early stages of the disease, may arrest its progress. 

Potato-stem Borer. — -A new pest in the shape of a potato-stem 
borer from Lyndhurst, near Johannesburg, has recently come under 
notice. This is the larva of a moth (Euzophera villora) which bores 
in the stems and tubers, riddling them with galleries. It belongs to 
a genus with several species of a harmful nature. One (E. osseatella) 
has been reported as a potato-stem borer in Egypt; a second {E, 
aglaeella) as a borer and girdler of walnuts in the United States ; a 
third {E. semiftimeralis) as a borer in plums in the United States 
and Canada. 

Borer in Wheat. — When at Selborne, Sundays River Valley, 
in November last. Entomologist Gunn found a considerable 
amount of damage being done to wheat by a moth larva somewhat 
like the maize-stalk borer, but smaller. The borers were in different 
stages of development and located in the internodes. All the infested 
plants were found to ripen prematurely, but the grain, although 
yellow, remained quite soft. Similar borers were also found in 
barley and oats. The moths bred at Port Elizabeth from these borers 
have been identified as Sesamia calamistris, Hmpsn. This insect is 
believed by Senior Entomologist Mally to be the same as that observed 
by him throughout the coast-belt, especially at Alexandria, 1908. It 
has been reported as attacking maize in Zanzibar and Southern 
Nigeria. 

Tobacco Slug at Middelhurg, Transvaal. — The tobacco slug 
{Lema hilineata) has already been the subject of several notices in 
the Journal. Its presence at Middelburg, Transvaal, is now to be 
recorded. Writing to the Division under date of the 20th January, 
1920, Mr. L. Watermeyer stated he had that day seen for the first 
time at his farm, Hammarkop, insects on his tobacco plants which he 
took to be the same as those described in the Journal for January. 
Later, Mr. Watermeyer was good enough to send the Division 
specimens confirming his observation. 



30-1 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

Locusts. — The indications at present (2nd March) are that next 
spring there will be extensive outbreaks of voetgangers in many of the 
Karroo districts. Farmers are urged to be keenly on the watch for 
evidence of egg-laying and to report observations without delay to the 
magistrate of the district. The outbreaks of voetgangers in Graaff-Reinet 
and the neighbouring districts southwards have now nearly subsided. 
About 1500 swarms are reported to have been destroyed in Graaff- 
Eeinet district alone. As narrated in previous notes, a close approach 
to eradication was quite impracticable, and swarms of flyers repre- 
senting the voetgangers that survived the poisoning operations are 
now spread far and wide. The chief movement has been west to 
north. Swarms thought to have come from the middle Karroo area, 
chiefly Graaff-Eeinet, have been reported since 8th February in the 
Prince Albert, Beaufort West, Murraysburg, Victoria West, Rich- 
mond, Britstown, Prieska, Carnarvon. Middelburg, and Steynsburg 
Districts. Some small swarms of voetgangers in the Prince Albert 
and Carnarvon Districts were also reported during February. It 
further seems probable that there have been some swarms in the far 
north-west. Sheep Inspector C. J. Mollett reported a swarm of 
flyers at Lariesfontein, in the Calvinia District, in the middle of 
February, and on the 26th of the month the Magistrate at Springbok 
(Namaqualand) telegraphed he had learned of two small swarms of 
flyers in Bushmanland. 

The Railway Administration reports that during January and 
February gangers on the track between Graaff-Reinet and Kendrew 
destroyed seventeen swarms of voetgangers. One swarm is said to 
have been one-quarter to half a mile wide by one-half to a full mile 
long. 

Woolly Ajyhis Parasite. — The outlook in the Transvaal for the 
permanent establishment of this beneficial insect became very gloomy 
early in February. The woolly aphis decreased almost to the 
vanishing point owing, it is thought, to the very hot dry weather 
where the largest liberations of the parasite had been made. But the 
aphis has come on again, and is now (2nd March) already as prevalent 
as it was in December, and the parasite is showing up strongly at 
places where we thought it might have died out. The latest reports 
from the Capetown branch of the Division are also very favourable. 
Liberations of colonies reared at Pretoria have been made at ten 
places in or near Pretoria, five in or near Johannesburg, and also at 
one or more places in Heidelberg*, Standerton, Middelburg, and 
Ventersdorp, in the Transvaal, and at Clocolan, in the Orange Free 
State. One colony has also been sent to Kokstad, in Griqualand 
East. Colonies reared at the Cape branch have been put out at 
several places in the Cape and vStellenbosch Districts. Although 
little larger than fly specks, the insects appear to be great wanderers 
and readily able to find small colonies of aphis on trees a hundred 
yards or more from where they are put out, despite intervening trees 
of kinds other than apple. 

The original material from America, which began to yield adult 
parasites on 5th December, continued to yield a few up to the 22nd 
February. Apparently nature wisely provides for the emergence of 
the parasites after winter to be over a period of many weeks as an 
insurance against all perishing throug-h lack of aphis at any time. 



Departmental activities. 305 

Mystery Worm. — Following upon rumours of outbreaks of 
mystery worm reaching' the Division from Southern Rhodesia, the 
appearance of the pest in the high veld in March was anticipated. 
A warning notice giving defensive measures was therefore issued to 
the Press. To the close of February outbreaks in three Transvaal 
districts have been reported. These are all in the low veld or bush- 
veld, but later outbreaks may be expected in the high veld. The first 
reports were received about the middle of February, and subsequently 
reports came from Barberton, from Naboomspruit, and the valleys of 
the Koedoes and Middle Letaba Rivers, north-east of Pietersburg. 

Cheese Mites. — The advice of the Division having been sought 
for the prevention of damage by cheese mites in factories, especially 
during the summer months, the following remarks, based^on American 
records, are offered for the information of those interested. 

It is not possible to destroy mites which are actually within a 
cheese, and there is no remedy except that of cutting out the infested 
portion. Every cheese-room is liable to become infested, and all 
efforts must be directed towards prevention. Nothing but the utmost 
cleanliness and watchfulness will prevent the appearance of the mites. 
These creatures breed all through the summer months, and in warm 
houses they will breed in the winter. The rapidity of their multiplica- 
tion under favouring circumstances is almost incredible. Throughout 
the summer months they are soft-bodied and possess comparatively 
feeble powers of locomotion. In the soft-bodied form they can endure 
a fast of eleven weeks, and although they may not travel far at one 
time, they may cover considerable distances in a search for food. 

The remarkable feature of their biology is the provision that a 
number may fast for an indefinite period. Thus, when mites have 
devoured a whole cheese and there is no more accessible food, all 
the young ones and all the old ones die off. Those that are middle 
aged have the power of undergoing a complete change of form, 
acquiring a hard brown protective covering into which all the legs 
can be withdrawn in repose. These resting forms are those that can 
survive until food is available. They remain inert until some insect 
or animal, such as a mouse, passes near by and then seize on to this 
with their legs taking the chance of being transported to some new 
supply of food. The difficulties of disinfecting are due to the extreme 
tenacity of life of the mite in the resting stage. 

Infested rooms should be cleaned out thoroughly, fumigated with 
sulphur, and washed with a strong soap solution. The fumigation 
with sulphur should be at the least at the rate of two pounds to every 
1000 cubic feet of enclosed space. 

The Vegetable Ivory Beetle (Coccotryplies dactyliperda F.). — 
Soft-goods merchants in Durban have considerable trouble with a 
small insect damaging the buttons (on ready-made garments) made 
from the so-called *' vegetable ivory," which is the hard seed of a 
palm, Hyphaena crinata. The insect is a small beetle, rather more 
than one-sixteenth inch long. The beetles are not often seen wander- 
ing about, and the first thing noticed usually is that the buttons are 
attacked. Storekeepers are therefore inclined to think that the 
buttons are infested when received. However, no trouble is experi- 
enced with buttons in closed packages, and buttons on the clothes 
which are most exposed are the most damaged. It is therefore 
considered that the infestation is derived mainly from beetles on the 



306 Journal op the Department of Agriculture. 



premises. The inside of the button is eaten out, till only a shell i& 
left. Beetles, pupae, grubs, and eggs may be found together, and it 
therefore seems as if breeding inside the button is continued as long 
as there is any food left. As many as 30 beetles and 50 pupae and 
larvae have been counted in one button. Merchants have to replace 
the damaged buttons, and the expense in large establishments is very 
considerable. What is apparently the same trouble has been dis- 
covered by the Eastern Province Entomologist at Port Elizabeth ; 
but it is said not to be serious there, and it is possible that the insect 
is one which will be troublesome only in the warmer parts of the 
country. 

it is possible to kill the insects in the buttons by treating them 
with certain substances or by fumigation ; but this is hardly practic- 
able with big stocks of clothing, and there is no assurance that 
reinfestation will not take place. Preventive remedies will probably 
prove more effective, and it is intended to carry out certain experi- 
ments. Durban merchants are stipulating that no vegetable ivory 
buttons are to be supplied with their orders, and this seems to be 
the simplest safeguard against loss, unless the manufacturers of 
vegetable ivory buttons could make them proof against attack, which 
could probably be done by incorporating some poisonous substance 
with the material with which the buttons are coated. 

February Insect Trouhles. — During the month of February 
letters have been received and dealt with by the Pretoria office of 
the Division of Entomology upon the following pests and matters 
appertaining to insect control : — 

Orchard insects : Fruit-lly ; red scale ; mealy bug of figs, vines, 
citrus ; Australian bug ; root knot of peach and fig. Field-crop 
insects : E,oot knot of vegetables ; potato gallworm ; mystery worm ; 
tobacco slug ; melon aphis ; cabbage aphis ; red spider ; melon fly ; 
potato-plant bug. Garden insects : Red spider ; tip wilter bug. 
Household insects : Ants ; fleas ; bed bugs ; cockroaches ; tampans. 
White ants, destroying wood-work of houses, teff, forestral trans- 
plants, etc. Cotton insects : BoUworm ; leaf-eating caterpillars ; 
" jassid disease." Maize insects: AVeevils. Miscellaneous: Mill 
insects ; cheese mites ; insect galls on grass ; Australian bug in wattle 
plantations ; phoracantha borer of eucalyptus ; scab of springbok ; 
hare ticks ; bagworms ; lawn caterpillars ; Indian cochineal ; 
fumigation. 



VETERINARY EDUCATION AND RESEARCH. 



Scab in Sheep Kraals. — A very interesting and most important 
series of experiments have just been concluded by Mr. H. H. Curson, 
the veterinary research officer in charge of the laboratory at Grrahams- 
town. It will be remembered that Shilston in Pietermaritzburg first 
carried out experiments under strictly scientific conditions with a 
view to establishing the longest period that a sheep kraal will remain 
infected with scab. He found that if scabby sheep were taken out of 
a kraal, and the kraal left empty for sixteen days, and if clean sheep 
were then put back into the kraal, these sheep would remain free of 
scab. In other words, the kraal is not able to retain the infection 
for a period of sixteen days. The same results were obtained by 



Departmental Activities. 307 

Bedford working at Onderstepoort (see Third and Fourth Reports of 
the Director of Veterinary Research). 

These results have often been questioned by farmers who believe 
that an infected kraal is capable of retaining the infection for months 
or even for a year and longer. It was with the object of demon- 
strating the erroneousness of this belief that the investigations were 
again undertaken by Mr. Curson. The suggestion of having the 
results obtained by Shilston and Bedford retested was first made by 
the Somerset East Agricultural Society. The Division of Sheep then 
took the matter in hand, and it was decided that Mr. Curson would 
arrange and supervise the experiment in Somerset East, the sheep 
inspector of the area actually controlling the experimental animals. 
In addition to this, three similar experiments were concluded in 
Grahamstown. It may be added that further similar experiments on 
a much larger scale are being carried out at Onderstepoort. A full 
detailed report of all this work will be published later. These notes 
are merely intended to give farmers the outstanding results of Mr. 
Curson's tests. 

In the first experiment an open sheep kraal measuring 80 x 43 feet 
was used. A flock of sheep, 12 of which were infected with scab, was 
kept in it for over a month. The kraal was then left empty for 
sixteen days, after which period six clean sheep were brought into 
it and left there for 27 days. All these sheep remained free of scab. 

In the second experiment an open sheep kraal 21 x 21 feet was 
occupied by eight scabby sheep for 18 days. The kraal was then 
again quarantined for 16 days, and then two sheep and one goat were 
put into it for 38 days. All three animals remained clean. 

A closed corrugated iron shed 9 x 10 x 12 feet was occupied 
by eight scabby sheep for 18 days, and then left empty for 16 days. 
Two clean sheep were then put into it for 38 days, and remained free 
of infection. 

The last experiment was the one carried out in Somerset East in 
collaboration with the Division of Sheep. Two scabby sheep were 
left in a closed brick stable measuring 6 x 12 x 12 feet for 84 days. 
The Somerset East Agricultural Society was particularly keen that 
a closed stable should be used instead of an open kraal. It was 
suggested that the former would retain the infection much more easily 
than the latter. After removal of the two scabby sheep the stable was 
left empty for 16 days, and was then occupied by two clean sheep for 
47 days. At the end of the experiment, these two sheep were found 
to be free of scab. 

It may be added that all these kraals or sheds contained some 
6 inches of manure, and in addition logs covered with bark and stones 
were used in the second and third experiments, to afford as much 
protection as possible to the scab parasites. Furthermore, infected 
wool and crusts were taken from the scabby sheep on the day they 
were removed from the kraal and deposited in the latter, so as to 
ensure a heavy infection. Nevertheless, as can be seen from the 
above results, no single animal picked up the infection on being put 
in the kraals after a period of 16 days. 

We can therefore safely assume that the results originally ai^ived 
at by Shilston and Bedford were correct, and that if scabby sheep be 
taken out of a kraal, shed, or stable, and the latter left empty for 
16 days, there will be no danger of reinfection if clean sheep are put 
back into this enclosure after this period. 



308 Journal of the Department op Agriculture. 



VETERINARY. 



Mr. James Chalmers, M.R.C.Y.S., Government Veterinary- 
Officer, who has just completed a visit to Argentine, Uruguay, Brazil, 
and England, in connection with the export of meat and its products, 
furnishes the following preliminary remarks, to be amplified later on 
by detailed reports, for the information of all interested in the 
subject : — 

Argentine.— A.S is well known, this country supplies most of the 
world's markets to-day with meat and meat products. It has a 
population of 9^ millions. The following are the approximate figures 
for stock at the last census in 1914, viz. : Cattle, 26 millions; sheep, 
43^ millions; goats, 4^ millions; and pigs, 3 millions. 

Like the Union of South Africa, the Argentine is divided up 
into districts or departments. The principal city in the Republic 
is Buenos Aires, which has a population of 2| millions. It is here 
that all of the frigorificos (or abattoirs) are situated at the coast. 

Although this country has to-day a great reputation for meat, 
etc., I am informed by those better able to express an opinion that 
there remains a still greater future before the Republic, and that the 
possibilities are enormous. The country or veld appears to be of 
greater density and of better quality than that of South Africa. The 
low-lying veld is marshy and coarse, but the undulating upper veld 
is on a par with the best to be seen in the United Kingdom. The 
country generally is flat. The rainfall is good and spread over a 
longer period than that of the Union. The farms or estancias are 
large, but are cut up into fenced paddocks or camps, and are all run 
in the latest up-to-date scientific manner. Where necessary, bore- 
holes have been put down to get water, and complete irrigation exists. 
The result is that all farms have large areas growing lucerne, into 
which the cattle are turned three months prior to their being sold for 
slaughter. Practically all farms haVe a cattle dipping tank to 
eradicate ticks — as it is a punishable offence which is strictly enforced 
to send cattle to the market showing tick infestation. 

All stock (cattle, sheep, and pigs) are loaded into trucks at one 
end (of a row of trucks) and are driven through until they are one 
by one filled, when dividing doors are let down at the ends. The 
only difference is that sheep and pigs are conveyed in double-deck 
trucks. This arrangement does away with the necessity of a large 
loading " bank." 

Argentine farmers have to-day to thank their Bureau of Animal 
Industries and its various divisions for the prosperity and develop- 
ment which have produced such contentment amongst them. The 
most important of these divisions is the Veterinary, which has the 
meat inspection control as a sub-department. 

To give some idea of the importance of the meat inspection 
department, there are under its control 12 frigorificos and 84 sausage 
factories, which necessitate the employment of one chief of sub- 
division (who is a veterinary officer), 64 veterinary officers, and 104 
laymen (under control of veterinary officers). As a comparison, 
there are only 57 veterinary officers in the whole Veterinary Division 
of the Union of South Africa. 



Departmental Activities. 309 

As all the frigorificos are situated near to Buenos Aires, this 
permits administratively of the establishment of two markets to which 
all stock must be consigned. These are situated within the boundaries 
of the city, and come under Government sanitary control. One 
market deals with all equines, cattle, and pigs, and the other 
is solely for sheep. All buyers visit these, and on purchase consign 
stock per rail direct to frigorificos. 

The breeds of cattle most favoured are in order of importance : 
Shorthorn, Hereford, Aberdeen-Angus; of sheep: Leicesters, 
Lincolns, Merino; of pigs: Poland, China, and Berkshire. The 
diseases of importance met with in stock are: — Cattle: foot and 
mouth, tuberculosis, actinomycosis, anthrax. Sheep : foot and mouth, 
scab, anthrax. Pigs : tuberculosis, foot and mouth, trichinosis. 

In some areas Texas fever or ordinary redwater is prevalent 
amongst cattle, and a campaign of tick eradication is proceeding. 
East Coast fever does not exist. 

During 1919 the following were slaughtered under Govern- 
ment supervision : 2,052,498 steers, 256,263 cows, 6171 calves, 
2,551,404 sheep, 261,041 pigs. 

The following were exported during January to October, 1920 : 
1,416,299 frozen carcasses of mutton, 3,833,178 frozen beef quarters, 
544,705 chilled beef quarters. 

Uruguay. — The country, generally speaking, is more undulating 
and hilly, and the veld is similar to that of the Argentine. It has 
a population of 1,378,808, and its area is 72,153 square miles. 

The following are the approximate figures for stock at the census 
of 1916: — Cattle, 8 millions; sheep. Hi millions; goats, 12,000; 
pigs, 304,000. 

The country is divided into 19 departments. The three 
frigorificos in the country are situated at the coast near to Monte 
Video, the capital. 

The remarks already made regarding Argentine are applicable 
to this country, with the following exceptions : — In the meat inspec- 
tion department there are employed in Government service one chief 
of sub-division (who is a veterinary ofiicer), 15 veterinary officers, and 
26 laymen. The breeds of cattle most favoured are Herefords and 
Shorthorns. 

During 1918 the following were slaughtered under Government 
supervision: — 796,725 cattle, 119,768 sheep, 15,298 pigs. 

The following were exported during January to July, 1920 : — 
65,456 metric tons of frozen beef quarters, 17,077 metric tons of 
jerked meat. The latter is meat which has been salted and sun- 
dried. 

Brazil. — On account of language difiiculty, I was not able to 
gain much information. The Hereford breed predominates, and the 
export of beef is on a par with that of South Africa. 

United Kingdom. — My investigations were confined to London 
and the Smithfield market, and it is intended to publish later on a 
full report thereon. 



310 Journal of the Department op Agriculture. 



BOTANY. 

At the beginning oi the month Dr. Pole Evans and Dr. Phillips 
went to Capetown to a conference of botanists to discuss the proposed 
" pica" survey of the Union in connection with the investigation of 
lamziekte ; the botanists composing the council of the Botanical 
Survey have been asked to assist in this matter. 

In the National Herharimn numerous determinations have been 
made for the Division of Veterinary Research in connection with its 
work on stock diseases. The Forest Department has also been assisted 
with identifications of forest trees, and much information has been 
accumulated with reference to the yellow woods (Podocarpus spp.). 
Arrangements have recently been made for the acquisition of the 
valuable collections of E-hodesian plants made by Mr. Fred Eyles ; 
this will be of great value both from a scientific and economic aspect. 

In the pathological section there has been considerable corres- 
pondence with farmers on the subject of bacterial diseases of plants, 
which have been especially prevalent. Bacterial wilt of potatoes and 
tomatoes has been sent for identification from various localities in the 
Transvaal, Natal, and Swaziland. 

A particularly severe case of bacteriosis in cotton {Bacteriuvi 
vialvaceartiTn) was reported from Wolhuters Kop. A large number 
of seedlings were attacked, remained stunted for some weeks, and 
finally died. Our correspondent 'stated that this was not a case of one 
plant dying here and there, but was a matter of acres. Angular leaf- 
spot caused by the same organism has also been recorded from 
Swaziland. 

The bacterial disease of tobacco previously recorded from the 
Piet Retief District is now spreading rapidly at Marikana in the 
Rustenburg District, and is probably very widespread. So far as the 
investigation of this disease has gone, it bears a very strong 
resemblance to the wild fire in tobacco recorded in the United States. 

A bacterial blight of Sudan grass sent from Kaalfontein and 
found at Groenkloof and in the experimental plots at the Laboratory 
is also under investigation. 

In connection with the study of ergot on paspalum germinating 
sclerotia have been found for the first time in South Africa — an 
important discovery from a scientific point of view, as it completes 
the life-cycle of the fungus and establishes its identity as Claviceps 
Paspali. 

On the recommendation of this Division, a further examination 
of the poplar plantations in the Bedford district was made by the 
Forestry' Department, and numerous specimens of bark were collected. 
An examination of these confirmed the opinion that the death of many 
of these trees in recent years is due to a fungus parasitic on the living 
trees. The disease is thought to be identical with Cytospor'a chryso- 
sperma reported from America as causing a serious disease of poplars, 
willows, etc. 

What promises to be quite a serious disease of arums (Richardia 
spp.) has recently been noticed. The trouble is characterized by the 
presence of disfiguring spots on the leaves, which in severe cases cause 
the death of the latter. It is caused by the fungus Cercospora 
ricliardiaecola, and spraying experiments are being conducted with a 
view to finding a means of controlling the disease. 



Departmental Activities. 



311 



In connection with the spraying experiments being carried out at 
StelJenbosch against scab or fusicladium in pears, the Western 
Province mycologist reports that whilst it is rather premature to state 
what the results are likely to be, these promise to be less satisfactory 
than was at first anticipated, in that the sprayed trees show a fairly 
high percentage of infection. This is probably due to certain 
unavoidable causes such as heavy rains in the spring and the 
protracted periods of blossoming and fruiting. 

The disease known as " vrotpootje " in wheat is one which has 
been known to farmers in the Western Province for a number of 
years, and about which prominent wheat growers are becoming rather 
concerned. The symptoms appear to correspond with those of the 
disease known as " take-all," which occurs in Europe, Australia, and 
America. A series of field experiments in the control of this disease 
have been planned in collaboration with the botanist at Elsenburg, 
Mr. Starke, of Messrs. C. Starke & Co., having kindly allowed the 
Department the use of several acres of land near Durbanville for this 
purpose. Any information with regard to this disease which can be 
furnished by wheat growers in the Western Province will be much 
appreciated. 



THE SCHOOLS OF AGRICULTURE AND EXPERIMENT 

STATIONS. 



CEDARA, NATAL. 



Kikuyu Grass. — Analyses of Kikuyu grass hay have been made 
and compared with the composition of veld hay. They are as 
follows : — 

Kikuya (rrass Kikuya Grass Veld Hay 

Hay cut Hay cut cut March, 

February, 1919. December, 1920. 1915. 

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. 

Moisture 17.7 11.2 8.4 

Ash 8.8 11.2 5.1 

Crude protein 14.5 10.3 3.8 

Amides — 3.8 .5 

Crude fat 1.7 2.6 2.8 

Soluble carbohydrates . 33.8 37.4 47.4 

Crude fibre 23.6 23.5 32.1 

Nutritive ratio — 1:4.4 1:14.4 

These analyses show the high feeding value of Kikuyu as 
compared with veld hay; its high nutritive ratio should be noted. 

Farm. — During the month a commencement will be made with 
silage making ; the requirements for the cattle for the winter months 
approximate to 400 tons. Most of this will be maize silage this 
year owing to the soya-bean crop failing through damage by hail 
and by cutworm attack. Dairy cows are requiring heavier feeding, 
owing to the poorer grazing. A convenient rough guide to the 



312 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

amount of coucentrated food to be fed to a dairy cow daily is to allow 
1 lb. of concentrated food to every 4 lb. of milk yielded ; a second 
method is to allow as many pounds of concentrated food daily, as the 
cow yields pounds of butter-fat weekly. 

Poultry. — For the period 26th December, 1920, to 25th January, 
1921, the total e^g production from the 120 hens in the laying com- 
petition was 2444, or an average of 20 eggs per bird for the period, 
which must be considered very satisfactory. The 54 ducks under 
test laid during the same time 1065 eggs, an average of 20 also. 
White Leghorns lead in the fowl competition and Indian Runners 
in the duck competition. The best pen in the egg-laying competition 
has up to 2nd February, 1921, laid 893 grade A eggs and 7 grade B 
eggs in a period of 44 weeks. This pen is White Leghorns. This 
compares with Cedara-bred birds under similar conditions as follows : 
In 9 months 12 hens laid 1912 eggs, an average of 159 eggs per bird, 
with the highest individual record of 204 eggs for 9 months. 

GROOTFONTEIN, MIDDELBURG (CAPE). 



Notes on the Planting of Crops during April. — During April 
wheat, rye, oats, barley, emmer, and rape may be sown for grazing 
purposes. When these crops are raised mainly for grazing, a larger 
quantity of seed should be used than when sown for grain. Also 
when sowing Durums a greater weight of grain should be used than 
of the " common " varieties of wheat, as the grain of the Durums is 
much larger and the plants do not stool as well as the common wheats. 
The difference in the number of grains in a measured quantity of 
seed, between Durums and the common wheats is sometimes 50 per 
cent, more in the case of the latter. While an average of 40 lb. of 
seed per acre of the common wheats is sufficient for most areas when 
grain is the object, it would be necessary to sow 60 lb. of the Durum 
types to procure a similar stand. 

The following rates of seeding per acre are dependent on locality 
and the time of year sown : — 

DuruTn wheat may be sown at the average rate of 50 to 60 lb. 
per acre for grazing. 

Common wheats at the rate of 30 to 50 lb. per acre for grazing. 

Rye at the rate of 40 lb. per acre for grazing. 

Oats at the rate of 50 to 70 lb. per acre for grazing. 

Barley at the rate of 40 to 60 lb. per acre for grazing. Barley 
sown for grazing has not proved a success at Grootfontein, as it does 
not recover as well as some of the other crops after being fed off. 

Emmer at the rate of 60 to 70 lb. per acre for grazing. The 
Emmer grain is enclosed in the chaff, and therefore this point must 
be considered when estimating the quantity required. This also 
explains the apparently large amount of seed recommended per acre. 

Rape at the rate of 3 to 5 lb. per acre. This crop gives a large 
amount of feed with the first growth, but does not withstand frost 
when fed down. It is a very quick grower, and is generally quite fit 
for grazing about ten weeks after being sown. 

All the above weights are for broadcasting ; the quantities may 
be lessened by about 15 per cent, when drilled. 



Departmental Activities. " ' 313 

Lucerne. — March is the best month for establishing lucerne 
where there is no clanger of the caterpillar pest, and the month of 
April ranks next. Where there is danger from caterpillar, it is 
often to be found that the early winter months are the best for plant- 
ing. Where irrigation is practised, lucerne may be sown during any 
month of the year, provided the soil is not weed-infested, but March 
and April are recommended for the summer rainfall areas for the 
following reasons : A good germination may be expected, as the soil 
is warm and yet is not dried out as it would be by the excessive heat 
of mid-summer. The young plants make a good root growth before 
the winter, and lastly the weeds that come up in spring and summer 
are killed by cultivation prior to sowing, and any that remain are 
killed by the first frosts. 

Maize. — Special selections made from an early yellow dent maize 
called " Minnesota 133 " are proving to be early and prolific. These 
were sown on the 20th October, 1920, and several matured at the end 
of February, 1921. This would not be considered early in the maize- 
growing areas, but is early for dent varieties in the Karroo. 
Minnesota 133 has proved to be suited to semi-arid conditions in 
America, especially over the Great Plains area, where it has occupied 
first place in yield in many tests {vide Neio South Wales Agricultural 
Gazette, July, 1919, page 499). 

Sudan grass continues to be a very successful crop for the 
Karroo. A plot sown on the 20th October, 1920, produced a good 
cutting at the flowering stage on the 14th January. 1921, giving a 
weight of 5 tons of green fodder, which lost about 60 per cent, on 
being made into hay. The height of this cutting averaged 5 feet 
6 inches, and although the crop was grown in rows 2 feet 6 inches 
apart, all the stalks were very fine. The second growth, now at the 
flowering stage, is ready for harvesting and is about 4 feet 6 inches 
in height (25th February, 1921). If harvested for fodder or hay at 
the flowering stage. Sudan grass makes a further growth immediately 
after cutting. Natural crosses between Sudan grass and " Early 
Amber cane " and " Planters Friend " sorghums, are very vigorous, 
being over 10 feet in height and possessing characters mid-way 
between the parents, that is, the stalks are finer in growth than either 
the Amber cane or Planters Friend, and carry heavier leaves. 



GLEN, ORANGE FREE STATE. 



Owing to copious rains, the prospects for the winter are good. 

Winter Feed. — The importance of providing green feed for 
winter cannot be emphasized too strongly, particularly as the 
majority of the summer crops have succumbed to the dry weather. 
As winter crops have to go through a very dry period, the importance 
of good cultivation is evident. 

Educational. — The staff was fully engaged during the month 
holding various meetings and judging at shows. All available 
accommodation at the institution is booked. The number of students 
on the roll is 63. 



314 Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 

potchefstroom, transvaal. 

In March, Kale (variety Chou MouUier), Dwarf Essex Rape, 
Early Bye, and Barley will be sown to provide green winter-feed for 
stock. Farmers are advised, especially in the drought-stricken 
section of the Province, to sow the last three crops and also Winter 
Dun and Algerian oats in March and April with the late rains (if 
any), in order to provide green feed in early winter for cattle, pigs, 
and more especially sheep. On irrigable land, Winter Dun and 
also Algerian oats will be sown in April at this station, in order to 
provide grazing for ewes dropping their lambs in early winter. Such 
crops are grazed at various intervals as late as the end of July and 
sometimes the middle of August. The yield of oat grain or hay is 
not materially reduced, provided a fair supply of irrigation water 
is available in late winter, and the land is in a good state of fertility. 

A small plot of sunflower on the experimental section yielded 
green forage at the rate of 14| tons to the acre. On the farm an 
area of 1^ acres of sunflower yielded 10 tons of green fodder, whereas 
an adjoining crop of maize proved a failure and would realize 
(estimated) about 2 tons green feed to the acre. Sunflower silage has 
been made in order to test its feeding value and palatability compared 
with maize silage. The crop has proved more drought resistant than 
maize. 

An analysis of the results of trials with varieties of wheat under 
irrigation for several years up to and including 1920, in each case 
shows the following varieties as leading in the periods for which- 
averages were taken : — 

1. Varieties in a Five-year Average (yield in lb. per acre). — 
Gluyas Early, 1561 ; Australian Early, 1481 : Marshall's White, 
1461; Eymer, 1411. 

2. Varieties in a Four-year Average (yield in lb. per acre). — 
Gluyas Early, 1511; Washington Blue Stem, 1442: Comeback, 1421; 
Red May, 1305. 

3. Varieties in a Three-year Average (yield in lb. per acre). — 
Gluyas Early, 1748 ; Comeback, 1528 ; Bombay, 1513 : Australian 
Early, 1436. 

Note. — Washington Blue Stem and Comeback grown for four 
years only; Bombay for three years only. 

For the Indian varieties Lalkasarwali and Pusa No. 12, with 
Union Sel. No. 3, only two years' results are available. The jdelds 
in lb. per acre of the leading varieties, on the average results for 
1919 and 1920, are as follows : Lalkasarwali, 1812 ; Gluyas Early, 
1665: Bombay, 1585; IJnion Sel. No. 3, 1524; Pusa No. 12, 1477. 
Although the comparative positions of these varieties must not be 
taken as final, the results indicate that Lalkasarwali is a variety which 
farmers, growing wheat under irrigation in this area, should give a 
trial. It is a bearded variety, earlier than Gluyas Early. 

Fruit growers are advised at this time to pick up and destroy 
all fallen fruits, in order to assist in controlling codling-moth and 
fruit-fly. Wherever weeds have made any headway in orchards, or 
a green manure crop has been grown, these should be ploughed in 
now, in order to allow the vegetable matter to decay before the dry 
weather sets in. 



Weeds op South Africa. 



315 



WEEDS OF SOUTH AFRICA. 



By K. A. Lansdell, Botanical Assistant, Division of Botany, 

Pretoria. 



The occurrence of noxious weeds has assumed an economic aspect in 
South Africa, a country of vast expanse, and the problem of their 
control is engaging serious attention. 

South Africa has enormous agricultural wealth, and Government, 
stockowners, and farmers are striving after greater production. In 
the endeavour to produce greater crops there is a danger of pasturage 



GROUND LEVEL 




.-.i;r£ 



MULE 




QOTYLtDONS WITHIN 
SEED COAT 



Fig. 1. -Seedling of "Malta Thistle"' 
{Centaurea melitensis) with 
epigean germination. 



Fig. 2. — Seedling of Pea with hypogean 
germination. 



and wool being destroyed by the gi^owth of weeds, and during the last 
ten years the appearance, growth, and spread of noxious weeds has 
increased considerably. It is partially through the lack of knowledge 
and literature on South African weeds that the noxious weeds problem 
in the Union has become so serious. Every farmer should be able 
to distinguish the noxious weeds on his farm so that he may be in a 
position to cope with the danger. The present work has been prepared 
with this end in view, and is intended for the use of the farmer, 
the student, and the general public. The illustrations have been 
prepared solely from the noxious weeds found in South Africa. 



316 



Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



This publication is the first of its kind in South Africa. Although 
the fullest use has been made of field observation and the material 
at the Division of Botany, Pretoria, the author feels that much 
remains to complete our knowledge of the South African noxious 
weeds; therefore. specimens of suspected weeds, with full information 
about them, will be welcomed, and should be forwarded O.H.M.S. to 




GROUND LEVEL 



Fig. 3. — "Mexican Marigold" {Tagetex 
m.huita). showing fibrous roots. 



Fig. 4. — "Spear Thistle" {Onicus 
eanceolatun), showing the 
tap root. 



the Chief, Division of Botany, Pretoria. In this way much valuable 
knowledge will be obtained which can be used in future to supplement 
the information contained in this work. 

In the text of the illustrated pamphlets entitled " South African 
Weeds " which are from time to time published by the Division of 
Botany, botanical terms are occasionally used. As these terms are 
often not generally known to lavmen. and as it is difficult to write 



Weeds of South Africa. 



317 



popular articles without the use of many of these technical terms, 
an illustrated glossary on the morphology of weeds has been prepared. 

Classification of Weeds. 

Weeds may conveniently be classified according to the time they 
take, to complete their life-history, and three main types can be 
recognized, namely cmvnal, biennial, and perennial weeds. 




Fig. 5. — "Canada Thistle" (^C'nicus n.rrensis), showing the underground 
rhizome or root-stock. 



Annual Weeds are those in which the complete life-history is 
completed within one growing season. The seed germinates and the, 
resulting plant produces roots, stem, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds 
all in the same season, and then dies. The Mexican Poppy {Argenione 
Mexicana), the Mexican Marigold {Tagetes viinuta), the Khaki Weed 
(Alternanthera achyrantha), Cocklebur (Xanthium occidentale), 
Burweed (Xanthium spinosum), are examples of this type. 

Biennial Weeds complete their life-history in two growing 
seasons. Germination takes place in the spring and during the first 
season only root, stem, and leaves are formed. The leaves often 
consist of a rosette pressed closed to the ground. In the second season 



318 



JOL'R^"AL OF THE DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 



Ihe stem elongates and produces flowers and seeds, and so completes 
the life- history, e.g. the Spear Thistle {Cnicus lanceolatus), St. Mary's 
Thistle {SilybuTn marianum). 

Perennial Weeds produce roots, which send up flower-stalks year 
after year, and such weeds may exist for an indefinite period, e.g. the 
Canada Thistle {Cnicus arvensis) and the Prostrate Star-bur (Acantho- 
spermum xanthoides). 




HAVSTORIA'^] 



STEM OF DODDER 

(iNLiSCiC) 



Fig. 6. — (1) Stem of "'Dodder" QCu.scnfa sp.), showing haustoria. 
(2) Portion of stem with haustoria enlargctl. 

The following table gives the duration of twelve noxious weeds 



Common Name. 



Scientific Name. 



Type of Weed. 



Blessed Thistle 


Carhenid hencdietua ... 


Annual. 


Burweed ... . 


Xanthium .y)i>w.mw ... 


Annual. 


Canada Thistle 


Cnicuf! arre7i.sis 


Perennial. 


Cocklebur 


Xa nth mm .ocddenta le... 


Annual. 


Corsican Thistle 


Cardvus pycnocephalns 


Biennial. 


Dodder 


Cnxciitii xpj). 


Annual. Purennial. 


Dwarf Marigold ... 


Sclilnihrtn honar.iensU 


Annual. 


Malta Thistle 


Centaurea welitensh ... 


Annual. 


Mexican Marigold 


Tagpiex mhmta... 


Annual. 


Prostrate Starbur 


Aca ntlioHpernmm juanthoides.. . 


Perennial. 


Spear Thistle 


C'nicux lancenlatUK 


Biennial. 


Upright Starbur ... 


Acanthv.iperinum. hisjndum ... 


Annual. 



The Morphology of Weeds. 
Seeds may be of different sizes and shapes, and their surface may 
also vary considerably. Each species of plant has seeds which are 
constant in almost all respects for that species. The seed consists of 
the following parts: (1) one or two seed-coats, and (2) the embryo. 
The embryo is divided into (a) two cotyledons : leaves which contain 
nourishment for the young plant ; (6) the radicle or future root ; and 
(c) the plumule or shoot. 



Weeds of South Africa. 



319 



In germination the cotyledons may come above tlie ground, in 
which case the germination is said to be epigean, e.g. the Malta 
Thistle (Centaurea meliteiisis) , etc. ; when they remain below the 
ground the germination is hypogean, e.g. broad bean seeds or pea 
seeds, etc. (See figs. 1 and 2.) 

The Root is one of the four important organs of a plant. It 
increases in length by the elongation of the growing point, which is 
situated a short distance behind the extreme tip. Not far from the 
root apex are the root hairs, which are the channels through which 
the water of the soil with mineral salts in solution enters the root. 

There are different kinds of roots, e.g. : — 

.4 fihrovs root, one in which the rootlets are in the form of 
fibres, such as the Mexican Marigold (Tagetes minuta), etc. 
(See fig. 3.) 

A tap root is an elongated much thickened main root, e.g. the 
Spear Thistle (Cnicus lanceolatus) . (See fig. 4.) 




Fig. 7. — Stems showins: opposite and alternate leaves. 



In the Lucerne Dodder (Cv scuta spp.), which is a parasite, peg- 
like out-growths called haustoria are produced from the stem which 
penetrate the tissues of the host and absorb food. These haustoria 
are regarded as modified roots. (See fig. 6.) 

The Stem is the axis of a plant usually above the ground. It is 
divided into nodes and internodes; the leaves arise at the nodes, and 
the portions of the stem between the nodes are the internodes. Buds 
are also produced on the stem in the axils of the leaves. (See fig. 7.) 

A rhizoTne is a creeping underground stem which sends out roots 
from its lower surface, and stems and leaves from its upper surface, 
and so forms new plants, e.g. the Canada Thistle (Cnicvs arvensis). 
(See fig. 5.) 



320 



Journal of the Department of Agriculture. 



, FLOWER HE A J 





Fig. 8.— The Devil's Claw (Marfynia 
fraf/ram'), showing a pubescent 
stem. 



Fig. 9. — "Sow Thistle" (Sonchi/s 
oleracevfi), showing a 
striate stem. 





Fig. 10. — The Cocklebur {Xanthlum 
Occident aU'), showing rough 
stem. 



Fig. 11.— The Corsican Thistle 
( 'ardu'us pycnoceiihalns), 
showing portion of the 
winged stem. 



Weeds of South Africa. ;'')21 

The surface of the stem may be quite smooth, as, e.g. the Burweed 
(Xanthkau spinosuni), or it may be covered with hairs or other out- 
growths. Special terms are applied to the stem according to the 
nature of its surface. It may be: — 

Pubescent, i.e. covered with vejy fine iiairs as in the Upright 
iStarbur (Acanthosperiiun/i hispichim) and the Devil's Claw 
(Marty nia frograns). (vSee fig. 8.) 

Striate, when tlie stem is grooved with longitudinal furrcjws as 
in the Sow Thistle {Sonclmx oleraceus). (See fig. 9.) 

Rough, when the stem is covered with stiff coarse hairs, as 
the Cocklebur (Xanthium occidentale) . (vSee fig. 10.) 

Winged, when the base of the leaves is produced as a ridge or 
wing on the stem, as in the Malta Thistle (Centaurea 
iiielitensis). (See fig. 11.) 

(To be continued .) 



Fruit Export. 

Shipments of fruit for overseas during the month (^f February, 
1921, were as follows: — Eiv Capetown (boxes): Peaches, 7290; pears, 
99,394; plums, 13,517; nectarines, 899; grapes, 16,899 ; melons, 488, 
E.r Port Elizabeth (boxes) : Pines, 447. E^r Dur])an (boxes) : Pines, 
277. Ea; Capetown to America in ventilated hold (boxes) : Melons, 
2213. Total boxes exported during the month : 141,424. 

Total shipments from all ports during 1920-1921 deciduous fruit 
season: November, 1920, 42 boxes; December, 1920, 27,422 boxes; 
January, 1921, 76,280 boxes; February, 1921, 141,424 boxes. Total, 
245,174 boxes. 

Exports for the 1919-1920 deciduous season anjounted to 265,300 
boxes. 



The Union's Maize Industry: Conference nt 
Potchefstroom. 

The Principal of the Potchefstroom School of Agriculture has 
arranged a conference of maize farmers and others interested in the 
maize industry to meet at Potchefstroom on the 6th April, 1921. The 
morning will be spent in the experimental fields of maize, and after 
lunch, which will be provided at the institution, a series of lectures 
on maize growing and other matters concerning the industry will be 
given by officials of the Department. Towards the evening the 
experimental plots and other points of interest at the institution will 
be visited. It is jjroposed, also, to have an open discussion on the 
questions of maize export and the system of crop estimates. 

11 



322 Journal op the Department op Agriculture. 



WHEAT AND ITS CULTIVATION. 



Extracts from Bulletin No. 22 of the Department of Agricul- 
ture, Victoria, Australia, with Notes concerning their 

APPLICABILITY TO WhEAT-GROWING IN SoUTH AfRICA, WITH 

Special Eeference to the South-western Wheat Areas of 
THE Cape, by E. Parish, B.Sc, Department of Agriculture. 



Bulletin No. 22 of the Department of Agriculture, Victoria, on 
" Wheat and its Cultivation," by A. E. V. Eichardson, M.A., B.Sc, 
contains in 160 pages a remarkable collection of information con- 
cerning wheat cultivation in Australia. Chapters full of interesting 
and valuable detail are given on seeding operations, methods of 
cultivation, manurial problems, wheat improvement, wheat varieties, 
seed wheat and its treatment, and a summary of essential factors 
in successful wheat cultivation. Since the climate in Victoria is 
somewdiat similar to that of the south-western area of the Cape, much 
of the information to be found in this bulletin is directly applicable 
to wheat growing in these parts. Moreover, no complete collection 
of information on this subject in South Africa has hitherto been 
published. It is thought, therefore, that the publication of the 
Victoria bulletin in the following abridged form by selecting certain 
extracts considered applicable to wheat growing in South Africa, with 
the addition of remarks and information based on South African 
experience, will be of direct benefit at this season to the wheat 
growers of the south-west Cape. For fuller detail and information 
the bulletin should be obtained from the Department of Agriculture, 
Victoria. 

Information, conceiniihg Victoria. — The rainfall of the dry-land 
wheat areas of Victoria is in the neighbourhood of 20 inches or less, 
and is largely distributed over the months of April to October, being 
therefore almost identical with the rainfall of the south-west area of 
the Cape. The wheat production — average of the four years 
1915-1918 — amounts to roughly 15,000,000 muids, compared with 
South Africa's ^i, 000, 000 muids. The average yield per acre during 
the same period was 4.4 muids, compared with 3.3 muids for the 
Cape and 2.6 muids per acre for Malmesbury, 3.9 for Caledon, and 
2.7 for Piquetberg. Moreover, the rainfall in Victoria is even more 
irregular and unreliable than in the south-western Cape, and its yields 
of wheat have varied in two consecutive years from 0.4 muids to 4.7 
muids per acre from this cause. There is, therefore, sufficiently 
close similarity between the two areas to make the methods of wheat 
growing in the one area directly applicable to the other. 

Seeding Operations. — " Wheat growers in the drier districts have 
learned, from long experience, that in the great majority of seasons 
the ultimate success of the crop depends very largely on getting the 
seed sown on soil in good physical condition at the right time — within 
what may be called the norma] seeding period, which under most 
favourable conditions extends over some six to eight weeks. When, 



Wheat and its Cultivation. 32.H 



however, heavy showers fall intermittently during this period the 
seeding is considerably delayed, and much of the crop must be sown 
too late to secure optimum results." 

Tiine to Son). — " Sjjeaking- generally, it may be said that it is safe 
to sow seed during the normal seeding period, when the soil is either 
sufficiently dry to leave the seed ungerminated, or else when the soil 
is so thoroughly moist as to induce immediate germination. There 
is an intermediate stage, however, between these extremes when it is 
dangerous to sow wheat. This condition arises when the soil is 
neither dry nor wet, but contains sufficient moisture to induce ger- 
mination, yet insufficient to keep the young plant fully supplied with 
moisture. Under these circumstances, unless rain opportunely falls, 
the soil begins to dry out and the grain malts. While wheat and 
other naked seeds are very susceptible to malting in slightly moist 
and rapidly drying soils, oats and barley, with their tough, fibrous, 
protective envelopes, are not so susceptible. Hence, while it may be 
unsafe to sow wheat under such conditions, barley and oats may be 
sown with much less likelihood of loss. Many farmers in their 
anxiety to get overlarge areas, frequently commence seeding opera- 
tions earlier than is indicated above. If timely showers supervene 
and the young plants are brought on with exceptional vigour result- 
ing in rank, heady growth, a check may be administered by judicious 
feeding down with sheep, or if a comparatively late maturing variety 
is selected for seeding in the early part of the season, such condition 
will not arise." 

Varieties to Sow. — " The choice of varieties is governed by the 
physical character of the soil, the climate in which the wheat is to be 
grown, and the purpose for which the wheat is required. The farmer 
must select those particular wheats which prove the most favourable 
and profitable under his particular conditions. The difference between 
the yields of two varieties of wheats grown on the same farm, under 
absolutely identical conditions, is often sufficient to more than pay 
the rent or interest on the land on which the crop was grown. 

" In the drier districts, in normal seasons, the earlier varieties 
are generally the most suitable, whilst in districts where the rainfall 
is heavy and the growing season more protracted, late maturing wheats 
may be expected to yield better results than early wheats. Some 
wheats of outstanding excellence may do well in any district, but it