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Full text of "Journal of economic entomology"

VOLUME 12. 1919 



JOURNAL 



OF 



ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 



Official Organ American Association of Economic Entomologists 







E. Porter Felt, Editor 
W. E. Britton, Associate Editor 
A. F. Burgess, Business Manager 



S. A. Forbes 
W. J. Schoene 



Advisory Committee 
V. L. Kellogg 
P. J. Parrott 



L. O. Howard 

E. L, WORSHAM 



Published by 

American Association of Economic Entomologists 

Concord, N. H. 



CONTENTS 

Page 
American Association of Economic Entomologists: 

Officers ix 

List of Meetings and Past Officers x 

List of Members xii 

Proceedings of the Thirty-First Annual Meeting of the American Associa- 
tion of Economic Entomologists 

Part 1, Business Proceedings 1 

Part 2, Papers and Discussions 24-123, 133-215 

American Association of Economic Entomologists, Pacific Slope Branch, 
Proceedings 

Members Present 281 

Business Session 282 

Presidential Address, Discussion 49 

Honor Roll 126 

Current Notes 129, 222, 277, 353, 411, 469 

Editorial 125, 221, 275, 352, 409, 468 

Reviews 128, 222, 276, 410 

Scientific Notes 124, 217, 269, 351, 407, 465 

Papers : 

Abbott, W. S. Naphthalene vs. Chicken Lice 397 

BisHOPP, F. C. and Laake, E. W. The Dispersion of Flies by Flight 210 

Baker, A. C. The Houghton Gooseberry Aphis 433 

^ Ball, E. D. Economic Entomology — Its Foundations and Future, 

T) Presidential Address 24 

1 The Potato Leafhojiper and Its Relation to the Hopperburn 149 

t _ BniTTox, W. E. European Corn Borer Conference 405 

(3 Britton, \\ . E. and Zappe, M. P. Kerosene Emulsion versus Nicotine 

Solution for Combating the Potato Aphid 171 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Brooks, F. E. A Migrating Army of Millipeds 462 

Burgess, A. F. Organization for Insect Suppression 136 

Burke, H. E. Biological Notes on Some Flatheaded Barkborers of the 

Genus Melanophila 103 

Biological Notes on the Flatheaded Apple-tree Borer, Chrysobothns 
fevwrata, and the Pacific Flatheaded Apple-Tree Borer, Chryso- 
bothns malt 326 

Caffrey, D. J. The European Corn Borer Problem 88 

Campbell, R. E. A Suggestion of a Possible Control of the Pea and Bean 

Weevils 284 

Chapman, R. N. Insects in Relation to Wheat Flour and Wheat Flour 

Substitutes 66 

CocKERELL, T. D. A. The Absence of Insect Pests in Certain Localities 

and on Certain Plants 345 

Cory, E. N. The Status of the Oriental Peach Moth 81 

Crosby, C. R. and Leonard, M. D. An Injurious Leaf-miner of the 

Honeysuckle 389 

Davis, J. J. The Value of Crude Arsenious Oxide in Poison Bait for Cut- 
worms and Grasshoppers 200 

Dean, G. A., Kelly, E. G. and Ford, A. L. Grasshopper Control in 

Kansas 213 

De Ong, E. R. Effect of Excessive Sterilization Methods on the Germi- 
nation of Seeds 343 

DoANE, R. W. Weevils in Australian Wheat in California 308 

Ferris, G. F. Observations on Some Mealy Bugs, Hemiptera, Coccidse 292 
Lac Producing Insects in the United States, Hemiptera, Coccidae 330 

Fink, D. E. Hibernating Habits of Two Species of Ladybirds 393 

Flint, W. P., Turner, C. F. and Davis, J. J. Methods in Entomological 

Field Experimentation 178 

Fluke, C. L., Jr. Does Bordeaux Mixture Repel the Potato Leafhopper? 256 

Frost, S. W. The Fimction of the Anal Comb of Certain Lepidopterous 

Larvae 446 

GooD"w^N, W. H. Control \^'ork against the Japanese Beetle^ 80 

High Temperature Fumigation and Methods of Estimating Radiation 
Required^ 148 

Japanese Flower Beetle 247 



CONTENTS ^ 

Page 
GossARD, H. A. The Ohio \\'heat Survey 58 

Gray, G. P. The Physical and Chemical Properties of Liquid Hydro- 
cyanic Acidi 299 

Guyton, T. L. Nicotine .Sulfate Solution as a Control for the Chrysan- 
themum Gall Midge, Diarthronoinyia hypngirn 162 

Hartzell, Albert. Notes on the Life Histoiy of the Pine Tube Moth, 

Eulia pinatubana Kearfott 233 

Hawley, L iVL Some Notes on Phnrhiafuncicep.'i as a Bean Pest 203 

Hayes, W. P. The Life-Cycle of Lachnostenta lanceolata Say 109 

Headlee, T. J. Practical Application of the Methods Recently Discov- 
ered for the Control of the Sprinkling Sewage Filter Fly, Psychoda 
alternata 35 

Herbert, F. B. Insect Problems of Western Shade Trees 333 

Herrick, G. W. and Detwiler, J. D. Notes on Some Little Known 

Pests of Red Clover 206 

HoLLOWAY, T. E. Parasite Introduction as a Means of Saving Sugar 175 

HoLLOWAY, T. E. and Loftin, O. C. Insects Attacking Sugar Cane in 

the United States 448 

Hunter, W. D. The Work in the Ignited States against the Pink Boll- 
worm 166 

Illingwohth, J. F. Investigation of Control Measures for White Grubs 

Affecting Sugar Cane in Queensland 451 

A Successfid Method of Breeding Parasites of White Grubs 455 

The Sugar Cane Borer Parasite, Ceromasia sphenophori, in Queensland 457 

Larrimer, W. H. and Ford, A. L. The Migration of Harmolita grandis 

form ininidiini: an Important Factor in its Control 417 

List, G. M. The Alfalfa Weevil in Colorado^ 299 

Mackie, D. B. Migratory Locusts in the Philippine Islands^ 299 

McCoLLOCH, J. W. Ekoik'H opaca Say, an Important Enemy of Wheat 

in the Cueat Plains Area 183 

Variations in the Length of the Flaxseed Stage of the Hessian Fly 252 

Morrill, A. W. The Value of Molasses and S\ rups in Poisoned Baits for 

Grasshoppers and Cutworms 337 



CONTENTS 

Page 

MosHER, Edna. Notes on the Lepidopterous Borers Found in Plants, 

with Special Reference to the European Corn Borer 258 

Notes on the Pupae of the European Corn Borer, Pyrausta nubilalis 
and the Closelj^ Related Pyrausta penitalis 387 

MozNETTE, G. F. Notes on the Bronze Apple-tree Weevil 426 

O'Kane, W. C. Liinitations in Insect Suppression 155 

Parman, D. C. Notes on Phlebotomus Species Attacking Man 211 

Peterson, A. The Morphology, Behavior and Susceptibility of the Eggs 

of Three Imported Apple Plant Lice^ 141 

Response of the Eggs of Aphis avenoi Fabr. and Aphis pomi DeS. to 
Various Sprays, Particularly Concentrated Lime-sulfur and Sub- 
stitutes, Season of 1918-1919 ^ 363 

Pierce, W. D. Some New Phases of the Entomology of Disease, Hygiene 

and Sanitation Brought About by the Great War 42 

RiCKER, D. A. Experiments with Poison Baits against Grasshoppers 194 

Riley, W. A. The Occurrence of Drosophila Larvae and Puparia in 

Bottled Milki 41 

A Use of Galls by the Chippewa Indians 216 

Robinson, R. H. The Beneficial Action of Lime in Lime Sulfur and 

Lead Arsenate Combination Spray 429 

Safro, V. I. The Strength of Nicotine Solutions 349 

Sanders, J. G. The Discovery of European Potato Wart Disease in 

Pennsylvania 82 

An European Scale Insect Becoming a Menace in Pennsylvania 86 

Sasscer, E. R. Important Foreign Insect Pests Collected on Imported 

Nursery Stock in 1918 133 

Severin, H. H. p. Notes on the Behavior of the Beet Leafhopper, Eutet- 

tix tenella 303 

Investigations of the Beet Leafhopper, Eutettix tenella, in California 312 

Smith, H. S. On Some Phases of Insect Control by the Biological Method 288 

Smith, R. C. Ear Worm Injuries to Corn and Resulting Losses 229 

Smith, R. H. A Preliminary Note Concerning a Serious Nematode Dis- 
ease of Red Clover in the Northwestern States 460 



CONTENTS vii 

Page 
Stearns, L. A. Some Recently Recorded Parasites of the Oriental Peach 

Moth 347 

ViCKERY, R. A. and Wilson, T. S. Observations on Wingless May Beetles 238 

Wellhouse, W. H. Xanthoma villosula Melsh. Injuring Forest Trees 396 

Lace Bug on Hawthorn, Corythucha bellula Gibson 441 

WoGLUM, R. S. Recent Results in the Fumigation of Citrus Trees with 

Liquid Hydrocyanic Acid 117 

A Dosage Schedule for Citrus Trees with Liquid Hydrocyanic Acid^ 300 

A Dosage Schedule for Citrus Fumigation with Liquid Hydrocyanic 

Acid 357 

WoGLUM, R. S. and Rounds, M. B. The Stratification of Liquid Hydro- 
cyanic Acid as Related to Orchard Fumigation 300 

Wood, H. P. The Depluming Mite of Chickens: Its Complete Eradica- 
tion from a Flock with One Treatment 402 



1 Withdrawn for publication elsewhere. 



Vol. 12 



FEBRUARY. 1919 



No. ! 



JOURNAL 



OF 



ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 

Official Organ American Association of Economic Entomologists 




2ZZZZZZ7/ 



E. Porter Felt, Editor 
W. E. Britton, Associate Editor 

>ry Conn I 

i'. J. i- 



AMt' 



Published by 
<ociATiON OF Economic Entok! 



'au master N' 

,,r<,t.r A. . .. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

American Association of Economic Entomologists 

OflBcers jx 

List of Meetings and Past Officers x 

List of Members xii 

Proceedings of the Thirty-First Annual Meeting of the American Association 
of Economic Entomologists 

Part 1, Business Proceedings 1 

Part 2, Papers and Discussion 

Economic Entomology — Its Foundations and Future, Presidential 
Address E. D. Ball 24 

Practical Application of the Methods Recently Discovered for the 
Control of the Sprinkling Sewage Filter Flv, Psychoda altemata 

T. J. Headlee 35 

The Occurrence of Drosophila Larvae and Puparia in Bottled Milk^ 

W. A. Riley 41 

Some New Phases of the Entomology of Disease, Hygiene and Sani- 
tation Brought about by the Great War W. D. Pierce 42 

Presidential Address, Discussion 49 

The Ohio Wheat Survey H. A. Gossard 58 

Insects in Relation to Wheat Flour and Wheat Flour Substitutes 

R. N. Chapman 66 

Kerosene Emulsion versus' Nicotine Solution for Combating the Po- 
tato Aphid " W. E. Britton and M. P. Zappe 71 

The Status of the Oriental Peach Moth E. N. Cory 81 

Control Work against the Japanese Beetle^ W. H. Goodwin 84 

The Discovery of European Potato Wart Disease in Pennsylvania 

J. G. Sanders 86 

An Exiropean Scale Insect Becoming a Menace in Pennsylvania 

J. G. Sanders 90 

The European Corn Borer Problem D. J. CaQrey 92 

Biological Notes on Some Flatheaded Barkborers of the Genus Mel- 
anophila H. E. Burke 103 

The Life-Cycle of Lachnostema lanceolata Say W. P. Hayes 109 

Recent Results in the Fumigation of Citrus Trees with Liquid Hydro- 
cyanic Acid R. S. Wogluni 117 

Scientific Notes 124 

Editorial 125 

Honor Roll 126 

Reviews 128 

Current Notes 129 

'Withdrawn for publication elsewhere. 



AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGISTS 

(Organized 1889, Incorporated December 29, 1913) 

OFFICERS, 1919 

President 

W. C. O'Kane, Durham, New Hampshire 

First Vice-President YORK. 

A. G. RuGGLES, St. Paul, Minnesota ..- * a 

Second Vice-President (Pacific Slope Branch) ' . . ,,^p;.,j 
H. J. QuAYLE, Riverside, California 
Third Vice-President (Horticultural Inspection) 
E. C. Cotton, Columbus, Ohio 
Fourth Vice-President (Apiculture) 
W. E. Britton, New Haven, Connecticut 
Secretary 
A. F. Burgess, Melrose Highlands, Massachusetts 



Pacific Slope Branch 

Secretary 

E. O. EssiG, Ventura, California 

Section of Horticultural Inspection 

Secretary 

J. G. Sanders, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 

Section of Apiculture 

Secretary 

G. M. Bentley, Knoxville, Tennessee 



Standing Committees 
Committee on Policy. 

E. D. Ball, chairman, Ames, Iowa. 
W. C. O'Kane, Durham, New Hampshire. 
A. F. Burgess, Melrose Highlands, Massachusetts. 
E. P. Felt, Albany, New York. 
Herbert Osborn, Columbus, Ohio. 
W. D. Pierce, Washington, District of Columbia. 
J. G. Sanders, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 
^^ George A. Dean, Manhattan, Kansas. 
22 Committee on Nomenclature. 
J Glenn W. Herrick, Chairman, Ithaca, New York. Term expires 1919. 

Edith M. Patch, Orono, Maine. Term expires 1920. 
Z. P. Metcalf, West Raleigh, North Carolina. Term expires 1921. 
Committee on Entomological Investigations. 

George A Dean, Chairman, Manhattan, Kansas. Term expires 1920. 
W. J. ScHOENE, Blacksburg, Virginia. Term expires 1019. 
P. J. Parrott, Geneva, New York. Term expires 1921. 



X JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Committee on Membership. 

W. E. Britton, Chairman, New Haven, Connecticut. Term expires 1919. 

T. J. Headlee, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Term expires 1920. 

E. R. Sasscer, Washington, District of Columbia. Term expires 1921. 
Committee on the United States National Museum. 

J. J. Davis, Chairman, West Lafayette, Indiana. Term expires 1923. 

V. L. Kellogg, Stanford University, California. Term expires 1922. 

E. P. Felt, Albany, New York. Term expires 1921. 

Herbert Osborn, Columbus, Ohio. Term expires 1920. 

E. D. Ball, Ames, Iowa. Term expires 1919. 
Councillors for the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 

H. A. Gossard, Wooster, Ohio. 

C. P. Gillette, Fort CoUins, Colorado. 
Entomologists' Employment Bureau. 

W. E. Hinds, Director, Auburn, Alabama. 



LIST OF MEETINGS AND PAST OFFICERS 

First Annual Meeting, Washington, D. C, Nov. 12-14, 1889. President, C. V. 
RUey; First Vice-President, S. A. Forbes; Second Vice-President, A. J. Cook; Sec- 
retary, John B. Smith. 

Second Annual Meeting, Champaign, 111., Nov. 11-13, 1890. (The same oflScers 
had charge of this meeting.) 

Third Annual Meeting, Washington, D. C, Aug. 17-18, 1891. President, James 
Fletcher; First Vice-President, F. H. Snow; Second Vice-President, Herbert Osborn; 
Secretary, L. O. Howard. 

Fourth Annual Meeting, Rochester, N. Y., Aug. 15-16, 1892. President, J. A. 
Lintner; First Vice-President, S. A. Forbes; Second Vice-President, J. H. Comstock; 
Secretary, F. M. Webster. 

Fifth Annual Meeting, Madison, Wis., Aug. 14-16, 1893. President, S. A. Forbes; 
First Vice-President, C. J. S. Bethxme; Second Vice-President, John B. Smith; Secre- 
tary, H. Garman. 

Sixth Annual Meeting, Brooklyn, N. Y., Aug. 14^15, 1894. President, L. O. How- 
ard; First Vice-President, John B. Smith; Second Vice-President, F. L. Harvey; 
Secretary, C. P. Gillette. 

Seventh Annual Meeting, Springfield, Mass., Aug. 27-28, 1895. President, John 
B. Smith; Fu-st Vice-President, C. H. Femald; Secretary, C. L. Marlatt. 

Eighth Annual Meeting, Buffalo, N. Y., Aug. 21-22, 1896. President, C. H. Fer- 
nald; First Vice-President, F. M. Webster; Second Vice-President, Herbert Osborn; 
Secretary, C. L. Marlatt. 

Ninth Annual Meeting, Detroit, Mich., Aug. 12-13, 1897. President, F. M. Web- 
ster; First Vice-President Herbert Osborn; Second Vice-President, Lawrence Bruner; 
Secretary, C. L. Marlatt. 

Tenth Annual Meeting, Boston, Mass., Aug. 19-20, 1898. President, Herbert 
Osborn; First Vice-President, Lawrence Bruner; Second Vice-President, C. P. Gil- 
lette; Secretary, C. L. Marlatt. 

Eleventh Annual Meeting, Columbus, Ohio, Aug. 18-19, 1899. President, C. L. 
Marlatt; First Vice-President, Lawrence Bruner; Second Vice-President, C. P. 
Gillette; Secretary, A. H. Kirkland. 



February, '19] list of meetings and past OFFICERS xi 

Twelfth Annual Meeting, New York, N. Y., June 22-23, 1900. President, Law- 
rence Bruner; First Vice-President, C. P. Gillette; Second Vice-President, E. H. 
Forbush; Secretary, A. H. Kirkland. 

Thirteenth Annual Meeting, Denver, Colo., Aug. 23-24, 1901. President, C. P. 
Gillette; First Vice-President, A. D. Hopkins; Second Vice-President, E. P. Felt; 
Secretary, A. L. Quaintance. 

Fourteenth Annual Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pa., June 27-28, 1902. President, A. D. 
Hopkins; First Vice-President, E. P. Felt; Second Vice-President, T. D. A. Cockerell; 
Secretary, A. L. Quaintance. 

Fifteenth Annual Meeting, Washington, D. C., Dec. 2&-27, 1902. President, E. P, 
Felt; First Vice-President, W. H. Ashmead; Second Vice-President, Lawrence 
Bruner; Secretary, A. L. Quaintance. 

Sixteenth Annual Meeting, St. Louis, Mo., Dec. 29-31, 1903. President, M. V. 
SUngerland; First Vice-President, C. M. Weed; Second Vice-President, Henry 
Skinner; Secretary', A. F. Burgess. 

Seventeenth Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 29-30, 1904. President, 
A. L. Quaintance; First Vice-President, A. F. Burgess; Second Vice-President, Mary 
E. Murtfeldt; Secretary, H. E. Summers. 

Eighteenth Annual Meeting, New Orleans, La., Jan. 1-4, 1906. President, H. 
Garman; First Vice-President, E. D. Sanderson; Second Vice-President, F. L. Wash- 
bum; Secretary, H. E. Summers. 

Nineteenth Annual Meeting, New York, N. Y., Dec. 28-29, 1906. President, 
A. H. Kirkland; First Vice-President, W. E. Britton; Second Vice-President, H. 
A. Morgan; Secretary, A. F. Burgess. 

Twentieth Annual Meeting, Chicago, III, Dec. 27-28, 1907. President, H. A. 
Morgan; First Vice-President, H. E. Summers; Second Vice-President, W. D. Hun- 
ter; Secretary, A. F. Burgess. 

Twenty-first Annual Meeting, Baltimore, Md., Dec. 28-29, 1908. President, 
S. A. Forbes; Fu-st Vice-President, W. E. Britton; Second Vice-President, E. D. 
Ball; Secretary, A. F. Burgess. 

Twenty-second Annual Meeting, Boston, Mass., Dec. 28-29, 1909. President, 
W. E. Britton; First Vice-President, E. D. Ball; Second Vice-President, H. E. Sum- 
mers; Secretary, A. F. Burgess. 

Twenty-third Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, Minn., Dec. 28-29, 1910. President, 

E. D. Sanderson; First Vice-President, H. T. Fernald; Second Vice-President, P. J. 
Parrott; Secretarj', A. F. Burgess. 

Twenty-fourth Annual Meeting, Washington, D. C, Dec. 27-29, 1911. President, 

F. L. Washburn; First Vice-President, E. D. Ball; Second Vice-President, R. H. 
Pettit; Secretary, A. F. Burgess. 

Twenty-fifth Annual Meeting, Cleveland, Ohio, Jan. 1-3, 1913. President, W. D. 
Hunter; First Vice-President, T. J. Headlee; Second Vice-President, R. A. Cooley; 
Secretary, A. F. Burgess. 

Twenty-sixth Annual Meeting, Atlanta, Ga., Dec. 31, 1913- Jan. 2, 1914. Presi- 
dent, P. J. Parrott; First Vice-President, E. L. Worsham; Second Vice-President, 
Wilmon Newell; Secretary, A. F. Burgess. 

Twenty-seventh Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 28-31, 1914. President, 
H. T. Fernald; First Vice-President, Glenn W. Herrick; Second Vice-President, 
W. E. Britton; Third Vice-President, Wilmon Newell; Secretary, A. F. Burgess. 

Special Meeting, Berkeley, Cal., Aug. 9-10, 1915. (Officers same as for Twenty- 
eighth Annual Meeting.) 

Twenty-eighth Annual Meeting, Columbus, Ohio, Dec. 27-30, 1915. President, 
Glenn W. Herrick; First Vice-President, R. A. Cooley; Second Vice-President, 
W. E. Rumsey; Third Vice-President, E. F. Phillips; Secretary, A. F. Burgess. 



xii JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Twenty-ninth Annual Meeting, New York, N. Y., Dec. 28-30, 1916. President, 
C. Gordon Hewitt; First Vice-President, G. A. Dean; Second Vice-President, E. D. 
Ball; Third Vice-President, W. J. Schoene; Fourth Vice-President, T. J. Headlee; 
Secretary, A. F. Burgess. 

Thirtieth Annual Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pa., Dec. 31, 1917-Jan. 2, 1918. Presi- 
dent, R. A. Cooley; First Vice-President, W. E. Hinds; Second Vice-President, A. W. 
Morrill; Third Vice-President, G. M. Bentley; Fourth Vice-President, B. N. Gates; 
Secretary, A. F. Burgess. 

Thirty-first Annual Meeting, Baltimore, Md., Dec. 26-27, 1918. President, 
E. D. Ball; First Vice-President, W. C. O'Kane; Second Vice-President, G. P. Weldon; 
Third Vice-President, E. C. Cotton; Fourth Vice-President, Franklin Sherman, Jr.; 
Secretary, A. F. Burgess. 



LIST OF MEMBERS 
ACTIVE MEMBERS 

Ainslie, C. N., 5009 Orleans Ave., Sioux City, Iowa. 

Ainslie, George G., R. R. 9, Knoxville, Tenn. 

Aldrich, J. M., U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Back, E. A., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Baker, A. C, U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Baker, A. W., Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph, Canada. 

Baker, C. F., Los Banos, P. I. 

Ball, E. D., Agricultural College, Ames, Iowa. 

Banks, C. S., College of Agriculture, Los Banos, P. I. 

Banks, Nathan, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 

Barber, H. S., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Becker, G. G., Agricultural Experiment Station, Fayetteville, Ark. 

Bentley, G. M., University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn. 

Berger, E. W., University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla. 

Bethime, C. J. S., Guelph, Ontario, Canada. 

Bishopp, F. C, U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Dallas, Texas. 

Blackman, M. W., N. Y. State College of Forestry, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Brittain, W. H., Truro, N. S. 

Britton, W. E., Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Conn. 

Brooks, F. E., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, French Creek, W. Va. 

Brues, C. T., Bussey Institution, Forest Hills, Boston, Mass. 

Bruner, Lawrence, Agricultural Experiment Station, Lincoln, Neb. 

Burgess, A. F., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Melrose Highlands, Mass. 

Burke, H. E., Los Gatos, Cal. 

Busck, August, U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Caesar, Lawson, Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph, Canada. 

Caffrey, D. J., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Hagerstown, Md. 

Cameron, A. E., University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sask. 

Caudell, A. N., U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Chittenden, F. H., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Coad, B. R., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Tallulah, La. 

CockereU, T. D. A., Boulder, Colo. 

CoUins, C. W., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Melrose Highlands, Mass. 

Comstock, J. H., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Conradi, A. F., Clemson College, S. C. 



February, '19] LIST OF MEMBERS 

Cook, Mel. T., Agricultural Experiment Station, New Brunswick, N. J. 

Cooley, R. A., Agricultural Experiment Station, Bozeman, Mont. 

Cory, E. N., Agricultural Experiment Station, College Park, Md. 

Cotton, E. C, Department of Agriculture, Columbus, Ohio. 

Crampton, G. C, Agricultural College, Amherst, Mass. 

Crawford, J. C, U. S. National Museiun, Washington, D. C. 

Creel, C. W., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Forest Grove, Ore. 

Criddle, Norman, Treesbank, Manitoba, Canada. 

Crosby, C. R., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Grossman, S. S., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Melrose Highlands, Mass. 

Davidson, Wm., State Insectary, Sacramento, Cal. 

Davis, I. W., Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Conn. 

Davis, J. J., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, West Lafa;yette, Ind. 

Dean, George A., Agricultural Experiment Station, Manhattan, Kan. 

Dietz, H. F., Federal Horticultural Board, Washington, D. C. 

Doane, R. W., Stanford University, Cal. 

Ehrhom, E. M., Honolulu, H. T. 

Essig, E. O., Ventura, Cal. 

Ewing, H. E., Station A, Ames, Iowa. 

Felt, E. P., State Museum, Albany, N. Y. 

Femald, C. H., Agricultural College, Amherst, Mass. 

Fernald, H. T., Agricultural College, Amherst, Mass. 

Fiske, W. F., South Hanson, Mass. 

Flint, W. P., 1231 W. Edwards St., Springfield, 111. 

Forbes, S. A., University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

Foster, S. W., 201 Sansome St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Fox, Henry, Mercer University, Macon, Ga. 

Franklin, H. J., East Wareham, Mass. 

Fullaway, D. T., Agricultural Experiment Station, Honolulu, H. T. 

Fulton, B. B., Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, N. Y. 

Gahan, A. B., Berwyn, Md. 

Garman, H., Agricultural Experiment Station, Lexington, Ky- 

Garman, Philip, College Park, Md. 

Gates, B. N., 27 Sunset Ave., Amherst, Mass. 

Gibson, Arthur, Entomological Branch, Ottawa, Canada. 

Gillette, C. P., Agricultural Experiment Station, Fort CoUins, Colo. 

Glasgow, Hugh, Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, N. Y. 

Glenn, P. A., Office of State Entomologist, Urbana, 111. 

Goodwin, W. H., Riverton, N. J. 

Gossard, H. A., Agricultural Experiment Station, Wooster, Ohio. 

Graf, J. E., Box 326, Puente, Cal. 

Gray, George P., University of California, Berkeley, Cal. 

Hadley, Charles H., Jr., Field Laboratory, Bustleton, Pa. 

Hamed, R. W., Agricultural College, Miss. 

Hartzell, F. Z., Agricultural Experiment Station, Fredonia, N. Y. 

Haseman, Leonard, Agricultural Experiment Station, Columbia, Mo. 

Hayes, W. P., Agricultural Experiment Station, Manhattan, Kan. 

Headlee, T. J., Agricultural Experiment Station, New Brunswick, N. J. 

Herms, W. B., University of California, Berkeley, Cal. 

Herrick, Glenn W., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Hewitt, C. Gordon, Dominion Entomologist, Ottawa, Canada. 

High, M. M., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Kingsville, Texas. 



xiv JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Hinds, W. E., Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Ala. 

Hine, J. S., Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 

Hodgkiss, H. E., Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, N. Y. 

Holland, W. J., Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Holloway, T. E., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Audubon Park, La. 

Hooker, W. A., States Relation Service, Washington, D. C. 

Hopkins, A. D., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Horton, J. R., 126 S. MinneapoUs Ave., Wichita, Kan. 

Houghton, CO., Agricultural Experiment Station, Newark, Del. 

Houser, J. S., Agricultural Experiment Station, Wooster, Ohio. 

Howard, C. W., Canton Christian College, Canton, China. 

Howard, L. O., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Hungerford, H. B., University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kan. 

Hunter, S. J., University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kan. 

Hunter, W. D., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Hyslop, J. A., U. S. Bureau of Entomology-, Washington, D. C. 

Johannsen, O. A., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Johnson, S. A., Agricultural Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colo. 

Jones, D. W., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Melrose Highlands, Mass. 

Jones, P. R., 350 California St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Jones, T. H., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Baton Rouge, La. 

Kellogg, V. L., Stanford University, Cal. 

Kelly, E. O. G., Agricultural College, Manhattan, Kan. 

Kincaid, Trevor, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 

King, J. L., 3233 Carnegie Ave., Cleveland, Ohio. 

King, W. v., Box 770, New Orleans, La. 

Knight, H. H., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Kotinsky, J., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Lamson, G. H., Jr., Agricultural College, Storrs, Conn. 

Leonard, M. D., Girard, Pa. 

Lochhead, Wm., Macdonald College, Canada. 

Lovett, A. L., Agricultural College, Corvallis, Ore. 

Lowry, Q. S., Agricultural Experiment Station, Amherst, Mass. 

Luginbill, PhiUp, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S. C. 

MacGiUivray, A. D., University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

Marlatt, C. L., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Matheson, Robert, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

McCoUoch, J. W., Agricultural Experiment Station, Manhattan, Kan. 

McConneU, W. R., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Carlisle, Pa. 

McGregor, E. A., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, El Centro, Cal. 

McLaine, L. S., Fredericton, N. B. 

Melander, A. L., Agricultural College, Pullman, Wash. 

Merrill, J. H., Agricultural Experiment Station, Manhattan, Kan. 

Metcalf, C. L., Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 

Metcalf, Z. P., Agricultural Experiment Station, West Raleigh, N. C. 

MUUken, F. B., 2027 Gen. Taylor St., New Orleans, La. 

Moore, Wm., University Farm, St. Paul, Minn. 

Morgan. A. C, U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Clarkesville, Tenn. 

Morgan, H. A., Agricultural Experiment Station, Knoxville, Tenn. 

Morrill, A. W., Phoenix, Ariz. 

Morrison, Harold, Federal Horticultural Board, Washington, D. C. 

Mosher, F. H., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Mehose Highlands, Mass. 



February, '19] list of members 

Nelson, J. A., Mt. Vernon, Ohio. 

Newell, Wilmon, State Plant Commission, Gainesville, Fla. 

O'Kane, W. C, Agricultural Experiment Station, Durham, N. H. 

Osbom, Herbert, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 

Osbom, H. T., Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Experiment Station, Honolulu, H. T. 

Osburn, Raymond C, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 

Paddock, F. B., College Station, Texas. 

Parker, J. R., Agricultural Experiment Station, Bozeman, Mont. 

Parker, R. R., Agricultural College, Bozeman, Mont. 

Parks, T. H., Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 

Parrott, P. J., Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, N. Y. 

Patch, Edith M., Agricultural Experiment Station, Orono, Me. 

Peairs, L. M., Agricultural Experiment Station, Morgantown, W. Va. 

Perkins, R. C. L., Park Hill House, Paignton, England. 

Peterson, Alvah, Entomology Building, New Brunswick, N. J. 

Pettit, Morley, Georgetown, Ontario, Canada. 

Pettit, R. H., Agricultural Experiment Station, East Lansing, Mich. 

Phillips, E. F., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Phillips, W. J., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Charlottesville, Va. 

Pierce, W. D., U. S. Birreau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Popenoe, C. H., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Quaintance, A. L., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Quayle, H. J., University of California, Berkeley, Cal. 

Regan, W. S., 84 Pleasant St., Amherst, Mass. 

Reeves, George I., 416 Vermont Bldg., Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Richardson, C. H., Bristol, Pa. 

Riley, W. A., University Farm, St. Paul, Minn. 

Rockwood, L. P., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Forest Grove, Ore. 

Ross, W. A., Vineland Station, Ontario, Canada. 

Ruggles, A. G., University Farm, St. Paul, Minn. 

Rumsey, W. E., Agricultural Experiment Station, Morgantown, W. Va. 

Sanders G. E., Entomological Branch, Annapolis Royal, N. S. 

Sanders, J. G., Economic Zoologist, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Sanderson, E. D., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Sasscer, E. R., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Satterthwait, A. F., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Lafayette, Ind. 

Schoene, W. J., Agricultural Experiment Station, Blacksburg, Va. 

Schwarz, E. A., U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Scott E. W., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Vienna, Va. 

Seigler, E. H., U. S., Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Shafer, G. D., 321 Melville Ave., Palo Alto, Cal. 

Sherman, Franklin, Jr., State Department of Agriculture, Raleigh, N. C. 

Skinner, Henry, 1900 Race St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Smith, H. S., State Insectary, Sacramento, Cal. 

Smith, L. B., Truck Experunent Station, Norfolk, Va. 

Smith, R. I., 6 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 

Snyder, T. E., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Strickland, E. H., Entomological Branch, Ottawa, Canada. 

Summers, H. E., Agricultural Experiment Station, Ames, Iowa. 

Summers, J. N., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Melrose Higlilands, Mass. 

Surface, H. A., Mechanicsburg, Pa. 



xvi JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Swaine, J. M., Entomological Branch, Ottawa, Canada. 

Swenk, M. H., Agricultural Experiment Station, Lincoln, Neb. 

Swezey, O. H., Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Experiment Station, Honolulu, H. T. 

Symons, T. B., Agricultural Experiment Station, College Park, Md. 

Taylor, E. P., University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz. 

Timberlake, P. H., Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Experiment Station, Honolulu, H. T. 

Titus, E. G., Box 714, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Tothill, J. D., Entomological Branch, Fredericton, N. B. 

Troop, James, Agricultural Experiment Station, Lafayette, Ind. 

Urbahns, T. D., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Martinez, Cal. 

Van Dine, D. L., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Viereck, H. L., Bureau Biological Survey, Washington, D. C. 

Walden, B. H., Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Conn. 

Walton, W. R., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Washburn, F. L., University Farm, St. Paul, Minn. 

Webb, J. L., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Webster, R. L., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Weldon, G. P., Commissioner of Horticulture, Sacramento, Cal. 

Wheeler, W. M., Bussey Institution, Forest Hills, Boston, Mass. 

Wildermuth, V. L., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Tempe, Ariz. 

Wilson, H. F., University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Woglum, R. S., 824 N. Curtis Ave., Alhambra, Cal. 

Wood, W. B., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Worsham, E. L., Capitol Building, Atlanta, Ga. 

Yothers, W. W., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Orlando, Fla. 

Zappe, Max P., Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Conn. 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS 

Abbott, W. S., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Vienna, Va. 

Ackerman, A. J., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Allaman, R. P., Bedford, Pa. 

Allen, H. W., Amherst, Mass. 

Allen, R. H., Board of Agriculture, State House, Boston, Mass. 

Anderson, G. M., Clemson College, S. C. 

Arnold, George F., Starkville, Miss. 

Atkins, Eric W., Station A, Ames, Iowa. 

Atwood, George G., State Department of Agriculture, Albany, N. Y. 

Ayres, Ed L., Box 1775, Houston, Texas. 

Babcock, O. G., Box 208, Dallas, Texas. 

Backus, H. E., Northeast, Pa. 

Baerg, Wm. J., Fayetteville, Ark. 

Bailey, I. L., Northboro, Mass. 

Bailey, J. W., Box 187, Tempe, Ariz. 

Baldwin, C. H., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Barber, E. R., Audubon Park, New Orleans, La. 

Barber, G. W., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Hagerstown, Md. 

Barber, T. C, Audubon Park, New Orleans, La. 

Barnes, P. T., care Economic Zoologist, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Barnes, Wm., Decatur, 111. 

Bartlett, Oscar C, Phoenix, Ariz. 

Beckwith, C. S., Agricultural Experiment Station, New Brunswick, N. J. 



February, '19] LIST OF members xvii 

Bensel, G. E., Oxnard, Cal. 

BeutenmuUer, Wm., 879 Whitlock Ave., Bronx, New York. 

Beyer, A. H., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Columbia, S. C. 

Bilsing, S. W., College Station, Texas. 

Black, A. B., Agricultural College, Corvallis, Ore. 

Blakeslee, E. B., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Bondy, Floyd F., Tallulah, La. 

Bourne, A. I., Agricultural Experiment Station, Amherst, Mass. 

Bower, L. J., U. S. Bm-eau of Entomology, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Braucher, R. Vv''., Kent, Ohio. 

Bridwell, J. C, Honolulu, H. T. 

Brundrett, H. M., 702 Carter Bldg., Houston, Texas. 

Buck, J. E., Rural Retreat, Va. 

Burrill, A. C, Forest Grove, Ore. 

Campbell, R. E., 800 N. Marguerita St., Alhambra, Cal. 

Cardin, P. G., Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. 

Carroll, Mitchell, Agricultural Experiment Station, New Bnmswick, N. J. 

Cartwright, Wm. B., R. R. 9, Knoxville, Tenn. 

Cassidy, T. P., Tallulah, La. 

ChamberUn, T. R., 742 S. Temple St., Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Chandler, S. C, 404 College St., Carbondale, 111. 

Chandler, W. L., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Chapman, J. W., Sillunan Institute, Dumagueta, P. I. 

Chapman, R. N., Department of Animal Biology, University of Minnesota, 

Minneapolis, Mirm. 
Chase, W. W., Capitol Building, Atlanta, Ga. 
Childs, LeRoy, Hood River, Oregon. 

Christie, Jesse R., Marjdand Agricultural College, College Park, Md. 
Chrystal, R. N., Entomological Branch, Ottawa, Canada. 
Claason, P. W., 504 E. Buffalo St., Ithaca, N. Y. 
Clapp, S. C, Mountain Branch Station, Swannanoa, N. C. 
Clausen, C. P., 827 N. Olive St., Alhambra, Cal. 
Cleveland, C. R., Agricultural Experiment Station, Durham, N. H. 
Coe, Wesley R., Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 
Cole, Frank R., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 
Coleman, G. A., University of California, Berkeley, Cal. 
Corbett, G. H., The Gretna, Trowbridge, Wiltshire, England. 
Cotton, R. T., 156 Cascadilla Park, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Couden, F. D., South Bend, Washington. 
Courtney, O. K., Address imknown. 
Crawford, D. L., Pomona CoUege, Claremont, Cal. 
Crawford, H. G., Agricultural College, Guelph, Canada. 
Culver, J. J., Fort Valley, Ga. 

Currie, R. P., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 
Cushman, R. A., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 
Cutrer, T. H., Agricultural Experiment Station, Baton Rouge, La. 
Day, L. H., HolUster, Cal. 
DeLong, Dwight M., O. S. U., Columbus, Ohio. 
Dickerson, E. L., 106 Prospect St., Nutley, N. J. 

Dohanian, S. M., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Melrose Highlands, Mass. 
Dolbin, D. L., 301 N. Second St., Pottsville, Pa. 



Xviii JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Douglass, B. W., Trevlac, Ind. 

Dove, W, E., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Dallas, Texas. 

Dudley, J. E., Jr., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Madison, Wis. 

Dusham, E. H., 419 W, College Ave., State College, Pa. 

Dyess, Mack G., Tallulah, La. 

Eagerton, H. C, Agricultural Experiment Station, Marion, S. C. 

Eckert, J. E., Raleigh, N. C. 

Eddy, M. W., Pa. State College, State College, Pa. 

Ellis, W. O., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Emery, W. T., 310 S. Lorraine Ave., Wichita, Kan. 

Engle, E. B., Office State Zoologist, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Evans, Wm. E., Jr., Knoxville, Tenn. 

Farrar, Edward R., South Lincohi, Mass. 

Fattig, P. W., Agricultural College, North Dakota. 

Fenton, F. A., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, West Lafayette, Ind. 

Ferris, G. F., Stanford University, Cal. 

Fink, D. E., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Norfolk, Va. 

Fisher, W. S., U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Fiske, R. J., IT. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Fluke, C. L., Jr., University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 
Ford, Anson L., Agricultural College, Manhattan, Kan. 
Fort, Harold M., 201 College Ave., Columbia, Mo. 
Fracker, S. B., State Capitol, Madison, Wis. 
Freeborn, S. B., University of California, Berkeley, Cal. 

Frost, Stuart W., Research Laboratory, Arendtsville, Pa. 
Garrett, J. B., Negreet, La. 

Garrison, Gwynn L., Tallulah, La. 

Gates, F. H., Box 187, Tempe, Ariz. 

Gentner, L. G., University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Gibson, E. H., R. R. 1, Alexandria, Va. 

Giffard, W. M., Box 308, Honolulu, H. T. 

Gill, John B., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Monticello, Fla. 

Goodwin, James C, Box 138, Gainesville, Fla. 

Graham, Samuel A., University Farm, St. Paul, Minn. 

Gram, Ernst, Statens Plantspatologiske, Lyngby, Denmark. 

Green, E. C, 923 W. Green St., Urbana, 111. 

Griffith, L. C, Box 13, Robert's Hall, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Guyton, Thomas L., Bureau of Zoology, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Hagan, H. R., Agricultural Experiment Station, Logan, Utah. 

Hall, M. C, Detroit, Mich. 

Ham, W. T., Agricultural Experiment Station, Pullman, Wash, 

Hamilton, C. C, Columbia, Mo. 

Hamlin, J. C, 702 Carter Bldg., Houston, Texas. 

Hargreaves, Ernest, 70 Oak Mount, Burley, Lancashire, England. 

Hart, Herman, J., Falls City, Neb. 

Hartzell, Albert, 321 W. Main St., Fredonia, N. Y. 

Harvey, B. T., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Box 1377, Missoula, Mont. 

Hawley, I. M., College of Agriculture, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Henderson, W. W., Agricultural Experiment Station, Logan, Utah. 

Herbert, F. B., Los Gatos, Cal. 

Hertzog, P. H., Hightstown, N. J. 



February, '19] LIST OF MEMBERS 

Hill, C. C, 227 Moreland Ave., Carlisle, Pa. 

Hodge, C. F., 125 Buffalo Ave., Takoma Park, Wash. 

Hollinger, A. H., Box 836, Bryan, Texas. 

Hollister, W. O., Box 93, West Lafayette, Ind. 

Hood, C. E., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Melrose Highlands, Mass. 

Hood, J. D., Biological Survey. Washington, D. C. 

Howard, N. F., College of Agriculture, Madison, Wis. 

Hudson, G. H., Plattsburg, N. Y. 

Hunt, Chris M., Clearwater, Fla. 

Hutson, J. C, Department of Agriculture, Barbadoes, B. W. I. 

lUingworth, J. F., Gordonvale Cairns, North Queensland. 

Ingerson, H. G., 18807 Sloane Ave., Lakewood, Ohio. 

Isley, Dwight, U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Jewett, H. H., 152 East High St., Lexington, Ky. 

Jones, Charles R., Agricultural College, Fort Collins, Colo. 

Jones, Edward R., University Station, Baton Rouge, La. 

Kidder, Nathaniel T., Milton, Mass. 

Kimsey, M. E., Scottsvale, Ariz. 

Kirk, H. B., 1007 S. 9th St., Harrisburg, Pa. 

Kisliuk, Max, Wilmington, N. C. 

Knull, Josef N., Hammelstown, Pa. 

Koebele, Albert, Waldkirch i Br., Baden, Germany. 

Kraus, E. J., Agricultural Experiment Station, Corvallis, Ore. 

Laake, E. W., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Dallas, Texas. 

Lane, Merton C, Forest Grove, Ore. 

Langston, J. M., Agricultural College, Miss. 

Larrimer, W. H., Box 95, West Lafayette, Ind. 

Larson, A. O., Logan, Utah. 

Lathrop, F. H., Department of Entomology, State University, Columbus, Ohio. 

Lauderdale, J. L. E., Box 136, Yuma, Ariz. 

Ledyard, E. M., Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Lee, Horace W., TaUulah, La. 

Leiby, R. W., State Department of Agriculture, Raleigh, N. C. 

Lewis, A. C, Capitol Building, Atlanta, Ga. 

List, G. M., Fort Collins, Colo. 

Littler, F. M., 65 High St., Launceston, Tasmania. 

Loftin, U. C, U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Audubon Park, La. 

Luster, George W., Tallulah, La. 

Maokie, D. B., State Insectary, Sacramento, Cal. 

Maheux, George, Department of Agriculture, Quebec, Canada. 

Mann, B. P., 1918 Sunderland PI., Washington, D. C. 

Manter, J. A., Connecticut Agricultural College, Storrs, Conn. 

Martin, J. F., 21 Rock Creek Church Rd. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Mason, A. C, Saline, Mich. 

Mason, P. W., Agricultural Experiment Station, Lafayette, Ind. 

Mason, S. L., Box 95, West Lafayette, Ind. 

Maxon, Asa C, Longmont, Colo. 

McDaniel, Eugenia, Agricultural College, East Lansing, Mich. 

McDonough, F. L., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Clarksville, Tenn. 

McGehee, T. F., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Tallulah, La. 

McMillan, D. K., 5057 Balmoral Ave., Chicago, 111. 



XX JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Menagh, C. S., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Mendenhall, E. W., 97 Brighton Rd., Columbus, Ohio. 

Merrill, D. E., State College, New Mexico. 

Merrill, G. B., Box 1713, Jacksonville, Fla. 

Miles, P. B., 1535 Edison St., Salt Lake City, Utah. 

MUlen, F. E., Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa. 

Minott, C. W., Melrose Highlands, Mass. 

Moreland, R. W., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Tallulah, La. 

Morris, Earl L., 812 E. First St., Santa Ana, Cal. 

Morse, A. P., Wellesley, Mass. 

Moznette, G. F., XJ. S. Bureau of Entomology, Miami, Fla. 

Muesebeck, C. F. W., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Nakayama, Shonosuke, Imperial Plant Quarantine Station, Yokohama, Japan. 

Ness, Henry, Ames, Iowa. 

Neuls, J. D., Box 55, Los Angeles, Cal, 

Newcomer, E. J., Portland, Ore. 

Newton, J. H., Agricultural College, Fort Collins, Colo. 

Niswonger, H. R., Agricultural Experiment Station, Lexington, Ky. 

Nougaret, R. L., 716 Wilson Ave., Fresno, Cal. 

O'Byme, F. M., Gainesville, Fla. 

Oestlund, O. W., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Osgood, W. A., New Hampshire College, Durham, N. H. 

Packard, C. M., 2610 Bancroft Way, Berkeley, Cal. 

Painter, H. R., 628 Yeddo Ave., Webster Groves, Mo. 

Park, Wallace, Ames, Iowa. 

Parker, H. L., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Hagerstown, Md. 

Parks, H. B., College Station, Texas. 

Parman, D. C, Uvalde, Texas. 

Peake, G. W., University Farm, St. Paul, Minn. 

PeUett, F. C, Hamilton, 111. 

Penny, D. D., 505 J St., Sacramento, Cal. 

Pemberton, C. E., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Honolulu, H. T. 

Phillips, Saul, Beverly, Mass. 

PUlsbury, J. J., Board of Agriculture, Providence, R. I. 

Plank, H. K., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Poos, F. W., Entomological Laboratory, Charlottesville, Va. 

Porter, B. A., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Powers, E. B., 324 E. Uintah St., Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Primm, James K., Oak Lane, Pa. 

Rane, F. W., State House, Boston, Mass. 

Rea, George H., Harrisburg, Pa. 

Reed, W. V., Capitol BuUding, Atlanta, Ga. 

Reese, C. A., Charleston, W. Va. 

Reinhard, H. J., College Station, Texas. 

Reppert, R. R., Blacksburg, Va. 

Ricker, D. A., Box 95, West Lafayette, Ind. 

Ripley, E. P., Weston, Mass. 

Robinson, J. M., Higginsport, Ohio. 

Rogers, D. M., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, 6 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 

Rolfs, P. H., Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, Fla. 

Rosewall, O. W., Algona, Iowa. 



February, ^19] LIST OF members 

Ryan, H. J., 800 N. Marguerita Ave., Alhambra, Cal. 

Safro, V. I., Louisville, Ky. 

Sams, C. L., Raleigh, N. C. 

Sanford, H. L., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Scammell, H. B., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Schaffner, J. V., Jr., Sherborn, Mass. 

Schalck, E. M., 1722 N. Mozart St., Chicago, 111. 

Scholl, E. E., Capitol Building, Austin, Texas. 

Scott, C. L., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Wellington, Kan. 

Scott, W. M., Office of Markets, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Seamans, H. L., State College, Bozeman, Mont. 

Severin, H. C, Agricultural Experiment Station, Brookings, S. D. 

Severin, H. H. P., University of California, Berkeley, Cal. 

Shaw, N. E., State Department of Agriculture, Columbus, Ohio. 

Shelford, V. E., University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

Simanton, F. L., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Benton Harbor, Mich. 

Smith, Charles E., College Station, Texas. 

Smith, G. A., State Forester's Office, State House, Boston, Mass. 

Smith, H. E., 23 Revere St., Lexington, Mass. 

Smith, H. P., 702 Carter Bldg., Houston, Texas. 

Smith, M. R., Agricultural Experiment Station, Baton Rouge, La. 

Smith, R. C, Entomological Laboratory, Charlottesville, Va. 

Smulyan, M. T., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Melrose Highlands, Mass. 

Snapp, O. I., Box 291, Agricultural College, Mississippi. 

Snow, S. J., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Somes, M. P., 815 Third Ave., E., Kallispell, Mont. 

Spangler, A. J., 6805 E. 16th Ave., Denver, Colo. 

Speaker, H. J., Sandusky, Ohio. 

Spooner, Charles, 412 W. Elm St., Urbana, 111. 

Spuler, Anthony, Agricultural Experiment Station, Pullman, Wash. 

Stafford, E. W., Agricultural College, Miss. 

Stahl, C. F., Spreckels, Cal. 

Stear, J. R., 439 N. Market St., Wooster, Ohio. 

Stearns, L. A., Leesburg, Va. 

Stiles, C. F., Agricultural Experiment Station, Stillwater, Okla. 

Stockwell, C. W., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Melrose Highlands, Mass. 

Strand, A. L., 319 S. Black Ave., Bozeman, Mont. 

Sullivan, K. C, Columbia, Mo. 

Swain, A. F., Riverside, Cal. 

Talbert, T. J., Agricultural Experiment Station, Columbia, Mo. 

Tanquary, M. C, Manhattan, Kan. 

Taylor, J. Edward, State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Thomas, F. L., Auburn, Ala. 

Thomas, W. A., Clemson College, S. C. 

Thompson, B. G., Corvallis, Oregon. 

Tower, D. G., Room 211 A, Custom House, New York City. 

Tower, W. V., Mayaguez, P. 11. 

Treherne, R. C, I'^ntoniological Laboratory, \'orn()n, B. C. 

Trimble, F. M., Primos, Pa. 

Tsou, Y. H., University of Nanking, Nanking, China. 

Tucker, E. S., Tallulah, La. 



xxii JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Turner, C. F., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, West Lafayette, Ind. 

Turner, W. B., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Hagerstown, Md. 

Turner, W. F., Room 333, State Capitol, Atlanta, Ga. 

UnderhiU, G. W., Blacksburg, Va. 

Van Dyke, E, C., University of California, Berkeley, Cal. 

VanZwaluwenberg, R. H., Entomological Laboratory, Hagerstown, Md. 

Vaughan, E. A., Address unknown. 

Vansell, G. H., University of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky. 

Vickery, R. A., 307 Pleasanton Rd., San Antonio, Texas. 

Vickery, R. K., Saratoga, Cal. 

Wade, Joe S., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Wadley, F. M., Wichita, Kan. 

Wallace, F. N., State Entomologist, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Walter, E. V., Ames, Iowa. 

Webber, R. T., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Melrose Highlands, Mass. 

Weed, C. M,, State Normal School, Lowell, Mass. 

Wehr, E. E., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Dallas, Texas. 

Wehrle, L. P., Roberts Hall, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Weigel, C. A., Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 

Weiss, H. B., Agricultural Experiment Station, New Brunswick, N. J. 

Wellhouse, Walter, 307 Eddy St., Ithaca, N. Y. 

Wells, R. W., Box 208, Dallas, Texas. 

Whelan, Don B., Box 804, East Lansing, Mich. 

White, W. H., College Park, Md. 

Whitmarsh, R. D., Agricultural Experiment Station, Wooster, Ohio. 

WiUiams, C. B., The Horticultural Institution, Merton, Surrey, England. 

WilUams, W. R., Tallulah, La. 

Williamson, Warren, Agricultural Experiment Station, St. Anthony Park, Minn. 

Wilson, R. N., West Palm Beach, Fla. 

Wilson, T. S., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, WelUngton, Kan. 

WUtberger, P. B., University of Maine, Orono, Me. 

Winslow, R. M., Victoria, Canada. 

Wolcott, G. N., 1539 Sunset Ave., Utica, N. Y. 

Wood, H. P., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Dallas, Texas. 

Woodin, G. C, 179 S. Richardson Ave., Columbus, Ohio. 

Woods, W. C, Agricultural Experiment Station, Orono, Me. 

Woodworth, H. E., Court House, Bakersfield, Cal. 

Wooldridge, Reginald, U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Melrose Highliands, Mass. 

Worthley, L. H., U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Melrose Highlands, Mass. 

Yothers, M. A., 1514 N. Main St., Medford, Ore. 

Yovmg, A. W., Hingham, Mass. 

Young, D. B., State Museum, Albany, N. Y. 

Young, M. T., Tallulah, La. 

Zetek, James, Ancon, Canal Zone, Panama. 

FOREIGN MEMBERS 

Anderson, T. G., Nairobi, British East Africa. 

Ballon, H. A., Imperial Department of Agriculture, Barbados, West Indies. 

Berlese, Dr. Antonio, Reale Stazione di Entomologia Agraria, Firenze, Italy. 

Bordage, Edmond, Directeur de Mus^e, St. Denis, Reunion. 

Carpenter, Dr. George H., Royal College of Science, DubUn, Ireland. 



February, '19] list of members xxiii 

Cholodkosky, Prof. Dr. N., Militar-Medicinische Akademie, Petrograd, Russia. 

Collinge, W. E., 55 Newhall Street, Birmingham, England. 

Danysz, J., Laboratoire de Parasitologic, Bourse de Commerce, Paris, France. 

DeBussy, L. P., Deli, Sumatra. 

Enock, Fred, 42 Salisbury Road, Bexley, London, S. E., England. 

Escherisch, K., Forstliche Versuchsaustalt, Universitat, Munich, Germany. 

French, Charles, Department of Agriculture, Melbourne, Australia. 

Froggatt, W. W., Department of Agriculture, Sydney, New South Wales. 

Fuller, Claude, Department of Agriculture, Peitermaritzburg, Natal, South Africa. 

Coding, F. W., Guayaquil. Ecuador, South America. 

Grasby, W. C, 6 West AustraUan Chambers, Perth, West Austraha. 

Green, E. E., Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya, Ceylon. 

Helms, Richard, 136 George Street, North Sydney, New South Wales. 

Herrera, A. L., Calle de Betlemitas, No. 8, Mexico City, Mexico. 

Horvath, Dr. G., Mus^e Nationale Hongroise, Budapest, Hungary. 

Jablonowski, Josef, Entomological Station, Budapest, Hungary. 

Kourdumuff, N., Opytnoe Pole, Poltava, Russia. 

Kulagin, Nikolai M., LandwirtschaftUches Institut, Petrooskoje, Moskow, Russia. 

Kuwana, S. I., Imperial Agricultural Experiment Station, Nishigahara, Tokio, Japan. 

Lea, A. M., National Museum, Adelaide, South Austraha. 

Lounsbury, Charles P., Department of Agriculture, Pretoria, Transvaal, South Africa. 

Mally, C, W., Department of Agriculture, Cape Town, South Africa. 

Marchal, Dr. Paul, 16 Rue Claude-Bernard, Paris, France. 

Mokshetsky, Sigismond, Mus^e d'Histoire Naturelle, Simferopole, Crimea, Russia. 

Mussen, Charles T., Hawkesbury Agricultural College, Richmond, New South Wales. 

Nawa, Yashushi, Entomological Laboratory, Kyomachi, Gifu, Japan. 

Newstead, Robert, University School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, England. 

Porchinski, Prof. A., MinistSre de I'Agriculture, Petrograd, Russia. 

Porter, Carlos E., Casilla 2352, Santiago, Chili. 

Pospielow, Dr. Walremar, Station Entomologique, Rue de Boulevard, No. 9, Kiew> 

Russia. 
Reed, Charles S., Mendoza, Argentine Republic, South America. 
Ritzema, Bos, Dr. J., Agricultural College, Wageningen, Netherlands. 
Rosenfeld, A. H., Ingenio Santa Ana, F. C. N. O. A., Tucuman, Argentina. 
Sajo, Prof. Karl, Godollo-Veresegyhaz, Hungary. 
Schoyen, Prof. W. M., Zoological Museum, Christiania, Norway. 
Severin, Prof. G., Curator Natural History Museum, Brussels, Belgium. 
Shipley, Prof. Arthur E., Christ's College, Cambridge, England. 
Silvestri, Dr. F., R. Scuola Superiore di Agricoltura, Portici, Italy. 
Theobald, Frederick V., Wye Court, Wye, Kent, England. 
Thompson, Rev. Edward H., Franklin, Tasmania. 
Tryon, H., Queensland Museum, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. 
Urich, F. W., Victoria Institute, Port of Spain, Trinidad, West Indies. 
Vermorel, V., Station Viticole, Villefranche, Rhone, France. 



JOURNAL 

OF 

ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 

OFFICIAL ORGAN AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGISTS 

Vol. 12 FEBRUARY, 1919 No. 1 

Proceedings of the Thirty-First Annual Meeting of the 
American Association of Economic Entomologists 



The thirty-first annual meeting of the American Association of 
Economic Entomologists was held in Room 9, Oilman Hall, Johns 
Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, December 26 and 27, 1918. 

The meeting convened at 10.30 a, m., December 26, when the annual 
reports were presented and the address of the President was given. 

The session was continued in the afternoon of the same day, and in 
the evening the Section on Apiculture met at 8.00 p. m., when a pro- 
gram of papers was presented. 

At the morning session, December 27, a joint meeting of the As- 
sociation and the Section on Horticultural Inspection was held. 

The final meeting of the Association was held in the afternoon. The 
business proceedings of the Association are given in Part I of this report, 
and the address, papers and discussions appear as Part IL 

The proceedings of the Section on Apiculture will be prepared by the 
Sectional Secretary and published as part of this report. 

PART I. BUSINESS PROCEEDINGS 

The meeting was called to order l)y President E. D. Ball, at 10.30 
a. m., Thursday, December 26, 1918. About 100 members and visi- 
tors attended the sessions. The following members were present: 

J. M. Aldrich, WashinKton, D. C. M. W. Blackman, Syracuse, N. Y. 

R. II. Allen, Boston, Mass. W. E. Brittou, New Haven, Conn. 

E. D. Ball, Ames, Iowa. A. F. Burgess, Melrose Highlands, Mass. 

P. T. Barnes, Harrisburg, Pa. August Busck, Washington, D. C. 

G. G. Becker, Fayettevillc, Ark. D. J. CafTrey, Hagerstown, Md. 

G. M. Bentley, Knoxville, Tenn. W. W. Chase, Atlanta, Ga. 

S. W. Bilsing, College Station, Texas. Mel T. Cook, New Brunswick, N. J. 
u 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 



[Vol. 12 



E. N. Cory, College Park, Md. 

E. C. Cotton, Columbus, Ohio. 

C. R. Crosby, Ithaca, N. Y. 

J. J. Davis, West Lafayette, Ind. 

G. A. Dean, Manhattan, Kan. 

J. E. Dudley, Jr., Madison, Wis. 

E. P. Felt, Albany, N. Y. 

S. W. Frost, Arendtville, Pa. 

A. B. Gahan, Berw^yn, Md. 

PhiUp Garman, College Park, Md. 

C. P. Gillette, Fort Collins, Colo. 

W. H. Goodwin, Riverton, N. J. 

H. A. Gossard, Wooster, Ohio. 

T. L. Guyton, Harrisburg, Pa. 

C. H. Hadley, Jr., Bustleton, Pa. 

T. J. Headlee, New Brunswick, N. J. 

P. H. Hertzog, Hightstown, N. J. 

A. D. Hopkins, Washington, D. C. 

J. S. Houser, Wooster, Ohio. 

L. O. Howard, Washington, D. C. 

J. A. Hyslop, Washington, D. C. 

T. H. Jones, Baton Rouge, La. 

Max Kisliuk, Wilmington, N. C. 

O. A. Larson, Logan, Utah. 

R. W. Leiby, Raleigh, N. C. 

A. C. Lewis, Atlanta, Ga. 

Z. P. Metcalf, West Raleigh, N. C. 

Harold Morrison, Washington, D. C. 

W. C. O'Kane, Durham, N. H. 

Herbert Osborn, Columbus, Ohio. 

R. C. Osburn, Columbus, Ohio. 



T. H. Parks, Columbus, Ohio. 

P. J. Parrott, Geneva, N. Y. 

Alvah Peterson, New Brunswick, N. J. 

W. D. Pierce, Washington, D. C. 

C. H. Popenoe, Washington, D. C. 

J. K. Primm, Oak Lane, Pa. 

A. L. Quaintance, Washington, D. C. 

W. S. Regan, Amherst, Mass. 

R. R. Reppert, Blacksburg, Va. 

W. A. Riley, St. Paul, Minn. 

J. M. Robinson, Auburn, Ala. 

V. I. Safro, Louisville, Ky. 

J. G. Sanders, Harrisburg, Pa. 

E. D. Sanderson, Ithaca, N. Y. 

E. R. Sasscer, Washington, D. C. 
W. J. Schoene, Blacksburg, Va. 
W. M. Scott, Washington, D. C. 
L. M. Smith, Blacksbxirg, Va. 

T. E. Snyder, Washington, D. C. 

L. A. Stearns, Leesburg, Va. 

T. B. Symons, College Park, Md. 

F. M. Trimble, Primos, Pa. 

G. W. UnderhUl, Blacksburg, Va. 

R. H. Van Zwaluwenberg, Hagerstown, 

Md. 
Joe S. Wade, Washington, D. C. 
W. R. Walton, Washington, D. C. 
J. L. Webb, Washington, D. C. 
L. P. Wehrle, Ithaca, N. Y. 
W. B. Wood, Washington, D. C. 



President E. D. Ball: You will please come to order. The first 
business on the program is the report of the Secretary. 

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 

The total membership of the Association at the time of the last annual meeting was 
501, divided as follows: active 145, associate 306, and foreign 50. At that meeting 
four associate members resigned, and twenty-two were transferred to active member- 
ship. During the year four associate members have been dropped from the rolls 
and three active, seven associate and two foreign members have died. Seventy-one 
associate members were elected at the Pittsburgh meeting. 

The present membership totals 553, divided as follows: active 164, associate 340, 
and foreign 48. The net gain for the year has been 50 members. 

On July 15, 1916, Mr. A. T. Gillanders, one of our foreign members, was stricken 
with heart failure and died at Oxford, England. 

This information did not reach the Secretary until April of this year which accounts 
for the lateness of this notice. 

On February 17, 1918, Charles A. Hart died at his home at Urbana, 111. He had 
been associated with the IlUnois State Laboratory of Natural History and the Illinois 
State Entomologist's office for many years, and was one of our older active members. 



February, '19] BUSINESS PROCEEDINGS 3 

On March 13, 1918, W. H. Harrington died at Ottawa, Canada. He has been an 
associate member for many years and his systematic work in Hymenoptera and 
Coleoptera was of recognized merit. 

On April 11, 1918, Lieut. Vernon King, an associate member of this Association, 
was killed in an air battle in France when the machine in which he was fiying with a 
pilot was attacked by three enemy scout machines. He was formerly employed by 
the United States Bureau of Entomology at Wellington, Kan., and was highly re- 
spected by all who knew him. 

He joined the British Army soon after the Great War began and saw service in the 
Dardanelles campaign and later in France. 

On July 4, 1918, Lieut. John W. Bradley, an associate member, died as the result 
of an aeroplane accident at Dayton, Ohio. Prior to the war he was an assistant at the 
Gipsy Moth Laboratory of the Bureau of Entomology, Melrose Highlands, Mass. 
He had completed his training and received his commission shortly before the acci- 
dent occurred. He was a young man of great promise. 

On July 21, 1918, Lieut. W. H. Hasey, an associate member, was killed in action in 
France while serving in the United States Infantry. He was a young man who had 
been trained in entomology at the Massachusetts Agricultural College, and carried 
on spraying and tree surgery work in Eastern Massachusetts. 

On August 25, 1918, Dr. G. Leonardi, of the Royal Scuola di Agricoltura, Portici, 
Italy, a foreign member, died at Ventimiglia, Italy. He was well known for his work 
on Coccids. 

On September 10, 1918, H. O. Marsh, an active member, died at Chester, N. J. 
Most of his active work was conducted for the Bureau of Entomolog\' and many of his 
publications were issued by that Bureau. 

On September 26, 1918, S. C. Vinal, an associate member, died of pneumonia at 
Cambridge, Mass. He was just beginning a career which promised a brilliant future 
as an entomologist. 

On October 8, 1918, A. D. Duckett, an associate member, died of influenza. He 
had been employed several years by the United States Bureau of Entomology. 

On November 2, 1918, Frederic Knab, an associate member, died at Washington, 
D. C. He had been an assistant in the Bureau of Entomology for many years and 
was custodian of the Diptera in the United States National Museum. 

His work on Diptera, particularly Culicidae, is well known to all entomologists. 
On December 15, 1918, Lieut. A. H. Jennings, an active member, died at Camp 
Shelby, Miss., from injuries by being knocked down by an automobile. He had done 
much valuable\vork on mosquitoes both in the United States and in the Canal Zone, 
Panama. 

The Pacific Slope Branch held it^ third annual meeting March 28-29, 1918, at the 
branch laboratory of the California State Insectary at Alhambra, Cal. Twenty- 
nine members and visitors were present. An excellent program was presented and an 
opportunity given for field inspection of entomological work. The proceedings were 
published in the June number of the Jouunal of Econo.mic Entomology. 

During the past year there has been a moderate sale for Banks Index to the Lit- 
erature of Economic Entomologj'. It has been necessary to bind 300 additional 
copies in order to meet future calls and this expense, together with postage and in- 
surance, has been met from 1918 sales. The financial statement shows a balance of 
$46.92 in the treasury to the credit of this account. 

Three hundred dollars is still due the Association fund on account of the Index, 
but it is expected that this can be reduced somewhat during the coming year. 



4 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

At the last annual meeting it was voted that the dues of officers and enlisted men, 
members of this Association in the United States or allied armies or navies, be remitted 
vmtil the close of the war. 

This has been done in a few cases, but owing to the uncertainty concerning the 
status of many of the men, and contradictory reports that were received it was im- 
possible to conform to the instructions of the Association in every case. The proper 
adjustment will be made with all our soldier and sailor members and each will receive 
full benefit of the action of the ^Association. 

Remission of dues does not include subscription to the Journal of Economic 
Entomology. 

The Secretary was also instructed to prepare an honor roll. It has been impos- 
sible to do this with any degree of accuracy. The following roll (see page 126), is 
submitted. It is doubtless imperfect in some respects, but is the best that can be 
done under the circumstances. 

The Journal of Economic Entomology 

There has been a considerable reduction in the subscription list of the Journal 
during the past year, and it has been necessary to curtail expenditures as much as 
possible in order to prevent a large deficit. 

During 1917, 572 pages were published in the Journal; during 1918, 494 pages 
were published. Even with this reduction in the amount of printing, the income 
from the Journal has not been suflBcient to pay expenses. The available balance at 
the end of the year 1917 has been exhausted and it has been necessary to use Associa- 
tion funds in order to keep the bills paid. At the annual meeting at Pittsburgh, the 
Secretary was authorized to transfer, not to exceed $200, from the Association funds 
for use in connection with the Journal. It has been necessary to do this and $105.09 
of this amount has been expended. Prices on nearly everything in connection with 
publishing the Journal have increased greatly. The cost of printing was increased 
early in the year and a further increase of 25 per cent went into effect October 1. 
Printing is the largest single item of expenditure, but the cost of mailing, cost of 
postage, and nearly everything else has been advanced during the past year. It is 
impossible to attempt to meet these expenditures for the coming year by increasing 
the subscription price of the Journal for the year 1919, as it is necessary to quote 
prices to subscription agencies and dealers five or six months prior to the beginning 
of the year and after these prices are fixed and published, it is impossible to revise 
them. For the coming year it will be necessary to reduce the size of the Journal and 
in aU probability draw on Association fimds to make up the deficit. 

Beginning with the year 1920, the subscription price of the Journal should be in- 
creased by not less than 50 cents or more than $1 per year. The exact rate should be 
decided before July 1, 1919. This will give time to determine whether production 
prices will be maintained, advanced or decreased, as conditions become more normal. 

Association Statement 

Balance in Treasury, December 7, 1917 $588.87 

By amount received from dues, 1918 508 . 00 

By amount received from interest in Maiden National Bank 13.20 

By amount received from interest of $100 Liberty Bond 4 . 12 

Paid stenographic report 1917 meeting $91 .76 

Buttons, 1917 meeting 10.73 

Postage 41 .00 

Printing programs, etc 77 .24 



February, '19] BUSINESS PROCEEDINGS 5 

Telegraph and express $1 .29 

Transfer to JotmNAL fund 200.00 

Clerical work, Secretary's oflfice 35.00 

One-half salary of Secretary 50 . 00 

Returned check 2 . 00 

$509.02 
Balance, December 10, 1918 , 605.17 

$1,114.19 $1,114.19 
Balance deposited as follows: 

Melrose Savings Bank $157.42 

Maiden National Bank 447.75 

Journal Statement 

Balance in Treasury, December 7, 1917 $189.27 

By amount received from subscriptions, advertising, etc., 1918 2,063.58 

By amoimt received from Association accoimt 200 . 00 

By amount received as interest on bank deposit 5 . 13 

Paid for stamps $52 . 42 

express 2 . 68 

printing 1,872.84 

Telegraph 1 .43 

Half-tones 135.15 

Miscellaneous supplies 3 . 00 

Insurance 20 . 55 

Clerical work, Editor's office 65 . 00 

Clerical work, Secretary's office 60.00 

Salary, Editor 100.00 

One-half salary of Secretary 50 . 00 

$2,363.07 
Balance, December 10, 1918 94.91 

$2,457.98 $2,457.98 
Balance deposited in Maiden, Mass., National Bank $94 .91 

Index Statement 

Balance in Treasury, December 15, 1917 $15 . 51 

By amount received from sales to December 10, 1918 188.00 

Paid for binding 127 . 89 

postage 10 . 00 

insurance 18 . 70 

$156.59 
Balance, December 10, 1918, Deposited in Maiden, Mass., 

National Bank 46 . 92 



$203.51 $203.51 



6 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Summary 

Balance on Index Account $46 . 92 

Balance on Journal Account 94 . 91 

Balance on Association Account 605 . 17 

One 4? per cent Liberty Bond 100 . 00 



$847.00 
Respectfully submitted, 

A. F. Burgess, 

Secretary. 

After a brief discussion it was moved that the report be accepted and 
the financial part referred to the Auditing Committee; also that the 
honor roll submitted by the Secretary be published in a prominent 
place in the Journal and that suitable mention be made of the serv- 
ices of other members of the Association, not in the Army or Navy, 
who contributed their efforts to win the war. 

President E. D. Ball: The next report is that of the Executive 
Committee, but there is no special report to make. The place of 
meeting was changed by the American Association for the advance- 
ment of Science, consequently we thought it necessary to make a 
similar change. 

Secretary A. F. Burgess: In connection with the changing of the 
place of meeting, I will say that late in the fall several members sug- 
gested that we hold an independent meeting at Cornell University on 
account of the probability that Baltimore would be crowded at this 
time. The Executive Committee decided, however, that it would be 
best to hold the meeting at Baltimore. Conditions have improved 
very much recently, and it is doubtless fortunate that this arrange- 
ment was made as it developed that Cornell Universit}^ could not make 
convenient arrangements for holding the meeting during the vacation 
period. There is, however, a desire on the part of some of the mem- 
bers to hold a meeting at Ithaca when convenient arrangements can 
be made. 

President E. D. Ball: The next on the program is the report 
of the Entomologists' Employment Bureau. (Dr. Hinds, who has 
charge of the Bureau was not present at the meeting, and his report did 
not arrive until after final adjournment, therefore no action could be 
taken on it. The report is inserted, however, to complete the record.) 

REPORT OF ENTOMOLOGISTS' EMPLOYMENT BUREAU FOR YEAR 

OF 1918 
During the past year the work of the Bureau has been much affected by war 
conditions. The drafts placed many of the men on our roils in army service and thus 
reduced the number of eUgible candidates for the few positions which were reported to 
us. The restrictions of war economies evidently reduced the number of positions for 
which candidates were sought. There has been a notable change in both these 
phases of our work since the middle of November. 



February, '19] business proceedings 7 

During the past year fourteen (14) men have enrolled, including the reenroUments. 
Several men have been placed but we know that our record of placements is very 
incomplete. 

Ninety-one (91) references have been made between possible employers and em- 
ployees, and two hundred and ten (210) letters written in the Bureau work. 

Financial Statement for Year of 1918 
Receipts : 

Dec. 26, 1917, Cash on hand $47 . 10 

1918 enrollments, fourteen, at $2.00 28 . 00 

Total $75 . 10 

Disbursements: 

April 9, 1918, Paid J. P. Bell (stenographer) 6.80 

Aug. 24, 1918, Post Publishing Co. (printing) 2.00 

Oct. 28, Paid C. E. Posey (stenographer) 11 .20 

Dec. 21, Paid Mrs. J. W. Dooley (stenographer) 3.00 

Dec. 24, Paid W. E. Hinds, postage for year 6.30 

Dec. 24, Paid W. E. Hinds, entomologist for envelopes and 

second sheets furnished for year 2 . 50 

Total 31 . 80 

Balance, cash on hand $43 . 30 

Respectfully submitted, 

W. E. Hinds, 

In Charge. 



President E. D. Ball: We will now listen to the report of the 
Committee on Nomenclature. 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON NOMENCLATURE 

The Committee on Nomenclature has had nothing referred to it during the year, and 
no suggestions or requests have been made regarding the adoption or change of com- 
mon names. The members of the committee feel, however, that considerable work 
should be done along this line in order to insure stability and uniformity in common 
names. P'or the purpose of making a slight contribution towards this end, the follow- 
ing names have been suggested by members of the committee, and the committee 
recommends their adoption: 

Laspeyresia molesta Busck Oriental Peach Moth 

Pyrausla nubilalis Hubn European Corn Borer 

Rhagoletis cingulata Loew Banded Cherry Fruit-fly 

Rhagolelis fausta O. S Dark Cherry Fruit-fly 

Respectfully submitted, 

W. E. Britton, 
Edith M. Patch, 
Glenn W. Herrick, 

Commitlee. 



8 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Report was accepted and the recommendations adopted with the 
exception of the tobacco worm, Crambus sp., which was referred back 
to the committee for further consideration. 

President E. D. Ball: The report of the Committee on Index to 
Economic Entomology will now be in order. 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE PUBLICATION OF THE INDEX 
OF AMERICAN ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 

The successful completion of the Index for 1905 to 1914, at a tota cost of $1,212.90, 
was reported at the last meeting, at which time there was a balance against the work, 
after deducting receipts from sales, of $284.49. The Secretary of the Association, 
imder date of December 9 last, states that thirty-seven copies have been sold and paid 
for during the year and as the stock of bound copies on hand was running very low, 
300 more copies were bound. He adds that the expense of binding, insurance and 
postage has made it impossible to reduce the $.300 outstanding which was borrowed 
from the Association funds. There is, however, to the credit of the index fund at the 
present time $46.92 and if a reasonable number of sales can be made during the com- 
ing year, this debt can be considerably reduced. 

A recent letter from Doctor Howard, Chief of the Bureau of Entomology, states 
that he and a number of other men in the Bureau, think it very desirable that a five 
year Index, covering the years 1915 to 1919, should be prepared. Fm-thermore he 
will arrange to have the compilation made and as the value of the Index depends to a 
very considerable degree upon the promptness of its publication, it seems advisable 
that the compilation be commenced early enough so that the Index will be complete 
or practically so by the end of the next calendar year, thus making it possible to issue 
the volume in March or April, 1920. 

This Index covers a five-year period and in order to be on the safe side, it has been 
estimated that there would be about three foiu^ths as many references as in the volume 
covering the preceding decennium. This would make a work of about 250 pages. 
Tentative figures by the printer, based on current prices, indicate that the cost of the 
completed work would be approximately the same as that of the other volume; in 
other words, the advance in prices would be approximately offset by the smaller size 
of the volume. 

The committee therefore recommends that it be continued and authorized to start 
the work in 1919, along substantially the same lines as were followed in the prepara- 
tion of the preceding Index, and that the editorial board of the Journal of Economic 
Entomology be authorized, in its discretion, to proceed with the publication of the 
Index and to fix, as heretofore, the price of copies. 

Respectfully submitted, 

E. p. Felt, 
A. F. Burgess, 
W. C. O'Kane, 
W. E. Britton, 
W. E. Hinds, 

Committee. 

On motion the report was accepted and the recommendations adopted. 
President E. D, Ball: The next report is that of the Committee 
on War Service. 



February, '19] BUSINESS PROCEEDINGS 9 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON WAR SERVICE BY ENTOMOLOGISTS 

Your Special Committee appointed January 2, 1918, to bring to the attention of the 
federal authorities resolutions of the Association tendering to the War Department 
the technical services of entomologists in connection -with camp sanitation, especially 
in the prevention of insect-borne diseases, begs to report that we met first in Wash- 
ington, January 9-12, coming into conference with officers of the War Department 
most immediately responsible for the control of camp sanitation, submitting to the 
Department through them the resolutions passed by you at your Pittsburgh meeting, 
and taking such further steps towards realizing the purpose of these resolutions as 
seemed possible at the time; that we met again in Washington, April 5, to complete 
our arrangements with the Department; and that our business since that time has 
been conducted by correspondence only. 

It appeared to us in the beginning that entomologists might be of important service 
to the armies of the United States in time of war by accepting such positions as might 
be offered them in the U. S. Sanitary Corps as experts in the study and control of 
insect pests, especially those which are carriers of contagious disease to our troops in 
camp and field; bj' acting as advisers to the sanitary officers of camps and canton- 
ments in their respective territories; and by engaging, as their other employments 
might permit, in a careful investigation of sanitary problems in which infestation by 
insects was an important factor. 

At our first meeting we had a conference with Doctor Howard and examined the 
correspondence which he had already had with the Surgeon-General's office relative 
to the appointment of entomologists to positions in the Sanitary Corps. The com- 
mittee planned at the outset to cooperate with the U. S. Bureau of Entomolog>s 
which, by reason of its location, affiliations, and opportunities for personal communi- 
cation and conference, was in position to advise and negotiate and to make recom- 
mendations, both general and specific, to the War Department. Indeed, the Bureau 
had already done much to influence the policy of the Medical Department with 
respect to the appointment of entomologists as sanitary officers. 

Although the responsible officers of the Medical Department were bj^ no means a 
unit as to the need of entomologists in official relation to army sanitation, some of the 
more important of them being, indeed, evidently of the opinion that the medical offi- 
cers of the Sanitary Corps were, or would presently become, entirely competent to 
handle insect problems in a practical way without expert aid from entomologists, 
there were still enough whose minds were open to conviction to give the Bureau of 
Entomology a fair opportunity to bring fact and argument to bear, with the result 
that E. H. Gib.son, R. Gies, W. B. Hernis, A. H. Jennings, and D. L. Van Dine were 
commissioned as captains in the Sanitary Corps, L. H. Dunn, and W. H. White as 
lieutenants in that corps, and G. F. White as a captain in the Medical Corps. Several 
entomologists were taken into the army and given non-commissioned positions, six of 
them as sergeants and one as a corporal. In the nav>' John W. Bailey was sent to the 
Navy Medical School and recommended for a commi.ssion, but was later transferred 
to the army and would have received a commi.ssion within a few days except for the 
signing of the armistice; and O. H. Basseches, who was in the Officers' Training 
School, would have received a commission in the Veterinary Corps except for the 
same reason. Several entomologists who applied for service in the Medical Corps 
were sent to the Yale Army Medical School, and were being trained for jwssible com- 
missions in the Medical Corps when hostilities were terminated. One member of 
the Marine Corps, C. D. Duncan, was promoted to pharmacist's mate and had charge 
of all the entomological sanitation at Quantico; and five privates wore assigned to 
entomological .sanitary work in their camps. 



10 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

The Bureau has also maintained, throughout the period of the war, thorough co- 
operation with the Surgeon-General's office in the matter of experimental work on 
insect problems. Practically all of the work on the body-louse has been conducted 
in the Bureau or through a committee of the National Research Council of which 
Doctor Howard is chairman; and reports of these investigations have been sent, as 
fast as ready, to the Surgeon-General's office. By direction of the Surgeon-General, 
arrangements were made with Major F. B. Granger for cooperative experiments in 
certain phases of the itch-mite problem. A large part of this investigation was carried 
on in cooperation with the Quartermaster's Department, and, as a result, extensive 
reports were made on the value of laundering and dry-cleaning processes against the 
body-louse. A very promising cooperation was established with several officers of 
the Chemical Warfare Service. In one line of research experiments were made to 
learn the fumigation value of all gases used in chemical warfare, and in another, to 
determine the effect in controlling vermin of substances used to protect the body 
against the poisonous gases. 

Indirectly the Bureau was asked to render considerable service to officers handling 
sanitary problems by means of the duplicated proceedings of a class formed for the 
study of the entomology of disease, hygiene, and sanitation. Copies of these pro- 
ceedings were sent to every camp library in the United States at the request of the 
Camp Library Association, and were also sent personally to many officers. 

In its own direct operations your committee was somewhat hampered by the un- 
deniable fact that, although representing an important national association, we were, 
in a military sense, simply citizens offering assistance to army officers presumably 
competent to the discharge of their duties, however special and numerous these might 
be, and by the further fact that we had in the beginning no definite information of 
conditions existing at that time in our own camps and cantonments which we could 
submit as convincing evidence that the services of entomologists were actually needed 
in the American Army. It seemed, therefore, to be our first duty to arrive, if possible, 
at a knowledge of these conditions, and we proposed a system of unofficial visits by 
the entomologists of certain selected states to camps and cantonments within their 
territories, with a view to ascertaining whether insect problems were really being 
handled successfully, and to serving as unofficial advisers to the medical officers in 
charge if occasion were found for such advice. We had in view, also, the fact that a 
critical inspection of entomological conditions in the neighborhood of military estab- 
lishments was an immediate duty of entomologists interested in the protection of the 
health of the people in their states against insect-borne diseases, and for this no special 
authorization was needed. We proposed, of course, to send to the Surgeon-General 
informal reports of observations made and recommendations which seemed to be 
called for. 

Through the willing and interested courtesy of Colonel F. F. Russell, of the U. S. 
Medical Corps, who wrote us under date of February 23, "I think that we all agree 
that a survey made in this way is a very desirable and satisfactory solution of one of 
our difficulties," an arrangement of this character was made, and letters of intro- 
duction were given, at our request, to the various medical officers concerned, of which 
the following is an example : 

From the Surgeon-General, U. S. Army 

To The Division Surgeon, Camp Sherman, Ohio 

1. This will introduce to you Professor Herbert Osborn, of Ohio State University, 
Columbus, Ohio. Professor Osborn is one of the best known economic entomologists 
in the country. It is believed that direct cooperation between you and Professor 
Osborn will result in the prompt correction of sanitary difficulties due to insect pests, 



February, '19] BUSINESS PROCEEDINGS 11 

■especially since Professor Osborn has, through his state connections, considerable 
power and authority over extra-cantonment conditions which cannot be reached 
•directly by you. 

By direction of the Surgeon-General: 

(Signed) F. F. Russell, 
Colonel, Medical Corps, U. S. A. 

It was our intention to choose in the first instance a few typical, widely separated, 
camps and cantonments such as might be supposed to give us a fair idea of con- 
ditions throughout the country, and letters were requested for entomologists in the 
states of Arizona, Colorado, Alabama, Illinois, Ohio, New York, and New Hamp- 
shire. Owing no doubt to the terrific pressure on all military offices in Washington 
at the time, the letters called for were not actually issued until the last days of May, 
and reports of surveys were received by the committee at various dates from June 8 
to August 9, and these were forwarded to Washington soon thereafter. In the mean- 
time, the vacation season had so far dispersed the official entomologists, including the 
chairman of this committee, that no further progress was made on this program. 

We scarcely need say that the visiting entomologists were cordially welcomed in 
every case; that every facUity and assistance was rendered them in making their 
observations; and that their comments and suggestions, when matters of any impor- 
tance came to light, were received with evident appreciation of the service rendered. 
Full reports were received by us concerning seven different camps, and brief general 
statements concerning two others. 

It was evident from these reports that the entomological problems relating to the 
■camps and cantonments were being handled much more successfully than those relat- 
ing to adjacent areas outside. There was little found, indeed, concerning interior 
conditions to which serious exception could be taken. In one southern camp house- 
flies were common in mess-halls and kitchens, although all buildings had been thor- 
oughly screened, the trouble here being due to an imperfect fitting of the screens to 
window openings, and to an unsuspected breeding place of flies in livery stables about 
a mile away, the surroundings of which were not as clean as they should have been 
although all manure was being removed from the stables every day. In one or two 
camps somewhat infested by lice and other parasites, the officers were taking the 
proper steps to abate the nuisance. 

The following are fair examples of the reports received, one relating to Camp 
Sherman, in Ohio, and the other to Camp Devens, in Massachusetts: 

Camp Sherman. — "As I had letters to Surgeon Robinson from Dr. Freeman and, 
to Colonel Allen, Division Surgeon, from the Surgeon-General's office, I received a 
very cordial welcome from these officers and believe that the information I secured is 
thoroughly reliable and that we can depend upon the men in charge of sanitation at 
the camp to cooperate in every practical way in the matter of utilizing any informa- 
tion that we may be able to furnish concerning most effective plans for insect control. 
In this first visit I think the main accomplishment was the establishment of cordial 
relations as a basis for cooperation in the future. 

"From all of the facts that I learned, it appears that the health conditions in this 
camp have been excellent and there have been practically no cases of disease which 
could be attributed to in.sect carriers. Typhoid has been j)ractically eliminated as a 
result of inoculation, but the disease is more or less prevalent in the vicinity of the 
camp and the public health service in cooperation with the State Board of Health is 
making a vigorous campaign for the reduction of flies and the elimination of all possi- 
ble .sourcics of fly-breeding and contamination. 

"The camp itself has disposed of stable waste very effectively bj- daily distrii)Ution 
to the surrounding farms — so efTectively, indeed, that it was said that there was more 
difficulty in disposing of the stable wastes from the city proper. The local officer 
•considers that they have this fairly well in hand now, ana expects improvement as 
they get their organization more effectively at work. 



12 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

"Apparently they have had no annoyance from mosquitoes. There is no malaria 
in the locality nor has there been for many years. However, they recognize the possi- 
bility of malarial cases and the need of guarding against Anopheles. The mosquito 
situation will need some attention, but, considering the conditions, I believe the local 
authorities are fully justified in putting their main effort at present on the suppression 
of flies rather than undertaking any extensive operations against the possible mosquito- 
breeding locaUties. In case any injury comes from this course it will be desirable 
either to provide drainage or else to keep the ponds and canal pockets filled with 
water and stocked with fish or mosquito-destroying insects to avoid danger from this 
source. 

"No rats have been troublesome at the camp, and were reported not abundant in 
the town. No flies, body-lice, chiggers, ' punkies,' buffalo-gnats, or other pests have 
occasioned trouble so far. On the whole, I think the sanitary conditions may be 
considered in good shape, and the officers in charge are exceptionally energetic andl 
efficient in their operations." 

Camp Devens. — "I visited this camp five times in the course of the summer, and 
each time have looked over conditions in a general way. 

"The reception accorded me by the Division Surgeon and his assistants had been 
exceedingly friendly. There was an evident desire on the part of the officers to take 
full advantage of any help that might be offered them and a full wilUngness to explain 
in detail the measures that they were carrying through to control insect pests within 
the camp. One could not ask for a more cordial and open-minded reception. 

"Camp Devens is situated in a sandy region made up of many small knolls orig- 
inally covered, for the most part, with small, scrubby tree growth. There are several 
small ponds within the limits of the camp, and along one border is a river which, so 
far as I have observed, has slow movement. Most of the area has excellent natural 
drainage, with the exception of some of the ponds and especially the borders of the 
river. 

"The sanitary officers carried out considerable drainage measures, especially in 
some wet areas adjacent to the base hospital and a similar area near the large parade 
ground. Drainage of a rather stagnant pool, somewhat filled with brush, was not 
undertaken and probably was not feasible. Drainage of the extensive stagnant 
water along the border of the river could not be undertaken, since there was no fall. 
Apparently, conditions were such that mosquitoes might become a serious nuisance, 
but throughout this season very few mosquito larvae could be found in any of the 
ponds or in the stream. Enlisted men with whom I talked said that they were not 
bothered at all with mosquitoes. In the course of the summer the camp received a 
detachment of more than two thousand negroes from the south, and examination by 
the division surgeon's officers showed that a large proportion of these negroes were 
carriers of malaria. For this reason I feared that there would be danger of an out- 
break of malaria in the camp if Anopheles should show up, but nothing of the kind 
took place. 

"Considerable oiling was done by sanitar}' squads. Oil was applied by knapsack 
pumps and by drip cans. However, to attempt to control the mosquitoes by oiling in 
some of the swamp areas, especially along the river, would be difficult. 

"The fly proposition was handled carefully by the sanitary officers. Garbage was 
removed daily to a station at one margin of the camp, where the cans were emptied 
and washed. The garbage from the emptied cans was hauled away by a contractor. 
Fafilities for thoroughly cleaning the cans were inadequate. They were supposed ta 
be cleaned with scalding water, bat the boiler for providing the hot water was too 
small. 

"Outside each mess-hall garbage cans were placed within screened cages. Most of 
these cages were provided with fly-traps. In the opinion of one of the assistants- 
attached to the division surgeon's office, garbage was handled more satisfactorily 
when the cans were placed on an open platform, provided the cans are removed daily. 
On the open platform there is less opportunity for bits of garbage to remain unno- 
ticed in corners. Also, in his experience, screened receptacles for garbage soon ceased 
to be fly-proof. 

"Horse manure was collected daily; was carted to a loading station near the camp 
and was there loaded into freight cars and hauled away. For the most part the stables- 
were kept clean. There was no evidence of extensive breeding of flies in stable 
manure. 

"Occasionally men were received in the cantonment who were infested with body- 
Uce, but apparently such cases were always detected and the lice destroyed. There 



February, '18] BUSINESS PROCEEDINGS 13 

was no general infestation of body-lice at any point in the cantonment, so far as I 
could learn. 

"Bedbugs became a nuisance in certain officers' quarters, and were diflficult to 
control because of the type of building." 

The control of outside conditions usually required the cooperation of local author- 
ities or state boards of health, and this was sometimes obtainable and sometimes not. 
In one of our Illinois camps, for example, a prairie stream which carried away camp 
sewage was regularly policed and all the farm premises within half a mile were kept 
quite clean of breeding places for flies; in another all waters in which mosquitoes 
might breed were regularly oiled by sanitary squads sent out from the camp ; but in 
a third no attention whatever had been paid to the immediate environment, although 
the camp had been established within a quarter of a mile of an extensive swamp in 
which mosquitoes, including Anopheles, began to breed in immense niunbers as soon 
as the season opened, neighboring outhouses were in filthy condition, and a sawmill 
employing a number of workmen near the camp was without toilet facilities of any 
kind. Even here, however, there were no untoward consequences, an unusually long 
drouth drying out the swamp and no cases of disease traceable to house-flies occurring. 

It was in the improvement of these outside conditions that our entomologists might 
have been most active and useful; and if the war had continued we should doubtless 
have brought this fact clearly to your notice, with a view to a plan of more general and 
effective cooperation another year. 

The subject of after-the-war work by entomologists lies, of course, outside the duty 
of this committee, but we take the liberty, nevertheless, of calling your attention to a 
discussion of it which appeared as an editorial in the December number of the Jour- 
nal OF Economic ENTOMOLOGy, and to express the approval of the committee as a 
whole of the suggestions made therein. 

S. A. Forbes, 
E. P. Felt, 
W. C. O'Kane, 

Committee. 

Mr. E. p. Felt: Dr. Forbes, chairman of this committee, is un- 
able to be present, but the report which he has drafted has been ex- 
amined by the other members of the committee and with the exception 
of a few minor changes, is in the same form as he originally submitted 
it. 

A general discussion of this report followed, and as there seemed to 
be work along war or after the war lines, that could be done, it was 
voted that the report be accepted and the committee continued. 

President E. D. Ball: We will now listen to the report of the 
Committee on Entomological Investigations. 

Mr, W. J. Schoene: A circular letter has been sent to the en- 
tomologists and as soon as returns come in, these will be compiled and 
copies forwarded to the members. By vote of the Association the 
report was adopted. 

President E. D. Ball: We will now listen to the Committee on the 
Proposed Amendment to the Constitution. 



14 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON PROPOSED AMENDMENTS TO THE 

CONSTITUTION 

The chairman of the Membership Committee of last year submitted proposals for 
the amendment of the constitution which would result in reclassifying the member- 
ship and provide, in addition to classes already recognized, for the election of fellows 
and honorary fellows. The principal object of the proposed change was to provide 
for the admission to active membership of a considerable number now listed as asso- 
ciate members. The committee, in view of the somewhat unsettled conditions of the 
present, recommend that developments be awaited and action deferred. 

Respectfully submitted, 

E. P. Felt, 
W. C.O'Kane, 
J. G. Sandeks, 

Committee. 

On motion the report was adopted. 

President E. D. Ball: We will now take up any miscellaneous 
business. 

Mr. T. J. Headlee stated that he was opposed to decreasing the 
size of the Journal and suggested that a committee be appointed to 
secure additional finances so that the present size could be maintained. 

Secretary A. F. Burgess stated that under ordinary conditions 
the Journal had been able to meet its expenses, but with the increased 
cost of everything connected with its makeup during the past two 
years, it was not possible to finance the Journal upon its present re- 
sources. The rates for 1919 had been made last June to subscription 
agencies and it was therefore impossible to increase the price for 1919. 
The desired result could be brought about by increasing the subscrip- 
tion list or by decreasing the pages of the publication and drawing 
funds from the treasury of the Association. The subscription price 
for the year 1920 should be increased. 

Mr. E. p. Felt stated that if there were enough members wilHng 
to subscribe $10 apiece, the 1919 issue could be carried through without 
decreasing the number of pages, but arrangements should be made for 
increasing the subscription price for 1920. A motion was made that 
the Journal be kept at its present size. 

President E. D. Ball stated that at the present time 88 members 
of the Phytopathological Society were each subscribing $10 per year 
for a period of ten years to finance their Journal and that the annual 
subscription to their Journal was $4. He expressed surprise that some 
of the active members of the Association were not subscribing for the 
Journal, and thought that all members should show their loyalty to 
the publication by supporting it at this time. 

Mr. J. G. Sanders stated his beUef that active members should sub- 
scribe. 



February, '19] business proceedings 15 

Secretary A. F. Burgess remarked that there were a considerable 
number of both active and associate members who did not subscribe 
to the publication. 

Mr. Raymond Osburn asked if it would not be well to make the 
dues include subscription to the Journal. 

Secretary Burgess stated in reply that the reason for keeping the 
two accounts separate was because of the possible difficulty with 
the Postoffice Department in connection with the second-class maihng 
privilege. 

Mr. Osburn stated that he had dealings with another publication 
and that they had no trouble along this line. He further stated that 
another society with which he was connected had published a journal 
which cost more than their available income, but it had been found 
quite easy to secure contributions from the members of the society so 
that the indebtedness was paid off. 

Mr. T. J. Headlee stated that he was strongly opposed to any action 
which would compel members to subscribe to the Journal if they did 
not wish to do so, and thought that the publication should be so valu- 
able that all would be anxious to support it. 

Upon motion it was voted that the Journal be kept at its present 
size for the coming year, and that a committee of three be appointed 
by the President to devise means of carrying this into effect. 

At the Thursday afternoon session during the consideration of the 
President's address, a motion was made by T. J. Headlee that a 
Standing Committee on Entomological Policy of ten members be ap- 
pointed, the terms of office being so arranged that two should retire 
each year and their successors be elected for a term of five years. After 
general discussion this motion was laid upon the table for consideration 
at the final business session. Discussion of this motion by various 
members will be found under the discussion of the Presidential address. 
The following committees were appointed by the President: 

Nominating Committee. — C. P. Gillette, J. G. Sanders and E. P. Felt. 

Committee on Resolutions. — W. D. Pierce, W. J. Schoene and E. C. 
Cotton. 

Auditing Committee, — W. R. Walton and J. S. Houser. 

Committee on Journal of Economic Entomology. — T. J. Headlee, 
Herbert Osborn and W. E. Britton. 

Before adjournment the President appointed Mr. C. P. Gillette to 
fill the vacancy on the Council of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, due to the absence of Mr. R. A. Cooley. 
A general discussion followed in connection with recommending mem- 
bers of this association to become Fellows in the American Association 



16 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

for the Advancement of Science. It was voted that the representatives 
of this association on the council of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science be requested to present to that association 
the names of active members whom they consider should be made 
fellows. 

At the Friday morning session during the discussion of the paper on 
the European Corn Borer, the following motion was made and unani- 
mously carried: That this Association endorses the utmost possible 
measure of eradication of the European Corn Borer and further en- 
dorses the proposition of asking Congress for sufficient appropriation 
to undertake immediately a competent campaign of eradication, under 
Federal direction. As this was a joint session of the Association and 
the Section on Horticultural Inspection, it became necessary to nomi- 
nate a Chairman of the Section for the year 1919. Mr. E. C. Cotton 
was nominated for Chairman and Mr. J. G. Sanders was elected Sec- 
retary of the Section. 

At the final session, the following business was transacted : 
President E. D. Ball: I will now call for the report of the Com- 
mittee on Auditing. 

REPORT OF AUDITING COMMITTEE 

The Committee on Auditing has examined the books of the Secretary and found 
the accounts to be correct. 

J. S. HOUSER, 

W. R. Walton, 

Auditing Committee. 

By vote of the Association the report of the committee was accepted. 

President E. D. Ball: We will now hear the report of the Com- 
mittee on Resolutions. 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON RESOLUTIONS 

The Committee on Resohitions has the honor to report the following resolutions : 

We beUeve that our Association and our profession has just crossed the threshold 
■of a new era in scientific effort. As we look back over the record of the past year we 
find that our numbers have been decreased by several deaths, some in the service of 
our own glorious nation, and some in the service of our great Allies, while others have 
died in the simple performance of their hfe-time duties. We glory in all that they 
have done for our science, and in these few words wish to pay tribute to each of them 
for the work that he accomplished. 

We desire to call attention to the faithful services of our Association's officers of the 
past year, and the welcome address of our retiring President ; to the courtesies of the 
Johns Hopkins University, and the Committee of Arrangements of the Association. 

Finally we look forward toward the building up of a firm foundation for economic 
■entomology. 



February, '19] BUSINESS PROCEEDINGS 17 

Therefore be it resolved : 

1. That the American Association of Economic Entomologists, deeply grieved 
over the loss of its associates, Capt. Allen H. Jennings, Lieut. Vernon King, Lieut, 
J. W. Bradley, Lieut. W. H. Hasey, A. T. GUlanders, Dr. G. Leonardi, Chas. A. 
Hart, W. H. Harrington, H. O. Marsh, S. C. Vinal, F. Knab, and A. B. Duckett, 
does take this occasion to express to the world and to their families the esteem in 
which they were held. 

2. That we are proud individually and collectively of every man who has served 
our nation or our Allies in the great struggle for freedom, no matter what may have 
been the particular field of action which befell him. Each did his part to the best of 
hLs abihty. 

3. That we as entomologists realize that our science is so intimately related to 
many other sciences and professions as to require frequent contact, and are deter- 
mined that we will direct our efforts more and more toward obtaining effective co- 
operation with all other associated and interested groups of workers in all our prob- 
lems. 

4. That the science of entomology requires greater coordination in all its branches; 
and that we do hereby propose tentative discussion with other entomological organi- 
zations throughout the world, with the ultimate purpose of a world-wide union of en- 
tomological effort. 

5. That a change is desirable in the Constitution of this Association, so that we 
may have a more stable organization and may develop year by year deeper seated 
general policies for our science. 

6. That for the present the most available method of accomplishing the three 
resolutions above is the formation of a committee on policy, to be composed each year 
of the President, Secretary of the Association, the Editor of the Jouknal and five 
members elected for five years each, one retiring each year; that the committee as 
initially composed contain one each elected for terms of one, two, three, four and five 
years; that this committee on policy have as its functions the directing of all policies 
of the Association and its various undertakings, the formulation and fostering of 
great entomological policies for the profession, and the working out of a more perfect 
coordination of scientific effort among entomologists and between entomologists and 
other professions; and finally that this committee on policy become by constitutional 
amendments an integral part of the Organization. 

W. DwiGHT Pierce, 

W. J. SCHOENE, 

E. C. Cotton, 
Members of Committee. 

Mr. W. D. Pierce: I have two motions to put before the house 
at the proper time in order to make these resolutions effective. 

By vote of the Association the report of the committee was adopted. 

President E, D. Ball: We will now listen to the report of the 
Committee on Memi)ership. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON MEMBERSHIP 

In the report of the Membership Committee presented at the Now ^'ork meeting of 
this A.s.so(iati()n, it was rc(;ommcndc(i that the Committee prepare a statement quot- 
ing that part of the const it utiim referring to membcrsliip, together with the records 
and the minutes of other action that tlie Association has taken from time to time, 



18 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

relating to qualifications for membership and in addition, any further statement that 
may be necessary to clearly interpret the existing policy of the Association as to 
standards of membership, with the intent that this statement, after consideration by 
the Association, be printed on the back of the blank application for associate member- 
ship. 

In response to the above request your committee submits the following statements : 
Article II of the Constitution of the American Association of Economic Entomolo- 
gists reads as follows : 

Section 1. All economic entomologists, horticultural or apiary inspectors, em- 
ployed by the General or State Governments, or by the State Experiment Stations, 
or by any agricultural or horticultural association, and all teachers of economic en- 
tomology in educational institutions and other persons engaged in practical work in 
economic entomology, may become members. 

Section 2. The classes of membership shall be active, associate and foreign. Ac- 
tive membership shall be conferred only on persons who have been trained in en- 
tomological work and whose practical experience or published papers have evidenced 
their ability to conduct original investigations in economic entomology. 

Section 3. Associate membership may be conferred on persons who have done 
general or practical work in entomology and who have by pubUshed papers or other- 
wise, given evidence of their attainments in such work. 

Section 4. Foreign membership shaU be honorary and shall apply only to mem- 
bers residing outside of the United States and Canada. 

Section 5. Associate and foreign members shall not be entitled to hold office or to 
vote. 

Section 6. Membership, other than foreign membership, may be conferred at any 
regular meeting by a two-thirds vote of the members present upon recommendation 
of the Committee on Membership, after a regular application endorsed by two active 
members has been filed with the Secretary. 

Section 7. Foreign members may be proposed in writing by any active member 
and their names shall be acted upon by the Committee on Membership and the Asso- 
ciation, as in the case of other members. 

The past policy of the Association has been to admit to associate membership any- 
one who occupies some position in economic entomology and who is vouched for by 
two active members, and it is desirable for aU associate members who seek advance- 
ment to active membership to submit to the committee a statement relative to their 
education, experience, and pubhcations and when possible to likewise submit pub- 
lished papers that the committee may be in a position to carefully consider promo- 
tions. It is further suggested that active members aid the committee by recom- 
mending such associate members as they deem worthy of advancement and in so 
doing to submit data to enable the committee to act intelligently on the application, 
such nominations to be made at least three months prior to the annual meeting. 

It has heretofore been the policy of the Association to elect to active membership 
from the list of associate members only. 

The committee understands that as a general rule at least, active membership in 
the American Association of Economic Entomologists should be limited to those doing 
enough individual teaching or practical work so that economic entomology occupies 
a considerable share of their time and it can be no reflection upon anyone if he be 
denied membership simply because his activities are along other lines. Your com- 
mittee has been governed to a certain extent by a ruhng of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science which is to the effect that members elected to active 
membership in our Association otII become ehgible to fellowships in the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science so long as we continue to be careful in 
the selection of our active members. 

Foreign membership shall be honorary, according to the constitution, and nomina- 
tions for foreign membership, together with full information concerning the publica- 



February, '19] 



BUSINESS PROCEEDINGS 



19 



tione and other qualifications of the nominee shall be filed with the chairman of the 
committee at least three months before the annual meeting. 

The following members are recommended for advancement to active rank : 



A. C. Baker 
A. W. Baker 
M. W. Blackman 
W. H. Brittain 
A. E. Cameron 
G. C. Crampton 
William Davidson 
I. W. Davis 
H. F. Dietz 
R. W. Doane 
H. E. Ewing 
H. Fox 

Philip Garman 
Hugh Glasgow 
J. E. Graf 
Geo. P. Gray 
P. A. Glenn 

C. H. Hadley, Jr. 
L. Haseman 

W. P. Hayes 
J. R. Horton 

D. W. Jones 
T. H. Jones 
W. V. King 
H. H. Knight 

G. H. Lamson, Jr. 
M. D. Leonard 



Q. S. Lowry 

A. L. Lovett 

P. LuginbUl 

L. S. McLaine 

A. L. Melander 

F. H. Mosher 

F. B. Milliken 

H. Morrison 

J. A. Nelson 

Raymond C. Osbum 

H. T. Osbom 

R. R. Parker 

T. H. Parks 

A. Peterson 

C. H. Popenoe 

C. H. Richardson 

W. S. Regan 

L. P. Rockwood 

W. A. Ross 

A. F. Satterthwait 

E. H. Siegler 

L. B. Smith 

J. N. Sumners 

E. H. Strickland 

W. B. Wood 

M. P. Zapp 



The following are recommended to associate membership: 



Charles S. Beckwith 
J. C. Bridwall 
H. M. Brundrett 
A. B. Black 

C. P. Clausen 
Mitchell Carroll 
T. n. Cutrer 

D. L. Dolbin 
P. W. Fattig 

C. L. Fluke, Jr. 
W. T. Ham 

M. E. Kimsey 
A. O. Larson 
G. M. List 

D. B. Mackie 
D. E. MerrUl 
Shonosuke Nakayama 
J. H. Newton 

H. R. Painter 



H. B. Parks 

D. B. Penny 
F. W. Poos 
B. A. Porter 

J. M. Robinson 
H. J. Ryan 
R. R. Reppert 
R. C. Smith 
O. I. Snapp 
Antony Spuler 
B. G. Thompson 
R. C. Treheme 
A. W. Young 

F. N. Wallace 

E. E. Wehr 
L. P. Wehrlo 

G. W. I'nderhill 
James Zetek 



20 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol 12 

That W. O. HoUister be reinstated to associate membership. 

The following members have sent in resignations and the committee recommends 
their acceptance: A. B. Champlain, B. P. Gregson, Simon Marcovitch, W. E. Pen- 
nington and J. M. Stedman. 

Ten members elected a year ago have paid no dues and seventeen additional as- 
sociate and one active member are in arrears. The committee recommends that these 
members be notified by the Secretary that failure to promptly pay back dues will 
result in their being dropped from the rolls of the Association. 

The list of members recommended for promotion to active membership is con- 
siderably longer than at any previous meeting but the committee, after careful con- 
sideration of recommendations and data received, believes all are fully eligible. The 
committee has received data which have enabled it to consider the eligibles to better 
advantage than heretofore and it does not understand that the large number of pro- 
motions should be taken as a precedent and that in future years the number raised 
to active rank may, so far as at present determinable, be much reduced. 

Possibly other members may be eligible to active membership this year, but it is 
often impossible for the committee to properly make selections except where com- 
plete data have been furnished. Requests for the necessary data were sent to .every 
associate member of this Association and of the 349 members of this rank only 57 
sent in the information requested. The committee wishes to again request members 
who desire to become active and who have not already sent in these data to do so in 
order that their names may be given the proper consideration next year. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. J. Davis, Chairman, 
W. E. Britton, 
T. J. Headlee, 

Committee. 

By vote of the Association the report of the Committee was adopted. 

Mr. W. C. O'Kane: I move that the motion which was made 
yesterday concerning the proposed Committee on PoHcy be taken from 
the table. Carried. 

Mr. W. D. Pierce: I wish to propose the following substitute 
motion : 

That a Committee on Policy be formed to consist of the President, Secretary and 
Editor of the Journal, as ex-oflBcio members, and five members to be elected for five- 
years terms, one retiring each year; and in order that this retirement be accomplished 
in the initial formation of the committee by electing one member for a full five-year 
term, one for four years, one for three years, one for two years, and one for one year; 
and that the duties of this committee shall be the originating and directing of all 
policies of the association and its various undertakings, the formulation and fostering 
of great entomological policies for the profession, and the working out of a more per- 
fect coordination of scientific effort among entomologists and between entomologists 
and other professions." 

It was voted that the motion of Mr. Pierce be substituted for the 
original motion, and it was then adopted. 

President E. D. Ball: I will now call for the report of the 
Committee on Journal of Economic Entomology. 



J 



February, '19] BUSINESS PROCEEDINGS 21 



REPORT OF SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON THE JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC 

ENTOMOLOGY 

Gentlemen of the American Association of Economic Entomology: 

Your Special Committee on the Journal begs leave to report on the problem of 
financing the Journal as follows: 

1. That the order of the Association to maintain the Journal during 1919 at its 
1918 size be interpreted to mean "maintained in quaUty of printing, illustrations, 
and approximate matter contained but not necessarily at the same or a larger number 
of pages or the same quahty of paper." That details of this interpretation be left to 
the business manager and editorial board who have so successfully handled these 
matters in the past. 

2. That the $600 which the estimates show to be necessary in addition to funds 
already available, be raised in the following ways: 

A. By a draft on the general funds of the Associations to the amount of $500. 

B. By subscriptions among the membership of the additional sum of $100, which 
shall be raised as follows: and with the understanding that moneys as contributed 
shall be repaid in the form of dues and subscription to the Journal at the prices cur- 
rent for the years concerned, beginning next year: 

a. By subscriptions during this meeting from the floor. 
6. By subscriptions through correspondence. 

3. That after expiration of present agreements the price of Journal subscriptions 
to non-members be raised fifty cents a year. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Thomas J. Headlee, 
Herbert Osborn, 

Commitiee. 

At the request of the President the Secretary explained that it would 
probably be possible during the coming year to transfer $500 from the 
Association fund to the Journal fund. This would enable the 
Journal to be kept at its present size if $100 additional could be 
raised. The matter of fixing the price of the Journal for the year 
1920 was fully discussed and it was voted that the report of the com- 
mittee be accepted and the recommendations adopted with the 
understanding that the price of the Journal would be fixed by the 
executive committee. 

President E. D. Ball: I will now call for the report of the Com- 
mittee on National Museum. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The Committee on National Museum was appointed two years ago to study the 
conditions in the United States National Museum for the purpose of offering means 
for promoting and providing for adequate development of the division of insects. 
At our last annual meeting this committee reported on the needs of the Division of 
Insects, United States National Museum, and suggested mciins for i)romotiiip and 
assisting the work of this institution. 

Owing to the unsettled conditions the past year, jour ronmiittec \\\\9. nothing 
further to report at this time. 



22 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Your committee recommends that a committee on National Museum be made a 
standing committee of this association, such a committee to keep in close touch with 
the entomological work of the United States National Museum, to foster its work, 
create sentiment towards the museum and in other ways make for the accomplish- 
ment of the ideals suggested in the last report of the present committee. 

It is suggested that this committee consist of five members to be elected at each 
annual meeting, to hold office for a period of five years, and that they shall conduct 
their tasks in cooperation with the similar committee of the Entomological Society of 
America. Your present committee beUeves it desirable to make the committee 
representative of the United States and especially is this expedient if it becomes 
desirable for the committee to bring pressure on the legislative sources; and that the 
chairman of said standing committee hold office for a period of years since this would 
make for greater continuity of policy. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. J. Davis, 
E. P. Felt, 
Herbert Osborn, 
E. D. Ball, 
R. L. Webster, 

Committee. 

Mr. a. L. Quaintance: I would like to inquire whether the 
Honorary Curator of Insects of the Museum will be an ex-ofl&cio 
member of this committee. I think the Bureau should be represented 
and I would like to ask whether this is the intention of the committee. 

President E. D. Ball: It occurs to me that one of the purposes 
of this committee is to assist in securing funds and equipment for the 
Museum and it might not be advantageous to the Curator if he was a 
member of this committee. 

By vote of the Association the report was accepted and recommenda- 
tions adopted. 

President E. D. Ball: I will now call for the nomination of 
Journal officers by the advisory committee. 

Mr. C. p. Gillette: The advisory committee would nominate 
the present officers to succeed themselves for the ensuing year: 
E. P. Felt, Editor. 
W. E. Britton, Associate Editor. 
A. F. Burgess, Business Manager. 

By vote of the Association the recommendations were adopted. 

Mr. W. D. Pierce: I wish to propose amendments to the Con- 
stitution. These amendments are designed to modify the Constitu- 
tion so that the Committee on PoUcy which has been provided for the 
coming year may become a permanent organization at the beginning 
of next year. 



February, '19] BUSINESS proceedings 23 

PROPOSED AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION 
Article III 

Section 1. Amend by striking out the second sentence which reads: "The above 
oflBcers shall act as the Board of Directors and shall pass on any urgent matters that 
cannot be deferred until the annual meetings." 

Add the following section : 

Section 2. There shall be a Board of Directors to be composed each year of the 
President, Secretary, and Editor of the Journal, as ex-officio, and five members 
elected for five years each, one retiring each year. The Chairman shall be elected 
by the Board. 

By-Laws 

Article II. to be amended to read as follows: 

Section 4. The publication of the Journal of Economic Entomology shall 
be entrusted to an Editor, an Associate Editor and a Business Manager, nominated 
by the Board of Directors. The members of this committee shall have an advisory 
relation to the above constituted Editorial Board. 

Section 5. The Board of Directors shall have as its functions the originating 
and directing of all policies of the Association and its various undertakings, the form- 
ulation and fostering of great entomological policies for the profession, and the work- 
ing out of a more perfect coordination of scientific effort among entomologists and 
between entomologists and other professions. 

President E. D. Ball: This matter will come up for considera- 
tion at the next annual meeting and I will appoint the following com- 
mittee to consider the amendments and report at that time: P. J. 
Parrott, W. A. Riley and George A. Dean. 

Mr. W. E. Britton: As Associate Editor of the Journal I 
would like to ask all members to send in news items which may be 
appropriate to print as current news. It is difficult to secure these 
items, but if the members will cooperate this part of the Journal will 
be made more interesting. 

President E. D. Ball: The report of the Committee on Nom- 
inations is now in order. 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON NOMINATIONS 

The Committee on Nominations begs leave to report as follows : 

For President: W. C. O'Kane. 

First Vice-President: A. G. Ruggles. 

Second Vice-President: H. J. Quayle. 

Third Vice-President: E. C. Cotton. 

Fourth Vice-President: W. E. Britton. 
Committee on Nomenclature, S years: Z. P. Metcalf. 
Committee on Entomological Investigations, 3 years: P. J. Parrott. 
MemVjership Committee, 3 years: E. R. Sasscer. 

Council of the .American Association for the Advancement of Science: H. A. Cos- 
sard and (". P. CJillette. 

Director Employment Bureau: VV. E. Hinds. 

Advisory Board, Journal op Economic Entomology: W. J. Schoene and S. A. 
Forbes. 



24 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Committee on Entomological Policy: E. D. Ball, 5 years; Herbert Osborn, 4 
years; W. D. Pierce, 3 years; J. G. Sanders, 2 years; and G. A. Dean, 1 year. 

Committee on United States National Museum: J. J. Davis, Chairman, 5 years; 
V. L. Kellogg, 4 years; E. P. Felt, 3 years; Herbert Osborn, 2 years, and E. D. Ball, 
1 year. 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. P. Gillette, 
J. G. Sanders, 
E. P. Felt, 

Committee. 

Mr. E. C. Cotton: I move that the report be adopted and the 
Secretary be instructed to cast the unanimous ballot of the association 
for the candidates named. Carried. 

The ballot was cast by the Secretary and the officers named were 
declared elected by the President. 

Secretary A. F. Burgess: I move that the next annual meeting 
be fixed at the same time and place as that chosen by the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, unless it is deemed 
advisable by the committee on policy to change the time and place. 
Carried. 

Secretary A. F. Burgess: I would like to say that the paper 
that has been passed around shows a subscription of $160 for the 
Journal fund. I think this indicates very strongly the interest of 
the members of the Association in their publication. Upon motion 
the meeting was adjourned. 



PART II. PAPERS AND DISCUSSION 

THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS 

ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY— ITS FOUNDATIONS AND 

FUTURE 

By E. D. Ball, Ames, Iowa 

We are passing, today, through an epoch-making period. Decisions 
are being made and to be made, that will profoundly affect, not only 
the rights of the individual, but the destinies of nations and the entire 
superstructure of our political and social universe. We are witnessing, 
today, the birth of what one of our gifted leaders has christened — the 
modern world. 

Our country has passed in a short year, from an isolated and indif- 
ferent entity, interested only in her own development, into a nation 
that has resolutely taken her place on the forum of democracy. Like 
a moth out of a chrysalis, she has broken her shell of contentment and 



February, '19] BALL: ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 25 

emerged, at first faltering and feeble, but rapidly gaining in strength, 
until her wings have expanded and she has risen and circled out over 
the fields of this world to be. The moth cannot fold her wings and 
return to the caterpillar stage on the single plant; she is now of the air 
and of life and must go on. Neither can our nation return to her 
isolation. She has taken her place in the lists as the champion of 
democrac}' — the establishment of the rights of the individual and the 
brotherhood of man, and as such, she must and should remain. 

Our society has grown with the nation's growth, and has contributed 
to it. We have expanded as she has extended her domain and we 
must be prepared to go on with her, and take our place with her in the 
new order of things. If our society is to be true to its traditions, she 
must remain in an advanced position of leadeiship. This will require 
a broadening of our scope and interest, a strengthening of forces 
and ideals, a stronger administrative organization and a carefully 
chosen leadership to meet the requirements of our new and greater 
responsibility. 

The Economic Entomologists are to be congratulated on the fact 
that they represent the oldest society in America organized for the 
promotion of an economic phase of agriculture. Thirty years ago, 
when this association was formed, agriculture was an art with slightly 
scientific ambitions, in a nation that was groping and struggling to 
find herself. 

Thanks to the energj^, enthusiasm and almost prophetic vision of 
the old warriors, Economic Entomology became crystallized and def- 
initely established on scientific foundations long before our sister 
societies in Plant Pathology'-, Animal Nutrition, Agronomy, and Hor- 
ticultural Science were even possible. We were extremely fortunate in 
the original band of warriors, crusaders after truth, whose self-sacrifice 
and devotion made this society possible. They were, for the most part, 
men whose love of nature had drawn them to the work and held them 
there despite discouragement, ridicule and lack of support. Truly they 
founded well, nnd on that foundation this association has grown in 
prominence and power, in numbers and influence, as well as in mate- 
rial prosperity, ever keeping pace with the progress of the nation. 

The spread of the San Jos6 scale and the development of the nursery 
inspection laws in its wake, brought the entomologist into prominence, 
gave him financial support and opened the way for an extremely rapid 
development. No other of our sister societies has ever received such 
an impetus. 

We wonder sometimes, however, when we compare the work of this 
society with its closest relative, the Phytojiathologists. whether the 
wealth and power, l)rought to us by the apparent opportunity of the 



26 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

inspection service, has not been our undoing — our destruction, rather 
than our salvation. Have not the opportunities been too great, posi- 
tions too easy to obtain, educational standards and requirements too 
low for even the present good of the science, to say nothing of the 
foundations which we must build for the future? When we compare 
the relative training and preparations of Pathological and Entomolog- 
ical staffs in the same institutions and note that the Pathologists have 
about three Doctorates to the Entomologists' one, note in fact, that 
the Doctorate is as common in Pathology, as the Master in Entomol- 
ogy, we begin to feel anxious for the future of our beloved science. If 
we should go farther in our analysis and compare the type of work 
that is being put out today, by the two organizations, we might feel 
even more alarmed for the future of our science. We should not, how- 
ever, be discouraged; we should rather read a message of warning and 
an opportunity for salvation. The Pathologists have been passing 
through the stages and struggles of the early days of this society. 
They are laying the foundations for their science. They are, today, 
winning the support of the people. They are small in numbers, but 
great in inspiration, in interest and zeal. They are better trained 
because the opportunities were few and the standards high. There has 
been little encouragement to enter the field, except for the real lover 
of the science. They are very largely a band of choice spirits. Today 
they are facing the problems that prosperity brings. May our good 
wishes go with them, in the hope that they may profit by our experi- 
■ence, and meet prosperity with their standards still high and their 
faith undimmed. 

What, then, is the standing of the Entomologists, as they prepare 
to take their place in the modern world? A society whose efforts and 
achievements have been recognized the world around, a society that 
has not only laid the foundations of insect control for America, but for 
every corner of the earth. We speak, today, of America as a "world 
power." The Economic Entomologists of America have been a "world 
power" for a generation. Our "fourteen principles" have long since 
been accepted by all nations. Is it possible, you ask, for a society with 
such a record, to be outstripped by one just out of its swaddling clothes? 
Let us hope that it is not. Let us do more than hope; let us make sure 
that the traditions of the past may be continued and enhanced in the 
work of the future. Let us examine the situation from every angle, 
weigh each factor, recognize error and shortcoming, if such exist, and 
lay our foundations for an even more briUiant future, founded on the 
achievements of a glorious past. 

There are three fundamental factors to consider in estimating the 
productive power and possibility of development of a scientific organi- 



February, '19] BALL: ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 27 

zation. They are its foundations — its attitude towards truth — and its 
vision. 

Let us measure ourselves by these standards. As a society we have 
■been feHcitated and congratulated, our valuable works enumerated, 
our contributions heralded, our recommendations adopted, until we 
have become complacent and self-satisfied. Optimism and self-con- 
gratulation are good and will carry one far, but sometimes they lead 
into by-paths of ease and forgetfulness, to that relaxation of aggres- 
siveness and vigilance that comes with age, while youth, vigor and the 
critical attitude that comes with introspection and unfulfilled ambi- 
tion, would have guided away from the danger and held us to the path 
of progress. 

We have also been handicapped in establishing our foundations, by 
the fact that we are dealing with by far the largest single group of 
living things. Not only are they countless in number, but infinite in 
variety and complexity, reaching out in their adaptations into every 
other form of life, involving in their reactions, almost the entire 
animate and inanimate world. With a field so vast and varied, so 
manifestly impossible to cover, it has probably been easier to be con- 
tented with the superficial and the immediately important, rather than 
to search deeper for the foundation stones upon which, alone, an 
enduring science could have been builded. 

Twenty years ago a bomb shell was dropped into our midst, by a 
president who dared to question the very foundations of our economic 
science. His exposition of "The Lassier-faire Philosophy" raised a 
storm of protest and denunciation. Predictions were freely made, 
that it would cut off our financial support and cripple our develop- 
ment. We are still strongly supported and if anything, too popular! 
Whether for good or evil, that presidential address is the one that 
remains vivid and outstanding in the memory of the writer. It has 
tempered many an exuberance; it has been an antidote to dogmatism 
and a cure for complacency. In questioning our foundations it caused 
us to pause and consider them as seriously at that time, as we must do 
again today. 

What, then, is the status of our foundations? Have we completely 
solved the problem and mastered the intricate relations of a single 
injurious insect, or have we skimmed the surface of the knowledge of 
thousands? Have wc exhausted the possibilities of discovery of one of 
the factors of insect development or control? Do we know the relative 
limits of egg production of our injurious species? Are- the number of 
«ggs produced relatively stable or influenced by environmental factors? 
Do we know the number of annual generations of our insects and the 
factors that control those numbers? Do we understand the periodicity 



28 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

of insect appearance and the factors that bring it about? When shall 
we forecast insect abundance as we now forecast the weather and crop 
production? Do we understand climatic and ecological factors in in- 
sect distribution? Have we lived with these insects as Agassiz lived 
with the fishes or Audubon with the birds, or have we observed them 
in the stated hours of an office day? Why has the chinch bug, once 
seriously injurious in northern Wisconsin, abandoned the state? Why 
has the box-elder bug moved to the northeast? Why has the corn-root 
worm moved north-west? Why is the codling-moth extraordinarily 
abundant in the arid regions, while the potato bug is there unknown? 
What caused the disappearance of the Rocky Mountain locust? Why 
does temperature accelerate the development of one insect and retard 
that of another? Why does a single puncture of one insect cause more 
injury to a plant than a hundred punctures of another species? 

Beneath these and a thousand other problems, are the principles 
that underlie our science. They involve many factors and interrela- 
tions with all the sciences. They have been approached from many 
angles and through the medium of thousands of different species. 
Their ramifications extend through an overwhelming mass of litera- 
ture, not only entomological, but extending into many related sciences. 
The solution of even a single one of these problems involves long and 
protracted study, the following out of many related factors, interpre- 
tation of many obscurities, the mastery of a voluminous literature and 
finally the organizing of the completed whole into a form from which 
a simple deduction can be drawn. Such a problem is worthy of a life's 
effort — of years of preparation, joined to fruitful years of investigation, 
finally to be crowned with the satisfaction of a work well done. 

It is for us to study our educational system and see if we are offering 
the proper training for such a task. Are we offering or requiring a 
major amount of broad and fundamental training in Physics and Chem- 
istry, in Botany and Zoolog}^ in Physiology and Geology, in Bacteri- 
ology and Genetics, with a minimum of requirements in our special line 
and those of fundamental character? On such a foundation as that, 
a lifetime of study and research can be builded, and the structure re- 
main stable and upright. 

In many institutions of today, however, the tendency has been to 
narrowness and specialization, to reduce the number of foundation 
courses, and increase the number of so-called practical courses, to train 
in the art, instead of the science. A recent catalogue outlined a course 
with twelve studies in the major subject and only three in fundamen- 
tals. A graduate of that course might be ready to meet almost any 
superficial question of general entomological knowledge, but he would 
be woefully lacking in the fundamentals that would prove the enduring 



February, '19] BALL: ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 29 

foundation for exhaustive research. Is it not possible that if every 
special entomological course in this country were abolished and aspir- 
ants for entomological honors were required to take a general science 
course, with broad requirements, that the entomology of the future 
would be the gainer thereby? 

Our mad scramble to turn out nursery inspectors and extension 
specialists, walking encyclopedias of miscellaneous information, some 
of which is false and more of which is doubtful, may tend to popularize 
entomological science, but will never ground it. The extension slogan, 
^'that it will take ten years to carry the researches already made to the 
people," is the most pernicious doctrine of our generation. Granting 
that it is true, and it probably is, there still remains the fact that much 
of that which is now being carried will have to be corrected or con- 
tradicted, when the truth is known, and that the whole trend of educa- 
tion and extension is away from that serious and fundamental re- 
search, which alone can reveal the truth for which we strive. One of 
the leading directors of Agricultural Research recently announced that 
he would prefer to select his men from a university where no agricul- 
ture as such, had been taught, than from an agricultural college where 
too much time had been devoted to the art, and too little to the sci- 
ence; arguing, and no doubt justly, that the research man with the 
broad foundation could easily acquire the art of a particular agricul- 
tural problem, while a narrowly trained man would never acquire the 
broad scientific foundation, necessary for its solution. 

In this connection, it would be well for us to consider that the science 
of entomology is so tremendously broad and intricate, that it is impos- 
sible for any man to longer attempt to master all the details. If we 
recognize this, we shall hereafter give broader fundamental training 
in entomology, in order to meet the general requirements and then 
encourage group speciahzation. In such a limited field, one may still 
hope to obtain a mastery. Under past methods, a single experiment 
station worker has undertaken problems involving practically all 
orders of insects, with the result that it has been impossible for him to 
master the literature of any one. Many times his so-called researches 
have only carried the investigation of problems to the same position 
that had been reached by previous workers, there to be dropped and 
another taken up. On the other hand, some of the most fruitful 
workers in the past have been able to confine themselves to one or at 
the most, two or three fields, have mastered the literature and the 
methods of procedure, in their restricted groups, and have contributed 
greatly to the sum total of human knowledge. 

In the olden days, we had the savant that knew all things, the 
philosopher that reasoned all things, and even later, the scientist that 



30 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

dabbled in all science; today we have entomologists, tomorrow we will 
have group specialists, who will not be afraid to say that there are 
many other fields in entomology, to them unknown. 

A stream can rise no higher than its source. The future of entomo- 
logical science depends upon its foundations and those foundations 
depend upon the work of the present generation and the inspiration 
transmitted to those to come. 

The Attitude Towards Truth 

The attitude of the society towards truth should always be recep- 
tive — more than receptive, eager. We should, as an organization and 
as individuals, welcome constructive criticism. We should go even 
further than this, and provide the machinery of analysis and organiza- 
tion that would encourage and even solicit criticism. The link which 
binds the members of this society together is that we are all searching 
after truth. There can be no legitimate place in such an organization 
for the perpetuation of error. 

There has, however, grown up in this society, a tradition that any- 
one who disturbed the peace and harmony of this continuous output 
of error was a knocker and a trouble-maker. To such an extent has 
the propaganda been carried, that the only form of criticism that is 
now tolerated, is that of syntax and etymology, while entomology 
suffers from the constant repetition of misinformation and ancient 
error. 

We need criticism — constructive criticism if possible, but criticism — 
honest criticism, in any form, should be welcomed and encouraged. 
Many mistakes of observation or errors of deduction, known by many 
workers to be such, are still current in our literature, and are being 
reiterated and republished to this day, due to the attitude of this or- 
ganization, towards the individual who would criticise. 

The demand for entomological information has been so great, and 
the general informational bulletin so much in vogue, that many of us 
have grown lax in the matter of giving proper credit for material used. 
Even in scientific papers or technical journals, the material is appro- 
priated and used without credit. Much of this material is antiquated 
and too much of it erroneous. Anyone using such material cannot 
plead previous publication by any one else, as justification. He be- 
comes responsible for the error and should be held accountable. 

When entomology was a struggling science, when economic prob- 
lems were many and the workers few, there may have been justifica- 
tion for this laxity. There can be none now. Because Riley figured 
grasshoppers laying eggs in an impossible position, fifty years ago, is 
no justification for anyone claiming to have investigated the grass- 



February, '19] BALL: ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 31 

hopper, to perpetuate that error, and yet it has only been within a few 
years that it was pubHcly corrected. In that same pubUcation, other 
errors of observation were recorded, and are still being perpetuated 
and republished without credit, to this day. When a question of their 
correctness is raised, they refer you back to Riley. Riley did a wonder- 
ful work, which we all recognize and revere. He also made many 
errors, which he, himself, would have corrected, if he had had an 
opportunity to repeat the work. Loyalty to his great name, to truth 
and to the science of entomology, which we are all striving to establish, 
all demand that these errors be eliminated. Let Riley be credited 
with what he did, his errors corrected, and let later workers be credited 
with their contributions. 

This society should have a permanent committee on publications, 
who should formulate rules and regulations, the same as we have rules 
for systematic work, to which economic publications should conform. 
These rules should provide for three classes of economic publications: 

First: Popular matter, claiming no originality and therefore no 
credit. In such publications it should not be necessary to give credit, 
although in many cases, reference to the source will strengthen the 
appeal. 

Second: Publications purporting to contain original matter. In 
such publications it should be required that the status of knowledge be 
set forth in a preliminary review, in which due credit is given to each 
contributor, and this followed by the contribution of the writer, or 
else, that the whole subject be discussed with due credit to previous 
work, and that there be a summary in which the original contribution 
of the writer is specifically claimed and set forth. 

Third: Summaries and reviews, in which every worker be specific- 
ally credited with his contribution. 

A strong and carefully thought-out set of regulations, along these 
lines, to be enforced by the society, and administered by a strong and 
responsible committee, would have a powerful influence in strengthen- 
ing, condensing, and unifying our economic literature. If all economic 
publications would adopt them, and the attention of experiment sta- 
tions and other sources of publication be called to their provisions, it 
would be of inestimable value in clarifying our knowledge. 

The tremendous accumulation of economic literature, much of it 
admittedly popular, but in most of which no differentiation is made 
between contribution and compilation is one of the serious and growing 
handicaps to progress. This society should spend much less time in 
listening to detailed reports of minor experiments and more time in 
discussing ways and means of solving the problems of the future. 
Catalogues, bibliographies, indices and summaries, are imperative, if 



32 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

this enormous mass is to be assimilated and profitably used. More 
funds of this association should be used for this purpose and more in- 
fluence brought to bear, on sources of publication, so that offerings of 
this kind could find ready acceptance. The bibliography of Economic 
Entomology should be kept up to date, and arrangements made to 
bring the valuable contributions into a single bibliography. 

The committee on publications might well be charged with the 
problem of reviewing past literature and fixing credit for at least major 
discoveries in our science. By a system of sub-committees and the 
use of specialists who already have a large part of this information, the 
task could be accomplished and every worker immeasurably benefited 
by the knowledge. The committee might well adopt the policy of 
requesting each living worker to set forth his own contributions to 
knowledge, asking him to go farther and classify them into major and 
minor groups. Overlapping claims and inaccuracies could be worked 
out, and the whole unified and correlated, in such a way as to make it 
highly valuable to every worker. It would require a certain amount 
of time and effort on the part of each individual, but there is, possibly, 
no more valuable piece of work that the ordinary individual could 
undertake, than to calmly sit down and measure the value of his own 
productions in a critical and impartial manner. 

We need, also, to be more generous in our credit to assistants and 
helpers. Credit of this kind, joint authorship, or specific acknowledg- 
ment does not, in the least, detract from the credit of the individual, 
but rather enhances it. The days of feudalism, of the master and slave, 
are gone. It is pleasant to note that the customs of the Dark Ages are 
rapidly disappearing, and that the contributions of the third genera- 
tion of our scientists are practically free from criticism in this respect. 

There are many of the fundamental questions of the future that 
involve the effect of insect attack upon the host plant, whether it is 
the effect of egg deposition or of feeding puncture or both, whether it 
is mere mechanical injury or something injected, or whether the insect 
is a carrier of a definite disease. One plant disease is already known 
to be transmitted only by the puncture of a specific insect, others 
appear to be specifically transmitted, while others are transmitted by 
a number of insects or by other methods. Here is a tremendously 
important and interesting field, as yet almost unworked. 

All of these problems require the cooperation of the Plant Pathol- 
ogist and Physiologist, and for these and many other reasons, our 
relations with these societies should be the most cordial and mutually 
helpful. Many of the problems of the State Entomologist involve 
pathological and physiological factors, and in all of this work, the 
cooperation and assistance of these plant workers should be sought. 



February, '19] BALL: ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 33 

It is only when the closest cooperation and sympathy exists, that the 
greatest good can be accomplished. A joint meeting of the two 
societies each year, for the presidential addresses, would be a powerful 
factor in bringing about mutual sympathy and understanding. 

Vision 

Of all the fundamentals, the power to see the possibilities and oppor- 
tunities of the future, is probably the greatest and possibly the rarest. 
Happily, however, a single leader may lead an army. A Moses, from 
his cradle in the bulrushes, led a nation to emancipation; a Columbus 
sailed on and on, towards a shore no eye had ever seen; a Foch could 
see through the smoke of battle, to the fields of battles and victories, 
yet to come. These, and a thousand others, have led because they 
could see beyond the present and accomplished, because they dared 
the unknown. Their vision and their faith were the creative powers 
that established the modern world. 

It is America's boast, that yellow fever does not exist under the 
Stars and Stripes; that the Bubonic plague, the triple alliance of the 
rat, the flea and the bacillus, has been practically routed from civiliza- 
tion; that scabies, the scourge of the western range, has practically 
disappeared as a menace to the sheep industry; that the foot and mouth 
disease has been banished from our soil. Newell calls attention to the 
fact that the quarantine line of the Texas fever has steadily been 
pushed southward, until it has touched the Gulf, and will eventually 
disappear. These and other striking victories of scientific warfare have 
involved problems partially entomological, but have been accom- 
plished largely through other agencies. Newell has already called 
attention to the eradication of the citrus canker, with its almost 
phenomenal success. The campaign against the barberry has met 
with a wonderful and almost unbelievable response. The spirit of 
conquest is in the air, and if the Entomologists are to carry their 
standard in the fore-front of this modern warfare against the enemies 
of old, they must search the rushes for a Moses. 

Notable achievements are already to their credit. The cottony 
cushion scale has been subjugated, the gypsy and brown-tail moth 
compelled to intrq^ich. The waves of molesting mosquitoes have been 
driven back and their l)ivouacs destroyed. The advanced spies of 
devouring hordes have been stopped at our shores. The pink boll- 
worm is now in retreat. These and other achievements have Ijeen 
notable and worthy, but should be followed by even greater ones. 
The cottony cushion scale should not only be subjugated, l)ut exter- 
minated. The warble iiy passes the greater part of its life in an ex- 
posed situation on the backs of the cattle. A concerted cfl'ort anil a 

4 



34 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

thorough organization, with the power and push of American energy 
and ingenuity, would ehminate this pest in a single season. It would 
hardly be accomplished, before the gain in leather and increased pro- 
duction would have paid the cost. The codling-moth is restricted to 
the apple and one or two allied fruits and nuts for its existence. An 
organized force, taking advantage of short crops, by reason of frost or 
previous heavy bearing, could free an entire region in a single year. By 
rigid quarantine it could be held free, until adjacent regions received 
like treatment. Area after area could in this way be cleaned up, until 
this scourge was driven from our shores. The state of Texas offered 
$50,000 reward for a plan of control of the cotton-boll weevil. Three 
hundred claimed the prize, but none succeeded. This pest is entirely 
dependent upon the cotton plant for its existence, and as Newell has 
pointed out, if the nation would store cotton in advance and cease to 
grow the crop for a single year, its eradication might be accomplished. 
It would be even possible to divide the country into three districts, 
increase the crop production in one area, while it was eliminated for 
two seasons, in the others. In this way, it could be more certainly 
ehminated and still cotton produced. 

There are many who will say that all of these things are impossible 
and we will grant that they are, but you will remember that it was 
impossible to build the Panama Canal, but a Goethals builded it. It 
was impossible to put a million men in France. Statistics showed that 
there were not trains enough to move them, nor ships enough to carry 
them. It was altruistic, but impossible. It was also proved to be 
impossible to feed them, even if they could have been placed there. 
There was overwhelming evidence to these conclusions, and yet these 
men and many more were placed on French soil and the food was there 
in abundance. The trouble with the statisticians was that they forgot 
the power of leadership and organization supported by the enthusiasm 
and self-sacrifice of a free people. 

There are doubtless scores of other insect pests of prime importance, 
that have even more vulnerable spots somewhere in the armor of their 
development. It is only a question of finding it and organizing for the 
attack. The Economic Entomologists are weak in aggressive organi- 
zation, to meet the conditions of today. They should have a strong 
and permanent executive committee, presided over by the strongest 
leader of our band. To this committee should be intrusted the organi- 
zation of our efforts to the accomplishment of these ends. This com- 
mittee should decide on the problems to be attacked, the method of 
operation, and the organization of public support and cooperation so 
essential to success. The society should change its rules, so that the 
president would serve for the year following his address and the ap- 



February, '19] headlee: SPRINKLING sewage filter fly 35 

pointment of his committees and thus actively assist in carrying out 
the poHcies that he proposed. 

The Economic Entomologists will become more active and aggres- 
sive, if they fulfill their destiny and keep abreast of the progress of the 
modern world. They will broaden and strengthen their courses of 
instruction, insist on fundamentals and foundations in all branches. 
They will require longer and more adequate preparation for research 
and thus establish standards beyond reproach. They will welcome 
criticism, be generous in credit, seek cooperation; they will ally them- 
selves with all forces that fight for the freedom of the earth from pest 
and disease. They will have faith to attempt the impossible and 
finally triumph, as do all forces that battle for truth and right. 



At the close of the address a vote of thanks was extended by the as- 
sociation, after which the session adjourned. 

Afternoon Session, Thursday, December 26, 1918, 2.1^0 p. m. 

President E. D. Ball: We will now take up the first paper on 
the program, by T. J. Headlee, New Brunswick, N. J. 

PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF THE METHODS RECENTLY 

DISCOVERED FOR THE CONTROL OF THE 

SPRINKLING SEWAGE FILTER FLY 

{Psychoda alternata) 

By Thomas J. Headlee, Ph. D., Entomologist of the New Jersey Agricultural Experi- 
ment Stations and Stale Entomologist 

Introduction 
Except where trade wastes are discharged in sufficient quantities 
materially to affect the effluent, sewage purification is essentially a 
process of transforming chemically unstable compounds into those 
which are chemically stable, and a process of reducing the number of 
pathogenic organisms to the lowest possible point, to the end that the 
water which has been used as a carrier for the sewage matters may 
be discharged into streams without polluting them in such a way as 
to be a menace to human health. The transformation of the chem- 
ically unstable sewage compounds to the chemically stable is appar- 
ently a bio-chemical process. The society of animals and plants 
effecting this change apparently reaches its highest development in 
the sprinkling sewage filter. The broken stones of which the body of 
this type of filter is composed are more or less completely coated with 
a gelatinous and amorphous film in which live the millions of organisms 
which effect this transformation. The organisms concerned are repre- 
sentatives at least of Bacteria, Fungi, Protozoa, Nematoda, Rotatoria, 



36 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 



[Vol. 12 




Fig. 1. — Diagram of the sewage purification plant where work against sprinkling 
sewage Filter Fly was carried out. Raw sewage enters at A, passes through B, C, 
D, E and H, and the purified effluent escapes through I. The flies are produced in E. 

A — Stream of raw sewage; B — Screen for removing coarse matter; C — Preliminary settling tanks; D — Siphon 
dosing tanks; E — Sprinkling filters; F and G — Galleries leading the sewage into and out of the sprinkling filters; 
H — Final settling tanks; I — Stream of effluent. 

Chsetopoda, Crustacea, Arachidna, and Insecta. The exact part 
which each group of organisms plays in the process of sewage purifica- 
tion is still an unsolved problem. The Psychoda are, however, con- 
cerned in the reducing of the gel- 
atinous and amorphous film, living 
in it and consuming it. The prin- 
cipal species of Psychoda found do- 
ing this work at the Plainfield 
sprinkling sewage filter is Psychoda 
alternata. 

Nature and Extent of Injury 

So far as the present studies have 
gone there is nothing whatever to 
show that the Sprinkling Sewage 
Filter Fly in any way damages or 
interferes with the efficiency of the 
society to which it belongs. The 
adult flies, however, emerging in 
enormous numbers throughout the 




Fig. 2. — Diagram showing relation of 
film to stone. A, Stone; B, Film. 



fore-part and throughout the latter part of the warm season, fly or are 
wind-carried for a distance of at least three-fourths of a mile, penetrate 
the finest screens and fall into the food which is presently to be con- 
sumed by people. Knowing the source of these flies and seeing them 
in the food, is sufficient to convince the people concerned that almost 
any infection from which they may subsequently sufl"er has been 
brought to them by this agencj' and to cause them to file suits for dam- 
age against the concern or the municipality maintaining the sewage 

Plate 1. General view of the preliminary settling tanks (A), the sprinkling filter 
(B) and the final settling tanks (C). Sewage passes through in the order named. 
The flies breed in the sprinkling filter. 



February, '19] JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 



Plate 1 




February, '19] headlee: sprinkling sewage filter fly 



37 



purification plant from which they come. Whether these flies actually 
carry infection has never been determined, but the presumption that 
they do is not at all unreasonable. 

Almost wherever sprinkling sewage filters are maintained these flies 
are produced and trouble of this kind is likely to occur. 





;%, wx/t 



7^ If 



%/r 




Fig. 3. — Life stages of the Sprinkling Sewage Filter Fly. A, Adult; B, Eggs (After 
L. Haseman); C, Larva; D, Pupa. 

Life-History and Habits 

The Sprinkling Sewage Filter Fly remains in the filter throughout the 
entire year, but to what extent breeding takes place in the winter time 
we are unable to say. Reproduction, however, occurred during the 
month of December, 1918. 

The eggs are laid on the film. The young hatch and make their 
way into it. Here they establish themselves with the breathing tube 
projecting from the film surface and the body buried in it. In this 
position they feed and grow to maturity'. Transformation to pupjB 
takes place in the film and the pupa) assume a position with their two 
breathing tubes sticking through the surface and the rest of their 



88 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 



[Vol. 12 



bodies buried in the film. When pupation has been completed the front 
end of the pupal shell is burst open and the fly emerges. 

The insect is not a strong flier and its movements from the filter are 
much influenced by the wind. It has the habit of resting on the under- 
sides of the stones in the upper layers of the filter and upon the 
sidewalls of the filter itself. The life cycle may be completed in the 
summer in a minimum of a little less than 12 days. As a matter of 
fact, a brood emerges during the summer about once each two weeks. 

Although larvae and pupse of this fly may be found throughout the 
filter bed, they are most abundant in the zone which begins three inches 
below the surface and ends about twelve inches below the surface. 

The abundance of larvae and pupae seems to be correlated with the 
thickness of the film. A thick film means heavy breeding, a thin film 
light breeding. During the winter and spring the film becomes very 
heavy and consequently the pest is very abundant, in the fore-part of 
the season. As the weather becomes warmer the filter unloads. Large 
quantities of the film sluff off and pass out with the effluent, and a thin 
film takes its place. This thin film gradually increases in thickness as 
the summer goes by, until in the latter part of the summer it becomes 
heavy and consequently develops a great abundance of flies. 

c ^o 




Fig. 4. — Diagram showing position of larva and pupa of the Sprinkling Sewage 
Filter Fly in the film. A, Film; B, Stone; C, Larva; D, Pupa. 

Control 
Practically all of the organisms composing the society of which the 
Sprinkling Sewage Filter Fly is a part, can get along without atmos- 
pheric oxygen for a longer time than it. Both the larvae and pupae 



February, '19] HEADLEE: SPRINKLING SEWAGE FILTER FLY 39 

breathe atmospheric air. Tests made and reported^ show that sub- 
mersion of the filter bed with ordinary sewage for a period of 24 hours 
destroys 100 per cent of the larvse and pupae, leaving the film in active 
condition. 

The first experimental submergence was made on June 14, 1918, and 
involved only one-fourth of the entire bed which has a surface of about 
two acres. 

Acting upon this discovery, a bulk head pierced with a passage way 
which may be closed or opened at will was installed in each of the two 
galleries through which the effluent escaped from the filter bed of the 
joint sewage disposal plant of Plainfield, North Plainfield and Dunel- 
len; a plant which serves to purify the sewage of about 40,000 people. 

The factors affecting the submergence of the entire bed were tight- 
ness of the retaining walls, the volume of sewage available and the time 
which the bed could be submerged without injury. The retaining 
walls in question were composed of six-inch concrete backed by a 
heavy wall of soil lying at an easy angle of rest from the top of the re- 
taining wall to the surface of the surrounding ground. This concrete 
wall had not been constructed to hold water, but merely to hold the 
stone in place and it surrounded a basin of approximately six feet 
deep. The normal volume of sewage ranged from 2| to 4 million gal- 
lons daily. The time during which the filter could be submerged and 
not seriously injure the activity of the film as shown by the following 
table was something less than 48 hours. 

Flooding Experiment Carried out in Flower Pots 



of Time Flooded 


Condition of Larvse 


Condition of Film 


16 hours 


Alive 


Alive 


18 " 


u 


(( 


22 " 


95 % dead 


a 


24 " 


Dead 


i( 


32 " 


<( 


(( 


36 " 


« 


Slight putrefication 


48 " 


(( 


Putrefaction 



The figures indicated that the filter should be filled with sewage, 
provided the walls did not leak seriously, within a period of 12 hours. 

On August 9 the bulk head gates were shut and the water allowed to 
accumulate. The filter was completely under water at the end of 12 
hours and was maintained in this condition for a period of 24 hours, 
when the bulk head gates were withdrawn and the waters allowed to 
escape. These escaping streams of water were full of the dead larvae 
of the Sprinkling Sewage Filter Fly. 

' Headlce, T. J., Beckwith, C. S. SprinkUng Sewage Fiher Fly, Journal of 
Economic Entomology, Vol. II, No. 5, 1918. 



40 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Assuming that the nitration power of the bed is a proper index for 
its efficiency in sewage purification (this is the index usually so ac- 
cepted by Sanitary Engineers), the following table will serve to show 
that the efficiency of the bed was in no wise diminished by the sub- 
mergences of the season. 

Effect on Nitrification in Plainfield Filters 
Part Per Mill N. as Nitrate 

Number of Days before Flooding Dates Number of Days after Flooding 

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Flood 12 3 4 5 6 7 

7.0 10.0 12 6/14 11.4 Eff. of quarter flooded only 

. 11 8/9 11. 10. 8.0 

13.0 9.0 13 8/24 13.0 

13.0 8/31 13.0 

13. 13 9/17 13.0 

13 9/24 13.0 13.0 13.0 

6.1 10/14 10.0 11.0 10.0 

6.6 6.6 6.6 10/31 6.6 6.6 6.6 

This submergence was repeated on August 24, August 31, Septem- 
ber 17, September 24, October 14 and October 31. 

With the exception of the periods from August 24 to August 31 and 
September 17 to September 24, the time elapsing was two weeks or 
greater. The result of the practice of allowing two weeks to elapse 
before the submergence is repeated appears in the escape of a consider- 
able number of flies. A repetition of the treatment at the end of one 
week cuts the fly pest entirely out. The two-week period gives enough 
time for the flies to reach the adult stage and to reinfest the filter im- 
mediately after the water is withdrawn. Furthermore, it is possible 
although not actually determined that the egg is able to resist the sub- 
mergence. 

It is unmistakeably indicated that the filter should be submerged 
once each 10 days until the flies are reduced. Let it be understood, 
however, that at no time following August 24 did the fly assume the 
proportion of a pest, although the interval between submergence with 
two exceptions was sufficient for the insect to pass through its life cycle. 

The work against the fly will be opened during the coming season by 
submergence of the bed in the spring before the flies emerge. This 
submergence will be followed by treatments at 10-day intervals until 
the fly has been so reduced as not to require such frequency. 

The greatest limiting factor in the application of this method of con- 
troling the Sprinkling Sewage Filter Fy to the various sprinkling sewage 
filter beds of the country is the fact that many engineers have con- 
structed these beds without retaining walls. In such cases the writer 
would recommend the construction of wooden walls backed by an 
earthen fill or the construction of concrete retaining walls, in such a 

Plate 2. General views of sprinkling filter illustrating submergence. A. — Filter 
inactive, note apparatus for closing and opening the bulkhead gate; B — filter ap- 
proaching complete submergence, sprayers discharging; C — Filter completely sub- 
merged. 



February, '19] JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 



Plate 2 




February, '19] headlee: sprinkling sewage filter fly 41 

fashion as to permit the fiUing of the bed in 12 hours and the mainte- 
nance of the submergence for a period of 24 hours. 

The writer wishes to take this opportunity to acknowledge his in- 
debtedness to Dr- Leonard Haseman for identification of species, to 
the Joint Sewer Committee of Plainfield, Dunellen and North Plain- 
field for substantial aid in carrying out the experiments, to Mr. John 
R. Downes, superintendent of the disposal plant, for hearty coopera- 
tion in the practical work of submergence and for furnishing data on 
nitration, and to Mr. J. W. Thompson for making the drawings. 



President E. D. Ball: This paper is before you for discussion. 

Mr. W. a. Riley: I had the pleasure of seeing some of this work 
last spring and was very much interested in the fact that while it had 
not been estabhshed definitely that those flies were carriers of disease, 
we have every reason to suppose that they would be under such cir- 
cumstances, and I sympathize heartily with the people who brought 
suit against the corporation for maintaining such a nuisance. I think 
that Dr. Headlee's work will be very far reaching in its applicability. 
For one thing, a little later I saw the filter beds and the system in 
use here in Baltimore, or near this city. The beds of course are 
enormously more extensive and the pest was just as serious here. 
There have been a number of suits brought against the city and de- 
cided adversely to the city here, and this certainly should be a matter 
of much interest to the authorities in charge of that work. 

Another factor which impressed me especially in the beds here was 
the number of other species of flies, including the house-fly, and a 
number of the larger Muscids breeding in these beds. I did not see 
that to any such extent at the beds in New Jersey, and that was very 
apparent when I visited the sewer beds here. The problem for this 
particular locality would make a very valuable and interesting one 
for some one who has local opportunities to take it up. 

President E. D. Ball: Is there any further discussion? If not, 
we will call for the next paper. 

THE OCCURRENCE OF DROSOPHILA LARViE AND PUPARIA 
IN BOTTLED MILK 

By W. A. Riley, St. Paul, Minn. 
(Withdrawn for publication elsewhere) 

President E. D. Ball: The next paper on the program is, 
" Some Practical Phases of the Entomology of Disease, Hygiene, and San- 
itation Developed by the War," by W. Dwight Pierce, Washington, D. C. 



42 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 



SOME NEW PHASES OF THE ENTOMOLOGY OF DISEASE, 

HYGIENE AND SANITATION BROUGHT ABOUT 

BY THE GREAT WAR 

By W. DwiGHT Pierce 

Since the great war began in Europe a branch of entomology long 
neglected has suddenly grown from infancy to maturity. Five years 
ago we had a few text books of medical entomology, and two or three 
universities presented courses of study in the subject. But medical 
or sanitary entomologists were so Httle known or thought of, that no 
place was made in any of the armies for men trained in the subject. 
Little by little, however, in the various armies there has been an infil- 
tration of entomologists and it is my firm belief that the day will come 
when every army will have an entomological unit in its sanitary corps. 

When our nation entered the war the men who were well informed on 
the subject of this phase of the entomological science could not have 
exceeded a score. But all entomologists were thinking of their part in 
the great struggle, and when it was announced in a three-line statement 
in an emergency circular that a class had been formed to study the 
entomology of disease, hygiene and sanitation, and that mimeographed 
proceedings would be sent to those who enrolled, the nation-wide 
interest of the entomological profession was immediately demonstrated. 

The class kept on growing steadily until its enrollment exceeded 500, 
and many universities and colleges announced the founding of special 
classes in the subject. But it is not only the educational side of the 
subject which has grown. Hardly a day passes but that some new 
contribution to the science comes to hand. The technical phases of 
the problem are fast maturing. 

Just arrived at maturity, we cannot yet prophesy the future of this 
branch of entomology, but it is well to see what kind of a ground work 
it has and what some of its new, outstanding features are. This paper 
is intended to serve as a setting forth of some of the basic principles of 
this phase of entomology. 

Our science embraces the study of all the relationships of insects to 
the causation and carriage of disease, whether of plant or animal, 
because the principles are the same, and the technique is similar; the 
role of insects in materia medica; and the maintenance of hygienic and 
sanitary conditions for man, animals and plants, against all insects 
which threaten the health of these individual organisms. We touch 
in the various angles of the complete science many other sciences and 
must maintain our own entity without arousing antagonism of other 
sciences, but rather with a perfect accord and cooperation with them in 



February, '19] PIERCE: ENTOMOLOGY AND DISEASE 43 

order that we may more quickly solve the many problems ahead 
of us. 

In the study of disease transmission we must work directly with 
doctors, and parasitologists in perfect harmony. It is our role to 
understand the life-histories of the insects, their hosts and their para- 
sites, in order that we may point out the possible manners of transmis- 
sion, to assist in the transmission experiments, and to maintain the 
surroundings of the experimental insects such that the experiments can 
be successfully concluded. The doctor and the parasitologist will be 
just as concerned with the patient and the organism as we are with the 
carrier. Had such cooperation been in effect in the past, it would not 
be now necessary to reconduct many transmission experiments which 
proved failures because of faulty technique in handling the insects, or 
efforts to obtain transmission by bite when it should have been accom- 
plished by some other method. 

Briefly, we must summarize the methods of disease transmission by 
insects. The organism may be carried mechanically on the body or in 
the mouth parts, or maj^ pass through the body of the insect and out 
with its feces. The host may be infected by the insect coming in con- 
tact with food or wounds, or by mechanical inoculation at the time of a 
bite, or by the insect being scratched into a wound, or by having its 
feces scratched in. Its feces may be dropped on food or be washed 
into the blood by fluids excreted by the insect at the time of feeding. 
The organism may require the insect as an intermediate host, and may 
follow many devious paths in the insect body, emerging from the 
region of the mouth or anus, or may never be contaminative in this 
manner, but require to be swallowed in its insect host by the next host 
in its cycle. Insects httle suspected of having any role in disease 
transmission are often vital elements in the economy of a disease 
organism. 

Since the beginning of the war the body-louse has assumed a primary 
importance as a carrier of some of the most dreaded diseases. Val- 
uable studies have been made in India on the role of the bedbug as an 
intermediate host of Kala azar and kindred diseases. Further ad- 
vances have been made in the study of sleeping sickness in Africa. 

An outstanding feature of the louse and bedbug studies is the fact 
that these insects do not spread diseases by biting, but by being 
scratched into the flesh or having their feces scratched in. The impor- 
tance of these studies must not be minimized, for quite possibly we have 
here a probable explanation of the means of ingress for a ninul)er of 
other diseases which have baffled investigators. 

The part of insects in materia medica is but little knowii and is a 
field for future investigations. Certain it is, however, that insect 



44 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

secretions are often very powerful and that some of those known are 
of very definite value. 

Probably the greatest series of advances in this science have been 
made in the louse investigation and as a direct result of the proving 
that the most dreaded diseases of the armies, typhus, relapsing fever 
and trench fever, were louse transmitted. We will not discuss the 
louse problem as such but rather bring out some of the new principles 
which it has given entomology. Nuttall's great series of monographs 
on the human lice, recently published in Parasitology, cover the gen- 
eral subject verj^ well. 

There are a number of army principles more or less understood and 
perhaps not even set forth on paper which have actuated much of the 
work done on this subject. In this war everything has been handled 
on a scale far surpassing anything ever dreamt of before. We have 
had to think in millions and not in units. We have had to test each 
proposed method of insect control in terms of universal availabiUty, 
and maximum effectiveness. Because of the immensity of the prob- 
lems, scientists of many branches have contributed wonderful results 
to our new entomological science. We owe immeasurable credit to 
doctors, sanitarians, chemists, engineers, manufacturers and to the 
ordinary man of the street. All the brains of the nations of the world 
have been focused on winning the war, and one of the vital elements 
therein was the health of the great armies facing each other. There 
have been many valuable contributions from various sources on the 
control of the louse. 

It is an army maxim that materials and methods already in use in 
some part of the army, and therefore more or less available, must be 
adapted to meet as many phases of army life as possible. New prob- 
lems must be handled if possible with materials at hand. The army 
sanitarian must learn to shift for himself and get results without in- 
troducing too much that is new. He must be able to get results by 
rough and ready methods. A given unit of machinery or transporta- 
tion must have its various capabilities for use tested to the utmost. 
The more uses a chemical has the better. Materials usually wasted in 
former wars are now carefully studied with the possibility of utilizing 
them. Waste must be reduced to a minimum. Methods, materials, 
mechanisms must be standardized and must be readily available. 
Theoretical knowledge is of Uttle value, results count. Everything 
must submit to the cold proof of results. Inventive genius which can 
transmute ideas into practical working propositions stands high at 
present. 

Now let us see how these principles have governed the cootie inves- 
tigation and also some of our other entomological sanitary problems. 
We should put them to use in all our future entomological work. 



February, '19] PIERCE: entomology and disease 45 

The louse is an insect of filth. It is to be controlled by cleanliness, 
by heat, by water, by chemicals. Thus we have seen the rise of the 
bath trains, the mobile horse-drawn and motor-drawn bath units, the 
permanent bathing stations; we have seen efforts made to bathe whole 
nations and their armies in order to combat louse-borne diseases. To 
the Russians probably belong the credit for the first mobile bath units. 
Now they exist in many diverse types. The basic principles in the 
bath unit are that the men shall be bathed and their clothes sterilized 
and that there shall be no contact between clean and unclean garments 
or clean and unclean men. 

The greatest problem in sterilization of the clothes is to kill all lice 
and vermin and all disease germs without injury to the garments, and 
when to sterilization can be added cleansing then we have the best 
process of all. The sterilization may be by dry heat, steam, hot water, 
gas or chemical wash according to the available supplies. Every one 
of the elements of sterilization has been studied more thoroughly than 
«ver before. Steam sterilization may be accomplished in an autoclave, 
a room, a car, a kettle, a barrel, or a laundry washing machine; by the 
use of vacuum, or at normal, or increased pressure' in a closed cylinder, 
or it may be applied as live or current steam. There is no question 
about the killing value of steam. In the autoclave or sterihzation 
cylinder the complete process requires half an hour, but we have found 
recently that in a laundry washing machine we can kill all cooties and 
nits with current steam in fifteen minutes, remove the garments, shake 
them out and wear them. The problem in steam sterilization is one of 
shrinkage, and injury to the tensile strength of the fabric. Steam un- 
der pressure, even for a few minutes, is injurious to woolens. So also, 
is steam at ordinary pressure in a little longer time. Current steam 
does not shrink in fifteen minutes in the laundry wheel. Current 
steam disinfection of whole buildings and cars has been used and en- 
abled the rapid handling of great quantities of garments. Detailed 
reports of wool shrinkage tests of many processes have been made as 
a result of the louse problem. 

But steam, in whatever form, although effective, does not cleanse 
the garments. 

Washing with boiling water and washing with insecticidal soaps have 
been often proposed and successfully used, but it remained for the 
Laundry Division of the Conservation and Reclamation Branch, 
Q. M. C, to set in action a series of investigations to determine to what 
extent the camp laundries could effectively control the louse. It has 
been the writer's good fortune to be one of the group which investi- 
gated all the laundry ami dry-cleaning processes with the view of ob- 



46 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

taining complete insect disinfection. We have reported^ that the 
laundry processes are thoroughly efficient delousing processes and that 
each step in the laundry formula, washing, drying, and ironing, can of 
itself be so regulated as to completely kill all lice. Furthermore, if 
very resistant spore-bearing bacilli are suspected of being in the clothes, 
a live steam sterilization may precede the wash with absolutely no in- 
jury to the garments. 

This primarily entomological question led to exhaustive studies of 
the shrinkage of woolens and the bactericidal value of each process in 
the laundry, and even to actual changes in laundry practice. In like 
manner, the dry-cleaning processes were studied and developed from 
each point of view. It was interesting to find that the usual 45-minute 
gasoline soaking in the wash wheel, and even an hour's soaking, was 
not effective against all eggs, but the second step in the process, the 
drying in the dry tumbler, completed the control. 

Many people have suggested that chemicals placed on clothing 
would be effective repellents against the louse, and in fact there is con- 
siderable on the subject in European literature, but it was not based on 
scientific principles of research. This fact led to the exhaustive studies 
of Dr. William Moore and Dr. A. B. Hirschfelder on impregnation of 
garments. Then the Chemical Service started to impregnate gar- 
ments against gases and finally the two efforts were welded into one. 
Whether we find what we are after or not, this work has already 
greatly enriched entomology and chemistry with a knowledge of the 
effectiveness of many chemicals as insecticides, the duration of their 
effectiveness, and their effects on clothing and skin. 

The subject of insect repellents has been studied more thoroughly 
and scientifically than ever before. Many of the repellents and im- 
pregnation chemicals used in these tests were synthesized by Dr. 
Hirschfelder, and members of the Chemical Warfare Service. 

The louse problem is not the only one which has yielded new phases 
to entomological practice. In the mosquito extermination work 
Lieut. E. C. Ebert of the Marine Corps, at Quantico, developed a sub- 
mersible oil distributor, and also worked out many ways of spreading 
oil by means of oil impregnated sawdust. In the June number of the 
Journal of Economic Entomology, Freeborn and Atsatt contrib- 
uted a very valuable paper on the effects of the petroleum oils on 
mosquito larvaB, which taken together with Dr. Moore's papers on the 
toxicity of vapors to insects will greatly advance our knowledge of 
insect control. 

The fly problem in the camps led to many ingenious sanitary meas- 
ures for handling garbage, manure and sewage to prevent fly breeding. 

' National Laundry Journal, vol. 81, pp. 4-14, Jan. 1, 1919. 



February, '19] PIERCE: ENTOMOLOGY AND DISEASE 47 

Dr. W. L. Mann, Post Surgeon at Quantico, has contributed numerous 
types of incinerators for all kinds of refuse. The disposal of waste has 
become more or less standardized by army practice. 

An interesting feature in educational work was Dr. Mann's practical 
field demonstration at Quantico of models of many types of sanitary 
devices such as latrines, incinerators, sterilizers, steam disinfectors, 
etc. Certain of the army camps have installed similar exhibits. It is 
to be hoped that as we get settled down to recognizing sanitary ento- 
mology, there will be developed throughout the country many per- 
manent outdoor and indoor exhibitions of sanitary and entomological 
devices. It is a very effective educational method. 

We now come to a brief discussion of the future of this branch of 
entomology. In the past many times as much money has been spent 
for the control of insects which damage crops, as for the control of 
insects which affect the health of man and animals, and yet such esti- 
mates as are available show the losses to be more or less equal. 

There is therefore a great field for research and practical work to be 
opened up and now is surely the time to begin. Well-regulated courses 
of study should be started in all universities where entomology is 
taught, and surely no medical school should be without a complete 
course in the entomology of disease, hygiene and sanitation. 

Each year we learn of some well-known disease being connected more 
or less intimately with insects. We must therefore settle down to a 
careful and systematic study of how insects can be concerned in the 
transmission of the diseases prevalent among us. This work will in- 
volve careful biological studies of all suspected species to equip us 
thoroughly with a knowledge of their habits and methods of control. 
Fortunately there is a great mass of material already accumulated, 
which must, however, be digested. 

Many of these biological and practical studies must be worked out 
from the standpoint of municipal conditions, factory and commercial 
practices, rural customs and popular prejudices. 

Then there nmst be careful studies in many places of the usual and 
occasional fauna of parasitic insects, and also of their capabihty of 
taking up and transmitting disease organisms. 

Finally the time will arrive when there will be undertaken long series 
of careful transmission experiments in which the best cooperation of 
parasitologist, entomologist and physician or veterinarian will be im- 
perative. 

We are now beginning a period of reconstruction in our national life. 
Educational and investigational work of all kinds must be overhauled 
and developed to meet the spirit of a new time. Let us in entomology 
not be found backward in adjusting our science to new requirements. 



48 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Mr. W. D. Pierce: The laundry report in full, which is a co- 
operative report with the Quartermaster's Department, will be pub- 
lished in January. I do not know that it will be printed in any of the 
Entomological Journals. It gives an entirely new phase to Sanitary 
Entomology; that is, its application to industry. We have just found 
that by lowering the specific gravity of the oil used in dry cleaning es- 
tablishments we can bring about control. 

Mr. E. H. Gibson: I have been in charge of the insect work in 
one of our largest cantonments during the past nine months and wish 
to take this opportunity to express my appreciation of the excellent 
work and the interest taken by Dr. Pierce in activities along the line 
of insects in relation to health and for the class which he has conducted 
in Entomology. 

Mr. W. a. Riley: In this connection, I feel compelled to say 
that it is unfortunate that many of these reports that have been made 
during the past few months are not going to be more widely available. 
At the outbreak of the war, Mr. Moore, of Minnesota, was asked to 
take up this line of work, and with thorough generosity, the authorities 
there gave him all of his time and all facilities for doing this work. 
He has published a few brief papers, and one of the very important 
ones which is about to appear is one showing that apart from disease 
transmission, the louse problem is of more interest to the medical man 
than has been supposed, that gross infection of lice is an actual cause 
of persistent fever, and in one case, one of those experimented on, it 
showed very serious results. We feel confident that if the man had 
been subjected much longer to the experiment, it might have resulted 
even fatally. 

In other words, that without any disease transmission at all, the 
bite of the louse itself was a serious thing, when it came to gross infec- 
tion, and we have since had a paper from a medical man who ob- 
served a similar case in San Francisco and who did not interpret it 
until he received these results. These reports of Mr. Moore's, of 
course, have been made constantly to the Bureau and to the -author- 
ities in Washington, but unfortunately they have not been published 
in any extended manner. 

Mr. W. D. Pierce : It might interest the association to know that 
a complete bulletin will be prepared by the Bureau of Entomology on 
the louse problem. 

Mr. W. C. O'Kane: Dr. Riley, in speaking of fever being caused 
by the bites of lice, I personally have had the experience of a pretty 
high temperature brought on by too many jiggers in South America, 
several hundred I imagine, followed by a fever lasting some days, etc. 

Mr. W. a. Riley: It is a peculiar fact that this condition has 



February, '19] DISCUSSION of presidential address 49 

not been noted by any of the modern workers on the louse problem. 
There were a few references many years ago, in which there was some 
mention of fever in connection with lice bites, but there was no signifi- 
cance attached to it. 

Vice-President W. C. O'Kane presiding. 

Mr. W. C. O'Kane: We will now take up the discussion of the 
presidential address. 

Mr. T. J. Headlee: I have been much impressed with the ad- 
dress of our president. He is advocating fundamental training along 
biological lines for persons who would enter the field of economic en- 
tomology. In this he does not apparently agree with many of the 
addresses and discussions hitherto presented to this association deal- 
ing with the problem of training economic entomologists. The at- 
titude taken in many previous papers on this subject has been that the 
man prepared for economic entomology should be thoroughly trained 
in agriculture and in the direct technical side of his profession, the idea 
apparently being that unless he is familiar to a great extent with eco- 
nomic insects he is not in a position to measure up with men in other 
lines of scientific agriculture. As I see it, this is only a part of the 
movement in scientific agriculture which has taken place during the 
last ten years, the object and aim of which has been to produce men 
trained in the technical side of the science, without much regard to 
their preparation in fundamental science and the humanities. 

It seems to me that this address of our president marks the swing in 
the opposite direction. I may say at once that I am in entire sym- 
pathy with this change of front. 

In a few instances in the past ten years addresses have been de- 
livered advocating training of a similar sort, but the bulk of teaching 
opinion has seemed to be on the other side. 

From the beginning of economic entomology until the present and 
probably to a distant date in the future, the tendency to study the life 
history of economic insects, without regard to the nature of the en- 
vironment in which they live, has been and will continue to be very 
paramount. 

Professor Sanderson in his address as president of this association at 
Minneapolis some years ago advocated the idea of studying the eco- 
nomic insect not only from the standpoint of life history l)ut also from 
the standpoint of its ecological relations and suggested that a standing 
committee on entomological research be authorized, the pm-pose of 
which should i)e to hold up ideals of economic entomological research. 
With the passage of time the activity of this committee became limited 
to the preparation of a list of the projects on which the members of the 
association are engaged. This, according to my view, is a mistaken 

5 



50 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

tendency and prevents the said committee from doing the very work 
for which it was originally appointed. 

Mr. W. E. Britton: I think that excellent ideas have been 
brought out in the president's address and I agree with the remarks 
of the speaker who has just commented on it. 

We have had a great many papers and a great deal of emphasis has 
been placed upon the necessity of having been trained in an agricul- 
tural college. So far as I can see, the chief reason for this has been, 
that men shall get the right viewpoint, that is a sympathetic one, with 
problems of agriculture. As you know, many of our colleges and 
universities have not especially induced students to take hold of eco- 
nomic problems. That is true not only in entomology, but in all other 
subjects. There has been a tendency to encourage work in pure 
science. 

Now at the present time the pendulum has swung in the other 
direction; because of the necessities of war we have been obliged to 
solve many economic problems, such as problems of food production, 
ammunition making, poisonous gas-making, etc. So that for the past 
year or so nearly all of our efforts have been directed towards work 
which will be beneficial to us as a nation, or to mankind. 

The present is an especially favorable time to begin efforts towards 
the solving of other problems which have a bearing on economic lines. 
So if we can use the two together, that is, have the broad foundation, 
and then direct efforts with the spirit which we now all possess, it 
seems to me that we may be able to get the greatest degree of efficiency 
in entomological research. 

Mr. E. p. Felt: I want to express my appreciation of the presi- 
dent's address. It seems to me that he has touched some vitally 
important matters, and at a time when they could be discussed to 
particular advantage. As stated by the various speakers, we have 
been obliged to cooperate in order to win the war. We are learning 
what the other man can and is doing, and the proposition that I would 
like to emphasize in this connection is this: Is there any way in which 
these suggestions can be crj^stallized into something practical in the 
way of closer cooperation between entomologists throughout the 
country. Of course we are all independent, we do not like dictation, 
but if we can recognize that each, within certain limits, is a specialist 
along one or more lines, and work out some means whereby there will 
be effective cooperation, not only in entomology but associated sciences, 
we might bring about something of great value for the future. The 
difficulty has been to get a workable plan. 

Mr. Z. p. Metcalf: It was not my good fortune to hear the 
presidential address, but there is one thought that might be worth 



February, '19] DISCUSSION OF PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 51 

while for the members of the association. A few years ago Professor 
Herrick made the text of his presidential address that the worst weed 
in corn might be corn and the worst thing in a course in entomology 
might be too much entomology. The entomologist needs a broad 
foundation. I doubt very much if there are many other fields where 
a broader foundation is needed. This foundation should be laid in 
biology. At the present time there is too much emphasis on the more 
technical phases of agriculture and not enough upon the broad general 
principles of biology. 

Secretary A. F. Burgess: It seems to me that we are all agreed 
that the entomologists should have a broad, liberal training as a founda- 
tion. After that has been secured, specialization is not only necessary 
but very desirable. In the field of entomology we find the activities 
greatly specialized. As time goes on entomology will become more 
and more specialized. The man who becomes expert in a special line 
of investigation must follow that line to the exclusion of other special 
activities. Dr. Ball brought out the fact that the San Jose scale had 
been responsible for the enactment of many of the state laws relating 
to insect control. Inspection work requires some things in which many 
entomologists have not been trained. A good inspector ought to have 
a short course in business administration. 

Mr. T. J. Headlee: Doesn't he get it? 

Secretary A. F. Burgess: He undoubtedly gets it by hard 
knocks but he gets it not only at his own expense but at the expense 
of the people that he is attempting to serve. There is another point 
brought out by the address of Dr. Ball relative to conditions in the 
future, and that is that our leaders or leader should be a man with 
broad vision. 

I believe that is absolutely correct. The practical side of the prob- 
lem, however, cannot be ignored. No matter how much vision a man 
may have, if he is tied down with a thousand' and one duties which he 
has to perform in order to earn his daily bread, he does not have the 
time to work out and put in force ideas that may come to him and 
which would be of benefit to us all. It may help but it does not secure 
the goal for which you are striving unless it is somebody's business who 
has time to attend to that business to put the ideas into operation. 

Mr. W. D. Pierce: Mr. President, Dr. Ball brought up some 
points in his address that have interested me very much. He brought 
before us visions of some of the big fields that entomology is to come 
to in the future; for instance, the extermination of the boll-weevil in 
the south, by the temporary suspension of cotton growing. This 
question has been considered a great many times. I don't doubt but 
that Dr. Ball is prophesying something that will take place some 



62 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

time in the future. But before we come to anything like attempting 
those great big-scale tests, we have got to have entomology better 
organized, we have got to have our men trained up to handle things in 
big ways and handle them cooperatively. A task like that would mean 
an organization with millions of dollars to be used. I believe it is 
possible, just as Dr. Ball does, that some day the boll-weevil will be 
pushed back, and that we. will push back many other pests out of our 
nation by cooperative work, just as the cattle tick has been almost 
pushed out of this country simply through organized effort. 

Now we have almost pushed the pink boUworm out in the opera- 
tions of this past year. I think we are going to come to the time when 
we will do bigger tasks, but we must get on the broad basis of coopera- 
tion and we must know our principles, we have got to be trained more 
broadly than in the past. 

I want to make one correction to Dr. Ball's address, and that is 
regarding his statement that the boll-weevil has only one food plant. 
It has one other, a native wild plant which grows in the mountains 
from Guatemala to Arizona. We have found some of the native 
plants and woodlands of the south can to a limited extent serve as 
hosts for it, so that even if we did suspend cotton growing, we might 
find it in some of those other plants. 

Mr. E. D. Sanderson: Mr. Chairman, as I have not had the 
pleasure of meeting with this association for some time and as I will 
not be able to stay through the session, I want to now express my 
appreciation of the president's address, because it is along lines which 
have always appealed to me. 

The matter of training is one to which more attention may well be 
given. At various sessions we have considered courses for graduate 
work and study. It seems to me the association might give more 
serious thought to graduate training in entomology, possibly through a 
committee. I think the graduate training in the technical branches of 
agriculture is one of the weak points of agricultural education. More 
and more men are going, not to agricultural institutions, but to some 
of our leading universities for graduate work in the pure sciences, and I 
feel that the agricultural institutions have not had a large enough 
vision of the training necessary in graduate work. There has been too 
much tendency to look at the technical aspects of the subject and not 
enough to fundamentals. 

It was my good fortune a couple of years ago to have a course on the 
logic or method of science — rather an abstract thing many of you will 
think — but I received more from that course than almost any other 
course I have had. I had been working in science for some years and 
I thought I knew something about science, but I had never given the 



February, '19] DISCUSSION OF PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 53 

matter serious thought of what was the method of science. In talking 
with a good many men and experienced scientific workers, I have come 
to the conclusion that if a great many of us had that foundation point 
of view which we get by considering the logic of science, it would be 
worth a great deal to us. I think eveiy student ought to have some 
training along that line. 

There is another matter on which I want to touch briefly, that is 
this matter for organization in putting over some of these big ento- 
mological undertakings. The boll-weevil has been referred to and 
that is a matter which has always interested me, because I was actively 
engaged in combating it some years ago. 

The start, in a way, of the big extension movement in agriculture, 
which we have today, was from Dr. S. A. Knapp's work in Texas, in 
trying to fight the boll-weevil. He didn't know anything technically 
about the boll-weevil, but he was a mighty canny student of human 
nature and he demonstrated a method of fighting the boll-weevil which 
developed into the demonstration method that has gone on, until we 
have our present agricultural extension system. I don't mean to say 
that was the only basis of our present extension work but it was one 
of the largest factors in it. Now then, why didn't we as entomologists 
do that? Why didn't we show the people of the South how to fight 
the boll-weevil and why was it that we didn't get one job across instead 
of letting some other people do it for us? I have often thought of that. 

I simply cite that because it has been mentioned and it is such an 
historic instance. The point is that today, as has been pointed out, 
the science is getting so large that there must be specialization. It is 
perfectly useless, in my humble judgment, to put a man who is a nat- 
ural research man and who has been trained for minute laboratory 
research in charge of a big extension job. Occasionally you get a 
genius who can do anything, but most men aren't built that way. 

Most men are better at some particular line, research, extension, or 
teaching. And it seems to me that that must be recognized, and that 
in any of these big undertakings we must make a study of the human 
nature factor and we must put the man in charge of that line of work 
who is willing to devote himself to that sort of thing. He may be a 
relatively mediocre research man, but if he is associated with a research 
man and he knows how to take the results of research to the people and 
"get them over," as we say, he is as valuable to science as the other 
man, because after all no piece of investigation is done until it is actu- 
ally put into practical operation. An experiment or a demonstration 
is never done until the people actually use it, and if it isn't worth using 
the investigation, in so far, is incomplete, because it has not produced 
practical results in use. So I think there must be greater division of 
labor, which, of course, is coming about ver>' rapidly. 



64 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Mr. H. a. Gossard: Mr. Sanderson has very nearly said one or 
two things that I thought I would like to say. The visions that Dr. 
Ball holds up have always been a very attractive sort of thing to the 
entomologist and it looks as if we ought to be able to do some of the 
things that he suggests. We will be able to do them by and by, but 
there are some things we must learn to do, in cooperation with people 
who are not entomologists at all, before there is any hope of accom- 
plishing such things. We cannot, for instance, exterminate the boll- 
weevil, and there are a great many other things that we are failing 
to do — because for some reason, good or bad, we have not secured the 
cooperation of the powers that be, to the extent that we can do justice 
to large sections of people and to the individuals composing such sec- 
tions and at the same time accomplish our projects. Until we reach 
that point where we can do justice to the cotton grower who is deprived 
of his privilege of growing cotton, not alone do justice to the cotton 
section, but to the individuals in it, there isn't much hope of putting a 
thing of that kind across. In other words we must cooperate with 
economic workers, sociological workers and perhaps with constitu- 
tional lawyers. Anyhow we must do a cooperating "stunt." 

Now there is no use talking about an entomologist getting an educa- 
tion that will fit him to draft the laws, etc., — he may not be even able 
to organize a system to carry these into effect, but he will have to 
learn to cooperate with the people who can before there is any reason- 
able hope of accomplishing these things, and whenever we do cooperate 
fairly, there is a reasonable and a practical basis for such a hope. 

Capt. E. H. Gibson: Mr. Chairman, it has been my pleasure to 
attend a number of these meetings and to hear various very admirable 
presidential papers. No doubt there have been results come from each 
one of these but I contend that we have not had enough positive, direct 
results. 

Now, Dr. Ball has given us many suggestions, and the remarks that 
have followed by Dr. Headlee, Dr. Felt and others, all tend to the 
right direction. Let me suggest, if I may, that this association have 
a committee which might be termed an entomological training coop- 
erative committee, if for nothing more than to offer its services to the 
various colleges and universities throughout the country, for the pur- 
pose of bettering the fundamental training of the entomologist. 

I would lay this suggestion before the older members of the associa- 
tion, men who have had more experience in the profession than I have, 
to make a motion to this effect, if they see fit. I think the time is ripe 
to do that. It may not be well to have this committee formed im- 
mediately, but I believe a definite step should be taken to carry out 
the suggestion that Dr. Ball and the other members have made this 



February, '19] DISCUSSION of presidential address 55 

afternoon, regarding the betterment of the training for future entomol- 
ogists. 

Mr. T. J. Headlee: I move that a committee of ten men be 
appointed as a standing committee on entomological policy; two men 
to retire each year and be replaced by two others. 

The duty of this committee will be the consideration of the various 
problems that have been raised. We have a committee on agricultural 
policy in teaching, and research, and these committees met a long-felt 
need. We are a national organization and are supposed to be leaders 
in entomological thought. Such a committee could serve the associa- 
tion and be a body from which suggestions would come and be put into 
operation as they are authorized by the association. 

The motion was seconded by Mr. G. A. Dean. 

Mr. W. J. Schoene: I would like to suggest that the president 
be a member of this committee so that the suggestions which he may 
have can be acted upon by the committee. 

Mr. G. a. Dean: Dr. Ball has presented to this association a 
paper that I have wanted some one to present for the last four or five 
years. I wanted it to come from a man who not only has had funda- 
mental training in science, but who has also had many years' experi- 
ence in the different branches of entomological work, such as the ex- 
periment station, the college or university, the extension and the 
regulatory. I have listened with great interest to the discussions from 
men who are experiment station entomologists, extension entomologists, 
state entomologists, entomologists in charge of teaching in colleges 
and universities, and entomologists in charge of regulatory work, 
because in the institution with which I am connected, the head of the 
Department of Entomology is in charge of all these different lines of 
entomological work. I seconded the motion because I feel very 
keenly that a committee of this sort could bring about or formulate a 
plan that would be of much help, not only to those entomologists who 
are in charge of one particular fine of work, but also to those of us who 
are in charge of the various lines. I do not believe we can over- 
emphasize the importance that Dr. Ball has laid upon the fundamental 
training of men for entomological work. 

There are men in this meeting who were in my classes at the time 
when only a few courses were offered in entomology. They have done 
some excellent work. Again, there are men here who received training 
along some particular line, but were compelled to do entomological 
work along another line. They, too, have matle good entomologists. 
Why have these men succeeded? In my mind, simply because they 
were able to get strong courses in other departmonts. and with this 
fundamental training, together with good minds, were able to do 



56 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

research work. One of the best teachers I ever had in entomology did 
his major work in zoology. This simply emphasizes the points brought 
out by Dr. Sanderson, that you cannot expect a man who has had 
special training along just one particular line to succeed in others 
unless he has had first the fundamental training in science. 

If a man has had deep and fundamental training, and has the brains 
and capacity to do research work, I don't care whether he had twice 
as much zoology, chemistry, or physics than he had of entomology, 
he will make a valuable man in entomology, providing, as I said before, 
he has the proper stuff in him to make an entomologist. 

There are men here, who, when they w^ere students in my depart- 
ment, complained because they were urged and even compelled to 
take more chemistry, physics, plant pathology, agriculture and Ger- 
man, because they felt that they were not getting enough entomology. 
I am sure that these same men now feel that these subjects have con- 
tributed much to their success. 

President Ball resumes the chair. 

Mr. W. C. O'Kane: This whole subject is one that is vitally 
important to every man here. We have listened to a splendid address 
by Dr. Ball, and in past years to other helpful addresses that bore 
somewhat on the same subject, including those by Sanderson and by 
Herrick. But we haven't yet carried the thing through to that which 
is concrete. If Dr. Headlee's plan of a committee of ten can material- 
ize into something substantial, it will be a real step forward. 

We have spoken of the need of more fundamental, broad training for 
entomologists, and at the same time we urge specialization. These 
two things may seem to be incompatible. But are they? Do they 
not go together? In other words, should a man not have a broad 
foundation to start with and should he not then specialize in the partic- 
ular line to which he is adapted? I wish that entomological training 
might be on the same basis as that of doctors; that a man might have 
four years of broad collegiate study and then have three or four years 
of specialized training after that. You can't put both of those things 
into four years of college. That is our fundamental difficulty in ento- 
mology, just as it is in various other professions. 

In our investigational work we need to seek more of the cooperative 
help of investigators in other lines. 

There are very few of the big problems today in entomology that 
do not include phases of chemistry or meteorology or physics or 
botany. The specialists in those lines should share in the inquiry. 
Take the problems that Dr. Ball has mentioned here. Practically 
every one of them should be undertaken as a cooperative project,, 
with competent specialists working with the entomologist. 

Vice-President O'Kane take the chair. 



February, '19] DISCUSSION of presidential address 57 

President D. E. Ball: I believe that Dr. Headlee's plan is 
better than the one I offered. A committee with each member serving 
five years will give opportunity for the maturing of a policy and its 
adoption by the association ; and still leave time enough for carrying it 
into effect by the men who had the vision to plan it. 

The present executive committee made up of the officers of the 
society changes practically its entire membership each year. It is 
impossible for a group of men to take up fundamental problems and 
accomplish anything in a single year. 

The executive committee of the American Association of Agricul- 
tural Colleges and Experiment Stations is a practically permanent 
committee with a permanent chairman. The valuable work accom- 
plished by that committee in obtaining support for work in agriculture, 
as well as coordinating and strengthening the agencies engaged in its 
development, is a striking example of the efficiency of that type of an 
organization. 

This committee of ten can be organized into smaller committees 
to take up different lines of policy. A sub-committee might, for 
example, take up the standardization of courses of study for the train- 
ing of entomologists. A statement of the fundamental requirements 
of such a course endorsed by this association would be very helpful to 
those of us trying to establish the right sort of training in our respective 
institutions. Such a committee could take up the problems of re- 
search, of publication, or any other factor of importance to our science. 
No such results can be secured from our present type of organization. 
I looked over the situation at the beginning of the year and did not 
consider it worth while to attempt anything. We are coming to a 
point where we must have a strong organization and now is the time 
to start the movement. 

One of our sister societies is already putting an international organ- 
ization in the field. The Economic Entomologists have done more to 
internationalize their science, than any other organization. Would 
it not be a good idea for this meeting to formulate a plan for an inter- 
allied federation of entomological workers? 

In conclusion, I wish to urge strongly the adoption of Dr. Headlee's 
motion. Let us have a practically permanent committee on Entomo- 
logical Policy. 

Mr. E. p. Felt: I believe there is a field for this sort of a com- 
mittee. I have a feeling, however, that if we are going to have a 
strong organization, that eventually it should not be as a special com- 
mittee on policy, but it should be an executive committee, with a term 
of years in office. The defect as Dr. Ball has pointed out is this: 
That the officers responsible for the conduct of the association are 



58 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

mostly annual. I would like to see a committee appointed with a 
fairly permanent tenure of office, to take up this matter now, and also 
go a little bit further and see an amendment to the constitution which 
would result in remodeling our Executive Committee and at least 
have a majority — perhaps of this committee — swung over into the 
Executive Committee by due process and be responsible for the gen- 
eral policy of the association. 

Mr. Z. p. Metcalf: I move that the motion be laid upon the 
table until the business session. We have several conflicting views 
and as this is a very important matter, I think it ought to be consid- 
ered thoroughly before action is taken. The suggestion, I believe, is 
a good one, but better results will be secured if careful consideration 
is given before the motion is adopted. 

By vote of the association, the motion was laid on the table until 
the business session. Final action on this matter will be found in Part 
I of this report. 

President E. D. Ball resumed the chair. 

President E. D. Ball: The next paper will be by H. A. Gossard, 
entitled, "The Ohio Wheat Survey." 

THE OHIO WHEAT SURVEY 

By H. A. Gossard, Wooster, Ohio, and T. H. Parks, Columbus, Ohio 

For two seasons Ohio farmers have had the results of a state-wide 
survey of wheat enemies to guide them in deciding if wheat growing 
would likely be a safe agricultural project and when the seeding could 
most advantageously be made. The plan of operation, the cost of the 
work and the results obtained may be items of considerable interest to 
the wheat-producing states, while states largely engaged in the pro- 
duction of any important agricultural staple or staples will doubtless 
find material of interest in this review. 

General Plan of the Survey 

The survey of 1917 was organized and directed by the senior author, 
that of 1918 by the authors conjointly. Back of both surveys was the 
cordial endorsement and help of the entomological departments of the 
State University and of the State Department of Agriculture, without 
which aid it would have been practically impossible to carry the proj- 
ect to success. Field surveyors were drawn from all these depart- 
ments and all had a share in financing the last survey though the first 
was financed wholly by the Experiment Station. 

The idea behind the survey has been not to make it deal exclusively 
with wheat insects, but to gather at the same time as much knowledge 



February, '19] gossard and parks: Ohio wheat survey 59 

as possible regarding other pests. We timed the work just before the 
wheat harvest so as to insure, if possible, results of value sufficient to 
justify the expenditures made, and hoped at the same time to gather 
information regarding other pests sufficient to give us a comprehensive 
entomological perspective of the entire state. Definite knowledge of 
the kind sought is useful at all times, especially so in war time. En- 
tomological surveyors competent to do the work and in sufficient num- 
bers to accomplish it have only been available in Ohio at the close of 
the spring semester at the University when a number of advanced stu- 
dents in entomology become available and are glad to obtain a sum- 
mer's experience in field practice. We give the young men a course 
of reading and have them examine specimens in our collection and do 
some work in the wheat plots on the Station farm and in fields near 
Wooster before sending them out. Also we plan to have them work 
for a few days with experienced entomologists before sending them 
to do independent work. 

In 1917 we commenced at four points along the southern border of 
the state a short time before harvest and four lines were run from these 
points more or less parallel with each other to the northern border of 
the state. Only one of these lines was surveyed entirely by automo- 
bile, the other three being selected with reference to easy railway con- 
nections from south to north. 

No matter which plan was used, each surveyor was instructed to 
spend about one day in each county assigned to him. Although his 
route was mapped, he was given some latitude in going a county or two 
to the east or west of the indicated route in case entomological dis- 
coveries or reports indicated to his judgment that this was desirable. 
The stopping places selected were generally county seat towns in which 
were the offices of county agricultural agents. These agents were ad- 
vised beforehand by letter of the survey being made and their willing- 
ness to cooperate in the work proved a great help not only in directing 
the surveyors to the most important wheat districts of their counties 
but in keeping down the expense to the state, for many of these agents 
placed themselves and their automobiles at the disposal of the sur- 
veyors, thereby shifting part of the cost to the counties. 

In 1918 we arranged to do as much of the work by automobile as 
possible since we had found this to be the cheapest and most efficient 
method of doing the work. Only two men used the railroad plan this 
season and their territory was restricted to a small number of coun- 
ties. Either automobiles or livery teams were employed by these two 
men to carry them from field to field. 

In both surveys, from ten to twenty-five fields, or a few more or less, 
were taken to represent the county and these were located on us long 



60 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12' 

a circuit as it was possible to cover in a day. The practice of the sur- 
veyors in getting the records varied according to circumstances. In 
western Ohio where the jointworm was prevalent and Hessian fly 
more numerous than in other sections, accurate counts of infestation 
were made from every field investigated in both seasons. In 1917 
an indefinite number of straws from each field was taken and the per- 
centage of infestation calculated. The samples would range from a 
few less than 100 to considerably more than 100 straws. In the same 
territory, during the survey of 1918, exactly 100 straws were counted 
and pulled from each field and one man made the count seated in the 
back of the machine while another drove from five to ten miles before 
making another stop. About eighty miles per day were averaged for 
each county and about ten fields in each were examined. Counts were 
made for both Hessian fly and jointworm. 

In the northeastern part of the state where there was less of Hessian 
fly and a difi"erent species of jointworm, Isosoma vaginicolum, a some- 
what different plan was followed. Here each surveyor was usually 
working alone and therefore could make no examination while driving 
from one field to another. Counts for jointworm were made in most 
of the counties, but this was not so necessary as with Isosoma triticiy 
because most of the infested straws are discernible from a short dis- 
tance, and a practiced surveyor can estimate with approximate correct- 
ness the percentage of infestation within a radius of six or eight feet 
around the point where he is standing. Also when repeated examina- 
tions discover only an occasional flaxseed of Hessian fly, which count- 
ing reduces to less than 3 per cent, the surveyor is apt to feel that he 
can get a more accurate knowledge of the county he is working by 
quickening his pace and examining in total a much larger sample than 
100 straws from each field. He can then visit twenty or more fields 
in the county during the day, making an approximate estimate of the 
percentage of infestation and occasionally checking his estimates with 
an actual count. The chief defect with this method lies in the fact 
that the indefinite results do not furnish a good basis for comparing 
conditions from one year to another and the gradual upgrade of an 
incipient outbreak would be less easy to detect than if there was a 
definite record of actual counts from every county through a series of 
years. Whether 100 straws from ten to fifteen fields strung over a 
county really furnish a substantial foundation for a significant record 
we cannot yet tell, but Mr. Houser who has worked the western area 
both seasons and has had extended experience with both Isosoma tritici 
and Hessian fly thinks the records, meager as they admittedly are, 
really possess a dependable significance and will become increasingly 
valuable if the survey is continued through a series of years. Con- 



February, '19] gossard and parks-. OHIO wheat survey 61 

siderable attention was given to the wheat midge the past season as it 
was widely distributed, but we found no definite method for recording 
the exact degree of infestation. Other insects were made the subjects 
of inquiry as indicated on the daily report blank used by the surveyors 
and exhibited herewith. Also a blank report was filled out for each 
wheat field visited (blanks attached). 

Cost of the Survey in 1917 

In 1917 one of the surveyors spent eleven days in the field using an 
automobile exclusively for all travel. He succeeded in hiring a Ford 
at $4.50 per day for this use, making the automobile cost $47.25 and 
the cost of his maintenance for the period was $22.40. His total ex- 
penses in surveying sixteen counties was $69.65, or a little more than 
$4 per county. 

The other three surveyors traveled by rail from county to county 
and either hired automobiles or livery teams for the actual field work 
or else were taken in charge by the county agents who arranged for 
transportation. 

One of the three surveyed eleven counties at a cost to the Station 
of $77.25. To this should be added the transportation costs borne by 
the counties and of which we have no record. They probably amounted 
to $50. 

A second surveyed twelve counties at a cost of $111.68. Again to 
this should be added an estimated item of $50 which was borne by the 
counties. 

The third man working by rail covered thirteen counties at a cost of 
$104.55. We estimate that $60 should be added to this amount as the 
item borne by the counties. A few counties such as Wayne, in which 
the Experiment Station is located, were surveyed incidentally without 
cost to the state other than the time of the entomologists which was 
covered by their regular salaries. 

The total cost to the state and counties of the survey made in 1917, 
•exclusive of the salaries of the surveyors, was $463 as closely as we can 
•determine. Allowing three weeks as the average time worked by each 
surveyor, the total cost, salaries included, was $1,048 as nearly as can 
be determined. This figure includes the salary of the Director of the 
Survey as well as of the field men, though most of the Director's time 
was given to other matters than the survey while it was proceeding. 
Out of our eighty-eight counties, fifty-six were entered and we ob- 
tained rather meager but first-hand information as to conditions 
within them. The counties not entered were, many of them, between 
the parallel lines of survey, and others were not important wheat-pro- 
ducing counties. We obtained such information from them as could be 



62 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12' 

gleaned from questionnaire blanks sent to the county agents or county 
food commissioners in case there were no agents. 

Results of the Survey of 1917 

Was this expenditure worth while? Part of the answer can be found' 
in the results with the potato aphid. Mr. Houser ran into the worst 
area of infestation in the first county on his route, and arrangements 
were at once made for stationing a man in this field for detailed study 
of the species. Bulletin 317 of the Ohio Station by Messrs. Houser,. 
Guyton and Lowry, review the results of this effort. County Agent 
Van Atta reported that spraying demonstrations were conducted with 
growers whose total plantings aggregated 308,000 plants. By very 
conservative estimates over 30,000 bushels of tomatoes worth $1 per 
bushel were saved to this county by proper spraying. Since the Col- 
lege of Agriculture and the Kentucky Tobacco Product Company 
each had a representative also assisting the county agent we evidently 
can claim only part of the credit for this saving; but we need to claim' 
only one-thirtieth part of it to find payment for the entire state survey 
and I am very sure none of the workers participating in the aphis fight 
would put our part in the total result at so low a fraction. As an after 
result, the publication of this bulletin made possible an intelligent fight 
against the pest during the season of 1918 and in all likelihood $50,000' 
is a small estimate of the values conserved the past summer as the 
direct result of its publication. 

Because we were able to assure our farmers that there were na 
large areas overrun with Hessian fly and were able to locate the joint 
worm areas, the survey contributed a good deal toward increasing the 
wheat acreage in the fall of 1917. The State Department of Agri- 
culture reported an increase of 10 per cent in acreage and part of this 
must be ascribed to the fact that our farmers were not fearful of the 
results if they seeded a few days earlier than usual and were therefore 
able to use their time to greatest advantage, an important matter 
when the labor supply on the farms was very short. 

Cost of the Survey in 1918 

In 1918 the work was more thoroughly done than in the preceding^ 
year. We entered and explored with some care, as previously de- 
scribed, seventy-three of our eighty-eight counties. The omitted ones 
were not important wheat-producing counties and were rather difficult 
of access. One of our surveyors spent twenty-four days in the work,, 
traveled 1,894 miles, surveyed twenty-four counties and expended for 
machine hire and maintenance $168.36. An assistant who accom- 
panied him and also surveyed a route of his own, including five 



February, '19] GOSSARD AND PARKS: OHIO WHEAT SURVEY 63 

counties, expended $80.41. A third man who had the longest and 
roughest route of any spent twenty-seven or twenty-eight days in 
the work, looked over twenty-five counties, and spent $175. Six other 
men participated in the work, in some cases spending only a day or two 
in their home counties, in other cases surveying five or six counties; 
but in these cases each county was a separate undertaking and dis- 
connected with any other trip. 

The total cost of the survey of 1918, exclusive of salaries, was 
$578.45. With the salaries and wages of all the workers included 
the cost was approximately $1200. These expenses were born coop- 
eratively by the Experiment Station, State University and the State 
Department of Agriculture. 

Results of the Survey of 1918 

It is yet too early to fairly appraise the value of the past season's 
work. Near the conclusion of the survey, potato aphis was encoun- 
tered in damaging numbers in northern Ohio and spraying demon- 
strations conducted as in the previous year. Investigations later made 
by the Extension Entomologist over ten widely separated counties 
revealed the presence of 65 to 80 per cent parasitism among Isosoma 
tritici. The location of areas inhabited by chinch bugs has enabled 
the Extension Entomologist to concentrate attention upon this insect, 
while information about other insects collected by these trained en- 
tomologists has been of much value in forcasting extension problems 
which can be better dealt with in their incipiency. That we were 
again able to allay the fears of our wheat growers regarding any dis- 
astrous menace to the 1919 crop is part of the explanation for the in- 
creased acreage put out the past fall, notwithstanding the shortest 
labor supply we have experienced in many years. We were able to 
definitely encourage increased plantings in northeastern Ohio and 
hold out the hope of a reduced infestation from jointworm everywhere 
in 1919. The location of the areas inhabited by chinch bugs has en- 
abled our Extension Entomologist to concentrate attention on these 
districts. We were again able to shoo away the Hessian fly bugaboo 
sufficiently from more than half of the state to enable the farmers to 
take advantage of all their available time. We will doubtless find 
some neigh] )orhoods and sizable districts outside the territory where 
we counseled caution that will produce too much fly because farmers 
hurried their seeding a little too much, but we cannot now see any 
state-wide threat to our next crop and believe the total harvest in 
bushels next summer will be much greater than if we had held all our 
growers back because of lack of definite knowledge. 



64 journal of economic entomology [vol. 12 

Possible Results from a Series of Annual Surveys 

The immediate object of the two surveys completed was to obtain 
definite knowledge regarding the distribution of wheat pests, especially 
jointworm and Hessian fly so we could furnish reUable and immediate 
advice to our farmers as to the risks they were taking in the various 
quarters of the state if they seeded wheat and to tell them how to 
minimize the damage. The date for seeding, also cultural and fer- 
tilizer practice were recommended on the basis of our findings. This 
information was disseminated by letters to all the county agricultural 
agents, through press bulletins, by special articles in the agricultural 
papers and through special reports printed in the September monthly 
bulletins of the Agricultural Experiment Station which reach about 
50,000 farmers. 

Results with other insects, such as the Potato aphid, were given out 
somewhat differently but knowledge gathered about them should be 
considered an immediate result of the survey. 

But large-scale and long-term observations of this kind can possibly 
throw some hght on such questions as these: What percentage of in- 
festation constitutes a Hessian fly menace? Can a severe outbreak 
of Hessian fly approach undetected in a state where such surveys are 
made annually? Is a 3 per cent infestation a menace sometimes when 
a 20 per cent infestation is not at other times? Do weather condi- 
tions or parasitic "wheels within wheels" determine the increase? Is 
the menace greatest from nearby localities with ordinary infestation or 
from great areas of highly infested stubble at a long distance away? 
If extensive migration occurs, does the fly-free date, fixed for a given 
point by experimental sowings or by the law of latitude, altitude, etc., 
remain effective for this point, with a badly infested large area fifty 
or seventy-five miles to the south? If the data we are securing are too 
meager to answer such questions, how much more do we need, and of 
what sort, in order to obtain the answers desired? 



Mr. T. J. Headlee: There are two questions that I would like 
to ask the speaker. Does the pink and green aphis of the potato and 
tomato appear on these plants in small numbers, then gradually by 
normal increase, create the serious infestation, and is it possible to find 
a time before the plants assume a recumbent habit of growth when the 
lice may be destroyed by ordinary potato and tomato spraying machin- 
ery? Did the speaker attempt to destroy these lice by spraying? 

Mr. H. a. Gossard: I will ask Mr. Houser to answer that. 

Mr. J. S. Houser: We can detect an outbreak of the pink and 
green potato aphid at an early stage and particularly during the earlier 



February, '19] GOSSARD AND PARKS: OHIO WHEAT SURVEY 65 

part of the season. In other words, an outbreak seems to be a devel- 
opment from small, initial colonies which gradually accumulate a 
momentum which we finally term a scourge. Later in the season, there 
is some reason to believe that migrating swarms suddenly appear and 
heavily infest an area within a brief time. On potato, the topmost 
leaves are affected first and at the outset do not curl. On tomato the 
infestation is sometimes carried from the seedbed, but in most instances 
the plants become infested after they are set in the field. We have told 
our growers that when plants six to eight inches high bear 20 to 40 
aphids it was time to spray. 

The scourge usually starts first in southern Ohio and gradually 
works northward, there being about a month's difference in the time 
the insect is seen in the southern sections and its appearance along the 
lake shore. 

As to the treatment: we have found nicotine sulphate used at the 
rate of f pint to 50 gallons of water with enough soap added to form a 
good suds to give good results. The amount of soap varies with the 
hardness of the water, but on the average two pounds of hard laundry 
soap is adequate. A power sprayer is used with three large disk 
nozzles to each row, one spraying directly downward and one on each 
side of the row set at an angle to spray upward in order to reach the 
insects upon the underside of the leaves. Such an apparatus is useful 
only so long as the potatoes or tomatoes are standing upright. 

Mr. T. J. Headlee : What pressure do you use? 

Mr. J. S. Houser: We used from 125 to 175 pounds per square 
inch. 

Mr. H. a. Gossard: How many applications? 

Mr. J. S. Houser: It sometimes takes three sprayings to subdue 
a scourge. 

Mr. T. J. Headlee: Engine driven sprayers? 

Mr. J. S. Houser: Engine driven sprayers are better but in one 
case we obtained good results from a traction driven machine. 

Mr. T. J. Headlee: We have, during the past year, used against 
the pink and green aphis an engine-driven potato spraying machine, 
applied a mixture composed of 1 part of 40 per cent nicotine to 500 
parts of water and soap at the rate of 2 to 5 pounds to 50 gallons, used 
a little better than 100 gallons to the acre with a pressure of 250 
pounds and obtained excellent results in the destruction of the aphids. 

Mr. E. N. Cory: In Maryland we found that the infestation of 
aphids on potatoes was a fair indication of what we might expect later 
on the tomatoes. An examination of tomato seedlings is also a fair 
indication. We have not found it necessary to spray the potatoes. 

Mr. II. A. Gossard: I may mention one little trial that I made 
e 



66 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

this last summer against the potato aphid, using the same strength of 
sprays; I used a gasohne engine pump, giving about 100 pounds 
pressure and a rubber trailer, just the ordinary trailer hose. I guided 
the nozzle by hand and sprayed three or four rows of potatoes on each 
side of the sprayer. One application directed by hand against the 
lice cleaned them up in good order. 

Mr. T. J. Headlee: How many gallons to the acre did you use 
with that apparatus? 

Mr. H. a. Gossard: I used about 200 gallons or something like 
that on an eighth of an acre. 

Mr. T. J. Headlee: The year before last we used an ordinary 
sprayer against the false cabbage aphis on turnips which were 12 
inches high and had assumed the recumbent habit. We found that 
by the time the lice were thoroughly wetted we had used 1,500 gallons 
to the acre, making the cost of the application so large as to render 
the treatment impracticable. With an engine-driven potato sprayer 
equipped with a lifting device we were able to cover plants of the same 
size with a little more than 100 gallons of spray mixture to the acre and 
to get excellent results in control of the aphis. 

Mr. W. E. Britton : I would like to inquire if this treatment was 
given for the aphid alone? 

Mr. H. a. Gossard: In most instances the sprays I used were 
combinations of nicotine, lead arsenate and Bordeaux. I didn't use 
soap where I used the Bordeaux. 

Mr. W. E. Britton: Did you use the sulphur in the nicotine? 

Mr. J. S. Houser: Most of the experimental work that we did 
was conducted from the standpoint of aphid control alone and not 
from the standpoint of developing a combined fungicide and aphicide. 
We therefore used no copper sulphate or lime sulphur, but employed 
nicotine sulphate, soap, etc., in various strengths and combinations. 

President E. D. Ball: The paper by Mr. R. W. Chapman 
entitled, "Insects Affecting Wheat Flour and Wheat Flour Substi- 
tutes," will be read by Mr. W. A. Riley. 



INSECTS IN RELATION TO WHEAT FLOUR AND WHEAT 
FLOUR SUBSTITUTES! 

By R. N. Chapman, University of Minnesota. 

The ruling of the Federal Food Administration requiring the pur- 
chase of wheat flour substitutes with wheat flour called for the milling 



1 Published with the approval of the Director, as Paper 165 of the Journal Series 
of the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station. 



February, '19] CHAPMAN: INSECTS IN FLOURS 67 

and marketing of coarse flours in larger amounts than had ever before 
been attempted. The large flour milling interests of Minnesota pre- 
dicted insect trouble and later the wholesale Grocers' Association and 
the Bakers' Association asked for help in protecting their stocks of 
wheat flour substitutes from insects. 

In response to these requests work was carried on along two lines; 
the first, to meet the existing emergency by devising methods of pro- 
tection, and the second, a study of the ecological relations of insects 
and the various flours and cereals. The relative susceptibility of dif- 
ferent flours to insects is of prime importance in protecting them from 
insects, and a knowledge of susceptibility should be the foundation for 
a knowledge of protection. 

The emergency work was mainly concerned with the consumers, for 
millers adopted measures of rapid transportation calculated to move 
the products to consumption before the eggs, if any were present, could 
hatch and cause damage. Circular letters issued through the office of 
the Federal Food Administration from Minnesota urged dealers to 
adopt the miller's plan of rapid handling and emphasized the necessity 
for cleanness in their warehouses. 

The consumers did not benefit by the millers' and dealers' methods 
of rapid handling except in cases where only a few days supply of sub- 
stitutes was on hand at a time. Where it was necessary to purchase 
larger supplies, the situation was most serious, for the rapid transpor- 
tation often brought the eggs to the consumer all ready for hatching. 
Housekeepers were advised to heat all their substitutes as soon as 
they were brought into the home in order to kill any eggs or larvae 
which might be present. A method of heating to obtain a temperature 
fatal to insects and yet prevent the cereal from injury by overheating 
was devised as a result of a series of experiments. The temperature 
curves show differences in the different ovens used; but in all cases it 
was found that when the cereal was less than two inches deep in pans, 
and heated slowly until the surface temperature reached 85° C, the 
source of heat could be turned off, in the case of a gas, gasoline, or 
kerosene stove, or the oven door opened in the case of a coal or wood 
stove, and in the course of half an hour, the heat would diffuse through- 
out the cereal until all parts of it had passed well above the fatal tem- 
perature for insects. 

For obtaining satisfactory results, it is essential that the cereal 
should be less than two inches deep in the pans, that the heating be 
done slowly with the fire as low as it will burn well in order to allow for 
the conduction of heat throughout the cereal, and that the heating be 



68 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

stopped before a temperature has been reached which will injure the 
cereal (between 90'' and 100° C). 

Since high temperature thermometers are not available for all house- 
keepers, a mixture of carnauba wax and paraffin has been devised 
which melts at the proper temperature for the surface of the flour. It 
is not the exact point at which the wax melts, but the melting of the 
piece of wax to a grease spot that is taken as the indicator. Therefore 
the piece of wax measures, not only the temperature attained, but also 
the time required for a certain amount of heat conduction, until the 
entire piece of wax has melted. Since temperature and time for heat 
conduction are the factors concerned in the uniform heating of the 
cereal, the wax may be even more satisfactory than thermometers, 
which register temperature only. 

In practice, the method has proved to be very satisfactory, and is 
now being used in several states. When methods of rapid transit are 
followed systematically by the heating of cereals as soon as they are 
received by the consuming public, the losses which insects cause to 
these flours and cereals will be reduced to a minimum. 

There are, however, certain difficulties to be contended with in the 
introduction of this method. The public must be acquainted with the 
method and impressed with its importance; in this the Federal Food 
Administration for Minnesota has cooperated. The wax must be 
made available for all, and in this matter the wholesale grocers co- 
operated in supplying their trade throughout the state, yet there were 
frequent complaints from those who were unable to obtain wax. To 
supply the demand the wax must be manufactured at a reasonable cost 
and yet conform to the requirements as to melting point and size of 
pieces. This matter has required constant attention but may now be 
placed on a more satisfactory basis when industry has returned to 
conditions of peace. 

The bakers have experienced heavy losses and have required special 
attention and methods. Education in matters of cleanliness and a 
reform in some matters of handling flour have yielded good results. 
The exchange or refilling of used sacks has been found to be the source 
of much trouble. Experiments have shown that when empty sacks are 
placed in the oven, three or four deep on boards and left for five min- 
utes, all the insects in them are killed at the usual temperature of 232° 
C. While it is necessary to watch the sacks closely to prevent scorch- 
ing, this practice has given great relief. All rye proofing boxes and 
other utensils have likewise been heated in the oven with a result that 
ibadly infested bakeries have been entirely freed from insects. 

The study of the relative susceptibility of the various flours and 



February, '19] CHAPMAN: INSECTS IN FLOURS 69 

cereals has consisted of experimental work in the laboratory and obser- 
vational work in storehouses. The experimental work has proceeded 
on the assumption that other things being equal, susceptibility may be 
due either to the attraction which a cereal may offer to insects, influ- 
encing the number of insects which might invade it in the first place, 
or to the rate of development of the insects after entrance, which 
might result in an accumulation of the insects in great numbers. 

In the study of the invasion, the various flours were placed in cylin- 
drical jars with removable partitions, which divided each jar into five 
equal sectors. A different flour was placed in each sector, the par- 
titions were removed, and the insects were placed in a depression in the 
center of the jar. Being thus surrounded by equal amounts of the 
different flours, the insects were free to express a choice if they had any. 

The experiments were carried on in the dark and extended from a 
few hours to several days, the length of time making little difference 
after the first few hours, when the insects were exploring about. When 
an observation wag to be made, the partitions were replaced and the 
contents of each sector removed, to count the insects contained in it. 
When one hundred insects were used in the experiment, the number 
found in a given cereal would be the percentage of relative suscepti- 
bility of that cereal as compared with the others used in the experiment. 

The relations of Tribolium confusum to five grades of wheat flour 
and various wheat flour substitutes were studied in this way. The 
results of 25 experiments with adult beetles showed the following per- 
centages: 1st Sizings, 10.6 per cent; 1st Middlings, 11.5 per cent; 
1st Low Grade, 12,4 per cent; 1st Tailings, 14.6 per cent; 5th Bran, 
52 per cent. The coarseness of these flours varies in the order named 
from the fine sizings to the bran. The experiments with larvae did 
not show a variation greater than 7 or 8 per cent on either 
side of 20 per cent, the expectation, and consequently show no pref- 
erence, for an average of about one-fifth of the total number of larvae 
were found in each sector. 

The results with the wheat flour susbtitutes showed no percentages 
constant enough to denote decided choice, either among the various 
substitutes or as compared with low grade wheat flour, so long as the 
coarseness remained about equal in all cereals. When the bran from 
rye meal was introduced into the experiments a decided percentage 
was noticed. It contained an average of 36 per cent of the beetles and 
was very constant, while the percentages found in the other portions 
were small and subject to greater variation. When coarse corn meal 
was used, no increase in percentage was found. 

It seems, therefore, that a coarse, flaky material is more attractive 



70 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

than a fine or granular material, and that the element of flakiness is, so 
far as choice is concerned, dominant over nutritive differences, if nutri- 
tive differences exist. To check this, some bran was ground to fineness 
and given an equal exposure to the beetles with the coarse bran. An 
average of 60 per cent of the beetles were found in the coarse bran and 
40 per cent in the fine bran. Again four sections of a jar were filled 
with fine sawdust and the fifth with coarse sawdust. The sector with 
the coarse sawdust contained an average of 43.3 per cent of the beetles 
and the other sections averaged 15.3 per cent, 13.6 per cent, 12.2 per 
cent and 14.6 per cent respectively. It may therefore be concluded 
that the factor of coarseness is dominant and the factor of nutritive 
choice, if measurable, is less significant. 

In the study of the relative development of the insects in the various 
wheat flours and substitutes, it was found that the larval life might be 
prolonged in certain wheat flour substitutes and that this prolongation 
took place in the last larval instar. In soipe cases the life-cycle was 
twice as long as in other cases. These experiments were all carried on 
under the same conditions, in an atmosphere of 70 per cent of relative 
humidity. (The temperature curve on the chart shows a drop of a 
few degrees near the end of the experiment, with a consequent pro- 
longation of some of the pupal stages.) Further experiments now 
under way will furnish additional data on relative development. 

The data accumulated from examinations of flour in warehouses have 
not yet reached the proportions which will give significant percentages, 
but the above results combined with general experience make it seem 
that coarseness is a factor in susceptibility. The fact that coarse 
cereals cannot be bolted through fine cloths together with the choice of 
the insects as shown in the invasion experiments substantiates this 
contention. The factor of relative development must await further 
investigations before its importance in influencing susceptibility can be 
judged. 



Mr. T. J. Headlee: Were any chemical studies made t)f the 
effect of heat on the flours, or feeds? 

Mr. W. a, Riley: There were a number of experiments carried 
on, both by the chemists who were interested in the general effect on 
proteids and also by ihe home economists of the department, showing 
that there was no injury at this temperature. 

Vice-President W. C. O'Kane: The next paper will be pre- 
sented by Mr. W. E. Britton. 



February, '19] britton and zappe: kerosene v. nicotine 71 



KEROSENE EMULSION VERSUS NICOTINE SOLUTION FOR 
COMBATING THE POTATO APHID 

By W. E. Britton and M. P. Zappe, New Haven, Conn. 

The outbreak of the potato aphid (Macrosiphum solanifolii Ash- 
mead) was so severe in Connecticut in 1917 that much damage was 
done by it, or at least attributed to it, and the crop greatly lessened. 
Consequently we watched for this insect in 1918, and on its appearance 
warned the growers to be prepared to spray as soon as it promised to 
become sufficiently abundant to cause injury. 

The first aphids were noticed at the Station farm. Mount Carmel, 
on June 11. Three days later (June 14) they were more numerous, 
and some were producing young. On June 15, they were observed to 
be present in potato fields in Greenwich. On June 18, a warning was 
sent out through the press associations. For several days thereafter, 
there seemed to be only a slight increase in the numbers of aphids, but 
during the last days of June they increased much faster and it was evi- 
dent that something must be done to check them. Consequently on 
July 2 and 3 the potato field was sprayed with Bordeaux mixture, lead 
arsenate and nicotine solution, using "Black Leaf 40" at the rate of 
one-half pint in a barrel (fifty gallons) of the mixture. Though this 
spray killed some of them it was not very effective, as the waxy nature 
of the aphids repelled the spray causing it to roll away in drops. 

We conducted several small experiments in hopes of finding some 
inexpensive material which could safely be used as a spreader in com- 
bination with the Bordeaux and lead arsenate. In this we were not 
very successful, and nothing seemed to take the place of soap which is 
commonly used when spraying to kill aphids only. Apparently there 
is always some danger of using soap in the combination mixture, as 
the arsenic may combine with the sodium or free alkali forming sodium 
arsenate and injury may result. 

During the progress of applying these materials and watching re- 
sults, the aphids continued to multiply throughout the field, and it 
soon became apparent that something must be done to check them, 
and done at once. Consequently all fields were sprayed from July 
22 to 26. At this time, potatoes and tomatoes generally were threatened, 
and the demand for nicotine solution was so great that most retail 
dealers sold out their stock, and could not obtain more from the factory 
until too late to save the crops. Two or three dealers still had a small 
supply on hand but had raised the price, thus taking advantage of the 
situation. 

We decided to spray with kerosene emulsion to kill aphids only and 



72 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

demonstrate to the growers that they were not wholly dependent on 
nicotine solution. A common formula for kerosene emulsion and the 
one recommended on our spray calendar calls for one-half pound of 
soap and two gallons of kerosene to make thirty gallons. In this 
formula the soap seemed to be insufficient for the kerosene, so we in- 
creased the proportions somewhat. We also doubled the amounts of 
soap and kerosene but instead of making sixty gallons, diluted it less, 
to make fifty gallons, the right quantity to fill the spray barrel. Laun- 
dry soap was purchased by the box at wholesale prices, and the amounts 
of materials used were as follows: 

Kerosene 4 gallons 

Laundry soap (about 30 ounces) 3 cakes 

Hot water 2 gallons 

After churning, dilute to make fifty gallons. The soap was shaved 
into thin slices with a tool for shredding cabbages, and was dissolved 
in water on a stove set up in the field for this purpose. It was then 
mixed with the kerosene and churned back and forth through a small 
tube under pressure by means of a bucket pump with the hose directed 
back into the liquid, after which it was transferred into the pump bar- 
rel and sprayed upon the plants with hand-power barrel pump with 
spray rods bent at an angle of forty-five degrees near the nozzles. 

This emulsion was effective, and all aphids hit by the spray were 
killed. A part of one field was sprayed with nicotine solution and soap 
for comparison. Some of the men who applied the mixture thought 
that slight injury was caused by the kerosene emulsion, but the same 
thing could be detected on some of the plants before they were sprayed. 
The variety was "Gold Coin," and there were many mosaic plants in 
the field ; the tissues break down and the leaves turn brown earlier on 
these plants and this is probably the explanation of the injury rather 
than the spray. 

A press notice was issued advising growers to spray at once with kero- 
sene emulsion in order to save their crops, and to show them that they 
were not absolutely dependent upon nicotine solution. The com- 
parative costs of the two mixtures are about as follows : 

Kerosene Emulsion 

4 gallons kerosene at .14 (retail) $.56 

3 cakes soap at .06 (wholesale) 18 

Total $-74 

Nicotine Solution 

Nicotine sulphate ("Black Leaf 40") 1 pint (by the gallon) $1.31 

Soap 3 cakes at .06 (wholesale) 18 

Total $1 .49 



February, '19] britton and zappe: kerosene v. nicotine 73 

Though the materials for the nicotine solution cost fully twice as 
much as for the kerosene emulsion, it required a little less work in 
preparation. The materials for kerosene emulsion could be obtained 
from any grocer in city or country, but nicotine solution was difficult 
to obtain promptly, and had become scarce in Connecticut on account 
of the unusual demand for it. 



Mr. T. H. Parks: I would like to ask Dr. Britton if he had any 
visible burning or ill effects from combining nicotine sulphate with 
arsenate of lead and soap. 

Mr. W. E. Britton: We didn't dare try it on a large field. We 
tried it on a few rows and saw some injury, though very slight. Of 
course the field had been sprayed previously with arsenate of lead, 
even where we used the nicotine solution and soap to kill aphids only. 

Mr. J. S. Houser: We had one group of growers in eastern Ohio, 
who thought that the melting of the soap was too much bother, and 
they used washing powder, in combination with the nicotine sulphate 
and got results comparable to those obtained from the use of nicotine 
sulphate and laundry soap chipped and dissolved. I would like to 
ask if any of the entomologists here had experience of that kind; it 
facilitates the operation wonderfully because you don't have to bother 
with the fire and dissohdng your soap if you use common washing 
powder. 

Mr. W. a. Riley: It seems to me that in the work of Mr. Moore, 
Mr. Graham and Mr. Marcovitch, which was interrupted by the war, 
but the preliminary results of which were published in the Journal of 
Agricultvral Research, they show that you might as well use the powder 
as soap. In other words the washing powder just as the soaps and 
various kerosenes used are likely to give good results, but the essential 
parts of their work was to show that the variation in kerosenes on the 
market was so astonishing that the variations and results obtainable 
from the sprays from the kerosene emulsions could be accounted for in 
many cases by these variations in the composition of the kerosenes 
that were available on the market, and likewise that the soaps differed 
enough to give astonishingly different results, depending upon the 
soap that was used. 

For an illustration, in one of the common formulae published, there is 
the recommendation of using ivory soap. Without knowing the 
details of Mr. Moore's work sufficiently to point it out, he found that 
this was not only useless, but nullified the effect of the particular spray 
that it was rcconmiended in. And so it is perfectly clear from his 
results that in order to know what to recommend in the way of these 



74 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

different compositions, we must standardize the ingredients, and that 
it will be perfectly easy for some of the big oil companies to put out a 
standardized kerosene, meeting best the requirements that are needed 
for this particular work. 

Mr. C. R. Crosby: I would like to ask Dr. Britton what results 
he got from using blackleaf with the Bordeaux. 

Mr, W. E. Britton: We couldn't see that it sprayed much better 
than the blackleaf and water alone. Of course that can be modified 
somewhat by using greater pressure in the pump. We had a hand 
outfit. I suppose the pressure was between 75 and 100 pounds. 

Mr. W. H. Goodwin: May I ask what make of pump you used? 

Mr. W. E. Britton: I think the pump was one of the Hardie 
pumps, using two lines of hose. We used the "Friend" disk nozzle 
with rather small hole. 

Mr. W. H. Goodwin: The reason I ask this question is that 
different makes of nozzles and pumps give vastly different results. 
Spray solution may be effective or ineffective due largely to the force 
with which it is applied, its fineness, and the liberality in the quantities 
of spray used. An apparent excess per acre usually more than pays 
in the results obtained. Nozzles throwing a hollow cone spray require 
considerable care in handling them in order to get every bit of foliage 
sprayed covered evenly and forcefully with spray. 

Mr. W. E. Britton: The same outfit was used in spraying with 
the nicotine solution, the arsenate of lead and the Bordeaux, and also 
in the nicotine solution with soap. 

Mr. W. H. Goodwin: In some of my experiments I have found 
I can apply a much weaker spray solution by applying more spray per 
acre, and produce satisfactory results, provided I apply enough force 
behind the spray to get a thorough cover. 

Mr. T. J. Headlee: The Kentucky Tobacco Products Company, 
the makers of "Black-Leaf 40," recommend for aphis a mixture com- 
posed of 1 part of the "Black-Leaf 40" to 1,000 parts of water with the 
addition of two or more pounds of soap to each 50 gallons. Even when 
applied with an engine-driven potato sprayer this formula has been 
with us an absolute failure. In spite of these facts, however, the com- 
pany has until recently persisted in the recommendation. I am making 
these statements in the hope that Mr. Safro will explain the action of 
the company. 

Mr. Safro: Before discussing this matter I would like to go back 
to Professor Houser's question, which did not seem to be answered as I 
thought it would be. His question was in regard to the use of washing 
powder as a spreader. Before going further, I want to make this state- 



Tebruary, '19] britton and zappe: kerosene v. nicotine 75 

ment: for the last fifteen months I have not been in touch with ento- 
mological progress; if, therefore, something has developed within that 
time that is new, I am not acquainted with it. 

A main function of soap is as a carrier. The alkali itself, or a wash- 
ing powder will do admirably as a softener provided it is strong enough 
to function properly and not strong enough to hurt the plant. That is 
the reason we use soap — because of the wider margin of safety. The 
composition of soap is so uncertain that it must have a very wide mar- 
gin of safety. You may use more than is necessary to function prop- 
erly, and yet not injure the plant. The idea of using the soap is to use 
something that you can vary in amount, because there are no two soaps 
that are really so definite in composition that you can accurately say, 
"Use so many ounces." 

Of course, in effect, we do say that; but it is not accurate. We have 
powders that are excellent spreaders, but it would be necessary to re- 
-commend a certain powder in one locality and another brand in an- 
other place. The brand would have to differ with the character of the 
water used. 

Our biggest problem has been that of water as a spray-carrier. It is 
suggested that some entomologists could profitably specialize on waters, 
hard and soft waters. We have had to contend with waters in Arizona 
and Southern California, in parts of Colorado, in Idaho, and in the 
Northwest generally that were almost unbelievably hard. 

Washing soda will be effective as a softener if it is used accurately 
for the particular water employed; but such accuracy is often not 
practical and the reason for preferring soap instead is to employ a 
substance that is comparatively safe. 

An entomologist made a statement the other day which all of us 
should bear in mind. He said that he is working on the economic 
entomological problems of the farmer from the standpoint of the farmer 
— and this is a standpoint that certainly does deserve a great deal of 
consideration. Dr. Felt this morning stated that as entomologists we 
are independent. I sometimes fear we tend to be too independent. 
We do not cooperate sufficiently. Too often we work along, entirely 
forgetting the farmer's attitude — the item of labor, the item of mechan- 
ics, other items that a farmer thinks of, and that entomologists some- 
times forget. 

Those of you who have soap factories in your states should bear in 
mind that within short distances of the factories you can di8tril)ute and 
use, what the soap factory people call, I believe, the first boiling; it ia 
really a soft soap, and is much cheaper than the finished product. All 
•the boiling beyond that point merely puts the soap into condition that 
■causes more trouble for the farmer in restoring it to its former liquid 



76 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

condition. In southern California we used cottonseed oil soap, that is 
the first boiling. 

The human nature of this whole problem from the farmer's stand- 
point is the fact that if he can avoid actually having to mix something,, 
weigh something or measure something, he is going to get out of it 
regardless of a lot of other factors. Tell a man to cook something that 
may take only five minutes of his time and if he can get out of that by 
doing something easier, even if the other thing may not be as effective^ 
it is human nature for him to do the other thing. You and I do it. 
We can all shine our own shoes, but generally we get somebody else tO' 
do it, and pay for the work. 

I have sometimes wished that somebody would write an article on 
commercial recommendations and their bearing on biological recom- 
mendations. I think that, perhaps, would solve the problem. Very 
often in the laboratory something will happen that out in the field will 
not, and I think the difference of opinion regarding dilutions comes un- 
der that heading. In other words, a certain nicotine content will kill 
the pest, say, aphis, if that aphis is thoroughly covered with it. Now^ 
then, it becomes a problem, whether to be more thorough in your work 
or try to cover up the sins of negligence by increased strength. I mean 
the sins of negligence on the part of the grower. 

I wish some of those that have had experience within the past year 
would tell the grower to do the work thoroughly or try to cover it up by 
using a stronger dilution. I understand that in actual tests Professor 
Headlee found that a dilution of Black Leaf 40 of one to eight hundred 
would kill aphis in the laboratorj^ It seems to be thoroughness versus 
strength and you and I as thinking men are going to differ on some 
items. Here is a chance for each man to decide what he is going to do, 
to choose thoroughness or by increased strength to hide the lack of it. 

In additional discussion of the soap problem: it has generally been 
understood that arsenates and soaps should not be mixed. The reason 
is that in some places many of us have actually seen cases of injury. 
Now it is the one case of injury that establishes the rule; it is not the- 
thousand cases of no injury. 

The more recent development I know only from conversation with 
several entomologists, — and that is, that such a combination is now 
considered safe. That is all I know about it. It is on good authority. 
It may be that the arsenates have been standardized better than they 
were before. But up to fifteen months ago the status was that though 
there is only one chance in a hundred that there will be any injury fol- 
lowing such a combination, because of that one chance, we have al- 
ways been advised not to use it. However, that is superseded by the- 
later announcement that arsenates and soaps can be mixed. 



February, '19] BRITTON AND ZAPPE: KEROSENE V. NICOTINE 77 

Mr. W. E. Britton: I understand that the nicotine solution 
with soap and lead arsenate has been used in Massachusetts and has 
been recommended there; that while there may be occasional injuries, 
it isn't necessary to take it into consideration as compared with the 
injury done by the aphis. 

I wish to say one word in regard to the question of the supply of 
nicotine solution. I am told by a man representing the Kentucky 
Tobacco Products Company, that they have arranged to have a 
supply in each state, so that the situation that I mentioned as occur- 
ring in Connecticut will probably not occur again. 

Mr. Safro made one statement; he said the use of soap is for the 
purpose of obtaining the alkali. It is necessary to have some grease 
with it. That is, you would not recommend household lye in connec- 
tion with nicotine alone, would you? 

Mr. V. I. Safro: I wouldn't recommend it, but it will do if it is 
used accurately. An entomologist can use household lye. In the 
northwest, where some of the growers are as careful and as painstaking 
as we are, they can use lye safely, but you certainly wouldn't recom- 
mend it to a grower, under the penalty of being forever discredited. 

Mr. T. H. Parks: I am particularly interested in Dr. Britton's 
talk because what I am after is to get the farmers to put on this spray 
and not get scared at the expense, and that is what they did in Ohio 
last year. If we can safely use kerosene emulsion as a substitute for 
tobacco sprays we shall have more people spraying to solve the potato 
aphis problem. 

Last year I noticed that many would apply one spray and then if they 
did not get results they would quit. I had read Professor William 
Moore's article in the June number of the Journal. He combined oleic 
acid (red oil) with a 40 per cent nicotine solution which made the tobacco 
spray cheaper. I tested this in the field according to Professor Moore's 
formula, though we were able to purchase only a few ounces of oleic 
acid. When this spray (nicotine oleate) was applied as strong as 1 
part to 500 of water, it did the work as well as Black-Leaf 40 (1-500) 
plus soap (2 pounds). Weaker strengths of nicotine oleate were not 
satisfactory. I figured out the difference in the cost and it was favor- 
able for the new spray. I then got in touch with one of our commer- 
cial insecticide companies and obtained the wholesale price of oleic 
acid f. o. b. New York. 

Later in spraying for turnip aphis we experimented with Black-Leaf 
40 and soap at various strengths in comparison with this Black-Leaf 
40 and oleic acid combination at different strengths. Here it was 
found that Black-Leaf 40 (1-800) and soap (2 pounds) when used 
thoroughly did the work and did it well. The weakest nicotine oleate 



78 JOURNAJ. OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12- 

strength that was effective was again found to be 1-500. When I 
figured the expense of these two combinations there was such a Uttle 
difference in favor of the new mixture that I gave up the idea of trying 
to get our farmers to use it. 

Now I am going to emphasize thoroughness first, and sprays no 
stronger than known to be satisfactory if they are appHed thoroughly. 
If we can trust kerosene emulsion in the hands of farmers it will help 
solve the cost of repeated spraying to control potato aphis. 

Mr. E. N. Cory: I want to give our experience in regard to the 
strength of Black-Leaf 40 that is required. Where we supervised work 
we were able to get results with Black-Leaf 40 at the rate of 1 part to 
800 parts of water, but the farmers did not get results by using this 
strength. They doubled the amount of Black-Leaf 40 and in many 
cases secured excellent results. To them it was simply a problem of 
getting control, rather than a matter of cost, as they were growing 
tomatoes under contract and the price was excellent. Many of them 
stated it was not a question of the cost of the insecticide, but a question 
of killing the lice. 

I would like to ask in regard to the effect last year of parasites and 
lady-beetles in destroying aphids. We found that toward the end of 
the infestation, or in fact at the height of infestation, the lady-beetles 
were doing excellent work and this was a question in the mind of many 
farmers as to whether parasites were not effective in control rather 
than spraying. 

Mr. C. p. Gillette: I have done a good deal of work in con- 
troUing plant lice in Colorado, and have found that if the application 
does not kill, it is because the body of the aphid is not thoroughly wet 
with the insecticide. I once gave a student some Black-Leaf 40 for 
use in killing the black chrysanthemum aphids in the greenhouse. 
He reported that he could not kill them with any strength that he 
used. I made a test and found that I could not kill this aphid, but if 
soap was added to the water good results were secured. If it was not 
used very little of the spray would remain on the bodies of the aphids. 
One part of Black-Leaf 40 to 1,000 parts of water is sufficient to kill 
them, if their bodies are thoroughly wet. 

Mr. T. J. Headlee: Our experience with vegetable plant lice 
during the past season has raised the following questions: (1) Is it 
possible in all the species attacking vegetables to discover the infesta- 
tion while the plants are yet small before they have had a chance to 
assume a recumbent habit and by a single thorough treatment of any 
of these crops bring the aphis under control? (2) What sort of appa- 
ratus must be used, what sort of formula, what pressure and how many 
gallons must be used on an acre? 



February, '19] BRITTON AND ZAPPE: KEROSENE V. NICOTINE 79' 

Mr. L. B. Smith: In eastern Virginia we have viviparous females 
occurring throughout the year. Our most serious outbreaks of the 
green peach aphis occur during the winter. At certain times they will 
be scarce, then, as Dr. Headlee described, the aphids will appear in 
enormous numbers. The thirty-first of October of this year was 
particularly warm; the air was filled with winged forms of the pink 
and green aphid which were apparently migrating from weeds and 
kale to young spinach plants. The spinach became heavily infested 
and the outbreak was so serious that by November 25, several ship- 
ments were seized by the health authorities in New York City. The 
yield was also cut severely. At the present time, as a result of the out- 
break of aphids, there is occurring an epidemic of the disease known as 
spinach blight. I believe the southern conditions influencing the 
development of aphids are quite different from those further north 
where the sexual forms are produced. If the conditions which cause 
the outbreaks can be foreseen and the control measures applied in 
time, it will undoubtedly save in a great measure some of the losses 
which now occur. 

We have recently perfected a means of spraying young spinach plants. 
Spinach is a low-growing plant and is difficult to spray effectively. By 
using a gasoline outfit and maintaining sufficient pressure, we have 
been able to get very good control of the aphids this fall. I might also 
say that in spraying for the control of the green pea aphid, the pink 
and green aphid of potato and the green peach aphis, our results have 
been similar to Dr. Headlee's, we have had to use strong solutions. 
With the most careful spraying it is impossible to soak every aphid on a 
plant, particularly spinach or potatoes, when the leaves are savoyed 
or curled, with any arrangement of nozzle that we have been using. 
By having a solution with the proper wetting power, so that when the 
spray strikes the aphid it will form in a film, good results can be ob- 
tained by using the stronger solution. Under field conditions, on the 
crops mentioned, we have not had good results with Black-Leaf 40 
diluted more than one to six-fifty, unless excess quantities of soap are 
added. 

Mr. p. J. Parrott: The entomologists in New York, during the 
last fifteen or twenty years, have been called upon at different times to 
carry on some very extensive work against sucking insects, such as the 
apple red bugs, the pear psylla and several species of plant lice, par- 
ticularly those attacking apple trees and cabbage. What spray to 
recommend to a farmer is oftentimes a puzzling question, because in 
addition to effectiveness, one must also consider economy and safety. 
It is the general opinion of the entomologists of New York that the 
great merit of the nicotine spray is its safeness. Before the nicotine 



80 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

sulphate was introduced we used to have to rely on soaps and kerosene 
emulsion, and I recall very distinctly that a lot of damage was done to 
cabbages and fruit trees by kerosene emulsion. Later, when the oil 
sprays were abandoned in favor of soap, we were then confronted with 
this fact : that soaps varied tremendously in their important constitu- 
ents. Our chemists showed that the water content varied from 8 to 
60 per cent and, on account of the variation in soap, we were forced, 
in spite of the cost of nicotine sulphate, to recommend it. 

The experiences that have been related in regard to aphids show the 
great need of thorough-going studies of the life-histories and habits of 
the various species and business experiments to develop methods of 
control that are economical and efficient. As regards the strength of 
the nicotine sulphate, we generally recommend one part to a thousand 
parts of water, and rarely one to eight hundred. In considering dilu- 
tion, I would also emphasize the importance of timeliness and thorough- 
ness of the treatment. 

Mr. W. C. O'Kane: I would like to ask the gentleman, what are 
you recommending for the spraying of apple foliage where you need 
to use a stomach poison as an early spray, either the pink spray or the 
calyx spray, and at the same time have a big infestation of aphids com- 
ing on? 

Mr. p. J. Parrott: My answer to your question is that if farm- 
ers were following my instructions they would not find it necessary to 
use soap in the pink spray. We are working on the proposition that 
they should make a delayed dormant application. Of course I realize 
that various workers differ on that point, but we have carried on ex- 
periments on eight and a half acres in Geneva now for the last five 
years and we have had no difficulty whatsoever in securing an almost 
complete killing of the different species of apple lice. 

Mr. W. C. O'Kane: How late were you delaying your apphca- 
tion for that purpose? 

Mr. p. J. Parrott: Until the leaves of the advanced buds are 
about one quarter to a half inch. 

Mr. W. H. Goodwin: The single variety of apples? 

Mr. p. J. Parrott: Our work on Station grounds has been 
entirely with Rome apples, but there is considerable experimental data 
to show that in blocks of solid varieties, like Greenings or Baldwins, 
which constitute 60 to 70 per cent of the apples grown in New York, 
the same results can be obtained; that is, the grower can obtain com- 
mercial control of the insect. 

Mr. T. J. Headlee: Our experience on the point raised by 
O'Kane is that it does not make any difference whether the eggs of the 
apple aphis have hatched or not, because at the green bud stage the 



February, '19] britton and zappe: kerosene v. nicotine 81 

outer covering of the egg has split and the egg has become very sus- 
ceptible to destruction by the delaj'^ed winter-strength lime-sulphur and 
nicotine treatment. Our experience of the past three years shows 
that the eggs of the rosy apple aphis and of the green apple aphis have 
not all hatched by the time the green bud stage has been reached. We 
endorse the recommendation of Professor Parrott that the trees be 
thoroughly sprayed at the green bud stage with a mixture composed 
of winter-strength lime-sulphur and nicotine because the eggs which 
have not yet hatched are at that time in a very susceptible condition. 
We do not agree, however, with Professor Parrott in that the nicotine 
should be used at the rate of 1 to 1,000, but have been compelled, by 
the evidence of three years' experience, to advise adding 40 per cent 
nicotine to winter-strength lime-sulphur at the rate of 1 to 500. It 
may be that the difference between our experience and that of Professor 
Parrott is due to ecological difference, incident to the difference in 
geography. 

Mr. p. J. Parrott: Do you use that one to eight? 

Mr. T. J. Headlee: We used 1 part of the commercial lime- 
sulphur to 9 parts of water and added to it 40 per cent nicotine at the 
rate of 1 to 500. 

Mr. C. p. Gillette: The peach aphis hatches very early in the 
season. It is not uncommon to find mothers giving birth to the young 
by the time the buds are open. They can be killed on any of the pit 
fruits such as peach, plum or cherry by an early spray. The false 
cabbage aphis is in Colorado an inhabitant of Cruciferous plants. 
The peach aphis is the most general feeder that we have as it feeds on 
something like 75 host plants.' 

Adjournment. 

Morning Session, Friday, December 21 , 1918, 10.35 a. m. 

The association met in joint session with the Section on Horticultural 
Inspection. Mr. E. C. Cotton, Chairman of the Section, presided. 

Vice-President E. C. Cotton: As I have not prepared an address 
for this occasion, we will listen to the papers listed on the program. 
The following paper will be read by Mr. E. N. Cory, on "The Status of 
the Oriental Peach Moth." 

THE STATUS OF THE ORIENTAL PEACH MOTH ' 

By E. N. CoHY, College Park, Md. 

Grave apprehensions were entertained in the last few years as to the 
damage which might result from the establishment of Laspeyresia 

» Contribution from the Maryland State College of Agriculture. 
7 



82 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

molesta in several of the states on the Eastern Seaboard. Judging by 
our first information in regard to the pest, these fears were well founded. 
The fruit-feeding habit seemed most serious and the progress of the 
infestation has been carefully watched and further dissemination 
guarded against in some instances. 

After three years' observation and investigation certain facts have 
come to light that lead to the belief that the pest may finally come to 
have approximately the same destructive status for peach as the cod- 
ling-moth has at present for the apple in Avell-cared-for eastern or- 
chards. At most, its destructive force should be no greater. 

This estimate is based principally upon the counts made at College 
Park by Dr. Garman of the infested fruits and in part on the compara- 
tive growth of infested and non-infested trees. 

In the face of a long standing infestation which would be rated as of 
considerable severity, the fruit from the following varieties showed the 
percentages of infestation to be quite small. Except in three cases, 
the per cent of infested fruits did not amount to over 5 per cent. 
Champion with 12 per cent infested fruit, Lyon with 13 per cent and 
another late variety with 35 per cent were the exceptions. The aver- 
age infestation on Greensboro, Carmen, Champion, Elberta, Late 
Crawford, Mountain Eose, Lyon and the lihknown variety was 4.3 
per cent based on actual counts of over 4,000 peaches. 

It may be possible to reduce this fruit infestation even more. Spray- 
ing experiments show that the dry particles of self-boiled lime sulfur 
will kill newly hatched larvae that attempt to crawl through them. 
Dusting, therefore, may give greater control than spraying. 

The comparative growth of infested and non-infested twigs on bear- 
ing trees shows only a slight advantage to the infested tree. Careful 
measurements show that the average growth of infested twigs for 
the season was 11.1 and for the non-infested twigs 8.8 inches. The 
difference in this case of only 2.3 inches is hardly worthy of serious 
consideration. 

Another factor that may have a very considerable influence on the 
potential destructiveness of the insect is that of parasitism. Eight 
parasites, one of the egg and the balance of larva and pupa, during the 
past season contributed to the control of the pest. Approximately 
60 per cent of the eggs were parasitized by Trichogramma minuta Riley. 
About 50 per cent of the larvae and pupae were also parasitized. This 
leaves a possible one fifth of the normal brood as survivors. The egg 
parasitism in 1917 was 80 per cent; so that it seems fair to assume that 
a high percentage of parasitism may reasonably be expected, particu- 
larly since Trichogramma is a general feeder. Five of the parasites 
were Hymenoptera and three Diptera. 



February, '19] CORY: ORIENTAL PEACH MOTH 83 

Control experiments are quite variable in their results. The ques- 
tion of how much arsenical spray a peach tree will stand as well as the 
actual value of its application is involved. 

The effect of various insecticides on the egg is interesting. Nicotine 
sulfate at 1-500 or 1-800 alone gives about 70 per cent mortality and in 
combination with self-boiled lime sulfur, arsenate of lime and lime 
caseinate is equally as effective in laboratory tests. Field tests show 
that even better results may be obtained. In one instance only three 
infested twigs were found on a sprayed tree while thirty were taken from 
a tree of the same size along side of the sprayed tree. Apparently the 
timely application of the proper insecticide will control the pest but 
the ciuestion of economy in spraying and the possible results to the 
tree will bear close scrutiny. 

One of the most serious points to be considered is the feeding in 
apples by the late broods. Apparently this is one of the greatest 
sources for over wintering forms, at least in young trees adjacent to 
apple orchards. 

The confining of the pest to its present limits seems to be scarcely 
possible owing to the fact that infested fruit serves as the greatest po- 
tential source of dissemination. Measures of quarantine that disre- 
gard fruit are not likely to be successful in checking the spread of the 
pest. Nursery stock usually has smooth bark and probably is seldom 
used for pupation. Pupation is more likely to occur in the ground 
than on smooth bark trees. 

In view of the facts set forth, it would seem that unless unforseen 
circumstances alter the present habits of the pest, that it is little to be 
feared. The insect should be considered in the same light that we con- 
sider the codling-moth as far as the orchard is concerned and in 
nurseries it should be treated as any other nursery pest. That is to 
say that every precaution of inspection should be utilized to prevent 
its dissemination on the stocks. 



Vice-President E. C. Cotton: This is one of our new pests and I 
trust this paper will be thoroughly discussed. 

Mr. p. J. Parrott: I am wondering if there are any of the Federal 
workers here who can report what they found in their effort to deter- 
mine the destruction of the species. One agent visited Geneva, N. Y., 
and spent a number of days inspecting nurseries and orchards in that 
vicinity. He then visited Rochester and Buffalo, but I haven't heard 
as to the results of the examinations that were made. 

Mr. W. B. Wood: I do not have the records here, but as I remem- 
ber it, I think I can give you practically the way the inspection results 



84 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

stand. The inspections were made throughout most of the states. 
There were a few that we were not able to touch. In the eastern states 
the pest was found in the vicinity of Washington, both in Maryland 
and Virginia, and in the vicinity of Baltimore. It was found in south- 
ern Pennsylvania, east of the middle of the state ; it was found in New 
Jersey, in the southern end of New York state; it was found on Long 
Island, and at one point in Connecticut. Outside of these localities 
the insect was not found. It was not found in northern or western 
New York, although we found there what we term "typical injury." 
This same type of injurj- was found in a great many other places that 
were inspected, but I believe that the injury is caused by Anarsia 
Uneatella in these cases. 

This insect injures the trees in exactly the same manner, and we feel 
that we are unable to tell from the injury which insect causes the 
trouble. The results of the inspection that we have made were based 
altogether on the insects that were collected. In no place did we report 
the insect as being found where it was not collected but where typical 
injury was present. It may be established in other localities that were 
missed, but as far as we know, this was the general result — the insect 
being present only in a few of the states along the eastern seaboard, 
from Connecticut south to Virginia, a short way south of Washington. 

Vice-President E. C. Cotton: The fact that the insect was not 
found, of course, was no proof that it does not occur there, because as I 
understand it, the surveys were made in a general manner rather than 
in a thorough manner. 

Mr. W. B. Wood : The surveys were made in most cases very gener- 
ally, and the insect could very well be missed. 

Mr. S. M. Frost : I would like to ask if the injury might not be due 
to the tarnished plant bug on peach, or could it not be attributed to 
a Lepidopterous insect? 

Mr. W. B. Wood: In the case of the boring of the Lepidopterous 
insect, Laspeyresia niolesta, the twigs are, I think, always hollowed out 
on the inside; with the injury from the plant bug I don't believe this 
would be the case. I have often noticed injury that was attributed to 
the plant bug, and it was quite different from that caused by molesta, 
the twigs always being hollowed out by the latter insect. 

Vice-President E. C. Cotton: The next title is "Control Work 
Against the Japanese Beetle," by W. H. Goodwin. 

CONTROL WORK AGAINST THE JAPANESE BEETLE 

By W. H. Goodwin, New Brunswick, N. J. 
(Withdrawn for publication elsewhere.) 



February, '19] GOODWIN: WORK against Japanese beetle 85 

Mr. W. H. Goodwin: The plans for the coming season are much 
larger. There is to be considerable increase in the equipment, and 
following somewhat of a similar plan as we have followed in the past 
season, including the addition of several trucks, and another tractor, 
and six or eight tanks for the treatment of the grubs with a solution of 
sodium cyanide. We have tried putting crystal cyanide in the ground, 
but as yet results have not been good. There is one other method 
that could be used in this problem and that is taking over something 
like fifteen thousand acres, and simply paying those farmers so much for 
their crop, and putting the entire thing under cultivation and keeping it 
absolutely polluted with poison where there are field crops. If we 
could actually take those farms over and keep them under cultivation 
throughout the season I think we could eradicate this pest within a 
year. 

Vice-President E. C. Cotton : Does anyone wish to ask any ques- 
tions or discuss this paper? 

Mr. E. p. Felt: I would like to ask Mr. Goodwin whether it would 
not be cheaper in the long run to adopt the drastic measure which he 
suggested at the close of his remarks, and simply eliminate, within 
practical limits, all vegetation? 

Mr. W. H. Goodwin : That would be much cheaper in the long run, 
but it means an initial outlay of possibly three or four hundred thou- 
sand dollars. That country produces some money; in that section they 
fertilize heavily and they crop with a succession of crops, which makes 
the total income from an acre very high, and they get top-notch prices 
in the market at either Philadelphia or New York. 

Mr. E. R. Sasscer : I would Uke to ask Mr. Goodwin if the presence 
of that cyanide solution in the soil has any effect on the growth of the 
plant. 

Mr. W. H. Goodwin: As far as we can tell, there is absolutely no 
effect and no injury where we use a solution of one ounce to fifteen gal- 
lons of water. We need that amount of water to penetrate, and lack of 
penetration seems to be the fault of drilling the cyanide into the 
ground. I don't believe we could use cyanide drilled in the ground 
except in the fall, and we haven't tested any method extensively except- 
ing in the fall. 

Mr. E. R. Sasscer: There is one other point in this paper that 
interested me, and that is in regard to the attraction of the beetle to the 
light. I remember when this insect was iBrst discovered in New Jersey 
I had occasion to look up the literature on this beetle, and I was not 
very successful, but I found among the papers examined a short note 
on Adoretus tcnuimaculatus, a related insect, which is now established in 



86 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Hawaii, and as I recall lights were placed around valuable plants at 
night to keep the insects away. It seems that the adults do not feed 
after midnight and the lights are then extinguished. 

Mr. W. H. Goodwin: I won't vouch for this translation at all, but 
what is translated from the Japanese is that they were strongly at- 
tracted by lights, and that was one of the ways of catching the beetles. 
With us, trap lights were a complete failure. I have found beetles 
repeatedly within ten to twelve feet of lights that are only four feet 
above the ground, and they were not the least bit disturbed or attracted 
by the strong light. 

Vice-President E. C. Cotton : I would Hke to asjc Mr. Goodwin if 
he has tiied other soil fumigants. 

Mr. W. H. Goodwin: We used carbon bi-sulphide on azaleas, and 
got serious injury. That soil is sandy and loose, and makes it extremely 
difficult to get any satisfactory results with carbon bi-sulphide unless 
the soil is very wet. 

Mr. J. G. Sanders: In the case of some of our closely allied Ameri- 
can beetles, they fly long distances, and they quickly retire. I wonder 
if it is the same with the Japanese beetle. 

Mr. W. H. Goodwin: You can occasionally follow them with field 
glasses. They seem to settle within a few hundred feet. They simply 
riddle flowers, hollyhocks, and things of that sort, and roses. They 
simply chew them up, in other words. They are such general feeders 
that it makes the problem much more complicated because they will feed 
on any plant, except grass and corn, and a few things like that. They 
bore into the ends of corn ears, going down around the silks, and there 
is where the danger comes in transporting them, when that corn is cut 
and carried into the markets. 

Vice-President E. C. Cotton: The next paper is entitled, "The 
Discovery of the European Potato Wart Disease in Pennsylvania, " by 
Mr. J. G. Sanders. 

THE DISCOVERY OF EUROPEAN POTATO WART DISEASE 
IN PENNSYLVANIA 

(Plate 3, figure 2.) 
By J. G. Sanders, Economic Zoologist, Harrisburg, Pa. 

The discovery of the European potato wart disease ^ in Luzerne 
County, Pennsylvania, late in September, 1918, was a distinct surprise 
to all whose interest is concerned in such matters, although a constant 
watch has been maintained for the appearance of this dangerous pest 
within our borders for several years. 

^ Chrysophlyctis endobiotica Schilbersky. Described in 1896. 



February, '19] SANDERS: potato wart disease 87 

Greater interest must attach to the fact that this disease has been 
firmly established for at least eight years in an unusual situation, where 
it might have continued undetected for several years longer except for 
its almost accidental discovery. 

Hidden away in the gardens of the small mining villages, where the 
consumption of potatoes much exceeds the production, the disease 
might have continued its advance for a few years to other localities 
similarly situated, without spreading to the larger potato-growing dis- 
tricts nearby, where eventually it would have appeared in our public 
markets, and attracted the attention of inspectors and the more en- 
lightened growers. 

Immediately following the discovery of the disease, the writer went 
to Washington and conferred with Dr. W. A. Orton of the Bureau of 
Plant Industry, to secure the assistance of trained men to aid in our 
survey, which must be hurriedly carried out because potato digging 
was already starting in the Hazleton district, which lies at an altitude 
varying from 1,600 to 2,000 feet elevation. Doctor Orton, keenly 
alive to the dangerous situation, sent several of his trained men, and 
called on several plant pathologists who had been engaged in the Fed- 
eral plant disease survey, to aid in the work. Field men of the Penn- 
sylvania Bureau of Zoology were called in as rapidly as possible, and 
in about six weeks, approximately three hundred mining villages, 
towns and cities were hastily surveyed by garden inspections. At the 
close of our season's work, a total of twenty-eight villages and towns 
were found infected in varying degrees, a few having only one, two or 
three gardens showing the disease. 

The origin of this disease, and a few facts of its possibilities of dis- 
persion will be of interest. The Federal Horticultural Board, as one 
of its first official acts, fixed on September 20, 1912, a quarantine on 
further entry of European potatoes to the United States; yet its power 
granted by Congress came too late to avert the entiy of this disease, 
which we must now fight with all power and ability at our command, to 
safeguard our most important vegetable crop. 

Incjuiries from the villagers, mostly Slovaks and Polish and allied 
races, with a few Italians, determined the fact that most of their pota- 
toes had been bought from the company stores of the coal mining 
companies, who in turn had purchased largely from the Hazleton Prod- 
uce Company. Following this information, it was learned that con- 
siderable quantities, several carloads, of Ccrman potatoes had l)een 
bought and sold by them in 1911 and early 11)12, and hence our evi- 
dence was sufficient. Our next problem was to determine as rapidly 
as possible the limits of the spread of the disease; and we felt, after a 
preliminary survey in which we found much disease, that it must also 



88 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

be scattered throughout our larger anthracite coal mining area, cover- 
ing a large area of northeastern Pennsylvania. It is a pleasing report 
that we can offer now, that no other centers of infection exist, as far 
as our present knowledge goes, although subsequent inspection may 
reveal it at other points. 

The finding of this disease in such peculiar and unsuspected places 
will at once caution our inspectors to look for it in similar localities, 
where the demand for potatoes far exceeds the local production, and 
to which points foreign potatoes may have come to supply the de- 
mands in years of short crops. Especially important, it seems, is a 
careful inspection in gardens of our larger cities and their suburbs, 
and of larger manufacturing centers, which should be carried out next 
summer and autumn with as much care and speed as possible. Our 
eastern states should immediately secure special appropriations for 
such surveys, so that no time will be lost in rounding up the pest. 

Originally described from Hungary by Professor Schilbersky in 1896, 
and first brought to public attention, the potato wart disease has 
rapidly spread through Hungary and Germany into the British Isles 
and Norway, and there is strong probability that under the war con- 
ditions for the past four years, the pest has been even more widely 
spread than our present records would indicate. Late reports from 
England show that tremendous spread of the disease has obtained on 
account of the lack of inspection facilities during the war period, and 
that the loss, in consequence, has been very heavy. The disease was 
introduced into Newfoundland, at the islands of Saints Pierre and 
Miquelon, but the Pennsylvania record is the first for the United States. 

The wart disease belongs to one of the lower families of fungi, the 
Olpidiacece, and is closely aUied to the Synchytriums — formerly having 
been classified in this group. Fortunately, the disease is known to 
attack but one plant other than the common potato, Solanum tuberosum, 
and its varieties; and even tomato plants growing in very badly dis- 
eased soil in the Pennsylvania infections, showed no trace of the attack 
of the potato wart disease. Bitter-sweet is slightly affected. 

Numerous publications and references to this dangerous disease have 
appeared in European literature, but up to the present little has ap- 
peared in American literature. Circular No. 52 of the Bureau of 
Plant Industry, by W. A. Orton and Ethel C. Field, discusses briefly 
the wart disease of the potato, its nature and distribution, along with 
three excellent halftones, as well as a list of the more important liter- 
ature pertaining to this disease published since 1896. 

All portions of the potato plant may be attacked by this pest, but 
more frequently it is apparent on the underground portions of the 
stem, roots and tubers. It attacks the tuber usually at or near the 



February, '19] 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 



Plate 3 




February, '19] SANDERS: potato wart disease 89 

"eye," and there rapidly develops a ver>' distinct, wartj^ growth, usu- 
ally brownish in color. These warty growths enlarge rapidly, and 
ultimately cover and transform the entire potato to a warty mass, 
somewhat resembhng a piece of cauliflower head. This stage having 
been reached, the warty mass decays in the ground, thereby releasing 
myriads of thick, heavy walled spores, which remain viable in the soil, 
according to experiments carried on in Europe, for more than six years 
— even in the absence of potato growth. In other words, the disease 
has appeared after a six-year rotation of crops other than potatoes, and 
has attacked potatoes planted the following season. No definite 
records are available regarding the exact longevity of the spores in 
the soil, though it is highly probable that a ten-year period must 
elapse before infected soil can be considered absolutely safe for potato 
planting. 

The disease can be transferred to clean soil in several ways, most 
important of which are through infected seed potatoes, infected par- 
ings, spring freshets carrying infected soil to new localities, the removal 
and transfer of root crops from infected gardens to new localities, and 
still another very important and unsuspected method is that of its 
possible transmission by manure from animals, which have been fed 
on uncooked potatoes infected with this disease. It will be seen, 
therefore, that the control measures which must necessarily be adopted 
in dealing with this pest are somewhat varied, and will require no in- 
considerable attention to details, combined with the necessaiy legal 
power and authority. 

It is proposed to quarantine the entire affected area, including the 
few outlying infections, from which quarantined area we will prohibit 
the removal of potatoes, root crops, manure and any materials which 
might carry the disease. Within the quarantined area certain "re- 
stricted" areas will be designated, within which the growing of potatoes 
will be prohibited. In order to further supervise the inspection for the 
disease in future years, it seems desirable to permit the growing of 
potatoes within the quarantined area only by license furnished from 
the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture. 

It is now contemplated that a laboratory for the more careful study 
of this disease will be established — probably at Freeland — and in addi- 
tion to studies of the rapidity of dissemination, the life-history and 
etiology of the disease, certain experiments will be carried on, using 
steam sterilizing methods in an effort to kill the spores in the soil. This 
treatment, if successful, will be particularly valuable, even though 
somewhat expensive, in outlying infections where only small areas need 
treatment. 

I wish to express my sincere thanks and appreciation for the assist- 



90 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

ance furnished our survey by the men associated with the Bureau of 
Plant Industry, and workers in other states, who came to our assistance 
on very short notice. It is our purpose and desire to exert the utmost 
effort in every way possible to prevent the further spread of this most 
serious known potato disease, and considering the rather favorable 
conditions under which the disease occurs (in isolated villages without 
intervening cultivated territory) v/e have reason to believe that we can 
ultimately eradicate the pest. No expense and effort is too great, in 
consideration of the extremely dangerous and destructive nature of 
this long-lived soil-infecting plant disease, coupled with the fact that 
it is threatening the most important vegetable food crop in our United 
States. 



AN EUROPEAN SCALE INSECT BECOMING A MENACE IN 

PENNSYLVANIA 

By J. G. Sanders, Economic Zoologist, Harrisburg, Pa. 

It seems desirable to call the attention of our entomologists and hor- 
ticultural inspectors to a scale insect, probably a native of China, later 
introduced to Europe, which in recent years has become established in 
Pennsylvania. This soft scale insect, Lecanium prunastri Fonsc, 
has been recorded a number of times from various places in Central 
Pennsylvania at rather widely scattered points, but principally from 
the south central and warmer section of the state. 

Its principal host plants are peach, sweet cherry and apricot, and 
within the past two or three years this pest has become sufficiently 
abundant in a few localities to cause genuine damage and alarm to the 
fruit growers. Some branches of peach become so thickly covered 
with the scale, that they are badly dwarfed, and ultimately killed. 
However, in the orchards where the customary winter dormant spray 
with lime-sulfur wash is practiced, the scale has not assumed dangerous 
proportions. 

In general appearance, in the summer season, it is not dissimilar 
from the common terrapin scale, although on closer inspection, it will 
be seen that the adult female scales are almost globular in form, and 
usually deep, chestnut red colored, usually closely massed on a tree 
when abundant. Not infrequently a large number of the small, glassy 
white male scales are associated with the larger round female scales. 
The accompanying figures will show some of the principal distinguish- 
ing characteristics of this scale, in comparison with our other common 
Leeaniums (PL 3, fig. 1.) 

As far as records of the United States Bureau of Entomology 
indicate, the scale has never been reported except from the State of 



February, '19] SANDERS: EUROPEAN SCALE COMMON 91 

Pennsylvania. Fortunately, it does not occur in close proximity to 
our larger fruit tree nurseries, hence has not become a nursery pest 
problem. 

Records of Lecanium prunastri are at hand from the United States 
Bureau, which indicate its having been collected by F. N. Meyer in 
1907, at several points in China, and also in Chili Province, China, 
in December, 1916. It was interesting to note that on a sample of 
plum from Dougsi, China, it was associated with Diaspis pentagona, 
the later species having also been found on various hosts quite com- 
monly at several points in China. The writer can furnish a limited 
number of specimens of this scale to those desiring them, and will also 
gladly identify any material which is under suspicion as this species. 



Mr. T. B. Symons: I would like to ask if there is any attempt being 
made to grow different varieties in infested areas for immunity tests, as 
I understand that is the means of combating this disease in England. 

Mr. J. G. Sanders: As I understand, they now have two or three 
varieties in England which are absolutely immune. It has been deter- 
mined in conducting our laboratory experiments up there next year to 
test out all well-known varieties of potatoes we have in this country 
with a view to determining resistance and immunitj'. In the areas now 
infected we will absolutely prohibit the growing of potatoes with the 
idea of extermination of the disease. 

I might say another word here, that the potatoes, after assuming that 
entire warty condition, quickly decay in the soil so that it impedes in- 
spection work considerably if one is not on the ground at the proper 
time. 

Vice-President E. C. Cotton: That would mean then the inspec- 
tion would have to be made within three weeks after blooming. 

Mr. J. G. Sanders: From that time on until digging is done. Our 
idea is to permit the growing of potatoes onlj^ by license; we shall have 
men on the ground to control it in that way. 

Mr. C. H. Hadley, Jr.: Do you find that disease is transmitted 
through storage? 

Mr. J. G. Sanders: There are many points that I might mention 
about this disease that I could not bring out on account of lack of time. 
Potatoes affected by this disease cannot be held in storage, because they 
will quickly decay. 

Vice-President E. C. Cotton : The spores from the decaying warts 
might attach themselves to sound potatoes and be a source of infection 
of soil in the field. 

Mr. J. G. Sanders: Yes, and it would also be dangerous to trans- 
port the potatoes. 



92 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Vice-President E. C. Cotton : If there is no further discussion, we 
will take up, "The European Corn Borer Problem," by D. J. Caffery, 
Melrose Highlands, Mass. 



THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER PROBLEM ^ 

By D. J. Caffrey, Scientific Assistant, Cereal and Forage Insect Investigation, Bureau 
of Ento7nology, United States Department of Agriculture 

Introductory 

During the month of July, 1917, the presence of the European Corn 
Borer (Pyrausta nuhilalis Hubn.) was discovered in the vicinity of 
Boston, Massachusetts by Mr. S. C. Vinal of the Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station. A report of this discovery, and of the 
preliminary investigation was published by Mr, Vinal in December, 
1917 -. At that time the insect was found to be present in an area of 
approximately 100 square miles immediately north and northeast of 
the city of Boston and was causing severe damage to sweet corn and 
other plants within that area. 

The towns located at the mouth of the Mystic River were more 
generally infested than the others and from this it was inferred that 
the pest first became established in that vicinity. Considerable quan- 
tities of raw hemp are annually imported from Europe for use in the 
cordage factories located along the Mystic River. As hemp is one of 
the favorite food plants of the insect in Europe this may have been the 
medium through which the European Corn Borer was introduced into 
this country, although other plants may have acted as the carrier. 

The seriousness of the situation caused by the presence of this insect 
and its potential menace to the corn crop of the entire country was 
early realized. The problem therefore became one of national im- 
portance and plans were made for a cooperative investigation of the 
subject during the season of 1918 by the Massachusetts Agricultural 
Experiment Station and the Bureau of Entomology, Division of Cereal 
and Forage Insects. 

From the facts learned to date concerning the habits, food plants 
and distribution of the insect it is believed that the European Corn 
Borer is one of the most serious plant pests that has yet been introduced 
into the United States. 



1 Published by permission of the Secretary of Agriculture. 

2 Vinal, S. C, Mass. Agri. Experiment Sta., Bull. 178. 



February, '19] CAFFREY: EUROPEAN CORN BORER 93 

Serious Nature of this Imported Pest 
Foreign History 

Foreign literature records the fact that the species is widely dis- 
tributed in Central and Southern Europe, West Central and Northern 
Asia, China and Japan. Corn, hemp, hops and millet are the principal 
economic plants attacked by the pest in the old world and a loss of 50 
per cent of the crops frequently results from its depredations. 

History in Massachusetts 

Prior to 1917 the European Corn Borer had never been reported from 
the United States. During the period from its discovery in July, 1917, 
to November 30, 1918, the species was found to be present in thirty- 
four towns of Eastern Massachusetts comprising an area of about 320 
:square miles immediately west, north and northeast of the city of Bos- 
ton. Adjacent areas in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, 
New Hampshire and Maine were examined for the presence of the in- 
•sect, but with negative results. 

Food Plants 

The principal food plants of the species in Massachusetts were found 
to be sweet corn, field corn, fodder corn, celery, beans, potatoes, Swiss 
chard, beets, spinach, dahlias, gladiolus, chrysanthemums and several 
species of the larger weeds and grasses. Although corn is the favorite 
and preferred food plant, the great variety of other host plants has al- 
lowed the species to become established in almost every locality 
throughout the infested area. This greatly complicates the problem 
of controlling the pest in the area where it is now present and of pre- 
venting its further spread. 

Habits and Life-History 

The European Corn Borer passes the winter as full-grown, or nearly 
full-grown, larva} within their tunnels in the host plant. They resume 
feeding with the advent of warm weather in April or May and pupate 
about the middle of May within their larval tunnels. The moths 
emerge a])Out the first week of June and the females deposit their eggs, 
generally on the lower surface of the foliage of the host plant. The 
eggs are deposited in masses of from five to fifty eggs, individual females 
depositing an average of 350 eggs. The habits of the resulting larvie 
vary according to the species of plant attacked. In the instance of 
•corn the newly hatched larvaj feed first upon the epidermis of the leaf 
blades and then enter the stalk and tunnel through all parts of the plant 
except the fii)rous roots. This results in a general weakening of the 



94 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

plant which retards the development of the ear and in many cases pre- 
vents proper fertilization through injury to the tassel. The ears are 
also tunnelled by the larvae which enter by way of the pedicel or bore 
directly through the husk and tunnel through the kernels and cob. 
As many as fifteen full-grown larvae, each about an inch long, have 
been found feeding upon and within a single ear of sweet corn. This 
damage to the stalk and ears by the insect is often still further in- 
creased by the ingress of various rots which reduce both stalks and ears 
to a soft, putrid condition totally unfit for use as seed or for feeding to 
stock. Actual field counts in a quarter-acre plot of sweet corn have 
resulted in finding that 100 per cent of the ears were infested by larvae 
of the European Corn Borer. Field counts made in badly infested 
areas showed an average of 46 larvae per plant; or at the rate of about 
1,050,000 per acre. 

The larvae of this generation reach full growth and pupate within 
their host plant about the middle of July. The moths emerge about 
the last week of July and deposit eggs for the second generation of 
larvae on late corn or upon other wild or cultivated plants. The 
habits of these second generation larvae in late corn are essentially the 
same as for the first generation except that greater injury is sustained 
by the ears. The larvae feed until their activities are halted by the 
advent of severe winter weather in November or December. 

It will be noted then that there are two complete generations of the 
European Corn Borer each year and that individual females in each 
generation deposit an average of from 350 to 550 eggs each. This 
enables the insect to increase its numbers very rapidly as its multi- 
plication is practically unchecked by the activities of parasites or other 
natural enemies. 

Danger of Widespread Injury to the Corn Crop 

Although the female of the European Corn Borer is capable of flight 
and may gradually extend the limits of infestation by natural spread, 
the chief element of danger in this respect is that infested plants or 
plant products may be transported from the area now infested by the 
insect to points outside of that area. 

Danger of Spread Through Transportation of Corn or Its Products 

The transportation of corn or its products offers perhaps the most 
common means by which the insect may become widely disseminated. 

Sweet Corn or Roasting Ears. During the early summer season 
considerable quantities of sweet corn are shipped north from the Bos- 
ton wholesale market in order to take advantage of the early season 
prices prevailing in northern Massachusetts, New Hampshire and 



February, '19] CAFFREY: EUROPEAN CORN BORER 95 

Maine. Much of the sweet corn originates within the area infested 
by the European Corn Borer. An examination of the sweet corn ex- 
posed in the Boston wholesale market at this time revealed the fact 
that many of the ears and the attached portion of the pedicel contained 
larvae and pupae of the pest. Similar lots of corn had been sold to 
retailers through this same medium and distributed to consumers over 
a wide range of territory. Only a small per cent of the sweet corn ex- 
posed for sale was found to be infested and of this amount only a very 
small portion was shipped out of the infested area, but the danger 
existing from the possibility of the species being disseminated in this 
manner may be considered very great. 

Cornstalks as Feed for Livestock. Another method of pos- 
sible dissemination of the species is through the transportation of in- 
fested cornstalks. Many of the large market gardeners within the 
infested area sell their sweet corn fodder to owners of livestock after 
the ears have been harvested. Unless badly infested by the insect 
this fodder serves as a green and succulent feed which is greatly relished 
by livestock, especially dairy cows. Frequently this fodder is trans- 
ported considerable distances by auto trucks and in several instances 
under observation infested material of this kind was taken to localities 
not previously infested by the insect. 

Dry Cornstalks as Packing Material. Dry cornstalks are 
frequently used as rough packing material in the shipping of large 
articles of a fragile nature, and in this manner infested material may 
be carried for considerable distances. The over-wintering larvae of 
the European Corn Borer are able to survive almost any extremes of 
cold, heat or drought within cornstalks, and are not inconvenienced 
by rough handhng or being confined in a small space. They remain 
in a dormant condition within their host plant for a period of almost 
five months, from December until the following May, thus providing 
a long period of time during which they may be transported, with the 
consequent danger of their widespread dissemination. 

Corn on the Cob. The larvae of the European Corn Borer tunnel 
through the cobs of corn and frequently pass the winter in this situa- 
tion. They are not at all inconvenienced by the drying out of corn 
stored on the cob, either for seed or for the feeding to livestock, and 
resume their feeding in the interior of the cob on the advent of warm 
weather in the spring. 

Very little corn on the cob is shipped from the infested area but this 
means of possible dissemination must be considered. 

Quarantine Measures Restricting Transportation of In- 
fested Material. In order to prohibit the transportation of ma- 



96 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

terial from corn plants infested by the European Corn Borer, Quaran- 
tine Order No. 36 was issued by the Federal Horticultural Board and 
became effective October 1, 1918. 

This quarantine prohibits interstate movements of all corn fodder, 
or corn stalks, whether used for packing or otherwise; green sweet 
corn; roasting ears; corn on the cob; and corn cobs from the towns 
within the area infested by the European Corn Borer. 

The State of Massachusetts is now preparing to institute a similar 
quarantine which will prohibit the intrastate movements of such in- 
fested material. 

Danger of Spread through Transportation of Infested Ma- 
terial Other than Corn and Corn Products 

If corn were the only plant attacked by the European Corn Borer 
the problem of restricting the spread of the insect would be com- 
paratively simple; but several of the other host plants present addi- 
tional openings by which the pest may be transported through the 
ordinary avenues of trade. 

In badly infested areas the larger larvse of the European Corn Borer 
frequently leave their original host, whether it be corn or some of the 
weeds or grasses, and enter other plants growing in the vicinity. This 
change of habitat is generally due to the fact that the food supply in 
the original host has been exhausted. Under these circumstances the 
larvse may attack and enter almost any plant growing in the vicinity 
and possessing a moderately soft and succulent stem. 

In home gardens, and in market garden areas it is a common prac- 
tice to grow several crops close together, or inter-rowed in the same 
area. Sweet corn is almost always included among these crops and 
serves to attract the ovipositing females of the European Corn Borer. 
After the food supply in the corn plants has been exhausted the larvse 
enter the other plants. In this manner the larvse frequently infest 
celery, Swiss chard, spinach, beans, beets, potatoes, tomatoes, and 
some of the flowering plants including dahlias, gladiolus and chrysan- 
themums. 

Celery 

The outer stalks of celery are tunneled by the larvae. As many as 
eight full-grown specimens were taken from a single stalk. During the 
process of harvesting celery most of these outer stalks are commonly 
removed and discarded. Stalks infested by the European Corn Borer 
are especially noticeable owing to their wilted appearance, but it is 
very possible that recently infested stalks may be overlooked by the 
ordinary workman and the insect transported to new localities through 
this medium. 



February, '19] CAFFREY: EUROPEAN CORN BORER 97 

Swiss Chard 

The stalk and midrib of the leaf of Swiss chard are commonly tun- 
neled by the larvse. The injured leaves are very noticeable and are 
ordinarily discarded in preparing the crop for market. There is a pos- 
sibility, however, that recently infested leaves may pass inspection and 
transport the pest to new areas. 

Beans 

The vines, immature seed and green pods of beans are tunneled by 
the larvae of the European Corn Borer. The principal source of danger 
from the pest attacking this crop consists of the possibility that ''string 
beans" containing larvse of the species may be shipped to points out- 
side the infested area. 

Beets and Spinach 

The tops of beets and spinach, or that portion of the plants com- 
monly sold for greens, are sometimes infested by the pest. The larvae 
tunnel in the stem and midrib of the leaf and frequently their injury is 
of such a nature that it may be overlooked by the workmen handling 
the crop, with the consequent danger of infested material being shipped 
to localities not previously infested by the insect. 

Potatoes and Tomatoes 

The vines of potatoes and tomatoes are frequently tunneled by the 
larvse of the European Corn Borer but ordinarily this is not a source of 
danger in the possible dissemination of the species. 

Dahlias, Gladiolus and Chrysanthemums 

The stalks and flower stems of Dahlias, Gladiolus and Chrysanthe- 
mums are frequently entered and tunneled by larva? of the European 
Corn Borer. The injury to these plants is of such a nature that 
infested stems generally wilt and break at the point where the larva 
enters; but large stalks or stalks recently infested do not show any 
conspicuous external indications of infestation and under certain 
circumstances may be included in shipments of these plants to points 
outside the infested area. 

Methods Adopted for the Control of the Insect and its Limita- 
tion TO the Area now Infested 

It is evident that any measures looking toward the control of the 
European Corn Borer and its limitation to the area now occupied must 
consist of the destruction of the infested plants within that area, sup- 



98 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

plemented by quarantine measures to prevent the dissemination of the 
species through the transportation of infested material. 

These measures are now being apphed to the solution of the prob- 
lem and it is hoped that by their careful and intensive application the 
pest may be prevented from reaching the corn belt of the country and 
causing widespread injury to our most valuable crop. 



Vice-President E. C. Cotton: Has anyone any questions to ask? 
We have just a short time which we can devote to discussion. 

Mr. C. H. Hadley, Jr: To what extent can this pest be handled if 
it were to spread over the entire country? 

Mr. D. J. Caffrey: The damage could be reduced by applying 
very strict clean-up methods, that would include all corn and weeds and 
grasses within the infested area. An ordinary farmer would need to 
destroy his old cornstalks in the same manner, get his neighbors to do 
the same, and give the waste areas a pretty thorough cleaning up. 

Mr. W. E. Britton: I would like to ask about the expense of that 
treatment. 

Mr. D. J. Caffrey: That would vary in the different sections. I 
should think possibly about ten dollars an acre. This would include 
treating weed areas. 

Mr. W. E. Britton: That would be rather a large percentage on 
the cost of the growing corn. 

Mr. D. J. Caffrey: Yes, it would be, and it would not necessarily 
be entirely effective either. 

Mr. W. C. O'Kane: I should question whether, with our present 
knowledge, it can be economically controlled as a field proposition. 

Mr. D. J. Caffrey: It is only under certain circumstances that the 
damage could be greatly prevented. As I pointed out from the first 
this illustrates the serious nature of the insect. 

Mr. W. W. Chase : How do you spend the money in that way? 

Mr. D. J. Caffrey: Generally we spend most of the money for 
labor. Take a large weed area for instance; in the spring when dried, 
weeds can be handled easily. You understand the entire plant must 
be destroyed. Of course that would be rather difficult during the fall 
when the plants are green, but in the spring the cost is considerably 
reduced because we can cover a larger area with a smaller force of men. 

Mr. E. p. Felt: I would like to ask what are the possibilities of 
exterminating such a pest as this? Would it be economically practic- 
able? 

Mr. D. J. Caffrey: I think I can answer that question better per- 
haps two or three j'^ears from now. 



February, '19] CAFFREY: EUROPEAN CORN BORER 99 

Mr. E. p. Felt: The time to answer it is now, 

Mr. D. J. Caffrey : That is a pretty hard question to answer at the 
present time. If we could reduce the entire area that is infested by the 
insect to a desert and absolutely destroy plant life, we could probably 
exterminate it in a short time. 

Mr. W. C. O'Kane: Is it necessary to reduce the entire area to a 
desert? 

Mr. D. J. Caffrey: Perhaps that statement should be amended to 
include the plants infested by the insects. 

Mr. G. a. Dean : What are you going to do when an insect like this 
becomes established in a state or states like IlUnois, Ohio, Indiana, 
Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas, where they really have some corn fields? 
For instance, a man does not think he has a corn field unless he has 
more than forty acres. In Kansas at the present time there are over 
ten million acres of winter wheat. I should like to ask Mr. Walton 
whether he thinks it is possible to stamp out the infestation in Massa- 
chusetts, providing sufficient funds are available. Even though it 
should cost ten million dollars, what would that be compared with the 
injury or loss if this insect becomes established in the great agricultural 
states, where they grow corn, wheat, oats, and the kafirs? 

Mr. W. B. Walton: From what we know regarding the control of 
this insect at the present time, I must confess that I am very skeptical 
respecting the possibility of exterminating it. I don't believe it can be 
done, but I am " wilhng to be shown. " 

Secretary A. F. Burgess: Is it worth trying? 

Mr. W. R. Walton: Yes, of course, it is worth trying, when we 
learn how to do it. I don't think we are ready yet. The insect hasn't 
spread very much during the past year. We are now conducting ex- 
perimental control work, and we know a good bit of its life-history. We 
don't know very much about the methods of controlling it. I should 
like to ask Mr. Caffrey to tell us something about the success of this 
work so far as it has been carried. 

Mr. D. J. Caffrey: The control work as far as it has been carried 
shows that where we can get into an area where the plants are dry and 
start a good hot fire, we can absolutely destroy all parts of the plants. 
But in corn fields or weed areas where there are large weeds, more or 
less green, it is very difficult to destroy the larvae. 

Mr. W. C. O'Kane: How about pulling up the plants and burning 
them? 

Mr. D. J. Caffrey: That was tried, the plants were placed in piles 
and we attempted to burn them with oil. When dry enough, they bum 
readily, but if they :ire very green it creates only a smudge, and we find 
a certain number of living larv:i' l(>ft. Then we tried a large kerosene 



100 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

torch, and that made pretty fair headway, when the vegetation was dry 
enough. In areas where there were large weeds and other large stems 
it became almost an impossibility to make any headway with that type 
of apparatus. 

Mr. W. H. Goodwin: In my tests last summer with oils, I found 
that I could not use kerosene alone, but I could use kerosene in combi- 
nation with a cheap lubricating oil known as a black oil. I found that 
in order to get rid of weeds and plants I had to almost thoroughly satu- 
rate the ground at the surface, and it must be nearly dry. When this 
mass of oiled vegetation was set afire even two or three days after 
spraying it burned to the ground. Now one of the problems with the 
Japanese beetles is to clean out those waste places. It looks to me as if 
this phase of the problem would apply to a certain extent to this corn 
borer, by getting rid of all waste places as far as possible in the area in- 
fested. 

Mr. W. C. O'Kane: In order to complete my information I w^ould 
like to know the total area infested this year and last year. 

Mr. D. J. Caffrey: I can answer that question by saying that the 
original survey in 1917 was made by one man, who attempted to find 
out during his spare time the outside limits of the infestation and at 
that time he found that about a hundred square miles w^ere infested. 
This was during the fall of 1917, right after the insect was discovered. 

Now, last season we made a very careful survej^ during the spring, 
summer and fall, and found that all together about three hundred and 
twenty square miles were infested. That is quite an increase over the 
area that we found infested at first, but I am not satisfied that the hun- 
dred square miles was really the outside limit of infestation at that time. 
As I said, there w^asn't time to make the original survey very thorough. 

Mr. W. C. O'Kane: Have you data for saying that the insect has 
not spread very much during this past year? 

Mr. D. J. Caffrey: We have in part of the area at least. I am re- 
ferring to the limits south and west of Boston, where in some places it 
has spread only from a half to three quarters of a mile. 

In many of the towns in the north that add greatly to the area in- 
fested we found only very few specimens after making a most exhaus- 
tive search. 

Mr. W. R. Walton: In other words you are satisfied that the pre- 
liminary survey was very incomplete. 

Mr. D. J. Caffrey: Yes, necessarily so, because there was very 
little time spent on it. I think Mr. Walton's statement that the spread 
of the insect has been comparatively slow is well founded. I might 
mention another case of a market gardener in West Medford who was 
a very observing man, an up-to-date grower in every respect, and he 



February, '19] caffrey: European corn borer 101 

claims that he has been severely injured by the pest in the last two or 
three years. If that is so, there must have been a considerable number 
of larvae present during that time, and they must have gained entrance 
to his fields quite a few years previous to that. The outside limits ex- 
tend about four miles beyond his farm now. 

President E. D. Ball: It seems to me that if this insect is any- 
where nearly as important as it has been represented to be, that even a 
minute of delay, to say nothing of a year, is serious, very serious, that 
while it may be spreading but a few miles a year, it has already spread 
over several hundred square miles and may spread in one big jump at 
any time, into the heart of the corn area. 

We have several records of waiting too long before starting. The 
gipsy moth and the boll-weevil are good examples of this kind of folly. 
Here is a chance for the entomological fraternity to assert itself and 
with one voice, say that we are going after this insect and that we are 
going after it now. Suppose we fail — it is nothing. If we attack four 
insects and fail on three, but win on the fourth, we have won tremen- 
dously. 

Corn is the biggest crop in America, and I think that the corn growers 
of the Mississippi Valley have a right to demand protection from this 
pest, and that every possible source of protection should be used at 
once. We have learned in this last year what it means to go into a 
thing and do it — not to wait and talk about it and say that it is impos- 
sible, but to do it. It seems to me that that should be our slogan to- 
day; let us go in and do it. 

Secretary A. F. Burgess: I want to say one word in regard to 
spread. The corn borer is in the same region where the gipsy moth was 
originally introduced. The gipsy moth was introduced in 1868 or 1869, 
and it did not become a pest in the region where it was introduced until 
about 1890. During the time from 1890 to 1900, when work was car- 
ried on by the state of Massachusetts to clean out the gipsy moth, the 
largest area that it occupied was approximately the area that the corn 
borer occupies at the time. We did not know at that time — and we 
have only known for a few years — the principal method of spread of the 
gypsy moth. 

The female moth does not fly; the principal method of spread is by 
the small caterpillars being blown by the wind innnediately after 
hatching. The trend of spread is toward the north or northeast, but 
it took the gipsy moth, even with the small caterpillars being capable 
of blowing twenty miles, approxnnatcly twenty-five years to occupy 
the territory that is now occupied by the corn borer. If the statements 
made are correct in regard to the time of introduction, in all i)robability 
the corn borer has not ijocn in this country more than live or six vcars. 



102 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

I simply mention this to show that there may be more possibility of 
rapid spread of the corn borer than we think at present. 

Another factor in connection with the spread is this: When you 
get a large area heavily infested the spread will be much more rapid 
than when the area is small even if it is well infested. These are factors 
in the problem that should be considered. 

Mr. R. K. Beattie: There is a parallel in the White Pine Blister 
Rust that I wish to call to your attention. For four or five years the 
Office of Forest Pathology of the Bureau of Plant Industry tried to get 
people interested in the eradication of the White Pine Blister Rust. 
At that time its area of distribution in the United States was small. 
Because the disease was spreading slowly, people ignored it and no one 
could be interested in combating it. Suddenly it became epidemic. 
In two years it had spread so rapidly that the cleaning up of the White 
Pine forests of New England was impossible. Before that epidemic, 
anyone would have said that New England could be cleaned up. Now, 
such an effort is made only in isolated localities. I cannot say that 
there is necessarily parallelism between plant diseases and insects, but 
in both groups we do have epidemics. We have had entirely too many 
cases in this country among plant diseases where we have tried to find 
out scientifically all about the disease before we began to fight it. 
When citrus canker first appeared in the United States some patholo- 
gists believed its study should be completed before the work of combat- 
ing it began. But the fight was really begun on this disease while it 
was still thought to be caused by a fungus. Later, its bacterial cause 
was discovered after the campaign of eradication was well under way. 
Happily in this case the campaign has been very successful and the 
disease has been almost completely eradicated. If they had waited 
until they found out all about it we would never have gotten rid of 
citrus canker. 

Mr. W. H. Goodwin: Naturally I am interested in the Japanese 
beetle, that has been estabHshed practically for eight years, and I be- 
lieve it is a good time to wipe it out while we have a chance. We must 
stamp it out or it will get away, and it has got to be handled sufficiently 
rough to get rid of it in the next two or three seasons. 

Mr. W. C. O'Kane: I would hke to have the permission of the 
association to propose the following motion : That this association en- 
dorse the utmost possible measure of eradication of the European corn 
borer, and further endorse the proposition of asking Congress for suf- 
ficient appropriation to undertake immediately a competent campaign 
of eradication under Federal direction. Motion seconded. 

Mr. E. p. Felt: I want to go on record as representing an adjacent 
state, in favor of going to the limit. 



February, '19] caffreY: EUROPEAN CORN borer 103 

Mr. H. a. Reynolds: I want to say for the American Plant Pest 
Committee, which is an outgrowth of the Committee on the Suppres- 
sion of the Pine Bhster Rust, that we have held a meeting of all the 
state agricultural commissioners and state entomologists in New 
England, and it was unanimously agreed that we should try extermi- 
nation. Nobody knows whether we can exterminate this pest or not, 
but we feel that with a three billion dollar crop at stake, we can afford 
to spend five hundred thousand to a million dollars a year eternally 
to keep it confined to Massachusetts. 

Mr. Beattie brought up a very interesting proposition which appeals 
to me. He said that the government tried to get the fellows out in 
the states interested in the bhster rust for years, and I know that is 
true, but now it seems in this case the situation is reversed. We feel 
that the department at Washington wants to put in only twenty-five 
to thirty thousand dollars, as they have told us, for investigation. I 
have the highest respect for investigators, but since we know one way 
of deahng with the pest, it seems to us in New England that we ought 
to go ahead and kill all of them we can during the time we are making 
the investigation, and it has been proposed that we ask for an appro- 
priation of five hundred thousand dollars for that work, this coming 
year. We were to have a conference here today. Dr. Marlatt, I 
understand, is not able to appear. I do hope that this organization 
will go on record to back up the American Plant Pest Committee in 
this proposition. 

Mr. W. E. Britton: Mr. Burgess might have told us more about 
the experience in Massachusetts of fighting the gipsy moth and how 
the state kept up the work for ten years and then stopped for five, and 
he might have told you the number of hundreds and thousands of 
square miles that the insect occupied when they took up the work 
again in 1905 or 1906. 

I had the privilege of visiting Massachusetts in September last, and 
looking at some of the infested corn in the vicinity and just west of 
Boston. In my opinion, this is one of the most dangerous insects which 
has ever been introduced into this country, and I believe it is twenty- 
five times more dangerous than the pine bhster rust ever was, or ever 
will be. It is a question whether it can ever be exterminated, but we 
never know whether we can do anything until we try. It is certain 
that if it ever can be exterminated, it can be done now much easier 
than it can be five or ten years from now. 

I am in favor of a large appropriation, and of making a strenuous 
attempt to exterminate that insect, and I expect that we can at least 
hold it where it is for a long time. Of course, if we fail, that is a thing 
which we may do in any attempt which wo may rnak(\ hut I hclicvc it is 



104 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

certainly worth while, and if we do not make an attempt we will be 
criticized years later because we did not make it. I am in favor of a 
large appropriation, made as soon as we can get it. 

Mr. G. a. Dean: It seems to me that this is the very thing to do. 
In my mind, we have never had a better opportunity to get the ento- 
mologists all over the country working together like the parts of a 
machine. 

Last evening, in fact, all through these meetings we have been say- 
ing we will never get anything unless we go after it. Now, here cer- 
tainly is an opportunity to go after something. I would rather fail a 
half dozen times than have it said I never tried. Speaking now for 
Kansas, I feel that if we want to get our senators and representatives 
in Congress interested in insect control, just bring to their attention, 
and convince them that an insect is threatening the corn, wheat, oats, 
and kafir crops. This at once touches powerful constituents, the farmer 
and the stockman. With the splendid organization that many 
of the entomologists have through the county farm bureaus, and the 
extension divisions, they can now put things across that were not 
possible a few years ago. A state institution with a farm bureau in 
nearly every county, with a membership including practically all the 
leading farmers and stockmen, can bring a powerful influence to bear 
on their congressmen and get almost any reasonable thing they desire. 

Mr. T. H. Parks : It seems to me we should not consider the money 
lost if the attempt to eradicate this insect in Massachusetts is not 
successful. The work will, of necessity, show how to control the in- 
sect in small areas. If it is delayed a few years in getting into the corn 
belt, the money will be well spent. 

Mr. p. J. Parrott: My confidence in the work of quarantine in- 
spection was greatly increased by the efficient efforts of the federal and 
state authorities in wiping out the gipsy moth in Geneva. I had no 
idea when they undertook this work that they could ever clean up 
Geneva and prevent the dissemination of the insect in Geneva and out- 
lying counties. I heartily endorse the sentiments that have been 
expressed, as I believe we are confronted with a serious problem that 
demands concerted action by the state and national authorities. We 
have had in the past many failures in efforts of this character because 
work was started too late. Now that we have state and federal organ- 
izations that are well equipped for the undertaking, I hope very much 
that they secure adequate funds and that the attempt be made to 
restrict this insect to the present area and if possible exterminate it. 

Secretary A. F. Burgess: Professor Parrott spoke about the ex- 
termination of the gipsy moth at Geneva. That was done because 
we had the organization and money to do it; the same is true of colonies 



February, '19] BURKE: flatheaded barkborers 105 

at Cleveland, Ohio, Rutherford, N. J., Mt. Kisco, N. Y., Walhng- 
ford, Conn., and in the Berkshires in Massachusetts. It has not been 
done in the big area because there is not the money to do it at the 
present time. 

By vote of the association the motion was carried. 

Adjournment. 

(Papers read by title.) t 

BIOLOGICAL NOTES ON SOME FLATHEADED BARKBORERS 
OF THE GENUS MELANOPHILA 

By H. E. Burke, Specialist in Forest Entomology, Forest Insect Investigations, 
Bureau of Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture 

Among the flatheaded barkborers most destructive to forest trees 
are several species of the genus Melanophila. One species, M. drum- 
mondi, is of particular interest at the present time because it attacks 
the sitka spruce which is so necessary in the manufacture of aeroplanes. 
This and other species, M. gentilis, M. fulvogvttata and M. californica, 
attack and kill some of our most important coniferous forest trees. 
Many sugar pine, yellow pine, douglas spruce, true firs, true spruces, 
hemlocks and larches in American forests have been killed at various 
times past and are now being killed by these pernicious pests. Even 
should an attack not kill the tree the injury made often causes checks, 
"gum spots" or other defects to form in the wood which reduces its 
value for timber. 

A curious injury to sugar pine and yellow pine timber in northern 
California consists of a brown, pitchy, irregular scar several inches in 
diameter from which radiates small, winding, pitchy lines. The forest 
pathologists consider the central scars to be caused by a light or 
diffused stroke of lightning which slightly separates the bark and wood. 
The radiating lines are the mines of Melanophila larva? whose mothers 
were attracted to the scars to lay their eggs. When the attack failed 
the larva? died and the new growth covered the wound, forming the 
curious defect. 

Dr. A. D. Hopkins has published notes on the injuries caused by 
several species of Melanophila in bulletins 32 and 50 of the West 
Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station and 21, 37, 48 antl 53 of the 
Bureau of Entomology. The writer has mentioned them in the I'nited 
States Department of Agriculture Yearbook for 1909 and in papers in 
the Journal of Economic Entomology for June, 1917, and April, 
1918. Many other observations have been made from time to time 
by various members of the Branch of Forest Insect Investigations. 
The present paper is a summary of the data obtained from all of the 
above notes. 



106 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

As a general thing the species of the genus Melanophila have one 
generation a year. Beetles emerging from the trees in the spring 
and summer of one year lay eggs which hatch into larvge that live over 
the winter and pupate and transform to beetles that emerge the spring 
and summer of the next year. Sometimes, however, part of the larvae 
of one generation will remain in the pupal cells for several years before 
pupating and transforming to beetles. On June 13, 1915, Mr. F. B. 
Herbert collected at Place rville, California, some M. gentilis prepupal 
larvae which held over until March 24, 1917, before pupating and trans- 
forming. This would be about three years in the larval stage. Fre- 
quently some larvae are found in trees from which the main brood has 
emerged a year or more. 

All of the species studied in the United States are barkborers. The 
larvae mine in the inner bark and outer wood and pupate in cells in 
either the bark or wood. The eggs are laid in the crevices of the bark 
between the scales. The beetles usually feed on the bark or foliage 
of the host trees but Ricksecker mentions (Entomologica Americana, 
1885) having seen adult M. consputa devouring scorched termites. 

Except in one instance where the writer reared a specimen of M. 
acuminata from the monterey cypress (Cupressacese) all of the Ameri- 
can species of Melanophila appear to confine themselves to host plants 
of the family. Pinaceae. 

The larval characters indicate that the genus should be divided into 
two. The true Melanophila type of larva such as occurs in acuminata, 
consputa, gentilis, drummondi, fulvoguttata, californica and pini- 
edulis has characters which make it generically distinct from the 
intrusa larva. In the first case the rugose areas on the plates of the 
first thoracic segment are broad while in the larva of intrusa and aeneola 
they form narrow borders along the grooves of the plates. 

At the present time the only method of fighting these insects in the 
forests is to control them by burning the infested wood and bark be- 
fore the adults emerge and attack new trees. Parasites and predators 
commonly attack them, however, and as our knowledge of these 
increases, and improved methods of forestry are put into practice, 
Melanophila depredations should be prevented before they have to be 
controlled. 

Melanophila miranda Lee. — Leconte gives Fort Union, New Mex- 
ico, as the type locahty. Horn says that it occurs from Oregon to 
Texas in the mountain regions. Considerable collecting has been done 
in the forested areas of these regions by members of the Branch of 
Forest Insect Investigations but no specimens have been taken. The 
species is thus extremely rare or it does not infest the common forest 
trees. 



February, '19] BURKE: FLATHEADED BARKBORERS 107 

Melanophila notata Lap. and Gory — Middle and Southern States is 
the range given by Leconte, Horn says Georgia and Florida and 
Blatchley adds Marion County, Indiana. So far we have made no 
records on this species. 

Melanophila acuminata De Geer — Appears to be same as longipes 
Say and atropurpurea Say; Wisconsin, South Dakota, Colorado, Idaho, 
Washington and California; mines inner bark and outer wood of in- 
jured, dying and dead trees; pupates in wood; red or Norway pine 
(Pinus resinosa), lodgepole pine (P. viurrayana), monterey cypress 
{Cupressus macrocarpa) ; taken on the bark of yellow pine {Pinus 
ponderosa), engelmann spruce (Picea engelmanni), sitka spruce (P. 
sitchensis), lowland fir {Abies grandis), giant arborvitse {Thuja plicata); 
flies from May to October; pupates during spring and summer; 
adults common in smoke of forest fires; prefers to attack trees scorched 
by fire. 

Melanophila consputa Lee. — Northern to central California; mines 
inner bark and outer wood of injured, dying and dead trees; pupates in 
either bark or wood; yellow pine {Pinus ponderosa), lodgepole pine 
(P. murrayana), monterey pine (P. radiata), knobcone pine (P. atten- 
uata); pupates during spring and summer; flies from April to Octo- 
ber; common during late summer around burned areas; prefers to 
attack trees scorched by fire; sometimes annoys workmen around saw- 
mills and smelters by alighting on them and pinching the hands or 
face with its mandibles. 

Melanophila gentilis Lee. — South Dakota, Colorado, New Mexico, 
Montana, Utah, Arizona, Idaho, Oregon, California; mines inner 
bark and outer wood of normal, injured, dying and dead trees; pupates 
in bark or outer wood; sugar pine {Pinus lamhertiana) , yellow pine 
(P. ponderosa), rock pine (P. scopulorum), Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi); 
flies from March to August; pupates from March to July; attacks and 
kills small and large trees; very injurious to second growth in some 
localities; is one of the most injurious enemies of its host plants. 

Melanophila drummondi Kirby — Montana, Colorado, New Mexico, 
Idaho, Utah, Arizona, Washington, Oregon, California; mines inner 
bark and outer wood of normal, injured, dying and dead trees; pu- 
pates in bark or wood; western larch {Larix occidenlalis) , engelmann 
spruce {Picea engelmanni), sitka spruce (P. sitchensis), western hem- 
lock {Tsuga heterophylla) , alpine hemlock {T. mertensiana) , douglas 
spruce {Pseudotsuga taxifolia), alpine fir {Abies lasiocarpa), lowland 
fir (A. grandis), white fir {A. concolor), lovely fir (A. atnabilis), noble 
fir (A. nobilis), red fir (A. magnifica); flies from May to September; 
pupates from February to June; attacks and kills many trees; causes 
defects to form in the wood of others which it attacks but fails to kill. 



108 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Melanophila fulvoguttata Harris. — Maine, New Hampshire, Michigan, 
West Virginia, North Carolina; mines inner bark and outer wood of 
normal, injured, dying and dead trees; usually pupates in the bark; 
spruce (Picea sp.), red spruce (P. riihens), hemlock {Tsuga canadensis); 
flies from May to August; pupates from April to July; attacks and 
kills many trees and seriously injures others; is the most destructive 
enemy of the eastern hemlock as has been pointed out by Dr. Hopkins 
in Bulletin 37 of the Bureau of Entomology. 

Melanophila calif ornica Van Dyke — Idaho, Oregon, California; 
mines inner bark and outer wood of normal, injured, dying and dead 
trees; pupates in bark and wood; yellow pine {Pinus ponderosa), 
Jeffrey pine (d. jeffreyi), digger pine (P. sahiniana), coulter pine (P. 
coulteri), monterey pine (d. radiata) knobcone pine (P. attenuaia); flies 
from May to August; pupates from March to July; attacks and kills 
many second gro-Hi:h trees and assists barkbeetles to kill others. 

Melanophila pini-edulis Burke — Colorado, Utah, Arizona; mines, 
inner bark and outer wood of normal, injured, dying and dead trees; 
pupates in outer wood; pinon {Pinus edulis); flies from June to Sep- 
tember; pupates from June to July; assists barkborers and bark- 
beetles to attack and kill trees. 

Melanophila intrusa Horn^ — Colorado, California; mines inner bark 
and outer wood of injured, dying and dead trees; pupates in outer 
wood; sugar pine {Pimis lamhertiaria) , yellow pine (P. ponderosa), 
rock pine (P. scopidorum), knobcone pine (P. attenuata); flies from 
June to July; pupates from March to June; usually lives in the sup- 
pressed limbs of living trees but sometimes attacks saphngs, especially 
those over-topped by larger trees. 

Melanophila cnieola Melsh.^ — West Virginia, North Carolina; mines 
inner bark and outer wood of dying and dead trees; pupates in the 
wood; scrub pine {Pinus virginiana), pine {Pinus sp.) ; flies from April 
to August; infests overtopped branches and trees. 

Melanophila ohtusa Horn — One specimen from Georgia recorded by 
Horn in his revision of the genus. No specimens have been collected 
by us. 



February, '19] hayes.- lachnosterna lanceolata 109 



THE LIFE-CYCLE OF LACHNOSTERNA LANCEOLATA SAY^ 

By William P. Hayes, Assistant Entomologist, Kansas State Agricultural 
Experiment Station 

Introduction 

Because of the growing importance of Lachnosterna lanceolata Say 
as a pest of growing wheat in Kansas and Oklahoma, the Hfe-history 
study herein reported was taken up as a part of the Kansas Experi- 
ment Station project "Insects Injurious to the Roots of Staple Crops." 
This project aims ultimately to work out the life-histories of all other 
Kansas species of Lachnosterna and related genera as well as wireworms 
and other underground pests of staple crops growing in the state. 
The work is being carried out under the immediate direction of Mr. 
J. W. McColloch, to whom thanks are due for his kindly aid and 
criticism. 

History and Importance 

Lachnosterna lanceolata Say, an important enemy of growing wheat in 
Kansas and Oklahoma, was originally described as Melolontha lanceo- 
lata Say (1824, p. 242), from specimens collected near the Rocky 
Mountains. The remark being added that it inhabits Missouri and 
^'Arkansa." Since then it has been placed in three other genera — 
Tostegoptera, Lachnosterna, and Phyllophaga. 

This insect is destructive both in the larval and adult stages. Cock- 
erell (1895, p. 69) first reported adults injuring growing cobs of corn 
in New Mexico. Howard (1900, p. 107) reported the adults attack- 
ing collards in Texas, and stated that they had been "noticed more or 
less since 1890. Their principal food was stated to be 'careless 
weed' (Amaranthus), two or three species of which grow commonly in 
or near cornfields." Sanderson (1904, p. 95) stated that the beetle 
often occurs in large swarms and eats off young cotton plants on con- 
siderable areas. In 1905 (p. 13) he again mentions the injury to 
young cotton, as well as "various other crops, especially' garden truck, 
in the arable land west of the ninety-seventh meridian." It is re- 
garded as most injurious in west central Texas. The wild sunflower 
(Helianthus) is added as a food plant. The same writer (1906,- p. 18) 
attempted to rear the species and succeeded in hatching four eggs. 
The resulting larvae fed on cotton and grass roots during tho summer 
and fall. This apparently comprised the total of our knowledge of the 

1 Contribution from the Entomological Laboratory, Kansas State Agricultural Col" 
lege, No. 3.5. Thi.s paper embodies the results of some of the investigations under- 
taken by the author in the prosecution of project No. 100 of the Kansas .\gricultural 
Experiment Station. 



110 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

habits of this insect until the appearance of the notable work on the 
life-histories of Lachnosterna by Davis. This writer (1916, p. 276) suc- 
cessfully reared one specimen to the adult stage in two years, but the 
length of the various stages were not noted. He also writes of the 
grubs as injuring wheat in Kansas. 

During the past few years the grubs of this species have come into 
prominence every fall soon after wheat planting time in southern 
Kansas and northern Oklahoma where they annually damage thou- 
sands of acres of young winter wheat. During the past fall their dam- 
age has been especially severe in southern Kansas. In the fields they 
often work in small patches which enlarge the following year. Grubs 
of various sizes are to be found in the fields and are frequently so abun- 
dant that a single handful of soil will contain three or four grubs. In 
other parts of the state the grubs and beetles are found abundantly 
in the native grasslands and are often a serious pest of pasture grasses. 
One instance was noted where the beetles were found feeding on grow- 
ing oats. 

Distribution 

Lachnosterna lanceolata is practically confined to the region bounded 
on the west by the Rocky Mountains, and on the east by the Missis- 
sippi River. Specimens have been reported as taken in South Da- 
kota, Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, New Mexico, Oklahoma, 
Arkansas, and Texas. Forbes (1894, p. 139) lists the species as rare 
in central and southern Illinois. This was the only record found of its 
occurrence east of the Mississippi River. 

The spread of this species is naturally slow. The females are wing- 
less and cannot travel far. One specimen was once observed being 
carried by high water in a small stream. Local distribution in Kansas 
varies markedly in the northern and southern parts of the state. In 
the northern part of the state the species is, with rare exceptions, con- 
fined to the higher upland fields and pastures, while in southern 
Kansas the adults and grubs are found in the lower wheat lands of 
that region. 

Life-Cycle 

Egg. — The eggs of this species are laid singly or in small groups of 
three or four in clumps of soil, preferably undisturbed or covered with 
vegetation, at depths ranging from 1 to 7 inches. The eggs are white 
in color and when freshly laid are oval in shape, about 2 mm. long, but 
in the course of a few days they assume a globular shape and increase 
slightly in size, becoming about 2.8 mm, in diameter. The length of 
the egg stage was found to vary from 9 to 29 days with an average of 
16 days. Table I shows the maximum, minimum and average length 
of the egg stage obtained in three seasons. 



February, '19] 



HAYES: LACHNOSTERNA LANCEOLATA 



111 



Table I — Showing Length of the Egg Stage 



Year 

1916 
1917 
1918 



No. to 
Hatch 

630 

93 

813 



Maximum Length Minimum Length 

of Stage, Days of Stage, Days 

19 10 

29 10 

22 9 



Average Length 
of Stage, Days 

14.1 

17.1 

16.4 



General average 



16.0 



Oviposition begins the latter part of June and extends into the first 
weeks of August. The earliest eggs laid under artificial conditions 
were found in cages June 25 and the last eggs August 9. The exact 
number of eggs laid by single individuals has not been determined. 
One isolated female laid nine eggs and another laid fifteen. This 
number is undoubtedly below the average. A few days before hatch- 
ing the young larva can be seen through the shell of the egg. 

Larva. — The newly hatched larva is about 2 or 3 mm. long, pure 
white in color, with a white head which rapidly turns to a light brown- 
ish color. Soon after feeding begins, a black meconium appears at the 
posterior end of the alimentary tract. These grubs grow much slower 
than other two-year grubs of the genus Lachnosterna and at the end of 
the first growing season are much smaller. There is this difference, 
however: the lanceolata grubs pupate in the spring and must live 
through two winters, whereas other so-called two-year grubs pupate 
in the fall after having passed through only one winter. 

When full grown the grubs shed the meconium of the alimentary 
tract and pass through a quiescent or semi-pupal stage. Almost two 
full years are required for the grubs to reach maturity. Table II 
shows the length of the larval and semi-pupal stages as worked out at 
Manhattan, Kansas. 



Table II- 


-Length 


OF THE 


Larval, £ 


>EMI-PUPAL, 


AND Pupal 


Stages 








Date 




Date 


Length of 


Length of 


Length of 




Rearing 


Date 


Bocame 


Date 


Became 


Larval Stage: 


Semi-Pupal 


Pupal Stage, 


Se: 


Number 


Hatched 


Semi-Pupa 


Pupated 


Adult 


Months 


Days 


Stage, Days 


Days 




1694 


7-16-16 


6- 1-18 


6- 8- IS 


fi-24-18 


22 


15 


7 


16 


9 


1776 


7-16-16 


5-27-18 


6- 4-18 


6-21-18 


22 


11 


7 


17 


9 


1777 


7-16-10 


5-31-18 






22 


1» 








1870 


7-17-16 


6- 1-18 


6-10-18 


6-24-18 


22 


14 


9 


16 


d' 


2ir.7 


7-20-16 


6- 1-18 


6-10-18 


6-25-18 


22 


12 


9 


15 


d' 


2,').30 


7-24-16 


5-27-18 


6- 7-18 


6-24-18 


22 


3 


11 




9 


2fil4 


7-24-16 


0- 3-18 


6-10-18 


6-2.5-18 


22 


10 


7 




d' 


271.3 


7-23-lfi 


5-31-18 


6-10-18 


6-2.5-18 


22 


8 


10 




d' 


2819 


8- 1-16 


6-12-18 


6-17-18 


7- 1-18 


22 


11 


5 




(f 



The maximum length of the larval stage, as shown by Table II, was 
22 months and 15 days, and the minimum was 22 months and 3 days. 
The semi-pupal stage varied from 5 to 11 days. 

The first larvae begin hatching during the first and second weeks of 
July and continue until the latter part of August. The earliest egg to 
hatch in life-history cages was July S, and the last August 28. 



112 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 



[Vol. 12 



The grubs were reared to maturity on germinating wheat grains in 
ordinary salve boxes. The mortaHty was high. Over 700 boxes, each 
with a single grub, were started in 1916. Of these only 9 reached the 
semi-pupal stage, and 8 the pupal stage. A few 1916 grubs lived until 
September 1, 1918, indicating a possible three-year hfe-cycle in some 
cases. 

The possibility of a three-year life-cycle is also indicated by obser- 
vations made in Harper County, Kansas, during the fall of 1918. In 
the northern part of the county three distinct sizes of grubs were found 
in almost equal numbers in nearly all infested fields. In the southern 
part of the country only two sizes — first year and full grown — were 
found. 





A B 

Fig. 5. Lachnosterna lanceolata adults: A — Male; B — Female. 



Pupa. — The pupa resembles any other pupa of the genus Lachno- 
sterna. It is about 18 mm. long and 9 mm. wide. When freshly trans- 
formed it is pure white in color. It gradually darkens until just before 
emergence the color of the adult appears through the pupal skin in 
many places. Table III shows the length of the pupal stage of sixteen 
individuals collected as grubs at various times. 



February, 


'19] HAYES: 


LACHNOSTERNA 


LANCEOLATA 


1 




Table III — Showing Length of 


• THE Pupal 


Stage 


Rearing 


Date 


Date 




Length of 


Number 


Pupated 


Became 
Adult 


Sex 


Pupal Stage, 
Days 


2061 


6-12-16 


6-30-16 


cf 


18 


2943 


7-12-17 


7-28-17 


c^ 


16 


2964 


6-16-17 


7- 6-17 


9 


20 


3106 


7-27-17 


8- 8-17 


9 


11 


3107 


7-16-17 


7-24-17 


9 


8 


3108 


6-22-17 


7-11-17 


9 


19 


6 


7-18-16 


7-27-16 


d" 


9 


3021 


6-11-18 


6-24-18 


9 


13 


3022 


6-27-18 


7-10-18 


9 


13 


3024 


6- 7-18 


6-21-18 


9 


14 


3027 


6- 7-18 


6-22-18 


<f 


15 


3030 


6-10-18 


6-24-18 


9 


14 


3043 


6-14-18 


6-26-18 


9 


12 


3081 


6-20-18 


7- 2-18 


9 


12 


3083 


6-10-18 


6-22-18 


d" 


12 


3155 


6- 5-18 


6-20-18 


9 


15 



113 



The minimum length of the pupal stage was found to be 8 days, and 
the maximum 20 days. An average of the figures in Table III gives 
13.8 days as the average length of the pupal stage. 

Adult. — The adult of this species is an exception among the May- 
beetles in that it is a day flier, pupation occurs in the early summer 
rather than in the fall, the adults do not live over winter and the 
females are wingless. The adult beetles (Fig. 5) are brown in color 
and when freshly transformed are covered with small lanceolate 
cinereous scales which rub off when abraded, leaving a few scales to 
form discal vittae on the elytra. 

The beetles vary in size from 13 to 17 mm. The females are much 
larger than the males and are strongly ovate in form, while the male is 
more oblong with its sides nearly parallel. Since the genitalia of 
Lachnosterna are strong taxonomic characters, those of L. lanceolata 
are shown in Figure 6. 

In the vicinity of Mahattan, Kansas, adults are abundant in pasture 
land from the early part of June to the last of July. The females are 
to be found crawling on the ground or up the stems of pasture plants. 
The males are strong fliers and fly from plant to plant. Mating occurs 
on the surface of the soil or on plants. The proportion of sexes of over 
nine thousand individuals collected in two summers was found to favor 
the females one year and the males the next. The beetles fly and 
crawl from early morning till the hotter parts of the day. at which time 
they burrow into the ground to avoid the heat. 



114 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 



[Vol. 12 



■ 



A) 







t 



Bi 



B2 




Fig. 6. Genitalia of Lachnosterna lanceolate: A — Male; B — Female; ^i — Dorsal 
aspect; A2 — Caudal aspect; A3 — Lateral aspect; At — Ventral aspect; Bi — ^ Ventral 
aspect; B2 Lateral aspect; B3 — Dorsal aspect. 

Length of Life-Cycle 

To summarize the life-cycle of a single generation of L. lanceolata, 
we find the beetles appearing and laying eggs during June and July. 
The eggs hatch in July and August. The average length of the egg 
stage was found to be 16 days. Larvae are present until June of the 
second year, giving a larval stage of slightly over 22 months. Pupae 
occur in June and July with an average stage of 13 days. Two full 
years are thus required for development, and, in some cases, where the 
larval stage is prolonged, three years may be required. However, two 



February, '19] HAYES: LACHNOSTERNA LANCEOLATA 115 

years seems to be the normal length of the life-cycle in Kansas. The 
generations overlap each other so that all stages appear every season. 
This is evident from the large number of adults present each year. 
Table IV shows the number of beetles collected at Manhattan, Kansas, 
during the past three seasons. 

Table IV — Record op Collections of Adults 
Year 1916 1917 1918 

Males Females Total Males Females Total Males Females Total 
Number 557 1506 2063 1529 2004 3533 3322 2382 5704 

Food Plants 

The adult beetles are quite general feeders and have been observed 
eating a variety of different plants. From the literature, cotton, corn, 
wild sunflowers, collards, and careless weed (Amaranthus) are reported 
as food plants. Table V lists a number of plants on which the adults 
were observed feeding. 

Table V — Food Plants of Lachnosterna lanceolata 
Observed Feeding in the Fields Observed Feeding in Cages 

Pigweed — Amaranthus sp. Pigweed — Amaranthus sp. 

Crab grass — Panicum sanguinale Sunflower — Helianthus sp. 

Evening Primrose — Oenothera biennis* Corn — Zea mays 

Pepper grass — Lepidium sp. Evening Primrose — Oenothera biennis* 

Corn — Zea mays Elm — Ulmus americana 

Bindweed — Convolvulus sp. Cherry — Prunus sp. 

Bladder Ketmia — Hibiscus trionum Sumach — Rhu^ sp. 

Ironweed — Vernonia baldwinii* Willow — Salix sp. 

Shoestring plant — Amorpha canescens* Oats — Avena saliva 

Sumach — Rhus sp. Brome-grass — Bromus inermis 

Clover — Trifolium spp. Foxtail — Setaria sp. 

Little Ragweed — Ambrosia psilostochyla* Smar tweed — Polygonum sp. 

Vervain — Verbena striata* Apple — Pyriis malus 

Hoary Aster — Aster sericeus* Kafir — Andropogon sorghum 

False boneset — Kuhnia eupatorioides* Crab grass — Panicum sanguinale 

Sampsoni snakeroot — Psoralea pedunculata* Pepper grass — Lepidium sp. 

Golden rod — Solidago rigida* Milo — Andropogon sorghum 

Oats — Avena saliva Peach — Prunus persica 

Liatris (spicta.') Curled dock — Rumex crispus 

Venus' looking glass — Specularia perfoliala* Beet — Beta vulgaris 

Thistle — Cirsium sp. Bean — Phascolus vulgaris 

Yarrow or Milfoil — Achillea millefolium* Potato — Solanum tuberosum 

Little Blue Stem Grass — Andropogon Cabbage — Brassica oleracea 

scopari^ls Tomato — Lycopers-icum esculentum 

Sunflower — Helianthus sp. Peas — Pisuni sativum 

Alfalfa — Medicago saliva Bladder ketmia — Hibiscus trionum 
Cocklebur — Xanthium sp.* 
Big Blue Stem Grass — Andropogon furcatus 

It is interesting to note that the adults were frequently found feeding 
abundantly on wild clover while an adjacent alfalfa field was always 
♦ Det. H. F. Roberts 



116 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

free of the beetles. However, in Dickinson County, Kansas, one 
specimen was found feeding on alfalfa. In pasture land, ironweed 
(Vernonia baldwinii), Evening primrose (Oenothera biennis), and white 
clover (Trifolium repens) are apparently important food plants. The 
beetles are to be found abundantly near those plants. There is some 
evidence that the females prefer to lay their eggs at the base of the 
ironweed plants. In one case 81 eggs were found within a radius of 
two inches from an ironweed plant and in the first eight inches of soil. 

Natural Enemies 

Natural enemies are not abundant in Kansas. None of the common 
parasites of Lachnosterna have yet been noted. However, one adult 
of a Sarcophagid fly, Sarcophaga prohibita Aid., was reared by J. J. 
Davis from material sent him by the writer. This is his first record of 
this species from Lachnosterna and he believes it a true parasite as the 
species is one of the group of true parasitic Sarcophagids. 

Control Measures 

The methods of control for this and other white grubs have not been 
clearly worked out as yet, owing to the fact that the grubs live entirely 
below the surface of the ground, and that they require two or three 
years to complete their development. One of the striking features in 
the injury to wheat by lanceolata is that the damage is occurring in 
those fields that have been in wheat for a period of years. The injury 
seems to be cumulative, increasing in severity from year to year. This 
is due to the fact that the females are wingless and do not leave the 
field, but deposit their eggs in the same area from which they emerged. 

One of the best means of control thus far known is that of rotation of 
crops. The planting of corn or sorghums on infested land has often 
served to eliminate the field of grubs in one year. Another factor in 
the use of corn and sorghum is that repeated working of the ground 
destroys the grubs in large numbers. A rotation of corn, oats and 
wheat has proved very effective in prevention of damage by this species. 
A striking example of the effectiveness of such a rotation was observed 
by Mr. J. W. McColloch in Harper County, Kansas, in the fall of 1918. 
An 80-acre field that had been in wheat continuously until 1917 was 
divided into a north and south half. The north half was allowed to 
remain in wheat. The south half was planted to corn in 1917, to oats 
in the spring of 1918, and wheat the same fall. At the time of writing 
(November, 1918) the north half of the field is a total loss while in the 
south half there is scarcely a plant missing. On the west of this par- 
ticular field there is another field that has been in wheat for three 
years. A few grubs are present, but not enough to injure the crop. 



February, '19] WOGLUM; LIQUID HYDROCYANIC ACID 117 

In the practice of rotation for the control of this species it is evident 
that a change in the cropping system is hardly necessary more often 
than once in five years. 

Where the area infested is small, it has been found practical to allow 
hogs to run on the field temporarily. Hogs show a great preference for 
white grubs, and will root to a depth of several inches to get them. 

Plowing immediately after harvest, and keeping the ground free from 
all vegetation during the summer is always practical, since this proced- 
ure will deprive most of the grubs and the adult beetles of food. The 
keeping down of weeds around the edge of the field will also deprive 
the adults of food. 

Literature Cited 

CocKERELL, T. D. A. Entomological Observations in 1894. New Mex. Agri. Exp. 
Sta., Bui. 15, 1-82. 1895. 

Davis, J. J. A Progress Report on White Grub Investigations. Journ. Econ. Ent. 
9:261-281. 1916. 

Forbes, S. A. A Monograph of Insect Injurious to Indian Corn, Fart I. Eight- 
eenth Rept. State Ent., 111., pp. 1-171. 1894. 

Howard, L. O. Notes from Correspondence. Injury by Wingless Maybeetles in 
Texas. U. S. D. A., Bur. Ent., Bui. 22 n. s., p. 107. 1900. 

Sanderson, E. D. Insects of 1903 in Texas. U. S. D. A., Bur. Ent., Bui. 46: 92-96. 
1904. 

Miscellaneous Cotton Insects in Texas. U. S. D. A., Farmers Bui. 223: 

13-14. 1905. 

Report on Miscellaneous Cotton Insects in Texas. U. S. D. A., Bur. Ent., 



Bui. 57: 1-63. 1906. 
Say, Thomas. Descriptions of Coleopterous Insects collected in the late Expedition 
to the Rocky Mountains, performed by order of Mr. Calhoun, Secretary of War, 
under the command of Major Long. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 3: 238-282. 
Leconte Edition 2: 142. 1824. 



RECENT RESULTS IN THE FUMIGATION OF CITRUS TREES 
WITH LIQUID HYDROCYANIC ACID 

By R. S. WoGLUM, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology, 

Alhanibra, Cal. 

The fumigation of citrus trees with hydrocyanic acid gas has been 
performed in California for more than thirty years and during this 
period more radical changes in apparatus and methods have occurred 
than is to be found in the annals of any other insecticide either in this 
state or elsewhere. The original so-called "dry gas" process in which 
undiluted sulphuric acid was poured slowly into a cyanid solution, the 
resultant gas passing through a sulphuric acid bath, gave way in 1890 



118 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

to the "pot method," which consists of placing dry cyanid with diluted 
sulphuric acid in an open vessel beneath the tented tree. In 1912 a 
simplified portable machine for generating cyanid gas outside the tent 
was invented and this method of application rapidly and successfully 
displaced the ''pot method." The latest development, liquid hydro- 
cyanic acid, has proved the most revolutionary of all changes in field 
fumigation, promising ultimately to completely supersede current 
practices. 

In 1915 C. W. Mally,^ working in South Africa, prepared and 
experimented with liquid hydrocyanic acid. It happened that Wil- 
liam Dingle, of Los Angeles, one of the inventors of the machine 
method of generation, began to develop simultaneously but entirely 
independently the same method and, in the early spring of 1916, pub- 
licly demonstrated the fumigation of citrus trees with liquid hydrocy- 
anic acid. 

Liquid hydrocyanid acid is by no means new, having been known to 
chemists for many years. In its pure state it is a colorless liquid with 
a specific gravity of .70 at 65° F. The high volatility of this substance 
(it boils at 80° F.) produces easy gasification at the ordinary tem- 
peratures of fumigation. If impure it decomposes rapidly. 

The application of this gas to the tented tree is extremely simple. A 
tank, suitably vented, holding about two gallons, is mounted on a 
platform with a measuring device and a pump (PL 4, Fig. 1). The 
Uquid hydrocyanic acid, after measurement into storage coils, is forci- 
bly discharged through a short rod fitted with a mist type of spray 
nozzle, and quickly disappears as an invisible gas. 

During the season of 1917 approximately 540,000 pounds of solid 
sodium cyanid were converted into liquid hydrocyanic acid for the use 
of thirty fumigation outfits .^ So far this year more than one million 
pounds of sodium cyanid have been similarly treated for the use of 
ninety-four fumigation crews.^ A very much greater amount would 
have been used could it have been produced. 

Gas Distkibution 

It has been the writer's belief for many years that gas distribution is 
influenced by the method of application or generation and in 1908 this 
led to the invention of a cover device^ for deflecting the rise of gas from 
a generating vessel. In pot fumigation a dense column of gas rises 
rapidly from the generator until deflected by the branches, foliage and 
ultimately the tent. The spreading of the gas through the lower part 
of the tree follows the forcing downward of the diffused column after 

1 South Africa Jl. Sci., v. 12, No. 3. 

2 Data obtained from the concern that liquifies hydrocyanic acid. 

3 U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Ent. Bull. No. 79, p. 58. 



February, '19] journal of economic entomology 



Plate 4 




^^^K 


^■^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 


1 


1 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^v 


'' ' ' ^^^^^^^^^^1 


■ ^H 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 


l\ 




^^^^2^^^Ufi|^j|^^ 


1 


I 


^^^^Bi 




4 Bi^Mi 


i 

M 


1 


^n 


I 

■ 


1 


■■-V .»»-. 4- ijBl^lu 







Mncliiiu's for Applying I>i(|ui(l Hyrdocyanic Acid in Kiold Fumination; 1, PliiiiKor 
type used almost cxolusively during 1918; 2, (iravity t\i)e used durinti 1917 and 
to a limited extent during 1918. 



February, '19] WOGLUM: LIQUID HYDROCYANIC ACID 119 

contact with the tent top. This initial condition would point to the 
top of the tent receiving maximum gas distribution sooner than the 
bottom. Furthermore, the effect of the rise of gas would tend to 
cause a greater concentration toward the top, although in a non-gas- 
tight enclosure such as a tented tree, various factors, as yet little 
understood, are constantly exerting important influences, changes in 
which must alter the movement of the gas particles to no little extent. 
The diffusion through the tenting is most important and unquestion- 
ably is modified by such factors as texture, its condition as to moisture, 
chemical treatment and accumulation of dirt particles. Furthermore, 
atmospheric conditions during the exposure have been proven to 
influence scale-kill, thus probably affecting tent leakage. Factors 
acting wholly within the tent, yet believed to affect gas concentration 
to some extent are absorption and adsorption of the foliage and the 
physical condition of the soil. 

The violence of the reaction in an open generating vessel affects the 
denseness and velocity of the rising column of hydrocyanic acid gas. 
When the reaction is rapid the initial maximum gas concentration must 
needs follow more quickly than when the generation takes place over a 
protracted period. Furthermore, consideration of the fact that leak- 
age occurs immediately on contact of the gas with the tent surface, 
injects a factor that might alter the maximum gas density attained 
between a slow or rapid generation. Such a view would signify a 
difference, possibly very slight, in pot-generated gas from potassium 
and sodium cyanid respectively, for solid potassium cyanid produces a 
violent reaction practically complete within one to three minutes. 
Solid sodium cyanid, on the other hand, is much slower in generation 
and low grade material used in California to a limited extent several 
years ago was observed in some cases to require fully fifteen minutes 
for complete liberation of gas. 

The gas evolved from fumigating machines is in the form of a dense 
cloud injected with much force at one edge of the tent along the ground. 
The evolution of the gas is almost instantaneous and in a different 
initial direction to that of pot generation. Thus the condition sur- 
rounding the concentration and distribution of this gas, in differing 
from that generated in vessels within the tented tree, gives grounds for 
possible difference in results between the two methods. 

After this brief discussion of gas-distribution in pot and machine 
practice, let us consider liquid hydrocyanic acid. This latter is in- 
jected at the edge of the tent with a small amount of force, as a mist, 
which on evaporating is left with little initial momentum. The result 
is a gas somewhat distributed toward the bottom of the tent, having 
much less initial velocity than in the case of gas generated under former 



120 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

methods. Furthermore, the gas from hquid hydrocyanic acid is cooled 
almost to the freezing point on formation and consequently is decidedly 
heavier than the hot machine or pot-generated product (temperature 
of pot-generated gas is 100° to 153° in accordance with dosage).^ 

Since the molecular activitiy of gases increases proportionately as 
the temperature, it is evident that we have a very differently acting 
product in the new than in the old practice. The molecular activity of 
gas from liquid hydrocyanic acid is least when first generated but 
increases as it. attains the temperature of the air, while in pot or ma- 
chine generated gas quite the inverse is true, the initial molecular 
velocity of these being the greatest and decreasing as the gas cools to 
the lower air temperature. Thus it is evident that initial diffusion 
would be slower in the case of liquid hydrocyanic acid, and attained 
throughout the bottom of the tent sooner than the top. Differences in 
diffusion and molecular activity would signify a difference in tent 
leakage between the generated and atomized gas and that such takes 
place under field condition is readily detectable by careful observation. 

The destruction of scale pests on citrus trees is proportional to gas 
concentration and hydrocyanic acid gas being lighter than air, it is 
natural to presume that the greatest density, signifying the best scale- 
kill, is toward the top of the tent. This presumption has been sup- 
ported by the observation of practical fumigators and the experiments 
of investigators, of whom one of the first to give definite proof in sup- 
port of this condition was MorrilP in 1908, working in Florida with the 
citrus white fly, Dialeurodes citri. More recently Quayle^ conducted 
tests under tent forms with the Bean Weevil (Acanthoscelides ohtectus) 
and the Granary Weevil {Calandra granaria) arriving at the same gen- 
eral conclusion, that the highest mortality is toward the top of the 
tent. Quayle, however, concluded that the percentage killed in the 
case of a tall tree is better toward the center than the top, a conclusion 
not in keeping with the data presented. 

The writer has been conducting an investigation of the use of liquid 
hydrocyanic acid with special reference to dosage requirements and 
during the past season has closely followed the fumigation of more 
than 500 acres of citrus trees. It was felt that the difference in physi- 
cal properties between gas obtained from liquid and field-generated 
hydrocyanic acid is sufficient to demand a careful revision of the dosage 
schedule originally prepared for pot-generated gas, but subsequently 
also adopted for machine and liquid hydrocyanic acid fumigation. 

Accordingly gas diffusion was one of the first problems taken up, 

1 U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Ent. Bull. 79, p. 37. 

2 U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Ent. Bull. 76, p. 51. 
»Jr. Econ. Ent. 11, 3, 1918. 



February, '19] 



WOGLUM: LIQUID HYDROCYANIC ACID 



121 



the determination of which was undertaken entomologically by obtain- 
ing data on scale-kill in different parts of tented trees. The results are 
in part herewith presented: 

Table I 

Table showing the mortality of purple scale (Lepidosaphes beckii) at 
different heights above the ground on trees fumigated with liquid 
hydrocyanic acid. The females were largely in the egg stage and each 
adult with its egg quota was considered a unit : 





Height Above Ground 


Tree 
No. 


1-2 Feet 


3-4 Feet 


8-11 Feet 


Total 

Insects 

Examined 


Per Cent 
Living 


Total 

Insects 

Examined 


Per Cent 
Living 


Total 

Insects 

Examined 


Per Cent 
Living 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 


434 

300 
300 
145 
173 
100 


3.4 

2:8 

3.16 

5.84 

3.00 

3.2 


280 
400 

276 
600 
300 


2.63 
6.84 

2^67 
1.93 
1.4 


300 
300 
451 
300 
439 
599 
300 


8.1 
8.77 
5.14 
4.91 

10.79 
9.47 

15.1 


Total per 
cent liv- 
ing 


3.41 


3.12 


8.85 



Dosage — Appro.ximately schedule I for sodium cyanid. 

Exposure — 85 minutes. 

Temperature — 70°. 

Inspectors — R. S. Woglum, M. B. Rounds. 

The results of this experiment show that in each of the seven trees, 
the scale-kill was more effective toward the bottom of the tree than 
toward the top. Out of a total of 1452 insects at 1 to 2 feet for all the 
trees, 3.4 per cent were Uving while at 8 to 11 feet, 8,85 per cent of the 
2689 examined were alive. Thus the percentage of living insects 
toward the top of the trees in these tests is noticeably greater than 
towards the bottom, which would indicate that the difference in gas 
density is proportionally pronounced. 

Table II 

Table showing the mortality of red scale {Chrysomphalus aurantii) 
at different heights from the ground on small trees fumigated with 
liquid hydrocyanic acid. Totals of six trees: 



122 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 



[Vol. 12 



Height Above 


Total Insects 


Per Cent 


Ground 


Examined 


Living 


1ft. 


1622 


1.46 


2 " 


897 


3.06 


3 " 


2162 


10.29 


4 " 


1346 


12.07 


5 " 


727 


11.17 


6 " 


219 


11.99 



Dosage — -Approximately sched- 
ule I for sodium cyanid. 

Exposure — 1 hour. 

Temperature — 66° . 

Inspectors — R. S. Woglum, 
M. B. Rounds. 



The results of these two experiments demonstrate that the scale-kill 
with liquid hydrocyanic acid as at present used is decidedly better 
toward the lower part of the tent than toward the top. This result 
was plainly shown in each of the trees which comprised these tests 
as well as in the totals. Scale-infested units within. a few inches of 
the ground showed a higher mortality than units in the tops of tall trees. 

Table III 

A comparison of these results as summarized in Table I with those 
obtained by MorrilU and Quayle^ for gas generated in pots is both 
interesting and instructive: 





Percentage of Insects Killed at Different Heights Above 
Ground 


Part of 
Tent 


Liquid HCN (a) 


Pot Generated Gas 




Morrill (6) 


Quayle (c) 


Top 
Bottom 


91.15% 
96.59 


71% 
64 


65.6% 
38.8 



(o) Average percentage of 7 trees with purple scale. 

(b) Average percentage of 6 experiments with citrus white fly on large trees. 

(c) Results of 121 experiments with the bean and granary weevils under tent form 
about 12 feet tall. 

The conclusion reached by both Morrill and Quayle for pot-gen- 
erated gas is that the kilhng effect is decidedly better toward the top 
of the tree than the bottom. 

A striking difference between these results and those with hquid 
hydrocyanic acid is shown, the mortality with the latter being decidedly 
the greatest toward the bottom of the tent. In fact, the percentage of 
mortality for hquid hydrocyanic acid in favor of the bottom of the tent 
is almost inversely proportionate to Morrill's results with pot fumiga- 
tion for the top. It should be noted that the experiments with liquid 

1 U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Ent. Bull. 76, p 51. 
2Jr.Econ.Ent. 11,3, 1918. 



February, '19] WOGLUM: liquid HYDROCYANIC ACID 123 

hydrocyanic acid were carried on at comparatively high temperatures. 
Fumigation at very low temperatures would tend to develop even 
greater differences in scale-kill at various distances from the ground. 

This greater density of gas toward the bottom of the tent with cor- 
responding increased efficiency will necessitate changes in the present 
dosage schedule based on pot generation. A dosage schedule for 
Uquid hydrocyanic acid is now being prepared and will be ready for 
the coming season's work. 

The question naturally arises, in view of the difference in distribu- 
tion between gas from liquid hydrocyanic acid and the other methods 
of generation, as to any advantage or disadvantage therefrom in the 
use of this recent introduction. The infestation of scale insects on 
large citrus fruit trees is usually most severe on the lower or most 
protected part of the tree; especially is this true of the purple scale. 
The greater killing effect of liquid hydrocyanic acid at that part of the 
tree most severely infested with scale is the ideal to be sought, and at 
once brings this gas into favor over the field-generated product for 
citrus tree fumigation. 

There are other advantages favoring liquid hydrocyanic acid, which 
in themselves indicate that this new method will displace all others. 
The expenses of an outfit are reduced by doing away with cumbersome 
apparatus such as pots, generating machines, sulphuric acid drums and 
boxes of cyanid. The cost of tent mending is almost entirely done 
away with as liquid hydrocyanic acid is harmless to cloth. The treat- 
ment of small trees, frequently with such poor results in the past, can 
be performed with greater accuracy and corresponding certainty of 
results. Greater speed in tree treatment can be attained than pre- 
viously and it appears possible that the quantity of hydrocyanic acid 
required for scale-kill can be slightly reduced over that formerly 
required. 

However, improvement in manufacture so as to furnish a uniformly 
high grade product free of impurities that might start decomposition, 
improvements in containers through the use of a material free from 
chemical action with the gas, and improvement in the field application 
to guarantee accurate delivery and complete gasification of the re- 
quired charge are necessary before this gas is placed on the high plane 
demanded for orchard fumigation in California. Assurance has been 
given that these faults will be corrected in the immediate future, in 
which case by the end of another year the hundred outfits using this 
gas are certain to be greatly augmented for time to come, or at least 
until some scientist discovers a method of scale control its superior. 

{End of proceedings, to be continued.) 



124 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 



Scientific Notes 

European Corn Borer {Pyrausta nubilalis Hubn.)- This notorious insect has 
been found in the vicinity of Schenectady, N. Y., over an area of approximately 400 
square miles with the probability that subsequent scouting will extend the infested 
territory somewhat. The most significant feature is the occurrence of the insect on 
the Mohawk River flats, ground annually flooded to a depth of ten feet or more with 
a consequent probability of the pest being swept down the river to New York City 
or beyond. The infestation is probably of two years' standing and is decidedly less 
severe than that in the vicinity of Boston, Mass. 

We have obtained the best results searching for this insect by examining sweet- 
corn stalks, specially those which have been worked over by cattle and stripped of 
leaves, for a circular entrance less than one eighth of an inch in diameter and usually 
showing a little discoloration on the margins. In a sparse infestation there may be 
also a few holes through the husks and very seldom injury to the ear. The entrance 
holes lead into a gallery and there may be a somewhat restricted boring or a larger 
one which, if it extends to the node, expands irregularly and frequently has somewhat 
blackened walls. Most of the insect's work is within three feet of the ground and 
usually in stalks more than one fourth of an inch in diameter. The yellowish grey 
caterpillar is about three fourths of an inch long, brown headed, minutely brown 
spotted and with a somewhat peculiar transverse suranal plate which is angulate 
laterally. 

E. P. Felt. 

Gracillaria zachrysa Meyr., Corrective Note. In the December, 1918, issue of the 
Journal of Economic Entomology (page 482), reference is made to Gracillaria 
zachrysa as a pest of apple foliage in northwestern India, especially for the reason that 
G. azalece, which was considered an identical species, had recently been introduced 
into the United States. 

Under date of November 23, Mr. T. Bainbrigge Fletcher states that he is in receipt 
of an additional communication from Mr. Meyrick to the effect that G. azalece Busck 
is not identical with G. zachrysa Meyr. 

Entomologists will therefore be interested to know that the species G. azalece is not 
to be feared as an apple pest in the United States. 

L. O. Howard. 

The Toad as an Enemy of the Chinch Btig. In connection with the interesting 
paper in the October, 1918, number of the Journal on the "Insect Enemies of the 
Chinch Bugs," by W. P. Flint, it might be of interest to note that the common toad 
{Bufo lentiginosus americanus) is an efficient enemy of this insect in Kansas. Gar- 
man (Ky. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 91, pp. 60-68) reports finding six bugs in thestomachof 
one toad out of twenty examined. Dm-ing the summer of 1913 the writer examined 
the stomach contents of five toads taken in wheat and cornfields and found the bodies 
or body fragments of chinch bugs in all of them. A toad, caught in a wheat field 
May 6, contained the bodies of 162 bugs, while a toad found in a wheat field the even- 
ing of June 5 had just eaten 12 bugs. In the latter case, feeding had apparently just 
begun, as the stomach was practically empty. Three toads taken in cornfields 
during July contained many legs, wings, and other fragments of chinch bugs, but it 
was impossible to determine the number eaten. 

James W. McColloch, Associate Entomologist, 

Kansas Agricultxvral Experiment Station. 



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post, express or freight as directed. 

The Honor Roll, prepared by the Secretary of the Association, is 
another indication of the respect gladly rendered to the men who have 
heard the call and taken their places with the fighting forces of the 
nation. Some, unfortunately, will never return. 

Without detracting in the slightest from the high credit due these 
men, we call attention also to the war activities of other members of 
the Association. Some have laid aside their professional duties to 
devote themselves in whole or in part to special work. A notable 
case is that of Prof. V. L. Kellogg, widely known because of the con- 
spicuous services he rendered, first on the Belgian Relief Commission 
and later with the National Food Administration — both vitally im- 
portant. The war greatly stimulated interest in insects and sanitation 
and amply vindicated the foresighted investigations along this line 
begun by Dr. L. O. Howard some twenty years ago. We should also 
mention, in this connection. Dr. C. Gordon Hewitt of Canada. Both 
have rendered most valuable service along these lines and have en- 
joyed hearty and fruitful support from numerous associates and fol- 
lowers, some rendering conspicuous aid in solving important problems 
in medical entomology and sanitation. Practically ev^ery American 
entomologist has found a greatly increased field of usefulness by apply- 
ing his special knowledge to the better solution of sanitary problems, 
the growing of larger crops and a material increase in the vitally essen- 
tial animal products. They were all necessary to win the war. We 
rejoice that all members of the Association have recognized the call of 
duty and have "carried on" in a i)eautiful spirit of fellowship and 
service. 



126 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 



HONOR ROLL 

Allen, H. W. — Sanitary Corps, U. S. Army 

Bailey, J. W. — U. S. Navy 

Barber, George W. — Lieut. U. S. Army 

Becker, George G. — U. S. Army 

Bower, L. J. — U. S. Army 

Bradley,^ J. W. — Lieut. Aviation Branch, U. S. Army 

Cartwright, William B. — Signal Corps, U. S. Army 

Cotton, R. T. — Lieut. U. S. Army 

Davis, I. W.— U. S. Marine Corps 

DeLong, D. M. — U. S. Army 

DoHANiAN, S. M. — Sanitary Corps, U. S. Army 

Dove, W. E. — Lieut. Aviation Branch, U. S. Army 

EcKERT, J. E. — U. S. Army 

Fenton, F. a. — U. S. Army 

Fort, H. M.— U. S. Marine Corps 

Freeborn, S. B. — Lieut. Sanitary Corps, U. S. Army 

Gibson, E. H. — Capt. Sanitary Corps, U. S. Army 

Hall, M. C— Lieut. U. S. Army 

Hargreaves, Ernest — Sanitary Section, British Army 

Hasey,2 W. H. —Lieut. U. S. Army 

Herms, W. B. — Capt. Sanitary Corps, U. S. Army 

Hood, J. D. — Capt. U. S. Army 

Howard, N. F. — Lieut. U. S. Army 

Jennings,^ A. H. — Lieut. Sanitary Corps, U. S. Army 

Jones, Charles R. — Acting Major, Officers Training Corps, U. S. 

Army 
Jones, Edward R.— LT. S. Army 
King, J. L.— U. S. Navy 

King," Vernon, — Lieut. Aviation Section, British Army 
Knight, H. H. — Lieut. U. S. Army 
Larrimer, W. H. — Lieut. U. S. Army 
Lathrop, F. H. — Lieut. U. S. Army 
Mason, A. C— U. S. Army 

Mason, S. L. — Lieut. Aviation Branch, U. S. Army 
McDonough, F. L. — U, S. Army 

"Died as a result of aeroplane accident, July 4, 1918. 

^ Killed in action in France. 

2 Killed in France. 

* Died as result of accident. 



February, '19] ' HONOR ROLL 127 

OsBORN, H. T.— Capt. U. S. Army 

Parker, H. L. — Lieut. U. S. Army 

Pemberton, C. E. — U. S. Army 

RosEWALL, O. W. — U. S. Army 

Safro, V. I. — Lieut. Aviation Branch, U. S. Army 

Scott, E. W. — Lieut. U. S. Army 

Seamans, H. L. — U. S. Army 

Snow, S. J. — Veterinary Corps, U. S. Army 

Stear, J. R. — U. S. Army 

Stockwell, C. W. — Aviation Branch, U. S. Army 

Strand, A. L. — U. S. Army 

Strickland, E. H. — Lieut. British Army 

Summers, J. N. — Lieut. Tank Corps, U. S. Army 

Swain, A. F. — U. S. Army 

Van Dine, D. L. — Capt. Sanitary Corps, U. S. Army 

ViCKERY, R. K. — Sanitary Corps, U. S. Army 

Weigel, C. a. — Sanitary Corps, U. S. Army 

White, W. H. — Lieut. U. S. Army 

Whitemarsh, R. D. — Capt. U. S. Army 

Wiltberger, p. B. — Sanitary Corps, U. S. Army 

Wolcott, G. N. — U. S. Army 

Woods, W. C— U. S. Army 



128 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 



BOOK REVIEWS 

Manual of Vegetable-Garden Insects, by Cyrus Richard Crosby 
and Mortimer D. Leonard. The Macmillan Company, New 
York. Price, $2.50. 

For the past decade the only American book devoted exclusively to insects attack- 
ing vegetable crops has been Dr. Chittenden's "Insects Injurious to Vegetables." 
Now we have another volume, with information brought forward to date, and many 
new illustrations. This is a volume of 391 pages, and 232 figures. Some of the 
illustrations are from photographs, but a large proportion are from drawings made 
expressly for this book. Most of them are good. The subject matter is arranged 
in the following order: Insects Injurious to Cabbage and Related Crops; Pea and 
Bean Insects; Beet and Spinach Insects; Insects Injurious to Cucumber, Squash 
and Melon; Potato Insects; Tomato Insects; Egg-plant Insects; Insects Injurious 
to Carrot, Celery, Parsnip and Related Crops; Asparagus Insects; Corn Insects; 
Sweet-Potato Insects; Onion Insects; Insects Injurious to Minor Vegetable Crops; 
Cutworms and Army-worms; Blister Beetles; Flea-beetles; Unclassified Pests; 
Insects and Insecticides. The last chapter contains about seven pages devoted to 
the structure of insects. Under the headings Cutworms, Blister-beetles, and Flea- 
beetles, each species is treated separately. A few references to literature follow the 
accoimt of each insect. The volume is supplied with table of contents and index, 
and from the printer's standpoint is attractive. Though some entomologists might 
prefer to group potato, tomato and egg-plant insects under one heading, or place the 
chapter on the structure of insects and insecticides at the beginning rather than at 
the end of the book, the present arrangement does not in any way interfere with the 
usefulness of the volume which must be granted a place on the shelves of the working 
entomologist, the vegetable grower, and the teacher of horticulture. It goes without 
saying that it should be placed in every important public library as well. (Advt.) 

W. E. B. 

Practical Queen Rearing, by Frank C. Pellett, American Bee 
Journal, Hamilton, 111. 

This small volimae contains 103 pages and 40 illustrations, most of them half tones, 
is printed on supercalendared paper, and is provided with table of contents but no 
index. The scarcity of certain kinds of foods and especially sugar with the high 
prices prevaUiag during the war has been an important inducement to keep bees. 
In connection with beekeeping there is such a demand for good queens that the aver- 
age beekeeper cannot supply it. Consequently queen-rearing specialists have ap>- 
peared, and the present volume is a guide for those who wish to make a nice little 
business by rearing queens. Mr. Pellett is a man of experience, having formerly 
occupied the position of State Apiarist of Iowa, and is author of "Productive Bee- 
keeping," Mr. Pellett is also author of "Our Backdoor Neighbors," and is now 
associate editor of the American Bee Journal. He has had an extensive experience in 
things apicultural, and though it is characteristic of beekeepers that they do not 
agree on methods or equipment, it is evident that this little book will prove useful 
to all who contemplate the rearing of queen bees for the home apiary or for sale. 
{Advt.) W. E. B. 



February, '19] BOOK reviews 129 

Injurious Insects and Useful Birds : Successful Control of Farm Pests, 

by F. L. Washburn, pages I to XVIII, + 1 to 453, 414 text 
illustrations and four colored plates. J. B. Lippincott Company, 
Philadephia, 1918. 

This, one of the Lippincott Farm Manuals, might properly be classed as a farm 
zoology largely and properly devoted to insects, since their importance is certainly 
commensurate with the space assigned. The author has endeavored to supply the 
needs of high schools where agriculture is taught and of agricultural colleges which 
demand a good, though not too technical text-book embracing a wide field. The 
work also appeals to farmers, orchardists, vegetable growers, owners of gardens and 
housekeepers and in this latter respect differs from a number of entomological vol- 
umes issued during the last few years and restricted to the enemies of special crops. 
It is concerned with fruit pests of all kinds, including the citrus fruits, the insects 
affecting field crops and pasturage, vegetable gardens, house plants, shade and forest 
trees, those troublesome to man and in the house, attacking stock or poultry and pests 
in mills and elevators. The author's extensive personal experience with the last 
makes the chapter of special value, particularly with cereals at their present high 
prices. 

We have noticed in this volume a very large number of insects and other animals of 
the United States with special reference to their economic importance. The accounts, 
necessarily brief, are comprehensive and in many instances the meaning of the text is 
made clearer by excellent illustrations. The chapter on birds and that in relation to 
the four-footed pests of the farm are valuable and pertinent additions. The author 
has reaUzed his aim and produced a volume which should be of great service to a very 
wide cUentele. It is an excellent text for the use of schools and colleges, a most 
desirable addition for many Ubraries and a very convenient volume for the working 
library of the professional entomologist (Ady/.). E. P. F. 



Current Notes 

Capt. Allan H. Jennings of the Bureau of Entomology died in December, 1918. 

Dr. J. G. Needham of Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y., visited Washington and 
the Bureau of Entomology in October. 

Lieut. E. H. Gibson, formerly of the Bureau of Entomology, has been promoted to 
the rank of captain in the Sanitary Corps. 

Mr. C. H. Hadley, Jr., has been promoted from instructor to assistant professor 
of economic entomology at the Pennsylvania State College and Station. 

Mr. J. W. Gilmore, Bureau of Entomology, has been granted an indefinite fur- 
lough to enter an officers' training camp. He was connected with the Southern field- 
crop insect investigations. 

Prof. John P. Campbell, for thirty years professor of biology in the University of 
-Georgia, died December 3, 1918. Several years ago, Professor Campbell published 
a number of papers on injurious insects. 

The nursery stock, plant and seed quarantine, which has been discussed during the 
.summer and fall, received the approval of the secretary of agriculture November 18, 
1918, and becomes effective Juno 1, 1910. 
10 



130 ' JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

According to the Review oj Applied Entomology, Mr. F, H. Taylor of the Australian 
Institute of Tropical Medicine has been appointed entomologist to the Special Blow- 
Fly Committee of the Federal Bureau of Science and Industry at Queensland. 

■ Mr. K. L. Cockerham of the Bureau of Entomology, who is experimenting with 
heat control of the sweet potato weevil in Mississippi, reports promising results from 
some of his recent experiments against the weevil in stored tubers. 

Dr. J. C. Hutson, formerly of the Imperial Department of Agriculture, Barbadoes, 
British West Indies, has been appointed government entomologist of Ceylon with 
headquarters at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya, Ceylon, and wiU soon enter 
upon his duties. 

Mr. E. W. Scott in charge of the Vienna, Va., laboratory of the Federal Insecticide 
Board was granted an indefinite furlough to enter the Quartermaster's Corps of the 
army where he was granted a commission as first lieutenant. 

Mr. George M. Anderson, formerly assistant to the state entomologist of South 
Carolina, has been appointed extension entomologist by the Bureau of Entomology 
and assigned to North Carolina, where he will carry on extension work in the whole- 
field of economic entomology. 

Mr. Irving W. Davis has been discharged from military service where he was a. 
corporal in the U. S. Marine Corps, stationed at Paris Island, S. C. He has resumed 
his former work in charge of the gipsy moth field work in Connecticut, with head- 
quarters at Danielson. 

Mr. V. I. Safro has been discharged from military service, where he held a commis- 
sion as second lieutenant in the Aviation Corps, and will resume his former position 
as entomologist for the Kentucky Tobacco Products Company, Louisville, Ky. On 
his return he visited a number of economic entomologists in the Eastern States. 

Dr. J. M. Aldrich who has recently been attached to the West Lafayette, Ind., 
laboratory of the Bureau of Entomology has been transferred to Washington, D. C, 
to fill a vacancy on the miscellaneous roll of the Bureau caused by the death of Mr. 
Frederick Knab, as honorary custodian of the non-muscoid Diptera in the U. S. 
National Museum. 

Dr. E. F. Phillips and Mr. George S. Demuth spent a large part of the months of 
November and December in California where they investigated the bee-keeping 
possibiHties of the National Forest Reserves in Southern California. They then took 
part in the extension schools for commercial bee-keepers at San Diego, Davis, Visalia, 
and Riverside. 

The Entomological Society of America did not hold its usual series of meetings for 
the reading and discussion of papers this year. Two brief sessions were held at 
Baltimore for the transaction of the necessary business. The following officers were 
elected for the coming year: President, James G. Needham; First Vice-President, 
James W. Folsom; Second Vice-President, R. V. Chamberlain; Secretary-Treasurer, 
J. M. Aldrich. 

Mr. AUen B. Duckett, assistant entomologist in the Bureau of Entomology and 
connected with the Stored-Product Insect Investigations, died from pneimionia. 
October 8, 1918. Mr. Duckett was a graduate of the Maryland Agricultural College, 
had been connected with the Bureau of Entomology for more than seven years, and 
at the time of his death was engaged in inspecting army stores at the port of New 
York. 



February, '19] CURRENT NOTES 131 

No pink boUworm has been found in Texas this year and the Board is therefore 
joining with the Commissioner of Agriculture of Texas in a recommendation to the 
governor of that state that the growing of cotton be permitted under certain con- 
ditions within the quarantined districts. These restrictions will involve complete 
control of the seed for planting and of the disposition of the crop produced in the 
season of 1919. 

George Compere, one of the efficient port inspectors of the State of California, at 
San Francisco, has been loaned to the Federal Horticultural Board to investigate 
conditions at New Orleans and possibly Mobile to determine whether or not port 
inspection should be inaugurated and maintained at these ports along the Hnes now 
conducted for the port of San Francisco. It is expected that Mr. Compere will spend 
the months of January and February in this investigation. 

The following appointments in the Bureau of Entomology have been announced: 
Extension work in apiculture — J. V. Ormond, Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and 
Nebraska; Edward S. Provost, South Carolina; J. Smith, California. Extension 
work, deciduous fruit insects — George H. MiUer, Albion, N. Y. Extension work, 
cereal and forage insects, Harvey H. Miniger, South Dakota; Karl M. Pack. Exten- 
sion work in general economic entomology — George M. Anderson, North Carolina; 
M. B. Rounds, citrus fruits, CaUfornia; E. E. Wehr. Extension work with insects 
affecting domestic animals — J. Touhj', assistant in body-louse investigations; Harri- 
son E. Smith, work with European corn borer, Boston, Mass. 

Resignations in the Bui-eau of Entomology have been announced as follows: To 
enter military service — Charles \V. Curtin, Carolina; H. M. Fort, Missouri; Marshall 
Hertig, Minnesota; G. J. Hucker, Nebraska; J. M. Lowe, Texas; Max W. Reeher, 
Oregon; Douglas R. Royter, Texas; A. I. Fabis, Texas; H. L. Seamans, Montana; 
Paul Starkweather, Georgia. Twelve inspectors. Federal Horticultural Board — W. 
W. Decell, J. A. Dew, E. L. Diven, W. S. Hough, Herbert Lahr, M. I. Miller, E. J. 
O'Dowd, R. W. Reeves, Torbert Stack, J. E. Webb, C. A. Weigel, J. C. Woodward, 
A. Burr Black, Albert E. Booth, Mancil B. Boyd, Kenneth E. Bragdon, F. Vernon 
Griffith, J. G. Griffith, Montfort Hull, H. E. Jaques, H. B. Pierson, E. L. Prizer, 
Frazicr Rogers, C. E. Trimble, G. H. Vansell, H. L. Weatherby, M. J. Kerr, Mis3 
Mabel Council; H. J. Ryan, California, to become horticultural commissioner of Los 
Angeles County, Cal.; Wm. R. Martin, Earl Ranells, J. M. Robinson, J. Howard 
Smith, Henry E. Bailey; Clyde C. Hamilton, to enter the State Service of Missouri; 
J. E. Morrison, to become a county agent in Colorado. 

The following transfers have been made in the Bureau of Entomology: Oscar 
Barber, sweet potato weevil, Texas, to another branch; M. E. Kiinsey, cereal and 
forage insects, Arizona, to pink bollworm work, Te.xas; Q. S. Lowry from extension 
work with truck crop insects to general economic insect extension work in Massachu- 
setts; S. E. McClendon, headquarters, Hawkinsville, to Athens, Ga.; M. R. Smith, 
Plymouth, Ind., for the winter to Kingsville, Texas; M. H. Arnold, Mississippi, for 
the winter to Texas; P'. M. Wadlcy, Wichita, Kans., to Muscatine, Iowa; O. K. 
Courtney, Maryland, truck crop insects to Federal Horticultural Board; C. E. S iiith, 
New Orleans, La., to Texas; B. R. Leach, Bennett A. Porter, R. J. Fiske, and R. B. 
McKeown, deciduous fruit insects, temporarily to Federal Horticultural Board for 
work on pink boll worm in Texas; F. H. Gates, corn borer work to alfalfa insect investi- 
gations, Tcmpe, Ariz.; A. F. Satterthwait, Charleston, Mo., to Web.stor Groves, Mo.; 
L. C. Griffith, extension work, New York, to Federal Horticultural Board; Frank J. 
Rimoldi, extension work, Rhode Island, to Federal Horticultural Board, Texas; A. C. 



132 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Burrill, Washington, extension work to cereal and forage insect investigations; C. H. 
Batchelder, extension work, Maine, to truck crop insect investigations; W. T. Ham, 
extension work, Washington, to truck insect investigations; R. A. Epperson, Ala- 
bama, temporarily to work on the pink boUworm in Texas. 

Mr. Warren Williamson has resigned as instructor in entomology and assistant 
entomologist at the Minnesota University and Station. 

According to Science Dr. J. F. Abbott, professor of zoology at Washington Univer- 
sity, has been appointed commercial attach^ to the American Embassy at Tokyo and 
will leave for Japan in February. 

According to the Experiment Station Record, the Misses Emily H. Payne, Ida R. 
Saul and Anna Wentz have been appointed assistants in entomology at the Minne- 
sota University and Station to replace men who were called to miUtary service. 

According to Science at the annual meeting of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 
held on January 16, the following officers were elected for 1919: President, Mr. W. T. 
Bather; Vice-President, Mr. W. T. Davis; Treasurer, Mr. C. E. Olsen; Recording 
Secretary, Dr. J. Bequaert; Corresponding Secretary, Mr. J. R. de la Torre Bueno; 
Librarian, Mr. A. C. Weeks; Curator, Mr. George Frank; Publication Committee, 
Messrs. J. R. de la Torre Bueno, Charles Schaeffer and George Engelhardt. 

According to Science Dr. James A. Nelson has resigned his position as expert in the 
Bureau of Entomology, though he will still be coimected with the Bureau as collab- 
orator, and will make his home near Moimt Vernon, Ohio, where he will give his 
attention to farming. 

Mr. R. L. Webster, formerly of the entomological department of the Iowa College 
and Station, is now at the entomological department of Cornell University, Ithaca, 
N. Y., where he holds an industrial fellowship, and is working on the practicability 
of fumigation of deciduous fruit trees with hydrocyanic acid gas. 

Mr. Frank D. Heckathorn, deputy inspector, Bureau of Horticulture, Department 
of Agriculture of Ohio, died December 18 after a short illness with influenza. He 
was graduated from the Ohio State University in 1906. Mr. Heckathorn was a care- 
ful, conscientious worker who gained the respect of everyone with whom he came in 
contact, 

European corn borer conferences have been numerous since the discovery of this 
pest in New York State. The first was held at Albany, February 7, and was attended 
by three representatives of the Federal Bureau of Entomology, and a number of 
New York entomologists. A second occurred at Washington, February 12th, at 
which time Messrs. O'Kane, Sanders, Reynolds, of the American Plant Pest Com- 
mittee, and Felt conferred with the Senate Committee on Agriculture and Doctor 
Howard of the Bureau of Entomology. There was a third the next day at Ithaca, 
attended by New York entomologists and agriculturists followed by a fourth at 
Albany, February 18th. The outcome of recent activities and interest has been the 
adoption by the State of New York of an aggressive poUcy toward this new menace 
and a material increase in the amount recommended by the Secretary of Agriculture 
for use in control or extermination work. 



Mailed February 28, 1919 



EXCHANGES. 

Exchanges or Wants of not over three lines will be inserted for 25 conts each to run ae long as the 
space of this page will permit; the newer ones being added and the oldest dropped as necessary. Send 
all notices and cash to A. F. Burgess, Melrose Highlands, Mass., by the 15th of the month preceding 
publication. 



BACK NUMBERS WANTED. 

Will pay 60 cents for No. 2, Volume I, and 30 cents each for No. 1 and No, 6 
Volume II, No. 6, Volvime III, and No. 2, Volume IV, to complete sets. Address 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGISTS, 
MELROSE HIGHLANDS, MASS. 

ENTOMOLOGISTS' EMPLOYMENT BUREAU 
Conducted by the American Association of Economic Entomologists. 

This Bureau will register Entomolo^sts wishing to secure positions. Sta- 
tion Entomologists and institutions desiring to secure assistants are invited to 
correspond with the undersigned. Enrollment in the Bureau, $2.00. Fee not 
returnable. DR. W. E. HINDS, 

Auburn, Alabama. 

WANTED — Will pay cash for literature on ants. Publications of The Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History, by Dr. Wheeler, especially desired. 

M. R. SMITH, 128 West 10th Ave., Columbus, Ohio. 

WANTED — 19th Illinois Entomological Report; Coleoptera of Southern Cal- 
ifornia by H. C. Fall; Notes on Lachnosterna of Temperate North America by J. B. 
Smith; Complete Works of Thos. Say, Le Conte Edition. 

JOE S. WADE, U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

WANTED— List of Col. of Amer. Henshaw, 1885; Col. of So, Cal., Fall; Insects 
of N. J. Smith, 1909; Bib. Econ. Ent. Part IV. 

FOR SALE OR EXCHANGE— BuU . and Cir. U. S. Bur. Ent., State Ent. 
Bull, and Separates U. S. N. M. C. L. SCOTT, Wellington, Kansas. 



WILL PAY 81 each for Insect Life, Vol IV, Nos. 11 and 12, BibKoCTaphy. 
N. A. Economic Entomology, Part IV, or General Index Experiment Station Record 
for Vols. I-XII. 

HUGH GLASGOW, Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, New York. 

DRAWINGS for reproduction, oil color charts, and life history collections of 
economic insects prepared as desired. 

H. E. HODGKISSandB. B. FULTON, 90 Lyceum St., Geneva, N.Y. 

WANTED — Systematic and economic papers on the families Bombyliidae and 
Asilidae. Mail descriptive hst of titlrs nnd prices dcriirod. 11. R. HAGAN, Utah 
Experiment Station, Logan, Utah. 



WANTED— 8 YRPHiDAE— from aU parte of the world. Will determine on the 

' Htions. Address until June 15, Prof. C. L. METCALF, Bussey Institution, 

Ha, Boston, Mass. Afterwaid Ohio State University, Dept, Entomology, 
.., Oliio. 



Please merUion the Journal oj liconmmr rAitomoiogy 



AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGISTS 

(Organized 1889, Incorporated December 29, 1913) 



OFFICERS 



President. W. C. O'Kane, Durham, N. H. 

First Vice-President, A. G. Ruggles, St. Paul, Minu. 

Second, Vice-President (Pfi.'.ifip Rlonr^ Branch), H. J. OrAVT.F-. Riv<»r- 
side, CaUf. 

Third Vice-President (Horticultural Inspection), !l. C. Cotton, 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Fourth Vice-PresideM (Apiculture), W. E. Britton, New Haven, 
Conn. 

Secretary, A. F. Burgess, Melrose Highlands, Mass. 

Branch and Section Secretaries 

Pacific Slope Branch, E. O, Essig, Ventura, Calif. 

Section of Horticultural Inspection, J. G. Sanders, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Section of Apiculture, G. M. Bentlf.y, Knoxville, Tenn. 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 

Official Organ of American Association of Economic Entomologists 



A bi-monthly Journal, publiahed February to December, on the 16th of the 
month, devoted to the interests of Economic Entomology and publiehing the official 
notices and proceedings of the American Association of Economic Entomologista. 
Address business communications to the JouRNAii of Economic Entomology, 
Ptftilroad Square, Concord, N. H. 

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. In the United States, Cuba, Mexico and Canada, 
two dollars and fifty cents ($2.60) annually in advance. To foreign countries, 
three dollars ($3.00) annually in advance. Single copies, fifty cents. To members 
of the American ABSoeiation of Economic Entomologists, one dollar and fifty cents 
(51.60) annually in advance. 50 cents extra for postage to foreign members, 

MANUSCRIPT for publication should be sent to the Editor, E. Pohter Felt, 
Nassau, Rens. Co., N. Y. 

CURRENT NOTES AND NEWS should be seat to the Associate Editor, W. E. 
Britton, Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Conn. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS AND ADVERTISEMENTS may be sent to the Business 
Manager, A. F. Boroess, Mehrose Highlands, Mass. 



Vol. 12 



APRIL. 1919 



No. 2 



JOURNAL 



OF 



ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 

Official Organ American Association of Economic Entomologists 




E. Porter Felt, Editor 

W. E. Britton, Associate Editor 

A. F. Burgess, Business Manager 



S. A. Forbes 

W. J. SCHOENE 



Advisory Committee 
V, L. Kellogg 
P. J. PARRorr, 



WARD 



Published by 
AMERICAN Association of Economic Entomologists 

Coxcoi 



Entered Si neroncl<Uii motler M»r. 3. I'^Os. at t! , tni»t-office tt C 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

American Association of Economic Entomologists, Proceedings of the Thirty- 
first Annual Meeting {Continued) 

Important Foreign Insect Pests Collected on Imported Nursery Stock in 

1918 E. R. Sasscer 133 

Organization for Insect Suppression A. F. Burgess 136 

The Morphology, Behavior and Susceptibility of the Eggs of Three Im- 
ported Apple Plant Lice^ A. Peterson 141 

High Temperature Fumigation and Methods of Estimating Radiation 

Required^ W. H. Goodwin 148 

The Potato Leafhopper and its Relation to the Hopperbum E. D. Ball 149 

Limitations in Insect Suppression W. C. O'Kane 155 

Nicotine Sulfate Solution as a Control for the Chrysanthemum Gall Midge, 

DiarthroTwmyia hypogoea T. L. Guyton 162 

The Work in the United States against the Pink BoUworm W. D. Hunter 166 

Parasite Introduction as a Means of Saving Sugar T. E. Holloway 175 

Methods in Entomological Field Experimentation 

W. P. Flint, C. F. Turner and /. /. Davis 178 

Eleodes opaca Say, an Important Enemy of Wheat in the Great Plains Area 

J. W. McColloch 183 

Experiments with Poison Baits against Grasshoppers D. A. Richer 194 

The Value of Crude Arsenious Oxide in Poison Bait for Cutworms and 

Grasshoppers J. J. Daois 200 

Some Notes on PAorfria /usciceps as a Bean Pest I. M. Hawley 203 

Notes on Some Little Known Pests of Red Clover 

G. W. Herrick and J. D. Detunler 206 

The Dispersion of FUes by FHght F. C. Biskopp and E. W. Laake 210 

Notes on Phlebotomus Species Attacking Man D. C. Parman 211 

Grasshopper Control in Kansas G. A. Dean, E. G. Kelly and A. L. Ford 213 

A Use of Galls by the Chippewa Indians W. A. Riley 216 

Scientific Notes 217 

Editorial 221 

Reviews 222 

Current Notes 222 



I Withdrawn for publication elsewhere. 



JOURNAL 



OF 

ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 

OFFICIAL ORGAN AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGISTS 

Vol. 12 APRIL, 1919 No. 2 

Proceedings of the Thirty-first Annual Meeting of the 
American Association of Economic Entomologists 

{Continued from p. 123) 



Afternoon Session, Friday, December 27, 1918, 2J+0 p. m. 

Vice-President E. C. Cotton: The next paper on the program is 
entitled, "Important Insect Pests Collected on Imported Nursery 
Stock, 1918," by Mr. E. R. Sasscer. 

IMPORTANT FOREIGN INSECT PESTS COLLECTED ON IM- 
PORTED NURSERY STOCK IN 1918 

By E. R. Sasscer 

The amount of nursery stock offered for entry into the United States 
(luring the fiscal year 1918 showed a marked decrease as compared 
with former years. Especially is this true of the five principal export- 
ing European countries,^ which showed a falling off of some 22,953,147 
plants. The number of plants exported by these European countries 
for the fiscal year 1918 was as follows: 

England 1,865,5:39 

France 16,767,673 

Holland 2.016.S84 

Hi'lf^iuin and Germany 

In other words, France alone exported more stock to the United 
States in 1913 than all these countries in the fiscal year 1918. A sum- 
mary of the plant imports for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1918, is 

1 The amount of stock exported by these countries from 191:} to 1917, inclusive, is 
f^iven in previous lists of important foreign insect pests, etc., published in the Joirnal 

F EcoNinilC IVNTOMOLOGY. 



134 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

given by Mr. C. L. Marlatt, Chairman of the Federal Horticultural 
Board, in his report to the Secretary of Agriculture of September 30, 
1918. 

Notwithstanding the falling off of importations of plants, dangerous 
insects have continued to enter on nursery stock. As these pests are 
listed in the Quarterly Letters of Information of the Federal Horticul- 
tural Board, copies of which are available to all inspectors, it is only 
necessary to refer to the insects which appear to have potentialities, 
if they become established and widely distributed in this country. 

The pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypieUa Saunders) has been 
collected on two occasions in shipments of cotton from Brazil, In one 
instance, some 1,992 bags of cotton arrived at New York in violation 
of the cotton regulations, and, as a result, were returned to the port of 
origin, where, according to the Department of State, the entire ship- 
ment was destroyed by the Brazilian Government, on account of this 
infestation. The second shipment, consisting of about a pound of 
infested cotton seed, was sent to the Department of Agriculture, and, 
after a thorough examination, destroyed by fire. The sorrel cutworm 
{Acronycta rumicis L.), which was referred to in the last list of impor- 
tant foreign insect pests, has again been collected, in the pupal stage, 
on miscellaneous plants from France. From European literature, it 
is apparent that this insect is an omnivorous feeder, and its entry into 
and establishment in this country should be prevented, if possible. 

A shipment of rhododendrons from Holland was found to be lightly 
infested with larvae of Chimahacche fagella Fab., an insect reported to 
be injurious to the foliage of oak, beech, and birch in northern and 
eastern Ireland. Judging from the available literature on this insect, 
it is apparent that it is primarily a forest and shade-tree pest, and its 
occurrence on rhododendrons may possibly be accidental; although at 
the time of examination there was abundant evidence of foliage injury. 
The larvse of the swan or gold-tail moth (Porthesia similis Fuessl) were 
collected on Japanese maple from Holland and on Cerasus avium from 
France consigned to Pennsylvania. One hundred and ninety-four 
nests of the fruit-tree Pierid (Aporia craicegi L.) were collected by New 
York state inspectors on several shipments of deciduous fruit tree 
seedlings from France. The fruit tree Pierid is another European 
insect which is known to be a general feeder, having thus far been 
recorded as devouring the foliage of fruit trees, wild rosaceous plants, 
and deciduous shade trees. 

The azalea leaf miner {Gracilaria zachrysa Mey.) has been taken on 
eight shipments of azaleas from Holland. Nests of the brown-tail 
moth {Euproctis chrysorrhora Linn.) were collected on ten shipments 
of miscellaneous plants from France, and egg masses of the gipsy 



April, '19] SASSCER: IMPORTANT FOREIGN INSECTS 135 

moth {Porihetria dispar Linn.) were taken on two shipments of French 
stock. 

The lesser bulb fly (Eumerus strigatus Fallen), together with the 
narcissus fly (Merodon equestris Fab.), was collected in considerable 
numbers in narcissus bulbs from Holland. The lesser bulb fly was 
also submitted for identification by one of the seed firms of Philadel- 
phia, with a note that the larvae were taken from Holland-grown narcis- 
sus bulbs. This bulb insect is known to be established in the states of 
California, Washington, Colorado, Ohio and Maine. Although the 
economic status of the lesser bulb fly is in dispute, Verrall^ says the 
European E. strigatus has been bred from bulbs of the common onion 
{Allium cepa) of which they sometimes destroy a whole crop. 

Seeds of the wild cherry (Cerasus avium) from France were found to 
contain a number of dead adults of Anthonomus redirostris L.^ This 
weevil in Europe is known to feed in the pits of Prunus and Cerasus. 
Inasmuch as tons of cherry and Prunus seeds have been introduced into 
the United States in the past, a large percentage of which were never 
inspected or fumigated, it is remarkable that this insect has not been 
introduced into and established in the States. Of course, there is a 
possibility that it is established in isolated localities and has not been 
recorded. Sugar-cane entering California from the Hawaiian Islands 
was found to be infested with the sugar-cane borer (Sphenophorus 
obscurus Boisd.). Avocado seeds from Guatemala have continued to 
arrive infested with larvee of an undescribed species of Conotrachelus 
and an unrecognized Stenoma. The larvae of both of these insects 
are responsible for considerable injury to the seed, and, according to 
Mr. Wilson Popenoe, who has spent considerable time collecting these 
seeds in Guatemala, this lepidopterous insect is perhaps one of the most 
injurious avocado pests now established in Central America. 

As usual, a number of scale insects have been intercepted on incom- 
ing stock; the more important ones being an undescribed species of 
Solenococcus on avocado cuttings from Guatemala, the European 
peach scale (Lecanium persicce Fab.) on Fontanesia and Berberis pur- 
purea from France and on peach from England, Parlatoria chinensis 
Marlatt on two species of Pyrus from China, and Lecanium coryli Linn, 
on an undetermined host from England. 

Vice-President E. C. Cotton: Is there any discussion of this 
paper? 

Mr. II. C, Osburn: Mr, Chairman, I shoukl hke to report the 
occurrence of Eumerus strigatus, the bulb fly, at Columbus, Ohio, last 

1 British Flies, Vol. H, p. 615, 1901. 

* According to Dr. W. nwipiht Pierce, A . (IrufKirum L. is ft synonym of .1 . redirostris L. 



136 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

spring. I tried to trace up the origin of these, thinking that if they 
came from the onion I would certainly be able to follow up the scent, 
but I was not able to find where they came from. However, I hope 
they have not located there permanently. 

Vice-President E. C. Cotton: The next paper is "Organization 
for Insect Suppression," by Mr. A. F. Burgess. 



ORGANIZATION FOR INSECT SUPPRESSION 

By A. F. Burgess, Melrose Highlands, Mass. 

With the reconstruction and rearrangement of activities which must 
necessarily accompany the period immediately following the Great 
War, it seems timely to consider briefly what methods and organiza- 
tions have proved workable and satisfactory when applied on a large 
scale. It is not the purpose of this paper to deal with insect suppres- 
sion which may be handled along the lines of extension work, although 
it is possible that some of the ideas conveyed may be applied directly 
to the management of these activities. 

For over twenty years the entomologists of the United States have 
been face to face with serious insect problems. Some have been local 
while others were general in their scope. During the first part of this 
period little organization seemed necessary, as the workers were few in 
number and the importance of the problems was not brought home to 
the public and emphasized enough so that their full meaning was ap- 
preciated. 

Twenty years ago the Jersey mosquito was a standing joke. It was 
considered by the public as one of those nuisances that must be endured 
and very few entomologists were courageous enough to boldly advo- 
cate exterminative measures on a large scale. Careful investigations 
of the habits of the mosquito family brought to light the serious men- 
ace of permitting these insects to continue their increase unchecked, 
and today public opinion recognizes that they are not only obnoxious 
on account of their irritating habits but that some of the species are 
positively dangerous because of their ability to spread disease. The 
same is true of many other insects which annoy and make life uncom- 
fortable for man and beast. 

It cannot be claimed that control measures have been put into opera- 
tion, except possibly over limited areas, that have completely reheved 
this undesirable condition; but when we compare present conditions 
with the apparent hopelessness of the situation twenty years ago, we 
must conclude that progress has been made. 

No insect, up to the present time, has caused such widespread con- 



April, '19] BURGESS: ORGANIZATION FOR INSECT SUPPRESSION 137 

sternation among the fruit-growing interests as the San Jose Scale, and 
as a result of its introduction and spread throughout the nation, prac- 
tically every state has passed laws relating to its control as well as that 
of other serious pests. It is not an item of news to the members of 
this association to call attention to the diversity of laws, of regulations 
and of forms of organizing the work which resulted from the danger of 
the unrestricted spread of this insect. Repeated attempts were made 
to secure Federal legislation in order that problems of controlling dan- 
gerous pests might be handled with more uniformity, but these at- 
tempts failed until the Plant Quarantine Act was passed by Congress 
in the summer of 1912. Since that time attempts have been made to 
secure uniform state legislation, but so far as is known to the writer, 
little success has resulted along this line. Inasmuch as proper organ- 
ization of work of this character usually is based on State or Federal 
law, careful attention should be given to have the statutes carefully 
drawn. 

Never within the memory of the present generation has the food 
situation been so pressing as during the past two years, or have the 
people been obliged to conserve their resources so extensively, and 
never has there been a time when National and State indebtedness has 
mounted so high. This is bound to have a direct influence on future 
taxation and future prosperity. It would therefore seem fitting for 
the entomologists to place their houses in order against the time when 
retrenchment will be the order of the day, and reconstruct and regroup 
their activities so as to secure maximum results. 

Insect suppression naturally falls into two classes, viz: The control 
of insects that are widely distributed throughout the country and con- 
trol of newly established pests which are present in a limited area. 

The methods used in the former class must necessarily be suited to 
the local conditions and in many cases they cannot be standardized, 
and the form of successful organizations for carrying on the work must 
be adapted to these conditions. Better results might he obtained, 
however, by closer acquaintance of the officials engaged in the work 
and a more thorough understanding of the problems and difficulties 
with which each has to contend. Meetings like this should pay large 
dividends in increasing efficiency if all could attend, but many of the 
authorities concerned do not take steps to make this possible. 

This will not accomplish all that should be undertaken. There 
should be closer relations established between the State and Federal 
authorities that are mutually interested in these matters and a con- 
stant effort should l)e made to strengthen these relations. Spasmodic 
efforts for improvement are not likely to be successful and if this work 
is to be left to individuals who arc alreadv overl>urdened with other 



138 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

duties, or to committees who have neither the time nor wide knowledge 
of the conditions that exist throughout the country, little of permanent 
value is likely to result. 

Some office in the Bureau of Entomology or in the Federal Horti- 
cultural Board should make a special study of these matters and after 
becoming acquainted with all the details of the problem should make 
an attempt to bring about better conditions. It is needless to say 
that such a task calls for experience, skill, and the utmost tact, and 
that improvement along these lines cannot be hastened by using a club. 
Perhaps a committee of this association could cooperate to advantage 
along these lines. 

In the control of introduced pests the problem is quite different. 
During recent years the Federal Government has recognized its re- 
sponsibility in this direction and an increasing amount of work is being 
done. 

The control or extermination of introduced pests present many 
difficult problems. In the first place the insect must be of great eco- 
nomic importance and the necessity for active work must be well 
recognized if it is to gain public support. It is impossible to accom- 
plish results unless adequate funds are provided. If a skyscraper is to 
be constructed the judgment of the architect is respected or he drops 
the job. You cannot build a $10,000 house for $2,000 and few people 
have the hardihood to attempt it. Yet it is not uncommon to see an 
entomologist attempting to solve far more intricate and difficult prob- 
lems in insect suppression with financial support which he and every 
one else knows is inadequate. He tries to build the $10,000 house and if 
perchance he is fortunate enough to lay the foundation with the funds 
at his disposal, he congratulates himself that something has been ac- 
complished, excuses the incompleteness of the work as best he can 
and endeavors to secure more support in order to add another instal- 
ment to the structure before the ravages of time undo the work that 
has already been done. 

The results of this method are far-reaching. Because of inadequate 
funds and superabundance of work, it is impossible to give the close 
study to all the details which are necessary if the best results are to be 
secured. There is also the tendency to secure quantity rather than 
quality when assistants are employed and this must often be done be- 
cause the funds are not available for a sufficient number of the best 
experts. Under present conditions there is small inducement for young 
men to specialize in entomology. When the expert can secure little 
more than the untrained laborer, men of ability will naturally seek those 
fields of employment where fair pay and the reasonable comforts of 
life can be secured. If the most competent men are to be obtained to 



April, '19] BURGESS: ORGANIZATION FOR INSECT SUPPRESSION 139 

attempt the difficult and perplexing problems of insect suppression, 
compensation commensurate with the importance of the tasks must be 
forthcoming. 

The strongest and most effective organizations in this country recog- 
nize these facts and act accordingly. 

On the other hand, unsatisfactory results may be secured when ample 
funds are provided if care is not taken in properly organizing and 
directing the work. Experience, skill and good judgment are required 
to bring about the desired results and if these are lacking disappoint- 
ment will follow. 

Plainly stated, the essential features of any problem of this sort are 
to determine all the facts covering the life and habits of the insect con- 
cerned, the kind of food that it requires, the damage likely to result, the 
means of spread, the effectiveness of natural agencies, and the best 
field treatment to bring about its control. 

These may be grouped under the head of experimental work, the 
most important phases of which should be given the greatest promi- 
nence; field work to determine the territory that is infested and to 
apply new control measures and quarantine to prevent the spread of 
the species by inspection, fumigation or otherwise. 

Each of these phases of the work should be organized and the 
details of methods worked out to fit the problem at hand. This will 
prevent duplication of effort and make it possible to transfer men to 
projects where they are most needed. If the problem is a large one this 
can be accomplished by centralizing the control of the work, so that 
overlapping can be avoided, misunderstandings be quickly adjusted 
and arrangements made with the State Officials and other agencies in 
touch with the work. 

Five years' experience with the method of organization indicated 
above, which was adopted for handUng the gipsy moth work by the 
liurcau of luitomology, has demonstrated its value. On such a large 
problem where 200 or 300 men are employed and work is often carried 
on in several states at the same time, centraUzation is imperative if the 
best results are to be secured. Where a large force is employed, a 
system of reports and constant field supervision is essential if the full 
vahie of the money expended is to be realized. A plan along the same 
general lines is practical on a smaller scale. To illustrate the useful- 
ness of this method a few cases may l)e cited. Several years ago it 
seemed desirable to determine whether the introduced parasites of the 
gipsy moth were attacking native injurious insects. Experimental 
work had shown that some of these parasites passed through their 
spring generation on the gipsy moth but it was necessary for thoin to 
have a summer or fall host, otherwise the later broods of the parasites 



140 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

would perish. Accordingly a plan was made to secure collections of 
native lepidopterous larvae each summer from as many localities within 
the gipsy moth infested area as possible. The necessary instructions 
concerning the kinds of collections desired, and the information to be 
recorded by each collector was sent to each foreman and inspector 
throughout the territory and some of the State officials were interested 
to forward material. This arrangement was worked out in detail. 
The men were supplied with shipping boxes and mailing tubes and these 
containers were promptly returned to them as soon as they were emp- 
tied at the laboratory. In midsummer we have frequently received by 
mail fifteen containers daily with this class of material alone. As a re- 
sult of this opportunity to utilize the services of these men without 
interfering with their regular duties, a large amount of valuable data 
has been secured from a territory which covers about one-half the area 
of the New England states. Incidentally an enormous number of 
records of parasitism by native Hymenoptera and Diptera have 
been obtained and as this work is carried on year after year, the facts 
concerning the increase or decrease in abundance of the native insects 
in this region together with similar facts as to their parasites will be 
extremely useful. 

It has been found desirable to secure accurate records of tempera- 
ture and humidity from a number of selected localities for use in con- 
nection with some of the experiments. Self-recording instruments 
which require attention weekly have been installed and in many cases 
these are attended to by inspectors or foremen without interfering with 
their regular work. 

If special information is desired from any part of the area, it can 
usually be obtained without delay or friction by utilizing men who are 
employed by some section of the work. This arrangement is valuable 
in saving time, effort and money, and also serves to increase the inter- 
est of the men in the work as a whole. 

Perhaps it may not be out of place to add that it takes more than a 
system to make any organization successful. One of our ex-presidents 
of the United States, when addressing a class in Civil Government at 
Harvard University a number of years ago, stated that anyone could 
devise a good system of government but that it takes a smart man to 
make it work. Many of the best laid plans of work fail because of the 
ever present human element which is often the dominant factor. 

Any enterprise in insect suppression cannot be successful if this fact 
is ignored. If men are assigned to do those things for which they are 
best quahfied and in which they are most proficient, much will be ac- 
complished. The misplaced man is dissatisfied both with himself and 
his job and is a prolific source of discontent in any institution. 



April, '19] APPLE PLANT LICE: DISCUSSION 141 

The success of most problems in insect suppression work rests prin- 
cipally on good business management and entomologists should not be 
slow in recognizing this fact. 



Vice-President E. C. Cotton: This completes the program of 
the horticultural inspectors. 

In the absence of the President, I will call for the next paper, 

THE MORPHOLOGY, BEHAVIOR AND SUSCEPTIBILITY OF 
THE EGGS OF THREE IMPORTED APPLE PLANT LICE 

By Alvah Peterson, New Brunswick, N. J. 

(Withdrawn for publication elsewhere) 

Vice-President E. C. Cotton: The paper is open for discussion 
now. 

Mr. P. J. Parrott: As I understand the speaker, you make the 
application of lime sulphur solely to destroy the eggs. 

Mr. Alvah Peterson: No, because at that period the eggs are 
hatching and the combination wall kill the nymphs and the eggs. 

Mr. p. J. Parrott: In New York we are advising our farmers to 
hold back the spraying, because we aim at the nymphs. 

Mr. Alvah Peterson: In New Jersey the eggs have not all 
hatched at a time w'hen we apply the material. Aphis avence in our 
state hatches ten days before Aphis sorbi. To wait until the eggs are 
all hatched would be too late. 

Mr. C. p. Gillette: Through how long a period did you find the 
eggs of any one species hatching normally? 

Mr. Alvah Peterson: Ten days — usually less than that. If you 
have a warm spell during the hatching period, they will hatch in four 
or five days, but if it is cold and wet the hatching period may extend 
over a period of ten days for one species. 

Mr. p. J. Parrott: In your field experiments, when the trees 
have been thoroughly sprayed at the time indicated by your third 
picture, did you have any difficulty in getting complete killing of the 
insects? 

Mr. Alvah Peterson: I can give you an example of that in one 
orchard where the man was very thorough in his work. We tried the 
nicotine combined Avith the lime sulphur, and even though tliis man was 
very thorough in his work, he did not get 100 per cent, (^ur experi- 
ments also showed that the eggs of Aphis sorhi and /*"//// arc not as 
susceptible to sprays as arenas. 



142 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY . [Vol. 12 

Mr. p. J. Parrott: But you are making that recommendation? 

Mr. Alvah Peterson: Yes, because it is the best recommendation 
we have, so far as we know at the present time. 

Mr. W. J. ScHOENE : The hatching of these eggs and the appearance 
of the aphids have been noted for several past seasons, not only by the 
entomologists but also members of the other departments. The 
fact has been noticed that the eggs hatch many weeks in advance of 
the time when the buds show green at the tips. We found them late 
in February and early in March, when the aphid had no chance to 
obtain food. 

Mr. Alvah Peterson: What species? 

Mr. W. J. ScHOENE : Avence. 

Mr. R. C. Osburn: I would like to ask Dr. Peterson whether his 
observations indicate that avence is of any importance in getting out 
the test? What experiments have you to show that the nicotine 
should be used one to four hundred, as against one to nine hundred? 
The bulk of the United States probably uses nicotine sulphate at the 
rate of three quarters of a pint to one hundred gallons, and it would be 
very interesting to know why New Jersey reduces the recommendations 
to one to four hundred? 

Mr. Alvah Peterson: In the first place I might say that our 
recommendation is one to five hundred. 

In respect to the difference in the amount of injury done by the vari- 
ous species, of course that which is done by the avence is least of all. 
I fully expect to see injury done by avence this coming spring for they 
undoubtedly will be abundant, because I know of one orchard today in 
New Jersey where the eggs are actually so abundant that you cannot 
touch a square inch of the large trunk of the tree without crushing a 
number of eggs. When these eggs hatch and come out and attack the 
young, green buds, it stands to reason that there will be some injury, 
even though it may not be as marked as that of sorhi or pomi. 

In respect to one to five hundred or one to a thousand, or whatever 
might be recommended in using nicotine sulphate, I might say that 
we do not get as good a clean-up with one to a thousand as we do with 
one to five hundred. Mr. Barclay carried on experiments in his or- 
chards with one to five hundred and one to a thousand, which showed 
conclusively that one to five hundred is much better. Dr. Headlee has 
carried out some experiments along that same line. Probably he 
could give you some pointers on this. 

Mr. T. J. Headlee: We have been interested in the study of the 
control of the apple aphis for three or four years, and we were lead to 
take it up because of the failure of some of our orchardists to obtain 
protection by the application of nicotine at the cluster cup or pink bud 



April, '19] 



APPLE APHIS: DISCUSSIOX 



143 



spray. The same year that this failure occurred we made a laboratory 
test to determine the minimum dosage which would destroy the rosy 
aphis. At the time the test was made the rosy aphis was present in all 
stages from the slaty colored stem mother to the winged forms. The 
results of that test are shown in the following table: 

Effect of Nicotine Sprats on Rost Aphis 



Number of 
Leaves 


Treatment 


Percentage Living at 
End of Experiment 


2 


Water only 


100 


2 


"Black Leaf 40" (1 part) + water (900 parts! 


60 


2 


"Black Leaf 40" (1 part) + water (900 parts) + soap (2 lbs. to 50 gal.) 


10 


2 


"Black Leaf 40" (1 part) + water (700 parts) + soap (2 lbs. to 50 gal.) 


1 


2 


"Black Leaf 40" (1 part) + water (500 parts) 


10 


2 


"Black Leaf 40" (1 part) + water (500 parts) + soap (2 lbs. to 50 gal.) 






The following year we laid out some blocks of seven-year-old apple 
and made the series of treatment indicated in the following table: 



Summary of Resvlts in .\phis Control ExPEP.mENT 



Plot 
Numbers 


Treatment 


Total Number 

of Buds 

Examined 


Total Number 
of .\phis 
Found 


Number of 
Aphis Per 
100 Buds 


l&l 


Lime-sulfur (1 to 9) during dormancy: "Black Leaf 40" 
(1 to 1,000) + soap (2 lbs. to 50 gal.) when buds showed 
green 


2S1 


5 


1.7 


2&2 


Lime-sulfur (1 to 9) during dormancy; lime-sulfur (1 to 9) 
+ "Black Leaf 40" (1 to 1,000) when buds showed green 


282 


IS 


6.3 


3&3 


Lime-sulfur (1 to 9) when the buds showed green 


320 


304 


95. 


4&4 


Lime-sulfur (1 to 9) -f- "Black Leaf 40" (1 to 500) when 
buds showed green 


339 


11 


3 2 


545 


Lime-sulfur (1 to 9) -|- "Black Leaf 40" (1 to 1,000) when 
buds showed green 


331 


1.^6 


47.1 


6&6 


Scalecide (1 to 15) while buds were dormant 


306 


37 


12. 


7&7 


Scalecide (1 to 15) when the buds showed green 


303 


9 


2 9 



Note. — Unsprayed trees showed average of 000 aphis per 100 buds. 

A large blo';k of trees of the same aze and variety in the same orchard were sprayed with lime-sulfur (1 to 9) during 
dormancy. These trees showed an average of aj'his to ICO buds. 

Mr. John Barclay of Cranbury was the orchardist cooperating and 
the man who personally made the treatments. Throughout my entire 
experience I have never seen an orchardist or an entomologist who 
made treatments any more thoroughly than Mr. Barclay and I believe 
therefore that the data obtained are reliable. This table shows that 
the spray of winter-strength lime-sulphur to which 40 per cent nicotine 
was added at the rate of 1 to 1000 left fifteen times more living aphis 



144 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

on the tree than the spray composed of winter-strength lime-sulphur to 
which 40 per cent nicotine was added at the rate of 1 to 500. No man 
can say without a foreknowledge of the weather what degree of reduc- 
tion will constitute a control. It is therefore advisable to obtain the 
greatest degree of reduction possible, and the mixture of winter- 
strength lime-sulphur to which 40 per cent nicotine has been added at 
the rate of 1 to 500 appears to give a much greater reduction than the 
less strengths of nicotine. 

President E. D. Ball: I will now call for the next paper by Mr. 
A. L. Quaintance. 

Mr. a. L. Quaintance : I wish to explain that I prepared no paper. 
When I saw that there were already on the program papers dealing with 
the Japanese beetle and oriental fruit moth, it appeared to me prefer- 
able to discuss and perhaps elaborate on the papers presented, if oppor- 
tunity offered, rather than to present another formal paper. Unfor- 
tunately I missed hearing the papers presented by Professor Cory and 
Mr. Goodwin, but have no doubt that the subjects were fully covered. 

There are two or three questions relative to quarantine measures, 
however, and the question of possibility of the eradication which may 
be of interest to some of the membership. The quarantine question is, 
of course, in the hands of the state entomologists concerned. As to 
the eradication of the oriental fruit moth and Japanese beetle, I would 
say that in my opinion while such eradication is of course within the 
realms of possibility, provided large funds are available and very drastic 
measures are adopted, yet I doubt the feasibility and expediency of a 
program of this character. 

Perhaps all of these questions have been discussed by Mr. Goodwin 
and Professor Cory and I would not wish to repeat anything since we 
have still before us a very interesting program. It is suggested there- 
fore that unless there are particular questions in which members are 
interested that further time be not taken up with this subject. 

Mr. p. J. Parrott: We people from other parts of the country do 
not often have the opportunity of seeing Mr. Quaintance, much less to 
hear him, and I would like very much to have him discuss both of these 
insects and give us his impression of the situation. 

Mr. a. L. Quaintance: Referring first to the Japanese beetle: 
We do not know, of course, how much of a pest the Japanese beetle is 
going to be. While the adults attack a large variety of food plants, 
some of which are injured to an important extent, it is very probable 
that such damage can be effectively checked by the use of arsenical 
poisons spraj^ed or dusted over the plants being injured. The beetles 
feed upon numerous ornamentals which are now, as a rule, but little 
sprayed, but which for the most part could readily be sprayed without 



April, '19] JAPANESE BEETLE: DISCUSSION 145 

unduly complicating their profitable cultivation. We are quite uncer- 
tain as to the amount of damage to expect from the larvae attacking the 
live roots of plants. This type of injury, if important, would probably 
prove difficult of correction. 

I think entomologists are warranted in assuming that a newly intro- 
duced insect will become a troublesome pest and arrange their work on 
that basis. A change of policy, of course, can be adopted as soon as it 
is clear that the insect in question will not be especiallj^ troublesome. 
Acting on this plan the Bureau of Entomology, cooperating with Dr. 
T. J. Headlee, New Jersey State Entomologist, has undertaken work 
looking toward the eradication and control of the insect. Mr. Good- 
win doubtless fully explained to you this morning the character of field 
work now under way. If its eradication cannot be accomplished, our 
efforts, it is hoped, will result in restricting its spread until its economic 
status will have been better determined. 

Our inspection records for 1917 of the distribution of the Japanese 
beetle were not very extensive, and while we have been able to make 
fairly thorough inspecting during 1918, we are unable to decide on 
account of the uncertainty of the thoroughness of previous inspection 
work, whether the insect is spreading rapidly, moderately or not at all. 
Personally, I am of the opinion that it spread during 1918 to a consider- 
able extent. 

Several state entomologists have made inquiry concerning what 
quarantine measures, if any, should be undertaken to prevent the 
introduction of the insect into their states. I think it would be danger- 
ous to permit the shipment from the infested area of plants with soil 
around the roots. I understand that Dr. Headlee has in effect regula- 
tions to prevent the movement of such plants. There is danger also of 
the distribution of the beetles in green, sugar or field corn, since the 
beetles freelj^ penetrate the tips of the ears of green corn to feed upon 
the milky kernels. The danger of the spread of the insect in this way 
seemed so important that a quarantine of green sweet corn was estab- 
lished by the Federal Horticultural Board, effective June 1, 1919. and 
adequate machinery will be provided for the inspection, certification 
and movement of this crop. 

Several things interfered with the vigorous prosecution of the field 
work planned for 1918, as insufficient funds, difficulty in obtaining in 
time machinery and insecticides, and difficulty in obtaining labor. We 
hope to surmovuit all of these difficulties next year and feel that 1919 
and 1920 will i)e our big years in the work, and which will prove con- 
clusively what can be hoped for towanls the eradication of the Japanese 
beetle. 

The establishment in the Tnited States of the oriental fruit niotli has 



146 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

awakened a good deal of interest among entomologists and fruit grow- 
ers. It may be that possibilities for injury by this insect have been 
over-emphasized. There is, however, considerable reason for fearing 
that the insect may become a first-class pest of deciduous fruits. It 
belongs to the same genus with the codling-moth. There are developed 
in the latitude of Washington four or five broods of larvse each year, 
and the behavior of the insect in orchards coming under the speaker's 
observation leaves no doubt as to the capabilities of the insect for harm. 
Notwithstanding all of these facts the oriental fruit moth may, of 
course, succumb to the action of native parasites, or for other reasons 
fail to develop into a serious pest, a result which is much to be hoped for. 

Funds were available under the appropriation for stimulating agri- 
culture to make a rather thorough survey of the United States to deter- 
mine the distribution of the insect. There were employed at one time 
or another some fifteen or eighteen inspectors, and while it was possible 
to inspect only the more important fruit-growing regions, yet the 
scouting was so arranged that had the insect been generally scattered 
over the country, it would have certainly been detected. Inspections 
were made of the peach belt of the South and representative peach and 
apple orchards were inspected in the middle Atlantic States, the middle 
West, the Rocky Mountain States and the Pacific Coast. Briefly the 
insect was found to occur only in a strip of territory that may be said 
to border on each side of the railroads between Washington and New 
York. In the environs of Washington, we have a rather severe infesta- 
tion extending a few miles south into Virginia and northwestward to 
about Leesburg, Va., where large commercial peach orchards are 
located. The insect is pretty well present over southern Maryland, 
extending northward through Frederick and Washington Counties, 
Md. There is an infestation at Lancaster, Pa., and it has been taken 
in the environs of Philadelphia. Northern New Jersey is more or less 
infested, and the insect is rather generally present on ornamental and 
other Prunus spp. on Manhattan and Long Islands. There is an 
infestation in southern Connecticut and extreme southern New York. 

Considerable difference of opinion prevails among entomologists as 
to the practicability of quarantine measures in the restriction of spread 
of this species, and perhaps something should be said on this subject. 
It should be borne in mind that the oriental fruit moth infests fruit, 
especially peaches, apples, pears and quinces and also the tender tips 
of nursery stock and orchard trees, particularly the peach. We may 
fairly judge of the probable effectiveness of quarantine measures in 
preventing the spread of the oriental fruit moth in fruit by what we 
know of the value of such efforts in preventing the spread of the cod- 
Hng-moth. In the case of an insect infesting fruit any adequate inspec- 



April, '19] ORIENTAL PEACH MOTH: DISCUSSION 147 

tion and certification as to freedom from the insect would be exceed- 
ingly difficult to arrange, "and would require a large force of inspectors 
and funds to make the work reasonably efficient. Even under such a 
system it is practically certain that the pest would gradually be dis- 
seminated in spite of all efforts to the contrary. A more logical plan 
would appear to be to provide for the inspection of orchards and quar- 
antine movement into non-infested areas of fruit from orchards found 
to be infested. 

In the case of nursery stock, the danger of distribution in the 
speaker's judgment is slight. Of course it is possible that some of the 
larvse might still be in the tips of the twigs when the trees are dug and 
shipped in early fall, but in the case of nursery stock handled in the 
usual way, larvse in most cases would have deserted the twigs and 
sought suitable places for the construction of cocoons in which to hiber- 
nate. Probably only in rare instances would the cocoon be found 
along the trunk of the little nursery tree, but more likely on the ground 
under accumulated trash, etc. Any quarantine plan to be effective, 
therefore, should pay especial attention to restricting the movement 
of infested fruit, the quarantine on nursery stock being merely inci- 
dental. In view of the extreme difficulty, if not impossibility, of 
restricting the spread of this insect by quarantine measures, such quar- 
antines are, in the speaker's opinion, of doubtful utility and should 
receive the careful attention of state entomologists before being put in 
effect. Surely cooperation among state officials should be had and a 
uniform policy adopted, if possible. 

In states where peach growing is now a large and specialized indus- 
try, as in portions of the South, the Alleghany States, the Pacific Slope 
and elsewhere, the officials charged with the protection of these indus- 
tries from introduced insect pests will no doubt give careful considera- 
tion as to what should be done under the circumstances, considering in 
this connection the extreme difficulty of putting in operation measures 
which would really prevent the movement of the pest in fruits. 

It is pretty certain that the oriental fruit moth will not be very troub- 
lesome to apple growers, since the methods of control employed for the 
codling-moth should also secure the control of this insect. In the case 
of peaches, however, the situation is not so favorable, since owing to 
the habits of the pest, it will be very difficult to materially control it 
by sprays, judging from results of experimental work along this line 
thus far carried out. 

Mr. J. G. Sanders: I would like to ask Professor Quaintance 
whether he thinks it possible or probable that European authorities 
may quarantine against American apples on account of this insect. 

Mr. a. L. Quaintance: That is a question I cannot answer. I 



148 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

think European authorities have very rarely quarantined against Amer- 
ican fruits on the grounds of danger of introduction of injurious insects. 
It is true that the German Empire and one or two other goverments 
quarantined American apples on account of the San Jose scale. It is 
my understanding, however, that in the case of Germany this quaran- 
tine was not issued so much on account of the San Jose scale as to 
favor growers of apples in that country. Personally, I do not believe 
Europe will quarantine against the oriental fruit moth. 

Mr. T. J. Headlee: We do not want any misconception concern- 
ing the measures that are taken to prevent the distribution of the Jap- 
anese beetle on nursery stock into other parts of the United States. 
From the time the existence of this insect was recognized no plants have 
been allowed to leave the infested sections of the nursery with- 
out having all the soil removed from the roots. In view of the fact 
that the plants are moved when the Japanese beetle is in the ground as 
a grub, such precautions would seem ample to prevent the distribution 
of the insect on nursery stock. 

Mr. E. N. Cory: You don't attempt to control the action of the 
individual in taking plants out of the areas? 

Mr. T. J. Headlee : In response to Mr. Cory's question, up to the 
past season we have made no attempt to prevent individuals from 
carrying in hand, bag or vehicle, individual plants such as rosebushes 
from premises within the infested area. During the past season a cam- 
paign of education was put on among the people living in the infested 
district for the purpose of obtaining their cooperation in the prevention 
of this sort of movement. During the coming year still greater and 
we hope more effective efforts will be taken along this line. 

President E. D. Ball: The next paper is entitled " High Tempera- 
ture Fumigation and Methods of Estimating Radiation Required," by 
W. H. Goodwin. 



HIGH TEMPERATURE FUMIGATION AND METHODS OF 
ESTIMATING RADIATION REQUIRED 

ByW. H. Goodwin, New Brunsmck, N. J. 
(Withdrawn for publication elsewhere) 

Vice-President W. C. O'Kane : The next paper on the program is 
''The Potato Leaf Hopper," by E. D. Ball. 



April, '19] BALL: THE POTATO LEAFHOPPER 149 



THE POTATO LEAFHOPPER AND ITS RELATION TO THE 

HOPPERBURN 

By E. D. Ball, Ames, Iowa 

The leaves of the potatoes were badly burned during the season of 
1918 all over the whole northern part of the United States, from Mon- 
tana to New York, and New Jersey south to Kansas and Ohio. In 
different places it was called ''blight, tipburn, or aphis work." The 
writer's attention was called to it on July 17. At this time the early 
potatoes in southern Wisconsin were largely dying or dead from the 
trouble. On examining the injured plants it was found that the leaves 
with only the margins burned invariably had nymphs or cast skins of 
the potato leaf hopper (Empoasca mali LeB.) on the under sides. Upon 
investigation, it was found that even the leaves that had been burned 
entirely brown still had the cast skins of the leafhoppers in numbers, 
showing conclusively, that the insects had been present on them for 
some time. Egg scars were also found on all burned leaves at this 
time. Oftentimes it was possible to find a leaf with a single egg scar, 
the five cast skins of the different stages of the nymph and the freshly 
hatched leafhopper, showing that the whole life up to that date had 
been passed upon the single leaf. The uninjured leaves were also 
examined, but no egg scars, cast skins, or nymphs were found on them. 
The adults were just beginning to fly and occasionally a fresh adult, 
apparently a new arrival, would be found on an uninjured leaf. 

Description of the Injury (Hopperburn) 

The injury varies somewhat with different varieties and different 
conditions of temperature and moisture, but in general, the first sign 
is a triangular burned area at the top of the leaf, followed bj' progressive 
appearance of burned areas, more or less triangular, along the margin. 
These areas coalesce as the burning progresses, until the entire margin 
of the leaf is brown and more or less curled up. The l)urned margin 
increases in width, until only a narrow strip along the midrib remains. 
In the worst cases, this strip and the midrib binn, the leaf dies, and 
later the plant succumbs, standing burned and dry. 

On examining carefully the burned leaves, egg scars will be found in 
the midribs and leaf stems, as shown in 2, 3, and 4 of figure 7. 
Often t he l)urned triangle at the tip will be found to extend IkicIc nearly 
to a place where one or more egg scars have so distorted the midrib 
that it has collapsed beyond that point. The burned areas along the 
margin will often be found to extend in some distance on the lateral 

2 



150 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

veinlets and these veinlets will appear collapsed and brown, to a point 
where there appears to be a series of punctures probably made by the 
beaks of the nymphs. 

The more rapid growing varieties of potatoes suffered less than those 
of slower growth, apparently due to the larger number of leaves pro- 
duced. Each leafhopper appeared to be able to destroy a leaf. If 
there were only as many hoppers as leaves, the plant kept on growing ; 
if on the other hand, there were two hoppers to a leaf, it died. 

The Relation of Hopperburn to Tipburn 

Tipburn has been used for years, to designate any burned condition 
of the leaves, for which no causal agent could be found, the most com- 
mon explanation being that it resulted from too rapid transpiration 
due to abnormal conditions of temperature and moisture, although Dr. 
L. R. Jones, in first discussing it, suggested that insects might be a 
factor in its production. It seems probable that a considerable amount 
of the injury referred to as tipburn, in the past, has been due to the 
leafhopper. On the other hand, there are, no doubt, other causes of 
the burning of potato foliage and it will be one of the problems of the 
future to differentiate these factors. 

At first it was thought that there was a great variation in suscepti- 
bility of different varieties, but further study appeared to show that 
the variation was due to the difference in time that the foliage appeared 
on the potatoes. 

Potatoes that were up at the time that adult leafhoppers were flying 
in the spring, were injured in about the proportion of their foliage. 
Potatoes that came up later, even if in adjoining rows, were not injured 
at all until the adults of the new generation flew to them in July and 
August, 

In every case the first injury appeared on the older leaves, below the 
top. This was due to the fact that between the time the eggs were laid 
and the young nymphs had hatched and had time to produce the 
injury, new leaves would have grown above the injured ones. 

Cage Experiments 

A cage was put over a medium-sized potato, early in August, and be- 
tween 200 and 300 leafhoppers added. In three days all of the upper 
leaves of the plant were rolled up and burned brown and the growth of 
the plant stopped. Following this, two cages were placed over potato 
plants of equal size. Another plant of similar size was selected as a 
field check. These plants were scarcely two-thirds of the height of the 
cages and were considerably burned on the lower half when caged. 

In one cage, between 200 and 300 leafhoppers swept from the field 



April, '19] BALL: THE POTATO LEAFHOPPER 151 

were placed. The leaf hoppers on the other plants were carefully re- 
moved before the cage was put on. The third plant remained under 
field conditions and during the next three weeks of hot, dry weather, 
the burning developed upon the upper part of the plant in considerable 
amounts, so that the whole field showed a brown cast, where before it 
had looked green. 

At the end of three weeks the cages were removed and the three 
plants examined, after which their tops were cut off and photographed 
and then preserved. 

The plant on which the hoppers were placed (PI. 5, fig. 1) had evi- 
dently died within a short time, then the leafhoppers died and later, 
two green shoots came up from the stem near the base. These were 
green and not burned, while the former top was curled up brown and 
dead. The check plant had grown but little in height and the burning 
had progressed clear to the top (PI. 5, fig. 2). The plant from which 
the leafhoppers had been removed, had grown rapidly and filled the 
top of the cage. The leaves were broad, smooth and bright green, 
with long, acute tips and without a trace of browning (PL 5, fig. 3). 

Is THE HOPPERBURN SPECIFIC? 

The closely related leafhoppers working on rose, apple, grapes and 
woodbine, produce a whitened appearance on the upper side of the 
leaves, due to innumerable minute white spots that are apparently the 
result of feeding punctures. These feeding punctures are practically 
all made from the under side of the leaves, where the nymphs are found. 
In no case, however, is there any marginal burning of the leaves, or 
any browning, until the leaves are so badly injured that they are 
practically dead. 

In the case of the potato leaf hopper, the effect is quite different. 
The burning occurs while the other parts of the leaf are apparently 
uninjured and the margin of the burned area is always sharp and defi- 
nite. This leaf hopper attacks dahlias and produces the same marginal 
burning, as well as the same egg scars and distortion of the midribs and 
veinlets as on potatoes. It is also found attacking water sprouts and 
fast-growing tips of box elder trees and producing the same type of 
burning. Water sprouts and fast-growing shoots of nursery stock, 
and apples are also attacked, the leaves curled and the tips burned. 
The upper leaves on fast growing raspberry canes are similarly curled 
and burned. 

All the evidence at hand indicates that the hopperl)urn is produced 
in every case by this one insect and by this one only. Wiietlior or not 
it will piovc to be a specific disease like the curly-leaf, transmitted by 



152 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

the beet leaf hopper, is yet to be worked out, but in any case, its relation 
to the potato leafhopper seems to be a specific one. 

Life-History of the Leafhopper on Potatoes 

The life-history of this species has been studied mainly in connection 
with its work as a nursery pest and reported under the name of the 
apple leafhopper.^ Washburn, Webster and others have reported it 
as having from four to six generations per year. In practically all of 
this work the three species of leafhoppers commonly found on apples 
have apparently been confused. 

Parrott was the first to clear this matter up and Lathrop,^ working 
at Geneva, first differentiated the life-histories of the three species. 
He showed that the rose leafhopper (Empoa roscc) wintered as an egg, 
mainly on roses, produced two generations, the second one on apples; 
that Empoasca unicolor Gill, the true apple leafhopper, spent its whole 
life on apples, wintering as an egg under the bark and producing a 
single generation a year; while Empoasca mali LeB., hereafter to be 
called the potato leafhopper, wintered as an adult and produced two 
broods during the season. 

The writer's observations during 1918 indicated that two generations 
were produced on potatoes. The adults fljang in the spring- at the 
time the early potatoes come up, laid their eggs in the stems and 
midribs of the leaves (fig. 7, 2, 3, 4.) These hatched into nymphs 
(fig. 7, Ic) that fed on the under sides of the leaves, remaining on 
the single leaf, as shown by the successive cast skins, unless disturbed 
or, in case there were several on the leaf, until it died when thej^ would 
migrate to another. During July and early August the first generation 
changed to adults and deposited eggs again or flew to the late potatoes 
to start the second generation there. 

Proof That the Leafhopper Caused the Hopperburn 

That the burned condition of the potato leaves observed in 1918 was 
due to the attack of the leafhopper seems to the writer to be well estab- 
lished by the following summary of proof : 

First: Cage experiments showed that the leafhoppers could burn 
and roll the leaves in three days and that plants from which leafhoppers 
were all removed grew rapidly without sign of hopperburn. 

Second: All burned leaves showed on theii'* under surface, either 
the leafhoppers, their cast skins or egg scars; often all three, while green 
leaves showed no traces of these. Injury was proportional to the num- 
ber of leafhoppers. 

^ A more extended discussion together with a complete bibliography wUl be found 
in the "Second Biennial Report of the State Entomologist of Wisconsin, 1919." 
2 Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. II, p. 144, February, 1918. 



April, '19] 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 



Plate 5 




1. Tup of potato plant from ca^e in which leafhojjpers were placed; 2. Top of 
check plant from field; 3. Top of plant from which all hopjwrs were removed; 
3. (Lower electro.) Potato leaf showing hopi)eil)urn and the cast skins of the loafhop- 
pers producing it. 



April, '19] 



BALL: THE POTATO LEAFHOPPER 



153 




Fig. 7. The Totato L««aniopi)er; 1, a aad /. tlic loaflK>i)por; c, nympli; d and e, 
venation of elytron; (/, "suw-likc" ovii)Ositor with which the epgs are thnist into 
the stems; 2, eggs in the stem; 3 and 4, egg soars in niidril.; A, nymph killed by 
fungus. 



154 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Third : Burning always appeared on the older leaves below the top 
of the growing plant, showing that time must elapse before its appear- 
ance (time for eggs to hatch) . 

Fourth: Burning on plants had no relation to position with refer- 
ence to exposure, to sun or to soil. 

Fifth : Burning in fields had no reference to soil condition, slope or 
exposure. 

Sixth : Different varieties were affected according to the time they 
came up, or according to amount of foliage present when the leaf- 
hoppers were laying eggs. 

Seventh: Epidemics of leaf hoppers and hopperburn (called tip- 
burn) have been observed at the same time, on a number of previous 
occasions. 

Eighth: Other plants attacked by the potato leaf hopper show the 
same distinct types of marginal burning: dahlia, box elder, apple and 
raspberry. 

Control 

Spraying with a rather strong kerosene emulsion or with Black Leaf 
40, one pint to one hundred gallons of water, to which five pounds of 
soap have been added, was found effective in killing both nymphs and 
adults. The sprays must be applied from below, by means of a shep- 
herd's crook made from |-inch gas pipe, or applied from above while 
the plants are drawn over by a suspended board. Two sprayings, a 
week or ten days apart, applied from opposite directions, were sufficient 
to control. 

Vice-President W. C. O'Kane: Is there any discussion of this 
paper? 

Mr. p. J. Parrott: Is this the same trouble that the plant 
pathologists call tipburn? 

President E. D. Ball: I am with the plant pathologists in 
saying that there is no question but what some of the things they 
called tipburn in the past were not this, but a large part of it was this. 

Mr. p. J. Parrott: Mali winters as an adult? 

President E. D. Ball: Yes. 

Mr. p. J. Parrott: What are its earlier food plants before it 
goes over to the potato? 

President E. D. Ball: Mali goes over to a very large variety 
of plants. 

Mr. E. p. Felt: Do I understand that this injury in the opinion 
of Dr. Ball is largely mechanical? 

President E. D. Ball: I doubt it; I am inclined to believe that 
it is specifical, an infection or an injection. 



April, '19] O'KANE: LIMITATIONS IN INSECT SUPPRESSION 155 

Mr. McCampbell: When you advise the farmers to spray, how 
far apart would the sprays be? 

President E. D. Ball: A week or ten days apart. 

Mr. C. p. Gillette: Are the eggs laid wholly on the veins? 

President E. D. Ball: On the midribs and the stalks of the 
leaves. As soon as they have destroyed the leaves they will feed on 
the stems and destroy them also. But they feed on the leaves appar- 
ently up to the time that the leaves die. 

Mr. H. a. Gossard: We had in Ohio the maple injured simi- 
larly to tipburn and from the association of this species, we attributed 
it to that. 

President E. D. Ball: This is the leafhopper that injures the 
growing shoots of nursery stock and young apple trees and burnp 
them; it is the leafhopper that injures the growing tips of raspberry 
canes; it is not the leafhopper that injures the leaves of apple trees; it 
is almost never found on a slow-growing apple tree. On box-elder, 
it is only found on the water shoots or the fast-growing tips. 

Mr. p. J. Parrott: In Geneva we have a great deal of trouble 
on the nursery maples. 

Mr. J. T. Headlee: Can the speaker give us some idea of how 
much an infestation is necessary to bring about the results on potatoes 
that he describes? 

President E. D. Ball: One leafhopper will destroy a leaf . 

President E. D. Ball: The next paper on the program will be 
by Mr. O'Kane on "Limitations in Insect Suppression." 



LIMITATIONS IN INSECT SUPPRESSION 
By W. C. O'Kane 

At the outset there should be some further definition of the subject 
of this paper. What I have in mind is a brief discussion of some of 
of the difficulties and problems that arise when the entomologist faces 
the task of organizing a campaign against a new and serious insect out- 
break. Necessarily these difficulties and problems will vary widely 
with the insect, the part of the country invaded, the host plant and 
other factors, including the entomologist himself. Therefore that which 
follows can be only the view of one entomologist, based on an exper- 
ience necessarily limited and on contact with only relatively few 
serious insects. That- which constitutes a difficulty in New Englantl 
may turn out differently elsewhere, with another type of citizen to deal 
with and with another man to do the ilealing. 

However, no matter where the work or who the worker, there is at 



156 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

least one limitation that is certain to make itself felt at the beginning 
of the campaign. That factor is the lack of accurate scientific knowl- 
edge of the pest that is causing the outbreak: its life-history, the 
intricacies of its habits, its preferences as to food plants, and, in turn, 
the life-history and habits of its insect enemies. 

Seldom, I think, shall we find available complete knowledge as to 
the majority of these vitally important points. " If the pest has 
been introduced from another country we shall certainly have to work 
out a detailed study of it in this country, not only because recorded 
information about it in its native habitat will likely be scanty, but 
because its behavior and its reaction to natural enemies may be a new 
story here. Clearly, this knowledge must be had before a well- 
grounded campaign of control can be undertaken. 

The agencies that may undertake such a study are available in 
various quarters,- — in our state experiment stations, the state colleges, 
the state divisions of insect suppression, where such exist, and the 
Bureau of Entomology of the United States Department of Agriculture. 
Whatever of these agencies charge themselves with the study, there 
should be correlation between their work and the efforts of those who 
have the campaign of control laid on them. Men who are at work on 
the control side of the problem, if they are scientifically trained, will 
discover new details that need elucidation and will help to interpret 
scientific facts as they come to light. Men in investigational work, if 
in touch with those charged with control, will help preserve an atmos- 
phere of inquiry. Certainly, each will do the better work under the 
influence of close relationship. 

Control measures themselves may, of course, be vested in various 
individuals or institutions. The entire undertaking may be laid on 
the Federal Bureau of Entomology. It may devolve solely on the 
state official in whose jurisdiction the outbreak has begun. We have 
had examples of both plans. 

If the insect is one of great importance, especially if it is an intro- 
duced pest that has gained a foothold in only a limited locality but 
promises to spread to many other states or throughout the country, 
then it would seem clear that the larger part of a campaign of control 
should be undertaken by the Federal Bureau of Entomology. A 
lesser part may be undertaken by such states as are at the moment 
concerned. 

Two arguments may be offered against this theory. A state remote 
from the outbreak may urge that it should not be called on to help 
finance control of a pest that is two or three thousand miles away and 
may never reach its borders at all. It may argue further, that the 
area which has been so unfortunate as to acquire the pest is not entitled 



April, '19] O'KANE: LIMITATIONS IN INSECT SUPPRESSION 157 

to bequeath the penalty for that misfortune to other states, any more 
than it would assume the right to ask other states to help bear its 
burden of fire losses. As a matter of fact, however, in the case of any 
really threatening insect that has been introduced into the United 
States at some point and has actually become established, the pest is 
a matter of concern for other states, usually for all of them. It has 
made its start at one particular point, not through the carelessness of 
the state, as a rule, but by chance; and, in any event, the personal 
views of individuals as to responsibility will have no effect on the 
dispersion of the pest into new territory. 

The state in which an outbreak has begun may fairly assume an 
obligation to assist in control measures. In the first place, it has the 
problem within its midst. The thing is there. It is doing damage. 
It is a fact on hand. Aside from this, the state may be of real assist- 
ance to the federal authorities. For example, a federal quarantine 
can concern itself only with shipments interstate. Movement of the 
pest or its host from the infested area to other areas not invaded and 
within the same state is not subject to control by the federal regula- 
tions. Such movement may be controlled by state authority. 

It would seem, therefore, that a campaign for control of an insect 
outbreak may profitably be laid upon both the Federal Bureau and 
the states immediately concerned; and this applies as well to the 
necessary study of the insect and its enemies. 

The nature of the outbreak itself will determine what degree of con- 
trol may properly be undertaken. But that degree should be thought- 
fully and carefully weighed early in the campaign. It is one thing to 
retard the spread of a new insect pest; it is another thing to control 
it; it is still a different thing to suppress it; and it is again otherwise 
to exterminate it. Very rarely, indeed, may we rightly set about our 
campaign with the promise of extermination, either implied to our- 
selves in the arrangement of our campaign, or expressed to the public 
in any announcements or, especially, in requests for funds. Once in 
a great while an outbreak arises where actual extermination or eradica- 
tion is reasonably within hope. For example, I feci that we have such 
a situation at this moment in the European corn borer, although the 
possibility of actual extermination is problematical and will cease to 
be a possibility in another year or two. The work in progress against 
the gipsy moth is, to my mind, partly a matter of retarding spread, 
partly a campaign for control through the introduction of parasites, 
but only remotely a possibility of suppression and the latter only if it 
should happen that the introduced parasites prove extraordinarily 
efficient. It is not now a campaign of extermination, thougii once, 
years ago, it had that possibility in it. 



158 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

It is not proper to speak of extermination or to hold it out as an 
inducement in asking for public funds, unless actual extermination is 
reasonably in sight. This may be a limitation, for the public likes to 
think of eradication rather than control, and quite likely will be quite 
unable to see why actual eradication is not entirely feasible. But if 
eradication or suppression is promised without sufficient foundation, 
a mistaken idea is built up which, eventually, will have to be corrected. 

It is equally unfortunate to think of eradication in drawing up one's 
own plans if such an outcome is improbable. Those measures that 
would be justifiable if eradication is actually to be sought may become 
a sheer waste of money if a less degree of control is all that can possibly 
be expected. I must confess to a feeling that sometimes, as entomolo- 
gists, we have entered on a campaign drawn up on the basis of eradica- 
tion and involving heavy expenditures, whereas the best promise of 
ultimate solution lay in accepting the new pest as a permanent resident 
of our fauna, and determining that it should occupy as low a natural 
level as possible, in part through systematic introduction of its natural 
enemies. It must be acknowledged, of course, that it may be possible 
to get public money for suppression by mechanical means, where such 
funds would be more difficult or impossible if they are to be spent for 
travel abroad and for the study of the natural enemies of the pest. 
Sometime soon I hope that there may be arrangements concluded by 
which, as I think already proposed by Doctor Howard, we may enjoy 
the permanent services of experts, whose task it will be to study and 
to send to us the parasitic enemies of various serious pests that we 
already have or may acquire. 

Granted, however, that direct means of suppression such as spraying, 
must be undertaken on a large scale, in the course of a campaign to 
control an insect outbreak, will it be desirable to get this work done 
by placing the burden of responsibility on the private property owner 
or should it be undertaken by men employed by the state or federal 
authorities? 

If the insect is really a very serious one and if the aim of the cam- 
paign is to exterminate it or to stop spread, then I feel that dependence 
on the owner of private property will be wholly inadequate. There 
are various reasons for this. Eradication must be absolutely thorough. 
It does not mean to do a job that is 60 per cent complete or 80 per cent 
complete. It means to approach closely 100 per cent. Even sup- 
pression in the stricter sense means thorough work, properly performed 
at the proper time, and systematically carried through wherever the 
pest exists. 

There are many private property owners who could do their share, 
having the money, the time and the intelligence. But even some of 



April, '19] O'KANE: LIMITATIONS IN INSECT SUPPRESSION 159 

these will fail because they will delegate the work to others who will 
prove incompetent or because they themselves will, on account of their 
multiplicity of interests, fail to move at the right time. 

In contrast to these favored individuals there are many others, 
probably a majority, who lack the means, the time or the understand- 
ing to carry out real control measures. Their intentions may be 
excellent but their performance will not average high. 

Against this idea it may be argued that statutes can provide for 
compulsory suppression, requiring a property owner to take certain 
measures, and can make a further provision that, if he fails, the work 
shall be done by a public official and the cost charged against the 
property as a part of his taxes. This will not necessarily succeed. No 
statute can make a man do thorough work if he is inclined to be care- 
less. No law can teach every individual that adherence to some 
seemingly unimportant detail may be the key to success in control. 

Furthermore, there is a definite limitation as to the amount of cost 
that the statutes may charge against a property. This is true whether 
the law requires the owner to do certain work or whether it provides 
that the work shall be done by a public official and the expense charged 
in the taxes. In either event it is necessary to limit the charge to 
some percentage of the assessed valuation of the property concerned. 
The maximum percentage that appears allowable is one half of 1 per 
cent. To assess that much means, usually, to increase ordinary taxes 
by 25 per cent. But one half of 1 per cent for a farm assessed at So, 000 
is only $25, and the latter sum may be only a tenth of the actual cost 
of the work that should be done on the property in question. 

If it be argued, in turn, that the state or federal government may 
properly assume the remainder, the reply is that the government had 
better assume the whole thing and do the job, thus placing it in the 
hands of trained men who have that one thing on their mind and 
whose duty it is to perform the task completely and at the proper time. 

If, however, the campaign of suppression at hand is one of more 
liberal interpretation, in which the aim is to mitigate the damage done, 
to retard spread, to establish natural enemies, in other words, to accept 
the pest as a new member of the fauna, but to bring it to the lowest 
possible level of normal abundance, then there is good reason for 
asking the property owner to assume from the start an individual share 
in the burden of control. Indeed, to do anything else is to convey to 
the mind of the people an impression that the state or federal govern- 
ment is going to assume full responsibility for the pest in question and 
that the private property owner need not concern himself about it, 
cither now or in the future. 

To get the individual to conduct proper control incMsurcs means to 



160 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

carry through a campaign of education and stimulation. In fact, in 
planning any comprehensive program of insect control there is reason 
for adopting a definite schedule of educating the people, in order that 
they may give to the problem intelligent and competent support, 
financial and otherwise. 

At the best, the results of such a program of education will fall far 
short of the mark that one would like to set. When it would seem 
that certainly every citizen in the state must have come to understand 
the principal facts about a disastrous insect outbreak, the entomologist 
certainly will discover that six out of ten of those with whom he talks 
have practically no real conception of the problem and probably are 
sadly mixed in such information as they have absorbed. 

It follows that every available means must be used if a considerable 
percentage of the public is to be reached and to be taught the essential 
facts that eventually the property owner must know. The newspapers 
will reach some, although their message will actually get into the 
minds of a much smaller number than one at first anticipates. Cir- 
culars and bulletins serve their purpose, but here, again, I doubt if 
more than one out of five mailed out is read or absorbed by the recip- 
ient. Posters can be made to help, provided they are very brief, so 
that their import can be seized at a glance. Any printed matter should 
invariably be simple, concise, void of technical terms and well illus- 
trated. One page is better than two if one can possibly suffice. Two 
pages are better than four. 

The spoken word will get a message home where no circular or bulle- 
tins can find entry. People will listen to that which you say though 
they may lay aside that which j^ou have had printed for them. The 
best combination is the spoken word, reinforced by the printed circular 
distributed at the same time, and exemplified by the insect itself or 
its work actually exhibited. 

At the best, there is apt to be difficulty enough in getting adequate 
funds for a real campaign of eradication or of strict suppression of a 
threatening insect. Certainly sufficient funds constitute an absolutely 
vital factor if the campaign is one of this nature. If it requires $100,000 
to suppress a new insect at the beginning of its career, to spend half 
of that sum may be practically to throw the money away. The cam- 
paign must go the whole way. To stop short of the whole task is to 
build a bridge that lacks one or two spans. It may be an excellent 
structure to look at but it will be no good as a bridge. 

And, finally, there is the limitation of human capabilities among 
those who are planning and directing the campaign. I believe that 
seldom, indeed, shall we find, in the same man, the qualities that will 
make him successful in conducting the scientific investigation of an 



April, '19] O'KANE: LIMITATIONS IN INSECT SUPPRESSION 161 

insect and will, at the same time, make him competent as the admin- 
istrative head directing the staff who carry out the measures of sup- 
pression. On the other hand, as he is more typically an administrator, 
so his talent will less readily find expression in the details of investiga- 
tion. There is need for specialists in both fields. 



President E. D. Ball: The paper is now before us for discussion. 

Mr. T. J. Headlee: We have heard a great deal during this 
meeting about the necessity of the business administrator in carrying 
out work for the suppression of injurious insects. While I agree 
heartily with the idea that a business-like administration of such a 
project is a necessity, I want to point out that a purely business admin- 
istrator is just the man not to have in charge of such a project. He 
believes from his experience that the methods of procedure should be 
easily and definitely laid down and he will have no patience with the 
uncertainty which the nature of the problem creates in the mind of the 
entomologist. Pure business administrators for large projects of this 
kind, for directors of experiment stations and presidents of colleges are 
likely to prove a failure, because the very standardization which such 
a man will tend to introduce will destroy the initiative and render 
sterile the mind of the specialist without freest activity with which 
success cannot be had. 

Mr. McCampbell: In the matter of educating the public, I 
wonder if you realize how far your appropriations would go if you 
spent them with some of the weekly and farm papers in the form of 
pure editorial matter. My observations in Monmouth County are 
that the farmers there read the two country papers religiously; they 
read everything, and if the experiment station in New Brunswick wishes 
to reach those farmers, let them get up a nice readable story which the 
farmers can understand, and bring it right home to them, you will 
reach every farmer in the country. A little bit of time spent with 
those editors will get you two to five times as much through the edi- 
torials. I think this would be a wonderful way to get this information 
to them, and I am sure it will do lots of good. 

Mr. H. a. Gossard: I Avish to call attention to the fact that if 
we are going to call upon the infested districts to bear the full burden 
of suppression, that certain parts of our country will be loaded with 
nearly all of that expense. The great ports of entry for insect pests 
are in the New England and Middle States, and nearly all of our serious 
pests have gained entrance into the country from these points. We 
cannot reasonably expect that these states will pay for everything or 
feel that it is their duty to suppress all pests that may have entered 



162 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

the country through their ports of entry. If we are going to get ade- 
quate means, the whole country must get under the burden and help, 
otherwise these few states will get weary of the load and leave it to 
those states which are most interested, but which won't realize what 
they must do to stay the invasion, until it is too late. 

Mr. C. p. Gillette: We speak quite often about insect exter- 
mination. I would like to have the members of this body give us a list 
of the insect pests we have exterminated in this country. 

President E. D. Ball: We have exterminated the gipsy moth 
in half a dozen places; wherever they have tried, since they really took 
hold of it. 

Mr. J. G. Sanders: The pink bollworm is well under way. 

President E. D. Ball: The potato bug has been exterminated 
in some countries we know. 

Mr. W. D. Pierce: The cattle tick has been exterminated in 
whole states. 

President E. D. Ball: The scabies is practically eradicated 
from the western range. 

The next paper is on "Control of the Chrysanthemum Gall Midge 
with Nicotine Sulphate — with Notes on Life-Cycle," by T. L. Guyton. 



NICOTINE SULFATE SOLUTION AS A CONTROL FOR THE 

CHRYSANTHEMUM GALL MIDGE, DIARTHRONOMYIA 

HYPOGAEA H. LW. 

B}- T. L. GxjYTON, Harrisburg, Pa. 

A brief study of Diarthronomyia hypogcea was made at the Ohio 
Agricultural Experiment Station under the direction of Prof. H. A. 
Gossard. The writer is indebted to Professor Gossard and Mr. J. S. 
Houser for helpful suggestions in applying control measures. 

Diarthronomyia hypogan, a European pest for many years, was first 
recorded in this country in 1915 by Dr. E. P. Felt from specimens taken 
from greenhouses in Michigan. Professor Essig of California reported 
its presence in that state in 1915 and 1916. The first known outbreak 
in Ohio greenhouses was in February, 1918. 

Life-History as Noted in Greenhouse 
This study extended from the last of February to first of May, and 
one complete brood was observed. The length of the life-cycle is from 
forty to fifty days in a greenhouse where the temperature was about 
70° F. The eggs are placed promiscuously about the young, growing 
part of the host plant, and the number deposited by each female is from 
80 to 150. 



April, '19] 



GUYTON: CHRYSANTHEMUM GALL MIDGE 



163 



Control Work 

Nicotine sulphate solutions were used first of all with a hope of 
penetration sufficient to kill the larvse within the galls. Upon examina- 
tion a few hours after application a number of dead individuals were 
found at the point of emergence from the gall. Cages were at once 
prepared and tests made with the following results: 

Table L Results of Nicotlne Sulphate Spray on Emerging Chrysanthemum Midge. 





"Pot 1" 






"Pot 4" 




Sprayed with 1-500 


"Pot 2" 


"Pot3" 


Sprayed with 1-250 




Nicotine Sulphate and 


No Treatment 


NoTreatment 


Nicotine Sulpliate and 




Soap 






Soap 


Spraying Done 2/23 










Date of Observation 












Emergences 


Emergences 


Emergences 


Emergences 




Dead 


Li\-ing 


Dead 


Living 


Dead 


Living 


Dead 


Living 


2/25 











2 





2 


3 


1 


2/26 

















3 


1 





2/27 




















2 





2/28 


2 








9 





7 


6 





3/1 


4 








15 








2 





3/2 


3 








20 





4 


5 


1 


3/4 











38 


4 


6 


1 


1 


3/5 


























3/6 


3 








10 





9 





2 


3/7 


3 








5 





3 





1 


3/8 











1 





1 








3/9 











2 














3/11 

















n 








3/12 











1 














3/13 


























3/14 











3 














3/15 











2 














Total 


15 








108 


4 


35 


20 


6 



The cages were prepared by placing a heavily gall-infested plant in a 
five-inch flower pot, and covering the surface soil with about one-half 
inch of pure quartz sand. The plant was caged by placing a large 
lamp chimnej^ over it. The top end of the lamp chimney was closed 
with one thickness of cheese cloth. 

Greenhouse Tests of Nicotine Sulphate 

A bench about twentj'- feet long and three feet wide, containing about 
250 plants of a number of varieties of chrysanthemums, all infested 
with galls of the midge, was used as a trial. The plants on this bench 
were the only chrysanthemums in this particular room of the green- 
house, and they were cared for as in the usual practice of the caretakers. 
The plants were sprayed with a one to five hundred solution of nicotine 
sulphate and water, to which one ounce of caustic soda lish oil soap had 
been added to each gallon of solution. The spray was applied six times 
in all, with five-day intervals between each application. Observa- 



164 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

tions made at the end of the treatment are : The plants were in a good 
growing condition, showing no ill effects from the spray application. 
No eggs or adult forms of the midge were to be found. Six plants had 
midge galls, the contents of which were blackened and soft as seen under 
a binocular microscope. Many emerged adults, galls and eggs of the 
midge were evident among check plants in another room of the green- 
house. 

Examinations of the galls during the time of treatment showed that 
in many cases the larvae and pupae are not killed by the spray, but that 
the emerging adult is killed, probably by the moisture on its body com- 
ing in contact with the dry spray material on the outside of the gall. 
Thus to be effective in killing the midge, the spray mixture should be 
present throughout the period of emergence. Evidence was obtained 
which showed that at least a large per cent of the eggs are destroyed by 
this spray. 

Conclusions 

It is the belief of the writer that the chrysanthemum midge can be 
successfully controlled at the time of emergence of the adult by spray- 
ing with a solution made of one volume of nicotine sulphate containing 
40 per cent nicotine to five hundred volumes of water, to which fish oil 
soap has been added at the rate of one ounce to each gallon of solution. 
Since all the adults do not emerge at the same time the treatment must 
be repeated every four or five days, as long as any living forms of the 
midge remain in the galls. The plants must be completely covered with 
the spray solution. 

Mr. J. G. Sanders: This insect is comparatively new to green- 
house men, in fact it has occurred at widely separated points in the 
country. Those of you who have not seen its work will hardly appre- 
ciate the tremendous damage done to growing chrysanthemum plants 
due to the stunting of the buds. 

Mr. E. R. Sasscer: For the past year or more we have been 
conducting life-history and remedial work in Washington with this 
insect. We found by using nicotine sulphate, and continuing to spray 
every second or third day for a period of about 35 to 40 days, the midge 
could be controlled. We have also tried burning nicotine papers, 
but have found that if you burn often enough to be effective against 
the midge, it will injure the plants. We have practically eliminated 
this insect in a commercial house by spraying with nicotine sulphate. 

Mr. E. p. Felt: I would like to ask Mr. Sasscer if he has been 
able to try it against the box leaf midge. 

Mr. E. R. Sasscer: No, I have not. 



April, '19] 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 



Plate 6 




I)i(iiiliniii(iini/i(i lii/poiid' (1 : 1, Mfitis on yoiiiin ixirtion of plant . cnlMrnt'd; 2. It. di- 
vidual dead at point ol" ("incrnciicc from t he f^all, cidar^ctl ; A and 1, Stems and leaves 
of host plant showing the galls, al)out natural size. 



April, '19] GUYTON: CHRYSANTHEMUM GALL MIDGE 165 

Mr. E. N. Cory: I might say that we worked on the box leaf 
midge some years ago, and in a small way. We were unable to get any 
results with nicotine sulphate. 

Mr. E. p. Felt: Was the spraying at the time when you would 
catch the pupae as they were pushing out of the galls? They have 
just about the same habit. 

Mr. E. N. Cory: It was an attempt to get penetration and to 
kill the larvae. 

President E. D. Ball: We will call on Mr. Sasscer for a r6sum6 
of Mr. Woglum's paper on "Recent Developments in Fumigation with 
Liquid Hydrocyanic-acid." 

Mr. E. R. Sasscer: I am very sorry that you have not time to 
hear this paper of Mr. Woglum, because it shows the latest develop- 
ments of hydrocyanic-acid gas fumigation in California. You are all 
familiar with the old pot method where sodium cyanid is placed in the 
dilute sulphuric acid. 

[See p. 117-123 of February issue for text of this paper. Ed.) 



Mr. W. E. Britton: I would hke to ask Mr. Sasscer if he has 
tried this out in greenhouse fumigation. 

Mr. E. R. Sasscer: No, I have not tried it out. I hope to give 
it a test as soon as a suitable shipping container is found. 

Mr. p. J. Parrott: What is the effect on the valves or the metal 
parts of your machine? We find that the valves give way after the 
third year of use. 

Mr. E. R. Sasscer: I am unable to answer this question since 
all of this work has been under Mr. Woglum's supervision. 

Mr. T. J. Headlee: I would hke to ask the speaker if he has 
used the ordinary soda bottle, with the CO2 gas? 

Mr. E. R. Sasscer: It is understood that I have not used liquid 
hydrocyanic-acid and that all of the work referred to was done in 
California under Mr. Woglum's supervision. I am told that an appar- 
atus working on practically the same principle as a soda bottle can be 
satisfactorily used. 

Mr. W. H. Goodwin: Have they in any case used the oxygen or 
hydrogen steel drums? 

Mr. E. R. Sasscer: I do not know. All of this work has l)oen 
done in California. 

Mr. W. H. Goodwin: I know that in our cvaiiidc work wIhmc we 
use the liquid cyanide, all brass connections and valves will soon be 
3 



166 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

eaten away, and I know that the hydrocyanic hquid gas must have a 
much more serious effect than the cyanide. 

Mr. E. R. Sasscer: Hydrocyanic acid is said not to injure cloth, 
and therefore tent burning is reduced to a minimum. 

Adjournment. 

[Papers read by title.] 

THE WORK IN THE UNITED STATES AGAINST THE 
PINK BOLLWORM 

By W. D, Hunter, Bureau of Entomology and Federal Horticultural Board, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture 

Historical 

The protection of the United States against the pink bollworm 
(Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders) was first seriously considered by 
the Department of Agriculture in April, 1913, when the writer brought 
to the attention of the Federal Horticultural Board the strong possi- 
bility that the pest might be introduced at any time in cotton seed 
from Egypt or other infested countries. Shortly' thereafter a quaran- 
tine was promulgated to take effect on July 1, 1913. This quarantine 
prohibited the importation into the United States of cotton seed of all 
species and varieties and cotton seed hulls from any foreign locality, 
except the Imperial Valley in the State of Lower California in Mexico, 
where the cultivation of cotton is continuous with the growth of the 
crop in California. In August of the same year an amendment was 
issued which provided for the entry under regulations, for milling only, 
of cotton seed from certain additional northern states in Mexico. 

It was soon found that the quarantine against cotton seed and hulls 
was not sufficient to protect this country for the reason that consider- 
able quantities of seeds, in some cases as many as 600 per bale, were 
arriving in lint. Consequently means were taken to regulate the 
importation of lint and to require its fumigation in vacuum apparatus 
devised after a long series of experiments by IVIessrs. E. R. Sasscer and 
L. A. Hawkins. In the meantime the destruction of the seeds found in 
opening and cleaning foreign cotton was provided for in all mills utiliz- 
ing such cotton, regardless of their location in the United States. 

It was also necessaiy on account of the oceurrence of the pink boll- 
worm in Hawaii to place that territory on the same basis as foreign 
countries in regard to shipments of seed, hulls and lint. 

During all this time, of course, it was not known that the pink boll- 
worm existed in Mexico. Suddenly, however, on November 1, 1916, 
specimens of the insect were received through Mexico City from a 



April, '19] HUNTER: PINK BOLLWORM WORK 167 

plantation in the Laguna district in the northern portion of the coun- 
try. It developed that during 1916 about 400 carloads of Mexican 
seed had been shipped to Texas mills. Such shipments were unprece- 
dented and due entirely to the disturbances in Mexico which had pre- 
vented the operations of the large mills in the Laguna, which normally 
crushed all of the seed produced there. 

The Mexican seed shipped to Texas was received at eleven oil mills 
located in various parts of the state, some of them in actual contact 
with continuous cultures of cotton. 

Control Measures in Texas 

Immediately steps were taken to safeguard the Mexican seed in the 
Texas mills by early and special crushing and in other ways. The mill 
properties themselves were thoroughly cleaned under the supervision 
of the Federal Horticultural Board during the winter of 1916-17. 
This work was followed in 1917 by very thorough inspections by a 
number of agents of the cotton growers in the vicinities of the mills 
which had received the Mexican seed. The results of this work were 
all negative until September 10, 1917, when Inspector Ivan Schiller 
found a specimen of the pink bollworm in a field at Hearne adjoining a 
mill which had received 67 carloads of Laguna seed. On October 5 a 
single specimen was found near the oil mill at Beaumont, Texas, which 
received 114 carloads from Mexico, ajid on October 25 specimens were 
taken near Anahuac, in Chambers County. 

The first two of these infestations, namely at Hearne and Beaumont, 
were very evidently due to the Mexican seed which had been received. 
The infestation at Anahuac, however, cannot be connected with the 
seed shipped from Mexico. All investigations which have been con- 
ducted point to the very strong probability, if not certainty, that the 
Anahuac infestation was due to the washing ashore and brealdng of a 
number of bales of Mexican cotton which were carried inland by a 
storm which passed over Galveston in August, 1915. 

Plan of Operations 

In the three places where infestation was found the same general 
plan was followed by the board. The first step was to delimit the 
infestation, the second to destroy, as far as possible, any infestation 
existing in the fields, and the third to safeguard the cotton and cotton 
products originating in the infested territory. 

The infestation at Ilcarne was found to be very limited. This was 
determined by inspections made by about fifty entomologists detailed 
from the Bureau of Entomology and by a number of regular employees 
of the board. Likewise tiie infestation at Beaumont was found to be 



168 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

limited to the fields planted in seed from the mill. This seed was used 
for this purpose in violation of the agreement on the part of the mill 
that it should be crushed immediately. 

The infestation at Anahuac was soon found to be very extensive. It 
extended 25 miles south of that place to Smiths Point, but this was not 
the end, since the work of the inspectors revealed the presence of the 
pest on the opposite side of the Bay in Galveston County. As this 
work was continued during the winter of 1917-18 specimens of the pest 
were found in 161 fields, extending from the Neches River practically 
to the Brazos River, a distance of 125 miles, and inland a distance of 
approximately 75 miles. The territory thus found to be infested 
covers 5,400 square miles, and includes all or portions of seven coun- 
ties. It is considerably larger than the entire State of Connecticut 
and about three-fourths as large as the State of New Jersey. 

While the work of delimiting the infestation in southeastern Texas 
was under way, the work of cleaning the fields was begun. The pro- 
cedure followed was to cut down the cotton plants standing in the 
fields, place them in piles, then collecting by hand all of the bolls and 
particles of bolls on the ground, placing them on the piles of the stalks 
and burning the whole by the use of kerosene. 

The country in southeastern Texas is sparsely settled, and the farms 
separated by great distances. The local labor available was entirely 
insufficient for cleaning the fields thoroughly and with dispatch. Con- 
sequently gangs of laborers were organized who were housed and pro- 
visioned and distributed by motor trucks at the expense of the depart- 
ment. At one time the department had over 1,000 laborers engaged 
in the work, as well as twenty motor vehicles. The cleaning of the 
fields cost the department $87,439.88 on 8,794 acres, an average of 
$9.94 per acre. The cost in some cases was as high as $30 per acre, 
where the fields were especially far removed from the camps, and 
where they were filled with stumps or grass, or otherwise difficult to 
clean properly. 

The field work was greatly facilitated through the taking over of a 
number of trained men who were in the employ of the State of Texas 
and the Bureau of Plant Industry in the work of eradicating citrus 
canker. 

The safeguarding of the cotton and the cotton products originating 
in the infested territory in 1917 (and in 1916, as that year's crop had 
to be considered xuearly as dangerous as that of 1917) was accomphshed 
by the exportation of the lint through the cooperation of the dealers 
and the crushing of the seed under special supervision in approved 
establishments in the City of Houston. 



April, '19] HUNTER: PINK BOLLWORM WORK 169 

Quarantine and Non-Cotton Zones 

In 1917 a special session of the Legislature of Texas, at the suggestion 
of the Department of Agriculture, had provided a pink bollworm act. 
This act became effective on December 28, 1917. During the period 
between the finding of infestation and the date the law went into effect, 
through the cooperation of the railroads and shippers and the vast 
majority of the farmers, practically effective voluntary quarantine 
measures were enforced. The special statute gave authority for the 
quarantining of districts found infested by the pink bollworm and for 
establishing non-cotton zones, if necessary. It was most fortunate for 
the cotton industry of the country that this statute had been provided. 

The first steps taken under the law were to establish quarantine and 
non-cotton zones at Hearne and in southeastern Texas. In both cases 
a considerable area beyond the last points found infested was included 
as a safety belt. In southeastern Texas the width of this safety belt 
varied from 6 to 10 miles, depending on local conditions. 

The difficulties in the way of establishing a non-cotton zone in 
southeastern Texas were considerable. The area included 38,000 acres 
of cotton in 1917. The territory had suffered several agricultural 
catastrophes, including the failure of the citrus industry. Although 
the region is normally too humid for cotton, there had been two dry 
years which had enabled the farmers to produce unusual crops, and this 
fact gave cotton in general estimation an importance which it cannot 
be said to deserve. With war prices for the staple, the general state 
of the public mind at the suggestion of a non-cotton zone can well be 
imagined. 

Obstacles Encountered 

Although realizing the difficulties very keenly, the Commissioner of 
Agriculture, Fred W. Davis, and the governor of the state took the 
very commendable stand that the case required the establishment of a 
non-cotton zone, and the steps necessary to that end under the law 
were taken. 

As was expected, a few farmers, through lack of information and 
some for other reasons, planted cotton on their places. A test case of 
the law was soon provided. A planter in Liberty County had put in 
125 acres of cotton. He was arrested under the provision of the law 
which prohibited the planting of cotton in non-cotton zones estab- 
lished by proclamation of the governor. It was found on the trial that 
the statute was defective in that, while prohibiting the phinting of 
cotton under certain conditions, it did not specify a penalty. The 
penal code in Texas requires the indication of specific jienaities in such 



170 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

cases, and the state lost the case. The trial judge made it very clear 
in rendering his opinion that the general validity of the act had not 
been questioned. After the trial appeals were made by representa- 
tives of the board as well as by the state officials to farmers everywhere 
to comply with what was the clear intent of the law. These appeals 
were effective in many cases, but naturally a considerable acreage was 
planted on the supposition that the decision in the test case meant that 
the entire law was invalid. Altogether about 3,500 acres of cotton 
were planted in the non-cotton zone. Through direct appeals and 
appeals through bankers and merchants, much of this cotton was 
plowed out. In one considerable district every field planted was 
voluntarily destroyed. There remained, however, 1,741 acres which 
were cultivated and continued to grow. 

The Law Found To Be Constitutional 

The state and Federal governments cooperating undertook to 
establish in court that the growing of this cotton in violation of the 
governor's proclamation constituted the maintaining of a public 
menace. A test case was made against the president of an organiza- 
tion formed to fight the law, who had planted 30 acres of cotton. The 
trial lasted over two weeks. The judge went very thoroughly into all 
features of the law. The attack was on the score that the law was 
unreasonably drastic, that sufficient protection could be obtained by 
allowing the growing of cotton under regulations and the safeguarding 
of the products. However, the court decided that the law was reason- 
able and constitutional, and the defendant was ordered to destroy the 
crop forthwith. Upon his failure to do so in ten days, he was com- 
mitted to jail. In a few days he was released on a writ of habeas 
corpus issued by a higher court, and a hearing was set for October 10, 

An Agreement with Planters 

During all of these legal comphcations, the cotton planted in viola- 
tion of law continued to grow, and there was every prospect that it 
would be entirely harvested before the hearing on the habeas corpus 
case could be had. The agencies cooperating were therefore confronted 
with the facts that about 600 bales of cotton, of the value of approx- 
imately half a million dollars, had been produced; that if the state did 
not obtain custody of this crop, a considerable part would be smuggled 
out of the territory by means of the very numerous water courses in the 
region, and — anticipating a point which will be dealt with fully later — 
that no infestation by the pink boll worm had developed. It therefore 
became clearly advisable to make some provision which would give 
the state practical custody of the crop. After numerous plans were 



April, '19] HUNTER: PINK BOLLWORM WORK 171 

considered, it was finally decided to make a compromise with the 
planters. This provided that the state would make no further prose- 
cutions provided the planters would sign a formal agreement includ- 
ing the following points: (1) To turn over the seed and lint produced 
to the state, so that the former could be crushed under supervision and 
the latter exported; (2) to clean the fields thoroughly, depositing 
money at the rate of $20 per bale for each bale produced to guarantee 
that this work would be done properly; and (3) to agree not to plant 
cotton again during the term of any prohibition against it, and to sub- 
mit voluntarily to an injunction from which there would be no appeal. 
After some little effort, all of the 134 persons who had planted cotton 
in violation of law signed the agreement, and the crop is now being 
disposed of under safeguards. It is considered that this plan is alto- 
gether the best one which could have been followed in view of the difii- 
culties the state had encountered, and the actual fact that a large and 
valuable property had developed. The work of executing the agree- 
ment is being carried on by the state and Federal agencies cooperating, 
and has met with few important obstacles. 

Volunteer Cotton in Non-Cotton Zone 

During the season the Federal Horticultural Board has assumed a 
definite share of the work of maintaining a non-cotton zone in that it 
undertook to destroy all of the volunteer cotton growing therein. 
Such cotton appeared in considerable quantities in the majority of the 
fields throughout the non-cotton zone. The work of finding, collect- 
ing, inspecting and destroying this volunteer cotton was begun in June 
and continued for a period of six weeks. It was found, however, that 
some volunteer plants appeared during the summer, and it became 
necessary in September again to go over the entire territory-. The 
district was divided into sections placed in charge of different men who 
employed local labor and collected the volunteer cotton plants. In all 
cases these plants were taken to central points where all of the fruit was 
given most careful examination by inspectors trained to find the pink 
boUworm or evidences of its work. In this way over 3,000,0;)0 volun- 
teer cotton plants and the fruit on them have been examined. In 
many cases these plants came from fields where infestation was deter- 
mined to exist last year. The results up to the present time have been 
altogether negative. Not a trace of the insect has been detected. 

In a single case a few plants were allowed to grow in a field which was 
infested in 1917. This was near Smiths Point in Chamljers County, 
where much the heaviest infestation found in Texas had been located 
last year. It was easy to find l^olls with ten or twelve larvie within, 
and at least 75 per cent of the November bolls had more or less infesta- 



172 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

tion. The field was planted to sweet potatoes in 1918. Fifty-one 
volunteer plants were allowed to grow and develop bolls. These bolls 
have been examined on five occasions very minutely by a group of the 
most competent inspectors available, but no infestation has been 
found. 

General Scouting in 1918 

An average of forty men were employed on the work of scouting 
during the season of 1918. This work included the general vicinities 
of the eleven mills which received Mexican seed in 1916, and a number 
of places to which hulls or other more or less dangerous material were 
shipped in 1916 prior to the time when the department took charge 
and safeguarded the products. In a few cases hulls which may have 
been infested were shipped to other states, such as Arkansas, Louisiana 
and Mississippi. At the places where these hulls were received, inspec- 
tions have been made similar to those in Texas. Likewise thorough 
inspections have been made in some of the Eastern states which received 
Mexican cotton in 1915. In all cases the inspections have yielded 
absolutely negative results. 

It seems almost inconceivable that the pink bollworm has been 
stamped out in the large territory which it was found to occupy in 
southeastern Texas, but the thorough inspections which have been 
made, including the examination of all the volunteer cotton plants, 
indicate that if it has not been exterminated, it has been reduced very 
close to the vanishing point. 

The reasons for this apparent success, which it is hoped will be found 
real, are somewhat obscure. It is evident, however, that certain 
factors operated in a very important way towards the results which 
have been obtained. In the first place the work of cleaning the fields, 
that is, burning all portions of the cotton plants which might carry 
infestation, must have destroyed millions of the insects. That this 
was the case is evident from the fact that in many localities during the 
process of piUng the plants, a person could remove bolls from the plants 
and in a few minutes find specimens of the pink bollworm. The 
winter which followed this work of cleaning the fields was unusually 
severe, bringing temperatures almost unprecedented in southeastern 
Texas. This condition must have caused the death of many of the 
larvae which, hidden in bolls covered with earth in footprints and 
elsewhere, were missed by the laborers. At the same time it must not 
be assumed that the low temperatures were responsible for killing all 
of the insects which remained after the cleaning of the fields, since 
specimens in perfect condition were found on a number of occasions 
after the lowest temperatures had occurred. The last factor which 



April, '19] HUNTER: PINK BOLLWORM WORK 173 

must have been influential in reducing the pest was the establishment 
of a non-cotton zone. It is true that there were 1,700 acres planted 
in this zone, but that was a small amount in comparison with 50,000 
acres which would otherwise have been planted. Moreover it happened 
that practically all of the fields planted in cotton in violation of law 
were on land which was not in cotton during the preceding year, 
and there was no cotton whatever planted in the districts where the 
heaviest infestations were found. There the non-cotton zone was 
absolute. Some specimens which may have escaped both the cleaning 
of the fields and the vicissitudes of the winter may have appeared. 
If this was the case, the chances are that they were in the localities 
where there was no cotton, and their chances of propagating were 
ehminated or practically eliminated. 

Observations made in India, Egypt and Brazil show that the pink 
bollworm, under certain conditions, may propagate in plants other 
than cotton. These include okra, Indian hemp, hollj^hock and related 
plants. In so far as okra and hollyhock are concerned, these observa- 
tions have been confirmed by investigations made recently in Mexico 
by Mr. August Busck and his associates. In Texas, in addition to 
okra which is very commonly grown, there are four species of Hibiscus 
even more closely related to cotton than okra, which might support 
the pink bollworm. These wild plants grow in large colonies, and are 
of very general occurrence. The inspections made during the season 
in the non-cotton zone have included the minute examination of many 
thousands of these plants. In cases all of the seed pods on large groups 
of these plants growing in the vicinity of pink bollworm infestations of 
the year before were examined with negative results. 

The Outlook 

Despite the encouraging outlook, it is not assumed that the pink 
bollworm has been eradicated in the United States. The situation is 
such, however, that it has been decided to allow the planting of cotton 
in the non-cotton zone in the southeastern part of the state during the 
coming season under regulations as to the scotl planted, as to the 
handling of the crop, the cleaning of the fields and the destruction of 
growing crops found infested without compensation, as will enable the 
agencies cooperating to take early and radical stops, if necessary. 
The fcasibiUty of safeguarding the cotton products produced in the 
territory has been proven by what was done with reference to the crop 
of 1017 and tlic outlaw crop of 1918. Certainly if the infestation has 
not been eliminated altogctiier it is much less tiian it was in previous 
years, and the risk, if there is any, to be carried in connection with the 



174 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

planting of cotton in 1919 is much less than has been carried by the 
country for some time. 

It is planned to maintain a large corps of inspectors to examine the 
cotton grown under supervision next season. These men will also in- 
spect the fields growing in the vicinities of the mills which received the 
original Mexican seed. It is entirely probable that any situation 
which may arise next year can be handled speedily, and such steps 
can be much more satisfactorily taken than in the past on account of 
certain modifications of the pink bollworm law which will undoubtedly 
be provided by the next session of the Texas Legislature. 

Protection Against Reinfestation from Mexico 

As indicated earher in this paper, since November 4, 1916, the 
importation of cotton, cotton seed and cotton seed hulls from Mexico 
has been prohibited. Later regulations have covered the entry from 
Mexico of cotton seed cake, meal and oil. The object of this last 
provision is to discourage the erection of oil mills along the Rio Grande, 
which would naturally cause the flow of large quantities of seed from 
the infested portions of Mexico to our border. It has already resulted 
in the dismantling and moving to the interior of a mill which was 
erected opposite Eagle Pass. 

Since cotton seed maybe carried accidentally in empty freight cars or 
attached to freight of many classes, regulations now in effect include 
the inspection and disinfection of baggage, the cleaning or disin- 
fection of freight, express or other shipments except those which could 
not possibly carry infestation, restrictions on the entry of railroad 
cars, regulations for the transfer of freight, express and other ship- 
ments, certification of all cars or other carriers of merchandise as a 
condition of entry into the United States (excepting merchandise or 
other materials of strictly local origin), and the cleaning of domestic 
cars as a condition of receiving freight originating in Mexico for move- 
ment into the interior of the United States. The present regulations 
provide for the fumigation of the interior of cars with hydrocyanic gas 
and the spraying of the exteriors with kerosene emulsion. However, 
the department is now erecting houses into which cars will be run and 
fumigated. These houses will be located at all of the border ports, 
and will range in size from a capacity of one to fifteen cars, depending 
on the amount of the local international traffic. The houses them- 
selves have been erected. It is believed that the machinery such as 
generators and fans will be installed within the next few weeks. 



April, '19] HOLLOW AY: PARASITES OF SUGAR CANE BORER 175 

A Fresh Infestation 

At about the time this was written, a new infestation by the pink 
bollworm was discovered in Texas. This is in the extreme western 
part of the state along the Rio Grande, where the insect has been 
found in widely scattered fields along a front of 150 miles. Every- 
thing indicates at this time that the infestation is due to the smuggling 
of seed across the river from Mexico. The region is isolated from any 
other territory in the United States in which cotton is planted by 
hundreds of miles of mountains and deserts. To control the situation 
there as it now appears is a matter of the utmost simpHcity compared 
to the gratifying and possibly absolute control which has been 
obtained in other parts of the state. The finding of the new infesta- 
tion at present, therefore, does not seem in the slightest degree to 
detract from the present generally hopeful outlook. 

Investigations in Mexico 

This paper would not be complete without at least a reference to 
the work of the Department of Agriculture in Mexico. This is con- 
ducted under the direction of Mr. August Busck. It includes studies 
of the bionomics of the species to serve as a basis for control measures 
which may be put into operation in case, by any chance, the pest ever 
becomes established in the United States. It also includes an effort 
towards the total ehmination of the pink bollworm in Mexico. This 
project is by no means as visionary as might be supposed, and definite 
progress has already been made. This subject, however, must be 
dealt with more fully in a paper prepared by Mr. Busck, which in the 
nature of the case cannot be written until there has been time for 
further developments in Mexico. 



PARASITE INTRODUCTION AS A MEANS OF SAVING SUGAR 

By T. E. HoLLOWAY, Entomological Assistant, Bureau of Entomology, Department of 

Agriculture 

This paper is a report of progress on work in parasite introduction, 
but it may also serve to point out the benefits which may come from 
the active interest of the agricultural public in any bit of scientific 
endeavor which appeals to it. 

The control of the sugar cane moth borer, Dintrcca saccharalis, has 
been a subject of investigation in Louisiana for many years. As time 
passed and experimental results accumulated, it became more and 
more apparent that only by the introduction of foreign parasites could 



176 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

control be effected. In Cuba the moth borer was known to be much 
less injurious than in Louisiana, and in 1914 Mr. George N. Wolcott 
reported a tachinid parasitic on the larva. In 1915 the Bureau of 
Entomology arranged to investigate this parasite, with the intention 
of introducing it into Louisiana. Mr. U. C. Loftin was sent to Cuba, 
where he traveled about over the island, collecting parasites and send- 
ing them to the writer at New Orleans. Though they attacked the 
moth borer in Louisiana, they subsequently died out. 

Experience has been gained, however, in methods both of collecting 
and breeding, and it was intended to continue the work the following 
year. But lack of funds and the department regulation prohibiting 
foreign travel during the war prevented parasite introduction during 
the next two years. The same conditions prevailed during 1918, but 
some of the sugar planters in Louisiana had become interested, and at 
the meeting of their association in New Orleans in June one member 
proposed that those so inclined subscribe one hundred dollars each to 
defray the expenses of the work. Thirteen planters immediately 
agreed to contribute this amount, and checks were received from some 
others after the meeting. Sufficient funds having been raised, a 
telegram signed by several prominent planters was sent to the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture, who approved the plans by telegraph the same day. 

The writer proceeded to Cuba as soon as a passport was issued, and 
through the kindness of Mr. S. G. Chiquelin, superintendent of the 
sugar factory at Mercedes, Cuba, was able to make his headquarters 
at the private experiment station of the Cuba Cane Sugar Corporation. 
The director of the station, Sr. M. A. Centurion, received him cordially 
and gladly cooperated in every way possible. On July 12, the first 
sending of parasites was forwarded to Mr. E. R. Barber, of the Bureau 
of Entomology, and Mr. W. G. Taggart, assistant director of the 
Louisiana Sugar Experiment Station, who had agreed to receive the 
parasites at New Orleans. (Mr. U. C. Loftin, who had been in Cuba 
before, was no longer connected with the investigation.) 

Four species of parasites were found, which had also been collected 
by Mr. Loftin. The egg parasite, Trichogramma minutum Riley, 
already occurs in Louisiana. Of the others, the most efficient is the 
tachinid, EuzenilHopsis diatracc Townsend. The writer estimated that 
from 20 to 50 per cent of the moth borer larvae were parasitized, though 
in one small field the percentage was much higher. The tachinid 
larvse emerge usually from the larvae of the moth borer, but occasion- 
ally from the pupae. Soon after emerging they form puparia, which 
may be found in the tunnels of the host or nearby between the stalk 
and the leaf-sheaths of the plant. 

As the attack of the moth borer results in the death of young cane 



April, '19] HOLLOWAY: PARASITES OF SUGAR CANE BORER 177 

plants, the procedure was to walk through the fields until a dying 
plant was found, then dissect it carefully and examine it for either a 
borer or a parasite. The moth borer larvse and pupae were taken on 
the chance that parasites would emerge from a certain percentage of 
them. Parasite larvae or puparia were very carefully collected and 
brought to the laboratory, where the puparia were placed in tin salve 
boxes with damp sphagnum moss and cotton. The salve boxes were 
in turn packed in pasteboard mailing cases and sent to New Orleans. 
At Mr. Barber's suggestion, holes were made in both the salve boxes 
and the tin bottoms of the mailing cases for ventilation, and it was 
found that fewer parasites died en route when shipped in this way. 
About 33 per cent arrived in New Orleans alive. All parasites were 
sent by ordinary mail, refrigeration not being used. 

On reaching their destination, the puparia were placed on damp sand 
under glasses, and when the flies emerged they were transferred to 
cages containing growing cane infested with the moth borer. The 
most successful cage was a large one built over a corner of a sugar cane 
field. Ripe sweet fruits and honey-water were given the flies, such 
substances having been recommended by Mr. O. H. Swezey, of the 
Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Experiment Station, as being satisfactory 
for a tachinid of similar habits. The parasites passed through two and 
possibly three generations in New Orleans. 

Of the other two parasites in Cuba, one is Bassus siigmaterus Cresson 
(Microdus) and the other Apanteles sp. They are comparatively rare, 
and it was thought best not to attempt to introduce them without 
further study. During the summer over 650 tachinid puparia, repre- 
senting about 600 parasitized moth borers, were collected, while the 
moth borers attacked by the other two parasites amounted to not 
more than a half dozen by each one. 

It was hoped by means of heated greenhouses to cause the tachinids 
to breed continuously through the winter, and two greenhouses con- 
taining growing cane were provided, but by December it became evi- 
dent that the parasites were in a dormant state. On December 2 one 
puparium was found in a field cage, but the fly did not emerge and it 
seems that the insect is dead. It is believed that other parasites are 
present within the host larvae and will emerge in the spring. 

If the parasites become established in Louisiana and are as efficient 
there as they are in Cuba where they have to contend, by the way, with 
a secondary parasite, they will do much to control a pest which causes 
a serious loss annually. With a maximum infestation of the moth 
borer, it has been calculated both by entomologists and by sugar 
planters that the annual loss amounts to over 1,000 pounds of sugar 
per acre. Investigations to be published in Department Bulletin No. 



178 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

746 show that the average infestation is about 50 per cent of the 
maximum, which roughly gives a loss of about 500 pounds of sugar 
per acre on the area infested, which amounts to some 300,000 acres in 
Louisiana alone. The total annual loss would thus be 150 million 
pounds, valued during pre-war times at about $7,000,000. This means 
that if the insect were controlled the Louisiana sugar planters would 
make approximately that much more sugar every year, or about one- 
fourth more than the average crop. There is also considerable damage 
to corn in Louisiana and to corn and sugar cane in Texas and Florida 
which has not been estimated. 

A system of control by the native egg parasite, Trichogramma minu- 
turn, has already been found satisfactory to some extent. It has been 
the custom on the plantations to burn the leaves of the sugar cane 
plant which are left on the field after the stalks are cut and carried to 
the mill. This burning probably results in killing vast numbers of 
the egg parasite without a corresponding reduction in the numbers of 
the moth borer. To prevent it, the plowing under of the leaves has 
been tried for the past six years, a method of cultivation having been 
perfected in cooperation with the Louisiana Sugar Experiment Station, 
and it has been found that the infestation by the moth borer is never 
increased by this operation but ma}^ be considerably reduced, while 
the benefit to the soil is very marked. The cost of the additional 
labor required has been estimated by plantation managers to be less 
than one dollar per acre, and considering the fertilizing value of the 
leaves it really amounts to nothing at all. 

By avoiding the destruction of beneficial insects and by adding one 
or more larval and pupal parasites to the very efficient egg parasite 
already present, it is believed possible ultimately to obtain a fair 
degree of control. 



METHODS IN ENTOMOLOGICAL FIELD EXPERIMENTATION^ 

By W. P. Flint, C. F. Turner and J. J. Davis 

The accuracy and value of results from field experiments, whether 
they be experiments in agronomy, in entomology or other agricultural 
subjects, depend largely, and in most cases wholly on the accuracy 
and reliability of the methods used in obtaining the data. 

The past year the writers have been associated in the Hessian fly 
problem and have found it necessary to work out ways of obtaining 
data and to check and recheck the various methods to determine the 
most accurate and satisfactory from all standpoints. Although most 

1 Published by permission of the secretary of agriculture. 



April, '19] FLINT, TURNER AND DAVIS: EXPERIMENTAL METHODS 



179 



of these problems pertained to our work with the Hessian fly, they have 
a greater or less bearing on other entomological problems, especially 
entomological problems of the corn and grain fields, and the summa- 
rized results are here offered for the benefit of others working on similar 
problems; also with the hope that any inaccuracies in our work may 
be pointed out to us in order that a standard may be established which 
will enable one to more easily compare work done by investigators in 
different parts of the country. 

Methods of Making Comparative Counts of Infestation 

In the fall of 1917 several methods were tried^ in an infested wheat 
field at Virden, 111., to determine means of obtaining accurate records 
of infestation. Three systems were tried: the picking method, the 
linear yard method, and half square yard. The first mentioned con- 
sisted in stooping down and picking a plant at one side, one on the 
opposite side and one in front or behind, in all cases the plants being 
taken at random; this taking of three plants to be repeated after 
walking about ten steps. In picking it was necessary to take the plant 
from the side and not allow the hand to pass over the tops of the plants 
in selecting one, since the uninfested plants are usually higher and an 
inaccurate count will be obtained. Fifty plants were taken in this 
way. By the second method, five linear yards were selected by tossing 
a trowel five or ten yards ahead and examining all plants in the yard 
from the point of the trowel. The half square yard was similarly 
selected except that only two ( = one square yard or five linear yards) 
were taken. 
The results were as follows: 



Table I — Results of Counts by Different Methods, 1917 



Method 


Total Distance 
of Wheat Row 


Number 
Plants 


Number 
Infested 


Percentage of 
Infestation 


Picking method 

5 linear yards 

2 half square yards 


15 feet 
15 feet 


50 
134 
183 


8 
12 
15 


16 

8.9 + 
8.2- 



From a general survey the actual infestation was 12 to 15 per cent, 
and of the three methods used the picking method in this case gave 
the best results. 

This fall (1918) more thorough counts were made- at Virden, lU. 
In order to determine as nearly as possible the actual infestation of 
the plot, every other yard of two wheat rows, one on each side of the 

' By Flint and Davis. 

* By Flint, Turner and Davis. 



180 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 



[Vol. 12 



small plot being used, were dug up and examined. A total of 71 yards 
or 1983 plants (average of 9.3+ plants to the foot or 694,468 to the 
acre, if rows are 7 inches apart) were actually dug up and examined. 
The accumulative percentages every five yards were as follows: 31 + , 
27 + , 33-, 33 + , 35 + , 34 + , 33-, 32 + , 32-, 31 + , 30 + , 29 + , 
29 + , 29-, 29-, the average for the total 1983 plants being 29- 
per cent, which we can consider as the average percentage of infesta- 
tion of the plot. 

The various methods were tried to determine the most satisfactory 
means of making counts and these included the picking method, one- 
third square yards, linear yards, and linear feet. The results are 
tabulated in Table II. 

Table II— Results of Counts by Different Methods, 1918 







Total 
















Number 




Per Cent of 


Average 


Method Used 


Taken by 


of Wheat 
Row 


Plants 
Examined 


Infested 


Infestation 


Per Cent of 
Infestation 


3 linear yds. 


Flint & Davis 


9 ft. 


76 


19 


25 


25 


2 third sq. yds. 


Flint & Davis 


10 " 


98 


2(5 


25.5 + 


25.5 + 


10 linear feet 


Flint & Davis 


10 " 


140 


38 


27.1 + 


1 28.9 + 


10 feet linear 


Turner 


10 " 


119 


37 


31.0 + 


Picking method 


Flint 




50 


15 


30 


j 29 


Picking method 


Davis 




50 


14 


28 


2 rows alternate yds. 


Turner, Flint & 














Davis 


213 " 


1983 


571 


29.- 


29. - 



Although none of the methods used were far from correct, the linear 
foot and picking methods were most nearly accurate and from other 
tests, repeated at a number of our other sowing plots, they are more 
to be depended upon. This is as might be expected, since a larger 
number of small areas scattered over the field should give more nearly 
accurate results from the entire field than the same total area taken at 
fewer places in the field. Of the two most accurate methods just 
mentioned the picking method has been dismissed as the least satis- 
factory for experiment plots, first, because it requires some practice, 
second, because itas practically useless in the spring or even in the fall, 
if the wheat plants have tillered abundantly, and third, because it is 
desirable to use the same method in fall and spring. Since the linear 
foot method lacks the disadvantages just named, and is simple, requir- 
ing no previous practice, and is practically as accurate as any other 
means, we have concluded that it is the most correct and satisfactory. 

On the other hand, the picking method is very useful for hastily 
determining fall infestations when making surveys over large areas and 
for this purpose can frequently be used to advantage. 

In many cases it is possible to obtain relatively accurate data by ex- 
amining plants from above and without digging them up to determine 



April, '19] FLINT. TURNER AND DAVIS: EXPERIMENTAL METHODS ISl 

percentage of infestation, but this method should not be used where 
accurate records are desired and especially in experiment plots where 
it is of much importance to determine the stages of the insect, severity 
of infestation, etc. Likewise this method cannot be used where the 
wheat has made a heavy growth, for frequently an infested plant will 
send up new shoots and it is often impossible to determine whether such 
tillers are individual plants or simply tillers of an infested plant, 
thus again showing a possible source of error if infestations are secured 
by simple examination of the plants as they appear above ground. 

Summarizing we are led to conclude that the above-ground appear- 
ance of plants should be used only in generalizing the infestation, such 
as heavy, medium or light; that the picking method should be used 
only for fall scouting work when estimating Hessian fly infestations; 
and that for experimental plots where simplicity, accuracy and com- 
parableness are essentials, the linear foot method should be followed 
and that at least ten linear feet be taken from each plot where counts 
are required. 

Method of Taking Yields 

While the problem dealing with the accuracy of obtaining yields 
from small plots is largely agronomic, it is as important for the ento- 
mologist as for the agronomist to be familiar with the most accurate 
and practicable means of obtaining these data. 

Various methods have been practiced. Some agronomists insist 
that reliable records can be obtained only by harvesting the entire plots. 
Others believe equally reliable or even more accurate yields can be 
obtained by harvesting only small areas from each plot, usually about 
one-thousandth of an acre. In taking such small areas as one-thou- 
sandth of an acre, some prefer to take so many linear rods of individual 
wheat rows, while others take so many square yards. 

Another year it is hoped that we may have the use of a portable 
threshing outfit in order to make a comparison of the different methods, 
but up to the present time we have not had this opportunity and wish 
simply to place on record the method which has been practiced in 
obtaining yields in our Hessian fly sowing experiments and to discuss 
its possible advantages and disadvantages. 

Briefly, the method is to select five square yards from each plot, 
this to be bagged, shipped to a central point and there threshed, 
weighed and graded. Probably the most important point to be con- 
sidered in securing yields from such small areas is the selection of the 
square yard. Observations indicate that selecting the areas by the 
hoop or other similar method which depends on chance is not accurate 
when as few as five square yards are to be taken. A fairer way is to 

4 



182 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

examine the plot and to select typical square yards, thus if one-fifth 
of the plot has a thin stand and the other four-fifths is heavy, we 
should select one square yard from the thin and four from the thicker 
area. One must, of course, be thoroughly unbiased in making his 
selections. Having selected an area, a yard stick is placed along one 
row. Having cut this row, the corresponding yard on the next row 
is cut and so on until five rows or approximately one square yard is 
taken. (PI. 7, fig. 1.) Five such areas are cut from each plot, 
cured, placed in bags and shipped to a central point for threshing. 
The data taken includes not only weight of straw and grain, but also 
the grain is tested and its quality recorded, for we find the Hessian 
fly is responsible for damaging the quality as well as the yield of wheat. 
As stated, we have no proof that one means of obtaining yields is 
better than another and indeed it appears that the practice just de- 
scribed does give us records above the actual yields, but we have every 
reason to believe, and much proof to show that the method we have 
used is comparable, which after all is the most important item. 

Method of Estimating Injury 

Estimates of injury by this or that insect are frequent in entomologi- 
cal literature, but seldom if ever have the methods used in estimating 
the injury been noted. No rules can be given to fit all cases. Cer- 
tain methods which we have used are here offered, with the object of 
securing expressions of opinion and additional ideas from the members 
of this association. 

Estimating the injury where acreages are killed outright is com- 
paratively simple, but where injury is inconspicuous the difficulties 
are evident. In the former category we may include damage by white 
grubs, army worms, grasshoppers and chinch bugs when attacking 
corn, while in the latter group would be included injuries by scale 
insects, corn root aphis, Hessian fly, chinch bug in wheat, and joint 
worm. 

In some cases where the insect damage is restricted to a definite 
area, it is possible to obtain an accurate estimate of injury by compar- 
ing yields of this area with a similar uninfested area in previous years 
as well as the year of injury, consideration being given to the chmatic 
conditions in the two areas. Where the injury is widespread we know 
of no other method than comparing the yields during the season of 
insect injury with previous seasons yields, due weight being given 
insect injuries in previous years, and comparableness of chmatic con- 
ditions and acreage. In estimating injuries where the damage is 
evident, the percentage of injury can be corroborated to a certain 
extent by a general survey and careful estimate of individual fields, 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 




Plate 7 



1. Method of cutting sciuare yards of wlu'at to deterniini' yields in sowing plots. 
Five such square yards are taken from each plot. 




2. Hand (lailiug and laUMiiiM; u In at, I he nietiuid adopted in the absrmt' of a more 
modern threshing outfit. The hand method is iippiirently accurate but very t<tlious. 



April, '19] McCOLLOCH: ELEODES OPACA 183 

but this is more difficult and less satisfactory with insect damage by- 
such as the Hessian fly and joint worm. In the latter cases we can 
compare with previous years, but we have no basis to estimate accu- 
rately the injury in individual fields since there is no reliable compari- 
son between infestation and injury. In the case of the fall injury by 
Hessian fly, the damage can be estimated only when the infestation is 
severe and the plants killed outright and in the case of spring injury 
by fly and by the wheat joint worm we do not know just how much or 
even the approximate damage by the insects. It is planned to get 
positive data on these facts another year for the joint worm and Hes- 
sian fly by enclosing large areas during the oviposition period of the 
fly and joint worm, two to be kept free from infestation and two to 
be infested by the introduction of joint worm adults and Hessian fly, 
respectively. It is to be hoped that others may be in a position to re- 
peat these experiments and to make similar tests with other insects. 

Continuity of Investigations 

In order to secure reliable results it is important, and in the cases of 
such insects as the Hessian fly and corn root aphis, absolutely neces- 
sary, to continue the experiments over a period of years. This is well 
illustrated in the 1918 Hessian fly sowing experiments. Should we 
base our conclusions on this single season's results, our recommenda- 
tion for fall sowing of wheat would be inaccurate since the fly-free date 
in 1918 was earlier than normal. 

Continuity of observation is also very necessary in assisting the 
entomologist to predict the likelihood of an insect outbreak a following 
year and to determine the seriousness of such a possible outbreak. 
Thus a study of the likely hibernating quarters of the chmch bug in a 
certain section of the country extending over a comparatively large 
area and for several consecutive years is necessary to enable the ento- 
mologist by surveys from fall to fall, to determine with reasonable 
accuracy, the probabilities of a chinch bug outbreak and the extent 
and degree of the likely infestation the following season. 



ELEODES OPACA SAY, AN IMPORTANT ENEMY OF WHEAT IN 

THE GREAT PLAINS AREA' 

By Jamks W. McColloch, Associate Entomohujisl, Kansas Slate Agricultural 
Experiment Stati'yn 

Although the false wireworm, Eleodcs opacn Say, was describeil in 
1823 (Say, 1823, p. 263) it was not recognized as an insect of economic 

' Contribution from the Entomological Laboratory, Kun.sa.s State Agricultural Col- 
lege, No. 3.S. This paper einhodies some of the results obtaincii in the prosecution of 
project No. 100 of the Kansas E.xperiment Station. 



184 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

importance until 1908. In the fall of that year several instances of 
injury were noted in western Kansas and considerable injury occurred 
in southwestern Nebraska (Swenk, 1909). Since the first recognized 
outbreak in 1908 there have been three well-marked outbreaks and re- 
ports of minor injury have been received every year. With the in- 
creasing importance of this insect it was deemed advisable to undertake 
a study of its life economy and accordingly in 1915 it was incorporated 
in one of the experiment station projects. The life-history has been 
thoroughly worked out, and insofar as time would permit, field studies 
have been made. 

Distribution 

Eleodes opaca has a wide distribution throughout the Great Plains 
area. Blaisdell (1909, pp. 177-178) records it from Texas, Oklahoma, 
Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, and South Dakota. Wickham (1899, 
p. 60) reports it from Lyon County, Iowa. Fall and Cockerell (1907, 
p. 204) list it from Coolidge, New Mexico, and Evans (1903, p. 318) 
says it was taken in the Northwest Territories in 1879-80. Prof. R. A. 
Cooley recently furnished the writer with a single female taken at Cul- 
bertson, Montana. 

In Kansas, this species is generally distributed over the western two- 
thirds of the state. Popenoe (1877, p. 36) says it occurs from Louis- 
ville westward. In the vicinity of Manhattan it is found in rather 
limited numbers and increases in numbers as one progresses westward 
across the state. 

History and Importance 

Previous to 1908, Eleodes opaca was not recognized as an insect of 
economic importance. It was known to occur in large numbers in the 
native grass lands throughout the Great Plains area but had never been 
mentioned as injurious. In the fall of 1908, a large number of worms, 
reported to be seriously injuring germinating wheat in western Kansas, 
were received by the Department of Entomology and determined as 
tenebrionid larvae. According to Swenk (1909) severe damage also 
occurred in several Nebraska counties. He determined the larvae as 
Eleodes opaca. 

During 1909 and 1910 a few specimens of false wireworms were re- 
ceived with the information that they were doing a slight amount of 
damage to fall sown wheat. In the fall of 191 1 a well-marked outbreak 
of this insect occurred in western Kansas, resulting in the destruction of 
several thousands of acres of wheat. 

Again in the fall of 1914 and the spring of 1915, considerable injury 
was reported in several localities. The last and most severe outbreak 



April, '19] McCOLLOCH: ELEODES OPACA 185 

began in the fall of 1917, and is still in progress. In Kansas, west of 
the 98th meridan, the infestation has been general and entire fields 
have been destroyed. Reports of serious injury have also been re- 
ceived from Oklahoma and northwestern Texas. During the present 
outbreak the injury has not been confined to wheat, but has included 
oats and barley and occasionally corn and sorghums. 

In all probability this insect has been responsible for much injury to 
wheat previous to 1908, but has been confused with the true wire- 
worms and other insects. Many of the letters in the files of the De- 
partment of Entomology prior to this time refer to wireworms damag- 
ing fall sown wheat. From the text of these letters it would seem now 
that the insect in question was Eleodes opaca. In the field investiga- 
tions the writer has often found the farmers confusing false wireworm 
injury with that caused by true wireworms, white grubs, fall army 
worms, Hessian fly, and winter killing. 

Nature of Injury and Food 

The principal injury by Eleodes opaca is done by the larvae during the 
fall. At this time they attack the wheat seed immediately after plant- 
ing and destroy it before germination. During dry years when the 
grain may lie in the ground several weeks before sprouting, the injury 
becomes most severe. After the seed germinates the injury becomes 
less noticeable and often ceases altogether. In some cases, however, 
considerable damage may occur after the wheat is several inches high. 
This was especially true in 1911 when the larvae destroyed many fields 
by cutting the plants off just above the seed. Occasionally some 
damage occurs in the spring, due to the larvae burrowing through the 
stalks or even cutting them off. The original food of the larvae was 
apparently the roots and seeds of native grasses and weeds, but within 
recent years, due to the breaking out of the native sod, wheat has ap- 
parently supplemented this food. In the rearing work the best results 
have been had by feeding the larvae wheat seed and bran. Other foods 
have been used, but in all cases the larvae either died or made a very 
slow growth. Aside from wheat it has been possible to rear the worms 
on sprouting corn, foxtail seeds, and crab grass roots. In one instance 
larvae were found feeding on the roots of bindweed in the field. During 
the present outbreak, serious damage has occurred in the spring to 
oats, barley, sorghums, and corn. In every case these crops were 
planted early on land where the worms had destroyed the wheat the 
previous fall. Wheat is subject to the greatest injury because it is 
planted at the time when the larvae are reaching maturity and are 
voracious in their feeding. Swenk (1909, p. 334) reports larvae found 
in ears of corn that had probably fallen on the ground. 



186 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Little is known concerning the amount of injury done by the adults. 
Swenk (1909, p. 336) states that the beetles fed voraciously on corn 
leaves in the breeding cages. When the experimental work was started, 
the adults were supplied with various weeds found in the wheat field, 
but in no case did they feed to any extent and the mortality was high. 
A few of the beetles fed sparingly on smart weed, dried wheat leaves, 
and fresh wheat leaves. Wheat heads that were not yet mature were 
then introduced into the cages and the beetles began to feed on them 
at once. Later soaked wheat kernels and bran were supplied and they 
fed on these readily. Mating and oviposition began soon after the 
change to this food. The fact that the beetles fed on the wheat heads 
and grain suggests the possibility that they may feed on them in the 
field, and in fact, recent investigations bear this out since typical injury 
has been found on wheat in the shock. It is not unusual to find large 
numbers of beetles about the shocks and stacks of wheat, and in many 
cases the fall infestation has radiated from such places. 

Description and Life Economy 

Method of Rearing. — The same methods were followed in the 
rearing of Eleodes opaca as were described by the writer (1918, pp. 214- 
215) for the life-history work with E. tricostata. The eggs were kept in 
the field insectary while the other stages were kept in a cement cave. 

Egg. — The eggs of Eleodes opaca (Plate 8, A) closely resemble those 
described for other members of the genus, being oval in shape longitu- 
dinally, and circular in diameter. They show some variation in size, 
being from 1.1 to 1.4 mm. in length and from 0.50 to 0.65 mm. in width. 
They are white in color when deposited and change to a creamy yellow 
before hatching. A sticky secretion covers the egg, causing particles of 
soil to adhere to it. In the breeding cages the eggs were deposited in 
cavities in the soil ranging from one inch to five inches in depth. 

The length of the egg stage varies with the temperature, and the 
season of the year. Eggs deposited during midsummer hatched in 
from 6 to 10 days, while later in the fall the stage was prolonged to 19 
days. The first oviposition recorded occurred on July 5, and the last 
on October 4. The exact length of the egg stage was determined for 
993 eggs, as shown in the following table: 







Length of Egg Stage 




Year 


No. of Eggs 


Min, Days 


Max. Days 


Average Days 


1915 
1916 
1918 


685 
144 
164 


7 
6 
6 


15 
19 
15 


10.0 
11.3 

7.2 



Average 9 . 7 



April, '19] 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 



Plate 8 



• 

A 






1 





Elf niirs opnrii i^i}y: A, I'l^^s sliowiny; soil |),iili( 
D, Adult, ICiu.'ilc. 



ii's ;i(lli(iinti;; H, L:irv;i: ( ', Tupa 



April, '19] McCOLLOCH: ELEODES OPACA 187 

Larva. — As pointed out by Swenk (1909, p. 335) the larva of Eleodes 
opaca (Plate 8, B) closely agrees with the description of E. dentipes as 
given by Blaisdell (1909, pp. 497-499). The minor differences have 
already been discussed by Swenk, and need no further treatment. On 
hatching, the larvae are about 2.8 mm. in length. Growth is compara- 
tively rapid and by fall the worms are about full grown, being from 21 
to 23 mm. in length. 

The larvae moult eleven times, including the moult when pupating, 
between hatching and pupation, the time between moults varying to 
some extent. An average of the length of each stadium, as determined 
for six larvae, is as follows: first stadium, 4 days; second stadium, 3 days; 
third stadium, 4 days; fourth stadium, 6 days; fifth stadium, 8 days; 
sixth stadium, 13 days; seventh stadium, 15 days; eighth stadium, 12 
days; ninth stadium, 18 days; tenth stadium, 199 days; eleventh sta- 
dium, 20 days. In moulting the skin is split on the dorsal side from 
the vertex back to the first or second abdominal segment, and the old 
skin is shed by the larva arching the back and drawing the body out, 
the posterior end emerging last. 

The larvae are subterranean in their habits, and thus far the writer 
has never observed them on the surface of the ground. Swenk (1909, 
p. 333), however, cites a case where they were found in large numbers 
on the surface following a heavj^ rain. They show a preference for 
rather dry soil, and usually the majority of the worms are found at the 
junction of the loose drier soil with the compact moist soil. In the 
fall they are found at the bottom of the drill rows where they are feed- 
ing on the seed wheat. In the spring they are more often located just 
beneath the surface of the ground, under clods and wind-blown soil. 
The principal food of the larvae appears to be wheat kernels, but they 
also feed on the roots and seeds of native grasses and weeds, and on 
decaying matter. In the rearing work, the worms thrived best on 
soaked wheat and bran. During the spring of 1918, considerable in- 
jury was also done to germinating oats, barley, corn, and sorghums, 
where these crops had been planted on infested wheat land. The larvae 
also feed on their cast-off skins and on larvae that are dead or in a 
weakened condition. 

Most of the larvae become practically full grown by October, and 
thus pass the winter. Early in the spring they become active, and 
usually moult once during April. Pupation occurs during the last of 
April and throughout the month of May. The transformation to the 
pupal stage is preceded by a semipupal or quiescent state lasting about 
a week. The length of the larval stage as determined for tlie several 
years that the work has been in progress is shown in the following table: 



188 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Length of the Lakval Stage 

Years No. Larvae Min. Days Max. Days Average Days 

1915-16 3 329 355 338.3 

1916-17 25 292 329 305.2 

1917-18 22 311 346 329.1 



Average 317.7 

Pupa. — The pupae of Eleodes opaca (Plate 8, C) vary from 13 to 15.5 
mm. in length, and from 3.5 to 5.5 mm. in width. They are white in 
color with semitranslucent appendages. This color changes as devel- 
opment takes place, the body becoming creamy yellow and the 
appendages reddish brown. In general, the pupae resemble those of 
E. clavicornis described by Blaisdell (1909, pp. 500-501), with certain 
modifications noted by Swenk (1909, p. 335). 

Pupation occurs in the field during April, May, and June. In 1915, 
pupation began about April 20, reached its maximum May 4, and was 
practically over by June 1. The spring of 1918 was cold, and pupation 
did not begin until May 7. The maximum was reached about May 
20, and pupae were to be found until the last of June. Before pupating, 
the larva constructs a. spherical cell from one-half to two inches below 
the surface of the ground. Here it remains in a quiescent state for 
about a week before transforming to the pupa. The length of the 
pupal stage has been determined for 149 pupae, the pertinent data being 
shown in the following table : 

Length of the Pupal Stage 
Year No. Pupae Min. Days Max. Days Average Days 

1915 50 13 25 20.6 

1916 4 9 13 11.5 

1917 19 8 11 9.6 

1918 76 8 23 11.1 

Average 14.1 

Adult.^ — The adult beetles (Plate 8, D) are fusiform oval in shape, 
black in color, and sparsely covered with whitish hair. The dorsum of 
the elytra is quite flat. The female is more or less broadly oval in 
shape and the abdomen is rather strongly convex. The anterior tarsi- 
are unmodified. The male differs from the female in that the body is 
narrow and the abdomen is but slightly convex. The first two seg- 
ments of the anterior tarsi are slightly widened and clothed with two 
dense pads of spongy pubescence. The males are 10 to 12 mm. in 
length, and about 5 mm. in width. The females are somewhat larger 
in size, being 11 to 14 mm. in length, and 5 to 7 mm. in width. 

Emergence begins about the middle of May, and continues through 



April, '19] McCOLLOCH: ELEODES OPACA 189 

June. From this time on until the middle of October the adults are 
to be found in the field, the greatest number being present during July 
and early August. The normal length of life for the adult is from two 
to four months. Most of the beetles under observation lived from 60 
to 90 days, while one male lived 130 days. Unlike Eleodes tricostata 
none of the beetles of this species hibernate over winter, and thus far 
the writer has never found adults later than October 18. While most 
of the adults emerged during June in the life-history studies, no mating 
was observed previous to July 3. During the four years that these 
studies have been under way, copulation has occurred the first week in 
July, and oviposition usually follows in two or three days. The first 
oviposition was noted July 5, and the last on October 4. The period 
of oviposition, together with the number of eggs per female was deter- 
mined for seven mated females in 1915, this data being summarized in 
the accompanying table. Similar studies made the following years 
gave essentially the same results. 

Oviposition Record for Seven Females, 1915 





Period 


No. Days 


Total 


Ave. No. Eggs 


Ave. Per Day 


Max. No. of 


'em ale 


Ovipo- 


on \Miich 


No. of 


Per Day for 


for Days on 


Eggs Laid 


No. 


sition, 


Eg£!s Were 


Eggs 


Period of Egg- 


Which Eggs 


in 24 Hours 




Days 


Laid 




Laying 


Were Laid 




1 


59 


48 


373 


6.3 


7.7 


31 


2 


46 


39 


389 


8.4 


10.0 


34 


3 


11 


3 


23 


2.0 


7.6 


6 


4 


27 


17 


93 


3.4 


5.4 


9 


5 


18 


12 


44 


2.4 


3.6 


11 


6 


35 


32 


241 


7.0 


7.5 


25 


7 


14 


12 


105 


7.5 


8.8 


23 



Average 30 233 181.1 5.3 7.2 19.8 

While matings were observed frequently in all cages, the presence of 
the male was not necessary after fertilization once took place. In the 
case of female No. 1, the male died July 18, but she continued to de- 
posit fertile eggs until September 6. The proportion of sexes as deter- 
mined from reared and collected adults indicate that the females are 
shghtly in excess of the males. Fifty-six per cent of the beetles taken 
in the field have been females, while 54 per cent of the reared beetles 
were females. 

The adults of Eleodes opoca, like many of the other members of the 
genus Eleodes, are more or less nocturnal or crepuscular in their habits. 
In the field they are generally most active early in the morning, and 
about dusk in the evening, while during the hotter parts of the day they 
are to be found hiding under any suitable covering. In the prairie lands, 
rocks, manure, piles of weeds, and clumps of grass off"cr ideal hiding 
places, while in the wheat fields they are to be found under sliocks and 
around stacks of wheat, under Russian thistles, in clumps of volunteer 



190 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

wheat, and, in fact, any place where there is protection. It is not unus- 
ual to find them in large number under piles of Russian thistle that have 
collected along a fence. They also probably make use of the burrows 
of the various insects, and animals common to their locality. Snow 
(1877, p. 19) found twenty adults under bones near Colorado Springs, 
Colorado. 

The adults apparently have a wide range of food habits. In the 
field they have been found feeding on evening primrose, Russian thistle, 
and alfalfa. In the rearing cages they fed sparingly on smart weed and 
on wheat leaves, while they showed a great preference for heads of 
wheat, soaked wheat and bran. Examinations made in the field indi- 
cate that they may feed on the wheat in the stack and shock, especially 
if it becomes damp. When confined on a small plot of young wheat 
they destroyed it in a few days. In one case a beetle was found feeding 
on a nymph of Melanoplus differentialis, but it was impossible to deter- 
mine whether it had killed the grasshopper or not. It is not unusual 
for them to feed on the dead or weakened members of their own kind. 

Length of Life-Cycle 

Three generations of this insect have now been reared from adults 
collected in the field in 1915. Each generation has occupied about one 
year and the data secured in this study coincides very closely with the 
field observations. Taking the average length of the various stages, 
each brood required 341 days from the time the eggs were laid until the 
adults emerged. The essential data showing the length of the life- 
cycle are summarized in the following table: 

Summary of the Length of the Life-Cycle 

Stage Minimum Days Maximum Days Average Days 

Egg 6 19 9.7 

Larva 292 355 317.7 

Pupa 8 25 14.1 

Life-cycle 306 399 341.5 

Enemies and Parasites 

Very few natural enemies are known to attack Eleodes opaca. 
Bruner (1892, p. 12) records finding the eggs of a tachinid on the elytra. 
Each year that these studies have been carried on a few beetles have 
been collected in the field from which have been reared specimens of 
the hymenopterous parasite, Perilitus eleodis Viereck. In no case has 
the percentage of parasitism been high, and the relation of this para- 
site to opaca has been given but little attention. From the notes at 
hand, the behavior appears to be the same as in the case of Eleodes 



April, '19] McCOLLOCH: ELEODES OPACA 191 

tricostata (McColloch, 1918, pp. 221-222). A gregarine (Stylocephalus 
giganteus Ellis) has frequently been found in the alimentary tract of 
the adults. 

Swenk (1909, pp. 335-336) encountered considerable difficulty in his 
rearing work, due to the presence of what was apparently a bacterial 
disease. This disease usually began as a small dark red spot on the 
thoracic segments, or on the terminal abdominal segments, and spread 
rapidly, soon encircling the body, resulting in the death of the larva. 
Where several larvae were confined in the same cage, the disease often 
spread to the others. The writer has often encountered this same dis- 
ease, but since the larvae were reared in separate boxes, it never spread 
to any extent. Two species of fungi have been found attacking the 
larvae, namely, Sporotrichimi glohidiferum and Metarrhizium sp. 

Physiological Relations 

Eleodes opaca is a typical species of the Great Plains, an area of low 
rainfall and rather high temperatures. While it has been recorded as 
far east as Iowa, it does not occur in large numbers east of the 98th 
meridian. It is not common to the vicinity of Manhattan, being found 
only on the high, grassy uplands. The years of greatest injury in west- 
ern Kansas have been characterized by excessive temperatures and 
low rainfall. In the. life-history studies, eggs, kept in cages where the 
maximum temperature during the day was 112°, and the relative 
humidity 25 per cent, hatched in six days. The adults were not 
affected by a daily temperature of from 105° to 112° when the humidity 
was low. In ovipositing, the adults showed a preference for dry soil, 
and the rate of egg-laying decreased when the beetles were placed in 
cages containing moist dirt. Some moisture, however, is required by 
the adults, and this was supplied by feeding wet bran once a week. 
The larvae thrived best in a slightly moist soil. When the soil was too 
wet to crumble nicely, the mortality increased rapidly. High tempera- 
tures, such as experienced by the eggs and adults, were fatal to the 
larvae and the best results were had by keeping them in a cave where 
the temperature remained constant at about 80° during the summer, 
falling slowly to 39° in midwinter. There is some evidence that the 
larvae can withstand low temperatures, and Swenk (1909, p. 334) cites 
a case where they survived a twelve-hour exposure to a sweeping wind 
of from 59 to 72 miles an hour velocity, with the temperature about 
zero. 

Like most of the species of the genus, the adults of opaca are nega- 
tively phototropic to strong light. During the day they are usually 
to be found hiding under various types of shelter, confining most of 
their activities to the early morning, evening, and night. Tlic larvae 



192 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

are subterranean in their habits, and when placed on the surface of the 
ground they immediately burrow into the dirt. 

Control 

Thus far it has not been possible to carry out any extensive experi- 
ments on the control of Eleodes opaca in the field. The measures advo- 
cated are based on a study of the history of over 200 infested fields 
obtained through personal visits, and from questionnaires furnished to 
the farmers. In most cases the history of the field has been obtained 
for the preceding two or three years. A study of the data thus secured 
suggests several promising methods of procedure which have proved 
beneficial in controlling or reducing the amount of injury. 

Rotation. — The investigations in many fields infested by false wire- 
worms show that in nearly all cases the greatest injury has occurred on 
land continuously cropped to wheat, while fields that have been in a 
row crop or fallowed previous to wheat have suffered little damage. 
The beetles are wingless, and migration from field to field must take 
place on foot. These facts indicate that a careful rotation of crops, 
combined with certain other practices to be mentioned later, would 
eliminate much of the damage and the writer has seen many fields 
where this has been the case. In following a system of rotation in 
western Kansas, it must be remembered that the number of crops that 
can be alternated with wheat is limited principally to feed crops such as 
sweet sorghums, kafir, milo, and feterita, and, under certain conditions, 
corn. Occasionally oats and barley are included, and many farmers 
practice a rotation whereby a small grain crop is planted early in the 
spring on land where the worms have destroj'^ed the wheat crop the 
previous fall. Such a system usually increases the injury since it pro- 
vides additional food at a time when the larvae are maturing. Where 
the fall wheat has been destroyed, the land should be worked 
about the first of May and planted to a row crop. If the field is kept 
cultivated and free from weeds and grasses, it is often possible to return 
the land to wheat in the fall. This is not always feasible,. since the 
feed crops are late maturing, and in this case oats or barley should be 
planted in the spring to be followed by wheat in the fall. Call and 
Salmon (1918, pp. 42-43) suggest the following rotation for western 
Kansas: wheat two years; kafir or other sorghums, one year; and sum- 
mer fallow, one year. By this system, one-half of the farm is in wheat 
each year, one-fourth in a feed crop, and one-fourth is fallowed for the 
next wheat crop. Such a system, if carefully followed, would reduce 
the false wire worm injury and at the same time increase the yield. 

Summer Fallow. — The practice of summer fallow whereby the land 
lies idle for a year, being worked sufficiently to keep down the plant 



April, '19j McCOLLOCH: ELEODES OPACA 193 

growth, is practiced to a limited extent in western Kansas. Where 
this method is followed there has been little or no injury from false 
wireworms. Summer fallowing deprives the beetles and larvae of 
food, and destroys many eggs. The beetles are also deprived of shelter 
during the day. This method of handling the wheat land is somewhat 
more expensive than the usual methods, but the yields are generally 
ample to encourage its use. 

Weeds and Volunteer Crops. — During the summer months, large 
numbers of adults are to be found hiding under Russian thistles and in 
clumps of volunteer wheat and oats in the fields. The keeping down 
of these plants will deprive the beetles of shelter, and cause them to 
seek protection elsewhere, and will also serve to deprive the larvae and 
adults of food. Heavy growths of weeds and grasses along the road- 
sides and fence rows should also be kept down during the summer. 

Time of Planting. — Some injury can be avoided by delaying the 
planting of wheat in the fall, although as a rule late planting does not 
yield as well as early sowing. The larvae usually ceased their activities 
during the latter part of October, and wheat planted after the middle of 
this month will be less subject to injury. With regard to the time of 
planting, it might be stated that with favorable conditions, such as a 
well-prepared seedbed, good seed, and plenty of moisture, seeding may 
be made moderately early. On the other hand, if the season is dry and 
the seed may lie for some time in the ground before germinating, it is 
advisable to delay the planting. The larvae are most Active in a dry, 
loose soil, and the greatest injury has occurred in those years when the 
summer and fall have been dry. 

In the case of spring crops, planting should be delayed until ^bout 
the first of May, at which time most of the larvae have reached maturity 
and are transforming to pupae. This is especially to be recommended 
when the crop is to be planted on land where the wheat has been de- 
stroyed by the worms. 

Spring Plowing. — The practice of plowing or listing infested fields 
early in May will destroy large numbers of pupae by breaking up the 
pupal cells, and crushing the pupae or by exposing them to natural 
enemies and climatic conditions. The writer has been in many fields 
where this has been done, and in every case from 80 to 95 per cent of 
the pupa? were destroyed. This method can be followed where the 
larvae have destroyed the wheat and it is planned to plant sorghums or 
corn. 

Stacking vs. Shocking. — Examinations uuule in fields where the 
previous wheat crop was shocked often show more injury than where 
the crop was stacked. In other words, the sliocks provide siielter for 
the beetles in all parts of the field, and instead of the ()uti)rcak being 



194 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY fVol. 12 

confined to one part of the field, it is general over the entire area. 
When the grain is stacked at harvest, the infestation often radiates out 
from the stack, indicating that the beetles have congregated there. 

Poison Bran Mash. — The use of the poison bran mash as prepared 
for use against grasshoppers may prove beneficial in some cases in the 
control of Eleodes opaca. Under laboratory conditions the beetles ate 
it voraciously, and were attracted to it from a distance of two or three 
feet. The possibility of its use under certain conditions where the 
adults are congregated in large numbers around wheat shocks and 
stacks, and piles of Russian thistles may prove practical. Experi- 
ments in poisoning the larvae have thus far given negative results. 

Literature Cited 

Blaisdell, F. E. 1909. A Monographic Revision of the Coleoptera Belonging to 

the Tenebrionid Tribe Eleodiini Inhabiting the United States, Lower California,. 

and Adjacent Islands. U. S. Nat. Mus., Bui. 63, 524 pp. 
Bruner, L. 1892. Report Upon Insect Depredations in Nebraska for 1891. 

U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Ent., Bui. 26 (O. S.), pp. 9-12. 
Call, L. E., and Salmon, S. C. 1918. Growing Wheat in Kansas. Kan. Agr- 

Exp. Sta., Bui. 219, pp. 3-51. 
Evans, J. D. 1903. List of Canadian Coleoptera. Can. Ent., 35:239-243, 288- 

292, 317-320. 
Fall, H. C, and Cockerell, T. D. A. 1907. The Coleoptera of New Mexico. 

Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, 33: 145-272. 
McCoLLOCH, J. W. 1918. Notes on False Wireworms with Especial Reference to 

Eleodes tricostata Say. Jour. Econ. Ent., 11: 212-224. 
PoPENOE, E. A. 1877. A List of Kansas Coleoptera. Trans. Kan. Acad. Sci., 5: 

21-40. 
Say, T. 1823. Descriptions of Coleopterous Insects Collected in the Late Expedi- 
tion to the Rocky Mountains, Performed by Order of Mr. Calhoun, Secretary of 

War, Under the Command of Major Long. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 3: 

139-216, 238-282. 
Snow, F. H. 1877. List of Coleoptera Collected in Colorado in June, July, and 

August, 1876. Trans. Kan. Acad. Sci., 5: 15-20. 
Swenk, M. H. 1909. Eleodes as an Enemy of Planted Grain. Jour. Econ. Ent., 

2:332-336. 
WiCKHAM, H. F. "1899. Eleodes in Iowa. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci., 7: 59-60. 



EXPERIMENTS WITH POISON BAITS AGAINST 
GRASSHOPPERS^ 

By D. A. Ricker, W. Lafayette, Indiana 

During the past season grasshoppers were abundant and caused 
considerable damage to clover, alfalfa, tobacco and other crops in the 
vicinity of southern Wisconsin. Especially were they abundant in 

1 Published by permission of the Secretary of Agriculture. 



April, '19J RICKER: GRASSHOPPER BAITS 195 

the vicinity of Janesville, where the writer was temporarily located, 
and where conditions afforded an opportunity to test different com- 
binations of poison bait under varying climatic conditions. The 
results thus obtained indicate that certain changes in the present stand- 
ard formula might be made to advantage, that climatic conditions 
play an important role in the efficacy of poison baits, and that mature 
and immature grasshappers are attracted to odorous baits unequally.^ 
While the results are not conclusive and do not warrant changes in 
recommendations, they show definite tendencies which we believe 
should be taken into consideration by entomologists who contemplate 
grasshopper experiments a following season. - 

Attractiveness of Different Baits 

In one series of four experiments made August 29, to determine the 
relative attractiveness of various baits, fifteen combinations based 
upon the standard formula (bran, fruit, molasses, water and poison) 
were tried, but each contained a different attractive element. These 
experiments were conducted simultaneously at four points in an equally 
infested field of barley stubble, each at least a quarter of a mile apart. 
The baits were placed in small piles, containing about half a hand- 
ful, six feet apart, and the application completed by 7 a. m. Obser- 
vations were made at half-hour intervals from 8 a. m. until 3 p. m., 
and include a record of the number of grasshoppers and crickets 
either actually feeding, or within a radius of six inches of the pile. 

The combined results of these experiments are as follows: apples 
alone, 71 hoppers and 37 crickets; molasses and bananas, 53 hoppers 
and 30 crickets; molasses alone, 52 hoppers and 48 crickets; bananas 
alone, 46 hoppers and 23 crickets; salt alone, 45 hoppers and 33 crick- 
ets; molasses and apple, 40 hoppers and 30 crickets; lemon fruit, 38 
hoppers and 25 crickets; lemon extract, 38 hoppers and 41 crickets; 
molasses and salt, 32 hoppers and 14 crickets; molasses, salt and lemon 
extract, 31 hoppers and 40 crickets; molasses, salt, and lemon fruit, 
31 hoppers and 30 crickets; salt and bananas, 27 hoppers and 35 crick- 
ets; molasses and lemon extract, 20 hoppers and 34 crickets; with 
molasses, salt and apple coming last in this series with a total in three 
of the four experiments of 19 hoppers and 5 crickets. This last obser- 
vation of apple with salt and molasses is not comparable with the other 
results for in one experiment this bait was omitted by mistake, and 

*In the vicinity of Janesville, Wis., Melnnopliis femur-rubruni, M.atlanis, and M. 
biritattus predominated, and nearly all were nearly mature at the time of tlie experi- 
ments. 

'The writer wishes to acknowledge suggestions and kindly criticism received from 
J. J. Davis. 



196 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

also because in one of the three experiments in which it was used it was 
placed in a slight depression which undoubtedly gave an unfair result. 

A single earlier experiment on August 22, using ten baits under simi- 
lar conditions but in another part of the same field gave the following 
results: apple, molasses and salt, 14 hoppers and 6 crickets; apple and 
molasses, 13 hoppers; molasses alone, 8 hoppers and 4 crickets; apple 
alone, 7 hoppers and 1 cricket; lemon extract alone, 7 hoppers and 1 
cricket; lemon fruit and molasses, 6 hoppers and 1 cricket; banana 
alone, 6 hoppers; molasses, lemon extract and salt, 6 hoppers; salt alone, 
3 hoppers; lemon extract and salt, 2 hoppers. 

The above observations are summarized in the following table : 

Summary of Results of Attractiveness Experiments 



Exp. 












No. 


No. 


No. 










Hoppers 


Crickets 


1. Bran 








Apple . 




. 7 


1 


2. Bran 










Banana . 


. 6 

. 7 




3. Bran 






. Lemon extract . 




1 


4. Bran 




Salt. 








. 3 




5. Bran 




Salt 


Lemon extract . 






. 2 




6. Bran 


Molasses . 
Molasses 










. 8 
. 6 


4 


7. Bran 


Lemon 








1 


8. Bran 


Molasses. 






. Apple . 




.13 




9. Bran 


Molasses 


Salt 


Lemon extract , 






. 6 




10. Bran 


Molasses. 


Salt . 




. Apple . 




.14 


6 


11. Bran 


Molasses . 










.52 
.38 


48 


12. Bran 


Lemon 








25 


13. Bran 






. Lemon extract , 






.36 


41 


14. Bran 








Apple . 




.71 


37 


15. Bran 










. Banana . 


.46 
.45 


23 


16. Bran 




Salt 






33 


17. Bran 


Molasses 


Lemon 








.31 


23 


18. Bran 


Molasses 




Lemon extract 






.20 


34 


19. Bran 


Molasses 






Apple . 




.40 


30 


20. Bran 


Molasses 








. Banana . 


.53 


30 


21. Bran 


Molasses 


Salt 








.32 


14 


22. Bran 


Molasses Lemon Salt , 








.31 


30 


23. Bran 


Molasses 


Salt 


Lemon extract 






.31 


40 


24. Bran 


Molasses 


Salt 




. Apple 




.19 


5 


25. Bran 


Molasses 


Salt 






, Banana . 


.27 


35 


Total number recorded 








.644 


461 



These experiments indicated that apples and bananas when used alone 
or with molasses are as attractive or slightly more so than lemon fruit 
or lemon extract. 

Actual control experiments testing these various combinations all 
gave satisfactory results with mortalities varying from 60 to 98 per 
cent. In a series of baits sown on August 20, one containing apples 
and molasses gave, at the end of five days, an average count of 40 dead 
hoppers to the square yard, or approximately 75 per cent. A bait 
containing lemon fruit and molasses, but sown in an area containing a 



April, '19] RICKER:. GRASSHOPPER BAITS 197 

slightly heavier infestation gave an average of 50 dead hoppers to the 
square yard or approximately 75 per cent. Lemon fruit and salt gave 
practically the same results as molasses and salt with average square 
yards showing from 35 to 40 dead hoppers or about 70 per cent. In 
this series salt alone resulted in an average of 30 dead hoppers to the 
square yard or about 65 per cent, while molasses alone gave 28 dead 
hoppers to the square yard, or about 60 per cent. 

These experiments further show that apples and molasses gave 
practically the same results as lemon fruit and molasses; that lemon 
fruit and salt gave practically the same results as molasses and salt, 
but that both were slightly less effective than the first two combina- 
tions. Salt alone seems to have given slightly better results than 
molasses alone. 

Another series on September 3 resulted in banana alone obtaining a 
kill of 35 to 40 hoppers to the square yard or approximately 85 per 
cent, while apple alone resulted in from 25 to 30 dead to the square 
yard, or about 75 per cent. Molasses alone, at the usual rate, gave 
48 dead to the square yard, or approximately 90 per cent, while mo- 
lasses alone, at double strength, but sown in standing corn, gave a kill 
of 15 to 20 hoppers to the square yard, or 85 per cent of the infestation. 

Grasshopper injury to tobacco shows up as holes in the tobacco 
leaves. This makes the tobacco useless as binder tobacco and results 
in a very low price for the crop. Since a small infestation can in a 
very short time eat holes in a considerable amount of tobacco, the use 
of something which will give a quick and maximum kill means a con- 
siderable saving. In several experiments bananas were substituted 
for the lemon fruit in the standard bait, applications being made under 
similar conditions and in all cases the banana gave as good results as 
the lemon fruit and seemed to give a heavier early mortality. This 
indicates that banana might be of special value when treating tobacco 
which, this year in southern Wisconsin was estimated as being worth 
$450 an acre. 

Period of Attractiveness of Different Fruits 

One marked difference between the citrous and non-citrous fruits, 
such as apples and bananas, is that citrous fruits become flat within 
a day or two after application, whereas the non-citrous fruits men- 
tioned above increase in odor and attractivensss as fermentation 
progresses. This factor should make baits attractive for more than 
the one or two days during which the citrous baits are effective. CJrass- 
hoppers and crickets have been observed feeding upon the non-citrous 
baits as late as the eU^-enth and twelfth days after application, although 
no hoppers coukl l)e found at that time feeding upon the citrous baits 

5 



198 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

which had been sown at the same time. If, as is sometimes the case 
with citrous baits, an efficient kill has not been obtained within a few 
days, the materials and labor represent an almost complete loss, whereas 
with non-citrous fruits the odor becomes stronger, and even when the 
bait has been completely dried out, a slight mist or dew will cause the 
non-citrous baits to again become odorous and attractive, and conse- 
quently not a complete loss, even though the initial kill had not been 
high. 

Relative Attractiveness of Mature and Immature Grass- 
hoppers TO Odorous Baits 

As the majority of the grasshoppers recorded in these experiments 
were adults, the question arises as to whether these baits would prove 
equally effective against immature grasshoppers. The writer's obser- 
vations seem to show that the younger hoppers are much more suscep- 
tible to a highly odorous bait. In three control experiments on July 
23, at which time a considerable portion of the hoppers were in the 
third and fourth instar, a very efficient kill was obtained by the addi- 
tion of half an ounce of lemon extract to the standard formula. It 
was originally intended to use the lemon fruit alone, but the lemons 
did not make the mixture especially odorous so the extract was added. 
This gave a very efficient kill of from 85 to 90 per cent of the infestation. 

In comparison with the above we have the results of four experi- 
ments on August 6, under approximately the same conditions. Here 
lemon fruit was used in the standard bait at the rate of five fruits to 
25 pounds of bran. The hoppers were still in the third and fourth 
instars with a few adults. The results from these experiments show 
not more than a 65 per cent mortality, and this included mostly fourth 
instar and adult hoppers. This difference in efficiency compared with 
the earlier experiment, which gave a 90 per cent mortality, is marked 
and would indicate that young hoppers responded better towards the 
more odorous bait. This suggests that there may be considerable 
variation between the attractiveness of a certain bait to the younger 
in comparison with the more mature hoppers. It is believed that had 
lemon extract been added to the bait in this second series the results 
would have been much more efficient. 

Effect of Climatic Conditions on the Efficiency of Poison 

Bait 

A rather low temperature and a high humidity such as one finds 
immediately after a storm, appears to be ideal f ora rapid and maximum 
mortality. In one experiment an application of four different baits, 
containing three different poisons, was made following a night of heavy 



April, '19] RICKER: GRASSHOPPER BAITS 199 

rain and wind, with considerable thunder and Hghtning. The rain 
ceased about 4.30 a. m. and the apphcation was made at 5 a. m. At 
that time the temperature was 61° F. and the humidity 96 per cent. 
The average temperature for the five days following the application 
was 69.34° F. compared to a monthly average of 74.85° F. The aver- 
age humidity for the period was 77.2 per cent compared to the monthly 
average of 73.93 per cent. The daily average atmometer reading for 
the period was 9.66 cc. compared to an average for the month of 24.58 
cc. The application covered about 20 acres, five of which were in 
tobacco. About one third of the tobacco had been so severely injured 
that only the stalks and stems remained. At the end of the two days 
following the application the mortality was found to have reached as 
high as 90 to 95 per cent. At the end of the five-day period it had 
increased to from 95 to 98 per cent. The dead hoppers averaged 
from 135 dead to a square yard in the pasture and stubble, to 51 to the 
square yard in the tobacco. Practically no live hoppers could be 
found. 

It was also noticed that whenever an application was made on a 
hazy or cloudy morning, which cleared either late in the morning or 
early afternoon, that a quick and highly efficient kill was obtained. 

One very unusual result was noted in a successful control where a 
shower came on while the application was being made, and which was 
followed that night by a heavy rain. Ordinarily one would expect 
but a very slight kill under such conditions. At the end of two days 
not more than three or four dead hoppers could be found to a square 
yard anywhere in the treated area. At the end of five days conditions 
were practically the same. On the eleventh day the writer, in passing 
through the field, noticed that dead hoppers were much more abundant 
than when previously examined. A careful examination showed 
approximately 20 dead hoppers to the square yard over the entire 
treated area, which in this experiment covered about 60 acres. Com- 
pared to the original infestation, there were at least 85 per cent of the 
insects dead. 

Comparative Value of Different Arsenicals 

Paris green was the popular poison in use at Janesville and conse- 
quently when poison bait was recommended or used as a control, Paris 
green was used. However, when the writer helped make an applica- 
tion he often used crude arsenious oxide, for at least part of the applica- 
tion. On some 34 control experiments Paris green was used 12 times^ 
crude arsenious oxide 18 times, and calcium arsenate 4 times. Where- 
ever crude arsenious oxide was used side by side in a direct comparison 
with Paris green, as was the case in six experiments, in which applica- 



200 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

tions covered approximately 65 acres, very little choice could be found. 
Apparently both worked with nearly the same rapidity and were 
equally effective. The coarse grade of arsenious oxide was a little 
hard to handle, making a very careful mixing necessary. The lack of 
color also means that more care must be used to insure an evenly mixed 
bait. Calcium arsenate was used in four experiments in direct com- 
parison with both of the above, and in all four gave good results. It 
was noted that it was not as rapid a poison as the others but the hop- 
pers were made sick and apparently did no further injury. At the 
end of the five-day period, however, the mortality resulting from each 
of these three poisons was nearly the same. In treating tobacco, 
Paris green caused some leaf burn while calcium arsenate did not. 

Rate of Application 

It was found in many cases, and especially so when there was any 
amount of vegetation in the field, that the use of the standard poison 
bait at the rate of 25 pounds for five to seven acres was not heavy 
enough to secure maximum results. This appeared to be due to the 
weakness of the odor of the standard bait. However, an addition of 
lemon extract to the standard formula made a much more odorous bait, 
and proved effective at the usual rate of application, while the standard 
bait when used at the rate of from six to eight pounds to the acre, gave 
efficient results. The use of lemon extract alone depends greatly 
upon the strength of the extract. One extract which was tried, and 
which did not give results, was found to be what was called a 2 per 
cent extract. Druggists' extracts were found to be at least a 5 per 
cent extract, and will run as high as 10 per cent. 

It appears that the rate of application should depend upon the 
infestation and the attractiveness of the bait. 



THE VALUE OF CRUDE ARSENIOUS OXIDE IN POISON BAIT 
FOR CUTWORMS AND GRASSHOPPERS^ 

By John J. Davis, West LaFayette, Indiana 

Last winter (January, 1918) Mr. W. R. Walton submitted samples of 
a finely powdered crude arsenious oxide from a Montana copper smelter 
company to determine its effectiveness against cutworms and grass- 
hoppers when used in bran bait as a substitute for Paris green. It was 
tested indoors with army worms (Cirphis unipuncfa) and the results 

1 Published by permission of the Secretary of Agriculture. 



April, '19] DAVIS: CRUDE ARSENIOUS OXIDE 201 

which warranted further tests in the field were published recently in the 
Canadian Entomologist.^ 

The past spring a barrel of crude arsenious oxide was obtained from 
the same Montana smelter and samples were sent to entomologists 
in various parts of the country for testing. Unfortunately, the mate- 
rial was of a coarser and more granular grade than desired but the 
mistake was found too late to obtain another supply. 

Most of those receiving a supply have furnished us with a summary 
of their results and they are briefly as follows: 

C. N. Ainslie, Sioux City, Iowa. Did not have an opportunity to 
test material. However, he states that farmers of western South 
Dakota used car loads of arsenic obtained from the Montana smelters 
and with good results against grasshoppers. 

G. G. Ainslie, Knoxville, Tennesse. Did not have an opportunity to 
test material. 

C. W. Creel, Forest Grove, Oregon. Did not have an opportunity to 
test material. 

S. E. Crumb, Clarksville, Tennesse. Did not test in field but results 
in laboratory experiments with cutworms gave the following results: 

Coarse Crude Arsenious Oxide, 1-96 15 % dead 5th day 

" 1^8 49 % 

" 1-24 79 + % 

Powdered " " " 1-72 87 + % 

" 1-48 97-% 

" i_24 97-% 

Paris green " " " 1-96 95 % 

Mr. Crumb concludes that the powdered grade will prove satisfac- 
tory against cutworms in the field at 1 to 50 pounds of bran and that 
a dosage of 1-25 can certainly be safely recommended. 

Geo. A. Dean, Manhattan, Kansas, found the crude arsenious oxide 
furnished not quite as efficient as other poisons when used against 
grasshoppers but believes this due to coarseness and that if ground 
as fine as white arsenic or Paris green it would be an excellent substitute 
and equally as good. 

W. P. FHnt, Springfield, Ilhnois. Mr. FHnt writes: "I used the 
crude arsenious oxide as a grasshopper poison, using it at one half 
the amount of Paris green and applied it in the same manner, with bran, 
fruit, and syrup, with practically the same results in the two fields 
where tested. E. M. Schalck tried it in the northern part of the state 
and he reports as good results or a little better than Paris green. I 
had some trouble because of coarseness of material, it sometimes taking 
an hour or an hour and a half for the lumps to dissolve." 

1 Davis, J. J., and Turner, C. F. Exi)eriment.s with cutworm baits. In Canadian 
Entomologist, vol. 50, Xo. G, June, 1918, pp. 187-192. 





1 test 


Ay. 


5 tests 




4 " 




2 " 




3 " 




3 " 




5 " 



202 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

L. G. Gentner, Madison, Wisconsin. Did not have an opportunity 
to test material. 

Arthur Gibson, Ottawa, Canada. Only preliminary cage tests made 
which do not warrant definite conclusions. 

J. R. Horton, Wichita, Kansas. Mr. Horton used the crude arsen- 
ious oxide in bait against mature grasshoppers in a wheat field, the first 
application being made October 7, using at the rate of seven pounds 
bait per acre. The regulation formula of bran, poison, molasses and 
lemon fruits was used, the poison and bran at the rate of 1 to 25. This 
application killed 74 per cent of the grasshoppers. A second applica- 
tion on the same area October 15, with bait prepared and applied as the 
first, gave 88 per cent killed, calculating the number of grasshoppers 
alive after the first poisoning as 100 per cent. The percentage killed 
by both poisonings was 96.9 per cent and Mr. Horton adds, "almost the 
only hoppers to be found were dead. " 

Philip Luginbill, Columbia, South Carolina. Did not have an op- 
portunity to test the material. 

G. I. Reeves, Salt Lake, Utah. According to Mr. Reeves the farm- 
ers of Utah use arsenious oxide, obtained from the nearby smelters, 
quite extensively in making poison bran mash. 

D. A. Ricker, Janesville, Wisconsin. In his field tests with poison 
baits against grasshoppers, Mr. Ricker made comparative tests with 
Paris green, calcium arsenate and the crude arsenious oxide. He re- 
ports that he found little choice between Paris green and the crude 
arsenic as far as effectiveness and rapidity of killing was concerned. 
Calcium arsenate seemed effective but was a slower acting poison. 

W. B. Turner, Hagerstown, Maryland. Did not have an opportu- 
nity to test the material. 

T. D. Urbahns, Berkeley, California. For grasshoppers, Mr. Ur- 
bahns found Paris green and crude arsenious oxide about equally 
effective. He adds, however, that "the crude arsenious oxide was found 
more difficult to mix on account of settling to the bottom in the liquid" 
and that the same difficult}^ is more or less true with white arsenic. 

R. A. Vickery, San Antonio, Texas. Did not have an opportunity to 
test the material. 

R. L. Webster, Ames, Iowa. The sample was tested by C. A. Burge, 
County Agricultural Agent at Greenfield, Iowa, who reported to Mr, 
Webster under date of October 9, 1918, as follows: "In regard to the 
poison for grasshoppers made with crude arsenious oxide which was 
used at the farm of H. P. Proctor in this county, Mr. Proctor informed 
me yesterday that he obtained only fair results. Mr. Proctor thought 
if the arsenic could be soaked over night in water so as to dissolve the 
granules the results obtained might be better." 



April, '19] HAWLEY: PHORBIA FUSCICEPS 203 

Don B. Whelan, East Lansing, Michigan. Mr. Whelan reports crude 
arsenious oxide to be as effective against grasshoppers as Paris green 
when used at the same strength, the formula used being one pound of 
poison, one bushel of sawdust, one scant pound of salt and one cup of 
molasses with water as needed. Mr. E. E. Twinge, County Agricul- 
tural Agent of Kalkaska County, Michigan, used a barrel of this crude 
arsenious oxide (coarse, granular grade) and obtained results generally 
favorable as to its efficiencj^ against grasshoppers but he does not 
believe it gives as good satisfaction as white arsenic, of whicli several 
tons were used in Kalkaska County. This may have been due to 
the coarseness of the crude arsenic. The formula given by Whelan and 
noted above was used. 

V. L. Wildermuth, Tempe, Arizona. Under date of October 18, 
1918, Mr. Wildermuth writes, ''We tried the crude arsenious oxide 
against grasshoppers on three different occasions and were not at all 
satisfied with the results. " He adds that the earlier sample furnished 
by Mr. Walton, which was a finely powdered material, proved quite 
satisfactory and gave excellent results and concludes that a powdered 
grade would be quite more desirable than Paris green, chiefly because of 
its cheapness and equal effectiveness. 

Our own experience with crude arsenious oxide has shown it 
to be quite satisfactory against cutworms, army worms, and 
grasshoppers, and in some cases it seemed to be even more effective 
than Paris green but when using the coarse, granular grade we ex- 
perienced the same difficulty noted by othes. We also found the bait 
almost as effective when half sawdust was substituted for bran. 

From the above work conducted in various parts of the continent we 
conclude that crude arsenious oxide is a satisfactory and reliable 
substitute for Paris green at about one seventh the cost but that a 
powdered grade only should be recommended. The one advantage of 
Paris green over powdered arsenious oxide is its color which simplifies 
the mixing and makes possible an unquestionable thorough mixture. 



SOME NOTES ON PHORBIA FUSCICEPS AS A BEAN PEST 

By I. M. Hwvi.Kv' 

In the spring of 1UI7 the l)ean crop in New York State was seriously 
damaged by the seed-corn maggot (Phorbia fiisciceps 7ott). In five 
townships f)f one county there was a loss of $lo,000 for seefl destroyed 
by th(^ insect, and in another county the loss on 10,000 acres planteil 
was estimated to l)e between .")() and 7") per cent. 

' Contrilmtidii finm tli»> Kntoinolonical l.jiltonitury of Coriicll I'liivcr^it y. 



204 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

The damage is caused by the maggots in the ground when the beans 
are planted. As the bean swells on sprouting, the larvae eat off the 
plumule or tunnel in the fleshy cotyledons. The beans often develop 
into stunted plants, known as snake heads, (PI. 9), which do not mature 
and produce pods. If the cotyledons are above ground before the mag- 
gots find the plant, the stem beneath the ground is attacked. After 
eating its way to the pithy center the larva mines upward an inch or 
more. 

There are two broods of flies each year in western New York and the 
writer believes that in some years there is a small third brood. The 
first flies emerged early in May in 1918 and there was a second brood 
during the last half of June and the first part of July. The time from 
egg to adult for bred specimens has varied between 25 and 47 days. 

Flies emerging in May are attracted for feeding and oviposition to 
moist, freshly-plowed ground. The writer has found a few eggs on 
newly turned soil and obtained others by throwing pails of water on the 
ground around the laboratory. Several hours after the water was 
thrown out eggs were found in these moist spots, though none could be 
found in dry places. Eggs have also been found in large numbers 
around decaying bean vines as well as rotting cabbage and clover 
roots, and Prof. R. H. Pettit (in correspondence) reports breeding flies 
from fresh manure and decayed clover stems. 

Many times in the literature reference has been made to decaying 
material as a breeding place for the maggots of Phorbia fusciceps. 
Schoene^ reports finding the larvae with those of Phorhia brassicce in 
cabbage-heads and when so found, they were in the decaying part of 
the plant. In examining bean fields, maggots have been found in 
healthy plants, although they are found in much larger numbers in 
beans which have begun to decay. As high as seventeen maggots 
have been found in one rotting bean. 

If beans are planted when the ground is cold and wet, and the growth 
is slow and decay sets in, maggots will be attracted from their feeding 
places on buried clover roots or other decaying material to the beans 
in large numbers. This influence of cold rainy weather on the growth 
was demonstrated in the spring of 1917 when the rainfall at Rochester, 
N. Y., in the bean-growing section of the state was 6.40 inches from 
June 1 to July 1. Many growers lost their entire crop. In 1918 the 
rainfall for this same period was 2.40 inches and on the whole a fine 
stand of beans was obtained. 

The writer had hoped to find some material which applied to the 
beans before planting would either repel the maggots or kill them as 
they fed on the cotyledons. However, anything placed on the seed- 

1 Journ. Econ. Ent. Vol. 9., p. 132. 



April. T'l 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 



Plate 9 




1, Wnrk nf l'hi,rhia fusrirrps in l)c:u s soon lyUrv i.lai.tinir: 2. St iintod hoan phmts 
or "Snuko heads'; li, "Siiakc heads-' seiidiiiK out ne>v leaves; 4, A plant developed 
from II "Snake head ' compared to a healthy plant of tlie same ane. 



April, '19] HAWLEY: PHORBIA FUSCICEPS 205 

coat will be shed with it as the bean swells and the plant is again 
unprotected. At germination the bean is very sensitive to most 
insecticides and many things applied proved harmful to the growth. 
For these reasons and because it is usually impossible to predict an 
outbreak of maggots for experimental work, nothing of material value 
had developed up to the present time. 

Professor Pettit as the result of work in Michigan believes that 
clover or alfalfa sod, fertilized with fresh manure and turned under 
just before planting to beans, makes the most favorable condition for 
serious injury, and advises the use of old manure or other fertilizer and 
that the ground be allowed to lie idle for awhile before planting. 
As the common rotation in western New York is to follow clover with 
beans and wheat, clover roots are often present for maggots to work 
on before entering the beans. If, as seems to be the case, eggs are laid 
at plowing or fitting time, and the ground is left fallow for about 
two weeks until the maggots present have pupated, beans may then be 
planted with safety. If the first seeding is destroyed, it is wise to 
delay replanting for a week or two until the maggots have pupated. 
In late seasons this may be impossible, and in that case it is better to 
substitute some other crop. Buckwheat is often used for this purpose 
in New York. Plowing the preceding fall or early in the spring before 
most of the flies appear should also tend to cut down the infestation. 

In 1917 it was often observed that shallow planted beans were less 
damaged than those planted deeper. One grower started planting 
with a bean planter which placed the seed just beneath the surface of 
the ground, and then fearing that he was not putting them in deep 
enough he used a grain drill which buried the beans to a depth of 
three or four inches. At harvest time he had a good stand on the 
part where the planter was used, but the rest of his field was a total 
loss. The bean planter is now coming into greater favor because it is 
lighter and does not sink in so far in wet spots and so it is more easy to 
regulate the planting depth. Many growers are now putting the beans 
in so shallow that a boy is sent along to cover those left on the surface. 

If a bean gets above the ground quickly, the chance of escaping the 
attack of Phorbia fusciceps is much better. Shallow planting, a judi- 
cious use of a quick acting fertilizer with an excess of seed will tend to 
increase the yield in wet seasons. Drilling beans deep in wet soil will 
surely result in a loss. 



206 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 



[Vol. 12 



NOTES ON SOME LITTLE KNOWN PESTS OF RED-CLOVER 

By Glenn W. Herrick and J. D. Detwiler 

During the past few years, a more or less continuous study of the 
insect pests of red clover has been carried on at Ithaca. Interruptions 
have occurred from time to time but a special effort was made last 
season by the writers to continue the investigation. It seemed that 
a study of clover insects in New York was of special significance in 
time of war. Clover is the principal crop in the northern states for 
the maintenance of the fertility of the soil and upon it, in great meas- 
ure, depends the production of farm crops in a continuously average 
amount. Therefore any measure that will conserve clover and espe- 
cially clover seed is of direct aid in a food crisis of this country. With 
this thought in mind the writers made special effort during the past 
summer to investigate the life-histories and injuries of three little 
known pests of red clover that occur abundantly in the vicinity of 
Ithaca. These are the lesser clover-leaf weevil, Phytonoyyius nigriros- 
tris, the clover-head weevil, Phytonomus nieles, and the clover tychius, 
Tychius picirostris. 

The infestation of the first two species could hardly be considered 
severe as counts of infested and uninfested heads show. On June 29 
a count was made of a total of 400 heads. Of these 6 per cent of the 
ripened heads, 1.8 per cent of those in bloom, while 7+ per cent of the 
immature heads were found infested. On July 1 another lot of heads, 
a total of 340, gathered near the border of a clover plot were examined 
for the presence of the weevil. Of these 21 per cent of the mature 
heads, 4 per cent of those in bloom, and 2.2 per cent of the green ones 
were found infested. In this case the percentage of infestation in the 
mature heads was highest. Again on July 2 a count of 403 heads was 
made. Of these 7 per cent of the ripened heads, 3 per cent of those in 
bloom, and 2 per cent of the green heads were infested. Here also the 
highest infestation was among the matured heads. 

The Lesser Clover-Leaf Weevil, 
Phytonomus nigrirostris Fab. 

This weevil (Fig. 8) was found in 
considerable abundance in clover 
fields at Ithaca. The larvae were 
at work in immature heads, in those 
in bloom, and in those that had 
ripened. During the last days of 
June when this investigation began, 
larvae and pupse, and empty co- 




Fig. 8. 
Thorax. 



Phytonomus nigrirostris; a. 



April, '19] HERRICK AND DETWILER: CLOVER INSECTS 207 

coons were present in the heads of clover, the empty cocoons showing 
that some beetles had already emerged. 

Those larvae that live in the heads of the clover tunnel into the head 
and eat into the florets a short distance up from the bases and appar- 
ently devour the ovaries, thus preventing the development of seed. It 
is seldom that more than one larva is found in a head but this one 
destroys several florets. The larvae of this beetle also work in the 
axils of the clover stems. In one small plot of clover the larvae were 
quite numerous in the axils of the stems and committing considerable 
injury. The larva eats into the sheath surrounding the bud in the 
axil, severs the bud from the stem, and eats out a groove in the side of 
the main stem. Further investigations are necessary to determine the 
amount and seriousness of this injury. 

During the latter part of June and the first part of July the larvae 
became full grown. Many of them had already spun cocoons by June 
29 and from some cocoons the beetles had emerged. The lacelike 
cocoons are found in the heads of the clover, often at the base of the 
head. The following table contains data on the length of the pupal 
stage : 

Duration of Period in Cocoon 

Date of Spinning Cocoon Emergence of Beetle Period in Cocoon, Day3 

June 27 July 13 16 

June 29 July 13 14 

July 6 July 19 13 

July 12 July 25 13 

On June 28 a number of larvae were placed in a cage with clover. 
On July 2 one cocoon was found and by July 4, eight had spun cocoons. 
The first beetle emerged July 16, another July 17, and a third July 
18. From the foregoing data it is apparent that the time spent in 
the cocoon varies from 13 to 16 days, probably varying with the individ- 
ual and the temperature. 

The Clover-Head Weevil, Phytonomus 7neles Fab. 

This is a foreign weevil that has apparently been recently intro- 
duced into this countrj', probably from Europe. It is said to occur 
widely over Europe and is also found in parts of Asia and along the 
north coast of Africa. In this country it has been found in Now Hamp- 
shire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York. 
Apparently it was first noted in New York in 1907. During the past 
season this weevil was abundant in red clover fields in the vicinity of 
Ithaca and was evidently (•()ntril)utiiig to tlie g(Mieral insect injury to 
this plant. 



208 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 



[Vol. 12 









Fig. 9. Phytonomus meles; h, Thorax. 



The beetle is from one seventh to one fifth of an inch in length and, 
in general, of a grayish or greenish-brown color. The specimens reared 

by us are distinctly striped 
/!MM^^ with longitudinal lines of light 
brown scales near the lateral 
edges of the elytra. The tho- 
rax has two wide, dark longi- 
tudinal dorsal stripes separat- 
ed on the median line by a 
narrow golden-brown stripe 
(Fig. 9). The thorax is wider 
than long and markedly 
rounded on each side while 
the thorax of P. nigrirostris is longer than wide and less rounded on 
the sides (Fig. 8, a). 

Our studies began too late in the season to find the eggs but Titus 
has found them deposited on and in the stems, and leaf petioles of 
clover and alfalfa and on blossoms of clover. The larvge were present 
in abundance however in the heads of clover. The larvae probably 
spin their cocoons in the field on the heads of clover, often between the 
bracts on the head and probably also in the axils of the branches. All 
of the cocoons observed were formed in the laboratory under abnormal 
conditions but their positions indicate that they would be placed in 
the field as suggested. The pupse are interesting from their conspic- 
uous and active movements in their cocoons. In one instance a pupa 
was formed which had not been able for some reason to spin its cocoon. 
The violent and rapid movements of this pupa when disturbed seemed 
quite remarkable. Moreover, the same movements of the pupse within 
the cocoons were repeatedly noted. The following table presents data 
on the length of the cocoon stage: 



Duration of Period in Cocoon 
Date of Spinning Cocoon Emergence of Beetle Period in Cocoon, Days 



July 2 
July 2 
July 4 
Julys 
July 6 
July 10 
July 10 



July 21 
July 18 
July 18 
July 19 
July 19 
July 23 
July 22 



19 
16 
14 
14 
13 
13 
12 



It will be seen from the foregoing table that the time spent in the 
cocoon varies from 12 to 19 days, the period apparently growing shorter 
with the advancing season. 




April, '19] HERRICK AND DETWILER: CLOVER INSECTS 209 

The Clover Tychius, Tychius picirostris Fab. 

The clover Tychius is a small grayish snout-beetle only about one 
tenth of an inch in length. It is known in Europe, according to Blatch- 
ley and Leng, as Miccotrogus picirostris, and there it lives in the 
capsules of red clover, and on plantain and Genista. The beetle is 
certainly widely distributed in New York State. Knight has found it 
abundant especially on pear trees and Casey reports it "in extraor- 
dinary numbers at Lake Champlain." Felt reports it from Water- 
ville, New Baltimore, Albany, Newport, Specula- sk»^^ 

tor, Gouverneur, Oswego and McLean. Outside 
of New York it has been taken in Maine, New 
Hampshire and Massachusetts. In Canada, Du 
Porte records it in large numbers in nearly all 

fields of common red and mammoth red clover in . !'^' yc lus 

1 ... ~ r^ A > y^ 1 TT 1 picirostris. 

the vicmity oi bte. Anne s, Quebec. Here the 

adults were feeding gregariously on the leaves while later in the season 

they attacked the flower heads of clover. 

Here at Ithaca we find it abundantly in fields of red clover. As 
many as nineteen adults were found in a newly opening head of red 
clover. The beetles apparently feed upon the pollen of the florets. 
In a count made 90 per cent of the florets were punctured and in most 
of these the anthers were shrunken and discolored. 

The larvce are white and only about 2 mm. in length and are found 
living in the clover heads where they apparently feed upon the florets. 
They were found in abundance during July and through the month 
of August. The insect is undoubtedly capable of doing considerable 
damage. When the larvae are full-grown they go into the soil and 
there form cells apparently by cementing grains of soil and sand 
firmly together. The summer brood of beetles began appearing about 
the middle of August. We can say nothing yet as to the mode of 
passing the winter or as to the eggs or place of deposition. It is hop?d 
that the investigations may be continued during the coming season. 

The writers wish to make acknowledgement to Miss Ellen Edmon- 
son for the drawings of the three species considered. 



European Com Borer. A subroinmittee on the pest has liecn appointed by the 
Chairman of the Committee on Pohcy of the American Association of Economic 
Entomologists. It consists of E. P. Felt, Chairman and Messrs. Herbert Osborn and 
J. G. Sanders and is charged with all phases of the problem whicli migiit projwrly 
come witliin the province of representatives of a national organization. 



210 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

THE DISPERSION OF FLIES BY FLIGHT ^ 

By F. C. BisHOPP and E. W. Laake, U. S. Bureau of Entomology 
Abstract 

Up to very recent years it has been generally held by entomologists 
that flies are comparatively limited in the distances which they will go 
from breeding places. Dr. Parker's work in Montana indicated that 
the house-fly is normally migratory in habit and he succeeded in obtain- 
ing specimens nearly two miles from the point of liberation. In 1916 
the authors conducted some preliminary experiments in which colored 
flies were liberated in the vicinity of packing houses and a considerable 
number of these were recovered quite promptly in traps placed in the 
yard of the packing establishments, a flight of about three-fifths of a 
mile. The flies Uberated in this experiment consisted largely of blow- 
flies of the species Chrysomyia macellaria and Phormia regina. Later 
in the same summer a series of experiments was carried out to deter- 
mine the distance of flight of several species of blowflies and house-flies 
under rural conditions. The flies were liberated at a point near the 
intersection of two roads and four traps were placed at given distances 
in the four cardinal directions from the point of liberation. A total 
of 1,745 colored flies were recovered in the sixteen recovery traps and 
a considerable number of these were in the outer ring of traps which 
was approximately three miles from the point of release. Another 
experiment was conducted immediately following this in which the 
traps were moved outward in the four directions to points approxi- 
mately 2, 3, 4 and 5 miles from the point of liberation. House-flies, 
screw-worm flies and the Anthomyid, Ophyra leucostoma,weTe recovered 
in some of the most distant traps. 

In 1918 it was determined to make more extensive tests of the dis- 
persion tendencies of various species of flies. The same general plan 
was followed as in the previous experiment, four traps being set in 
each of the cardinal directions from the point of liberation at distances 
approximately 4|, 6, 7 and 8 miles. About 60,000 colored flies were 
liberated, approximately 58 per cent being screw-worm flies, 39 per cent 
house-flies and the remainder Phormia regina, Sarcophagids and other 
species. As in previous experiments the flies in the various traps were 
killed daily and examined carefully for marked individuals. The day fol- 
lowing liberation a considerable number of marked house-flies and screw- 
worm flieswere recovered in several of the traps. Even in those located 
8 miles in each direction from the point of release, some screw-worm 
flies were taken. Following this experiment the traps were renioved 

1 Published by permission of the chief of the Bureau of Entomology. 



April, '19] PARMAN: PHLEBOTOMUS ATTACKING MAN 211 

to points east and west approximately 9^, 11, 13, 15 and 17 miles, two 
traps to the north 13 and 17 miles, and two traps to the south 8 and 10 
miles from point of release. A trap was also placed about 7 miles east 
of south and another about 10 miles south of west of the point of hbera- 
tion. About 80,000 flies were released in this test. The greatest 
distance from the point of liberation at which marked flies were recov- 
ered was: House-flies, 13 miles; screw-worm flies, 15 miles; Phormia 
regina, 11 miles and Ophyra leucostoma, 7 miles. 

It is believed that the following of vehicles by flies in these experi- 
ments was unimportant. In general the experiments suggested that 
there is a natural tendency toward dispersion exhibited by both sexes 
of all species used in the tests. Many Apparently favorable feeding 
and breeding places were passed in the course of migration. The 
relationship between direction of travel and the direction of the wind 
appeared not to be very close. 

The many practical bearings of the question of distance and rapidity 
of travel of flies cannot be discussed here, but are apparent to all. 

It might be pointed out that this is the first series of experiments in 
which flight studies have been made wdth flies other than Musca 
domestica. 



NOTES ON PHLEBOTOMUS SPECIES ATTACKING MAN^ 
By D. C. Parman, Bureau of Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture 

Observations have been made on Phlebotomus sp.^ attacking human 
beings at Uvalde, Texas, during the months of September, October and 
November since 1915. The writer has been located at Uvalde since 
October, 1913, but the species was not observed until the fall of 1915. 
It is quite possible that the insect was present before that season and 
may be native in the region, but the people generally spoke of it as 
"the new musciuito or bug that bites so hard." Considerable com- 
plaint was received during the fall of 1915 from residents of the higher 
parts of the town. My first experience with the bite was during the 
latter part of October. I was at a table under an electric light and was 
bitten on the face by what was evidentl}' a Phlebotonms. Specimens 
were taken later and so identified. 

Heretofore no records of the occurrence of Phlebotomus in the South- 
west have been made and there are no published statements regarding 
the attack upon man by Phlebotomus vexator Coq., the only species of 
this genus known to occur in the United States. The occurrence of 

1 Publinhcil with the pcnnisHion of the chief of the Bureau of Entomology. 
' A dctcrriiiimtion of the species conceriued has not been secured. 



212 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Phlebotomus in the Southwest and the fact that they appear to attack 
man freely deserves some attention, owing to the fact that this group of 
insects is known to carry papataci or three-day fever in the Mediter- 
ranean region, and evidence also points to its acting as vector of verruga 
in the Peruvian Andes. 

During the fall of 1916 the infestation was heavier than the previous 
season and the appearance was about a month earlier; in 1917 the 
infestation was lighter but was present at about the same dates, the 
latter part of August until November. The early heavy freezes during 
the fall of this year caused an earlier disappearance. In 1918 the 
insect appeared the first part of September and disappeared in the 
latter part of November. The earliest authentic record of appearance 
is September 3, 1916; the latest record is November 24, 1915. During 
1916, 1917 and 1918, the species was present in greatest numbers from 
September 25 to October 10. The adults always disappear with the 
occurrence of freezing weather. The abundance is extremely variable 
and amounts to from only one specimen attacking in several nights, to 
as many as twenty-five or thirty attacking each night for a short period 
during the height of the infestation. Rarely more than four specimens 
have been observed on a person at one time, and the greatest number 
was seven. 

The bite is very painful and the sensation will last as long as one min- 
ute or more. There is no warning of the approach or attack and one 
is not aware of the presence of the insects until they are well seated. 
They are not easily disturbed after they begin to feed and are generally 
easily captured. I have allowed them to feed from ten to .sixty seconds 
on my arm and none have ever appeared to complete a meal. The 
after effects of the bite last from twelve hours to as long as two or three 
days. On some persons there is no swelling, but a slight reddening of 
the area surrounding the point of attack; on others the swelling is 
considerable, the raised place being about two inches in diameter and 
nearly one-fourth inch high and is always attended by itching which 
continues for some time after the swelhng leaves. 

The insect is quite active at night but not nearly so evasive as the 
mosquito, the flight being more deliberate. When disturbed during 
the day flight is sluggish and irrational. The insects are found hiding 
in dark places during the day only, one or two specimens at a place. 
They have never been observed to venture out of hiding until well after 
sundown and the attack has never been observed earlier than eight 
o'clock or about one hour after sundown. They have been observed 
to be most numerous at lights on dark nights, but have been known to 
attack in late twilight but not in the dark or moonlight. 

No data as to the breeding habits have been collected, but there is 



April, '19] DEAN, KELLY AND FORD: GRASSHOPPER COXTROL 213 

some evidence that the breeding places are in neglected poultry houses. 
They have been observed to be quite abundant around such places 
during the late twilight hours. Observations have been made to note 
if they attack poultry, but all have been negative. 

Aside from the annoyance of the bite of the Phlebotomus it is quite 
probable that it is a carrier of disease. There is some evidence of a 
circumstantial nature that is incriminating. During the fall of 1916 
there was an outbreak of a mild form of what was termed by the local 
physicians dengue fever, the latter part of September and in early 
October. The outbreak was practically an epidemic. The disease 
occurred in 1917 with a smaller number of cases. In 1918 there were 
many cases of Spanish influenza and the local physicians are uncertain 
as to whether any cases of the so-called dengue appeared. The fever 
lasts about three da3^s and runs about 102°F. to 103°F. There appears 
to be a tendency toward a recurrence of the fever each year in some 
cases. 



GRASSHOPPER CONTROL IN KANSAS^ 

By George A. Dean, Entom-ologist, Kansas State Experiment Station, E. G. Kelly, 

Extension Entomologist, Kansas State Agricultural College, A. L. Ford, 

Special Agent, U. S. Bureau of Entomology 

During the summer and fall of 1918, the grasshopper outbreak in 
Kansas was one of the worst in the history of the state. The out- 
break did not come without warning, for in the previous year, in sev- 
eral localities in western Kansas, the grasshoppers were present in 
such damaging numbers that control measures had to be practiced in 
order to save the crops. It was evident that should the eggs be de- 
posited in large numbers, and should the weather prove favorable for 
most of the egg capsules to pass the winter uninjured, the season of 
1918 would be one of the most serious grasshopper years that the state 
had experienced. In the fall, the Department of Entomology and 
Extension Division of the Kansas State Agricultural College, in coop- 
eration with the Federal Bureau of Entomology, placed an agent- in 

' Contribution from the Entomological Laboratory of the Kansas State Agricultural 
College, No. 37. 

* Mr. Scott Johnson, special field agent of the Federal Bureau of Entomology, did 
the survey work in the fall of 1917, and assisted with the extension work during the 
winter and early spring of 1918, at which time he entered the navy. Because of the 
urgent need of continuing the work, Mr. A. L. Ford, scientific assistant, Bureau of 
Entomology, on request, was transferred from the investigational work to the ex- 
tension service. Much of the success in organizing the farmers to poison the grass- 
hoppers and to disk to destroy the eggs was due to Mr. Ford's excellent work in the 
field. 




214 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

western Kansas to make a grasshopper egg survey. Throughout the 
western part of the state the eggs were found in large numbers. In 
the spring following the dry cold winter, another survey was made and 
it was found that a high percentage of the eggs had come through 
the winter unharmed, and thus it was almost certain that in order to 
protect the crops a campaign on grasshopper control would have to 
be conducted. 

It was decided to conduct the campaign by holding demonstration 
meetings, personal farm visits with demonstrations, and by appro- 
priate window displays throughout the counties where prospects for 
grasshopper outbreaks were favorable. This work was started in 
the field on May 13, which was about the normal hatching time of 
Melanoplus differentialis and M. hivittatus. During the next seven 
weeks, 21 counties were covered, in which 24 demonstrations were 
given, 16 window displays arranged, and 240 farmers visited on their 
farms and given instructions. At each demonstration the life-history 
of the grasshopper was explained and a small amount of poison bran 
mash was properly mixed and distributed with a sowing device.^ In 
this way the farmers could actually see the process and should make 
no mistake in mixing large batches for use on their farms. Not only 
was much interest shown at these demonstrations, but the proposition 
actually was put into practice by a great number of farmers. 

In three counties, Finney, Hamilton, and Kearney, the ingredients 
for the poison bran mash were provided for out of countj^ funds, and 
was distributed in the fields following the first cutting of alfalfa. In 
practically every instance where the poison was used the second crop 
of alfalfa came on normally. However, many farmers did not use the 
poison, and almost without exception they cut but one short crop of 

1 Device described by T. H. Parks, Journ. of Econ. Ent., Vol. 10, No. 6, pp. 524- 
525, 1917. 

Explanation of Plate 10 

1. Demonstration meeting at Olmitz, Kans., attendance 127. The wheat to the 
left of the road completely destroyed from 15-20 rods back from the road. Egg pods 
very numerous along the roadside. 

2. Demonstration meeting at Offerle, Kans., attendance 70. Wheat to the right of 
the road destroyed. The grass land between the wagon road and the railroad con- 
tained a large number of egg pods. 

3. Demonstration meeting on a Ford county farm, attendance 10. Picture shows 
an uncultivated strip of land with wheat on either side. A typical place for oviposi- 
tion. Egg pods were very abundant. 

4. Demonstration meeting at Heizer, Kan., attendance 23. A hard beaten 
fence-row between two wheat fields. A typical place for oviposition. Egg pods 
were very numerous. Both wheat fields badly injured. 

All photographed by A. L. Ford. 



April '19] 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 



Plate 10 




AprO, '19] DEAN, KELLY AND FORD: GRASSHOPPER CONTROL 215 

alfalfa during the entire season. In several other counties the farmers 
purchased their own poison, and saved their alfaKa. 

During the latter part of June, a large amount of poison bran mash 
was used in the sugar beet district of the state, and excellent results 
were had in protecting the sugar beets. Later in the summer the 
farmers of Thomas County organized, distributed the poison bran 
mash, which was provided by the county, and protected their alfalfa, 
and forage crops. 

Throughout the earlier part of the summer a close watch was kept 
on the hopper situation. In western Kansas the small egg capsules 
of the late hatching Melanoplus atlanis were present everywhere in 
the hard soil in large numbers, and it was then evident that the far- 
mers would have trouble with this pest on their wheat in the fall. 
Early in September reports began to come to the effect that the small 
lesser-migratory hopper was doing serious damage to the early fall 
planted wheat throughout the western part of the state, and thus a 
second campaign for demonstrations on grasshopper poisoning was 
arranged. A survej' of the situation not only revealed the grasshopper 
present in dangerous numbers, but also that large numbers of eggs 
were already deposited in the soil in places accessible to the disk. 
Since the time for poisoning M. atlojils was in the early fall, and since 
this was also the proper time to emphasize the importance of destroy- 
ing eggs, it was decided to combine both poisoning and fall disking to 
destroy the eggs in these demonstrations. This campaign proved to 
be a complete success. The attendance at the demonstrations was 
large, and unusual interest was shown by the farmers, especially in 
the fall disking demonstrations. 

In this campaign in western Kansas, 12 counties were covered in 
which 59 demonstrations were given with a total attendance of 1,273 
farmers, or an average of 22 at each demonstration.^ At these meet- 
ings a short explanation was given of the life-history of the grasshopper, 
with special emphasis on the oviposition habits. The proper method 
of mixing and applying the poison bran mash was explained and dem- 
onstrated. Following the discussions on poisoning, the fall disking 
proposition was taken up in the following manner: The croAvd was 
conducted to a nearby roadside or fence row where grasshopper eggs 
were abundant. Grasshopper oviposition was reexplaincd, with spec- 
ial cnipluisis on the place of oviposition. (Tliero nearly always is 
found a very large number of eggs in the hard grassy places at the edge 
of cultivated fields. The reason for this is that in the fall the majority 

* Had it not been for the state ban on all public meetinRS on account of the in- 
fluenza epidemic, much more could have been accomi)lislicd. Practically all the 
scheduled demonstrations after October 16 were fMiicclled. 



216 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

of hoppers are found feeding on the most succulent food which is 
usually in cultivated land. Since they do not oviposit in loose culti- 
vated soil, they migrate to hard ground and they usually stop at the 
first favorable place, and thus the egg capsules are very numerous 
along the edge of the cultivated fields.) The egg capsules were dug up 
and passed around, the number of eggs in several pods were counted 
and the number of pods to each spadeful of earth was determined. In 
this way it was impressed on the farmers just how many eggs an 
uncultivated roadside or fence row could harbor. It was interesting to 
notice that although these farmers had been fighting grasshoppers for 
years, very few of them had ever seen or noticed one of the egg pods 
before. 

After the farmers were convinced of the places of grasshopper ovi- 
position, and of the overwhelming abundance of the eggs, a piece of 
roadside or fence-row was then actually disked, and they were shown 
just how the egg capsules were torn up and exposed by this process. 
In every case it was no trouble to find eggs torn from the pods and 
scattered broadcast behind the disk, and in every case the farmers were 
fully convinced that fall disking of the hard grass places adjacent to 
cultivated fields was a very important factor in solving the grasshopper 
problem in Kansas. 

At each meeting cooperation was emphasized as much as possible 
and in many cases whole townships actually organized at the meetings 
to do the disking later as a unit. A grasshopper-egg disking day was 
set aside, at which time all farmers in a community arranged to disk 
their fence-rows, irrigation ditch banks and roadsides. 

In checking up the results of the various campaigns against grass- 
hoppers in Kansas in 1918, we find that eight counties, Thomas, Sheri- 
dan, Ford, Finney, Kearney, Hamilton, Meade, and Seward, furnished 
white arsenic to their farmers and, with the exception of Finney 
County, the rest of the ingredients for making the poison bran mash.^ 
In these eight counties, 35,500 pounds of white arsenic, 355 tons of 
bran and sufficient syrup and lemons to go with this amount of arsenic 
and bran were put out as county projects. Even this large amount 
was not sufficient to go around and many of the farmers in these coun- 
ties bought their own materials. 

Questionnaires were sent out to a large number of local druggists 
throughout the western part of the state to determine the general run 
of white arsenic and Paris green sales as compared with previous years. 
It was found that this representative group of local druggists sold 

"^Two other counties organized for the purpose of furnishing materials to their 
farmers, but found the supply of arsenic exhausted. 



April, '19] RILEY: INDIAN USE OF GALLS 217 

more than twice as much white arsenic and Paris green than they did 
the previous year. 

The results of the grasshopper poisoning were excellent throughout 
the state. Very few reports of poor results were received, and in prac- 
tically every case these were due to improper methods in mixing and 
applying. Very few cases of poultry or stock poisoning were reported, 
and without exception all such cases were due to carelessness on the 
part of the farmer. In every county where poisoning was done exten- 
sively, the farmers were more than pleased with their results. Thou- 
sands of acres of alfalfa, wheat and other crops were actually saved 
from the ravages of the grasshoppers. 

As a result of the fall disking demonstration, seven counties organ- 
ized to disk fence-rows, roadsides, and other hard grassy places adja- 
cent to cultivated land. 



A USE OF GALLS BY THE CHIPPEWA INDLVNS 

By William A. Riley, University of Minnesota 

In a recent paper,' Margaret M. Fagan has presented a valuable 
summary of an extensive study of the literature dealing with the uses 
of insect galls. In the course of her discussion she says, "So far as 
can be ascertained no American galls were ever used for any practical 
purposes by the Indian (statement of Dr. Hough, United States 
National Museum), and but few by the white man." 

In view of this statement is it worthy of record that a gall on the 
sumach, Rhus glabra, is used medicinally by the Chippewa Indians in 
Minnesota. 

This gall is produced by an undetermined mite, referred to in the 
literature as a species of Eriophyes. It has been well figured by Thomp- 
son, 1915 (pi. 19, fig. 97), as "Eriophyes, or fungus on Rhus cjpallina," 
and by Felt, 1918 (text-fig. 164, and pi. 16, fig. 7). It occurs very 
commonly on Rhus glabra in Minnesota, causing characteristically 
stunted heads and curled leaves. These deformed heads are collected 
by the medicine men in late summer, and used in the form of an 
infusion as a remedy for diarrhoea. I am told that they are also used 
in the preparation of a poultice for the treatment of burns, but could 
learn no further details. 

It is well known that owing to the quantity of tannin which they 
contain, galls are powerfully astringent. The earlier editions of the 

1 American Naturalist, 1918, LII, 155-176. 



218 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

United States Dispensatory spoke of them as occasionally employed in 
cases of chronic diarrhoea. The last (20th, 1918) edition contains the 
somewhat contradictory statement that they "are no longer prescribed 
internally. Aromatic syrup of galls is sometimes prescribed." This 
syrup is a form in which they were employed in the treatment of 
diarrhoea. 

Officinal galls are derived almost exclusively from Quercus infectoria, 
and this is recognized as their source in the United States Pharma- 
copoeia. They are produced by Cynips gallcetinctorice Olivier, and are 
of the well-known hard, spherical type, about ten to twenty milli- 
meters in diameter. They are often known in commerce as the Aleppo 
galls, since they formerly were largely produced in the vicinity of the 
Syrian city of that name. 

The most significant feature of the use of galls by the Indians for 
the same disease as that for which the officinal preparations were more 
often used, is that the Indians use a type of gall differing radically from 
that above described. Doubtless both owe their efficacy to the pres- 
ence of tannin but it is clear that the Indian usage could not be a mod- 
ern one, derived from that by the whites. 



Scientific Notes 



Hessian Fly: Supplementing previous outdoor experiments, to determine 
whether or not certain strains of wheat are actually less severel}^ attacked by the 
Hessian fly than others, the Department of Entomology of the Missouri Agricultural 
Experiment Station is carrying through an interesting series of greenhouse experi- 
ments. Some difficulty has been experienced in making growing conditions abso- 
lutely vmiform, where a large series of varieties are tested and the conditions under 
glass are naturally not exactly the same as in the field. Standard Missouri varieties 
as well as others previously reported as ha\'ing resistant qualities are being used in the 
experiments. The pest seems to breed and develop norma'ly indoors on all strains 
tested, but in the first test just completed, some varieties are decidedly less severely 
attacked than others. Chemical tests and observations on different structural varia- 
tions of the indoor plants are also being made the same as in case of the field experiments. 

Leonard Haseman. 

Exiropean Com Borer In Connecticut; What appears to be a small infesta- 
tion of the European Corn Borer, Pyrausta nubilalis Hubner, was found in Milford, 
Conn., March 12, by assistant entomologists from the Agricultural Experiment 
Station. The infestation Ues just north of the village, and at this vmting its limits 
have not been definitely ascertained. Prompt measures will be taken to suppress the 

pest. 

W. E. Britton. 



April, '19] SCIENTIFIC NOTES 219 

A Correction: In the Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 11, No. 5, 
p. 431, I made the statement that I had found the Cherry-Leaf-Beetle, Galerucella 
cavicollis LeC, feeding on several species of azalea. This azalea feeding beetle, I 
now find, on more carefully comparing the specimens, is Galerucella rufosanguinea Say. 
To my good friend. Dr. E. A. Schwarz, I am indebted for calling my attention to the 
matter. 

Berkeley, Cal., March 3, 1919. Edwin C. Vas Dyke. 

A New Root Maggot Treatment. The soils and climatic conditions of the Pacific 
Coast are such that most cruciferous crops thrive exceptionally well. Cabbage, 
cauliflower, turnips, radishes and the like are grown in most every garden and are 
standard market garden crops; thousand-headed kale is grown by almost every dairy- 
man and poultryman; and the cabbage seed-growing industry of the United States is 
centered largely in Skagit County of the State of Washington. These crops are there- 
fore very important in the agriculture of western Washington. All of these crops 
are infested more or less each year by the cabbage root maggot (Phorbia brassicae 
Bouche). The damage done by this pest makes it one of the most important insect 
pests which we have to combat. 

Each season for many years past experiments looking toward the control of this 
pest have been carried on at the Western Washington Experiment Station. New 
treatments tried from year to year have so added to the "found wanting" list that 
it makes quite an impressive array of blighted hopes. Of the many treatments that 
have been tried, the tarred felt collar for transplanted crops such as cabbage, kale 
and cauliflower has been the most effective prior to this season. 

The use of powdered borax to kill house-fly maggots in manure as recommended 
by the United States Department of Agriculture and the successful use of "green 
tar oil" in English army camps to prevent manure heaps from becoming a breeding 
place for house-flies suggested to the wTiter their use for root-maggot control. Ac- 
cordingly, this past season these two materials were tried along with the usual num- 
ber of new "remedies." 

The recommended borax treatment to kill house-fly maggots in manure is 1 pound 
of powdered borax to 16 cubic feet of manure. Based on this recommendation § pint 
of a solution in which 1 ounce of powdered borax is dissolved in 10 gallons of water 
should effectively treat 10 cubic inches of soil. This was assumed to be about the 
proper treatment for one plant. Solutions of 1 ounce of powdered borax to 2^ gal- 
lons, 5 gallons, 10 gallons and 15 gallons of water were used at the rate of V pint to 
the plant. The stronge concentrations had a slightly injurious effect on the kale 
plants, thousand-headed kale being used in these experiments. Some few plants 
were killed and others were noticeably stunted. These treatments showed practi- 
cally the same percentage of loss as the checks, so are apparently of no value in the 
control of root maggot. 

" Green tar oil" used at the rate of 1 part to 40 parts of soil, applied 1 inch thick on 
maniu-e heaps, has l:)een reported (W. H. Saunders in the 191G Proceedings of the Lon- 
don Zoological Socicli/) to effectively protect them from becoming a breeding place for 
house-dics. This oil is a heavy coal tar distillation product known in this country as 
anthracite or anthracene oil. It is insoluble in water and non-volatile. It waa 
obtained from Tlie Barret Company, New York, and The Republic Crcosoting 
Company, Seattle. The latter company reports that anthracene oil will retail at 
approximately $1 a gallon. 

In our experiment with anthracene oil, soil from the field in which the transplanting 
was to be made was used as a carrier rather than anything else, becau.'^o in that way 



220 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

nothing other than the oil was introduced and because the mixture was easily made, 
simple and inexpensive. The anthracene-oil- treated soil was scattered around the 
base of the plant to form a protecting collar, 1 gallon of the mixture being used to 
about 200 plants. The rates used were 1 part of the oil to 20, 40 and 80 parts of soil 
by measure. It was hoped to establish the upper and lower limits of concentration 
that were effective and non-injmrious. The 1 to 20 mixture proved injurious to the 
plants, as a number died as a result of the treatment. The results indicate that the 
1 to 80 mixture may be stronger than necessary, as this treatment proved most 
effective. Distillate was used in one test to thin the oil to facilitate mixing. The 
treatments were applied as soon as the kale was transplanted. The results secured 
with these treatments follow: 



Kale Tkansplanted July 6- 


-10 








Number of 


Final Count of 


Per Cent 


Treatment 


Plants Treated Missing Plants 


of Loss 


Untreated 


185 




86 


46.5 


Anthracene, 1-20 


70 




141 


20 


Anthracene, 1-40 


80 




10 


12.5 


Untreated 


35 




17 


48.6 


Anthracene, 1-80 


125 




13 


10.4 


Anthracene 1-^0 










(Oil diluted with distillate) 


61 




12 


19.8 


Untreated 


185 




59 


31.9 


3 Untreated 


305 




162 


40 


4 Anthracene Treatments 


336 




49 


14.6 


Tarred Felt Collars 


184 




27 


14.7 



As only a small amount of anthracene oil is necessary in the mixture and soil is a 
satisfactory carrier, this treatment is cheap, readily prepared and easily applied. If 
it proves as effective in succeeding seasons as it did in our experimental plots this year 
it should come into general use 

E. B. Stookey. 



MEETING OF PACIFIC SLOPE BRANCH AMERICAN ASSOCIATION 
OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGISTS 

The annual meeting of the Pacific Slope Branch will be held in connection with the 
State Fruit Growers' Convention, at the Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside, Cal., 
May 28 and 29. 

This meeting has been set especially to accommodate the visiting Eastern and middle 
West entomologists, many of whom are to attend this convention. Regular announce- 
ments have been sent to all members living west of the Rocky Mountains. Earlier 
decisions to hold this meeting at Berkeley or Pasadena have been changed in favor of 
Riverside as stated above. 

A cordial welcome is extended to all visiting entomologists. They will find the 
Citrus Experiment Station and the School of Subtropical Agriculture most interesting 
and inspiring. The meetings and discussions can not fail to interest entomologists. 

E. O. EssiG, Secretary. 

H. J. QuAYiiE, Chairman. 

1 Part of loss due to the effect of the treatment. 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 

OFFICIAL ORGAN AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGISTS 

APRIL, 1919 

The editors will thankfully receive news items and other matter likely to be of interest to sub- 
scribers. Papers will be published, so far as possible, in the order of reception. All extended contri- 
butions, at least, should be in the hands of the editor the first of the month preceding publication. 
Contributors are requested to supply electrotypes for the larger illustrations so far as possible. Photo- 
engravings may be obtained by authors at cost. The receipt of all papers will be acknowledged. — Eds. 

Separates or reprints, if ordered when the manuscript is forwarded or the proof returned, will be 
supplied authors at the following rates: 

Number of pages 4 8 12 16 32 

Price per hundred $3.00 $6.38 $7.50 $8.25 $16.50 

Additional hundreds .45 .90 1.35 1.35 3.00 

Covers suitably printed on first page only, 100 copies, $3.75, additional hundreds, $1.13. Plates 

inserted, $1.00 per hundred on small orders, less on larger ones. Folio reprints, the uncut folded 

pages (50 only), sixteen pages or less, $1.50. Carriage charges extra in all cases. Shipment by parcel 

post, express or freight as directed. 



Our most important farm crop is threatened with very serious injury 
by a recently introduced insect. This pest has a bad record in Europe- 
It has demonstrated in this country its abihty to cause very great losses 
when allowed to multiply unrestrictedly and its known distribution 
indicates an ability to maintain itself throughout our corn belt. Fur- 
thermore, studies conducted during the last two seasons in the infested 
area in Massachusetts have resulted in finding no really satisfactory 
method of control. This recent introduction appears to have become 
established in only a few relatively limited areas. 

The European corn borer is unquestionably a serious menace to our 
enormous corn areas and to some related crops, particularly Kafir 
corn. Its natural spread appears to be slow, though evidence at hand 
indicates at least two and possibly more commercial jumps, which 
mean the establishment of the pest in centers remote from other in- 
fested areas and in some sections at least where natural agents of 
dissemination, such as flood waters, may prove a most important factor 
in carrying the insect into new territory. The situation is further 
complicated by the occurrence of the pest in badly infested areas in 
the stems or stalks of a variety of garden vegetables, a number of 
grasses and common weeds, the latter greatly increasing the difficulty 
of control or extermination. 

The situation is a critical one. The insect is injurious, not easily 
controlled and the feasibility of extermination has yet to be demon- 
strated. Nevertheless, the spread of the insect through both natural 
and artificial agencies is continuing and very soon its dissemination 



222 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

may be so general as to make eradication or extermination impractical. 
This is a problem which has been thrust upon American entomologists 
by conditions over which they have no control. It must be solved 
within a few months. The value of the crop threatened is so great 
and the interests affected so vital to our national welfare, that we feel 
that nothing short of a most energetic effort to meet the situation and 
avert, if physically possible, the probability of subsequent enormous 
annual losses can be justified in the future. 



Review 



Key to American Insect Galls, by Ephraim Porter Felt, D. Sc. 
Bulletin 200 New York Museum, 310 pages, 16 plates, 250 figures, 
Albany, N. Y., 1918. 

Though several bulletins and many scattered papers have been published on 
American insect galls, none have the object or scope of Dr. Felt's work which brings 
together in one volume a tremendous amount of information in a form most conven- 
ient for the busy worker to use in identifying galls. In plan, the hosts are arranged 
according to the botanical relationship of the famihes, and under each family or genus 
is a workable key or table for separating the galls occurring on the plants of that divi- 
sion. A large proportion of the galls are illustrated by excellent line drawings or by 
photographs reproduced in half-tone on the plates. The descriptions, though brief, 
are sufficient, together with the illustrations for purposes of identification. The in- 
sects forming galls on each family or group of plants are given in tabular form near 
the end of the book. An excellent index combining both plant and insect names ren- 
ders the volume convenient for ready reference. Though Dr. Felt has for many 
years been studying dipterous galls and has described many new species and pub- 
lished a number of papers, probably none of his work will be appreciated by entomol- 
ogists and lajTnen as much as this successful attempt to bring together in one volume, 
all American gall insects and their hosts, with means of ready identification. (Adu't.) 

W. E. B. 



Current Notes 

Conducted by the Associate Editor 

Mr. Hugh Ivnight has been appointed assistant in entomology at the citrus sub- 
station at Riverside, Cal. 

Miss Evelyn Osborn has accepted the position of assistant entomologist with the 
Florida Experiment Station. 

Mr. C. C. Hamilton has been appointed extension instructor in entomology at 
Missouri University and Station. 

Mr. A. T. Speare of the Bureau of Entomology recently received the degree of 
doctor of philosophy from Harvard University. 



April, '19] CURRENT NOTES 223 

Mr, H. J. Reinhard has been promoted from assistant entomologist to entomolo- 
gist, of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. 

Mr. A. C. Baker of the Bureau of Entomology recently received the degree of 
doctor of philosophy from George Washington University. 

Mr. C. A. Weigel, connected with the Federal Horticultural Board, has recently 
been released from military service and resumed his duties in Washington. 

Seven field men were scouting Eastern Pennsylvania during March for the Euro- 
pean com borer, under the direction of Prof. J. G. Sanders, economic zoologist. 

Mr. E. H. Siegler of the Bureau of Entomology gave an illustrated address before 
the Connecticut Pomological Society at Hartford, Conn., on January 24, 1919. 

Mr. G. N. Wolcott, who has been in the service with the A. E. F. in France, has 
returned to Cornell University where he has begun work for his doctor's degree. 

Lieut. F. H. Lathrop, assistant entomologist in the Oregon Experiment Station 
was released from military service early in the year and has returned to his duties in 
Oregon. 

Captain R. D. Whitmarsh of the U. S. Army, formerly assistant entomologist of 
the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, has been assigned to duty at Houston, 
Texas. 

Mr. J. M. Robinson, formerly in extension service in Tennessee, has entered upon 
work in the Department of Entomology in the Alabama Polytechnic Institution, 
Auburn, Ala. 

Mr. J. B. Garrett, entomologist of Agricultural Experiment Station, Baton Rouge, 
La., is on an indefinite leave of absence, and the work is in charge of W. E. Anderson, 
acting entomologist. 

Mr. Charles P. Alexander of Kansas State University has been appointed system- 
atic entomologist and custodian of collections for the IlUnois State Natural History 
Survey, Urbana, 111, 

Mr. M. L. Benn, field assistant on crop pests with the Bureau of Zoology of Penn- 
sylvania, is taking special work at Cornell University this year, in entomology, plant 
pathology and horticulture. 

Mr. Geo. G. Becker has been released from the Navy and has accepted a tempDrary 
appointment with the Bureau of Entomology to do extension work on deciduous 
fruit insects in the state of Arkansas. 

Mr. W. E. Jackson has returned as assistant entomologist and chief apiary In- 
spector of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, after a year of service in the 
medical laboratory of the U. S. Army. 

Mr. I. Ij. Resslcr, recently discharged from the Chemical Warfare Service, has 
taken up his former work as instructor in the Zoology and Entomology Department 
of the Iowa Agricultural College at .^Vmes. 

Dr. J. McDunnough has relinquished his position as curator of the Barnes collec- 
tion, Decatur, 111., to accept a position, April 1, in the Entomological Branch of the 
Department of Agriculture at Ottawa, Out., Canada. 

Mr. J. V. Ormond, of the Bureau of Entomology and C. C. Hamilton, extension 
entomologist of the Mis.st)uri College of Agriculture are just completing two montlis 
of successful work in organizing the beekeepers of Missouri, 



224 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Lieut. W. H. Larrimer of the Bureau of Entomology has returned from army serv- 
ice and resumed work at LaFayette, Ind., where he will be in charge of the field labora- 
tory in place of Mr. J. J. Davis, who has been transferred to New Jersey. 

Dr. H. M. Parshley has been promoted to an associate professorship in the Depart- 
ment of Zoology at Smith College, Northampton, Mass. He has also been appointed 
associate in field zoology at the Cold Spring Harbor summer laboratory. 

Mr. Paul A. Mader, who was engaged in white pine bhster rust scouting in Penn- 
sylvania, and volunteered for service, and was stationed at Newport News in Sanitary 
Corps work, has returned to the Bureau of Economic Zoology at Harrisburg. 

Mr. Kenyon F. Chamberlain has been appointed assistant in entomology at the 
Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Conn. Mr. Chamberlain 
was employed temporarily by the station during the summer and early fall of 1918. 

Sergeant H. M. Fort has been discharged from military service where he was in 
charge of the Laboratory at the Base Hospital at Camp Gordon, Ga., and will take 
up special bacteriological investigations in entomology at the University of Missouri. 

Prof. H. A. Gossard of the Ohio Station addressed the Paper Shell Pecan Growers' 
Association at Chicago, March 8. One other address was given the same evening 
by Mr. C. A. Reed of Washington, nut culturist of the United States Department of 
Agriculture. 

Messrs. J. E. Graf and C. H. Popenoe, of the U. S. Bureau of Entomology, and at 
present engaged in eradicating the Sweet Potato Root Weevil in Baker County, Fla., 
were present at the meeting of the Florida Entomological Society held on the evening 
of March 3, 1919. 

Mr. J. L. King, after seven months' service in the U. S. Army, has returned to the 
Pennsylvania Bureau of Zoology, Harrisburg, and will be engaged in fruit insect pest 
investigations at Chambersburg, Pa., where the bureau will maintain a field labora- 
tory during the growing season. 

Dr. Leonard Haseman and Instructor K. C. SulHvan, of the Department of En- 
tomology of the Missouri University, are completing plans for taking a class of re- 
search students into the swamp sections of the state during the spring term, to study 
mosquito and malarial problems. 

Mr. Albert Hartzell has been discharged from the army service where he was a 
corporal in the Infantry, and has resvuned his position as instructor in the Depart- 
ment of Zoology and Entomology of the Iowa State College. Mr. Hartzell's name 
was omitted from the Roll of Honor. 

Mr. W. H. Goodwin, formerly of the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, visited 
the Station, March 7. Mr. Goodwin has been employed in extermination work 
directed against the Japanese beetle at Riverton, N. J., but recently has been 
transferred to extension work in that state. 

Prof. Lawrence Bruner, head of the Department of Entomology, University of 
Nebraska, is now on leave of absence in CaUfornia in an effort to regain his health. 
He is now considerably improved. During his absence, departmental activities are 
in charge of Professor Myron H. Swenk. 

Messrs. R. H. Hutchinson, E. R. Sasscer and E. A. Back of the Bureau of Entomol- 
ogy have been designated as a committee to act in cooperation with a committee 
from the Bureau of Chemistry to investigate the possible utilization of poisonous 
gases used in warfare for fumigation against insects. 



April, '19] CURRENT NOTES 225 

Dr. F. A. Fenton, formerly of the Bureau of Entomology and later fellow in zoology 
and entomology, Ohio State University, who has been recently released from military 
service, has accepted an appointment as research assistant in the Iowa Experiment 
Station and entered upon his duties there in March. 

Mr. D. M. DeLong has returned to the Bureau of Economic Zoology, Harrisburg, 
Pa., after serving seven months in the Sanitary Corps at the Yale Army Laboratory 
School and at Camp Devens, Mass. He will be located during the summer months 
at the field laboratory of the above bureau at North East, Pa. 

Capt. Herbert T. Osborn, who has been in military service since July, 1917, received 
his discharge in December and has been visiting the Osborn family in Columbus, Ohio, 
but wUl return to his position in the Entomological Division of the Hawaiian Sugar 
Planters' Association Experiment Station in Honolulu early in April. 

Appointments in the Bureau of Entomology are announced as follows : R. V. Rhine, 
apicultural extension work in Kansas; Edward R. Jones, for work on tobacco insects; 
Richard T. Cotton, to study Calandra attacking corn; J. C. Furman, stored product 
insect investigations; R. F. Wixson, apicultural extension work, Virginia. 

Mr. John J. Davis, in charge of the field laboratory of the U. S. Bureau of Ento- 
mology at West Lafayette, Ind., has been transferred to New Jersey, beginning May 
1, where he will take up the work of eradicating the Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica 
Newm, in cooperation with Dr. T. J. Headlee, state entomologist of New Jersey. 

The following members of the Bureau of Entomology, and who entered military 
service, have been honorably discharged from the service and have been reinstated in 
the bureau: W. D. Whitcomb, C. H. Alden, R. W. Kelley, E. W. Scott, Dr. G. F. 
White, Capt. E. H. Gibson, A. C. Mason, Max Reeher, J. U. Gilmore, T. P. Cassidy. 

The Entomological Department of Purdue University, LaFayette, Ind.. will put 
on a short course in apiculture, of one week's duration, beginning April 7, 1919. Dr. 
E. F. PhiUips of the U. S. Bureau of Entomology, and other noted apiculturists will 
take part in the discussions. The course is intended principally for commercial bee- 
men. 

Mr. J. S. Houser made a trip through northeastern Ohio, March 13 to 15, to locate 
some orchards suitable for spraying experiments and to do some preliminary scouting 
for possit)le discovery of the European Corn Borer. Mr. Houser was called to Co- 
lumbiana County as an expert witness in a case regarding a carload of wheat infested 
with insects. 

According to the Experiment Station Record, at the New Jersey Station, the experi- 
mental cranberry investigations, including tests of fertilizers, drainage, and insect 
control have been summarized, and with these data as a basis a new project on various 
phases of cranberry culture has been begun in charge of C. S. Beckwith, assistant 
entomologist. 

According to Science, "it is announced that Genera Inseclorum, the great work 
describing all the genera of insects, published at Brussels, is to be continued. When 
the country was invaded in 1914, several parts were about to be pul)lished; these 
are to appear in 1919. The stock of the previously published parts was .saved, and 
in now available." 

A memorial service was held December 8, 191S. at the University of Chicago, for 
the late Prof. Samuel W. Williston, formerly professor of paleontology. The sjKjakera 
were Prof. E. C. Case, l^niversity of Michigan, Prof. Stuart Weller of the Department 



226 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

of Geology and Paleontology, and Prof. Frank R. Lillie, Department of Zoology, 
University of Chicago 

Mr. J. R. Stear, formerly of the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, visited the 
Station, March 7. Mr. Stear has been mustered out of the military service and is 
spending some time with his parents at New Brighton, Pa. He is waiting to see if 
Ohio can give him fair treatment in w^ay of salary before deciding whether he wiE 
resmne work at the station. 

A school for bee-keepers was held at Cornell University during the week of February 
24 to March 1, under the direction of the Department of Entomology in cooperation 
with Dr. E. F. Phillips and George S. Demuth of the Bureau of Entomology at Wash- 
ington, D. C. The attendance and interest were very gratifying. The total regis- 
tration for the week was 145. 

Mr. W. O. Hollister of the Bureau of Entomology, stationed at the field laboratory 
at West Lafayette, Ind., has resigned to return to the Davey Institute of Tree Surgery 
at Kent, Ohio, as entomologist of the Research Bureau. Mr. Hollister was connected 
with the Davey Institute for several years and joined the forces of the Bureau of 
Entomology during the war. 

Mr. M. D. Leonard, who was formerly entomologist of the Erie Co. Laboratory of 
the Pennsylvania State College, has been appointed special field agent of the U. S. 
Bureau of Entomology. He will be stationed on Long Island to carry on extension 
work in the control of truck-crop insects in cooperation with the Department of 
Entomology at Cornell University. 

Mr. H. H. Knight, formerly investigator in entomology to the Cornell University 
Experiment Station and who has been in command of a corps of men in the Photo- 
graphic Section of the Aviation Service in France has returned to this country. He 
expects to receive his discharge in a few weeks and will then resume his investigations 
on the biology of the Miridae (Capsidse) . 

Prof. G. M. Bentley, state entomologist and pathologist of Tennessee, is secretary- 
treasurer of the Tennessee State Florists' Association, the Tennessee State Horticul- 
tural Society, the Tennessee State Nurserymen's Association, and the Tennessee 
Beekeepers' Association. These organizations all held their annual convention at 
Nashville, Tenn., Jaunary 28-31, 1919. 

A Senate Bill appropriating fifty thousand dollars ($50,000), with $10,000 immedi- 
ately available, for European potato wart disease control, has been introduced in 
the Pennsylvania Legislature. The economic zoologist has quarantined four town- 
ships about Hazleton, Pa., with an area of approximately 120 square miles, and three 
local points outside this main infected area. 

Dr. J. H. Montgomery, quarantine inspector, Florida State Plant Board, has gone 
to New Orleans, La., to confer with Messrs. Compere (California) and E. R. Sasscer 
(Federal Horticultral Board) on account of the Black Fly (Aleurocanthiis woglumi) 
situation. This aleurodid is not known to be present in the United States, but occurs 
as a severe pest of citrus and other fruit trees in the Bahamas, Cuba and Jamaica. 

The Florida State Plant Board has arranged to furnish the farmers in Baker Coimty 
with about one miUion weevil-free sweet potato draws, under condition that they 
bed none of their own potatoes, which are generally infested with the Sweet Potato 
Root Weevil {Cylas Jorinicarhis) . This arrangement is part of the plan for extermi- 
nating the weevil from the infested part of this county. The plants are being grown, 
by the Plant Board. 



April, '19] CURRENT NOTES 227 

Prof. J. M. Swaine of the Canadian Entomological Branch and known for his 
splendid work on the Scolytid bark-beetles is at Cornell University completing his 
work for the doctor's degree. He expects to take his examination some time during 
the latter part of March. His thesis on the Canadian bark-beetles has already been 
published as Technical Bulletin No. 14, Parts I and II, by the Canadian Department 
of Agriculture, Entomological Branch, Ottawa, Canada, 

The following Florida entomologists served as speakers during the Better Fruit 
Campaign, recently (February 10 to 26) conducted in Florida under the auspices of 
the University of Florida Extension Division, with cooperation of the State Plant 
Board and the U. S. Department of Agriculture: Wilmon Newell, plant commissioner; 
W. W. Yothers, Bureau of Entomology', U. S. D. A.; J. R. Watson, Florida Experi- 
ment Station; E. W. Berger, State Plant Board; 3,090 people were addressed during 
the campaign. 

The following transfers have been made in the Bureau of Entomology: E. R. Selk- 
regg, deciduous fruit insect investigations, temporarily to Federal Horticultural Board; 
A. O. Larson, to extension fruit insect work in Utah; A. H. Beyer, Columbia, S. C, 
to Wichita, Kans,; A. L. Ford, Kansas to Ivnoxville, Tenn.; Max Ksliuk, Jr., to 
Wilmington, N. C; A. D. Borden, to extension work in CaUfornia; W. H. Goodwin, 
to extension work with fruit insects in New Jersey; Charles F. Moreland, from exten- 
sion work to research on the sweet potato weevil. 

Mr. A. C. Lewis, state entomologist of Georgia, announces that the Georgia State 
Board of Entomology has secured the services of Dr. D. C, Warren of Auburn, Ala., 
as assistant entomologist, with headquarters at Valdoats, Ga., to conduct dusting 
experiments for the control of the boll weevil. The State Board of Entomology 
conducted prehminary tests last year on this work. While the results secured were 
encouraging, they were not conclusive enough to make any recommendations in 
regard to dusting for the control of the boll weevil. 

The electrical machine invented by F. S. Smith of Philadelphia for the control of 
insects in packages of cereals is now being installed in the factory of the Hecker Cereal 
Company of New York City. Tests made by Dr. Back and Mr. Smith, during 
November and December, showed a result of 100 per cent effectiveness in killing 
various cereal pests when these were introduced in "commercial numbers." The 
machine is of great promise and has awakened great interest among cereal concerns 
approached by its owners, M. E. Gillett and Son, of Tampa, Fla. 

The following resignations from the Bureau of Entomology have been amiounced: 
E. L. Scchri.st, bee culture to engage in commercial beekeeping in Haiti, where he will 
manage 2,000 colonies; H. G. Ingerson, grape insects, to accept a jwsition at Ohio 
State University; J. F. Gardener, scientific assistant, cereal and forage crop iii,sects, 
on account of ill health; R.H.Jung; John H. Moore, extension work; A. L. Jolmson, 
insijector; J. U. Gilmore, southern field crop insect investigation; D. A. Ricker, 
cereal and forage crop insect investigations; A. B. Champlain, to accept a position 
with the economic zoologist, Harrisburg, Pa.; W. O. Hollister, to return to Davey 
Institute, Kent, Ohio. 

Mr. Alfred B. Champlain, Bureau of Entomology', who has recent 1\- Ijocn in charge 
of a field station for the .studj' of forest and shade tree in.»<ects at Lyme, Conn., under 
Dr. A. I). Hopkins, has been appointed .scientific a.ssistant anrl curator of the state 
insect collections at Harrisburg, Pa., under Prof. J. G. Sanders, ecoiionii<' zoologist. 
Mr. Champlain will have an opportunity for field work and biological ami life-history 
investigations. He will retain his connections with the bureau as a collaborator. 



228 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Mr. Champlain started work in his new position March 1. He was formerly an assist- 
ant in the laboratory at Harrisburg, resigning some five or six j-^ears ago to accept a 
position in the bureau. 

Prof. H. A. Gossard, Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, attended a con- 
ference, March 4, of the entomological workers of the state at the office of the secre- 
tary of agriculture, to discuss ways and means of preventing the introduction of the 
European Corn Borer into Ohio, and of discovering its presence if it has already be- 
come established anywhere. A working cooperative program was arranged by which 
state-wide surveys will be made under the direction of the Bureau of Nursery and 
Crop Inspection, the entomologists of the Experiment Station and State University 
assisting. Secretary Shaw was to undertake securing from the Legislature, an emer- 
gency provision for handling any discovery of the insect that may be found. 

The annual meeting of the entomological workers in Ohio institutions was held in 
the Botany and Zoology Building, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, January 
30, 1919, beginning at 9.30 A. M. The following papers were presented: Brief Ad- 
dresses — Raymond C. Osburn, Head, Department of Zoology and Entomology, Ohio 
State University; H. A. Gossard, entomologist. Experiment Station; E. C. Cotton, 
chief. Bureau of Horticulture; H. A. Gossard — Timely Notes; Herbert Osborn — 
Further Notes on Meadow Insects; W. C. Kraatz — A Study of Scirles tibialis Guer,; 
W. M. Barrows — -Grassland Spiders, Stratification in Associations; Robert K. Fletcher 
— A Few Notes on the Miridse of Meadows and Pastures; D. C. Mote — Report on 
Anthelmintic Experiments; T. H. Parks — The Bioclimatic Law (Law of Altitude, 
Latitude and Longitude) as Applied to Hessian-Fly Control in Ohio; Edna Mosher 
— Some Interesting Beetle Larvae; A. J. Basinger — Preliminary Studies in Ohio 
Tachinidse; C. H. Young— Notes on Tropisternus glaber (Herbst); R. C. Osburn — ■ 
The Onion Fly, Emnerus strigatus, in Ohio; J. S. Hine — The University Entomo- 
logical Collections; J. S. Houser — An Undeveloped Profession. 

The sixth annual meeting of the New Jersey Mosquito Extermination Association 
was held at the Chalfonte Hotel, Atlantic City, N. J., February 6 and 7, 1919. About 
one hundred and fifty attended the first session on Thursday evening of February 6 
and listened to a very interesting address, "Mosquito Control about Cantonments 
and Shipyards," by La Price of the U. S. Pubhc Health Service. The Friday morning 
session was a sjonposium on "Mosquito Control." The work of the season was pre- 
sented in ten-minute papers by members of the New Jersey County Commissioners 
from twelve counties. Nearly every county has one or more special mosquito prob- 
lems and the important points in the solution of these problems were discussed, 
making this session of special interest to mosquito workers present from other states. 
At the afternoon session several papers were presented dealing with the emergency 
mosquito work around military camps, shipyards and munition factories. Among 
the interesting papers were "Mosquito Eradication in Southeastern Pennsylvania," 
by Dr. B. Franklin Royer, acting commissioner. Department of Health, of Pennsyl- 
vania; "Mosquito Control in Military Camps," by Russell W. Gies, and Jesse B. 
Leslie, captains in the Sanitary Corps of the U. S. Army. The last session of the 
meeting Friday evening was devoted to "The Problem of Finishing the Mosquito 
Drainage of the New Jersey Salt Marsh." An able paper was presented by Dr. 
Headlee, "The Work Involved, Its Approximate Cost and Maintenance." Other 
interesting papers were presented covering the attitude and the part of the various 
state and municipal organizations interested in the work. The New Jersey Mos- 
quito Extermination Association is by far the leading organization devoted to mos- 
quito control work in the country. The membership is over 2,200 and the annual 
meetings should be attended by every anti-mosquito worker in the country. 



Mailed April 18, 1919 



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,ce of this "■" •-'■- ^^ ^ !- -.11- ,.,,,., , _ . 

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space of this page will permit; the newer ones being added and the oldest dropped as neoeasary. Send 
all notices and cash to A. F. Burgees, Meliose Highlands, Mass., by the 15th of the month preoedins 



BACK NUMBERS WANTED. 

Will pay 60 cents for No. 2, Volume I, and 30 cents each for No. 1 and No. 6 
Volume II, No. 6, Volume III, and No. 2, Volume IV, to complete sets. Address 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGISTS 
MELROSE HIGHLANDS, MASS. 

ENTOMOLOGISTS' EMPLOYMENT BUREAU 
Conducted by the American Association of Economic Entomologists. 

This Bureau will register Entomologists wishing to secure positions. Sta- 
tion Entomologists and institutions desiring to secure assistants are invited to 
correspond wi& the undersigned. Enrollment in the Bureau, $2.00. Fee not 
returnable. DR. W. E. HINDS, 

Auburn, Alabama. 

WANTED — Will pay cash for literature on ants, PubUcations of The Ameri- 
can Museima of Natural History, by Dr. Wheeler, especially desired, 

M. R. SMITH, 128 West 10th Ave., Columbus, Ohio. 

WANTED— 19th Illinois Entomological Report; Coleoptera of Southern Cal- 
ifornia by H. C. Fall; Notes on Lachnosterna of Temperate North America by J. B. 
Smith; Complete Works of Thos. Say, Le Conte Edition, 

JOE S. WADE, U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

WANTED— List of Col. of Amer, Henshaw, 1885; Col. of So. Cal., Fall; Insects 
of N. J. Smith, 1909; Bib. Econ. Ent. Part IV. 

FOR SALE OR EXCHANGE— Bull . and Cir. U. S. Bur. Ent., State Ent, 
Bull, and Separates U. S. N. M. C. L. SCOTT, Wellington, Kansas, 

WILL PAY $1 each for Insect Life, Vol. IV, Nos. 11 and 12, Bibliography, 
N. A. Economic Entomology, Part IV, or General Index Experiment Station Record 
for Vols. I-XII. 

HUGH GLASGOW, Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, New York. 

DRAWINGS for reproduction, oil color charts, and life history collections of 
economic insects prepared as desired, 

H. E. HODGKISS and B. B. FULTON, 90 Lyceum St., Geneva, N. Y. 

WANTED — Systematic and economic papers on the families Bonibyliidae and 
Asilidae. Mail descriptive list of titles and prices desired. H. R. HAGAN, Utah 
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WANTED — Strphidae — from aU parts of the world. Will deternune on the 
usual conditions. Address until June 15, Prof, C. L. METCALF, Bussev Institution, 
Forest Hills, Boston.Mass. Afterward Ohio State University, Dept. Entomology, 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Please mention the Journal of Econoyv'- V^i'^"wlogy when imtinn to adv«rti$er$ 



AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGISTS 

(Organized 1889, Incorporated December 29, 1913) 



OFFICERS 



President, W. C. O'Kane, Durham, N. H. 

First Vice-President, A. G. Ruggles, St. Paul, Minn. 

/Second Vice-President (Pacific Slope Branch), H. J. Quayle, River- 
side, Calif. 

Third Vice-President (Horticultural Inspection), E. C. Cotton, 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Fourth Vice-President (Apiculture), W. E. Britton, New Haven, 
Conn. 

Secretary, A. F. Burgess, Melrose Highlands, Mass. 

Branch and Section Secretaries 

Pacific Slope Branch, E. 0. Essig, Ventura, Calif. 

Section of Horticultural Inspection, J. G. Sanders, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Section of Apiculture, G. M. Bentley, Knoxville, Tenn. 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 

Official Organ of American Association of Economic Entomologists 



A bi-monthly journal, published February to December, on the 15th of the 
month, devoted to the interests of Economic Entomology and publishing the official 
notices and proceedings of the American Association of Economic Entomologists. 
Address business communications to the Journal of Economic Entomologt, 
Railroad Square, Concord, N. H. 

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. In the United States, Cuba, Mexico and Canada, 
two dollars and fifty cents ($2.50) annually in advance. To foreign countries, 
three dollars ($3.00) annually in advance. Single copies, fifty cents. To members 
of the American Association of Economic Entomologists, one dollar and fifty cents 
($1.50) annually in advance. 50 cents extra for postage to foreign members. 

MANUSCRIPT for publication should be sent to the Editor, E. Porter Felt, 
Nassau, Reus. Co., N. Y. 

CURRENT NOTES AND NEWS should be sent to the Associate Editor, W. E. 
Brixton, Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Conn. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS AND ADVERTISEMENTS may be sent to the Basmess 
Manager, A. F. BtrROBSs, Mebrose Highlands, Mass. 



Vol. 12 



JUNE. 1919 



No. 3 



JOURNAL 



OF 



ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 

Official Organ American Association of Economic Entomologists 




S. A. For:; 
W. J. S( I 



E. Porter Felt, Editor 

W. E. Britton, Associate Editor 

A. F. Burgess, /?')/Wn/'t,vf Mnnrtrt.>v 

Advisory CommiULf 
V. L. Kellogg ^ 

P. J. Parrott 



ruhlisluJ bv 

American Association of Kconomk. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Ear Worm Injuries to Corn and Resulting Losses R. C. Smith 229 

Notes on the Life History of the Pine Tube Moth, Eulia pinatubana Kearfott 

Albert HartzeU 233 

Observations on Wingless May Beetles R. A. Vickery and T. S. WUson 238 

Japanese Flower Beetle W. H. Goodwin 247 

Variations in the Length of the Flaxseed Stage of the Hessian Fly 

J. W. McCoUoch 252 

Does Bordeaux Mixture Repel the Potato Leafhopper? C. L. Fluke, Jr. 256 

Notes on the Lepidopterous Borers Foimd in Plants, with Special Reference 

to the European Corn Borer Edna Mosher 258 

Scientific Notes 269 

Editorial 275 

Reviews 276 

Current Notes 277 



JOURNAL 

OF 

ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 

OFFICIAL ORGAN AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGIST 

Vol. 12 JUNE, 1919 No. 3 



EAR WORM INJURIES TO CORN AND RESULTING 

LOSSES 

By Roger C. Smith, Scientific Assistant, Bureau of Entomology, Charlottesville, Va. 

After reading practically all of five hundred and twenty-five references 
to the corn ear worm {Chloridea obsoleta Fab.) in literature, it has been 
observed that two serious sources of loss due to the activities of this 
well known pest have been overlooked. A brief discussion, therefore, 
of the various types of injury to corn caused by this insect, with obser- 
vations from last year's study may prove of some practical value. ^ 

It is well known that in most of the ear worm territory, the first 
generation of moths frequently oviposit on the unfolding leaves in the 
heart of the young corn plant. The larvae upon hatching attack the 
tender leaves (PI. 1 1 , fig. 1 ) eating large and irregular holes in them. This 
injury has been variously designated in different localities as "rag worm" 
injury (Virginia), "shatter worm" (North Carohna), "heart worm" 
and "bud worm" injury (general). It would appear that there must 
be some injury to the vitality of the young corn plant though a few 
injured stalks under observation at this laboratory apparently over- 
came this injury and produced ears entirely comparable to stalks not 
thus injured and under the same growing conditions. Ear worm larvjB 
have several times been reported as boring into the stalk (Caudell, 
1902) ,2 but this habit is apparently unusual according to our 
observations. 

The developing tassels are next attacked by the larvae (PI. 11, fig. 2). 
In this locality nearly grown larvip are usually found doing Ihis injury 
and in the few days' eating do considerable damage to the dovoloping 

1 Acknowledgment is made to Mr. \V. J. Phillips in charKC of this lalwratory for 
suRKCstions and criticism of this pa{)er. 

« Caudell, A. X. Notes on Colorado Insects. Bui. .38. X. .'^. Div. of Ent.. U. S. 
Dept. of Ag., November 1902, p. 38. 



230 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

staminate flowers. Were this feeding habit more frequent, a serious 
loss of pollen might result. A plat of two acres of field corn in which 
tassels were appearing July 3, 1918, was examined carefully and only 
ten tassels found to be thus injured. Since corn produces an excess of 
pollen, the loss of a few anthers is not serious. 

By far the more important losses due to ear worm activity come from 
the attacks on the ears. It is well known that ear worm moths ovi- 
posit in the majority of cases on the fresh silks. The larvae, upon 
hatching and after devouring the empty egg shells, begin at once to 
feed on the fresh silks. Sometimes the larvae crawl down the silk 
strands well into the tip of the ear at once but not infrequently they 
feed more or less exposed on the silk at the tip for several instars (cf . 
Headlee, 1913).^ Perhaps the most frequent type of silk injury is 
where the larva severs the strands some distance below the ends of 
the husks (PI. 11, fig. 3). This condition is so frequent that a slight pull 
of the silk mass will generally indicate infested ears. If a part or all of 
the silk pulls out readily, ear worm work with but a few exceptions is 
assured. Where the silk does not yield, the husk must be opened to 
ascertain infestation. 

Since it is through the silks or styles that the ovules are fertilized 
resulting in the development of the kernel, severance of the silk before 
fertilization will result in the absence of kernels on that part of the ear. 
It has been observed that the silks leading to the basal portion of the 
ear develop first and those to the tip, last. Dr. W. A. Taylor of the 
Bureau of Plant Industry, when asked for confirmation of this state- 
ment wrote {in littera), "the silks usually arise from a point an inch 
a two from the base of the ear. From this point the silking proceeds 
toward the tip and less rapidly towards the base. The last silks to 
emerge are from the tip of the ear." It appears that fertilization takes 
place over the greater part of the ear before ear worms reach the silks 
but some four or five days are necessary to fully pollinate a single ear 
of corn (Coulter, 1913) .^ Within this time ear worms enter the silk 
mass, sever some and thereby prevent fertilization of the tip ovules in 
which case a nubbin results (PL 11, fig. 8). Occasionally some kernels 
missing at the base of the ear may be explained in the same way but 
this is less common apparently than poorly filled out tips. The silks to 
the tip ovules are, in general, in the center of the silk mass. The larvae 
appear to enter the ear generally through the center of the silk mass, 
eating as they go. If the larva merely eats in the external silk mass^ 

1 Headlee, T. J. Rept. of the Entomologist. N. J. Station Rept., 1913, pp. 633- 
789, pis. 4, fig. 3. 

2 Coulter, John M. Elementary Studies in Botany. D. Appleton and Co., N. Y. 
453 pp., 97 figs. (Corn, 343-351.) 1913. 



June, '19] SMITH: EAR WORM INJURIES 231 

as is not infrequent, fertilization may not be prevented for as Dr. 
Taylor further writes, "any portion that emerges beyond the husk is 
receptive." There are other well known sources of nubbins, but no 
record has been found of this one in literature. Observations here 
and in North Carolina indicate that it is of frequent occurence. 

The fourth source of loss is the kernels actually eaten (PI. 11, fig. 7). 
This varies from a fraction of one per cent to perhaps tw^enty-five per 
cent. The number of ears damaged here and southward is frequently 
100 per cent. 

The larvae living in the ears and devouring the kernels scatter excre- 
ment in the damaged areas to the extent that a repulsive and unsightly 
condition results (PI. 11, fig. 4). In the case of sweet corn, many ears are 
rendered totally unfit for food. Sometimes the damaged portions can 
be cut off and the ears then used but such ears are manifestly less 
desirable than uninjured ones. Here is a source of loss of especial 
importance to growers of sweet corn. Ears of field corn, ear worm- 
damaged, are usually fed to stock. Haslam (1910)^ found bacteria of 
the Aerogenes group in this excrement which is recorded as being fatal 
usually to horses and rabbits when injected into their veins. Such 
corn is less attractive than perfect ears though the public appears to be 
largely reconciled to corn thus damaged. The corn exhibited at the 
corn show at Statesville, N. C, November 23, 1918, manifestly the 
choice ears of the various crops represented, showed 62 per cent of the 
ears ear worm-damaged. 

Following the ear worm activity on soft corn appear various molds 
(PI. 11, fig. 6). These molds not onlj^ detract from the appearance of 
the corn but render the parts thus attacked undesirable for food. Has- 
lam (1910) and others found that symptoms of blind staggers result from 
feeding moldy corn to horses. Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, 
and lihizopus nigricans are mentioned in this connection. Twenty- 
four ear worm-damaged ears of field corn, which had been invaded by 
molds, were submitted to Dr. W. A. Taylor for determination of the 
molds and the following genera were reported: Penicillium (13 ears), 
Fusarium (12 ears), Cladosporium (10), Acrostalagmus (7), Rhizopus 
(3), and Veriicillium, Macrosporium, Tricothecium , Oospora (1 each). 
Though much study remains to be done on the effect of the toxic 
properties of these and similar molds on domestic animals, it is known 
that stock, especially horses, sometimes die as a result of being fed on 
moldy corn. 

A seventh source of loss has been entirely overlooked. \ very few 
writers state that ear worm larvic continue eating corn after it hardens, 

> Haslam, Thos. P. MoninKo-Eiu»'pli;iliti.s. Kans. Statr Ar. College Exj). Sta., 
Dept. of Veterinary Science, Bui. 17:i, pp. 235-253. 1910. Bib. 



232 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

the majority, however, faihng to mention this feeding habit. A few 
other writers state that the larvae forsake the hardening ears for alfalfa, 
weeds, etc. This latter condition perhaps varies with the locality but 
here, only a small proportion of the larvae leaves the hardening ears. 
Most of the larvae, especially those half grown and larger, continue 
feeding on the hardening kernels but their feeding changes in character. 
In soft corn the entire kernel is devoured (PI. 11, fig. 7) but this is rare in 
hard corn. The endosperm part of the kernel hardens first, the germ 
remaining relatively soft up to harvesting time. The larvae, therefore, 
eat the lower part of the kernels, the germ part (Lintner, 1881),^ often 
tunneling through a dozen or more (PL 11, figs. 4, 9). With the lower part 
of the kernel gone, the attachment to the cob is also gone so that, during 
the husking and subsequent handhng, these kernels drop out. If the 
shelled corn under a pile in the field is examined, sometimes as many as 
one fourth of the kernels will be found to be thus injured. A few more 
are dislodged when the corn is poured into the wagon as will be seen 
by examining the shelled corn in the wagon bed. Here is a source of 
injury often accounting for missing kernels at the tip of the ear and 
resulting in a complete loss. When the larvae eat the endosperm of 
hard kernels, the kernel is largely reduced to corn meal as pointed out 
by Claypole- (1880), also resulting in a total loss. 

Finally as French^ (1882) and many others have indicated, the holes 
made in the husks by ear worms (PI. 1 1, fig. 5) serve as entrance places for 
other insects which in some cases do considerable damage. In this 
connection the grain weevils of the south deserve especial mention. 
Other insects, largely Coleoptera and Diptera may be found living in 
the worm excrement and decaying or fermenting kernels which are of 
lesser economic importance. 

It is a difficult matter to weigh in their proper proportions these 
sources of loss due to ear worm activity. In the light of these con- 
siderations there appears to be little doubt that the ear worm is one 
of the major corn pests at the present time. 

Explanation of Plate 11 

1. An example of "rag worm" injury by the ear worm showing typical damage to 
the heart leaves. 

2. Nearly grown ear worm larva devouring the developing tassel of the stalk of 
field corn. 



1 Lintner, J. A. The Corn Worm, Heliothis armigera. Cultivator and Country 
Gentlemen, November 24, 1881. Vol. 46, p. 759. 

' 2 Claypole, E. W. Heliothis armigera Feeding on Hard Corn. Amer. Ent. 3 (n. s., 
vol. 1): 278. 1880. 

3 French, G. H. The Corn Worm or Boll Worm. In the 11th Rept. of the Nox- 
ious and Beneficial Insects of 111., by State Entomologist of 111., pp. 65-104. 1882. 



June, '19] 



7 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 

2 « 3 



Plate 11 





:^ 









i- 



I 



&> 



i::ii- W i>riii liijia-ifs 



June, '19] HARTZELL: PINE TUBE MOTH 233 

3. Large ear worm larva in tip of ear of sweet corn. Note that many silks leading 
to tip ovules have been severed. 

4. Ear of hardened field corn with its tip ruined by ear worm. Note larval excre- 
ment and partly visible ear worm eating the germ part of the kernels. 

5. Hole in husk of field corn through which ear worm larva left the ear. 

6. An ear of white field corn showing serious side and tip ear worm injury which 
has been invaded by molds. 

7. Severe ear worm injury to tip of ear of Stowell's Evergreen sweet corn showing 
excrement of larva and how entire kernels are devoured when corn is soft. 

8. Nubbin cf white field corn apparently caused by ear worm preventing fertiliza- 
tion by destruction of silk. Note furrow on tip of cob where ear worm almost 
encircled the same, severing the silks as it went. 

9. Series of hard kernels of field corn showing ear worm preference for the germ 
part of the kernel. All kernels shown dropped from the ear when husked or handled. 



NOTES ON THE LIFE HISTORY OF THE PINE TUBE 
MOTH> (EULIA PINATUBANA KEARFOTT) 

By Albert Hartzell, Ames, Iowa 

The presence of the larvae of this insect in injurious numbers on 
white pine (Pinus strobus L.) in the vicinity of Ithaca, N. Y., offered 
an opportunity to study the habits of this interesting species. The 
work was done under the direction of Prof. Robert Matheson of Cornell 
University to whom the writer is deeply indebted for suggestions and 
criticisms. At the time the work was begun very little was known 
regarding the life history of the pine tube moth which, until 1905, had 
been confused with a European species, Eulia politana Haw., of 
widely different habits. The first reference to the pine tube moth was 
by Comstock^ in the report of the United States Department of 
Agriculture for the year 1880. In 1905, Kearfott^ recognized it as a 
new species under the name of Eulia pinatuhana. 

The Moth 

The adult is a small trim moth with a wing expanse of about 14 mm. 
The head, fore wings, and thorax are of a rust-red color. The fore 
wings have two lighter oblique lines crossing them; the hind wings 
and the dorsal side of the abdomen are silky gray. 

The first moth reared by the writer emerged April 13, 1915. The 
moths continued to emerge under insectary conditions until April 20. 
From examination of the pupal cases, emergence is accomplished by 
the splitting of the pupal thorax along the median line, usually as far 

' Contril)Ution from the Entomological Laboratory of Cornell I'nivorsity. 
2 1S81. Conistock, J. H. Report of V. 8. Comm. Agr., 1S80, p. 204-205. 
» 1905. Kearfott, W. D. Canadian Entomologist, 37: 9-10. 



234 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

caudad as the first segment of the abdomen. On the ventral surface 
the rupture is between the maxillae and the first thoracic pair of legs, 
thence along the suture between the antennae and the wing pads. 

The moths were first observed in the field by the writer on April 30, 
1915. In 1916 they were first seen on April 17. Specimens were 
captured June 8, 12, 19, and July 15, 1915, and April 17, 1916. All 
the observations and captures were made at Ithaca, N. Y. In spite of 
the large number of tubes found on white pine in this vicinity the 
moths are seldom taken. 

Our observations indicate that the moths are crepuscular. In the 
day time they appear sluggish while at dusk they become active and 
are extremely hard to follow because of their zig-zag flight. In experi- 
ment cages they avoided the intense light of an electric bulb but 
appeared to be attracted to a mild light. Several trips were made to 
a near-by pine wood to study their nocturnal habits under natural 
conditions but the moths were never observed flying except when 
disturbed. The writer never succeeded in capturing them with trap 
lanterns. The averaige length of life as appears from data at hand is 
approximately eight and one-half days. 

Mating and Egglaying 

The moths could not be reared in suflScient numbers to make a 
careful study of their mating and egglaying habits. Copulation was 
observed once, however, and the time occupied was ten minutes. 
Females confined to cages were frequentl}^ seen pressing the tip of the 
abdomen against the rib of the pine leaves but all attempts to rear the 
larvae from the eggs failed. The writer confirmed the identification of 
the eggs, however, by the dissection of gravid females. 

Description 

The Egg. — The egg is translucent, slightly pointed at the apex and rounded on the 
opposite side. The average length is 4 mm.; width, .58 mm. 

The Larva. — The shape of the mature larva is roughly cylindrical; length 8 times 
the width; color greenish-yellow with an indistinct darker green band along the 
dorsal median line. The head is greenish-brown and is semi-translucent. The patch 
on the side of the head is dark brown to black. The head is not depressed. The 
front extends about three-fourths the distance to the vertical angle. The second 
adfrontal setigerous puncture is present. There are six ocelli; the second and fourth 
are larger than the others. The sixth is rather close to the fourth and fifth. Prolegs 
on the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 10th abdominal segments. The seta on the distal end 
of the anal process is at least twice the length of the stalk of the anal process. 

Habits of Larvae 

The larvae are active caterpillars. When disturbed they retreat 
into their tubes; if unable to return they will let themselves down by 



June, '19] HARTZELL: PINE TUBE MOTH 235 

means of a thread spun from the silk glands. Because of their shyness, 
minute size and protective coloration they are difficult to studv in the 
field. 

The larvae build tubes by drawing together the leaves of the white 
pine with silk. The leaves are placed longitudinally side by side and 
are bound together by means of silken threads. From five to twenty 
leaves are used in its construction. At first the tube consists of five 
leaves, the number in a single fascicle, but as the larva grows more and 
more are drawn in to feed upon. Usually two or three are left uneaten 
which serve to hold the tube in place even when many of the older 
leaves that constitute it are dead. The larvae live singly. It was 
thought probable that the caterpillars may occupj^ more than one tube 
during its larval life. From the beginning of the study the writer had 
noticed that pupse were commonly found in new tubes. In order to 
prove that a caterpillar may occupy more than one tube during its 
larval life, a larva of the last instar was removed from its tube and 
placed on a pine branch. In a few days the branch was examined and 
on it was a roughly constructed tube which the larva hastily made prior 
to pupating. 

The first larvae were observed in the field July 20, 1915. At that 
time they were 3 mm. in length. The head measurements varied 
from .282 mm. in the first instar to .848 mm. in the sixth instar. 

The Pupa 

The pupal skin at first is soft and pliable. The color is greenish-yel- 
low, resembling that of the larva. In eight or ten days the skin 
hardens and turns brown with a green tint along the wing pads and 
thorax. Specimens examined October 20, 1915, showed structural 
resemblances of the mature pupa except that in a number of cases the 
antennae were more sharply defined than in the mature specimens. 

The pupae are found in October in the upper ends of the tubes, 
enveloped in silk. The insect hibernates in the pupal state. That 
the insect may not invariably pass the winter as a pupa was brought to 
the writer's attention by the discovery of a live larva in a tube on 
December 23, 1916. 

Number of Generations 

It is commonly believed that a second generation occurs in the 
latitude of central New York. The data gathered in this study 
indicates that the insect is singly brooded, but more research is needed 
to establish this fact. 



236 journal of economic entomology [vol. 12 

Distribution 

The distribution of the pine tube moth is not very well known. 
Comstock^ reports that it occurs as far south as Florida; Kearfott,^ 
from New Jersey and Ontario, and Packard^ from Massachusetts and 
Maine. Probably it is safe to conclude that Eulia pinatuhana occurs 
throughout the white pine district of southern Canada and eastern 
United States. 

Host Plants 

During this study an examination of the various species of pine in 
the vicinity of Ithaca, N. Y., was made to determine whether white 
pine is the only host plant of the larvae of the pine tube moth. Our 
observations lead us to conclude that white pine (Pinus strobus L.) 
is the only host plant. Fernald'' has called attention to the fact that 
the European Eulia politana has never been reported from a single 
conifer in Europe. 

Natural Enemies 

In connection with this study twenty-five individual parasites have 
been bred. A list of these parasites is given in the table, with the dates 
of emergence. Through the kindness of Dr. L. 0. Howard, chief of the 
Bureau of Entomology, five have been identified to genera and twenty 
to species. The Chalcids were identified by Mr. A. A. Girault. The 
remaining parasites were identified by Mr. R. A. Cushman and Mr. 
S. A. Rohwer. Of the total number seven are larval and eighteen are 
pupal parasites. 

Pupal Parasites 

The pupal parasites were bred in connection with the rearing of the 
adults. In order to breed the moths successfully it is necessary that 
the pupae remain undisturbed in the tubes. Mr. Cushman calls atten- 
tion to the fact that Eclytus pleuralis has previously been bred from 
spider nests and as the parasites in question were not bred from naked 
pupae it is probable that they came from a similar source as the tubes 
are frequently the haunts of small spiders. 

Larval Parasites 
On October 18, 1915, while engaged in making head measurements 
of caterpillars the writer observed a larva that appeared sluggish. 
Thinking that this individual was ready to molt, it was placed in a 

1 1914. Comstock, J. H., and Anna B. A Manual of the Study of Insects, p. 245. 

2 1905. Kearfott, W. D. Canadian Entomologist, 37: 10. 

3 1890. Packard, a: S. 5th Report, U. S. Ent. Comm., p. 791. 

* 1881. Fernald, C. H. Report of U. S. Comm. Agr., 1880, p. 265. 



June, '19] 



HARTZELL: PINE TUBE MOTH 



237 



vial. When examined two days later, nothing but the skin remained 
and in its place appeared a larval parasite that seemed to be sucking 
the juices from the remains of the host caterpillar. A second yina- 
tubana larva introduced into the vial met with a similar fate. The 
parasite pupated October 29, 1915. On November 3, the adult 
appeared. Again on October 18, 1915, another caterpillar was found 
with two parasitic larvae attached to the dorsum. October 22, one of 
the parasites was observed feeding on the host. Only one of these 
reached maturity. Both the adults referred to above were identified 
by Mr. R. A. Cushman as Epiurus alboridus Cress. These larvae seem 
to attack the host just before pupation. It is not uncommon to see 
two or three eagerly devouring a sluggish caterpillar. 

On October 25, 1915, another larva was found attacking a caterpillar. 
On the 29th of the same month a pupa unlike that of E. -pinatiibana 
was found in the tube occupying the same relative position as the host 
pupa normally assumes. It was necessary to open the tube and 
remove the silk to assure one that it was not the pupa of the pine tube 
moth. The parasite in question was identified by Mr. S. A. Rohwer 
as Phytodietus pleuralis Cress. 









Parasites of Eulia pinatubana Kearfott 


Date of 




Parasitic 




Emergence 




on 


Name 




1915 








1. 

2. 


Apr. 


13 
15 


pupa 


Eurytoma sp. 


3. 


K 


16 


(< 


" 


4. 


(( 


20 


<( 


Elachistus sp. 


5. 
6. 

7. 




15 
16 
16 


11 
11 


Epiurus indagator (Walsh) 
Eclytus pleuralis (Prov.) 


8. 

9. 

10. 


Nov. 
Oct. 


16 

4 
29 


larva 


Epiurus indagator (Walsh) 

Epiurus alborictus (Cress) 
11 i( 


11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 


Dec. 

(1 


3 

4 

4 

19 


If 

pupa 
larva 


Phytodietus pleuralis (Cresson) 
Itoplectis conquisitor (Say) 
Phytodietus pleuralis (Cresson) 


15. 


(( 


31 


a 


Hemiteles sp. 


16. 
17. 




31 
31 


pupa (?) 


Epiurus alborictus Cr. 

II 11 




1916 






18. 
19. 


Jan. 
Feb. 


18 
7 


<i 


Phytodietus pleuralis (Cresson) 
11 II 


20. 


II 


8 


i( 


II II 


21. 

22. 


Apr. 
Nov. 


1 

29 


i( 
larva 


II II 
II II 


23. 


Dec. 


29 


" 


II II 


24. 
25. 


May 


29 
6 


pupa (?) 

II 


Epiurus indagator Cr. 



Identified by 



A. A. Girault 



R. A. Cushman 



S. A. Rohwer 
R. A. Cushman 
S. A. Rohwer 



R. A. Cushman 



S. A. Rohwer 



R. A. Cusliman 



238 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

OBSERVATIONS ON WINGLESS MAY BEETLES 

By R. A. ViCKERY and T. S. Wilson 

During the spring of 1918, from April to July, this station received 
many reports of damage to crops by the wingless May beetles. Two 
species were injurious, namely, Lachnosterna cribrosa and Lachnosterna 
farcta. The former was reported to be injurious to cotton in Bexar 
County and in other counties in southern Texas, and to wheat in 
northern Texas. The latter was reported to this station only from 
Bexar County, the most serious damage being done in and near the 
city of San Antonio. Both species are very destructive to crops when 
they occur in large numbers, as they attack young plants and may 
completely destroy all plants in a large field. Furthermore, they 
remain numerous long enough to destroy several plantings. 

Lachnosterna cribrosa is about one inch long, shiny black in color and 
wingless. Lachnosterna farcta is about the same size but brown in 
color. The latter species has wings but they are too small to be 
used in flying. Both species have stout clumsy bodies with distended 
abdomens. 

These beetles remain in the ground during the day and emerge only 
at night to feed. Lachnosterna cribrosa comes out about sundown and 
remains out for several hours but L. farcta comes out after dark and 
remains out a longer time. Both species are energetic travelers and 
may be seen wandering about after dark. Their choice of food is 
limited by their clumsiness and inability to fly, so that they eat almost 
any vegetation that they can reach. They seem best able to climb 
plants having small round stems, such as young plants of cotton, 
bean, Amaranthus, and alfalfa. They usually do not chmb high upon 
the larger plants but feed on the more accessible lower leaves. Both 
species feign death when disturbed. 

In the laboratory these beetles were kept in uncovered wooden 
boxes 30 inches in length, 16 inches in width, and 12 inches in depth, 
and they were seldom able to climb out. Lachnosterna cribrosa began 
to emerge from the soil in these boxes about 6.30 p. m., sun time, and 
had all reentered the soil by 9.30, but L. farcta was still emerging at 
this hour. 

The beetles burrow into the ground to a depth of from four to six 
inches. They usually enter near the base of the plant upon which 
they have been feeding. Many often enter near the base of one plant 
or of a small cluster of plants and they kick up a small mound of pul- 
verized soil, giving the characteristic appearance as shown in figure 3, 
plate 13. The emergence holes are round and about one-half inch in 



June, '19] VICKERY AND WILSON: WINGLESS MAY BEETLES 239 

diameter w^hich are plainly visible where the ground has not been 
pulverized by cultivation. Just before sundown L. cribrosa may often 
be observed sitting quietly with the head projecting out of the exit. 
These holes are shown in the photograph (Fig. 4, pi. 13). These beetles 
began to emerge in the field about sundown and by 9 o'clock they were 
out in countless numbers, sometimes as many as five to a single plant. 

Lachnosterna farcta 

Reports began coming to our office during the latter part of March, 
1918, from the people of San Antonio who had gardens attacked by the 
common large brown June beetle (Lachnosterna farcta) . By the first 
of May these beetles were very numerous and the reports of damage 
were coming to us almost every day. The ravages of this pest were 
so great that many gardens were replanted several times, the plants 
being defoliated each time. The gardens in the northern part of the 
city suffered most. 

Many acres of cotton were destroyed by this species in Bexar County 
and perhaps the damage extends into other counties. In four fields 
visited the cotton had been completely destroyed in areas of from five to 
twenty acres. Other fields were damaged in smaller patches. 

In one field observed these beetles had finished a fifteen acre tract 
of cotton and attacked young corn adjacent to the cotton, but as the 
corn was too large to be destroyed only the lower leaves w^ere damaged. 

This species did not entirely disappear until about the middle of 
July. One beetle was observed in a garden in the northwest part of 
the city on the night of July 14, and one was caught in a barrier at the 
United States Entomological Laboratory on July 15. 

Food Plants. — Beans seemed to be the favorite food plant of this 
species in the gardens. As many as four or five beetles fed on a single 
plant, eating off the leaves and buds and leaving only the stalk. Large 
numbers of these beetles were observed feeding on Bermuda grass in 
lawns and in vacant lots at the edge of the city. Among field crops 
cotton was the favorite. Young plants with two to four leaves were 
entirely defoliated, causing the stems to die soon afterwards. The 
older plants suffered considerable damage but were not killed outright. 
We observed the beetles feeding on corn in the station garden. They 
usually remained on the ground and fed on the lower leaves which hung 
down, although a few were observed climbing the young plants. 

We observed these beetles feeding on the following plants: Amaran- 
thus spp., beans, beets, Bermuda grass, black eye peas, corn, cotton, 
cabbage, castor bean, cucuml)er, fig, grape, lettuce, okra, radish, rape, 
Russian sunHower, rutabaga, spinach, turnip, and velvet bean. 

People who cultivated small gardens reported that the l)cetles 



240 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

attacked the plants listed below, besides many of those given above: 
English peas, eggplant, blackberry, cantaloupe, carrot, onion, peanut, 
potato, watermelon; and the following flowering plants: candytuft, 
chrysanthemum, cockscomb, columbine, cornflower, larkspur, marigold, 
petunia, pinks, poppy, rose, snapdragon, spearmint, sweet pea, verbena 
and zinnia. 

Experiments with Control Measures. — When the comf)laints 
first began coming in we recommended the use of light traps. The 
lights were placed over vessels buried with the tops level with the sur- 
face of the ground, some dry and others containing water. Only a 
few of the beetles were caught by this method. 

We also recommended hand-picking. This method has been used 
by many people in former outbreaks and is effective where only a few 
of the beetles can migrate into the garden. But it proved to be a 
tedious and useless remedy for a small garden surrounded by large 
lawns and vacant lands or other gardens from which the pest could 
migrate. 

The use of bran mash or the application of arsenicals to the plants in 
powder form or liquid spray would be effective in large market gardens 
but could not be recommended for use in small gardens because poultry 
would often have access to the poison or the dead beetles. 

We know of one man who protected his plants by means of empty 
tin cans with both ends removed and placed over the plants. 

We found that a barrier made of boards could be used successfully 
for the protection of small patches of vegetables. Any kind of boards 
may be used but if narrow they should have one side smooth. The 
boards should be placed tightly on one edge on the ground with the 
ends fitting tightly. Vessels are buried with the tops level with the 
surface of the ground at intervals against the boards, both inside and 
outside. As the beetles wander about they come to the boards and 
follow them till they fall into the vessels where they remain. On 
account of their heavy, clumsy bodies they are able to climb even a 
rough perpendicular surface only a few inches. They have been 
observed many times trying to climb a board but nearly always falling 
back. In a fewinstances they have been seen to cross a four-inch board. 
It is impossible for them to escape from buried vessels which have 
smooth inner surfaces. After a few nights nearly all the beetles were 
caught from within the barrier but picking some by hand each night 
would more speedily rid the part inside the barrier from the beetles. 

Barrier Experiments. — We constructed seven of these barriers 
in all as described above. They were all located in the southern part 
of the city near the laboratory where the beetles were not so numerous 
as they were in the northern part. The beetles were removed from 



June, '19] VICKERY AND WILSON: WINGLESS MAY BEETLES 241 

the traps every morning and the number recorded. The records of 
two of these barriers are given here. 

Barrier No. 2: This barrier was constructed in a cotton patch in the 
laboratory garden on May 22, 1918. A plot 20 feet square was 
inclosed by means of boards 1 inch thick, 4 inches wide, and 20 feet 
long. On the inside one eight-inch flower pot was placed in each 
corner. Pots were not placed on the outside until May 23 when one 
was placed at the middle of each side, and on May 28 one was placed 
at each outer corner. 

A record of the collections made at this barrier is given below. 
Beetles were collected from May 23 until July 15, 102 being caught on 
the inside and 953 on outside. 

Table Showing Number of Lachnosterna farcta Caught in Barrier 











Number 2 








Date 


Beetles 


Beetles 


Total 


Date 


Beetles 


Beetles 


Total 


1918 


Inside 


Outside 




1918 


Inside 


Outside 




May 23 


35 





35 


June 19 











24 


8 


90 


98 


20 





1 


1 


25 


4 


97 


101 


21 





5 


5 


26 


4 


65 


69 


22 





1 


1 


27 


2 


73 


75 


23* 











28 


5 


83 


88 


24 





9 


9 


29 


4 


91 


95 


25 





1 


1 


30 


4 


74 


78 


26 





2 


2 


31 


3 


58 


61 


27 





1 


1 


June 1 


1 


47 


48 


28 





4 


4 


2 


1 


23 


24 


29 





• 





3 


6 


39 


45 


30 











4 





35 


35 


July 1 


2 





2 


5 


1 


25 


26 


2 





3 


3 


6 


2 


13 


15 


3 











7 


4 


17 


21 


4* 











8 


4 


13 


17 


5 





1 


1 


9 


2 


14 


16 


6 











10 


4 


17 


21 


7* 











11 


4 


8 


12 


8 





1 


1 


12 





9 


9 


9 











13 


2 


11 


13 


10 











14 





7 


7 


11 





1 


1 


15 





4 


4 


12 











16* 











13 











17 





5 


5 


14* 











18 





4 


4 


15 





1 


1 










Total 


102 


953 


1.055 



Observations were discontinued on July 23. 
* No observations made. 

Barrier Xo. 6: On July 3, 1918, a barrier was oonstructod around 
a bean patch, consisting of five rows 150 feet long, located in the south 
part of San Antonio. This barritM- was made of boards 1 inch in thick- 
ness and 4 inches in width placed on one edge, fittiiig tightly on the 
surface of the ground. The ends were held togctlier l)y means of 
pieces of shingle nailed on the top edges and the boards were supported 



242 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

by pieces of shingle driven into the ground and nailed to the boards. 
Common tin cans were buried with the tops level with the surface of the 
ground and against the boards, both inside and outside the barrier. 
On the inside a can was placed at each corner and twelve cans were 
placed at intervals along each side. The same number of cans were 
put on the outside in the corresponding locations. Fifty-six cans were 
used altogether. 

A record of the collections follows. Counts were made from June 
4 until June 22, making a total of 371 beetles from the inside and 1,414 
from the outside. 

Table Showing Number of L.farda Caught in Barrier No. 6 



Date 


No. Caught 


No. Caught 


Tota 


1918 


Inside 


Outside 




June 4 


96 


109 


205 


5 


48 


149 


197 


6 


37 


137 


174 


7 


24 


84 


108 


8 


27 


72 


99 


9 


38 


102 


140 


10 


22 


62 


84 


11 


10 


34 


44 


12 


4 


40 


44 


13 


13 


29 


42 


14 


6 


20 


26 


15 


11 


42 


53 


16 


6 


40 


46 


17 


9 


23 


32 


18 


4 


16 


20 


19 


5 


27 


32 


20 


2 


29 


31 


21 


5 


12 


17 


22 


4 


16 


20 



Total 371 1,043 1,414 

Lachnosterna cribrosa 

The first report of damage by this species was received on April 25, 
1918, from Mr. Albert Gembler who has a farm about ten miles south- 
east of San Antonio on the Gohad road. The writers visited this farm 
and found these beetles there in very large numbers. The field where 
damage occurred comprises about seventy acres. The soil is loose, 
sandy loam upland and slopes toward the west and south. There is a 
strip of brush on the north side and cultivated fields on all the other 
sides of this field. Cotton was planted in this field and there was a 
good stand of young plants with from two to four leaves when the 
outbreak started. The beetles had started work in the highest part of 
the field and had destroyed the cotton plants in a sohd patch of about 
fifteen acres. The devastated area was roughly circular in shape and 
it appeared that the beetles had matured in this part of the field. 



June, '19] VICKERY AND WILSON: WINGLESS MAY BEETLES 243 

They were working along the edge of this area and were migrating 
outward and destroying the cotton as the}' went. The cotton was 
planted in rows extending north and south and the beetles seemed to 
prefer to follow the rows as the heaviest migration was northward. 
Most of their fresh entrance burro w^s were found in a strip about five 
yards wide around the bare area. This strip was also marked by 
many newly damaged plants. 

Here we found the beetles in the soil in very large numbers, often 
from 6 to 13 in one foot length of the cotton row. Beetles were found 
in all parts of the field in small numbers and a few in the brush on the 
north side of the field where they had probably migrated from the 
infested part of the field. 

By the latter part of June the beetles had almost disappeared. It 
was estimated that a total of about forty acres of cotton was destroyed, 
aggregating a loss of about $2,000. 

Food Plants. — These beetles were observed in the field feeding on 
cotton, beans, corn, and sorghum; and on Russian sunflower in the 
laboratory garden. In the laboratory cages they were fed on Amaran- 
thus and alfalfa. Both of these plants were eaten readily. They ate 
of the corn leaves which were put into the cages but did not relish this 
plant. Cotton was the favorite food plant in the field. These beetles 
were sometimes seen nibbling on the leaves of young Panicum fascicu- 
latum reticulatum Torr. However, this grass apparently did not suit 
their taste as the plants were left in the rows where the cotton had been 
completely destroyed. 

Experiments with Control Measures. — Large quantities of the 
beetles were hand-picked at night and killed by means of kerosene by 
the Gembler family. But on account of the extremely large numbers 
this process was not only a tedious one but almost ineffective. 

On April 25 we prepared three pounds of bran mash and scattered 
in this cotton field where the beetles were numerous. The mash was 
made according to the following formula: 

Wheat bran 24 pounds 

London Purple 1 } pounds 

Syrup 2 quarts 

On the following evening several dead beetles were found in this spot 
on top and in the soil and several others apparently too sick to move or 
feed. In some instances the poison took effect after the beetles had 
entered the soil. More dead ones were found the second day after 
the poison was put out than the first day afterwards. 

Two more batches of poison bait were put out on April 27, prepared 
according to the following formulae : 



244 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Wheat bran 24 pounds 

Paris green 1 pound 

Oil of anise 1 ounce 

Corn bran 24 pounds 

Paris green 1 pound 

Syrup H quarts 

This poison bait was put out about 6 p. m., scattered by hand in the 
cotton rows. At 9 o'clock a large number of beetles were feeding on 
the bait. Only a few were seen feeding on that made of corn bran but 
many on the wheat bran mash. Later observations showed that a 
large number of beetles were killed by the latter and only a few by the 
former. 

Encouraged by the results of the previous experiments Mr. Gembler 
began putting out bait made according to the following formula: 

Wheat bran : 20 pounds 

Paris green 1 pound 

Syrup 1 quart 

Lemons 3 

He scattered twenty pounds of this mixture each evening about sun- 
down as it was found that this was the best time because the material 
dried out rapidly. There seemed to be some advantage in mixing the 
bait the day before it was to be used, thus allowing the poison to become 
more thoroughly soaked into the bran. From two to three acres could 
be covered by twenty pounds of the bait. The best results were 
obtained by putting it in the patches where the beetles were most 
numerous as indicated by the exit and entrance holes. 

Excellent results came from the use of this poison bait for large 
numbers of dead beetles were to be found where it was used. In some 
places from five to eight dead were found on top of the ground in a 
space the size of a man's hand. A large percentage also died after 
entering the soil and many were found dead where they had crawled 
several yards from where they had eaten of the poison. Twelve counts 
were made in different parts of the field, each count measuring twenty 
yards in length of the cotton row. The dead beetles in these spaces 
ranged from 15 to 60 in number, averaging 32 to each count. The 
records were made during the evening about 6 o'clock and only two 
of these places had live beetles, one had one and another three crawling 
about. These counts did not include those which had died after 
entering the soil. 

Mr. Gembler substituted one teaspoonful of anise oil in some of the 
bait and according to his observations the species preferred it to that 



June, '19] VICKERY AND WILSON: WINGLESS MAY BEETLES 245 

flavored with lemon juice. He states that the beetles would often 
leave the cotton plants to feed on this bait. 

A few rows of cotton were dusted with powdered arsenate of lead. 
A large number of the beetles were killed by this means also. But 
it was found that the arsenate of lead used as a spray, two ounces to 
three gallons of water, was more economical. This spray was used 
effectively to help stop the advancing pest, and thus saving part of the 
cotton. This and the poison bait saved several acres of cotton on one 
side of the field while on the other side, where poison was not utilized, 
it was destroyed to the fence. 

During July we investigated damage done by Lachnosterna cribrosa 
in San Patricio County. We found that it had been numerous and 
had done serious damage to cotton there also. The following letter 
from Mr, T. C. Cobb, who is countj^ agent of that county, tells of the 
methods used to combat the beetles. This letter bearing the date 
July 17, 1918, reads: 

Dear Sir: 

Having had considerable experience this season in fighting wingless May beetles I 
am glad to report the results of the methods employed in this county. 

In the first place I wish to state that the beetle was here in countless numbers, com- 
pletely destroying in one instance a hundred-acre block of cotton, as well as doing con- 
siderable damage on smaller scale in several other fields. 

We tried various methods, including poisoned bran mash, dusting poison on the 
cotton plants, hand-picking, but the l)est work was with the barrier ditches. These 
were made bj' running several times in the same furrow with a lister, making a loose 
steep-sided, deep furrow. The perpendicular-sided furrow was not successful because 
the beetles could climb out on the hard dirt, while the loose dirt would roll down with 
them when they tried to climb out of this. After plowing the furrow as deep as 
necessary with the lister the bottom was smoothed out with a sliovel so the beetles 
could easily walk along the bottom. In this smooth part postholes were dug about 
fifteen or twenty feet apart, into which the beetles fell and were destroyed. 

A little different plan tlian that which has l>een suggested is to leave ofT the digging 
of holes in the l)ottom of the furrow, and patrol the furrow with a pear burner during 
the time the beetles travel, wliich is only late in the evening. I believe this would l)e 
just as effective as any other method although we didn't try it this year. 

There is no doubt that this beetle can be controlled so as to prevent serious damage 
with the barrier ditch if the work is done in time, and the beetle is coming into the 
cotton from outside. In case the beetle hatches in the cotton field I believe the bran 
mash poisoning would be the most eiTective means of control, several farmers in this 
county reporting absolutely satisfactory results from this method. 

Yours very truly, 

(Signed) T. C. Conn, ComUy Agent, 

Snn I'atricio Coituly, Texas. 



246 journal of economic entomology [vol. 12 

Recommendations for Control of Wingless May Beetles 

1. In Gardens 

The use of a barrier is the only practical method of controlling these 
beetles in a small garden. This should be made as described under 
Lachnosterna farcta. In some cases where the beetles are known to 
come into the garden from one direction a barrier on that side will be 
sufficient with the aid of hand-picking at night. When the beetles 
are gathered they should be saved for the chickens. If it is necessary 
to buy lumber for the barrier, boards 1 by 4 inches and 20 feet long are 
cheapest and would be satisfactory. Tin cans, with the bottoms 
melted out, may be used to protect a few of the most valuable young 
plants. They should be placed over the plants about sundown ai^d 
removed in the morning. 

In large market gardens the seed beds should be protected by a 
barrier. The plants which are already started in the field should be 
sprayed or dusted with arsenicals. In case the beetles are very numer- 
ous the poison bran mash should be used. If a heavj' migration from 
outside should occur, a deep furrow should be made and bran mash 
distributed on both sides of the furrow and among the plants nearest 
the furrow. 

2. In Field Crops 

When the outbreak originates in the field and the beetles are very 
numerous the infested area should be treated immediately with bran 
mash. This bait should be broadcasted all over the infested part. 
This can be done most easily by two men with a single horse and buggy 
or light wagon. Also a small quantity of the poison bait should be 
placed at each entrance hole or group of entrance holes at the edges of 
the infested area. The latter method should also be used where the 
beetles are scattered in small numbers throughout the field, for although 
the beetles may not be numerous enough to destroy the stand, it is 
important to get rid of them before they lay eggs. If the infested area 
is given one thorough treatment with the poison bait it should be safe 
to replant in case the stand has been destroyed. When the plants are 
larger, for instance cotton plants about six inches high, the arsenical 
should be applied directly to the plants. This could be done very 
economically with a horse-drawn traction operated potato sprayer, and 
would also give protection against such insects as Feltia spp., Prodenia 
spp., and Loxostege similalis. 

W^here it is desired to protect a field from a heavy migration of 
beetles, originating in an adjoining field, a furrow barrier should be 
made. Bran mash should be distributed on both sides of the barrier 
and among the plants near it. If the plants near the furrow are large 
enough to be poisoned an arsenical should be applied to them. 



June, '19] JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY Plate 12 



^aJl.J^ 



"K^^^t--- 










Fi 




^^miiii ill 




N 



) 



F 



i<p. ^ 



r.g. 3. 



Wiiililos Mav licet Ics 



June, '19] 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 



Plate 13 




FlO.b. 



Winjilcss M:.y Heel I.- Work 



June, '19] GOODWIN: JAPANESE FLOWER BEETLE 247 

Explanation of Plates 

Plate 12 

Fig. 1. Barrier for the protection of plants from Lachnosterna farda See text 

under Barrier No. 2. 
Fig. 2. Lachnosterna farcla, x2. 
Fig. 3. Lachnosterna cribrosa, x2. 

Plate 13 
Fig. 1. Lachnosterna cribrosa beetles finishing a few cotton plants. 
Fig. 2. A defoliated plant and emergence holes of the beetles. One beetle just 

emerged. 
Fig. 3. Shows a typical group of entrance burrows at the base of a cotton plant. 
Fig. 4. Another view showing soil kicked up by the beetles when entering the 

ground and emergence holes of the beetles near three defoUated plants. 
Fig. 5. Flashlight of the beetles at work on cotton plants. 



JAPANESE FLOWER BEETLE 

By W. H. GooDW'iN 

Some ten miles northeast of Camden, and a few miles back from the 
Delaware River opposite Tacony, North Philadelphia, is the location 
where the Japanese flower beetle has become established, temporarily 
at least. The infested territory lies between Moorestown and River- 
ton, N. J., and at present covers some four or five thousand acres of 
very productive sandy loam farms. The country is gently rolling and 
the greatest altitude is not over one hundred feet above sea leveh It 
is drained by small creeks but the entire area lies between the two larger 
streams, Pensauken and Rancocas creeks. Farming in this district 
is intensive ; the principal crops, excepting for a small amount of general 
farm crops, are such truck crops as tomatoes, sweet corn, asparagus, 
peas, and beans, which find a ready market in the city. Peaches, apples, 
pears, and cherries do well in this locality and are quite extensively 
grown. 

The soil varies greatly in texture and general mechanical composi- 
tion, varying from a rather stiff heavy clay soil to almost pure sand. 
Sometimes these extremes in soil variation occur within the compara- 
tively short distance of only a few rods. 

These principal soils are known as Sassafras, Freneau, and Elkton 
loams with a few small areas of other types. 

The people are largely Quakers and, I take it, are descendents of the 
early settlers of this district. 

In April, 1918, final action was taken to begin active steps for the 
eradication of this newly acclimated pest, for pest it is, as the meager 



248 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

reports from Japan class it as doing more general damage than any 
other species of the coleoptera in the Islands. 

In New Jersey it has seemingly not lost its reputation as a pest. 

From the survey made by Mr. W. O. Ellis, after the 18th of August, 
1917, the range of territory occupied by this beetle was about 2,500 
acres. This does not mean that the pest was actually established over 
this entire area, but beetles were collected at various points over an 
area of this extent. 

Upon my arrival, May 1, 1918, the only equipment available for 
eradication work was a small cart sprayer, a barrel sprayer and two 
large Dl Model Niagara dusters and a ton of arsenate of lead. 

Working plans were necessary and were prepared after carefully 
looking over the territor}^ and the conditions which would be 
encountered. 

Plans 

First : To test soil f umigants and choose the best suited for the exist- 
ing conditions. Procure the same in a sufficient quantity to treat all 
territory heavily infested with the larvae of the Japanese flower beetle 
to destroy them. 

Second : To place trap lights throughout the central portion of the 
district to trap the beetles. A translation from the life history, as 
given in the Japanese writings, states that they are caught by setting 
a lighted lantern in a pan of petrol. 

Third: To destroy all uneconomic plants in so far as possible in a 
band around the infested territory, band to be about one half mile wide. 

Fourth: To dust all food plants with poison, especially a broad band 
of territory surrounding the central portion of the infested district. 

Fifth: To collect as many beetles as possible in nets. 

Sixth: To test cultivation throughout the season and late fall 
plowing to determine its effect on the larvse. 

The plans for eradication work encountered many difficulties from 
the beginning. The equipment needed included a large sprayer, two 
large dusters, a tractor, a light truck, and necessary machines to get 
around over the territory and transport men and materials wherever 
required. 

Intelligent labor of the type needed was difficult to secure. Horse- 
power was at a premium and very difficult to obtain at the times most 
needed. 

A larval survey was necessary in order to determine the areas which 
should receive soil treatment to destroy the larvse, meanwhile experi- 
ments were under way testing the efficienc}^ of various soil fumigants. 
Sodium cyanide at the rate of 1 ounce in 15 gallons of water distrib- 
uted over twenty-five square feet of ground gave the best results. 



June, '19] GOODWIN: JAPANESE FLOWER BEETLE 249 

We (Mr. Ellis and I) were anxious to get the results and dug the test 
plots two to three days after treatment. A kill of 65 to 80 per cent 
resulted from this treatment. 

Plots treated later on in the season (duplicate halves of others) 
in which the kill averaged to 60 to 65 per cent of all grubs 3 days after 
treated; when dug six to seven days after treatment gave an increase 
of approximately 15 per cent to 20 per cent in effectiveness, killing 80 
to 90 per cent of the stages in soil. 

The partial larval survey, made by C. A. Perry and myself, gave us 
ample territory that was heavily infested with larvse to be treated but 
no materials or equipment had arrived by mid-June. Trap light 
towers were constructed, gasoline lanterns and pans were purchased 
and these were put in place through the central part of the district. 
Counts of beetles caught in the pans by the latter part of July gave an 
average of less than 20 beetles per lamp where the lamps were kept 
burning every night. Several towers fully equipped, but which did not 
have the lanterns lit on account of failing to catch beetles, averaged 
above 250 beetles per tower. The trap lanterns were a failure; some 
one had made a bad recommendation, if we can rely on the transla- 
tion from the Japanese literature or else we have a change in habits of 
the beetles. Such things sometimes make one question species 
indentification. 

As no more equipment or materials had arrived by June 20, 1918, 
steps were taken to get the eradication work under way. A Ford 
runabout had been purchased at New Brunswick and, through Dr. 
Headlee, we secured a small supply of sodium cyanide at Perth Amboy 
and brought it to the scene of operation in the Ford. The Ford was 
provided with a hundred-gallon gasoline tank and a fair capacity force 
pump was borrowed and belted to the engine on one of the duster 
trucks. 

This was used to pump water from a creek and the cyanide treatment 
was begun. 

A small beginning but under way finally, enabling the treating of 
between one and one-half and two acres of sod land, along ditches and 
roads, that was heavily infested with larvse. June had passed into 
history, also eight days of July before the tractor arrived by express. 
The sprayer also arrived, but with some parts broken, so it had to be 
repaired l)cfore it could be used. 

Oil and oil combinations had been tested in a small way as weed 
killers as the things ordinarily used were dangerous to live stock if 
they ate the treated grass or plants. Kerosene, alone, was inefFective 
but a mixture of cheap lubricating or summer black oil, using equal 
parts or 2 or 3 parts kerosene to 1 of black oil, gave promising results. 



250 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Fence rows full of poison ivy, sassafras, and weeds, food plants of the 
beetle were killed or could be set on fire and burned on warm breezy 
afternoons, even two or three days after they were sprayed. 

Fire following the spraying does a clean job, but as oil could not be 
procured after July 1, due to the dry rider on the federal appropriation 
bill holding up available funds for this work, and New Jersey's funds 
for this work being appropriated, contingent to the use of the federal 
funds first, operations were handicapped for several months and oil 
treatment was abandoned. 

A hmited amount of federal funds were available for labor or the 
work would have stopped. 

Dusting all food plants in a band one-half to one mile wide around 
the territory heavily infested by the beetles was begun July 14, and 
continued through July, August, and until September 16. One big 
Niagara dusting machine, pulled by the tractor, was in operation contin- 
uously, weather permitting, and as rain usually fell at night little hin- 
drance was experienced from weather. When one duster went out of 
commission, the other one was pressed into service until the broken 
one could be repaired. 

One hundred pounds of lime was mixed with 15 pounds of dry arsen- 
ate of lead and in a small dust mixing machine. Later, the amount of 
arsenate of lead was increased to 20 pounds to 100 pounds of lime. 

The last few days of the dusting, 24 pounds of arsenate to 100 pounds 
of lime was used as a test on amounts of poison needed. The acreage 
dusted cannot be estimated with any exactness but the total territory 
covered in the dusting operations can be estimated approximately: 

First treatment 4,000-4,500 acres 

Second treatment 4,500-5,000 " 

Third treatment 4,000-4,500 " 

Fourth partial treatment 1,000 

13,500-15,000 " 

Total area dusted, 13,500 to 15,000 acres which includes large tracts 
on which no dusting was done, such as hay fields, pasture lots and 
fields free from food plants of the beetle. 

Difficulty was experienced in dusting the area rapidly enough to keep 
the food plants covered with poison. Weeds grow rapidly and Poly- 
gonum or smartweed and other weeds grow very rapidly during July 
and August. Dead beetles were found under poison-dusted asparagus 
and smartweed at different times throughout the season but in most 
cases, the effective kill was difficult to determine as poisoned beetles 
usually had enough strength left to bury themselves in the ground. 



June, '19] GOODWIN: JAPANESE FLOWER BEETLE 251 

This made them ahnost impossible to find after they had eaten leaves 
of the dusted food plants. 

Hand collecting was practiced throughout the season from July 1 
to mid-September. Average catches for the day varied with the 
locality collected and with weather conditions. Collections made 
largely after 6.30 p. m. from July 5 to July 20 by Mr. Perry and myself 
totalled almost fifty quarts. Collections by the boys employed for 
this purpose and under Mr. Spayd's direction varied considerably, 
but the total season's catch was a little over four bushels of beetles. 
Counts of measured quarts ranged from 4,400 to 5,000 beetles to 
the quart or 150,000 to the bushel. 

Fall treatment of the soil to destroy the larvae by using cyanide of a 
strength of 1 ounce of NaCN in 12 gallons of water began the 16th of 
September, using the Ford and 100 gallon gasoline tank. Some 
momentous events happened preventing me from being on the ground 
during October excepting for a few days during the latter part of the 
month. Under Dr. Headlee's general direction Mr. W. O. Ellis took 
charge of the eradication work during my absence. A two-ton truck 
which had been wanted since June 1 arrived during October and a 600- 
gallon tank was secured and mounted on it, enabling the treating of 
one-third to one-half acre of land per day with sodium cyanide solution 
with this outfit. A street-sprinkling outfit was hired and the tractor 
and sprayer truck and tank was also put into service enabling the 
treating of three-fourths to one acre per day with the entire equipment. 

Approximately seventeen acres of land was treated with the solution 
of sodium cyanide applying 15,000 to 25,000 gallons to the acre. 

This includes the sod or grassy edges of drives, along roads, ditches, 
and several small fields of corn ground and grass land. 

Normal rates of applying this sodium cyanide solution would require 
110 pounds of sodium cyanide to the acre. Some territory treated 
this fall undoubtedly did not receive much over half of this amount per 
acre as the failure to get a kill on some fields indicated. A total of 
eleven acres should have used our entire stock of sodium cyanide, while 
between sixteen and seventeen acres were treated. 

During the latter part of November, we borrowed a gang plow, 
hitched it to the tractor and plowed between seven and eight acres of 
land heavily infested with larvae to determine if possible the effect of 
such treatment on the larvae. These plots of land are of several differ- 
ent types of soil and had been cropped in clover, grass, rye, corn, 
parsley, weeds, and sod along ditches. Most of the ground was plowed 
8 inches deep, but some small plots were plowed 12 to 14 inches deep. 
The 12-20 tractor handled the plows at this depth after four months of 
continuous service in this sandy region. Without this machine we 



252 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

would have been compelled to abandon most of the work planned out 
in the spring, that required the use of horses for power. 

The season's field operations closed with this work but all equipment 
is being overhauled and put in first-class running condition for the 
coming year's work. Also new equipment is being secured for use 
next spring. 

Concerning the actual progress in the eradication of this pest during 
the past summer, I can only say that we have materially reduced the 
numbers there would have been had they been allowed to go on breed- 
ing unhindered. The data for comparison with last season is not 
sufficient as yet to pass judgment. True we have the beetle survey of 
1917 after the 18th of August as made by Mr. ElUs and the beetle 
survey of this season from July 1 to frost. This indicates some spread 
but the survey map of beetle distribution up to August 10th, 1918, 
marks nearly the widest limit of this year's range of distribution insofar 
as I can determine. 

The larval survey of last June will not bear comparison with a 
survey made during October and November, 1918, for according to 
Mr. Ellis larvae were present in the fall of 1917 in considerable numbers 
where none or very few could be found last spring. Furthermore we 
did not make a complete survey of the entire district supposed to be 
infested by the beetle. Not until a thorough larval survey is made 
in the spring of 1919 can a definite statement be made and even then 
seasonal variation may explain many differences. 

Lack of proper and sufficient equipment on the ground in time to 
permit accomplishing more than part of the necessary eradication 
work, together with shortage of expendable funds at the time they were 
most needed, prevented getting the best results — in fact almost blocked 
the season's work. 



VARIATIONS IN THE LENGTH OF THE FLAXSEED 
STAGE OF THE HESSIAN FLY^ 

By James W. McColloch, Associate Entomologist, Kansas Agricultural Experiment 

Station 

A knowledge of the length of the flaxseed stage is of great impor- 
tance in the development of a system of control for Hessian fly. It is 
in this stage that the fly withstands extreme conditions, such as 
excessive heat and drought of summer, and prolonged cold of winter. 
There is relatively little published data on the length of this stage, 

1 Contribution No. 40 from the Entomological Laboratory, Kansas State Agricul- 
tural College. This paper embodies some of the results obtained in the prosecution 
of project No. 8 of the Experiment Station. 



June, '19] McCOLLOCH: HESSIAN FLY FLAXSEEDS 253 

although most of the writers recognize that a great variation exists. 
Enochi (pp. 350-351) reports rearing flies from barley screenings that 
had been held two years in dry surroundings. Marchal,^ in his work 
in France, was able to rear six broods of flies in the course of a year. 
He found that most of these broods were partial and that there was a 
tendency for some of the flaxseed of each generation to hold over until 
a latter generation. He advanced the idea that the species is perpet- 
uated, in spite of the obstacles placed in its way by exterior conditions, 
by the great variability of its biologic C3^cle. Webster (p. 261),' 
quoting from Lindemann, says that the puparia (in Russia) are greatly 
influenced by environment, temperature, etc., and this is probably 
true of the other stages. Flaxseed collected by Lindemann in the 
spring of one year lived over to the spring of the following year. How 
far the number of these interlopers is augmented by a retarded develop- 
ment of greater or less extent it is impossible to say, but that there is an 
accession through this means there can be no doubt. Marlatt (p. 2)* 
states that under exceptional conditions the insect may remain dor- 
mant in the flaxseed state for a year or more and still bring forth the 
adult, a provision of nature which is doubtless intended to prevent the 
accidental extermination of the species. Webster (p. 11)^ says, " Under 
exceptional conditions, such as in a dry room, flaxseed may be kept for 
a year or, even two, but when moistened the flies will soon emerge. 
So in the fields they will, during a drought, remain in the flaxseed state 
for a considerable time after they would appear under normal condi- 
tions, and only appear soon after rains have moistened the soil." 
Numerous other writers make similar statements, but data on actual 
rearings are very meager. 

During the past six years much of the writer's time has been spent 
in a study of the life economy of the Hessian fly under Kansas condi- 
tions. Numerous rearings have been made in the field, in the breeding 
chambers of the air conditioning machine described by Dean and 
Nabours,^ in the field insectary and from fly-infested material collected 



1 Enoch, F. 1891. The Life History of the Hessian Fly, Ceddomyia destntctor, 
Say. Trans. Ent. See, London, for 1891, pp. 329-366. 

'^ Marchal, Paul. 1897. Les Cecidomyia des C6r6ales et leurs Parasites. Ann. 
Soc. Ent. France, Premiere trimestre, 1-105. 

3 Webster, F. M. 1899. The Hessian Fly. Ohio Agri. Exp. Sta., Bui. 107, pp. 
257-288. 

* Marlatt, C. L. 1900. The Hessian Fly. U. S. Dept. Agri., Div. Ent., Cir. 12, 
pp. 1-4. 

•Webster, F. M. 1906. The Hessian Fly. U. S. Dept. Agri., Bur. Ent., Cir. 
70, pp. 1-16. 

' Dean, G. A., and Nabours, R. K. 1915. A New Air Conditioning Apparatus. 
JouRN. EcoN. Ent., 8: 107-111. 



254 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

in the field. It is not the purpose of this paper to go into detail con- 
cerning the experimental work, since it is planned to present the com- 
plete studies in bulletin form at some future time. Certain points, 
especially with regard to the length of the flaxseed stage, seem to be of 
enough importance to warrant publication at this time as they have a 
direct bearing on the control of this insect. 

The results of these studies show that the length of the various 
stages of the Hessian fly are extremely variable and consequently 
there is a great variation in the length of the liffe cycle. The exact 
length of the life cycle has been determined for over 900 individuals 
and the approximate length has been found for 8,500. While varia- 
tions have occurred in each stage (Table 1), the greatest difference has 
been in the flaxseed stage where it has ranged from 7 days to 1,083 
days. The minimum life cycle of 20 days was obtained under a 
constant temperature of 70° and humidity of 70 per cent, while the 
maximum cycle of 42 months was the result of studies in the field in- 
sectary and rearings from infested material kept in emergence boxes. 

Table 1. Showing the Extremes of the Life Cycle 

Stage Maximum Minimum 

Egg 12 days 3 days 

Larva 182 days 9 days 

Flaxseed 1,083 days 7 days 

Adult 6 days 4 hours 

Life cycle 1,283 days 20 days 

In order to determine the length of the flaxseed stage, under field 
conditions, clumps of infested wheat or stubble were collected at all 
seasons of the year from various localities of the state and placed in 
pasteboard rearing boxes. Each box had at least one glass tube into 
which the flies were attracted by the light on emerging. These boxes 
were kept in the field insectary under practically natural temperature 
conditions. The moisture, however, varied from that in the field. 
The material was thoroughly moistened when placed in the boxes. It 
was also moistened three times during each year: (1) in the spring 
when the first spring rains occurred ; (2) in midsummer, and (3) in the 
fall when the fall rains began. Being of pasteboard, the boxes also 
absorbed some of the atmospheric moisture and they were also subject 
to wetting by beating rains. In all, over 150 collections of infested 
material have been under observation, and most of the material has 
been held for at least three years before being discarded. 

While the data obtained in such an experiment can only be approxi- 
mate, it has yielded some very interesting results. The fact that this 



June, '19] 



McCOLLOCH: HESSIAN FLY FLAXSEEDS 



255 



material was collected in the field makes it impossible to know the age 
of the flaxseed at the time they were included in the experiment, and 
the data are, therefore, summarized, in Table 2, to show the number of 
days between collection and emergence. Flies to the number of 7,461 
were reared from this collected material and the average time between 
collection and emergence was 113.2 days, with extremes of 2 days and 
1,083 days. It will be noticed that 5,114 flies, or 68.4 per cent, 
emerged during the first month, and 7,385, or 98.9 per cent, during the 
first year. On the other hand, 1.1 per cent of the flies did not emerge 
until after the first year, although they were subjected to the same 
conditions. If such conditions prevail in the field, and 1 per cent of the 
flaxseed hold over from one to three years, it serves to explain the 
sudden appearance of the fly in some areas where it was thought to be 
eliminated, and it emphasizes the importance of taking care of all 
stubble fields. Experiments are now being conducted to determine 
whether the fly does hold over for such long periods in the field. Thus 
far flies have been reared in fairly large numbers from stubble that has 
stood undisturbed for eighteen months in the field. Living flaxseed 
are still to be found in this stubble, indicating that further emergence 
may occur during the spring of 1919. 

Table 2. Showing the Period Between Collection and Emergence of Flies 



Days After 


No. Flies 


Collection 


Emerging 


1- 29 


5,114 


30- 59 


399 


60- 89 


78 


90-119 


525 


120-149 


268 


150-179 


571 


180-209 


106 


210-239 


21 


240-269 


2 


270-299 


32 


300-329 


191 


330-359 


78 


360-389 


15 



Days After 


No. Flies 


Collection 


Emerging 


390-419 


1 


420-449 


2 


450-479 


3 


480-509 


14 


510-539 


15 


540-569 





570-599 


1 


600-629 





630-659 


9 


660-689 


3 


690-719 


6 


720-809 





810-839 


6 


1,083 


1 




Total 7,461 



Note: On May 7, 1919, the writer reared a female Hessian fly from a clump of 
wheat collected May 8, 1915. Allowing approximately a month for the flj- to reach 
the flaxseed stage, this gives a life cycle of at least 49 months. 



256 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

DOES BORDEAUX MIXTURE REPEL THE POTATO 
LEAFHOPPER? 

By Charles L. Fluke, Jr., University of Wisconsin 

At various times in the past the attention of our entomologists has 
been called to serious outbreaks of the potato leafhopper and for many- 
years a more or less serious trouble has occurred on potatoes known as 
tip burn. A serious outbreak of the latter trouble appeared through- 
out a part of the country in 1918. This trouble happened in Wisconsin 
to such an extent as to decrease the potato crop at least 25 per cent. 
The potato leafhopper was also extremely abundant and observations 
have shown that the burning was always worse in the presence of a 
notable number of leafhoppers. It then became easy to associate the 
tip burn injury of this year with the leafhoppers and many observa- 
tions were made in this connection. While carrying on experiments 
with Bordeaux mixture in combination with certain arsenicals for the 
control of the potato beetle, it was noticed that the plants sprayed 
with Bordeaux mixture were abnormally free from tip burn. Observa- 
tions made at the time also showed that the leafhoppers were not abun- 
dant on these plants. Thirty plots in all were used in a series to test 
out various insecticides on Early Triumphs and Rural New Yorkers. 

The first application of spray was put on July 10 at which time the 
plants were in good condition to show the effect of the insecticides. 
No curling or darkening of the leaves was apparent at this time, and 
it happened that only one plot of Early Triumphs received a Bordeaux 
combination spray. The other plots on which Bordeaux combinations 
were used were late potatoes. Daily observations were carried on to 
note the effect of these sprays on the foliage. Three days afterward 
(July 13) a peculiar darkening, not a drying, of the edges and tips of 
the leaves of the early potatoes was noticed on some of the plots which 
at first appeared to be due to the action of the spray until it was noticed 
that this also occurred on the check plots. At the same time consider- 
able curling of the leaves was also observed. A few days later the 
characteristic burning of the leaves appeared on most of the Triumph 
plots. The only one which showed very little of the browning was one 
plot of four rows sprayed with zinc arsenite plus Bordeaux mixture 
4-4-50. On July 23 a careful examination of the vines revealed the 
fact that the leafhoppers were extremely numerous wherever the tip 
burn was evident. On the above mentioned Bordeaux zinc plot the 
number of hoppers was comparatively smaller. It was plainly evident 
that the leafhoppers were very likely the cause of the tip burning and 
also that Bordeaux mixture had some repellent effect upon the hoppers. 
The counts were made on July 31 and August 1. The leafhoppers were 
more abundant on the sprayed plants in the rows next to those 



June, '19] 



FLUKE: BORDEAUX AND POTATO LEAF HOPPER 



257 



unsprayed, than they were on sprayed plants which were at least six 
or eight feet away from the check plots. 

It should be noted that by August first the check plants of the Early 
potatoes were in an advanced stage of tip burn while the Bordeaux 
zinc plot was still healthy with but little tip burning. This plot held 
up from a week to two weeks longer than the others. When the counts 
were made the hoppers on these plants were nearly all in the first 
instar. Of the late varieties there was a decided difference in appear- 
ance between the checks and those receiving Bordeaux mixture, the 
latter vines appearing much healthier. Tip burn appeared in a greater 
or less degree on all the plants but showed most on the early checks. 
In all cases the plants sprayed with Bordeaux mixture were healthier 
and gave higher yields than did the checks or those receiving Black 
Leaf 40. The nicotine sulfate, however, failed to kill the leafhoppers 
due mostly to the curling of the leaves. Further experimentation is 
needed to prove the repelling action of Bordeaux on the leafhoppers 
but these few observations are given to show future possibilities. 

SpRiT Tests Against the Potato Leaphopper, 1918 



Plot 


Insecticide 


Material 
Added 


Date of 
Appli- 
cation 


Variety 


Counts 


Results 


No. 


Name 


Rate 


Name 


Rate 


Nymphs 


Adults 


Total 
Hoppers 


General Results Remarks 


6a 


Bordeaux 


4-4- 
50 


Calcium 
arsenate 


2i-50 


July 10 

and 
July 27 


Late 
Rurals 


162 


7 


169 


Very little tip 
burning until 
late in season 


Plant 3 feet 
from 
checks 


6b 


" 


" 


■' 






" 


82 


3 


85 




Plant 20 feet 
from 
checks 


13a 






Zinc ar- 
senite 






Early 
Triumphs 


175 


2 


177 


July 25 — In 
much better 
conditionthan 
checks. Aug. 
1 beginning 
to show tip 
burn 


Hoppers near- 
ly all just 
hatched. 
Next to 
check 


13b 


■• 


" 


" 


•■ 


" 


'■ 


28 


8 


36 




6 feet from 
checks 


22 


" 


" 


Lead 
arsenate 


'• 


July 24 


" 


9 





9 


Spray applied 
late still in 
better condi- 
tion Aug. 1 
than plot 21 


Next to plot 
21 


21 


Black Leaf 
40 


23cc. 
to 5 
gals. 


" 


" 


•• 


•• 


335 


35 


370 


B. L. 40 killed 
very few hop- 
pers due to 
curled leaves 


Next to plot 
22. Tip 
burn severe 


30 


Check 










Rurals 


421 


47 


468 


Tip burn ap- 
peared al)out 
Aug. 1-5 


3 feet from 
earlj- 
potatoes 


31 


•• 










•■ 


177 


19 


196 


20 feet from 

early 
' potatoes 


32 












Early 
Triumphs 


406 


46 


542 


All died early 


Next to 
sprayed 
vines 


33 


•• 










•■ 


260 


35 


295 




S feet from 
siirayed 
vines 



Total hoppers counted on 5 sprayed plants 476 

Total hoppers counted on 5 unapraycd plants I>71 



258 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 



NOTES ON LEPIDOPTEROUS BORERS FOUND IN PLANTS, 

WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE EUROPEAN 

CORN BORER 

By Edna Mosher 

The advent of the European corn borer, with its tremendous possi- 
bilities for injury if ever introduced into the great corn-growing states, 
has caused us to become much more concerned about the identity of 
the various caterpillars found feeding inside the parts of plants. The 
identity of the plant gives little help in this connection, since the corn 
borer has a very wide range of food plants and seems anxious to add to 
the list of those already known. Since lepidopterous larvae vary 
considerably in their different stages as to colors and color patterns, 
and there are many with black or brown prothoracic shields and similar 
colors at the bases of the setae, it is necessary to go farther than this in 
their identification. Easy keys are not available for the identification 
of such species and this paper is offered in the hope that it may aid 
field workers and others to be reasonably certain whether or not they 
have found the European corn borer. Of course the matter would be 
greatly simplified if we could include all the known species of borers in 
this country, but since material for such a study is now impossible to 
obtain, let us hope that our search for corn borers will bring to light, 
not only species hitherto described, but new life histories as well. It 
is appalling to think how little we know of the life histories, parasites, 
etc., of this single genus Pyrausta, whose one renegade member is 
costing us, not only great amounts of money but a great deal of time 
and anxiety as well. 

Classification of Borers 

Lepidopterous borers, in the main, belong to a few families. Nearly 
all of the species are provided with five pairs of prolegs, four abdominal 
and one anal, and these are armed with chitinous hooks or crochets. 
When these are absent the adfrontal area (Fig. 13, no. 29, adj.) and the 
median spine-like spinneret on the labium will distinguish them from 
larvae of any other order. This paper does not include leaf-miners, 
borers in woody plants, or gall-making species. 

The character found most reliable so far in the determination of 
lepidopterous larvae is the arrangement of setae on the various body 
segments. Some other characters have been used, and it seems quite 
possible that there are others available. In separating the families 
mentioned here, the arrangement of setae on the prothorax and of the 
hooks on the prolegs are sufficient for the majority of cases. The 



June, '19] MOSHER: EUROPEAN CORN AND OTHER BORERS 259 

prothorax nearly always has a chitinized shield on the dorsum which, 
in most species, does not extend as far ventrad as the spiracle. This 
area of the thorax properly has six setse on each side, two of these, one 
cephalic (seta I) and one caudal (seta II) are usually quite near the 
median line. The figures show the left side of the prothorax from the 
median line of the dorsum to that of the venter. Beside these dorsal 
setae is a group found nearly always between the spiracle and the 
cephalic margin of the segment, but sometimes a little ventrad of the 
spiracle. Farther ventrad is a group, usually of two setse, between 
the spiracular group and the coxa. Near the coxae, usually between 
them and the median line of the venter, is one, or possibly two setae, on 
each side. 

The following families may be found in searching for corn borers: 

a Prolegs may be represented by swellings but hooks are never present; thoracic 

legs may or may not be present; setal arrangement never as in Fig. 11, no. 

13. Prodoxidce 

aa Prolegs, or at least crochets, nearly always present, if not, setal arrangement as 

in Fig. 11, no. 13. (See Gelechiidse.) 

b A group of three setiE in front of the thoracic spiracle. 

c Prolegs with one complete circle of large hooks and numerous irregular rows 

of very small ones (Fig. 11, no. 2) Acrolo phidoe 

cc Prolegs never with the small hooks as in Fig. 11, no. 2 and never with more 
than three rows. 
d Hooks of prolegs arranged in two bands, one on each side of the proleg 

(Fig. 11, no. 6) jEgeriidce 

dd Hooks of prolegs arranged in a complete circle (sometimes absent in 

Gelechiidse). 

e Of the four setae nearest the median line on the dorsum of the ninth 

abdominal segment, the caudal two (setae II) are closer together than on 

any other segment (Fig. 11, nos. 9, 10) ; body usually not tapering at the 

caudal end nor sharply constricted between segments Tortricidae 

ee The four setaj on the dorsum not varying greatly in arrangement on the 
ninth abdominal segment; body usually tapering at the caudal 

end and often strongly constricted between segments 



CEcopfioridcB 

bb With two setse in front of, or occasionally shghtly below, the thoracic spiracle; 

one of the setse often very weak or small so that it is not easily located. 

c Hooks of prolegs arranged in a complete circle or one nearly complete (Fig. 

12, nos. If), 17, 25), never with a single row on the mesal margin. .Pi/ralidvE 

cc Hooks of prolegs in a single row or band along the mesal margin (Fig. 14, 

nos. 37. 42) Xocluidoe 

Prodoiida'. — The larvie of this family are found only in Yuccms ;in(l 
are only likely to be confused with tlujse Gelechiidie which lack prolegs. 
The setal and ocellar arrangement should be enough to distingui.'sh 
them and no •rclcchiid borer has been described from Yucca. 



260 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 



[Vol. 12 



-, ^ 




.^ 




^ y'o 






s 




Fig. 11. 1, AcrolophidiB, Acrolophus mortipennellus, setal map of prothorax; 
2, proleg of same; 3, ocellar arrangement; 4, Aegeriidse, Melittia satyriniformis, setal 
map of prothorax; 5, eighth and ninth abdominal segments; 6, proleg; 7, oceUar 
arrangement; 8, Tortricidse, Eucosmasp.?, setal map of prothorax; 9, ninth abdom- 
inal segment; 10, Caccecia sp., eighth and ninth abdominal segments; 11, proleg; 12, 
ocellar arrangement; 13, Gelechiidse, Metzneria lappella, setal map of prothorax; 14, 
proleg of unnamed species. 



Acrolophidcc. — These are not true borers but have been taken in the 
bases of corn stalks while searching for Crambids. These larvae are 
often picked up in fields in the fall while they are searching for a place 
to hibernate. Of the three species listed in the twenty-third IlHnois 
report, one is much more common than the others, Acrolophus arca- 
nellus {Pseudanaphora arcanella) (Fig. 11, nos. 1-3). The prothoracic 



June, '19] MOSHER: EUROPEAN CORN AND OTHER BORERS 261 

shield is very heavily chitinized on all these species and extends ventrad 
to include the spiracular group of setse. The ocellar arrangement 
is also distinctive. 

Aegeriidce. — The only species of this family to be included here is 
Melittia satyriniformis, the squash-vine borer. The arrangement of 
hooks on the prolegs is distinctive (Fig. 11, no. 6) but figures of the pro- 
thorax, ocellar group and eight and ninth abdominal segments (Fig. 11, 
nos. 4, 5, 7) are given as a contrast to the Tortricidse, to which this 
family is closely related. 

Tortricidce. — Several species of this family have been reported from 
various seeds and seed pods. The commonest genus found boring in 
stems is Eucosma, some members of which form galls. I have several 
species of this family which are as yet unidentified and figures of one of 
these from ragweed, which may be a species of Eucosma, are given. 
These (Fig. 11, nos. 8, 9) show the characteristic tortricid arrangement 
of setse on the prothorax, also on the ninth abdominal segment. 
Another type of arrangement of the setiE on the ninth segment is shown 
in Fig. 11, no. 10. The ocellar arrangement (Fig. 11, no. 12) has been 
fairly constant in the species studied. The hooks on the prolegs are 
usually of two sizes but Fracker (lUinois Biological Monographs, Vol. 2, 
No. 1) states that in some Tortricids they are all of one size. 

Gelechiidce. — The majority of the larvae of this family which live 
in plant stems form galls, and may be identified by Dr. Felt's 
excellent paper (N. Y. S. M. Bui. 200). The potato tuber moth, 
Phthorimaea operculella, is one which does not form galls, and an 
unidentified species of this genus has been taken many times in stems 
of giant ragweed and Silphium. Metzneria lapella, found in the fruits 
of burdock, and Sitotroga cerealella, the Angouraois grain moth, illus- 
trate the type of gelechiid in which the prolegs are absent. The 
arrangement of setse (Fig. 11, no. 13) will distinguish these larva? from 
all others with the hooks of the prolegs arranged in a circle. Most of the 
boring species examined had hooks of one size (Fig. 11, no. 14) but many 
species in the familj^ have them hke the tortricids (Fig. 11, no. 11). 

(Ecophoridoe. — The commonest member of this family is the parsnip 
webworm, Depressaria heracliana, which, after feeding in the flower 
heads and among the seeds of various UmbeUifera?, and causing a 
characteristic webbing of the umbel, bores down into the stalk and 
pupates. The larvae are true gelechiids, and were at one time included 
with them. Fracker remarks that "no satisfactory character has 
been found to separate them" and uses the arrangement of the ocelli 
which ho finds unsatisfactory. The setal arrangomont of D. hcracliaiia 
is like that of tlie gelechiids (Fig. 11. no. 13) but it has prolog hooks of 
three sizes. It is yellow with black spots around the setir, and tho 

3 



262 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

abdominal segments show clear spaces much like Pyrausta penitalis 
(Fig. 13; no. 28, 6). 

Pyralidce. — This family contains many injurious pests and among 
them several well-known borers. The larvae are distinguished by the 
two setae in front of the prothoracic spiracle, or slightly below it 
(Fig. 12, nos. 15, 18, 24) and the arrangement of hooks on the prolegs 
(Fig. 12, nos. 16, 21, 25) which are nearly always of three sizes, arranged 
in a complete circle, or in a broken circle, open at the lateral margin. 
In three of the subfamilies, Phycitinae, Crambinse and Pyraustinae, are 
species with the boring habit. There is considerable individual varia- 
tion in nearly all the species of this family making the classification 
exceedingly difficult. It will be impossible to make anything like a. 
good classification, until a larger number of species have been reared. 
The following key will separate the principal genera. 

a Hooks of prolegs arranged in a complete circle and of three sizes (Fig. 12, no. 16) 
6 Adfrontal pieces reaching the vertical triangle (see Fig. 13, no. 29) which is very- 
large ; eight setse present on each half of the ninth abdominal segment and 

not arranged in a straight hne Elasmopalpus 

bb Adfrontal pieces not reaching the vertical triangle, which is of normal size; 
six setse present on each half of the ninth abdominal segment, arranged 
in a straight line, 
c Spiracular setse always below the level of the thoracic spiracle (Fig. 12, 
no. 18) ; body never with skin sculpturing, as in Fig. 13, nos. 33, 34, but 
smooth, nor with a chitinized spot caudad of the spiracle on each 
proleg-bearing segment (see Fig. 13, no. 28, s. p.) body always with 

prominent black or brown spots around the setse Diatraea 

cc Spiracular setse seldom below the level of the thoracic spiracle (Fig. 12, no. 15), 
usually at least one of them in front of it, if both are below the level of 
the spiracle then there is a very distinct chitinized mark caudad of the 
spiracle on each proleg-bearing segment; skin often with sculpturing as 

in Fig. 14, no. 33 Crambus 

aa Hooks of prolegs not arranged in a complete circle (Fig. 13, nos. 21, 25) 

b Set« of prothorax and ocelh arranged as Fig. 13, nos. 20, 22; thorax distinctly- 
narrowed towards the head, which is comparatively small Diaphania 

bb Setse of prothorax and ocelli arranged as in Fig. 12, nos. 24, 26; thoracic seg- 
ments of approximately the same width ; head of normal size .... Pyrausta 

Phycitince, — The only member of this family likely to be met is 
Elasmopalpus lignosellus, the lesser cornstalk-borer. It is easily 
distinguished by the character given in the key, also by the peculiar 
striped and banded appearance. One of the setae on the lateral sur- 
face of the ninth abdominal segment is small and weak and should not 
be overlooked. Etiella zinckenella, reported as boring in beans in the 
west, belongs here, but is comparatively rare. Another borer in the 
stems of beans, Monoptilota nubilella, forms galls, and is not considered 
here. 



June, '19] 



MOSHER: EUROPEAN CORN AND OTHER BORERS 



263 




N ^' 












f- 


18 







}S^i^4 



22 ^^°^6 



\r. 



25 




Fig. 12. 15, Pyralidae, Crambus sp., setal map of prothorax; 16, proleg;'i 17, 
ocellar arrangement; 18, Diatroea zeacolella, setal map of prothorax; 19, tenth 
abdominal segment; 20, Diaphania nitidalis, setal map of prothorax; 21, proleg; 22, 
ocellar arrangement; 23, tenth abdominal segment; 24, Pyratista nvbilalis, setal map 
of prothorax; 25, proleg; 26, ocellar arrangement. 

CramhinoE. — Many members of this subfamily resemble certain 
Pyraustinae in many characters. The ocellar arrangement (Fig. 12, 
no. 26) and that of the setae on the tenth abdominal segment (Fig. 12, 
no. 19) seem to be very constant characters, as well as those given in 
the key. Fracker states that some Crambids have the proleg hooks 
arranged in a broken circle like Pyransta (Fig. 12, no. 25) but of two 
sizes instead of three. None of these have been found among the 
species under observation. In this subfamily the genus Crambus has 
a few species which are borers, and the genus Diatrsea has two, the 
larger cornstalk-boror, D. zencokUa, and the sugar-cane moth borer 
D. saccharalis cramboides. Out of the largo genus Crambus only four 
named species, vulgivagellus, trisectus, leachellus, and hortnelhts, 



264 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

were available and a considerable number of unnamed species. Each 
of these species could easily be separated from either of the species 
of Diatrcca but genus characters are hard to find, owing to the great 
differences between some of the species, which seemed greater than 
those between certain of the species and Diatrcea. In addition to the 
characters given in the key, there are certain cuticular markings, which 
may indicate sensory pores, that are always found in Crambus and 
never in Diatraea. On the chitinized area in front of the thoracic 
spiracle bearing the setse, all Crambus species have certain markings, 
sometimes dark as in Fig. 12, no. 15, or at other times light, and some- 
what transparent in appearance. Nearly all the species examined had 
the darkly chitinized spot caudad of the spiracle on the proleg-bearing 
segments much as those in Pyrausta (Fig. 13, nos. 27, 28, s. p.). On 
these same segments, and sometimes on others, a small circular or 
oval area was always found mesad of setae I. Similar markings are 
also found in Pyrausta (Fig. 13, nos. 27, 28), but always dark-colored; 
while those in Crambus are generalh" pale. 

Pyraustinoo.—lii addition to the characters given in the key this 
subfamily may be distinguished by the arrangement of setae on the 
tenth abdominal segment (Fig. 12, no. 23), and the different arrange- 
ment of the ocelli (Fig. 12, no. 22, 26). Specimens of the genus Phlyc- 
tcenia, which sometimes bores into stalks of celery, have not yet come 
to hand, so this genus is reluctantly omitted. Diaphania nitidalis, the 
pickle worm, and other species of the genus may easily be separated by 
means of the key and Fig. 12, nos. 20-22. Out of six species of Pyrausta 
examined, four of them namely — nuhilalis, penitalis, illihalis and 
futilalis — only two seem very closely related, P. nubilaUs, the European 
corn borer, and P. penitalis, a borer in Polygonum and other weeds. 
Specimens from the lUinois State Natural History Survey labeled P. 
nelumbialis, now a synonym for penitalis, do not resemble other material 
of this species. They are considerably larger, fully one-third longer, 
with much finer skin sculpturing, the spiracles more than twice as 
large, and no trace of certain minute setae found on both penitalis and 
nubilalis. This species varied from other species studied by the 
characteristic skin sculpturing shown in Fig. 13, nos. 33 and 34. This 
is considerably coarser in penitalis. The two species, penitalis and 
nubilalis, are so closely related that they are very difficult to separate. 
Since penitalis occurs in the region infested by the corn borer, and 
also infests corn, it is important to be able to separate them. 

One of the easiest characters is the chitinized shield of the tenth 
abdominal segment, which is usually truncate along the anterior 
margin in penitalis, as in Fig. 13, no. 32, and with a rounded projection 
at thecephalo-lateral angle but this character is not reliable, since many 



June, '19] MOSHER: EUROPEAN CORN AND OTHER BORERS 265 

individuals show it with an emargination as in nubilalis (Fig. 13, no. 31) 
and less often with the sharper eephalo-lateral angle usually found in 
that species. The anterior dorsal setae (setse I) on the eight abdominal 
segments are, like most of the setse, situated on dark tubercles which 
are often almost contiguous in genitalis, separated by a distance usually 
much less than the width of the tubercle, while the distance is usually 
much greater in nubilalis, but these vary somewhat. Another useful 
character, if its variations could be well described are the clear areas 
of the abdominal segments. These are shown contrasted in Fig. 13, 
nos. 27 and 28 and again in Fig. 13, nos. 31 and 32. These are always 
very distinct on each side of the median line on abdominal segments 
2-8 in penitalis, each space oval, and nearly every space well bounded 
and separated from the next one, so as to give a row of them a distinctly 
moniliform appearance. Segments 3-7 usually show these rows of 
spaces divided into two sections, near the middle of the row, the space 
between varying in different segments (Fig. 13, no. 28). While these 
spaces may vary slightly as to number or degree of separation between 
individual spaces, there is a remarkable uniformity in all the segments. 
This is never true in nubilalis. After studying a large series of speci- 
mens, nothing approaching the regularity of penitalis was discovered. 
This species seldom shows anything but an irregular clear strip, but 
occasionally the spaces on one or two segments will seem to be quite dis- 
tinct, but this arrangement will be different on other segments. The 
arrangement of spaces in nubilalis is shown in Fig. 13, no. 27 and they 
are seldom more distinct. When a skin is cleared and mounted the 
clear spaces in penitalis remain unchanged, while the nearest approach 
to this arrangement in nubilalis showed only a clear band, with no 
subdivision into individual spaces. There is a prominent furrow cau- 
dad of the anterior tubercles in penitalis, ending at the sensory pore. 
In nubilalis there are many more clear spaces in this location. 

The setal arrangement on the head varies in the two species. The 
anterior setae and punctures (ant. 1, 2 ant. P) have a very constant 
arrangement. In penitalis (Fig. 13, no. 30) they are not in Une, the 
second seta being farther laterad than the first seta and the puncture. 
In nubilalis the setae and puncture are nearly in line, with the puncture 
a little laterad. The adfrontal setie and punctures offer some help 
in determination, their position in penitalis being fairly constant, with 
the second adfrontal always below seta P (Fig. 13, no. 30). The setae 
in nubilalis are more variable in their arrangement, being sometimes 
much like penitalis with the second adfrontal ()j)posite seta P, rarely 
below it. In many individuals they are as far dorsad as in Fig. 13, no. 
29 which represents the extreme in that direction. 

The skin sculpturing is of some iielp, Ix'ing a|)iKir(>ntly very constant 



266 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 



[Vol. 12 



i 










^^- -^--'•v- 




q> 


27 


28 









. 33 




Fig. 13. Comparison of structures, Pyrausta nubilalis and P. penitalis. 27, P. 
nubilalis, left side, dorsum fourth aHdominal segment, /, seta I; // seta II; b, clear 
spaces; s, spiracle; s. p., sensory pore?; 28, same segment, P. penitalis; 29, P. 
nubilalis, cephalic aspect of head, adf. adfrontal area; adf. I, adf. II, adfrontal setse; 
ad/, p. adfrontal puncture; P, large seta of epicranium; aw<. i,-ow(. .^, anterior setae; 
ant. p., anterior puncture; v. t., vertical triangle; 30, P. penitalis, cephaUc aspect 
of head; 31, P. nubilalis, abdominal segments, 8-10; 32, P. penitalis, same segments; 
33, P. nubilalis, skin sculpturing, upper half from between setse of dorsum, fourth 
abdominal segment; lower, from below spiracle; 34, P. penitalis, skin sculpturing 
from same locations; 35, sensory pores? enlarged. 



June, '19] MOSHER: EUROPEAN CORN AND OTHER BORERS 267 

in penitalis as shown in Fig. 13, no. 34. In a very few instances the 
arrangement in nuhilalis was found to approach that of -penitalis, but 
the majority of cases showed the sculpturing as in Fig. 13, no. 32. 

The sensory pores (Fig. 13, no. 35 s. p.) are usually more elongate in 
nuhilalis, but vary in the two species. 

The remaining species either had conspicuous black or brown spots 
around the bases of the setse, as in P. futilalis and P. ilUbalis, or very 
pale yellowish ones. None of these had the chitinized marks (sensory 
pores) caudad of the spiracles on the proleg-bearing segments as in the 
previous group. P. futilalis has very large hooks on the prolegs and 
these extend around about two-thirds of the circumference. The 
labrum is more deeply notched than any of the others and the spiracles 
are decidedly oblong, edged with a prominent black chitinous ring. 
The full-grown larvae average 25 mm. in length. P. illihalis is distin- 
guished by the ver}' small prolegs often with black tips. These bear 
very much smaller hooks than any of the others and when these are 
retracted the end of the proleg outside the hooks is seen to be covered 
with minute spines. The labrum is notched like futilalis but edged 
with a band of black. The spiracles are nearly circular with a narrow 
pale brown ring. The average length of a mature larva is 20 mm. 

Noctuidw. — There are quite a number of noctuid borers and all easily 
recognized by the characters given in the key. Several species of 
this family, such as Arza77ia obliqua and Nonagria ohlonga, which 
normally bore in the stalks of the cat-tail, have been reported from 
corn. Other noctuid borers are the iris borer, Macronoctna onusta, 
certain species of Hadena reported from corn, Chloridea virescens 
which attacks tobacco, etc. Of all the species of noctuid borers, there 
were only available, Papaipema nitela, the common stalk borer, P. 
furcata, P. nehris, and P. cataphracta, Heliothis ohsoleta, the corn ear 
worm and Achatodes zeoj, the spindle worm. These genera may be 
easily separated by the figures given of each. The stripes on P. nitela, 
the commonest borer, are not always very distinct, especially in the 
younger stages. The sixth seta on the shield (Fig. 14, no. 43 a) and the 
second spiracular (Fig. 14, no. 43 6) are usuallj^ very weak or wanting. 
This genus has been carefully studied by Mr. Henry Bird who has 
written descriptions of many species of larvae. H. ohsoleta often bores in 
stalks and the young stages look considerably like the European corn 
borer, and has been found in stalks infested by thorn. The skin 
sculpturing (Fig. 14, no. 39) is distinctive, no matter what the coloration. 
It consists of large spiny cuticular appendages, with alternating small 
spines, while minute ones fill up the spaces. Achatodes zea is always 
white with small black spots around the setse, and the most easily 
recognized of all the noctuid borers. It is found in a variety of plants 



268 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 



[Vol. 12 




\ 




/ / 


/ 






V 







/\ 


P 




A 


31 


_43 



41 1^ 
39 ^2 



O 
O 



44 45 



Fig. 14. 36, Noctuidffi, Heliothis obsolete, setal map of prothorax; 37, proleg; 
38, tarsal claw; 39, skin sculpture; 40, Achatodes zeoe, setal map of prothorax; 41, 
tarsal claw; 42, proleg; 43, Papaipema nitela, setal map of prothorax; 44, oceUar 
arrangement, typical of Noctuidse; 45, tarsal claw. 



and when mature averages 35 mm. The prothoracic gland is found in 
all of these noctuids, the slit where it is everted is represented in Fig. 
14, nos. 36, 40, 43 g. 

I am greatly indebted to the following persons for loans and gifts of 
material and some of them have given valuable suggestions : Dr. E. P. 
Felt, Dr. W. E. Britton, Dr. Edith M. Patch, Dr. H. Garman, Mr. 
D. J. Caffrey, Mr. George G. Ainslie, Mr. C. P. Alexander, Mr. Henry 
Bird, Mr. Philip Luginbill and Mr. T. H. Parks. 



June, '19] SCIENTIFIC NOTES 269 

Scientific Notes 

Notes on Some Insect Pests of Costa Rica. During the latter part of February 
and March of this year, while in Costa Rica for a vacation, a few observations were 
made of the insect pests of that country. As the most serious of the pests do not as 
yet occur in the United States, a few notes on them will be of more than casual 
interest. 

The most important "find" was, no doubt, the "mosca prieta" or spiny citrus 
whitefly {Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby). It was very abundant on citrus of various 
species at Limon and at all the stations of the Northern Railroad as far as Peralta. 
At Cartago, at an elevation about one mile, it was not found. The degree of infesta- 
tion was worse than it is in the Canal Zone. The trees were so heavily infested as 
to be readily noticeable from the car windows. This whitefly occurs probably all 
through Central America and tropical South America, particularly along the Atlantic 
seaboard. From questions asked of the customs and port authorities, and from actual 
observations, it would appear that this insect gained access to Costa Rica from small 
sailing vessels coming from San Andres and other islands of the Caribbean. It seems 
to be an inborn custom of the islanders to carry potted plants wherever they go. 
Thus far fifty-two hosts, representing twentj^-six families of plants, have been recorded 
for A. woglumi, among them being the various species of citrus, mango, star-apple, 
cashew apple (maraiion), papaya, chirimoya, mamei, plantain, and coffee. 

The purple scale, Lepidosaphes beckii Newm., and sooty mould were extremely 
abundant on both leaves and fruit of citrus. 

Another bad pest was the Hawaiian sugar-cane borer, Rhabdocnemis obscurus 
Bois. It was exceedingly abundant at Zent, C. R., in banana stumps and cuttings. 
As many as forty adults were taken out of a small piece of stalk about a foot long. 
Dr. W. D. Pierce, in his Manual of Dangerous Insects, cites the following hosts for 
this weevil: banana, sugar-cane, cocoanut, sago palm, royal palm, wine palm, and 
papyrus. The important observation here was a few adults were found crawling on 
the leaves of banana, showing that this serious pest can very easily be introduced 
into the United States among the banana leaves used as packing for fruit on boats 
calhng at New Orleans. 

At Limon, and awaiting boats for shipment to the United States, were about a 
hundred flat cars loaded with Balsa logs, and, from data obtained, these were here 
from one to four weeks. Under the bark of these logs were found a number of lepi- 
dopterous larva; and pupa;. The great majority of the logs were infested with 
several species of borers, specimens of which have been sent to the Bureau of Ento- 
mology for identification. These borers were very active and abundant. As the 
determinations are lacking at present writing, it is impossible to say whether they 
are already present in the United States. However, the degree of infestation and 
the ease with which such logs can enter the United States, makes the introduction 
of such pests a certainty, and it is time to paj' attention to the possibilities of this 
source of danger. Otherwise many new and dangerous pests will unquestionably be 
added to our already large list of insect-immigrants. 

James Zetek, Ancon, Canal Zom\ 

A Source of Confusion in the Diagnosis of Nosema apis in Adult Bees. In March, 
1917, the writer received for diagnosis from Cabarrus County, North Carolina (Sam- 
ples Nos. 5324 and 532.5), a .sample of dead bees and two l>rood frames containing 
honey, pollen and a few dead bees with heads in cells. The.se frames were from the 
colony from which the dead l)ees had been taken, the colony having shown marked 
syujptoms of dysentery earlier in the spa-^^on with many bees dying. .Microi^copic 
examination of the large intestines from .•^mcnil of the dead bees macerated in salt 



270 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

solution showed large numbers of highly refractile oval bodies strongly resembling 
the spores of Nosema apis, the microsporidian parasite sometimes associated with 
adult diseases of bees. 

To determine whether any of these spore-like bodies might be present in the honey 
of the colony from which the dead bees were taken, several square inches of comb, 
containing sealed cells of honey but no apparent pollen cells, were cut from the frames 
and the honey was squeezed therefrom through cheesecloth. This honey was a clear 
dark amber color having a peculiar somewhat bitter flavor and a disagreeable odor. 
On standing a yellow scum came to the surface, containing a large amount of pollen. 

Several grams of this honey were dissolved in about 30 cc. of distilled water and 
centrifuged. Microscopic examination of the residue under a cover glass in a water 
mount and with the high power dry lens, showed what was apparently a large number 
of Nosema apis spores and also many unidentified pollen grains of various shapes, 
large round ones predominating however. After accidentally crushing some of these 
pollen grains under the cover glass it was found that several of the large round fairly 
smooth grains seemed to be packed full to overflowing with these refractile spore-like 
bodies. Also the microscopic field had become crowded with countless numbers of 
these bodies. 

A second lot of honey was treated in the same manner, only this time the residue 
was washed several times with salt solution. Microscopic examination showed the 
same appearance particularly after crushing with the cover glass. 

Next, pollen from cells in the comb from which the honey had been taken was 
examined in a water mount in the same manner. These same spore-like bodies were 
found to be present only in much smaller numbers until the pollen grains were crushed 
as before when the spore-like bodies again appeared in large numbers. 

Pollen grains from combs taken at random from several different sources were 
then examined but no such appearance was found in any of the samples examined. 

Stained smears from the intestinal contents of the dead bees and also from the 
residue after centrifuging the diluted honey gave no results as these bodies seemed 
to have disappeared or been destroyed during the process of staining. Finally, some 
Gram's iodine solution was run in under the cover glass of a water mount of some of 
this material. Almost immediately these spore-hke bodies turned a deep purple 
color and the pollen grains containing them turned almost black giving what appeared 
to be a typical starch reaction. It was then found, aided by the kindness of the pollen 
laboratory of the H. K. Mulford Company of Glen Olden, Pa., that these pollen 
grains were from corn and that although this is the most striking example of the 
presence of starch granules in pollen grains, most of the cereal grains show the same 
condition, but they are not found in pollen of other families. 

These starch grains upon measurement and comparison with the size and appear- 
ance of the actual Nosema apis spores were found to have just about the same meas- 
ui'ements and shape although the shape of starch grains was a little more variable, 
often being more nearly round than the t^-pical long oval. 

Furthermore, it has been found experimentally that such materials as starch and 
dextrin are indigestible to bees, causing what might be called acute indigestion or 
auto-intoxication. Therefore, the presence of so much indigestible starch in the 
pollen food of the bees was probably a contributory factor if not the actual cause of 
the dysentery and death of so many of the adult bees in this particular instance cited. 

Starch granules have since been found in a few samples received for examination. 
Therefore, it has since then been the custom after making a preliminary microscopic 
examination, to treat with iodine solution in the above manner all material from 
samples sent in for diagnosis of adult diseases, in order to prevent possible future 
confusion. This precaution should be taken in all such examinations. 

Arnold P. Sturtevant, Bureau of Entomology. 



June, '19] SCIENTIFIC NOTES 271 

A Note on Temperature in Relation to Sciara coprophila Lintner. In the winter 
of 1918 an outbreak of Sciara coprophila Lintner interfered with an experiment in 
which Dr. W. H. Burkholder of the Department of Plant Pathology of Cornell 
University was testing the growth of beans at three constant temperatures. The 
experiment was carried on in three parts, one at a temperature of 91° F., another at 
76° F. and a third at 60 to 65° F. The moisture content of the pots was kept 
uniform by the use of Livingston auto irrigation. The beans grown in soil at a 
temperature of 91° were uninjured, but those growing in earth at 76° were seriously 
damaged while some at the lower temperatures of 60° to 65° were slightly attacked. 
The air temperature of the greenhouse varied between 70° and 80° F. 

To regulate the evaporation, the pots in which the beans were planted were cov- 
ered with paraffine paper and a paper cyUnder was placed around the plant to pre- 
vent the paraffine coming in contact with the stem. Adults of Sciara were found 
entering these cylinders and lajdng eggs in the moist earth to which manure had been 
added as a fertilizer; later when the paraffine covers were removed, large numbers of 
flies were liberated; eggs, larvae and pupae also were found commonly present in the 
soil of the pots. The beans were in a weakened condition, many of the lateral roots 
having been eaten off and the taproot itself attacked. 

Although these data were obtained by chance, they tend to indicate that the opti- 
mum soil temperature favorable to the reproduction of the fly is near 76° F. and below 
■91° F. Evidently infestation may take place in soil that has a temperature of 60 
to 65° F., but apparently this is not the most favorable temperature for the continued 
and abundant increase of the insect. 

I. M. Hawley, 
Department of Entomology, Cornell University. 

Handbook or Compendium. An entomologist's handbook or compendium is very 
much needed, especially b}' economic entomologists. It is planned to compile such a 
handbook, which will include principles and methods of studying the life-histories of 
insects, of conducting field experiments and demonstrations, handy tables for field 
workers, etc. It is desired to have references, or better, to have separates of all pub- 
lished notes dealing directly or indirectly with the subject and to have details, and if 
possible drawings or photographs as well, of cages, apparatus, methods, etc., as yet 
unpubhshed. The handbook will be a compilation and full credit given to all con- 
tributions. 

The cooperation of entomologists is solicited. 

John J. Davis, Box 95, West La Fayette, Indiana. 

Commercial Entomology. A recent manual of spraying, issued by a company 
which prepares spray materials and which is illustrated by colored plates, gives a 
figure on the plate of the San Jo.s^ Scale labeled "egg of female" and another labeled 
''egg of male"! 

This is a contribution not only to entomology but indeed to natural history as a 
whole. It is to be hoped that some parts of this manual, at least, are more reliable 
than this. H. T. F. 

Lachnosterna crassissima (Blanch). Three adults of thus species were in the 
stomach of a channel catfish {Ichlalurus punclatus) caught in a small stream in 
aouthern Kansas, July 6, 1918. In the stomach of .second fish was a handful of wheat 
grains. Two adult L< /«,sca (Froclich) were in the stomach of a crappie {Pomoxis 
annularis) caught in June, 1911, in the same small stream. 

E. G. Kelly, 
Extension Entomologist, Kansas State Agricultural College. 



272 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

A New Monophlebine Coccid from Borneo. Many years ago Westwood described 
a male Monophlebid from the Gulf Coast, West Africa, remarkable for the red costal 
region of the wings. In 1915 Prof. C. F. Baker sent me an insect of this type from the 
island of Palawan, in the Philippines. I now have before me a third species, also 
from Professor Baker, represented by two specimens from Sandakan, Borneo (Baker 
9615). It may be described as follows: 

Llaveia hcematoptera n. sp. 
Male similar in nearly all respects to L. sanguinea, from Palawan, but differing 
thus: (Larger, wings 8 mm. long, expanse 18 mm.; head and thorax warm reddish, 
without black or piceous ; eyes bright red, not dark ; the six fleshy processes of abdo- 
men very long, the last about 3 . 5 mm. 

The three species are readily separable as follows: 

Thorax red ; larger species hcematoptera Ckll 

Thorax at least mainly black or piceous above ; smaller species 1 

1 . Caudal tassels not half width of abdomen raddoni (Westwood) 

Caudal tassels much over half width of abdomen sanguinea CklL 

T. D. A. COCKERELL, 

University of Colorado. 

The San Jose Scale in the Argentine Republic. Mr. Juan Brethes of Buenos 
Aires sends me a Coccid, remarking that it is certainly new to the Argentine RepubUc, 
but doubtless known from elsewhere. It is indeed, for it is Aspidiotus perniciosus 
Comstock. I have written urging that measures to taken to eradicate it, if it is not 
too late. T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Army worm. ( Heliophila unipuncta Haw.) The search this spring for European 
corn borer larvae, Pyrausta nubilalis Hubn., in portions of New York state, resulted 
in finding in cornstalks in early April partly grown army worm caterpillars. They 
were then nearly three fourths of an inch long and although more highly colored and 
usually rather distinctly striped, presented a somewhat general resemblance to the 
true corn borer. These caterpillars were found in soft or punky corn stalks, evidently 
having entered simply for shelter. They were so numerous in sections about Ballston 
that seven or eight of these larvae were frequently found to one or two of the true 
corn borer. It was this insect and not the corn borer which was found at Schuyler- 
ville, Saratoga County. The identity of these young army worm larvae was not 
( fully established until early in May at which time more characteristically colored, 
half grown caterpillars were found in similar situations. 

The above record in relation to army worms is entirely new for New York state 
and is of particular interest in view of the statements published by Mr. Vickeryi 
relative to the tropical or subtropical origin of this species and his behef that it was 
problematical if it would survive a mild winter as far north on the Atlantic coast as 
the city of Washington. It is true that the past winter has been exceptionally mild 
and this may be the reason why the species lived through in the vicinity of Saratoga, 
though it should be remembered that corn fields in New York state have never been 
examined so carefully as during the past few months and this latter may be the real 
reason why the larvae were found. It is certain that the army worm occurs annually 
here and there in the state and this fact, taken in connection with its known survival 
of the winter of 1918-1919, leads us to believe that it may withstand the rigors of 
our climate more successfully than is suggested in the above cited article. 
^ E. P. Felt. 

1 Journal Economic Entomology, 8 : 390, 1915. 



June, '19] SCIENTIFIC NOTES 273 

Anthrenus verbasci Linn., a Seventeen- Year Breeding Record. April 4, 1902, two 
ears of popcorn, infested by this insect, were received and placed in a two quart Mason 
jar and the latter kept tightly closed with no moisture aside from that in the some- 
what dried corn. Breeding has continued apparently uninterrupted for seventeen 
years, namely to April 4, 1919, at which time a living larva was found and there are 
presumably others aUve, either adults or larvae, though June 26, 1918, rather close 
search failed to disclose anything Uving. In the spring of 1909 (Journ. Ecox. Ext., 
2: 193) the bottom of the jar was nearly covered with fine, white, globose particles, 
apparently starch grains, fallen from the eaten kernels of corn and there was a thick 
mass of brown larval skins and other debris. Conditions were practically the same 
in the spring of 1912 (Journ. Econ. Ent., 5: 297) except that there was more debris. 
There then remained much uneaten corn and the same is true at the present date, 
April 4, 1919, except that breeding appears to be reduced to a minimum, though not 
from any scarcitj- of food. There would seem to be no reason why breeding may 
not continue under these conditions for a considerable series of years, unless the strain 
has become depleted through continued inbreeding. 

Those interested in the abiUty of Dermestidae to adapt themselves to untoward 
conditions are referred to the very interesting account by J. E. Wodsedalek (Science, 
46: 366-67, '17) in which he records the curious results following five years of starva- 
tion of larvae of Trogoderma tarsale, which resulted in a gradual decrease in the size 
of the larvae, the size shrinking, even to the hatching length, and increasing with 
the scarcity and abundance of food respectively. 

E. P. Felt. 

Regarding Personal Credits in Farmers Bulletins of the U. S. Bureau of Ento- 
mology. Until early in 1916 the custom of publishing personal credits was uniformly 
observed in the Farmers Bulletins issued liy the Bureau of Entomology of the United 
States Department of Agriculture. About that time, however, a change in depart- 
mental policy occurred respecting such matters, and the custom was discontinued. 
The object in view in making this change was to render the included matter more 
acceptable to the class of readers for whom it was intended. It was held that such 
persons have no interest in the personnel of the originating organization back of such 
publications, and that the inclusion of personal credits tended to detract from the 
brevity and directness of appeal of such publications. 

That this view of the matter has much in its favor cannot be denied, but it is also 
true that the custom of omitting personal credits has sometimes given rise to adverse 
criticism, especially from persons who do not understand the attitude of the depart- 
ment in this matter. A case in point is the recent issue of P'armers Bulletin 1046 on 
the European corn l)orer under the authorship of Mr. D. J. Caffrey, who conducted 
the bureau's portion of the investigations of this recently discovered pest. A large 
portion of the biological investigations in connection with this work was performed 
by the late Mr. Stuart C. Vinal under the direction of the Massachusetts Agricultural 
College. Mr. Vinal was personally responsible for the original discovery of the insect, 
and conducted the preliminary investigations entirely alone, and it may even be said 
without exaggeration that he sacrificed his life for the success of the work by remain- 
ing at his post of duty for several days while suffering from the illness which caused 
his death. L. O. H. 



274 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Txirkeys and Chinch Bugs. Apropos to the recent discussion in this Journal, on 
the enemies of the chinch bug (FUnt, Oct., 1918, and McCoUoch, Feb., 1919), I wish 
to record an observation made at Edwardsville, 111., June 10, 1917. Two to three 
weeks old turkeys, foraging in a wheat field near a farm house, became busily engaged 
eating the mature chinch bugs which were numerous in the wheat. The young tur- 
keys searched eagerly for the bugs, ate them with apparent rehsh, and by many actual 
counts the individual bird picked them up at the rate of more than thirty a minute. 

March 31, 1919. John J. Davis. 



IMPORTANT NOTICE 

At the Baltimore meeting of this association it was voted that the price of the 
Journal of Economic Entomology should be fixed by the executive committee. 
Recognizing the large increase in cost in producing this pubUcation, the committee 
has voted to increase the subscription price to all subscribers SI. 00 per annum, 
beginning January 1, 1920. After that date, rates will be as follows: 

Subscription price to members, $2.50 per annum. 

An additional charge of 50 cents will be made to foreign members to cover cost of 
postage. 

Subscription price to non-members, S3. 50 per annum. 

Subscription price to foreign subscribers, $4.00 per annum. 

The annual dues of members of the association have not been increased and wiU 
remain as heretofore, namely: 

Active members, $1.50. Associate members, $1.00 per annum. 

A. F. Burgess, Secretary. 
Melrose Highlands, Mass. 
May 23, 1919. 



EUROPEAN CORN BORER CONFERENCE 

Hon. Charles S. Wilson, New York State Commissioner of Agriculture, plans, as 
President of the Association of State Commissioners of Agriculture, calling a con- 
ference of Commissioners of Agriculture and Entomologists in particular to discuss 
and if possible formulate a National Policy in regard to this most serious pest. The 
conference will probably be held at Albany, N. Y., the last of August and will afford 
an unexampled opportunity to ascertain the latest facts in regard to the situation. 
It is very desirable for entomologists from all corn states to attend, because, in the 
ultimate analysis, they must have a very important part in determining this pohcy 
and the promotion of a sentiment in favor of a comprehensive and satisfactory 
program. E. P. Felt. 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 

OFFICIAL ORGAN AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGISTS 

JUNE, 1919 

The editors will thankfully receive news items and other matter likely to be of interest to sub- 
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Last winter entomologists of the northeastern United States found 
themselves confronted with a serious problem, namely the positive 
identification of a destructive Pyraustid caterpillar at a time when 
the comparatively harmless larvae of allied species were practically 
unknown. Pyraustids have not occupied a conspicuous place as 
economic insects and have for the most part been left alone by economic 
entomologists. They have not proved particularly attractive to 
systematists. This is specially true of the larvse. The conditions 
occurring last winter may easily be duplicated in other groups, though 
no one can indicate with any great degree of assurance the group of 
insects likely to be troublesome next. These facts suggest the need, 
and this is recognized by most entomologists, of a more symmetrical 
or general knowledge of the insect fauna as a whole. There are many 
earnest students engaged in solving problems and, unfortunately in 
some cases at least, there has been undesirable concentration upon a 
few groups at the expense of others which do not at the time appear so 
important or seem specially attractive. The present is an excellent 
time to consider this lack of method for the country as a whole and to 
see if some pract-ical way cannot be found to overcome the difficulty. 
An intelligent distribution of effort would greatly lessen the probability 
of a recurrence of conditions such as obtained last winter. Would it 
not be possible for the specialists in various lines to suggest the groups 
requiring particular attention and wh(>n these are pointed out it might 
be feasible to work through our national organizations and secure a 
distribution of these problems to those willing to undertake such 



276 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

studies, provided they were assured of reasonable time and freedom in 
which to complete the investigations. A little planning and coordina- 
tion along such lines would do much, we believe, to produce a well 
rounded and comprehensive total of knowledge relating to American 
insects in all stages. 



Reviews 

Outlines of Economic Zoology, by A. M. Reese, pages I to XVII, 1 to 
316, 194 illustrations. P. Blakiston's Son & Company, 1919. 

The author correctly states that the study of insects is a large department of 
science in itself and owing to the difficulty of doing the subject adequate justice within 
the narrow limits of a small volume, he has confined himself largely to a discussion of 
a few disease-carrying insects, some of the more common household pests, the honey 
bee and the silk worm. The greater part of the book is devoted to very concise 
and interesting discussions of the economic relations of the other members of the 
animal kingdom and as such will prove of value to the entomologist who desires a 
recent summary of this character. (Advt.) E. P. F. 

Canadian Bark Beetles, Part I, Descriptions of New Species, Part II, 
A Preliminary Classification, with an Account of the Habits and 
Means of Control, by J. M. Swaine, Dominion of Canada, 
Department of Agriculture, Entomological Branch, Bulletin 14, 
Part 1, pages 1 to 32, 1917, and Part II, pages 1 to 143, plates 31, 
1918. 

The first part of this important work is limited mostly to descriptions of new genera 
and new species and in the second part we have a comprehensive and most excellent 
classification of Canadian bark beetles, illustrated by a series of exceptionally fine 
figures showing not only structural details of many of the bark borers but also depict- 
ing characteristic workings of a number of species. This pubhcation gives within 
a brief compass, an admirable summary of this important and very destructive group 
of beetles. The text and illustrations show the work of a man who has had both 
field and laboratory experience and is, therefore, in a position to discuss the subject 
matter in the most illuminating manner, (Advt.) E. P. F. 

Studies on the Fruit Flies of Japan ; Contribution I, Japanese Orange 
Fly, by Doctor Tsunekata Miyake. Reprint from Imperial Cen- 
tral Agricultural Experiment Station in Japan, Bui. II, No. 2, 
pages 85 to 165, plates 10, 1919. 

This is a monographic study of the Japanese fruit fly, described as Dacus tsuneonis, 
the author giving a detailed discussion of both the external and internal structure of 
the adult, a similar study of the larva and numerous details in regard to the habits, 
life history and methods of controlling this species. Several associated or allied 
forms are also characterized. The author is to be congratulated upon the compre- 
hensive character of his work and it is to be hoped that contribution I will be supple- 
mented by other equally valuable studies. {Advt.) E. P. F. 



June, '19] CURRENT NOTES 277 

Successful Spraying, b}- E. H. Favor, Hayes Pump and Planter Com- 
pany, Galva, III., 127 pages. Price, $1.00. 

It is not often that a spraying manual published by a company engaged in the 
manufacture of spraying machinery or insecticides is worth}- of serious notice. This 
vokime is an exception to the rule. Pubhcations of this kind have a wide circulation 
and reach many who do not read the bulletins ot the experiment stations (even where 
available). It is, therefore, gratifying to note that in the present instance sound 
and practical advice is presented in concise and attractive form. The text is clearly 
written and fairly well illustrated. In Chapter I the importance and value of spray- 
ing is clearly set forth and many practical suggestions are given as to methods. Chap- 
ter II deals with insecticides and fungicides, their preparation and uses. In Chapter 
III the common insect pests of orchard, vineyard, and garden are brieflj^ described, 
the life history outlined and the proper treatment indicated. Chapter IV is devoted 
to plant diseases. Chapter V, '"How to Spray," contains spraying schedules for 
various crops and directions for applying whitewash and disinfectants by means of 
the spray pump. In Chapter VI are many valuable suggestions as to use of the 
spray pump in disinfecting seed grain, in spraying hogs and cattle, in disinfecting 
poultry houses, and in kilhng weeds. Chapter VII is devoted to the spraying of 
citrus trees and the last chapter, also VII, treats of the spraying of shade trees. 

The book has surprisingly few errors for a publication of this kind. "Black Leaf 
40" tobacco extract does not contain 40 per cent nicotine sulfate as stated on page 28, 
but many official entomologists have fallen into the same error. (Advt ) C. R. C. 



Current Notes 

Conducted by the Associate Editor 

Mr. Hugh Knight has been appointed assistant in entomology at the citrus sub- 
station, Riverside, Cal. 

Prof. S. A. Forbes, state entomologist of Illinois, visited various points along the 
Atlantic Coast, the first week in May. 

Lieut. R. V. Truitt of the Aviation Service is assistant in entomology and zoology 
at the Maryland State College of Agriculture. 

Dr. J. M. Aldrich has been appointed honorary custodian of diptera in the United 
States National Museum in succession to the late Frederick Knab. 

According to the "Review of Applied Entomology," Mr. G. F. Hill ha.s been 
appointed entomologist of the Queensland Institute of Tropical Medicine, Townsville, 
North Queensland. 

Dr. C. H. T. Townsend, specialist in the United States National Museum, Wash- 
ington, D. C, has accepted a position in Brazil as official entomologist to the Sao 
Paulo State Government. 

Mr. Charles H. Richard.son, recently a research chemist with the Rohn and Haa.s 
Chemical Comjjany, Bristol, Pa., has been appointed ."specialist in insect physiology, 
Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

Dr. W. A. Riley, of the University of Minnesota has been appointed a member of 
the joint committee of research of the Association of American Agricultural Colleges 
and Experiment Stations. 

4 



278 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

According to Science Lieut. A. C. Chandler, assistant professor of zoology at 
the Oregon Agricultural College, has been ordered to the front with the American 
soldiers to make a study of the rat parasites in France. 

Dr. Robert Kirkland Nabours, professor of zoology and curator of the natural his- 
tory museum at the Kansas Agricultural College, was recently elected president of 
the Kansas Academy of Science at its fifty-first annual meeting. 

Prof. Franklin Sherman, Jr., and Mr. R. W. Leiby of the Division of Entomology, 
North Carolina Department of Agriculture, have both been sick with influenza fol- 
lowed by pneumonia. Both are now again on duty, though Professor Sherman has 
not yet fully recovered. 

Mr. R. L. Webster, who holds an industrial fellowship at Cornell, is stationed at 
Geneva, N. Y., for the summer, working in cooperation with Prof. P. J. Parrott. 
During the winter Mr. Webster spent a month in Florida, studying the fumigation of 
citrus fruits in that state. 

The following Bureau employees have returned from service in Army and Navy 
and have been reinstated in the Bureau: Lieut. W. H. Larrimer; Lieut. W. H. White; 
C. A. Weigel; Lieut. John A. Monteith, Jr.; Max W. Reeher; W. D. Whitcomb; F. L. 
McDonough; W. E. Dove; A. B. Jarrell; W. B. CartwTight; M. J. Kerr; R. B. Willson. 

The Connecticut legislature has just adjourned after increasing biennial appro- 
priations for entomological work as follows: for state entomologist, $15,000 from 
$12,000; for suppressing gipsy and brown-tail moths, $70,000 from $40,000; for inspect- 
ing apiaries, $4,000 from $1,500; for European corn borer, $10,000. A law has also 
been enacted requiring beekeepers to register with the town clerk in each town. 

Mr. M. B. Dunn, temporary assistant at the Dominion Entomological Laboratory 
at Fredericton, N. B., has been appointed an entomological assistant in the Division 
of Forest Insects of the Entomological Branch, Ottawa, and, under the direction of 
Dr. J. M. Swaine, he will be assigned to sample plot investigations in the forests of 
Quebec and Ontario. 

Mr. C. E. Pemberton, Bureau of Entomology, w-ho followed Dr. Back in charge of 
the fruit-fly station and cjuarantine service in Hawaii, and who has been for the past 
year in war service in Honolulu, has been released from the Army and has accepted 
a position with the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association at a material financial 
betterment. 

The following resignations in the Bureau of Entomology are announced: L. J. 
Hogg, cereal and forage insects, Arizona; Charles F. Stiles, apicultural extension 
work, Oklahoma; M. S. Linebaugh, L. P. O'Dowd, and E. A. McGregor, southern 
field crop insects; O. D. Link, truck crop insects, Florida; J. S. Stanford, cereal and 
forage crop insects; Q. S. Lowry, truck crop insect extension in Massachusetts; R. F. 
Wixson, special agent in apiculture for Virginia. 

A conference on the subject of the gipsy and brown-tail moth quarantine was held 
May 6 at Washington. A. F. Burgess reported that this year there will be no need 
of an extension of the quarantine lines and in fact notable reductions can be made 
in some places. There was no necessity, therefore, for a public hearing. 

Mr. J. M. Robinson, graduate of Ohio State University, became assistant ento- 
mologist at the Alabama Polytechnic Institute on January 1, 1919. Professor Rob- 
inson has charge directly of the class work in entomology and zoology. With the 
appointment of Professor Robinson, Dr. Frank L. Thomas became extension ento- 
mologist, and will devote at least half of his time to extension phases of entomologicail 
work in the state of Alabama. 



June, '191 CURRENT NOTES 279 

Mr. D. C. Warren, formerly of the Alabama Polytechnic Institute, resigned Jan- 
uary 1, 1919, to accept a position as assistant entomologist with the Georgia State 
Board of Entomology. Now Mr. Warren is located at Valdosta, Ga., and is expecting 
to conduct this year, especially, tests in the control of boll weevil by the use of 
calcium arsenate and other arsenicals. The tests will be conducted particularly 
with Sea Island cotton. 

A cooperative investigation of the wireworms attacking cereal crops has been 
arranged between the Bureau of Entomologj' and the Washington State Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station. The Bureau has agreed to furnish a man who will be sta- 
tioned in central Washington during the growing season of the year, to conduct the 
Bureau's portion of this cooperative work. F. R. Cole of the Forest Grove (Ore.) 
station has been assigned to this project for the present. 

According to Science Maj. William B. Herms, associate professor of parasitology 
in the University of California, has resumed his university duties. Major Herms 
served with the Sanitary Corps of the United States Army for a little over a year, 
and since April, 1918, was stationed at the port of embarkation at Newport News, 
Va., where he was in charge of malarial drainage operations, delousing stations, and 
assisting in general sanitary inspection. 

Mr. Edw. Doubleday Harris died at his home in Yonkers, N. Y., on March 2, after 
a few days' illness, in his eightieth year. He was born in Cambridge, Mass., Sep- 
tember 30, 1839. He collected and studied the beetles of the family Cicindelidae 
and several years ago presented his collection to the Museum of Comparative Zool- 
ogy at Cambridge, Mass. In 1911, he published and distributed at his own expense, 
a small pamjihlet entitled North American Cidndelidce in the Harris Collection. 

The following appointments are announced in the Bureau of Entomology : Douglas 
R. Royder, inspector sweet potato weevil work; J. N. Tenhet and S. F. Grubb, scien- 
tific assistants, tobacco insects; George G. Becker, agent for extension work, decidu- 
ous fruit insects, Arkansas; George B. Fisher, and G. W. Curtin, scientific assistants, 
Arlington, Mass.; J. Edward Taylor, alfalfa weevil demonstrations, Utah; Dr. R. S. 
McEwen, temporarily as artist; Wesley L. Miles, Arhngton, Ma.ss.; William Yetter, 
scientific assistant codling moth investigations. Grand Junction, Colo.; Dr. C. H. 
Richardson, insect physiologist, Wa.shington, D. C; Harry H. Stage, stored product 
insect investigations; Mortimer D. Leonard, extension work in truck crop insects in 
New York state. 

Mr. Leonard S. McLaine, M. Sc, of the Canadian Entomological Branch, has 
been transferred from the Dominion Entomological Laboratory, Fredericton, N. B., 
to Ottawa, and has been appointed chief of the Division of Plant Inspection and 
executive as.sistant to the Dominion Entomologist. As chief of the Division of Plant 
Inspection, Mr. McLaine will have immediate charge of the work of inspection and 
fumigating imported nursery stock and of the field work against the brown-tuil moth 
in eastern Canada and such other duties as the enforcement of the insects and pests 
regulations under the Destructive Insect and Pest Act may involve. 

Recent transfers in the Bureau of Entomology are as follows: R. J. Fiske, Federal 
Horticultural Board to cereal and forage crop insect investigations, and a.«isigned to 
work on the southern com root worm at Columbia, S. C; C. F. Stahl, truck crop 
insects, Spreckels to Riverside, Calif.; W. H. Dumont, southern field crop insect 
investigations, Augu.sta, Ga., to Wilmington, N. C, and later to Mound, La.; R. W. 
Keiley, extension work with deciduous fruit insect.s in Indiana, to the In.serticide and 
Fungicide Board, and a.^^igned to the laboratory at Vienna, Va.; E. E. Wehr, exten- 



280 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

sion agent, insects injurious to domestic animals, Maryland to Indiana; W. H. Lar- 
rimer, cereal and forage insects in charge of field station. West Lafayette, Ind.; C. M. 
Packard from Berkeley, Calif., to have charge of field station at Hagerstown, Md. ; 
M. C. Lane, Forest Grove, Ore., to Berkeley, Cahf.; D. J. Caffrey, Hagerstown, Md., 
to Ariington, Mass., in charge of investigations on the European corn borer; E. J. 
Newcomber and W. D. Whitcomb to Yakima, Wash., to a new field station for the 
study of the codling moth and other deciduous fruit insects; E. R. Selkregg and B. R. 
Leach to Dover, Del., where a new laboratory has been established for study of the 
codling moth; C. H. Alden to Wallingford, Conn., C. K. Fisher, formerly at WeUing- 
ton, Kan., to Wichita, Kan.; W. B. Turner, Hagerstown, Md., to ArUngton, Mass.; 
F. L. Simanton, Benton Harbor, Mich., to Monticello; Fla.; W. A. Hoffman, Monti- 
cello, Fla., to Brownwood, Tex.; E. H. Siegler, WalUngford, Conn., to Washington, 
D. C; A. O. Larson, extension work in deciduous fruit insects to Alhambra, Calif., 
to investigate pea and bean weevils in California; F. B. MiUiken to Dallas, Tex., 
where a laboratory will be established for the study of the species of Tribolium and 
other mUl pests. 

The European corn borer work has been reorganized under Cereal and Forage 
Insect Investigations of the Bureau, with separate headquarters for the investigational 
and control activities. Investigational headquarters are located at No. 10 Court St., 
Arlington, Mass., and this work is now in full swing. The personnel at present is as 
follows: D. J. Caffrey, assistant in charge; H. E. Smith, entomological assistant; 
R. H. Van Zwaluwenburg; G. B. Fisher, W. B. Turner, C. W. Curtin, scientific assist- 
ants; J. H. Moore, field assistant; F. L. Pendergast, stenographic clerk; G. F. Greene, 
laborer. L. H. Worthley, formerly engaged under A. F. Burgess as agent in pre- 
venting spread of moths, has been placed in charge of the control work, with head- 
quarters at 43 Tremont St., Boston, Mass. This phase of the work for the present 
will be carried on mainly under a fund especially appropriated by the state of Mas- 
sachusetts in cooperation with the State Department of Agriculture. Saul Phillips 
has been appointed as assistant under Mr. Worthley for the field work, and entered 
upon his new duties on April 15. Mr. PhilUps has had fifteen years of experience in 
insect control work in eastern Massachusetts, including gipsy and brown-tail moth 
work, and also considerable experience in mosquito control on the North Shore. He 
is, therefore, well equipped to handle the work which has been entrusted to his care. 
A force of 400 men was put to work cleaning up in the infested area on April 15, when 
the special state appropriation of $30,000 became available. It is expected that this 
work subsequently will be provided for by the Federal Government, if Congress 
agrees to allow a suitable appropriation for the work. Several methods of attacking 
the insect have been proposed, and are now being given a thorough trial. In view 
of the short period of time available before the moths emerge from their winter 
quarters, it probably will not be possible to treat effectively the entire infested area 
this spring. 



Mailed June 28, 1919 



EXCHANGES. 

Exchanges or Wants of not over three lines will be inserted for 25 cents each to run as long as the 
space of this page will permit; the newer ones being added and the oldest dropped as necessary. Send 
all notices and cash to A. F. Burgess, Melrose Highlands, Mass., by the 15th of the month preceding 
publication. 

BACK NUMBERS WANTED. 

Will pay 60 cents for No. 2, Volume I, and 30 cents each for No. 1 and No. 6, 
Volume II, No. 6, Volume III, and No. 2, Volume IV, to complete sets. Address 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGISTS 

MELROSE HIGHLANDS, MASS. 

ENTOMOLOGISTS' EMPLOYMENT BUREAU 
Conducted by the American Association of Economic Entomologists. 

This Bureau will register Entomolo^sts wishing to secure positions. Sta- 
tion Entomologists and institutions desiring to secure assistants are invited to 
correspond with the undersigned. Enrollment in the Bureau, $2,00. Fee not 
returnable. DR. W. E. HINDS, 

Auburn, Alabama. 

WILL PAY $1 each for Insect Life, Vol. IV, Nos. 11 and 12, Bibliography, 
N. A. Economic Entomology, Part IV, or General Index Experiment Station Record 
for Vols. I-XII. 

HUGH GLASGOW, Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, New York. 

DRAWINGS for reproduction, oil color charts, and life history collections of 
economic insects prepared as desired. 

H. E. HODGKISSandB. B. FULTON, 90 Lyceum St., Geneva, N. Y. 

WANTED — Systematic and economic papers on the families Bonibyliidae and 
AsUidae. Mail descriptive list of titles and prices desired. H. R. HAGAN, Utah 
Experiment Station, Logan, Utah. 



WANTED — Syrphidae — from all parts of the world. Will determine on the 
usual conditions. Address imtil June 1 5, Prof. C. L. METCALF, Bussey Institution, 
Forest Hills, Boston, Mass. Afterward Ohio State University, Dept. Entomology, 
Columbus, Ohio. 

WANTED — Trans. Am. Entomological Society, Vol. 3; Lintners 3rd Report 
(1886); Entomological News, Vol. 2, No. 10 (Dec. 1891); Farmers' Huiletins?, 8, 10, 
12, 89, 117, 214, 268, 356, 556, 558, 839, 878, 905, 911. 

P. T. BARNES, Department of Agriculture, Harrisburg, Pa. 



Please mention the Journal of Economic Entomology when writing to advertisera 



AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGISTS 

(Organized 1889, Incorporated December 29, 1913) 



OFFICERS 



President, W. C. O'Kane, Durham, N. H. 

First Vice-President, A. G. Ruggles, St. Paul, Minn. 

Second Vice-President (Pacific Slope Branch), H. J. Quayle, River- 
side, Calif. 

Third Vice-President (Horticultural Inspection), E. C. Cotton, 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Fourth Vice-President (Apiculture), W. E. Britton, New Haven, 
Conn. 

Secretary, A. F. Burgess, Melrose Highlands, Mass. 

Branch and Section Secretaries 

Pacific Slope Branch, E. 0. Essig, Ventura, Calif. 

Section of Horticultural Inspection, J. G. Sanders, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Section of Apiculture, G. M. Bentley, Knoxville, Tenn. 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 

Official Organ of Anrvericnn AKsoriation of Economic Entomologists 

A bi-monUily journal, published February io Dooember, on the 15th of the 
month, devoted to the interests of Economic Entomology and publishing the official 
notices and proceedings of the American Association of Economic Entomologists. 
Address business communications to the Journal of Economic Entomoloqt, 
Railroad Square, Concord, N. H. 

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. In the United States, Cuba, Mexico and Canada, 
two dollars and fifty cents ($2.50) annually in advance. To foreign coimtriea, 
three dollars ($3.00) annually in advance. Single copies, fifty cents. To members 
of the American Association of Economic Entomologists, one dollar and fifty cents 
($1.50) annually in advance. 60 cents extra for postage to foreign members. 

MAKftJSCRIPT for publication shovUd be sent to the Editor, E. Porter Felt, 
Nassau, Rens. Co., N. Y. 

CURRENT NOTES AND NEWS should be sent to the Associate Editor, W. E. 
Britton, Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Conn. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS AND ADVERTISEMENTS may be sent to the Busiaess 
Manager, A, F. Borqess, Melrose Highlands, Mass. 



Vol. 12 



4 *^. I'omini^'"""'^" 
AUGUST, 1919 



No. 4 



JOURNAL 



OF 



ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 

Official Organ American Association of Economic Entomologists 




S. A. Forbes 

W. .1. ScHOENE 



E. Porter Felt, Editor 
W. E. Britton, Associate Editor 
A. F. Burgess, Business Manager 

Advisory Committee 
V. L. Kellogg 
P. J. Parrott 



T.. O. Howard 
E. L. Worsham 



Published by 
American Association of Economic Entomologists 

Concord. \. li. 



Entered at urond-clau matter Mar. 3, 1908, at the poit office at Concord. N. H., 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

American Association of Economic Entomologists, Pacific Slope Branch, Pro- 
ceedings 
Members Present 281 

Business Session 282 

Papers 
A Suggestion of a Possible Control of the Pea and Bean Weevils 

R. E. Campbell 284 
On Some Phases of Insect Control by the Biological Method 

H.S.Smith 288 
Observations on Some Mealy Bugs, Hemiptera, Coccidae G. F. Ferris 292 
Migratory Locusts in the Philippine Islands^ D. B. Mackie 299 

The Alfalfa Weevil in Colorado^ G. M. List 299 

The Physical and Chemical Properties of Liquid Hydrocyanic Acid^ 

G. P. Gray 299 
A Dosage Schedule for Citrus Trees with Liquid Hydrocyanic Acid' 

R. S. Woglum 300 
The Stratification of Liquid Hydrocyanic Acid as Related to Orchard 

Fumigation R. S. Woglum and M. B. Rounds 300 

Notes on the Behavior of the Beet Leafhopper, Eutettix tenella 

H. H. P. Severin 303 
Weevils in Australian Wheat in California R. W. Doane 308 

Investigations of the Beet Leafhopper, Eutettix tenella, in California 

H.H. P. Severin 312 
Biological Notes on the Flatheaded Apple Tree Borer, Chrysobothris 
femorata, and the Pacific Flatheaded Apple Tree Borer, Chrysobothris 
mali H.E. Burke 326 

Lac Producing Insects in the United States, Hemiptera, Coccidae 

G. F. Ferris 330 
Insect Problems of Western Shade Trees F. B. Herbert 333 

The Value of Molasses and Syrups in Poisoned Baits for Grasshoppers 

and Cutworms A. W. Morrill 337 

Effect of Excessive Sterilization Methods on the Germination of Seeds 

E. R. De Ong 343 
The Absence of Insect Pests in Certain Localities and on Certain Plants 

T. D.A. Cockerell 345 
Some Recently Recorded Parasites of the Oriental Peach Moth 

L. A. Stearns 347 
The Strength of Nicotine Solutions V. I. Safro 349 

Scientific Notes 351 

Editorial 352 

Current Notes 353 



'Withdrawn for publioation olsfiwhere 



JOURNAL 

OF 

ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 

OFFICIAL ORGAN AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGIST 

Vol. 12 AUGUST, 1919 No. 4 

Proceedings of the Pacific Slope Branch of the American 
Association of Economic Entomologists 

Mission Inn, Riverside, California, May 28, 1919 



MEMBERS PRESENT 

Campbell, R. E., Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. Agric, Alhambra, Cal. 

Day, L. H., County Horticultural Commissioner, Hollister, Cal. 

Doane, Prof. R. W., Stanford University, Cal. 

Ehrhorn, E. M., Chief Plant Inspector, Honolulu, H. T. 

Essig, E. O., University of California, Berkeley, Cal. 

Gray, Prof. Geo. P., University of California, Berkeley, Cal. 

Larson, A. O., Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. Agric, Alhambra, Cal. 

Ledyard, E. M., U. S. Smelter Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Mackie, D. B., California State Commission of Horticulture, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Morris, E. L., County Horticultural Commissioner, Santa Ana, Cal. 

Neuls, J. D., Braun Corporation, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Penny, Donald, County Horticultural Commissioner, Watsonville, Cal. 

Quayle, Prof. H. J., Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside, Cal. 

Ryan, H. J., County Horticultural Commissioner, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Smith, H. S., State Commission of Horticulture, Sacramento, Cal. 

Stahl, C. F., Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. Agric, Riverside, Cal. 

Taylor, Prof. E. P., Univcr.sity of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz. 

Urbhans, D. T., Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. .A.gric, Berkeley, Cal. 

Voick, W. H., California Spray Chemical Co., Watsonville, Cal. 

Weldon, Geo. P., California State Commission of Horticulture, Sacramento, Cal. 

Woglum, R. S., Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dopt. .Vgric, .\lhaml)ra, Cal. 

Woodworth, H. E., County Horticultural Commi.ssioncr, San Mateo, Cal. 

VLSITING ME^^JER 
Marlatt, Dr. C. L., Federal Horticultural Board, Washington, D. C. 



282 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

VISITORS 

Armitage, H. M., State Commission of Horticulture, Alhambra, Cal. 

Borden, A. D., Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. Agric, Upland, Cal. 

Bremner, O. E., County Horticultural Commissioner, Santa Rosa, Cal. 

Brock, A. A., County Horticultural Commissioner, Santa Paula, Cal. 

Carsner, Eubanks, Riverside, Cal. 

Fawcett, Prof. H. S., Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside, Cal. 

GUlis, H., Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Gorton, G. R., County Horticultural Commissioner, San Diego, Cal. 

Hadley, W. B., Horticultural Inspector, Redlands, Cal. 

Houpt, L. O., County Horticultural Commissioner, Hanford, Cal. 

Hurst, A. E., Covina, Cal. 

Hurst, C. J., Covina, Cal. 

Knight, Hugh, Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside, Cal. 

KoUer, J. M., Puente, Cal. 

List, Geo. M., Chief Deputy State Entomologist, Fort Colhns, Colo. 

MiUs, Earle, County Horticultural Commissioner, Oroville, Cal. 

Newman, C. V., Limoneira Co., Santa Paula, Cal. 

RouUard, Fred P., County Horticultural Commissioner, Fresno, Cal. 

Rounds, M. B., Bvu-eau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. Agric, Alhambra, Cal. 

Strausz, A. L., State Horticulturist of Montana, Missoula, Mont. 

Taylor, A. S., Redlands, Cal. 

Taylor, F. H., County Horticultural Commissioner, Susanville, Cal. 

Turner, C. F., County Horticultural Commissioner, Auburn, Cal. 

Waite, F. W., County Horticultural Commissioner, El Centro, Cal. 

BUSINESS SESSION 

The business session of the Pacific Slope Branch of the American Association of 
Economic Entomologists was called to order in the Mission Inn, Riverside, Cali- 
fornia, at 4 o'clock p. m. by Chairman H. J. Quayle who announced the following 
committees : 

Nominating Committee: 

R. S. Woglum, Chairman 
Geo. P. Gray 
R. E. Campbell 

Auditing Committee: 

T. D. Urbhans, Chairman 

Membership Committee: 
H. E. Burke, 1 year 
H. S. Smith, 2 years 
R. W. Doane, 3 years 

Chairman Quayle: A ten minute recess will be taken to permit the committees 
to formulate reports. (Adjournment for 10 minutes.) 

Chairman Quayle: We will now hear the report of the Secretary-Treasurer. 

E. O. Essig: Due to the absence of the Secretary at the last meeting no report 
was made, so that the following report is for the years 1917, 1918 and part of 1919: 



August, '19] PROCEEDINGS PACIFIC SLOPE BRANCH 283 

Pacific Slope Branch American Association of Economic Entomologists 

Financial Statement, 1917-1919 
1917 

Jan. 1. On hand $23 .91 

Feb. 5. Affiliation fee to A. A. A. Sci $5 .00 

Apr. 2. Large envelopes .80 

Multigraphing letters 1 .25 

Printing membership blanks 2 .75 

18. Express on proceedings to A. F. Burgess .66 

May 1. Refund from A. F. Burgess for disbursements 9 .80 

$10.46 $33.71 

Balance $23 .25 

1918 

Jan. 1. On hand $23 .25 

Interest from Savings Bank .69 

Feb. 21. Stamps, 1^ $ .75 

75 stamped envelopes, 2i 1 .61 

25. 50 stamped envelopes, 2^ 1 .08 

50 stamps, Iji .50 

May 2. Express on proceedings to Dr. E. P. Felt .57 

$4.51 $23.94 

Balance $19 .43 

1919 

Jan. 1. On hand $19 .43 

9. 100 stamped envelopes, Sji $3 . 14 

Feb. 4. 100 stamps, U 1 .00 

14. 100 stamped envelopes, 3^ 3 . 14 

12. Affiliation fees, A. A. A. Sci. 1918 5 .00 

1919 5.00 

$17.28 $19.43 

Balance $2.15 

Feb. 24. On hand $2.15 

24. Refund from A. F. Burgess to cover above expenditures 22 .45 

Total amount on hand $24 . 60 

Respectfully submitted, 

E. O. EssiG, 
Secretary and Treasurer. 

Chairman Quayle : We will now hear the report of the Xominating Committee. 
R. S. Woglum: Gentlemen, the Nominating Committee present the following 
names for officers for the ensuing year for the Pacific Slope Branch of the American 
Association of Economic Entomologists: 

Chairman — E. M. Ehrhorn, Honolulu, H. T. 
Vice-Cliairman — R. W. Doane, Stanford University, Cal. 
Secretary-Treasurer — E. O. Essig, O.xnard, Cal. 
Chairman II. J. Quayle: I will now instruct the Secretary to cast the ballot 
electing the officers proposed by the Nominating Committee. 
(Ballot cast by the Secretary.) 

Ch.\ihm.\n II. J. Quayle: Is there any further business to come before this 
meeting? If not I declare the meeting adjourned to meet the with Pacific Division 
of the American Association for the Advancement of Sciences wherever the latter 
association decides to meet during tlio year 1920. 



284 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

PROCEEDINGS 

The fourth regular annual meeting of the Pacific Slope Branch of 
the American Association of Economic Entomologists was held at the 
Mission Inn, Riverside, California, in connection with and as a part 
of the State Fruit Growers' Convention. 

The meeting was called to order at 10 o'clock a. m. by the Chairman, 
Prof. H. J. Quayle. 

As the Secretary had not yet arrived, Mr. Roy E. Campbell was 
elected Secretary pro tern. 

Chairman H. J. Quayle opened the meeting with a few informal 
remarks and a welcome to all present. He suggested a closer coordina- 
tion of the endeavors of Western entomological workers, specially 
urging cooperation in the selection and working out of problems of 
importance in order to eliminate duplication of effort in so far as such 
a plan was possible and practical. He then called upon several of 
those present to say a few words. 

Those who were called were Dr. C. L. Marlatt, who brought a 
hearty word of welcome from the Entomological Society of Wash- 
ington. 

Mr. E. M. Ehrhorn briefly described the introduction of parasites 
into the Hawaiian Islands and told of the plant inspection service and 
new equipment for such work at Honolulu. 

Mr. G. M. List spoke of the work being done in Colorado and 
brought greetings from the entomologists there who were unable to 
attend the meeting. 

Chairman Quayle: The first paper on the program is entitled 
"A Suggestion of a Possible Control of Pea and Bean Weevils," by 
Mr. Roy E. Campbell, of the U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Alhambra, 
California. 

A SUGGESTION OF A POSSIBLE CONTROL OF PEA AND 

BEAN WEEVILS 

By Rot E. Campbell, U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Alhambra, Cat. 

During the past several years, the writer has been making an inves- 
tigation of the broad or horse bean weevil [Laria (Bruchus) rufimanaY 
in California, and has observed an example of very good control or 
prevention of infestation by regulating the time of planting the seed. 
The opportunity is now taken to make a note of the observations with 

1 There seems to be some doubt about the proper name of this species. Dr. W. D. 
Pierce gives the generic name Mylabris Geoffroy precedence over Laria Scopoli and 
Bruchus Linneaus, while Dr. F. H. Chittenden favors the genus Laria. 



August, '191 



CAMPBELL: BEAN WEEVIL CONTROL 



285 



the suggestion that the same methods might be apphcable to the pea 
weevil [Laria (Bruchus) pisorum], and possibly to the several bean 
weevils. Dr. F. H. Chittenden is inclined to the belief that in some 
localities, such as Washington, D. C, where two crops of peas can be 
grown each year, late planting will result in sound seed stock, but 
according to available information, this is the first time the matter has 
been definitely followed for several seasons, and by a large number of 
observations and experiments the theory of late planting definitely 
proved. 

The broad bean weevil is found in California wherever broad or 
horse beans are grown, but the principal districts are around San Fran- 
cisco Ba,y, and down the coast to a little below San Luis Obispo. 
Alameda County formerly was the most extensive producing section, 
but due largely to heavy weevil infestation of practically all beans 
grown there, it is now of no commercial importance as a horse bean 
section. The following table, showing the infestation of broad beans 
from the Oceano-Morro and Sacramento districts, from numerous 
samples taken and tested by pure food inspectors of the Bureau of 
Chemistry,^ and by the writer, is typical of all other districts. 

Table L Summary of the 191G, 1917 and 1918 Crop of Broad Beans from the Oceano-Morro 

AND Sacramento Districts 



District 




1916 
Per cent of 
infestation 


1917 
Per cent of 
infestation 


1918 
Per cent of 
infestation 




( Max. 
] Min. 
/ Av. 

( Max. 
■ Min. 
/ Av. 


41 

9,09 

50 

14.5 


63 

12.7 

63 

14.5 


84.3 
1 


Oceano-Morro 


22.4 

17.2 

2.92 



Sacramento is the newest horse bean section, and a glance at the 
table will show that not only the maximum per cent of weevil infesta- 
tion of beans produced there, but also the average, increased each 
year. The low percentage for the Oceano-Morro sections for 1918 
will be explained later. 

Life History 

The eggs are laid on the surface of the green bean pods in the field. 
No eggs were observed by the writer except on the pods, the latter 
varying in size from less than an inch to over five inches. Most of the 
eggs are laid on the larger pods. 

' The writer i.s inclehted to the Western Divi.'^ioii of the Bureau of Chemistry, and 
Mr. M. A. Rex, pure food inspector, for .supplying all the data they had collected on 
the horse bean crop of California for the last four years. 



286 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

The eggs hatch in from 9 to 18 days, the young larvse boring directly 
into the pod, and from thence into the nearest bean, in which they 
feed during the remainder of the larval life. The duration of the latter 
is from 10 to 15 weeks. Pupation takes place within the bean, in the 
cell eaten out by the larva, and requires from 7 to 16 days. 

The adult may emerge from the bean immediately, or remain within 
it for several months. The length of the adult life is from 1 to 8 
months. 

Seasonal History 

While the first eggs are laid soon after the middle of March, and a 
few may be laid as late as the middle of May, the most extensive 
deposition occurs during the month of April. Larvse may be found 
from the latter part of March to the middle of October; pupse from 
the first of August to the latter part of October, and adults from the 
middle of August to the following June. 

Although a few adults live until June, by far the greater number die 
off several months sooner. In storage 90 per cent of the weevils are 
dead by the first of April. Field observations at Hayward showed 
that the first active weevils were observed in broad bean fields on 
March 25, that the number increased until May 4, after which it 
decreased constantly until June 15, the last date any live adults were 
observed in the field. 

Cultural Methods of Control 
Time of Planting 

The planting season for horse beans begins soon after the first fall 
rains, usually in October or November, and contiriues until late spring. 
Horse bean buyers and growers have noticed for some time that beans 
from seed planted early in the season usually have a higher percentage 
of weevil infestation than beans from seed planted later. This was 
checked up by making a table from the data collected by the Bureau 
of Chemistry, whose inspectors, when taking samples of horse beans, 
ascertained as far as possible when the seed had been planted. About 
20,000 sacks from seed lilanted early, that is before January 1, in 1916 
and 1917, gave an average of slightly over 33 per cent of the beans 
infested, while about 7,500 sacks from seed planted late, or after March 
1, averaged 6.4 per cent weevil infested. 

From numerous samples taken of crops planted in certain months 
in the three seasons, 1916 to 1918 inclusive, the following averages 
were obtained: 



August, '19] 



CAMPBELL: BEAN WEEVIL CONTROL 



287 



Table II. Compahison of the Per Cent of Weevil Infestation of Horse Beans Planted m 
Different Months. Figures are Averages for the Three Years, 1916, 1917 and 1918 



Month Planted 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


Per cent infested 


46 


42.3 


16.6 


16.7 


9.7 


11.5 


2.6 


.4 



This was further tested by experimental plantings at Alhambra and 
Hayward during the season of 1917 and 1918, with the following 
results : 

Table III. Averages of the Per Cent of Weevil Infestation in Experimental Plantings 
AT Alhambra and Hayward, during 1917 and 1918 



Month Planted 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 




53.8 


34.9 


14.9 


11 


5.4 


4 


3 5 







It is plainly evident from these tables that the percentage of infes- 
tation is very much less in crops from seed planted late in the season 
than from crops which were planted early. The life history of the 
insect suggests an explanation of this. It was observed that egg depo- 
sition began about March 15, was heaviest in April and ended by the 
middle of May. It seems reasonable to believe that pods produced 
before or during April will be exposed to the greatest egg laying, but 
pods produced after the latter part of April will be subject to little or 
no egg deposition. 

Further evidence on this point is furnished by horse bean growers of 
San Luis Obispo County. It had been the custom there, as elsewhere, 
to begin planting in October or November and continue until May. 
But because of severe infestation of the bean aphis (Aphis rumicis L.) 
on the early planted horse beans for several years, and on the conten- 
tion that horse beans acted as a winter host for this pest, propagating 
it in great numbers, the County Horticultural Commissioner persuaded 
the growers not to plant any horse beans until after ]March 1, in the 
1918 season. The result is shown in Table I, with a maximum of 50 
and 63 per cent of weevil infestation, and averages of 14.5 per cent for 
the 1910 and 1917 crops when the seed was planted both early and 
late, as contrasted with a maximum of only 17.2 per cent and an aver- 
age of 2.92 per cent of weevil infestation for the 1918 crop, when no 
seed was planted until after March 1. Many samples of this season's 
crop were entirely free from infestation, particularly those from seed 
planted in April and May. 

Wlicn the first observations were made on the effect of late planting, 
it was suggested that with an abundaiice of pods available on which to 



288 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

oviposit, the females became spent early in the season, which resulted 
in little or no infestation of beans produced late, but if there were no 
pods in the early part of the season, the females would merely hold 
over until pods were available. The above data definitely shows this 
suggestion not to be the case, because although there were few or no 
horse bean pods in San Luis Obispo County during the regular egg 
laying season of 1918, the females were quite apparently unable to 
hold over and deposit eggs on the later produced pods. 

Therefore, from the figures given in the tables and the experience of 
San Luis Obispo County, the efficiency of late planting as a control for 
the horse bean weevil is definitely proved. It should be noted, in 
passing, that late planting can only be practised where there is an 
abundance of soil moisture, or plenty of water for irrigation, and in 
localities where the spring weather is not too hot or dry. 

Since the pea weevil has a very similar life history, will not such 
methods also apply to it? 



Chairman Quayle : The next paper will be presented by Mr. Harry 
S. Smith, Superintendent of the State Insectary of the State Commis- 
sion of Horticulture, Sacramento, California. He will speak "On 
Some Phases of Insect Control by the Biological Method." 

ON SOME PHASES OF INSECT CONTROL BY THE 
BIOLOGICAL METHOD^ 

By Harry S. Smith, California State Commission of Horticulture, 
Sacramento, California 

The biological method of insect pest control, broadly speaking, 
embraces the use of all natural organic checks, bacterial and fungous 
diseases as well as parasitic and predaceous insects. The remarks in 
this paper, however, refer to the use of entomophagous insects only, 
since the writer has not had an opportunity to make observations 
on the diseases on insects, and conditions in California do not seem 
in general to favor their use as means of pest control. 

From a practical standpoint the biological method may be arbi- 
trarily divided into two sections: First, is the introduction of new 
entomophagous insects which do not occur in the infested region; 
and second, the increasing, by artificial manipulation, of the indi- 
viduals of a species already present in the infested region, in such a 
way as to bring about a higher mortality in their host than would 

1 Occasional contributions from the California State Insectary, No. VI. 



August, '19] SMITH: BIOLOGICAL CONTROL METHODS 289 

have occurred if left to act under normal conditions. The first 
embraces only the establishment of a species in the local fauna, while 
the second involves an attempt to make the entomophagous insects 
continually dominate their host, a condition which cannot prevail 
if nature is left to act unaided. 

So far as the first section of biological control is concerned, ento- 
mologists are, it is believed, pretty well agreed that the introduction 
of as many new beneficial insects as may be obtained is desirable, 
provided only that the work is done with an intelligent understanding 
of the interrelations of entomophagous insects. Dr. L. 0. Howard 
states that " ... since there exist all over the world beneficial 
insects, many of which can undoubtedly be acclimatized here, and 
some of which will undoubtedly prove of value to American agriculture, 
carefully planned work should be begun looking to the ultimate 
increase of our insect population by the addition of as manj'^ of the 
beneficial forms as possible." It is hardly necessary to add that such 
introductions should be made with a proper appreciation of the pos- 
sible results to be obtained and, because of its retarding effect on the 
use of other means of control, over-optimistic and premature advertis- 
ing should be carefully avoided. 

The other section or type of work with entomophagous insects, 
that embracing the artificial manipulation of species already estab- 
lished in the infested area in such a way as to increase greatly their 
numbers and thus to decrease the numbers of their host, has not been 
looked upon with equally great favor by entomologists. 

Biological control by this latter method is based on the proposition 
that fluctuation in abundance of host and parasites may be prevented 
and the host insect kept permanently in subjugation, by maintaining 
a super-abundance of natural enemies in the orchard or field at all 
times. The "balance of nature" is like a pendulum, swinging to and 
fro, the dominance of any species alternating with that of its natural 
checks. The method of control here under consideration is based 
on the assumption that by artificial manipulation the natural checks 
can be made to permanently dominate the species against which they 
exert a controlling influence. There may exist a perfect "balance" in 
the relation between a species and its host and the host still be a pest 
because the number of individuals occurring at the time of greatest 
abundance is sufficient to damage cultivated crops. It is a well- 
known fact that in the relation between host-insect and its natural 
checks there is a point where the natural enemies, having temporarily 
dominated the host, themselves become almost extinct, with the 
result that the remaining individuals of the host are again permitted 
to breed almost without hindrance. This is the strong vantage-point 



290 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

in attack by the biological method because if we can liberate a surplus 
of natural enemies of the pest when they are normally at low ebb, 
the host also being scarce we should be able to prevent the host insect 
from gaining that ascendency which makes it sooner or later a pest. 
Under these conditions many of the natural enemies would, of course, 
die from starvation and the premises would have to be restocked from 
time to time. 

From a biological standpoint the proposition seems a sound one, 
but what entomologists and agriculturists want to know is whether 
or not it can be put into practice. The writer believes that there are 
fundamental principles involved in this work which in the case of 
certain pests would so limit the possibilities that an attempt to apply 
it to field conditions would not be justifiable, while in the case of 
other pests, or under other conditions, the opposite would be true. 
In other words, a decision as to its applicability in the control of any 
pest should be arrived at only after a careful study of each individual 
case with reference to the limiting factors. 

Among the factors which govern the possibilities in this direction 
the following are important : 

1. Comparative Reproductive Capacity or Host and Avail- 
able Entomophagous Insects. This is obviously of much impor- 
tance. If the host insect breeds with great rapidity and the only 
available entomophagous insects are of low reproductive capacity, 
success in the attempt could hardly be expected. 

2. Power of Locomotion of Pest and Natural Enemies. As a 
general rule attempts to control an insect pest by the biological method 
will be undertaken locally, and not over the entire range of the insect. 
If the pest is an active flier, its ability to continually and quickly 
reinfest the area where the attempt is being made would react unfav- 
orably on the effort. If the entomophagous insects are active fliers 
it is possible that their tendency to disperse rapidly from the place 
of liberation may also work against the success of the undertaking. 

3. Sequence of Available Entomophagous Insects. It is very 
desirable, especially where use is being made of parasitic rather than 
predaceous insects, that there be a complete sequence of parasites 
affecting the egg, larva and pupa of the pest. This is for the reason 
that multiple parasitism, or parasitism by two or more different species 
in the same individual of the host insect, at times reduces the efficiency 
of the parasites as a whole. The ideal arrangement would be a single 
efficient parasite for each of the three stages of the host, but this is not 
a necessity, especially if predaceous insects are also employed. 

4. Possibility of Rearing or Obtaining the Entomophagous 
Insects in Sufficient Quantities. This is one of the most impor- 



August, '19] SMITH: BIOLOGICAL CONTROL METHODS 291 

tant factors, and probably is the one which will, more often than any 
■of the others, work against the success of such undertakings. Unless 
the beneficial insects can be either reared or collected in great numbers 
success will not be possible. In cases where the entomophagous 
insect takes readily to rearing in confinement, the possibility of rearing 
or obtaining a host insect in quantity is what limits the undertaking. 
This is in turn limited by the availability of a host plant upon which 
to grow the host-insect. In any event the beneficial insects must be 
had in sufficiently large quantities that they will be enabled to over- 
come the pest in the field. 

5. Cost of Producing Natural Enemies in Comparison with 
Value of Crop and with Artificial Control, if any. The factor 
of cost of production is, of course, one of the most important, since 
the main objective sought in biological control is economy. The cost 
should not even closely approach that of effective artificial control 
if such exists. In the case of the mealy-bugs, where there is no very 
satisfactory artificial control known, the cost factor is not of such very 
great importance, yet it obviously must remain well within the bounds 
of profitable crop production. 

6. Presence of Secondary Parasites in the Local Fauna. The 
retarding effect of the existence in the local fauna of secondary para- 
sites that will strongly attack those with which the work is being 
carried on, must be taken into consideration. Undoubtedly it will 
in some cases be sufficient to render the work unsuccessful, because if 
by artificial manipulation a superabundance of natural enemies of the 
pest is created, conditions will then be ideal for the secondary parasites. 
In most cases it will be practically impossible to foresee just what 
would occur in cases of this kind and a practical attempt would have 
to be made in order to ascertain just what part the secondary parasites, 
and the primary parasites of the predaceous insects, would play. 
Undoubtedly this factor will limit, or entirely prevent, the control of 
many of our insect pests by this method. 

7. Unfavorable Agricultural Practice. Under conditions 
where certain agricultural practices are essential, these will in some 
■cases perhaps make efforts at biological control inadvisable. For 
example, if an orchard is infested with two or more insect posts, one 
of whicli can be controlled by the biological method and tlic other 
cannot be, the latter requiring artificial treatment such as fumigation 
or spraying, such practices, affecting adversely the breeding of natural 
enemies, would make it impractical to attempt to apply the biological 
method as a control for the other pest. 

These are, it is believed, the most important factors which must 
be taken into consideration, in contemplation of any project on the 



292 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol, 12 

biological control of insect pests. There are, of course, many others 
of lesser importance, such as the occurrence of ants in scale-infested 
orchards, cases where the pest exists on a short-lived crop, etc., but 
time will not permit of their being mentioned, nor the discussion of 
the others in detail. This brief outline will perhaps, however, give 
some idea of the several factors which will influence, either favorably 
or unfavorably, attempts to put the biological method into practice. 

This type of pest control has already been put to practical use in 
a limited way in California, and has proven to be a complete success. 
The citrus mealy-bug, which has been one of the most difficult to 
control of all the citrus pests, has been brought into complete subjec- 
tion in several orchards in southern California, through the continued 
liberation of large numbers of entomophagous insects, principally 
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri. These were in part reared by the State 
Insectary, by the use of the potato sprout method developed by the 
writer, and in part collected in orchards where they had become 
abundant late in the season. One cannot, of course, conclude from 
this that the method will prove equally successful against other pests, 
but it does indicate that, where conditions are favorable, results may 
be obtained which will go far toward bringing about economy in pest 
control. 



The discussion of this paper was led by Mr. R. S. Woglum and J. D. 
Neuls. 

Chairman H. J. Quayle: The next paper entitled "Observations 
on Some Mealy-Bugs" will be read by the Secretary in the absence of 
the author Mr. G. F. Ferris: 



OBSERVATIONS ON SOME MEALY-BUGS (HEMIPTERA; 

COCCIDAE) 

By G. F. Ferris, Stanford University, Cal. 

The following notes have to do for the most part with certain 
species which are already of economic importance or may be regarded 
as awaiting only a favorable opportunity to become so. 

1. The proper name of the " Citrophilus " mealy-bug. Unfortu- 
nately the name, Pseudococcus citrophilus, given by Claussen to this 
pernicious species cannot stand, for the species had been described 
only a few months before by Mr. E. E. Green^ as Pseudococcus gahani, 
from specimens taken from Rihes sanguinea in London, England. 

1 Green, E. E., Ent. Mon. Mag., 51: 179; pi. 16, figs. 4r-5. (May, 1915.) 



August, '19] FERRIS: MEALY-BUGS 293 

Suspecting, from the description and figures given by Green, that 
the two were identical I forwarded specimens to him for comparison. 
He informs me that the two are undoubtedly the same. This record 
is a matter of some interest as the species had not before been recorded 
outside of Cahfornia. Here it is without much doubt an introduced 
species and as its original home is unknown all records of its occurrence 
in other lands are of importance as affording possible clues to its origin. 
However, I am inclined to think that it is an alien in England as well 
as here, for it seems doubtful that such a species would so long have 
remained unnoticed. 

The necessity of changing a name as well known as this affords a 
strong argument against the practice of adopting the scientific name 
of a species as its common name also. It may as well be recognized 
that in this group especially stability in nomenclature will certainly 
not be arrived at for many years to come. This is an unfortunate 
condition but it may be greatly ameliorated by the adoption of well 
chosen vernacular names. It is also to be taken as evidence of the 
necessity of studying the scale insects from collections representing the 
widest possible geographical range and not from merely local faunas. 

2. Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrh.) in England and Florida. From 
Mr. E. E. Green I have received for determination specimens of 
a mealy-bug which he informs me occurs on various plants in 
green-houses in England. This is certainly P. maritimus (Ehrh.) 
( = P. bakeri Essig), which has not before been recorded from any point 
outside of the United States. 

From Mr. J. Chaffin of the State Plant Board of Florida I have 
received this same species, from sweet potato, tomato and avocado on 
the Dry Tortugas Islands near Key West. It has not before been 
recorded from this portion of the United States. 

3. Pseudococcus pini (Kuwana) in California. From ]\Ir. H. S. 
Smith I have received specimens of this species from pine in a Japanese 
nursery at Oakland. It was originally described from Japan and has 
not previously been reported from this country, although Mr. Ehrhorn 
informs me that he has seen what was probably this species on pines 
in a nursery at San Jose. I append a redescription of the species. 

4. Pseudococcus brorneliae (Bouche) in Florida. This species 
appears regularly in the "Reports of Pests Intercepted" by the 
various quarantine offices but, as far as I am aware, has not been 
recorded as established in the United States. From Mr. Ghaffin 
I have received specimens from roots of i)anana at Florence \'illa, 
pineapple at Frost Proof and citrus at Ft. Meyers, Florida. The 
existing tlescriptions an* (juitc inadctiuate and I append a redescription. 

5. Pseudoccocus inryatus (Ckll.) in Florida. This widely distributed 



294 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol, 12" 

tropical species appears to have been recorded but once from the 
United States, from "cactus and other plants" at Brownsville, Texas. 
From Mr. J. Chaffin and Mr. C. J. Drake I have received specimens 
taken from Magnolia and mulberry at Gainesville, Oleander at Key 
West and "undetermined weed " at Winter Haven, Florida. I append 
a redescription of this species also. 

6. Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana), a dangerous mealy-bug. 
Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana) was originally described from speci- 
mens taken from mulberry and maple in Japan, In a sending of 
mealy-bugs recently received from Mr. Kuwana there were included 
specimens of this species from a long series of hosts, including the 
following: Castanea, cherry, citrus, Eleagnus, Euonymus, Kraunhia, 
melon, persimmon and peach. What is unmistakably the same 
species occurs in the eastern part of the United States, Professor Doane 
having taken specimens from apple, horsechestnut, Hydrangea, maple, 
mulberry, wild cherry and some other hosts on Staten Island, New 
York. Professor Doane informs me that in this locality the species 
is a serious pest and that some of the mulberry trees have been much 
injured by it. I have received the same species from various hosts 
in Maryland, also. 

From the facts recited above it is obvious that this species is a 
worthy candidate for admission to that select fraternity which includes 
Pseudococcus citri, gahani, longispinus and maritimus. Its introduc- 
tion into California is certainly to be feared. 

There occurs on the Monterey pines on the Campus of Stanford 
University a mealy-bug that I have not been able to separate from P. 
comstocki. However, the behavior of these local representatives is 
beyond reproach. They appear to be confined to the pines; they are 
relatively few ; they are heavily parasitized ; there are apparently but 
one or two generations per year. It is probable that this represents 
a monophagous strain or race of this species and that its spread to 
other hosts is not to be feared. 

I have described this species in an earlier paper dealing with the 
California species of mealy-bugs and shall not consider it further here. 

The Mealy-Bug at Ojai 

From Mr. H. S. Smith and from Mr. E. O. Essig I have received 
specimens of a mealy-bug taken from citrus at Ojai. In regard to the 
identity of this species there is unquestionably room for argument. 
Basing my opinion entirely upon shde mounts I have said that while 
the species is undoubtedly very close to P. citri it is apparently distinct 
and that of the species known to me it most closely approaches P. 
kraunhice (Kuwana) from Japan. Extreme examples are easily 



August, '19] FERRIS: MEALY-BUGS 295 

separable from citri but it must be admitted that some examples are 
not. The form may be merely an extreme variant of citri or it may 
be a race or strain — call it what you please. 

Mr. Smith and Mr. Armitage inform me that from field observations 
they are convinced that this is not citri and Mr. Woglum states that 
from a superficial examination only he too is inclined to agree with 
this viewpoint. I have previously noted the species in my paper 
on the California mealy-bugs but in view of its possible importance 
and its close resemblance to citri more extended studies are desirable, 
the description which I have given needing to be amplified. I shall 
not here attempt such a study. 

Descriptions of Species 
Pseudococcus pini (Kuwana) 





Fig. 15. Pseudococcus pini (Kuwana): left, anal lobe and penultimate cerarii; 
right, ventral side of anal lobe. 

Habit. The original description of this species contains but httle 
information concerning its appearance in life, nor, from the material 
that I have examined can I add anything. Judging from the mor- 
phology of the species, however, it will have much the appearance of 
P. citri, but the marginal tassels will not be present anterior to the 
abdomen. The species probably does not secrete a large ovisac. 
Body contents reddish. 

Morphological Characteristics. With but five or six pairs of cerarii, these 
on the last five or six segments of the abdomen. Each cerarius with two rather slen- 
der, conical spines, with a very few pores and without auxiliary seta? except for a 
few about tlie anal lobe pair. Spines of the anal lobe cerarii largest, the others becom- 
ing progressively smaller anteriorly. Ventral side of the anal lobes normally with a 
small but well defined, chitinized bar extending in from the base of the minor seta. 
There is some variation in this character and in some specimens it appears not to be 
developed. Spines of the dorsum rather few and small, their ba.ses rather stout, 
their tips tending to be somewhat flagellate, those of the head longer and more slender 
than the others. Ventral seta; longer and more slender than those of the dorsum. 



296 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 



[Vol. 12 



Tubular ducts apparently few, all small and without a raised rim about the mouth, 
not at all concentrated near the lateral margins of the abdominal segments. Legs 
and antenna} presenting no distinctive characters. Anal lobe and anal ring setae 
approximately equal, two or three times as long as the diameter of the anal ring. 

Material Examined. Specimens from the type material; from 
pine, Kiushiu, Japan; from Pinus thunbergii, Yokohama, Japan; from 
pine in a Japanese nursery at Oakland, California. 

Notes. This species very closely resembles another that I take 
to be P. azalecc (Tins.), of which I have specimens from numerous 
hosts in Japan. The two differ chiefly in the fact that in the latter 
species the tubular ducts are very numerous and are concentrated 
near the lateral margins of the abdominal segments and also in the 
fact that in this species the derm of the adult tends to be of a bluish 
color and the body contents black. 

Pseudococcus hromelia; (Bouche) 




Fig. 16. Pseudococcus hromelim (Bouche): left, penultimate and anal lobe cer- 
arii; right, ventral side of anal lobe; above a disproportionately enlarged dorsal spine. 



Habit. The existing descriptions of the species are not especially 
definite in regard to the appearance of the species in life and I can 
add but little. The marginal tassels are quite long, the caudal pair 
being but little longer than the others. Apparently the species does 
not form an ovisac. 

Morphological Characteristics. With seventeen pairs of cerarii, all with 
auxiliary setae, with numerous pores and in part with three or more cerarian spines. 
There is some variation in regard to the number of cerarian spines but in general the 
arrangement is as follows. Anal lobe pair always with but two; four or five pairs 
anterior to these and the first three on the head normally with three or four spines; 
remainder normally with but two. The spines of the anal lobe pair are largest. No 
chitinized areas about any of the cerarii, except sometimes a faintly indicated area 



August, '19] FERRIS: MEALY-BUGS 297 

about those of the anal lobes. Ventral side of the anal lobes with a quite large chitin- 
ized area extending in from the base of the anal lobe setae. Dorsal body setae rather 
few, small, stiiT. Ventral setae likewise few, slender, longer than those of the dorsum. 
Tubular ducts for the most part confined to the venter, all small and without a raised 
rim about the mouth. Anal ring of ordinary character. Anal lobe and anal ring 
setae about equal, about one and one-half times as long as the diameter of the anal 
ring. Antennae and legs presenting no unusual characters. 

Material Examined. From pineapples at quarantine from 
Hawaii and West Indies; from roots of banana at Florence Villa; 
pineapple at Frost Proof and citrus at Ft. Meyers, Florida. 

Pseudococcus virgatus (Ckll.) 




Fig. 17. Pseudococcus virgatus (Ckll.): dorsal aspect of anal lobe and portion of 
penultimate segment. 

Habit. A rather slender form, attaining a length of 4.5 mm. 
Thinly dusted with powdery secretion, with a pair of longitudinal 
submedian dark stripes. Caudal tassels attaining about half the 
length of the body, lateral tassels lacking. Dorsum bearing numerous 
delicate, glassy, waxen threads which arise from near the margins. 
Viviparous. 

Morphological Characteristics. With but a single pair of cerarii, these on the 
rather prominent anal lobes, each with two (or sometimes three) quite largo cerarian 
spines, numerous, but scattered, pores and a few slender seta>. The cerarii are not 
surrounded by a chitinized area. Ventral side of the anal lobes sometimes with a 
very small, cliitiui/.ed area, whicli is normally lacking. The most con.si)icuous feature 
of the species is the i)resence of numerous, unusually large ducts, the mouths of 
which are surrounded by a small, chitinized area which bears from one to four small 
seta;. It is from these ducts that tlic glassy threads, which arc .so conspicuous in the 
living in.sect, arise. The arrangement of these ducts is fairly (Icfiiiite. Kxcept for a 



298 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

median pair on three or four abdominal segments and an occasional duct on the dor- 
sum of the thorax they are confined to the lateral margins, there being normally six 
or seven at each lateral margin of the penultimate segment and two or three at each 
lateral margin of the other abdominal segments (except the last) and the thoracic 
segments also, together with an indefinite number on the head. Dorsal body setae 
relatively few, small and slender. Ventral setai much longer. Anal ring noticeably 
large, rather weakly developed. Anal ring seta; about twice as long as the diameter 
of the anal ring and slightly shorter than the anal lobe seta;. Antenna; and legs 
rather slender, the antennae eight-segmented, the claw without a tooth. 

Material Examined. From various hosts in Hawaii, Philippine 
Islands and Nicaragua and from the following hosts and localities 
in Florida; mulberry and Magnolia at Gainesville; undetermined 
weed at Winter Haven; Oleander at Key West. 

Notes. This is far from being a typical Pseudococcus. In the 
nature of the ducts it resembles Phenacoccus stachyos Ehrh., but the 
latter has nine-segmented antennae, eighteen pairs of cerarii and a 
tooth on the claw. 

Synonymy of Some Coccid^ 
Pseudococcus quercus (Ehrh.) 

1900. Dacfv/Zopws grnercMS Ehrh., Can. Ent., 32: 220. (Part.) 

1910. Pseudococcus agrifolice Essig; Essig, Pomona Col. Jn. Ent., 2: 147-148, figs. 

60B, 60C. (Misidentification.) 

1918. Pseudococcus quercicolus Ferris, CaUf. Species Mealy-Bugs, Stanford Univ. 

Publ., p. 50, pi. 2, f. 18. 

Through the kindness of Mr. Ehrhorn I have been enabled to 
examine the type slide of Pseudococcus quercus. The slide contains 
two specimens, of which one is P. crawii (Coq.) and the other P. 
quercicolus Ferris. This being the case the name quercus, which I 
have previously placed as a synonym of crawii may be revived for 
P. quercicolus. 

Lachnodius phoradendri( Ckll.) 

1912. Pseudococcus phoradendri Ckll., Jn. N. Y. Ent. Soc, 20: 133. 

1919. Lachnodius salicis Ferris, Contrib. Knowl. Coccidse Sw. U. S., Stanford Univ. 

Publ., p. 23, f. 7. 

Through the kindness of Professor Cockerell I have been enabled 
to see a slide from the type material of Pseudococcus phoradendri Ckll. 
There can be but little doubt that my Lachnodius salicis is the same. 

Cryptoripersia arizonensis (Ehrh.) 

1899. Ripersia arizonensis Ehrh., Can. Ent., 31:6. 

1901. Ripersia trichura Ckll., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), 7: 55. 

1911. Eriococcus salinus Ehrh., Can. Ent., 43:276. 



August, '19] FERRIS: MEALY-BUGS 299 

1918. Cryptoripersia salinus (Ehrh.); Ferris, Calif. Species Mealy-Bugs, Stanford 

Univ. Publ., p. 74, pi. 3, f. 30. 

1919. Cryptoripersia arizonensis (Ehrh.); Ferris, Contrib. Knowl. Coccidae Sw. U. S., 

Stanford Univ. Publ., p. 34. 

Professor Cockerel) has kindly sent me a slide of his Ripersia trichura 
from the type material. This is structurally identical with C. arizon- 
ensis (Ehrh.). The fact that the specimens are smaller than arizon- 
ensis and were not enclosed in a sac may be taken merely as evidence 
that they were not fully grown. 



The paper on mealy-bugs was received with much interest and a 
general discussion was entered into, led by H. S. Smith, E. M. Ehrhorn, 
A. A. Brock, R. S. Woglum. 

Chairman H. J. Quayle: The next topic on the program is an 
illustrated lecture by Mr. D. B. Mackie, southern field deputy of the 
State Commission of Horticulture on ''Migratory Locusts in the 
Philippine Islands." Mr. Mackie has had a large experience in 
entomological work in the Philippines and his talk will be very inter- 
esting I am sure. 

(No paper was presented for publication.) 

Chairman H. J. Quayle: This will end the program for this 
morning. The proceedings will be continued at the same place this 
afternoon beginning at 2 o'clock p. m. (Recess.) 

Afternoon Meeting 

The meeting was called to order by Chairman H. J. Quayle at 
2 p. m, E. O. Essig acted as Secretary. 

Chairman H. J. Quayle: The first paper this afternnon will be 
presented by Mr. Geo. M. List, whose subject is "The Alfalfa Weevil 
in Colorado." 

(Paper withdrawn for publication elsewhere.) 

Chairman H. J. Quayle: Prof. Ceorge P. Gray of the Insecticide 
Laboratory of the University of California has recently conducted 
some very interesting investigations relative to liquid hydrocyanic 
acid gas. He will present the next paper entitled "The Physical 
and Chemical Properties of Liquid Hydrocyanic Acid." 

(Paper withdrawn for publication elsewhere.) 

Chairman PI. J. Quayle: Inasnuich as there are several other 
papers yet to follow on this subject of li([uid hydrocyanic acid gas, 
I am going to suggest that we defer discussion until after all of the 
speakers have finished. 

The next paper by Mr. P. S. Woglum of the Bureau of Entomology 



300 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

is entitled "A Dosage Schedule for Citrus Trees with Liquid Hydro- 
cyanic Acid." 

(Paper not presented for publication.) 

Chairman H. J. Quayle: The next paper is entitled "The Strati- 
fication of Liquid Hydrocyanic Acid as Related to Orchard Fumi- 
gation." It has been prepared by Mr. R. S. Woglum and M. B. 
Rounds both of the Bureau of Entomology and will be presented by 
Mr. Rounds. 

THE STRATIFICATION OF LIQUID HYDROCYANIC ACID AS 
RELATED TO ORCHARD FUMIGATION 

By R. S. Woglum and M. B. Rounds, Bureau of Entomology, 
Department of Agriculture, Alhambra, Col. 

The use in orchard fumigation in California of liquid hydrocyanic 
acid sometimes containing a large per cent of water has brought forth 
the question "Does this chemical ever stratify?" The prevalent 
opinion among those who have worked most with this active agent 
appears to be that stratification is improbable even when liquid 
hydrocyanic acid of widely different strengths or even liquid hydro- 
cyanic acid and water are brought together in any proportion, and 
this view, at first, was accepted by the writers. The definite assertion 
to the senior writer by Mr. S. A. Stowell, an experienced fumigator, 
that he had drawn water and hydrocyanic acid from the same drum 
led to the outlining of a series of experiments in an endeavor to settle 
this point. 

The first experiment which was performed by Mr. H. D. Young by 
slowly bringing together liquid hydrocyanic acid and tap water gave 
definite stratification. This preliminary experiment was followed by 
many others during which liquid hydrocyanic acid was added to tap 
and distilled water and vice versa; also liquid hydrocyanic acid of 
widely separated purities were brought together. In this work glass 
bottles were used each first being half-filled with material to which 
the second liquid was added slowty by means of a pipette. The bottles 
were not shaken. Typical experiments are herewith presented in 
brief. 

In each of these eleven experiments stratification occurred regardless 
of the order in which the different liquids were added; the effect was 
similar whether the water was added to the hydrocyanic acid or the 
hydrocyanic acid to the water. Distilled water reacted in a manner 
similar to tap water. Each of these experiments was repeated and 
many others of like nature were performed. In every instance in 



August, '19] WOLGUM AND ROUNDS: LIQUID HYDROCYANIC ACID 301 

Table 1. Table Representing the Results of Experiments on Stratification 



Ejtperiment 
Number 


Size of 
Bottle 


Liquid in Lower 
Half of Bottle 


Liquid Added 

to Half-Filled 

Bottle 


Cloudiness of 
Milky Appearance 


Stratification 


1 


Igal. 


tap water 


92% HCN 


Yes 


Yes 


2 


1 gal. 


J i tap water 1 
1 i 50% HCNi / 


i 92% " 


" 




3 


Igal. 


i50% " I 


i 92% " 


" 




4 


8 oz. 


tap water 


96% " 


" 




5 


" 


dis. water 


96% " 


" 




6 


" 


96% HON 


dis. water 


" 




7 


" 


tap water 


91% HCN 


No 




8 


" 


dis. water 


91% " 


No 




9 


" 


50% HCNi 


92% " 


Yes 




10 


" 


92% " 


dis. water 


No 




11 




92% " 


tap water 


No 





I Cloudiness in sample formed by diluting 96 per cent hydrocyanic acid to make a 50 per cent 
solution. 



which the liquids were brought together slowly, stratification occurred. 
One series of bottles left undisturbed for several weeks showed distinct 
stratificiation throughout this period. If, however, the materials 
were brought together violently and thoroughly shaken stratification 
was not produced. 

When liquid hydrocyanic acid was allowed to flow slowly into water 
near the surface level it rose to the surface and did not mix freely with 
the water. Ultimately a layer or stratum was formed between the 
heavier lower liquid and the lighter upper one. When water was 
added slowly to liquid hydrocyanic acid it flowed through the liquid 
to the bottom of the bottle forcing the lighter chemical to the top, 
and showed a distinct stratum between the two liquids. In some 
cases this stratum between the two liquids was transparent and 
detected only by close examination, or agitation of the bottle. In 
other cases a cloudiness or milky appearance was observed when water 
and hydrocyanic acid were mixed and this precipitate ultimately 
collected in the middle layer to which it gave a whitish gelatinous 
appearance. (PI. 14, fig. 1.) When allowed to stand in bottles un- 
disturbed for a short time a vigorous shaking was necessary to break 
up this layer. 

This milkincss occurcd only with liquid hydrocyanic acid taken 
from galvanized iron drums. A chemical examination of the acid 
taken from drums showed it to contain traces of zinc in solution whereas 
the liquid hydrocyanic acid which produced no precipitate had been 
in glass containers and upon examination was found to contain no 
zinc. Since zinc was in solution in the liquid hydrocyanic acid and 
since zinc compounds with cyanogen arc known to be in.soluble in 
water, it woukl seem apparent that tlie precipitate formed was some 
compound of this metal. The presence of a gelatinous precipitate 



302 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

in the bottom of drums and in machines for applying the gas was often 
noted in field work during this past season, and was a source of inter- 
ference with accurate action of the pump. 

Actual proof of the fact that where liquids of widely varying purity 
are brought together stratification may take place and the relation 
thereto of zinc compounds present features of importance in field 
practice. In the first place only liquids of uniformly high purity 
should be used thereby to prevent stratification which might occur 
if materials of widely different strengths from two or more containers 
are poured together. Metals containing zinc should not be brought in 
contact with liquid hydrocyanic acid . When drums are washed out with 
water after use in the field they should be thoroughly dried before 
being refilled. Furthermore, that stratification may hasten decompo- 
sition is shown by one experiment in which a gallon bottle half full of 
tap water was filled with 92 per cent hydrocyanic acid from a galvanized 
iron drum. A few days following the experiment decomposition 
started immediately below the middle layer which held the precipitate 
and within two weeks the lower half of the bottle was dark brown in 
color. The top layer remained perfectly clear until the completion 
of the experiment when the bottle was discarded to avoid explosion. 



Chairman H. J. Quayle: These three papers are now open for 
discussion. 

Prof. Geo. P. Gray: Our conclusions are the same regarding 
liquid HON and its abihty to stratify. 

R. S. Woglum: There are a few rather interesting points which 
I wish to call your attention to in connection with our studies of 
liquid HON. 

Where the liquid is taken from iron drums the gelatine percipitate 
is hard to mix with the liquid HON and stratification may be present 
when it is used. 

There has been more daylight fumigation during the past summer 
with liquid HON than ever before under the old system of fumiga- 
tion. However I do not believe in daylight fumigation because the 
chances for burning are too great. In hot weather the gas from liquid 
HON stays near the bottom of the tents and gives relatively better 
killings in the lower portions of the trees. At 40° F. the killing is 
rather poor, although it lasiy be said that in lower temperatures 
the best killings are at the top of the trees. 

Chairman H. J. Quayle: Our experiences show that there is 
less dijffusion in low temperatures. At a temperature of 50° F. there 




-^ o 



fi ^ 



August, '19] SEVERIN: BEET LEAFIIOPPER BEHAVIOR 303 

is a difference of 10 per cent between the top and bottom of the tent 
with the greater concentration and killing at the bottom. At a 
temperature of 70° F. there is better diffusion and a more even 
killing throughout the whole tent. 

If there is no further discussion we shall pass on to the next paper 
which was to have been presented by Dr. H. P. Severin of the Univer- 
sity of California. As he could not be present I am going to ask Mr. 
C. F. Stahl, of the Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, who is at present time located in Riverside studying the 
sugar beet leafhopper, and who has been doing considerable work 
on this insect for several years to read the paper which is entitled 
"Notes on the Behavior of the Beet Leafhopper. " 

Mr. C. F. Stahl: Dr. Severin has prepared two very interesting 
papers on the beet leafhopper, both of which throw new light upon this 
insect. The title of the first paper has already been announced and 
the subject matter follows: 

NOTES ON THE BEHAVIOR OF THE BEET LEAFHOPPER 
(EUTETTIX TENELLA BAKER) 

By Henry H, P. Severin, Ph.D., California Agricultural Experiment Station 

Sexual Behavior 

Dr. E. D. BalP noticed a swarming of the beet leafhopper (Eutettix 
tenella Baker) "near Pauguitch, Utah, at an elevation of 7,000 feet, 
just at the time the immense swarms swept over the beet regions of 
Utah in 1915. They were first observed in the evening just as the 
sun was setting and at this time were flying around and hovering over 
a little patch of young pigweed"; this was interpreted as an evening 
rest while migrating. "The next morning they were there in numbers, 
but quite sluggish with the cold. When this patch was \Tisited a little 
later they were gone and none could be found in the valley." This 
observation was made in a mountain valley "above the limit of beet 
raising and no doubt above the limit of their breeding range," and was 
located in the approach to a mountain pass leading over to the southern 
desert. 

In California the writer saw apparently the same ])ohavior at 130 
feet below sea level in the Imperial Valley and freciucntly in the beet 
fields and also on the plains of the San Joaquin Valley. The behavior 
is associated with mating and was first studied at Ilebcr in the Imperial 
Valley on June 3-9, 191S, where an enormous congregation of nymphs 
and adults had occurred on the Nettle Leaf Gooscfoot {Chcnopodium 

1 BaU, E. D., 1917. Utah Agr. Exp. Sta., Rul. 155, pp. 28-29. 



304 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol, 12 

murale) growing near dried Atriplex elegans. The different phases of 
the sexual behavior were observed through a reading glass having a 
diameter of six inches and a long focal distance. 

During the week in which the sexual behavior was studied at Heber, 
the beet leafhoppers began to clean their bodies before sundown 
between 6.30 and 6.45 p. m. The wings were stroked and occasionally 
raised with the hind legs, the middle and front legs cleaning the rest of 
the body. Before sundown 20 adults were collected with a pipette 
while they were engaged in cleaning movements and of this number 12 
were males and 8 were females. Even the nymphs were aroused to 
activity at sunset and cleaned their bodies. 

On June 8, a partial eclipse of the sun caused a drop in the tempera- 
ture but the cleaning reaction started at 6.30 p. m. Observations at 
Mount Wilson Observatory showed that the solar eclipse began at 2 
minutes after 3 o'clock, and ended at 38 minutes after 5 o'clock. At 
the turning point, 4.21 o'clock, 74 per cent of the sun's surface was 
obscured. 

After the male has cleaned his body he may rest for a time ; he then 
walks forward a short distance at the same time fluttering his wings ; 
he stops suddenly for an instant and moves forward again in the same 
manner and so on. During the week, 55 adults showing this behavior 
were captured with a pipette before sundown and all proved to be 
males. The males walked about on the stem, leaves and cluster of 
seeds and when one discovered a female he sidled up to her with wings 
elevated on one side of the body and endeavored to copulate. If the 
female is not inclined to mate, she may kick viciously with her hind 
legs at the male and if he persists in his attentions, she may walk or 
fly away. The male often takes short flights in seeking his mate. 
Sometimes a male may force his attention on a nymph and cause the 
latter to rear up the abdomen and kick with the hind legs or the nymph 
may walk or hop away. 

After sundown on a calm evening, both male and female adults were 
aroused to an unusual activity and took short flights about the weed. 
Hundreds of leafhoppers on the wing swarmed about the plants. 
Many specimens came to rest on my clothes, face, hands and reading 
glass, but just for a few moments and then they took wing again. 
Twenty-three beet leafhoppers were taken on my clothes and of this 
number 18 were males and 5 were females. 

After darkness had set in about 9 p. m. a light thrown on the Nettle 
Leaf Goosefoot with a flash light showed that the hoppers were at rest 
on the weed. During the nights of June 7-8, 49 specimens at rest 
were caught and of this number 25 were males and 24 were females. 

The cleaning movements and sexual behavior were observed in sugar 



August, '19] SEVERIN: BEET LEAFHOPPER BEHAVIOR 305 

beet fields at Le Grand on July 12, and at Manteca on August 31. At 
Le Grand the males took short flights from beet to beet or somewhat 
longer flights from 5-10 feet. 

During the last week in October the sexual behavior was observed 
on the plains adjacent to about 50 square miles of Russian Thistles 
{Salsola kali var. tenuifolia) interspersed with patches of Fog Weeds 
(Atriplex expansa) growing in the vicinity of Oro Loma in the San 
Joaquin Valley. The plains extended about 3 miles to the foothills 
of the Coast Range and on both, the beet leafhoppers were captured 
on Red Stem Filaree {Erodium cicutarium) during the daytime. A 
quarter of an hour before the sun sank behind the mountains, an occa- 
sional adult was taken on the wing, but the number of flying speci- 
mens gradually increased after sundown (5.05 p. m.). The bugs did 
not orient themselves with reference to the light northwest wind but 
flew about in all directions. A person standing quietly on the plains 
soon became covered with hoppers but the insects seemed to be 
extremely restless, pausing for a short time and then taking wing 
again. The males flitted their wings in walking about but the females 
remained inactive. At one time 6 males circled around or sidled up to 
a female, At 5.15 the first pair in coition was taken and mating con- 
tinued until dark. (See Plate 15.) 

The windshield of an automobile attracted hundreds of beet leaf- 
hoppers after sundown and resembled the swarming of enormous num- 
bers of insects around an electric arc lamp. An insect-net was moved 
back and forth in front of the windshield and the following proportion 
of male and female specimens were taken on the plains near Oro Loma 
on October 31: 



Light males 


Dark males 


Light females 


Dark females 


Total 


58 


252 





34 


344 


17% 


73% 




10% 





Does the sexual behavior occur at sunrise? Observations were 
made at sunrise during two mornings on the Nettle Leaf Goosefoot 
at Hebcr in the Imperial Valley. The mornings were cool and at 
sunrise the hoppers did not stir. An occasional specimen was 
noticed cleaning its bod}' between 6-7 a. m. but no sexual activity 
was observed. 

When beet leafhoppers were required from shrubby perennial Atriplex 
for experimental purposes, advantage was taken of the fact that the 
adults arc aroused to activity at sunset and arc taken more abundantly 
after sundown than during the daytime. One of many tests will be 
given. Two persons swept Cattle Spinach (Atriplex polycarpa) with 
an insect-net for an hour during the afternoon and the same shrubs 
were swept for half an hour after sundown with the following results: 



306 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Cattle Spinach, Four Miles South of Shafter, October 28, 1918 

2.40 to 3.40 p. m. 

Light males Dark males Light females Dark females Total 

12 3 9 24 

5.15 to 5.45 p. m. 

56 4 5 61 126 

In all probability, the hoppers remain within the shrubs during the 
daytime, and come to the outer branches and foliage at sunset. 

During the summer a student was employed for a week to capture 
E. tenella on sugar beets and he caught as many leafhoppers after sun- 
set when no heavy winds were blowing as he did during the entire day. 

Nocturnal Habit 

E. tenella is a nocturnal insect and displays a considerable amount 
of activity at night. Tanglefoot fly paper was fastened to barren 
sandy soil and on boards attached about two feet above the ground at 
9 p. m. in the vicinity of the Nettle Leaf Goosefoot on which an enor- 
mous congregation of nymphs and adults had occurred at Heber in the 
Imperial Valley. The next morning before dayUght adults were found 
adhering to the fly paper. 

The nymphs also move about at night and seek new food plants 
when the vegetation on which they are feeding becomes dry. Strips 
of tanglefoot fly paper were fastened to the sand at night midway 
between a dried patch of Nettle Leaf Goosefoot and a half dozen green 
plants. The next morning at 4 a. m. 9 nymphs and 5 adults were 
found on the fly paper. 

There is some evidence to show that the nymphs will leave green 
plants and wander about on the ground at night. Strips of tanglefoot 
fly paper were fastened to the sand at night on all sides of an isolated 
Nettle Leaf Goosefoot plant, at a distance of one yard from the ter- 
minal end of the branches. The next morning before daylight 12 
nymphs and 4 adults were found sticking to the fly paper. 

During the night large numbers of nymphs and adults left green 
Nettle Leaf Goosefoot plants and were found on the sand below the 
weeds before daylight on the next morning. When tanglefoot fly 
paper was fastened to the sand directly below the branches at night 
several hundred nymphs and numerous adults were found the next 
morning. Nymphs and adults, however, were also abundant on the 
stems, leaves and cluster of seeds of this weed at 4 a. m. Do the hop- 
pers seek the warmth of the sand during the night? 



August, '19] SEVERIN: BEET LEAFHOPPER BEHAVIOR 307 

Reaction to Heat 

It is a well known fact that the larvae of certain pests are killed when 
they come in contact with soil on hot days and hence several trials 
were made with nymphs of E. tenella. In one test 100 nymphs col- 
lected on the Nettle Leaf Goosefoot at Heber in the Imperial Valley 
were dropped on soil in a depression which had been irrigated and 
baked into a hard crust. When the insects came in contact with the 
hot ground they hopped about at a lively rate. A large specimen was 
followed and it soon became evident that the distance of each leap 
became shorter and shorter. Oftentimes the hopper fell on its back 
after a jump and experienced difficulty in righting itself. At the end 
of 20 minutes the creature was Ijdng on its back and made no further 
effort to move. It had hopped 15 feet from the point of liberation. 
The experiment was repeated several times and in each case the manph 
died. The thermometer registered 110° F. in the shade. 

Phototaxis 

On rare occasions the beet leafhopper is attracted to electric lamps. 
At Coalinga in the San Joaquin Valley, the adults were taken on a glass 
show case situated below a 200 watt ''Daylight Lamp," on show win- 
dows and in bowls enclosing incandescent electric lamps fastened to 
the ceiling at the entrance of stores. The following figures give the 
proportion of sexes : 

Males Females Total 

July 15/18 3 26 29 

Aug. 3/18 21 113 134 

24 139 163 

14% 85% 

At Coalinga the adults showed a positive reaction to an auto spot 
light and left the Fog Weed and congregated on the soil illuminated 
by the lamp. When the spot light was held a few feet from the hoppers 
some of the specimens flew to the light. Similar results were obtained 
near Shafter on July 18. 

In the Imperial Valley enormous numbers of Jassids were attracted 
to electric lamps in cantaloupe packing sheds on calm evenings. A 
single female beet leafhopper was captured at Heber on June 7, but 
not another specimen was taken from June 8-15. 

Reaction to Shadow 

When a person walked past a Nettle Leaf Goosefoot plant a swarm 
of adults flew up, some settled on the ground but most of them came 
to rest upon the weed. Before and after sunrise, however, the hoppers 



308 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

did not respond, probably due to the lower temperatures. When a 
person stood perfectly quiet near a plant and a shadow was thrown 
on the weed, some of the leafhoppers immediately flew about. When 
an insect-net was moved about but without casting a shadow upon the 
plant, the bugs did not fly from the weed. Evidently the insects do 
not respond to a moving object but a shadow arouses some of them to 
activity. 



Chairman H. J. Quayle : I see Prof. Doane is here now. We will 
listen to his paper on "Weevils in Australian Wheat in California." 

WEEVILS IN AUSTRALIAN WHEAT IN CALIFORNIA 

By R. W. Doane, Stanford University, California. Collaborator, Bureau of Ento- 
mology, U. S. Department Agriculture 

The great demand for vessels of all kinds that came with the begin- 
ning of the late war soon interrupted the normal movement of food- 
stuffs in all parts of the world. In a very short time the serious 
results of this restricted movement began to be apparent in many 
quarters. Vast quantities of food that were badly needed elsewhere 
began to accumulate in certain centers where no provision was ever 
made to handle it in such unusual amounts. 

One of the most serious situations brought about by this condition 
was the accumulation of millions of bushels of wheat in the AustraUan 
and New Zealand seaports, where most of it had to lay for many 
months; some for three or four years, awaiting shipment. It was 
inevitable that the weevils and other insects should take advantage of 
such an opportunity to wax fat and multiply. 

I have not seen any account of the work that has been done in 
Australia in the efforts to control the weevils there, but I have had 
an opportunity to inspect much of the wheat that has come into San 
Francisco and Los Angeles from Australia, and to see the way in which 
the mills here handle the infested grain. 

The wheat was imported by the Grain Corporation of the United 
States Food Commission, and sold to the mills that seemed to need 
it most. Most of it went to mills in San Francisco and Vallejo, but 
some went to Stockton and some to Los Angeles and vicinity, and 
smaller amounts to Oregon and Arizona. All of the mills receiving 
this wheat were working on government contracts, furnishing the 
government a certain amount of flour or other products. The Grain 
Corporation assumed no control over the wheat after it was taken 
from the docks by the mills. 



August, '19] DOANE: AUSTRALIAN WHEAT WEEVILS 309 

The first few lots of this wheat came on some of the steamers that 
ply regularly between San Francisco and AustraUa. These steamers 
make the trip in about twenty days. Most of the wheat, however, 
has been shipped on sailing vessels requiring eighty or ninety days 
or more to make the trip. I am told that one vessel was at sea nearly 
six months before it finally reached San Francisco. 

Of course these long trips, mostly through tropical waters, give 
time for the wheat to become thoroughly warmed. Unfortunately 
we did not take any temperature tests in the holds of these vessels, but 
several times it was found that the wheat in the sacks would feel very 
warm and this heat would be retained for several hours after the sacks 
were stacked on the docks. So the number of insects in these cargoes 
was doubtless much greater when the ships reached San Francisco 
than when they left Australia, as conditions were almost ideal for 
their development. But the great amount of wheat that had been 
cut by the weevils and the masses of insects that were found on and 
throughout the sacks that came on the steamers in the earlier ship- 
ments, showed that most of the damage must have been done while 
the wheat was still in storage in Australia. 

There was a great deal of difference in the amount of infestation 
in the different sacks in all of the shipments. Some sacks showed 
but little injury due to the beetles, in other sacks we would find 80 
per cent to 90 per cent of the grain injured or destroyed by the 
weevils. A handful of the grain taken from the sack would sometimes 
contain from six to fifteen or more weevils. These badly infested 
sacks were usually covered with the beetles that were coming from the 
wheat, and the flour or dust from the injured grains was sifting through 
the exit holes made by the beetles. 

In San Francisco most of this wheat was hauled from the docks 
to the mills and parried by conveyers directly to the bins where it 
was stored until needed. Usually the miller began to draw on this 
supply at once, for few, if any, of the companies had any reserve. 
Before the wheat was stored in the bins it passed through screens to 
take out the straws, unthrashed heads and other large rubbish. As 
it was drawn off for use it passed through suction cleaners that drew 
off the light grain, weed seeds, weevils, etc. These screenings were 
placed in sacks and disposed of in various ways. If they contained 
a good deal of grain they were often sold for chicken or hog or sheep 
feed, or ground in the atrition mill for ground feed. Some of the lots 
that contained but little wheat and much smut and many beetles and 
weed seeds, were burned or thrown into the bay. 

Although we all recognized that burning was the safest way to 
handle these screenings, it did not scorn achisablc to destroy the lots 



310 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

that contained a considerable amount of wheat that might be used 
for feed, especially if we could in some way destroy the beetles so they 
would not be a source of danger wherever the feed was used. 

Carbon bisulphide could not be used for this purpose as the mills 
would not take the fire risk. Cyanide seemed to be out of the question 
as the screenings were so finely packed in the sacks that it would be 
very hard, if not impossible, to get sufficient penetration of the gas, 
unless the vacuum system was used and that was considered too 
expensive for the purpose. 

We urged that all of the mills that were handling this wheat make 
some provision for treating the screenings with heat to destroy the 
insects and some of them complied with this request. One firm, 
instead of building a small room or partitioning off a small part of a 
large room, constructed a tight box 16 feet long, 5 feet high and 3 feet 
from front to back. The front side of the box was provided with 
eight doors which opened practically the whole side of the box. These 
doors were secured by fasteners which clamped them close to their 
frames when closed. There was shelf room for 16 sacks of wheat in 
this box. Close to the bottom were 28, 9-foot lengths of 3/4-inch pipe. 
The cost of such a box including material and labor was about $200. 
The engineer said that the cost of operating it was inconsiderable 
as it took but little steam to maintain the required temperature. 

The sacks of screenings to be treated were placed in this box about 
9 o'clock in the morning and left there until 3 or 4 o'clock of the same 
day, sometimes they were left there until the next morning. The 
steam was turned on as soon as the box was filled and left until 4.30 
or 5 o'clock in the evening. 

An examination of the screenings that had been subjected to this 
treatment showed that, when the sacks were left in the box for only 
six or eight hours, all of the beetles were not kill^, but when they 
were left in twelve hours or longer, no living insects could be found. A 
series of tests and experiments showed that with a steam pressure of 
80 pounds the temperature in the box was raised to about 53° C. in a 
very short time; with an increased pressure the temperature rises 
very rapidly. With 150 pounds pressure the thermometer soon read 
90° or 92° C. 

The weevils and other beetles that were on the outside of the sacks 
began to die when the temperature reached 50° to 52° C. and before 
it reached 60° C. all that were exposed were dead. But it was found 
that the heat penetrates the screenings very slowly, so that after an 
exposure of six hours to a temperature of 53° to 80° C. a thermometer 
that had been placed in the center of the sack showed no increase 
of temperature. After about seven or eight hours the heat began to 



August, '19] DOANE: AUSTRALIAN WHEAT WEEVILS 311 

reach the center of the sack and in about twelve or fourteen hours the 
temperature would go as high as 53° to 58° C. while the temperature 
in the box outside the sacks would be 80° to 90° C. Under these 
conditions all the insects in the screenings were killed. 

The screenings after being taken from the hot-box gave up their 
heat, seemingly, as slowly as they took it, for we found that the tem- 
perature in one of the sacks dropped only 3° C. in five hours, although 
the sack was placed near an outside door in a cool store room. 

The results of these experiments showed that with a box as described 
above and with a steam pressure of 80 to 150 pounds the screenings 
should be exposed to the heat twelve hours. 

One of the Los Angeles mills built a small brick walled room about 
6 feet by 10 feet by 8 feet high. It was heated by short coils of pipe 
on one side of the room 4 or 5 feet from the floor. The»cost of building 
this room and instalhng the pipes was about $225. The miller said 
that it took several hours to heat the room and that he had found it 
necessary to raise the temperature to 190° F. (88° C.) in order to kill 
the insects. The thermometer from which his readings were taken 
was placed on the wall near the steam coils and on the same level 
with them. Tests made with other thermometers showed that one 
placed on a level with the coils but some distance from them, soon 
reached 71°C. Another placed about 2 feet from the floor, on a sack 
of screenings registered 48° C. while a third that had been thrust into 
the center of the sack of screenings registered only 28° C. This showed 
that the unusual and unsatisfactory results that were being obtained 
were due to the steam coils being placed high on the sides of the wall, 
instead of on the floor or very close to it. It is believed that when 
these coils are placed lower down, as recommended, no further trouble 
will be met with. 

Some other mills have already installed, or propose to install, small 
heat rooms for treating infested flour or other material that may be 
returned to the mill from dealers or elsewhere. 

One company has been spraying all of the Australian wheat received 
by its various mills with carbon tetrachloride. The work is done 
with small hand pumps -and the wheat is sprayed as it is poured from 
the conveyers into the bins. The aim is to use about 2 gallons of the 
liquid to about 1000 bushels or 30 tons of the grain. In this way they 
figure that the cost of the material for treating a ton of grain is about 
20 cents. If the bins in which wheat, that has been treated in this 
way, is stored, are tight and can be kept closed for a few days, nearly 
ail of the weevils are killed. If the wheat is drawn from the bins 
within twenty-four or thirty-six hours after it has been treated, many 
live weevils are often found. The wheat should lie in the bin at least 



312 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

two or three days to insure satisfactory results. This company reports 
that careful tests show that the milling qualities of wheat treated 
in this way are not affected. 

The Rice Weevil, Calandra oryzae, is the most common beetle found 
in all of the shipments of Australian wheat, that I have examined. 
In some lots the grain weevil, C. granaria, was also very abundant, 
in other shipments but few were found. The saw-toothed grain 
beetles, Silvanus surinamensis, were always abundant. The confused 
flour beetles, Triholium confusum, were common in all shipments, 
and T. ferrugineum was also often quite common. The lesser grain- 
borer, Rhizopertha dominica, was always quite abundant and appar- 
ently very destructive. The flat grain beetle, Laemophloeus minutus, 
was common in all lots. The cadelle, Tenebroides mauritanicus, and 
a few other beetles were more or less common. 

Mesaporus calandrae How., the cosmopolitan parasite of grain 
weevils, was common on nearly all lots of Australian wheat examined 
and it was exceedingly abundant in some of the lots. 



Chairman H. J. Quayle: There are a number of papers on file 
with the Secretary to be read. Inasmuch as the authors are not present 
to read these papers, I am going to ask the Secretary to read them by 
title only. They will be included in the proceedings and can be read 
by all of us at some future time. 

INVESTIGATIONS OF THE BEET LEAFHOPPER (EUTETTIX 
TENELLA BAKER) IN CALIFORNIA 

By Henry H. P. Severin, Ph.D., California Agricultural Experiment Station 

I. Introduction 

Where do the enormous numbers of beet leafhoppers {Eutettix 
tenella Baker), which invade the cultivated districts, come from in the 
spring? Where do the hoppers go in the autumn after leaving the 
cultivated area and where do they spend the winter? These are ques- 
tions that have been asked repeatedly by agriculturists and have 
baffled scientists during the past thirteen years. Are there other 
plants from which the leafhoppers transmit curly leaf disease to sugar 
beets? These subjects and a consideration of the life history and 
related topics will receive attention. 

In California, Dr. E. D. Ball (1), former director of the Utah Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station, endeavors to trace the origin of the pest 
in the beet fields through migrations from desert breeding areas in the 



August, '19] SEVERIN: BEET LEAFHOPPER 313 

Death Valley, Mojave Desert, Imperial Valley, Tulare Lake and 
Bakersfield sections of the San Joaquin Valley. 

II. Death Valley 

We (3) have published the results of our investigations conducted 
in the Death Valley on January 27-31, 1918. At this time of the 
year no specimens were taken on desert vegetation from Ryan to 
Keane Wonder, a distance of 38 miles, and on vegetation growing in 
the cultivated districts at Furnace Creek ranch situated midway be- 
tween the two towns. 

III. Antelope Valley and Mojave Desert 

During the winter and spring of 1918, trips were taken into the 
Antelope Valley and Mojave Desert to ascertain the abundance of the 
pest under desert and cultivated conditions and on vegetation growing 
along the Mojave River. During the winter the leaf hopper was 
extremely scarce on desert vegetation in the Antelope Valley and 
Mojave Desert. In the vicinity of beet land, the adults were collected 
abundantly on desert vegetation during January but in March only a 
single specimen was captured on Rabbit Brush (Chrysothamnus 
graveolens) growing along the Mojave River. In the cultivated area 
of the Antelope Valley, the hoppers were commonly taken in piles of 
blighted sugar beets near Lancaster on January 7. 

In the spring, plants of the Saltbush Family (Chenopodiacese) to 
which the sugar beet belongs, made their appearance in the cultivated 
area and on these enormous numbers of beet leafhoppers were present. 
The bugs were far more abundant on Atriplex hracteosa growing near 
beet fields than on the sugar beets. The insects were commonly taken 
on the Fog Weed {Atriplex expansa), Atriplex rosea and Russian Thistle 
(Salsola kali var. tenuijolia) growing along railroad tracks. 

The results show that instead of a migration of E. tenella from the 
Mojave Desert, an invasion of enormous numbers into the cultivated 
area occurred between March 17 and June 12. The beet leafhoppers 
of the spring brood can usually be detected from the winter forms, the 
former are pale green or cream colored, whereas the latter are dark in 
color, — especially the females. A considerable amount of individual 
variation occurs in the color pattern. 

IV. Imperial Valley 

We (3) have published the results of our investigations carried on in 
the Imperial Valley during the winter of 1918, and a brief account of 
the work conducted in this region during the spring will now be given. 
The beet leafhopper was extremely scarce on desert plants and on 

3 



314 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

vegetation growing along rivers. In the cultivated area, the hoppers 
were commonly taken on the Australian Saltbush {Atriplex semi- 
baccata), a perennial plant which remains green during the winter, and 
grows along irrigation canals, roadsides, railroad tracks, fences and in 
vacant fields. In all probabihty, many millions of leafhoppers occur 
on this plant in the Imperial Valley. 

The bugs will leave green succulent plants without an apparent 
stimulus. On March 13-April 21, the pest was abundant on the 
Lowland Purslane {Sesuvium sessile) at Niland, but on June 10, the 
hoppers had left not only the dry plants but also the young succulent 
plants growing among the older ones. Sweepings from plants of the 
Saltbush and related families indicated that apparently a dissemination 
of the insects to these plants had occurred. 

An enormous congregation of the beet leafhoppers occurred on 
Atriplex elegans, a short lived annual plant, which makes its appearance 
in the spring in the irrigated districts of the Imperial Valley. At 
Heber the plants were dry on June 3, and the insects had left the vege- 
tation. An attempt was made to locate the bugs. As one walked 
past patches of Nettle Leaf Goosefoot {Chenopodium murale) growing 
among and near dried A. elegans a swarm of leafhoppers flew up. In 
localities where A. elegans was not present, the pest did not occur in 
large numbers on the Nettle Leaf Goosefoot. 

It is not to be assumed, however, that when A. elegans becomes dry 
the insects alwaj^s congregate in enormous numbers on green plants 
in the vicinity. A long narrow tract of A. elegans bounded on one side 
by desert vegetation and on the opposite side by a field of alfalfa was 
found about 2 miles southwest of Niland. W. W. Thomas states that 
he captured about 500 specimens in 25 sweeps of the insect-net on 
these plants on April 21. On June 10, the writer visited the locality 
and all of the plants were dry except in shady places under bushes. 
The hoppers had left the dried A. elegans. In the neighborhood of the 
dried vegetation not more than a dozen adults and nymphs were col- 
lected each time patches of Nettle Leaf Goosefoot were swept. A few 
A. rosea were growing among the dried plants and along roadsides but 
no bugs were taken from these. No beet leafhoppers were found on 
cultivated plants or weeds or on desert vegetation in the viciliity. 

Two explanations may be given as to the origin of the enormous 
numbers of beet leafhoppers on A. elegans in the Imperial Valley. The 
hoppers may have congregated on A. elegans from plants growing in 
the cultivated area of the Imperial Valley, such as the Australian 
Saltbush and Lowland Purslane, or the pest may have invaded the 
cultivated area from other breeding grounds. During March, the 
dark winter adults were far more abundant than the pale green or 



August, '19] SEVERIN: BEET LEAFHOPPER 315 

cream colored forms of the spring brood, but in April the pale green 
or cream colored insects greatly out-numbered the dark bugs. No 
attention has been given to the canyons, foothills and mountains 
surrounding the Imperial Valley. 

In the Imperial Valley, E. tenella has been bred from the Lowland 
Purslane, Australian Saltbush, and .4. elegans. During the winter 
and spring only 15 beet leafhoppers were taken on 7 species of desert 
plants, 3 of which were perennial Atriplex. In the cultivated area, 
the insects were collected on 17 species of plants, 6 of which belong to 
the Saltbush family. The pest was most abundant on different species 
of Atriplex and Chenopodium. 

V. San Joaquin Valley 

Natural Breeding Area 

"While the writer was engaged in a grasshopper survey of the state 
of California in the spring of 1917, large numbers of Jassids were some- 
times found on the plains and foothills. Two trips were taken in the 
San Joaquin Valley, the first on April 23-May 7, and the second on 
May 21-28. A small paper bag was fastened in the bottom of the 
insect-net and the insects which were swept from the v^egetation 
dropped into this bag. A few bags of these sweepings were examined 
by Mr. Thomas but no E. tenella were found and on account of other 
work the material was set aside for examination during the winter. 
Up to the present time 250 bags of sweepings collected in various 
localities on the plains and foothills of the San Joaquin Valley have 
been examined with the following results: 

April 25/17. 12 miles south Los Bancs, 1 dark female E. tenella. 
April 25/17. 17 miles south Los Banos, 1 dark female E. tenella. 

Mr. Thomas discovered large numbers of adults of E. tenella on 
pasture vegetation on the plains in the vicinity of Coalinga on May 9, 
and Professor R. E. Smith found nymphs commonly on stones in the 
warm sunshine. A trip was made to determine whether the pest was 
local or general on pasture vegetation throughout the San Joaquin 
Valley. On May 16-21, about 700 miles were covered in an automo- 
bile by W. J. Hartung, Thomas and the writer and from 1-50 leafhop- 
pers were taken with about 25 sweeps of the insect-net on Ked Stem 
Filaree (Erodivm. cicntanum) growing on the plains, canyons and foot- 
hills in v^arious localities on the west side of the San Joaquin \'alley. 

G. T. Scott and 1'homas found a congregation of the l)cet leafhopper 
on Artiplex coronata on June 22, growing among the Spiny Saltbushes 
(Atriplex covferlifoJia'} at Helm. On this date the Filaree was dry with 
few exceptions at Coalinga and most of the hoppers taken were males. 



316 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

On our next visit to Helm on July 16, A. coronata was dry and the 
insects had disappeared from the plants. After the pasture vegetation 
became dry, an occasional specimen was taken on green annual and 
perennial plants growing among the dried Filaree on the plains and 
foothills during the summer. 

The beet Icafhopper was bred in large numbers from Red Stem Fil- 
aree growing under natural conditions near Coalinga. The plants were 
collected on May 22, and the adults were reared on June 25, in the 
hothouse. E. tenella was taken on 20 species of plants growing on the 
plains and foothills, 5 of which belong to the Saltbush family. The 
insects were found most abundant on Red Stem Filaree. 

Invasion of Beet Leaf hopper in Cultivated Area 

A brief account of the number of beet leafhoppers present in the 
cultivated area of the San Joaquin Valley up to the time of the invasion 
of the pest will be given. 

Throughout the winter, the leafhopper was taken in small numbers 
by striking the foliage of blighted beets a few blows with the hand or 
by shaking the leaves. During the first three months of the year, dark 
colored specimens were captured on beets planted in December at 
Manteca by Hartung. 

Professor Smith, Dr. E. Carsner and Thomas were unable to find a 
single beet leafhopper in the beet fields at Connor, Corcoran, Goshen 
Junction, Chowchilla and Manteca on April 7-11, but a small percent- 
age of curly leaf was observed in the beet fields at Connor and Manteca. 
No hoppers were collected on green vegetation in the cultivated terri- 
tory. Hartung and the writer found that 4 per cent of the beets 
planted in December were bhghted at Manteca on April 22. On this 
same date no adults were caught but nymphs were found on diseased 
beets. From the evidence at hand, apparently no adults of E. tenella 
were present in the cultivated districts in the localities investigated 
by the various scientists on April 7-22. 

On April 24-25, Hartung found large numbers of pale green or cream 
colored hoppers in the beet fields at Le Grand, where a few weeks 
previously no adults occurred. Pale green or cream colored specimens 
were taken on plants of the Saltbush and related families at Coalinga 
on May 9, but more abundantly on these plants in the cultivated 
regions on May 16-21. 

After the invasion of the pest into the cultivated sections, the hop- 
pers were far more abundant on different species of Atriplex than on 
any other plants of the Saltbush family. The vast area of Atriplex 
along railroad tracks, roadsides, fences, in grain, alfalfa and vacant 
fields, alkali sinks, near hay and straw stacks far exceeds the beet 



August, '19] SEVERIN: BEET LEAFHOPPER 317 

acreage in the San Joaquin Valley. A conservative estimate of the 
number of leafhoppers in the beet fields in 1918, compared with the 
enormous numbers found on the Fog Weed, A. rosea and A. hracteosa 
in the San Joaquin Valley would be 1 : 1000. 

In the spring the beet leafhopper was found in enormous numbers on 
short-lived annual Atriplex, such as A. cordulata and A. coronata. At 
Volta, A. cordulata was growing in an alkali sink and when these plants 
became dry, the nymphs and adults probably moved to the Fog Weed 
also growing in the basin, and the same apparently was true in a sink 
at Cholame, — when A. coronata became dry the nymphs and adults 
probably congregated on the Fog Weed. In irrigated districts, the 
insects were commonly taken on A . coronata and A . phyllostegia during 
the middle of July, but when these plants bear seeds the hoppers 
gradually disappear. It was frequently noticed that when the stems 
of other species of plants became woody the bugs left, but this was not 
the case with the Fog Weed, A. rosea and A. hracteosa, the leafhoppers 
often remaining on these three species of plants until the leaves became 
dry. 

The beet leafhopper was captured on 30 species of plants in the 
cultivated area, 18 of which belong to the Saltbush family. The pest 
was most abundant on different species of Atriplex. 

E. tenella was bred from a large number of plants growing in the 
cultivated area of the San Joaquin Valley. The weeds were collected 
in vacant fields, stubble fields, beet fields, truck crop fields, along 
roadsides, railroad tracks, rivers, irrigation and drainage canals. 
About a dozen weeds of each common species were gathered at random 
and each species was placed in a large paper bag. In the hothouse 
the roots of the plants were put into a tumbler or jar of water and 
placed in a cage together with a potted sugar beet. The weeds and 
beet were Avatered dail}' through a hole in the cheese cloth on the top 
of the cage and then the hole was plugged with cotton. Caterpillars 
and spiders were removed from the cages. It is evident that the eggs 
were deposited in the vegetation under natural conditions, and bj' this 
method the females were not forced to oviposit in the plants. The 
insects were reared to the adult stage. Table I gives a list of plants in 
which the beet leafhopper deposited its eggs in the cultivated districts 
of the San Joaquin Valley. 



318 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Table I — Plants in Which Beet Leafhopper Deposited Eggs, in Cultivated 
Area of San Joaquin Valley 

Date Date 

Name of plant LocaUty plants collected ^^^^^^ J^uH^^^ 

1918 1918 

Wire Grass Manteca, beet field July 11 Aug. 13 

(Polygonum aviculare) 

Curly Dock Connor, beet field July 18 Aug. 27 

(Rumex crispus) 6 miles southeast Manteca . . Sept. 6 Oct. 18 

Nitrophila occidentalism 10 miles north Goshen Jet. . . May 20 June 25 

Manteca, beet field July 11 Aug. 8 

Le Grand, beet field July 13 Aug. 26 

Lamb's Quarters^ Manteca, beet field Aug. 12 Oct. 3 

(Chenopodium album) 

Nettle Leaf Goosefoot^ Coalinga May 22 July 23 

(Chenopodium murale) Chowchilla July 14 Aug. 18 

Volta July 16 Aug. 15 

Connor, beet field July 18 Aug. 27 

Chenopodium leptophyllum^ . .Le Grand, beet field July 13 Aug. 17 

Manteca, beet field Aug. 12 Oct. 3 

5 miles southeast Manteca . . Sept. 6 Nov. 1 

Mexican Tea^ Manteca, beet field July 11 Aug. 15 

(Chenopodium ambrosioides) Manteca, beet field Aug. 12 Oct. 4 

Atriplex rosea^ Chowchilla May 21 Jilne 25 

3 miles south Manteca Sept. 16 Oct. 22 

Atriplex phyllostegia^ 12 miles west Wasco May 19 July 8 

2 miles south Angiola May 20 June 27 

4 miles west Corcoran May 20 June 27 

Chowchilla. beet field May 21 June 27 

Atriplex coronata^ 1 mile south Allensworth .... May 20 June 27 

Chowchilla July 14 Aug. 27 

Fog Weed! 4 miles west Corcoran May 20 June 27 

(Atriplex expansa) Manteca, beet field Sept. 5 Oct. 22 

Atriplex minuscula^ Earlimart July 17 Aug. 17 

Atriplex bracteosa^ Manteca, beet field July 11 Aug. 18 

11 miles east Los Banos July 14 Aug. 10 

Coalinga July 16 Aug. 13 

Manteca, beet field Sept. 5 Oct. 22 

Australian Salt Bush^ 2 miles west Wasco May 20 July 1 

(Atriplex semibaccata) 

Suaeda depre-ssa var. erecta^ . . .Manteca Sept. 5 Oct. 22 

Russian Thistle^ 6 miles west Corcoran May 20 June 26 

(Salsola kali var. tenuifolia) .Chowchilla July 14 Aug. 16 

Oro Loma July 15 Aug. 15 

Manteca, beet field Sept. 5 Oct. 22 

Rough Pigweed Manteca, beet field July 11 Aug. 15 

(Amaranthus retroflexus) 

Tumble Weed Le Grand, beet field July 13 Aug. 16 

(Amaranthus graecizans) 

Amaranthus deflexus Le Grand, beet field July 13 Aug. 26 

Manteca, beet field Sept. 5 Oct. 22 

Indian Chickweed Manteca, beet field Aug. 12 Oct. 3 

(Mollugo verticiUata) 

Lowland Purslane Connor May 19 June 26 

(Sesuvium sessile) Connor, beet field July 18 Aug. 27 

Red Maids Chowchilla, beet field May 21 June 25 

(Calandrinia caulescens 

var. menziesii) 

Charlock Manteca, beet field July 11 Aug. 16 

(Brassica arvensis) Manteca, beet field Aug. 12 Oct. 3 

5 miles southeast Manteca . . . Sept. 6 Oct. 23 

1 Plants of the Saltbush Family (Chenopodiacese), to which the sugar beets belongs. 



August, '19] SEVERIN: BEET LEAFHOPPER 319 

Stink Weed Chowchilla July 14 Aug. 18 

(Wislizenia refracta) 

Spanish Clover Manteca, beet field July 11 Aug. 15 

(Lotus americanus) 

Red Stem Filaree 4 miles west Corcoran May 20 June 25 

(Erodium cicutarium) ChowchUla May 21 June 25 

Coalinga May 22 June 27 

Cheese Weed Coalinga May 22 June 27 

(Malva parviflora) 

Alkali Mallow Connor, beet field July 18 Aug. 18 

(Sida hederacea) 

Chinese Pusley Manteca, beet field July 11 Aug. 15 

(HeUotropium curassavicum) Connor, beet field July 18 Aug. 18 

Manteca, beet field Sept. 5 Oct. 22 

Tolguacha, Jimson Weed Manteca, beet field July 11 Aug. 16 

(Datura meteloides) Le Grand, beet field July 13 Aug. 15 

Coalinga July 16 Aug. 10 

7 miles southeast Manteca . . Sept. 6 Oct. 18 

May Weed Coalinga May 22 June 27 

(Anthemis cotula) 

Common Spikeweed Chowchilla July 14 Aug. 27 

(Centromadia pungens) 

Common Sunflower Manteca, beet field July 11 Aug. 16 

(Hehanthus annuus) Le Grand, beet field July 13 Aug. 15 

Spiny Clothbur Manteca, beet field Aug. 12 Oct. 3 

(Xanthium spinosum) Manteca, beet field Sept. 5 Oct. 23 

7 miles southeast Manteca . . Sept. 6 Oct. 18 

Horseweed Chowchilla July 14 Aug. 26 

(Erigeron canadensis) 

Return Flight from Cultivated to Natural Breeding Area 

As the food plants of E. tenella become dry in the cultivated area, 
the adults leave the vegetation. Our earliest record of the disappear- 
ance of enormous numbers of beet leafhoppers from the Fog Weed 
occurred between September 25 and October 10. The Fog Weed was 
growing in an alkali sink near Cholame, situated in a mountain pass 
between the San Joaquin and Salinas Valleys. The basin covered 
about ten square miles and was surrounded by mountains. No speci- 
mens were collected on green vegetation growing in and on the out- 
skirts of the sink on Octoger 10. The two cotyledons of Filaree were 
just appearing above the surface of the soil in the washes of the foot- 
hills but no bugs were taken. If the leafhoppers left Cholame ^'alley, 
then the insects either flew over the mountains or followed the passes. 

During the summer, trips were taken to the vicinity of Oro Loma, 
where enormous numbers of leafhoppers were present on about 50 
square miles of Russian Thistles interspersed with patches of Fog 
Weeds. During the last week in October, the bugs were still abundant 
on green Fog Weeds and on small Russian Thistles with the tops of the 
plants dry and the lower portions green. An unusually large number 
of insects had congregated on the Australian Saltbush growing along 
the roadsides. The hoppers were common on Filaree growing below 



320 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

the Russian Thistles. Adjacent to the western margin of this large 
area of weeds were the plains which extended about 3 miles to the foot- 
hills and on both, the adults were often taken on Filaree. 

It is not to be assumed that the hoppers are found only on the foot- 
hills along the margin of the San Joaquin Valley. In crossing the 
Coast Range through the Altamont Pass, the adults were taken on 
Filaree growing on the foothills situated about 4 miles from the western 
margin of the San Joaquin Valley. 

During the winter E. tenella was not found on foothills which were 
densely covered with green vegetation but the hoppers seek those hills 
which are sparsely covered with Filaree. As a general rule, the leaf- 
hoppers were taken on foothills which were exposed to the sunshine 
during the morning and afternoon. In all probability, the position of 
one hill to another with reference to sunshine determines the choice of 
location for the winter. 

During the last three months of the year the beet leafhoppers were 
found on Filaree growing on the plains or foothills in the following 
localities on the west (Coast Range), south (Tehachapi Mts.) and east 
(Sierra Nevada Mts.) sides of the San Joaquin Valley: 

Foothills south and west of Tracy. 

Foothills 13 miles southwest of Tracy. 

Foothills 13 miles southwest of Tracy. 

Base of foothills, west of Dos Palos. 

Plains and foothills west of Oro Loma. 

Plains 7 miles north of Bakersfield. 

Plains 3-10 miles west of Lost Hills. 

Plains and foothills in the vicinity of Tejon Pass. 

Plains 21 miles south of Bakersfield. 

Plains and foothills east of Famosa to Bakersfield. 

If we correlate the facts discovered in the natural and cultivated 
portions of the San Joaquin Valley, one would not hesitate to make the 
following statements: After the pasture vegetation became dry on 
the plains and foothills, the beet leafhoppers flew into the cultivated 
districts. During the summer an occasional specimen was taken on 
the various plants growing on the plains and foothills, showing that 
not all of the hoppers leave their natural breeding grounds. The inva- 
sion of the pest into the cultivated sections began on April 24, continued 
until May 21, and probably later. The gradual disappearance of the 
bugs in the cultivated regions during October corresponded with the 
reappearance of the insects under natural conditions. All of the 
adults do not leave the cultivated localities and last spring these caused 
4 per cent of blighted beets at Manteca. Apparently no adults were 
present in the cultivated area from April 7-22, but nymphs were found 



Nov. 


13 


Dec. 


10 


Dec. 


24 


Oct. 


25 


Oct. 


25 


Oct. 


28 


Oct. 


29 


Oct. 


30 


Dec. 


13 


Oct. 


30 



August, '19] SEVERIN: BEET LEAFHOPPER 321 

on curly leaf beets. In all probability, the females wintering over in 
the cultivated territory deposited their eggs and died, and the nymphs 
which were observed on April 22, hatched from these eggs. 

When to Plant Beets 

The fact that most of the beet leafhoppers leave the cultivated area 
in the autumn has an important bearing with reference to the time of 
planting beets. Sugar beet agriculturists are well aware of the fact 
that when beets are planted in November, December and January in 
the San Joaquin Valley, if weather conditions are favorable for plant- 
ing early, a good crop can usually be obtained. The weather condi- 
tions are the determining factor with reference to planting from No- 
vember to January. Last year no heavy rains fell in the San Joaquin 
Valley until February 22, and hence early planting was not practicable. 
The present rainy season started unusually early and heavy rains fell 
on September 11-13. The most serious objections to planting early 
are as follows: (1) the young beets are sometimes destroyed by frost 
necessitating replanting; (2) about 75 per cent of the beets planted in 
November, 50 per cent in December and 15 per cent in early January 
develop seed stalks which slightly reduces the sugar contents and 
furthermore, these beets are woody and difficult to slice. 

In the Imperial Valley E. tenella was abundant on the Australian 
Saltbush during the winter. A similar observation was made on sev- 
eral acres of this perennial Atriplex growing near Wasco but 75 per 
cent of the specimens collected on December 10, and 82 per cent on 
February 16, proved to be males. Evidently the adults do not leave 
this plant in October and fly to the plains and foothills. The Austra- 
lian Saltbush was introduced from Australia as a forage plant and birds 
are said to distribute the seeds. If this plant spreads to the beet 
districts there is a possibility that early planted beets may become 
badly blighted. 

Do heavy rains kill the beet leafhopper? At Manteca 3f inches of 
rain fell before the return flight of the insects to the natural breeding 
grounds had commenced. In sugar beet fields, an occasional adult was 
observed with wings spread and partly embedded in the sandy soil 
below the leaves of blighted sugar beets. Dead specimens were found 
in the folds and below dried leaves. Dead hoppers partly embedded 
in the soil were also commonly taken below branches of A. bracteosa 
and in 40 minutes, 30 adults were collected. Evidently the creatures 
crawled below the branches to escape from the rain. Dead nymphs 
were rarely found but these were probably difficult to detect. An 
examination of the bugs under a binocular microscope showed that 
50 per cent had been parasitized. The material was dry and could not 



322 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

be dissected to determine whether the remaining 50 per cent were not 
weakened forms that had parasitic larvae within their bodies. Insects 
at the end of their natural life often become sluggish and inactive and 
of all of the leafhoppers taken only one dark form of the winter brood 
was found. 

VI. Plants from Which the Beet Leafhoppeb Transmitted 
Curly Leaf to Sugar Beets 

Boncquet and Hartung (2) have shown that 100 leafhoppers col- 
lected on species of Artemisia and Atriplex in the Tulare Lake region 
of California and confined singly in cages on beet seedlings failed to 
produce curly leaf until they had fed on diseased beets. Smith and 
Boncquet (4) tested fully 2,000 insects taken on Atriplex tularen&is 
and Chenopodium album in the Tulare Lake region on several hundred 
different sugar beet plants without the production of curly leaf in a 
single instance. The writer has confirmed this result with hoppers 
captured on different species of plants but adults and nymphs were 
frequently caught which produced the beet disease. The beet leaf- 
hoppers were taken in the natural breeding areas, cultivated districts 
and deserts. Table II, gives a Ust of plants on which specimens of E. 
tenella were collected and transmitted curly leaf to sugar beets. 

Table II — Plants on Which Beet Leafhoppers were Collected and Trans- 
mitted Curly Leaf to Sugar Beets 

AT f 1 4. Locality beet leafhoppers „.]„Uo ^,. E. tenella 

Name of plant J^^^ collected ^^^l^I captured 

nympns 1918 

Atriplex elegans^ Niland 200 adults Apr. 21 

Niland 25 nymphs Apr. 21 

Calexico 300 adults Apr. 2 

AustraUan Saltbush 2 miles west Wasco 12 adults Dec. 14 

(Atriplex semibaccata)^ 

Lowland Purslane Dixieland 7 adults Mar. 13 

(Sesuvium sessile) 

Creosote Bush Victorville (desert) 2-4 miles 

(Larrea divaricata) from beet fields 14 adults Jan. 30 

Red Stem Filaree King City near beet field 3 adults May 27 

(Erodium cicutarium) . .King City, foothills 3 nymphs Nov. 28 

Bitterwater, base of foothills 100 adults Oct. 13 

Foothills, 13 miles southwest 12 adults Dec. 10 

Tracy : 18 nvmphs Dec. 24 

25 adults Dec. 24 

Nonvirulent adults reared from eggs and kept on Black Mustard 
(Brassica nigra) failed to transmit curly leaf to sugar beets when 
allowed to feed previously on Creosote Bush (Larrea divaricata) ob- 
tained from the Mojave Desert and Imperial Valley. A nonvirulent 
leafhopper caused curly leaf of a sugar beet when allowed to feed pre- 

1 Plants of the Saltbush Family (Chenopodiacese) to which the sugar beet belongs. 



August, '19] SEVERIN: BEET LEAFHOPPER 323 

viously on the Lowland Purslane collected at Niland but two nonviru- 
lent specimens failed to produce the beet disease from the Lowland 
Purslane taken at Dixieland. 

Bur Clover (Medicago hispida) showed curly leaf symptoms caused 
by about 300 beet leafhoppers collected on Filaree, Bur Clover and 
Grass at the base of a foothill at Bitterwater on October 13. The 
three leaflets were folded along the sinuous distortions of the mid-rib 
and the transparent venation was evident on the youngest leaves. 
The hoppers were confined in a cage enclosing Bur Clover and the 
insects did not feed pre\dously on curly leaf beets in the laboratory. 
After the curly leaf symptoms appeared on Bur Clover, some of the 
bugs were transferred to a sugar beet which also later became blighted. 

The leafhoppers which hatched from eggs deposited in certain plants 
collected in the cultivated area of the Imperial, San Joaquin, Sacra- 
mento and Salinas Valleys sometimes caused curly leaf of sugar beets. 
The weeds usually became dry in the cages in a week or two and the 
nymphs probably were forced to feed on the beets in the later stages 
of their life history. Table III, gives a list of plants from which the 
hoppers were bred and transmitted curly leaf to sugar beets. 

Table III — Plants from Which Beet Leafhopper was Bred and Transmitted 

Curly Leaf to Sugar Beets 

Date Date 

Name of plant Locality plants collected ^Sleeted wereVred 

1918 1918 

Atriplex rosea^ 3 miles south Manteca Sept. 16 Oct. 22 

Fog Weedi Manteca, beet field Sept. 5 Oct. 22 

(Atriplex expansa) 

Atriplex bracteosa^ 11 miles east Los Banos Julv 14 Aug. 16 

Coalinga July 16 Aug. 13 

Manteca, beet field Sept. 5 Oct. 22 

Russian Thistle^ Chowchilla July 14 Aug. 16 

(Salsola kali var. tenuifolia) .Oro Loma July 15 Aug. 15 

Manteca, beet field . Sept. 5 Oct. 22 

Rough Pisweed Manteca, beet field July 11 Aug. 15 

(Amaranthus retroflexus) . . .King Citv, beet field July 31 Oct. 2 

Hamilton City, beet field .... Aug. 22 Oct. 19 

Tumble Weed King City, beet field July 4 Aug. 5 

(Amaranthus graecizans) . . . .Le Grand, beet field July 13 Aug. 16 

Amaranthus deflexus Manteca, beet field Sept. 5 Oct. 22 

Lowland Purslane Niland Apr. 7 June 3 

(Sesuvium ses.silc) 

Charlock Hamilton City, beet field Aug. 22 Oct. 5 

(Brassiea arvensis) 

Black Nichtshade King City, beet field July 4 Aug. 5 

(Solanum nigrum var. douglasii) 

If nonvirulent beet leafhoppers are not able to produce curly leaf 
directly or indirectly l)y the action of a secretion poured from their 
mouth-parts into the beet plant, it may be possible that a cycle of 

* Plants of the Saltbush Family (Chonopodiacese) to which the sugar beet belongs. 



324 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

plants harbor the disease; on the one hand, the table beets, mangel 
wurzel or stock beets, sugar beets, swiss chard or sea kale beets and 
the weeds listed in Table III, growing in the cultivated territory and 
on the other hand, Red Stem Filaree and possibly Bur Clover in the 
natural breeding area. Those adults that fed on blighted varieties of 
beets and weeds which harbor the disease in the cultivated districts 
transmitted the disease to Filaree after their return flight to the natural 
breeding area and those nymphs which have already hatched from 
eggs deposited in this Filaree became virulent. After the invasion 
of the pale green adults of the spring brood into the cultivated sections 
the disease is again transmitted to different varieties of beets and such 
weeds as can harbor the disease. The disease wo aid then be carried 
over during late spring, summer and early autumn (April to October) 
in plants growing in the cultivated regions and in late autumn, winter 
and early spring (November to April) in plants growing on the plains 
and foothills. 

VII. Life History 

A brief account of the life history of E. tenella under Berkeley condi- 
tions will be given. The egg period was determined during each month 
from February to September and varied from 16-38 days under field 
conditions. In one experiment dark adults obtained from King City 
were kept in a cage over winter at Berkeley. The first nymphs hatched 
on April 15. The first adult was bred on May 15, requiring 30 days 
to complete the nymphal instars. Twenty-two adults were reared 
between May 15-June 27. On September 10, the nymphs of the 
second brood began to hatch, the adults having died previous to this 
date. The first and only adult of the second brood was found in the 
cage on October 21. 

In another experiment 12 adults of the first generation were reared 
on June 17-July 4, from eggs deposited on March 14. The adults of 
the second brood were bred on November 5-15. 

An interesting observation worthy of mention, is the fact that of 
several thousand beet leafhoppers which were reared out-of-doors at 
Berkeley, not a single pale green or cream colored adult was bred, 
every specimen without exception being dark. 

Dark and Light Colored Adults 

The first dark beet leafhoppers of the winter brood were captured 
in a beet field at Manteca on September 1. When the dark forms first 
make their appearance in the cultivated regions it is often difficult to 
detect dark males but in the natural breeding area these are easily 
identified during the winter. Dark females can be determined with 



August, '19] 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 



Plate 15 




Sugar beet leaves in which Euteltex tenella deposited its eggs. The tissue 
was killed by the ovipositor and in the further growth of the plants the leaves 
become bent. (Original.) 





Sugar liict leaves sliowing the above l)ent leaves: in insert a i)air of leaf hop- 
pers, mating. enl;irgeil. (Original.) 



August, '19] SEVERIN: BEET LEAFHOPPER 325 

certainty under both cultivated and natural conditions during the 
autumn and winter. 

During September the dark adults gradually increased from 7-44 
per cent. Before the return flight to the natural breeding area 86-98 
per cent of the beet leafhoppers were dark and in December 90-98 
per cent of the stragglers which remained behind in the cultivated 
regions were dark. In the natural breeding area 92-100 per cent of 
the leafhoppers were dark from October to December. 

Do the yellowish beet leafhoppers assume the dark shades during 
autumn or winter? On September 5, 150 cream colored adults were 
captured in a beet field at Manteca, and were placed in a cage enclosing 
a sugar beet under field conditions at Berkeley. The hoppers were 
transferred to a new beet on November 8, and it was found that 75 had 
died. On December 19, the insects were again transferred and only 
6 light forms survived and these were still alive in January. Evidently 
most of the light forms were near the end of their natural life and only 
a small percentage wintered over, possibly only those of the preceding 
generation which reached the adult stage late. 

Do the nymphs in late summer, autumn and winter give rise to light 
adults? On September 5, 200 nymphs were captured in a beet field at 
Manteca and were placed in a cage enclosing a sugar beet under field 
conditions, and a similar experiment was conducted at Berkeley. 
The adults reared were all dark. In November and December nymphs 
were collected on the foothills and all of the adults bred were dark. 

Incomplete Hibernation 

E. tenella does not undergo a complete hibernation in the San Joa- 
quin Valley, understanding by that term the passing of the winter in a 
torpid state without food. The bugs are torpid during cold weather, 
but when the sun warms the foothills during the winter, they become 
active. On cokl days the hoppers were rarely captured in an insect- 
net; such specimens as were caught, sometimes displayed a torpid con- 
dition and could be rolled about in a net without showing a trace of 
Hfe. When the leafhoppers were not taken by sweeping with a net, 
the adults were often collected by moving the hand among the Filaree, 
and the disturbance would sometimes cause them to make short leaps. 

Experiments were conducted to determine whether the leafhoppers 
require food during the winter. The hoppers were captured on the 
foothills and were placed in cages without food. To prevent seeds 
from germinating within the cages, a hole was dug in the soil and filled 
with about six inches of moist sand. In one cage stones and blocks of 
wood were placed to shelter the insects from rains. The results 
obtained during November and December are indicated in Table IV: 



326 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 



[Vol. 12 



Date last 


Number 


Mean 


Mean 


Precipi- 


E. tenella 


of days 


maximum 


minimum 


tation 


died 


fasted 


temperature 


temperature 




Dec. 1 


9 


57.6 


36.7 


1.06 


Dec. 19 


8 


50.9 


32.7 




Jan. 7 


27 


53.2 


28.9 


.46 


Jan. 9 


29 


53.5 


26.6 


.53 



Table IV — Number op Days Beet Leafhopper Lived Without Food During 

Winter 

Date Number 
E. tenella of 

began fast E. tenella 

Nov. 22 60 adults 

Dec. 11 30 nymphs 

Dec. 11 50 adults 

Dec. 11 50 adults 

Acknowledgements 

The writer is deeply indebted to Mr. W. J. Hartung, agriculturist of 
the Spreckels Sugar Company, for data furnished and credited to him 
in this paper, and numerous courtesies extended during the work. 
Mr. W. W. Thomas, plant pathologist of the same company, accom- 
panied the writer on most of the trips until he was called into the 
United States Army on August 7. The writer is under special obliga- 
tions to Mr. S. P. Parish and to various members of the botanical 
department of the University of California for the determination of 
the plants mentioned in this paper. 

Bibliography 

1. Ball, E. D., 1917. The Beet Leafhopper and the Curly Leaf Disease that It 

Transmits. Utah Agr. Exp. Sta. Bui. 155, pp. 1-56. 

2. Boncquet, p. a., and Hartung, W. J., 1916. The Comparative Effect upon 

Sugar Beets of Eutettix tenella Baker from Wild Plants and from Curly Top 
Beets. Phytopathology, V, No. 6, pp. 348-349. 

3. Severin, H. H. p., and Thomas, W. W., 1918. Notes on the Beet Leafhopper 

{Eutettix tenella Baker). Jour. Econ. Ent. XI, No. 3, pp. 308-312. 

4. Smith, R. E., and Boncquet, P. A., 1915. Connection of a Bacterial Organism 

with Curly Leaf of the Sugar Beet. Phytopathology, V, pp. 335-343. 



BIOLOGICAL NOTES ON THE FLATHEADED APPLE TREE 
BORER (CHRYSOBOTHRIS FEMORATA FAB.) AND THE 
PACIFIC FLATHEADED APPLE TREE BORER (CHRYSO- 
BOTHRIS MALI HORN) 

By H. E. Burke, Specialist in Forest Entomology, Forest Insect Investigations, Bureau 
of Entomology, U. S. Department of Agriculture 

Practicallj' every article written in America on apple insects or even 
general fruit insects mentions Chrysohothris femorata as an injurious 
enemy of the apple and other fruit and shade trees. Very few, how- 
ever, ever mention mail which according to our records is far more 
common and injurious in the Pacific states than femorata. Numerous 
rearings have given us femorata from the prune and plum a few times 
and mall from the currant, apple, plum, prune, cherry, peach and 



August, '19] BURKE: FLATHEADED BORERS 327 

apricot a number of times. Mali is also more common in shade trees 
and brush forests while femorata is commoner in the oaks and the 
aspen forests of the high Sierras. Femorata occurs throughout the 
United States and 7nali has been reported from Oregon, California, 
Nevada, Utah, Colorado and Arizona. jMany of the published 
records of damage bj^ femorata in the Rocky Mountains and Pacific 
states undoubtedly refer to damage by mali. 

Both species often cause severe damage to shade trees as the fol- 
lowing western records will show. In 1912 the writer found a number 
of lombardy poplar trees in the High School grounds at Yreka, Cali- 
fornia, severely injured by the larval mines of femorata. In 1915 
Mr, Josef Brunner reported the same species destructive to small 
black Cottonwood at Missoula, IMontana. The next year Mr. W. D. 
Edmonston found about half of the silver maple shade trees, planted 
in 1913 in Colorado Springs, killed by this species and Mr. F. C. 
Bishoff reported serious injury to planted sycamores at Dallas, Texas. 
An examination of a nursery near San Jose, California, in July, 1918, 
showed that out of a block of 1,500 European sycamores, 2-2^ inches 
in diameter, 258 were alread}^ dead from an attack by mali, many 
more were infested and partially girdled and numerous others were 
being infested by the young larvse. A row of 47 white flowering horse 
chestnuts had 4 trees killed and 17 rendered unsaleable and some young 
beech were in the same condition. About the same time a forty acre 
field of red currants near HaA'wards, California, was found so badly 
infested by this same species that the owner expected to root up the 
entire lot and burn them. Planted maple, mountain ash, flowering 
cherry, loquat, beech and birch in and around Los Gatos and San Jose 
are heavily infested and many trees are killed outright. Both species 
attack and kill the eucalyptus and appear to be becoming destructive 
especially in the large planted groves. 

Femorata and mali resemble each other closelj' in habits, seasonal 
history and character of work. The first evidences of an attack 
are wet spots on the bark. Later, in some plants as the cherry, plum 
and prune there is a strong flow of gum. In all cases the bark is apt 
to crack and show the frass filled mines beneath. 

The eggs are flattened, oval, hght colored, ribbed, about Inim. 
(1/25 in.) in diameter. They are laid singly, sometimes close together, 
on the bark during June and July. Some are laid directly on the 
exposed surface of the bark but most are flattened down into depres- 
sions, tucked into crevices or inserted untler loose flakes or between 
the scales. In hatching the young larva liorcs through the bottom 
of the shell directly into the V>ark. It soon mines down to the wood 
and winds back and forth through the outer wood and inner bark 



328 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

until full grown, when it forms the pupal cell in the outer wood or 
middle bark. Full grown larvae of femorata are about f of an inch 
long, those of mali about | inch. Feeding larvae of femorata have 
been found under the bark from July 7 to June 10, prepupal larvae 
in the pupal cells from August 22 to June 10; feeding larvae of mali 
from July 19 to May 21 and prepupal larvae from August 24 to July 19. 
The observations indicate that in California the most of both species 
pass the winter as prepupal larvae in the cells. Some will pass two 
winters in this stage. Femorata has been taken a number of times 
in pupal cells in the bark but mali has always been in the wood. In 
the writers opinion the only reason for this is that mali seldom occurs 
where the bark is thick enough to form a pupal cell. Femorata pupae 
were found from January 15 to September 10, inali pupse from March 
27 to June 19. The pupal stage lasts from two weeks to two months 
depending on the climatic conditions. The transformation to the 
beetle takes place in the pupal cell. Young femorata beetles have 
been found in the cells from March 28 to August 9, mali beetles from 
April 16 to August 7. The beetles usually pass from one to several 
weeks in the cells. They then emerge by an oval exit hole through 
the bark and are found crawling or resting on the leaves or bark of the 
host plant or flying about in the warm sunshine. 

Femorata beetles have been taken in the field from May 15 to August 
11, mali beetles from April 24 to August 7. 

In the beetle stage the two species are easily told apart. The 
prosternum of femorata is straight across in front; that of mali has a 
short lobe. The anterior tibiae of the femorata male has a number of 
small teeth on their inner margins, those of mali are abruptly dilated 
at the apical fourth. The larvae are more difficult and it is a question 
if they can be distinguished in all cases. As a usual thing the femorata 
prepupal larvae are larger than those of mali, the V on the dorsal plate 
of the first thoracic segment extends entirely through the rugosa area, 
the ventral groove is broader and deeper and the rugosities themselves 
are rounder, larger and more distinct. 

Besides the typical mali there is another form which runs to mali 
in Horn's table. This may be the variety lineatipennis, Van Dyke. 
If so it should be raised to specific standing. It lives in the chaparral 
broom {Bacchans pilularis) in California and B. sergiloides in Arizona 
and does not occur in the same hosts with mali. 

The recorded food plants of femorata include apple, quince, pear, 
peach, plum, apricot, cherry, currant and pecan among the orchard 
trees and oak, mountain ash, maple, beech, box elder, hickory, chest- 
nut, sycamore, horse chestnut, linden, willow and redbud among the 
shade and forest trees. The records in the Branch of Forest Insect 



August, '19] BURKE: FLATHEADED BORERS 329 

Investigations give the black walnut (Juglans nigra), hickory {Hicoria 
sp.), chestnut {Castanea dentata), white oak (Quercus alba), chestnut 
oak {Q. 'prinus), hackberry (Celtis occidentalis), sweet gum {Liquid- 
anihar styraciflua) , peach (Prunus persica), Texas redbud (Cercis 
reniformis) and maple (Acer sp.)- In the west we have reared it from 
the smooth leafed willow (Salix Icevigata), arroyo willow {S. lasiolepis), 
aspen {Popidus tremuloides) , black cottonwood (P. trichocarpa), 
Fremont cottonwood (P. fremontii), lombardy poplar (P. nigra- 
italica), white alder (Alnus rhombifolia) , California white or valley 
oak {Quercus lobata), gambel oak (Q. gambelii), California live oak 
(Q. agrifolia), interior live oak (Q. wislizeni), California black oak 
(Q. calif ornica), wild plum, (Prunus americana), domestic plum, prune 
(P. domestica), peach (P. persica), silver maple (Acer saccharinum) 
and blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) and have taken larvse which 
appear to be this species from the Carolina poplar (P. deltoides) 
European white birch (Betula alba) and blue oak (P. douglassii). 

The recorded food plants of 7nali are the apple and the currant. 
We have reared the adults from the arroyo willow (S. lasiolepis), 
copper beech (Fagus sylvatica purpurea), California live oak (Quer- 
cus agrifolia), American elm (Ulmus americana), camperdown elm 
(U. scabra pendida), huntingdon elm (U. scabra hunting doni) , Euro- 
pean sycamore (Platanus orientalis), California sycamore (P. racemosa), 
cultivated currant (Ribes rubrum), cultivated rose (Rosa sp.), mountain 
mahogany (Cercocarpus parvifolius) , apple (Pyrus malus), European 
mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia), Christmas berry (Heteromeles 
arbutifolia) , plum, prune (Prunus domestica). Pacific plum (P. sub- 
cordata), Japanese weeping rose flowering cherry (P. pendula), cherry 
(P. avium), hoUyleaf cherry (P. ilicifolia), peach (P. persica), apricot 
(P. armeniaca) , loquat (Eriobotraya japonica) , pea chaparral (Picker- 
ingia montana), sycamore maple (Acer pseudo-platanus) , silver maple 
(A. saccharinum), red maple (^4.. rubrum), Oregon maple (A. mac- 
rophyllum,) box elder (A. negundo), European horse chestnut (Aescu- 
lus hippocastanam) , coffee berry (Rhamnus California), wild lilac 
(Ceanothus sorediatus), blue gum (Eucalyptus globidus) and madrone 
(Arbutiis menziesii) and have taken larvse which appear to be this 
species from the smooth leaf willow (Salix Icevigata), weeping willow 
(S. babylonica), lombardy poplar (Popidus nigra-italica) , white alder 
(Alnus rhombifolia) , California black oak (Quercus California), Indian 
plum or oso berry (Osmaronia cerasiformis), evergreen buckthorn 
(Rhamnus crocea) and manzanita (Arctostaphylos tomentosa). 

As both of these insects are produced in numbers from a great 
variety of native and introduced food plants practical control is rather 
difficult. Trees and shrubs should be well cultivated and kept in as 

4 



330 ' JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

vigorous a condition as possible. This will not prevent an attack 
but it will help the plant to overcome it. Most attacks in California 
and the southwest start from what appears to be sunburns. Most 
of the smaller fruit and shade trees are attacked on the trunk. Weeping 
trees are attacked on the topmost branches which the leaves do not 
cover. Any kind of a protection which will keep the sun from 
reaching the exposed bark is good. Once the plant is infested, as is 
indicated by the wet spots on the bark, the best thing to do is to care- 
fully cut away the dead bark, kill the borer and cover the wound with 
a good dressing such as coal tar or liquid asphalt. 



LAC-PRODUCING INSECTS IN THE UNITED STATES 
(HEMIPTERA; COCCIDiE) 

G. F. Ferris, Stanford University, Cal. 

Lac (better known as "shellac") is an insect product. It is formed 
as a secretion from the dermal glands of certain species of Coccidse 
belonging to the genus Tachardia. Species of this genus occur in 
Asia, Africa, Australia and North and South America, but at the 
present time only certain species found in Asia are utiHzed com- 
mercially. Lac is a very important article of commerce, being used 
as a basis for varnishes, as an insulating material in the electrical 
industry and for other minor purposes. 

In view of the conditions existing during the late war it seemed that 
the possibility of developing a domestic source of supply of this sub- 
stance should not be neglected. While it was fully realized that this 
possibility was remote, there were some grounds for believing that it 
existed. 

We have three or four species of the genus Tachardia in the south- 
western part of the United States. One of these species, Tachardia 
larreoe (Comstock), occurs in sufficient abundance to have attracted a 
considerable amount of attention and it has several times been suggested 
that the commercial recovery of the lac might be possible. Some 
encouragement has been lent to this behef by the fact that the host 
of this species is one of the most abundant and most widely distributed 
shrubs of the so-called "desert regions" of the United States. This 
plant is the "creosote bush," formerly known as Larrea mexicana, now 
called Covillea glutinosa. 

Some of the reasons for believing that the matter was worthy of 
investigation may briefly be summarized. 

Before the insect in question had received a scientific name. Dr. J. 
M. Stillman, later head of the Department of Chemistry of Stanford 



August, '19] FERRIS: LAC INSECTS 331 

University, had investigated it to some extent and had pubHshed 
several short articles concerning it. In one of these papers' he records 
the results of an examination of the lac and states: ''It will thus be 
seen how closely the gum lac from Arizona agrees in characteris- 
tic properties, structure and chemical composition with the India 
varieties." In the same paper he states: "From observations by a 
number of gentlemen acquainted with that portion of the country, 
it appears that the Larrea lac is very widely distributed throughout 
Arizona and the southern part of California (Mohave and Colorado 
deserts), and the gum is used by the inhabitants in place of solder for 
mending kettles." 

Professor J. H. Comstock^ states: "Another true lac insect occurs 
in Arizona upon the stems and branches of Larrea mexicana. Judging 
from the specimens in the Museum of this department, the lac occurs 
upon this plant in sufficient quantity to be of economic importance. " 

In 1889 C. V. Riley^ reports that a correspondent residing at 
Tucson, Arizona, wrote as follows concerning this lac: "I am led to 
believe that these exudations, if properly examined, would give a 
splendid bright red coloring matter and a very superior varnish 
resembling the celebrated Japan Lacquer. ... I should think 
that a man could gather from 60 to 100 pounds of clear exudation matter 
in a working day of ten hours. " 

In 1897, Dr. L. O. Howard wrote^: "We have, however, in the 
southwest, on the very abundant creosote bush, a lac insect occurring 
in enormous quantity, the commercial possibilities of which have not 
been developed." 

As there appeared to be no record that any thorough investigation 
of this matter had ever been made the writer called the attention of 
the Committee on Agriculture, Botany and Zoology of the National 
Research Council to it. This committee considered it a fit subject for 
an investigation and agreed to supply the relatively small sum neces- 
sary to permit the writer to carry this out. 

I may state, without further delay, that the results of this investiga- 
tion were entirely unfavorable. However, the information obtained 
should be recorded. 

The first thing to be determined was the distribution and abundance 
of the insect. Taking into consideration the nature of the country in 
which the creosote bush occurs, it seemed that the investigation might 

' Stillman, J. M. American Chemical Journal, vol. 2, p. 4 (1880). 
' Comstock, J. H. In Report United States Commissioner of Agriculture, p. 291 
(1880). 
» Riley, C. V. Insect Life, vol. 1, p. 345 (1889). 
* Howard, L. O. Bull. 9, n. s., U. S. Dept. Agric, Div. Ent., p. 38 (1897). 



332 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

most easily be conducted by traveling in an automobile. This belief 
was entirely justified. The creosote bush area was traversed twice, 
from California to NeW Mexico, and it is improbable that any very 
considerable area in which the scale insect might be found was 
overlooked. The adventures of an almost totally inexperienced 
driver in piloting an antiquated specimen of our most popular type of 
automobile over some hundreds of miles of desert roads that in large 
part consist of but a pair of wheel tracks through the brush were 
interesting in themselves but are not properly a part of this recital and 
may be left to the imagination. 

Owing to the conspicuous appearance of the insect, its discovery, 
when it is present in any significant numbers, is a simple matter. 
Fairly accurate observations can in fact be made from a moving car. 
The lac occurs as a more or less solid incrustation on the twigs of the 
host plant, which is a verj^ open shrub. The insects are extraordinarily 
gregarious and are almost never found singly, the colonies being from 
a quarter of an inch to a foot long. It appears that ordinarily the 
"crawlers" merely move out toward the tip of the twig, thus increasing 
the length of the colony. 

The lac evidently remains upon the branches for a year and probably 
much longer for dead bushes were observed to which it was still cling- 
ing. Because of this it would seem reasonable to assume that occa- 
sionally plants would be found entirely covered by the insect. As a 
matter of fact nothing of the sort was ever seen, even in those local- 
ities where the insect is most abundant. In no case was a bush 
observed to have been killed by the scale and in but a few cases 
were more than two or three of the entire total of many feet of 
branches on a bush infested. It is this occurrence in closely massed 
colonies that causes an entirely fictitious appearance of abundance 
in museum specimens. Five inches of heavily incrusted twig in a 
bottle will call up pleasing visions of acres of bush thus infested — but 
this may have been the site of the only colony in an acre of creosote 
bush. 

The insect was not encountered in New Mexico and I am informed 
by Professor Cockerell, who is more familiar with the scale insect 
fauna of New Mexico than is any one else, that he has never seen it 
there. Elsewhere it was found throughout the entire area traversed. 
It was first encountered near Palm Springs, California, and was present 
constantly along the road from Mecca to Glythe, thence to Yuma 
and from Yuma to Tucson by way of Ajo. It was not seen east of 
Tuscon but in returning it was encountered again at Rice, Arizona, 
and then from Phoenix to Parker it was relatively abundant. It was 
also present along the road from Parker to Needles and from Needles 



August, '19] HERBERT: WESTERN SHADE TREE PESTS 333 

to Barstow. The last specimens were seen at Inyokern, near the 
southern end of the Owens Valley in California. 

In all of this area the present center of abundance is in the region 
bordering the Colorado River in the vicinity of Blythe and Parker. 
Here, from the standpoint of a collector, the insect is extraordinarily 
abundant. I estimated that from 10 to 20 per cent of the bushes were 
infested and the individual infestations were heavier than elsewhere. 
All other points I estimated that probably not more than 2 or 3 per 
cent of the bushes were infested at all. 

Here, then, should be the points at which the commercial recovery 
of the lac should be possible, if it is possible at all. Attempts to 
gather a large quantity of the substance for experimental purposes 
soon showed the futility of any such hope. I seriously question that 
one could gather fifty pounds of well infested twigs in a day. Of this 
probably not more than a pound, if as much, would be lac. And lac 
retails at 75 cents a pound. 

It is further to be noted that the area in which the insect is at 
present most abundant is quite limited, being confined to a narrow 
belt on each side of the Colorado River. Even were the insect 
sufficiently abundant in this region to make its gathering profitable 
the area thus favored is entirely too small to yield any very large 
supply. 

Whether the insect could be artificially propagated is another 
question. To answer it would involve a long series of costly experi- 
ments that in all probability would likewise yield negative results. 



INSECT PROBLEMS OF WESTERN SHADE TREES 

By Frank B. Herbert, Scientific Assistant,^ Los Gatos, Cal. 

A forest insect laboratory was established at Los Gatos, California, 
in the fall of 1916, with Mr. H. E. Burke in charge, the object being 
to study the insect problems of shade trees and ornamental shrubs, 
with general instructions from the Washington office to first get 
acquainted with the local shade tree problems and then the larger 
problems of the Pacific Coast. 

In this work and region a somewhat different class of insects is 
encountered from those found in the forest and most of them require 
very different methods of control. There are, of course, some wood 
and bark-borers which do considerable damage to shade trees, but 
by far the majority of the pests are scale insects. 

' Branch of Forest Entomology, Bureau of Entomologj', U. S. Department of 
Agriculture. 



334 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

The host plants of importance here are quite different from those 
encountered in the forest. The pines and firs have been mostly- 
replaced by a great variety of broad leaved deciduous and evergreen 
trees, some of which are natives, while the majority are gathered from 
various parts of the globe. With this importation of shade and 
ornamental trees have come some of our worst shade tree as well as 
fruit tree pests. 

Probably a greater variety of insects is encountered on shade trees 
than on any other class of trees or plants. Many of the pests of 
deciduous fruits, nut, olive and citrus trees, berry vines, nurseries 
and greenhouses are met with, besides a large array which are peculiar 
to forest and shade trees only. 

The harboring of pests on shade trees, which are also common to 
different kinds of fruit trees, causes an important relation between the 
two. This is particularly true in southern California, where a number 
of towns have spread out into the citrus districts, taking shade trees 
with them, and on many large estates the beautiful homes are sur- 
rounded by a wealth of trees and shrubs, which in turn are surrounded 
by citrus orchards. Fumigation and spraying are practiced in the 
orchards for the control of scale insects, but not to any large extent 
upon the shade trees, thus leaving a bountiful supply for reinfestation. 

The Argentine ant is probably the main factor in transporting 
the scale insects from one tree to another, as well as protecting them 
from their parasites, and thus becoming a pest to be contended with 
in the control of shade tree pests. The ant is also a pest from another 
standpoint in that it thrives and multipHes upon the honej^dew from 
scale insects infesting shade trees, and from here makes detested inroads 
into the pantries of nearby houses. This is a problem to be reckoned 
with especially during these days of food conservation. 

Artificial control of insects on shade trees is greatly neglected. 
Most farmers now realize that such control is necessary for the main- 
tenance of healthy fruit trees and the production of clean fruit. A 
great many people, however, believe that a shade tree should always 
be able to take care of itself. Therefore, one of the problems is to 
educate the people into seeing that spraying is necessary at times to 
maintain a healthy and vigorous shade tree. 

If trees and shrubbery were placed farther apart, and if each indi- 
vidual tree were thinned out in the top a bit, not the way the tops 
are often slashed by telephone linemen, but by proper cutting, thus 
letting in the sunshine, much of the need of spraying would be obviated. 
This has been demonstrated in Pasadena. There the pepper trees 
were badly infested with black scale until they were systematically 
opened up to the sun, whereupon very little spraying became necessary 
and that only about the lower part of some of the trees. 



August, '19] HERBERT: WESTERN SHADE TREE PESTS 335 

Many shade trees become so large that the question of spraying 
is not an easy one. A high power spraying apparatus of good capacity 
has been found practicable for such trees, but this is not always 
available. Fumigation is often the most satisfactory method of con- 
troHing certain pests, but again, due to the large size of many trees 
and the lack of apparatus in all localities outside of the citrus districts, 
this becomes almost impossible. 

There is not a great deal known here about the proper sprays to 
use upon conifers and evergreens. What such trees will stand in 
summer or winter is not very definitely known. This is one of the 
problems we are working on and hope to solve. 

Washing trees off with a solid stream of water is known to be one 
of the best remedies for removing many soft bodied scale insects. 
This is the most feasible means for controlling the European elm 
scale, particularly on large elms wherever a good pressure of water is 
available. At least fifty pounds pressure is necessary to give the 
water enough force to remove the insects. Even with this pressure 
one needs a travelling platform and an eight or ten foot extension 
rod in order to get close enough to the scale insects to remove them. 
With a number of large trees and plenty of available water, it is 
advisable to use a fire engine and hose if possible, thus obtaining 
a large head of water under a pressure of 125 pounds or more, which 
is sufficient to reach all parts of the tree from the ground. One 
hundred and ninety large trees in San Jose were washed in this way 
with good success which was more economical than any spraying 
would have been. 

Some people would rather let a shade tree die than to lift a finger 
to save it from its enemies, placing more value upon the tree for fire- 
wood than for any other purpose, while others would pay a great price 
to save a single tree, realizing that it would take many j^ears to replace 
it. Thus the question of economy of control does not always enter 
into a problem. 

The writer has specialized to some extent upon the scale insects 
infesting shade trees. Below are enumerated some of the more impor- 
tant of them. 

The European elm scale, Gossyparia spuria (Linn.), mentioned 
above, is one of our worst pests, occurring in many localities of the 
west and becoming a disagreeable and harmful pest, causing the trees 
to become black and sticky, killing limbs and sometimes whole trees. 
Much of the honeydew falls on the ground, making the streets and 
sidewalks disagreeable and dangerous to passing horses. 

The cypress l)ark scale, Ehrhornia cupressi (Ehrhorn), is a serious 
pest in central California upon some of our most popular shade trees. 



336 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

The Monterey, Guadalupe, and Arizona cypresses and incense cedar 
are attacked, while the Italian and Oriental cypresses are immune. 
This is such a pest that it is even recommended that other trees be 
planted instead of these cypresses in badly infested regions. 

The black scale, Saissetia oleoe (Bern,), is a pest of shade trees as 
well as friiit trees. In the interior regions it apparently does little 
harm, but in the San Francisco Bay Region it is a particularly harmful 
pest on oleanders and in southern California on pepper trees. It also 
infests a great many other native and foreign plants. 

The mealy-bugs are quite a problem by themselves. The citrus 
mealy-bug, Pseudococcus citri (Risso), is almost entirely a southern 
California pest, as is also the long-tailed mealy-bug, P. longispinus 
(Targ.). In the rest of California these are mostly greenhouse pests. 
P. maritimus (Ehrh.) {bakeri Essig) is quite a cosmopolitan pest, 
occurring in a great many parts of the state and on a variety of host 
plants, including a number of shade trees. 

P. gahani Green (citrophilus Clausen), known as a citrus pest 
of Southern California, is also a shade tree pest occurring on a number 
of trees. It has spread rather recently to central California, the writer 
having found it on black locust at Burlingame, and on Pittosporum, 
olive, fig, Poinsettia and rose at Oakland, California. It has also been 
previously reported from Niles, California. 

The golden mealy-bug, P. aurilanatus (Mask.), is a very harmful 
pest upon Araucarias and Agathis in Southern California. Araucaria 
hidwilh seems to suffer the worst, with A . excelsa next and A . imbricata 
third. Many appear black and dilapidated, while numerous dead 
or dying trees are reported to have been removed. 

The sycamore scale, Stomacoccus plata7ii Ferris, although a newly 
described scale insect, apparently is quite widespread, infesting both 
the native sycamore and the European plane tree. The writer has 
already located it at Los Gatos, San Jose, Evergreen, Livermore, 
Fresno, Claremont and Pasadena, California. It was noticed doing 
considerable damage in several of these localities. 

Some of the other important shade tree scale insects are: the Mon- 
terey pine scale, Physokermes insignicola (Craw.), which infests Mon- 
terey and other pines; Tourney ella sp., which infests the Austrian and 
Monterey pines; the Cahfornia pine leaf scale, Aspidiotus pini Corn- 
stock {californicus Coleman), infesting most of the common pines; the 
cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Mask., which does particular 
damage to boxwood and acacias; the rose scale, Aulacaspis rosae 
(Bouche), collecting in great numbers on the stems of roses, where it is 
quite conspicuous, occasionally doing some damage; the Itahan pear 
scale, Epidiaspis piricola (Del Guercio), which does considerable 



August, '19] MORRILL: SWEETS IN POISONED BAITS 337 

damage, particularly to the native toy on or Christmas berry; the San 
Jose scale, Aspidiotus perniciosus Comstock, and Lecanium corni Bouche 
which infest a number of trees, often doing damage. 

Scale insects are by no means the only pests of shade trees. Indeed 
there are quite a number of other pests which are of prime importance, 
among which may be enumerated: the California oak Worm, Phrygan- 
idia californica Pack., which spasmodically defoHates the oaks through- 
out the coast region of California; another defoliater, an oak worm 
looper, Therina somniaria Hulst., which is destructive to oak fohage 
in Oregon and farther north; the cypress bark-beetles, Phloeosinus 
cupressi Hopk. and P. cristatus Lee. which kill quite a number of 
cypresses yearly; the oak twig girdler, Agrilus angelicus Horn, which 
kills many oak twigs, sometimes injuring trees beyond recovery; 
the carpenter worm, Prionoxystus rohiniae Peck, which injures 
oaks, elms and cottonwoods by honey-combing the bark and wood, 
the flat-headed borers, Chrysohothris femorata. Fab. and C. mali Horn, 
which destroy the cambium of a great variety of shade as well 
as fruit trees; a bark-beetle in oaks, Pityophthorus pubipennis Lee, 
and three in pines, Dendroctonus valens Lee, Ips radiatae Hopk. and 
Ips plastographus Lee. which at times are quite destructive. 

Many other insects might be mentioned but these will serve to 
indicate our more important shade tree problems. Within the next 
few years it is hoped that we may be able to add considerably to the 
knowledge of western shade tree pests. 



THE VALUE OF MOLASSES AND SYRUPS IN POISONED 
BAITS FOR GRASSHOPPERS AND CUTWORMS 

By A. W, Morrill, Phoenix, Ariz. 

During the summer of 1917, experiments were conducted with grass- 
hopper baits which tended to show that molasses as an ingredient was 
unnecessary when used against the differential grasshopper (Melan- 
oplus differentialis). A continuation of these experiments with grass- 
hopper baits during 1918 and experiments with poisoned baits against 
cutworms has increased the evidence against molasses for the species 
of grasshoppers and cutworms under observation. 

History of Poisoned Baits with Reference to ]\Iolasses 

The experiments referred to have lead to an examination of the 
literature on the subject of grasshoppers and cutworm baits in order 
to determine the origin of the use of molasses in connection with such 
baits. Apparently the first published reference to poisoned bran 



338 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

bait for grasshoppers is found in Bulletin 25 of the Division of Ento- 
mology pubhshed in 1891.^ In this bulletin C. V. Riley quotes a letter 
from D. W. Coquillet concerning experiments with bran-arsenate 
mash in the San Joaquin Valley, California, in 1885. The formula 
which was used in California consisted of bran, arsenic, sugar and 
water. Coquillet emphatically stated that the use of sugar in the 
poisoned mash was not for the purpose of increasing the attractive- 
ness to the grasshoppers but merely for the purpose of causing the 
arsenic to adhere to the flakes of bran. 

The use of a poisoned bran bait against cutworms was apparently 
not discovered until 1894. The first published reference to such a 
bait for cutworms seems to be found in a paper by J. B. Smith read 
before the American Association of Economic Entomologists in 
August, 1894.2 The combination used consisted of bran, Paris green 
and water which is said to have given absolute protection to sweet 
potato plants which were being severely attacked by cutworms. The 
first use of this habit is credited to a sweet potato grower named 
Oliver Parry, of Beverley, New Jersey. The addition of molasses or 
sugar to the plain poisoned bran mixture was recommended sub- 
sequently by J. B. Smith, the object being indicated as not for the 
purpose of increasing the attractiveness of the bait but for the purpose 
of making the particles of bran adhere together and better retain 
moisture.^ 

No doubt molasses was substituted for sugar to suit the convenience 
of the users of poisoned baits against grasshoppers in California during 
the late eighties, but the first published reference to such substitution 
appears to be one found in Insect Life.'* Mr. H. B. Jackson, a cor- 
respondent of the Division of Entomology, living in Colorado, writing 
under date of August 15, 1892, referred to the successful use in Colorado 
against grasshoppers of a bait consisting of 100 parts of bran, 3 parts 
of Paris green "and some old molasses or other cheap sweet substance 
to make it stick together." In the same issue of Insect Life, Prof. 
Lawrence Bruner mentions bran and arsenic used in Colorado as a 
poisoned bait against grasshoppers, the absence of any mention of 
other ingredients indicating that the use of either sugar or molasses 
was not generally recognized as necessary. 

In 1896 an important discovery was made by onion growers in New 
York state as reported by F. A. Sirrine in a bulletin of the New York 



1 Pp. 59-60. 

2 Insect Life, Vol. 7, No. 2, p. 191. 

3 Catalog Insects of New Jersey, p. 21, 1900. Bui. N. J. 169, Agr. Exp. Sta., pp. 
11-12, 1903. 

* Vol. 6, pp. 32-33. 



August, '19] MORRILL: SWEETS IN POISONED BAITS 339 

Agricultural Experiment Station.^ In work against the dark-sided 
cutworm (Euxoa messoria) it was found that dry bran and Paris green 
were as attractive to the cutworms as was moistened bran and 
remained effective over a longer period. 

In recent years the recommendations of Sirrine seemed to have been 
largely overlooked by economic entomologists and it has become 
the rule to recommend the addition of molasses in poisoned baits for 
cutworms. Exceptions to this rule are noted however. Dr. S. A. 
Forbes, for instance, writing on corn pests in 1905,^ following Sirrine's 
recommendations advised distributing with a seed drill dry bran or 
middlings poisoned by mixing in Paris green. Other writers have 
recommended salt instead of sugar or molasses. Dr. James Fletcher 
in 1901 quoted Mr. Norman Griddle^ in regard to grasshopper baits, 
recommending one part of Paris green, one part of salt and 11 parts of 
bran. 

The literature in regard to grasshopper and cutworm baits includes 
very little data which bears directly upon the value of molasses as an 
ingredient of such baits. Messrs. Hunter and Claassen in 1913* 
experimented with various poisoned mixtures including a series of 
bran and Paris green with and without syrups. Their results show^ed 
practically no difference between the plain bran and Paris green 
mixture and the bran-syrup Paris green mixture, a total of 329 hoppers 
being recorded at the first and 312 hoppers at the second. Prof. G. A. 
Dean, referring to experiments also conducted in Kansas in 1913 and 
previously,^ stated in effect that glucose syrup w^as preferred over 
molasses. 

In Canada, Mr. E. H. Strickland, after experiments with poisoned 
baits against two species of cutworms, the red-backed cutworm and 
the pale western cutworm, reported without presenting data that 
"true beet molasses gave the best results."^ 

A Russian Entomologist, B. Pukhov,^ in his work against extensive 
grasshopper outbreaks in Russia (Gomphocerus sibiricus and other 
northern species of grasshoppers) found that wet bran in itself was very 
attractive to the insects but that "stale molasses" decreased its 
attractiveness. 

The writer's experiments in 1917 were given in detail in a paper read 

» Bui. 120, p. 194. 

» Twenty-third Rep. State Ent. of 111., p. IS, 1905. 

» Rep. of Entomologist and Botanist in Ann. Rep. Exp. Farm for year 1900, pp. 
20G-207. 

* Jour. Econ. Ent., Vol. 7, No. 1, p. 81. 
» Jour. Econ. Ent., Vol. 7, No. 1, p. 82. 

• Circ. 6. Ent. Branch Dept. Agr., Dom. Can., 1916. 

^ Agric. Gazette, Petrograd, 1917. See Rev. App. Ent., Vol. V, p. 355. 



340 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

before the Association and published in 1918.^ Working with the 
differential grasshopper no appreciable difference was observed 
between a series of baits with molasses and a similar series of baits 
without molasses, 2,115 of the insects being recorded at the first and 
2,104 at the second series. Considering the baits in which citrus fruits 
were used the records seemed to show a decided decrease in the attract- 
iveness in the bait when molasses (black strap) was included. 

Messrs. J. J. Davis and C. F. Turner of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture experimenting with the army worm (Cirphis unipuncta) 
secured practically 100 per cent efficiency from the use of bran and 
Paris green with water as needed. In another series of experiments 
conducted in a greenhouse which the authors considered as indicating 
"certain possibilities which should be tested in the fields" it was 
found that "there seems to be no noticeable difference in baits where 
molasses was used and where it was left out. "^ 

Mr. D. A. Ricker has recently published records on the attractive- 
ness of baits to three species of grasshoppers, Melanoplus femur- 
ruhrum, M. atlantis and M. hivittatus. By combining his records to 
show the apparent effect of including molasses as an ingredient we 
find that in five combinations in which molasses was used 176 grass- 
hoppers were recorded at the baits while in five corresponding com- 
binations in which molasses was omitted 236 grasshoppers were 
recorded. 

Information from Questionnaire 

The responses to a questionnaire recently sent to the heads of state 
entomological departments showed that in the majority of states 
the Kansas formula for poisoned baits is recommended against both 
grasshoppers and cutworms. In a number of instances the fruit 
is not included in recommendations for baits against cutworms. The 
responses in only nine instances contain information directly relating 
to the matter of the value of molasses as an ingredient in poisoned baits. 
In some instances the greater efficiency claimed for baits including 
molasses or baits made with one kind of sweetening agent as compared 
with another was stated to be a general impression or at least not 
supported by definite experiments. 

Mr. L. B. Smith, entomologist of the Virginia Truck Experiment 
Station, reported poor results against cutworms by omitting the 
molasses from baits when used for the protection of cauliflower, 
tomatoes, kohlrabi and peppers while no difference was observed on 
account of the omission of molasses in baits used for the protection of 

1 Jovir. Econ. Ent., Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 181-182, 1918. 

2 Can. Ent., Vol. L, No. 6, pp. 187-192, 1918. 



August, '19] MORRILL: SWEETS IN POISONED BAITS 341 

cabbage, egg plants and beans. The species of cutworms under obser- 
vation were Agostis ypsilon, Peridroma sauda, Noctua clandestina, 
Feltia suhgothica and Laphygma frugiperda. 

Prof. G. A. Dean, of Kansas, reported that unsatisfactory results 
believed to be due to the omission of molasses or syrup had been noted 
particularly in work against the variegated cutworm (Peridroma 
margaritosa) "at a time when so abundant as to take on the habits of 
the army worm." He also reported having observed no difference in 
results against grasshoppers with baits containing black strap molasses 
as compared with other grades of molasses or syrups. Professor 
Dean's results referred particularly to Melanoplus differentialis, M. 
bivittatus and Peridroma margaritosa. 

Prof. M. H. Swenk, of Nebraska, reported the general impression 
that baits without sweetening were not as effective against grasshop- 
pers as baits including sweetening. Karo or glucose syrups were con- 
sidered as not as efficient as sorghum or cattle molasses, the last being 
preferred. This report from Nebraska referred to various species of 
Melanoplus, particularly M. femur-ruhrum and M. atlantis. 

Prof. R. A. Cooley, of Montana, reported black strap molasses in his 
experience as "much better than mild molasses or corn syrup." He 
had not, however, tested poisoned baits for grasshoppers or cutworms 
omitting sweetening agents of all kinds. His department recom- 
mends the use of molasses in cutworm bait at the rate of 1 pint to 25 
pounds of bran whereas the Kansas formula, requiring four times as 
much molasses in proportion to the bran, is recommended against 
grasshoppers. 

Prof. C. R. Jones, of Colorado, reported having used various grades 
of syrups and molasses without having noted any difference in results. 

Observations in 1918 and 1919 

In 1918, in experiments conducted on a large scale by the writer or 
under his direction in Arizona, six experiments gave results relating to 
the use of molasses as grasshopper bait {M. differentialis) and one 
relating to its use as a bait for cutworms {Feltia annexa). In four 
experiments in which molasses was omitted in one or more tests the 
results were as good as when molasses (black strap) was included. In 
one experiment in which the molasses was increased two-thirds over 
the usuall}'- recommended amount no effect could be detected. In one 
series in which a medium light grade of cooking molasses was used 
instead of the usually recommended darker grade, the results were 
almost perfect, tending to shoAv independent of all other experiments, 
that a darker grade, particularly "black strap" is not necessary. 

In the fall of 1918 a bait consisting of bran, Paris green and water 



342 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

distributed broadcast in the same manner as baits are distributed for 
grasshoppers was tested against a common alfalfa pest, the granulated 
cutworm (Feltia annexa Tr.)- The mixture consisted of one-half sack 
(32| pounds) of bran, one pound of Paris green and water to give proper 
consistency for broadcasting. This was used at the rate of eight 
pounds (dry bran) to the acre. A hard rain fell during the night fol- 
lowing the application of the first batch but a few days later in the 
portion of the field treated with this batch as well as in parts of the 
field where the appHcations were not followed by rain no Hve cutworms 
were found as a result of a search by the writer and two other observers 
with a total time of about 30 minutes. In a nearby field where no 
poison had been apphed the cutworms remained in destructive num- 
bers, no dead specimens being found. 

Early in May of the present year a severe outbreak of variegated 
cutworms (Lycophotia {Peridroma) saucia Hbn.) occurred in alfalfa 
fields near Gilbert, Arizona. In one instance an eighty acre field was 
severely damaged, in fact all growth was prevented until the cause 
was discovered and the remedy applied. Poisoned bran mash made 
according to the formula used against the granulated cutworm a few 
months previous, was used by Dr. O. C. Bartlett, assistant state ento- 
mologist, with results which showed practically 100 per cent efficiency. 
Apparently only those worms which had ceased feeding in preparation 
for pupating escaped the effects of the poison. 

Conclusions 

At the present time it may be considered as established that molasses 
or syrup of any kind is absolutely unnecessary as an ingredient of 
poisoned baits against many of the common cutworms. On the other 
hand some investigators have found that the addition of molasses 
increases the attractiveness of the bait to some species under certain 
conditions. Evidence is accummulating to the effect that against 
some species of grasshoppers the use of molasses or syrup is an unneces- 
sary expense. Owing to the differences reported from different sec- 
tions it would not be safe to assume that the same ingredients will be 
found equally attractive to the same species of grasshoppers in different 
localities. Neverthless it would seem logical to accept the results of 
experiments with any one species in any locality until such time as 
similarly conclusive experiments in other localities have proven a 
variabilty in results. Whenever molasses or syrup can be omitted 
there is not only a material saving in the cost of the bait but the 
simplification of the directions for its preparation leads to the more 
ready adoption of control measures by the farmers. While the value 



August/ 19] DE ONG: STERILIZATION AND SEED GERMINATION 343 

of the several ingredients in baits for use against grasshoppers is still 
a matter for investigation it seems most logical for entomologists to 
recommend the simple bran and Paris green or bran-Paris green and 
water mixture against cutworms except when there is some definite 
reason for the addition of molasses, syrups or other ingredients. 



EFFECT OF EXCESSIVE STERILIZATION MEASURES ON THE 
GERMINATION OF SEEDS 

By E. R. DE Ong 

Reports of fumigation injury to the germinating power of seeds are 
frequently based on a single piece of work with insufficient data as to 
the details. The injury may have resulted from improper dosage, too 
long an exposure, improper ventilation after fumigating, or the condi- 
tions for germination may have been so poor as to cause a distinct 
lowering of the percentage and this loss is then attributed to fumiga- 
tion rather than to its true cause. A small number of experiments, 
no matter how accurate, can never be considered as giving a correct 
estimate of the work. Only by a large series of trials, if possible run- 
ning up into the hundreds and, still better, thousands, can a correct 
average be obtained of the real effect on germination either from fumi- 
gating or sterilizing processes. In an effort to secure results of this 
type, a series of over fifty kinds of grains, legumes and nuts were 
treated under very severe conditions, either the dosage, time exposure 
or degree of heat being much greater than the maximum known to be 
effective. The seeds were then tested for germinating power and the 
nuts for impairment of flavor. The varieties tested included a number 
of common grains, beans and nuts so that it served the double purpose 
of being a varietal test and also one of sufficient numbers so as to give 
a fairly accurate average for the entire experiment. Each variety 
was subjected to exactly the same process, as samples of the entire 
series of grain, beans and nuts were in the oven or fumigatorium at the 
same time, while the entire bulk was not so large as to liinder a uniform 
distribution of either gas or heat. An average of about 75 seeds to 
the variety was used for each experiment. The varieties tested were 
as follows: 

Wheat — Little Club, Baart, Australian \\'hite, Sonora. 

Corn — Yellow Dent, Evergreen, Early Minnesota, White Dent, Honey Sorghum, 
Feterita, King PhiUp Flint. 
Barley — Coast, Chevalier. 
Oats— Black. 
Rye — Unknown variety. 



344 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

Rice (Paddy) — Sue Hiro, Wateribune. 

Peanuts — Big Jumbo. 

Alfalfa — Unknown variety. 

Peas — Alaska Garden, Partridge. 

Beans — ^Large Horse Bean, Small Horse Bean, Lady Washington, Bayo, White 
Tepary, Red Kidney, Red Mexican, Cranberry, Henderson Bush Lima, Garbanzo, 
Black Eyes, Pink. 

Almonds — Ne plus ultra, Harriott, Texas, King, Reams, Klondyke, Drake, Big 
White Flat, Llewellyn, Nonpareil, CaUfornia, Languedoc, IXL, Peerless. 

All of these 58 varieties being subjected to eight different series, 
made a total of 464 experiments. 

The effect on the germinating power of all the grains and vetches 
was very similar, so small in fact as to be almost negligible. No 
decided varietal difference was noted on any of the seeds tested or in 
the quality of the nuts. The almonds showed a slight impairment of 
flavor when exposed to high temperatures or for long periods to the 
action of either carbon disulphid or cyanide. A short exposure to 
either of these chemicals, even at a strong concentration or an eight 
hour exposure to a temperature of 125° F. all left them in apparently 
a normal condition. 

The most striking variation was seen in beans, hence the report is 
shown in full for only this one group and for only seven of the eight 
series. The eighth series was at a similar temperature to number one, 
but for a shorter time, the results of the two being so alike as not to be 
worth repeating. This table then is a summary of seventy-seven 
experiments in which is seen a range in germination from 22 per cent 
to 100 per cent, and yet the average for the whole group is only 5 per 
cent less than that of the check, and small as was this loss in the beans, 
the variation for the grains was even less. 

Beans are commonly reported to be especially liable to injury from 
fumigation, yet when the excessive dosages or temperatures that were 
used are considered it is seen that in most instances no injury whatever 
occurred and even these discrepancies may be and probably are, partly 
due to improper germinating conditions, for the greater variations come 
in temperature tests and are not in proportion to the degree of heat 
used. Every effort was made to have optimum germinating condi- 
tions, the work being done in a fairlj'- constant temperature and all 
tests discarded that seemed to fail in any way. 

Considering the table as a whole it would seem that beans are not so 
susceptible to this form of injury as is usually thought, providing the 
work has been carefully done and on cured stocks, these experiments 
being on dry beans. Isolated instances may be selected from the table 
which would give the impression that these treatments are dangerous. 
Just as occasionally we have reports of fumigation injury, but as a 



August, '19] 



COCKERELL: INSECT PEST SCARCITY 



345 



whole it shows that fumigation and heat sterihzation are safe prac- 
tices both for grains and legumes at the dosages commonly used and 
with proper precautions as to the length of exposure and ventilation 
afterwards. 

Germination Percentage of Beans after Treatment with Excessive Dosage 





Heat 


Heat 


Heat 


Cyanide 

4 oz. 

to 

100 

cu. ft. 


Cyanide 

2 oz. 

to 

100 

cu. ft. 


CS2 

40 lbs. 

per 

1,000 

cu. ft. 


CSi 

30 lbs. 

per 

1,000 

cu. ft. 


Aver. 




Variety 


Temp. 

100-158° 

F. 


Temp.i 

124-154° 

F. 


Temp. 
125° 
F. 


Ck. 




Time 
5 hrs. 


2 hrs. 


8 hrs. 


18 hrs. 


5 hrs. 


18 hrs. 


42 hrs. 




Large Horse 

I^ady Washington 
Bayo 


(1) 
97 
96 
96 
100 
97 
68 
81 

22 

96 

94 

100 


(2) 
94 
98 
100 
39 
89 
99 
97 

96 
65 
94 
96 


(3) 
88 
98 
96 
98 
98 
100 
90 

96 
76 
95 
99 


(4) 

100 

85 

95 

97 

100 

100 

100 

87 
75 
97 
90 


(5) 

98 

97 

100 

88 

100 

100 

97 

100 
100 

72 
100 


(6) 
96 

100 
96 
95 
98 

100 
97 

93 

72 

96 

100 


(7) 
73 
96 

100 
98 

100 
98 

100 

80 
100 

93 
100 


91 
96 
97 
88 
99 
95 
95 

79 
83 
91 
98 


100 

99 

100 


White Tepary . . . 

Red Kidney 

Red Mexican. . . . 

Cranberry 

Henderson Bush 


89 
98 
99 
99 

94 


Garbanzo 

Blackeye 

Pink 


94 
93 
99 






Series averages . . . 


86 


88 


94 


93 


96 


95 


95 


92 


97 


Excess in time or 
strength used 
above 


lOx 
at this 
Temp. 


6x 
at this 
Temp. 


1.6x 
at this 
Temp. 


8x 

strength 

18x 

time 


4x 

strength 

5x 

time 


8x 
strength 


6x 

strength 

2x 

time 







1 Temp, readings for series 2 are as follows: 10.45 a. m., 102° F., 1.30, 136° F., 3.45, 154° C. 



ON THE ABSENCE OF INSECT PESTS IN CERTAIN LOCAL- 
ITIES AND ON CERTAIN PLANTS^ 

By T. D. A. Cockerell, University of Colorado 

The reports of entomologists describe the ravages of insect pests 
where they occur, but are usually silent concerning the ahsense of 
infestation. In these days, when we are so greatly concerned to 
increase the available food-supply, it seems particularly important 
to ascertain where crops can be grown with the least danger from 
insect attack. My wife and I, having a "war-garden" in Boulder, 
Colorado, in 1918, gained some experience which may be worth 
relating. Our beans {Phaseolus) were completely overrun by Epil- 
achna corrupta. It was thought that assiduous hand picking early 
in the season would abate the plague. It doubtless helped, and we 
got a good many beans; but the beetles came flying to the patch every 

1 This paper should have appeared with those read by title at the Baltimore meet- 
ing. — Ed. 
6 



346 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

day, and eventually the plants were ruined. Experiments made at 
the Colorado Agricultural College not yet published, indicate that 
kerosene emulsion may be used with success against this insect, but 
it is impossible to get it appUed uniformly over a town full of httle 
bean-patches in back yards. It seems practically impossible to 
prevent numerous persons from raising enough bean-beetles to re- 
plenish the neighborhood. Now this Epilachna, for reasons not clearly 
understood, is of very restricted distribution. It abounds in the 
vicinity of the mountains, from northern Colorado to southern New 
Mexico. A short distance out on the plains it apparently ceases to be 
a serious pest. It eats only Phaseolus, so far as I can find; soy beans 
and other beans of different genera are untouched. It probably feeds 
on po wild plant in the vicinity of Boulder. By entirely omitting the 
cultivation of beans for a year or more, it could presumably be starved 
out, and subsequently beans could be grown with safety. In the imme- 
diate future, however, it is obviously indicated that beans should be 
grown in those localities where the Epilachna is absent or a very minor 
pest, and that in the Epilachna area the ground should be given to other 
crops. 

Our experience with tomatoes has been very different. We got an 
early variety from Burbank, and the crop of the three varieties grown 
has been enormous. The season has been favorable, and up to the 
date of writing (October 11) the crop has been continuous, owing to 
the absence of frost. There have been no significant insect pests. 
Toward the end of summer, as we had observed for many years past, 
Heliothis ohsoleta is very abundant in Boulder. I have observed it as 
early as July 27. I had thoughtlessly assumed that all these moths 
were of local origin, but it is now evident that they migrate from the 
south. Our tomatoes have been entirely free from the attacks of the 
larvse, and our corn has been practically free, showing only light and 
negligible infestation toward the end of the season. 

The tomato is not only edible as such, raw and cooked, but it may 
be made the basis of excellent jam. Mrs. Cockerell finds that it is 
possible to reduce the usual amount of sugar in the jam to a fourth, 
replacing the rest by commercial syrup. By increasing the acreage 
of tomatoes, in the region where these are not seriously injured by 
insects, it is possible to produce a great amount of food, much of which 
may be put up in the form of jam and preserves. It would, therefore, 
seem to be a very important function of the Entomologists to ascertain 
and designate the regions where tomatoes may thus be grown to the 
greatest advantage. It may mean the addition of hundreds of tons of 
food to our supplies in a single season. As with tomatoes, so with 
other crops. The everbearing strawberry has been a delightful sur- 



August, '19] STEARNS: ORIENTAL PEACH MOTH PARASITES 347 

prise to us in Boulder. As I write there stands before me a basket 
of strawberries, gathered today (October 11) by a neighbor. This 
plant, also, seems to have no important pests in this locality; or at 
any rate, it produces abundantly without any special treatment. We 
are probably in an optimum region for strawberries as well as tomatoes. 

The girasole or Jerusalem artichoke {Helianthus tuberosus), of 
which we have a large experimental plot, is practically immune from 
insect or fungus attack, at least with us. Early in the season the 
young plants were attacked by cutworms, and it seemed that there 
would be some loss. But one shoot cut off, another came from a dif- 
ferent "eye, " and I believe that ultimately I did not lose a single plant. 

Asparagus has been free from pests in our garden until recent years. 
The European asparagus beetle has now arrived and is very abundant. 
We have taken out most of the asparagus and replaced it by straw- 
berries. 

At this time of year it would be possible by sending out circular 
letters in sufficient numbers, to ascertain the optimum regions for 
different crops, taking into account insect and fungus attacks, soil 
and climate. Maps could be prepared showing these areas, with 
shading to indicate the minor variations. In this way, so far as one- 
season crops are concerned, it is possible that if the results were suffi- 
ciently widely advertised, a notable increase in production would 
result. 



SOME RECENTLY RECORDED PARASITES OF THE 
ORIENTAL PEACH MOTH 

By Louis A. Stearns, Assodale Entomologist, Virginia State Crop Pest Commission 

While making a preliminary canvass during the summer months 
of 1918, to determine the exact status of the Oriental Peach ]\Ioth 
(Laspeyresia molesta Busck) in Virginia, and to collect desirable data 
concerning the injury resulting from the feeding habits of this pest,^ 
an accompanying study of its life history was carried on at the north 
Virginia field laboratory, Leesburg. Of more than six hundred larvae 
collected from injured peach twigs and fruits in nearby infested 
orchards at different dates from mid-July until late September, and 
placed in vials for daily observations as to development, a large number 
were parasitized. During the latter part of this period, parasitism 
of larvae and pupae continued at an average of 35 per cent. Numbers 

1 "The Oriental Fruit Moth In Virginia" — Quarterly Bulletin, Va. State Crop Pest 
Commission, April, 1919. 



348 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12 

of mature larvse, which have ceased feeding in fruit, have been found 
to cocoon for hibernatjion as early as the 12th of September. The 
direct result of extensive parasitic attacks at this time of the year is, 
obviously, a material decrease in the size of the overwintering brood 
upon whose numbers the severity of spring twig infestation by this 
insect is indirectly dependent. 

Eleven species of parasites were reared, seven of which have not 
been recorded previously as attacking the peach moth. A tachinid, 
Euzenillia variabilis Coquillett (det. C. T. Greene, U. S. Bureau of 
Entomology), the only dipterous parasite secured, had probably 
attacked the larva of its host prior to cocooning, and had then pupated 
within its partially constructed cocoon. During the latter part of the 
season, Macrocentrus sp. appeared in sufficient numbers to give it 
first rank in the records of hymenopterous parasites reared. According 
to Mr. R. A. Cushman, U. S. Bureau of Entomology, to whom the 
writer is indebted for determinations unless otherwise noted, this 
species, which parasitizes the codling moth (C. pomonella) as well, 
attacks the larva of the peach moth. While the larva feeds, the 
parasite develops, finally spinning its cocoon within that of its host. 
A number of specimens of Dihrachys houcheanus (Ratzeburg) (det. A. 
B. Gahan, U. S. Bureau of Entomology), the only secondary parasite 
reared, were taken from cocoons of Macrocentrus within which they 
had pupated. Of the remaining hymenopterous parasites, five — 
Rhogas platypterigis Ashm., Habrohracon gelechioB Ashm., Euhadizon 
gracilis Prov., Goniozus sp. (det. S. A. Rohwer, U. S. Bureau of Ento- 
mology), and Leucodesmia nigriventris Girault (det. J. C. Crawford, 
U. S. Bureau of Entomology) — attack L. molesta in the larva stage; 
and three — Itoplectis conquisitor (Say), Pimplidea cequallis (Prov.), 
and Phcegenes (Centeterus) sp. (det. A. B. Gahan, U. S. Bureau of 
Entomology) — attack L. molesta in the prepupa or pupa stages. 

Experiments with various sprays, including those commonly recom- 
mended for the suppression of insect enemies of peach and the other 
deciduous fruits which this pest attacks, have been variable in their 
results — mostly unsatisfactory. The role played by these minute 
dipterous and hymenopterous forms in the control of this recently 
established insect cannot, therefore, be too highly valued at the pres- 
ent time. 



August, '19] SAFRO: STRENGTH NICOTINE SOLUTIONS 349 

THE STRENGTH OF NICOTINE SOLUTIONS 

By V. I. Safro, Louisville, Ky. 

The terms designating the strength of nicotine solutions are very 
often used quite loosely and in some cases erroneously. Too often, 
for instance, we see mentioned "40 per cent nicotine sulphate" when 
the intent is to specify ''40 per cent nicotine as sulphate" — far from 
being an equivalent statement. It is highly desirable, then, that the 
factors that constitute the strength of nicotine solutions be well known 
and that certain old erroneous ideas be definitely disposed of. In 
order to bring this matter to the attention of entomologists, these 
nontechnical remarks are submitted. 

When properly used as a spray, nicotine solutions are practically 
independent of sunlight, humidity, or any other atmospheric conditions 
for their effectiveness as contact insecticides, the problem in the 
field being concerned solely with wetting the insects thoroughly 
with a solution of the required nicotine strength. (The practice of 
using a greater nicotine strength is sometimes followed in order to 
make up for carelessness and lack of thoroughness on the part of the 
grower, or for the lack of spreading properties of the spray caused by 
using hard water without the addition of a sufficient softener and 
spreader.) 

Odor No Indication of Comparative Strength. — Many growers 
make a practice of endeavoring to ascertain the comparative nicotine 
strength by the odor of the preparation. This has been a common 
practice among greenhouse men. As a matter of fact, the charac- 
teristic odor of tobacco is not due to nicotine. It is due to a great 
extent to the essential oils of the tobacco plant and to other extractive 
material with which we are at the present time not very well acquainted. 

The writer has before him the following preparations : 

100% Nicotine ( ) 

43% Nicotine < Uncombined; i. e. "free"> 
3% Nicotine ( ) 

40% Nicotine as sulphate 

Tobacco oil (no nicotine) 

An attempt to obtain the comparative nicotine value of these prepa- 
rations by odor is impossible. The preparation that contains the 
strongest tobacco odor is the preparation of tobacco oil which contains 
no nicotine whatever. On the other hand, the preparation containing 
100 per cent " free " nicotine possesses very little odor and that differing 
quite materially from the tobacco oil. In fact, the odor present in 
the sample of 100 per cent "free" nicotine has no similarity to the 
characteristic tobacco odor. The preparation containing 3 per cent 



350 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY [Vol. 12: 

nicotine has a stronger odor than either the preparation containing 
the 43 per cent or the 100 per cent, the 43 per cent having very little 
odor indeed. The preparation of 40 per cent nicotine as sulphate has 
a stronger odor than the preparation of 100 per cent "free" nicotine 
and is again of a different character than the odor of any of the other 
nicotine preparations. 

Color No Indication of Comparative Strength. — We have been 
accustomed to believing that the higher nicotine concentration, the 
darker the color. The coloring matter is almost entirely due to mate- 
rials other than the nicotine extracted from the tobacco plant. The 
preparations mentioned above in demonstrating that odor has no- 
relation to nicotine strength may also be used to show that color is 
no indication of comparative nicotine content. The preparations 
containing 43 per cent and 100 per cent nicotine are almost the same 
in color — a transparent red — and both are clearer and lighter in color 
than the 40 per cent nicotine as sulphate and the nicotine — free 
tobacco oil, both of which are dark brown in color, almost opaque, and 
heavier than the other preparations. 

Per Cent Nicotine Content Alone Insufficient as Statement- 
OF Exact Strength. — Most of the commercial nicotine solutions on 
the market contain 40 per cent nicotine by weight. The nicotine may 
be in the form of "free" nicotine or in the foi'm of nicotine sulphate, 
but the per cent refers to the amount of nicotine, by weight, because- 
it is the only method of knowing definitely how much actual nicotine 
is contained in the solution and such designation is required by the 
Federal Insecticide Board. It is necessary, then, to know the specific 
gravity of the preparation in order to know the actual nicotine content. 

Below is a list of three commercial preparations, each containing: 
40 per cent nicotine bj^ weight, showing the variations that exist in- 
several preparations. 







Approx. 


Pounds 






Weight 


Nicotine 


i.tion 


Sp. Gr. 


Per Gal. 


Per Gal. 


A 


1.20 


10 lbs. 


4 lbs. 


B 


1.0 


8 " 


3.2 " 


C 


927 


7.4" 


2.97 " 



Dilutions, being by volume, would in the case of each of the above 
40 per cent preparations give solutions of widely different nicotine 
content, granting that the same dilution is used with each preparation. 

Per Cent Nicotine Content together with Specific Gravity 
Constitutes' Statement of Exact Strength and Comparative: 
Value. — In order to know the definite value of a nicotine solution,. 



August, '19] SCIENTIFIC NOTES 351 

the total weight of nicotine in the solution should be known. In the 
three commercial preparations mentioned above, each preparation is 
labelled 40 per cent nicotine and yet in one case four pounds of nicotine 
and in another only 2.97 pounds of nicotine are contained in the same 
T-olume of solution. 



Scientific Notes 

European Elm Scale. On May 27th, the writer found an American elm on the 
college grounds infested with European elm scale (Gossyparia spuria). This, appar- 
ently, is the first time the insect has made its appearance at Ames. The college col- 
lection has a specimen from Des Moines, but we have been unable to find a pubhshed 
record for this state. Albert Hartzell, Ames, Iowa. 

European Com Borer (Pyrausta nubilalis Hubn.) in New York. A recent determi- 
nation by Messrs. Heinrich and Schaus, through the courtesy of Doctor L. O. Howard, 
of moths reared from corn stalks collected near Schenectady has positively established 
the occurrence of this serious pest in New York State. A subsequent identification 
by Mr. Heiiu-ich of moths reared from corn boring larvse suspected of being Pyrausta 
nubilalis has shown the Dutchess County insect to be Pyrausta penitalis Grote. This 
is welcome news and unless upset by subsequent discoveries, means that European 
corn borers occur in but one area in New York State and probably in but two in the 
United States. E. P. Felt. 

Com Borer in Connecticut not the European Species. In this Journal for April, 
page 218, is a note to the effect that "what appears to be a small infestation of the 
European corn borer was found in Milford, Conn., March 12." Adults have now 
been reared from this material and we are pleased to announce that they have been 
identified by speciahsts at Washington as Pyrausta penitalis Grote, and not the Euro- 
pean corn borer, Pyrausta nubilalis Hubner. W. E. Brittox. 

Swarms of Aphids. On June 23 and 24 vehicles and pedestrians passing through 
Chapel Street, and some other nearby thoroughfares in New Haven, Conn., were 
literally covered with small green insects which were flying in the air and were caught 
on the clothes, and tops of automobiles. One of the seed stores telephoned to my 
office inquiring what they were; some of their customers took them to be the arrival 
of the much heralded "seventeen year locust." On investigating the matter they 
were found to be aphids, afterwards identified by Dr. Edith M. Patch as Calaphis 
betulcecolens Fitch, a species infesting birch and supposed to remain upon that host 
throughout the season. Just why they migrated is a conundrum, unless because 
they became so abundant that they were forced to leave in search of food. Though 
there are a few birches in the city, there are doubtless many acres on the Orange hills, 
two or three miles to the southwest, from whence they came. Several observers 
noticed the swanns of aphids in New Haven and Hamden at this time and also the 
preceding week. W. E. Britton. 

Army Entomological Laboratory. Malcolm E. MacGregor, a Carnegie student 
who studied in tliis country several years ago, informed Dr. Howard in a recent letter 
that he is in charge of tlie War Office lOiitomological Laboratory, Kitchener Camp, 
Sandwich, Kent, adding that th<' tropical cam{)aign3 have made the English tumble 
on many facts which they could not se(> l)efore. The laboratory exemplifies the last 
word in modernity, all the apparatus lieing run by electricity and the equipment 
being beautiful in every way. Mr. MacGregor extends a most hearty welcome to 
any .\merican entomologist who may be visiting in I^ngland. E. P. F. 



JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY 

OFFICIAL ORGAN AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGISTS 

AUGUST, 1919 

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