of the Expedition to Quebec
COMMODORE BYRON MCCANDLESS
EXPEDITION TO QUEBEC,
IN THE YEAR 1775,
UNDEJt THE COMMAND OF COLONEL BENEDICT AltNOLD.
\3\A, AL B &>'/'$ ^L V I N ,
ONE HCSDRED CCJPIE?. c
THE march of ARNOLD and his determined followers across the wilder-
ness of Maine, and the subsequent attack and repulse at Quebec, foim
one of the most interesting, as well as exciting episodes in our revolu-
tionary history; the fortitude also with which these devoted men sustained
themselves amid the gloom and solitude of those untrodden wilds, merits
the grateful preservation of all records which may have escaped the de-
caying elements of time and neglect. A spirit, akin to this, has led to
the issuing of the following Journal of a soldier in that expedition.
For the purpose of co-operating with General SCHUYLER, who had the
command of the invasion of Canada, WASHINGTON planned this expedi-
tion to Quebec, which was as remarkable for its novelty and boldness, as
for the dangers and difficulties which it involved. These overcome, how-
ever, and a brilliant and speedy issue to the struggle in Canada, was ren-
dered almost certain. The subject of this expedition was first named by
WASHINGTON, in a letter to General SCHDYLER, dated at Cambridge, 20th
of August, 1775, in which he says, " The design of this express is to
communicate to you a plan of an expedition, which has engaged my
thoughts for several days. It is to penetrate to Canada, by way of the
Kennebec river, and so to Quebec, by a route ninety-six miles below
Montreal." He also says, " The few whom I have consulted upon it, ap-
prove it much ; but the final determination is deferred until I hear from
you." The scheme having met the approval of General SCHUYLER, mea-
sures were at once taken by the Commander-in-Chief to put it in opera-
VI INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.
The active and fearless spirit which BENEDICT ARNOLD evinced, par-
ticularly at the taking of Ticonderoga, pointed to him as one eminently
qualified to command an expedition, so daring and adventurous as that
determined upon. These actions were not forgotten by WASHINGTON,
and he accordingly selected him to take the command, and with it a
commission as Colonel in the continental line.
ARNOLD, after receiving his instructions, which enjoined him to prose-
cute the march with all diligence and despatch, and to conciliate the
good will of the people, through whose country he should pass, with
eleven hundred men, commenced his march, and after six weeks' struggle,
a few days before MONTGOMERY entered Montreal, he reached the south
bank of the St. Lawrence, opposite Quebec.
'The long, difficult and laborious march of ARNOLD, through hard-
ships and dangers, that would have appalled the stoutest follower of
Zenophon his subsequent seige and blockade of one of the strongest
military posts in the world, in the heart of the enemy's country, in the
midst of a northern winter, where nothing was seen but ice and snow,
with raw recruits, half clad, half fed, and scarcely half covered from the
storms of wind and snow the expedition to Canada may fairly be placed
on a parallel with any of the boasted achievements of ancient Greece or
Eome. Nor was the conclusion of it less honorable, though less bril-
liant the retreat of General SULLIVAN will hold a rank among the most
glorious efforts of military genius, so long as the world shall delight in
Of JAMES MELVIN, the author of this journal, we know nothing, save
what he has given us in the written account of his connection with that
expedition, and from which it appears that he was attached to Captain
DEARBORN'S company, which had been formed from a New Hampshire
regiment; but whether he held any grade higher than that of a private,
we have no means of knowing. The style of the composition, and ex-
INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. Vll
ceedingly neat penmanship of the journal, is strong evidence, however,
that he possessed, for the times, considerable education. As a contribu-
tion to the history of ARNOLD'S march to Canada, it is of great value,
when we consider how very meagre are the details given by historians in
general, when treating of that important, movement of the beginning of
the Revolution. Of the officers attached to the expedition, it has been
remarked, that nearly all became distinguished MORGAN, BURR, DEAR-
BORN, GREEN, BOYD and PORTERFIELD, are names found in many of the
bloody conflicts of that protracted war. Of ARNOLD, the world knows
his career, and we may remark with Mrs. WARREN, " That he lived to
be conspicuously distinguished through the American war, for his bra-
very and address, his activity and his villainy."
W. J. D.
CAMBRIDGE, SEPTEMBER 13, 1775.
Sept. 13. THIS day being Wednesday, marched from Cambridge,
in Capt. DEARBORN'S 1 company, destined for Quebec, and
were to embark at Newburyport for Kennebec river. We
lodged in Medford.
" 14. Received one month's pay, and marched to Lynn; lodged
at Porter's tavern.
" 15. Marched to Ipswich.
" 16. Marched to Newburyport; the company were quartered
in a rope-walk.
"17. Sunday the detachment went to meeting.
" 18. P. M. Embarked on board a schooner of seventy-five
tons; the whole were embarked in eleven vessels.
" 19. About 10 o'clock sailed out of the harbor, and stood on
and off, waiting for one of the vessels which got aground,
and not getting off, the men were put on board the other
vessels, and we sailed in the afternoon, with a fair wind and
pleasant weather; at night it grew thick and foggy, with
rain, thunder and lightning, and blowed fresh.
" 20. In the morning, foggy and wet; lay too part of the night;
at daybreak two of our fleet were in sight, and we made
sail and stood in for the shore. Blowed fresh we made
1 Afterward Major-General and Secretary of War.
21. Saw two of our vessels coming out of Sheepsgut river
into Kennebeck. We proceeded up the river as far as the
tide would permit, and came to anchor within six miles of
Fort Western. 2
23. Arrived at Fort Western. One JAMES McCoRMiCK shot
25. McCormick was found guilty.
26. He was brought to the gallows and reprieved.
27. Got our provisions into batteaux, and went about four
28. Proceeded up the river and found the water shoal, which
caused a rapid current, and we were obliged often to get
out and wade, pulling the boat after us.
30 Arrived at Fort Halifax, where was the first carrying
place; the land here is better than that near the sea. We
carried over our batteaux and pro visions; the carrying place
is opposite the fort.
1. Proceeded up the river; encamped in the woods; went
2. about ten miles. Cold and rainy.
3 Came to Scowhegan falls; the carrying place is about
forty rods over a little island.
4 Went up to Bumazees Ripples, and came to Norrigewalk.
The carriage-place is about a mile in length. We had oxen
to haul over our provision. Our batteaux were caulked.
We were now to take our leave of houses and settlements,
of which we saw no more, except one Indian wigwam, 'till
we came among the French, in Canada.
6 . Left Norrigewalk; went about five miles.
7. Went about twelve miles and encamped. The land here
is level and good; the river rapid.
8. Proceeded up the river and encamped about five miles
below the falls.
2. Opposite the present town of Augusta.
Oct'r. 9. Arrived at the great carrying-place, where was a log
house built for the sick.
" 10. Mr. SPRING, 3 our chaplain, went to prayers; we went to
the first pond, four miles from the river; it bio wed hard,
and one of the men was killed by the falling of a tree.
" 11. Crossed the first pond about three-quarters of a mile over;
here is plenty of fine trout.
" 12. There was a log house built on the first carrying-place,
between the first and second ponds.
" 13. Crossed the carrying-place from this pond to another;
the carrying-place is about one mile over.
" 14. Crossed the pond about half a mile over, and got over
the carrying-place about one and a half miles in length;
the woods are cedar and hemlock.
" 16. Crossed the third pond, about one and a half miles over.
We got over the fourth carrying-place, four and a half
miles in length; part of the way over a boggy swamp, over-
grown with white moss and bushes, which seemed half
withered; found it difficult getting over our batteaux and
barrels, sinking knee deep in moss and mud. We launched
our batteaux into a small creek which enters the Dead river.
" 17. Went eighteen miles up the Dead river.
" 18. Overtook Col. Green 4 and his party about twenty-five
miles up Dead river; had orders to put ourselves in a de-
" 19 Had orders to march, and went about five miles.
" 20.- Rained all last night and this day.
" 21. Marched through hideous woods and mountains for the
most part, but sometimes on the banks of the river, which
is very rapid.
3. Father of the Rev. GARDINER SPRING, D.D., Pastor of the Brick Church.
4. The hero of Red Bank, who, with his command, were afterward sur-
prised and murdered by a. party of Refugees, near Pine's Bridge, West-
chester county, May 13, 1781.
. 23. Captain EANDSHILL^ and sixty men went forward with
ten days' provision; about forty sick and weak men went
back with only two or three days' provision. The river
here is narrow and excessive rapid.
24. Continued our march, though slowly.
25. Hear that Colonel iNNis' 6 division are gone back.
26. Crossed the fifth carrying-place, which brought us to the
first pond, leading to Chadeur 7 river.
27. Crossed the second carrying-place, three-quarters of a
mile, then crossed second pond, then third carrying-place
and third pond, then fourth carrying-place and fourth pond,
28. Came down Chadeur river in a birch canoe, and went to
fetch back a batteau to carry the men across a river, but
could not overtake them. The company were ten miles,
wading knee deep among alders, &c., the greatest part of
the way, and came to a river which had overflown the land.
We stopped some time not knowing what to do, and at last
were obliged to wade through it, the ground giving way
under us at every step. We got on a little knoll of land
and went ten miles, where we were obliged to stay, night
coming on, and we were all cold and wet; one man fainted
in the water with fatigue and cold, but was helped along.
We had to wade into the water and chop down trees, fetch
the wood out of the water after dark to make a fire to dry
ourselves; however, at last we got a fire, and after eating
a mouthful of pork, laid ourselves down to sleep round the
fire, the water surrounding us close to our heads; if it had
5. Hanchel. " Head Quarters before Quebec, Dec. 26." "I have dis-
covered that three companies of Col. Arnold's detachment are very averse
to a coup-de-main, Capt. Hanchel, who has incurred Col. Arnold's dis-
pleasure, is at the bottom of it. A field officer is concerned in it. This
dangerous party threatens the ruin of our affairs. Extract from General
Montgomery's letter. Dunlap's History of J\ew York, vol. ii,p. 24.
6. Col. Enos. 7. Chaudiere.
Oct'r. 28 rained hard it would have overflown the place we were in.
Capt. GOODRICH'S company had only three-quarters of a
pound of pork, each man, and a barrel of flour among the
whole. They ordered the batteau to proceed down the
river with the flour, and when they came to the place above-
mentioned, waded through. They came to the knoll of
land beforementioned, and made a fire to dry themselves,
being almost perished. After some time they marched, and
found the difficulty increasing, being informed they must
return the way they came; being night, they camped on the
dryest spot they could find.
" 29. Being Sunday; crossed a river after much fatigue and loss
of time, in a birch canoe, and then waded to another river,
about forty rods from the first, which we crossed last night.
I lay at a bark house, and this morning went in the canoe
to ferry over the people over the two rivers above-mention-
ed, leaving my provision behind, as did Captain DEARBORN
and the three other officers. After we got over these rivers,
Captain DEARBORN, steering by a bad compass, went wrong
about two miles, the company following, and we went back
again, then went two or three miles to a little bark house,
where I had left my provision, and on coming there found
that our provision was stolen by Captain MORGAN'S S com-
pany. GOODRICH'S company came to the lower end of
Chadeur pond expecting to find their batteau with the flour,
but were disappointed.
< so. I set out in a birch bark canoe with Capt. DEARBORN
and Captain AYRES. We proceeded to the lower end of
the pond, where Captain DEARBORN left the canoe, and Cap-
tain AYRES and I proceeded down Chadeur river, about
three miles, and came to a riply place, which was very dan-
gerous, the rocks standing up all over the river. Here a
batteau was stove, with four men, and one man drowned,
8. Tlie hero of the " Cowpens."
Oct'r. 30. named GEORGE INNTS. I got safe down this place, and
from bad or worse; proceeded till night, and encamped
with the company. GOODRICH'S company set out early,
though on empty stomachs, and marched about ten miles in
hopes to overtake their batteau with the flour, but coming
to a small creek, they found an advertisement set up, in-
forming them that their batteau was stove and the flour
lost, and the men with difficulty having saved their lives.
This was melancholy news to them, having eaten scarcely
any thing for several days, and having waded through ice
and water, and were a great way from any inhabitants, and
knew not how far it was. They agreed to part, and the
heartiest to push forward as fast as they could.
" si. This day I took my pack and went by land, all the way,
to inhabitants. I was not well, having the flux. We went
twenty-one miles. GOODRICH'S company marched three
miles and were overtaken by Captain SMITH, who informed
them that Captain GOODRICH had left two quarters of a dog
for them. They stopped and sent for the meat, but the
men returned without finding it; however, gome of them
killed another dog 9 which belonged to us, which probably
saved some of their lives. Captain WARD'S company killed
Nov'r. 1. Continued unwell; this day I eat the last of my provis-
ion; I kept with the company, and we went twenty miles.
" 2. Traveled four miles; I shot a small bird called a sedee,
and a squirrel, which I lived upon this day. About noon
we met some Frenchmen with cattle for our army, and some
meal in a canoe. I had a small piece of meat and bread
9. This dog belonged to Capt Dearborn, and was a great favorite "My
dog was very large and a great favorite. I gave him up to several of Capt.
Goodrich' s company They carried him to their company, and killed and
divided him among those who were suffering most severely with hunger.
They ate every part of him, not excepting his entrails." Letter of Gen.
Dearborn to the Rev. William Allen.
Nov'r.2. given me; yesterday my messmates gave away victuals to
strangers but refused me, though they knew I had mine
stolen from me. This evening, to our great joy, we arrived
at the first French house, where was provision ready for us.
The first victuals I got was some boiled rice, which I bought
of the Indians, giving one shilling and four pence for about
a pint and a half. Here we were joined by about seventy
or eighty Indians, all finely ornamented in their way with
broaches, bracelets and other trinkets, and their faces
painted. I had gone barefoot these two or three days, and
wore my feet sore.
" 3. Snowed all day; marched about nine miles, when we
" 4. Marched about thirteen miles.
" 5. Sunday marched about twelve miles. Our Colonel went
forward and got beef killed for us every ten or twelve
miles, and served us potatoes instead of bread. I stood
sentry over one FLOOD, who was whipped for stealing
Captain DEAEBOBN'S pocket book. This was at St. Mary's.
" G. Marched twenty miles; very bad traveling, as it was
all the way to Quebec. Twelve miles was through woods,
in the night, mid leg in mud and snow. I traveled the
whole day without eating, and could not get any house
to lay in, but lodged in a barn all night.
" 7. Marched fifteen miles; snowed all day. My money be-
ing gone I could get nothing to eat 'till night, when there
was an ox killed.
" g. Marched six miles and came to Point Levi, on the river
St. Lawrence, opposite Quebec.
" 9. Our people took a prisoner, who was a midshipman. 10
10 " The boat soon struck the bank, and a midshipman, a lad named Mc-
Kenzie, brother to the captain of the frigate, sprang ashore. The tide
ebbing at the lime, the boat's crew were ordered to shove off, and to go
' higher up to a deeper landing place. While obeying this order they dis-
covered the Americans on the bank above, and immediately pulled off
Nov'r. 9. Continued at Point Levi; kept guard along the river side,
making scaling ladders and collecting canoes to cross the
river; the enemy having broken all the boats they could
" 13. In the evening crossed St. Lawrence at the mill above
Point Levi, and landed at Wolfe's cove. I went back
twice to fetch over the people, and stayed 'till day. The
town was alarmed by our Colonel firing at a boat on the
river. We went to Major CALDWELL'S house, about two
miles from the city, where we were quartered; a whole
company having only one small room.
" 14. One of our sentries was taken by the enemy, which
alarmed us; we expected they were come to give us battle,
and the whole detachment marched within musquet shot of
the walls, but saw none to oppose us; but when we were
turned to go back they fired several cannon shots at us,
without doing any damage.
" 15. The detachment went out on a scout; I went on guard at
" 17. Went on guard at Wolfe's cove.
"19. I was employed all the fore part of last night in butch-
ering for the army, and about four in the morning got on
our march and went to Point aux Trembles, about twenty-
six miles above Quebec. We kept guard at the river
" 27. Monday Lieut. HTJTCHINS and sixty men, went up to meet
and convoy a quantity of gunpowder, clothes, &c.
shore, leaving their officer to his fate. Morgan, frustrated in the design
he had formed to surprise and capture the boat's crew, now opened a fire
upon them. The midshipman, comprehending at once his situation,
plunged into the river, in the hope to regain his boat; but being deserted
by the boat's crew, who pulled out still further from the reach of danger,
and noticing the balls which now struck the water around him in fearful
proximity to his head, he turned toward the shore, and otherwise signified
his willingness to surrender." Life of Gen. Morgan, p. 79.
Nov. 28. I went on guard at a bridge, six miles from Quebec; stood
sentry two hours and off one every night, where I continued
'till the army came down to Quebec.
Dec'r. 3. The cannon were sent down the river in batteaux and
landed in the night.
" 5. The detachment marched on their way to Quebec. We
were quartered in a nunnery, near the town, but it was
wanted for a hospital, and we went over the river St.
Charles, where we continued.
" 10. Sunday. Busy making scaling ladders, &c.
< 25. Had orders to give our opinion whether to scale or not.
" 26. Turned out to storm the town, but it was too light.
" 31. Sunday. About four in the morning, were mustered in or-
der to storm the town; it snowed and stormed and was very
dark. Our company had not timely notice of the attack,
which occasioned us to be too late, for when the firing be-
gan we had a mile and a half to march. We made all pos-
sible haste, and met Colonel ARNOLD going back wounded.
I was on guard in St. Roque that night, and went forward
with the main body, and was not with the company. The
company went beyond Palace Gate, the enemy firing briskly
at them from the walls, and killed two or three. The ene-
my sallied out, and they surrendered, as did all the detach-
ment, except some few who made their escape. 11 We were
put into a monastery, among the friars; at night we had
some biscuit distributed among us.
11. In the action Capt. Dearborn, who had been quartered on the north
side of the river St. Charles, marched to join the main body, but in the at-
tempt was captured with his company by Capt. Law, who issued from
Palace Gate, with two hundred men and some cannon. Allen's Biograj-hl-
JANUARY, 4770, PMSONEB IN QUEBEC.
Jan'y 1. We had a straw bed between two, and a blanket, each
man, served to us. We had some porter given us. Snowed
in the morning.
" 3. We were ordered to give a list of our names, age, where
born, and what regiment we belonged to. Snowed in the
" 4. All the old countrymen were called into another room
and examined. Snowed in the morning.
" 6. They were called for again, and made to take arms for
the king until the 31st May.
" 6. Fair weather; they were taken out.
" 7. Some of our people taken with the small pox. Fair
" 8. Snowed in the morning.
9. Very dark weather and snowed. Some more taken with
the small pox, and we expect it will be a general disorder,
for we are very thick, nasty and lousy. Our living is salt
pork, biscuit, rice and butter, and a sufficiency allowed if
we were not checked in our weight, by one DEWEY, who is
appointed our quarter-master-sergeant, to deal out our pro-
vision; and instead of being our friend, proves our greatest
enemy, defrauding us of great part of our provision. We
have not above three oz. of pork a day, and not half-pint of
rice and two biscuit a day.
. 10. Fair, but excessive cold. I went to the hospital, having
the small pox.
"H. A snow storm, lasted two days and nights.
" 12. Snowed all day; cleared at night.
PRISONER IN QUEBEC. 19
Jan'y 13. Snowed all day.
" 14. Sunday. Fair, but very cold.
" 15. An excessive cold snow storm.
" 16. Fair weather; snowed all next night.
" 17. Snowed all day.
" 18. Cloudy and cold; several taken with the small pox; went
to the hospital; some of our men's clothes brought into
town from our army, but none for our company. I am now
got almost well, having had the small pox lightly. A
Frenchman being at the point of death, the nuns came and
read over him, afterward the priest came in, then they
fetched in a table, covered with a white cloth, and lighted
two wax candles, about three feet long, and set them on the
table. The priest put on a white robe over his other gar-
ments, and the nuns kneeled down, and the priest stood and
read a sentence, and then the nuns a sentence, and so they
went on some time; then the priest prayed by himself; then
the nuns and then the priest again; then they read alto-
gether a spell, and finally the priest alone; then the priest
stroked the man's face, and then they took away their can-
dles and tables, &c., and the man died.
11 19. Cloudy and cold.
" 20. DEWEY complained of fifteen of our men who had agreed
to fight their way out; two of them were put in irons.
" 21. Cloudy and cold; cleared in the afternoon. We were
ordered to make a return of all the tradesmen among us.
About this time two of our company, who were listed into
the king's service, made their escape out of town. This
day I came out of the hospital.
" 22. Last night our army burnt four of the enemy's vessels.
Cloudy and cold; cleared in the afternoon.
" 23. Cloudy.
" 24. Cloudy; snowed in the morning.
" 25, Fair weather.
Jan'y 26. Cloudy and cold.
" 27. Fair weather.
" 28. Sunday. Clear and excessive cold.
" 29. Clear and excessive cold.
" 31. The time seems very long; no employment. Nothing
heard or seen but playing at cards, swearing, and some play-
ing away all their allowance of victuals; some employ them-
selves in making wooden spoons, little boxes, &c. ; cloudy.
Feb'y 1. Clear weather.
"2. A pleasant day.
" 3. Clear weather.
" 4. Sunday. Clear and cold.
" 6 - Cold and windy; snowed at night.
" 6. Clear weather.
" 7. Thick weather.
" 8. Clear and cold.
" 9. Cold and snowed.
" 10. An excessive bad snow storm; some sentries froze dead.
" ll. Sunday. Cleared up in the night, and was a fair day.
" 12. Pleasant weather. Our men take the small pox fast.
" 13. Fair and cold.
" 14. Fair weather.
" 15. Clear weather. One of our men named PARROT, put in
irons for calling one of the emigrants a tory. Our army
opened a battery.
" 16. All the old countrymen brought into prison again, be-
cause six of them deserted last night.
" 18. Sunday. Clear weather.
" 19. do. do.
" 20. do. do.
" 21. Thick weather.
" 22. Clear weather.
PRISONER IN QUEBEC. 21
Feb'y23. Cloudy and windy.
" 24. Various reports concerning us; some say we shall be sent
to England and sold as slaves to some island; others say
that we shall be sent to Boston and exchanged; others say
that we shall certainly be hanged ; but we are in hopes that
our people will release us by taking the town.
" 25. Sunday. Fair weather.
" 26. Thick weather.
" 27. Snowed in the morning and thawed at night.
" 28. Snowed in the morning and thawed all day.
" 29. Fair and cold.
March l. Clear and cold; one BROWN put in irons for answering
one of the sentries who abused him.
2. Snowed in the morning; clear and cold all day.
" 3. Sunday. Clear and cold.
5. Cloudy, windy and cold; snowed at night.
6. Cold weather; hail and rain.
" 7. Clear weather.
" 8. Clear and cold.
" 9. The town was alarmed.
" 10. Sunday.
" 13, We were removed to the goal, near St. John's gate, which
is bomb proof. Here we have the liberty of a yard of
about a quarter of an acre.
" 16. Rained all day.
" 17. Sunday, pleasant weather. The guard set over us are old
Frenchmen and boys, who are very saucy, telling us we
shall be hanged; pointing their bayonets at us; threatening
to shoot us for opening a window, or any such trifle.
" 18, Pleasant weather.
" 19. Snowed.
M'ch 20. Snowed in the morning; clear at night.
' 21. Clear and cold. The French guard of boys and old men
are very saucy threatening us daily.
" 22. Cloudy and cold.
" 24. Sunday. Cold and squally.
" 25. Clear and cold.
" 26. Last night one of our men escaped out of goal and got
clear. About this time a plan was laid for our enlarge-
ment, and we prepared to break out and make our escape,
by seizing the guard. Clear and cold.
" 27. Clear and cold.
" 28. do. do.
" 29. Clear; a warm sun.
" 30. Clear; a warm sun.
" 31. Sunday. Snowed; our scheme found out; the sentry hear-
ing some noise in the cellar, search was made, and some
suspicion raised which might have passed off had not one
of our own men, JOHN HALL, discovered the whole affair,
and all the sergeants and corporals were put in irons.
April l. Fair weather. This morning the guard turned out and
fired some time before the goal ; then the alarm bell rang,
and the cannon on the walls were fired in order to draw
our army near the walls that they might cut them off with
grape shot . This day we were almost all in irons.
" 2 Pleasant weather.
" 3.- Cannonading on both sides. Our army are erecting a
battery at Point Levi . Cloudy, and rained in the afternoon .
" 4. Squally.
" 5. Fair weather.
' 6. Cloudy and cold.
" 7. Sunday.
PKISONER IN QUEBEC. 23
April 9. Warm weather.
10. Fair weather.
" 11. Very windy last night; rained in the afternoon.
" 12. Cloudy and snowed.
"13. A raw air.
" 14. Sunday. Major MCKENZIE came in and took Captain
MORGAN'S company out of irons. Clear in the morning;
cloudy almost all day.
" 15. This day the Yorkers' time was out, and they wanted to
go home, but were compelled to stay.
" 16. Clear morning; clouded up soon.
" 17. Had a week's allowance of fresh beef, which had been
killed three or four months, of which they boasted much,
telling us it was more than our army could get. Windy
" 18. Cloudy morning; clear afternoon; cannonading on both
" 19- Cloudy and cold.
" 20. Cloudy.
" 21. Sunday. Pleasant. They fired heavy cannon in the city.
" 22. The time seems long; all in irons; though most of us pull
them off at night. I never lay but two nights with them on.
" 23. Cold and squally.
" 24. Fair and windy.
" 25. Our army began to cross the river to and from Point
Levi. Fair weather.
" 26. Cloudy and some rain; the ground one half bare of snow.
" 27. Cloudy.
28 Some of our officers tried to make their escape, but were
discovered and put in irons. Fair weather.
" 29. Pleasant weather.
30. Foggy and rainy.
May l. Cloudy; snowed m the morning.
2. Fair and cold. Fired brisk on both sides.
' 3. Heard cannon fired at some distance.
"4. At nine or ten o'clock, at night, the town was alarmed
by a fire-ship from our people, which did no damage.
" 5. Sunday. Eained in the morning; cleared toward night.
" 6. Pleasant. About sunrise the town was alarmed, and
three ships came up, landed some troops, and sailed up the
river. The troops marched out at noon, and our army re-
treated, leaving a few sick men behind them, who were
brought into town. 12
" 7. Gen. CARLETON came in and ordered our irons to be
taken off. Pleasant day.
" 8. Cloudy. Hear many improbable stories about Boston,
New York, <fec.
" 9. Rainy day. Six prisoners were brought into goal.
" 10. Two riflemen were taken out of goal; we don't know on
what terms. Same day, two Jersey dumpling eaters were
brought in; they were found among the bushes, not having
tried to make their escape, being too heavy laden with
dumplings and pork, having forty pounds of pork, a knap-
sack full of dumplings, and a quantity of flour. Fair in
the morning; rained at night.
" 11. Fair weather. A party of king's troops marched.
" 12. Sunday. Clear weather.
" 13. Fair; a raw wind.
" 14- Fair; a ship sailed for England.
" 15. Fair; a raw wind.
" 16. Fair and clear.
12. General THOMAS, who was appointed to succeed MONTGOMERY, arrived
early in May; but CARLETON having received reinforcements under BUR-
GOTNE, the Americans were obliged to make a hasty retreat, leaving their
stores and sick behind. The latter were kindly treated, and finally sent
home. Lossing's Field Book of the Revolution, vol. i. p. 202.
PRISONER IN QUEBEC. 25
May 17. Fair.
is. Pleasant weather; hear that Major MEIGS and Captain
DEARBORN are gone home.
" 19. Sunday. Fair weather.
" 20. Cloudy and showery. Light infantry and grenadiers
" 21. Cloudy, and a raw wind.
" 22. Pleasant weather.
" 23. do. do.
" 24. do. do.
" 25, Eained in the afternoon. Sergeant BoYD 13 brought back
" 26. Sunday.
" 27. Pleasant. Ten ships arrived with troops.
" 28. Clear and windy.
" 29. Fair.
30 - Fair; cloudy at night.
31> Fair; some troops marched.
June l. The Brunswickers arrived; said to be six thousand. 14
" 2. Sunday. Fair weather.
" 3. Warm; cloudy at night.
" 4. A royal salute fired, being the king's birth-day. Cloudy.
" 5. Pleasant weather. Gov. CARLETON came in to us and
offered to send us home on condition not to bear arms
13. Sergeant BOYD, who after being exchanged, was a lieutenant in the
first Pennsylvania regiment, and accompanied Gen . SULLIVAN in his expe-
dition against the Indians, in 1779, and by whose hands he perished, after
suffeling the most atrocious cruelties.
14. " We are now, after much suffering, two leagues distant from Quebec,
where we shall arrive this evening, but where we shall not make any stay;
General CARLETON having, before our arrival, driven the rebels from the
environs of Quebec, and being at present engaged in their pursuit."
Madame De Reidesel's Journal, p 25.
June 6. Cloudy; rained at night. Sent the governor an answer
to his proposal.
" 7. Cloudy and windy.
" 8. Fair weather. Hear that there are three thousand of
our men at Sartigan.
" 9. Fair weather. Sunday. Hear that they landed three
thousand men, and our army defeated them.
" JO- Fair weather. Hear that two thousand of our men were
surrounded and taken.
" 11. Yery pleasant.
" 12. Fair weather.
" 13. Fair weather. Hear they have taken two hundred of
our men, who are to be sent to Halifax. Heard that our
men had sunk the Commodore.
" 14. Raw cold wind.
" 15. Rained at night.
" 16. Fair weather.
" 17. Fair weather. Hear that our army have killed and taken
four thousand Dutchmen.
" 18. Clear morning; cloudy afternoon.
" 19. A thunder storm, with hail stones as big as 2 oz. balls; a
young woman was killed by the lightning.
"20. A fair morn; a shower in the afternoon.
" 21. Fair weather.
"22. A fair morn; rained in the evening.
" 23. Sunday. Fair weather. Hear that our men drove the
" 24. Fair. Hear that our army have retreated out of Canada.
" 25. Fair weather. Hear that they have brought three hun-
dred Jersey blues, prisoners, to town.
" 26. Fair weather.
" 27. Fair. Two ships came up in the morning.
" 28. Fair and warm.
" 29. Fair weather. Hear that peace is proclaimed; also, that
PRISONER IN QUEBEC. 27
June 29 . they have killed four thousand of our men and taken ten
thousand, and that General WASHINGTON is killed.
" 30. Sunday. We hear there is a French fleet come in at Phil-
adelphia, of seventy* sail. Two ships came up to Quebec.
July 1. Fair weather; a thunder shower at night. Hear of the
Indians scalping our people at Three Rivers.
" 2. Lowery weather.
" 3. Showery weather; cleared in the afternoon.
" 4. Fair weather. We hear that they are waiting for some
officers that they have taken, to come here, and then we
shall be exchanged. Two prisoners brought in. Thunder
" 5. Rainy morn; clear afternoon. One of our men was so
indiscreet as to pull out one of the iron bars, in sight of the
sentry. When he was relieved he fetched the officer of the
guard and showed him what had been done, and search be-
ing made, some more were found out, which caused much
suspicion of us all. The prisoners brought in last night in-
form us that the Indians scalped many of our soldiers, some
of them alive; but that General CARLETON, to his great
honor, has refused to pay those murdering fiends for any
more scalps, but will pay them the same reward for every
" 6. Fair weather. Saw three ships working in. The man
who pulled out the grate was informed of, so that we hope
it will have no ill effect.
" 7. Sunday. Some showers in the morning. The man who
pulled out the grate beat the man who informed of him,
and he complained to the Provost. We hear that they have
sent an express to the Governor, informing him we have
made another attempt to break out; we have also a report
that our officers had attempted to set the place they were
July .7. confined in, on fire. This, as well as many more reports,
are not worth belief.
" 8. Pleasant weather. Hear that Col. McLANE is taken.
" 9- Hear that we are to go home soon. Pleasant weather.
" 10. Very fine weather.
n - Fine morning; rained in the afternoon and night. Hear
that Col. McLANE is taken, and two thousand of their men,
crossing the lake, and that there is a French fleet coming
here. We also hear that the German troops are to return
" 12. Rained almost all day. Hear that we are to sail for
New York in less than ten days.
" 13. Fair and warm.
" 14. Sunday. Fair weather. We hear we are to embark to-
" 15. Fair and moderate. Hear the Governor is expected in
town soon, and then it will be known what will be done
" 16. Showery.
" 17. Do. cold. We have bread served to us instead of
our allowance of butter.
" 18. Fair and temperate. Hear that Col. McLANE is come to
town, and that the Governor is expected every minute.
" 19. Cloudy and cold; the weather is so cold that the Cana-
dians do not expect a good crop of corn. It is so cold as
to wear a great coat. We hear that Col. McLANE says we
shall not be sent home.
" 20. Fair weather. !ONNOR. one of the prisoners who came
into goal last, was taken and put in some other place of
confinement, and, as we suppose, put in irons for talking im-
pertinently to the Captain of the Provost guard.
*' 21. Rainy weather, with thunder. Hear that we are to go
home very soon; heard from our officers, who gave us en-
couragement. We have also a report that the French,
PRISONER IN QUEBEC. 29
July 21. Spaniards and Prussians are at war with Great Britain,
and that there is a large fleet in the bay of St. Lawrence.
" 22. Fair weather. Saw a ship sail out. This afternoon the
Governor arrived from the army, and was saluted with fif-
teen guns. This gives us hopes that we shall be sent home.
" 23. Cloudy morning; fair all day. One of our company is
out of his right mind.
" 24. Rainy weather fore part of the day. We hear we are to
be sent to Montreal and exchanged.
" 25. Fair. Hear we are not to go home.
" 26. Some rain. We hear that the Governor has sent to let
our officers know that within three days he will appoint a
day when to send us home. Saw a brig and a ship come in.
" 27. Fair weather. We hear that the Governor has let our
officers know that he will send us home on the 4th or 5th
of August. This day we saw the French priest going to
visit a sick person. He was attended by about twenty
people, as follows: first a man goes ringing a little hand
bell, then two men or boys, carrying two lanthorns, with
lighted candles on poles, about ten feet long; then comes
the priest, under a canopy, supported by two men ; it is like
the teaster of a bed. The priest is dressed in white linen
robes over his black clothes, and things as heavy as boards
tied to his knees, and hang dangling and knocking against
his shins. They have crosses on these two things. After
the priest follow the friends and children of the sick person,
and any others that happen to be going that way who think
they are doing good to join in with the rest. Every one
that hears the bell is obliged to kneel down while they pass
by. The priest has a great cross upon his breast, and a
string of wooden beads hanging by his side. The people
all have these beads when they go to church, to help them
remember their prayers. They also use the same ceremony
when they go to a burying, and have choristers singing be-
fore the corpse.
July 28. Fair weather. This day, Mr . MURRAY, barrack master,
came in and told us we were to sail in a week . We now
begin to believe there is something in it, though we have
had so many different reports that we can scarce believe
any thing we hear. We are all to have a shirt a piece
29. Rainy weather. SIAS, the man who is out of his senses,
grows worse, talking of killing some of the people, &c.
" 30. Fair weather, except a shower or two.
" 31. Fair weather. We hear a report that our army have re-
entered Canada and retaken Fort St. Johns. We have
been seven months in prison to day.
Aug. 1. Rainy morning.
" 2 Fair weather. The news to day is, that our people have
wounded the German General, mortally, and taken five
hundred prisoners at Lake Champlain. We have it con-
firmed that we are to go on board the vessel on Sunday
3.. Fair weather. Hear that our sick men, at the hospital,
are to go on board this evening. We expect to go to-mor-
11 4. Sunday. Fair weather.
" 6. Fair weather. This afternoon we have each of us a shirt
given to us, and thirty-five of our men were sent on board,
after signing the paper.
END OF JOURNAL.
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