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of the Expedition to Quebec 












IN THE YEAR 1775, 


\3\A, AL B &>'/'$ ^L V I N , 









THE march of ARNOLD and his determined followers across the wilder- 
ness of Maine, and the subsequent attack and repulse at Quebec, foim 
one of the most interesting, as well as exciting episodes in our revolu- 
tionary history; the fortitude also with which these devoted men sustained 
themselves amid the gloom and solitude of those untrodden wilds, merits 
the grateful preservation of all records which may have escaped the de- 
caying elements of time and neglect. A spirit, akin to this, has led to 
the issuing of the following Journal of a soldier in that expedition. 

For the purpose of co-operating with General SCHUYLER, who had the 
command of the invasion of Canada, WASHINGTON planned this expedi- 
tion to Quebec, which was as remarkable for its novelty and boldness, as 
for the dangers and difficulties which it involved. These overcome, how- 
ever, and a brilliant and speedy issue to the struggle in Canada, was ren- 
dered almost certain. The subject of this expedition was first named by 
WASHINGTON, in a letter to General SCHDYLER, dated at Cambridge, 20th 
of August, 1775, in which he says, " The design of this express is to 
communicate to you a plan of an expedition, which has engaged my 
thoughts for several days. It is to penetrate to Canada, by way of the 
Kennebec river, and so to Quebec, by a route ninety-six miles below 
Montreal." He also says, " The few whom I have consulted upon it, ap- 
prove it much ; but the final determination is deferred until I hear from 
you." The scheme having met the approval of General SCHUYLER, mea- 
sures were at once taken by the Commander-in-Chief to put it in opera- 


The active and fearless spirit which BENEDICT ARNOLD evinced, par- 
ticularly at the taking of Ticonderoga, pointed to him as one eminently 
qualified to command an expedition, so daring and adventurous as that 
determined upon. These actions were not forgotten by WASHINGTON, 
and he accordingly selected him to take the command, and with it a 
commission as Colonel in the continental line. 

ARNOLD, after receiving his instructions, which enjoined him to prose- 
cute the march with all diligence and despatch, and to conciliate the 
good will of the people, through whose country he should pass, with 
eleven hundred men, commenced his march, and after six weeks' struggle, 
a few days before MONTGOMERY entered Montreal, he reached the south 
bank of the St. Lawrence, opposite Quebec. 

'The long, difficult and laborious march of ARNOLD, through hard- 
ships and dangers, that would have appalled the stoutest follower of 
Zenophon his subsequent seige and blockade of one of the strongest 
military posts in the world, in the heart of the enemy's country, in the 
midst of a northern winter, where nothing was seen but ice and snow, 
with raw recruits, half clad, half fed, and scarcely half covered from the 
storms of wind and snow the expedition to Canada may fairly be placed 
on a parallel with any of the boasted achievements of ancient Greece or 
Eome. Nor was the conclusion of it less honorable, though less bril- 
liant the retreat of General SULLIVAN will hold a rank among the most 
glorious efforts of military genius, so long as the world shall delight in 

Of JAMES MELVIN, the author of this journal, we know nothing, save 
what he has given us in the written account of his connection with that 
expedition, and from which it appears that he was attached to Captain 
DEARBORN'S company, which had been formed from a New Hampshire 
regiment; but whether he held any grade higher than that of a private, 
we have no means of knowing. The style of the composition, and ex- 


ceedingly neat penmanship of the journal, is strong evidence, however, 
that he possessed, for the times, considerable education. As a contribu- 
tion to the history of ARNOLD'S march to Canada, it is of great value, 
when we consider how very meagre are the details given by historians in 
general, when treating of that important, movement of the beginning of 
the Revolution. Of the officers attached to the expedition, it has been 
remarked, that nearly all became distinguished MORGAN, BURR, DEAR- 
BORN, GREEN, BOYD and PORTERFIELD, are names found in many of the 
bloody conflicts of that protracted war. Of ARNOLD, the world knows 
his career, and we may remark with Mrs. WARREN, " That he lived to 
be conspicuously distinguished through the American war, for his bra- 
very and address, his activity and his villainy." 

W. J. D. 



Sept. 13. THIS day being Wednesday, marched from Cambridge, 

in Capt. DEARBORN'S 1 company, destined for Quebec, and 
were to embark at Newburyport for Kennebec river. We 
lodged in Medford. 

" 14. Received one month's pay, and marched to Lynn; lodged 
at Porter's tavern. 

" 15. Marched to Ipswich. 

" 16. Marched to Newburyport; the company were quartered 
in a rope-walk. 

"17. Sunday the detachment went to meeting. 

" 18. P. M. Embarked on board a schooner of seventy-five 
tons; the whole were embarked in eleven vessels. 

" 19. About 10 o'clock sailed out of the harbor, and stood on 
and off, waiting for one of the vessels which got aground, 
and not getting off, the men were put on board the other 
vessels, and we sailed in the afternoon, with a fair wind and 
pleasant weather; at night it grew thick and foggy, with 
rain, thunder and lightning, and blowed fresh. 

" 20. In the morning, foggy and wet; lay too part of the night; 
at daybreak two of our fleet were in sight, and we made 
sail and stood in for the shore. Blowed fresh we made 

1 Afterward Major-General and Secretary of War. 



21. Saw two of our vessels coming out of Sheepsgut river 
into Kennebeck. We proceeded up the river as far as the 
tide would permit, and came to anchor within six miles of 
Fort Western. 2 

23. Arrived at Fort Western. One JAMES McCoRMiCK shot 
Sergeant BISHOP. 

25. McCormick was found guilty. 

26. He was brought to the gallows and reprieved. 

27. Got our provisions into batteaux, and went about four 

28. Proceeded up the river and found the water shoal, which 
caused a rapid current, and we were obliged often to get 
out and wade, pulling the boat after us. 

30 Arrived at Fort Halifax, where was the first carrying 
place; the land here is better than that near the sea. We 
carried over our batteaux and pro visions; the carrying place 
is opposite the fort. 

1. Proceeded up the river; encamped in the woods; went 

2. about ten miles. Cold and rainy. 

3 Came to Scowhegan falls; the carrying place is about 
forty rods over a little island. 

4 Went up to Bumazees Ripples, and came to Norrigewalk. 
The carriage-place is about a mile in length. We had oxen 
to haul over our provision. Our batteaux were caulked. 
We were now to take our leave of houses and settlements, 
of which we saw no more, except one Indian wigwam, 'till 
we came among the French, in Canada. 

6 . Left Norrigewalk; went about five miles. 

7. Went about twelve miles and encamped. The land here 
is level and good; the river rapid. 

8. Proceeded up the river and encamped about five miles 
below the falls. 

2. Opposite the present town of Augusta. 


Oct'r. 9. Arrived at the great carrying-place, where was a log 

house built for the sick. 

" 10. Mr. SPRING, 3 our chaplain, went to prayers; we went to 
the first pond, four miles from the river; it bio wed hard, 
and one of the men was killed by the falling of a tree. 

" 11. Crossed the first pond about three-quarters of a mile over; 
here is plenty of fine trout. 

" 12. There was a log house built on the first carrying-place, 
between the first and second ponds. 

" 13. Crossed the carrying-place from this pond to another; 
the carrying-place is about one mile over. 

" 14. Crossed the pond about half a mile over, and got over 
the carrying-place about one and a half miles in length; 
the woods are cedar and hemlock. 

" 16. Crossed the third pond, about one and a half miles over. 
We got over the fourth carrying-place, four and a half 
miles in length; part of the way over a boggy swamp, over- 
grown with white moss and bushes, which seemed half 
withered; found it difficult getting over our batteaux and 
barrels, sinking knee deep in moss and mud. We launched 
our batteaux into a small creek which enters the Dead river. 

" 17. Went eighteen miles up the Dead river. 

" 18. Overtook Col. Green 4 and his party about twenty-five 
miles up Dead river; had orders to put ourselves in a de- 
fensive condition. 

" 19 Had orders to march, and went about five miles. 

" 20.- Rained all last night and this day. 

" 21. Marched through hideous woods and mountains for the 
most part, but sometimes on the banks of the river, which 
is very rapid. 

3. Father of the Rev. GARDINER SPRING, D.D., Pastor of the Brick Church. 

4. The hero of Red Bank, who, with his command, were afterward sur- 
prised and murdered by a. party of Refugees, near Pine's Bridge, West- 
chester county, May 13, 1781. 




. 23. Captain EANDSHILL^ and sixty men went forward with 
ten days' provision; about forty sick and weak men went 
back with only two or three days' provision. The river 
here is narrow and excessive rapid. 

24. Continued our march, though slowly. 

25. Hear that Colonel iNNis' 6 division are gone back. 

26. Crossed the fifth carrying-place, which brought us to the 
first pond, leading to Chadeur 7 river. 

27. Crossed the second carrying-place, three-quarters of a 
mile, then crossed second pond, then third carrying-place 
and third pond, then fourth carrying-place and fourth pond, 
and encamped. 

28. Came down Chadeur river in a birch canoe, and went to 
fetch back a batteau to carry the men across a river, but 
could not overtake them. The company were ten miles, 
wading knee deep among alders, &c., the greatest part of 
the way, and came to a river which had overflown the land. 
We stopped some time not knowing what to do, and at last 
were obliged to wade through it, the ground giving way 
under us at every step. We got on a little knoll of land 
and went ten miles, where we were obliged to stay, night 
coming on, and we were all cold and wet; one man fainted 
in the water with fatigue and cold, but was helped along. 
We had to wade into the water and chop down trees, fetch 
the wood out of the water after dark to make a fire to dry 
ourselves; however, at last we got a fire, and after eating 
a mouthful of pork, laid ourselves down to sleep round the 
fire, the water surrounding us close to our heads; if it had 

5. Hanchel. " Head Quarters before Quebec, Dec. 26." "I have dis- 
covered that three companies of Col. Arnold's detachment are very averse 
to a coup-de-main, Capt. Hanchel, who has incurred Col. Arnold's dis- 
pleasure, is at the bottom of it. A field officer is concerned in it. This 
dangerous party threatens the ruin of our affairs. Extract from General 
Montgomery's letter. Dunlap's History of J\ew York, vol. ii,p. 24. 

6. Col. Enos. 7. Chaudiere. 



Oct'r. 28 rained hard it would have overflown the place we were in. 
Capt. GOODRICH'S company had only three-quarters of a 
pound of pork, each man, and a barrel of flour among the 
whole. They ordered the batteau to proceed down the 
river with the flour, and when they came to the place above- 
mentioned, waded through. They came to the knoll of 
land beforementioned, and made a fire to dry themselves, 
being almost perished. After some time they marched, and 
found the difficulty increasing, being informed they must 
return the way they came; being night, they camped on the 
dryest spot they could find. 

" 29. Being Sunday; crossed a river after much fatigue and loss 
of time, in a birch canoe, and then waded to another river, 
about forty rods from the first, which we crossed last night. 
I lay at a bark house, and this morning went in the canoe 
to ferry over the people over the two rivers above-mention- 
ed, leaving my provision behind, as did Captain DEARBORN 
and the three other officers. After we got over these rivers, 
Captain DEARBORN, steering by a bad compass, went wrong 
about two miles, the company following, and we went back 
again, then went two or three miles to a little bark house, 
where I had left my provision, and on coming there found 
that our provision was stolen by Captain MORGAN'S S com- 
pany. GOODRICH'S company came to the lower end of 
Chadeur pond expecting to find their batteau with the flour, 
but were disappointed. 

< so. I set out in a birch bark canoe with Capt. DEARBORN 
and Captain AYRES. We proceeded to the lower end of 
the pond, where Captain DEARBORN left the canoe, and Cap- 
tain AYRES and I proceeded down Chadeur river, about 
three miles, and came to a riply place, which was very dan- 
gerous, the rocks standing up all over the river. Here a 
batteau was stove, with four men, and one man drowned, 

8. Tlie hero of the " Cowpens." 


Oct'r. 30. named GEORGE INNTS. I got safe down this place, and 
from bad or worse; proceeded till night, and encamped 
with the company. GOODRICH'S company set out early, 
though on empty stomachs, and marched about ten miles in 
hopes to overtake their batteau with the flour, but coming 
to a small creek, they found an advertisement set up, in- 
forming them that their batteau was stove and the flour 
lost, and the men with difficulty having saved their lives. 
This was melancholy news to them, having eaten scarcely 
any thing for several days, and having waded through ice 
and water, and were a great way from any inhabitants, and 
knew not how far it was. They agreed to part, and the 
heartiest to push forward as fast as they could. 
" si. This day I took my pack and went by land, all the way, 
to inhabitants. I was not well, having the flux. We went 
twenty-one miles. GOODRICH'S company marched three 
miles and were overtaken by Captain SMITH, who informed 
them that Captain GOODRICH had left two quarters of a dog 
for them. They stopped and sent for the meat, but the 
men returned without finding it; however, gome of them 
killed another dog 9 which belonged to us, which probably 
saved some of their lives. Captain WARD'S company killed 
another dog. 

Nov'r. 1. Continued unwell; this day I eat the last of my provis- 
ion; I kept with the company, and we went twenty miles. 
" 2. Traveled four miles; I shot a small bird called a sedee, 
and a squirrel, which I lived upon this day. About noon 
we met some Frenchmen with cattle for our army, and some 
meal in a canoe. I had a small piece of meat and bread 

9. This dog belonged to Capt Dearborn, and was a great favorite "My 
dog was very large and a great favorite. I gave him up to several of Capt. 
Goodrich' s company They carried him to their company, and killed and 
divided him among those who were suffering most severely with hunger. 
They ate every part of him, not excepting his entrails." Letter of Gen. 
Dearborn to the Rev. William Allen. 



Nov'r.2. given me; yesterday my messmates gave away victuals to 
strangers but refused me, though they knew I had mine 
stolen from me. This evening, to our great joy, we arrived 
at the first French house, where was provision ready for us. 
The first victuals I got was some boiled rice, which I bought 
of the Indians, giving one shilling and four pence for about 
a pint and a half. Here we were joined by about seventy 
or eighty Indians, all finely ornamented in their way with 
broaches, bracelets and other trinkets, and their faces 
painted. I had gone barefoot these two or three days, and 
wore my feet sore. 

" 3. Snowed all day; marched about nine miles, when we 
drawed provisions. 

" 4. Marched about thirteen miles. 

" 5. Sunday marched about twelve miles. Our Colonel went 
forward and got beef killed for us every ten or twelve 
miles, and served us potatoes instead of bread. I stood 
sentry over one FLOOD, who was whipped for stealing 
Captain DEAEBOBN'S pocket book. This was at St. Mary's. 

" G. Marched twenty miles; very bad traveling, as it was 
all the way to Quebec. Twelve miles was through woods, 
in the night, mid leg in mud and snow. I traveled the 
whole day without eating, and could not get any house 
to lay in, but lodged in a barn all night. 

" 7. Marched fifteen miles; snowed all day. My money be- 
ing gone I could get nothing to eat 'till night, when there 
was an ox killed. 

" g. Marched six miles and came to Point Levi, on the river 
St. Lawrence, opposite Quebec. 

" 9. Our people took a prisoner, who was a midshipman. 10 

10 " The boat soon struck the bank, and a midshipman, a lad named Mc- 
Kenzie, brother to the captain of the frigate, sprang ashore. The tide 
ebbing at the lime, the boat's crew were ordered to shove off, and to go 
' higher up to a deeper landing place. While obeying this order they dis- 
covered the Americans on the bank above, and immediately pulled off 


Nov'r. 9. Continued at Point Levi; kept guard along the river side, 
making scaling ladders and collecting canoes to cross the 
river; the enemy having broken all the boats they could 

" 13. In the evening crossed St. Lawrence at the mill above 
Point Levi, and landed at Wolfe's cove. I went back 
twice to fetch over the people, and stayed 'till day. The 
town was alarmed by our Colonel firing at a boat on the 
river. We went to Major CALDWELL'S house, about two 
miles from the city, where we were quartered; a whole 
company having only one small room. 

" 14. One of our sentries was taken by the enemy, which 
alarmed us; we expected they were come to give us battle, 
and the whole detachment marched within musquet shot of 
the walls, but saw none to oppose us; but when we were 
turned to go back they fired several cannon shots at us, 
without doing any damage. 

" 15. The detachment went out on a scout; I went on guard at 
Wolfe's cove. 

" 17. Went on guard at Wolfe's cove. 

"19. I was employed all the fore part of last night in butch- 
ering for the army, and about four in the morning got on 
our march and went to Point aux Trembles, about twenty- 
six miles above Quebec. We kept guard at the river 

" 27. Monday Lieut. HTJTCHINS and sixty men, went up to meet 
and convoy a quantity of gunpowder, clothes, &c. 

shore, leaving their officer to his fate. Morgan, frustrated in the design 
he had formed to surprise and capture the boat's crew, now opened a fire 
upon them. The midshipman, comprehending at once his situation, 
plunged into the river, in the hope to regain his boat; but being deserted 
by the boat's crew, who pulled out still further from the reach of danger, 
and noticing the balls which now struck the water around him in fearful 
proximity to his head, he turned toward the shore, and otherwise signified 
his willingness to surrender." Life of Gen. Morgan, p. 79. 


I *T*TC 

Nov. 28. I went on guard at a bridge, six miles from Quebec; stood 
sentry two hours and off one every night, where I continued 
'till the army came down to Quebec. 

Dec'r. 3. The cannon were sent down the river in batteaux and 
landed in the night. 

" 5. The detachment marched on their way to Quebec. We 
were quartered in a nunnery, near the town, but it was 
wanted for a hospital, and we went over the river St. 
Charles, where we continued. 

" 10. Sunday. Busy making scaling ladders, &c. 

< 25. Had orders to give our opinion whether to scale or not. 

" 26. Turned out to storm the town, but it was too light. 

" 31. Sunday. About four in the morning, were mustered in or- 
der to storm the town; it snowed and stormed and was very 
dark. Our company had not timely notice of the attack, 
which occasioned us to be too late, for when the firing be- 
gan we had a mile and a half to march. We made all pos- 
sible haste, and met Colonel ARNOLD going back wounded. 
I was on guard in St. Roque that night, and went forward 
with the main body, and was not with the company. The 
company went beyond Palace Gate, the enemy firing briskly 
at them from the walls, and killed two or three. The ene- 
my sallied out, and they surrendered, as did all the detach- 
ment, except some few who made their escape. 11 We were 
put into a monastery, among the friars; at night we had 
some biscuit distributed among us. 

11. In the action Capt. Dearborn, who had been quartered on the north 
side of the river St. Charles, marched to join the main body, but in the at- 
tempt was captured with his company by Capt. Law, who issued from 
Palace Gate, with two hundred men and some cannon. Allen's Biograj-hl- 
cal Dictionary. 



Jan'y 1. We had a straw bed between two, and a blanket, each 
man, served to us. We had some porter given us. Snowed 
in the morning. 

" 3. We were ordered to give a list of our names, age, where 
born, and what regiment we belonged to. Snowed in the 

" 4. All the old countrymen were called into another room 
and examined. Snowed in the morning. 

" 6. They were called for again, and made to take arms for 
the king until the 31st May. 

" 6. Fair weather; they were taken out. 

" 7. Some of our people taken with the small pox. Fair 

" 8. Snowed in the morning. 

9. Very dark weather and snowed. Some more taken with 
the small pox, and we expect it will be a general disorder, 
for we are very thick, nasty and lousy. Our living is salt 
pork, biscuit, rice and butter, and a sufficiency allowed if 
we were not checked in our weight, by one DEWEY, who is 
appointed our quarter-master-sergeant, to deal out our pro- 
vision; and instead of being our friend, proves our greatest 
enemy, defrauding us of great part of our provision. We 
have not above three oz. of pork a day, and not half-pint of 
rice and two biscuit a day. 

. 10. Fair, but excessive cold. I went to the hospital, having 
the small pox. 

"H. A snow storm, lasted two days and nights. 

" 12. Snowed all day; cleared at night. 



Jan'y 13. Snowed all day. 
" 14. Sunday. Fair, but very cold. 
" 15. An excessive cold snow storm. 

" 16. Fair weather; snowed all next night. 

" 17. Snowed all day. 

" 18. Cloudy and cold; several taken with the small pox; went 
to the hospital; some of our men's clothes brought into 
town from our army, but none for our company. I am now 
got almost well, having had the small pox lightly. A 
Frenchman being at the point of death, the nuns came and 
read over him, afterward the priest came in, then they 
fetched in a table, covered with a white cloth, and lighted 
two wax candles, about three feet long, and set them on the 
table. The priest put on a white robe over his other gar- 
ments, and the nuns kneeled down, and the priest stood and 
read a sentence, and then the nuns a sentence, and so they 
went on some time; then the priest prayed by himself; then 
the nuns and then the priest again; then they read alto- 
gether a spell, and finally the priest alone; then the priest 
stroked the man's face, and then they took away their can- 
dles and tables, &c., and the man died. 

11 19. Cloudy and cold. 

" 20. DEWEY complained of fifteen of our men who had agreed 
to fight their way out; two of them were put in irons. 

" 21. Cloudy and cold; cleared in the afternoon. We were 
ordered to make a return of all the tradesmen among us. 
About this time two of our company, who were listed into 
the king's service, made their escape out of town. This 
day I came out of the hospital. 

" 22. Last night our army burnt four of the enemy's vessels. 
Cloudy and cold; cleared in the afternoon. 

" 23. Cloudy. 

" 24. Cloudy; snowed in the morning. 

" 25, Fair weather. 



Jan'y 26. Cloudy and cold. 

" 27. Fair weather. 

" 28. Sunday. Clear and excessive cold. 

" 29. Clear and excessive cold. 

" 31. The time seems very long; no employment. Nothing 
heard or seen but playing at cards, swearing, and some play- 
ing away all their allowance of victuals; some employ them- 
selves in making wooden spoons, little boxes, &c. ; cloudy. 

FEBRUARY, 1776. 

Feb'y 1. Clear weather. 

"2. A pleasant day. 

" 3. Clear weather. 

" 4. Sunday. Clear and cold. 

" 6 - Cold and windy; snowed at night. 

" 6. Clear weather. 

" 7. Thick weather. 

" 8. Clear and cold. 

" 9. Cold and snowed. 

" 10. An excessive bad snow storm; some sentries froze dead. 

" ll. Sunday. Cleared up in the night, and was a fair day. 

" 12. Pleasant weather. Our men take the small pox fast. 

" 13. Fair and cold. 

" 14. Fair weather. 

" 15. Clear weather. One of our men named PARROT, put in 
irons for calling one of the emigrants a tory. Our army 
opened a battery. 

" 16. All the old countrymen brought into prison again, be- 
cause six of them deserted last night. 

" 18. Sunday. Clear weather. 

" 19. do. do. 

" 20. do. do. 

" 21. Thick weather. 

" 22. Clear weather. 



Feb'y23. Cloudy and windy. 

" 24. Various reports concerning us; some say we shall be sent 
to England and sold as slaves to some island; others say 
that we shall be sent to Boston and exchanged; others say 
that we shall certainly be hanged ; but we are in hopes that 
our people will release us by taking the town. 

" 25. Sunday. Fair weather. 

" 26. Thick weather. 

" 27. Snowed in the morning and thawed at night. 

" 28. Snowed in the morning and thawed all day. 

" 29. Fair and cold. 

MARCH, 1776. 

March l. Clear and cold; one BROWN put in irons for answering 
one of the sentries who abused him. 

2. Snowed in the morning; clear and cold all day. 

" 3. Sunday. Clear and cold. 

4. Clear. 

5. Cloudy, windy and cold; snowed at night. 

6. Cold weather; hail and rain. 

" 7. Clear weather. 

" 8. Clear and cold. 

" 9. The town was alarmed. 

" 10. Sunday. 

" 13, We were removed to the goal, near St. John's gate, which 
is bomb proof. Here we have the liberty of a yard of 
about a quarter of an acre. 

" 16. Rained all day. 

" 17. Sunday, pleasant weather. The guard set over us are old 
Frenchmen and boys, who are very saucy, telling us we 
shall be hanged; pointing their bayonets at us; threatening 
to shoot us for opening a window, or any such trifle. 

" 18, Pleasant weather. 

" 19. Snowed. 


M'ch 20. Snowed in the morning; clear at night. 

' 21. Clear and cold. The French guard of boys and old men 
are very saucy threatening us daily. 

" 22. Cloudy and cold. 

" 24. Sunday. Cold and squally. 

" 25. Clear and cold. 

" 26. Last night one of our men escaped out of goal and got 
clear. About this time a plan was laid for our enlarge- 
ment, and we prepared to break out and make our escape, 
by seizing the guard. Clear and cold. 

" 27. Clear and cold. 

" 28. do. do. 

" 29. Clear; a warm sun. 

" 30. Clear; a warm sun. 

" 31. Sunday. Snowed; our scheme found out; the sentry hear- 
ing some noise in the cellar, search was made, and some 
suspicion raised which might have passed off had not one 
of our own men, JOHN HALL, discovered the whole affair, 
and all the sergeants and corporals were put in irons. 

APRIL, 1776. 

April l. Fair weather. This morning the guard turned out and 
fired some time before the goal ; then the alarm bell rang, 
and the cannon on the walls were fired in order to draw 
our army near the walls that they might cut them off with 
grape shot . This day we were almost all in irons. 

" 2 Pleasant weather. 

" 3.- Cannonading on both sides. Our army are erecting a 
battery at Point Levi . Cloudy, and rained in the afternoon . 

" 4. Squally. 

" 5. Fair weather. 

' 6. Cloudy and cold. 

" 7. Sunday. 



April 9. Warm weather. 
10. Fair weather. 

" 11. Very windy last night; rained in the afternoon. 
" 12. Cloudy and snowed. 
"13. A raw air. 
" 14. Sunday. Major MCKENZIE came in and took Captain 

MORGAN'S company out of irons. Clear in the morning; 

cloudy almost all day. 
" 15. This day the Yorkers' time was out, and they wanted to 

go home, but were compelled to stay. 
" 16. Clear morning; clouded up soon. 
" 17. Had a week's allowance of fresh beef, which had been 

killed three or four months, of which they boasted much, 

telling us it was more than our army could get. Windy 

and cold. 
" 18. Cloudy morning; clear afternoon; cannonading on both 


" 19- Cloudy and cold. 
" 20. Cloudy. 

" 21. Sunday. Pleasant. They fired heavy cannon in the city. 
" 22. The time seems long; all in irons; though most of us pull 

them off at night. I never lay but two nights with them on. 
" 23. Cold and squally. 
" 24. Fair and windy. 
" 25. Our army began to cross the river to and from Point 

Levi. Fair weather. 

" 26. Cloudy and some rain; the ground one half bare of snow. 
" 27. Cloudy. 

28 Some of our officers tried to make their escape, but were 

discovered and put in irons. Fair weather. 
" 29. Pleasant weather. 
30. Foggy and rainy. 


MAY, 1776. 

May l. Cloudy; snowed m the morning. 

2. Fair and cold. Fired brisk on both sides. 

' 3. Heard cannon fired at some distance. 

"4. At nine or ten o'clock, at night, the town was alarmed 
by a fire-ship from our people, which did no damage. 

" 5. Sunday. Eained in the morning; cleared toward night. 

" 6. Pleasant. About sunrise the town was alarmed, and 
three ships came up, landed some troops, and sailed up the 
river. The troops marched out at noon, and our army re- 
treated, leaving a few sick men behind them, who were 
brought into town. 12 

" 7. Gen. CARLETON came in and ordered our irons to be 
taken off. Pleasant day. 

" 8. Cloudy. Hear many improbable stories about Boston, 
New York, <fec. 

" 9. Rainy day. Six prisoners were brought into goal. 

" 10. Two riflemen were taken out of goal; we don't know on 
what terms. Same day, two Jersey dumpling eaters were 
brought in; they were found among the bushes, not having 
tried to make their escape, being too heavy laden with 
dumplings and pork, having forty pounds of pork, a knap- 
sack full of dumplings, and a quantity of flour. Fair in 
the morning; rained at night. 

" 11. Fair weather. A party of king's troops marched. 

" 12. Sunday. Clear weather. 

" 13. Fair; a raw wind. 

" 14- Fair; a ship sailed for England. 

" 15. Fair; a raw wind. 

" 16. Fair and clear. 

12. General THOMAS, who was appointed to succeed MONTGOMERY, arrived 
early in May; but CARLETON having received reinforcements under BUR- 
GOTNE, the Americans were obliged to make a hasty retreat, leaving their 
stores and sick behind. The latter were kindly treated, and finally sent 
home. Lossing's Field Book of the Revolution, vol. i. p. 202. 


May 17. Fair. 

is. Pleasant weather; hear that Major MEIGS and Captain 

DEARBORN are gone home. 
" 19. Sunday. Fair weather. 
" 20. Cloudy and showery. Light infantry and grenadiers 


" 21. Cloudy, and a raw wind. 
" 22. Pleasant weather. 
" 23. do. do. 

" 24. do. do. 

" 25, Eained in the afternoon. Sergeant BoYD 13 brought back 

to prison. 
" 26. Sunday. 

" 27. Pleasant. Ten ships arrived with troops. 
" 28. Clear and windy. 
" 29. Fair. 

30 - Fair; cloudy at night. 

31> Fair; some troops marched. 

JUNE, 1776. 

June l. The Brunswickers arrived; said to be six thousand. 14 
" 2. Sunday. Fair weather. 
" 3. Warm; cloudy at night. 

" 4. A royal salute fired, being the king's birth-day. Cloudy. 
" 5. Pleasant weather. Gov. CARLETON came in to us and 

offered to send us home on condition not to bear arms 


13. Sergeant BOYD, who after being exchanged, was a lieutenant in the 
first Pennsylvania regiment, and accompanied Gen . SULLIVAN in his expe- 
dition against the Indians, in 1779, and by whose hands he perished, after 
suffeling the most atrocious cruelties. 

14. " We are now, after much suffering, two leagues distant from Quebec, 
where we shall arrive this evening, but where we shall not make any stay; 
General CARLETON having, before our arrival, driven the rebels from the 
environs of Quebec, and being at present engaged in their pursuit." 
Madame De Reidesel's Journal, p 25. 



June 6. Cloudy; rained at night. Sent the governor an answer 

to his proposal. 
" 7. Cloudy and windy. 
" 8. Fair weather. Hear that there are three thousand of 

our men at Sartigan. 
" 9. Fair weather. Sunday. Hear that they landed three 

thousand men, and our army defeated them. 
" JO- Fair weather. Hear that two thousand of our men were 

surrounded and taken. 
" 11. Yery pleasant. 
" 12. Fair weather. 
" 13. Fair weather. Hear they have taken two hundred of 

our men, who are to be sent to Halifax. Heard that our 

men had sunk the Commodore. 
" 14. Raw cold wind. 
" 15. Rained at night. 
" 16. Fair weather. 
" 17. Fair weather. Hear that our army have killed and taken 

four thousand Dutchmen. 
" 18. Clear morning; cloudy afternoon. 
" 19. A thunder storm, with hail stones as big as 2 oz. balls; a 

young woman was killed by the lightning. 
"20. A fair morn; a shower in the afternoon. 
" 21. Fair weather. 
"22. A fair morn; rained in the evening. 
" 23. Sunday. Fair weather. Hear that our men drove the 

king's troops. 

" 24. Fair. Hear that our army have retreated out of Canada. 
" 25. Fair weather. Hear that they have brought three hun- 
dred Jersey blues, prisoners, to town. 
" 26. Fair weather. 

" 27. Fair. Two ships came up in the morning. 
" 28. Fair and warm. 
" 29. Fair weather. Hear that peace is proclaimed; also, that 


June 29 . they have killed four thousand of our men and taken ten 

thousand, and that General WASHINGTON is killed. 
" 30. Sunday. We hear there is a French fleet come in at Phil- 
adelphia, of seventy* sail. Two ships came up to Quebec. 

JULY, 1776. 

July 1. Fair weather; a thunder shower at night. Hear of the 
Indians scalping our people at Three Rivers. 

" 2. Lowery weather. 

" 3. Showery weather; cleared in the afternoon. 

" 4. Fair weather. We hear that they are waiting for some 
officers that they have taken, to come here, and then we 
shall be exchanged. Two prisoners brought in. Thunder 
at night. 

" 5. Rainy morn; clear afternoon. One of our men was so 
indiscreet as to pull out one of the iron bars, in sight of the 
sentry. When he was relieved he fetched the officer of the 
guard and showed him what had been done, and search be- 
ing made, some more were found out, which caused much 
suspicion of us all. The prisoners brought in last night in- 
form us that the Indians scalped many of our soldiers, some 
of them alive; but that General CARLETON, to his great 
honor, has refused to pay those murdering fiends for any 
more scalps, but will pay them the same reward for every 

" 6. Fair weather. Saw three ships working in. The man 
who pulled out the grate was informed of, so that we hope 
it will have no ill effect. 

" 7. Sunday. Some showers in the morning. The man who 
pulled out the grate beat the man who informed of him, 
and he complained to the Provost. We hear that they have 
sent an express to the Governor, informing him we have 
made another attempt to break out; we have also a report 
that our officers had attempted to set the place they were 



July .7. confined in, on fire. This, as well as many more reports, 
are not worth belief. 

" 8. Pleasant weather. Hear that Col. McLANE is taken. 

" 9- Hear that we are to go home soon. Pleasant weather. 

" 10. Very fine weather. 

n - Fine morning; rained in the afternoon and night. Hear 
that Col. McLANE is taken, and two thousand of their men, 
crossing the lake, and that there is a French fleet coming 
here. We also hear that the German troops are to return 

" 12. Rained almost all day. Hear that we are to sail for 
New York in less than ten days. 

" 13. Fair and warm. 

" 14. Sunday. Fair weather. We hear we are to embark to- 

" 15. Fair and moderate. Hear the Governor is expected in 
town soon, and then it will be known what will be done 
with us. 

" 16. Showery. 

" 17. Do. cold. We have bread served to us instead of 
our allowance of butter. 

" 18. Fair and temperate. Hear that Col. McLANE is come to 
town, and that the Governor is expected every minute. 

" 19. Cloudy and cold; the weather is so cold that the Cana- 
dians do not expect a good crop of corn. It is so cold as 
to wear a great coat. We hear that Col. McLANE says we 
shall not be sent home. 

" 20. Fair weather. !ONNOR. one of the prisoners who came 
into goal last, was taken and put in some other place of 
confinement, and, as we suppose, put in irons for talking im- 
pertinently to the Captain of the Provost guard. 

*' 21. Rainy weather, with thunder. Hear that we are to go 
home very soon; heard from our officers, who gave us en- 
couragement. We have also a report that the French, 



July 21. Spaniards and Prussians are at war with Great Britain, 
and that there is a large fleet in the bay of St. Lawrence. 

" 22. Fair weather. Saw a ship sail out. This afternoon the 
Governor arrived from the army, and was saluted with fif- 
teen guns. This gives us hopes that we shall be sent home. 

" 23. Cloudy morning; fair all day. One of our company is 
out of his right mind. 

" 24. Rainy weather fore part of the day. We hear we are to 
be sent to Montreal and exchanged. 

" 25. Fair. Hear we are not to go home. 

" 26. Some rain. We hear that the Governor has sent to let 
our officers know that within three days he will appoint a 
day when to send us home. Saw a brig and a ship come in. 

" 27. Fair weather. We hear that the Governor has let our 
officers know that he will send us home on the 4th or 5th 
of August. This day we saw the French priest going to 
visit a sick person. He was attended by about twenty 
people, as follows: first a man goes ringing a little hand 
bell, then two men or boys, carrying two lanthorns, with 
lighted candles on poles, about ten feet long; then comes 
the priest, under a canopy, supported by two men ; it is like 
the teaster of a bed. The priest is dressed in white linen 
robes over his black clothes, and things as heavy as boards 
tied to his knees, and hang dangling and knocking against 
his shins. They have crosses on these two things. After 
the priest follow the friends and children of the sick person, 
and any others that happen to be going that way who think 
they are doing good to join in with the rest. Every one 
that hears the bell is obliged to kneel down while they pass 
by. The priest has a great cross upon his breast, and a 
string of wooden beads hanging by his side. The people 
all have these beads when they go to church, to help them 
remember their prayers. They also use the same ceremony 
when they go to a burying, and have choristers singing be- 
fore the corpse. 



July 28. Fair weather. This day, Mr . MURRAY, barrack master, 
came in and told us we were to sail in a week . We now 
begin to believe there is something in it, though we have 
had so many different reports that we can scarce believe 
any thing we hear. We are all to have a shirt a piece 
given us. 

29. Rainy weather. SIAS, the man who is out of his senses, 
grows worse, talking of killing some of the people, &c. 

" 30. Fair weather, except a shower or two. 

" 31. Fair weather. We hear a report that our army have re- 
entered Canada and retaken Fort St. Johns. We have 
been seven months in prison to day. 

AUGUST, 177o. 

Aug. 1. Rainy morning. 

" 2 Fair weather. The news to day is, that our people have 
wounded the German General, mortally, and taken five 
hundred prisoners at Lake Champlain. We have it con- 
firmed that we are to go on board the vessel on Sunday 

3.. Fair weather. Hear that our sick men, at the hospital, 
are to go on board this evening. We expect to go to-mor- 
row morning. 

11 4. Sunday. Fair weather. 

" 6. Fair weather. This afternoon we have each of us a shirt 
given to us, and thirty-five of our men were sent on board, 
after signing the paper. 



Los Angeles 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 



Form L9-50m-9,'60(B361064)444 


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Syracuse, N. Y. \ 
Stockton, Calif.