Skip to main content

Full text of "Journal of a fur-trading expedition on the upper Missouri 1812-1813"

See other formats




3- ^ %rr*Ii 

to tfje 

of tl|e |9ttttoBrattg of Toronto, 
eminent (ttanabtan geologist, 
explorer, anb scholar 











Edited by 



Of this book, three hundred and sixty-five copies 

have been printed from type, of 

which this copy is 


Copyright, 1920, 
By Missouri Historical Society 




Franklin Hudson Press 
Kansas City, Mo. 





Introduction 1 1 

Journal *7 


Sakakawea From a photograph supplied by the sculptor, 

Bruno Louis Zimm Frontispiece 

First page of Journal Facing page 27 

Manuel Lisa Facing page 45 

Charles Sanguinet, fils Facing page 76 

Fort Manuel From a drawing by W. O. Bassford .... Facing page 95 

Court Minute of Guardianship Facing page 106 

Map End of Volume 


Letters from Christian Wilt to John C. Luttig r29 

Biographical Sketch of Sakakawea IJ* 

Biographical Sketch of Toussaint Charbonneau 135 

Letter from Major Joshua Pilcher to Hon. T. H. Crawford 14.0 

Biographical Sketch of Manuel Lisa I4 1 

Letter from Lisa to "The Spaniards of New Mexico" 141 

Biographical Sketches of: 

Michael E. Immell 143 

Amos Richardson 144 

Colonel Eli B. Clemson H5 

Francois Robidou 147 

Louis Bissonet, dit Bijou H^ 

Charles Sanguinet, fils H9 

Reuben Lewis 15 

Major John Dougherty IS* 

Jean Baptiste Point du Sable 153 

Auguste Durocher T 55 

Antoine Citoleux, dit Langevin 1 S& 

List of Engages of the Missouri Fur Company, 1812-1813 i$7 



Here is set forth the diary of a fur trader, 
giving an account of a voyage for the Missouri 
Fur Company, and the daily events at Fort 
Manuel. This unsigned manuscript, in the col- 
lections of the Missouri Historical Society, was 
thought worthy of publication, because, among 
other reasons, of its connection with two prom- 
inent members of the Lewis and Clark expedi- 
tion, and of its circumstantial accounts of in- 
cidents of the fur trade. 

The journal was kept in a hand-made book, 
without covers, thirteen inches long, eight inches 
wide, and containing fifty pages. It was writ- 
ten in a very good hand, as may be seen from 
the fac-simile page herewith. 

The identity of the author was naturally the 
first subject of inquiry, and here was presented 
a difficult problem. There is nothing in the 
journal that gives any aid in this regard, ex- 
cepting the handwriting and the style of expres- 
sion. This latter feature, however, furnished a 
valuable clew. Certain faults in the spelling 
and use of the English language peculiar to 
persons of German origin and education, and 
the unusual formation of the letter "r," sug- 
gested a search for German names in the list 


of the engages of the expedition. There are 
two such in the list, one of whom is John C. 
Luttig. While digging in the old St. Louis 
County court records I was rewarded by the 
discovery of papers signed by Luttig, and a 
comparison of the handwriting with that of 
the journal proved, beyond any doubt, that 
John C. Luttig was the author. 

The next inquiry suggesting itself was for per- 
sonal details concerning Luttig. Of course, it 
is evident that he was the clerk of the expedition, 
and this position was doubtless one of import- 
ance. We are informed by historians that the 
clerk was next in authority to the bourgeois, 
succeeding the latter in command during his 
absence, and frequently taking entire charge of 
posts. It was a part of his duties to keep a 

The course of German immigration in those 
early days pointed to the records of Pennsyl- 
vania as a proper field of research, but all of the 
work in that direction was without any gain or 
encouragement. Strangely enough, a wealth of 
material was right at hand. There is an old 
letter-copy book of Christian Wilt, formerly of 
Pennsylvania, in the Missouri Historical Soci- 
ety, and in this are many copies of letters mak- 
ing reference to Luttig, beginning with July 3, 
1813. From these references it appears that 


Luttig was a merchant of some importance in 
the city of Baltimore before coming to St. 
Louis. There is also evidence in the Missouri 
Fur Company account books that he served as 
clerk and assistant auctioneer at a sale held by 
the Fur Company at St. Louis in July, 1809, 
this being the first record of him in St. Louis. 
From documents in the court-houses at St. 
Louis and St. Charles it appears that Luttig 
sued Auguste Chouteau for salary and com- 
mission for serving as auctioneer when the per- 
sonal property of Julien Dubuque, deceased, 
was sold at Mine d'Espagne (now Dubuque, 
Iowa), July 28, 1810. The petition in the case 
was in handwriting exactly like the manuscript 

From Christian Wilt's letters, copies of sev- 
eral of the most interesting being included in 
the Appendix to this volume, we learn of many 
of the personal characteristics of the author 
of the journal at least from the view-point 
of Wilt. And this is the only source of infor- 
mation, as the Maryland records are barren of 
reference to Luttig or his antecedents. 

It appears that Mr. Wilt engaged Luttig, 
sometime about July 3, 1813, to make a voyage 
from St. Louis to New Orleans in furtherance 
of Wilt's mercantile business, which included the 
manufacture of soap, the distilling of liquors, 


and the operation of a mill. Wilt describes 
Luttig as a man who "unfortunately drinks, 
but who is an excellent hand to sell goods, is 
active and withal a very clever fellow." On 
September 18, 1813, Wilt tells of losing Luttig 
to Gov. Clark, who, he says, could not do with- 
out him. Ten months later, on July 5, 1814, 
Luttig seems to be on an expedition for Wilt 
"on the White River and in the Spanish coun- 
try," he having started before that date on the 
voyage. He returned to St. Louis sometime in 
August, 1814, having been the bearer of a letter 
from Major Lovely of Arkansas to Gov. Clark, 
of date August 9, 1814. 

Luttig remained in the employ of Wilt until 
his death, which took place about July 19, 1815, 
in the town of Lawrence, Arkansas, then part 
of the Territory of Missouri. Notice of letters 
of administration was published by Elizabeth 
Luttig and Moses Graham, joint administrators, 
in the Missouri Gazette, July 13, 1816. I have 
been unable to find any court record of this 
administration. A few months previous to his 
death Luttig was appointed justice of the peace 
"within and for the settlement of White River" 
in Lawrence County, by Gov. Clark. 

The journal covers a period when the fur 
trade was at its worst. The war with England 
affected the Indians and consequently the fur 


trade. The St. Louis Missouri Fur Company 
went through a reorganization at this time and 
incorporated under the name of the Missouri 
Fur Company. In the expedition of this year, 
which cost about $11,000, the first boat started 
from St. Louis on May 2d, 1812, and the other 
boat followed four days later. The expedition 
seems to have terminated in confusion and the 
diary, unfortunately, stops abruptly on March 
3, 1813. The reason for all this seems apparent 
from the Missouri Gazette of June 5th, 1813, 
which contains an article in substance as follows: 

"Mr. Lisa of the Missouri Fur Company 
arrived in St. Louis a few days ago from the 
Mandan villages on the Missouri; the Aricaras, 
Chyans, Grosventre, Crows and Aropahays are 
or may be considered at war with the Ameri- 
cans. The British Northwest Company, hav- 
ing a number of trading-houses within a short 
distance of the Missouri, are enabled to embroil 
our people with the savages, who are constant' 
ly urged to cut them off." 

While the newspaper article says nothing 
about the number of men killed, Christian Wilt, 
in one of his letters, stated that fifteen of Man- 
uel Lisa's men on this expedition had been killed 
by the Sioux and that the Mandan Fort had to 
be abandoned. Where and how the members 
of this expedition spent the time between March 


3, the date of the last entry in the journal, and 
the arrival of Lisa in St. Louis in the early part 
of June, is an interesting problem. It certainly 
did not take all this time to make the home- 
ward journey. The hardships must have been 
such as to discourage the keeping of a diary, 
or else the work devolved upon some other per- 
son. Lisa's difficulties with the Indians com- 
pelled him to leave the Ankara country, and 
having reached less hostile territory, he might 
have been able to concentrate his forces and 
establish himself among the Omahas. General 
Chittenden has suggested that the noted Fort 
Lisa, near old Council Bluffs, was erected dur- 
ing the War of 1812. While I have not found 
any positive proof of the fact, I think the Fort 
was probably built on the return voyage of this 
expedition ; at any rate, the great length of time 
consumed on their return could be explained 
in that way. 

An expedition into the Spanish country is 
also mentioned in this journal. The enterpris- 
ing Manuel Lisa, for the purpose of extending 
his operations into the Southwest, sent twenty- 
three of his hunters to trade with the Span- 
iards; this was in about 1810. They went into 
the Arapaho country, under the leadership of 
Jean Baptiste Champlain and Jean Baptiste 
Lafarque, where they knew the Spanish traders 

would be found. Fearing that the McKnight- 
Chambers-Baird outfit, which left St. Louis af- 
ter the Lisa party, might interfere with his plans, 
Lisa, on September 8, 1812, addressed a letter 
to the Spaniards of New Mexico. In this he 
urged them as his compatriots to communicate 
with him, enter into negotiations, or send some- 
one back to Fort Manuel with his messenger. 
This letter, set out in full in the Appendix, and 
the entries in the journal bear somewhat on the 
mysteries surrounding Ezekiel Williams, and his 
experiences in Colorado. 

An interesting letter from Williams, published 
in the Missouri Gazette, September 14, 1816, 
was reprinted in the Missouri Historical Society 
Collections, Vol. 4, p. 292. Williams, at the 
time it was written, was under suspicion of 
murdering his comrade, Jean B. Champlain, 
and for this reason sent the above-mentioned 
letter for publication. The facts gleaned from 
Lisa's and Williams' letters are these: 

In 1810, as stated above, Lisa equipped and 
sent twenty-three of his hunters to trade with 
the Arapahoes. After their return from a suc- 
cessful season, he again equipped and sent them 
back in charge of Champlain. Apparently, on 
this second trip, which no doubt left in the late 
spring of 1811, Ezekiel Williams joined the 
party. They journeyed south from the Mis- 


souri River and spent the winter on the Ar- 
kansas, where they hunted and trapped unmo- 
lested by the Indians. The next spring the 
Indians commenced harassing and robbing the 
company, and at the rendezvous on the Platte, 
as Williams says, in June, they took counsel 
with each other and decided it would be best 
to separate. Eight or ten crossed the Rocky 
Mountains, while the remainder, including 
Champlain and Williams, went south along the 
Mountains. In this respect Williams' and Lut- 
tig's versions are almost identical. (See entry 
of December 12, 1812.) After crossing the Ar- 
kansas River, Williams and his party were in- 
formed by the Indians that the fort on the 
Missouri was broken up; that Manuel Lisa had 
fallen out with the Indians near there; and that 
the Indians and trappers were killing each other 
whenever they chanced to meet. The party 
then concluded it was impossible to return to 
the Missouri and divided up again, four de- 
ciding to try to find the Spanish settlements, 
and Champlain, two hired men, two French- 
men, and Williams remaining together. After 
a few months (so Williams says) of hunting and 
trapping, three of the party were killed by the 
Indians, leaving Champlain, Williams, and a 
man named Porteau. These decided to go to 
the Arapaho village for protection, where, ac- 


cording to Williams, they found the horses and 
equipment of their murdered comrades. The 
chief of this tribe advised them to spend the 
winter with him, assuring them of their safety 
and warning them that if they attempted to 
return they would surely be killed. Champ- 
lain and Porteau concluded to follow this ad- 
vice and remained, while Williams decided to 
make an attempt to find the white people or 
other place of safety. After many vicissitudes, 
Williams reached Boonslick, after having been 
robbed and imprisoned by the Kansas Indians 
and rescued by the Osages. According to Major 
George C. Sibley, Indian Agent for the Osages, 
Williams reached Arrow Rock on November 30, 
1813. The thrilling experiences of Williams 
constitute the basis of Coyner's Lost Trappers, 
an exaggerated and inaccurate narrative, to say 
the least. 

Williams further tells about his seeing Manuel 
Lisa afterwards in St. Louis, of Lisa's recount- 
ing to him the difficulties they had with the In- 
dians, and stating to him that his comrades had 
not returned; that they were certainly killed 
if they went the road which they talked about 
at the parting. This statement is somewhat 
questionable, considering the entry made by 
Luttig in December, 1812. Lisa then knew of 
Champlain's death, having sent three of his 


men, Charles Sanguinet fits, Charles Latour, 
and Chevalier cadet, in search of Champlain 
and his party, and they had returned without 
finding them. 

In May, 1814, Williams started back to the 
Arapaho village to recover the furs that he had 
left there. When he arrived, he inquired for 
his companions, and was told by the chief that 
three days after his departure they went up the 
river hunting. Soon afterwards they returned 
and decided to make an attempt to get back 
to the fort on the Missouri. They loaded all 
their furs on their eleven horses and started 
toward the Missouri; that later the Crow In- 
dians told the Arapahoes that they had seen 
two white men dead in their camp, whom they 
believed were Williams' companions, Champlain 
and Porteau. 

Unfortunately for Manuel Lisa and his com- 
pany, as well as for McKni^ht and his party, 
the time was not auspicious for trade with the 
Spaniards or the Southwest Indians, for the 
men of these parties who were not killed, or 
lucky like Williams, were thrown into prison 
to languish for many years. 

The various expeditions conducted by the 
Missouri Fur Company were better known as 
"Lisa's expeditions." To speak of any one of 
them is to call to mind the personal character 


of Manuel Lisa. His successes as a trader are 
not more interesting than his influence over the 
Indians, notably in connection with the War of 
1812. It may be well to quote from Lisa him- 
self while commenting upon his methods and 
achievements. In his letter of resignation as 
sub-agent for the Indian tribes of the Upper 
Missouri, he reviews the subject with much 
earnestness and rises to the point of eloquence. 
Here he says : 

"I have had some success as a trader; and 
this success gives rise to many reports. 'Man- 
uel Lisa must cheat the Government, and Man- 
uel Lisa must cheat the Indians; otherwise he 
could not bring down every summer many boats 
loaded with furs.' 

"'Cheat the Indians.' The respect and friend- 
ship which they have for me, the security of 
my possessions in the heart of their country, 
respond to this charge, and declare, with voices 
louder than the tongues of men, that it can 
not be true. 'But Manuel Lisa gets so much 
rich fur!' Well, I will explain how I get it. 
First, I put into my operations great activity. 
I go a great distance, while some are consider- 
ing whether they will start today or tomorrow. 
I impose upon myself great privations. Ten 
months in the year I am buried in the depths 
of the forest, at a vast distance from my own 


house. I appear as the benefactor, not as the 
pillager of the Indian. I carried among them 
the seed of the large pumpkin, from which I 
have seen in their possession fruit weighing one 
hundred and sixty pounds. Also the large bean, 
the potato, the turnip; and these vegetables 
now make a comfortable part of their subsist- 
ence; and this year I have promised to carry 
the plough. Besides, my blacksmiths work in- 
cessantly for them, charging nothing. I lend 
them traps, only demanding a preference in 
their trade. My establishments are the refuge 
of the weak and of the old men no longer able 
to follow their lodges; and by these means I 
have acquired the confidence and friendship of 
these nations, and the consequent choice of 
their trade." 

In the matter of his efforts to prevent the 
English from effectively gaining the aid of the 
Indians during the war, it may be safely as- 
serted that Lisa was of great benefit to his 
country. Had the English been successful in 
uniting the Sioux tribes, the effect upon the 
people of Missouri would have been very seri- 
ous, and it is difficult to estimate the extent of 
damage which might have resulted to our 
cause. England had sent emissaries into the 
Indian country, using many artful methods to 
set them against the Americans. But Lisa, 


knowing the pliable nature of the Indian char- 
acter, entirely overcame the English strategy 
with some of his own, and only lost a few of 
some of the tribes to the English cause. 

It was during this war with England that Lisa 
received his appointment as sub-agent of the 
Indian tribes inhabiting the Missouri River 
above the mouth of the Kansas. At that time 
the British agents had armed all of the tribes 
of the Upper Mississippi and northern Lakes, 
as well as some of the Missouri River Indians, 
and Lisa himself was the victim of the first at- 
tacks against American citizens directed by the 
English. More than a year before the war 
broke out Lisa had warned Gen. Clark that the 
English were gaining considerable influence with 
the Indians along the banks of the Missouri 
River,' by means of gifts and bribery, and that 
all the natives along that river were bung in- 
vited to join a universal confederacy of Indians, 
nominally for protection against the American 
invaders. He also asserted that the Indians of 
the Missouri were to the Upper Mississippi as 
four to one and that their weight would be 
very great should the English accomplish their 

As it turned out, the Missouri River Indians 
used their arms against the British allies and 
struck the lowas. When peace was proclaimed, 


more than forty chiefs "had intelligence with 
Lisa," and together they were planning a cam- 
paign of several thousand warriors against the 
tribes of the Upper Mississippi, expecting to 
quiet them with one blow. Part of Lisa's strat- 
egy was to excite war between some of the 
tribes, thus keeping them too busy with their 
own affairs to permit of intermeddling with the 
war between England and the United States. 

In the same letter of resignation Lisa says, 
by way of conclusion: "These things have I 
done, and I propose to do more. The Ricaras 
and the Mandans, the Gros-Ventres and the 
Assinniboins, find themselves near the estab- 
lishment of Lord Selkirk, upon the Red River. 
They can communicate with it in two or three 
days. The evils of such a communication will 
strike the minds of all persons, and it is for those 
who handle the power to dilate upon them. 
For me, I go to form another establishment to 
counteract the one in question, and shall labor 
to draw upon us the esteem of these nations, 
and to prevent their commerce from passing 
into the hands of foreigners." 

The journal gives new light on Charbonneau, 
and the "Snake wife of Charbonneau," who can 
be none other than Sakakawea of Lewis and 
Clark fame. The references, taken together 
with certain well-known facts and records, tend 

to disprove a good many theories concerning 
both of these characters. 

To the enthusiasm imparted by Judge Walter 
B. Douglas and his constant encouragement I 
owe the completion of this undertaking. His 
expert knowledge of the subjects of the diary 
have made his suggestions and criticisms of 
very great value. I am indebted and thankful 
to many others, especially to those mentioned 
in my notes. 

Librarian, Missouri Historical Society. 
St. Louis, July 2, 1920. 

[1812] 27 



Friday the 8th of May I started from St. Louis 
to Bellefontaine 1 to meet the Boats bound 
up the Missouri River, arrived there at I. 
oclock P. M., took in Meal and Corn, ar- 
ranged the Loading, and started at 3. oclock, 
went about 4. miles with a head wind. 

Saturday, the 9th head wind and strong Cur- 

^Fort Bellefontaine, first a Spanish military post, then an Indian 
Factory of the United States Government, and later United States Mil- 
itary Fort, was located on the south bank of the Missouri River, 4 
miles above its mouth, and 15 miles from St. Louis, in what is now 
St. Louis County, Missouri. 

The Indians demanding a military post at this point, it was stipu- 
lated in a treaty made at St. Louis, November 3, 1804, between William 
H. Harrison, Governor of Indiana and the District of Louisiana, and 
the head chiefs of the Sac and Fox tribes of Indians, that the United 
States would establish a trading-house or factory at a point where 
these tribes could be supplied with goods at a more reasonable rate 
than they had been accustomed to enjoy. In accordance with this 
agreement, in August, 1805, Gen. James Wilkinson, then commanding 
the Army, was directed to select a site for the proposed factory and to 
occupy the same with troops. On the loth of August, 1805, he re- 
ported that his troops had encamped at " Cold Water on a high, dry 
narrow bottom of the Missouri River near a fountain of pure water, 
competent to supply 1,000 men daily," * * "and where they are 
now actively engaged on the work of the cantonment, and in collecting 
materials for building of the factory." This cantonment was given the 
name of Fort Bellefontaine for the abundant spring of pure water in 
its midst. Col. Thomas Hunt was first in command at this post. In 
1808 the Indian factory, which had been during its existence under 
the charge of Rudolph Tillier as Factor, was discontinued, because it 
was found to have been inconveniently placed. 

From 1809 to 1815 Fort Bellefontaine was the headquarters of 
the Department of Louisiana, which included Forts Madison, Massac, 
Osage, and Vincennes, and during the War of 1812 was frequently 
threatened by marauding bands of Indians^ 

On July TO, 1826, the cantonment was abandoned as a military 
post in favor of a larger and permanent fort below St. Louis, although 
a smal! arsenal of deposit was maintained at Fort Bellefontaine until 
1834. Only the stone magazine building is still standing. 

28 [1812] 

rents made very little way, at noon met Mr. 
Immel 2 with his Boat coming from his win- 
ter quarters of the Sioux, this Morning Mr. 
Manuel came on Board at the Charbonnier 3 
made about 8 miles distance. 

Sunday, the loth, came too opposite 4 St. Charles 5 
at noon Mr. Manuel Lisa crossed for some 
Men, rested all Day. 

Monday the nth Mr. Manuel Lisa & Choteau 6 
came on Board at 9. oclock A. M. took in 
some traps, and made the best of our way at 
12. oclock, having a head wind made very 
little distance. 

Thuesday. the I2th, head wind and strong Cur- 
rent, made not much Distance. 

Wednesday, the I3th, the same as yesterday. 
Thursday, the I4th, the same 

For a sketch of Michael E. Immell, see Appendix. 

La Charbonniere, the name given to a coal-bank on the right shore 
of the Missouri River, near Florissant, and about twelve miles above 
its confluence with the Mississippi. In French this word strictly means 
a place in the forest where coal is made, but as applied to the bluff on 
the Missouri it means the place where mineral coal is procured. 

4 Bonhomme Township, St. Louis County, Missouri. 

St. Charles is situated on the north bank of the Missouri River, 
about thirty miles above its confluence with the Mississippi. It is 
the seat of justice of St. Charles County, and was the first capita! of 
the State of Missouri. St. Charles was settled by the French about 
1785, who called the place "Les Petite Cotes" and "Village des Cotes," 
from the fact that the village was situated at the foot of a range of 
small hills. The place was officially known as St. Charles soon after 
its settlement, as a concession from the Spanish Government to Au- 
guste Chouteau, in 1787, is described as being for fifteen arpentsof land 
above St. Charles, while a letter from the Spanish Governor, in 1792, 
refers to the village as "San Carlos." 

Probably Pierre Chouteau brother of Auguste Chouteau, one of 
the founders of St. Louis. 

[1812] 29 

friday. the I5th in the Morning about 8 oclock 
Mr. Majet, 7 Patroon 8 of the large Boat fell 
over Board on account of a Log shamming 
against the Rudder, he saved himself by tak- 
ing hold of the Rudder, and got on Board, 
both Rudder Irons, brocke and Lost, were 
detained to make a steering Oar, head wind 
all Day, sent some Irons on shore by Mr. 
Richardson, 9 and camped at Burgois Creek. 10 

Saturday, the 16, detained on Account of the 
Iron, which however came about II oclock 
A. M., hard Rain and bad weather, fixed the 
Rudder and went about 2 Miles distance. 
Killed i Deer. 

7 Jean Baptiste Mayet was living in Carondelet, St. Louis County, 
Missouri, in 1790. On April 17, 1807, he left St. Louis with Manuel 
Lisa on a trapping expedition and returned in August, 1808. He con- 
tinued in the employ of Lisa and the Missouri Fur Company for a 
great many years, and they seem to have found him both competent 
and trustworthy. Mayet married by civil contract, in 1816, Joette 
Demaret, and on July 8, 1821, the marriage was solemnized in the 
Catholic Cathedral in St. Louis. 

'Patron. The crew of a keel-boat in the fur trade called a "brig- 
ade "frequently consisted of as many as a hundred men, although 
this number included many hunters and trappers, en route to the 
mountains, who were not regular boatmen. They went well armed, 
and every boat carried on her bow a small cannon, called a "swivel. 
The captain of the boat, called the "patron" did the steering, and his 
assistant, called the ll bosseman" stood on the bow, pole in hand, and 
gave directions to the men on the cordelle. It was necessary that these 
officers should be men of great energy, physical strength, and personal 
courage. The sail was seldom used, except m the upper river, where 
the absence of timber rendered the wind available. (Chappell, Phil E., 
History of the Missouri River, 1905.) 

9 For a sketch of Amos Richardson, see Appendix. 

*Berger River, or Creek, is the "Shepherd River" of the Lewis and 
Clark journals. Berger Creek comes into the bottom two miles above 
its mouth and is here joined by Little Berger Creek, which runs about 
four and a half miles in the bottom before its confluence, and the two 
make what is known as Berger's Bottom, forming a sort of island six 
or seven miles long. (Coues ed. Pike, 2:365.) 

30 [1812] 

Sunday, the lyth blowing very hard ahead and 
strong Current we had to stop for several 
hours, made sail about 2 P. M., just at start- 
ing a Bear crossed the River towards us, 
Killed him close in shore, and found him 
very fat. 

Monday. i8th, still head wind the Rudder Irons 
of the little Boat brocke, and had to lay by 
all Day. this Day killed four Deer 2 Turkeys. 

Thuesday. I9th bad weather and head wind 
made about one mile all Day distance. 

Wednesday 20, head wind and strong Current, 
made not much Distance. 

Thursday, the 21. arrived at n. oclock A. M. 
at Cote sans Dessein, 11 rested all Day. traded t 
some Beaver, and took LaChapel 12 on Board. 

Friday, the 22d. started at 6 in the Morning 

"Cote sans Dessein was the first settlement of white men in Calla- 
way County, having been established as a village by the French traders, 
who erected a fort there, in 1808. It was once a village of considerable 
importance, containing a block-house during the War of 1812, and being 
the scene of some hard-fought battles with the Indians. It has ceased 
to exist, however, even the post-office having been discontinued. The 
township now including the place of former settlement has been given 
its name, and the hill which marked the place, and from which the 
name Cote sans Dessein is derived, can still be identified. 

I2 jean Baptiste Lachapelle was the son of Jean Baptiste Lachapelle 
of Kaskaskia, Illinois, and Cija, an Osage Indian woman. He was 
born in St. Louis, October 10, 1792, and was probably the grandson 
of Bazile and Marie (Lumandiere) Lachapelle of Montreal, who came 
to Kaskaskia about 1760. The name was originally Janot, and in the 
Kaskaskia records it is frequently designated as Lachapelle, dit Janot. * 
Jean Baptiste Lachapelle, fits, was in the employ of the Missouri Fur 
Company from its organization until its dissolution, serving part of 
that time as a free trapper. He was no doubt a kinsman of Louis 
Lachapelle, interpreter at the Pawnee village, who was slain in battle 
there June 27, 1843; also of David Lachapelle, hunter and interpreter at 
the Ankara and Pawnee villages, mentioned by Murray and Maximilian. 

[1812] 31 

with a favorable breeze, found the River more 
gentled, had fine weather. Killed two Deer 
and I Bear, made good head way. 

Saturday, the 23d, fine weather & fair wind 
made about 25 miles distance. Killed I Deer. 

Sunday, the 24th clear weather and fair wind 
made about 20 miles, and camped about I 
mile above the Widow Cole, 13 Killed I Deer 
and I Bear. 

Monday the 25th commenced with a thunder 
storm and hard Rain, cleared up about II 
A. M. with a fine fair wind, made about 27. 
Miles, and killed i Bear. 

Thuesday the 26, hard Rain and squalls all Day 
made not much distance, killed i Bear 2 

Wednesday, the 27. bad weather and head wind 
again, killed two Deer, and made not much 

13 This was Hannah Cole, who erected a fort on the edge of the bluff 
near the River, in what is now East Boonville, Cooper County, Mis- 
souri. Before her marriage she was Hannah Allison, and married Wil- 
liam T. Cole of Wythe County, Virginia. In 1801 the Coles with their 
nine children emigrated to Wayne County, Kentucky, where they re- 
mained seven years, and then moved to Missouri, locating on Loutre 
Island. During the second year (1810) of the family's residence on 
Loutre Island, William T. Cole was killed by the Indians. Soon after 
this event, the widow and her children, together with her brother-in- 
law Stephen Cole and his family, went to Cooper County, they having 
the distinction of being the first white families to locate west of Frank- 
lin County and south of the Missouri River. Mrs. Cole was a very 
heroic and energetic woman. She secured a license to operate the first 
regularly established ferry in that county, and it was in her home 
that the first session of the Circuit Court was held in 1816. The chil- 
dren of William T. and Hannah Cole were: Jennie, Mattie, Dikie, 
Nellie, James, Holbart, Stephen, William, and Samuel. 

32 [1812] 

Thursday, the 28, head wind and strong Cur- 
rent accompanied by heavy Squalls, LaChapel 
killed a fine female Bear, and 3 of her Cubs, 
and I Turkey, made only 5 miles this Day 
and camped at black snake Creek. 14 

friday. the 29th departed at Day light, oppo- 
site the little Osage Island 15 we were obliged 
to stop on account of head wind and strong 
Current, arranged a new top Mast, went fish- 
ing with the Seine and caught 13 large fish 
I Turtle, the wind having comewhat abated 
we made way at 2 P. M. but still wind 
ahead, at the little Osage Prairie 16 we stopped 
for the little Boat which got aground, met 
a shoal of Cat fish close in shore the men who 
were Cordelling killed one with a stick which 
weighed after cleaning 40 Ibs, went on a little 
way and found a small Run full of fish, the 
other Boat not having come up as yett we 
took our Seine and caught 161 Bass and oth- 

l4 Lewis and Clark camped on Black Snake Creek on their out- 
ward voyage, June 14, 1804. It is not shown on the present maps. 

"Little Osage Island, near the site of Fort Orleans, which was 
established in 1721 by Etienne Venyard de Bourgmont. 

i6 Little Osage Prairie, called Petite-sas-Plains, in Saline County, 
Missouri, about seventeen miles above the mouth of Grand River, was 
the site of the ancient village of the Little Osage Indians, and was one 
of the most historic spots in Missouri. It was at one time the home 
of the Missouri's, as well as that branch of the Osages known as the 
Little Osages, or the Little Tribe. Mr. Phil E. Chappell, in his His- 
ory of the Missouri River, says that "the loc ation of these villages was 
still sufficiently well defined to be accurately determined." When 
Lewis and Clark passed this prairie in 1804, the remains of the villages 
were pointed out to them. The location was well known then, as the 
villages had only been abandoned about thirty years previous. It is 
interesting to reflect that this location was the site of a settlement, in 
earlier days, of a tribe of Indians having much higher degrees of culture 
and industry. (Fowke, Antiquities of Central and Southeastern Missouri. 
Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 57.) 


er fish, which we salted, camped and killed 
2 Deer. 

Saturday, the 3Oth fine weather, but very hard 
water, swung 3 times at a point of a sandbar, 
the little Boat brocke her Rudder Irons again, 
repaired at Dinner, Killed 2 Deer I Bear I 
Pelican, made not much Distance. 

Sunday, the 3 ist fortune still ahead, strong Cur- 
rents and head winds were our Daily Com- 
panions, made no way. Killed 2 Deer and 
I Beaver. 

Monday the ist of June, hard wind a head with 
fine weather met 4 Batteaux going to St. 
Louis, a little above the Prairie du foe (feu) 17 
had to stop and made another top mast of 
Oack, the last one made of Hichberry was 
crooked and good for nothing, Killed 3 Deer 
I Bear. 

Thuesday, the 2d, the wind and weather the 
same as jesterday. Killed this Day 2 Deer 
and I fox, camped at fire Prairie Creek. 18 

Wednesday the 3d fine weather and head wind 
and Curren* as usual at 10 A. M. arrived be- 
low fort Osage, 19 saluted with 17 Guns which 
was politely returned by the Commander 

l7 Fire Prairie was so called from the circumstance of three or four 
Indians having been burned to death from the sudden conflagration 
of dry grass in the meadows at its source." (Long's Travels, London 
cd., 1823.) 

* 8 Fire Prairie Creek, in Sni-a-bar Township, Jackson County, Mis- 
souri, rises and flows north and east into Lafayette County, and thence 
into the Missouri. 

l9 Fort Osage was frequently called Fort Clark and Fiery Prairie Fort. 


Capt Climson, 20 on arrival were invited to 
Capt Climson, who treated us very handsome- 
ly, discharged our freight for this place and 
arranged our Cargoes, had a present made of 
Ice, which regaled us exceedingly. 

Thursday the 4th started after breakfast, about 
9 A. M. met several Perogues coming from 
their Winter quarters, Mess fr Robideau 21 La 
Jeuness 22 & others, Louis Bijou 23 embarked 
with us, as also two hunters embarked at 

It was situated on a bluff on the south side of the Missouri River, a 
short distance from where the town of Sibley now stands in Jackson 
County, Missouri. The site was chosen by Gen. Clark for a Govern- 
ment trading factory and fort. It was christened with the customary 
parade and salute on November 13, 1808. George C. Sibley was in 
charge as Indian Agent and factor for many years, and after the aban- 
donment of the fort the town which occupied the site was named for 
him. In June, 1813, during the war with England, the fort was evac- 
uated. Major Sibley and his men removed to Arrow Rock, where was 
erected a fortified two-story block-house, 30 feet by 20 feet, armed 
with a swivel and three blunderbusses, affording sufficient room for 
goods, for trading, and for fighting. The garrison was restored at 
Fort Osage in 1816, but was thereafter only intermittently maintained. 
In 1822 it was practically abandoned, and after the treaty with the 
Osages the United States Government was relieved of the necessity 
of maintaining the post. Upon the erection of Fort Leavenworth in 
1827 Fort Osage was permanently abandoned. 

M For a sketch of Colonel Eli B. Clemson, see Appendix. 

2i For a sketch of Francois Robidou, see Appendix. 

^There were two men of this name active in the fur trade during 
this period. One, Jacques Lajeunesse, a native of Riviere du Chambly, 
Quebec, son of Ambrose and Marie (Goyet) Lajeunesse, who married 
at St. Louis, October 7, 1799, Helene Vasseur, the daughter of Joseph 
and Helene (Picard) Vasseur. Of this marriage eight children were 
born: Marie, Margaret, Louis, Julie, Antoine, Elizabeth, Francois, 
and Joseph. The other was Jean Baptiste Lajeunesse of St. Rose, 
Quebec, son of Jean Baptiste and Reine Naulette. He married at St. 
Louis, July 9, 1797, Elizabeth Malboeuf of Lac des Sables, daughter 
of Francois and Josette, an Indian. This is probably the man we read 
about in Lewis and Clark. Lajeunesse was a very common name in 
St. Louis, and many of the men were conspicuous in the fur trade. 

83 For a sketch of Louis Bissonet, dit Bijou, see Appendix. 

[1812] 35 

fort Osage Greenwood 24 & Laurison, 25 Immel 
went back to the fort for his Dog and on his 
Return informed of the party going to Santa 
Fe 26 he met this Day at the fort, strong Cur- 
rent, Made 9 Miles distance. 

24 Caleb Greenwood was an American, born possibly as early as 1763. 
He was in the employ of Gen. William Ashley from 1822-1825, an d 
the American Fur Company in 1833. In this last-mentioned year he 
sought engagement as interpreter and hunter for Rev. Moses Merrill, 
missionary to the Otoes. He then told Rev. Mr. Merrill that he had 
been in the Indian country for twenty-six years; that he had just left 
the services of the American Fur Company and was at that time on 
bad terms with its agents. 

In 1844 he guided the Stevens party to California and later served 
in Micheltorena's army against Alvarado and Castro. Edwin Bryant 
met him in 1846 at the head of a party of hunters near San Francisco 
Bay. Greenwood then claimed to be eighty-three years old and had 
with him three sons, the youngest about ten or twelve years old. He 
stated that he had been a mountain trapper between forty and fifty 
years. He lived among the Crow Indians and married into that tribe. 
He is described by Bryant as being about six feet tall, raw-boned, 
and spare in flesh, but muscular, and, although of great age, having 
the elasticity and erectness of youth. Greenwood had just come over 
the mountains from the Sweetwater as pilot for emigrants and com- 
plained of the bacon, bread, and milk which they had to eat as being 
"mushy stuff," and not fit for a man of his age. He said he wanted 
a small hunt to get some exercise and some good fresh meat, such as 
grizzly bear, fat deer, and poultry, which he considered fit things for 
a man to eat. 

25 Daniel Larrison was with the Missouri Fur Company for several 
years, and was with Lisa's party in the expedition to the Rocky Mount- 
ains in 1809. He returned to St. Louis in September of the following 
year. In October of 1813, following the return of the expedition re- 
ferred to in this journal, he is to be found trading among the Osage 
Indians. He was sent by them to the Kansas village when the Osages 
learned that there was a white man (Ezekiel Williams) held prisoner 
in that village, in order to rescue him. In 1814 Larrison joined Capt. 
James Callaway's company of St. Charles County Rangers, and was 
in the expeditionary forces under Maj. Zachary Taylor, operating that 
year on the Upper Mississippi. Daniel Larrison probably lived in St. 
Charles, Missouri, but nothing about his personal life has been found. 
There was a John Larrison with Gen. Ashley's party in 1823, who was 
wounded in July of that year, when this party was attacked by the 

28 The Santa Fe Party consisted of twelve men, under the leadership 
of Robert McKnight, James Baird, and Samuel Chambers. They 


friday the 5th wind and Current as usual, fine 
weather made about 12 miles distance Killed 
i Deer. 

Saturday. 6th the same wind & Current, Killed 
3 Bear 3 Deer i Turkey camped opposite 
Cansas River 27 distance 15 Miles. 

Sunday the 7th a fine morning, in the afternoon 
cloudy and distant Thunder, Killed 2 Deer, 
made 16 Miles distance, camped 4 Miles 
above little Platte River. 28 

Monday. 8th fine weather, at 8 A. M. a fair 
Breeze sprung up. though feeble, we made 
18 Miles distance, Killed 3 Deer 3 Bear, 
caught^iy fish, camped 2 Miles below the old 
Cansas 29 Village. 

planned to trade with the Mexicans at Santa Fe, but on their arrival 
in New Mexico were seized as spies and their goods confiscated. They 
were sent to Chihuahua, where they were kept in prison for nine years. 

^Present site of Kansas City, Missouri. 

28 The Little Platte has its source in southern Iowa, and flows south to 
the Missouri River in Platte County, Missouri. Its mouth is at Park- 
ville. The position of the mouth of the river has changed much 
since 1812. 

^Kansas Indians. Major George C. Sibley visited the Kansas In- 
dians in August, 1811, and gave a most interesting account of them, 
as follows: 

"The Konsee [as he spells it] town is seated immediately on the 
north bank of the Kansas River about 100 miles by its course above 
its junction with the Missouri, in a beautiful prairie of moderate extent, 
which is nearly encircled by the river. 

"The town contains 128 houses, or lodges, which are generally 
about sixty feet long and twenty-five feet wide, constructed of stout 
poles and saplings arranged in the form of an arbour, covered with 
skins, barks, and mats. They are commodious and quite comfortable. 
The place for fire is simply a hole in the earth under the ridge-pole 
of the roof, and where an opening is left for the smoke to pass off. All 
the larger lodges have two, sometimes three, fire-places, one for each 
family dwelling in it. 

'"The town is built without much regard to order, there are no 

[1812] 37 

Thuesday 9th headwind again, strong Current, 
made only 9 Miles distance this Day, Killed 
6 Deer. 

Wednesday. loth, fine weather, and a small 
Breeze in our favor, Killed nothing today, 
distance made, 19 Miles. 

Thursday the I ith, fine weather head wind but 
still, all hunters out, passed the upper old 
Cansas Village, Killed 7 Deer, distance 15 

friday the 12, fine weather, made good way cor- 
dclling the wind all Day against us, distance 

regular streets or avenues; the lodges are erected pretty compactly 
in crooked rows, allowing barely enough space sufficient to admit a 
man to pass between them. 

"The Kansas River is about 300 feet wide at the town, and is, I 
suppose, always navigable for large keel-boats as high as the village. 
At this time the Kansas may number near about 250 fighting men, 
with a full proportion of women ind children. 

"They ?re governed by a chief and the influence of the oldest and 
most distinguished warr ors. They are seldom at peace with any of 
their neighbors, except the Osage, with whom there appears to be a 
cordial and lasting tnendship. 

"The Kansas are a stout, hnrdy, handsome race, mor<* active and 
enterprising even than the Osage. They are noted for their bravery 
and heroic daring. They maintain tiieir independence against the 
Pawnees, Otoes, Mtssouris, and other tribes with whom they are 
continually at war, entirely by their bravery. Previously to the ces- 
sion of Louisiana, the Kansas committed frequent acts of violence 
upon the French traders, robbing, beating, and otherwise cruelly treat- 
ing them. One instance is related of their having actually burned 
some alive." 

These Indians had their villages for a time on the south bank of 
the Missouri, and while there were quite numerous. They were sub- 
sequently attacked by the Cheyennes, Sauks, and lowas and compelled 
to return to their former settlements at the mouth of the Kansas. 
Lewis and Clark found them in two villages on the Kansas River, one 
about twenty and the other forty leagues from its mouth. In 1847 
they moved to Council Grove, where they remained until 1873. At 
this later date they went to Indian Territory. Efforts to civilize this 
tribe of Indians met with little success for many years. 

38 [1812] 

21 Miles camped on a large Sandbar where 
we found a quantity of turtle Eggs, this Day 
lost one of our Swivels when swinging round 
and run against the other Boat, Killed 3 
Deer 2 Turkeys. 

Saturday, the I3th fine weather and head wind, 
this Day had bad luck, crossing for some of 
our Hunters we came in hard water, and cor- 
delling on a Prairie encountered many Rafts, 
after having passed we dined 2 Miles above 
the Prairie. 30 Mr. Manuel L. put our 2 Hogs, 
in the River to wash but they swam off, we 
were obliged to turn about and followed them 
several Miles, after two Attempts we caught 
them, turning a rocky point we had hard 
work, the little Boat which was a head swung 
round and went off like Lightning, the Cor- 
dells broke, and we were obliged to put the 
hands of both Boats to one to mount dis- 
tance 12 Miles Killed 5 Deer i Racoon. 

Sunday, the I4th fine weather, but head wind, 
passed the Nadowa River 31 at noon, camped 
8 Miles above made 16 Miles distance and 
had this Day 4 Deer Killed gathered about 
200 turtle Eggs. 

30 Probably Reevey's Prairie as mentioned by Capt. Clark in his 
journal, which place, he adds, was named for a man who was killed 

31 Nockway, as it is spelled by present geographers, having had many 
variations in ics spelling, such as Nadawa, Nodawa, Naduet, and Nado- 
way. Coues, in his History of Lewis and Clark Expedition, says that 
the word "Nodaway" is Indian, and means some kind of snake; hence 
the river has sometimes been called "Snake River." The river separ- 
ates Holt County, Missouri, on the west from portions of Andrew and 
Nodaway Counties. It was on the shore of this river that the winter 
camp of the Astorians was located. There is a county, and also a 
town, bearing the name of this river. 


Monday. I5th about one oclock this Morning 
it began to blow furiously, were obliged to 
put out our fires, the wind blowing from all 
quarters, a clear Sky, finished our cooking 
in the morning, started at 6. in the Morn- 
ing went j^-2 Miles but were, stopt by hard 
head wind and Current crossed the River to 
find some Hickory for making Axe handles 
and Ramrods, but were disappointed, crossed 
again and stopped till 5 P. M., started about 
I Mile took the Cordell the Boat swung and 
went down the River like the Wind in full 
Speed, leaving all hands on shore, the few 
which were on Board landed the Boat op- 
posite to our last nights Lodging, our hands 
came on board made a new start, but night 
overtook us, got on a sand bar and were 
very near lost running against a Sawjer 32 had 
to cross again to the North Side, the other 
Boat came to close swept by the Current we 
unshipped our Rudder, run against a tree and 
brocke her mast, this ended this doleful Day 
camped at n. oclock at night distance i>? 
Mile, left our hunters on the opposite side 
Killed i Deer, wind N. W. fresh Gales. 

Thuesday the 16, hard wind from N. W., went 
about i Mile in the Morning when we had 
to stop, all hands went out to gather wood 
for axe helm, Ramrods and a new Mast, and 
Game, the first was found but no meat, our 
hunters on the opposite Side had also been 

32 A '"'sawyer" is a snag or tree so fixed in the river that it oscillates 
or bobs up and down by the force of the current, and forms a special 
danger to navigators of the Missouri River. 

40 [1812] 

unsuccessful, and crossed the River on a Raft, 
facing wind and Current about 6 Miles swim- 
ming. Killed I Deer. 

Wednesday ryth wind still a head, but abated, 
made this Day 16 Miles, Killed 3 Deer, when 
camped a fair breeze sprung up. 

Thursday, the i8th at 3. oclock in the Morning 
a heavy Thunder storm, at starting we had 
a fair wind which however lasted not long, 
had to try oars. Poles & cordells all Day, 
passed Nimohar River 33 at n A. M. dined 
at Wolf River, 34 and camped on a Sand Bar, 
made 16 miles distance Killed 3 Deer. 

friday, the I9th During Night blew very hard 
until 6 in the morning, we stopped for some 
time having head wind and strong Current, 
the River high, made this Day about 15 Miles 
distance by hard work. Killed nothing, ail- 
though 7 hunters out of Boats. 

Saturday, 2Oth, hard Gales all night, in the 
Morning cloudy with some flaws of wind in 
our favor, about 8 A. M. the wind increased, 
and we sailed at Intervals very fast, untill 2 
P. M. when a Thunder storm attended with 
a hard rain arose, this Day. at 10. A. M. 

33 The Big or Great Nemaha, variously written Nimemeha, Nimaka, 
Nemahhaw, Nidonahaw, by early explorers and travellers. It rises in 
Lancaster County, flows in a southeasterly direction diagonally through 
Gage, Johnson, Pawnee, and Richardson Counties, Nebraska, and joins 
the Missouri just above the Kansas-Nebraska line. 

34 Wolf River (the early French maps give it as Riviere du Loup) 
flows through Brown and Doniphan counties, Kansas, and into the 
Missouri just below Iowa Point. 


passed Ichinipokine River 35 at the North Side, 
at 7. P. M. little Mahonir River 36 on the 
South Side, made about 20 Miles distance, 
Killed 2 Deer, Game scarce. 

Sunday, the 2ist fine weather with head wind 
and Currents, all hunters out, on the Island 
Beaux Soleil. 37 Killed 2 Deer 3 Bear, I Tur- 
key. I Rabbitt the hunters on the Prairies 
killed nothing, distance about 15 miles, 
camped I Mile above the Island. 

Monday, the 22d, cloudy had now and then some 
Sailing, the River still rising and strong Cur- 
rents, at 4 P. M. a thunder storm arose which 
raged furiously, the huricane swayed the trees 
every where luckely we got under some Vil- 
lars and lay safe, were obliged to Camp., 
distance 10 Miles, Killed i Deer, I Turkey. 

Thuesday the 23d, started at Day light as us- 

36 Ichmpokine River is now known as Nishnabotna, an Indian word 
signifying "Good Canoe" or "Canoe Making River." This is another 
name having numerous styles of spelling. It is a Missouri tributary of 
considerable size, entering Atchison County, Missouri, on the north line, 
and following the bluffs in a southeasterly direction. Its channels are 
constantly changing. Some years ago the stream cut its channel into 
the Missouri River at a point near the north line of the county and 
emptied its waters into the Missouri some forty miles above its original 
mouth. There is a village bearing this name close to the present 
mouth of the Nishnabotna. 

M Little Nemaha has its source in Cass County, runs through the 
county in Nebraska which bears its name, and empties into the Mis- 
souri between the towns of Aspinwall and Nemaha. It runs parallel 
with and from ten to fifteen miles north of the Great Nemaha. There 
are a town and a county in Nebraska, as well as a county in Kansas, 
bearing the name of this river. The Little Nemaha is a smaller edi- 
tion of the Big Nemaha and also has numerous tributaries. 

37 Isle & Beau Soleil, or Fair Sun Island, now known as Sun Island, 
located midway between Peru and Brownsville, Nebraska. 


ual, passed le Cote grand Brule*, 38 opposite 
the head of, we had to stop to make a new 
top Mast for the other Boat, fine weather, 
Current very hard, River still rising, distance 
14 Miles, Killed 3 Deer. 

Wednesday, the 24th, St. John, 39 started at 3 
in the Morning with fair wind, but had not 
come y^. Mile when the Wind changed ahead, 
worked hard against the Current, very warm 
and clear, made only 9 Miles in 14 hours dis- 
tance, Killed i Deer 2 Turkey, 2 Racoons, 
found plenty fresh tracks of Elk. 

Thursday, the 25th This Morning a fine breeze 
sprung up and we had sailing all Day, but 
by the Mismanagement of the Patroon of the 
little Boat were detaine4 several times we 
camped before Sunset to lett the little Boat 
come up with us, about dark we heard a Gun, 
but she did not come to our Camp, the wind 
blew fresh all night made about 15 Miles 

Friday the 26th at 2. oclock 25 Minutes in the 
Morning we turned about, to look for the 
little Boat and found her safe I Mile below 
our Camp, we set sail, and went pretty well 
till Sunrise, when the Wind failed, very strong 
Current, and hard work to gain way., at 7 
A. M. Baptist Latoulipe 40 of St. Louis, fell 

38 Cote Grand Brule must be "Bald-pated Prairie," so named by 
Lewis and Clark "from a ridge of naked hills which bound it, run- 
ning parallel with the river as far as we could see, from three to six 
miles distance." 

s9 The anniversary of the birth of St. John the Baptist. 

^Jean Baptiste Latulippe. Tanguay gives more than half a dozen 



over Board and never seen again, the two 
Boats being close together, he could not rise, 
or was entangled by the Roots of a large 
tree, which he was going to strike with his 
Pole. made River Platte 41 at n. A. M, dined 

variations or dit names of Latulippe. In the census of 1787 for the 
District of Ste. Genevieve there is a Jose Latulippe listed as a stone- 
mason, who worked on Fort Celeste at New Madrid. 

Jean Baptiste on July 22, 1805, was engaged by Louis Aimable 
Demarais to hunt beaver from September until the May following, 
but no place of destination was given in the engagement. In August, 
1806, he was in the service of Auguste Chouteau on the Osage River, 
and was used as a messenger by Gen. Zebulon Pike on August 14, 
1806. (Doc. No. 8 of Appendix to Part 2.) Coues, in his edition of 
Expedition of Ztbulon M. Pike, expresses the opinion that this Latulippe 
and the one mentioned by Fremont are the same. In this he is mis- 
taken, as in the list of Fremont's engaz&s, in the introduction to his 
report of 1845, the name is given as Frangois Latulippe. Gen. Fremont 
tells of meeting, in 1843, an old friend, "a hardened^and hardly-served 
veteran of the mountains, who flourished in the sobriquet of La Tulipe, 
and his real name I never knew/' 

Jean Baptiste Latulippe remained in the employ of Chouteau until 
the organization of the St. Louis Missouri Fur Company, when he joined 
its forces. 

In Dr. John Farrar's account-book of 1813 is the following entry: 
"Mrs. Elizabeth Laturlipe, To visits to children and servants and your 
own child, May to August, 1813, A. P. Chouteau to pay." Letters of 
administration on the estate of Latulippe were granted to A. P. Chou- 
teau January 24, 1813, which was probably near the time when news 
of his death first came to St. Louis. Unfortunately, the only paper in 
the files of this estate in the St. Louis Probate Court is the bond of A. P. 
Chouteau as administrator, being for the sum of #25.00. In the files 
of the estate of Auguste Chouteau, deceased, are to be found two notes 
signed with a mark by Latulippe in favor of the former, one dated 
February 20, 1808, payable in skins, and the other dated August 12, 1810. 

Latulippe probably came to Missouri from Vincennes, as there was 
a Latulippe family there in 1773. 

41 The Platte is the great western tributary of the Lower Missouri. It 
is a broad, shallow stream with low banks, about 1,200 miles in length, 
draining most of Nebraska and portions of Wyoming and Colorado^. 
Its mouth is taken as the line between the Upper and Lower Missouri. 
Platte is the French form of the name; the river has been called the 
Nebraska and the Flatwater. "The Platte is regarded by the navi- 
gators of the Missouri as a point of as much importance as the equi- 
noctial line amongst mariners. All those who had not passed > it be- 
fore were required to be shaved, unless they could compromise the 

44 [1812] 

and weather very hot, remained three hours., 
at^3 P. M. passed River Papillion 42 made 12 
Miles distance, Killed i Deer. 

Saturday, the 27th departed as usual and the 
Water not so strong as below the River 
Platte, this Morning passed Mosquito Riv- 
er, 43 distance 20 Miles, Killed 4 Deer i Goose. 

Sunday the 28th, made pretty good way in the 
Morning but about 10 A. M. the 'Rudder 
stay brocke of the little Boat we were obliged 
to cross the River to find a place to unload 
her, and make a steering Oar, which took up 
all Day. distance 6 Miles, Killed i Deer. 

Monday the 29th This Day had at Intervals 
some sailing the River crooked as a zick zack, 
passed River Boje' 44 at 9 A. M. point Jacques 45 

matter by a treat. Much merriment was indulged on the occasion.'* 

"Papillon Creek (from a French word meaning Butterfly) is in Sarpy 
County, Nebraska. Lewis and Clark camped here for several days on 
their upward journey to treat with the Indians. The town of Papillon 
is the county seat of Sarpy County, situated on the south fork of the 
Papillon. Ramsey Crooks and Robert McClellan had a trading-post, 
in 1810, a little above the creek. 

43 Mosquito Creek runs in a southwesterly course entirely across 
Pottawattamie County, Iowa, touching the city limits of Council Bluffs, 
and entering the Missouri Valley a short distance below the city. 

44 Boyer Creek (or River, as it is now called) winds its way through 
several counties of western Iowa, and joins the Missouri about ten miles 
above Council Bluffs. It was sometimes called Roger Creek. It was 
explored in 1820 by Thomas Say, of Major Long's expedition. Three 
miles above its mouth, on the opposite bank of the Missouri, in what is 
now Washington County, Nebraska, Major Long established himself 
September 7, 1819, and named the place "Engineer Cantonment." 
The site was half a mile above Fort Lisa. 

4i "Coupe & Jacques, where the river has found a new bed and 
abridged a circuit of several miles." (Coues ed. Lewis and Clark, 
1:71.) There is a well-known point bearing this name farther up the 

[1812] 45 

at 2 P. M. and council Bluff 46 at 4 P. M. 
distance 20 Miles, Killed i Deer. 

Thuesday, the 3Oth fine weather and sailing 
we pushed on very well, and would have 
made considerable way if it had not been for 
the other Boat, were obliged to stop to make 
another steering Oar for her, during which 
time our hunters killed 3 Deer, distance 27. 

Wednesday, the I of July, fine weather and fine 
sailing at 3 P. M. passed Soldier River, 47 
Missouri very crooked, no hunters out, dis- 
tance 34 Miles, saw some Elk. 

Thursday the 2d fine weather head wind but 
good water made good way, cordelling all 
Day, camped at the Mouth of little Sioux 
River 48 distance 23 Miles, Killed 4 Deer I 

friday. the 3d of July, fine weather and light 

river and it is shown on the Missouri River Commission map as being 
opposite St. Helena, in Cedar County, Nebraska. 

"Council Bluffs. This name was given to these bluffs by Lewis 
and Clark, who held at this place, in 1804, an important council with 
the chiefs of the neighboring tribes. The first United States military 
post west of the Missouri River was built here by a detachment under 
Col. Henry Atkinson, in 1819. The fort was christened Atkinson for 
its founder, and was so known to the Government, but locally it seems 
to have been called Fort Calhoun. There is a town near by now known 
as Calhoun, in Washington County, Nebraska. Council Bluffs is the 
name of a flourishing city in Pottawattamie County, Iowa. 

* 7 Soldier River is marked Rivibre des Soldats on Perrin du Lac's map, 
and Soldier's River on the Missouri River Commission maps. It flows 
through Ida, Crawford, Monona, and Harrison counties, Iowa. 

tt The Little Sioux rises near the source of the Des Moines, flows in 
a southwesterly course and into the Missouri about midway between 
Sioux City and Council Bluffs. It was called by the French Petite 
Rivikre des Sioux. 

46 [1812] 

favorable Winds in the forenoon., at i P. M. 
passed Coup Loysele, 49 distance 18 Miles. 

Saturday the 4th of July., we had ourselves pre- 
pared to salute the Day, which gave Birth 
to the Independence of the United States, put 
a Salute from Heaven prevented us, a thun- 
der storm arose at 2 in the Morning and the 
Bank of the River where we camped fell in 
upon us momently. Mr Manuel Lisa was 
nearly drowned in his Bed, and we had to 
run off., rowing and poling all Day, about 
Sunset a favorable wind sprung up and car- 
ried us several Miles, were obliged to leave 
a large Buck and an Elk which our Hunters 
had killed behind, camped at Black Birds 
Hill, 50 distance 15 Miles. 

Sunday the 5th fine weather at 8 A. M. came 
to a Channel 51 which we entered, in hopes 

t9 La Coupe f h, Loiselle. Brackenridge says: "This name orig- 
inated in the circumstance of a trader having made a narrow es- 
cape, being in the river at the very moment that this cut-off was 
forming." The trader here referred to was probably Regis Loisel, who 
had a trading-post on Cedar Island. 

6 Blackbird Hill was named for a celebrated chief of the Omahas, who 
was buried on this hill. Brackenridge says that he was buried sitting 
erect on his horse, and chose this spot as the place of his interment, 
so as to enable him to see the traders as they ascended the river. This 
chief, he says, was famous among all the nations in this part of the 
world, and his grave at a late day was still held in superstitious awe. 
His possession of some arsenic, received from a trader, was the secret 
of his greatness. With this he made his prophecies of death against 
those who opposed him come true with a seemingly magic precision. 
Blackbird died about 1803. This bluff, with the mound surmounting 
it, was at one time one of the curiosities of the Missouri and a prom- 
inent landmark, but the mound has now almost disappeared. 

"Tbs is an illustration of the shifting of the river bed. While 
apparently the first channel attempted was an incipient cut-off, the 
other was the remains of a portion of its bed which the river had 

[1812] 47 

to go through, to cut off 6 Leagues of the 
River, but were disappointed, having ascended 
within 150 yard toward the head of it, the 
Water became so rapid as to endanger our 
Boats to sink, we returned with Difficulty, 
at a little Distance found another, which was 
also tried, but to our Sorrow found not Wa- 
ter enough at the head and returned took 
the old Route, and were stopped at 5 P. M. 
by a Thunderstorm, distance 15 Miles. 

Monday, the 6th rained very hard last night, 
cleared up and we made best of our way at. 
4. oclock in the Morning had a few Squalls 
and rain, at 8 A. M. a fair wind arose and 
had fine sailing for several hours, the River 
very crooked had to row at times, at 2.30 
M. P. M. passed Mohaw River, 52 and oppo- 
site the Village at 4. P. M. 2 Men went to 
see if any Indians were there, they returned 
not being able to gett to the Village on a / 
of Swamp and Musquitos, camped on a Sand 
bar, distance 30 Miles. 

Thuesday, yth started at Day break, cloudy, 
head wind and rain, in the afternoon passed 
floyds. River, 53 Sun River 54 and at dark Big 
Sioux River, 55 distance 18. Miles. 

M Mohaw, Maha, or Omaha, as it is now called; a good mill stream 
in Dakota County, Nebraska. The Omaha Indians lived on this stream. 

"Floyd's River was named to commemorate the death of Sergeant 
Charles Floyd, of the Lewis and Clark exploring party. Floyd died 
near the mouth of this stream on August 20, 1804, and was buried on 
the Bluffs, which also bear his name, just below the site of Sioux City. 

M Now Perry Creek, named for Robert Perry, who settled on it in 
1849. It is in Sioux City, Iowa. 

"The Big Sioux heads near the source of the Red River of the North. 

48 [1812] 

Wednesday the 8., Head wind and Rain, hard 
work all Day toward Evening had some sail- 
ing, camped on a Sand bar, 56 Musquitos in 
Clouds, distance 18 Miles, Killed i Deer. 

Thursday the 9th departed early, took a Chan- 
nel which we found shut up, and lost the 
Morning, at Dinner several Hunters went out 
to make fires to give Notice to the Indians 
of our approach, passed a small River named 
Iowa, 57 in the afternoon had fine sailing, dis- 
tance 24 Miles, Killed i Deer. 

friday the loth Head wind and strong Current 
all Day. The River very high, left 5 Hunters 
on shore, distance 10 Miles Killed I Deer. 

Saturday the II, Rain & cloudy Morning, at 
8 A. M. cleared up with a fair wind, took in 
our hunters, set sail, at noon waited one Hour 
for the little Boat passed Vermillion River 58 
on the North side and at 5 P. M. the River 

It meets at its mouth the States of South Dakota, Nebraska, and Iowa, 
forming the boundary between Iowa and South Dakota. The river 
is called on Nicollet's map Tchankasndata, which name is said to mean 
that the river is continuously wooded. The upper part was also dis- 
tinguished as the Watpa-ipak-shan, or crooked river, and by the French 
as La Rivibre Croc he. 

"Lewis and Clark camped on this sand-bar August 18, 1804, and 
sent a detachment under Sergeant Ordway to the Omaha village with 
an invitation to the Indians to join them in council and smoke the 
pipe of peace. 

67 Ayoway Creek on Nicollet's and Missouri River Commission maps, 
but Iowa on present maps. It is in Dixon County, Nebraska, just 
above the Sjoth mile point of the Missouri River. 

58 Vermillion River, called by Lewis and Clark the Whitestone River. 
Indian name was Wassisha, literally meaning "smoky earth." It runs 
through Clay County, South Dakota, and the town of Vermillion is 
at its mouth. Vermillion is on the north side of the Missouri River. 


Arck 59 on the South side waited for the little 
Boat and had to camp before Sunset to lett 
her come up with us, lost some elegant sailing 
on her account distance 33 Miles. 

Sunday, the I2th. set sail early in the Morning 
and by all appearances were to make a good 
Days Journey, but the other Boat not keep- 
ing up with us we were obliged to wait sev- 
eral hours for her, and lost considerable in 
making way, the wind changing at noon, at 
8 A. M. passed River Jacques, 60 Missouri still 
very high, distance 18 M. 

Monday the I3th, head wind and hard Current, 
rowed, poled and cordelled all Day, several 
hunters went out they returned at 4 P. M., 
no game, but had seen many fresh track of 
Elk, waited 2 hours for the other Boat at 
5 P. M. made Island of Bonhomme 61 and 

'The Arck is referred to in the Journals of Lewis and Clark as "a 
small creek called Petit Arc, or Little Bow, and a short distance above 
it an old village of the same name." Nothing remained of the village 
then but a mound about four feet high. It was built by a Maha 
(Omaha) chief named Little Bow, who, being displeased with Black- 
bird, seceded with 200 followers and settled at this spot. The Indian 
name of this creek is Hopa-wazhupi. It is the present Bow Creek in 
Cedar County, Nebraska. Vermillion Post, also known as Dickson 
Post, was established prior to 1835, opposite the mouth of Bow Creek 
in Clay County, South Dakota. 

*Jacques, or James River, as it is now called, rises in a prairie just 
south of Devil's Lake in Wells and Foster counties, North Dakota, 
and flows nearly due south into the Missouri. The town of Yankton, 
South Dakota, is just above its mouth. The French called this river 
Riviere a Jacques. 

l Bonhomme is a large island between Bonhomme County, South 
Dakota and Knox County, Nebraska. There is also a town bearing 
this name in South Dakota. The journals of Lewis and Clark, as well 
as Brackenridge, mention the ruins of an "ancient fortification" on 
this island. They were really natural formations, being simply sand 

So [1812] 

Ponca Country 62 we had flattered ourselves 
to meet some Indians or Buffaloe but were 
disappointed, by this time we had passed the 
Countries of the following Nations, Little and 
Big Osage, 63 Mahas, 64 Soto, 65 Yenctons 66 & 

ridges formed by the river the banks are low and subject to overflow. 
(See "Lewis and Clark and the Antiquities of the Upper Missouri 
River," by T. H. Lewis, in Amer. Antiq. and Orient. Jour., Sept., 1891, 
p. 288.) 

62 The Poncas of the Siouan family. In historic days they, together 
with the Omahas, Kansas, and Osages, formed a single tribe, dwelling, 
in the Ohio Valley near the Wabash River. After the migration west- 
ward and the separation which followed, the Poncas located near the 
mouth of the Niobrara. "In physical characteristics and in tribal cus- 
toms the Poncas resembled their kindred, the Omahas. They had been 
oppressed through many years by the Sioux, and reduced by the small- 
pox, until when the traders came they numbered but little more than 
200 souls. They were always on friendly terms with the whites, and 
a regular trading-post was maintained in their territory." (Chitten- 
den, History of the American Fur Trade of the Far West.) The exclus- 
ive right to trade, for ten years, with the Poncas had been given by 
the Spanish Government to Jean Baptiste Monier, of St. Louis, in 
consideration of the fact that he had discovered and pacified that 
tribe in 1789. The Poncas had a reservation in Indian Territory and 
one in Nebraska. In 1906 their total population was about 833. 
Their lands have been allotted to them in severalty. 

"The Osage Indians were the most important of the southern 
Siouan. They were also the first in the Missouri Valley to have a reg- 
ular trade with the whites. On Father Marquette's map, 1673, this tribe 
is located on the Osage River. About the beginning of the eighteenth 
century a division was made in the tribe, the Great, or Big, Osages going 
farther up the Osage River. This branch became known as Pe-he-si 
that is to say, "campers on the mountains"; and the Little Osages as 
U-tsth-ta, or "campers in the lowlands." Later there was another divis- 
ion, known as the Arkansas Osages. This separation was due to Manuel 
Lisa's obtaining from the Spanish Government, in 1796, a monopoly to 
trade with Osage Indians. For twenty years previously this monopoly 
was under the control of Pierre Chouteau, who had great influence with 
the Osages. After Lisa secured this exclusive privilege, Chouteau in- 
duced the best hunters of both the Big and Little Osage clans to go 
with him to the Verdigris River in Arkansas, where he had the trade 
privilege. When General Pike went up the Osage River in 1806, he 
found the principal Osage villages near the junction of the Marmiton 
and the Little Osage River. There was also a village on the Marais 
des Cygnes, a few miles from the present town of Papinsville, Bates 
County, Mo. In 1815 the Osages began moving westward from their 



Kanzas, this Morning Immel & Lorimier 67 
went a head by Land, all hunters went on 
the Island, but Killed but I Elk, two of them 
camped on the N: Side and the Boats on the 
South Side of the Island, distance 18 Miles. 

villages in Bates and Vernon counties and located on the Neosho. In 
January, 1823, there appeared in the Missouri Intelligencer the following: 
"The Osages of the Great nation contemplate abandoning their village 
on the Osage and intend removing next spring to the Arkansas in the 
neighborhood of the Little Osages. In consequence of this the Harmony 
Missionary Society, established on the Osage River not far from the 
Missouri, are removing across to the Arkansas." 

The Osages were a brave and warlike people, and usually at war 
with the neighboring tribes. Although generally friendly toward the 
whites, the Santa Fe traders found them undesirable to meet, as they 
never hesitated to plunder and kill small trading parties. 

M The Omaha Indians (usually called Mahas), one of the tribes of 
the great Siouan family, formerly lived on the Mississippi River, and 
constituted at one time one of the most powerful tribes of that stock. 
They lived for a period in Iowa, ranging as far north as the pipestone 
quarry, now the town of Pipestone, Minnesota. They were driven 
back by the Dakotas, and after separating from the Poncas they set- 
tled on Bow Creek, in Nebraska. Lewis and Clark found them on the 
westerly side of the Missouri, a little south of Dakota City, Neb., and 
they numbered then less than 600, having been decimated in 1802 by 
an epidemic of smallpox. They were constantly at war with the Sioux. 
The population of the tribe in 1906 was 1,228. This tribe is among 
the most civilized of the Indians. 

85 The Otoes belong to the Siouan tribe, and lived on the Missouri and 
Platte rivers for many years. In 1880 they were given reservations 
in Indian Territory. Tradition has it that in ancient times they lived 
about the Great Lakes under the name of Hotonga, migrating to the 
southwest, in pursuit of buffalo; later they divided into various tribes, 
known as Winnebago, Iowa, Missouri, and Otoe. 

The Yanktons lived in the southern portion of the Sioux territory 
along the Missouri river in the valleys of the James, the Vermillion, 
and the Big Sioux, and even as far east as the headwaters of the 
Des Moines. They numbered about 1,000 people. They were the 
least troublesome of all the Sioux tribes and gave the traders com- 
paratively little annoyance. Posts were maintained at different 
times for their convenience at the mouth of each of the tributaries 
of the Missouri mentioned above. (Chittenden's History of the 
American Fur Trade.) 

The Yankton and Yanktonais tribes were no doubt originally one 
group. (Hodge's Handbook of American Indians.) 

67 Louis Lorimier, born in 1785 near Cape Girardeau, Missouri, was 
the son and name-sake of the first settler and commandant of the 


Thuesday. the I4th fine weather head wind and 
hard water at 7 A. M. took in our hunters 
they had killed i Elk I Deer, had to stop 
again at 9 A. M. to arrange another Mast 
for the other Boat and fix the old Rudder, 
crossed the River where we found some fine 
Cedar for the Purpose, stayed all day un- 
loaded and loaded, put up the Mast and 
Rudder, camped and made this Day 4 Miles 
distance Killed i Deer. 

Wednesday July 15, made an early start and 
good way at 9 A. M. met the Company Boat 
coming from the Rees 68 with Peltries, Papin 69 
and 5 Men. Mr. Manuel Lisa thought proper 

Post of Cape Girardeau under the Government of Spain, and Char- 
lotte Pemanpieh Bougainville, a half-blood Shawnee. The Lorimiers, 
the elder a native of Canada, were undoubtedly descendants of Gnil- 
laume de Lorimier, a native of Paris who came to Canada in 1695. 
Louis Lorimier, Jr., married, October 14, 1816, Margaret Penny, grand- 
daughter of Anthony Bled?oe, and lived on a farm not far from Cape 
Girardeau. He was appointed, by President Jefferson, to the United 
States Military Academy, July 17, 1804, and was graduated November 
14, 1806. On January 20, 1808, he was promoted to the rank of sec- 
ond lieutenant, and served on the western frontier until December 31, 
1809, when he resigned. In 1816 he was a trader among the Shawnees 
and Delawares on the Castor River near Bloomfield, in what is now 
Stoddard County, Missouri, succeeding his father in the trade with 
the Indians. He died on his farm in 1832. 

"Arikara, the accepted spelling, commonly called the Rees and 
Rickarees. They belonged to the northern group of the Caddoan lin- 
guistic family. "In 1770 French traders established relations with the 
Ankara, below Cheyenne River on the Missouri. Lewis and Clark 
found them living in three villages between the Grand and the Cannon 
Ball rivers, and found them disposed to be friendly to the United 
States." (Hodge's Handbook of American Indians.} About the be- 
ginning of the nineteenth century they became the allies of the Mandan 
and Hidatsa Indians, and in 1880 joined these tribes on their reservation 
near Fort Berthold. Twenty years later they became citizens of the 
United States. In early days they lived in earth lodges and cultivated 
the soil. The remains of their fortified villages were found by early 
travellers on the Missouri from the mouth of the Teton to the Mandans. 
There is an interesting account of this tribe in the Journal of Jtan B. 

[i8i2] 53 

to take her back again having not sufficient 
Loading to defray the expense, passed River 
Luipere 70 and another small River, 71 in the 
afternoon Squalls and Rain, camped 3 Miles 
below Leauquicour River, 72 distance 16 Miles. 

Thursday 16 July, rained all night, and cleared 

Trudeau among the Arikara Indians in 1795 (Mo. Hist. Soc. Col. 4:9). 

PAPIN, familiarly 
known as Leber 
Papin, was born in 
St. Louis, Decem- 
ber 24, 1787, being 
the third son of 
Joseph M. and 
Marie Louise (Chouteau) Papin. On July 14, 1815, he married Joseph- 
ine Loisel, daughter of Regis Loisel, fur trader and merchant, who 
had a trading-house on an island in the Upper Missouri River, at a 
place which became known as Fort aux Cedres. Loisel received from 
the Spanish Government a grant of 150,000 arpents at that point. 

Ten children were born to Leber Papin and his wife; namely: Hy- 
polite; Joseph L.; Pierre M.; Theodore; Raymond; Eugene; Edmond; 
Louise, who married Eugene Duprd; EmiUe, who married James C. 
Waugh; Zoe, who married Edward N. Tracy; and Josephine, who 
married Robert C. Grier. 

Leber Papin, with his brother Sylvestre, was engaged in the manu- 
facture of hardware and fire-arms for the Indian trade, in preparation 
for which his father had sent him to Philadelphia to study the methods 
of the factories from which the trading companies of St. Louis had 
theretofore drawn their supplies. He furnished the American Fur Com- 
pany and the Superintendent of Indian Affairs at St. Louis with tools 
and equipment for many years. The factory was on Main and Pine 
Streets, which was closed by Leber Papin, after the death of his brother 
Sylvestre. Leber Papin then retired to his farm, where he died De- 
cember 20, 1842, leaving a large fortune for that period. Many of 
his living descendants are representative St. Louisans, as he was in 
his day. 

"White Lime Creek of Lewis and Clark's map, and Lost Creek of 
the Missouri River Commission map. 

Ti White Paint Creek of Lewis and Clark; L'Eau qui Monte of P. 
du Lac; Wasiska of Nicollet. It is now known as Bazile Creek. It 
flows into the Missouri in Knox County, Nebraska. 

n UEau qui Court (i^uicourre "rapid water," "running water"), now 
called the Niobrara, has its source in eastern Wyoming about twenty- 


up at Sunrise at 8 A. M. passed Leauquicour 
River very high and full. Mess Sanguinett 75 
Bijou went out to make fires as we expected 
the Indians soon to meet, camped opposite 
an Island 74 not far from Ponca River, 75 dis- 
tance 1 8 Miles Killed I Deer. 

friday the 17, a fine Morning the Mackina Boat 
took 5 hunters to the Island and we contin- 
ued our Route passed Ponca River, cordelled 
on the South Side along the Hills till Dinner, 
the Boat came up and brought I Deer I 
Beaver cordelled all Afternoon distance 17 

Saturday 18, cloudy about 8 A. M. a fine favor- 
able wind took us and we had good sailing 
untile 2 oclock P. M. when we discovered 
3 Lodges of Sioux Indians 76 and found Immel 

five miles north of Fort Laramie, and flows easterly across northern 
Nebraska. The current, as its name implies, is very rapid. 

7a For a sketch of Charles Sanguinet, fils, see Appendix. 

74 Pawnee Island, in Knox County, Nebraska. The camp of this 
day was probably near Chouteau Bluffs in Bonhomme County, South 

76 Ponca Creek, a prairie stream rising in eastern Tripp County and 
running north of and parallel with the Niobrara. It derives its name 
from an Indian tribe which had a fortified village on this river for 
some time. They subsequently resided with the Omahas. 

76 T ie Sioux, or Dakotas, belong to the Siouan family, the most 
populous linguistic family, excepting the Algonquian, north of Mexico. 
The word Sioux is an abbreviation of Nadowessioux, a French corrup- 
tion of Nadowe-is-izv, the appellation given them by the Chippewas. 
It signifies "snake," "adder," suggesting "enemy." When the French 
traders first met them, in the latter part of the eighteenth century, 
their country embraced what is now the State of South Dakota, 
with contiguous territory all around its borders. Their wanderings 
extended far beyond their own lands. This tribe was among the 
most warlike of the western tribes, and, although they at no one time 
exceeded 15,000 souls in the Missouri Valley, they were everywhere 


& Lorimier, the Chief of them LeNe?. 77 traded 
with us 32 Beaver 3 Otter 2 Robes 13 Blad- 
ders of tallow and upwards of 300 Ib. Dried 
meat, camped I Mile above them, Killed I 
Deer distance 24 Miles. 

Sunday the I9th fine Morning about 7 A. M. 
we took in 2 Sioux who had been hunting, 
belonging to a band on white River, 78 gave 
us a buffaloe tongue and stayed on Board 
all Day, our hunters went in search of Buf- 
faloe but found none, passed Little Cedar 
Island, 79 distance 18 Miles. 

Monday the 20, set 'sail at 4 in the Morning 
with a fine wind the Indians left us, sailed 
till 10 A. M. when the wind changed and 
blew hard a head, at 4 P. M. met with a 
Sioux Chief called the Sleeper 80 and 20 Soldier 
had some talk and camped with them, distance 
15 Miles. 

held in terror by their enemies. They were men of great physical 
powers, and great hunters. 

The three important divisions of the Sioux tribes in the Missouri 
Valley were: the Yanktons, the Yantonais, and the Tetons. When 
Luttig mentions the Sioux Indians or chiefs, he doubtless refers to one 
of these branches. During the War of 1812 some Sioux were on the 
point of joining the British forces against the United States. 

77 Le Nez was known by western Sioux as Pasu Ksapa, and was 
prominent in the same way that "The Sleeper" was. (Dr. A. McG. 
Beede, Missionary at Fort Yates, North Dakota.) 

78 White River, or White Earth River, rises in the northwestern cor- 
ner of Nebraska, south of the Black Snake Hills, enters South Dakota, 
and, running easterly, empties into the Missouri in Lyman County. 
The route of travel between Forts Pierre and Laramie was through the 
valley of this river. 

"Little Cedar Island in Gregory County, South Dakota. The Mis- 
souri Fur Company had a trading-post here, which was destroyed by 
fire in April, 1810. 

""The Sleeper t "Istinhmunma (meaning "to possess the mystic gift")* 


Thuesday the 21, departed at Sunrise as also the 
Indians we stopped at a small River 81 where 
4 Sioux Chiefs came to us, the Black Sky, 
Black Buffaloe, 82 Big Horse 83 and Crooked 
hand, 84 we had Council and they informed 
Mr Manuel Lisa, that at present they had 
nothing to trade, but would have plenty next 
fall Immel went with them to their Village, 
3 Chiefs and 2 young Men remained to fix 
on a spot for a trading house they went with 
us across the River to the North'Side I Mile 
below where we had camped, laid out the 
house for Mr. Bijou 85 who was to remain to 
trade with the Yentonas, Tetons 86 and Shau- 
nee, 87 Mr Manuel presented the Chief with 10 
Carrots Tobacco and some Powder and Ball 
they were seemingly well contented, Killed 
I Buffaloe and the Indians brought also some 
fresh Meat. 

a Teton ^Sioux Indian. He was an Itancan, but to what extent he was 
a "chief" is hard to say. This Indian was conspicuous among Western 
Sioux, and has been frequently confused with the Minnesota "Sleepy 
Eyes." The Sioux Indians frequently sent out emissaries to other nibes, 
on various pretexts, but as spies really. Some went as beggars, pre- 
tending that their people were starving and that they left in an effort 
to keep alive; others claimed to have been unjustly ostracized. "The 
Sleeper" seems to have been a master spy. (Dr. Becde.) 

8l This small river is the Shannon Creek on Clark's and Maximilian's 
maps. It was probably named for George Shannon. It is now called 
Rosebud Creek, and is near Rosebud Landing, Gregory County, South 

*Black Buffalo, a Teton Sioux, died in July, 1815, at Portage de* 
Sioux, St. Charles County, Missouri, while attending the Peace Treaty 
Council at that place. At the request of Gen. Clark he was interred 
with military honors. The funeral oration delivered by the chief, 
Big Elk, was a touching and eloquent one. Black' Buffalo was a man 
of considerable influence. He was the principal chief with whom Lewis 
and Clark counciled at the mouth of the Teton, September 25 to 28, 
1804, leading, after some difficulty, to the establishment of friendly 



Wednesday the 22d rose early, all hands except 
some lazy Rascals under pretence of being 

relations. In 1807 he was in the Ankara village, and no doubt took 
part in the attack on Lieut. Nathaniel Pryor's party, which was escort- 
ing the Mandan chief Sheheke back to his village. Black Buffalo was 
dangerously wounded in this skirmish. At the head of a party of 
Dakotas he met the Astorians at Big Bend in 1811 and protested 
against the carrying of arms to the Arikaras andMandans, with whom 
his tribes were then at war. Manuel Lisa found him a powerful influ- 
ence in the way of keeping the Dakotas friendly with the United States 
during the War of 1812, and at the close of the war brought him down 
to Portage des Sioux. 

83 Big Horse was an Oglala chief of the same family as the two well- 
known chieis called "American Horse," but whether he was the father 
or uncle of the elder American Horse, or a remote kinsman, I am unable 
to say. He was prominent among Indians during the times when the 
road was being forced, with little progress, from the Platte River 
northwest. (Dr. Beede.) 

84 Crooked Hand. This man might have been Bras CassS or Broken 
Arm, who was in council with Gen. Pike in 1805. His Indian name 
was Wah-kan-tah-pay, and he was living in 1825 at his village near 
Le Sueur in Minnesota. 

Dr. Beede says he has often heard Crooked Hand mentioned as a 
sort of mentor of Inkpe Luta, though he did not participate with him 
in the Spirit Lake Massacre. Every ambitious youth had a sort of 
mentor in some one particular man of his voluntary choice, who more 
or less shaped his mind and career; and Crooked Hand was thus the 
mentor of Inkpe Luta (a somewhat misrepresented and misunderstood 
man), who was well known by many Western Sioux. He was an 
Itancan, but it is difficult to say whether or not he was a "chief." He 
was said to have been an expert bowman. 

"Bijou's trading-house was doubtless in the vicinity of the present 
Bijou Hills post-office, in Brule County, South Dakota. 

"The Teton Sioux were a very important division of the Sioux, and 
dwelt mostly west of the Missouri, covering the country as far west 
as the Black Hills and the North Platte, wandering north and south 
from the Pawnee country to the Mandans. These Indians were very 
troublesome in the eaily days of the fur trade, and were known as the 
pirates of the Missouri River. In later years they became friendly with 
the whites and gave the traders very little trouble. There were sev- 
eral bands of the Tetons, viz.: the Bois Brutes, who lived on both side* 
of the Missouri near the mouths of the White and Teton rivers; the 
Sans Arcs; the Blackfeet; the Minneconjous; the Two Kettles; the 
Oglalas, who dwelt at the headwaters of the White and Niobrara rivers; 
and the Hunkpapas. 

"The Saone Indians were a division of the Teton Sioux, comprising 
the Sans Arcs, Sihasapa, Ooheneonpa, and sometimes the Hunkpapa. 


sick went to work. at 3 P. M. Immel re- 
turned with 2 young Indians, the Chief Black 
Sky had presented him a horse, he reported 
the Chiefs and warriors would be with us to 
morrow he found upwards of 400 Lodges 
and plenty of Buffaloe in the Morning when 
he started from there he saw several Buffaloe 
enter in the Village, this Day raised part of 
the house, Killed i Deer, caught several Cat- 
fish and I Beaver. 

Thursday the 23, early to work, but unfortunaly 
the house fell down when nearly raised, and 
had to go over the same work, catched 7 fine 
fish in the forenoon which provided a fine 
Dinner, at 5 P. M. a party of Indians came 
opposite which we crossed and found them 
to be all Boys about 30 in Number they cama 
to give us a Dance, they were all neat and 
handsome clothed, more so then I saw the 
Sioux of the Mississippi, in the Evening they 
danced and we gave them some Biscuit and 
I Carrot Tobacco they brought plenty Meat 
with them and gave plenty to the Boats. 

friday the 24th finished the house, in the after- 
noon sent Mr. Bijou, Equipment on shore, 
the Indians went over the River, and Mr 
Manuel Lisa gave the Chief black Buffaloe 

They were first mentioned by Lewis and Clark, and, under the form 
Souon-Teton in Clark's manuscripts, where they are called "the people 
of the prairie." They made one of the twelve tribes of the Dakota, 
while the Souon were another. The Saone, under the name Siount, 
joined the Oglalas in the treaty with the United States at the mouth of 
the Teton River, South Dakota, July 5, 1825. (Hodge, Handbook of 
American Indians.) 

[1812] 59 

the present from Government as also for 
crooked hand which Chief had promised to 
come over but did not come, he left it with 
Mr. Bijou to be given to him whenever he 
would arrive there left 2 hunters and 3 En- 
gagees with Bijou, discharged Bapt. Alar 88 a 
good for nothing fellow. 

Saturday the 25, set sail at 4 in the Morning 
fair wind took 6 Indians with us which we 
landed and stood under sail till n A. M. 
when we took the Cordell for about i hour, 
dined, and set sail again, passed white River 
at 2 P. M. the [wind] slakening about 4 P. M. 
we took to Cordell again, Mr. Manuels Negro 
Boy Charlo went out the Boat to gett some 
grass or grasshoppers for a Prairie Dog which 
he had caught some days ago, he the Boy 
went upon the Hills unperceived, they are 
very high, he fell down a precipe into the 
River, the Man who was steering the Mackina 

M Baptiste Alar. This name is spelled in American State Papers 
"Alary," "Alere," "Allard," and "Allare/' In the archives of St. 
Louis City and County it has only two variations, "Alar" and "Allard." 
Baptiste Alar came to St. Louis in 1795 and settled in Florissant, St. 
Louis County. Prairie du Rocher was probably his former home, as 
there was a Jean Baptiste Alard, senior and junior, in the census of 
that village in 1787. In 1818 Alar was engaged by the American Fur 
Company as a boatman to serve for three years at Prairie du Chien. 
At the end of this period he returned to Florissant, bought some land, 
upon which he erected a home. He was living there in 1825. He had 
two children one named Julia, born December n, 1816, whose moth- 
er was Julia Laviolette; and the other, John B. by Catherine Lavio- 
lette. John B. Alar, Jr., married at Cahokia, April 28, 1818, Louise 
Desmarets, the daughter of Joseph and Julia (Lepage) Desmarets. In 
May, 1846, the public administrator of St. Louis took charge of the 
property of Jean Baptiste Alar, deceased. As no heirs were found, 
he property was paid into the State treasury in December, 1849. 

6o [1812] 

Boat saw it, and cried out to Mr Lewis 89 (who 
was walking in the Rear of the Boats) to save 
the Boy but Mr Lewis unfortunately did not 
understand the men however saw something 
struggling in the water, but thought the Boy 
was a swimming, when the Men came towards 
him, they went to find the Boy, alas he was 
gone, he must have been stunned by the fall 
or otherwise would have saved himself, the 
River was not 4 feet deep, he drowned at 
5 oclock P. M. we searched for him some 
time but the Current had swept him off, cor- 
delled a little way, crossed to an Island, set 
out 3 hunters, at sunset the Wind fair, set 
sail, took in our hunters, camped on a Sand 
bar the wind blowing fresh all night distance 
30 Miles. 

Sunday the 26, set sail at 3 in the Morning, at 
8 A. M. Immel & Queenville 90 went out to 

"For a sketch of Reuben Lewis, see Appendix. 


t fljf i n St. Charles, Missouri. In 

/ COMJt/M/Ht/St/M&S J une > I8l 4, he gave his note 

' /y / ^1 to Mr. Francois Duquette, 

V I to be paid upon his return 

from a trapping voyage. The 

next record I find of him is with the American Fur Company's Post in 
southwestern Missouri. He seems to have spent the remainder of his 
life in that section. He married Wihethtanga, an Osage woman, and 
of this marriage there is record of the following children: Francois, 
born about 1819; Pierre, born about 1822, baptized at Harmony Mis- 
sion, August 21, 1827; Angelique, born October 10, 1826; Andrl, born 
about November 5, 1829, and baptized nearMarais desCygnes, June 9, 
1830; and Elizabeth, who married August 10, 1840, at the American 
Fur Company's trading-post on the Osage River, Jean Baptiste St. 
Michel. There was a trapper of this name with the Spanish Com- 
pany in 1794. As he was referred to as "Sieur Quenville," by Jean 
Baptiste Trudeau, there is no way of determining that he is the same 
man of this expedition. 

[1812] 6i 

hunt and to visit his house were he lived last 
Winter, 91 we came up with the house very 
fast, stopped a few Minutes the wind fresh 
in our favor, took in Immel, Queenviile had 
run after some Buifaloe, we went pretty fast 
and were obliged to stop for Queenviile, who 
was far behind we gave him signal, and em- 
barked him, he had killed i buifaloe but we 
left the Meat, taking care of the wind at I 
P. M. made Big Bend, 92 camped on the North 
Side. Distance 36 Miles. 

Monday the 2yth departed at 4 in the Morning 
a fresh wind sprung up and carried us out of 
the Bend, the wind slackening we had to 
take to our oars, at 8 A. M. we set sail again 
and sailed till II A. M., after Dinner Immel 
Lorimier and Greenwood went out the Boat 
to go by Land to the Rees. cordelled all af- 
ternoon, and camped at the point of Cedar 
Island, 93 distance 21 Miles. Killed i Deer. 

Thuesday the 28rh, set sail with a favorable wind 
at 3:30 minutes in the Morning, but the wind 
failing had to take to cordelling, last night 

91 Lisa called Immel-'s wintering place Fort St. Michel chez des Sioux. 
It is doubtful on which side of the river this trading-house was lo- 
cated, and therefore it may have been either in Lyman or Buffalo 
County, South Dakota. Lisa probably named it in honor of the patron 
saint of his efficient lieutenant, Michael (Michel) Immell. 

M Big Bend was also known as the Grand Detour and the Great 
Bend. The camp of this night was in what is now Hyde County, South 

"Cedar Island is a name that was applied to various islands, 
miles apart, in this portion of the river. This particular one, near 
Cedar Creek, is indicated as "Cedar or Dorien Island No. i" on the 
Missouri River map of 1895. It was on this island that Regis Loisel 
built a four-bastion fort of red cedar in 1800. 


caught 3 Beavers, Killed i Cabri 94 2 Elks, 
distance 18 Miles. 

Wednesday the 2Qth head wind and clear, cor- 
deliing all day at 4 P.M. passed little Missouri 
River, 95 killed i Buffaloe, 2 Deer, i Badger, 
distance 21 Miles. 

Thursday the 3Oth fine weather but head wind, 
had to cordell all Day saw a band of about 50 
a 60 Elk, 3 of them close to us in the River, 
but had no luck to Kill the Mackina Boat 
was gone a head with the hunters and did 
not come to our Camp that night, distance 
1 8 Miles. 

Friday the3ist departed early cloudy and head 
wind cordelled all Morning at 7 A. M. met 
the Mackina Boat they had Killed 2 Deer 
and i fawn, crossed the River after break- 
fast the wind becoming very hard made very 
little way. Killed i Buffaloe 4 Deer, dis- 
tance 12 Miles. This Morning we left our 
old she Cat at Camp, at breakfast I missed 
her, and Mr. Manuel sent a Men for the Cat, 
he returned in the Evening with the Cat to 

M Cabre: goat or antelope, which the French call cabre. The ante- 
lope was unknown to science until Lewis and Clark discovered it, but 
it was not scientifically named until 1815. (Wheeler's Trail of Lewis 
and Clark.) 

86 The Little Missouri was later called the Teton, and now Bad River. 
The Sioux Indians called it Wakpa Chicha, meaning "Bad River." It 
rises just east of the Bad Lands, and flows through a section abounding 
in salt springs. For many years there was a trading-post at the mouth 
of this river, and it was one of the most important locations in the 
Sioux country. Fort Laframboise was built there in 1817, and in 1822 
the Columbia Fur Company had its principal fort, called Tecumseh, 
on the west bank of the Missouri about two miles above the mouth 
of the Teton, or Bad River. 

[1812] 63 

our great satisfaction this Remark may seem 
ridiculous, but an Animal of this kind, is more 
valuable in this Country than a fine Horse. 
Mice are in great Abundance and the Com- 
pany have lost for want of Cats, several Thou- 
sand Dollars in Merchandize, which were de- 
stroyed at the Bigbellies station, there has 
not a night passed since our departure from 
Bellefontaine where I got that Cat, that she 
has not caught from 4 to 10 Mice and brought 
them to her Kittens. 

Saturday the ist of August last night caught 
2 young Beaver, cordelled all Morning, still 
and very little Current at 10.15 mm - passed 
Chajenne River 96 very low at this time saw 
several Buffaloe, chased, but without Success, 
crossed the River, and cordelled along the 
Bluffs, at Dinner we stopt at some Bluffs 
above Chajenne River about 4 Miles, where 
I found plenty Iron Ore, and somewhat high- 
er up signs of Salpeter. Distance 18 Miles 
Killed 2 Deer. 

Sunday the 2d some Rain fell last night, cloudy 
in the Morning, 6 A. M. cordelling the little 
Boat joined us, they had meat of 3 Buffaloe, 
one Cow they found wounded with an Ar- 
row, she came into their Camp. Distance 18 
Miles Killed i Deer. 

"Cheyenne River, Washie Wahpa Dakota words, meaning "Good 
River," the antithesis of the river south of it. The main forks of the 
north and south branches of this river embrace the Black Hills proper. 
It flows eastward toward the Missouri, draining western South Dakota, 
and joins the Missouri in Stanley County, South Dakota. It takes it 
name from the Indians who lived upon its upper waters. 


Monday the 3 at 6 A. M. a Canoe with Gar- 
row, 97 the Interpreter, 2 Engagees and Gosh6 98 
a Ree Chief came to us, they brought some 
Corn and a Letter from Immel at noon pass- 
ing along a Bottom, we found a Mocassin 
tied to a tree in which we also found a Letter 
of Immel informing us they were well and 
would be at the Rees from thence in One 
Day. Distance 21 Miles, Killed 5 Deer. 

Thuesday the 4th headwind as usual, cordelling 
our Hunters went out this Morning and at 
cinner brought 3 Deer i Buffaloe 4 Ducks, 
passed Mauro River, 99 in the afternoon Killed 
I very large Buck, at 5 P. M. a heavy storm 

"Joseph Garreau, probably a son of Pierre Garreau of St. Charles 
County, Missouri. In 1787, when twenty-three years of age, Joseph was 
engaged by Don Andres Fagot la Garciniere of St. Louis to hunt and 
trap on the Upper Missouri River. In January, 1795, he was at Red 
River with the North West Company. He seems to have remained in 
that country for the remainder of his life, for every traveler who has 
recorded his observations of that region has made mention of him. 
Lewis and Clark refer to him as "Mr. Garrow" and "Interpreter Gar- 
row." Wilson P. Hunt saw him in 181 1 and says that Garrow told him 
he had been with the Arikaras twenty years. Irving described him 
as a "French Creole, one of those haphazard wights of Gallic origin 
who abound the frontiers, living among the Indians like one of their 
own race." Beckwourth tells us of Pierre and his brother Antoine, and 
of their father, "who was a great man among the Indians." Major 
Kearny, in 1825. speaks of him as an "old Frenchman who has been 
with the Arikaras for thirty-seven years." Maximilian and Larpenteur 
both mention him. Garreau married an Ankara Indian and his sons 
were for many years interpreters at Fort Berthold. South Dakota 
claims Joseph Garreau as the first permanent white settler in that 
State. The Missouri Fur Company's books show that he was en- 
gaged by it from August 4, 1812, to May 11, 1813. 

98 Le Gauche, "The Left-handed," was the hereditary chief of the 
Arikaras. He was a fine-looking man, much above the average size. 

"Mauro, Moreau River; named for a Canadian trader. Clark 
called it Sur-zua-carna, or "Park River," an Ankara name. On 
most maps it is given as Owl River. It runs parallel with the Grand 
River above and the Cheyenne below. 

[1812] 65 

arose and we had to lay by. at 6 P. M. 2 
Skin Canoes met us, with Lorimier, Green- 
wood, Dougherty 100 and Weir, 101 it contin- 
ued raining and we were obliged to Camp. 
Distance 15 Miles. 

Wednesday the 5th cleared up in the Morning 
and we went on Cordelling, but had the good 
Luck to get fast 3 times, at Dinner our 
hunters brought I large Cabri and 2 Deer 
very fat, I Goose, pursued our Vojage and 
at 5 P. M. .met 3 more hunters of the Com- 
pany from the Rees, camped 3 Miles below 
Grand River. 

Thursday 6th at 6 A. M. passed Grand River, 102 

lfl For a sketch of Major John Dougherty, see Appendix. 

l01 William Weir, probably a son of William Weir, a Revolutionary 
soldier of Scotch-Irish descent, and a brother of James Weir, one of 
the early settlers of Muhlenburg County, Kentucky. He was born 
at Fishing Creek, South Carolina, in 1787, was of an adventurous spirit 
and left home at an early age to seek his fortune. He came to Mis- 
souri and enlisted with the Fur Company. He was one of the party 
who went with Henry across the mountains in the fall of 1810, and 
upon their return to the Missouri he remained at one of the forts and 
continued in the service for a number of years. He was an active, 
efficient man, brave and skillful, and took rank with Dougherty and 
Colter. In 1818 he was appointed by the Territorial Legislature one 
of the commissioners to establish the county seat of Cooper County, 
and in 1820 he was charged with a similar duty for Cole County. In 
1819 and 1820, and perhaps for a longer time, he was justice of the 
peace in Moreau Township, Cooper County. In 1816 he married, 
and afterwards went to Crawford County, where he cleared a farm 
and made a home for himself and family. The spirit of adventure was 
too strong in him to allow him to abide contentedly at home, and he 
joined a trading party on a trip through Texas to Mexico. He died 
at his home in Missouri in 1845, leaving ten children. One of them, 
John Weir, went to Texas in the '303, and there did good service in 
helping to achieve the independence of the country. In 1853 he crossed 
the plains to California, and in 1858 he went to the Puget Sound coun- 
try, where he spent the remaining years of his life, and where his 
descendants still remain. (Douglas ed. Three Years Among the Indians 
and Mexicans, St. Louis, 1916.) 

lOJ Grand River was also known by its Arikara name, Welerhoo, 


Mr. M. Lisa had intended to build a fort 
here, but finding the Situation not eligible for 
a Fort, moved on and camped about 12 Miles 
below the Rees. Distance 15 Miles. 

Friday the yth had a little Wind in favor set sail 
and at 12 oclock M. arrived at fort, 103 all 
Indians in Motion to a Number of abt 1200 
souls, Mr. Manuel L could not immediately 
go on shore, as he had his Leg strained this 
Morning when Jumping out of the Boat, and 
got very lame, a horse was procured and he 
went to the Village and held Council with 
the Principal Chief, the 2 other Chiefs did 
not come to Council and Jealousy reigned 
among them, about 2 P. M. the Women and 
Children who were about our Boats were 
called away to the Village, and in a few 
Minutes the Coast was clear, this was not 
a friendly Signal, and we prepared for the 
worst, after Dinner Mr. M. L resolved to 
go to the Fort, he went with 10 armed Men 
and sent for the Chiefs to explain their Con- 
duct, when it appeared that Goshe* had re- 
ceived his presents and they not, and further 
complained on Account of the Merchandize 
to be taken away from them to trade Mr. 
M. L., came to an absolute Resolution and 
they gave up, they were satisfied to have a 
Fort built at the third point above their Vil- 

or Wetarhoo. It flows through Harding, Perkins, and Corson counties, 
South Dakota; at its mouth is the Standing Rock Indian Reservation. 

i0a This reference is doubtless to an Indian fort, as there is no record 
of a trading-post at this place. 

[1812] 67 

lage about 12 Miles distance. 104 La Plume 105 
the Chief of the 2d Village received his Pres- 
ent and harmonie was restored, they traded 
some in the afternoon loaded the Peltries & a . 
and prepared for Morning, set a Volunteer 
Guard, though guarded, the Indians would pil- 
fer every thing they could lay their hands on. 

Saturday the 8th started early without trouble, 
several went by Land as also some Indians^ 
Gosh6 and La Plume overtook us at noon, 
in order to stop us and not go too high from 
their Village, 106 but the Place where we were 
did not answer for our purpose pursued our 
Route, the Chiefs went back seemingly dis- 
pleased, camped 12 Miles above the Village, 
last night had our 2 Cats stolen. 

Sunday the 9th of August started early and at 
7 A. M. arrived at a beautifull Prairie Bluff 
with several Bottoms of fine timber around, 

>04 Arikara villages. Luttig clearly indicates that the Rees' village 
was twenty-four miles above the Grand River. Dr. Doane Robinson 
says, however: "These villages were situated on the west bank of the 
Missouri about eight miles above the mouth of the Grand, in what is 
now Corson County, South Dakota. The river at this point runs from 
east to west, so that the villages were on the north shore." Trudeau, 
in 1795, was at the Arikara village near the Grand River. Lewis and 
Clark found this tribe occupying three village sites, which were within 
about four miles of each other along the river, between the Grand and 
the Cannonball rivers. They were then located higher up the river 
than formerly. Brackenridge visited them in 1811, when they were 
eight miles above the Grand River, with a small creek separating two 
of the villages. In view of the shifting of their villages, it is rather 
difficult to precisely locate them at any one period. 

*&La Plume, Plume d'Aigle, probably the "Eagle's Feather" (Pia- 
heto), who was the third chief of the Arikaras when Lewis and Clark 
passed the village in 1804. The explorers named a creek in Corson 
County, South Dakota, for this chief. 

106 It was not unusual for the Indians to arbitrarily designate the 
spots where the trading-posts should be built. 


made Arrangement for our Camp and in the 
afternoon discharged the Boats, every Men 
happy to have come thus far of our Vojage. 107 

Monday the loth sent one Boat across the River 
with hands to cut timber for a Blacksmith 
Shop and Provision house all hands employed 
to fix a temporary Camp. 

Thuesday the nth, no news from the Village 
until noon when our Interpreter Garrow and 
a Soldier arrived, every thing quiet, they re- 
ported that a Skulking Big belly entered the 
Village at dark yesterday and Killed I Ree. 

Wednesday the 12, were informed a war Party 
had gone on, to fight the Bigbellies. 108 

l07 Fort Manuel was situated close to the present line separating 
North and South Dakota. Gen. Chittenden says it was north of 46 
parallel, but he is mistaken in this. Dr. Doane Robinson, of the South 
Dakota Historical Society, locates it on the cape just east of Kenel 
post-office in Corson County, South Dakota, and says that he has 
been told of the remains of a post at that point. Dr. A. McG. Beede, 
missionary at Fort Yates, North Dakota, says the fort was near the 
mouth of a creek, about one-half of a mile down the river from Kenel. 
Maximilian mentions Lisa's trading-house among the Arikaras, "of 
which nothing now remains; though the place is still called Manoel 
Lisa's Fort." It seems to me that Doctors Robinson and Beede fairly 
agree with Luttig on this point, after summing up the distances of 
travel noted by him. 

i s Grosventres of the Missouri, as they were called by the French, 
and Minnetarees by the Mandans. The tribal name, however, was 
Hidatsa- For many years they were a migratory people, but finally 
settled in permanent villages like the Mandans. Close association with 
the Mandans caused them to adopt many of their customs. Their 
home was on the right bank of the Missouri, near the mouth of the 
Knife River. James, in his Three Years Among the Indians and Mex- 
icans, says of them: "We found a manly, warlike, and independent 
tribe, who might well be called for their daring and enterprising qual- 
ities Gros Cfurs, or "Big Hearts,". instead of "Big Bellies." Alexander 
Henry describes them as being "a fierce and savage set of scoundrels, 
less sociable and affable than their neighbors, the Mandans." Under 
the name Hidatra, the Minnetarees and the Crows were once united 
in a single sub-stock of the great Siouan family. 

[1812] 69 

Thursday the I3th Mr. M. Lisa had resolved 
to go up with a party to the Bigbellies to 
arrange Matters with them and bring down 
the Peltries, the Bigbellies having Killed 2 
hunters and stole 26 Company horses, as also 
detained the Trader they had with them, he 
accordingly went this Morning at 8 oclock 
and 26 Men with him. At 10 P. M. 60 Rees 
composing a War party arrived they requested 
something to eat, our hunters had just come 
in with 3 Buffaloe and I Deer, we gave them 
some Meat, and ferried them across the Riv- 
er, this Day cut timber for different Build- 
ings, at the same time the Rees were cross- 
ing the River 8 Canoes hove in sight coming 
down with Meat, the men in the Canoes saw 
so many Indins crossing, took the terrors 
put their Canoes on shore and run off, both 
parties thinking they were Ennemies,as soon as 
the war party arrived on the other side they 
gave the Halloo and run in full Speed to the 
Canoes, finding nobody and seeing the Canoes 
belonging to their own Nation, they took 
some Meat and without searching for their 
friends went off, 2 hours afterwards 2 Indians 
appeared and ventured to come over to our 
side, on arrival we found them to be 2 Squaws 
the Men consisting of 2 Rees, 2 Panis, 109 2 

I09 Pawnee Indians belong to the Caddoan family and called them" 
selves Chahik-si-chakiko, "men of men." Hodge says that the name 
is probably derived from pariki, a horn, a term used to designate the 
peculiar manner of dressing the scalp-lock. In historic times the Pawnee 
tribes established themselves in the valley of the Platte. They had 
four distinct villages, the Grand Pawnee, the Republican Pawnee, the 
Tapagf, or Noisy Pawnee, and the Skidi, or Pawnee Loup. In the 
latter years of the eighteenth century the Republican Pawnees moved 

7 [1812] 

Chayenne, 110 had run off, and left every thing 
behind them. 

Friday the I4th This Morning at one oclock 
were alarmed by the firing of a Gun, and 
heard the Dashing of Oars when to our Sur- 
prize we saw Mr. Manuel & party returning, 
he having been informed by one of those Cow- 
ards who had run off from the Canoes, that 
all the white Men were Killed and that the 
Indians had crossed the River in our Boat 

south to the north branch of the Kansas. These tribes were agricult- 
urists, as well as hunters, having permanent villages. They were of 
splendid physique and great horsemen. The Pawnees were constantly 
at war with the neighboring tribes, never remaining faithful to any 
allies for any length of time. These Indians were greatly feared by 
the Southwest traders, as were the Blackfeet by the traders of the 
Northwest. Ic was this tribe that attacked the Chouteau-De Mun 
party as they were descending the Arkansas River in 1816. The 
party was forced to take shelter on an island just west of Hartland, 
in Kearny County, Kansas. 

* 10 The Cheyennes are of Algonquian stock, and were called by the 
Sioux Shahiyena, or Shai-ene, meaning "to speak a strange language." 
This tribe never called themselves Cheyennes, but Tsis-tsis. They 
lived before 1700 on the Mississippi, in what is now Minnesota. The 
first mention of this tribe in history is in 1680, under the name of Chaa, 
when a party of that tribe visited La Salle's Fort on the Illinois River. 
Later they moved to the banks of a branch of the Red River, in North 
Dakota, which thereafter became known as the Cheyenne River. Here 
they cultivated the land and built earth lodges. After some difficulties 
with the Sioux Indians, they were driven toward the Missouri, where 
they tarried for a short while. Some time afterwards they crossed the 
Missouri and took refuge in the Black Hills about the head of the 
Cheyenne River of South Dakota, where Lewis and Clark found them 
in 1804. In their journals they state that the Cheyennes were at 
peace with all except the Sioux, but that they frequently went on 
plundering excursions, stealing horses from the Spanish settlements. 
They were a fighting people, and, it seems, were almost constantly 
at war with the neighboring tribes. Until 1856 they were friendly 
to the whites, but from that time they were a terror to the border 
settlements, and gave the United States considerable trouble. Since 
about 1880 the tribe has been confined on two separate reservations: 
the Southern Cheyennes in Oklahoma, and the Northern Cheyennes 
in Montana. In 1901 the lands of the Southern branch were allotted 
in severalty and these Indians are now American citizens. 

[1812] 71 

to Kill them also, supposed by the Sioux, 
Mr. M. L. alarmed on this Account returned 
immediately to Camp, finding however to his 
great Satisfaction the History of the Indian 
false, he remained till breakfast and pursued 
his first Intentions, last night about 40 In- 
dians camped with us they were gathering 
Cherries and other fruits about the Country 
finished the Blacksmith shop and Provision 
house, caught 8 fine Cat fish. 

Saturday the I5th This Morning cloudy, some 
hunters went out, no Meat at home, caught 
8 Cat fish, Rain at intervals. 

Sunday the i6th hard Rain last night, cleared 
up in the Morning and all hands went for 
timber, at 5 P. M. our hunters returned with 
Meat they had Killed 1 1 Buifaloe, caught 1 1 
Cat fish, and Killed n Ducks. 

Monday the lyth, clear, all hands cutting tim- 
ber and making Hay, caught 15 fish, and 
Killed 15 Ducks. 

Thuesday the i8th all hands employed as yes- 
terday. 2 Hunters went out for Buifaloe, 
caught 4 fish. 

Wednesday the 19. the hands employed in Work 
as yesterday at noon our hunters came in 
with Meat of 2 Cows. Killed 10 Ducks. 

Thursday the 20, North wind & cold, cloudy in 
the forenoon hands at work as yesterday, fine 
afternoon Mr. Lewis caught a Prairie Dog, 
caught 4 fish, Killed i Pheasant. 


Friday the 2ist, clear and hard wind, still at 
work cutting timber and making hay. Killed 
6 Ducks. Mr Lewis's Prairie Dog was nearly 
Killed by one of our Dog who brocke the 
Chain and run off with him. 

Saturday the 22d, clear and windy, the same 
Work going on. at noon Goshe and Nez Cor- 
bain 111 a Yentonas Chief arrived with four 
Sioux, at 6 P. M. our hunters came in with 
Meat of 5 Cows, this Day blew a very hard 
Gale from the South west. Killed 28 plover 
and 4 Ducks. 

Sunday the 23d, clear, wind west N. west, the 
same work, at noon La Plume paid us a 
Visit, dried some Meat very warm. 

Monday the 24th clear, wind west, 3 hunters 
went out being informed the Buffaloe was 
near by a party of Indians which had been 
hunting at 10 A. M. 12 Canoes arrived with 
meat they made a present of 18 Tongues and 
went off at noon caught 10 fish. 

Thuesday the 25th cloudy and disagreeable, 
hands at work as usual. 

m AVr, de Corbeau, literally "Raven's Nose"; called by the French 
"Roman Nose," and by the Indians "Wind That Walks." He was 
for a time second chief of the Sioux, but, being the cause of the death 
of a trader in 1799, ne voluntarily relinquished that dignity. When 
Gen. Pike met him in 1806, he requested to be given up to the whites. 
He then determined to go to St. Louis and deliver himself up, where 
he said they might put him to death. As the crime was committed 
long before the United States assumed its authority, and as no law 
of theirs could affect it, Gen. Pike conceived "it would certainly be 
dispunishable now." Nez de Corbeau was considered one of the most 
intelligent of his nation, and was soon reinstated in his rank. Pike 
commissioned him First Chief of the nation. 


Wednesday the 26, cloudy and cold, at 7 A. M. 
Mr. Manuel Lisa returned with part of the 
Men from his expedition, the Rest of the 
Men were coming by Land with the horses 
which he traded and given up by the Big- 
bellies, the head Chief Borne 112 refused to give 
up the stolen horses, Mr Manuel cleared the 
trading of Peltrie and Goods and took off 
the whites, at i P. M. Grey Eye 113 (Ree Chief) 
arrived with 100 Men from a war tour, they 
had not Killed nor even seen an Ennemy, 
in the Evening a larger Party passed by with 
two Scalps which they carried before them 
in triumph at dark some more arrived and 
camped with us. 

Thursday 27, clear and fresh, the Big white, 114 
Mandan Chief arrived, with several of his 

il2 L? Borgne, or "The One-eyed," a chief. This Indian is described 
by Bracken ridge and Alexander Henry, from whom we learn that he 
was a giant in stature, having huge limbs, gigantic frame, bushy hair, 
and only one eye, from which there flashed fire and penetration, all of 
which gave him the aspect of a savage brute. His aquiline nose was 
of great size and his mouth wide. His countenance denoted a brave 
and enterprising warrior. He was the great chief of the Minnearees 
and swayed with unlimited control all the villages. Lewis and Clark 
presented him with their swivel gun, on their return from the Pacific. 
At the time Luttig saw him he was about 51 years of age. Le Borgne 
is supposed to have been killed by a rival chief, Red Shield. 

113 Grey Eyes, an Arikara warrior, was a cunning and unscrupulous 
Indian. He was not the hereditary chief -of this tribe, but owed the 
position of chieftain to his ability, courage, and arrogance. He kept 
his people in terror of him. When Hunt's party stopped at the Arikara 
village and asked Left-handed, who was the hereditary chief, whether 
he could supply the party with horses, Grey Eyes answered the ques- 
tion by saying that they could easily steal more, if there was not enough. 
Grey Eyes seems to have been the principal agitator in the fight against 
Gen. Ashley's party, and was killed, in leading the attack on August 
10, 1823, by the first shot from the artillery under Lieut. Morris of 
Col. Leavenworth's command. 

- 14 Big White (Sheheke, or Shekaka). In recognition of his rank as 
Chief of the Mandans, he was given a medal by Lewis and Clark in 


Bravos and family, to pay a visit, he had a 
few Robes which he traded, and took some 
articles on Credit, at noon Nez Corbain came 
again to receive a Present from Mr Manuel 
Lisa and as soon as received, departed for 
the Village. 

friday the 28, clear and the house fur trade was 
commenced made 36 Packs 115 of different Pel- 
tries and prepared the Boat which had to 
go to St Louis. 

Saturday the 29th, clear, this Morning the Men 
which came by Land from the Bigbellies ar- 
rived with the horses, they had met with no 
Accident, they informed that the Mandans 1 " 
had made a Hunt and Killed on One Day 

October, 1804. On the return of Lewis and Clark from the Pacific 
Big White accepted their invitation to visit their "Great Father" at 
Washington. He was accompanied by his wife and son, and his inter- 
preter, Rene Jusseaume. In 1807 Gov. Lewis sent him homeward 
under a convoy commanded by Lieut. Pryor. Upon reaching the 
Ankara village they were fired upon, and after several casualties Lieut. 
Pryor concluded to return to St. Louis. Sheheke remained in St. Louis 
until June, 1809, when he started on a successful journey back to his 
people. He was about 46 years old at the time of his death. 

116 A pack of furs contained ten buffalo robes, fourteen bear, sixty 
otter, eighty beaver, eighty raccoon, one hundred and twenty foxes, 
or six hundred muskrat skins. 

u6 The Mandans called themselves the "People of the Pheasants" 
or "People of the East." The early French traders referred to them 
as the "Bearded Whites." In many respects the Mandans greatly 
excelled other Indians of North America. They have been called Welsh 
Indians because of the fairness of the skin and hair of many of the 
tribe. Catlin says of them: "They are distinct from all other red 
folks I have seen, differing in many respects both in looks and customs 
from all other tribes which I have seen." This tribe of Indians were 
first seen by white men (whose visits have been recorded) in the vicin- 
ity of Mandan and Bismarck in what is now North Dakota. This 
was in 1738. The Mandans were almost wiped out by the small-pox 
epidemic of 1837, being reduced from 1,600 souls to about 150. In 
1845 they moved near Fort Berthold, North Dakota, and joined the 

[1812] . 75 

450 Buff aloe, employed in settling Ac- 
counts and writing, at 5 P. M. our hunters 
brought in the Meat of 5 Cows. 

Sunday the 3Oth clear, at 10 A. M. the Boat 
started for St Louis 117 with 13 Men, several 
others went to the Ree Village to purchase 
Corn and Skins for covering of the Boat, in 
the evening they returned and had only suc- 
ceeded to buy two Bushels of Corn and 8 
Hides, the Indians not being willing to trade. 

Monday the 3ist cloudy and hard wind from 
the S. W. made up an assortment to go to 
the Mandan and purchase Horses for the par- 
ties going up the River. 

Thuesday Sept. I, cloudy and heavy Squalls, 
four Men went to the Men to buy horses, 
made a fish trap of willars, and caught 31 
Cat fish, hunters went out this Morning, and 
returned in the Evening had Killed II Cow. 

Sept. 2d Wednesday hard Gales from N. W. 
' La Plume came to Camp, the wind abated 
about Sun set cloudy and cold. 

Thursday Sept. 3. clear and warm, caught 6 
fish very large. 

Minnetarees and Arikaras in a stockaded village, where they remained 
until 1888. Then these tribes separated and scattered to the north- 
ward and westward, the Mandans crossing to the southwest side of the 
Missouri and settling above and below the mouth of the Little Mis- 
souri. The Mandans were agriculturists and artisans, and more highly 
civilized than the other Indian tribes of the Northwest. They lived 
in circular clay-covered log huts, which were in ancient times sur- 
rounded with palisades of strong posts. In 1905 their population was 
about 250. 

ll7 This boat arrived in St. Louis about September 27, 1812. 

7 6 [1812] 

friday Sept. 4 nothing remarkable, cloudy and 

Saturday Sept. 5 the same. 
Sunday " 6 the same. 

Monday 7 moved in the new house and 

began to make Equipments 118 for the Parties 
going up the Missouri. 

Thuesday 8 finished Equipments, Killed 14 

Wednesday 9 our hunter brought Meat of 9 
Buifaloe, were informed the Sioux and Rees 
had fought a Battle 2 Sioux Killed 3 Rees 

Thursday 10 clear and warm, the Grey Eye 
Chief and 3 Men arrived from a Scout. 

friday the nth early rise, the parties prepared 
to start. Mr. Sanguinette and 2 Men with 5 
horses for the Spanish waters 119 Mr Lorimier 

118 Equipment to clerks and boatmen consisted of: I three-point 
blanket, valued at $4.00; \% yards of blue cloth, $2.66; I calico shirt, 
72 cents; I cotton handkerchief, 16 cents; i knife, 17 cents; 3 pounds 
of tobacco, 1 8 cents. 

ll9 The Arkansas River. The Arapaho Indians lived in the neigh- 
borhood of this river, which has its sdurces in the Rocky Mountains 
to the westward of Pike's Peak. "The Arkansas River bore the unique 
distinction among western streams of being an international boundary, 
and prior to the war with Mexico it was the frontier between the 
United States and that country from the looth meridian to its source. 
This fact gave it an artificial importance which it in no way possessed 
as a natural water-course. The upper course of the Arkansas was a 
great resort for traders and trappers, and here arose the well-known 
Bent's Fort, which held commercial sway for many years over the 
surrounding country." (Chittenden, History of the American Fur 


[1812] 77 

and four for wind River, 120 Mr Lewis, two 
engagees and the trappers for the little Horn 121 
in all 1 8 Men, at noon a Sioux Chief arrived 
to have a talk with Mr M. L. and 9 Men 
with him, cloudy & rain we traded some dry 
meat and i Robe. 

Saturday the 12, the Sioux started this Morn- 
ing, as also Mercier, 122 LaChapel and Carri- 
ere 123 for their fall hunt down the Missouri, 
Killed 14 Ducks. 

Sunday the I3th fine weather, began to hawl 
stone for Chimneys our hunters went out 
finished the store caught 15 large fish. 

Monday the 14 last Night a Ree Chief Legross 124 
came to fort with his Wife he was lamenting 
the Death of one of his Children which had 
died 2 Days ago, Mr Manuel covered the 
Dead Child, Legross being a good Indian, 
this morning had 22 fish fine warm weather, 

l2 Bighorn River. It is the principal tributary of the Yellowstone; 
rises in the Shoshone and Wind River Mountains in Wyoming. At 
its mouth Manuel Lisa established a trading-post in 1808 and named 
it Fort Raymond The upper course of thit river was known for a 
time as Wind River. 

l2 *Little Bighorn, one of the tributaries of the Yellowstone. This 
river is famous as the scene of the Custer massacre. 

122 Antoine Mercier was born at Kaskaskia, Illinois, November 15, 
1766, the son of Joseph Marie and Catherine (Desgagniers) Mercier. 
He was in the service of the Missouri Fur Company from 1809. 

l23 Eustache Carriere, a native of La Rivifcre du Chene, the son of 
Baptiste and Marie (Lajeunesse) Carriere. He married at Florissant, 
Missouri, January 3, 1820, Josette Therese Jusseaume, daughter of 
Ren6 Jusseaume, the Indian interpreter. There was a Carriere with 
the Hunt party of Astorians, who was lost "never to be heard of later." 
There was also a Michel Carriere at the American Fur Company's 
Fort Tecumseh in 1830-1833 and later at Fort Union. 

v*Le Gross ("Big Man"), a ferocious-looking, gigantic fellow. He 
was the principal war chief of the Arikaras when Brackenridge visited 
this tribe in 1811. 


our hunters returned with 6 Cows and the 
pleasing news of plenty in the prairies. 

Thuesday the 15, moved in the Store, took an 
Inventory caught 8 fish, warm and clear. 

Wednesday the 16 fine weather nothing remark- 

Thursday the 17 the Wind blew heavy from the 
N. W., abt 6 A. M. the Men who went to 
gett the Horses, came back and told the sad 
news that 5 Indians, supposing Grosventers 
had mounted the horses in their Sight and 
rode them off. 7 in Number, Charbonneau 125 
who was on horse back came in full speed to 
the fort and cried out; To Arms Lecomte 126 
is Killed, he run off and left the poor fel- 
low, the Indians spoke to Lecomte and they 
told him to go about his busines he asked 
them what Nation they were, they answered 
Crows 127 if the Indians had an Idea to Kill 

l28 For a sketch of Toussaint Charbonneau, see Appendix. 

l26 Fran?ois Lecompte. In the contract of engagement of Francois 
Lecompte with the co-partnership of Lisa and Drouillard, dated Sep- 
tember 24, 1803, the former is referred to as an " habitant de la Made- 
lainne" Under this engagement he was to serve three years as hunter 
and trapper and at the end of that period agreed to return to St. Louis, 
and, if mutually satisfactory, to renew his contract. On June 30, 1807, 
at the Kansas River, Lecompte agreed to remain in the service of Lisa. 
He attached his mark to the document, which was witnessed by Robert 
McClellan. There was a Franfois Lecompte in the service of the 
Northwest Company previous to 1803, and it is probable that it 
was this man. 

127 The Crows, called Absaroke, "crow," or "bird people"; the early 
French traders referred to them as gens des corbeaux. This tribe are of 
Siouan origin, forming part of the Hidatsa group; separating from the 
Hidatsa (as Matthews believes, about 1694), they left their villages 
on the Missouri and migrated to the region of the Rocky Mountains . 
They were a roving, quarrelsome, and thieving people. Maximilian 



him they might easy have done it, 10 armed 
Men went immediately after them but re- 
turned without Success they saw them no 
more, a cloudy Day and cold. 

friday the 18 disagreeable weather, the wife of 
Elie 128 a Snake Squaw died, made a Wolf trap 
and raised the Mens house. 

Saturday the iQth Charbonneau and Jessaume 129 
departed for to go to the Bigbellies, to try 
to get the horses Bijou arrived from his Sta- 
tion with 10 Sioux, (Saunie) to make peace 
with the Rees, as Mr M. L. had proposed, 

considered them the proudest of Indians, despising the whites. While 
they did not wantonly kill the whites, they never missed an oppor- 
tunity to plunder them. 

128 Joseph Elie, or Helie, as it was sometimes written, entered the 
employment of the Missouri Fur Company in 1810. He was a Cana- 
dian, born about 1786, and died in St. Louis, January 14, 1816. 

129 RENE JUSSEAUME, sometimes called St. Pierre, was a native of 
Canada, and claimed to have been in the Mandan villages as a free 
trader as early as 1791. He was in the employ of the Northwest 
Company on the Red River in 1793, and served as guide and inter- 
preter to David Thompson on his voyage of exploration in 1797- He 
was interpreter for Lewis and Clark at Fort Mandan, and accompanied 
the Mandan chief Sheheke and Capt. Meriwether Lewis to ^ see the 
President in 1806. On the first attempt to convey the Indian chief 
back to his home Jusseaume was wounded by the Arikaras. He was 
brought down to St. Louis and cured, and finally returned to his home 
with Sheheke, in 1809. In 1811 and later he was in the employ of 
Manuel Lisa. On August 24, 1817, Toussaint Jusseaume, son of Ren6 
Jusseaume and Catherine des Bois, married Marguerite Bergan at Ca- 
hokia, and on January 3, 1820, at Florrissant, Missouri, Josette Therese 
Jusseaume, daughter of Ren6, married Eustache Carriere, also of this 

8o [1812] 

at 2 P. M. our hunters brought in 3 Elk 
fine Evening. 

Sunday the 2Oth a clear but cold Morning 2 
Rees arrived in search of a Women which had 
run off, after Breakfast Immel and 4 Men 
went hunting, in the afternoon Goshe and 3 
Men arrived he seemed not much pleased 
with the Sioux, they harangued much this 
Evening, and to Morrow was fixed to smoke 
and make Peace. 

Monday 2ist fine weather and warm, one of 
the Warriors of the Sioux after having taken 
a little mixed whisky, pretended to be drunk, 
and cut Capers about like a mad Men, which 
determined the Business with the Rees, it 
was resolved that the Sioux should depart in 
the Evening unseen by other Indians which 
might hurt them, they spent the Day agre- 
able together and at 8 oclock in the Evening 
they crossed the River, accompanied by a 
few Presents. Bijou who was to go by water 
found the Canoes not good and remained. 

Thuesday the 22d fine warm weather and clear 
Bijou loaded his Canoe and went down the 
River with Manegre, 130 at 10 A. M. Goshe 
and party also started and Immel came home 
with i Elk and 2 Deer very fat he found no 

180 Louis Manegre. There was a family in Cahokia, Illinois, in the 
latter part of the eighteenth century, of this name, though they used 
several variations in the spelling, such as Manegle and Manaigle. Joseph 
Manegre was one of the original claimants of land in Kaskaskia, Illi~ 
nois. According to the Missouri Fur Company's book, Louis Manegre 
deserted; the last entry being September 21, 1812. 

[1812] 8i 

Buifaloe traded 2 horses, in the Evening a 
Rees and 2 Woman to trade a horse. 

Wednesday the 23 fine and clear weather, set 
2 hens with 22 Eggs, traded the horse in the 
Evening another arrived to trade a horse and 
also his Wife, a handsome Squaw he found 
trade for the horse but not for the Wife, a 
Mandan arrived, no news from above. 

Thursday the 24th fine warm weather for the 
Season traded some Corn the Indians went 
to the Village, Immel and 3 men went hunt- 
ing took 10 traps and 7 Horses with him, 
in the Evening Nez Corbain and 50 Men of 
the Yentonas arrived. 

friday 25th, Rain and windy traded some Meat 
with the Indians, after dinner they brought 
in their Plunder for trade and we traded sev- 
eral Peltries, a large quantity of dry meat and 
tallow, held a Council and made a Present 
of 10 Ib. Powder 15 Ib. Bail, I Kegg of mixed 

Saturday the 26, they were preparing to move, 
when we found they had stolen a foot Adge 
and a handsaw, by giving a Hand Kerchief 
to the Chief he promised to return them we 
got the Adge but not the Saw, when they 
were gone we found our table Knives and 
the Door of a large had also departed at 2 P. 
M. our hunters came in with 4 Buffaloe, they 
had left Immel with one Men to trap Beav- 

Sunday the 27th nothing remarkable, Rain, 


blew a hard Gale and continued so all Night 

Monday the 28 in the Morning when it cleared 
up our Hunters went out for Meat, and in 
the afternoon about 40 Sioux arrived to trade, 
in the Evening a hard thunder Storm 

Thuesday the 29th had cleared up, began to 
trade they had not much peltry, at 9 A. M. 
the Indian crossed again. 

Wednesday the 3Oth clear 'and fresh at 2 P. M. 
our hunters came in with the Meat of 3 Cows 
2 Deer, 2 whole Beaver and Beaver meat, 
Immel having caught 14 Beaver. 

Thursday the 1st of October, at Sunrise we had 
to cross a band of Sioux, accompanied by 
Nez Corbain and another Chief called Boite 
about 40 in Number they traded and re- 
turned at noon satisfied, in the afternoon 7 
Men started up the River with the Mackina 
Boat to hunt Buff aloe, and Immel came home 
with 15 Beaver i Otter and 2 Muskrats; the 
wind blew very hard from N W and the Boat 

friday the 2d the Boat went again early in 
the Morning the wind arose from the same 
quarter they stopped at the first point above 
four Rees came to fort. 

Saturday the 3, clear and cold had white frost 
this Morning Ma jet and all hands employed 
to cut Picketts, at Sunset 2 Mandans ar- 
rived with the sad news of the Big white and 

[1812] 83 

Little Crow 131 being Killed by the Bigbellies 
and 3 Mandans wounded, the Bigbellies had 
II Men Killed and a Number wounded, at 
night Charbonneau & Jessaume returned and 
brought with them 3 of the horses which had 
been stolen by the Mandans and not Big- 
bellies as supposed a lesson to take care of 
our property, no matter friend or Ennemy. 

Sunday the 4th the Mandans went to the Rees 
accompanied by 3 Rees fine weather. 

Monday the 5th Immel went to the Village 
with Mr Manuel returned in the Evening 
they were informed the Sioux had stolen 3 
horses from us in the night of the 3d instant 
and by examination we found one of Com- 
pany one of Gosh and one of Charbonneau 

Thuesday the 6th last night the Dogs made 
alarm we went patroalling, heard some whis- 
tling of Men, but found in the Morning our 
horses safe, raised the right wing of the out 
houses and Kept our horses housed. 

lzi JKago-ha-mi, Little Raven, better known as Little Crow, a Mandan 
chief. On October 29, 1804, Captains Lewis and Clark held council 
with the Mandans and distinguished some of the leading men of that 
nation by making them chiefs. In this manner Little Crow was made 
second chief of the lower village and was presented with a medal bear- 
ing the impressions of domestic animals. He was very friendly to the 
men of that expedition. When Capt. Clark requested the Mandans 
to choose a confidential chief to return with the expedition and visit 
President Jefferson, Little Crow showed a willingness to accept the 
honor. Later he declined to accompany them and refused the flag 
which Capt. Clark wished to present to him. His refusal was occa- 
sioned by jealousy between him and the principal chief, Sheheke, Big 
White. After some persuasion the chiefs became reconciled^and agreed 
that Big White should go in place of Little Crow. 

84 [1812] 

Wednesday the 7th fine warm weather all hands 
to cut Pickets a beautiful Day for the Season 
nothing remarkable 

Thursday the 8th this Morning 2 horses were 
stolen in sight of the house, distance 150 steps 
the Men who had to take care of the horses 
went to his Breakfast and returning the horses 
were gone. 

friday the Qth clear and fine weather, in the 
afternoon 4 Rees arrived to give us Notice 
that their Corn was gathered and ready for 
trade. Charbonneau & Jessaume Keep us in 
Constant uproar with their Histories and wish 
to make fear among the Engagees, these two 
Rascals ought to be hung for their perfidy, 
they do more harm than good to the Amer- 
ican Government, stir up the Indians and 
pretend to be friends to the white People at 
the same time but we find them to be our 

Saturday the 10 fine weather, the Rees went 
home again Garrows Wife a Ree Squaw Sis- 
ter to the Chief Goshe, came to fort last 
night, this Morning she was going to shot her 
husband, she came here with that Intention, 
some Rees arrived which were enraged against 
Charbonneau & Jessaume, having heard of 
their arrival from the Bigbellies they said 
that C. & J. were Lyars and not to be con- 
sidered as good french men, and if Mr Man- 
uel Lisa would sent them to the Gros venter 
with a pipe they would not consent such 


Credit have these Men amongst the Indians 
they find their Character gone and try every 
Scheme, to Keep themselves alive like a Men 
a Drowning, I shall leave them for a while, 
and go on with my Observations. 

Sunday the nth Immel and others went with 
the Boat to the Ree Village to trade Corn, 
late last Evening the Boat and hunters ar- 
rived with a fine Chanoe of Meat they had 
Killed 19 Cows and 4 Elk, but lost the meat 
of 7 Cows by the Wolves, there are incred- 
ible quantities of Wolves in this parts, they 
go in gangs of 3 to 400 and at Nights the 
Prairies echo with their howling but nothing 
of this Kind can prevent the Savage of his 
favorite Walk, to Kill and steal at night, 
this Day finished our new Provision Store, 
and go on with the other houses, the Horses 
are Kept under Lock and we fear no Lurking 

Monday the 12 we had frost last night, the 
Vessels full of ice clear and cold Morning, 
but calm and warm in the afternoon cloudy 

Thuesday the 13, white frost, cloudy, this Morn- 
ing our Cart man was attacked by 5 Wolves, 
but cleared himself Immel returned, the Rees 
will not trade Corn with us. 

Wednesday the I4th, fine clear weather, 4 Men 
went out to hunt, some Rees arrived to trade 
a little Corn and a Girl the first was traded, 
but the last not, she wanted to be the Wife 

86 [1812 

of frenchman, and not his concubine, Chas- 
tity. got this Day 21 Chickens. 

Thursday the 15, This Morning Immel, Papin 
and Charbonneau started for the Grosventer, 
Mr M. Lisa having engaged Charbonneau for 
some good reasons at 8 A. M. a Band of 
Chajennes about 12 Lodges arrived their Chief 
named Lessaroco, they had plenty Women & 
Children and a great Number of Dogs, traded 
some Beaver, and about 50 Bushels of Corn. 

friday the i6th, clear and warm, the Cha- 
jennes went off they behaved very well, traded 
tranquil and in the afternoon 2 young Men 
brought our Hogs back which had followed 

Saturday the 17, cloudy, Majet and hands 
crossed the River for Picketts, in the after- 
noon some Rees arrived, traded 6 Beaver and 
some Corn. 

Sunday the 18, cloudy & cold, Boat went for 
Picketts again. 

Monday the 19 the same as yesterday. 

Thuesday the 20, snowstorm, at 3 P. M. Goshe* 
arrived with 4 Chajennes of a large band, 
they came to inform themselves how we 
traded, and observe we had not Goods enough 
for their Peltries, we shall see when they 
come ? 

Wednesday the 2ist cold and cloudy, this Morn- 
;/ ing the Chajennes went off and Goshe* re- 

[1812] 87 

mained, at noon 2 of our hunters came in 
with Meat of 2 Cows. 

Thursday the 22d clear and cold, the 2 hunters 
went out again, commenced the Stockade of 
the fort. 

friday the 23 clear and cold had 3 Kittens this 

Saturday the 24 clear and cold after Dinner 
our Heroes arrived from the Bigbellies, they 
brought a Pipe and 3 Bladder for the Rees, 
their Mission had been successful and all 
Differences existing between them and the 
whites settled at the same time our hunters 
arrived with Meat of 2 Cows, they had 
Killed 7 and caught 20 Beaver I Otter 2 
Muskrats and Killed 2 Wolves. 

Sunday the 25, clear and cold nothing to remark. 

Monday the 26, the same. Mr Manuel L. went 
accompanied by the 2 Interpreters, Papin and 
3 Men to the Ree Village with the Pipe of the 

Thuesday the 27 clear and cold hunters went 
with 7 Horses but returned in the Evening, 
having seen some Lurking Savages. Mr. M. 
L. returned from the Village successful 

Wednesday the 28th clear and moderate warm, 
our hunter took an early start across the 
River with 6 Horses, at evening 4 Rees and 
I Mandan came to the fort from the Man- 
dans, they informed the brother of Legrand 132 

lia Le Grand, Ohheenaw, or "Big Man," "a Cheyenne, was taken pris- 
oner by the Mandans, who adopted him; he now enjoys the first 
consideration among the tribe". (Lewis and Clark, Coues ed., p. 182.) 

88 [1812] 

had died of his wounds, received in the Battle 
with the Bigbellies. 

Thursday the 29th clear and warm, finishing 
writing and at n A. M. Lajois 133 and Gogal 134 
two Engagees set sail in a Canoe for St. 

133 Louis Lajoie, son of Joseph and Franchise (Trudal) Lajoie of 
Masquilonge, Quebec, where he was born about 1778. He married, 
first, Celeste Tabeau, daughter of Jacques and Susanne (Jarret) Ta- 
beau, February 3, 1801, at Florissant, Missouri. Three children were 
born of this marriage: Margaret. October 6, 1802; Charles, Septem- 
ber 25, 1804; and Joseph, August 9, 1807. After the death of his 
wife, he married Susanne Charette (Jarret 3 ), daughter of Henry Char- 
ette, or Jarret, at Florissant, September 7, 1829. The second wife 
appears to have been a relative of his first wife, having the same name 
as the latter's mother. Ten children were born of this second marriage; 
five of them dying in infancy. In 1833 he testified in a land suit that 
he was living in Florissant sometime before 1800 and was about 22 
years old at the time; that he had previously come to St. Louis for the 
purpose of obtaining a Spanish Government concession of land, which 
he received from Gov. Delassus, February 19, 1800. He also testified 
that he was oftener drunk than sober; that he recollected having sold 
his interest in the grant, when in a frolic, for a pint of whiskey. Being 
asked what was his occupation at that time, he answered, "Drinking 
drams." He testified that he supported his family by working by the day 
when sober; that since a few years he had left off drinking. He re- 
mained in St. Louis County until about 1840, after which he joined 
his old friends, the Robidoux, at Black Snake Hills (St. Joseph, Mo.). 
Four of his children's marriages are recorded in the church register 
of the Cathedral at St. Joseph, viz.: Henry Lajoie to Sophie Papin, 
January 7, 1847; Margaret Lajoie to Allen Wallis, January 18, 1848; 
Louis Lajoie to Maryanne Wallis, January 10, 1848; and Octavia 
Lajoie to John Picard, May I, 1855. 

134 Joseph Joyal of Montreal, Canada, son of Antoine and Agathe 
(Ribeau) Joyal. He was married at St. Louis, August 3, 1818, to The- 
rese Labadie, daughter of Joseph and Genevieve (Labuiche) Labadie, 
dit St. Pierre. Ten children, two of whom died in infancy, were born 
of this marriage: Oliver, born February 2, 1821; Francois, born De- 
cember 12, 1826, was drowned in 1853; Louise Amanda, March 31, 
1829, who married William J. Johnson; Antoine, April 26, 1831; Aga- 
the, April 22, 1833; Joseph, May 17, 1835; Elizabeth, April 16, 1838, 
who married Alphonzo Boucherelle; and Edward, who was killed in the 
Civil War. In 1832 Joseph Joyal made his will, mentioning his wife, 
Aglae, and his children, Oliver, Marie, Francois, Amanda, and Antoine. 
Three children were born after he made his will. Joseph Joyal died 
at St. Louis, December 5, 1841. 

There was a Joseph Joyal voyageur in the Northwest Company on 
upper Red River in 1804. 

[1812] 89 

Louis, with a few Peltries &a cloudy evening 
at 1 1 P. M. Goshe* and Legross with 4 War- 
riors came to fort with a Pipe for the Big- 

Friday the 3Oth Charbonneau and the 4 War- 
riors marched off to the Bigbellies, our hunt- 
ers returned with Meat of 2 Cows, they had 
met plenty but very wild and could not Kill. 

Saturday the 3ist Snow this Morning, cleared 
up at noon and had fine weather, nothing to 

Sunday November I, frost last Night, cold and 
clear several Rees came to the fort, Woahl 13 " 
and Chaine 136 returned from trapping, they 
brought 53 Beaver I Otter 5 Muskrats 2 
Wolves 2 Mink 20 foxes 7 Elk Skins. 

Monday the 2d, cloudy and hard Gales from 
West a hunting party was prepared to go up 
the River in the Boat, but blewing to hard 
were prevented. 

136 Fran$ois Oulle. This name is on the Company's books of 1812- 
1813 as Oul, Oull, and Ouelle. There was recorded in the church 
register of Cahokia, April 2, 1799, the marriage of Antoine Oule, son 
of Francois Oule and Marie J. Laroche. Francois Oulle appears to 
have been an independent trader, and is likely the man referred to in 
the church register. 

130 Pierre Chaine, variously spelled Chene, Chaine, and Chesne. The 
Chesne family was one of the most important in Detroit in early days. 
At least two members of this family served with the British forces 
during the Revolution. One, Isadore Chaine, was interpreter for the 
British forces at Post Vincennes in 1779. Tanguay gives the births 
and marriages of several Pierre Chaines, but there is no way of identi- 
fying these with the person referred to in this journal. A Pierre Chaine 
married in St. Louis, in 1853, Catherine Perrin. There was a Pierre 
Chene at Fort Benton in 1864, according to Larpenteur's journal. The 
account-book of the Missouri Fur Company covering this expedition 
shows that Peter Chaine was sent among the Mandans on April 17, 1813. 

90 [1812] 

Thuesday the 3d clear and cold the Boat start- 
ed with 12 Men at 8 A. M. in the afternoon 
a Partizan 137 (Camerad of Mr. M. L.) of the 
Sioux (Sauriies) arrived with 19 Men, they 
wanted absolutely Mr Manuel Lisa to go with 
them to their hunting ground and trade very 
hard Gales and cloudy evening late in the 
Evening Grey head a Mandan Chief came to 
the fort with his family. 

Wednesday the 4th cloudy and Snow Squalls 
Mr. M. L. wished to follow the Boat by Land 
was prevented by the Sioux, they were not 
willing to go home in the Evening several 
Rees and 3 Mandans arrived. 

Thursday the 5th Snow storms all last night 
until 8 this Morning when it cleared up, cold 

Friday the 6th clear and cold, much Ice in the 
River the Sioux went off this Morning across 
the River fearing to go on this side of the 
Rees, Grey head, Rees and Mandan started 
also, and Garrow the Interpreter left the fort 
with his Wife, on Account of 'a quarrel be- 
tween his Wife and Baptist Provost. 138 

137" p ar tizan" meant a warrior, usually, or the leader of a war party. 
There was a Teton Sioux Indian called Partizan in the deputation 
which came with Manuel Lisa to make a treaty of peace at Portage 
des Sioux, Missouri, in 1815. This man had attempted to stop Lewis 
and Clark on their journey to the Pacific Ocean. Le Grand Partisan, 
a Dakota warrior, was at the council with Gen. Pike on the St. Peter's 
in 1805. "He was not a signer, probably not more than a principal 
soldier, certainly not a chief." (Minnesota Historical Society Collection, 

188 Jean Baptiste Prevot. There were many variations in the spell- 
ing of this name, the most common of which were Prevot, Prevost, and 
Provost. This man, the son of Jean B. and Marie, "a sauvagesse of 

[l8l2 91 

Saturday the yth Baptist Provost was turned 
out the fort Immel went to hunt with 3 Men 
and 6 Horses, at n A. M. Langue de Buche 
a Ree Chief and his party arrived engaged 
Pierre Chaine to hunt for the fort in the place 
of Baptist Provost, the River full of Ice, 
clear and cold. 

Sunday the 8th Langue de Buche 139 and party 
went off to make his Camp for winter about 
6 miles above the fort, 140 at 2 P. M. Immel 
returned with Meat of 4 Buffaloe several 
Rees at the fort, clear and cold. 

Monday the 9th, cloudy and moderate, snow 
fell in the afternoon, nothing remarkable. 

Nation Otto," was born in St. Louis, September 10, 1773. He mar- 
ried in St. Charles, Missouri, October I, 1795, Felicit Cote, daughter 
of Alexis and Elizabeth (Dodier) Cote. The record of this marriage 
is the second in St. Charles, while his father's second marriage was 
the first recorded there. Two children were born of this marriage and 
were baptized in the St. Charles Catholic Church: Jean B. Prevot, 
born February 20, 1797, and Pierre, born December 4, 1798. Prevot 
seemed to have had difficulty keeping out of jail on account of his in- 
ability to meet his debts. On June 21, 1816, "Jean Baptiste Janot 
Provot (by his mark), in prison bounds in St. Charles," gave notice 
that he would take the benefit of the bankruptcy act. Two years 
later, at the instance of Auguste Chouteau, administrator of the estate 
of Paul Lacroix, Baptiste Janot Provost was again confined in jail. 

Audubon, in his Missouri River journals, makes almost daily ref- 
erences to "old Provot," hunter, and in his entry of October 18, 1843, 
is the following: "Landed at St. Charles to purchase bread, etc. Pro- 
vost became extremely drunk and went off by land to St. Louis." I 
am inclined to think these two men are identical. There was a Jean 
B. Provost, a native of Canada, living in Carondelet, where he died 
in 1834, aged 50 years. In the St. Louis Directory of 1840-41, John 
Prevost, "an old sailor,'' is given as living on Fifth Street between 
Wash and St. Charles. 

l &Languf de Biche, or "Elk's Tongue," was second chief of the Arika- 
ras. After the death of Grey Eyes, in the attack on the American 
trcops and traders, Elk's Tongue took command of the war party. 
One chronicler calls him a *'tonguey old politician." He was living 
with his people on the Upper Platte in 1824. 

l40 About Four-Mile Creek in Morton County, North Dakota. 

92 [1812] 

Thuesday the loth, snowed all night, cleared 
up about 8 oclock in the Morning, moderate, 
Immel went out again to hunt with the same 
Men, Buffaloe in Sight, some Rees arrived. 

Wednesday the n clear and moderate, nothing 

Thursday the 12, cloudy 3 Rees which had 
camped with us last night went away dis- 
pleased getting not enough to eat and set 
the Prairie around us a fire, Immel returned 
with 5 Cows. 

Friday the I3th Papin and I Man went to 
the Village, to try to get the Rees to make 
a great Hunt for us. Mr. M. L. promised 
20 Loads Powder & Ball for each Cow 
the Buffaloe being very near and plenty. 
Charbonneau returned in the afternoon from 
the Bigbellies and four of their head Men 
with him, the Chief Cheveux Loup and 3 
others, some Rees and a Chajenne Chief 
(Papilliar) arrived in the Evening with the 
news the Chajenne were close by and came 
to trade, traded 2 Beaver. 

Saturday the I4th, cloudy and cold, Papin re- 
turned with tidings that the Rees were pre- 
paring to make war on us. Baptist Provost 
and Garrow had told them many Lies and 
roused the Chiefs and Nation against us, 
which proved to be fact, we found this Day 
6 of our Horses stolen, 2 Rees arrived to 
sound us if we were inclined for War, the 
Chajenne Chief went to the Village. 

[1812] 93 

Sunday the I5th This Morning, Immel, Pa- 
pin and Charbonneau left this for the Village, 
with the Bigbellies and 3 Rees, to see into the 
Misconduct of those fellows and try to settle 
amicable, the Rees which remained at fort, 
seemed tranquil and content, we stopt all 
Work cleared the fort, and prepared for De- 
fence in Case of Necessity, sent Pierre Chaine 
& Pointsable 141 to the Camp [of] Langue de 
Buche, to hear some news of the stolen horses. 

Monday the 16, last Night Pierre Chaine re- 
turned and informed that the horses had been 
stolen by the Rees, by the Order of Garrow 
and were at the hunting Camp of Grey Eye, 
Langue de Buche arrived this Morning with 
8 Men going to the Village he promised to 
deliver the horses in three Days, and re- 
quested Mr M. L. to be tranquil, Matters 
would be settled, traded some Meat and I 
white Bear Skin of them at 4 P M. our 
Deputies returned with the Bigbellies accom- 
panied by Goshe and Plume d'aigle, Garrow 
and many other Rees, to arrange the Diffi- 
culties which had arisen, all was thrown on 
the Shoulders of Baptist Provost. 

Thuesday the iyth fine weather, clear and warm, 
held Council and finished with Peace, two of 
our horses were brought in this Morning, 
finished the Enclosure of the fort. 

Wednesday the 18, fine weather, and tranquil- 
ity restored the Bigbellies requested a trader 
and being promised one, left this for their 

l4l For a sketch of Jean Baptiste Point du Sable, see Appendix. 


Village, as also the Rees very well satisfied, 
another horse was brought in, Pierre Chaine 
and 2 Men went over the River hunting, 
Buffaloe and Elk in Sight. 

Thursday the I9th clear and warm little Ice in 
the River at four oclock in the after noon 
hung the great Door of the Entrance of the 
fort, which ceremony was saluted by 7 Guns - 
and 3 rounds of Musquetry, made the Tour 
around the Fort and Baptized the same 
MANUEL 1 * 2 in the Evening a good Supper 
and a cheerful glass of Whisky was given to 
the Men, and a Dance at which all the La- 
dies then in fort attended, concluded the Day, 
Garrow brought his family to fort again and 
traded of the Rees a horse which had been 
stolen of the Company last year by the 

Friday the 2oth, clear and cold, had a Deer 
Killed nothing remarkable. 

Saturday the 21, cloudy Morning, cleared up 
at noon Immel & Papin went to the hunting 
Camp of Grey Eye, to get if possible the re- 
mainder of the stolen Horses. Legross came 
to the Fort with Baptist Provost to explain 
his Conduct and be taken in favor again. 
Provost was not permitted to enter, they 
blamed Garrow for all the Mischief which 
had been done, but went off without Suc- 
cess, Immel returned with only our Running 

142 For a minute and inteiesting description of trading-posts and 
forts, see Chittenden's History of the American Fur Trade, Vol. I, page 


Mare the other 2 horses they the Indians had 
sent to the Village loaden with Meat, the 
horses returned were all ruined and their 
Backs very soar, the Chajenne Chief returned 
from the Village. 

Sunday the 22d Morning clear and moderate, 
the Chajenne Chief went to his Village, in 
the Evening our hunters came to fort, they 
had Killed only i Cow and I Deer and found 
very few Buffaloe, evening cold. 

Monday the 23d Snow in the Morning, having 
been informed, the Saunie, Sioux, had arrived 
with about 150 Lodges at the Rees, Char- 
bonneau and Garrow set off for the Ree Vil- 
lage, to Know if they the Sioux had any thing 
to trade. Mr. M. L. Immel and Chain went 
to a band of Chajennes which were camped 
about 5 Miles above the fort, 143 with the same 
intention but returned shortly afterwards, 
having met with one Chief and 2 Partizans 
coming to pay us a Visit, and inform them- 
selves how we traded, cleared up at noon 
pretty cold, wind North, plenty Ice in the 
River, this Day crossed our horses to the 
other Side. 

Thuesday the 24th clear and very cold, Garrow 
& C. returned from the Sioux, with News 
that they had nothing to trade but Meat; 
the Chajennes went to their Camp, and prom- 
ised to come to trade with what they had, 
five Rees arrived at fort. 

143 About Fire Heart Butte in Morton County, North Dakota; on 
Missouri River Commission map. 

98 [1812] 

Wednesday the 2$th hard frost last night, and 
cloudy, hawled the Boats out of the Ice, this 
Evening a Number of Rees came to the fort 
to camp. 

Thursday the 26th, moderate and cloudy, the 
Rees went off, and our hunters started with 
8 horses, at noon the Chajennes arrived with 
26 Lodges and made their camp at the Point 
above us, 5 of their Chiefs came to the fort, 
they have a vast quantity of horses and Dogs. 

Friday the 27th Snow in the Morning and cold, 
plenty Chajenne in the fort, they invited Mr 
Manuel to a feast, to which he and Immel 
went, Grey Eye brought the last stolen horses, 
traded some Beaver. 

Saturday the 28th last Night the River closed, 
moderate and clear, plenty Visitors, but no 

Sunday the 29th cloudy and cold, traded some 
Beaver Robes &a. 

Monday the 3Oth, cloudy and cold, traded again 
one of our hunters came in with the Meat 
of 2 Cows were informed by the Rees that 
Mercier, Lachapel and Carriere were Killed 
by the Sioux, these 3 Men were trapping 
about the Big bend. 

Thuesday the 1st of December, cloudy and very 
cold, traded little, the Chajennes informed us 
that 2 very large Bands of their Nation were 
camped above them, which would also come 
to trade. 


Wednesday the 2d several Mandans arrived and 
demanded a trader, Pierre Chaine brought in 
I Cow. 

Thursday the 3d, cloudy and very cold, Immel 
and 3 Men went out hunting. 

Friday the 4th, cloudy and cold, Pierre Chaine 
and i Men went out spying for Buffaloe, the 
Chajenne Chief (Medicine Men) brought us 
I Cow, round, the 5. Chiefs received a smalt 
present and were well satisfied with our treat- 
ment, I wished to Know their Names but 
could only learn, besides the one named above 
one more, which was named the poor Little 

Saturday the 5th Pierre Chaine sent in this 
Morning for horses, he had Killed 4 Cows, 
fine clear and cold weather the Meat of Chaine 
and Immel with Meat of 2 Cows arrived in 
the Evening. 

Sunday the 6th, clear and cold. Mr Manuel L. 
went on a Hunting Party with the Chajennes, 
there being 1000 of Buffaloe opposite, re- 
turned at noon and had killed 12 Woahl also 
brought in one Cow, Baptist Provost came 
to the fort again, Mr Manuel having par- 
doned him by information received, that it 
was not alltogether his fault, Goshe* and many 
Rees arrived. 

Monday the yth cold and cloudy, nothing re- 

Thuesday the 8. the same as yesterday. 


Wednesday the 9th clear and fine moderate 
weather Baptist and 5 Men went out hunting, 
Goshe to his Village. 

'Thursday the loth clear as yesterday, nothing 

friday the nth the same, the Chajennes left 
us to camp and hunt at the fourth Point above 
us, we had traded with them 75 Beaver, 2 
Muskrats, 4 dressd Buff. Skins, 7 white Bear, 
10 Robes, 5 Otter, 3 foxes i wild Cat, 450 
pair of Moccassins a quantity of tongues and 
some Meat. 

Saturday the 12, cloudy, opposite the fort the 
Prairie is covered with Buffaloe, Bapt and 
Men arrived this Morning had Killed 4 Cows 
and 2 Bulls, in the afternoon, Baptist An- 
toine alias Machecou, 144 arrived express from 
Mr Lewis and brought the displeasing news, 
that the hunters which were equipped by the 
Company and which had been on the Span- 
ish Waters trapping, had been robbed by the 
Crows, one of them Danis 145 was Killed by 

l44 Baptiste Machecou, dit Antonio. It is difficult to determine 
whether this is an Indian, a French, or a Spanish name, or a corruption 
of all three. The word Machecou is given in Hodge's Handbook of 
American Indians as a tribal name for Creek Indians. Baptiste Mach- 
ecou might have been the brother, or a kinsman, of Pedro Antonio, a 
Spaniard, who, while in the employ of Lisa, was killed by the Sioux in 
the spring of 1817. This Pedro Antonio lived at Harrison on the Mer- 
imec in 1809. He married the daughter of James Head. The account- 
book of the Missouri Company shows that Baptiste was with the Com- 
pany frorn August, 1812, to April, 1813, and that he received extra 
compensation for going to the Crow villages with Louis Lorimier. 

146 Jean Baptiste Danis. Probably of the Charles Danis family, who 
received the first grant of land in Kaskaskia in 1722. Jean Baptiste 
Danis was fn the employ of the Missouri Fur Company from its organ- 
ization. In 1803 he was living in New Madrid County near the present 
town of Portageville. 


some Indian supposed Grosventres, the Day 
Messrs. Lewis & Lorimier arrived at the little 
Horn River, Machecou departed from the 
Little Horn River in Company with Du- 
roche, 146 but unfortunately separated 2 days 
ago in a Snow Storm, Duroche has the Letters 
of Messrs Lewis and Lorimier. 

Sunday the I3th cloudy, some Rees (of whom 
we have always plenty in the fort) went over 
the River hunting in the afternoon. Cadet 
Chevalier 147 arrived express from Mr Charles 
Sanguinette with a Letter dated the 3d in- 
stant in the Prairie on his Return from the 
Arepaos, 148 in which he confirmed the sad 
News of the hunters, he found none and was 
informed by the Arepaos, that 3 of them were 

M'For a sketch of Auguste Durocher, see Appendix. 

l47 Cadet Chevalier was a free mulatto, and was in the employ of 
Joseph Hortiz as a trapper and trader on the Great Osage River from 
1802 to 1804. There was a Louis Chevalier with the Northwest 
Company at Lake Nepegon, and it might well have been the same 
man. In 1805 Cadet was in the service of Lisa,/ There is no record 
of administration on his estate in St. Louis. 

148 The Arapahoes were closely associated with the Cheyennes for 
more than a century. They called themselves Inunaina, about equiv- 
alent to "our people." The Sioux and Cheyennes called them "Blue- 
sky Men" or "Cloud Men," the reason for which is unknown. They 
were once a sedentary, agricultural people. They were always at war 
with the Shoshoni, Utes, and Pawnees until they were confined upon 
reservations. This tribe were generally peaceful toward the whites. 
In 1892 their reservation in Oklahoma was thrown open to the white 
settlers, and the Indians received allotments in severalty with the 
rights of American citizenship. They are much given to ceremonial 
observations. The annual sun dance is their greatest tribal ceremony, 
and they were active propagators of the ghost dance religion a few years 
ago. (Hodge, Handbook of American Indians.) In 1828 they numbered 
ten thousand souls and occupied territory extending from the head wa- 
ters of the Kansas River to the Rio del Norte. These Indians were 
generally well formed, slender and tall, with good countenances. 

102 [1812] 

Killed by the Blackfeet, 149 supposed Champ- 
lain 150 and 2 others, Lafargue 151 and 5 others 
had run off to the - - Spaniards, 8 of them 

149 The Blackfeet were of Algonquian stock. Gen. Chittenden refers 
to them as "the terrible Blackfeet, the scourge of the Upper Missouri 
country." The heart of the Blackfoot country was in the valley of the 
Missouri near the mouth of Maria's River. * Under the general head 
of Blackfeet were included four distinct bands: the Blackfeet proper, 
the Piegans, the Bloods, and the Grosventres of the Prairie, or Fall 
Indians. The Piegans were peaceably disposed to the whites as a gen- 
eral thing, and the first successful trading-post established in the Black- 
foot territory was built at the mouth of Maria's River, the usual habitat 
of this band. The Grosventres of the Prairie, or Fall Indians, as they 
were generally called, were the most relentlessly hostile tribe ever en- 
countered by the whites in any part of the West, if not in any part 
of America. The trapper always understood that to meet with one 
of these Indians meant an instant and deadly fight. The Blackfeet 
Indians were of great importance to the fur trade because their country 
was the richest beaver district of the West. These Indians were well 
formed physically, fond of athletic sports, excellent horsemen, and great 

180 jEAN BAPTISTE CHAMPLAIN, fils, was a son of Jean Baptiste Cham- 
plain, who lived in St. Charles County, Missouri, in 1799. Champlain, 
fils, owned land in St. Louis and northwestern Missouri, and appears 
in the records of St. Louis as early as 1800. He was a man of educa- 
tion and probably a European Frenchman. He went up the river with 
Lisa in 1807, returning in August, 1808, and would appear to have gone 
back up again soon afterwards. On July 6, 1808, he signed, as witness 
to a note, executed by two of Lewis and Clark's men, John Potts and 
P. Wyzer (Wiser). On August 13, 1811, he^gave to Manuel Lisa a 
note in the sum of $321.00, which is listed in Lisa's estate as "note for 
collection." On December 7, 1814, Jean Baptiste Champlain, Sr., was 
appointed at St. Louis administartor of the estate of Jean Baptiste 
Champlain, Jr., and gave bond in the sum of $2,000. Three days 
afterwards the father made a will in which he says that he is a resident 
of St. Louis and that he is about to make a voyage on the Arkansas 
River. He bequeathed half of his property to Pierre Chouteau and 
named his son-in-law, Alexis Berthelot, as his universal heir. It is 
possible that Champlain, Sr., doubting the account of the death of 
his son, went in search of him among the Arapaho Indians. The 
record showing that he returned is found in the shape of a note exe- 
cuted at St. Charles, Missouri, April 5, 1815, in favor of August Chou- 

[1812] 103 

had gone to the Crows which now are with 
Mr Lewis, and 3 or 4 others they knew 
nothing off at all, they the hunters had much 
Beaver some cached and the Remainder plun- 
dered with all other things. Mr. Sanguinette 
requested 2 Men to meet him to transport a 
parcel of horses, which he had traded with 
the Arepaos, the Rees brought in 2 Cows 
they had Killed 3 had to leave the Meat 
having no horses, more Rees arrived from 
the Village. 

Monday the I4th Baptist and some Men went 
out to hunt, plenty Buffaloe about, prepared 
an Equipment for Immel, who was to go to 
the Mandan for to trade at 2 P. M. Mache- 
cou, Cadet and Colla Glineau 152 went to Meet 
Mr. Sanguinette. 

teau. Soon after this time the father also died, as his will was probated 
in St. Louis, but there is no date to show when this was done, nor do 
the court minutes show any entry in this case. On May 31, 1816, 
Peter Provenchere applied for letters of administration on the estate 
of Jean Baptiste Champlain, Jr. In his application he states that, as 
far as he knew, Jean Baptiste Champlain, Jr., died without leaving a 
will, and there were no heirs or legal representatives living. 

16l jean Lafarque probably lived at St. Charles, Missouri, as there 
is recorded in the church records there a baptism of Jean Baptiste 
Lafarque, son of Jean Baptiste Lafarque, May 31, 1818, at which 
time the son was seventeen years of age. Jean Lafarque was with 
Manuel Lisa on his first expedition up the Missouri, which left St. 
Louis in April, 1807. In May, 1800, there was a Lafarque with 
"Senecal [and party] who were taking lead to Mr. Pere when they 
were intercepted and seized by Mr. Dubuque by order of Mr. Zenon 
[Trudeauj." (Pierre Chouteau Maffitt Collection of Manuscripts.) La- 
farque_was one of the leaders of a party sent by Lisa to trade on the 
"Spanish Waters." He escaped from the Arapahoes, but was seized 
and imprisoned by the Spaniards. He was afterwards released and re- 
turned to St. Louis with the Chouteau-De Mun party, September 7, 

162 Nicolas Glineau claimed citizenship of the United States at the 
time of his engagement with the American Fur Company in 1831. 


Thuesday the I5th fine clear weather, Buffaloe 
constant in the Prairie, Immel and 3 Men 
went with 2 Sleighs on the River to the Man- 
dans, had Information that about 80 Lodges 
of Sioux had arrived with the Rees and still 
more expected. Garrow went to the Village 
to invite them again to a general hunting 
Party all Rees started only One Men remain- 
ing, no News of Duroche. 

Wednesday the i6th at i in the Morning Gar- 
row returned with the News that the Rees 
were willing to come if their critical situation 
with the Sioux would allow it they had quar- 
relled together and expected to fight a Battle 
to Day, the Sioux wanted to force and go 
past the Rees, and camp higher and nearer 
to us, which the Rees opposed on Account 
of the Buffaloes, the Rees came and told us 
a dreadful History which they had been in- 
formed by the Sioux, as they sayeth, that the 
Sioux had Killed Bijou, and plundered the 
trading house and were singing the Cheve- 
lier 153 for the f rench, and that they would come 

He was probably the same Nicolas Glineau who was a voyagrur at River 
du Sautcux, in the employ of the Northwest Company in 1804. He 
was also with the Lisa expedition of 1809 and remained with Henry's 
party on the waters of the Columbia during the winter of 1810-1811. 
He appears to have been a free trader, as he received merchandise in 
1811 valued at $2,168, and had in his employ Rene Jusseaume and 
Joseph Joyal. While with the Luttig party, he received extra pay in 
January, 1813, for going to the Mandans, and searching for horses; 
also in February of that year, for making another trip to the Mandans. 
For a time he was stationed at the Mandan Posts. In 1831 he was 
engaged by the American Fur Company as a boatman and to assist 
in the trade with the Indians of the Upper Missouri. He renewed his 
engagement the following year. I find no record of his death. 

w Les Chevelures, "The Scalps," so called by the Canadians. The 
scalp dance is the most hideous of all Indian customs. When war 


to our fort and do the same, if we would not 
come to their own terms trading, and in Re- 
gard of this Histories Mr Manuel resolved 
immediately to write a Letter to Bijou and 
sent it express by a Sioux promising a horse 
if an answer should be brought to the Letter, 
at ii A. M. Papin went off with the Letter. 
Baptist sent in Meat of 8 Cows, and the Men 
returned to the hunting Camp, at Sunset Du- 
roche made his Appearance with the Letters 
of Lewis & Lorimier which gave some Satis- 
faction from their quarters they had by hunt- 
ing and trading 12 Packs of Beaver in Store, 
and had purchased ten horses for their Use. 
At 1 1 oclock P. M. Papin returned, the Sioux 
had taken the Letter and promised to deliver 
an Answer, which revived our hopes that the 
News of Bijou's Death was not true. 

Thursday the iyth fine moderate weather, in 
the Evening a party of Rees arrived and 
camped in the fort. 

friday the i8th fine moderate weather, and in- 
deed considering the Season so far advanced 
is like Spring; we have had but very little 
snow and of late fine moderate weather so 
that any Work out of doors may be done, at 
i oclock P. M. we received 2 horse Loads of 

parties returned to their villages after a victory, they placed their tro- 
phies on the end of lances and for hours would sing and dance, not infre- 
quently reacting in pantomime all the events leading up to the scalping. 
Both the men and women participated in this ceremony, with blackened 
or vermilion-painted faces, looking like fiends of darkness let loose, 
as Boiler expresses it. The scalps are often preserved for a long time 
stretched upon small hoops, and the hairs afterwards used as ornament 
to the dress of the men. 

io6 [1812] 

Meat say 2 Cows, at 6 P. M. Goshe, Legross 
and several Rees came to fort, to make a 
hunting party Mr Manuel Lisa having prom- 
ised a horse to each Chief 4 in Number, when 
our horses would arrive. 

Saturday the igih fine clear weather, and hard 
wind all Day, no hunt, a party of Chajenne 
arrived from the upper Band with one Chief 
going to the Rees. 

Sunday the 2Oth, clear and moderate, our hunter 
say Rees went out and Killed 20 Cows head 
and foot was received this Evening, purchased 
a fine Dog of the Chajennes, this Evening 
the Wife of Charbonneau a Snake 154 Squaw, 155 
died of a putrid fever she was a good and the 
best Women in the fort, aged abt 25 years 
she left a fine infant girl. 

164 Snake Indians. This tribe was so generally known by this term 
as to almost obscure the family name of Shoshoni. "Alexander Ross 
is authority for the statement that the name Snake arose from the 
characteristic of these Indians in quickly concealing themselves when 
once discovered. They seemed to glide away in the grass, sage brush, 
and rocks, and disappear with all the subtlety of a serpent." (Chit- 
tenden, History of the Fur Trade.) Father De Smet says: "They are 
called Snakes because in their poverty they are reduced like reptiles 
to the condition of digging in the ground and seeking nourishment 
from roots." These Indians at one time occupied western Wyoming, 
the entire central and southern parts of Idaho, Nevada, and a small 
strip_of Utah west of Great Salt Lake. They were in danger of ex- 
termination, at the hands of the Minnetarees and Blackfeet, about the 
time of Lewis and Clark's expedition. The Snakes were a wandering 
tribe necessarily so, as they depended on the buffalo and the salmon 
for their subsistence. They were excellent horsemen and good war- 
riors, but treacherous. While not openly hostile, they were inveterate 
beggars and thieves, and considered a nuisance by the traders. They 
were generally at war with the Crows, Blackfeet, and Utahs, and 
allies of the Nez Perces and Flatheads. It was in a battle with the 
Grosventres that Sakakawea was captured by that tribe and traded 
to the Mandans. 

166 For a sketch of Sakakawea, see Appendix. 

* / 1.1 



* i) k 









*\ ! ni 

* i j>. * * 






< *k 




Ml 'Is 

, ? 1 j > 







^ ^\ "N ^ 

[1812] 107 

Monday the 2ist, clear and moderate, paid off 
our Indian hunters, and they left fort to- 
gether with the Chajennes for their Village 
in the Evening, several Rees came from the 
Mandans, and told us that Immel coming 
also from the Mandans had been robbed and 
whipped by the Band of Chajennes at the 
River Bullet. 156 

Thuesday the 22d fine weather, Garrow and 
Papin went off early in the Morning to meet 
Immel, at 10 oclock A. M. Immel arrived and 
the History of the Indians proved to be a 
Lie, it was true that he had a quarrel with 
the Chajennes, by refusing them their De- 
mands which he could not comply with, but 
they did forbear being only a few to do harm, 
seeing him on his Guard at noon the Sleighs 
arrived as also 15 Mandans with them, in 
the afternoon the three Men which were sent 
by Mr. M. L. to meet Sanguinette returned 
without finding him, they found a track of 
a party of Indians and were afraid to push 

Wednesday the 23d fine weather, the Mandans 
set off for the Rees several Rees arrived in 
the afternoon, all tranquil and happy in 

Thursday the 24th clear and hard wind but 

"Bullet River Le Boulft, or Cannon Ball River. It was given 
this name by Lewis and Clark because "we found round stones in the 
form of cannon balls." It is a good-sized stream with two main forks, 
which flow to its junction with the Missouri in Morton County, North 

log [1812] 

moderate the Rees went off again gave 30 Ib 
flour and 30 Ib Tallow to the Boys for re- 
galing themselves tomorrow, in the afternoon 
the Chajennes Chief returned from the Vil- 
lage he had heard of the Affair of his Village 
with Immel, he was very sorry fired his Gun 
backward on entering the house and prom- 
ised to see every thing arranged to our Satis- 
faction, this Evening the Boys had a treat 
of Whisky and made merry fired 3 Guns at 
Sunset in honor of the approaching night. 

friday the 25th fine moderate weather, indeed 
it looks more like Easter, than Chrismas, 
were roused by a Salute last Night some In- 
dians were lurking about the fort, and some 
Men stood guard in the Bastion they saw 
some thing in the Dark, fired and had Killed 
an Indian Dog, taking him to be an Indian 
the Chajennes were afraight to go to their 
Village and requested a guard, Six Volunteer 
offered immediately and escorted them untill 
out of Danger. 

Saturday the 26th, at four oclock in the Morn- 
ing Messrs. M. L., Immel and four Men went 
to the Sioux, to sound their Sentiments, in 
the afternoon a party of Mandans arrived at 
fort with several Rees, and at Sundown our par- 
ty from the Sioux, they rejected our friend- 
ship and will trade as they please, or plunder, 
fine weather. 

Sunday the 27 the weather continuing fine, the 
Mandans went to their Village, Mr M. L. sent 

[1812] 109 

Colla Glineau along with them, to carry some 
more Articles to our trader. 

Monday the 28th fine weather, made up Equip- 
ment for Charbonneau and Woahl to go and 
trade with the Bigbellies, Baptist went hunt- 
ing Killed a Calf. 

Thuesday the 2Qth Charbonneau and Woahl 
set off for their Stations with 2 Men and 4 
horses, in the afternoon we had the pleasure 
to receive an Answer to the Letter sent to 
Bijou, to the greatest Satisfaction of Mr M. 
L., Bijou having traded very well more than 
expected, Antoine Citoleux 157 had started with 
the Indian from below, but could not Keep 
up walking with him the three which were 
reported to be Killed were with him, and 
proved another made History of the Rees. 

Wednesday the 30, fine weather the Sioux went 
off with their pay a horse and 2 Carrots 

Thursday the 3ist Rain this Morning, nothing 
remarkable at Sunset saluted the exile year, 
the Boys had Whisky and a Dance, all Cares 
and troubles were forgotten and drowned in 
oblivity and so concluded again a year with, 
I may say, a cheerful night. 

1B7 For sketch of Antoine Citoleux, dit Langevin, see Appendix. 



January the 1st, The new year was ushered in 
by firing a Salute and paying the Compliment 
of the Season, every One seemed rejoiced of 
having lived to see another year, fine moderate 
weather in the Evening several Rees arrived, 
they brought a Present for Mr Manuel, but 
he would not accept it, I took it and paid 
pretty high. 

Saturday the 2d fine weather and fresh, nothing 
to remark. 

Sunday the 3d fine weather as jesterday, at 
noon Goshe" and a party of Rees arrived, car- 
rying a Pipe to the Chajennes, and came to 
Council with Mr. M. L. on that Subject. 

Monday the 4th fine weather, Goshe* went off 
Cadet Chevalier paid the Debt of Nature at 
noon he died of a putrid fever. 

Thuesday the 5th fine weather and moderate, 
in the afternoon Antoine Citoleux arrived, in 
the Evening a Band of Rees headed by Plume 
D'aigle arrived, carrying a Pipe to Mandans. 

Wednesday the 6th the same weather as yester- 
day the Rees left us and Directly after I 
found they had stolen our only he Cat Tom, 
Baptist went hunting at noon Sanguinette, 
Latour 168 and Lange 159 arrived, they had left 

l58 Charles Latour. With Charles Sanguinet and Cadet Chevalier 
he was sent to "find the hunters who were on the Spanish and Arapaos 
rivers." (Note, appended to company's list of engages.) Latour was 


their horses 31 in Number at the little 
Chajenne fork, 160 prepared for an Expedition 
to the little Horn, wrote Letters to Lewis & 
Lorimier, in the afternoon Baptist brought 
in the Meat of 3 Cows, cloudy evening. 

Thursday the yth at 4 oclock in the Morning, 
Duroche, Machecou and Fouche' 161 left the fort 
with 3 horses loaden with Tobacco and Pow- 
der for to go to the little Horn to Mr Lewis, 
cloudy and windy many Rees passed by, at 
3 P. M. we saw to our Surprise the three Men 
which had started this Morning for the little 
Horn, returning, they reported, they had seen 

the son of Amable and Agnes (Menier) Latour of Detroit, and was 
baptized in Detroit, January 5, 1783. He married, in Florissant, Mis- 
souri, January n, 1814, a widow with six children. She was Pelagic 
Billeau, dit Lesparance, widow of Jean Baptiste, and daughter of Fran- 
ois and Therese (Riviere) Marechal. In the marriage record, Detroit 
is given as his former residence. Three children were born of this 
marriage: Agnes, Noel, and Charles, the last-named being the only 
one who lived to majority. He was in the employ of Lisa and Droullard 
in 1807 and until the St. Louis Missouri Fur Company was organized. 
After his marriage Latour took up farming with much success and 
acquired a small fortune. He died July 24, 1844, on his farm near 
Florissant, Missouri. His widow died April 20, 1855, aged 80 years. 

169 Peter Lange, not identified. There was a Joseph Lange with 
the Northwest Company at Lake Winnepeg in 1804. 

160 The Little Cheyenne, a prairie stream coming into the Mis- 
souri in Potter County, South Dakota, from the north side. 

16l lsaac Foucher. The Foucher family was prominent in Missouri; 
Pedro Fouche being the Spanish Commandant at New Madrid in 
1789. I am somewhat inclined to believe that the Christian name 
of the man of this expedition was Francois, although the account-book 
and the list of engages give it as Isaac. Frangois was with the Missouri 
Fur Company in 1809 and on August 17, 1813, he with Francois Rajotte 
went on a trapping voyage for Chouteau, Cabanne & Co. This man 
was living in St. Louis, where he owned some real estate in 1829. In 
1819 he signed a petition in St. Louis to aid in building a college for 
the "education of the youth." Francois was the son of Michel and 
Therese (Leclerc), and married Louise Bertrand, May 21, 1816. In 
1825 he was in the Otoe outfit of the American Fur Company. 


something like Men and got scared, they 
would not go on, returned the Goods, but kept 
their Equipments for the Vojage which made 
their tale doubtful, and it seemed they had 
had no Idea to go, and cheat the Company 
out of their Goods. Goshe* returned from the 
Chajennes stayed at night. 

friday the 8, Immel went early this Morning 
with 6 Men after the horses which Sanguinette 
had left, the Indians Killed 6 Cows for us, 
and our hunter 2 Bulls and i Deer, the Meat 
of the Bulls is not good and it is only to 
have the Hides for covering, cloudy and cold. 

Saturday the 9th hard wind from N. W. rain 
and Squally all Day, cleared up in the Evening 
and cold. 

Sunday the loth fine cold weather, nothing to 

Monday the nth fine and moderate, the same. 
Thuesday the I2th, the same the same. 

Wednesday the 13 the same, the Indians Killed 
3 Cows towards evening had a Bull chase on 
the Ice, the poor Animal when he found he 
was pursued, fell several times, and at last 
tired could not gett up, surrounded by many 
he awaited his fate patiently cold and cloudy. 

Thursday the I4th cloudy and moderate, In- 
dian Killed i Cow a party Mandans camped 
at fort. 

friday the isth the Present I received the 1st 

instant I had to throw away to the Damage 
of 114 Dollars on my Side a Lesson I shall 
not soon forgett, in Evening a party of Cha- 
jennes came to fort, carrying a Pipe to the 
Rees and Sioux, some snow fell, but moderate. 

Saturday the 16, fine moderate weather, snow 
melted away, I took a Walk across the River 
where two of our Men are cutting firewood, 
I never saw a finer Spot for Cultivation, a 
fine timbered Bottom and a beautiful Prairie 
late in the Evening two Rees stopped and 
told us that the Sioux had commenced war 
on them and had Killed a Young Men in 
their own Village. 

Sunday iyth fine weather, plenty Indians pass- 
ing by. 

Monday the i8th fine moderate weather, in the 
afternoon the Chajennes returned, the Rees 
were preparing for war and summoned all 
Men which were absent from the Village, at 
Evening a large party of Women and Chil- 
dren took refuge in the fort, to sleep in Se- 
curity they were lodged just above us in 5 
Lodges, and the Men all absent. 

Thuesday the I9th hard wind and cold, at 8 
A. M. Immel & party arrived with 34 horses, 
in the afternoon a party of Sioux with the 
Chief crooked hand arrived with the Amer- 
ican Standard flying before them they said 
they were going to the Chajennes to smoke 
which was a falsehood, when we first saw 
them the Rees run to and fro, crying the 


Sioux come to Kill, and made a terrible noise, 
we traded 32 Robes 20 Beaver, 5 Otter, they 
went off at their favorite time, at 9 oclock 
at night, plenty Rees at the fort. 

Wednesday the 2Oth hard wind & cloudy all 
the Rees went to their Village except 2 hunt- 
ers and their families. 

Thursday the 2ist the wind and weather as 
yesterday Latour, Machecou, Duroche and Jo- 
seph Laderoute 162 were ordered out of the 
fort, they had made a complot against the 
adopted Principles of the Company Mr Man- 
uel tried every way to gett them in Employ- 
mant but they would neither engage nor hunt 
nor pay their Debts, Latour had brought 4 
horses from the Arepaos Mr M. wanted to 
buy them against his Debt, no, he offered 
300 Dollars wages per year to hunt for the 
forts or be otherwise employed, they refused, 
they only wanted to get the necessaries, and 
Equipments to squander away, and set by 
the fireside at ease eat our Provision, take out 

162 Joseph Laderoute, dit Casse. This was a common name in St. 
Louis and Kaskaskia, Illinois. I think I have identified this man as 
Casse, for Laderoute, dit Casse was with Lisa's expedition which left 
St. Louis in April, 1807. He wintered with Henry's party and re- 
turned to St. Louis, August 5, 1808. He was also engaged as a hunter 
in the expedition of 1809, but was detained at St. Charles by warrant 
for the non-payment of a debt. However, the Missouri Fur Company 
paid it and he was released. Two years later, in 1811, he seems to have 
deserted and left the company before the expiration of his engagement. 
Joseph Laderoute accompanied Jean Baptiste Trudeau of the Spanish 
Company in June, 1794, and was in the employ of Gabriel Cerre in 
1799. In the St. Louis Cathedral baptisms, there is a record of Emelie 
Casse, the three-year-old natural daughter of Joseph Laderoute and an 
Indian, who was baptized April 13, 1816. There were several families 
in St. Louis with the name of Rolette, dit Laderoute. 

of store when pleased and lett the Company 
go Destruction, their Character is throughout 
vicious and Dangerous, the Company looses 
considerable by them, say about 4000 Dol- 
lars. Laderoute wanted to take a girl which 
Immel had given him, and Immel would not 
permit her to go in the Situation she was in, 
high pregnant, but Laderoute wanted to take 
her by force like a Brute without nourish- 
ment and cold Season, the dispute ended by 
both remaining, one of the Indian hunters 
got displeased, on Account we would give 
him no meat for his family, he sold us each 
Cow for 3 Dollars and then wanted to eat the 
Meat, avaricious design, last night we saw 
plenty fires opposite side which induced us 
to believe that the Sioux had fought with the 
Chajennes made up an Equipment for Mahas 
poncas etc. 

friday the 22d last Night Laderoute's Girl had 
a little Girl, cold and cloudy. 

Saturday the 23d, cold and cloudy, our hunters 
went out and returned with the Meat of 3 
Cows, the news from them this day was that 
a Sioux Chief was Killed by the Rees, and a 
Ree Woman by the Sioux. 

Sunday the 24th Snow and cold, this Day sent 
the 4 horses promised to Rees Chief for make 
a hunt. 

Monday the 25th clear and cold, nothing to 

Thuesday the 26 cloudy and cold, this Evening 


the Men who guarded the horses found two 
missing supposed to be stolen by Langue de 

Wednesday the 27th clear and cold Sanguinette 
and a party went hunting, Immel, Papin and 
another party went to Langue de Buche, 
which as suspected, had been the Case as 
were informed that his party had stolen the 
horses, they returned in afternoon in several 
parties, one party found an Indian who had 
stolen a horse this Day close to the fort of 
Colla Glindeau, and Immel seeing another 
Savage stealing the Way of him suspected 
some thing wrong, made up to him, and 
found the running Mare of Mr M. L. thus 
were two more horses rescued their report 
was that they had found no horses nor Langue 
de Buche, he himself was gone to the Cha- 
jennes probably to trade them away for Meat. 

Thursday the 28th Mr Manuel L. and 12 Men 
went to the Camp of Langue de Buche, to 
demand the horses, on their arrival they took 
possession of the Indian fort and made some 
shan prissoners, they did not find the horses 
and were told they the horses were out hunt- 
ing, the Indians began to make overtures and 
begged, promised to return the horses to fort. 
*Mr Manuel pitied them and left one Men 
to receive the horses, who returned in the 
Evening (Mr M. & party arriving at noon) 
with only one horse which belonged to Jes- 
saume, the other not given up, this Day fine 
clear and cold weather. 

[1813] 117 

Friday the 29th, cloudy in the Morning, cold 
and Snow Squalls, last night Laderoute and 
his girl deserted through one of the port 
holes in the Bastion Garrow went to the Vil- 
lage to see how the Rees were situated, he 
returned late at night and told the Goshe 
and his Band wished to come and live at the 
point above us if we would sent horses to 
carry their Luggage, Indians and hunters went 
out to Day but Killed nothing. 

Saturday the 3Oth clear but very cold, the 
hunters went out again but returned the 
weather being to severe. 

Sunday the 3ist, moderate and clear, Immel, 
Sanguinette and four Men with 20 horses 
started for the Village, to bring the Rees this 
Day our hunters Killed 4 Cows. 

Monday the ist of Febry, clear and fine mod- 
erate weather, in the afternoon Immel and 
party with Goshe* and 4 Lodges of his Band 
arrived, but instead of camping at point took 
their Lodgings in the fort, hunters were out 
again to Day and Killed 3 Cows and 2 Deer. 

Thuesday the 2d, fine weather, nothing re- 

Wednesday the 3d the same, the Rees went out 
hunting and in the absence of the Men the 
Women began to quarrel among themselves, 
and left the fort sack and pack, there being 
5 Lodges of wood at the point they went 
there, but returned about 10 oclock in the 
night, being afraid of the Sioux, three Indians 

"8 [1813] 

came to fort with 4 Cows, the remaining 
camped out. 

Thursday the 4th fine weather and warm, the 2 
stolen horses were brought in, Goshe* and his 
hunting party returned they had Killed 7 
Cows. At 4 P. M. 12 Soldiers of the Band of 
Goshe* arrived, thawed very much and plenty 
water on the Ice. 

friday the 5th, clear and moderate, the Men 
which came yesterday belonging to Coshers 
Band went off again to the Village to bring 
their families, at noon became cloudy and 
heavy Squalls towards evening a young men 
of the Bigbellies of which we had two fam- 
ilies in the fort went out hunting on foot for 
some deer or Elk, and about 8 oclock P. M. 
we heard the Cry to Arms and two guns fired 
at the same time which proved to be out of 
the fort, opening the Door of the fort we found 
the above Young Men breathing his last, we 
found him shot in the Belly and Breast his 
hunt laid a little ways off, he had Killed an 
Elk and brought only the Calf, a favorite 
Dish with the Indians we expected a Return 
and Kept Guards, the Sioux were perpretators 
of this Act, he died I hour after, blew a hard 
gale all night 

Saturday the 6th the wind continuing blowing 
very hard found 2 Arrows in the fort which 
had been thrown through the Crevices of the 
Pickets, the Arrows found were of the Sioux 
Nation, and had been leavelled perhaps at 
some of us, a singular Circumstance happened 

[1813] 119 

the Day before with the same young fellow 
who was Killed, he quarrelled with a Women 
the wife of a Mandan in the fort, and was 
going to Kill her, when her husband who was 
absent at the time of the quarrel, arrived and 
being informed what had passed, went to him 
if you want to fight, do it with Men and not 
women come out and measure your Bow with 
mine but proved coward, next Day he met 
his fate, at 2 P. M. our hunters brought in 
5 Cows & 2 Calfs, a fine afternoon, late at 
Evening Le Gross arrived at the fort from 
the Chajennes, he reported they made plenty 
Robes, and would come to trade in the Spring. 

Sunday the yth disagreable and snowing, Immel, 
Sanguinette, Glineau and Lange went with 
8 horses to the Mandans to fetch the Peltries 
traded with that Nation, Legross went with 
all the Bravos which were in the fort amount- 
ing to 26 to the Village, I made a Census of 
Indians remaining in the fort and found 65 

souls left most Women and Children 

in the afternoon 2 more Lodges arrived, fine 

Monday the 8 fine clear weather nothing re- 

Thuesday the 9th the same the same. 

Wednesday the 10 the same but hard wind 
Killed i Elk. 

Thursday the nth cloudy and hard winds, 
cleared up in the afternoon, at 9 o'clock in 
the Evening we heard several guns firing, and 

i2o [1813] 

directly afterwards 3 Rees young men ar- 
rived, who had run away from a fray which 
they had with the Sioux, they reported that 
4 of them were Killed, all Indians in the fort 
in uproar we watched all night, but nothing 

Friday the 12, clear and cold, the refugees re- 
ported last evening that a Son of Goshe*, with 
2 young Men and i Women was Killed, Goshe* 
started, Mr Manuel L. gave him a Blanket % 
lb Vermillion and 30 Loads of Powder Ball 
to cover the Corps as customary with the 
Indians, at 10 A. M. the party returned they 
had found but 2 Corps I Men and I Women, 
a Child which the Women had was taken 
prisoner and the son of Goshe* had found 
blind as he is the way in the woods to hid 
himself, they found him laying among the 
Brushes, when he heard himself discovered, 
cried out who is there and finding his friends 
was rejoiced Goshe* gave him the Blankett 
etc and sent him off in the afternoon 10 Cha- 
jenne Chiefs arrived and about 150 Rees to 
go to the Chajennes for Meat. 

Saturday the I3th t the Chajenne Chief went 
away seemingly satisfied and the Rees with 
them Mr Manuel Lisa gave 5 Carrots 4 Twist 
Tobacco 3 lb Powder and 6 lb Balls as a 
Present, at 2 P. M. Immel and his party re- 
turned from the Mandans with Peltries at 4 
P. M. about 50 or 60 Rees arrived from the 
Village with Plume D'aigle to bury as they 


said their slain brethren fine weather and 

Sunday the I4th, cloudy and snow squalls, the 
Rees went off. 

Monday the 15, cloudy and cold, the Rees re- 
turned from the Chajennes. 

Thuesday the i6th clear and cold, all the 
Rees which had hitherto staid in the fort 
went off to their Village being advised by 
the Chajennes to leave the fort, only 5 Women 
and 2 Girls remaining, cloudy evening. 

Wednesday, the 17 cloudy and hard winds 
nothing to remark. 

Thursday the 18, clear and very cold, Killed 
2 Deer. 

f rid ay the 19 ditto ditto nothing to remark. 

Saturday the 20 cloudy and cold, in afternoon 
Snow Squalls our Sow brought 17 Dead Pigs, 
a great loss. 

Sunday the 21 clear and cold, this day is the 
coldest we have had this winter, at 12 oclock 
this Day Charbonneau and I Engagee arrived 
from the Bigbellies, himself and Woahl had 
traded out of 492 Plus only 168, the Chief 
named Borne was thrown off by the Nation 
only 5 Lodges remaining with him, and had a 
seperateVillage, he persuaded Charbonneau to 
come with some Powder & a to his Village to 
trade, he went and took 25 Ib Powder and 50 
Ib Ball of which he was robbed off when Char- 

122 [1813] 

bonneau was informed by the Chief Cheveux 
de Loup who [was] first Chief among them that 
4 or 5 Days after his Arrival from hence in 
December last, 2 Men from the N. W. Com- 
pany had been with them, they came under 
pretext to trade dressd Buffaloe Skins, and 
made some Presents to the Chiefs, and began 
to harangue against the american traders, 
told them we would give them nothing, but 
a little powder, and that they the N. W. 
Company would furnish them with every 
thing without Pay if they would go to war, 
and rob and Kill the Americans, this had the 
desired effect on Borne, and he made several 
Speeches to the Nation to that purpose, but 
being disgraced and not liked he retired with- 
out Success, though himself fulfilled his prom- 
ise to rob, but was afraight to Kill, thus are 
those Bloodhounds the British constantly em- 
ployed and do every thing in their Power to 
annoy and destroy the Americans and their 
trade, they have nothing to fear on Account 
and in Respect of our Government, all though 
in our territories, and in fact our Government 
does not care to meddle with them, nor how 
many Citizens are sacrificed by the British 
influence with the Indians, if there was a fort 
at the River St Peters 163 as was promised by 

l88 Eight years farther along the United States Government did ful- 
fill its promise. In 1820 the 5th United States Infantry, under the 
command of Col. Henry Leavenworth, was sent to establish a military 
fort at the mouth of the St. Peter's River (now called the Minnesota). 
The cantonment was first called Fort Anthony, but was later officially 
given the name of Fort Snelling. The object of this military expedi- 
tion was the protection of the northwestern frontiers against ^ Indian 
attacks, and to check the influence of the British traders with the 

[1813] 123 

Liet Pike 164 and another in these Parts of 
the Missouri, it would do infinitively good to 
hunters and traders, and bring great wealth 
to the States, but this is out of question, 
they have a strong Garrison at Bellefontaine, 
and* that is enough, the soldiers parade, eat 
and drink and spent their time in Idleness, 
is there any necessity to keep so many idle 
fellows in a settled Country, they do not even 
prevent and cannot protect our Settlers about 
80 or 90 Miles above, and we have seen out- 
rages committed by the Indians, horrid to re- 
late, there was after the Sheep were destroyed 
by the Wolves, a small Garrison errected on 
Salt River, Mississippi 165 which will do more 
good than all Bellefontaine, and if one was to 

Indians. The movement had a stimulating effect and the fur trade 
was considerably extended. (See Journal of S. W. Kearny in Mis- 
souri Historical Society Collections, Vol. 3, p. 8.) 

l64 Zebulon M. Pike was born in Lamberton, New Jersey, January 5, 
1779. After the purchase of the Louisiana Territory, Pike, who was 
then a lieutenant in the United States Army, was placed in command 
of an expedition sent to trace the Mississippi River to its source. In 
1806-1807 he was engaged in geographical explorations in the Louisi- 
ana Territory, and while on this expedition he discovered "Pike's 
Peak" in the Rocky Mountains. When he reached the Rio Grande 
he was taken by the Mexicans to Santa Fe and later to Chihuahua, 
from whence he returned home. After his return to the United States 
he was given the rank of major, and a few years later he published 
a narrative of his two expeditions. He received his appointment as 
brigadier-general March 12, 1813, and on April 27 of that year was 
killed by the explosion of the magazine at York (now Toronto), Canada . 
Pike County, Missouri, was named in his honor. 

W6 During the winter of 1811-1812, the settlements on the Salt River 
and in the Boone district were kept in constant terror by the Indians. 
Murders were frequent and the settlers suffered all the dreadful effects 
of Indian warfare. By command of Gov. Benjamin Howard a small 
fort was erected, early in 1812, on the Mississippi River about fifteen 
miles above the mouth of the Salt River, not far from the present site 
of Hannibal, Missouri. It was garrisoned by a body of regular troops 
detached from Fort Bellefontaine, under the command of Lieut. John 
Mason, in whose honor it was called Fort Mason. 

I2 4 

be erected about 500 Leagues up the Missouri 
it would be very good to Keep the Indians 
in their Bounds, Provisions are plenty and the 
other necessaries could be sent by the traders, 
but it has been frequently the Case, and has 
been said our Citizens have no Business to go 
among the Indians to trade but the profits 
thereof are not considered, and this Branch of 
Business will never succeed if not protected by 
Government, to seat of the British Traders. 
When Charbonneau passed the Chajennes 
which are above us about 4 Leagues, 166 they 
warned him to be cautious and take care of 
his Life, that they had discovered 27 Men 
lurking about, supposing to be the Saunies 
Sioux, he arrived however without accident. 

Monday the 22d fine weather and cold some 
Buffaloe in Sight, 7 Men went across the 
River to hunt, and returned about noon, hav- 
ing Killed but i Cow 2 Bulls the weather be- 
ing to cold, to pursue the Buffaloe, at I oclock 
45 Mi. P. M. we were alarmed by the Cry 
to Arms, Archambeau 167 is Killed, and by sort- 
ing found us surrounded by Indians on all 
Sides, out the reach of our Guns, Archambeau 
was hawling hay with a Sleigh from the other 
Side, and just on coming on the River he 
was shot and Killed Immediatly he was a 

distance would bring the Cheyennes' camp about the present 
Fort Yates, North Dakota. 

167 Lpuis Archambeau. Probably one of the Canadian family of that 
name living in Florissant, Missouri, in early days. There are descend- 
ants of that family still living in St. Louis County, but I have been un- 
able to learn anything about Louis, or identify him with the several 
of that name in Tanguay's Dictionnaire. 

[1813] 125 

very good Men and had been 6 years on the 
Missouri, we put ourselves immediatly in De- 
fence, and placed two swivels on the Bank 
of the River, but unfortunaly our Balls did 
not reach across, and those on this Side Kept 
out of Reach of our fire, and dare not come 
to an open Attack, their Numbers was be- 
tween 4 a 500, they took the Scalp and cut 
him nearly to pieces, they marched off about 
4 oclock, leaving us to lament the Death of 
fellow Citizen unrevenged, a party of our 
Men went across to bring the Corps which 
they found terrible mangled, they brought 
29 Arrows which were sticking in his body 
and a good many more had been brocken to 
pieces, his Head Broken the Brains scattered 
about his nose and ears cut off, his teeth 
Knocked out, and more terrible Deeds which 
I will not express with my Pen. We mustered 
in the Evening and found ourselves 26 Men 
strong, selected Guards for to night, divided 
in 5 Watches, 4 Men in each and 2 in each 
Bastion, gave the Boys a Dram and every 
one was in Readiness for defence to the last 
Moment our situation in general is not very 
pleasing at this time menaced by the Sioux, 
below, and we dare not trust too much to 
Chajennes above, they have made a vast 
quantity of Robes and wish to augment the 
trade we are told and they shewed a Horn 
which they made which holds 40 Loads of 
Powder, instead of giving 20 Load for a Plus, 168 

168 Every skin had an established value, with which all traders were 
acquainted. A first-class beaver skin, worth in the neighborhood of six 
dollars, was called a ''plus." 


I hope we will have no Row with them as to 
the Rees we fear nothing, they are a sett of 
lying and good for nothing fellows. 

Thuesday the 23d passed a quiet night, and our 
Guards saw nothing, after Breakfast Immel 
and four Men went out reconnoitring on swift 
horses, returned at noon and reported they 
had found the tracks of the war party and 
judged by the Size of the Road they had made 
to have been about 400, the Road went right 
across the Hills and the party which was sta- 
tioned above the fort say about 60 had met 
them at right angles, about 2 Miles west of 
the fort, we interred the Remains of our poor 
fellow Citizen Archambeau, and guarded in 
the afternoon saw some Buffaloe chased on 
the other Side, supposed by the same Party, 
we also saw Dogs on the Ice which returned 
to the Woods at the point above us, and 
made us certain there was some hid in the 
Woods, as also by a track which we found, 
descending the Coast on our Side I Mile be- 
low the fort, set guard for the Night had a 
fine Day but cold and cloudy evening. 

Wednesday the 24th passed a tranquil night, 
but saw some running fires, the Signal of In- 
dians after Battle, 3 Men went to Langue 
de Buche's Camp to hear of their Situation 
a fine Day but cold, set all our Dogs out of 
fort for guard. 

Thursday the 25th passed a quiet night, I guard- 
ed till 4 oclock in the morning the 3 Men 

[1813] 127 

went out yesterday did not Return, Dogs out 
guarding, dark and cloudy evening. 

Friday the 26th snowed last night and this 
Morning we are constant watching in our 
careful Situation, we hear and see nobody 
from all around us, and are like Prisoners in 
Deserts to expect every moment our fate. 

At 3 oclock P. M. our 3 Men returned with 
Machecou, the whites and Indians who camp 
above us had heard nothing of the fracas 
which had happened, the Chajennes had the 
next Day after the affair, 24 horses stolen by 
the Sioux, undoubtedly the same party who 
attacked us there Scheme was to plunder the 
fort, expecting that we would divide and a 
party would run across the River to rescue the 
Man which was Killed, and then come be- 
tween us and plunder and Kill those in the 
fort, cleared up towards evening and cold. 

Saturday the 27th passed another tranquil Night 
cloudy at Sunrise, cleared up at 8 A. M. cold 

Sunday the 28, Snowed last night and this 
Morning the most which has fell this Winter 
about 4 Inches deep, cleared up in the after- 
noon with cold weather, nothing remarkable 
these 2 Days past. 

Monday the ist of March, 1813, clear and cold, 
after dinner Charbonneau and Leclair 169 set 
off for their Stations at the Bigbellies took 

169 Joseph Leclaire, or Leclair. There were several Leclaires in St. 
Louis about this time, one of whom was a free mulatto. 

128 [1813] 

some Powder and Ball to compleat his Equip- 
ment, they were escorted by 5 of our Men, 
untill he would be out of Danger, at Sunset 
it began to Snow. 

Thuesday the 2d a vast deal of snow had fell 
last night, but was clear and cold in the 
Morning, cloudy afternoon, at 2 P. M. 7 
Men and 2 Women of the Rees arrived at 
the fort, the first which made their appear- 
ance since Goshe* left us, 4 Men i Women 
went to Langue de Buche the others remained. 

Wednesday the 3d, clear and cold, the Indians 
which arrived yesterday said that the upper 
Village of the Rees would come this Day to 
trade, which however proved to be a lie, at 
noon 7 Rees arrived from above, as also our 
party which had escorted Charbonneau, with 
Latour, Machecou, Duroche and Laderoute, 2 
Squaws and 3 Children, a party of Men went 
over the River to cut firewood, had a fine 
warm Day and cloudy evening. 

Thursday the 4th last night about 3 inches of 
snow had fell cloudy and cold Morning, in 
the afternoon 4 Mandans arrived from their 
village on their way to the Rees, no news. 

friday the 5th Snowstorm last night and con- 
tinued snowing all this Day, the Mandans 
pursued their Route. 

Appendix 129 



St. Louis, June I, 1815. 
Mr. John C. Luttig (Per A. Pourcelli), 

Dear Sir: 

I received your favors by Antoine on the 27th April and should have 
sent him sooner, had we not been making useless searches for the black 
Mare in the prairies, the sorrel & Rone I sold since, the former for 
$35. and the latter for $30. which does not pay their keeping nor amf- 
I yet paid for them. I would therefore advise no more horse specula- 
tions annex your Invoice of sundries Antoine has with him on the 
Mare had I the remaining articles you sent for, would have sent you 
them but not having them (nor the money to buy them with) pre- 
vents my so doing. I conceive this manner of transportation a very 
unprofitable one have paid Antoine $75.17 for wages at $25. per month, 
which eats up the profit on such small Invoices would it not be less 
expensive to send goods down the Mississippi to Cape Girardeau & 
let your wagons make a back load of them when you send a load of Fur? 
I am of opinion it would be cheaper than to send them in a boat & 
certainly more expediting & less dangerous. I have accepted your order 
in favor of McMines for $364.22 which I am obliged to let lie unpaid 
for want of funds. I must in future protest against your drawing on 
me in this way. I am yet considerably out in this store & my other 
branches of business requiring all the funds I can raise. I expect some 
few goods by the time you come here with the mulatto girl you have 
bought, for which purpose I enclose you the $430. which I have found 
difficult raising the sooner you send her back the better, I am much 
in want of a girl. I have been pestered to get somebody to pay the 
freight of peltries sent to Louisville, it might be best to send them here. 
I fear venison Hams will not bring much in Louisville. I have not 
yet received the Tallow & buffalo meat were [where] venturing is 
done judiciously it is sometimes commendable, but when you have to 
pay cash it disappoints me consider my Dear Luttig was any accident 
to befall you what would be my losses, were you to have the business 
scattered. I hope and expect considerable remittances from you shortly, 
recollect they are long due by promise. I can say little about your 

130 Appendix 

land speculations but hope your payments have been in goods on which 
you have laid a good profit. James Kennerly does not think much 
of that country you should rent all your lands out, tis bad policy 
to let them lie idle 'the Governor tells me you cannot get a lease with- 
out the land is surveyed for a lead mine 'the piece of mineral you sent 
me by Antoine is of an excellent quality, but who is this Colonel in 
whose name you want the lease. I don't like partners with whom I 
am not acquainted & advise you to be careful of strangers Tar will 
not bring here more than 50 cts per gallon by the barrel, which will 
not pay the transportation. I am afraid your Buffaloes will cost a 
good [deal] by the time they get here, if your fish are the real Trout 
& you can put them up to keep, they would answer -better send only 
one barrel the first time to try them, hope the girl will prove a good 
one, she is certainly cheap may be she is stolen property Racoon 
from your country will not bring 62^c in Kentucky, it is only those 
from the Illinois, one of which is worth two of yours I am not disposed 
to buy Racoon nor have I the money may your blacksmith earn his 
wa g es if y OU can buy a cheap Boy for trade as cheap as the Girl do 
so, of about the same age. I cannot send you tumblers, they would 
inevitably get broken, the Summons & Executions I send you I am 
glad you sold the Race Mare & should be more so were my manors 
to yield the income of some such as there is in England Paston has 
been away & has paid nothing, he is expected shortly Solomon has 
not paid the Note & has sold his Horse I send in addition to the 
other articles a coat & pantaloons, some expect your wedding ones 
Good assortment of Goods are very scarce here, one or two old Ken- 
tucky shopkeepers have come on here Beef must necessarily come so 
high with you before it is barreled up, that it could not be afforded 
so low as from Kentucky, from where immense numbers of Boats have 
gone to Orleans this Spring which will overstock it I should prefer 
those fellows of yours, loading you with Bank notes than their willing- 
ness to accompany you through the lower regions I send you Levantine 
silk which is much better & handsomer than changeable you should 
get #4 the yard for it if you have nothing for Antoine to do, is it not 
better to discharge him? 

Remain with esteem 

Yours to serve, 


Appendix 131 

St. Louis, July 26, 1815. 
Mr. John C. Luttig, 

Dear Sir: 

I have reed, your favor of 3rd inst. brought I suppose by Smith 
who I have not seen yours by Ferguson of the 2nd Inst I also re- 
ceived I fear those settlements will prevent your friend making re- 
mittances without which I cannot think of sending you further supplies. 
The things you sent by Duncan I fear are lost, he arrived at Louisville 
about two weeks before Cromwell who had money to pay his freight, 
not finding any person there to pay him the freight he offered the ar- 
ticles for sale but could not sell & continued on this Cromwell wrote 
me from Louisville he could hear nothing of him up the River, although 
he made inquiries I have since heard that Duncan sold the articles- 
at Vendue for little or nothing Racoon for about 6 cents I know not 
as to the truth of it. Duncan left no Tallow at the mouth of Ohio- 
for me nor anything else I cannot agree to your purchasing settle- 
ment rights, it will require cash to purchase them afterwards & I can 
do better with my funds by applying them to my business which is 
suffering for want of them as you expect to be here soon, we may 
make some arrangements for further supplies, I have not sufficient 
dependence in Smith to send by him wish you to send the girl immedi- 
ately if you do not come yourself you can send her by some careful 
person having been somewhat indisposed of late, I have not called 
on Dr. Simpson the person that is to take this letter is at Shope's, I 
dont know who it is. Remain as ever 

Yours to serve 

St. Louis, July 3Oth, 1815. 
Mr. James Moore, 

Dear Sir: 

I have received your favor of July 20th by your son with sundry 
books and papers announcing the death of John C. Luttig who had 
my business in charge, so far as selling of goods and making me re- 
mittances for them. His death to me is a considerable misfortune & 
for your friendly intercession in taking care of the store &c. & in 
advising me thereof accept my sincere thanks. I shall as soon as pos- 
sible send a person to close the business & will thank you until that 
person arrives to request A. Pourcelli to remain there none of the goods 

132 Appendix 

must be allowed to be taken until said person arrives. Any future 
services you may render me in the business will be remembered by me. 
In haste Remain very respectfully 

your most obedient servant, 


SAKAKAWEA (or Sacajawea,as she is better known), the Snake squaw 
of Charbonneau, the guide and interpreter for Lewis and Clark, has 
been idealized by artist and sculptor, by poet, fiction writer, and his- 
torian. Some writers have claimed that without her guidance and 
assistance the expedition of Lewis and Clark would have failed; and 
still others have said that her importance has been exaggerated, and 
that she was of no particular assistance, except to perform feminine 
duties, such as the mending of the moccasins. Choose what accounts 
we may, it will be agreed by all that the mention of this expedition 
immediately brings to mind the part which this lone woman played. 
The leaders of that expedition have indicated that no member of the 
party gave more effective service, and she seems to have been the 
direct means on several occasions of overcoming seemingly insurmount- 
able obstacles. Her sacrifices were many, and they seem quite pathetic 
when one considers that she was but a child in years. 

It would be superfluous to tell the story of her early life, her capture 
by the Grosventre Indians, when she was about ten years old, the 
barter to Charbonneau and her subsequent marriage to him; or to 
recount in detail the part she took in that famous expedition everyone 
is familiar with it. The question here is, What are the points of contrast 
between this journal and the various biographies of this conspicuous 
woman of the Indians? 

It may be interesting first to note that there has been much dis- 
cussion and argument as to the spelling and proper pronunciation of 
her name. I am choosing the version of Dr. Washington Matthews, 
a recognized authority on the ethnology and philology of the Hidatsa 
Indians, he having published a grammar and dictionary thereof; and of 
Rev. C. L. Hall, who lived among this tribe for thirty years. 

According to Rev. C. L. Hall, Sacajawea, the form which has been 
so generally used, is a Shoshoni word, meaning "Boat-launcher." His 
theory is that "while her captors gave her a name which may have 

Appendix 133 

been a translation of her Shoshoni name, it is more likely to have been 
entirely different. A stranger coming among the Grosventre tribe, or 
any tribe of Indians that I know, received at once a name such as 
may suit their fancy." He therefore concludes that the name is prop- 
erly Sakakawea, which in the Hidatsa language of the Grosventre is 
"Bird Woman." She has always been referred to as the Bird Woman, 
and not as the Boat-launcher, as Sacajawea is interpreted. 

The journal here published differs from other accounts as to the time 
of her death. It describes the wife of Charbonneau, a Snake squaw, 
as having died December 20, 1812. Charbonneau probably had two 
Snake wives, as "two squaw prisoners from the Rock Mountains and 
purchased by Charbonneau" visited the winter camp of Lewis and 
Clark at the Mandan village. One, of course, was the Bird Woman, 
and James Schultz says that the name of the other was Otter Woman, 
and that she died shortly after the return of the expedition. 

Brackenridge, in his journal of a voyage up the Missouri in 1811, 
tells us that he met "a Frenchman named Charbonet and his Indian 
wife, who had accompanied Lewis and Clark to the Pacific. The 
woman, a good creature, of a mild and gentle disposition, greatly at- 
tached to the whites, whose manners and dress she tries to imitate, 
but she had become sickly and longed to revisit her native country; 
her husband also, who had spent many years amongst the Indians, was 
become weary of a civilized life." 

Several times, we are informed by the journals of Lewis and Clark, 
Sakakawea was dangerously ill. It is not unlikely that the hardships 
this frail child-woman endured following her capture, and again on that 
long journey to the Far West, shortened her life, and on that "clear 
and moderate Sunday," December 2Oth, 1812, she died, leaving a fine 
infant girl, called Lizette, as well as the boy Toussaint. Luttig, in 
his laconic way, says she was a good woman the best in the Fort. 
A characterization given her by all historians. 

Luttig, who seems to have had nothing but contempt for Char- 
bonneau, brought the infant girl down to St. Louis in June, 1813, and 
possibly Toussaint also, although the latter may have been left at 
St. Louis in 1811, when Charbonneau and the Bird Woman returned 
to the Mandan village. On the nth day of August, 1813, Luttig 
applied to the Orphans' Court at St. Louis for appointment as guardian 
of the infant children of Toussaint Charbonneau, deceased; namely, 
Toussaint, a boy about ten years old, and a girl, Lizette, about one 

134 Appendix 

year old. Whether he ever served as such there is no record, for the 
one entry in the Court's minutes shows that the name John C. Luttig 
was crossed out and William Clark substituted. (See facsimile of court 
record.) My conjecture is that Luttig, knowing the fondness of Gov. 
Clark for Charbonneau and his family, brought one or both of the 
children to St. Louis after the death of Sakakawea and the disappear- 
ance of Charbonneau. Upon his arrival in St. Louis, Clark was absent 
from the town, so Luttig made application for guardianship. Gov. 
Clark would have come closer to Toussaint's age in making the ap- 
plication, wherein Luttig missed it about two years. 

Sakakawea is known to have had a boy by Charbonneau, about 
eight years of age at this time, and it is also known that she would 
have been approximately twenty-five years of age in 1812, when Luttig 
recorded the death of the Snake squaw of Charbonneau. This and 
other things point to Sakakawea as the Indian wife referred to. In 
passing it should be recalled that Charbonneau was, in fact, not dead 
at that time. 

In Gov. Clark's letter of August 20, 1806, he clearly mentions two 
boys, children oi Charbonneau. One he refers to as "your little son 
(my boy Pomp)" and the other he calls "my little dancing boy Ba- 
tiest." The dancing boy was too old to be the child of Sakakawea 
whose birthday has been established. Therefore Baptiste and Tous- 
saint are not one and the same individual. Jean Baptiste Charbonneau 
was most likely the Baptiste mentioned in this letter and the son of 
Charbonneau by one of his other wives, who with her child was at the 
Mandan Fort in the winter of 1804-1805. The accounts of Clark, as 
Superintendent of Indian Affairs, for 1820, show that tuition was paid 
that year to J. E. Welch for one J. B. Charbonneau, and to Francis 
Neil for one ToussaSnt Charbonneau, in each case designated as half- 
Indian boys. Rev. Mr. Welch was a Baptist minister who boarded 
and educated Indians and half-Indians, while Rev. Mr. Neil, a Catholic 
priest, conducted a school for boys, which was the predecessor of the 
St. Louis University. This Toussaint was unquestionably not the 
interpreter, as one author has suggested. 

Almost every traveller and trader, clerk and bourgeois, who pub- 
lished accounts of visits up the Missouri River, or wrote letters of the 
events at the various trading-posts, after the Lewis and Clark expedi- 
tion and up to 1839, mentioned Charbonneau. Surely, in view of the 
important part taken by the Bird Woman in the exploration of the 

Appendix 135 

West, reference would have been made to her by some of them, if she 
were living at the time. 

Prior to the discovery of this journal, nothing was definitely known 
of the whereabouts of the Bird Woman subsequent to 1811, when 
Brackenridge met her. Although Hosmer quotes an old interpreter at 
Fort Berthold to the effect that she and her husband perished in the 
small-pox epidemic which was so fatal to the Mandan nation in 1837, 
he questions the truth of the account. 

These monuments and markers have been erected to the memory 
of the Bird Woman: 

Statue in bronze at Portland, Oregon, unveiled at the Portland 
Exposition. It was erected with the contributions of the women of 
the Northwest, and was designed by Alice Cooper. It marks the 
western terminus of that eventful expedition. 

Boulder with bronze tablet at Three Forks, erected by the Montana 
Daughters of the American Revolution. 

Monument with bronze tablet inserted at Armstead, Montana. It 
was near this spot, at the Two Forks, or Jefferson Forks, as it is some- 
times called, that the exploring party met members of Sakakawea's 
own tribe, the Shoshoni, and from them secured horses necessary to 
cross the Great Divide, without which they never would have been 
able to complete the journey. This monument was also erected by 
the Montana Daughters of the American Revolution. 

Cement shaft erected in Wyoming over the grave of the woman 
claimed by Dr. Hebard to have been Sakakawea. 

The United States Geological Survey gave her name to the great 
peak in the Bridger range, overlooking.the spot where she was captured, 
and where she later pointed out the pass over the mountains. 

Statue in bronze on the site of the old Mandan village, now Bis- 
marck, marking the beginning of the great journey, erected by contri- 
butions from the women and children of North Dakota. 

There stood in the grounds of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 
at St. Louis, a beautiful statue of Sakakawea, designed by Bruno Louis 
Zimm, a photograph of which is reproduced in this book. 


TOUSSAINT CHARBONNEAU was conspicuous as an interpreter in 
the fur trade, and through his employment, from' 1819 to 1839, by 
every United States Indian Agent and sub-agent of the Mandan and Up- 

136 Appendix 

per Missouri Indian tribes. His importance to the Government is shown 
by the salaries allotted to him, which varied from $200 to $400 per an- 
num, the latter sum equalling that paid to most of the sub-agents. That 
he was faithful and competent is indicated by the long term of his em- 
ployment by the Government. He was known to Lewis and Clark, 
Prince Maximilian, Henry M. Brackenridge, John Bradbury, Generals 
Henry Atkinson, and Stephen W. Kearny, from all of whom we have 
accounts of him, and to every fur trader and traveller of the early days 
in the Upper Missouri regions. 

The prominent incident in the life of Charbonneau is his purchase 
of an Indian girl, about ten years old, to be his slave. Later he mar- 
ried her, and as his wife she became famous as a faithful and efficient 
guide of the Lewis and Clark expedition. Her name was Sakakawea, 
and she was otherwise known as the Bird Woman, about whom much 
has been written, and to whose memory monuments have been builded. 

Charbonneau was born in Canada about 1759, of French lineage. 
Both his given and surname are very common among the French of 
Canada. The record of his first employment reveals him as a trader 
with the Northwest Company at Pine Fort on the Assiniboine, in the 
year 1793-94. Two years later he was with the Minnetarees at their 
central village on the Knife River, called Metaharta. Lewis and Clark 
found him at this place in the winter of 1804-05. The previous year 
he was in charge of Fort Pembina with Alexander Henry, from whom 
we get the earliest mention of him. 

Prince Maximilian, in 1833, recorded the fact that Charbonneau 
had lived among the Mandan Indians for thirty-seven years, and gives 
the various names by which he was known to the Indians, which he 
interprets from the Indian languages as follows: "Chief of the little 
village"; "The man who possesses many gourds"; "The great horse 
from abroad"; "The forest bear." 

An editor of the journals of Lewis and Clark speaks in very un- 
complimentary terms of Charbonneau, using this language: "After 
reading the pages of Lewis and Clark's journals, one has little respect 
for Charbonneau's qualities, either mental or moral. It is to be re- 
gretted that Maximilian relied so much upon the testimony of this 
interpreter in his account of the Mandan and Minnetaree Indians." 

Indeed, Capt. Lewis, in his report, says of him that he was "a man 
of no peculiar merit, was useful as an interpreter only, in which ca- 
pacity he discharged his duties with good faith." As he was employed 
only as an interpreter, this record of having discharged his duties with 

Appendix 137 

good faith would seem a pretty fair recommendation; but more than 
this, we have the letter of Gen. Clark, written to Charbonneau of 
August 20, 1806. In this he says, among other things: "Your present 
situation with the Indians gives me some concern. I wish now that 
I had advised you to come on with me to Illinois, where it most prob- 
ably would be in my power to put you in some way to do something 
for yourself. * * * You have been a long time with me, 
and have conducted yourself in such a manner as to gain my friendship." 
Luttig, in his journal, twice speaks of Charbonneau in a rather 
disparaging manner in connection with certain incidents, indicating in 
one place that he had been guilty of exaggeration and cowardice, and 
in another that he gave wild accounts calculated to excite fear among 
the engages. Here he also includes another interpreter, named Jus- 
seaume, and says that both "ought to be hung." Other incidents, how- 
ever, mentioned in the journal, indicate a reliance placed upon Char- 
bonneau, and also show that he was not a coward. It may be that 
Luttig shared that common suspicion which men on these expeditions 
had for interpreters, who were on friendly terms with the Indians and 
spoke in a language which could not be understood by the trappers. 
His winning ways were evidently not understood by his critics. Wil- 
liam Laidlaw, in a letter to James Kipp, dated Fort Pierre, January 
14, 1834, says: "I am much surprised at your taking old Charbonne"au 
into favor after showing so much ingratitude upon all occasions. The 
old knave, what does he say for himself?" 

Charbonneau had many friends among the traders, Indian agents 
and travellers of the West. In letter-books and manuscripts to be 
found among the archives of the Missouri Historical Society, as well as 
in many of the published narratives of travellers, are many favor- 
able references to him. Mr. O. L. Wheeler, author of The Trail 
of Lewis and Clark, says he was a most picturesque and unique char- 
acter, and a man of fairly commendable traits, considering his environ- 
ment. Francois Antoine Larocque of the Northwest Company speaks 
very favorably of him. Maximilian refers to Charbonneau in a com- 
plimentary manner and gives him credit for much valuable information 
on the Mandans and customs of the different tribes on the Upper 
Missouri. To be sure, Maximilian has been criticized for placing too 
much reliance on Charbonneau's accounts, but certainly one of the 
incidents which he gives much attention to on the authority of Char- 
bonneau is verified by Gen. Clark in his diary of 1826. 

138 Appendix 

From manuscripts and deeds recorded in St. Louis some disconnected 
facts are reiterated in these notes, for whatever they may be worth* 
in connection with Charbonneau's life: On March 26, 1811, Char- 
bonneau conveyed to William Clark, for the consideration of $100.00, 
a piece of land on the Missouri River, situated in St. Ferdinand Town- 
ship, which land had been conveyed to him on October 30, 1810. This 
instrument indicates that Charbonneau bought the land with a view 
to settling down to civilized life, but, becoming weary of it, as Bracken" 
ridge tells us, transferred his property to Clark and returned to the 
Mandans. The witness to this deed was Francois Robidou, a mutual 
friend of Gen. Clark and Charbonneau. In the manuscript collection 
of Auguste Chouteau it is noted that Charbonneau purchased of him, 
on March 23, 1811, fifty pounds of bequit (biscuit), the hard-tack of 
those days. 

American State Papers, Foreign Relations, Vol. 4, p. 210, show an 
affidavit made by Charbonneau at St. Louis, on December 8, 1817, 
concerning the imprisonment of American citizens in Mexico. In this 
affidavit he states that he is of lawful age; that in the month of July, 
1816, he engaged himself to Julius DeMun, of the firm of Auguste P- 
Chouteau & Company, to go from St. Louis on a trading voyage along 
the rivers Arkansas and Platte; that Chouteau & Company had agreed 
to pay him for said voyage the sum of two hundred dollars; that he 
stayed with the company from the month of July, the time of their 
starting from St. Louis, until July in 1817. He signed the affidavit 
with his mark. 

In the unpublished journal of Gen. Henry Atkinson, of 1825, are 
several references to Charbonneau; one to the effect that he (his name 
is there spelled Shabano) and his wife and her brother were at the 
Mandan village. This was not the Bird Woman, as she died in 1812, 
and her brother, being a Shoshoni Indian, would not likely have been 
among the Mandans. 

Maj. Stephen Kearny, in his journal of August n, 1825, describes 
Charbonneau Creek as having been named for a Frenchman who ac- 
companied Lewis and Clark across the mountains, and whom he saw 
at the Mandans, residing as a trader among them. 

Capt. R. Holmes of the United States Army refers to "old Char- 
boneau," whom he met in 1833, in a party of white men in the mount- 
ains. He says that Charbonneau never carried arms, his knife being 
his only weapon. 

In a letter from Maj. D. D. Mitchell to W. N. Fulkerson, Indian 

Appendix 139 

Agent for the Mandans, dated June 10, 1836, reporting the details of 
a battle between the Grosventres and Mandans of the little village 
against the Yanktonai band of the Sioux, states that "old Charbono" 
had a narrow escape, two balls having passed through his hat. 

Much has been said about the meager compensation paid to Char- 
bonneau by the Government for the services of his wife and himself. 
From the report of Capt. Lewis we have the statement that he received 
as compensation $25.00 per month while in service, which extended 
from the time of the departure of the expedition from the Mandan 
village on April 7, 1805, until he returned to that place in August, 
1806. This item is often referred to, but no mention has ever been 
made of the fact that Charbonneau received, in addition to the cash 
compensation, the same bounty land grant of 320 acres given to the 
other men who served as privates of that expedition. 

Accounts heretofore published cover Charbonneau's career only to 
the year 1838. There is in the Indian Department at Washington, 
D. C., an interesting letter from Joshua Pilcher, Superintendent of 
Indian Affairs, a copy of which is given in this Appendix. In this 
letter, dated St. Louis, August 26, 1839, Charbonneau is pictured 
as tottering under the infirmities of eighty years, without a dollar to 
support him and seeking to collect his salary as interpreter for the 
Mandan agency for the first and second quarters of that year. It 
shows that an order had been made for his dismissal, and calls attention 
to the fact that he served some time in ignorance of the order. It will 
be remembered that the Mandan Indians had been almost entirely 
wiped out by an epidemic of smallpox, and there was probably no longer 
any special need for an interpreter at that agency. 

A Toussaint Charbonneau of Carondelet, St. Louis County, made 
entry of land in Richwoods Township, Washington County, Missouri, 
in 1822, and settled on the land. This man has lately been confused 
with the Charbonneau of Lewis and Clark fame, and many of his de- 
scendants are erroneously under the impression that the interpreter 
was their ancestor. The tombstone over the grave of Toussaint Char- 
vonneau at Richwoods gives the date of his birth as of March I, 1781* 
and his death as of February 19, 1866. Charbbnneau of the Lewis and 
Clark expedition was connected with the Northwest Company in 1793* 
when the Richwoods man was only twelve years old. There is a deed, 
dated June 5, 1848, from Toussaint Charbonneau of Richwoods and his 
wife, Marie L. Lavioiette, a French woman, recorded in St. Louis, 

140 Appendix 

which recites, among other things, that he was living in Washington 
County, Missouri. 

The children of Charbonneau and the Bird Woman, of whom we 
have record, were Toussaint and Lizette. It is known that the former 
was educated by the Catholic priest, Rev. F. Neil, in St. Louis. In 
1830 there was a Charbonneau with a party of hunters and trappers 
in Idaho, and Nathaniel Wyeth also mentions meeting a Charbonneau 
(a half-breed) with Jim Bridger at Fort Bridger in August, 1832. Fre- 
mont found one "Chabonard" camped about nine miles above the 
mouth of Bijou Fork in July, 1842. Sage, in his Rocky Mountain Life 
(Boston, 1857, p. 206), tells of meeting a half-breed fur trader named 
Chabonard in 1841, upon the White River, and later, in 1842, on an 
island in the Platte. Chabonard was in the employ of Bent & St. 
Vrain, and in charge of the camp, and "proved to be a gentleman of 
superior information." He had acquired a classic education and could 
converse quite fluently in German, Spanish, French, and English, as 
well as several Indian languages. His mind also was well stored with 
choice reading and enriched by extensive travel and observation. This 
may have been one of Charbonneau's sons. In Gov. Clark's expense 
accounts for the half-Indian boys named Charbonneau there is listed t 
one Roman history, Scott's Lessons, one dictionary, slate and pencils, 
paper and quills. The daughter or granddaughter of Charbonneau is 
mentioned by Lean Wolf, an old Hidatsa Indian, as having died in 
1837 during the smallpox epidemic. 

On April 23, 1843, there was baptized at Westport, Missouri, Vic- 
toire Vertifeuille, the daughter of Joseph Vertifeuille and Elizabeth 
Carboneau. Perhaps Elizabeth Carboneau was Lizette Charbonneau, 
the daughter of Toussaint Charbonneau and Sakakawea. 


Superintend.y of Indian Affs. 

St. Louis, Augt. 26, 1839. 

On the 2 1st inst. Toussaint Charbonneau, the late Mandan Inter- 
preter, arrived here from the Mandan villages, a distance of 1600 miles, 
and came into the office, tottering under the infirmities of 80 winters, 

Appendix 141 

without a dollar to support him, to ask what appeared to me to be 
nothing more than just, and I accordingly have paid his salary as 
Interpreter for the Mandan sub-agency, for the ist & 2d quarters of 
this year, with the understanding that his services are no longer re- 
quired. This man has been a faithful servant of the Government 
though in a humble capacity. He figured conspicuously in the expedi- 
tion of Lewis and Clark to the Pacific, and rendered much service. 
For the last fifteen years, he has been employed as the Government 
interpreter at the Mandans, and never received notice of the intention 
of the Department to dispense with his services, until some time in 
July, in consequence of the remote situation of the post. Under these 
circumstances I thought, and still think it but right that he should be 
paid, and believe it will meet your sanction, to be charged, (as there 
has been no allottment for that sub-agency), to the contingent ac- 
count of the District. 

I am, 


Your mo. ob. st. 
JOSHUA PILCHER, Supr. In. Affs. 

T. Hartley Crawford, Esq., 

Commr. Ind. Affs. 

O. I. A. Upp. Mo. Sat. Feb. 24, 
Maj. Joshua Pilcher, 

Saint Louis, Aug. 26, 1839. 

Toussaint Charbonneau, late Mandan Interpreter, being 80 years 
old & pennyless, has paid his salary for 1st & 2d qr. of '39 as the 
notice of discontinuance did not reach him till some time in July. 
Ought to be allowed. 

Rev. Sept. 6, 1839. 


MANUEL LISA, one of the most conspicuous of the Indian traders 
and merchants in St. Louis, was born in Lower Louisiana about 1776* 

I4 2 Appendix 

and was the son of Cristobal de Lisa, a native of the town of Murcia, 
Spain, and Maria Ignacia Rodriguez. In his early youth he was at- 
tracted to the Indian trade and made several voyages from New Or- 
leans to the Wabash. In 1799 he came to St. Louis and started in trade 
with the Osage nation, of which he obtained a monopoly from the 
Spanish Government. His premier voyage up the Missouri River was 
in 1807 and from that time until his death he was the recognized leader 
in the Missouri River trade. He was twice married to white women; 
first to Mary Charles, and after her death in 1818 he married Mary 
Hempstead Keeney, daughter of Stephen Hempstead. His only living 
descendants are the children of his daughter Rosalie, whose mother 
was an Omaha. He died in St. Louis, August 12, 1820, after a few 
days' illness. His widow survived him fifty year, and died at Galena, 
Illinois, September 3, 1869. For an extended biography of this fam- 
ous character, see Douglas, Manuel Lisa, Missouri Historical Society 
Collections, 3:233, 267. 


Fort Manuel, Sept. 8, 1812. 
To the Spaniards of New Mexico: 

My dear Sirs: Ever since my first journey among the forks of 
the Missouri, nine hundred leagues from my domicile, I have desired 
to find an opportunity to communicate with my [com]patriots, the 
Spaniards. I have had hunters to the number of twenty-three who 
have gone to the Arapaho nation. Last year they came to my Fort 
Mandanne, where I equipped them anew to return to the place whence 
they had come. They are the ones who informed me that the Span- 
iards of Mexico were coming every year to trade with the Arapahos. 
Therefore I gave to a certain Juan Baptista Champlin, an honorable 
young man, and Juan Baptista Lafargue some goods for the purpose 
of trading with you, admonishing them that it must not be to the 
prejudice of the Government, nor contrary to its laws. 

Since some of my hunters should come this year to meet me at this 
establishment on the Missouri, and since up to the present I have not 
had any news [of them], I have decided to send one of my trusted 
servants, Don Carlos Sanguinet, with two engages, to let them know 
where they should come out with their peltry; and for the same purpose, 
with the same Sanguinet, I sent ten men to the Petite Corne, which 

Appendix 143 

empties into the Rio Amarillo, and this into the Missouri, the entry 
of the Petite Corne being two hundred and twenty-five leagues from 
this establishment, with orders to establish [a post at] that place, as 
nearer for my hunters. 

I have especially instructed Don Carlos Sanguinet to arrange that 
this letter of mine should fall into the hands of some Spaniard who 
may be worthy to communicate with me on those honorable principles, 
and in no other manner, my desire being to engage in business and open 
up a new commerce, which might easily be done. With this in view, 
and as director of the Missouri Fur Company, I propose to you gen- 
tlemen that if you wish to trade and deal with me, for whatever quantity 
of goods it may be, I will obligate myself to fill each year any bill of 
goods which shall be given me, and all shall be delivered (as stipulated) 
both as to quality and as to quantity, at the place nearest and most 
convenient for both parties, to your satisfaction, after we shall have 
agreed on the chosen place. 

In case any of you should wish to come with Don Carlos Sanguinet 
to this my establishment to communicate and trade with me, you will 
be received and treated with great pleasure and satisfaction, and as- 
sured of a sufficient escort, agreeable to you, up to the time you return 
to your country. I commend Don Carlos Sanguinet to you as a trust- 
worthy and honorable man, and, if you are agreed, you may confide 
in him without any fear whatever; and in case you do not come in 
person, I shall be obliged to you if you will write to me. Meanwhile, 
awaiting you, I beg God to spare you many years. 

Your most attentive and faithful servant, 

MANUEL LISA (Rubric). 

(The original of this letter is in the Archives of Chihuahua, and 
published for the first time by Herbert E. Bolton in the Southwestern 
Historical Quarterly, Vol. XVII., p. 61.) 


MELL was one of 
the bravest and 
most resourceful 

men in the fur trade. He was a native of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, 
but the year of his birth is unknown. He came to St. Louis in the 

144 Appendix 

early part of 1804, and later became a member of the First Infantry, 
commanded by Col. Thomas Hunt. He was appointed ensign June 
10, 1807, and on October 10, 1808, was promoted to second lieutenant; 
two weeks later he resigned from the Army. He was stationed at 
Fort Bellefontaine during most of his army service, although for a 
short time, in 1808, he was in command of the small garrison at St. Louis. 
In 1809 he went up the Missouri River with the Missouri Fur Company, 
and soon became Lisa's most trusted lieutenant. There is no record 
of his having returned to St. Louis after this departure. In 1810 he 
joined fortunes with Jean Baptiste Valle as a free hunter on the Upper 
Missouri. Immell was at Fort Osage in March, 1817, where he gave 
a report of some petrified mammoth bones and cedar which he saw 
at a "lake near the waters of Qui Courre River' '. This information was 
afterwards published in the Missouri Gazette, April 12, 1817. When 
Lisa was deprived of the control and management of the affairs of 
Cabanne & Company on the Missouri River and its waters, in Febru- 
ary, 1819, Michael E. Immell, who was at Fort Lisa, was appointed 
to take command jointly with George Kennerly. While in command 
later, with Robert Jones, of an expedition on the Yellowstone, he was 
killed; being literally cut to pieces in battle with the Blackfeet, May 
31, 1823. Major O'Fallon, United States Agent, in his report of this 
conflict to Gen. Clark, July 3, 1823, speaks of Immell in these words: 
"Immell has been a long time on this river, first as an officer in the 
U. S. Army, since as a trader of some distinction. He was in some 
respects an extraordinary man; he was brave, uncommonly large and 
of great muscular strength, and, when timely apprised of danger, a 
host in himself." 

AMOS RICHARDSON came from Kentucky to Missouri before 1803 
and settled in the District of St. Louis at a point which is now St. 
John's Township of Franklin County. He was the fourth child of 
Daniel and Nancy Richardson, who claimed land at Point Labadie, in 
Franklin County. Amos Richardson was a Syndic under Gov. Delas- 
sus, whose report of him states: "I think him a proper man for public 
business, and since hia appointment he has always borne himself ear- 

Appendix 145 

nestly in all matters." He was in the employ of Sanguinet and Robi- 
dou from 1804-1809, and later with Auguste Chouteau, as a trapper, 
Bradbury, in his travels of 1809-1810, met Richardson at the Arikara 
village in July, 1810, and he asked permission to travel down the river 
with him to St. Louis. Four years without seeing a single white man's 
house made him very eager to leave the Indian country. Then, too,, 
he suffered great hardship, including a severe arrow wound, which gave 
him considerable pain. During the descent of the river he told Brad- 
bury that he would never again go back to the hunting life. Three 
weeks after his arrival in the settlements, when Bradbury was ready 
to make his trip up the Arkansas, Richardson asked to join him, When 
Bradbury expressed surprise at so sudden a change in his intentions, 
he replied: "I find so much deceit and selfishness among white men 
that I have already tired of them. The arrowhead, which is not yet 
extracted, pains me when I chop wood, whiskey I can't drink and 
bread and salt I don't care about. I will go again among the Indians." 
However, after his return from the Arkansas he went back to his home, 
which was close to that of John Colter of Lewis and Clark fame. The 
Colters and the Richardsons were very good friends, and upon the 
death of Colter, Daniel Richardson was appointed administrator of the 
estate. After the death of their father Daniel, Amos and his brother 
Richard were appointed administrators to close up the estate of John 
Colter. Amos Richardson married and was living in Franklin County 
in 1835, tne l ast date f which we have any record of him. He, as 
well as other members of his family, were prosperous farmers of Franklin 
County, Missouri. 


ELI B. CLEMSON was a native of Pennsylvania and he entered the 
United States Army from that State. His commission as second lieu- 
tenant of the 1st Infantry was issued March 3, 1799, and first lieutenant 
April 30, 1800; at these times he was stationed at Detroit. Lieutenant 
Clemson was promoted to a captaincy March 4, 1807; major, January 
20, 1813; lieutenant-colonel of the i6th Infantry, March 9, 1814; and 
honorably discharged June 15, 1815. The following year he was ap- 
pointed Commissioner of Issues at St. Louis, which post he resigned 
December 1, 1819. In 1807 Captain Clemson was appointed, at the sug- 
gestion of his friend Frederick Bates, justice of the peace for the town- 

146 Appendix 

ship of St. Ferdinand, District of St. Louis. Colonel Clemson was a 
most capable man, and his interests and occupations covered many fields. 

As commander of Fort Osage in 1808, Major Clemson mustered 
into the United States service a body of militia to convoy the Mandan 
chief on his return to the Mandan village. Fort Clemson, situated 
near Loutre Island, St. Charles County, was erected and named in his 
honor during the War of 1812. For a number of years prior to and after 
the War of 1812 he was stationed at Fort Bellefontaine and invested 
largely in St. Louis real estate, realizing therefrom a handsome profit. 
In 1817 he purchased from Judge Lucas a block of ground covering 
Olive, Locust, Sixth and Seventh Streets, on which he built a large 
frame dwelling and lived there for some time. This block is now the 
site of a combined department store and office building. In about 
1820 he sold out his interests in St. Louis and went East. Returning 
to the West in a few years, he located in Lebanon, St. Clair County, 
Illinois, and for a time operated a line of stage and mail coaches be- 
tween Vincennes and St. Louis. Later he went to Carlyle in that State 
and embarked in the mercantile business. In 1832 he moved to Car- 
rollton, Illinois, and again engaged in the transportation business be- 
tween Springfield and St. Louis. A few years afterwards he took up 
farming at Caledonia (now called Olmstead), Illinois, and served as 
postmaster of that place. He was the projector of the town of Na- 
poleon and agent for the Winnebago Land Company. His last occu- 
pation was clerk of Pulaski County Court, which position he held at 
the time of his death, June 25, 1846. 

Colonel Clemson was twice married. First to Miss Ann Marie Oliver 
of New Brunswick, New York, on April 9, 1811. Of this marriage 
four children were born: Henry A., who was an officer in the United 
States Navy and was lost during the siege of Vera Cruz in the Mexican 
War when the United States brig Somers capsized; James Y.; Freder- 
ick W.; and Mary C, who married Mr. Olden of Princeton, New 
Jersey. Mrs. Clemson died in 1832, and Colonel Clemson afterwards 
married Mrs. Esther Daniels Riddle, the widow of Captain James Riddle, 
August II, 1836. Two children were born of this marriage: Aaron B. 
and Theodosia B. The second Mrs. Clemson died in 1864. Colonel 
Clemson's son James Y. married Henriette McDonald; from her was ob- 
tained the data concerning the Colonel's career in Illinois. 

Appendix 147 


FRANCOIS ROBIDOU, the third son of Joseph and Catherine (Rollet, 
dit Laderoute) Robidou, was born in St. Louis, September 24, 1788. 
He was married in 1807 to Therese Bienvenue Delisle, daughter of 
Jean Baptiste and Cecile (La Rose) Delisle. Mrs. Robidou died in 
1833, at which time six children, born of this marriage, were living: 
Therese, Francois, Antoine, Jean Baptiste, Marie, and Cecile. Fran- 
cois Robidou received a very good education, and was prominently 
identified with the social and civic history of St. Louis. He was one of 
the signers of the petition for incorporating St. Louis in 1809. Fran- 
cois and his brother Joseph were closely associated together all their 
lives. From an early date they made many trips up the Missouri 
River as trappers and hunters, and later as free traders. When Joseph 
was persuaded to remain in St. Louis and paid to cease his trade with 
the Indians, the two brothers opened up a confectionery shop in St. 
Louis. Their father had erected one of the first stone bake-ovens in 
St. Louis, in order to supply the Indian trade, as well as the residents, 
with bread. When they resumed their former occupation as Indian 
traders, Joseph remained in the Black Snake Hills (now St. Joseph, 
Missouri), while Francois went further up the Missouri River, or across 
the plains to the mountains, to hunt and trap. After taking up their 
residence at St. Joseph, Missouri, Francois seems to have become the 
lesser light, and his deeds are not recorded in the history of that com- 
munity. This was due probably to the fact that Joseph was the leader 
and dictator, and Francois the follower, the hunter and trapper. I 
find no record of a second marriage, nor of the death of Francois. His 
great-nephew, Louis R. Robidoux of Kansas City, tells me that the 
family tradition indicates that Francois died on the plains of Nebraska 
on May 30, 1857. The Probate Court records of Buchanan County 
show that letters of administration were taken out on the estate of one 
Francois Robidoux on April n, 1856, and also that he died intestate, 
leaving the following heirs t Mary Poulin, Sellico Robidoux, Louis 

148 Appendix 

Robidoux, Eugenia Angel, and Celina (Cecile) Lapere. While these 
names do not altogether agree with those in the baptismal records at 
St. Louis, nor in the deed of partition filed after the death of Mrs. 
Francois Robidou. they do accord with records in St. Joseph. These 
show that Therese Eugenia Robidoux married John Angel, an English- 
man, in St. Joseph in 1846; that Cecile, widow of Mr. McDowell, mar- 
ried Peter Le Pere in 1850; and Marie, as the Widow Brown, married 
Isadore Poulin in 1854; in each entry Francois Robidou is given as 
the father of the bride. The name Robidou is usually written with 
an x, due no doubt to the fact that both Joseph and Francois frequently 
gave a flourish to the final u which somewhat resembled an x. The 
present generation spells it Robidoux. 


Louis BISSONET, dit Bijou, eldest son of Louis and Genevieve 
(Routier) Bissonet, was born in St. Louis, August 5, 1774. When 
twenty-five years old he was engaged by Auguste Chouteau to make 
a voyage to Mackinac, and he continued in his employ until the or- 
ganization of the St. Louis Missouri Fur Company. He became one 
of the most trusted employees of that company and remained in its 
service for many years. In May, 1820, he was in the employ of Pratte 
and Vasquez, and encamped on the Missouri River at a place "about 
one league below the old town of the Mahas nation." On May 22, 
1820, the camp was suddenly attacked by a party of Indians, believed 
to have been the Sauks. Bissonet, Baptiste Ticio, and Charles Le- 
monde, dit La Malice, were severely wounded, and Louis Lecompte 
was killed. To save their lives, Pratte, Vasquez, and their surviving 
engages, leaving behind all their furs and peltries, horses and equip- 
ment, were forced to take flight to Council Bluffs, where the United 
States troops were stationed. In an affidavit made in St. Louis, July 
6, 1820, and from which the above facts were ascertained, Bissonet 
stated that he had for a great number of years followed the India n 
trade, and was well acquainted with the habits, manners, and customs 
of the Indians. In 1825, while in the employ of the French Fur Com- 
pany, he was sent to accompany Gen. Atkinson and his party to treat 
with the Mandans. He was chief clerk and trader at Fort Clark in 
1830; clerk of the Upper Missouri Outfit of the American Fur Company 
in 1831; chief trader of the French Company in 1833. 

Appendix 149 

Bijou Hills, South Dakota, close to the point where he had his 
trading-post, were named for him. There was a Bissonet in the North- 
west Company, one with Parkman in 1846, and Joseph Bissonet, a 
brother of Louis, was an employee of the Missouri Fur Company in 

Louis Bissonet seems to have died in 1836, as his brother-in-law, 
Paul Primeau, was appointed at St. Louis administrator of his estate 
January 2. 1837. His heirs were Joseph Bissonet, brother, living at 
that time in Mexico; Pelagic Primeau, his sister; Pierre and Elinore 
Ladouceur, his nephew and niece. 


NET, fils, was of a 
family prominent in 
Canada and in St. 
Louis. He was the 
son of Charles San- 

guinet, who came to St. Louis from Quebec in the year 1775, and soon 
became prominent in its social and business life. The elder Charles 
was married to Marie Anne Cond6, the eldest daughter of Dr. Auguste 
A. Cond6, St. Louis' first physician; he became a member of the Span- 
ish Company of explorers and traders, and later was associated with 
the various fur trading and commercial enterprises, in which he amassed 
a fortune. Charles and Marie (Cond6) Sanguinet had three sons* 
Charles, Simon, and Christopher, all of whom had some experience in 
the mountains. Of them, Charles, known as "Sanguinet, fils" very 
closely followed his father's example in his business methods, and, 
while he had one or two reverses in business, managed to accumulate 
a fortune. When Sanguinet, fils, was thirteen years of age, he was sent 
to New Orleans to complete his education, after which he entered the 
grocery business. In 1808 he returned to St. Louis and immediately 
joined the Missouri Fur Company's expedition of that year. Sanguinet 
made three trips to the mountains. After his return from the last trip 
he engaged in the general mercantile business with his father, their 
store being in the lower part of the Sanguinet house on the northeast 
corner of Main and Elm Streets, and after the death of his father his 


brother-in-law, Captain Josiah Bright, joined with him. Their stock was 
said to be the largest in St. Louis, but in 1821 the partnership was 
dissolved. After a financial failure in 1827, Mr. Sanguinet moved to 
Franklin, Missouri, where he remained a year or two. He went to the 
Galena Mines to prospect for lead, in which venture he was very suc- 
cessful, and after four or five years returned to St. Louis, where he 
engaged in the real estate and banking business. 

Mr. Sanguinet was a very prudent, industrious, and studious man 
of a kind and gentle disposition. His daughter, Mrs. Virginia Nadeau, 
aged ninety-two years (whose interest in things of to-day and clear 
recollections of the past made my visits to her a source of delight)* 
gave this account of him: "My father was very Napoleonic and de- 
bonnaire. He always wore knee breeches, velvet coats, and lacey 
jabots. He was small in stature, with blue eyes and brown hair, and 
the most indulgent of fathers." 

Mr. Sanguinet was married October 19, 1816, to Miss Cecilc Brazeau* 
and their children, all of whom attained majority, were: Mary, Charles* 
Marshall, Amanda, Virginia, and Fanny; many of the descendants oj 
whom are still living in Missouri and Texas. Mr. Sanguinet lived on 
his farm in St. Louis County until about two weeks before his death 
which occurred in the ciy of St. Louis, April 10, 1873, at the age of 
&inety-one years; the day of his birth being December 9, 1782. Some 
time before his death he divided all his property among his children* 


was born in Al- 
bemarle Coun- 
ty, Virginia, 
February 14, 

1777. He came to Missouri in 1807, with his brother, Meriwether 
Lewis. Soon afterwards he was appointed, by his brother, sub-agent 
of Indian Affairs, and as such signed a treaty with the Osages at Fort 
Osage, November 10, 1808. He became a partner in the St. Louis 
Missouri Fur Company and went up the Missouri River in 1809, where 
he remained in command of one of the forts until 1812. After his return 
in 1813, upon the rcommendation of General Clark, he was appointed 

Appendix 151 

Assistant Agent of Indian Affairs in Arkansas. In 1818 he was ap- 
pointed Commissioner to run the survey line for the land given by 
the United States to the Cherokee Nation, in exchange for land 
ceded to the United States by the treaty of July 8, 1817; later he was 
appointed in the same capacity, to lay off the Quapaw Reserve. He 
did not, however, serve on either Commission; the first, for the reason 
that the letter of instructions from the War Department miscarried 
and, in the meantime, the work was done by General Rector under di- 
rections from the general office; and the second, because of domestic 
troubles intervening, as will be seen from the following letter of Mr* 
Harper. This letter, dated Albemarle County, Virginia, May 12, 1819, 
was addressed to Reuben Lewis, Agent for Cherokees on the Arkansas* 
and contained, among other things, the following: 

"Our neigborhood has been severely afflicted for some months past, 
among which your mother's family have had a large share, owing to 
the Doctor's [probably his half-brother, Dr. John Marks] situation; 
which has become to appearances hopeless; his insanity has assumed 
a dangerous appearance so that it has been found necessary to confine 
him. * * * You will now consider yourself the only prop 
of the family. Your mother yesterday requested that you might be 
immediately informed * * * and that you would hasten to 
their relief. Your mother's firmness is much weakened. Since writing 
above the Doctor has escaped from his friends and has not been heard of." 

On August 15, 1819, Reuben Lewis wrote the Secretary of War : 
"From the peculiar and unfortunate situation of my mother and fam- 
ily, I must beg leave to decline accepting a commission to lay off the 
Quapaw Reserve, and for the same circumstances, I am compelled to 
resign my appointment as agent for the Cherokees on the Arkansas." 
His resignation was accepted, to take effect December 31, 1819, but 
before that date he returned to the family estate near Charlottesville, 
Virginia, and soon after took up the medical profession. In 1832 he 
married his cousin, Mildred Dabney. Reuben Lewis died in 1844, 
leaving no descendants. 


JOHN DOUGHERTY was born near Bardstown, Nelson County, Ken- 
tucky, April 12, 1791, and died at Liberty, Clay County, Missouri, 
December 28, 1860. At the age of seventeen years he came to St. 


Louis and almost immediately engaged himself to the St. Louis Mis- 
souri Fur Company. He went with the first expedition of that com- 
pany to the Upper Missouri, and after a few years' service in the capac- 
ity of trapper, trader, and clerk, he was appointed sub-agent under 
Major Benjamin O'Fallon, United States Indian Agent of the Upper 
Missouri tribes. On the resignation of Major O'Fallon in 1827, Major 
Dougherty was appointed United States Indian Agent. His headquar- 
ters were at Fort Leavenworth for the first ten years of his incum- 
bency; at St. Louis for the years 1830-1833; then for a short time 
at Council Bluffs; and again at Fort Leavenworth, where he remained 
until 1839. When he resigned, the Missouri Republican of St. Louis, 
commenting on it, said editorially: "In losing the services of Major 
Dougherty the Government has lost a valuable public officer, one of the 
first for honesty, integrity, and worth in the land; the Indians a faithful 
and unflinching friend." Major Dougherty, as he wrote to his friend 
Senator Geyer, had spent forty-four years in the Western country from 
the Missouri to the Columbia, as trapper, Indian agent, and freighter. 
These were dangerous occupations, in which he became more perfectly 
acquainted with the habits, manners, tastes, and peculiarities of the 
Northwestern tribes than any man ever did before, or since, and no 
man has ever acquired such an influence over them. This influence 
did not result so much from his peculiar knowledge of them as it did 
from the nature of the man himself. He had a commanding and easy 
dignity, a bright and intellectual eye; an unvarying candor and direct- 
ness in all his intercourse with them, which at once pleased, charmed* 
and overawed. His life with the Indians and uncouth men of the 
then uncivilized West did not take from him those inherent qualities 
of a gentleman. He was kind, courteous, and hospitable, a good neigh- 
bor, a warm and devoted friend, and an affectionate husband and 
father. Colonel D. C. Allen of Liberty, Missouri, pays this tribute to 
him: "Major Dougherty was a magnificent specimen of the frontiers- 
man and Indian fighter, as well as that of the old-fashioned Missouri 

After Major Dougherty's resignation from the Indian Department 
he removed to Clay County, and was elected a representative to the 
Missouri Legislature of that county in the hard contest of 1840. With 
Colonel Robert and William Campbell of St. Louis he was in the busi- 
ness of United States sutlers and freighters from about 1839 to 1855. 

He married at St. Louis, November 13, 1823, Mary, the daughter 

Appendix 153 

of Joseph Hertzog and Catherine Wilt. Four children were born to 
them: Lewis Bissell, who has the distinction of being the first white 
American born in what is now the State of Kansas and who served in the 
Confederate Army as captain in the Third Missouri Infantry, and is 
now living at Liberty, Missouri; Anne Elizabeth, who married Gen- 
eral Charles Ruff, United States Army; O'Fallon, banker and stock- 
raiser; John Kerr, who served in his brother's regiment in the Confed- 
erate Army, and was killed at the battle of Franklin, Tennessee. Mrs. 
Dougherty died in Philadelphia, March 27, 1873, aged seventy-four years. 


SABLE, a French-West- 
Indian mulatto, reputed to 
be the first settler of Chi- 
cago; having had a trading- 
house and residence on the 
bank of the Chicago River, 
where Pine Street now ends, 

prior to 1779. According to Mrs. John H. Kinzie, whose husband 
purchased the house built by Point du Sable, he was a native of San 
Domingo. N. Matson, in his French and Indian Wars of Illinois^ says 
he was a runaway slave from Lexington, Kentucky. Point du Sable 
on June 14, 1809, in making an affidavit at St. Charles as to some 
Indian depredations on the Illinois River, designated himself "Baptiste 
Pointe Sable, a free mulatto man." 

Point du Sable's chief occupation seems to have been that of a 
trader who wandered from place to place in the customary manner, 
and fortunately left a record now and then. In 1779 he was in Chi- 
cago, and in the summer of that same year he was established on the 
River Chemin, later known as Trail Creek, probably on the site of 
Michigan City, Indiana. It was at this place that he was arrested 
by Lieut. Bennett, who had been sent by Arent S. De Peyster of the 
British Army to forestall an anticipated attack on Mackinac by George 
Rogers Clark. Point du Sable's arrest seems to have been due to his 
seeming attachment to the American cause, although at the time he 
was in the employ of a British trader named Durand, who had under- 

154 Appendix 

taken to guide a British war party to the Illinois country to co-operate 
with Bennett. In his petition for a grant of land from the United 
States Government, presented in 1783, Point du Sable satisfied the 
Commissioners that he was a citizen of the United States. He stated 
that as early as 1780 he had resided at Peoria with his family and had 
improved a farm of thirty acres between the Old Fort and the new 
settlements of Peoria. In 1790 he was again in Chicago and probably 
intermittently for five or six years. In this same year, on October 4, 
Susanne, the natural daughter of Point du Sable and an Indian woman, 
married Jean Baptiste Pelletier at Cahokia, and on October 7, 1799, 
a child born of this union was baptized in the Old Cathedral at St. 
Louis. The entry states that Pelletier's spouse, Susanne Point Sable, 
was "Habit a Chicagou" In 1796 he appeared at Mackinac. The 
next record of him is as a witness or juror on September 29, 1802, in 
the St. Clair County, Illinois (then Indiana Territory), Court of Com- 
mon Pleas. 

The first positive record I have found of Point du Sable's residence 
in Missouri is in 1805, when he purchased some land in St. Charles 
County from a negro named Rondin. The records show, from this 
time on until June, 1813, several transfers of property in the city and 
county of St. Charles which were made jointly by Jean Baptiste Point 
Sable and "Baptiste Pointsable," as the names were usually written to 
distinguish father and son. p 

In June, 1813, as "J ean Baptiste Point de Sabre," he conveyed a 
lot and house in the city of St. Charles, together with all of his other 
property of various kinds, to Eulalia Barada, wife of Michael Derais. 
He was probably ill at the time, as the consideration mentioned was 
her promise to care for him in his illness and to bury him in the Catholic 
Cemetery at St. Charles. The names appearing on the records, "Point 
du Sable," "Point Sable," and "Point Sabre," are only variations of 
Point du Sable; the title to the property involved in each case being 
traceable to the same man. It is an interesting fact that Point du 
Sable always signed simply with his initials, " J. B. P. S.," as shown in 
the cut above. 

The son, Baptiste Point du Sable, Jr., died sometime prior to Feb- 
ruary 17, 1814, as letters of administration were then granted at St. 
Charles, Missouri, on his estate to Henry Hight. No heirs were then 
given and no files in the case are to be found in the Probate Court. 
In July, 1814, Hight was removed and letters were granted to Jean 
Baptiste Pointsable, Sr., but there are no files in that case. In Sep- 

Appendix 155 

tember, 1814, "J. B. P. S., alias John B. Pointsable," applied to the 
court to take the benefit of the acts of the Territory concerning in- 
solvent debtors, and to be released from imprisonment. 

Whether it was the early Chicago settler, or the son, who was on 
this expedition, it is difficult to determine absolutely. 


AUGUSTE DUROCHER was born about 1779, as the record of his 
marriage to Marie Louise Hortiz, widow of Joseph Laprise, solem- 
nized in St. Louis, April 4, 1839, states that he was then about sixty 
years old. He had contracted an alliance with this lady many years 
previous. The church records of the St. Louis Cathedral show that 
there were born of this couple: Marie Claire, November 22, 1821, 
who married at St. Louis, January 7, 1839, Louis Dessaint of Quebec; 
Auguste Edmond, July 25, 1825; and Joseph, May 23, 1827. Marie 
Durocher, widow of Auguste, died December 30, 1863, leaving the fol- 
lowing heirs: Marie Dessaint, then living at Davenport, Iowa, daugh- 
ter; Benjamin Durocher, son, living at Fort Benton; Louise Tetu, 
daughter; Julia, wife of Edmond Philibert, granddaughter; Augustus 
Schaeffer, grandson, children of her daughter Eloise. 

On May 16, 1814, Joseph Philibert and his company started on an 
expedition to the Arapaho country, and Durocher accompanied him 
as interpreter. Upon the return of the Philibert party Durocher con- 
ducted a dancing school at Mr. Sanguinet's house and continued this 
profession for two years. On January 26, 1819, he held his last ball, 
so the newspaper advertisement reads. He was next heard of as a 
tavern keeper on North Main Street in St. Louis in 1822. Growing 
tired of this monotonous life, he joined, in 1829, the Kansas Outfit 
of the American Fur Company, as a boatman. The next year he re- 
engaged himself with the Company as boatman and hunter in the 
Upper Missouri Outfit and was stationed at Fort Union. He remained 
in this outfit until the fall of 1833, when he returned to St. Louis. 
Durocher seems to have remained in St. Louis for about fifteen years, 
as the directories and church records indicate that he was there in 
1839, 1845, and 1848. In 1851 Mrs. Auguste Durocher is listed in the 
city directory as a widow. In about 1850 Auguste Durocher stopped 
in St. Joseph, Missouri, at the home of Pierre Harnois, who had been 


a gunsmith in the American Fur Company for many years. He asked 
Mr. Harnois to care for some papers which he was leaving until his 
brother, who closely resembled himself, should call for them. Mr. 
Durocher stated that he was going to the Sandwich Islands, and that 
he had previously been working in the mines of California. He was 
never heard from after that, nor is there any record of him in St. Louis 
after 1848. He probably left St. Louis for the California gold-fields 
in 1849. 


ANTOINE CITOLEUX, dit Langevin, is usually referred to as Cito- 
leur, although sometimes as Sitoleur and Citolou. He was the son 
of Jean Baptiste and Rosalie (Pilon) Citoleux. On June 15, 1813, at 
St. Louis, he married Adrienne Trudeau, daughter of the schoolmaster 
Jean B. and Madeleine (Roy) Trudeau. His wife died August 24, 
1813, aged seventeen years; the church record of the burial states 
that she was the wife of Antoine Sitoleur, a "traveller." After the 
return of this expedition, Citoleux remained in St. Louis for several 
years; at least, we have evidence that he was there from June, 1814, 
to 1816. He probably continued in the fur trade, although the only 
record we find of him in that connection is in October, 1823, when he 
was in command of a Missouri Fur Company expedition, with which 
Jean Eymas and Joseph A. Sire went as voyageurs and hunters. While 
on his way from Fort Kiowa on the Missouri River to the Little Mis- 
souri, and in contemplation of a detour alone into dangerous country, 
Citoleux decided to make his will. It was written by Sire in French, 
to which Citoleux signed his name by making his mark, and Sire and 
Eymas signed as witnesses. It was a very short document, and the 
only bequest was to his nephew and god-son, Antoine Louis Trudeau, 
son of his brother-in-law, Louis Trudeau. The estate consisted of a 
house and lot in St. Louis and two notes signed by Joseph Leblond 
and Joseph Roture, respectively. Neither of these notes could be col- 
lected, as Leblond died insolvent and Roture "had gone to the Spanish 
country." The will was lost for some time, and Sire and Eymas made 
affidavits concerning its contents. While the will, which was dated 
October 15, 1823, does not state the place at which it was made, Sire, 
in his affidavit, says it was done at the island called Simoneau. Ey- 
mas states that the next day after the publishing of the will by Cito- 

Appendix 157 

leux, and at a distance of about thirty miles below the Little Missouri, 
he and Citoleux parted, Citoleux to go to the Arikaras village on the 
Little Missouri, and Eymas and Sire to their destination; that he never 
saw Citoleux afterwards, but understood that he had been killed by 
the Arikaras soon after leaving him. 


Taken from the Account Book, kept by Manuel Lisa himself, the 
original of which is in the Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, 

LE 2 MAY ET L'AUTRE LE 6, 1812. 

Reuben Lewis, John Kenton, 

John C. Luttig, Juan Baptist Lachapel, 

Louis Lorimier, Antoine Citoleur, 

Charles Sanguinet, Antoine Mercier, 

Michael E. Immel, Ustache Carier, 

Juan Baptist Mayet, Ant. & Abraham Leroux [or 
Alexy Jollet, Ledoux], 

Francois Roy, Chevalier, Cadet, 

Francois Laprise, Charles Latour, 

Pierre Lamonde, William Brawn [Brown], 

Pierre Desseve, John Dokerty [Dougherty], 

Louis Lajoie, Caleb Grenwoods, 

Josef Lagasse, desertt, Brice Arnold, 

Josef Leme, William Weir, 

Baptiste Pointsable, Blan, Grand [A Pety (Petit) Blan 
Louis Manegre, desert6 y was in the employ of the Corn- 

Andre St. Germain, pany about this time], 

Pedro Antonio, Baptiste Provots, 

Josef Leclair, Etienne Cadron, dit St. Pierre, 

Pierre Lange, John Polly, 

Antoine Labont6, Antoine Peltier, 

Pierre Larivier, Antoine Canga, 

Guiomme Tardit, Louis McKraken, 

Francois Lecompt, Edouard Rose, 

Hipolite Papin, Pierre Marasse, 

Francois Guenville, Michel Rousseau, 

Bte. Latoulipe, Pierre Detalier, 

158 Appendix 

Augte. Bourbonnois, Josef Carrot [Garreau], 

John Anderson, Josef Bourrain, 

Bte. Alar, Josef Elie, 

Gabriel Agot, Baptiste Antoine, dit Machecou, 

L. T. Dejardin, Louis Archambeau, 

Daniel Larrison, Isaac Fouche, 

Paul Pereau, Pierre Chaine, 

Philip Fontaine, Francois Oulle, 

Nicolas Glineau, Toussain Charboneau, 

Josef Bissonet, James H. Audrin [Audrain], 

Louis Bissonet, dit Bijou, Louis Delibac, 

Josef Joyal, Morice Leduc, 

Ren6 Jussome [Jusseaume], Louis Chatelreau, 

Pierre Primeau, Alexander Toulouse, 

Gueniche St. Pierre, Louis Norman, 

George, negr e. 

Pour serche les Chasseures qui eiet sur la Rre. des Espagnal et Arapaos 
7 Sept. 1812. 

M. Ch. Sanguinet #35. 

Cadet Chevalier 300. 

Ch. Latour 300. 

Bibliography 159 




(Unless otherwise noted, these manuscripts are in the archives of 
the Missouri Historical Society.) 

ASHLEY, WILLIAM H. Letters and accounts, 1811-1836. 
ATKINSON, GENERAL HENRY. Journals of 1825 and 1828. 
BATES, FREDERICK (Secretary of Missouri Territory and afterwards 
Governor of the State). Personal and official letters, appointments , 
and documents, 1807-1825. 

BIDDLE, MAJOR THOMAS. Observations on the Missouri River, 1819. 
CENSUS of Districts of St. Louis, Ste. Genevieve, St. Charles, Caronde- 
let, Florissant, Merrimeca to Platin, New Bourbon, and Marais des 
Liards, 1787, 1791, and 1796. 
CHOUTEAU, AUGUSTE. Collection of business and family papers, letters, 

notes, and accounts of the fur trade. 

CHOUTEAU, PIERRE. Important collection of papers relating to the 
fur trade on the Upper Missouri and including the following jour- 
nals and letter-books: Journal des Cahos, August, 1778-Decem- 
ber, 1781; Letter-books, March, 1798-January, 1817; September, 
i8i7~June, 1819; October, i8o4-April, 1819; Journals of Fort Te- 
cumseh, January, i83O-April, 1831; January -June, 1832; Letter- 
books of Fort Tecumseh, November, i83O-December, 1835; Fort 
Pierre, December, i832-August, 1835; June, i845~June, 1846; De- 
cember, i847~May, 1848; February, i849-December, 1850. Fort 
Union, October, i833-December, 1835. 

CHURCH REGISTERS (copies of the originals being in the Missouri His- 
torical Society) : 

Arkansas Post, Osage Indian Mission, 

Cahokia, Portage des Sioux, 

Carondelet, St. Charles, 

Florissant, Ste. Genevieve, 

Fort Chartres, St. Louis, 

Kaskaskia, St. Mary's, Kansas, 

New Madrid, Village de Saint Philippe, 

Old Mines, Vincennes Post. 

GLAMORGAN, JACQUES. Collection, 1794-1817. 

160 Bibliography 

CLARK, WILLIAM. Memorandum-book, September, 1820, to May, 

1825; also letters and reports. 
CROOKS, RAMSEY. Letters of Ramsey Crooks, John J. Astor, and 

American Fur Company, 1813-1846. Transcript made through 

the courtesy of Mr. C. M. Burton. 

D ALTON, MARY L., COLLECTION. A few letters and documents, 1812- 

DARBY, JOHN F. Correspondence, personal and official, 1826-1888. 

DOUGHERTY, MAJOR JOHN (Indian Agent for Upper Missouri tribes). 
Letters, receipts, notes, and reports, 1834-1856. 

DRIPS, ANDREW (Indian Agent and trader). Correspondence and ac- 
counts 1832-1860. 

FARRAR, DR. BERNARD G. Account-books from 1807-1836, containing 
names of nearly all of the early residents of St. Louis. 

FORSYTE, THOMAS. Collection of letters and reports while Indian 
Agent, 1811-1822. 

HERTZOG, JOSEPH (Merchant at Philadelphia). Letters to Christian 
Wilt and others, 1811-1813. 

HUNT, THEODORE (Recorder of Land Titles). Hunt's minutes; the 
testimony relating to lands in the towns and villages of St. Louis, 
St. Charles, St. Ferdinand, Portage des Sioux, Carondelet, New 
Madrid, New Bourbon, Ste. Genevieve, Villa a Robert, Missouri, 
and Village of Arkansas. Taken February 13 to May 25, 1825. 

KEARNY, GENERAL STEPHEN W. Journals of, for 1820, 1824, 1825, 

KENNEDY, ALEXANDER. Journal kept at Fort Clark, 1833-1834. 

KENNERLY, JAMES. Memorandum-book for 1824-1825 at Council 
Bluffs; same for 1839-1840 at St. Louis. 

LISA, MANUEL. Collection of letters, contracts, deeds, accounts, and 
litigations, 1794-1820. 

MAFFITT, PIERRE CHOUTEAU. Collection of documents relating to 
the fur trade and Indians of the Upper Missouri and the South- 
west, 1807-1855; lists of men in the employ of P. Chouteau & 
Co., 1807-1850; of American Fur Co., 1828-1849. 

MAHER, JOSEPH. Collection of Captain James Callaway's letters, diary, 
and muster-rolls, War of 1812. 


MISSOURI FUR COMPANY. Book containing the Articles of Associa- 
tion, dated January 24, 1812, and minutes of the Board meetings 
fromjanuary 27, 1812, to January 17, 1814. The original of this 
is in the library of the Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, 

POST, MRS. E. G. Memorandum-books, 1812-1871, containing numer- 
ous references to Colonel Eli B. Clemson. 

ST. CHARLES ARCHIVES. French and Spanish records, deeds, conces- 

Bibliography 161 

sions, marriage contracts, etc., 1790-1806. Circuit Court, Probate 
Court, and Recorder of Deeds records, 1806-1830. 

ST. CLAIR COUNTY. Minutes of the County Court of Common 
Pleas, held at Cahokia, December Term, i8oi-June Term, 1805. 

STE. GENEVIEVE ARCHIVES. Marriage contracts, deeds, concessions, 
Circuit and Probate Court records, 1761-1854. 

ST. Louis ARCHIVES, and various Court records, 1764-1870. 

SIBLEY, MA TOR GEORGE C. (Indian Agent). Letters, diaries, reports, 
personal and official, 1805-1850. 

ST. Louis MISSOURI FUR COMPANY. Account-books, containing also 
letters, articles of association and minutes of meetings, March, 
i8o9-January, 1812. 

SUBLETTE COLLECTON. Comprising the papers of William, Milton, 
and Andrew Sublette; business correspondence of Smith, Jackson, 
and Sublette, and Rocky Mountain Fur Co., 1826-1857, 

TESSON, ROBERT. Collection of letters, accounts, etc., on fur trade" 
and Indian affairs, 1806-1838. 

liam Clark and others at St. Louis from 1813-1855, twenty-nine 
volumes. In the library of the Kansas State Historical Society- 
Indian Office, Washington, D. C. Letters, reports, accounts, and 
various documents covering the period from 1811 to 1848. 

VALLE, CAPTAIN FRANCOIS. Collection, 1796-1846. 

VASQUE7, Louis AND BsNiTO. Personal and business correspondence, 

WALDO, DR. DAVID. Journals and other papers relating to the Santa 
Fe trade, 1832-1864. 

WALDO, WILLIAM. Recollections of a Septuagenarian. Printed in part 
in Vol. i, No. 2, of the Missouri Historical Society Collections. 

WASHINGTON COUNTY, MISSOURI. Court papers, 1815-1846. 

WILT, Christian. Letters written at St. Louis to his uncle Joseph 
Hertzog of Philadelphia, John C. Luttig, and others, from July, 
1812, to September, 1815. An important collection of letters con- 
taining valuable material on the social and commercial life in St. 
Louis and the War of 1812. 


ABNEY, A. H. Life and Adventures of L. D. Lafferty. New York, 

AMERICAN STATE PAPERS. Claims, Washington, 1834. 

Foreign Relations. Vol 4. Washington, 1834. 

Indian Affairs. 2 vols. Washington, 1832. 

Public Lands. 8 vols. Washington, 1832. 
ARKANSAS HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. Publications. Fayetteville, 1906- 


1 62 Bibliography 

ARMSTRONG, B. G. Early Life Among the Indians. Ashland, 1892. 

ARMSTRONG, M. K. Early Empire Builders of the Great West. St. 
Paul, 1901. 

AUDUBON, MARIA R. . Audubon and His Journals, with zoological and 
other notes by Elliott Coues. 2 vols. London, 1898. 

BABCOCK, RUFUS, Editor. Forty Years of Pioneer Life. Memoir of 
John Mason Peck, edited from his journals and correspondence. 
Philadelphia, 1864. 

BALLANTYNE, R. M. Away in the Wilderness; or Life Among the In- 
dians and Fur Traders of North America. Philadelphia, 1869. 

BARROWS, WILLIAM. The General; or Twelve Nights in the Hunters' 
Camp. Boston, 1870. 

BECK, L. C. Gazetteer of the States of Illinois and Missouri. Albany, 

BECKWOURTH, J. P. Life and Adventures of James P. Beckwourth. 
New York, 1856. 

BELDEN, GEORGE P. Belden, the White Chief; or Twelve Years Among 
the Wild Indians of the Plains. Cincinnati, 1875. 

BELL, OVID. Short History of Callaway County, Mo. Fulton, 1913. 

BELL, W. S. Old Fort Benton. Helena, 1909. 

BILLON, F. L. Annals of St. Louis in Its Early Days Under the 
French and Spanish Dominations. St. Louis, 1880. 
Annals of St. Louis in Its Territorial Days'. St. Louis, 1888. 


Chicago, 1890. 

BLEDSOE, A. J. Indian Wars of the Northwest. San Francisco, 1885. 

BOLLER, H. A. Among the Indians; Eight Years in the Far West. 
Philadelphia, 1868. 

BOYLE, ESMERALDA. Biographical Sketches of Distinguished Mary- 
landers. Baltimore, 1877. 

BRACKENRIDGE, H. M. Recollections of Peisons and Places in the 
West. Philadelphia, 1834. 

Views of Louisiana, together with a Journal of a Voyage Up the 
Missouri River in 1811. Pittsburgh. 1814. 

BRADBURY, John. Travels in the Interior of America in the Years 
1809, 1810, and 1811. London, 1819. 

BROWER, J. V. Memoirs of Explorations in the Basin of the Missis- 
sippi. Mandans, Vol. 8. St. Paul, 1904. 

BRUMBAUGH, G. M. Maryland Records, Colonial, Revolutionary, Coun- 
ty, and Church, from Original Sources. Baltimore, 1915. 

BRYANT, EDWIN. What I Saw in California; being a journal of a tour 
in the years 1846, 1847. New York, 1848. 

Bibliography 163 

BRYCE, GEORGE. Remarkable History of Hudson's Bay Company 

including that of the French traders of Northwestern Canada and of 

the North West, XY, and Astor Fur Companies. New York, 1910. 
BRYAN, W. S., AND ROBERT ROSE. History of the Pioneer Families 

of Missouri. St. Louis, 1876. 
BURNETT, P. H. Recollections and Opinions of an Old Pioneer. New 

York, 1880. 

BURTON, C. M. Cadillac's Village. Detroit, 1896. 
BURTON HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. Manuscripts from the Burton 

Collections, edited by Miss M. Agnes Burton. Detroit, 1916-1918. 
CARSTARPHEN, J. E. My Trip to California in '49. Louisiana, Mo., 

CARVALHO, S. N. Incidents of Travel and Adventure in the Far West 

with Colonel Fremont's Last Expedition. New York, 1857. 
CATLIN, GEORGE. Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and 

Condition of the North American Indians. 2 vols. London, 1841 . 
CHANDLER, KATHERINE. Bird-Woman of the Lewis and Clark Ex- 
pedition. New York, 1905. 

CHAPPELL, P. E. History of the Missouri River. 1905. 
CHICAGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY. Collections, 1882-1908. 
CHITTENDEN, H. M. American Fur Trade of the Far West. 3 vols. 

New York, 1902. 

History of Early Steamboat. Navigation on the Missouri River. 

2 vols. New York, 1903. 

Travels of Father Pierre Jean De Smet, 1801-1873. 4 vols. New 

York, 1905. 

CLARK, W. P. Indian Sign Language. Philadelphia, 1885. 
COCHRAN, JOSEPH. History of Mifflin County, Pennsylvania. Harris" 

burg, 1879. 
COLLET, O. W. General Index to the Archives in the Office of the 

Recorder of Deeds for the County of St. Louis. 6 vols. St 

Louis, 1876. 
CONARD, H. L. "Uncle Dick Wootton," the Pioneer Frontiersman 

of the Rocky Mountain Region. Chicago, 1910. 
CONE, W. W. Historical Sketch of Shawnee County, Kansas. To- 

peka, 1877. 

COOKE, P. ST. G. Scenes and Adventures in the Army. Philadel- 
phia, 1857. 
COUES, ELLIOTT. Expeditions of Zebulon M. Pike. 4 vols. New 

York, 1895. 

History of the Expedition Under the Command of Captains. 

Lewis and Clark. 4 vols. New York, 1893. 

New Light on the Great North west: The Henry-Thompson Jour- 
nals. 3 vols. New York, 1897. 

1 64 Bibliography 

Cox, Ross. Adventures on the Columbia River. New York, 1832. 

COYNER, D. H. The Lost Trappers. Cincinnati, 1859. 

CRAWFORD, MEDOREM. Journal of. In Sources of the History of 

Oregon. Eugene, 1897. 

CULBERTSON, T. A. Journal of an Expedition to the Mauvaises Terres 
and Upper Missouri in 1850. In Documents Printed by Order 
of the Senate of the United States. Washington, 1851. 
CUMINGS, SAMUEL. Western Pilot. Cincinnati, 1833. 
DALE, H. C. Ashley-Smith Explorations and the Discovery of a 

Central Route to the Pacific, 1822-1829. Cleveland, 1918. 
DAVIDSON, G. C. The North West Company. Berkeley, 1918. 
DE BARTHE, JOSEPH. Life and Adventures of Frank Grouard. St. 

Joseph, 1894. 

DE SMET, REV. P. J. Letters and Sketches: with a Narrative of a 
Year's Residence Among the Indian Tribes of the Rocky Mount- 
ains. Philadelphia, 1843. 

Oregon Missions and Travels Over the Rocky Mountains in 1845, 
1846. New York, 1847. 

DELANO, A. Life on the Plains and Among the Diggings; being scenes 
and adventures of an overland journey to California. Auburn, 
DELLENBAUGH, F. S. Breaking the Wilderness. New York, 1905. 

Fremonc and '49. New York, 1914. 
DODGE, R. I. Our Wild Indians. Hartford, 1885. 
DOUGLAS, W. B. Manuel Lisa. In Missouri Historical Society Col- 
lections. Vol. 3. St. Louis, 1911. 
DRAKE, G. Biography and History of the Indians of North America . 

Boston, 1857. 

DRANNAN, W. F. Thirty-one Years on the Plains and in the Mount- 
ains. Chicago, 1906. 
DUGAS, L'ABBE G. Un Voyageur des Pays d'en Haut. Jean B. 

Charbonneau. Montreal, 1890. 

DUNBAR, REV. JOHN. Journal of Mr. Dunbar's Mission to the Paw- 
nees. In Missionary Herald, Vol. 31. Cincinnati, 1835. 
DYE, MRS. EVA E. The Conquest. Chicago, 1902. 

McKnight. Dubuque, 1866. 
EASTMAN, MRS. MARY. Dahcotah, or Life and Legends of the Sioux. 

New York, 1849. 

EDMUNDS, A. C. Pen Sketches of Nebraskans. Lincoln, 1871. 
EDWARDS, R., AND M. HOPEWELL. Edwards' Great West. St. Louis 


EGLE, WILLIAM H. Pennsylvania Genealogies. Harrisburg, 1886. 
ELLIOTT, R. S. Notes Taken in Sixty Years. St. Louis, 1883. 

Bibliography 165 

ELLIS, FRANKLIN. History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Phil- 
adelphia, 1883. 
EMORY. \V. H. Notes of a Military Reconnoissance from Fort Leav- 

enworth to San Diego, California. Washington, 1848. 
FARNHAM, T. J. Life, Adventures, and Travels in California. New 
York, 1850. 

Travels in the Great Western Prairie. New York, 1843. 
FLETCHER, ALICE C. Historical Sketch of the Omaha Tribe of 

Indians in Nebraska. Washington, 1885. 

FLINT, TIMOTHY. Recollections of the Last Ten Years Passed in Oc- 
casional Journeying in the Valley of the Mississippi. Boston, 1826. 
FOWKE, GERARD. Antiquities of Central and Southeastern Missouri. 
Washington, 1910. (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American 
Ethnology, Bulletin 37.) 
FOWLER, JACOB. Journal of Jacob Fowler. Edited by Elliott Coues. 

New York, 1898. 
FRANCHERE, GABRIEL. Narrative of a Voyage to the Northwest Coast 

of America. Redfield, 1854. 

FREMONT, J. C. Narrative of the Exploring Expedition to the Rocky 
Mountains in 1842, and to Oregon and North California, 1843-1844. 
New York, 1846. 

Report of the Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Mountains. 
Washington, 1845. 

GALLATIN, ALBERT. Synopsis of the Indian Tribes within the United 
States. In American Antiquarian Society Transactions, Vol. 2. 
Cambridge, 1836. 

GASS, PATRICK. Journal of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Phila- 
delphia, 1810. 
GRAY, P. L. Gray's Doniphan County, Kansas, History. Bendena, 


GREENHOW, ROBERT. History of Oregon and California. Boston, 1845. 
GREGG, JOSIAH. Commerce of the Prairies. 2 vols. New York, 1845 . 
GRINNELL, G. B. Beyond the Old Frontier. New York, 1913. 

The Fighting Cheyennes. New York, 1915. 
GUE, B. F. History of Iowa, from the Earliest Times to the Beginning 

of the Twentieth Century. 4 vols. New York, 1903. 
HAINES, E. M. American Indian. Chicago, 1880. 
HALL, JAMES. Letters from the West; containing sketches of scenery, 

manners, and customs. London, 1828. 

HALLUM, JOHN. Biographical and Pictorial History of Arkansas. Al- 
bany, 1887. 

HAMILTON, W. T. My Sixty Years on the Plains. New York, 1905 . 
HANS, F. M. Great Sioux Nation. Chicago, 1907. 
HANSON, J. M. Conquest of the Missouri. Chicago, 1909. 

166 Bibliography 

HARMON, D. W. Journal of Voyages and Travels in the Interior of 

North America. New York, 1903 . 

HARRIS, W. R. Catholic Church in Utah. Salt Lake, 1909. 
HEAP, G. H. Central Route to the Pacific from the Valley of the 

Mississippi to California. Philadelphia, 1854.. 
HEBARD, DR. GRACE R. Pathfinders from River to Ocean. Chicago, 


Pilot of First White Men to Cross the American Continent. In 

Connecticut Magazine (Hartford, 1907), Vol. 3, p. 459; and 

Journal of American History, Vol. I, p. 467. 

HEMPSTEAD, FAY. Pictorial History of Arkansas. St. Louis, 1890. 

History of the Greater Northwest; the manuscript journals of 

Alexander Henry and David Thompson, 1799-1814. Edited by 

Elliott Coues. 3 Vols. New York, 1897. 
HEWITT, R. H. Across the Plains and Over the Divide. New York, 

HILDRETH, JAMES. Dragoon Campaigns to the Rocky Mountains; 

being a history of the regiment of U. S. Dragoons. New York, 1836. 



COUNTY. 2 Vols. Chicago, 1907. 


Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. Philadelphia, 


Memoirs. Philadelphia, 1826-1895. 

sylvania Historical Magazine. Pittsburgh, 1918-1920. 




MISSOURI. St. Louis, 1885. 
HISTORY OF SOUTHEAST MISSOURI; embracing an historical account 

of the Counties of Ste. Genevieve, St. Francois, Perry, Cape Gi- 

rardeau, Bollinger, Madison, New Madrid, Pemiscot, Dunklin, 

Scott, Mississippi, Stoddard, Butler, Wayne, and Iron. Chicago, 


HOBBS, CAPTAIN JAMES. Wild Life in the Far West. Hartford, 1873. 

Bibliography 167 

HODGE, F. W. Handbook of American Indians. 2 vols. Washing- 
ton, 1907. (Smithsonian Institution, Bulletin 30.) 

HOLLEY, FRANC :s C. Once Their Home; or Our Legacy from the 
Dakotahs. Chicago, 1890. 

HOLMES, CAPTAIN REUBEN. Five Scalps; a mountain story. St. Louis 
Reveille, July iyth and 24th, 1848. (Tie story of Edward Rose, 
with several references to Toussaint Charbonnenu.) 

HORN, H. B. Horn's Overland Guide. New York, 1852. 

HOUCK, Louis. History of Missouri. 3 vols. Chicago, 1908. 

Memorial Sketches of Pioneers and Early Residents of Southeast 

Missouri. Cape Girardeau, 1915. 

Spanish Regime in Missouri. Chicago, 1909. 

HOUGHTON, ELIZA P. D. The Expedition of the Donner Party. Chi- 
cago, 1911. 

HUBBARD, G. S. Incidents and Events in the Life of Gurdon S. Hub- 
bard. Chicago, 1888. 

HUNTER, JOHN. Memoir of a Captivity Among the Indians of North 
America. London, 1824. 


ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARY. Collections. Springfield, 1903- 

*9 1 S- 

Publications. Springfield, 1901-1907. 

Transactions. Springfield, 1908-1918. 

ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. Journal. Springfield, 1908-1918. 
IOWA HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT. Annals. Des Moines, 1863-1911. 
IOWA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. Iowa Historical Record. Iowa 

City, 1887-1892. 

Iowa Journal of History and Biography. Iowa City, 1903-1920. 
INMAN, HENRY, AND W. F. CODY. Great Salt Lake Trail. Topekai 

IRVING, WASHINGTON. Astoria. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1841. 

Rocky Mountains Sketches. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1832. 

Tour of the Prairies. Philadelphia, 1835. 
JAMES, EDWIN. An Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the 

Rocky Mountains, Performed in the Years 1817 and 1820, Under. 

the Command of Major Stephen Long. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1823 
JAMES, THOMAS. Three Years Among the Indians and Mexicans- 
Waterloo, 1846. Reprinted, and edited by Walter B. Douglas. 

St. Louis, 1917. 

JOHNSON, HARRISON. Johnson's History of Nebraska. Omaha, 1880. 
JORDAN, J. W. Colonial and Revolutionary Families of Pennsylvania. 

3 vols. New York, 1911. 
KANSAS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. Collections. Topeka, 1875-1918. 

Biennial Reports. Topeka, 1892-1912. 

168 Bibliography 

KEITH, C. P. Chronicles of Pennsylvania. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 

KELLY, FANNY. Narrative of My Captivity Among the Sioux. Cin- 
cinnati, 1871. 

KELLY, WILLIAM. L'Emigration par Terre en Californie. Voyage du 
Fort Independence sur le Missouri aux Lavages d'Or de la Cali- 
fornie en traversant les Montagnes Rocheuses. 1849. 

KINZIK, MRS. J. A. Wau-bun, the "Early Day" in the Northwest. 
New York, 1856. 

LANG, J. D., AND SAMUEL TAYLOR. Report of a Visit to Some of the 
Tribes of Indians Located West of the Mississippi River. New 
York, 1843. 

LANGWORTHY, FRANKLIN. Scenery of Plains, Mountains, and Mines; 
or A Diary Kept upon the Overland Route to California. Ogdens- 
burgh, 1855. 

LAROCQUE, ANTOINE. Journal of Larocque, from the Assiniboine to 
the Yellowstone, 1805. Edited with notes by L. J. Burpee. Ot- 
tawa, 1910. (Publications of Canadian Archives, No. 3.) 

LARPENTEUR, Charles. Forty Years a Fur Trader on the Upper Mis- 
souri. Edited by Elliott Coues. 2 vols. New York, 1898. 

LATROBE, C. J. A Rambler in North America. 2 vols. London, 1835. 

LAUT, AGNES C. Conquest of the Great Northwest. 2 vols. New 
York, 1908. 
Pathfinders of the West. New York, 1907. 

LEONARD, ZENAS. Adventures of Zenas Leonard, Fur Trader and 
Trapper, 1831-1836. Edited by Dr. W. T. Wagner. Cleveland, 

LEVENS, H. C. History of Cooper County, Missouri. St. Louis, 1876 . 

LEWIS, MERIWETHER. Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Ex- 
pedition, 1804-1806. Edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites. 8 vols. 
New York, 1904. 

LOUGHBOROUGH, J. History of American Fur Trade. In Western 
Journal and Civilian. St. Louis, 1849. 

McCLUNG, John. Sketches of Western Adventure. Louisville, 1879. 

MCKENNEY, T. L. History of the Indian Tribes of North America. 
4 vols. Philadelphia, 1872. 

MACKENZIE, ALEXANDER. Voyages from Montreal on the River St. 
Lawrence Through tie Continent of North America, * * * 
with a Preliminary Account of the Rise, Progress, and Present 
State of the Fur Trade. London, 1801. 

MAGAZINE OF WESTERN HISTORY. 12 vols. Cleveland, 1884-1890- 

MAGUIRE, A. J. The Indian Girl Who Led Them (Sacajawea). Port- 
land, 1905. 

MARYLAND CALENDAR OF WILLS. Compiled and edited by Jane Bald- 
win. 5 vols. Baltimore, 1901-1917. 

Bibliography 169 

MARYLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY. Archives. Baltimore, 1883-1919. 

Magazine. Baltimore, 1906-1920. 

Publications. Baltimore, 1844-1880. 
MASSON, L. R. Les Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest- 

Quebec, 1889. 

MATTHEWS, WASHINGTON. Ethnology and Philology of the Hidatsa 

Indians. Washington, 1877. 
MAXIMILIAN, PRINCE OF WIED. Travels in the Interior of North 

America. London, 1843. 

MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. Collections. St. Paul, 1850-1914. 
MISSOURI HISTORICAL SOCIETY. Collections. St. Louis, 1875-1913. 
MOLLHAUSEN, BALDWIN. Diary of a Journey from the Mississippi to 

the Coasts of the Pacific. Translated by Mrs. Percy Sinnett. 

2 vols. London, 1858. 

MOFFETTE, J. F. Territories of Kansas and Nebraska. New York, 

MONTANA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. Contributions to the Historical So- 
ciety of Montana. Helena, 1876-1917. 

MONTHLY HISTORIAN. Devoted to history, art, science, current events, 
etc. Published by A. L. van Osdel. Mission Hill, S. D., 1912-1913. 

Mooso, JOSIAH. Life and Travels of Josiah Mooso. Winfield, 1888. 

MORICE, A. G. Dictionnaire Historique des Canadiens et des Metis 
Francaise de 1'Ouest. Kamloops, 1918. 

MORSE, JEDEDIAH. Report to the Secretary of War of the United 
States on Indian Affairs. New Haven, 1822. 

MURRAY, C. A. Travels in North America. 2 vols. London, 1839. 

NEAD, D. W. Pennsylvania-German in the Settlement of Maryland* 
Lancaster, 1914. 

lections, and Publications. Lincoln, 1885-1917. 

NEIHARDT, J. G. Story of Hugh Glass. New York, 1915. 

NEII.L, E. D. Dahkotah Land and Dahkotah Life, with the History 
of the Fur Traders of the Extreme Northwest During the French 
and British Dominion. Philadelphia, 1859. 

NICOLLET, I. N. Report Intended to Illustrate a Map of the Hydro- 
graphical Basin of the Upper Mississippi River. Washington, 1843. 

NILES REGISTER. Baltimore, 1812-1818. 


Relating Chiefly to the Interior of Pennsylvania. Edited by 
W. H. Egle. Harrisburg, 1894-1901. 

NUTTALL, THOMAS. Journal of Travel into the Arkansas Territory, 
1819. Philadelphia, 1831. 

170 Bibliography 

OEHLER, G. F., AND DAVIS Z. SMITH. Description of a Journey and 
Visit to the Pawnee Indians Who Lived on the Platte River, a Trib- 
utary of the Missouri, April 22-May 18, 1851. Reprinted from 
Moravian Church Miscellany, 1851-1852. New York. 1914. 

Missouri, 1897. 

ONTARIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY. Papers and Records. Montreal, 1899- 

OREGON HISTORICAL SOCIETY. Quarterly. Portland, 1901-1919. 

OREGON PIONEER ASSOCIATION. Transactions. Salem, 1873-1897. 

PALLADINO, L. B. Indian and White in the Northwest. Baltimore, 

PALLISER, JOHN. A Solitary Hunter; or Sporting Adventures in the 
Prairies. London, 1856. 

PARKER, SAMUEL. Journal of an Exploring Tour Beyond the Rocky 
Mountains. Ithaca, 1842. 

PARKMAN, FRANCIS. Oregon Trail. Boston, 1882. 

PATTIE, J. O. Personal Narrative of James O. Pattie of Kentucky 
Edited by Timothy Flint. Cincinnati, 1831. 

PEARCE, STEWART. Annals of Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. Phila- 
. delphia, 1866. 

PENNSYLVANIA ARCHIVES. Philadelphia, 1852-1914. 



PERKINS, J. H. Annals of the West. Cincinnati, 1847. 

PIKE, ALBERT. Prose, Sketches and Poems Written in the Western 
Country. Boston, 1834. 

PIKE, MAJOR Z. M. Account of Expeditions to Sources of the Missis- 
sippi and Through Western Parts of Louisiana to the Sources^ of 
the Arkansaw, Kans, La Platte, and Pierre Jaun Rivers. Phila- 
delphia, 1810. 

tions. Lansing, 1874-1912. 

POPE, W. F. Early Days in Arkansas. Little Rock, 1895. 

POOLE, CAPTAIN D. C. Among the Sioux of Dakota. New York, 1881. 

QUAIFE, M. M. Chicago and the Old Northwest. Chicago, 1913. 

QUAIFE, M. M., Editor. Journals of Captain Meriwether Lewis and 
Sergeant John Ordway. Madison, 1916. 

RICHARDSON, R. L. Amos Richardson of Boston and Stonington, with 
a Contribution to the History of His Descendants. New York, 

RIGGS, S. R. Dakota Portraits. In Minnesota History Bulletin, Vol. 
2, No. 8. St. Paul, 1918. 
Mary and I. Forty Years with the Sioux. Boston, 1880. 

Bibliography 171 

Tah-koo Wah-kan; or The Gospel Among the Dakotas. Boston, 

ROBERTS, T. P. Report of a Reconnaissance of the Missouri River in 
1872. Washington, 1875. 

ROBINSON, H. M. Great Fur Land, or Sketches of Life in the Hudson's 
Bay Territory. New York, 1879. 

ROOT, F. A., AND W. E. CONNELLEY. Overland Stage to California. 
Topeka, 1901. 

ROSEN, REV. PETER. Pa-ha-sa-pah; or The Black Hills of South Da- 
kota. St. Louis, 1895. 

Ross, ALEXANDER. Adventures of the First Settlers on the Oregon 
or Columbia River. London, 1849. 
Fur Hunters of the Far West. London, 1855. 

ROTHERT, OTTO. History of Muhlenberg County, Kentucky. Louis- 
ville, 1913. 

ROYCE, C. C. John Bidwell, Pioneer, Statesman, and Philanthropist; 
a biographical sketch. Chico, California, 1906. 

RUPP, I. D. Collection of Upwards of Thirty Thousand Names of 
German, Swiss, Dutch, and French, and Other Immigrants in 
Pennsylvania from 1727-1776. Philadelphia, 1875. 

RUSSELL, OSBORNE. Journal of a Trapper, 1834-1843. Boise, 1914. 

RUTT, C. L. Daily News History of Buchanan County and St. Joseph, 
Missouri. St. Joseph, 1898. 

RUXTON, G. F. Adventures in Mexico and the Rocky Mountains. 
New York, 1848. 
Life in the Far West. Edinburgh, 1851. 

SABIN, E. L. Kit Carson Days. Chicago, 1914. 

SAGE, R. B. Rocky Mountain Life. Boston, 1857. 

ST. Louis DIRECTORIES, 1821-1860. 

America During the Years 1825 and 1826. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 

SCHARF, J. T. Chronicles of Baltimore. Baltimore, 1874. 
History of Maryland. 3 vols. Baltimore, 1879. 
History of St. Louis City and County. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 
1883. " 

SCHOOLCRAFT, H. R. Journal of a Tour into the Interior of Missouri 
and Arkansas. London, 1821. 

SCHOONOVER, T. J. Life and Times of General John A. Sutter. Sac- 
ramento, 1895. 

SCHULTZ, J. W. The Bird-Woman (Sacajawea), Guide of Lewis and 
Clark. Boston, 1918. 

SCOTT, L. T. Sacajawea, the Unsung Heroine of Montana. Arm- 
stead, 1915. 

172 Bibliography 

SHAMBAUGH, B. F., Editor. First Census of the Original Counties of 

Dubuque and Demoine, Iowa, Taken in 1836. Des Moines, 1898. 

SHELDON, REV. STEWART. Gleanings by the Way, from 1836-1889. 

Topeka, 1890. 

SHEPARD, E. H. Early History of St. Louis. St. Louis, 1870. 
SHINN, J. H. Pioneers and Makers of Arkansas. Little Rock, 1908. 
SKINNER, C. L. Adventurers of Oregon. New Haven, 1919. (Chron- 
icles of American History, Vol. 22.) 
SWELLING, W. J. Tales of Travels West of the Mississippi. Boston, 


SOUTH DAKOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. Collections. Aberdeen and Pi- 
erre, 1902-1918. 

STEWART, SIR WILLIAM D. Altowan; or Incidents of Life and Ad- 
venture in the Rocky Mountains. 2 vols. New York, 1846. 
Edward Warren. London, 1854. 
STIPES, M. F. Fort Orleans. Jamesport, 1906. 
STOCKARD, S. M. History of Lawrence, Jackson, Independence, and 

Stone Counties, Arkansas. Little Rock, 1904. 
SULTE, BENJAMIN. Histoire des Canadiens-Fran^ais, 1608-1880. 8 

vols. Montreal, 1884. 
TALLENT, ANNIE D. The Black Hills; or The Last Hunting-Ground 

of the Dakotahs. St. Louis, 1899. 

TANCUAY, L'ABBE CYPRIEN. Dictionnaire Genealogique des Families 
Canadiennes. 7 vols. Quebec, 1871. 
A Travers les Registres, Notes Recueilles. Montreal, 1886. 

TASSE, JOSEPH. Les Canadiens de 1'Ouest. Montreal, 1878. 
TAYLOR, J. H. Sketches of Frontier and Indian Life on the Upper 
Missouri and Great Plains. Bismarck, 1897. 
Kaleidoscopic Lives; a companion book to Frontier and Indian 
Life. Washburn, 1902. 
THOMAS, W. L. History of St. Ixniis County, Missouri. 2 vols. St. 

Louis, 1911. 
THWAITES, R. G. 3 Editor. Early Western Travels, 1748-1846. 32 vols . 

Cleveland, 1904-1906. 

TICE, J. H. Over the Plains and On the Mountains; or Kansas, Colo- 
rado, and the Rocky Mountains. St. Louis, 1872. 
TOWNSEND, J. K. Narrative of a Journey Across the Rocky Mount- 
ains to the Columbia River. Philadelphia, 1839. 

INDIAN TRIBES FROM 1778 TO 1837. Washington, 1837. 
TRUDEAU, J. B. Journal. Part I in American Historical Review, 
Vol. 19; Part 2 (translation) in Missouri Historical Society Col- 
lections, Vol. 4. 

Bibliography 173 

TWITCHELL, R. E. Leading Facts of New Mexican History. 2 vols. 
Cedar Rapids, 1911. 

Spanish Archives. 2 vols. Cedar Rapids, 1914. 
TYLER, DANIEL. Concise History of the Mormon Battalion. Salt 

Lake City, 1881. 
UDELL, JOHN. Incidents of Travel to California Across the Great 

Plains. Jefferson, 1856. 

Washington, 1879-1912. 

American Ethnology, Vol. 7. Washington, 1890. 
UNITED STATES WAR DEPARTMENT. Missouri River Commission. Maps 
of the Missouri River. Washington, 1892. 

Report of the Secretary of War of a System Providing for the 
Abolition of Existing Trading Establishments of the United States. 
Washington, 1818. 

VAN OSDEL, A. L. Historic Landmarks; being a history of early ex- 
plorers and fur traders, with a narrative of their adventures in the 
wilds of the great Northwest Territory, n. p. n. d. 
VAN TRAMP, J. C. Prairie and Rocky Mountain Adventure; or Life 

in the Far West. Columbus, 1868. 
VICTOR, F. F. River of the West. Hartford, 1870. 
WARREN, LIEUT. G. K. Explorations in the Dacota Country in the 

Year 1855. Washington, 1856. 

attle, 1906-1919. 
WESTERN JOURNAL AND CIVILIAN. Edited by M. M. Tarver and T. 

F. Risk. 15 vols. St. Louis, 1846-1856. 
WETMORE, ALPHONSO. Gazetteer of the State of Missouri. St. Louis , 

WHEELER, O. D. Trail of Lewis and Clark, 1804-1806. 2 vols. New 

York, 1904. 

WHEELER, O. D., Editor. Wonderland. St. Paul, 1896-1906. 
WILL, G. F., AND GEORGE E. HYDE. Corn Among the Indians of the 

Upper Missouri. St. Louis, 1917. 

WILLSON, BECKLES. The Great Company. Toronto, 1899. 
WILSON, F. T. Fort Pierre and Its Neighbors. In Journal of the 

United States Cavalry Association, 1899, Vol. 12, p. 227. 
WOLFROM, ANNA. Sacajawea, the Indian Princess. Kansas City, 1918. 
WYETH, N. J. Letters and Journals. In Sources of the History of 

Oregon. Eugene, 1899. 

YOUNG, WILLIAM. Young's History of Lafayette County, Missouri. 
2 vols. Indianapolis, 1910. 

174 Bibliography 



tember 2, 1847. 

FAYETTE (MISSOURI) DEMOCRAT. February 25, i846-January 30, 1849. 
INDEPENDENCE (MISSOURI) JOURNAL. September 12-October 31, 1844. 
LIBERTY (MISSOURI) WEEKLY TRIBUNE. April, i846-December, 1849. 

St. Louis, 1808-1845. 

MISSOURI INTELLIGENCER. Franklin, Missouri, 1822-1826. 
ST. CHARLES PATRIOT. May 2, i846-October 21, 1847. 
ST. Louis DAILY MORNING HERALD. December 20, i8s2-July 2, 1853. 
ST. Louis DAILY MORNING MISSOURIAN. October 7, i845~July 28, 


ST. Louis ENQUIRER. September I, iSig-August 30, 1820. 
ST. Louis MISSOURIAN. December 14, i843~February 22, 1845. 
ST. Louis REVEILLE. 1845-1848. 


May, 1849. 
WESTON (MISSOURI) JOURNAL (a continuation of the Indepen lence 

Journal). January 4-April 19, 1845. 




Agot, Gabriel: 158. 
Alar, Jean Baptiste: sketch of, 59; 
engagt, 158. 

Alar family: 59. 

Albemarle County, Va.: 150. 

Allen, Col. Dewitt C.: 152. 

Allison, Hannah: 31. 

Alvarado: 35. 

American Fur Co.: 35, 53, 59, 60, 
77, 103, in, 148, 155, 156. 

American Horse, Indian Chief: 57. 

American State Papers: cited, 59, 

Anderson, John: 158. 

Andrew County, Mo.: 38. 

Angel, Eugenia: 148. 

Angel, John: 148. 

Antelopes: 62. 

Antonio, Baptiste Machecou, dit: 
sketch of, 100; engagt, 158. 

Antonio, Pedro: 100; engag6, 157. 

Arapaho Indians: at war with 
Americans, 15; country of, 16, 
155; villages of, 1 8, 20; on Ar- 
kansas River, 76; described, 101 ; 
trade with Sanguinet, 103; sell 
horses, 114; mentioned, 142. 

Archambeau, Louis: killed, 124; 
buried, 126; engagt, 158. 

Arck River: described, 49. 

Arikara Fort: 16. 
Arikara Indians: at war with 
Americans, 15; country of, 16; 
near British posts, 24; villages, 
30, 57, 67, 145; chiefs, 64, 77; 
hunters, 65; expedition camped 
below, 66; war party, 69, 73; at- 
tacked Lieut. Pryor's party 74; 
traders at village, 75; Saones 
propose peace with, 79; at Fort 
Manuel, 77, 82, 86, 87, 90, 91, 
98, 101, 103, 105, 108, 114, 128; 
leave Fort, 84; trade horses, 81; 
at war with Sioux, 76, 113, 120; 
in search of squaw, 80; trade 
corn, 85; set prairie on fire, 92; 

threaten Lisa's party, 92; tran- 
quil, 93 ; steal horses, 93 ; quar- 
rel with Sioux, 104; hunting, 
106; return from Mandans, 107; 
steal Company's cat, no; .offer 
Lisa a present, no; pass by 
Fort, in; kill Sioux chief, 115; 
want to live at point above Fort, 
1 1 7; go to Cheyennes for meat, 
120; return, 121; not feared by 
Lisa, 126; described, 52. 

Arkansas River: mentioned, 18, 
51, 70, 100, 102, 103, 138, 145; 
described, 76. 

Armstead, Montana: 135. 

Arnold, Brice: 157. 

Arrow Rock, Mo.: 19; block- 
house, 34. 

Ashley, William: 35, 73. 

Aspinwall, Neb.: 41. 

Assiniboine River: 136. 

Astorians: 38, 57, 73, 77. 

Atchison County, Mo.: 41. 

Atkinson, Gen. Henry: 45, 136, 
138, 148. 

Audrin, James H.: 158. 

Audubon, J. J.: cited, 91. 

Bad River (sometimes called Little 

Missouri and Teton) ; described, 


Baird, James: 17, 35. 
Bald-pated Prairie: 42. 
Barada, Eulalia: 154. 
Bardstown, Ky.: 151. 
Bates, Frederick: 145. 
Bates County, Mo.: 50, 52. 
Bazile Creek: 53. 
Beaux Soleil Island: 41. 
Beckwourth. James: cited, 64. 
Beede, Dr. A. McG.: Missionary 

at Fort Yates, N. D., quoted, 

55, 56, 57, 68. 
Belief ontaine: see Fort Bellefon- 

Bennett, Lieut. Thomas: 154. 

i 7 6 


Bent & St. Vrain: 140. 
Bergan, Marguerite: 79. 
Berger River: described, 29. 
Berthelot, Alexis: 102. 
Bertrand, Louise : 1 1 1 . 
Big Bend (Grand Detour): 57, 61, 


Big Elk, Indian chief: 56. 
Big Horn River: described, 77. 
Big Horse, Oglala chief: 56; sketch 

of, 57- 
Big Man, Arikara chief: sketch of, 

Big Nemaha River: described, 40. 

Big Sioux River: described, 47; 
mentioned, 51. 

Big White, Mandan chief: see 

Bijou, Louis: see Bissonet. 

Bijou Fork: 140. 

Bijou Hills, S. D.: 57, 149. 

Bijou's Trading Post: 56, 57, 58. 

Billeau, dit Lesperance, Jean Bap- 
tiste: ill. 

Billeau, dit Lesperance, Pelagic: 

Bird Woman: see Sakakawea. 

Bismarck, N. D.: 74, 135. 

Bissonet, Joseph ^149. 

Bissonet, Louis: joins expedition, 
34; makes signal fires, 54; with 
Yankton Sioux, 56; trading- 
house finished, 58; arrives at 
Fort Manuel, 79; loads canoe, 
80; reported killed, 104, 105; 
answers Lisa's letter, 109; 
sketch of, 148; engagt, 158. 

Blackbird, Omaha chief: 46, 49. 

Blackbird Hill: described, 46. 

Black Buffalo, Teton Sioux chief: 
sketch of, 56. 

Black Hills: 5.7, 3, 70. 

Blackfeet Indians: mentioned, 57, 
70, 106, 144; reported to have 
killed Champlain, 102; de- 
scribed, 102. 

Black Snake Creek: 32. 

Black Snake Hills (St. Joseph, 
Mo.): 55,88,147. 

Bledsoe, Anthony: 52. 

Black Sky, Sioux chief: 56, 58. 
Blan, Grand: 157. 
Blood Indians: 102. 
Bloomfield, Mo.: 52. 
Bois Brul6 Indians: 57. 
Bois, Catherine des: 79. 
Boite, Sioux chief: 82. 
Boiler, H. A.: cited, 105. 
Bol ton, Herbert E.: 143. 
Bonhomme County, S. D.: 49, 54. 
Bonhomme Island: described, 49. 
Bonhomme Township, Mo.: 28. 
Boone District: 123. 
Boonslick, Mo. : 19. 
Boonville, Mo.: 31. 
Boucherelle, Alphonzo: 88. 
Bougainville, Charlotte Peman- 

pieh: 52.^ 

Bourbonnois, Auguste: 158. 
Bourgmont, Etienne Venyard de: 


Bourrain, Josef : 158. 
Bow Creek: 49, 51. 
Boyer River: described, 44. 
Brackenridge, H. M.: cited, 44, 

46, 49, 67, 73, 77, 133, 136. 
Bradbury, John: cited, 136, 145. 
Bras Casse, Sioux chief: 57. 
Brawn (Brown^, William,: 157. 
Brazeaju, Cecile: 150. 
Bridger, James: 140. 
Bridger Range: 135. 
Bright, Josiah: 150. 
British agents: 23, 24, 122, 124. 


British North West Company: 15. 

Broken Arm, Indian chief: 57. 

Brown County, Kans.: 40. 

Brown, Widow: 148. 

Brownsville, Neb.: 41. 

Bru!6 County, S. D.: 57. 

Bryant, Edwin: cited, 35. 

Buchanan County, Mo.: 147. 

Buffalo County, S. D.: 61. 

Bullet (Cannon Ball) River: de- 
scribed, 107. 

Cabanne & Co.: 144. 
Cabre: 62. 



Cadron, Etienne, dit St. Pierre: 

Cahokia, 111.: 79. 80, 89, 154. 

Caledonia, III.: 146. 

Calhoun, Neb.: 45. 

Callaway, Capt. James: 35. 

Callaway County, Mo. : 30. 

Campbell, Robert: 152. 

Campbell, William: 152. 

Canga, Antoine: 157. 

Cannonball River: mentioned, 52, 
67, 107. 

Cape Girardeau, Mo.: 51, 129. 

Carboneau, Elizabeth: 140. 

Carlyle, 111.: 146. 

Carondelet, Mo.: 29,91. 

Carriere, Baptiste: 77. 

Car'riere, Eustache: on fall hunt, 
77; sketch of, 77, 79; reported 
killed, 98;^ engagt, 157. 

Carriere, Michel: 77. 

Carrollton, 111.: 146. 

Cass County, Neb.: 41. 

Casse, Emelie: 114. 

Casse, Joseph Laderoute, dit: see 

Castor River: 52. 

Castro: 35. 

Catlin, George: 74. 

Cats in trading-posts: 62, 63. 

Cedar County, Neb.: 45, 49. 

Cedar Creek: 61. 

Cedar Island: 46, 61. 

Cerre", Gabriel: 114. 

Chabpnard: 140. 

Chahik-si-chakiko: 69. 

Chaine, Isadore: 89. 

Chaine, Pierre: sketch of, 89; en- 
gaged to hunt, 91 ; sent for stolen 
horses, 93; hunting, 94, 99; goes 
to Cheyennes' camp, 97; engagt, 

Chambers, Samuel: 17, 35. 

Chambersburg, Pa.: 143. 

Champlain, Jean Baptiste: leader 
of party, 16, 17, 142; on Platte, 
18; death of, 19: search for, 
20; reported killed by Blackfeet, 
102; sketch of, 102. 

Chappell, Phil E.: cited, 29, 32. 

Charbonneau, Jean Baptiste: 134, 

Charbonneau, Lizette: 133, 140. 

Charbonneau, Toussaint: 24; 
alarms Fort, 78; goes to Gros- 
ventre station, 79, 86, 89, 127; 
returns, 83, 92; to Saone camp, 
97; stirs up Indians, 84; at 
Ankara village, 93; prepares to 
trade with Grosventres, 109; re- 
turns from village, 121; warn- 
ings to, 124; wife dies, 126; 
escort returns, 128; husband 
of Sakakawea, 132; wives of, 
133; children of, 133, 134, 140; 
sketch of, 135; pay as inter- 
preter, 140; engagt, 158. 

Charbonneau, Toussaint, Jr. : 133. 

Charbonniere: described, 28. 

Charles, Mary: 142. 

Charles, a Negro boy: drowns, 59. 

Charrette: seejarret. 

Charlottesville, Va. : 151. 

Chatelreau, Louis: 158. 

Chemin River: 153. 

Chene: see Chaine. 

Cherokee Indians: 151. 

Chevalier, Cadet: in search of 
Champlain's party, 20, no, 158; 
messenger, 101; sketch of, 101; 
goes to meet Sanguinet, 103; 
death of, no; engag, 157. 

Chevalier, Louis: 101. 

Chevelures ("The Scalps"): 104. 

Cheveux Loup, Grosventre Indian: 
92, 122. 

Cheyenne Indians: at war with 
Americans, 15; attacked Kansas 
Indians, 37; mentioned, 63, 86, 
101, 112; at Fort Manuel, 70, 
98, 106, 120; described, 70; 
chiefs, 92, 108, 120; camped 
above Fort, 97; hunting, 99, 100; 
leave Fort, 107; carry pipe to 
Arikaras and Sioux, 113; fight 
with Sioux, 115; advise Arik- 
aras to leave Fort, 121; warn 
Charbonneau,. 124; difficult to 
trade with, 125; Sioux steal 
horses from, 127. 



Cheyenne River: mentioned, 52, 

64; described, 63, 70. 
Chicago, 111.: first settler of, 153, 


Chicago River: 153. 
Chihuahua: 36, 723. 
Chippewa Indians: 54. 
Chittenden, H. M.: cited, 16, 50, 

51, 68, 76, 94, 106. 
Chouteau, A. P.: 43, 138. 
Chouteau, Auguste: 13, 28, 43, 91, 

102, 138, 145, 148. 
Chouteau, Marie Louise: 53. 
Chouteau, Pierre: 28, 50, 102. 
Chouteau Bluffs, S. D.: 54. 
Chouteau, Cabanne & Co.: HI. 
Chouteau-DeMun expedition: 70, 

103, 138. 

Cij a, Osage Indian woman: 30. 

Citoleux, Antoine: 109, no; 
sketch of, 156; engag6, 157. 

Citoleux, Jean B.: 156. 

Clark, George Rogers : 153. 

Clark, William: employs John C. 
Luttig, 14; chose site of Fort 
Osage, 34; council with Indians, 
56; guardian of Charbonneau 
children, 134; letter to Char- 
bonneau, 137; deed to, 138; re- 
port to, 144.; recommends Reu- 
ben Lewis, 150. 

Clay County, Mo.: 151, 152. 

Clay County, S. D.: 48. 

Clemson, Col. Eli B. : in command 
of Fort Osage, 34; sketch of, 145, 

Clemson family: 146. 

Cold Water Creek: 27. 

Ccle, Mrs. Hannah: sketch of, 31. 

Cole. Stephen: 31. 

Cole, William T.: killed by Indi- 
ans, 31. 

Cole family: 31. 

Cole County, Mo.: 65. 

Colter, John: 65, 145. 

Columbia Fur Company: 62. 

Conde, Marie Anne: 149. 

Conde, Dr. Auguste A.: 149. 

Cooper, Miss Alice: 135. 

Cooper County, Mo.: 31, 65. 

Corson County, S. D.: 66, 67, 68. 

C6te, Alexis: 91. 

Cdte, Felicite: 91. 

C6te Grand Brule: 42. 

Cote sans Dessein: described, 30. 

Coues, Elliott: cited, 29, 38, 43, 
44, 87. 

Council Bluffs: 16, 44, 148, 151; 
described, 45. 

Council Grove: 37. 

Coupe a Jacques: 44. 

Coupe Loisell: described, 45. 

Coyner, D. H.: mentioned, 19. 

Crawford, T. Hartley: letter to, 

Crawford County, Iowa: 45. 

Crawford County, Mo.: 65. 

Creek Indians: 100. 

Cromwell: 131. 

Crooked Hand, Sioux chief: 57, 

Crooks, Ramsey: 44. 

Crow Indians: at war with Amer- 
icans, 15; give information about 
Champlain, 20; mentioned, 35, 
68, 100, 103, 106; described, 78. 

Dabney, Mildred: 151. 
Dakota City, Neb. : 51. 
Dakota County, Neb. : 47, 49. 
Dakota Indians: 51, 57; described, 


Danis, Charles: 100. 
Danis, Jean Baptiste: sketch of, 


Davenport, Iowa: 155. 
Delassus, Gov. Carlos Dehault: 

88, 144. 

Dejardin, L. T.: 158. 
Delaware Indians: 52. 
Delibac, Louis: 158. 
Delisle, Jean Baptiste: 147. 
Delisle, Therese Bienvenue: 147. 
Demarais, Louis Amable: 43. 
Demaret, Josette: 29. 
De Mun, Julius: 138. 
De Peyster, Arent: 153. 
Derais, Michael: 154. 
Desgagniers, Catherine: 77. 
Desmarets, Louise: 59. 
Desmarets, Joseph: 59. 



De Smet, Pierre J.: cited, 106. 
Des Moines River: 45, 51. 
Dessaint, Louis: 155. 

Desseve, Pierre: 157. 

Detalier, Pierre: 157. 

Detroit, Mich.: HI, 145. 

Devil's Lake, N. D.: 49. 

Dickson's Post: 49. 

Dixon County, Neb.: 48. 

Dodier, Elizabeth: 91. 

Doniphan County, Kans.: 40. 

Dorien Island: 61. 

Dougherty, Maj. John: 65, 157; 
sketch of, 151. 

Dougherty, John Kerr: 153. 

Dougherty, Lewis B.: 153. 

Dougherty, O'Fallon: 153. 

Douglas, Walter B.: acknowledg- 
ments to, 25; cited, 65, 142. 

Drouillard, George: 78, HI. 

Dubuque, Iowa: 13. 

Dubuque, Julien: mentioned, 13, 

Duncan: 131. 

Dupre, Eugene: 53. 

Duquette, Francois: 60. 

Durand, British trader: 153. 

Durocher, Auguste: carries mess- 
age, 101; no news of, 104; reach- 
es Fort Manuel, 105; leaves for 
Little Big Horn, HI; returns, 
112; ordered out of Fort, 114; 
escorts Charbonneau, 128; 
sketch of, 155. 

Durocher family: 155. 

Eagle's Feather (Plume d'Aigle), 
Ankara chief: see La Plume. 

Eagle Feather Creek: 67. 

Elie, Joseph: sketch of, 79. 

Elk's Tongue, Arikara chief: 
sketch of, 91; camp of, 93. 

Engineer Cantonment: 44. 

Equipment for hunters: 76. 

Eymas, Jean: 156, 157. 

Fair Sun Island: 41. 
Farrar, Dr. John: 43. 
Ferguson: 131. 
Fire Heart Butte, N. D.: 97. 

Fire Prairie: described, 33. 
Fire Prairie Creek: 33. 
Fishing Creek, S. C.: 65. 
Flathead Indians: 106. 
Florissant, Mo.: 28. 59, 77, 79, 88, 

in, 124. 

Floyd's Bluffs: 47. 
Floyd's River: described, 47. 
Fontaine, Philip: 158 
Fort Anthony: 122. 
Fort Atkinson: 45. 
Fort aux Cedres: 53. 
Fort Bellefontaine: 27, 63, 123, 

144, 146. 
Fort Bent: 76. 
Fort Benton: 89. 
Fort Berthold: 52, 64, 74, 135, 


FortBridger: 140. 
Fort Calhoun: 45. 
Fort Clark: 33, 148. 
Fort Clemson: 146. . 
Fort Cole: 31. 
Fort Fiery Prairie: 33. 
Fort Kiowa: 156. 
Fort Laframboise: 62. 
Fort Laramie: 54, 55. 
Fort La Salle: 70. 
Fort Lea venworth: 34, 152. 
Fort Lisa, near Council Bluffs: 16, 

44, 144. 

Fort Madison: 27. 
Fort Mandan: 15, 79, 142. 
Fort Manuel: 17, broken up, 20; 
location of, 68; cleared for de- 
fense, 93, 125; enclosure fin- 
ished, 93; baptized, 94. 
Fort Mason: 123. 
Fort Massac: 27. 
Fort Orleans: 32. 
Fort Os age: 27, 146, 150; de- 
scribed, 33; hunters at, 35. 
FortPembina: 136. 
Fort Pierre: 55, 137. 
Fort Pine: 136. 
Fort Raymond: 77. 
Fort St. Michel "chez des Sioux": 


Fort Snelling: 122. 
FortTecumseh: 62,77. 



Fort Union: 77, 155. 

Fort Vincennes : 27. 89. 

Fort Yates: 68, 124. 

Foster County, N. D.: 49. 

Fouche, Francois: in. 

Fouche, Isaac: sketch of, in; <rn- 

gagt, 158. 

Fouche, Michel: in. 
Fouche, Pedro: in. 
Four-Mile Creek, N. D.t 91. 
Fowke, Gerard: cited, 32. 
Fox Indians: 27. 
Franklin County, Mo.: 31, 144, 


Franklin, Mo. : 150. 
Franklin, Tenn., battle of: 153. 
Fremont, John Charles: cited, 45, 


French Fur Company: 148. 
Fulkerson,W.N.: 138. 

Gage County, Neb. : 40. 

Galena, 111.: 142, 150. 

Garciniere, Don Andres Fagot la: 

Garreau, Antoine: 64. 

Garreau, Joseph: sketch of, 64; 
returns from Arikaras, 68; wife 
threatens to shoot, 84; leaves 
Fort, 90; deception of, 92; or- 
ders Arikaras to steal horses, 93; 
returns to Fort, 94; at Saone 
camp, 97; invites Sioux to go 
hunting, 104; goes to meet Im- 
me!l, 107; to Arikara village, 
117; engagt, 158. 

Garreau, Pierre: 64. 

Gauche (Left-handed), Arikara 
chief: visits camp, 64; sketch 
of, 64; receives present, 66; fol- 
lows expedition, 67; at Fort, 72, 
79, 86, 89, 99, 106; mentioned, 
73, 128; horse stolen by Sioux, 
83; holds council, 93; village 
of, 100; carries pipe to Chey- 
ennes, 1 10; returns from Chey- 
ennes, 112; wants to live near 
Fort, 117; returns from hunt, 
1 1 8; son blind, 120. 

Geyer, Senator Henry S.: 152. 

Glineau, Nicolas: sketch of, 103; 
goes to Mandans, 109, 119; re- 
covers stolen horses, 116; en- 
gagt, 158. 

Goyet, Marie: 34. 

Graham, Moses: 14. 

Grand Detour: 61. 

Grand Pawnee Indians: 69. 

Grand River: mentioned, 32, 52, 
64, 67; described, 6$. 

Great Bend: 61. 

Greenwood, Caleb: sketch of, 35; 
goes to Arikaras, 61; rejoins 
party, 65; engagt, 157. 

Gregory County, S. D.: 55, 56. 

Grey Eyes, Arikara chief: sketch 
of, 73; at Fort Manuel, 76; 
mentioned, 91; has Company's 
horses, 93, 94; returns horses, 

Grey Head, Mandan chief: 90. 

Grier, Robert C: 53. 

Grosventre Indians: at war with 
Americans, 15; Hidatsa, 52; 
post of, 63; kill an Arikara, 68; 
described, 68; mentioned, 69, 
84, 106, 136; trade horses, 73; 
traders return from, 74, 87, 12 1 ; 
steal horses, 78; kill Mandan 
chiefs, 83; send pipe to Arik- 
aras, 87; battle, 88; traders 
with, 89; go to Arikaras, 93; 
kill trappers, 101; Sioux kills, 
Ii8; capture Bird Woman, 132; 
battle between Mandans and 
Grosventres, 139. 

Grosventres of the Prairie, or Fall 
Indians: 102. 

Hall, Rev. C. L.: cited, 132. 

Hannibal, Mo.: 123. 

Harding County, S. D.: 66. 

Harmony Mission: 51, 60. 

Harnois, Pierre: 155. 

Harper, Mr.: 151. 

Harrison, William Henry: ^ Gov- 
ernor of District of Louisiana, 

Harrison County, Iowa: 45. 

Harrison, Mo.: 100. 



Hartland, Kans.: 70. 
Head, James: 100. 
Hebard, Dr. Grace R.: 135. 
Helie: see Elie. 
Hempstead, Stephen: 142. 
Henry, Alexander: cited, 68, 73, 


Henry, Andrew: 65, 104. 
Hertzog, Joseph: 153. 
Hertzog, Mary: 152. 
Hidatsa group: 78. 
Hidatsa Indians: see Grosventre 


Hidatsa language: 133. 
Hight, Henry: 154. 
Hodge, F. W.: cited, 51, 52, 58, 

100, 101. 

Holmes, Capt. Reuben: 138. 
Holt County, Mo.: 38. 
Hopa-wazhupS: 49. 
Hortiz, Joseph : 101. 
Hortiz, Marie L.: 155. 
Hosmer, James K.: cited, 135. 
Hotonga: 51. 

Howard, Gen. Benjamin: 123. 
Hunkpapa Indians: 57. 
Hunt, Col. Thomas: 27, 144. 
Hunt, Wilson P.: 64. 
Hyde County, S. D.: 61. 

Ichinipokine River: 41. 

Ida County, Iowa: 45. 

Illinois River: 70. 

Immell, Michael E.: meets expe- 
dition, 27; goes to Fort Osage 
for dog, 35; precedes party by 
land, 51; with Sioux, 54, 56; 
returns to camp, 58; at Grey 
Eyes' camp, 94; hunting, 60, 
80, 8 1, 91, 92, 99; returns from 
hunt, 82; visits his wintering 
post of 1811, 61; letter from, 
64; at Arikara village, 83, 85, 93; 
goes to Grosventre village, 86; 
to Cheyenne camp, 97; attends 
Cheyenne feast, 98; to Man- 
dans, 103, 104, 119; reported 
robbed by Cheyennes, 107; goes 
to Sioux camp, 108; in search 
of stolen horses, 112, 116; re- 

turns with horses, 113; gives 
girl to Laderoute, 115; helps 
Arikaras move, 117; returns 
from Mandans, 120; reconnoi- 
tres, 126; sketch of, 143; engagt, 


Indian chief fires his gun back- 
ward: 1 08. 

Indian spies: 56. 

Indian Territory: 37,51. 

Indians designate site of trading- 
posts: 67. 

Inkpe Luta, Indian chief: 57. 

Iowa Creek: 48. 

Iowa Indians: 23, 37, 51. 

Iowa Point: 40. 

Irving, Washington: cited, 64. 

Isle a Beau Soleil: 41. 

Istinhmunma (The Sleeper), In- 
dian chief: 55. 

Jackson County, Mo.: 33. 
Jacques (James) River: described, 

49; mentioned, 51 
James, Thomas: cited, 68. 
Janot: see Lachapelle. 
Jarret, Henry: 88. 

arret, Susanne: 88 

efferson, Thomas: 52. 

efferson Forks: 135. 

ohnson, William J. : 88. 

ohnson County, Neb. : 40. 

ollet, Alexy: 157. 

ones, Robert: 144. 

oyal, Antoine: 88. 

oyal, Joseph: sketch of, 88; with 

Glineau, 104; engagi, 158. 
Joyal family: 88. 
Jusseaume, Josette Therese: 77, 


Jusseaume, Rene: mentioned, 74, 
77. 137; sketch of, 79; returns 
from Grosventre village, 83; ex- 
cites Indians, 84; with Glineau, 
104; horses stolen, 116; engagt, 

Jusseaume, Toussaint: 79. 

Kago-ha-mi (Little Raven or Lit- 
tle Crow), Mandan chief: 83. 



Kansas City, Mo.: 36, 147. 

Kansas Indians: imprison Ezekiel 
Williams, 19, 35; described, 36; 
mentioned, 50; villages, 35, 36. 

Kansas Outfit: 155. 

Kansas River: mouth of, 23; men- 
tioned, 36, 37, 51, 70, 78, 101. 

Kansas State Historical Society: 

Kaskaskia, 111.: records, 30; men- 
tioned, 77, 80, ioo, 1 14. 

Kearny, Stephen W.: 64, 123, 136, 

Kearny County, Kans.: 70. 

Keeney, Mrs. Mary Hempstead: 

Kenel, S. D.: 68. 

Kennedy, George: 144. 

Kennerly, James: 130. 

Kenton, John: 157. 

Kinzie, Mrs. John H.: 153. 

Kipp, James: 137. 

Knife River: 68, 136. 

Knox County, Neb.: 49, 53, 54. 

Labadie, Joseph: 88. 
Labadie, Therese: 88. 
Labont, Antoine: 157. 
Labuiche, Geneyieve: 88. 
Lachapelle, Bazile: 30. 
Lachapelle, David: 30. 
Lachapelle, Jean Baptiste: sketch 

of, 30; kills bear, 32; on hunt, 

77; reported to have been killed, 

98; engagt, 157. 
Lachapelle, dit J anot: 30. 
Lacroix, Paul: 91. 
Laderoute, Joseph: ordered out of 

Fort, 114, 115; sketch of, 114; 

deserted, 117; escorts Charbon- 

neau, 128. 

Ladouceur, Elinore: 149. 
Ladouceur, Pierre: 149. 
Lafayette County, Mo.: 33. 
Lafarque, Jean: leader of party, 

1 6, 142; in Spanish country, 

102; sketch of, 103. 
Lagasse, Josef : 157. 
La Garciniere, Don Andres Fagot: 


Laidlaw, William: ,137. 
Lajeunesse, : meets expedi- 
tion, 34. 

Lajeunesse, Jacques: 34. 
Lajeunesse, Jean B.: 34. 
Lajeunesse, Marie: 77. 
Lajeunesse family: 34. 
Lajoie, Joseph: 88. 
Lajoie, Louis: sketch of, 88; en- 

mt> 157- 

Lake Nepegon: 101. 

Lake Winnepeg: HI. 

Lamberton, N. J.: 123. 

Lamonde, Pierre: 157. 

Lancaster County, Neb.: 40. 

Lange, Joseph: in. 

Lange, Pierre: arrives at Fort, 
no, in; goes to Mandans, 119; 
engagt, 157. 

Langue de Biche (Elk's Tongue), 
Ankara chief: sketch of, 91; 
camp of, 93; horses recovered 
recovered from, 116; situation 
of, 126; at Fort, 128. 

Lapere, Cecile: 148. 

Lapere, Peter: 148. 

La Plume d'Aigle (Eagle's Feath- 
er), Arikara chief: sketch of, 67; 
at Fort, 72, 75, 93, 120; carries 
pipe to Mandans, 1 10. 

Laprise, Francois: 157. 

Laprise, Joseph: 155. 

Larivier, Pierre: 157. 

Laroche, Marie J.: 89. 

Larocque, Francois Antoine: 137. 

Larose, Cecile: 147. 

Larpenteur, Charles: cited, 64,89. 

Larrison, Daniel: sketch of, 35; 
engag6, 158. 

Larrison, John: 35. 

Latour, Amable: Hi. 

Latour, Charles: in search of 
Champ lain v 's party, 20, 158; 
arrives at Fort Manuel, no; 
sketch of, no; ordered out of 
Fort, 114; accompanies Char- 
bonneau, 128; engag6, 15 7- 

Latour family: in. 

LaTulipe: 43. 

Latulippe, Elizabeth: 43. 



Latulippe, Francois: 43. 

Latulippe, Jean Baptiste: sketch 
of, 42; engag^ 157. 

Laviolette, Catherine: 59. 

Laviolette, Julia: 59. 

Laviolette, Marie L.: 139. 

Lawrence County, Ark.: 14. 

Lawrencetown, Ark.: 14. 

Lean Wolf, Indian chief: 140. 

L'Eau Qui Court (Niobrara) Riv- 
er: described, 53; mentioned, 

L'Eau Qui Monte: 53. 

Leavenworth, Col. Henry: 122. 

Lebanon, 111.: 146. 

Leblond, Joseph: 156. 

Le Bprgne (One-eyed), Grosventre 
chief: sketch of, 73; mentioned 
121 ; in disgrace, 122. 

Leclair, Joseph : 127,157. 

Leclerc, Therese : 1 1 1 . 

Lecompte, Francois : sketch of, 78 ; 
engagt, 157. 

Lecompte, Louis: 148. 

Leduc, Morice: 158. 

Le Grand, Cheyenne Indian: 87. 

Le Grand (Partizan), Dakota war- 
rior: 90. 

Le Gross (Big Man),' Arikara chief: 
sketch of, 77; at Fort Manuel, 
89, 94, 106; returns from Chey- 
ennes, 119. 

Leme, Josef: 157. 

Lemonde, dit La Malice, Charles : 

Le Nez (The Nose), Sioux chief: 
sketch of, 55. 

Lepage, Julia: 59. 

Leroux (or Ledoux), Abraham: 

Leroux, Antoine: 157. 

Lessaroco, Cheyenne chief: 86. 

Le Sueur, Minn.: 57. 

Lewis, Meriwether: 74, 139, 150. 

Lewis, Reuben: 60; prairie dog, 
71; on Little Big Horn River, 
77, 101; message from, 100, 105; 
letter to, in; sketch of, 150; 
in list of engages, 157. 

Lewis, T. H.: cited, 56. 

Lewis and Clark Expedition: men 
tioned, 11, 29, 32, 34, 37, 38, 
42, 44, 45, 48, 49, 51, 62, 64, 70, 
73, 87, 90, 102, 106, 136, 140, 
145; map of, 53; held council 
with Indians, 56; quoted, 58; 
at Arikara village, 67; gave Le 
Borgne a swivel gun, 73; at Fort 
Mandan, 79, 83; interpreter for, 

Lexington, Mo. : 153. 

Liberty, Mo.: 151, 153. 

Lisa, Cristobal de: 142. 

Lisa,Manuel: returns to St. Louis, 
15, 16; expeditions of, 17, 29, 
35; sends Company's boat back, 
52; difficulties with Indians, 18, 
I9> 92, 93; trade with South- 
west Indians, 20; success of, 21; 
strategy of, 23; joins expedition 
at the Charbonniere, 28; puts 
hogs in river, 38; escapes drown- 
ing, 46; monopoly of Osage 
trade, 50; holds council with 
Indians, 56, 66; servant drowns, 
59; gives presents to chiefs, 58, 
74,120; trading-posts of, 6 1, 66, 
68, 77; sends for cat, 62; fort 
at Grand River, 66; injured, 69; 
goes to Grosventre village, 69; 
returns, 70, 73 ; talk with Sioux 
chief, 77; partnership with 
Drouillard, 78; proposes peace 
between Saone and Arikara In- 
dians, 79; at Arikara village, 83 ; 
engages Charbonneau, 86; takes 
pipe of Grosventres to Arikaras, 
87; with Saone Sioux, 90; urges 
Arikaras to hunt, 92; at Chey- 
ennes' camp, 97; invited to 
Cheyenne feast, 98; hunting, 
99; employees of, 100, 102, 103, 
in, 114; sends letter to Bijou, 
105; promises horses to Arik- 
aras, 106; men return, 107; of- 
fers friendship to Sioux, 108; 
receives unpleasant news from 
Lewis, 100; letter from Sangui- 
net, 101; refuses present from 
Arikaras, no; urges men to 

1 84 


hunt, 114; running mare stolen, 

116; takes possession of Indian 

fort, 1 16; gives presents to cover 

the body of Gauche 's son, 120; 

sketch of, 141; letter to Span- 
^iards, 142; mentioned, 144. 
Lisa, Rosalie: 142. 
Little Berger River: 29. 
Little Big Horn River, 77, 101, 

in, 142. 

Little Bow Creek: 49. 
Little Bow, Omaha chief: 49. 
Little Cedar Island: in Gregory 

County, S. D., 55. 
Little Cheyenne River: described, 

Little Crow, Mandan chief: killed 

by Grosventres, 83. 
Little Missouri River (now called 

Bad River): 75, 156, 157. 
Little Nemaha River: described, 


Little Platte River: described, 36. 
Little Osage Indians: village of, 

32; mentioned, 50, 51. 
Little Osage Island: location of, 

.3 2 ' 

Little Osage Prairie: described, 32. 

Little Osage River: 50. 

Little Sioux River: described, 45. 

Loisel, Josephine: 53. 

Loisel, Regis: 46, 53, 61. 

Long, Major S. H.: 44. 

Lorimier, Guillaume de: 52. 

Lorimier, Louis: precedes party 
by land, 5 1 ; sketch of, 5 1 ; meets 
Sioux Indians, 55; goes by land 
to Arikaras, 61; rejoins party, 
65; at Little Big Horn, 77, 101; 
at Crow v ; llages, 100; letter 
from, 105; letter to, m; en- 

T 8*g, 157. 
Lost Creek: 53. 
Loutre Island: 31, 146. 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition: 


Lovely, Major William L.: 14. 
Lucas, J. B. C.: 146. 
Luipere River: 53. 
Lumandiere, Marie: 30. 

Luttig, Elizabeth: 14. 

Luttig, John C.: clerk of Missouri 
Fur Company, 12; merchant in 
Baltimore, 13; death of, 14; 
journal entries referred to, 18, 
!9 55> 67; accepts present from 
Arikaras, no; throws present 
away, 112; letters to, 129-131; 
guardian of Charbonneau chil- 
dren, 133; contempt for Char- 
bonneau, 137; cngagt, 157. 

Lyman County, S.D.: 55,61. 

Machecou, dit Antonio, Baptiste: 
sketch of, 100; leaves Little Big 
Horn River, 101; goes to meet 
Sanguinet, 103; equipped for 
hunt, in; ordered out of Fort, 
114; returns, 127; escorts Char- 
bonneau, 128; engage, 158. 

McClellan, Robert: 44, 78. 

McDonald, Henriette: 146. 

McDowell, Mr.: 148. 

Mackinac: 148, 153, 154. 

McKnight, Robert: 17, 35. 

McKnight-Chambers-Baird Expe- 
dition: 17, 20, 35. 

McKraken, Louis: 157. 

McMines: 129. 

Malboeuf, Elizabeth: 34. 

Malbo?uf, Francois: 34. 

Manaigle: see Manegre. 

Mandan Fort: 15. 

Mandan Indians: near British 
posts, 24; villages of, 15, 79; 
allies of Arikaras, 52; men- 
tioned, 57, 68, 104, 133, 136, 138, 
139, 140, 148; described, 74; 
houses of, 75; at Fort Manuel, 
8 1, 87, 90, 108, 112, 128; steal 
horses, 83 ; demand a trader, 99; 
Mandan chief, 146. 

Mandan, N. D.: 74. 

Manegre, Joseph: 80. 

Manegre, Louis: sketch of, 80; en- 
gag&, 157- 

Maryland records: 13. 

Marais des Cygnes: 50. 

Marechal, Francois: in. 

Maria's River: 102. 


Marmiton River: 50. 

Marasse, Pierre: 157. 

Marks, Dr. John: 151. 

Marquette's map: referred to, 50. 

Mason, Lieutenant John: 123. 

Masquilonge, Quebec: 88. 

Matson, N.: cited, 153. 

Matthews, Dr. Washington: cited, 
78, 132. 

Maximilian, Prince of Wied: cited, 
30, 64, 68, 78, 136, 137. 

Mayet, Jean Baptiste: sketch of, 
29; cuts pickets for fort, 82, 86; 
engag&, 157. 

Medicine Men, Cheyenne chief: 

Manier, Agnes: in. 

Mercier, Antoine: sketch of, 77; 
reported to have been killed, 98; 
engagi, 157. 

Mercier, Joseph: 77. 

Merrill, Rev. Moses: 35. 

Metaharta village: 136. 

Mexican War: 146. 

Micheltorena's Army: 35. 

Michigan City, Ind.: 153. 

Mine d'Espagne (Dubuque, Iowa), 

Minneconjou Indians: 57. 

Minnesota Historical Society: 90. 

Minnetarees: see Grosventre In- 

Mississippi River: 51; Upper, 23. 

Missouri Fur Company: men- 
tioned, 11, 13, 15, 30, 35, 55, 64, 
77, 79, 80, 89, loo, in, 114, 143, 
144, 149, 156. 

Missouri Garotte: 14, 15, 17, 144, 

Missouri Historical Society: Ar- 
chives, n, 12, 137; Collections, 
?7, S3, 123-^ 

Missouri Indians: 32, 37, 51. 

Missouri Intelligencer: 51. 

Missouri Republican: 152. 

Missouri River: Indians on, 23. 

Missouri River Commission maps: 
cited, 45, 48, 53, 97. 

Mitchell, Major D. D.: 138. 

Mohaw River: see Omaha River. 

Monier, Jean Baptiste: 50. 

Monona County, Iowa: 45. 

Montana Daughters of American 
Revolution: 135. 

Montreal, Canada: 30. 

Moore, James C. : 129,131. 

Moreau River: 64. 

Moreau Township, Cooper Coun- 
ty, Mo.: 65. 

Morton County, N. D.: 91, 97, 

Mosquito Creek: described, 44. 

Muhlenberg County, Ky.: 65. 

Murray, Charles Augustus: cited, 

Nadeau, Mrs. Virginia: 150. 

Nadowa: see Nodaway, 38. 

Napoleon, 111.: 146. 

Naulette, Rene: 34. 

Neil, Rev. Francis: 134, 140. 

Nelson County, Ky.: 151. 

Nemaha County, Kans.: 41. 

Nemaha, Neb.: 41. 

Nemaha River, Big or Great: de- 
scribed, 40. 

Nemaha River, Little: described, 

Neosho River: 51. 

New Brunswick, N. Y.: 146. 

New Madrid County, Mo.: 100, 

New Mexico: 17. 

New Orleans: 13, 149. 

Nez de Corbeau, Sioux chief: 
sketch of, 72; receives present, 
74; at Fort, 8 1, 82. 

Nez Perces Indians: 106. 

Nicollet's Map: referred to, 48, 

Niobrara River: Poncas on, 50; 
described, 53; mentioned, 54, 

Nishnabotna, Mo. : 41. 
Nishnabotna River: described, 41 . 
Nodaway, Mo.: 38. 
Nodaway River: escribed, 38. 
Norman, Louis: 158. 
North West Company: 15, 64, 78 , 
79, 88, 104, in, 122, 136, 149. 



O'Fallon, Benjamin: 144, 152. 
Oglala Indians: 57, 58. 
Ohheenaw (Le Grand), Cheyenne 

Indian: 87. 
Olden, Mary C.: 146. 
Oliver, Ann Marie: 146. 
Olmstead, UK: 146. 
Omaha Indians: villages of, 48, 

49; mentioned, 50, 54, 115, 148; 

described, 51. 
Omaha River: 47. 
One-eyed, Grosventre chief: sec 

Le Borgne. 

Ooheneonpa Indians: 57. 
Ordway, Sergeant John: 48. 
Osage Indians: rescued Williams 

from Kansas Indians, 19, 35; 

mentioned, 32, 150; described, 

SO, 51- 

Osage River: 43, 50, 51, 60, ipi. 
Otter Woman: wife of Toussaint 

Charbonneau, 133. 
Otoe Indiars: 35, 37, m; de- 
scribed, 51. 
Owl River: 64. 
Oulle, Antoine: 89. 
Oulle, Francois: sketch of, 89; 

hunting, 99; goes to Grosventre 

village, 109; returns, 121; en- 

gagt, IS 8 - 

Packs of furs: 74. 

Papilliar, Cheyenne chief: 92. 

Papillon Creek: 44. 

Papillon, Neb.: 44. 

Papin, Hypolite Leber: in charge 
of Company's boat, 52; goes to 
Grosventre village, 86; to Arik- 
ara village, 87, 92, 93; at Grey 
Eyes' camp, 94; goes to Bijou's 
trading - post, 105; meets Im- 
mell, 107; goes to Langue de 
Biche's camp, 116; sketch of, 
53; engagt, 157. 

Papin, Sophie: 88. 

Papin, Sylvestre: 53. 

Papin family: 53. 

Papinsville, Mo.: 50. 

Pariki (a horn) : 69. 

Parkman, Francis: 149. 

Parkville, Mo.: 36. 

Partizan, Saone Sioux Indian: 90. 

Paston: 130. 

Pasu Ksapa (Le Nez), Sioux chief: 


Patron: 29,42. 
Pawnee County, Neb.: 40. 
Pawnee Indians: mentioned, 37, 

57, 101; described, 69. 
Pawnee Island: 54. 
Pawnee village: 30. 
Pawnee Loup (Skidi) Indians: 69. 
Pelletier, Jean B.: 154. 
Peltier, Antoine: 157. 
Penny, Margaret: 52. 
Peoria, 111.: 154. 
Pere, Mr.: 103. 
Pereau, Paul: 158. 
Polly, John: 157. 
Perkins County, S. D.: 66. 
Perrin, Catherine: 89. 
Perrin du Lac's map: cited, 45, 


Perry, Robert: 47. 
Perry Creek: 47. 
Peru, Neb.: 41. 
Petit Arc Creek: 49. 
Petite Cotes: see St. Charles. 
Petite Riviere des Sioux: 45. 
Petite-sas-Plains: 32. 
Philibert, Edmond: 155. 
Philibert, Joseph: 155. 
Piegans Indians: 102. 
Piaheto (Plume d'Aigje, Eagle's 

Feather), Ankara chief: see La 


Picard, Helene: 34. 
Picard, John: 88. 
Pike, Lieutenant Zebulon M.: 43, 

57; expedition of, 43, 50, 72, 90; 

sketch of, 123. 
Pike County, Mo.: 123. 
Pike's Peak: 76, 123. 
Pilcher, Joshua: letter from, 139. 
Pilon, Rosalie: 156. 
Pipestonc, Minn.: 51. 
Platte County, Mo. : 36. 
Platte River: described, 43; men- 
tioned, 1 8, 51, 57, 69; North 

Platte, 57, 91, 138. 


i8 7 

Plume d'Aigle (Eagle's Feather): 
see La Plume. 

Plus: 125. 

Point du Sable, Jean Baptiste: 
sent for stolen horses, 93; sketch 
of, 153; engag^, 157. 

Point du Sable, Jean B., Jr.: death 
of, 154. 

Point du Sable, Susanne: 154. 

Point Jacques : 44. 

Point Labadie, Mo.: 144. 

Ponca Indians: described, 50; 
mentioned, 51, 115. 

Ponca Creek: described, 54. 

Poor Little Wolf, Cheyenne In- 
dian: 99. 

Portage des Sioux: 56, 90. 

Portage ville, Mo.: 100. 

Porteau: 18, 20. 

Pottawattamie County, Iowa: 44, 

Potter County, S. D.: in. 

Potts, John: 102. 

Poulin, Isadore: 148. 

Poulin, Mary: 147. 

Portland, Oregon: 135. 

Pourcelle, A.: 129, 131 

Prairie du Chien: 59. 

Prairie du Feu: 33. 

Prairie du Rocher: 59. 

Pratte & Vasquez: 148. 

Prevost, Jean Baptiste: sketch of, 
90; turned out of Fort, 91; 
arouses the Arikaras, 92; ac- 
cused of inciting the Indians, 
93; explains his conduct, 94; 
pardoned by Lisa, 99; engag6, 


Primeau, Paul: 149. 
Primeau, Pelagic: 149. 
Primeau, Pierre: 158. 
Princeton, N. J.: 146. 
Provenchere, Peter: 103. 
Pryor, Nathanjcel: 57, 74. 
Pulaski County, 111.: 146. 

Quapaw Reserve: 151. 
Quebec, Canada: 149. 
Quenneville, Francois: hunting, 

60, 61; sketch of, "60; cngag6 y 

Quenneville family: 60. 

Rajotte, Francois: in. 

Raven Nose, Sioux chief: see Nez 

de Corbeau. 

Red River: 24, 47, 64, 70, 79, 88. 
Red Shield, Indian chief: 73. 
Reevey's Prairie: 38. 
Republican Pawnee Indians: 69. 
Ribeau, Agathe: 88. 
Richardson, Amos: 29; sketch of, 


Richardson, Daniel: 144, 145. 
Richardson, Nancy: 144. 
Richardson, Richard: 145. 
Richardson County, Neb. : 40. 
Richwoods, Mo. : 139. 
Riddle, Mrs. Esther Daniels: 146. 
Riddle, James: 146. 
Rio del Norte: 101. 
RioGrande: 123. 
Riviere a Jacques: 49. 
Riviere Croche: 48. 
Riviere des Soldats: 45. 
Riviere du Chambly, Quebec: 34. 
Riviere du Chene: 77. 
Riviere du Loup: 40. 
Riviere du Sauteux: 104. 
Rob>idou, Frangois: meets expedi- 
tion, 34; mentioned, 88, 138; 

sketch of, 147. 
Robidou, Joseph, Sr.: 147. 
Robidou, Joseph, Jr. : 147. 
Robidou family: 147. 
Robjdoux, Louis R.: 147. 
Robldoux, Sellico: 147. 
Robinson, Dr. Doane: quoted, 67, 

68. t 

Rondin: 154. 

Rodriguez, Marie Ignacia: 142. 
Roger Creek: 44. 
Rolet.te, dit Laderoute: 1^4. 
Rolette, dit Laderoute, Catherine: 

Roman Nose, Sioux chief: see Nez 

de Corbeau. 
Rose, Edouard: 157. 



Rosebud Creek: 56. 
Rosebud Landing, S. D.: 56. 
Ross, Alexander: cited, 106. 
Rotuie, Joseph: 156. 
Rousseau, Michel: 157. 
Routier, Genevieve: 148. 
Roy, Francois: 157. 
Roy, Madeleine: 156. 
Ruff, Anne Elizabeth: 153. 
Ruff, General Charles: 153. 

Sacajawea: see Sakakawea. 

Sage, Rufus: 140. 

St. Charles County: 60, 64, 102, 

146, 154; records of, 13. 
St. Charles County Rangers: 35. 
St. Charles, Mo.: described, 28; 
mentioned, 27, 60, 91, 114, 153. 
St. Clair County, 111.: court rec- 
ords, 154- 

St. Ferdinand Township: 138,146. 
Ste. Genevieve: Mo. 43. 
St. Germain, Andre: 157. 
St. Helena, Neb.: 45. 
St. John's Township, Mo.: 144. 
St. Joseph, Mo.: 88, 147, 155. 
St. Louis Catholic Cathedral: rec- 
ords, 29, 154- 

St. Louis, Mo.: court records, 13, 
43, 59; mentioned, 17, 19, 53, 
64, 114, I33 I34> I35> 139, HO, 
142, 145, I47 H9, .156; boat, 
leaves tor, 75; ex>edition leaves 
27.335 directory of, 91, 155. 
St. Louis Missouri Fur Company: 

15,43, in, 148, 150, 151. 
St. Michel, Jean Baptiste: 60. 
St. Peter's River: 90, 122. 
St. Pierre, Gueniche: 158. 
St. Rose, Quebec: 34. 
Sakakawea: wife of Toussaint 
Charbonneau, 24; death of, 106; 
sketch of, 132; mentioned, 138, 
140; monuments to, 135. 
Saline County, Mo.: 32. 
Salt River: fort on, 123. 
San Domingo: 153. 
San Francisco: 35. 
Sanguinet, Charles, fits: in search 
of Champlain's party, 20, 76, 

142, 158; makes signal fires, 54; 
sends letter to Lisa, 101; asks 
for men to meet him, 103; no 
news from, 107; arrives at Fort, 
Iio; goes hunting, 116; helps 
Arikaras move, 117; goes to 
Mandans, 119; engagt, 157; 
sketch of, 149. 

Sanguinet, Christopher: 149. 
Sanguinet, Simon: 149. 
Sanguinet famijy: 150. 

Sanguinet & Robidou: 149. 

Sans Arcs Indians: 57. 

Santa Fe, N. M.: 36, 123. 

SantaFeparty: 17; atFortOsage, 
35; traders, 51. 

Saone Indians: 56; described, 57; 
peace conference with Ari^aras* 
79; at Arikara vijlage, 97; at 
Cheyenne camp, 124. 

Sarpy County, Neb.: 44. 

Sauk Indians: 27, 37, 148. 

Sawyer: 39. 

Say, Thomas: 44. 

Scalp Song: 104. 

Schaeffer, Augustus: 155. 

Schultz, James: cited, 133. 

Selkirk Establishment: 24. 

Senecal: 103. 

Shai-ene (Sioux name for Chey- 
enne Indians), 70. 

Shannon, George: 56. 

Shannon Creek: 56. 

Shawnee Indians: 52. 

Sheheke (Big White), Mandan 
chief: 57; sketch of, 73; deati 
of, 82; mentioned, 79, 83. 

Shepherd River: 29. 

Shope's: 131. 

Shoshone Mountains: 77. 

Shoshoni Indians: mentioned, 79, 
101, 135, 138; described, 106. 

Sibley, Major George C., Indian 
Agent: mentioned, 19, 34; de- 
scribes Kansas Indians, 36. 

Sibley, Mo.: 34. 

Sihasapa Indians: 57. 

Simoneau Island: 156. 

Simpson, Dr. Robert: 131. 

Sioux Indians: kill Lisa's men, 15; 



in War of 1812, 22, 55; trading- 
house of, 28; mentioned, 50, 51, 
55,70,109; territory of, 51; at 
war with Poncas, 5 1 ; lodges of, 
54, 104; at war with Arikaras, 
76, 120; chiefs, 56, 77, 80; offer 
to make peace with Arikaras, 79; 
at Fort Manuel. 80, 82, 90; steal 
horses from Fort, 83; reported 
to have killed Bijou, 104, 105; 
reject Lisa's friendship, 108; 
Cheyennes offer peace pipe, 113; 
fight Cheyennes, 115; commence 
war on Arikaras, 113; chief 
killed, 115; attack Fort Manuel, 
125, 127; steal Cheyennes' 
horses, 127; kill Grosventre In- 
dian, 1 1 8. 

Sioux City, Iowa: 45, 47. 

Sire, Joseph A.: 156, 157. 

Sleeper, Teton Sioux chief: sketch 

of 55- 

Sleepy Eyes, Sioux chief: 56. 

Snake Indians: see Shoshoni In- 

Snake River: 38. 

Sni-a-bar Township, Jackson Co., 
Mo.: 33. 

Soldier River: described, 45. 

South Dakota Historical Society: 

Southwestern Historical Quarterly: 


Spanish Company: 60, 114, 149. 

Spanish Country: 14. 

Spanish Military Post: 27. 

Spanish settlements: 18. 

Spanish Traders: 16. 

Spanish Waters: see Arkansas 

Springfield, ID.: 146. 

Standing Rock Indian Reserva- 
tion: 66. 

Stanley County, S. D.: 63. 

Stevens, Elisha, party: 35. 

Stoddard County, Mo.: 52. 

Sun Island: 41. 

Sun River (Perry Creek): 47. 

Superintendent of Indian Affairs: 
S3, 139- 

Sur-wa-carna (Park River): 64. 

Tabeau, Celeste: 88. 

Tabeau, Jacques: 88. 

Tabeau family: 88. 

Tanguay, L'Abb6 Cyprien: cited, 
42, 89, 124. 

Tapage, or Noisy Pawnee Indians : 

Tardit, G'-n'omme: 157. 

Taylor, Major Zachary: 35. 

Trhanka.ndata: 48. 

Teton River (Bad River): men- 
tioned, 52, 56, 57, 58; described, 

Teton Sioux Indians: mentioned, 
55, 56; described, 57. 

Third Missouri Infantry, C. S. A.: 


Thompson, David: 79. 

Three Forks, Mont.: 135. 

Ticio, Baptiste: 148. 

Tillier, Rudolph, U. S. Indian Fac- 
tor: 27. 

Toulouse, Alexander: 158. 

Tracy, Edward N.: 53. 

Trail Creek: 153. 

Tripp County, S. D.: 54. 

Trudil, Francoise: 88. 

Trudeau, Adrienne: 156. 

Trudeau, Antoine L.: 156. 

Trudeau, Jean Baptiste: 53, 60, 
67, 114, 156. 

Trudeau, Louis: 156. 

Trudeau, Zenon: 103. 

Tsis-tsis (Cheyenne): 70. 

Two Forks: 135. 

Two Kettle Indians: 57. 

Upper Missouri Outfit: 148, 155. 
U. S. Geological Survey: 135. 
U. S. Indian Factory: 27. 
U. S. Military Fort: 27. 
Ute Indians: 101. 

Valle, Jean Baptiste: 144. 
Vasquez & Pratte: 148. 
Vasseur, Helene: 34. 
Vasseur, Joseph: 34. 
Vera Cruz: 146. 



Verdigris River: 50. 
Vermillion Post: 49. 
Vermiilion, S. D.: 48. 
Vermillion River: 48, 51. 
Vernon County, Mo. : 51. 
Vertefeuille, Joseph: 140. 
Vertefeuille, Victoire: 140. 
Vincennes, Ind.: 146. 

Wabash River: 50. 
Wah-kan-tah-pay, Indian chief: 

Wakpa Chicha (Bad River): 62. 
Wallis, Allen: 88. 
Wallis, Maryanne: 88. 
Warofi8i2: 14, 22, 30, 34, 55, 57, 


Washington County, Mo.: 139. 
Washington County, Neb. : 44, 45 . 
Washte Wajpa (Good River): 63. 
Wasiska: 53. 
Wassisha: 48. 
Watpa-ipak-shan: 48. 
Waugh, James C: 53. 
Wayne County, Ky.: 31. 
Weir, James: 65. 
Weir, John: 65. 
Weir, William: sketch o", 65; en- 

gag, 157. 

Welch, Rev. J. E.: 134- 
Wells County, N. D.: 49. 
Westport, Mo.: 140. 
Weterhoo (Grand River): 65. 
Wheeler, O. D.: cited, 62, 137. 

White Lime Creek: 53. 

White Paint Creek: 53. 

White River: 14, 57, 140; de- 
scribed, 55. 

Whitestone River: 48. 

Wihethtanga, Osage Indian wom- 
an: 60. 

Wilkinson, General James: 27. 

Williams, Ezekiel: adventures of, 
17-19; goes back to Arapaho 
village, 20; prisoner in Kansas 
village, 19, 35. 

Wilt, Catherine: 153. 

Wilt, Christian: letter-book of, 12, 
13, 15; letters to Luttig, 129- 


Wind River Mountains: 77. 
Winnebago Indians: 51. 
Winnebago Land Company: 146. 
Wiser, Peter: 102. 
Woahl, Francois: see Oulle. 
Wolf River: 40. 
Wyeth, Nathaniel: 140. 

Yankton Indians: described, 51; 
mentioned, 55, 56. 

Yankton, S. D.: 49. 

Yanktonai Indians: 51; men- 
tioned, 55, 72, 139; arrive at 
Fort, 81. 

Yellowstone River: 77. 

York (Toronto), Canada: 123. 

Zimm, Bruno Louis: 135. 

Index 191 


Vol. I., No. i 'The Campaign of Missouri and Battle of Wilson's 
Creek, Col. William M. Wherry, 1880.* 

Vol. I., No. 2 Recollections of Septuagenarian, Wm. Waldo, 1880.* 

Vol. I., No. 3 -Archaeological Explorations in Cole County, Mo. 
Dr. N. DeWyl; Prehistoric Remains in Missouri- 
Prof. G. C. Broadhead, 1880.* 

Vol. I., No. 4 Amended Charter and By-Laws, 1880. $0.25. 

Vol. I., No. 5 Samuel Gaty of St. Louis 'Darby & Todd, 1881. 

Vol. I., No. 6 Archaeology of Missouri Hilder.* 

Vol. I., No. 7 President's Annual Address Leighton, 1883. #1.00. 

Vol. I., No. 8 Historical Societies in their Relation to Local His- 
torical Interest C. F. Robertson, 1883.* 

Vol. I., No. 9 American Revolution and Acquisition of Mississippi 
Valley C. F. Robertson, 1884. gi.oo. 

Vol. I., No. 10 Attempts to Separate the West from the American 
Union Robertson.* 

Vol. I., No. ii 'President's Address 'Constitution and By-Laws and 
Members, 1894. $1.00. 

Vol. I., No. 12 Newspapers and Newspaper People, by Wm. Hyde; 
Territorial Revenue System of Missouri >Prof. 
Fredk. C. Hicks, 1896. 1.00. 

Vol. I., No. 13 Boundaries of Louisiana Purchase James O. Broad- 
head. $1.00. 

Vol. I., No. 14 Catholic Church of St. Louis The Beginnings of 
Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction in the Archdiocese 
Conway, 1897. $1.00. 

Vol. I., No. 15 Historical Loan Exhibit Report Constitution and 
By-Laws, 1899.* 

Vol. II., No. i Missouri Historical Society Collections, January, 

Vol. II., No. I The Mound-Building Age in North America Peter- 
son, 1902. $1.50. 

Vol. II., No. 2 Missouri Historical Society Collections, April, 1903.* 

Vol. II., No. 3 Personal Records of General Grant Wm. Tausig, 

Vol. II., No. 4 A History of Battery A Porter, 1904. $1.50. 

Vol. II., No. 5 'The Montezuma Mounds Gerard Fowke, 1905.* 

*Out of print; of some of the others very few copies remain. 


Vol. II., No. 6 Missouri Historical Society Collections, July, 1906. 

Vol. II., No. 7 Missouri Historical Society Collections, October, 

1906. $1.50. 
Vol. III. Four numbers. 
Vol. IV. Three numbers. No. 4 to be published soon. 

Vols. III. and IV., $1.50 per number, or $5.00 per volume. 
Bulletin I. Prehistoric Objects Classified and Described Gerard 
Fowke. $0.25. 


A Journey to the Rocky Mountains in the Year 1839, by F. A. Wis- 
lizenus, M.D. Translated from the German, with a sketch of the 
author's life, by Frederick A. Wislizenus, Esq. St. Louis. Mis- 
souri Historical Society, 1912. 162 pp. Frontispiece portrait and 
map. 8vo. $4.00. 

Official Report of the Universal Congress of Lawyers and Jurists. Held 
at St. Louis, Missouri, U. S. A., September 28, 29 and 30, 190^, 
under the auspices of the Universal Exposition and American Bar 
Association. Edited by the Secretary of the Congress. St. Louis. 
Published b^ the Executive Committee, 1905. 423 pp. 8vo. 16 
copies only. $2.00, net. 

Universal Exposition of 1904, by David R. Francis. 2 vols. St. Louis. 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, 1913. Roy. 8vo. 1133 
pp., with several hundred illustrations. 250 copies. #5.00, net. 

Three Years Among the Indians and Mexicans, by Thomas James. 
Edited with notes and biographical sketches by Walter B. Douglas. 
St. Louis. Missouri Historical Society, 1916. 316 pp. Portraits 
and map. 8vo. #6.00, net. 

HD Luttig, John C 

99^ Journal of a fur-trading 

U*f6M8 expedition