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ournal onbe_^ 

<$2P$2 Xore Society 

tbe £ear mcmru=mcmrui 

test part of tbe St£ tb IDolume 

pdnteo privately for tbe Members 
of tbe <5ww lore Society, Hlfreo 

Street, liverpool, bie Z. ano H. 

Constable, printers to 1bfs flfcajestE 
at tbe Ebtnburgb TUniversitE press 



K.G.B., etc. . 

By Principal Sir Donald MacAlister, 



Paramisi. Recorded by Bernard Gilliat-Smith 

IV. GYPSY DANCES. By Eric Otto Winstedt, M.A., B.Litt., and 

Thomas William Thompson 


H. L. W 


The copyright o: 
of the auth 
obtained foi 


-*- 1892, the 
Vol. II., six n 
and A. Consta 
several of the n 

The New 
parts and a si 
Copies can sti 









each volume, but they are sold only to members of the Gyps;; 
Society. Single parts cannot always be supplied: when 
are available for sale to members the price is 5s. each, wit 
exception of the index parts of Vols. I., III., and IV., for whic 
2s. 6d. is charged. 














i. Gypsies at Geneva in the 15th, 16th, and 17th Centuries 

By David MacRitchie, F.S.A.Scot. . 
ii. An Eighth Bulgarian Gypsy Folk-Tale. I Maste^o 

Recorded by Bernard Gilliat-Smith 
hi. The Gypsies of Central Russia (Continued). By Devey Fearon 

de l'Hoste Ranking, LL.D. .... 
iv. The Criminal and Wandering Tribes of India {Continued) 

By H. L. Williams of the Indian Police 
v. Nuri Stories (Continued). By Professor R. A. Stewart Mac 

alister, M.A., F.S.A. .... 

vi. A Gypsy Tale from East Bulgarian Moslem Nomads. By 

Bernard Gilliat-Smith .... 
Notes and Queries ..... 



List of Plates ....... 

List of Members ....... ix 

Accounts for the Year ending June 30, 1913 . . . xvii 

Errata ......... xxi 

PART 1. 

I. I Gozhvali Gaji. By Principal Sir Donald MacAlister, 

K.C.B., etc 1 

ii. A Few Words on the Gypsies. By Arthur Symons . . 2 

in. A Sixth Bulgarian Gypsy Folk-Tale. E Devl^skeri 

Parami'si. Recorded by Bernard Gilliat-Smith . . 3 

iv. Gypsy Dances. By Eric Otto Winstedt, M.A., B.Litt., and 

Thomas William Thompson . . . . .19 

v. A Seventh Bulgarian Gypsy Folk-Tale. Recorded by 

Bernard Gilliat-Smith . . . . .33 

vi. The Criminal and Wandering Tribes of India. By H. L. 

Williams of the Indian Police . . . .34 

Notes and Queries ...... 58 

PART 2. 







1 Complete Lists of the Reviews and of the Notes and Queries will he found 
in the Index under these headings. 


TAUT 3. 

A Grammar and Vocabulary of the Language of the Nawar 
or Zutt, the Nomad Smiths of Palestine (Continued). 
Vocabulary. By Professor R. A. Stewart Macalister, 
M.A., F.S.A 

PART 4. 

i. TnE CorrERSMiTTis. (With Pedigrees) .... 241 

il. The Gypsy Coppersmiths' Invasion of 1911-13. By Eric Otto 

Winstedt, M.A., B.Litt. ..... 244 

in. The Dialect of the Nomad Gypsy Coppersmiths, with Texts 
and Vocabulary. By the Rev. Frederick George 
Ackerley ....... 303 

iv. The Gypsies of Armenia. By Dr. George Fraser Black . 327 
Notes and Queries ...... 330 

Index of Old Series (1888-1892) of J. G. L. S. ... 337 

Index of Volume vi. ...... 385 


ie so-called "GYPSY FAMILY," by the "Master of the 
House-Book" ("Master of the Amsterdam Cabinet," or 
"Master of 1480") ...... Frontispiece. 

)DOR T§6RON AND LIZA HIS WIFE (Nottingham, 5th 

February 1913) . . . . . . .to face p. 267 

ANDREAS TSORON (Wandsworth, 28th August 1911). 
Photo by Central Neivs . . . . . . , , 269 

^.SILI, SON OF ANDREAS T§ORON (Wandsworth, 28th 

August 1911). Photo by Newspaper Illustrations . . ,, 273 

tECTING A TENT. Photo by London News Agency . . „ 274 

fCAMPMENT AT MITCHAM. Photo by Daily Mirror . „ 274 




The Gypsy Lore Society 


President— Geheimrat Prof. Ernst Kuhn. 

'Charles Godfrey Leland, 1888-92. 
David MacRitchie, 1907-8. 
Henry Thomas Crofton, 1908-9. 
Theodore Watts-Dunton, 1909-10. 
The Marquis Adriano Colocci, 1910-11. 
k Arthur Thesleff, 1911-12. 

Past Presidents — - 


Year ending 30th June 1913 


[219] Aberdeen, Scotland, The University Library, King's College. 
[293] Aberystwyth, Wales, The National Library of Wales, care of 

Sydney V. Galloway, Pier Street, Aberystwyth. 
[148] Berlin, Germany, Anthropologische Gesellschaft, Koniggratzer- 

strasse 120. 
[18] Berlin, Germany, Konigliche Bibliothek, Behrenstrasse 40, W. 64. 
[26] Birmingham, England, Free Reference Library, Ratcliffe Place. 
[39] Boston, Mass., U.S.A., The Public Library, care of G. E. Stechert 

& Co., 2 Star Yard, Carey Street, Chancery Lane, London, W.C. 
[200] Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A., The Public Library, Montague Branch, 

197 Montague Street. 
[284] Brussels, Belgium, Bibliotheque Royale de Bclgique, care of 

Misch et Thron, 126 rue Royale, Brussels. 
[181] Calcutta, India, The Asiatic Society of Bengal (57 Park Street) 

care of Bernard Quaritch, 11 Grafton Street, New Bond Street, 

London, W. 
[251] Cambridge, England, The University Library. 
[239] Cambridge, England, The Union Society, care of W. H. Smith 

& Son, 7 Rose Crescent, Cambridge. 

1 The numbers printed in brackets before the names indicate the order in which 
members joined the Society, as determined by the dates of the receipts for their 
first subscriptions. The first new member who joined after the revival of the 
Gypsy Lore Society in the spring of 1907 was No. 92, and lower numbers, of which 
there are thirty-one, distinguish those who were members during the first period 
of the Society's activity, which ended on June 30, 1892 


[27] Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A., Harvard University Library, care of 

Edward Gk Allen & Son, Ltd., 14 Grape Street, Shaftesbury 

Avenue, London, W.C. 
[151] Cardiff, South Wales, Central Public Library. 
[161] Chicago, 111., U.S.A., The Newberry Library, care of B. F. Stevens 

& Brown, 4 Trafalgar Square, Charing Cross, London, "W.C. 
[145] Chicago, 111., U.S.A., The University Library, care of B. F. Stevens 

& Brown, 4 Trafalgar Square, Charing Cross, London, W.C. 
[2G5] Christiania, Norway, Universitets-Bibliotheket, care of Cammer- 

meyers Boghandel (Sigurd Pedersen og Eistein Baabe), Karl 

Johans Gade, 41 og 43, Kristiania, Norway. 
[163] Copenhagen, Denmark, The Royal Library, care of Francis 

Edwards, 83 High Street, Marylebone, London, W. 
[205] Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A., The Public Library, care of B. F. Stevens 

& Brown, 4 Trafalgar Square, Charing Cross, London, W.C. 
[261] Dresden, Germany, Konigliche Offentliche Bibliothek, Kaiser 

WilhelmPlatz 11. 
[252] Dublin, Ireland, The Library of Trinity College. 
[268] Dublin, Ireland, The National Library of Ireland, care of Hodges, 

Figgis & Co., Ltd., 104 Grafton Street, Dublin. 
[203] Edinburgh, Scotland, The Advocates' Library. 
[204] Edinburgh, Scotland, The Philosophical Institution, 4 Queen 

[89] Edinburgh, Scotland, The Public Library, George IV. Bridge. 
[156] Edinburgh, Scotland, The Boyal Scottish Museum, care of James 

Thin, 54 South Bridge, Edinburgh. 
[49] Edinburgh, Scotland, The Signet Library, care of George P. 

Johnston, 37 George Street, Edinburgh. 
[141] Frankfurt am Main, Germany, Freiherrlich Carl von Roth- 

schild'sche offentliche Bibliothek, Untermainkai 15. 
[212] Glasgow, Scotland, The Mitchell Library, 21 Miller Street. 
[255] Glasgow, Scotland, The University Library, care of James 

MacLehose & Sons, 61 St. Vincent Street. 
[236] Hamburg, Germany, Museum fur Volkerkunde, Binderstrasse 14. 
[285] Harrisburg, Pa., U.S.A., The State Library of Pennsylvania. 
[146] Ithaca, N.Y., U.S.A., Cornell University Library, care of Edward 

G. Allen & Son, Ltd., 14 Grape Street, Shaftesbury Avenue, 

London, W.C. 
[269] Leeds, England, The Central Free Public Library. 
[43] Leiden, The Netherlands, The University Library (Legaat Warner) 

care of S. C. van Doesburgh, Breetstraat 14, Leiden. 
[283] Leipzig, Germany, Universitats-bibliothek, care of J. C. Hinrichs, 

Grimmaischestrasse 32, Leipzig, Germany. 
[214] Liverpool, England, The Public Library, William Brown Street. 
[243] London, England, The British Museum, Department of Printed 

[300] London, England, The Gypsy and Folk-Lore Club, 6 Hand Court, 

Bedford Row, London, W.C. 
[232J London, England, The London Library, St. James's Square, S.W. 


[279] Manchester, England, The John Rylands Library, Deansgate. 
[28] Manchester, England, Public Free Eeference Library, King 

[216] Milan, Italy, Eeale Biblioteca Nazionale di Brera, care of Asher 

& Co., 14 Bedford Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 
[59] Munchen, Bavaria, Konigl. Bayer. Hof- und Staats-Bibliothek. 
[147] New Haven, Conn., U.S.A., Yale University Library, care of 

Edward G. Allen & Son, Ltd., 14 Grape Street, Shaftesbury 

Avenue, London, W.C. 
[275] New York, U.S.A., Columbia University Library, care of G. E. 

Stechert & Co., 2 Star Yard, Carey Street, Chancery Lane, 

London, W.C. 
[135] New York, U.S.A., The Public Library, 476 Fifth Avenue, care 

of B. F. Stevens & Brown, 4 Trafalgar Square, Charing Cross, 

London, W.C. 
[244] Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England, The Public Library, New Bridge 

[143] Northampton, Mass., U.S.A., The Forbes Library, care of Henry 

Sotheran & Co., 140 Strand, London, W.C. 
[13] Oxford, England, The Bodleian Library. 
[171] Oxford, England, The Meyrick Library, Jesus College. 
[218] Paris, France, Bibliotheque Nationale, care of Simpkin, Marshall, 

Hamilton, Kent & Co., Ltd., 2, 4, 6, 8 Orange Street, Hay- 
market, London, W.C. 
[277] Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A., The Free Library, Thirteenth and Locust 

1 133] St. Louis, Mo., U.S.A., The Mercantile Library, care of G. E. 

Stechert & Co., 2 Star Yard, Carey Street, Chancery Lane, 

London, W.C. 
272] St. Petersburg, Russia, Imperial Public Library (per Joseph 

Baer & Co., Hochstrasse 6, Frankfurt am Main, Germany), 

care of Asher & Co., 14 Bedford Street, Covent Garden, 

London, W.C. 
!209] Stockholm, Sweden, The Royal Library, care of William Wesley 

& Son, 28 Essex Street, Strand, London, W.C. 
|j266] Strassburg, i. Els., Germany, Kaiserliche Universities- und Landes- 

!'286] Uppsala, Sweden, Kungl. Universitetets Bibliotek. 
||270] Vienna, Austria, K. K. Hofbibliothek, Josef splatz 1, care of Asher 

& Co., 14 Bedford Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 
[i292] Vienna, Austria, K. K. Universitiits-Bibliothek, care of Asher 

& Co., 14 Bedford Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 
■155] Washington, D.C., U.S.A., The Public Library of the District of 

273] Weimar, Germany, Grossherzogliche Bibliothek. 
[46] Worcester, Mass., U.S.A., The Free Public Library, care of 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co., Ltd., Broadway House, 

68-74 Carter Lane, London, E.C. 



[119] Ackerley, The Rev. Frederick George, Grindleton Vicarage, near 

Clitheroe, Lancashire. 
[157] Adams, Alfred, 493 and 495 Collins Street (W.), Melbourne, 

Victoria, Australia. 
[115] Aldersey, Hugh, of Aldersey, near Chester. 
[259] Atkinson, Frank Stanley, 3 Woburn Terrace, Tavistock. 
[234] Bartlett, The Rev. Donald Mackenzie Maynard, St. Mark's 

Vicarage, Woodhouse, Leeds. 
[190] Bathgate, Herbert J., Industrial School, Burnham, Christchurch, 

New Zealand. 
[263] Behrens, the late Walter L., The Acorns, Fallowfield, Manchester. 
[307] Bigge, John A. Selby, 7 Wilbraham Place, London, S.W. 
[167] Bilgrami, Syed Hossain, C.S.I., Nawab Imad-ul-Mulk Bahadur, 

Rocklands, Saifabad, Hyderabad, Deccan, India. 
[110] Black, George F., Ph.D., New York Public Library, 476 Fifth 

Avenue, New York, U.S.A. 
[139] Blaikie, Walter Biggar, LL.D., F.R.S.E., 11 Thistle Street, Edin- 
[224] Borenius, C. Einar, Ph.D., Agence consulaire de France, 13 Wasa 

Gatan, Wiborg, Finland. 
[274] Bramley-Moore, Miss Eva, May Bank, Aigburth, Liverpool. 
[175] Broadwood, Miss Lucy Etheldred, 84 Carlisle Mansions, Victoria 

Street, London, S.W. 
[305] Bruce, William Patrick, Braeburn, Currie, Midlothian. 
[154] Bulwer, Sir Henry Ernest Gascoyne, G.C.M.G., 17a South Audley 

Street, London, W. 
[222] Burr, Malcolm, D.Sc, Castle Hill House, Dover. 
[185] Butterworth, Charles F., Waterloo, Poynton, Cheshire. 
[215] Clugnet, Leon, Licencie es lettres, Villa Miryam, 3 rue Carriere- 

Marl6, Bourg-la-Reine, Seine, France. 
[23] Colocci, The Marquis Adriano Amerigo, Palazzo Colocci, Piazza 

Angelo Colocci, Jesi, Italy. 
[17] Constable, Archibald, LL.D., F.R.S.E., Lysvold, Currie, Mid- 
[7] Crofton, Henry Thomas, 36 Brazenose Street, Manchester. 
[221] Dawkins, Richard M c Gillivray, M.A., British Archaeological School, 

Athens, Greece. 
[311] Deloncle, Francois, depute, care of Paul Geuthner, 13 rue Jacob, ;! 

Paris (vi c ), France. 
[101] Ehrenborg, Harald, Opphem, Sweden. 
[118] Eve, The Honourable Mr. Justice Harry Trelawney, Royal Courts 

of Justice, Strand, London, W.C. 
[207] Farrell, Frank James, M.Sc, 'Guilderoy,' 15 Sandown Road, Great 

[295] Feleky, Charles, 508 West 114th Street, New York, U.S.A. 
[289] Ferguson, James, Manor Farm, Tytherington, near Macclesfield. 


[44] Ferguson, Professor John, LL.D., The University, Glasgow. 
[176] Ferguson, William, Manor House, Tytherington, near Maccles- 
[226] Fisher, Charles Dennis, M.A., Christ Church, Oxford. 
[191] Foster, Thomas S., M.A., Cashel Street, Christchurch, New 

[231] Fyffe, Colin C. H., 1406 New York Life Building, Chicago, 111., 

[137] Gilliat-Smith, Bernard Joseph, His Britannic Majesty's Vice- 
Consulate, Varna, Bulgaria. 
[197] Gillington, Miss Alice E., Bath Road, Bitterne, Southampton. 
[250] Goddard, Miss Amelia, Lark's Gate, Thorney Hill, Bransgore, 

[116] Gray, The Rev. John, St. Peter's, Falcon Avenue, Morningside, 
[15] Greene, Herbert Wilson, M.A., B.C.L., 4 Stone Buildings, Lincoln's 

Inn, London, W.C. 
[92] Grosvenor, Lady Arthur, Broxton Lower Hall, Handley, near 

[98] Hall, The Rev. George, Ruckland Rectory, Louth, Lincolnshire. 
[168] Hewlett, John H., Parkside, Harrow-on-the-Hill. 
[202] Hinuber, Miss Etheldred T., Stanwell House, Lymington, Hants. 
[303] Hitchcock, Roger F., Switterfield, Stowupland,Stowmarket, Suffolk. 
[213] Humphreys, A. L., York Lodge, Baker Street, Reading. 
[90] Huth, Captain Frederick H., Beckford House, 20 Lansdown 
Crescent, Bath. 
[169] Huth, Sydney Francis, Culmstock, Cullompton, Devon. 
[144] Imlach, Miss G. M., B.A., care of Miss M. Eileen Lyster, 8 Grove 

Park, Liverpool. 
[302] Jacob, Major H. F., Sea View, Braunton, North Devon. 
[193] John, Augustus E., 18lA King's Road, Chelsea, London, S.W. 
[281] Kendal, Richard P. J., Brandreth House, Parbold, Southport. 
[178] Kershaw, Philip, Shobley, Ringwood, Hants. 
[51] Kuhn, Geheimrat Professor Ernst, Ph.D. (President), Hess-Strasse 5, 

Munich, Germany. 
[298] Lockyer, James Edward, A.M.I.C.E., The Elms, Galmpton, Kings- 
bridge, South Devon. 
[299] Loria, Commandatore Lamberto, Palazzo delle Scuole, Piazza 
d'Armi, Roma, Italy. 
[96] Lothian, Maurice John, Kilravock, Blackford Avenue, Edinburgh. 
[130] Lovell, Miss Fenella, 203 Boulevard Raspail, Paris. 
[106] Lyster, Miss M. Eileen, 8 Grove Park, Liverpool. 
[75] Mac Alister, Principal Sir Donald, K.C.B., M.A., M.D., D.C.L.,LL.D., 

The University, Glasgow. 
[220] Macalister, Professor Robert Alexander Stewart, M.A., F.S.A., 
Newlands, Clonskeagh, Co. Dublin. 
[41] M c Carthy, Justin Huntly, 67 Cheriton Road, Folkestone. 
[93] M c Cormick, Andrew, 60 Victoria Street, Newton-Stewart, Wigtown- 


[223] Macfie, Miss Alison Bland Scott, Rowton Hall, Chester. 

[158] Macfie, Charles Wahab Scott, Rock Mount, 13 Liverpool Road, 

[112] Macfie, John William Scott, M.A., B.Sc, M.B., Ch.B., Rowton 

Hall, Chester. 
[108] Macfie, Robert Andrew Scott, M.A., B.Sc. (Hon. Secretary), 

21 A Alfred Street, Liverpool. 
[262] MacGilp, The Rev. John D., M.A., The Crown Manse, Inverness, 

[125] M c Kie, Norman James, M.D., 14 Arthur Street, Newton-Stewart, 

[206] Maclaren, J. Stewart, Hartfell House, Moffat, Dumfriesshire, 

[240] MacLeod, William, 10 Rhode Island Avenue, Newport, Rhode 

Island, U.S.A. 
[1] MacRitchie, David, F.S.A.Scot., 4 Archibald Place, Edinburgh. 
[136] M c Whir, James, M.B., Ch.B., Swinton, Duns, Berwickshire. 
[95] Maitland, Mrs. Ella Fuller, 131 Sloane Street, London, S.W. 
[97] Malleson, The Rev. Herbert Harry, Manston Vicarage, Crossgates, 

near Leeds. 
[153] Marston, Miss Agnes, B.A., 13 Denman Drive, Newsham Park, 

[113] Merrick, William Percy, Elvetham, Shepperton, Middlesex. 
[188] Mitchell, William, 14 Forbesfield Road, Aberdeen. 
[172] Moreton, The Lord, Sarsden House, Chipping Norton, Oxon. 
[247] Moriarty, J. R., 119 Mecklenburg Street, St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, Canada. 
[217] Muir, Professor John Ramsay Bryce, M.A., The University, Liver- 
[105] Myers, John, 46 Coldra Road, Newport, Monmouth. 
[179] Myres, Professor John Linton, M.A., F.S.A., 101 Banbury Road, 

[211] Owen, David Charles Lloyd, M.D., Vrondeg, Four Oaks, Sutton 

Coldfield, Warwickshire. 
[76] Owen, Miss Mary Alicia. 306 North 9th Street, St. Joseph, Mo., 

U.S.A. • 
[306] Patrick, George Charles, King's School, Grantham. 
[11] Penned, Mrs. Elizabeth Robins, 3 Adelphi Terrace House, Robert 

Street, Strand, London, W.C. 
[238] Perkins, Mrs. E., Tomchaldon, Aberfeldy, Perthshire. 

[94] Perkins, Sidney William, Tomchaldon, Aberfeldy, Perthshire. 
[310] Phillimore, Robert C, Battler's Green, Watford, Herts. 
[308] Pohl, H., 78 Cecil Street, Greenheys, Manchester. 

[80] Prideaux,ColonelW.F.,C.S.I.,Hopeville,St.Peter's-in-Thanet,Kent, 
[201] Prince, Professor John Dyneley, Sterlington, Rockland Co., New 

York, U.S.A. 
[227] Quevedo, Senor Professor Don Samuel A. Lafone (391 San Martin, 

Buenos Ayres, Argentine Republic), care of Henry Young & 

Sons, 12 South Castle Street, Liverpool. 


Quinn, John, 31 Nassau Street, New York, U.S.A. 

Eae, Mrs. John, Glenelly, Chislehurst, Kent. 

Raffalovich, Marc Andre, 9 Whitehouse Terrace, Edinburgh. 

Ranking, Devey Fearon de l'Hoste, LL.D., 9 Overstrand Mansions, 

Battersea Park, London, S.W. 
Ranking, Colonel G. S. A., Beech Lawn, Park Town, Oxford. 
Reynolds, Llywarch, B.A., Old Church Place, Merthyr Tydfil, 

Robertson, Donald Struan, Trinity College, Cambridge. 
Russell, The Right Honble. the Countess, Telegraph House, 

Russell, Alexander, M.A., Dundas Street, Stromness, Orkney. 
Saltus, J. Sanford, Salmagundi Club, 14 West 12th Street, New 

York, U.S.A. 
Sampson, John, D.Litt., M.A., Caegwyn, Bettws-Gwerfil-Goch, 

Scott, Charles Payson Gurley, 49 Arthur Street, Yonkers, New 

York, U.S.A. 
Scott, Matthew Henry, 5 Lansdown Place West, Bath. 
Searle, William Townley, 5 Hand Court, Bedford Row, London, 

Shaw, Fred., 7 Macdonald Road, Friern Barnet, London, N. 
Slade, C. F., West House, North End, Hampstead, London, N.W. 
Slade, Edgar A., ' Dodpitts,' near Yarmouth, Isle of Wight. 
Sowton, Miss S. C. M., 18 Huskisson Street, Liverpool. 
Spalding, Dr. James A., 627 Congress Street, Portland, Maine, 

Strachey, Charles, 33 Carlyle Square, Chelsea, London, S.W. 
Strang, Ian, 8 Fitzroy Street, Fitzroy Square, London, W. 
Sykes, Major P. Molesworth, C.M.G., His Britannic Majesty's 

Consulate-General, Meshed, Persia, via Berlin and Askhabad. 
Symons, Arthur, Island Cottage, Wittersham, Kent. 
Thesleff, Arthur, Bellmansgatan 18, Stockholm, Sweden. 
Thompson, Thomas William, The Grammar School, Gainsborough, 

Valentine, Milward, 9 Mannering Road, Sefton Park, Liverpool. 
Wackernagel, Professor Jacob, Ph.D., Hoher Weg 12, Gottingen, 

Wall, Mrs. James, 85 Heald Place, Rusholme, Manchester. 
Watts-Dunton, Walter Theodore, The Pines, 11 Putney Hill, 

London, S.W. 
Wear, John, Felton Mills, Felton, R.S.O., Northumberland. 
Wellstood, Frederick Christian, M.A., Shakespeare's Birthplace, 

White, John G. (Williamson Building, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.), 

care of Bernard Quaritch, 1 1 Grafton Street, New Bond Street 

London, W. 
Willett, the late Mrs. George Walter, West House, Brighton. 
Williams, H. L., Newara Eliya, Lindisfarne, Tasmania. 


[121 ] Winstedfc, Eric Otto, M.A., B.Litt., 181 Iffley Road, Oxford. 
[149] Woolner, Professor Alfred G, M.A., Principal of the Oriental 

College, Lahore, India. 
| I 17) Yates, Miss Dora Esther, M.A., 9 Belvidere Road, Princes Park, 

[109] Yoxall, Sir James Henry, M.P., Springfield, 20 Kew Gardens Road, 


Honorary Secretary : R. A. Scott Macfie, 
21 a Alfred Street, Liverpool. 


For Year ending June 30, 1913 


2 subscriptions for the year 1910-11, 

12 „ „ „ 1911-12, 

152 „ „ „ 1912-13, 

21 „ „ „ 1913-14, 





Volume II. 



Volume III 



Volume IV 



Volume V. 

7 15 

7 12 

8 5 
3 8 

Copies and parts of Volume I. sold to Members, £7 



Donation from Dr. Archibald Constable, 

„ ,, Mr. Gilderoy Gray, .... 

Profit from optional frontispieces, presented by Mr. Fred. 

Shaw, ....... 

Proceeds of sale of parts of J. G. L. S., Old Series, presented 

by Mr. Alexander Eussell, balance, 





16 10 

1 15 

£274 13 4 


Discounts for the year 1912-13, 

„ 1913-14, . 

Management and Correspondence — 
Printed Notices, 
Auditor's Fee, 

Carry forward, 


£4 10 

13 G 

2 13 8 

10 6 

£2 6 

8 7 8 

£10 13 8 



Brought forward, 

£10 13 8 

Journal and Publications — 
No. 1. Letterpress, 

£31 12 
1 1 


£32 13 6 

No. 2. Letterpress, 
No. 3. Letterpress, 
No. 4. Letterpress, 

£34 10 

5 7 


29 2 6 
31 2 

No. 5. Letterpress (estimate), £45 15 6 
Illustration, . . 2 4 10 

39 18 

48 4 

Advertising and Reviews — 

Prospectuses and printed forms, 
Envelopes, labels, and wrapping, 
Additional Journals printed for review 
Postages, . . . 

Despatch of Journal to Members, . 
Separate offprints for the authors of papers 
Excess actual cost of Vol. V., No. 5, over 

year's accounts, 
Cutting and casting special type, . 
Balance, income over expenditure, . 

Less charged last year, 

£0 14 



8 1 


2 10 

estimate in last 



To Creditors — 

T. and A. Constable, £103 9 
Oxford University 

Press, . . 2 16 
J. Summerskill, . 10 6 
Excess income over ex- 
penditure, 1910-11, 96 15 
Do., 1911-12, 42 3 1 
Do., 1912-13, 51 13 2 

£296 18 6 

180 16 4 








By Cash in Bank, 
Do. in Hand, 
Excess expenditure 
over income, 

Do., 1908-9, 
Do., 1909-10, 








£275 14 4 
1 1 

£274 13 4 


£296 18 6 

The sum of £50 which lias hitherto appeared in this column as due to! 
Mr. Gilderoy Gray is now omitted, Mr. Gray having made his loan into a donation. 
See income account. 

I have audited the Books and Accounts of the Gypsy Lore Society, and ex- 

amined the Vouchers relating thereto, for the year ending June 30, 1913, and hereby 

certify the above statement to be a true and correct one as shown thereby. 

[Signed] J. Summerskill, A.L.A.A. 

Certified Accountant. \ 
■2 1 \ ictoria Street, Liverpool,]! 

March 23, 191 4.j 



Note. — The Society owns the following property — 
Stock of Journals unsold (at cost) : 

Volume L, 

Volume II., 

Volume III., 

Volume IV., 

Volume V., 

Volume VI., 
Subscriptions in arrears, 
Dr. George F. Black's Gypsy Bibliography, provisional 
issue, standing in type, . 




















not valued 

£372 6 10 






Page 12 line 1 of translation, for onto read on to. 

20, „ 5 from bottom, for Gypsy read Gipsy 

66, „ 10 „ top, for sondorn read sondern. 

79, „ 24 „ bottom, for Gaudix read Guadix. 

120, „ 1 ,, top, for maila ' horse, read maila ' horse.' 

162, word 10, for Mli read MIL 

163, ,, 16, ,, watdski read votdaski. 
163, „ 24, ,, besaui-na -Iceran read besalii-na-keran. 

„ 163, „ 24, ,, auandi read auandi. 

„ 166, „ 66, „ baburi-pand read baburi-pand. 

166', „ 69, „ bagiiek read bagireh. 

166, ,, 73, ,, bah as read bahas*. 

166, „ 81, ,, baklema read baklema. 

166, ,, 81, „ bdklik-kera read bdklik-kera. 

167, ,, 86, ,, banirek read banir.ek. 

169, „ 145, ,, &om read iot«. 

170, ,, 157, „ atsanta read atsanta. 
170, ,, 161, ,. ui read ni. 
170, „ 161, „ tmaliankara read tmaliankdra. 
172, „ 191, „ «?a read wa. 
172, „ 200, „ dasesne read dasesne. 
174, „ 224, „ dltewt read dieni. 

174, „ 230, ,, <«sre read tdsre. 

175, „ 242, „ din read d?ri. 

176, after word 270, add 270a. durt (Ar.), 'I turned,' lxxvi. 12. 

176, word 278, for kautineni read kd/titineni. 

177, „ 290, „ farik-kerar read /«r ik-kerdr. 

179, „ 322, „ gdridk-kirwi read gariuk-kirui. 

180, ,, 359, „ gnza-kiyak read gdzd-kiydk. 
180, ,, 360, ,, kuria read kuria. 

„ 181, ,, 371, „ gdla-hScer read galti-hocer. 

„ 182, „ 394, „ i. 9, read i. 9 ; 

,, 182, ,, 398, „ with reference to read in agreement with. 

,. 184, ,, 423, „ hdmil-kerdr read hhnil-kerar. 

„ 184, „ 442, ,, hdnnd read hdnnd. 

„ 18 J, „ 467, „ 'djib hromi read 'azfb hromi. 

» 187, „ 482, „ heart'), read heart'); 

„ 187, „ 500, „ ibzim read ibzfn. 






x.xii ERRATA 

,. 189, after word 532, add 532a. iSldl&r. See Stdl&r. 
., 195, word 654, for brother.' read brother ? ' 



195, ., 661, ,, mnisc&n read mneSman. 

198, ,, 728, ., kauwa read Lavvn. 
„ 203, „ 820, ,. biy&mi read biyami. 
.. 208, ., 926, ,, niit-hocer Te&d nui-hocer. 
,, 212, „ 996, „ rtd-hoeer read rid-h6cer. 
„ 213, „ 1016, „ /-<- read fce£as. 
,, 213, after word 1025, add 1025a. runoni&r, 'to cause to ,t_ r o,' Ixxxi. 46. 

2] 1, word L048, for sazreta read s&z&rema. 

215, „ 1058, „ swodAur read s#&d/mr. 

219, „ 1149, ,, J^l os harab-diakama iea,d JiAlos harab-deikama. 

219, after word 1149, add 1149a. tarammina, "third/ xcii. 21. 

221, word 1205, for tUltt [second line) read t&Ut. 

221, ,, 1205, ,, razari read rdzarl. 

224, line 11, for but rf«(7 and. 

225, word 1270, for winha read winha. 
225, ,, 1274, ,, wrilaski read wfit&xki. 
232, «o [go] cause to, 1009, add 1025a. 
239, a/ter think, to, 808, <n/d third, 1140a. 
23'.), ,, turkey, a, 700, add turn, to, 270a. 
254, line 21 from top, for , who read ' who. 
276, „ 15 „ bottom, for virgin read Virgin. 
300, „ 4 „ bottom, for bgrseski read bgrUski. 
305, ,, 7 of translation, for Petersburgh read Petersburg. 

„ 300, ,, 1 from top, for Petersburgh read Petersburg. 
„ 307, „ 17 „ bottom, for nas valo read nasvalo. 

308, „ 13 „ top, for Za read Za. 

318, „ 11 and 12 from bottom, the numbers Q- and 2 j of the footnotes are 

322, „ 16 from top, for Asunes read Asunes. 

SEP 1 3 1967 





Vol. VI YEAR 1912-13 No. 1 


T/'AMA VAS te jundv — chori dake one pend' — 

SosJci peko mas si kushko, ta kilesa nai odid : 
Sar lova ke kamds te las, kamds te das les tai ? 

Mandar dosta tu puchesas — lav dids i chori dai. 

Kamdvas te jundv — chori dake me pena — 
Sar 'vena sdkon kola oddi kai len Ihatyd' ; 
'Re doriavesti macho, ta 're pesk' izendi chai ? 

Mandar dosta tu puchesas — lav dids i chori dai. 

Kamdvas te jundv — chori dake me pend' — 
Sar biknena pen chave, ta kinds ami chaid ; 
Ta sar si blajvane, teni dui trin : nandi ? 

Mandar dosta tu puchesas — lav dids i chori dai. 

Kamdvas te jundv — chori dake me pend' — 
To manush mus te merel, sar merfaia guruvd, 
So 'jd but te moserds dyds amengi 'Mdro Rai ? 

Mandar dosta tu puchesas — lav dids i chori dai. 
VOL. VI.— NO. i. a 


Kamdvas tejundv — chori dake me pend' — 
Sar 'ven sostar akald, sar 'ven soski okold; 
Ta but-but vaver junimos rhodd' rovindo 'kai. 

Mandar dosta tu puchesas — lav dids i chori dai. 

Donald MacAlisteb, 

Translated from ' The Spaewife ' 
by R. L. Stevenson (Underwoods). 

By Arthur Symons 

IT is a curious thing that in Roinani the word for darkness 
is kaliben, and that ' this thing of darkness ' is given by 
Prospero to Caliban. And yet the question becomes less curious 
when we know how long Shakespeare lived in London, and that, 
with his infinite curiosity, his keen-sighted observance of men and 
women as he passed them on his way, along the streets which we 
know so well, he certainly must have seen and spoken with 
Gypsies, for his curiosity would be drawn to so strange a race. 
In Romeo and Juliet Mercutio speaks of ' Cleopatra, a Gipsie.' 
Also in As You Like It: ' I' faith, i' faith ; and both in a tune, like 
two gipsies on a horse.' As this was an early play, and Antony 
and Cleopatra written long after, it is not in the least astonishing 
that in the first speech Philo says of Antony : 

' His captain's heart, 
Which in the scuffles of great fights hath burst 
The buckles on his breast, reneges all temper, 
And is become the bellows and the fan 
To cool a gipsy's lust.' 

For there, used figuratively, the bellows and the fan are especially 
known amongst the Gypsies' trades; and it is known that they 
are especially dexterous in using them. Then, when Antony has 
found out that Cleopatra has betrayed him by her flight, and that 
all is lost, he cries out : 

' Betray'd I am : 
this false soul of Egypt ! this grave charm, — 
Whose eye beck'd forth my wars, and call'd them home : 
Whose bosom was my crownet, my chief end, — 
Like a right gipsy, hath, at fast and loose, 
I'.'guiled me to the very heart of loss.' 


So, even as a Romany fortune-teller plays fast and loose with those 
whom she gulls, precisely so had Cleopatra played the part. 

In Jonson's Bartholomew Fair I found these words: 'You 
are the Patrico, are you ? the patriarch of the cutpurses ? ' In 
Halliwell's Dictionary I find : ' Patrico, a cant term among 
beggars for their orator or hedge-priest. This character is termed 
patriarke-co in the Fraternitye of Vacabondes, 1575, " a patriarke- 
co doth make marriages, and that is untill death depart the 
married folke, which is after this sort : when they come to a dead 
horse, or any dead catell, then they shake hands ; and so depart 
every one of them a severall way." ' As strolling Gypsies were in 
that age often mistaken for mumpers, it is amusing to read in 
Bailey's Dictionary, in which Chatterton found many of his ancient 
words, weaving them into a new form of verse by their originality : 
' Mumper, a genteel Beggar.' 

Recorded by Bernard Gilliat-Smith 


Pasi Suljoff well knew that this story ranked among the best he had to tell 
me, and it was many a week before he would agree to communicate it, and then 
only in three sittings, during which much coffee and many cigarettes were con- 
sumed, and his eternal complaint that his elbows were aching (dukhun me knnji'i) 
was repeated every quarter of an hour, and caused much delay. But at last the 
Master Work — for such it really is — was completed, and the whole long tale, so 
full of incident, with its final summing up and the drastic measures resorted to 
by the Prince (and vividly depicted in paragraphs 35 and 36), lay before me. 

I have divided it into six chapters, the better to show the extraordinary 
amount of fresh incident in which the tale abounds. The opening of Chapter III. 
actually reads like the beginning of a new fairy tale. 

I have endeavoured to translate the text as literally as possible. Thus in 
paragraph Apdstin-ta is a verb borrowed from the Bulgarian poStea, and meaning 
to search a person's head for lice, and the nearest equivalent verb in the English 
language is the somewhat old-fashioned word 'to louse,' mudaril 'strike,' and 
ksltsdnes (same meaning), are used to denote the sudden bird-like action with 
which he or she who is 'searching,' having 'found,' makes a dart at, and seizes, 
the insect. But in the tale the girl finds silver on one side of the God's head and 
gold on the other. 

I am told that traces of half the fairy tales current in Europe can be found in 
the Devleskeri Paramisi. Certainly the well-known theme of the Prince falling in 
love with the Sleeping Beauty finds here a somewhat original and po.ssihly much 
older interpretation : for the Prince loves the girl and marries her while she is ye1 


dead and lying in her glass coffin, and the offspring of this union of life with death 
i a male child who, inheriting his mother's gift, when he cries he pours forth 
pearls, when he laughs he strews roses, and he lies by his dead mother's side 
playing with a silver apple. 

The quotations in this tale are from the Bulgarian and from the Turkish ; from 
Turkish in paragraphs 14, 15, 32, and 3G, from Bulgarian in paragraphs 10 
and 30. 

The manuscript of this tale is marked 'from the Turkish' by the special 
request of Pasi Suljoff. Other tales were likewise marked in the same way. 
Suljoff says he heard them from old Turkish story-tellers during the annual feasts 
of Bairam, after the Ramazan fasting time. But he told me this in Romani Uhib, 
and %orax&i means both 'Turk 'and 'Moslem.' For this reason, and also because 
the term might be used, and often is, very loosely, I do not know whether the 
' Turk' was a Turk or a Moslem Gypsy from Eastern Bulgaria, where, as in Varna, 
a large section of the sedentary Gypsies seem to prefer to use the Turkish language 
to their own. 

Members can deduct what they please from the above. To me it seems rather 
to upset the otherwise fascinating theory that these tales have been handed down 
in their present form and language, intact, from father to son. But why, if this be 
not the case, should the Romani used be, or seem to be — for I begin to wonder 
whether it really is —superior, somewhat more archaic than that of ordinary 
conversation ? Pasi Suljoff is, no doubt, a born story-teller, and it may be that in 
repeating this tale from memory, though he heard it in Turkish, he was able to use 
choice words and expressions, many of which, of course, are literal translations of 
Turkish words and idioms, and to impart to the whole something of the quaintness 
of the original Turkish text. 

However, anent these matters, but isi adziii dndo kalvpe. 

E Devlfjskeri ParamIsi 
Chapter I. 

1 . Sine jek phuro isi-da les jekh thai. I thai-da tsikni, he'nos 
inisti thovel po hro, izydlili dzuvinde. I chai phendl: " Bdba-be, 
sdslce na les dele romnjd tha the thovel amen, iz^dliljam dzuve'nde." 

2. Liljds o dadjekhS fomnjd, odolke-da fomnjd isi jekh thai. 
Naklo so naklo, i fomni phenel pe matte^one thaidke : " Sunds 
mdnde, lubnije, te les akikd parni po$6m, te dzas ki len, dzi kai na 

The Story of the God 

Chapter I. 

1. There is an old man and he has a daughter. And the daughter is small, 
she cannot yet wash her head, she is eaten up with lice. The daughter says : 
' father, why do you not take a wife that she may wash us, we are eaten 
up with lice.' 

2. The father took a wife, and that wife had a daughter (of her own). There 
happened what happened, the wife says to her stepdaughter : ' Hear me, 
harlot, take this white wool, go to the river, until you have washed it, and made 


thoves la te kerts la kali ta achol ; dzi kai na keres la kali pos~6m, 
som aljdn kheri kaShindv tut." 

3. Liljds-pes i rakli, kerghjds jek bokoli gosnje'ndar ; liljds-pes, 
geli ki len. Liljds, thovel i jioSdm, jek blel, dui beljd, trin beljd 
beUi si othi. Kiti thovel i posom, pand' edeki p&mjol, a na kdljol. 

Hdkje okotdr o del uyljel, phucd e chaid : " So keres, Sinko ? " 

" Ake Bdba, thovdv i po$6m" — " E, sar thoves la?" — "Alee, isi 
man jek md&exo. BiShalghjds man te thovdv akikd po^dm ; katdr 
i parni dzi kai na kerdv la kali, te na dza-mayge, zerre,phey- 
ghjds, kai hind man." T'dko babdske. Gelo o del, So te dilchd 
dndi jag ? Parome bokoli gosnjendar ! Galavel o del pe rovljdsa, 
kerel jek bokoli, ake asikd kabardinel. Dzal pas i rakli. " Ha dza, 
Sinko, ikdl ti bokoli ta x a maro." — " Abe bdba, henos na pekili." 
" Ha dza, Sinko," o del phenel, " 6i pekili." So te dzal i thai, so te 
dikhd ? Jek bokoli suzi, kabardime. Besti te ^al, oi %al i bokoli, 
tsdlo, oi j(al i bokoli sa sasti. 

4. Gelo o del pai Idte : " Sinko, pdttin-ta mdyge." Teelo o del 
dndi dvjgali e dhaidke ; i Shai postinel leske. I thai xdi-mudard. 
del 'phenel : " So koltsones ? " I chai phenel : " Rup, Bdba ! " 
del phenel : " Sinko, dzar te erinav akatdr-da, tha the dikhes 
mdyge." Erinjds o del izakatdr. I chai xdi-mudard. del 
phucd : " So mudares, Sinko?" "Ake, bdba, somnakdl." del 
pheyghjds : " E, Sinko, kdte kaphires dndo rup, t'dndo somnakdl, 

it to become black ; as long as you have not made it black wool, as soon as you 
return home I will kill you.' 

3. The girl betook herself, made a cake out of dung ; betook herself, went to 
the river. She started washing the wool, one evening, two evenings, three 
evenings she is seated there. As much as she washes the wool, as much again 
does it become white, but it does not become black. Behold the god descends, 
asks the girl: 'What are you doing, child?' 'Behold, father, I am washing 
the wool.' 'Eh, how are you washing it?' 'Behold I have a stepmother, 
she has sent me to wash this wool ; until I make it from white into black, I am 
not to go, otherwise, she said, she will kill me.' Thus to the father. The god 
went. What does he see in the fire ? A cake of dung buried (in the ashes). 
The god strikes with his stick, makes a cake, behold thus it swells. He goes 
near the girl. 'Ha, go, child, take out your cake and eat.' 'Bin, father, it is not 
yet baked.' 'Ha, go, child,' the god says, 'it is baked.' As the girl goes, what 
does she see ? A clean cake, well leavened. She sat down to eat, she eats the 
cake, the whole of it, every crumb of it. 

4. The god went near her : ' Child, louse me.' The god bent down in the 
arms of the girl ; the girl louses him. The girl strikes. The god says: 'What 
,are you hitting at?' The girl says: 'Silver, father.' The t, r od says: 'Child, 
|wait, that I may turn round, that you may examine me from this side too.' The 
(god turned round to the other side. The girl hits. The god asks: 'What 
!are you hitting, child ? ' ' Behold, father, gold.' The god said : ' Eh, child, where 


/, tkdbljoasar i momeli te tsvetines!" I chai aslt thdbljol pikjol 

dndo rup t'dndo somnaJcdl. Dzal o del, Calavel jeh rovli i 

posom, Jeerghjds la katdr i parni kali. " Le, Sinko, alcand ti 

m ta dzd-tuke." So te dikhel i rakli? del kerghjds i 

6m Icali. Liljds i poS&m i rakli, tsidinj/is, dzal-peske. 

5. Dikhel i mditexo i chai dndo rup th'd ado somnakdl, thdbljol 
pikjol §ulcaripndstar. Uxtjel i mdistex katdr o stolos, thoghjds 
la, 6i te beUl. Pe thai&Jce v akjerel : " Dikhes, Sinko, x as Idkeri 
mine thai Wcoro kxul. Dikh, tut sa khilentsa arentsa x a ^d arav 
tut, ab'i goSnjendar maro kerdv lake, ta parvardv la. Sigo, 
lubnige, te dzas < vi tu." Del la i dai i posom parni, ker el lake 
khil arentsa,; liljds-pes i &7iai Idkeri, geli oi-da hi len. 

6. Geli othe, tliovel ki len, jek blel, dui beljd, trin beljd. Hoike 
oJcatdr o del: " Dobro vecer, Sinko." I chai phenel e devleske: 
" Dit dJcavJcd phuro x er > P a ^ e phucel man so kerdv." Pale o del: 
" Dobro "V< /." Pale i chai: "Dit akavkd phuro x er > P&le phucel 
man so I del lake : " He Sinko, egd te kerel tut o del 
epkdS x e ''" : > epkdS dzuvli, ta so si x er( ' x paldl tide te peren ta te 
,,<!'< vszdes to sero katdr o x ey ''- Lel-pes i rakli, geli-peske. 
So te dikhel i. dai? Epkds x e ' n '- e pkds manvJ ; so si %erci, sa 
paldl la. Ikljol i dai, lei e x er ^ n paldl, anel e chaid andre. 

7. Kerel i dai sssto, sar akale chaidkoro fustdni: thdbljol, 
pekjol 6i-da dndo rup thai dndo somnakdl. 

you will walk (clothed) in silver and gold, may you burn and shine like a candle ! ' 
The girl remained burning and shining in silver and in gold. The god goes. 
He gives one stick's hit to the wool, he made it from white into black. 'Now 
take, child, your wool and be gone.' What does the girl see 1 The god has made 
the wool black. The girl takes the wool, betook herself and went. 

5. The mother-in-law sees the girl shining and burning with beauty in silver 
and gold. The mother-in-law arises from her seat, and placed the girl that she 
may sit. To her own daughter she says : ' See, child, may you eat her . . . 
and her excrement. See, you I always feed with butter and eggs, but I make 
bread from dung for her to nourish her. Quickly, harlot, go you also.' The 
mother gives her white wool, and prepares for her butter with eggs ; her child 
betook herself, she too went to the river. 

3he went thither and washes in the river, one evening, two evenings, 
three evenings. Behold yonder the god: 'Good evening, child.' The girl 
.says to the god : ' See that old ass who is asking me what I am doing.' Again, 
the god : ' Good evening.'" Again the girl : ' See that old ass asking me what 
I am doing.' The s -ys) to her: 'Ah, child, may the god now make you 
half a she-ass, and half a woman, and as many he-asses as there are, may they all 
follow you, so that you will not be able to lift up your head by reason of the 
asses.' The girl betakes herself, went. "What does the mother see ? Haifa she- 
ars, and half a human being; all the male asses after her. The mother starts 
driving the asses away, and brings the girl indoors. 

7. The mother makes a frock just similar to the other girl's one, so that she 
too burns and shines in silver and gold. 


Chapter II. 

8. Suyghjds e thagareskoro raklo, naboriasdjlo. Uf uf uf! 
Kamerel. thagdr phucel les : "Abe Sinko, so si hike? Da-li 
nandi so te x as > da-li nandi pdres ? " " Na maygdv ni tumare 
pdres, ni tumaro %a6e. Ami maijgdv — jekhe phureskeri chai isi, 
— ta la maygdv, ta te anen la mdrjge." 

9. Sunel i romni kai kadzdl e thagareskoro raklo te lei e chaid, 
e maSteyond. Uyt')el adikd, i romni, urjavel pe chaid, thdbjol, 
pekjol dndo rup t'dndo somnakdl. Lei pe mastexone chaid, thovel 
teldl i balani, tha garavel la. Alo o paitonja. Ikdlel pe chaid, 
thivel dndo paitoni. 

10. Isi jek basno ta basel : " Kikiriguau, %ubava-ta pod korito, 
S5S magaritsa-ta u paiton? Pale o basno : " Kikirigiiuu, %ubava- 
ta pod korito, Sos magaritsa-ta u kold-ta." Isi jek hadzudzekja, 
phuri : " Thagdra, Sun, o basno sar basel." thagdr-da kdndel, te 
hmel. Pale o baind : " Kikirigwuu, x&bava-ta pod korito, sss 
magaritsa-ta u kold-ta." Stonel o thagdr. So te dzal te vizdel i 
balani, so te dikhel ? E chaid, thdbjol pekjol. Kate mini indzirja 
6horghjds, kdte asdnili djulja chorghjds. Lei o thagdr, cliivil la- 
da dndo paitoni. Tsidinde to, te dzan ko thagdr. 

11. Gele kai gele. Lei adikd, i maste^o, kerghjds jek sa^dnj 
pherdo lokiimja, sa londe, dinjds pe mastexone chaidte, ta x^djtis. 
Xaljds akand i chai, muli panjeske, kai %«(/ds londe lokurit/o. 

Chapter II. 

8. The King's son heard, and fell ill. Oof, oof, oof, he will die. The King 
asks him : ' My son, what ails you ? Have you not got food to eat, have 3 

not got money V ' I do not want your money nor your food. But I want 

there is an old woman's daughter — her I want, let them bring her to me.' 

9. The woman hears that the King's son will come to take the girl, the step- 
daughter. She, the woman, arises, dresses her daughter, and she shines and 
burns in. silver and gold. She takes her stepdaughter, places her under the 
trough, and hides her. The carriages arrived. She brings out her daughter, 
bundles her into the carriage. 

10. There is a cock and he crows : ' Kikirigoo, the pretty one is under the trough 
and the she-ass in the carriage.' Again the cock : 'Kikirigoo, the pretty one is 
under the trough and the she-ass in the carriage.' There is an old witch : ' 
King, hear, how the cock is crowing.' The King listens, that lie may hear. 
Again the cock : ' Kikirigoo, the pretty one is under the trough, and the she-ass 
in the carriage.' The King hears. As he goes to lift the trough, what does he 
see? The girl, and she burns and shines. When she cried she poured forth 
pearls, when she laughed she poured forth roses. The King takes her, throws 
her into the carriage. They started to go to the King. 

11. They went and they went. That one, the stepmother, starts rnakin 
dishful of Turkish delight, all salted, and gave (some) to her stepdaughter, and 
she ate. And when she had eaten, she was dying for water, for she had eaten 


A, < -nine, de-ta man x a T^ pani, te P^v" I mdSteyp phenel : 
" E Stnko, an V ik&lav ti jak, te dav tut te pies." I chai phenel: 
" Ace nine I Sar kaklidines mdrjge, ta V ikaUs mi jak, te mtiygsa." 
Pali i r/iiii : " Ace nine / De-ta man •xafl'pani, muljom panjiske. 
Dinjdn man o londi lokdmja, pole na des te pidv pani ? " I dai 
pJcenil: "An t' ikaldv ti jak, te dav tut te piis." Dikhljds so 
dikhljds i chai. Del pi jak, ikdlel la i mdUeyo. Dinjds la 
fit piljds jek Jcdpka. I chai phenel: "Ace nine, mi jak ikalgh- 
jd n, bare-tin te pidv te caljardv man pani." I mdste^o phenel : 
" An t' ikdlav okojd-da jak ta te dav tut te piis." I chai phenil : 
" Ace nine, sar kiidines mdyge ta t' ikalis akajd-da jak, ta t' 
(h-liovav e dontsa-da kori." " E, Sinko, te mdygsa . . ." Dikh- 
Ijtis so dikhljds i chai. Del akajd-da jak, ikdlel la i mdstexo. 
Del late o khoro, piljtis ealjarghjtis pes i chai. 

12. Geli kai geli dzi jekhe leaven. Del la butibd anddr o 
paitoni, chivel la<lr okari. Lili-pes adalkti, geli ko thagtir. 
Jek dijis, dui dijes nakjil ko thagtir, xan, pien. 

Chapter III. 

13. Isi jek x or "X"'> /s '-" 7 " les bis rakli. Tsdlo dijis merin 
bokhdtar, sa mudarin kusjin, thai Siriklin, ta x an mariskere 

ilted lukum. 'Come, mother, give me a little water, that I may drink.' The 
.stepmother says : ' Eh, child, come that I may take out one of your eyes, and I 
will give you to drink.' The girl says : 'Come, mother ! As you are going to be 
angry with me, take out one of my eyes, if you so desire.' Again the girl : 
' Come, mother, give me a little water, I am dying for water. You gave me the 
salted lukum, now won't you give me water to drink?' The mother says: 
' Come that I may take out your eye, and I will give you to drink.' The girl saw 
what she saw. She gives her eye, the stepmother extracts it. She gave her, and 
she drank one drop. The girl says : 'Come, mother, you have taken out my eye, 
at least give me to drink that I may satiate myself with water.' The stejmiother 
says : 'Come that I may extract the other eye too, and I will give you to drink.' 
The f;irl says : ' Come, mother, how are you so enraged against me that you will 
take out this eye too, that I may remain blind with the two ! ' ' Eh, child, as you 
like. . . .' The girl saw what she saw. She gives this eye too, the stepmother 
extracts it. She gives her the goblet, and the girl drank and satiated herself. 

12. They went and they went as far as some thorn bushes. She gives her 
a shove from out of the carriage, throws her among the thorns. They went, 
they went to the King. One day, two days pass at the King's, they eat, they 

Chapter III. 

13. There is a Turk, and he has twenty sons. All day they are dying with 
hunger, and they always go killing birds and sparrows, to eat in the place of 


14. Disilo. Liljds-pes o phuro x ora X^- Tsidinjds, dial 
lovdzilekjiste. So te dikhil ? Ando kari jek chai, thdbljol, pekjol 
andi rupis t' ando somndkdl. Geld o yoraydi pas Idte. Sar 
phiril, suburtinel pifintsa, Sunel i chai sar si pas2i uprdl 
dumis. " Ko sinjdn tu, kii avis pas man ? Terno te sinjdn mo 
phral t'ovis, phuro te sinjdn mo dad t'ovis, phuri te sinjdn mi 
dai t'ovis, terni te sinjdn mi phen t'ovis." Geld o ^ora-yai pas 
late. "Me sinjom jek phuro xora^di." "Molina-man tdke, te 
les akalkd indzirja thai akalkd djiilja. tJiagdr bidv keril ; ta 
te dzas othi, te biknis, te pistines : ' Indzir satarim gjuller 
satarim.' Amd parintsa te dina tut, te phucena tut, tu pares te 
na mangis, ami tu te phenis : c Gjoz ichin aldim, gjoz ichin 
veririm.' " 

15. Ikistili i maste^o : " Be iyiiar, gel burada. Ne satarsen ? " 
Pale ov, o ^ora^'ii : "Indzir satarim, gjuller sate rim." Vikinel 
i maste^o, e chaidkeri, phucil e ^ora^us : " Kac para isteorsin 
indzir ichin 1 ?" x, ora X c ' 1 ^ V^ ien ^ : "Para ichin satmam, gjiiz 
ichin aldim, gjoz ichin veririm." Liljds indzirja. Ikalel jek 
jak, del, Phucil: "Ami gjulleri ne istersen?" " Onlarda gjoz 
ichin aldim, gjoz ichin veririm!' Icha i phenil pe da lake : " Nine, 
de odikd-da jak, e lubnjdkeri, tha le-mayge djidjd-da." Del 
akajd-da jak, lei lake-da djiilja. Liljds o dui jakJta , o ^pra-ydi. 
Tsidinjds, dzal pas i rakli. 

14. Day broke. The old Turk betook himself. He made his war, he is going 
hunting. What does he see ? In the thorns a girl shines and burns in silver and 
gold. The Turk went near her. As he Avalks, he makes a shuffling noise •with his 

I feet. The girl hears as she is lying on her back. ' Who are you that are coming 
near me 1 If you are a young man, be my brother ; if you are an old man, be my 
father ; if you are an old woman, be my mother ; if you are a young girl, Vie my 

| sister.' The Turk went near her. 'I am an old Turk.' ' I pray you, take these 

: pearls and these roses. The King is making a marriage feast ; yon go thither, ami 
sell, and call out : " I sell pearls, I sell roses.-'-' But if they pay you with money, 
should they question you (i.e. should they ask you whether you will be paid in 
cash), you do not require money, but say : "I took them for eyes, I give them 

| for eyes." ' 

15. The stepmother came out: 'Heigh, old man, come here. What arc you 
selling?' Again he, the Turk, ' I sell pearls, I sell roses.' The stepmother, tin- girl's 

'stepmother, calls, she asks the Turk: 'How much money do yon want Cor the 
i pearls ? ' The Turk says : ' I do not sell for money. I took them for eyes, I give 
I them for eyes.' She took the pearls. She takes out (from her pocket an eye, gives 
it. She asks : 'But what do you want for the roses?' 'Them too I took for 
eyes, I give for eyes.' The daughter says to her mother : ' Mother, give that eye 
| too, the harlot's eye, and buy me the roses also.' She gives the other eye too, and 
|buys her the roses also. The Turk took the two eyes. He betoi k himself, N\ent 
ito the girl. 


16. Trin papind urjdn oprdl, I po-phureder papin phen- 
ghj&8: " E, ohikd 6hai kori si, ta si paSli oprdl dumes: 6i te 

mil thai te iunel. Me kamukhdv lake uprdl jek por. 6i te 
dzanil thai te kuiel, te rodel turjdl pes. Me kamukhdv lake o por 
dzi la, te rodel t'uzandinel thai te pipinel turjdl pes, ta te lei 
odovkd por ta te dzal. Ta okotkd isi jekh %anik, te dzal dzi ki 
ynlk, trin drom te bdygjol te susljarel dmdi yci/nil;, undo pani — 
ov si Zemzen-sujd. Trin drom te daldinel dndi xanik ta te thovel 
e pore'sa pe jakhd. Ta k' oven odolke jakhendar duvar po-sukdr. 

17. Suyghjds i vakil. Aid o x ora X^- "Aljdn-li?" i chai 
phenel e xoraydske. " Dikh-ta, turjdl man dek por isi-li?" 
%oraxdi rodinjds, arakhljds. x ora X^ phenel: " Ake o por dzi 
tiite." Liljds les, dinjds les hi chai. " Dol-ta man, i chai phend, 
ta igds man. He okotkdj isi jek xanik, te mulches man dzi la." 
Igalghjds la o x ora X 1 ^ ^zi hi x an ^ c - "Ha dza akand," i thai 
phenel e x ora X^ s ^ ce ' " * e terghjov — he okotlcd." Mukljds les epkds 
saxdti dur. Geli i chai dzi ki xa?u'/t\ Tejili, jevkar susljarghjds 
o por, tsidinjds pe jakhende ; tejili, panda jevkar s\isljarghjd,s o 
por, tsidinjds pe jakhende ; tejili, panda jevkar susljarghjds o 
/ \ tsidinjds pe jakhende. Trin drom. Asle o jakhd duvar po- 
§ukar odolke jakhendar. Vikinghjds e x ora X cls: " Ela kdrik 
akand mdntsa." Liljds, dinjds, les did stadjd — leskere stadjd 

rghjds sa levja,petoldjlces thai napoleonja, baksisi, kai ayghjd.s 
<■ jakhd, — t loll gelo-peske x ora X' '"■ 

16. Three geese are flying above. The elder goose said : ' Heigh ! yonder girl 
is blind, and she is lying on her back : let her know and hear. I will let a feather 
down upon her. Let her know and hear, let her search around her. I will let the 
feather down near her, let her search and stretch out and feel around her, and 
take that feather and go. And yonder is a well, let her go up to the well, and 

>p thrice, and moisten (the feather) in the well, in the water — it is water from 
the well of Zemzem. Thrice let her plunge (the feather) into the water, and 
wash her eyes with the feather. And they will become twice as beautiful as those 
(former) ones. 

17. The girl heard. The Turk came. 'Have you come ?' the girl says to the 
Turk. 'Look around me, is there a feather?' The Turk searches and found it. 
The Turk says : ' Behold the feather near you.' He took it, gave it to the girl. 
' Seize me,' the girl says, ' and had me. Behold, yonder is a well, leave me near it.' 
The Turk leads her up to the well. 'Now go,' the Lrirl says to the Turk, 'and 
stand — see, yonder.' She left him a half-hour's distance from her. The girl went 
up to the well. She stooped, once she moistened the feather, and drew it across 
her eyes ; she stooped, once more she moistened the feather, and drew it across her 
eyes ; she stooped, yet once more she moistened the feather, and drew it across her 
eyes. Three times. The eyes remained two times more beautiful than those eyes. 
She called the Turk: 'Come now, over against me.' She took, gave two hats 
full, filled his hat all with levs, coins, and napoleons as baksheesh, for his having 

ght the eyes— and the Turk betook himself. 


Chapter IV. 

18. Lel-pes adikd, geli aygldl e thagareskoro vuddr. Kerel pes 
jek ambrolin; odolkd-da ambroid phdgjon. So £ uytjel dndi 
javin, so te dikhel o thagdr? Angldl o vuddr jek ambrolin, 
phdgjol katdr o ambroid. So te dikhel i mdstexo, " Sinko" pe 
Shaidke phenel, " hie te novel, adikd si i lubni, pe jakhd liljds kai 
kiyghjom hike o indzirja thai o djulja. Dinjom o jakhd, 

19. Kerghjds pes naboriami. 1 dai phenel: " Sinko, kabol- 
dav petures, kathovdv teldl tute ko kereveti. Som bleveljovel 
kaavel to rom. Tu x^i-twines akatdr o petures. Krss, krss, 
kr5§, kabaUn teldl tute, tu te xondines. Te phusla tut to rom, tu 
te phenes: " Suno dikhljom, te chines okikd ambrolin ta te des 
man katdr o kjokji ta te %av, kasdstjovav." 

20. Lei la e thagareskoro raklo, chinel i ambroli. Axdljovel 
i chai, del urjabd, kerel }->es jek kdvakos ayglal e thagareskoro 
vuddr. Chinghjds i ambrolin, aid hi rakli. " Naklo-li tuke ? " I 
fomni phenel : " Nana naklo," x ond ^el, " but si mdyge khaniUs. 
Suno dikhljom te chines okovkd kdvaki ; te %ew lestar, kasdst- 
jovav." Dzal e thagareskoro raklo, cJtinel o kdvaki, kerghjds les 
sa parcedes. 

21. Isijek phuri romni, besel mamui. " Soske nana dzav te 

Chapter IV. 

18. She betakes herself, went to the King's Gate. She makes herself into a 
pear-tree, and those pears break {i.e. the branches break with the abundance of 
pears). What does the King see when he arises in the morning ? In front of the 
gate a pear-tree, breaking by reason of the pears. When the stepmother sees, 
'Child,' she says to her daughter, 'undoubtedly this is the harlot, she took her 
eyes when I bought you the pearls and the roses. I gave the eyes, she became 

19. She (the daughter) made herself ill. The mother says : ' Child, I will roll 
cakes (thin cakes rolled out into leaves), and place them under you in bed. As 
soon as evening falls, your husband will come. You, see, you will turn over the 
cakes. Krsh ! krsh ! krsh ! they will crackle under you, and you will sigh.' 1 1 
your husband asks you, you will say : 'I have seen a vision, that if you should cut 
down that pear-tree, and give me of the root to eat, I will recover.' 

20. The King's son takes it, cuts down the pear-tree. The girl nndci-Mand.--, 
takes flight, makes herself a poplar tree in front of the King's Gate. He cut d<.\\ n 
the pear-tree, came to the lass (his wife). 'Has it passed from you? ' The wile 
says : 'It has not passed,' she sighs, 'I am very sick. 1 have seen a vision, that 
you should cut down that poplar tree ; if I eat of it, I shall recover.' The King's 
son goes, cuts down the poplar- tree, makes it all into pieces. 

21. There is an old Gypsy woman, sitting opposite. 'Why do I nut go and 


lav okolki kavakostar te calavdv me vudareste, kdte si phago?" 
Lei i phuri romni jek partes katdr o kdvakos, calavel ko 

22. Blevelilo. Geli i chai othe, phucel la. " Br&vos phurije, 
kai liljdn akavkd kas ta uytaghjdm mo rogi (dziipe). Me, 
phurije," i chai pjhenel, " 7na-%a %o^ ; so kamayges sa kaandv. 
To sekjeri, to leaves, varindzjek te pirende." 

23. Jek rat, dui ratjd nakjel,i phuri sa phucel la : " Ace Sinko, 
to vogi ndi-but kdte si." Amd sikavel la odikd e rakljdkeri dai e 
phurjd, ta te phucel kdte si o vogi thai i sila h'ekeri. I chaiphenel : 
"Aceplturije, savifdidu isi tut te plaices mo vogi kdte si, thai mi sila 
kdte si ? Kavakerdv take, amd dzar te kerjardv may ge jek mimoras 
mamui e thagareskoro paldti." ~U-)(tjel i rakli, kereljek rnimoras 
sdde ande dzamjen, thai turjdl pes kdte runi indzirja chorghjds, 
kdte asdnili gjulja chorghjds. Blevelilo. Avel ki phuri : "E 
phurije, tu mayges te valcjerdv mo vogi kdte si, thai mi sila kdte si. 
Ela mdntsa dzi okotkd, kavakerdv." Gele dzi ko mimoras. Dinjds 
andre i rakli, pheyghjds: " Ake kavakerdv take mo vogi kdte si 
thai andekhora kamerdv. Tu sinjdn sebebi mdyge." Vakerghjds 
i rakli : " Mo vogi si okovkd kas, som zakovines dekdte me kamerav, 
thai te dolel man deko me pirestar, katdr i tsilcni aygusti, thai 
andekhora merdv." Vakerghjds i rakli thai peli mull ! 

24. Kdte si pasli ko mulo than, thdbjol, pekjol iukdtar. 

take of that poplar -wood, to strike (i.e. nail) onto my door, \diere it is broken i ' 
The old Gypsy woman takes a piece from the poplar-tree, nails it to the door. 

22. Evening came. The girl went thither, cpuestions her. 'Bravo, old woman, 
that you have taken that wood and raised my heart, my life. I, old woman,' 
says the girl, ' do not worry ; whatever you will want I will bring it all. Your 
sugar, your coffee, straightway to your feet.' 

23. One night, two nights pass, the old woman continually asks her : ' Eh, 
child, your heart (i.e. life, see above), where is it mostly (situated) ? ' For she, the 
daughter's mother, shows her, the old woman, how she is to ask where is her heart 
and her strength. The girl says : ' Come, old woman, what advantage have you to 
ask where my heart is and where my strength is ? I will tell you, but wait, that 
I may cause to be made for me a tomb opposite the King's palace.' The girl 
arises, makes a tomb all in glass and around her, where she cried she poured forth 
pearls, where she laughed she strewed roses. Evening came. She comes to the 
old woman : ' Heigh, old woman, you want me to say where my heart is and 
where my strength is. Come with me as far as yonder, I will tell you.' They 
went as far as the tomb. The girl entered, and said : ' Behold I will tell you 
where my heart is, and immediately I shall die. You are the cause of it.' The 
girl said : ' My heart is that wood, the moment you strike anywhere, I shall die, 
and if any one seize me by the foot, by the little toe. immediately I shall die.' 
The girl spoke, and fell dead ! 

24. Where she is lying in the Dead Place, she shines and burns with beauty. 



Turjdl Idte sa indzirja, turjdl late sa gjulja ; ande gjidjen t'dndo 
indzirja gardvdili. 

25. Blevililo. 

26. Disilo. NaJcjel e thagareskoro raklo. So te diJcJiel f Ayg- 
Idl pes jeJc mimoras, sdda dzamUndar. Andre, jek raldi, muli, 
amd thdbjol, pekjol. Kate runi indzirja cJiorgJijds, kdte asdnili 
gjulja cliorghjds. E tJiagaresJcoro raklo maili aslo e rakljdke 
Jco mulo than, thai gelo za-^aljas-pes Idsa ko mulo than. 
Tsidinjds hhamli, Jcatdr e thagaresJcoro raJclo. BiangJijds 
murse raJcles. raJclo pasld si, dndo vas rupuvali pJiabdi ; 
JcJielel-pesJce. Dzi pe daid odovJcd raJclo, Jcai rund, indzirja cJiorgJi- 
jds, kai asdnilo gjulja cJiorghjds. 

27. JeJc dijes, diii dijes, jeJc JcurJco. E tliagaresJcoro raJclo phenel 
— Icorkofo pesJce : " Devla ! SosJce ndna dzav pas odolJce rakljdte 
te diJchdv la, de-^inmdstar ? Cirala nandi geljom pas Idte. Lel- 
pes e tJtagaresJcoro raJclo, dzal pa$ late. So te diJcJiel? Andi 
dygali murs chavo bianghjds : dndo vas rupuvali pJiabdi, thai 
JcJielel-pesJce e phabaidsa. Kdte runo odovJcd raJclo indzirja 
cJiorgJijds, Jcdte asdnilo gjulja chorghjds. Del andre e tJiagaris- 
koro raJclo ; liljds e raJcles an pe aygaljd. 

28. tsiJcno raJclo phenel : " Me nana dzav tusa, na§ti muJc- 
hdv me daid JcorJcori. Ise me dzdvas, ddvas bulje e pJiurjdkere 
daiorjd Jcai x a ^j ( ^ s me daid." E tJiagaresJcoro raklo pJiu5el e 
rakles : " Sar %<x/'jcis te daid i phuri ? " " Sar-li ? Tu, te de'x esa 

Around her nothing but pearls, around her nothing but roses ; and she is hidden 
in the pearls. 

25. Evening fell. 

26. Day broke. The King's son passes. What does he see ? Before him a 
tomb, all of glass. Inside a girl, dead, but she shines and burns. Where she 
cried she poured forth pearls, where she laughed she strewed roses. The King's 
son remained enamoured of the girl in the Dead Place, and he went and became 
intimate with her in the Dead Place. She became pregnant from the King's son. 
She bore a male child. The boy is lying, in his hand a silver apple ; he is play- 
ing. That boy by his mother, when he cried, he poured forth pearls, when he 
laughed he strewed roses. 

27. One day, two days, one week. The King's son says— alone to himself: 
' God ! Why do I not go to that girl, to see her, out of love ? It is quite a time I 
have not gone to her.' The King's son betakes himself, approaches her. What 
■does he see ? In her arms a male child she had borne, in his hand a silver apple, 
land he is playing with the apple. Where that boy cried he poured forth pearls, 
where he laughed he strewed roses. The King's son enters ; took the boy in his 

28. The little boy says : 'I will not go with you, I cannot leave my mother 
xlone. Could I but go, I would violate the little mother of the old woman, for 
she (the old woman) destroyed my mother.' The King's son asks the boy : ' How 
did the old woman destroy your mother 1 ' ' How indeed ? You, if you love me 


- thai me daid, tu te dzas ki phuri; isi la jek vuddr, ko psrvo 
ho ftoro. Id jek leaS kavakoskoro kovime, ta te anes les othar, 

m i dai k'uytjel." 

29. Ikalel o IcaS katdr o vuddr dial othe pas' i raldi. I raldi 

phenel: "Acini/ Amd sutjom." " Sutjdn, zer i phuri %aljds 

tut" Uytini i raldi. Dinjds la dr/gali e thagarfokoro raldo. 

Besti i raldi, jek po jek vakjerghjds e rakleske : — 

Chapter V. 

30. " Me, dzanes-li, tu bWialghjdn mdyge te dades, te avel te 
lei man asdl take. Aid to dad paitonjensa, te lei man asdl tuke, 
kai tu chitjdn merdki oprdl mdnde. Aid to dad, te rnarjgel man. 
Isi man jek mdsteyo, thai isi la jek ehai. Oi tamdm dikhljds kai 
ale o paitonja, chivel man teldl i balani, chivel pe rakljd dndo 
paitoni. Isi amen jek ba&no. basno basel : ' Kikiriguuu, 
yubava-ta pod korito, sss magaritsa-ta u kold-ta.' Pale o 
haithdbaUl: ' Kikiriguuu, yythava-ta pod korito, 838 magaritsa- 
ta u kold-ta.' Ko trito drom. ' Thagdra, sun, Sun' jek hadSud- 
zekji vakjerel, ' o basno sar basel.' Pal o basno : ' Kikiriguuu, 
Xubava-ta, pod korito, sss magaritsa-ta u kold-ta! Sune'l o thagdr 
ikalel odolkd-da, teldl i balani. So te dikhel narodos ? Kate 
run jam indzirja chorghjom, kdte asdniljom djuljd dhorghjdm. 

and my mother, you go to the old woman ; she has a door, do not go to the first, 
but to the second. There is a piece of wood, cut out from a poplar, bring it 
hence, my mother will arise. 3 

29. He takes the piece of wood off the door, goes thither to the girl. The girl 
says, 'Achoo. Surely I was asleep.' 'You slept, for the old woman destroyed 
you.' The girl arose. The King's son embraced her. The girl sat down, one by 
one she told the youth : — 

Chapter V. 

30. ' I— you must know — you sent your father for me, that he should come 
and take me for your sake. Your father came with carriages to take me for your 
sake, for you had cast your desire upon me. Your father came to demand me. 
I have a stepmother, and she has a daughter. Scarcely had she seen that the 
carriages had come, when she throws me under the trough, bundles her own 
daughter into the carriage. We have a cock. The cock crows : " Kikirigoo, the 1 
pretty one is under the trough and the she-ass in the carriage." Again the cockj 

" Kikirigoo, the pretty one is under the trough and the she-ass in the 1 
carriage." For the third time. "King, hear, hear," an old witch says, "how th^ 
cock is crowing." Again the cock, " Kikirigoo, the pretty one is under the trougl 
and the she-ass in the carriage." The King hears, takes out her too from under Uw 
trough. What do the people see ? Where I cried I poured forth pearls, where f 
laughed I strewed roses. 


31. " Ghivel man-da mi maste^o dndo paitoni. Geljdm kai 
geljdm, kerel mdrjge lokumjd, jek sa%dnj pherdd lokumjd, sa londe, 
ta xaljom, muljom panjdske. Maygdv Idtar pani, 6i vakjeril 
mdyge: 'An t'ikaldu ti jek jak, te dav tut pani.' Me phenjom 
lake : ' A& nine, sar kiidines t'ikdles mi jak, ta te des man x a V^ 
pani ! ' Dikhljds i thai, dinjds pi jak ; ikdlel i jak, dinjds man 
Xari pani. Maygdv Idtar : ' Ate, nine, de man bare te cdljovav.' 
1 E, an t'ikdlav akajd-da jak, kaddv tut kiti maijges pani te pies.' 
Del i rakli akajd-dd jak, ikalel. Geljdm dzi ande jekhe karen. 
Del man butibd, perdv ande jekhe karen. Lel-pes adikd pe rakl- 
jdsa, pas tide. Xan, pijen, bidv keren. 

32. "Man achadjds dndo kafe, one-da kdte sinjomas paUi, 
iundv §uburtinel diko. Pheyghjom leske : ' Terno t'isi, mo phral 
t'ovel, phuro t'isi, mo dat t'ovel.' Aid jek x°r a X^ V a $ mdnde. 
Pheyghjdm leske kai tu bidv keres ; runjom, indzirjd thordjom ; 
asdlniljom, djuljd chordjom. Biclialdjom les te pistinel : ' Indzir 
satarim, gjuller satarim.' Ikistili mi mas"te-xp. Kinghjds 
indzir ja. Phusljds : ' So mayges leyge 'I ' yp T( - l %di pher/ghjas ; 
' Gjoz ichin aldim, gjoz ithin veririm.' Liljds mi jak, maygljds 
djuljd, Idke-da mi jak liljds. 

33. " Ayghjds me jakhd. Urjdnas trin papind. I phureder 
papin vakjerel : ' E, te sunel man odikd rakloyi, kaperavdv jek 
por dzi late, te rodel turjdl pes t'arakhjd. Isi jek x an ^ c t a t e 

31. ' My stepmother threw me also into the carriage. We went and we went, 
she made me lukum, a dishful of lukum, all salted, and I ate, and was dying for 
water. I beg water from her, she says to me : "Come that I may extract one of 
your eyes, and I '11 give you water." I said to her : " Come, mother, how are you 
enraged against me, to take out my eye, in order to give me a little water ! " The 
girl saw, gave her eye ; she took out the eye, gave me a little water. I beg of her : 
"Come, mother, give me at least to satiate myself." "Eh, come that I may 
extract this eye too, and I'll give you as much water as you want to drink.' 
The lass gives that other eye too, she extracts it. We went as far as some 
thorn bushes. She gives me a push, I fall in some thorn bushes. She betakes 
herself with her own daughter to you. You eat, you drink, you make a marriage 

32. ' She caused me to remain among the thorns, and I, where I was lying, I 
hear some one rustling. I said to him : " If he is a young man, let him be my 
brother ; if he is an old man, let him be my father." A Turk came to me. I told 
him you were celebrating a marriage feast ; I cried, I poured forth pearls ; I 
laughed, I poured forth roses. I sent him to call out : " Pearls I sell, roses I sell." 
My stepmother came out. She bought pearls. She asked : "What do yen want 
for them ?" The Turk said : "For eyes I took, for eyes I give." He took my eye, 
she wanted a rose, for it too he took my eye. 

33. ' He brought me my eyes. Three geese were flying. The eldest goose 
says : " Heigh, let that little lass hear me, I will cause a feather to fall near her, 
that she may search around her and find it. There is a well, let her go and draw 


dial te tsldel pe jakhende, Icasdstjol.' Aid o x ora X di - Pher/ghjdm 
Uake te rddel turjdl man, t'arakhjel jek por. Arakhljds o por, 
mukhjel les mange trim papind. Tgalghjds man dzi ki xomi/c. 
Tsidi a jam ii>" in. Iriii drom me jakhende, sdstiljom. Dinjdm adallce 
yoraxds nagrdda, ta aljdm athi. 

34. " Kerghjom man jek ambrolin. Ti fomni kerghjds pea 
naborjamA, ch iyghjarghjds man tute. Kerghj&m man jek kdvakos, 
t i romni ch iyghji vrghjds man tute. Isi jek phwri. Thoghjds la mi 
mdUeyo te phutiel kdte si mo vogi thai mi sila. Lilj as jek partes 
katdr o kdvakos, koviyghjds pe vudareste. Vakjerel : ' Vdkjer 
mange, Sinko, kdte si to vogi.' Vakjerdv lake mo vogi, thai perdv 
thai merdv." 

Chapter VI. 

35. Vikinel e phurjd : " Ku dinjds tut godi tha phustjdn kdte 
Idkoro vogi ? " I ph u ri phenel : " Thagdra, tutar nanasti go.ra- 

Iv. Tu sin/da avdjes avdjes6ske thagdr. Isi tut jek romni, isi 
la jek dai. Sa 6i, avdjes, tasjd sa, del man godi te phucdv la kdte 
Idkoro vogi. Oi-da pher/ghjds mange: ' Kavakerdv mo vogi, 
< una kamen'i .' Vakjerghjds po vogi: 'Mo vogi si okovkd kai 
Kovine les hikdr thai dot man me pireskere tsikne angustjdtar, 
kap< rdv, kamerdv.' ThaipeM, thai muli." 

36. raklo geld khere, phuSel pe romnjd : " Ace tu, sostar sin- 
jdn naborjame?" " NUto, nana dukhdl man." "Ami tu," pe 

the feather across her eyes and she will recover." The Turk came. I told him to 
search around me, to find a feather. He found the feather vrhich the three geese 
have left me. He led me to the well. I drew the feather three times across my 
eves, I recovered 1 gave that Turk a present and I came here. 

34. ' I mad ; a pear-tree. Your wife made herself ill, she caused you to 
have me cut down. I made myself a poplar tree, your wife caused you to have 
me cut down. There is an old woman. My stepmother set her to question where 

my heart and my strength. She took a piece from the poplar, nailed it to her 

■ I •. She says : "Tell me, child, where is your heart." I tell her my heart, and 

I fall and I die.' 


35. He calls the old woman : k Who gave you a mind to question where is her 
heart?' The old woman say-: '0 King, from you I cannot conceal. You are 
King from this day to this day. You have a wife, she has a mother. Always she, 
to-day, to-morrow, always she gives me a mind to ask her (the girl) where is her 

rt. And she told me : " 1 will tell you my heart, but I shall die." She told 
her heart : "My heart is that piece of wood. Nail it well, and seize me by the 
little toe of my foot, I shall fall, I shall die." And she fell and she died.' 

36. The youth went home, questions his wife : 'Come you, why are you ill?' 
Nothing, I have no pain.' 'Now you,' he says to his rnother-in-law, 'do you 


sasdke phenel, "Kirk at-mi isteor sun, kirk bicuk-mi isteorsun?" 
"Kirk at bizel olsun, kirk bicak dilsmanlard olsun, daha evel 
gidelim bize." Phdndel la sardnda grasteygere poriende, jek 
kamadzia del e grasten, pardm-parces keren la. Pe romnjd 
pardm-parces kerghjds. 


want forty horses or forty knives V 'Let there be unto us forty horses, let there 
be forty knives unto the enemies, that we may go all the sooner.' He binds her 
to the tails of forty horses, gives the horses a single lash, they make her to pieces. 
He made his wife to pieces. 

There is the Tale — Here is Your Health. 

Notes to the Text 

§ 1. izxdlili dzuvdnde . . . The expression often occurs in fairy-tales. The verb 
must be the pass, of xdva (iz is a Bulgarian prefix), and cannot be Paspati's xaljovava 
(khdliovava), ' to be blear-eyed.' The dat. dzuvinde, where one might expect 
dzuvindar or diuvintsa, is not uncommon. 

§ 1. dek fomnjd . . . dek, dcko, is 'some one or other,' used either as a sub- 
stantive or adjectively, accus. dikes, dat. dekdte, not dekiste. 

§2. pe mastexone" chaidke . . . mdstexa i s Bulgarian, 'stepmother,' mdstex, 
'stepfather.' The Gypsies say mdStexo for 'stepmother,' and, when used adjec- 
tively, the stem n is added as to all loan adjectives, hence mastexone', as zelenoni, 
for all oblicpue cases. 

§ 3. jek bokoli goSnjindar . . . The word is generally used in the plur., goSnjd. 
It is Paspati's goshnd, goshni, goshd. 

§ 3. Paromi bokoli goSnje'ndar ... I am not sure about this adjective. I have 
taken it as coming from paronav, parovdv, 'to bury.' The former of these two 
forms is the one used in Sofia. (Cf. Mik. parov, viii. 33.) 

§ 3. Jek bokoli Suii, kabardim.6 . . . The verb is Turk, kabarmak, hence the 
d in the Romani formation. The ending is the usual Greek -fxeuos. Suio is 'clean,' 
! common to many dialects. Cf. Frau Witwe Steinbach's hal tu dzudzu murS ? and 
English Gypsy juzo. It is an instance of the words forgotten by Varna Sedentaries. 
'The Nomads know it, but say uid also, as uzd marnd. This latter form u$6 is used 
in its real meaning by the Varna Sedentaries — ' honest, pure, straightforward, 
upright.' suio is materially clean, uzd is spiritually pure. The origin of the two 
,words is different (v. Mik.). Hitherto u:6 has only been recorded in the 
Rumanian dialect, and, with its secondary meaning in the Hungarian (v. Mik., viii. 
(92, uzd). With uid marnd compare Miklosich uzo d'iv. The opposite of uid is 
nasul, also used in Varna. It never means nasvald, and I doubt if it lias anything 
to do with it. In Varna the Sedentaries say nafsald for nasvald. 

§3. sa sastl . . . sastd here means ' whole, entire.' 

§ 4. Teelo o del . . . For Ulilo, from teljovav. Cf. Pasp. Uliovava. 

§ 4. Ake, bdba, somnakdl . . . Pa§i SuljofFs father said somnakdi, but all others 

§ 5. Sa khilintsa arintsa xaljardv tut, aid. . . . Note the aspirate kh in khil, which 
jPaspati probably omitted. A'rd—' egg,' artf='nour.' aJa = Greek a\Xd, 'but.' 
Elsewhere they use amd, ami (Turkish). 

§5. Tedzasovitu . . . ovl- l eAao,' Rum. dialect vi, vi-vi (Mik., viii. 95). 

§ 6. egd tt kertl tut o del . . . egd is Bulgarian, ' would to God that.' 

§ 8. naboriasdjlo . . . Paspati has the equivalent namporesdilo-tar. 

§ 9. e chaid, e mastexond . . . Though an adjeotive here, it has a substantival 
ermination, accus. fern. sing. Otherwise e mastexone chaid, as in the next 

VOL. VI. — NO. I. B 


§ 9. teldl i balanl . . , Paspati's belani (v. Mik., vii.). 

§ 10. Is! jek hadzudzikja, phurl . . . niasc. hadzudzis. It is probably Turk. 
Arab. 'adzuz, 'adzuze. 

§ 10. kdndel, te. Sundl . . . The meaning is thus carefully distinguished between 
the two verbs. 

§ 10. kdte runl indzirja chorghjds, kdte asdnili djiilja chorghjds. I have on 
a former occasion pointed out how imperfect is the Sofia Gypsies' knowledge of 
Turkish. Here indzirja, Romani plur. of indzir, is used for 'pearls.' But indzir 
is a 'fig,' indzi a 'pearl.' The Gypsies have muddled the two words. With regard 
to asdnili, it must be remembered that the past tenses of many neuter verbs are 
formed from the passive, where in the present the usual active form is in use. 

§11. an t'ikdiav ti jak . . . The imperative of andva is often used in the sense 
of 'come.' 

§11. temdygsa . . . for te maygisa. 

§11. te caljardv man pant . . . the verb takes often double accusative. 

§ 12. dSijekM karin . . . The noun is used collectively, 'a thorn bush,' 'bushes,' 
hence the article jekhe". 

§ 14. audi wipe's t'dndo somnalcdl ... As rup is this time placed in the accus., 
the accent of undo is changed, since andi is in the oblique. 

§ 1 4. sar si pasll uprdl dume's ... or uprdl dume'ste. 

§ 15. The Turkish here, and elsewhere, is abominably bad. 

§ 16. kori si . . . The origin of koro appears doubtful. The r was thus pro- 
nounced by Pasi Suljoff. 

§16. ov si Zemzen-sujii . . . Cf. notes to 'The Cordilend2is,' last paragraph. 

§ 17. (a igds man . . . for VigaUs man. 

§ 19. kabdldav pitures ... 'to roll,' 'to roll together,' is in Sofia botanic. 
Boldini is a cake rolled with a rolling-pin. I have nowhere yet heard Paspati's 
bolavdva, 'to twist and turn in dancing.' Boldav in Varna is 'to baptize' 
{Sedentary): boldv, e.g. e zumjdte, 'to dip into' (bdlden len, ta sura lengo aldv 
thoven, ' they baptize them, and then give them their names '). 

§ 19. kr3s, kabaUn teldl tute . . . This again shows that the Gypsies have but 
one native word for every conceivable species of sound. Here it is the crackling of 
well-baked cakes. 

§20. but si mdyge khanilis . . . i.e. 'very bad.' Cf. o dad-da si klianild, 'the 
father too is a good-for-nothing.' Here in Varna they say, but nasi/1, khaind isi. 
Khaindd is also heard. 

§22. ta uxtaghjdn mo vogi (dziipi) . . . Causative of uxtjdr, 'I rise.' Dziipi 
is found in this dialect, as also dzivdd, ' alive.' But the actual verb is missing. 

§22. varindzjdk te pif&nde . . . PaSi Suljoff translated by nepremenno (Bulg.), 
'absolutely.' I suppose the first part of the word is the usual rare in vdreko, 
vdrekai, vdreso, etc. varekdstar, ' from some one or other.' varindzjik is ' dunkeV 

§ 23. amd dzar te kerjardv mdyge jek mimoras. . . . Kerjardv, causative of 
kerdr, Paspati's kerghid kerdva. 

§23. som zakovijies dekdte. . . . See translation. som = Bulg. stom. Dekdte is 
here an adverb of place, ' somewhere,' varekdte. 

§ 24. Sukdtar . . . For Sukaripndstar. 

§ 27. te dikhdv la, deximndslar . . . Nominative dexibe'. Pres. tense, d6xav, j 
ddxes, etc. Past, dexmjdm. I have not yet discovered the origin of this word, ! 
meaning 'to love.' It is unknown in Varna, and I have not met with it anywhere 
outside Sofia. 

§27. Cirala nandi gel j6m pas late . . . i.e. ' it is a long time since. . . .' fiirala 
\s from the Sanskrit. See Pott, ii. 200. 

§ 28. Isi me dzdcas ... 'If I went, or could go.' The first word is Turkish, 
cf. gelir-sem. 

§28. Isljekkas kavakdskoro kovime" . . . Past part, in m6 (Greek -n<!vos). The 
verb is kovhiav, root kov (Borrow's kovdntsa for ' anvil '). 

§ 34. chiyghjargJijds man tide . . . i.e. ' caused me to be cut down by you, : 
' made you cut me down.' Cf. cumidiyghjarghjds po vat ko chavd in 'The Cordi- 


lendzls.' Ko chavd corresponds to tt'de in the sentence under consideration and e 
chavdste would have done equally well. The verb is thiyghjardv, as kerjardv above. 
It is here purely causative, ' to cause to cut down ' (the tree). There is a chiygjardv 
in Sofia, corresponding to Paspati's cingerdca, and meaning to pierce. 

§35. Ko dinjds tut godi thaphuSljdn hate si Idkorovogi t . . . Here godi, 'mind' 
'idea,' ' thought,' is distinguished from vogt, which appears in the same 'sentence 
having the meaning of ' soul,' « heart,' ' life.' Miklosich should not have classified 
the two words under one heading. Vogi, hogi is Armenian (as pronounced in the 
Caucasus) for ' spirit.' 



By Eric Otto Winstedt and Thomas William Thompson 

F the Gypsies of Great Britain have never rivalled those of 
Hungary in musical fame, or those of Kussia and Spain in 
the dance, they have not failed to show considerable ability in 
both arts. Almost the earliest mention of Gypsies in these isles 
refers to them as having ' dansit before the king in Halyrudhous': x 
and, though they soon Avere banished from court, they have never 
ceased to play the part of popular entertainers elsewhere. The 
dancing booths of the Grays and Shaws in East Anglia some 
hundred years ago have been described in a former paper-. 2 and, 
according to his son Noah, Bill Shaw was the first to travel 
Oxfordshire and the neighbouring counties with a similar booth. 
But Gypsy fiddlers had long been indispensable in that county, 
as elsewhere, at rural feasts and entertainments. ' The revel 
called the Marsh Bush kept on Whitsunday,' at Headington, near 
Oxford, and only remembered by the elderly in 1804, ' was 
attended by Gypsey Fiddlers and others, and several sets of Dancers 
the whole of the afternoon.' 3 Indeed, there is plenty of evidence 
that till fairly recent days the Gypsy fiddler drove a thriving 
trade. Old Adam Lee, a London-side fiddler, executed exactly a 
hundred years ago 4 with his son Thomas for a brutal highway 
robbery, of which they were popularly believed to be perfectly 

1 In 1530. Cf. J. G. L. S., Old Series, i. 9. 

2 /. G. L. S., New Series, iii. 167. 

3 MS. Top. Oxon., b. 75, p. 98, quoting from the Upcott collection. 

4 The indictment of Adam Lee, Thomas Lee, and Eleanor, his wife, at theSurrej 
Assizes, April 1, 1812, for a highway robbery committed on Elizabeth Collier 
between Horsham and Walton on October 21, 1811, maybe found in Tht Timet, 
April 3, 1812; and the condemnation of Adam and Thomas to death and Bleanoi 
to transportation for life, ibid., April 7. In the issue for April 30 is a notice thai the 
graves of Thomas and Alexander (sic) Lee, who were executed 00 Monday la 
Horsemonger Lane and afterwards interred in Streatham churchyard, were found 
on Saturday to have been disturbed and the bodies removed. Was this don.' by 
resurrectionists, or by their relatives, who wished to remove them to sonif other 


innocent, was among the many Gypsies of whom it is told that 

they gave their daughters a peck measure of sovereigns at their 

wedding. 1 Nor can their performances have been by any means 

despicable, if Tommy Boswell (alias Lewis) was correct in claiming 

that his father Lewis Boswell once played against Paganini, and 

the honours were judged fairly divided. Until a year or so 

ago Tommy himself eked out a subsistence by his music in the 

villages on the Berkshire downs ; and a few Gypsies, for example 

Cornelius and Adolphus Wood in Wales, may still be found in 

the less sophisticated parts of the country who rely on their 

fiddles for a livelihood. But the priggishness instilled in the 

younger generation of rustics by a Board School education has 

rendered the Gypsy fiddler's living a most precarious one ; and, 

though the art is not likely to die among so musical a people, it 

is becoming more and more a mere relaxation. 

Nor have they confined their attention to the fiddle, though 
it is the distinctive Romany instrument. In the North they have 
taken to the pipes, and many Gypsies or half-bloods were noted 
players, the most famous being James Allan," 2 the Northumbrian 
piper, who wandered over most of Europe and Asia, earning his 
way by his music. In Wales John Roberts and his sons, one of 
whom has won nineteen prizes at Eisteddfodau and played before 
many crowned heads, have taken to the national harp with such 
success as to surpass most native players : 3 and, though the Welsh 
blood in their veins may be partly responsible for their success, 
other Gypsies attained some celebrity. Charlie Wood played in 
the band formed by John Roberts and his sons at Llandrindod ; 
and Gypsy harpers such as Edward Wood used to be attached 
to the larger Welsh hotels. 

Of their accomplishment as dancers there is less evidence ; but 
any one who has enjoyed a musical evening with Addie Lee's family 
at Yarmouth, and witnessed the performance of her three daughters 4 ' 

reating-place ? Adam had been arrested some years before at Norwood with his 
Bona John, Robert, Stephen and Thomas, and Ambrose Boswell on suspicion of 
having committed 'divers footpad robberies.' Cf. 7'he Times, Oct. 17, 1795. 

1 Cf. T. Frost, Recollections of a Country Journalist (1886), pp. 4 foil. Frost 
derived his information from an old fiddler, who had often played with Adam. 

2 Cf. Brockie, Gypsies of Yetholm, pp. 147-166, and J. G. L. S., Old Series, 
ii. 266-277. 

3 On Roberts and his family cf. Groome, In Gypsy Tents, p. 156, and J. G. L. S., 
Old Series, i. 180, where a list of the members of the Wood, Roberts and Jones 
families, who distinguished themselves as harpists and fiddlers, is given. 

4 The youngest, Katie, has won prizes for dancing in public competitions on the 
Britannia pier. 



and her half-brother Tommy Smith, cannot doubt of their terpsi- 
chorean abilities. The company in Scotland in 1530 must have 
been counted by no means indifferent performers or they would 
not have been chosen to dance before the king. Groome and 
MacRitchie claim Romany blood for a ' Dutch ' or ' Hio-h-German ' 
' danceuse,' who with ' her two gipsy daughters ' caused a furore 
in England in 16S9, 1 but one may be pardoned doubting whether 
that is not insisting too closely on the vague word ' Gypsy ' : and 
two daughters of Leonard Lee are on the operatic stage now. 
There is ' no one like Gypsy Will's wife for dancing in a platter,' 
says Borrow in the 'Book of the Wisdom of the Egyptians,' 2 
though where the wisdom of the observation comes in it is hard 
to see. But one may note that this strange accomplishment is 
one which Engelbert Wittich claims for his mother. 3 Her per- 
formances were given in public; and so probably were those of 
Gypsy Will's wife, as it is clear that in the early part of the 
nineteenth century Gypsy women still went dancing to the 
tambourine. Groome 4 has several references to old ladies who 
had been famous as dancers and tambourine players : Townsend, 5 
writing about 1830, saw Gypsies fiddling at village feasts and 
women playing the tambourine from door to door in Northamp- 
tonshire : and it is to be supposed that the tambourines attributed 
to the girls of the Gray and Shaw tribes at their fathers' dancing 
booths were used to accompany their own or other people's 
dancing, as the sound of that instrument is hardly soul-sufficing 
in itself. Sporadic instances occur later. On the solitary occasion 
on which Leland met Matthew Wood he was accompanied by a 
sister who danced to his fiddling: 6 and Tommy Lewis, in his 
younger days, used to be attended by his sister Constance, dancing 
and playing the 'mandoline,' our informant, an old farmer, said. 
but surely he must have meant ' tambourine.' 

Nor were the men behind their ladies in the light fantasl ic art 
Oliver Cooper, son of fighting Jack Cooper, used to dance at the 
'music-halls, gaffs, and theatres,' and his brother Dookey was 
accounted the best Gypsy dancer in the country, if one may 

1 MacRitchie, Scottish Gypsies under the Stewarts, p. 26, footnoti . Bui the word 
' Gypsy ' was of ten used with the meaning of 'roguish.' In any case this lady ifl 
hardly a fair example of Gypsy dancing, as her performances Men- mainly i r 
exclusively on the tight rope. 

2 Lavolil (J. Murray, 1907), p. 107. 

3 Blicke in das Leben der Zigeuner (1911), p- 16. 

4 In Gipsy Tents, pp. 177, 192. 

5 J. G. L. S., New Series, ii. 125. ,; Th ' P 193. 


believe the author of No. 747} Another character in the same 
invaluable work prided himself on putting in thirty-seven different 
steps in a Plymouth hornpipe, 2 when matched against a friend. 
Such contests were probably not rare. Old Neily Buckland used 
to tell us how his cousin Liberty and Noah Shaw, who as boys 
were counted the best dancers of their respective families, were 
set on a table at Abingdon and danced for an hour or more against 
each other. Charlie Junnix boasts that he was the most accom- 
plished dancer among the London Gypsies in his younger days, 
and that he could dance on a pencil : Sneki Boswell pride3 
himself on having ' walked twenty miles on top of tuppence,' but 
his meaning is not very apparent : George, and possibly other 
sons of Noah Heron, appear at the music-halls in the large towns 
of the north of England, his brother Bertie, aged seven or eight, 
being no mean performer of step dances. 

On festive occasions elaborate balls were held in strict privacy, 
and there, no doubt, the best of Romany dancing was to be seen ; 
for the Gypsies seldom show their best to the gdje. Mr. W. A. 
Dutt, writing in 1896, 3 mentions one of the last of these balls, 
' held near Bungay in Suffolk, to celebrate the acquittal of a well- 
known Gypsy, who had been charged with sheep-stealing at 
Norwich Assizes. On the eve of the day of his release, the 
encampment to which he belonged was the scene of much activity 
in the way of cooking preparations and personal adornment, and 
when night came on the fiddles were tuned up and dancing was 
commenced and kept up till daylight.' He goes on to add that 
' all this is changed. Now, Gypsy balls are held only when a 
larger number of Romanies than usual collect together, and then 
a hall is hired at the nearest town, and the whole affair is merely 
a novel expedient for making money,' instancing one held at 
South Shields in which the Grays took part. 

But the Grays were not the originators of this method of 

1 Pp. 109-10. 

- Hornpipes appear to have been a speciality of Gypsies, and, strangely, were 
indulged in before death. Wester Lee's grandfather danced one at the age of 105, 
and Josh Gray's grandmother did the same shortly before her death at the age of 
102. Some Gypsies declare that they can tell what family a strange Gypsy belongs 
to as soon as they have seen him dance. Clarke, in his Travels, i. 77, states that 
he saw Gypsies at Moscow dancing a dance called Barina, which was very like a 
hornpipe. It was a popular Russian dance, but was said to have been introduced 
by the Gypsies. Clarke suggests that the hornpipe was a similar introduction ; 
but it seems highly improbable, though E. L. Urlin, Dancing ancient and modern, 
p. 67, says the hornpipe was derived from the barina. 

3 Good Words, Feb. 1896, pp. 120-6. 


extracting money from the dinile gdje without unpleasant exer- 
tion. For some four or five years, beginning towards the end of 
the sixties and extending into the seventies, a band calling them- 
selves the ' Epping Forest Gypsies ' had been touring England, 
giving balls in nearly every town of any size. The first trace of 
them is in a letter from Miss S. Mason of Newcastle to Bataillard, 
preserved in the collection of his papers at Manchester. WritiDg 
in March, 1871, she mentions a visit of the Epping Forest Gypsies 
about three years before. Another letter, dated 17th June 1871, 
seems to refer to a former visit of the same band: and Mr. J. H. 
Donaldson, secretary of the Northern Counties Conservative 
Newspaper Company, kindly informs us that he remembers such 
a camp on the moor at Newcastle in 1866. It is, hoAvever, prob- 
able that Miss Mason was mistaken in identifying the two bands. 
Those who passed through Newcastle in 1866 were, doubtless, 
Jasper Petulengro and his family on their way to Scotland, as 
they, with some Coopers, Lees, Smiths, and a mysterious family 

referred to as P , spent some time in Edinburgh in the summer 

and again in the winter of 1867 and the spring of 1868. 1 But no 
Boswells or Youngs were in the camp at Edinburgh, nor, indeed, 
any of the party who gave balls, except George (alias Lazzy) 
Smith: nor were any balls given there. 2 At Newcastle, too, they 

1 Cf. ' My Friend's Gipsy Journal,' in Good Words, 1868, pp. 701-5, 745-62. Only 
the first letters of the names are given, but these with a list of Christian names 
make it certain that Ambrose and all his family, his brother Faden and his family, 
Johnny Cooper and his wife, Lavaithen Lee and her sons Logan and Nathan, and 
George (alias Lazzy) Smith and his mother, were present. 

2 This was written before seeing George (Lazzy) Smith's Incidents in a Gipsy's 
Life. There he states that a ball took place at Newington during their travels in 
Scotland, and that they made £700 in the three weeks they spent there, and had a 
great success in Aberdeen and other Scottish towns. But as he goes on to mention 
the Queen's visit to the camp at Dunbar in the next sentence, and that did not 
occur till 1878, this does not give any clear clue to the date. In the winter of 
1867-8 they spent much longer than three weeks at Edinburgh, and the author of 
the ' Gipsy Journal,' who visited the camp almost daily, must have heard of the ball 
if it occurred then. It must, therefore, have been either at the visit in the suinm. r 
of 1867, or perhaps at a later date. However, if Lazzy's dates may be relied I 

the balls must have begun earlier than we have suggested. He states that one n i 
given in 1865 in Whit week at Leeds, and was attended by over 70,000 pel sona : 
and that they spent a month at Manchester, exhibiting in the Royal dak Park in 
the same year. But, again, he mentions the ball at Oxford, which certainly took 
place in 1S71, and leveea in the Rotunda Gardens at Dublin, which cannot have 
been before about 1874, in the same paragraph : indeed, the Oxford hall IB put 
before that at Leeds. So his datea are rather dubious, unlees some externi 
evidence can be found to support them. Lazzy claims to have been the originator 
of the idea of charging for admission to see the tents, and, therefore, preBUmablj , 
of the dances as well : also to have been the head of ten families, whioh must nav. 
included Ambrose Smith and other Gypsies older and more influential than 


are only mentioned as fortune-tellers. It would seem, therefore, 
most likely that the second band recorded to have passed through 
Newcastle in 1868 were the main body of the subsequent ball- 
divers moving north to Scotland, where they certainly did travel 
in company with the Reynolds family. 1 In that case, the idea of 
. ing balls, and the formation of a band for that purpose, can 
hardly have occurred till quite the end of 1808 or the beginning 
of 1869 : and the first balls would be given in Scotland. But they 
must soon have turned south again. 

In 1869 they were at Kidderminster, as the following extract 
from the Birmingham Daily Post for June the 7th 2 shows: — 

' Gipsy Encampment at Kidderminster. — A company of gipsies, very different 
in their appearance and manners from those generally met with in the Midland 
Counties, are at present encamped in the neighbourhood of Kidderminster, where 
they are regarded with some curiosity by the townspeople. They are a colony of 
the Epping Forest gipsies, and comprise seven families, numbering about fifty 
individuals, children included. Each family has a van and tent to itself, but the 
former is only used as a living-place when the tribe are migrating from' one locality 
t i another. The tents are tolerably roomy affairs, the framework being constructed 
with long supple sticks, which are bowed towards each other, and covered with a 
warm flannelly material. Visitors are freely allowed to enter these nomad dwell- 
ings, and can judge for themselves the kind of habitat they have. The interiors 
are warm and snug, and more than this, there is an air of comfort about them 
which house-dwellers would scarcely believe could be had under gipsy conditioi s 
of life. Chairs and tables are not a prerecpiisite here as in ordinary dwellings, but 
the gipsies appear to be abundantly supplied with such fabrics and appointments 

_'ive a somewhat Eastern air to their habitations. They are well-dressed, not 
uncommunicative, and very easy and self-possessed in their manners. It appears 
that the men belonging to the different families in the camp rely for a livelihood 
on horse-dealing, and the other sex are, no doubt, able to do a little business by 
reading a horoscope or revealing a destiny. They use the Romany tschib or 
language among themselves, but do not seem to attach any importance to their 
children learning it, except so far as they may do so by haphazard. Some of the 
words they use are very similar to the words for the same things used by East 
Indians— so said one of the party, to whom our correspondent spoke ; and there 
have been some statements of the same kind published in the Transactions of one of 
the learned societies. Since the arrival of the party at Kidderminster, a little babe 
has been born in one of the booths, the midwife's offices being performed by a 
woman belonging to Kidderminster. It was suggested a doctor should be sent 
for, but the reply was that a gipsy woman would sooner die than have one to 
attend her. 

' On Saturday evening the gipsies held a gala in their camp. A circle was 
fenced off with iron hurdles for dancing, and a band had been engaged. The 
gipsy women and children turned out in fete costume, and dancing was kept up at 
intervals during the evening. There was a fair number of visitors present, and 
the gala is to be repeated.' 

Their movements for the next two years have not been defi- 

1 Oroome, In Gipsy Tents, p. 17. 

2 Reprinted in Notes and Queries, ser. 4, vol. iv. (1S69), p. 21. 


nitely traced ; but they were not idle. They are known to have 
visited Swansea and Newport in Monmouthshire, Bath— where 
they hired the Assembly Rooms and charged a guinea a head to 
visitors— and Bristol, where they gave their entertainment in the 
Public Gardens, at the modest rate of a shilling admission fee, for 
they had the wisdom to fit their charges to the requirements of 
the different towns they visited. But whatever their prices were, 
money poured in. At Bristol, after taking £126 within the first 
hour and a half, they had to shut the gates for fear of overcrowd- 
ing. 1 Then there were extras. The tents could be visited daily — 
for a fee; fortunes were told — for a fee; and, when possible, a 
local publican was squared to let them use his name — for a consi- 
deration ; and then the Gypsies, armed with an out-licence, would 
buy up deadly cheap drinks, and provide refreshment for the 
thirsty at high prices. Additional attraction would be held out 
by the presence of the King and Queen of the Gypsies, or, occa- 
sionally, by their arrival. The latter, according to one who 
professed to have played the game, 2 really meant that after due 
notice had been given by posters that the King and Queen would 
be present at the next entertainment, and a report of their arrival 
by a certain train circulated, two of the party would unostenta- 
tiously take a train to the nearest station, put on their finery, and 
return to be met by their fellow-conspirators at the station and 
escorted triumphantly by a gaping crowd back to the tents. Of 
course this meant more visitors, and more fortune-telling by the 
Queen, at a price proportionate to her dignity. Still, expenses 
must have been high : they would pay anything up to £100 for a 
public room, and strangely, as there must have been fiddlers 
among them, they never provided their own music, but hired a 
local orchestra, at prices varying from £5 to £30. 

Money was evidently of little consideration to them. At 
Swansea £5 was given to charity, and at Newcastle £200, accord- 
ing to Noah Young, whose word, however, is unsupported, to the 
Hospital; and, as one would expect with Gypsies, a good deal 
seems to have been spent on personal adornment. Somewh< re 
where Morwood met them, a girl whose name is given as Rosa 
Boswell indulged in a five-guinea pair of earrings; and the cos- 
tumes at the ball which he attended were certainly costly. ' One oi 
the women, who was about twenty-four years of age, wore a Mark 

1 The details about Bath and Bristol were obtained from Noah Young. 

2 Cornelius Buckland (alias Fenner). 


and yellow satin dress so long in the skirt that it trailed on the 
ground. She had on red slippers ; round her wrists costly brace- 
lets ; on her fingers were several rings ; a gold chain and beads were 
suspended from her neck; and on her head was a kind of coronet, 
pendent from which were six golden fuchsias; her hair, which 

The Tribe of 


Intern! giving a GRAND 



Id the Field whtre llie) are located 


A LARGE TENT beautifully illuminated will be 
Erected for the occasion. The 



And the Public will have a grand' opportunity; of seeing 



The Ground will be opened at FOUR o clock until SIX, 
pjD , admiisioD. Two Shillings. From SEVEN o'cloqk. 
One Shilling admittance 


Manager — Mr Young. Refreshment* prodded by Mr. 
Barrett, 18, Corn Market Street. Etct^ attention will be 
paid to the comfort of the Public 

was as black as the raven's wing and of great length, hung in 
glossy ringlets over her shoulders. Another gipsy woman was 
attired in a costly blue satin dress. Trinkets, eardrops, and 
chains of almost every pattern, red cloaks and shawls, necker- 
chiefs, and long sashes, of nearly every colour, were worn by the 
other females. Some of the young gipsy men who took part in 
the ball wore black dress coats, white vests and collars, satin 


neckties, black trousers, and patent-leather boots.' 1 At the ball 
which took place in a field, Morwood noted that, though occasion- 
ally one of the Gypsy men deigned to dance with°a gdji, the 
Gypsy girls held exclusively aloof; and a youth who showed too 
pressing insistence in inviting one of them to act as his partner, 





Containing Half-a-dozen celebrated "Jig- 
dancers," a " Girum-skuter," with a " Fluffy*" 
Top, a Long-sleeved Hat, and a Guinea 
"Ulster." Great precaution should betaken 
in carrying the same as in the Breast-pocket 
of the Ulster will be found a Prussian foot- 
soldier stuffed with "Glenfield Starch." 

Whoever has found the same, and will return it to The 
"King" or "Queen" of the Gipsies, Royal Camp, Binsey Lane, 
Oxford (where Tobacco pouches and Cigar cases are emptied on the 
shortest notice), shall receive the above Reward. 

" Fortunes told (?)" for a piece of Silver (only half-dollar .' .' .') 
Chops and Steaks on' the shortest notice. Lodgings for single Men 
and no Boys. Shave for nothing and find your own roap. Good 
Accommodation for Travellers, with Sausages, Pork and Veal Pies 
(bated puppy and kidknapped kitten.) 


A Grand Promenade of the " OXFORD FLATS" 
on Sunday afternoon. Admission to the 
Camp, 3d. 


had to beat a hasty retreat for fear of personal reprisals from tin- 
men. Groome 2 notes the same aloofness of the Gypsies, who 
were all dancing together at a ball given in Oxford, and scoius to 
have found, reasonably enough, that it did not conduce to 
liveliness in the proceedings. 

Their visit to Oxford took place in the spring of 1871, and of 

1 Our Gipsies, pp. 192-3. - Krif(i<!>ie/, p. 226. 


this occasion fairly full information is obtainable. During their 
stay they were noticed weekly in the local papers, and one of their 
handbills and a strange, more than half unintelligible, parody of it 
are preserved in the Bodleian Library. 1 According to Noah 
Young, they had arranged to pitch in a large public-house yard. 
The publican, however, when they arrived, opposed their entry, 
and, after a squabble nearly resulting in a fight with Noah, 
arranged for their encamping on a field in Binsey Lane. There 
we may leave Jackson's Oxford Journal to take up the tale : — 

March 18, 1871. ' Gipsey Encampment. — A large tribe of Epping Forest 
Gipsies are now located in a field in Binsey lane, the property of Mr. Charles 
Eaton. This is the same tribe which has created so much excitement throughout 
the kingdom, and we understand that they intend giving a ball before they leave, 
when their " King " and " Queen " will be present. The encampment can, we believe, 
be visited daily on the payment of a small admission fee.' 

March 25, 1871. ' The Gypsy Encampment. — The encampment of the "Epping 
Forest Gypsies " in Binsey-lane, has this week been visited by crowds of people. 
The Rominaneys are encamped in a field belonging to Mr. Eaton, where they 
intend staying a few days longer. There are five wagons pitched on the ground, 
and eight tents, the latter being structures of hoops and woollen coverings, with 
all the paraphernalia belonging to the wandering tribes. On Sunday last the 
encampment was inundated with visitors, and the Botley road was more like a fair 
than a quiet highway. We cannot say how many people paid their threepences to 
enter the gypsy encampment, but the receipts must have been handsome ; and 
when the visitors got inside the ground there was nothing to see but a few tents, 
some idle loungers (among the men), and a lot of horses grazing. Despite this, 
however, the speculation paid ; and after the ordinary folks had visited the place 
on Sunday, on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, the tribe was visited 
by the elite. Prince Hassan has visited the encampment, and nearly everybody in 
Oxford who could spare time, has been on the ground. An additional attraction is 
held out in that the " King and Queen of the tribe " are present, and the tent of the 
latter has been crowded during the week, and much amusement has been created 
by fortune-telling. The tribe had, we understand, made application for the Corn 
Exchange, in order to give a ball, at which it was promised that the King and 
Queen would be present ; but the application was not granted. The gypsies, 
thereupon, hired a large tent, and they announce that they will give a ball this 
(Friday) evening at the encampment.' 

April 1, 1871. ' The Gypsy Encampment. — A ball was given by the gypsies on 
Friday evening, March 24, in a large marquee erected for the occasion on the 
grounds of their encampment in Binsey-lane. The heads of the tribe had made 
application for the use of the Town Hall or the Corn Exchange, but the request 
having been denied, the gypsies hired a marquee for the purpose of the dance. 
This was lit up with a number of lamps, and as much comfort as possible was 
imparted to the tent. Cox's quadrille band was engaged for the occasion, and 

1 In a scrapbook numbered, Gough adds, fol. A. 139 x . Reduced facsimiles of 
both of them are given. Beyond the facts that ' girumskuter ' was an old Oxford 
slang term, apparently of as vague application as ' thingumbob,' that a ' long-sleeved 
hat' was used of what is commonly called a tall hat, and that guinea ulsters were a 
new fashion at about this date, we cannot offer any elucidation of the odd terms 
used in the parody. 



nearly the whole of the gypsies were present. Refreshments were provided bv Mr 
Joseph Higgins, Jericho House. Dancing was kept up until a late hour a large 
assembly having attended during the evening. On Sunday the camp was acrain 
visited by hundreds of the curious, but the crowd was by no means so ^reat as on 
the previous Sunday. Another ball will be given in the grounds on Monday 
next.' ' J 

April 8, 1871. ' The Gypsy Encampment— The gypsies, lately encamped in 
Binsey-lane, have left that place for Banbury. They gave a farewell ball on 
Monday, when about two hundred people attended.' 

Further notices on April 15 and 29 state that they encamped 
at Grimsbury close to Banbury for a fortnight, and were visited by 
a large number of people, and then passed on to Leamington. 

In July and August they spent a month in Cheltenham, and, 
though no ball is mentioned, took part in a fete at Pittville. 
There a peculiarly wooden-headed policeman, who was on duty in 
plain clothes, took upon himself to interfere with them, and the 
result was two prosecutions in the Cheltenham police-court on 
August 15. l The first was against 'an old woman who made her 
appearance with a coloured handkerchief on her head, a scarlet 
shawl over her arm, and wearing a plaid dress of very diverse 
colours.' She gave her name as Elizabeth Chilcott, was called the 
head of the tribe, and was charged with having 'pretended or 
professed to tell fortunes, and that she had used subtle craft, 
means, or device to deceive and impose upon her Majesty's 
subjects at Prestbury on the 14th instant.' The policeman 
deposed that he had seen her accosting young women, and that 
she had addressed himself and his wife and induced them to have 
their fortune told. When he announced his profession, she 
screamed out, and he was attacked by three men and four women, 
and with difficulty arrested her. The defence pleaded that it was 
a public entertainment, and they were in the same position as any 
other actors; that two years before the Gypsies — whether this 
band or another is not stated — formed part of the piogramme of a 
Conservative fete; and that the fortune-telling was not done with 
intent to deceive, but merely for amusement. The Bench dis- 
missed the case, warning the old lady not to pursue the sum.' 
practices about the town or under other circumstances. 

The other case was against Noah Young, aged 28, and a youth 
of 21 calling himself Harry Lee. They were charged with 
attempting a rescue and assaulting the police in the execution <»t 
their duties. Noah was fined £2, 9s., and Lee £1, with expens< 

They appear to have moved on towards Wales, giving balls at 

1 Details are takeu from The Cheltenham Examiner, August Hi, 1871. 


Ilridgenorth and other places along the road to Holyhead. 
In 1872 they were at Holywell, 1 and stayed three weeks or a 
month in a field outside the town, giving one ball in the King's 
Anns Hotel Assembly Rooms, Avhich was only moderately 
attended. They seem to have been alarmed by their experience 
at Cheltenham, as they did not tell fortunes, but went about sell- 
ing things and dealing in horses. So at least says our r/djo in- 
formant: but Zachariah Lock is more sceptical as to their 
reformation, talking of goods obtained here and there by false 
pretences and promises of large custom. There were about twenty 
of them, Smiths and Lees, in six or eight caravans and tents under 
a King and Queen named Smith, doubtless Lazzy Smith and his 
wife. From there they went on to Liverpool, and their sub- 
sequent movements are uncertain. 2 Possibly they had already 
begun to split up, as there had been frequent bickerings between 
the various families, and the number mentioned at Holywell 
is rather smaller than that given in preceding notices. But 
Zachariah Lock declares that Noah Young and Kenza and Byron 
Boswell were still with them at Bridgenorth, and, when they 
reached Lancashire, the main band consisted of Wester Boswell's 
sons and Tom and Charlie Lee. At Blackburn they were joined 
by Ned Boswell and Joshua Gray, Westers brother and nephew ; 
they gave a gigantic fete in the gardens on New Year's Day, 
successfully repelled a murderous attack of roughs on the camp 
the same night, and stayed a fortnight longer. According to 
Joshua Gray they met with great success everywhere during their 
tour in Lancashire and Yorkshire. At Hull they made £120 at 
one ball, besides £20 for letting out the license for refreshments : 
and at Manchester the largest show of all took place. It was 
organised by a publican, and included a mile long procession of 
waggons and cars drawn by grey horses. Jem Mace and Gladiator, 
the coster's trotting donkey, were engaged to add to its attractions, 
and balls and fortune-telling were part of the programme. The 
Gypsies were allowed a percentage of all the takings, irrespective 
of profits, an arrangement which resulted in their enrichment and 

1 Cf . Black's Bibliography under the heading Gipsy Ball. Unfortunately we have 
been unable to see either of the papers referred to, but we have to acknowledge the 
kindness of Mr. R. Williamson, of Holywell, in supplying us with some reminis- 
cences of their visit. 

2 Sylvester Boswell seems to have stayed in the neighbourhood of Liverpool, as 
his letters to Smart and Crofton in 1874 are written at Seacombe ; while Lazzy Smith 
at the same date was in Ireland, where his son Patrick was born. 


the publican's ruin. Soon, however, the game seems to have come 
to an end, though sporadic outbreaks of similar entertainments, 
organised by some of the same Gypsies, occurred later. The Rev. G. 
Hall informs us that ' twopenny hops ' were got up by Esau Youno- 
and Oscar Boswell in Grimsby in the eighties, Oscar and Esau 
fiddling, and Esau's wife, Elvaira Gray, dancing to the tambourine. 
The same party gave balls at Yarmouth and at South Shields- 
doubtless those referred to by Mr. Dutt, as Caroline Gray and her 
children, Reuben, Gus, Esau, Charlie, Joshua, Eve, Alice, and 
Phoebe took part in them. The rasai has a photograph, 
apparently of a paragraph in a local newspaper, given him by 
Oscar in 1909:— 

'The Gipsy King and his Friends.— King Oscar Boswell, of the Gypsies, 
left Werner's ' Meadow on Tuesday last, where with his merry followers he camps 
every year during the season. On the previous Thursday evening the tent was 
decorated in tasty style, a chandelier was erected, and some forty friends were 
invited to partake of the pleasures of a gipsy festivity. Mr. A. Wagg's hand was 
in attendance, and some of the very newest songs were sung in style. The " Kin" " 
and his party spent a most enjoyable time, the concert being well conducted, and 
every one going out of his way to show how much he respected so jovial a i 
personage as " King " Oscar.' 

But this was obviously more of a private affair than a public 
entertainment ; and the latter seem to have died out entirely now. 

One point of some interest remains, the constitution of the 
band. Noah Young appears as the manager in the Oxford hand- 
bill ; and Noah in giving an account of the band mentioned as 
members of it his mother, Shuri Chilcott, widow of Taiso Heme, 
his brother Walter, his sister Lureni and her husband Kei 
Boswell with his father Wester and some of his brothers — Bui 
being specially excepted — and Lazzy and Oti Smith. He did not 
mention Union Chilcott and Charles Lee, but others say they 
were with the party in Lancashire. These may be taken t" 
have formed the nucleus of the original band. But Lazzy 
Smith in his 'upstart consequential' way stated to Mr. EgglestOD 
that he was leader of over one hundred Gypsies who toured giving 
balls; and, though the aforementioned families can hardly have 
numbered as many, he may be right, if one adds various families 
who joined them here and there on their route and travelled 
with them for a time. When they were in Wales at any rate 

1 At Gorleston or Southtown there was a publican of the name of Werner "i 
Warner to whom Oscar taught Romani, to the disgust of the Pinfold family wh 
live at Gorleston. 


Tom Leo and his family were attached, and Neily Buckland 
claimed to have taken part in the entertainments. At first sight 
it would seem as though this were a very mixed band, having no 
particular connection; but there is a clear connecting link, and 
that a very interesting one. Every one of the Gypsies mentioned 
was connected, either through his mother or through his wife, with 
a Chilcott family, the descendants of John Chilcott and Liti 
Ruth Lovell. The connection can be shown most clearly by a 
small genealogical tree. 

John Chilcott — Liti Ruth Lovell. 

Caroline C. = Union C. = Shuri C. = Florence C. = 

Tom Lee, Charles Lee. Tai~o Heme (Wm. Young). Wester JBoswell. 

Ill I III 

Lazzy Smith = K5rlenda. Caroline = Noah Young. Walter Young. Lureni Y. =Kenza. Oscar, etc. 

There are two apparent exceptions, Oti Smith and Neily 
Buckland ; but even they had some connection with the Chilcotts. 
Oti's mother, Elizabeth Smith, as may be seen from the genea- 
logical tree attached to the article on Borrow's Gypsies, 1 was a 
half-sister of John Chilcott, and it is possible that she is the 
Elizabeth Chilcott of the prosecution at Cheltenham, names given 
on such occasions being most unreliable ; while Neily Buckland, 
whose matrimonial alliances had been many and various, claimed 
to have lived at one time — probably when these balls were taking 
place — with a Sabaina Chilcott. 

The interest of this connection lies in the fact that it is an 
apparent survival of an old Gypsy custom still practised by 
foreign Gypsies. Wlislocki 2 lays down the rule as applying to 
Gypsies of Central Europe, that when a man marries, he leaves 
his own clan and joins that of his wife, and to her clan the children 
count; and this rule is supported by Brepohl, 3 and is in vogue 
among the foreign Gypsies now in England. Both principles are 
illustrated in the tree given above. Wester Boswell and Tom and 
Charlie Lee counted to the Chilcott clan by virtue of marriage 
into it ; Walter Young by virtue of descent ; and Noah Young and 
Kenza Boswell by both. Nor were any of the female descendants of 
John Chilcott unrepresented, since Celia and Bella, the only two 





1 J. G. L. S., New Series, iii. 162. 

2 Vom wandtrnden Zigeuntrvolke, pp. 61-68. 

3 Aus dem Winterleben dtr Wanderzigtnner, p. 6. r'* 


daughters not mentioned on the tree given above, had died child- 
less. It- is significant too that Wester's oldest son, Bui, whose 
mother was a Heme, was not included ; for by the same rule Bui 
should be counted to the Heme clan ; for, if the wife dies, the 
husband reverts to his original clan, and is at liberty to marry into 
a third, but the children remain in their mother's family. It is, to 
say the least of it, remarkable that so close an analogy to this 
foreign Gypsy law should be traceable in the case of the only Large 
band of English Gypsies in recent times about which much is 
known ; and, though it would be rash to assert the existence of 
the law in England without further evidence in support of it, 
the possibility of its existence is certainly worth attention. 


Recorded by Bernard Gilliat-Smith 


The following small tale, known as the Vhaidkeri Paramisi, was i to 

me, shortly before my departure from Sofia at the end of the year 1909, by Pa~i 
Suljoff's daughter, then five years old. As an interesting experiment, as well as 
for another reason which the diligent reader will discover for himself, it is here 
printed in Nagari letters, the transcription having been kindly made by Professor 
A. C. Woolner. He wishes me to state that the ' long ' vowels have been used 
as representing more correctly the position, though they do not represent the 
duration, of the Gypsy sounds, and that diacritical dots distinguish the letters 
X and r,. 

*t$ ^oir to> ^t zNr tot ii ^ to^tot grVteT cfiwrc i *? wnwtt 

N Cv s Cv Cv * x ^ 

^fVNtt ^"*rteTWR u ^Tr<pire § tot ^ ot* 11 ^t *st tot ^t v 
*t# * iNf ftf $X *n ^ *fNr^ ^t^t ^tw ii ^t *st ^tt *T7p«rm 

^TT ffom ^T TOT II ^T3*Iq5 f TOT I *T*T^ S ^5*3 * ^ ?rWN, 

^ Cv «\ \ Cv 

?T tfc?TW S TO^TOT ^VNt II tfrtfl* WW** II TTc?RTc7T 5 TO*TOT 

$Mm tro *ft tot fir f? tttst S tot ii 

TOWt^ TOT^ I V *T* WTc? TT7T II WT ^TT *T^ £n ^N rT* 

©v • Cv. \ \ Cv ^^ -s _ 

,WT3» <bt ^tt ii wtm^ *\ ii w * T ^ T ' ^T^ Y™ ' ^ t_T 

*T^ WT^ W I** U f TOT I WT 3tl m^ ^TT t*T^ WTT N WT7* « 

^ ii *rNc? x |* n wi tot trr^T^^TT fti ^ N ** ^wt^ »rt^^9 
W *rNr *ft *d ii csWt* $ wtf ^t tot s h *tt^ ^ d ^ <rt 

CT TfTTOT TTT^ HTTO<^ I ^ *T^*T WT Ht*fT<?v? s I ^ ^TW™ 


^mf\ A~\<*\$^ I vfc5J ^ ^FT^T §*lc?r7 x ^*T II 
VOL. VI. — NO. I. 




By H. L. Williams of the Indian Police 

Part I.— Genesis and Tribal Particulars 

1. Origin from the Sanskrit Writings 

THE aborigines who inhabited India at the time of the Aryan 
invasion are named in the Rig Veda Dasyus, Asuras, 
Rakhsasas, and Syiims. Mention is made of another race, the 
Pisacas, who were addicted to cannibalism and lived in the north. 
The Asuras and Dasyus are described as black-skinned, and the 
Pisacas as tawny-coloured. 

Long and bloody were the struggles between the Aryas and 
the aborigines. The wars between the Aryas and the Dasyus and 
Asuras were called Dev-Asura Sangram. The Aryas called them- 
selves Devas, or gods, and all the others demons. They also 
styled all who were not Aryan as Andrya, or non-Aryan. The 
Dev-Asura War took place in the north. The Dasyus, Asuras, 
and Pisacas fought desperately for hearth and home, and the 
numerous invocations for victory in the Vedic hymns prove how 
great were the difficulties the Aryas had to encounter before 
they finally subdued the darker races. The issue of the conflict 
seems to have been that the Dasyus and the Asuras, who were 
probably Kolarians, were driven east, and the Pisacas farther 
north. Later on there was another war called the Ram-Ravana 
Sangram, this time against the Rakhsasas. These, who were 
Dravidians, dispersed to the south of the Vindhya-Satpura range. 
' Till lately,' observes the learned Dr. Hunter, 1 ' the Gonds buried 
their dead with the feet turned northwards, so as to be ready to 
start again for their ancient home in the north.' These aborigines 
dwelt in cities built of stone, and possessed horses, cattle, and 
chariots. Moreover, Srukta and other Asuras had seven-walled 
cities, and the first mention of an elephant in the Vedas was a 
tame one, the property of an Asura. So that the nations named 
above were no nomads, or Gypsy-like tribes. 

Later on, apparently, the Dasyus, who remained in the Indo- 
Gangetic plain, and the Aryas became reconciled, for the Rig 

1 History of the Panjab, by Syed Muhamad Latif, Calcutta, 1891, p. 20. 

; ;, 


Veda says, ' Know ye there are two orders of men— Aryas and 
Dasyus.' When the Manava Dharma Sastra, the ' Institutes of 
Manu,' came to be written, there had been added a fourth order 
of the Arya community, formed out of the Dasyus and others 
who had been subdued, or who had submitted, and it was called 
Sudra. The term Mlecha was conferred on the irreconcilables. 
The Gypsy-like nomads have to this day remained irreconcilable. 
Manu fixed their limits 1 when he wrote: 'The tract between the 
Himavat and the Vindhya, to the east of Vinasana (where the 
Saraswati terminates, losing itself in the Great Desert), is called 
the Central region, Madhya-desa. The space between these two 
mountain ranges, to the Eastern and Western Sea, the wise know 
as Aryavarta. Where the black antelope naturally grazes is held 
to be the proper land for offering sacrifices; all else is Mlecha 
land. Let the twice born carefully keep within these limits, but a 
Shudra, distressed for subsistence, may dwell anywhere.' The 
Sudra theory of the origin of the Gypsies is not sustainable, 
because the character and habits of the respective peoples are 
totally different. The Aryas of the Madhya-desa, i.e. east of the 
Saraswati, looked on the people of the Panjab, their ancient 
home, with scorn. They called them Palikas, i.e. ' excluded,' and 
Vratyas, or ' heretics.' An historian remarks that this shows the 
arrogance of the Brahmans of the Ganges, who thus wished to 
ignore the common link between themselves and the Aryas of 
the Panjab. 2 But the reason is not far to seek. The Arya 
settlers of the Panjab took wives from the Mlechas and had dom- 
estic relations with them and broke the impenetrable barriers of 
castehood, a fact which is perfectly obvious at the present time. 

As all know, the ancient Aryans were divided into four castes, 
:the Brahmanas, Ksatriyas, Vaisyas, and &udras. The last caste 
was the servile one, made up of reconciled aborigines. ' Below all 
four, i.e. below the Shudras,' writes Professor Rhys 1 >avids, 3 ' we 
have mention of other low tribes and low trades— kinajdtiyo and 
hina sippani. Among the first we are told of workers in rush 
bird-catchers, and cart-makers. Among the latter, mat-makers, 
barbers, potters, weavers, and leather-makers.' Below these low 
trades again came the Candalas and Pukkusars, or, as we might 
say nowadays, Cangar and Pakkhiwas, more despised even than 

1 Book ii., v. 17-24. 

2 History of the Panjab, by Syed Muhamad Latif, Calcutta, 1891, p. 84. 

3 Buddhist India, by RhyB Davids, London (Fisher Unwin), 1903, p. M. 


they. It is these Candala and Pukkusar regarding whom it was 
ordained in the Institutes of Mann, chapter x., that (1) their 
abodes should be outside the limits of towns ; (2) their sole pro- 
perty was to consist of dogs and asses; (3) their only clothes 
should be those left by the dead ; (4) their ornaments should be 
rusty iron; (5) they should wander from place to place; (6) no 
respectable person should hold any intercourse with them ; and (7) 
they were to perform the office of executioners in the case of 
criminals condemned to death by the king. For this duty they 
might retain the bedding, clothes, and ornaments of those 
executed. These lowest tribes of all are mentioned in the Manu 
Smriti, but no detailed account is given of them, and they are 
identical with the so-called ' Gypsies ' of India of the present day. 
Manu defines a Candala to be the offspring of a Sudra and a 
woman of the priestly caste, by which the sage probably meant 
that such offspring could gain admission only to the community 
of the Candalas. The Sudras gave up eating beef, but the Mlechas 
and Candalas fed alike on all flesh and ate beef openly. They ate 
foxes and jackals, porcupine, and even lizards and other vermin. 
The Sastras condemn wine as sinful. Among - the Candalas no 
ceremony was complete without drinking and dancing. They 
even sacrificed living human beings. Their institutions were 
patriarchal, unlike those of the Hindus, whose civil institutions 
were all municipal, and the Candalas had no priesthood. 

When the Greeks came to India, the condition of the aborigines 
had undergone no material change, for we learn from Megasthenes 
that the primitive Indians were nomadic; they did not till the 
soil, but subsisted on such produce as the earth yielded spon- 
taneously, or on such wild animals as they could kill. And they 
have remained in this condition, on through intervening ages, to 
the present time, as Sir William Hunter remarks : ' Many of the 
aboriginal tribes remain in the same early stage of human progress 
as that ascribed to them by the Vedic poets more than 3000 years 
ago.' 1 

2. The Habitat of the Indian Criminal and Wandering 


There is probably nowhere in the world a climate and a zone 
so well fitted by nature to be the habitat of peripatetic tribes of 
wandering hunters and fowlers, which is what all Indian ' Gypsies ' 

1 Vedic India, by Z. A. Ragozin, London (Fisher Unwin), 1895, p. 299. 


are, as the Indo-Gangetic Plain. To give an instance, in the year 
1840 of the Hindu era of Vikramaditya, roughly one hundred and 
thirty years ago, there occurred the disastrous Zalisa leal, the 
famine of the year forty. In the neighbourhood of Hissar Fi'roza, 
one hundred miles to the west of Dehli, twelve villages were so 
devastated that there did not remain one human creature to claim 
the soil. Sixty-four square miles became so overgrown with rank 
jungle, trees, shrubs, and grass as to be impenetrable even to 
cattle ; the space swarmed with wild animals of every description, 
and ' Gypsies ' took up their abode in it. This Hissar area lapsed to 
the Crown, and, at the present day, is included in the limits of the 
Government Cattle Farm. Although numbered with those that are 
arid, it produces berries and fruits, among which those of the Salva- 
dora oleoides provide nourishment palatable to the aborigines 
during the hot months. Up to the time of the Balban kings — 
1266 a.d. — the country around Dehli was impenetrable jungle. 
Ghiasuddin Balban ' cleared the forest, and at a sacrifice of 
100,000 men turned the haunt of bushrangers into a peaceable 
agricultural district.' 1 The bushrangers referred to were the 
wandering and criminal nomads called Kanjars, whose descendants 
still haunt the Pahargan] suburb of Dehli, but whose numbers 
with every decade become fewer. 

The Indo-Gangetic Plain is still a favourite haunt of nomads, 
and is called by them their des. This territory is a boundless, 
alluvial plain, broken here and there by low hills and ravines, 
otherwise seemingly limitless. Its vast expanse bears grasses from 
the lofty sarkanda, a species of pampas, to the scrubby and lowly 
dab and the nutritious dub. Trees, where not planted and cared 
for, are scarce owing to continued deforestation. In dry parts, I 
commonest species are the kikar (Acacia arabica), and in la 
subject to inundation, the tamarix (Tamarix articulata). In- 
digenous brushwood and shrubs are common, including the and 
(Butea frondosa), with gorgeous scarlet blooms in spring ; the &< r 
(Zizyphus jujuba), on the berries of which jackals feed : the ja m 
(Prosopis spicigera), etc. In the dry and cold season, the plain is 
drained by sluggish rivers, which, in the rains, are in flood and 
overflow their banks. In the monsoon, the depressions in the 
plain are filled with water, the extent of which shrinks in the dry 
season, but there is still enough all the year round to offer a hi 
to myriads of water-birds and wild fowl. 

1 Mediaeval India, by Stanley Lane Poole, London (Fisher Dnwin), 1906, p. s l 


On the prairie, deer, antelopes, hares, and all kinds of winged 
game abound. This expanse is the native land of the Indian 
' Gypsy,' who, as hunter and fowler, has not his equal. With his 
thonged nooses, he snares the antelope ; with his traps he catches 
the porcupine, the jackal, and the fox, and feeds on them ; and 
with net, spear, and dogs he overcomes the wild pig. Holes in the 
ground are the abiding places of snakes, iguanas, and the broad- 
tailed lizard (sanda), all of which he captures in a very ingenious 
manner. From the fat of the tail of the last, the ' Gypsy' prepares 
unguents and curative oils, and the flesh is not to be despised. 

3. Difficulties in the Path of Research 

The Indian Criminal and Wandering Nomads are a most shy 
and reticent people. To extract some of their secrets requires 
years of patient and painstaking labour, and many a time one is 
foiled and has to begin all over again. Some years ago I wrote 
a treatise, quite an elaborate one, on a tribe called Kucband. 
Subsequently, I found out that Kucband were no other than 
Badiya, an account of whom I had given previously. Each tribe 
has a jargon of its own, unintelligible to others, and some have a 
name for the tribe unknown to any one else. For instance, there 
is a race of Indian nomads which calls itself Bhantu, but very few 
people know this fact, and the Indian police are hardly yet alive 
to it ; the men they call Bhantu, their women Bhatdni, and the 
stranger they call a Kdja. Among the K&jas this people are 
known by a multitude of names, and the names vary every 
hundred or so miles of space. This is what happens: — Say 
Massania's Bhantu camp is in Oudh. People will say, ' Here are 
the Berihas.' Massania treks to Aligarh; the public of Aligarh 
will exclaim, ' Here come the Haburas.' In Dehli and Karnal, no 
one will have any doubt that Massania's people are Kanjars. In 
Ferozepur, they become Kikan ; in Multan, Gedari ; and in Sindh, 
Gidiya. Massania will acquiesce in this nomenclature because it 
suits him to do so. But all these names are in bad repute, and, if 
Massania is hard pressed, and the K&jas gather together with 
bludgeons and sharp-edged instruments to attack and drive him 
away, he will protest that he and all his people are (Jangar (the 
name by which the basket-makers go), and the Kdjas may, or 
may not, be appeased. 

Another remarkable peculiarity of the Bhantu is that every 
individual has a name for home-use within the tribe and quite 


another name for the edification of the Kdja, or stranger. One of 
my methods of getting at the truth is this :— On arrival at a Bhantu 
camp, I have the children at once removed to a distance, while 
the men and women are formed into two groups apart and their 
names taken down in writing. Thence to the children. I take a 
five-year-old behind a screen and ask it to point out its father. 
' By what name does your uncle call your father ? ' Most Anglo- 
Indians will appreciate the use of this form of question rather 
than, ' By what name does your mother, etc. ? ' 

One fact is of great assistance to all inquirers, and that is that 
every Indian, especially if he belong to one of the more primitive 
races, has a pedigree (j>iri), an ancestral name (jaddi), and a clan 
or sept (gotra or got). The first cardinal rule of the gotra system 
is that a man must marry outside his father's got. A case in 
point : — I have been for many years trying to find a tribe which, 
on its own domestic hearth and in the privacy of the family, calls 
itself Cangar. I have never found such a tribe. This is what has 
happened : — Pursuant to my orders, a Cangar tribe has been 
located and I have ridden out to interview it: 'Who are you?' 
' We are Cangars.' ' Recite me your jaddis and gots.' ' They are 
so-and-so.' ' But these are the jaddis and gots of the Barar.' 
' But we are Barar.' 

Another instance: — A wandering tribe is known throughout 
many districts as Bangali. Only a couple of years ago I met it, 
for the first time, near Nagrota, in the Kangra District. There 
were two camps under Kharkali and Dopha. ' Who are you ; ' 
' We are Bangali.' ' Can you speak Bengali ? ' 'No, we are Doms.' 
' Then produce your tabl, saringhi, and sitar (musical instruments), 
and your musicians and dancing girls.' This was done. Their 
pedigree was next compared with those of other tribes, and as 
the result I exclaimed: 'Why, you are Bediyas! 1 'Yes, we are 
Badige.' x I have sought also for pure, unalloyed Doms, and I have 
never found them. I believe that Doin merely means a pro- 
fessional musician, that the term is occupational, applied to any 
and every outcaste tribe, and that the great majority of Pom 
musicians are Badia, Bediya, or Badige. 

4. The Real Identity of the Gypsy-like Wandering Tribes 
All are of a common stock, the ancient abode of all was the 
Great Plain, and all resolve themselves into one or other oi the 

1 Thisia how they pronounce Beriha, Bediya, Beriya, and Bedia. 


following groups: — (1) Bhantu, (2) Badiya, (3) Banjara, (4) 
Baoriah, (5) Biloc, and (6) Bhangi or Cuhra. All carry a know- 
ledge of Hindustani to the outermost points of their wanderings, 
to Canarese, Telugu, and Tamil-speaking countries, and all are 
collectively spoken of by the people of India as Tapribds, 
Pakkhiwds, Cangar-Pakkhiwds, Cangar-Dom, Kanjar-Dom, and 
such-like expressions. 

5. Classification of Races and Tribes 

1. Bhantu. — For turpitude and downright devilry there is not 
a race in the whole continent to compare with the Bhantu. Its 
original habitat appears to have lain in the western portion of 
the Indo-Gangetic Plain between the Aravali Hills and the Indus. 
Now it is ubiquitous all over India. Among some of the names 
by which Bhantus are known to the other inhabitants are — Kanjar, 
Sansi, Sansiya (U.P.), Kikan, Bhedghut, Gedari, Habura, Gidiya 
(Sindh), Beriha or Bediya (U.P.), Mormar, Chapparband (Bombay), 
Bampta (Bombay), Bamtia, Ghagaria, Cirokharusal (Bengal), etc., 
etc. The Sansis belong more especially to the Central Panjab; 
the branch known as Kanjar to the neighbourhood of Dehli, and 
the Berihas to the Purab, or Eastern United Provinces. 1 

The whole race is divided into two exogamous divisions named 
Mala and Bidu in the north, and Karka and Mahes in the east. 
The sons of a Mala may only marry the daughters of a Bidu, and 
vice versa. Mahes may marry Mala but not Bidu, and Karka 
may marry Bidu, or Mahes, but not Mala. The leading tribal 
divisions (known only to themselves) are — Harar, Barar, Langah, 
Kopat, Tetla, Gaduwara, Canduwara, Banswara, Baneke, Gadan, 
Gatu, Bhura, Gehala, Timaici, Jojhya, Belia, Kothan, Patia, Dursa, 
Raicand, Bhana, and a few more. The gotras vary according to 
whether the tribe has an itinerary in Jat, Rajput, or Gujar country, 
and are too numerous to recapitulate here. 

1 There is some doubt as to the classification of the Berihas, written by Kennedy 
Bedias, and elsewhere as Beriyas or Bedij'as. They are always found consorting 
with Bhantus, have Giijar and Jhiwar </ots, and are divided into Mala and Bidu. 
In consequence I have accepted the opinion of Mr. J. P. Warburton of my service, 
probably the greatest living authority on the subject, and placed them in the 
Bhantu class. On the other hand they call themselves Badge, and, like Badiyas, 
say they are Bangali : they exhibit snakes which Bhantus do not do, and are 
acrobats which Sansis (Bhantus) never are. The Badiyas nowada3's have Rajput 
gois and will have nothing to do with Bhantus ; and my own theory is that the 
Berihas are primitive Badiyas, a section which split off before the latter raised 
themselves in the social scale. I may mention here that Bhatu is merely a 
provincial way of pronouncing Bhantu. 


The tradition of their origin among the Bhantus is the follow- 
ing : _' We are the children of Indar. Of the descendants of the 
God, there was one who was a Rajah named Sensi or Sans Mai. 
Sensi committed a sin for which he was punished by being 
afflicted with leprosy. He was outcasted and banished and com- 
pelled to live in the jungles with his sons and his sons' wives, 
and their children were forced to intermarry; hence, now the 
descendants of Mala have to marry the children of Bidu and the 
reverse. Mala had eleven sons and Bidu twelve, and from them 
sprang all the tribes of the Bhantus.' Let us compare this with 
the version told by a section of the Bediyas who are called Bano-ali 
Bediyas. They say: 'Mala had two sons, Bidu and Chadi. 
From Bidu sprang a tribe of Bediya and the Baoriahs. Mala's 
second son was posthumous, and it was suspected that Mala was 
not the father. When Mala's widow was delivered of this child, 
she, in order to conceal her shame, concealed the child in a pigsty. 
There Chadi was found by a Cuhra (Bhangi) who adopted him. 
Chadi's offspring were the Bhantus and the Bangali Bediyas.' 

The Berihas (Bhantus of the East), who are the same as the 
Bediyas, Bedias, or Beriyas named elsewhere, trace their descent 
from (1) Karkha, (2) Bidu, (3) Mala, and (4) Chadi. The Kanjar- 
Doms are of the same stock, but identify themselves especially 
with an ancestor named Malu Dant. Another version has it that 
the Bhantus, the Badiyas, and the Bhfls are descendants of one 
Raja Ben, ancestor of Sensi. 

Bhantus travel about in gangs of varying strength with their 
families, bullocks, cows, buffaloes, donkeys, ponies, sheep, goats, 
and poultry; the pack-animals laden with tents, tent-poles, quilts, 
cooking utensils, and household goods and chattels. The men 
are dressed gaudily with peacocks' feathers in their turbans, their 
ears bored for large glass ear-rings, and rosaries round their necks. 
The women are attired in bright, parti-coloured skirts and bodict 
pale blue, red, and green ; decked out in bangles and sequins, sham 
or real, and the children in rags, but all wearing amulets and 
phylacteries if nothing else. When the d era, or camp, decides to 
halt, tents are pitched and cooking pots are suspended over the 
fires; pack-animals are taken out to graze by the girls, or let loose 
to ravage the Jats' fields; parties of men with nets and traps go 
to capture jackals and hares for the evening meal, cats (dhebra) 
are not unacceptable, and groups of women make for the neai 
town or village, to sell spurious coins, charms and trinkets or, 


accompanied by musicians carrying the tahl (drum) and saringhi 
(fiddle), to earn a wage by song and dance. Surreptitiously or 
otherwise, according to the locality, a mart is opened for the 
disposal of stolen property. 

The tents are of two kinds, the pakkhis of cloth supported on 
curved sticks, or bent bamboos, and the flaps kept in place by 
large iron needles ; and the sirJcis, on upright supports, with roofs 
of the sarkanda matting, which is carried about in rolls. In their 
khurjis, or travelling sacks, the Bhantus carry various kinds of 
smoked and dried meat, in strips, a kind of biltong. They are 
excessively fond of liquor, and are hard smokers. 

The Kanjar-Sansi women are fair and comely, but very bold 
and talkative; many Beriha women are dark and ugly. The latter 
practise prostitution, and of the morality of the former it need 
only be said that it is loose. The women surrender themselves to 
a libidinous act for the good of their tribe, either to men in power 
who can do harm to their people, or to men of substance who can 
confer a benefit. The young women are experts in singing and 
dancing, and exercise a peculiar charm of manner. 

The tribe is atrociously criminal, but all the grave and heinous 
crime is committed by a band of young bloods who remain outside 
the camp and only join it at night when they give and receive 
warning signals in which the cries of wild animals are imitated. 
Some branches of this tribe are brush-makers, and manufacture 
sieves and winnowing baskets. In Jat country, the Bhantus are 
called Sdnsi-Bhdts and Jat-kd-Bhdt, and fulfil the functions of 
genealogists, bards, and minstrels. For this cause, they are termed 
also Rehluwdlds. 

In the summer months (this season is probably chosen because 
the periodical rains make travelling difficult) tribes of Bhantus 
gather from all parts at the graves of their ancestors, where they 
perform religious ceremonies, settle tribal and individual disputes 
and causes through their Councils of Elders, and arrange marriages. 
The pantayats, or councils, are held with great secrecy, but the 
issues of suits and criminal charges are undoubtedly decided by 
an ordeal. Of p&na-patra, or a system of secret marks and signs, 
some for marking the trail, this tribe are the past masters. At 
the great assemblies, the numbers run into many hundreds, and 
when in their cups, men and women are both very quarrelsome, 
so that free fights often occur. Ordinarily, a camp, called among 
this people a dera, contains from half-a-dozen to a score of families. 


Their religion is ancestor worship and animism, and oaths are 
taken in the name of an ancestor. 

Their language is Hindustani, but they have also a thieves' 
patois called Bhdtu, which is usually capable of easy analysis, 
though it contains a number of words from some obscure source 
which have been preserved by the tribes in their wanderings. 

In disguises, this people are adept, and the commonest adopted 
are those of Brahman ascetics. In such disguise they frequent 
religious festivals, fairs, temples, and railway stations. Adept also 
are they at bdjdpan and khelipan (music and song) ; coripan and 
khoJch&pan (theft and trickery), and in bahipan (fortune-telling 
and sleight of hand). 

A Bhantu on the lay can never sit or keep his eyes still. His 
alert and hawk-like glances are always taking stock of persons 
and things. He possesses also a powerful and retentive memory. 
Children are earty initiated into ways of theft and cheating, and a 
boy may not tie a turban till the end of his probation, when he 
becomes a pagband (turbaned thief) or fellow-craftsman. There 
is a system of freemasonry by which Bhantus recognise one another, 
and their intelligence service is perfect. 

The men are above middle height, with olive or brown com- 
plexions, lithe and agile figures, and delicate hands and feet. 
They are swift runners, and capable of bearing great fatigue. I 
will give an instance of Bhantu endurance : — A friend of mine 
wished to send his dog from Sialkot to Murree in the Hills. The 
dog was made over to an Indian official who made it over to a 
Sansi, with a strict injunction to deliver the dog without loss of 
time. The Sansi and dog started early one morning on a bee line 
and arrived at Murree at sundown next day, doing lifty miles a 
day as the crow flies. The dog was half dead, but the Sansi not 
much the worse. 

2. Badiya, Badia, or Badge.— This race is commonly called 
Dom, Dum, Mirassi, Sapaida, and other names. It calls itself 
Badiya, its women Baddni (not far removed from Bhatdni), and 
the stranger Kdja. Dom, usually Hindu, implies a musician. ' and 

1 I may explain here the difference between Dom and Dtim. There ie Done 
between the terms, though there may be between the parties. In Musalnian 
countries the word is always rendered Diim, because the Muslim has in hifl alphatx t 
only one letter waw to express the sound of o, an, and it, and the last Bound ia pr< 
ferred. The Mirassis are always spoken of as Dum, and the Don. and D 

Dom. Regarding the Domna matmakers, it mast be added that, in - parts 

the country, they have improved their status and are considered a cut above < luhrai 
and equal to (5amars (leather-workers). Dum may, in short, bo said to be th< 


Mirassi, always a Muslim, means a genealogist. The following are 
the tribal divisions and gotras : — 

1. Rahtor 8 gots Karamsot, Dharamsot, Barnot, Bhalka, Jona, 

Ramset, Jolkot, and Baslot. 

2. Panwar 2 gots Gnibha and Cairot. 

3. Tunwar 3 gots Bijlot, Mahawat, and Marsot. 

4. Cohan 4 gots Lahodia, Kurvah, Palhit, and Sewat. 

The Badiyas are not by any means so reticent or so secretive 
about their affairs as the Bhantus, nor are they so criminal. The 
tribe has practically two branches, Badiya-Doms (musicians, 
genealogists, bards, and Bhats) and Badiya-Nats (the Panjpiri of 
Richardson, 1 acrobats and jugglers). Included in the second cate- 
gory are the Kucband (brush-makers), Sapaida (snake-charmers, 
who call themselves Bangali, Badiya, and Kannipan Jogi), Sikligar 
(cutlers and knife-grinders), Bhand and Rasdhari (actors and 
strolling players), Kaikadi (brush-makers, of the Deccan), and 
Kucadi (musicians, mat-weavers, and basket-makers). Probably 
also the Khicak, Korwar, Pamlor, and other tribes. 

The class of Nats calling themselves Bajania broke off from 
the main body a few generations ago. These have some additional 
gots of Manka, Chapa, Gaur, and Kaliye. The Bajanias are a very 
amiable people, lively and good-humoured, having buxom and 
chaste women, wanting totally in the lascivious glance and wanton 
expression of the Bhatanis (Bhantu women). Nats are cleaner 
feeders than the others. Like the Bhantus they build masonry 
graves over their dead, and worship and perform religious rites at 

Perna and Nat Perna, who have already been referred to under 
the names of Bediya and Beiiha, claim to belong to the same 
family. They are, both men and women, good acrobats, but a 
scandalously immoral people. Bangali Badiyas are also cuppers 
and leeches. These are R. B. Mitra's people, who were cast out by 
the Kolarian Santals on suspicion of the illegitimacy of one of 
their ancestors. 2 

Muslim converts from among the Badiya and Ciihra musicians. A good many are 
Perna, or, in other words members of the Beriha-Bediya species, in my view Badiyas 
with a slight change of name and some change of habits. See footnote, p. 40, 
where I argue that Berihas, who really call themselves Bediyas, can be no other 
than Badiyas, who have long consorted with Kanjar Sansis and adopted their 
exogamous divisions of Mala and Bidu. How they came by their name of Perna I 
am unable to say. 

1 Asiatic Researches, Calcutta, 1801, vol. vii. p. 460. 

2 Memoirs of the Anthropological Society, London, 1870, vol. iii. 


Badiyas lead a nomadic Gypsy-like life, but their tents and 
reed-huts are more permanent and stationary than those of the 
Bhantus, and may be seen for weeks and even months in the same 
place. They are the bards and pedigree-keepers of the Rajputs 
and Gujars, as the Bhantus are of the Jats. The camps of both 
present much the same appearance on the move with their horned 
cattle, donkeys, ponies, dogs, and fowls. They also have a slang 
formed on a basis of Hindustani, of which Richardson gives 
examples, 1 and are as good as Bhantus at imitating the cries of 
animals and at capturing them. Badiya men have a dark brown 
glossy skin, are above middle height, and wear large ear-rin^s and 
the ochre-coloured dress of the Jogi ascetics. They eat all flesh 
but cow, and both men and women are inveterate smokers, and 
indulge in bouts of liquor. There is a spirit of keen enmity and 
rivalry between Badiyas and Bhantus. The camps of both people 
are called dera, and the headmen Caudhwi, or Mukhia. The 
charge of anthropophagy made against Bhantus is not made against 

The original abode of the Badiyas would seem to have been 
in the eastern portion of the Great Plain. The Shimars are 

3. Banjdra. — Commonly known by this name and as Brinjara, 
Lambana, Lambadi, Labana, Wanjara, Mathuria, etc. The off- 
shoots of this tribe are Harnis, Moras, Aheris, Thoris, Naiks, 


Pakkhiwaras, Cirimars, Dharis, Sonarias, Ods, and others. The 
gotra classification closely approaches that of the Badiyas, and 
includes Tunwar, Panwar, Bhatti, Rah tor, Cohan, Caran, and so 
forth ; with this difference that, whereas among the Badiyas 

v v 

Cohan are most numerous, among these people Caran and Bhatti 
head the list in point of numbers. 

Although some of the offshoots are sad scoundrels, the tribe as 
a body is not conspicuously distinguished for crime. On the 
contrary, some Banjaras are gifted with admirable qualities, and 
are very industrious and law-abiding. Vast numbers have settled 
down in recent times, and are even the owners of broad acres; 
under the name of Labana Sikhs they are making good soldiers, 
and many are employed as bailiffs, custodians, and guardians of 

The salvation of this tribe came to pass centuries ago when 
they turned their pack-animals to profitable account and became 

1 Asiatic Researches, Calcutta, 1801, vol. vii. p. 461. 


tho carriers of grain and merchandise. They conveyed supplies to 
the Emperor Aurangzeb's army during his Deccan campaign, and 
they carried Wellington's Commissariat in the Marhatta War. 
Railways have ruined their carrying trade, but they have found 
other honest means of livelihood. The Banjara is, if I may so 
describe it, the aristocrat among all the Indian ' Gypsies.' 

Tho Banjara camp is called a tdnda, and the leader is always 
addressed as Ndik, or Corporal. Kennedy, in his work on Bombay 
criminal classes, 1 describes the men as ' tall, sturdy, well-built, 
capable of enduring long and fatiguing marches, . . . often fair, 
with nothing in their appearance and dress to distinguish them 
from other cultivating classes. ... In parts, the costume of the 
men and the type of physiognomy conform to those of Marwad 
Rajputs or Marathas of good family.' The women, he says, are 'of 
superior physique, and not without claim to good looks.' In certain 
tribes, ' they are bold and talkative.' They dress in bright-coloured 
ghdgras or kilts, in blue and red colours with odnis [orhnis], or 
head scarfs, embroidered and ornamented with beads, shells, and 
circular and oval bits of looking-glass ; ' quaint stiff bodices, loose 
in front, open at the back, and more like a breast-plate; . . . 
bracelets extending to the elbow or even higher ; numerous brass 
anklets; their ear-rings, and the variety of the ornaments which 
embellish their hair plaited at the back, combine to make a quaint 
yet interesting picture. The hair on either side of the face is also 
plaited into tails which are finished off with metal pendants, . . . 
a piece of horn or stick, about nine inches long, is fastened into 
the hair on the top of the head. The end of the odm [orhni] 
passing over this spike imparts an almost comical effect. This 
shing, as it is called, is worn only by married women whose 
husbands are living.' A very picturesque people. 

' Banjara tanda&l he says, in another place, ' are well guarded 
by a number of large Banjara dogs of a well-known and special 

Their dialect is called Banjari, and is, like all the others, con- 
structed on a basis of Hindustani, but assimilates the tongue of 
the country in which the tribe happens to be. It contains a good 
many Bagri words. 

Like the Bhantus, the Banjaras have general clan gatherings, 
and, being an excitable people, quarrel a good deal among them- 

1 Notes on Criminal Classes in the Bombay Presidency, by Michael Kennedy, 
Bombay, 1908, pp. 3-4. 


selves and indulge in free fights, especially after a bout of spirituous 
liquor, of which the women also partake. They are, however, open 
and above-board, and not reticent about their affairs when infor- 
mation is sought as to their tribal arrangements, manners, and 
customs. They are not such expert hunters and trappers as the 
Bhantus and Baoriahs, and some tribes have lost a good deal of 
their skill in shikar. 

The Aheri, Thori, Naik, and Od branches come in swarms 
when canal-excavation and railway-earthwork has to be done. 
They take up contracts to do the work by cubic measurement, on 
business principles, and labour assiduously. The kdna tents may 
then be seen and the tdndas dotting the plain for miles. I entirely 
disagree in the opinion that those so employed plunder the 
neighbouring villages by night. Villagers are free from concern 
regarding the safety of crops, grain, or goods, when this kind of 
Banjara is about. 

The language of the Ods is Odki, a variant of Banjari with 
some Bagri words thrown in. Within the square formed by the 
old Rajput fortresses of Bhatinda, Fazilka, Bhatner, and Hansi, the 
Ods may be seen in the winter months herding myriads of sheep 
and goats which they collect up-country, and, taking toll of the 
wool only, return to the owners fattened with the lambs and kids 
born on the pastures. 

Harnis require a special mention, being in the first class of 
thieves and robbers, and of hunters and trappers. Their gotras 


are Tiinwar, Cohan, Gujar, Malak, Barang, Sanghaira, Lir, Laddar, 
Nandika, Panwar. The connecting link between them and the 
Bangali Bediyas and Beriyas are the Sanghaira and Laddar gots, 
and Sansis come in somewhere, probably at Nandika. I take this 
people to be a fusion of Banjaras with outsiders. How they go in 
numbers to Siirat in Bombay, from their home in Jagraon, and to 
Haidarabad in the Deccan (Dakkhan); how they transfer the 
proceeds of crime to their homes by postal-orders, parcel-post, and 
railway ; how they pass themselves off as religious ascetics, jugglers, 
and acrobats, Dom musicians and other characters, and how skilled 
they are as burglars, are all told in the police-chronicles. Includi <1 
in this tribe are the famous female criminals called Ganni-mArs 
from Kiri village. These women, disguised as Ksatri widows, sit 
by the highway, dissolved in tears, to attract the notice of sonic 
wealthy Hindu. Their dupes, seeing they are beautiful, take 
them home, and they live as concubines for years, bearing 


children, but finally decamp alone to the tribe with all their 
protector's valuables. 

Pakkhiwara, Cirimar (fowler), or Meo, are first cousins to the 
Hiirnis. A. party caught me napping in 1908, and, under the 
guise of merchants, engaged a house in the city of Multan. The 
result was a burglary at the Prahladpuri Temple, which left the 
God naked and the Chief-Priest (Mahant) and the monks accusing 
each other of dishonesty. 

The country of origin of the Banjaras lay north of the Vindhya- 
Satpura range. Beyond this it is impossible to say anything with 
certainty. They have some Bhil blood. The pure Banjara is not 
truculent like the Bhantu, nor cringing like the Dom, nor foul and 
unclean like both. The Banjara can be a gentleman, the others 
cannot. There are splendid specimens of Pakkhiwara humanity, 
who justify the race name Harni, ' invincible.' The account of 
Afghan and Rajpiit origin given by the last is a grandmother's 
tale, and they are certainly ' Gypsy ' aborigines. 

Banjaras in some form or other are found, all over India. The 
Gadia Lohars, peripatetic blacksmiths, who travel about with 
carts, and the Hesis, also blacksmiths, belong to this people. 
The last is the only branch I have met in the Himalayas, where 
they are found even in Tibet. 

4. Baoriah. — Known variously, in different parts of the 
country, as Bawariahs, Baolis, Pardhis, Badhaks, Bagoras, Bagris, 
Vaghris, Thakurgars, Mugias, Marwaris, Malpuras, Khairwadas, 
and Surkhowars ; this is nevertheless all one homogenous tribe, to 
which the name in the heading has been bestowed by itself. Its 
country of origin is Rajputana, and there are ten tribal divisions, 
namely, Deswali, Bidawati or Bigoti, Kalkamlia, Nagauri, Dilliwal, 
Gandhila, Paundla, Kapria, Jakhar, and Dhandoti. The gotras 
are Cohan, Panwar, Bhati, Solankhe, Rahtaur, Dhandal, Sankla, 
Sadija, Caran, Parmar, Bargujar, Marawat, Sunawat, Dhol Pac- 
waia, Parhiar, and some more. With a knowledge of their gotra 
system a history of the people could be constructed ; but on this 
one point there need be no doubt, that they arose from a fusion 
between the ' Gypsies ' of Rajputana and the Bhils. The former 
parent-race being the common ancestors of the Badiyas, the 
Banjaras, and the Baoriahs. 

The male Baoriahs are quite unlike those of the other two 
races named, being below the medium height, undersized, very 
dark-skinned, and puny in shape. To this there are few excep- 


tions. In compensation, they are agile and have keen senses. 
The young women, who are also almost always dark-skinned, are 
not without claims to good looks, but soon age and become 
shrivelled. They are very noisy and loquacious. At home, they 
show traces of utter degradation and poverty, though they may be 
rolling in riches. All Baoriahs, of both sexes, bear on their 
persons the marks of branding with red-hot irons. They brand 
for every ailment, from colic to cholera, or pneumonia. 

The dress needs no very special description, being scanty, and 
like that of the peasants in the country of their abode ; but the 
women always wear the skirt and never trousers. Men wear a 
silver, or steel, bangle on the right ankle, as do all Rajputs. It is, 
however, in disguises that the Baoriahs have not a peer, adopting 
most often the name and attire of Gaur Brahmans. There is no 
part of India which is free from periodical visits of the Baoriahs. 

The leaders are called kamdo, or bread-winner. Like the other 
' Gypsy * tribes, they herd together in the rainy season to settle 
their tribal affairs, and during the rest of the year remain on the 
move. The clan-gatherings of the Baoriahs are called Deokaran. 
Much food is eaten, liquor drunk, and a buffalo sacrificed. Their 
tents are of the pdl kind, and made of bamboo staves and blanket- 
ing. The camps may contain as many as a couple of hundred 
persons when the families also travel. Their food consists of all 
kinds of flesh, but, in deference to Hindu sentiment, they except 
cow and peacock, and they do not eat carrion. Baoriahs make use 
of the cabalistic trail and other signs common to all ' Gypsi< 3. 

They are in the front rank of all as burglars, but, though gr< 
highwaymen, it has never been proved against Baoriahs and 
Badhaks that they joined with the Kanjars and Sanorias in the 
crime of phansigari or thuggy, i.e., strangling of victims with 
thong-nooses provided with a running slip-knot, and called in the 
thug's language the rumdl, or scarf. Such nooses are, nevertheli 
used by Baoriahs for game, even for antelopes and wild boar. This 
kind of snare is called a phanda, or phans, and Baoriahs nave 
besides strong nets, some forty feet long, into which game is 
driven with the aid of dogs, and speared. 

The following account of themselves was given by Baoriahs on 
the 7th of May 1837, to Lieut. C. E. Mills, Assistant Gem 
Superintendent of Thuggy and Dacoity, who forwarded it to Sir 
William Sleeman : x — 

1 UnptMishtd Official Records, Moradabad, Province of Agra and Oudh, 1837. 
VOL. VI. — NO. I. n 


1 The Baurie caste was originally Rajput, and our ancestry 
came from Marwar. We have eight clans. Two or three 
centuries ago, when the Emperor of Dehli attacked the fortress 
of Chitor and besieged it for twelve years for the sake of the 
Princess Padmini, the country became desolate, and scarcity and 
distress prevailed. We were obliged to emigrate in search of 
subsistence and employment, and had to disperse to different 
parts of the country. We are not people of yesterday, we are of 
ancient and illustrious descent. When the Demon Ravana took 
away the wife of the God Rama, and Rama followed him to 
recover her, men of all castes went to fight for him in the holy 
cause ; among them was a leader of the Bauris, whose name was 
Pardhi, and whose occupation was hunting. When Rama van- 
quished his enemy and recovered Sita. he asked Pardhi what he 
could do for him. " Grant," said Pardhi, " that I may attend as 
your Majesty's mountguard and hunt in the intervals of leisure, 
and I shall have all that my heart wishes." The god granted 
Pardhi's request, and his occupation has descended down to us. 
If any Prince happens to have an enemy that he wishes to have 
made away with, he sends for some of our tribe and says, " Go 
and bring such an one's head " : we go, steal into his sleeping 
apartments, and take off the person's head without any person 
knowing anything about it.' 

Like the other people in the ' Gypsy ' category, the Baoriahs 
pretend a devotion to Hindu deities and Muslim saints which 
they do not sincerely feel. Zahir Pir and Lalta Masani must be 
excepted. Baoriah children wear an image of Zahir Pir, on a 
silver plaque, suspended from a necklace on the breast. This is 
how it came to pass. The Emperor Aurangzeb gained a great 
victory near Bahaduran in Bikaner, and, being a very bigoted and 
superstitious monarch, he ascribed his success to the presence in 
the vicinity of the remains of some saint. The courtiers called 
on the Baoriahs to produce evidence of a saint, and they pointed 
out the cenotaph of their own hero Guga, whom Aurangzeb 
dubbed Zahir Pir, that is to say, the saint who manifested himself 
in the battle. Guga was the son of Amaru, a Cohan. His mother 
was named Bancol, and his sister Ranchan. The wife of Guga 
was extremely beautiful, and aroused the lust of a Muslim satrap, 
who coveted her and put into execution a plot to abduct her. 
This miscarried through the resistance of Guga, who with his 
followers fell fighting. In the end Guga was canonised by a 


Muslim ruler. The criminals of the tribe pay their devotions 
to the Goddess Bhawani, or Kali, in this wise : — A lamp is filled 
with butter, and a live coal placed in it, hahva sweetmeat is added 
till a flame rises. When smoke issues, those present fold their 
hands and pray. 'Through thy blessing Bhawani, we shall 
succeed.' The remains of the butter and sweetmeat are given to 
black dogs and crows. There is also a worship of the sun, called 
Ranagat, in the month of August, and the grave of an ancestor 
named Tujhar, at Jhanda, in the Patiala State, is visited for a 
religious ceremony. 

Every tribal division is endogamous, and every gotra, or 
agnate, is exogamous to the father's got. Marriage is permitted 
in the mother's got, excluding near relations. Adultery is 
punished with fine, and recourse to a prostitute is treated as 
adultery. Baoriahs have Dolus to keep their pedigrees. For 
some reason, which I have been unable to discover, they regard 
the donkey with aversion. Sati was decreed by a Hindu ruler 
because poisoning of husbands by wives became very common. 
Baoriahs sit down to meals with their wives, and the latter eat 
first, not because the men are chivalrous, but because husband- 
poisoning was once customary. There are non- Aryan rites to 
appease departed spirits, called patar. Crumbs are steeped in 
oil and put into a brazier, before which all present beat their 
brows. The language is called GirJtar, or Pdrsi, and is probably 
a dialect of Bhil on a basis of Hindustani. 

Baoriahs make good Bhats, and memorise and recite the 
Ramayan and other epics. Suits among themselves are decided 
by an ordeal. 

5. Biloc. — These are commonly called Madari and Kalandar. 
and are the well-known bear and monkey-men. Max Miiller 
traces the term Biloc from Mlecha. 1 The gots are those of the 
inhabitants of Balucistan, or Bilocistan, as Rind, Mazari, Lasari, 
Jatoi, Giloi, etc. The country of origin was probably the Derajat 
and Sindh. 

When abroad, the personal appearance of Biloc 'Gypsies ' and 
the aspect of their camps differ little from those of other 
'Gypsies,' but the Biloc occupy the pakkhi form of tent. The 
wanderers are generally harmless, but there are very crim 
communities in the Ambala and Muzafarnagar districts. The 

1 Oxford Lectures, by Max Miiller, London, Longmans, Green, ami Co., 1875, 
p. 97. 


whole tribe is Musalman in the order of the Imams Sari and 
Azam, whereby they are permitted to eat animals otherwise held 
unclean, pig alone excepted. These Biloc' wander to Central Asia, 
Persia, and Syria. They have adopted even the Biloc pedigrees. 
I reduced to writing that of the Giloi Bilocs of Montgomery, 
which extended back to Father Adam. In his chapter on 
Chapparbands, Kennedy l refers to a report of the Commissioner of 
the Haidarabad Assigned Districts connecting the ' Rends [Rind] 
or Beluchis, found in the Muzuffarnagger district' with the 
Chapparbands. This is an extraordinary coincidence, because the 
Chapparbands and their language are Bhantu, and if the sugges- 
tion is correct, it brings all the Biloc ' Gypsies ' into the Bhantu 
category, besides adding weight to the argument that all the 
gotras borne by these people are annexed by them from those of 
the inhabitants of the countries they frequent, which I believe to 
be the case. 

6. Bhang i. — This race is known generally as Cuhra, Dom, 
Doinna, Musalli, Mazbi, Kange, Kalbelia, Watil, Balmiki, Valmiki, 
Lai Begi, Rangreti, etc. It is the lowest in the social scale of all 
the peoples of India, being the necessary and ubiquitous corps of 
scavengers. Cuhras and Bhangi Doms have the same legend 
of their earliest origin, which is, that long, long ago, there were 
four Brahmans, brothers, of whom the three elder induced the 
youngest, by name Malu Dant, to remove the carcase of a dead 
cow, for doing which he was promptly excommunicated. An 
accretion to the tribe occurred when another Brahman married 
a Cuhri named Jastri. Cuhras claim direct descent from Balmik, 
Bala San, and Lai Beg, who are sometimes considered variants of 
the same individual, and sometimes the descendants one of the 
other. There were, in ancient times, two Balmiks, one was a 
robber, and the other the principal collaborator in the epic poem 
of the Ramayana. Cuhras affirm that it was the latter who was 
their ancestor, and Indian opinion is divided as to whether 
Balmik was a Cuhra or a Bhil. The gotras of the Cuhras and 
Doms vary from province to province, and run from Bhatti, which 
is a good Rajput got, to Gil. Kuhiya, and Ramdasia, which are 
respectable Jat ones. 

One of the gots is named Lut. During past times, when India 
was much disturbed, bands of Dom and Cuhra robbers roamed 
over the country, and people cried, Lut marte, which is the 

1 Loc. cit., p. 49. 

The cmminal and wandering tribes of india 53 

derivation of ' loot ' and ' loot mar.' Cuhras claim that they and 
the Poms, Mirassis, Machis, Jhiwars, and Cangars are of the same 
origin, which is not unlikely. The charge of cannibalism has 
been brought against Cuhras within comparatively recent times. 
In the Sandal Bar, now the Cenab Colony, there is a hill, an 
outcrop of the Aravali Range, where once dwelt a Cuhra named 
Sandal, surnamed Adam Khor, the man-eater, who with his 
people formed a man-eating tribe. 


Although Cuhras and Doms have established residences 
throughout India, a good many are still to be found in the 
wandering state. The Kingar, or Ale Bhole (wandering potters), 
and the Gagra (leeches and cuppers) belong to this tribe. 
Cuhras will not have anything to do with Bhantus, and the 
present writer was witness of a battle royal between Cuhras and 
Sansis over the carcase of a bull, which, after the skin had been 

V V 

removed by the Camars, was cast out of the village. The Cuhras 
were worsted and the Sansis secured all the carrion, the Sansi 
women contributing most to the victory. 

The Bhangi race hunts and fishes, and its members are good 
grass-workers, doing all the thatching and mat-business. The 
Musalman Cuhras are called Musallis; Musalman Dom are 
Mirassis, and Sikhs of both kinds are Mazbi or Rangreta. The 
Ale Bhole make toys of clay and pipe-bowls, etc., without the aid 
of the potter's wheel. Doms and Cuhras have no caste prejudices, 
and will sit down to eat any meat, though they object to the 
diet of fried snake which Badiya Sapaidas relish. There is 
another exception, for hare is tabu with the Bhangis, it being 
alleged to cause certain physical changes in women. 

Bhangis are of all hues and shades, from the fair Spanish 
types of the Watils to a negroid blackness. Cuhra Doms are not 
without musical talent, but more addicted to the dhol and 
nakkdra types of drum than to the softer and more mellow music 
of the Doms of other castes. Like every other tribe in the same 
category, they make sturdy beggars. They have a liberal collection 
of folk-lore, songs, and legends. As a narrator of family tales and 
stories from the Singhdsan Batisi, there are few can compete with 
the Cuhra. I think it was from Cuhra sources that the late 
Sir Richard Temple collected his Legends of the Panjab. 

A Cuhra religious festival is celebrated by carrying in pro- 
cession a long bamboo pole, crowned with a tutt ol peacock * 
feathers, coloured rags and tinsel, which is apostrophised ns 


Lai Beg, and accompanied by sundry banners, drums, and 
reed-pipes. Cuhras worship one God, Rabb, and their own 

In soldiers' barracks, 'Gypsy' classes are well represented. 
The cooks and canteen-boys are Kanjars, nicknamed Giliara ; and 
ihras, or Boms, who perform the other domestic offices, are 
nicknamed Golia and Dolia. Tommy alone is ignorant of the 
comedy which is played under his nose. These classes have 
attached themselves to every army since Timur's ; at first as 
parasites and plunderers, and later as useful economic growths. 
Under the Hindu power, Cuhras and Doms beat the war-drum 
(nakkdra) and blew the trumpet (sama). The evolution of the 
< ' ihras is also a curious subject, for Cuhras may be found 
nowadays in high places. 

6. Common Origin of the Gypsy-like Wanderers 

The common descent of classes 2. Badiya, 3. Banjara, and 
4. Baoriah, is not only capable of proof, but is admitted. Upon 
the origin of the Bhantus, some light may be thrown by the 
proceedings of a Commission appointed by the Local Administra- 
tion, on the 9th of April 1904, in the Karnal District, to 
investigate the claim of Kanjar Sansis, who are Bhantus, to a 
family connection with the Badiyas, and the repudiation by the 
latter of the claim. 1 

The Commission reports : — ' We have held an inquiry through- 
out the district in all the notable and central places in the 
presence of both tribes (1) Badias and (2) Sansis or Kanjars, 
the inquiry being always held in public. . . . The whole evidence 
on the record, which embodies the statements of Bhats (genea- 
logists) and Purohits (Brahman family priests) of the Tiraths 
(Holy Places), leads to the conclusion that the Badias and the 
Banjaras are in reality the offshoots of the Rajputs. The Badias 
and the Banjaras claim the same ancestry for eleven generations 
from the first common ancestor. In the twelfth generation, they 
have formed themselves into tw r o distinct classes. The descend- 
ants of Karamsi and Dharamsi were designated Bazigars, Badias, 
and Nats, and those of the rest w r ere called Banjaras. . . . The 
Jogas (Jogis who do Bhats' work) of the Badias and the Banjaras 
were sent for and a pedigree table prepared for twenty-seven 

1 Report of a Commission regarding Badias and Sansis, Karnal District, dated 
the 9th of April 1904. 


generations, based on the most authentic and trustworthy records 
in possession of the Jogas, connecting the petitioners with the 
common ancestors of the Badias and the Banjaras in the twenty- 
seventh degree. This pedigree table shows that the Badias and 
Banjaras are ramifications of the Rajputs, and that their customs 
and ceremonies do correspond substantially. 

' There are Hindu Badias as well as Muhamadan Badiyas. The 
latter trace their origin from the Hindu Badias. . . . Although 
the Badias are classed as Sirhibands, their sirkis (tents) are 
materially distinguishable from those of the Sansis by being 
permanent. The Badias enjoy permanent virt (the right to act 
as bards and genealogists and to provide music on domestic and 
ceremonial occasions), and have localised their sphere of opera- 
tions on ancestral rights. When they go to perform their virt 
there is a great ceremony, and they are given jewels, money, and 
sometimes as much as Rs.1000 or Rs.1200. On the contrary, the 
Kanjars and the Sansis have no fixed abode, and their sirkis 
partake of the character of vagabonds and vagrants. The result 
conclusively arrived at is that the Nats, Bhils, Sansis, and Dhanaks 
[also Bhils] are the offshoots of the Rajputs.' 

The Badiyas petitioned against the claim of the Bhantus, and 
the decision given by the tribunal was in Rajput country. Had 
the tribunal gone to Jat country, it would have found that the 
Bhantus there had also established virts and consanguinal ties 
with the people, though of course the latter were not open ones, 
nor, as a rule, acknowledged. 

' The Rajputs who abandoned the religion of their forefathers 
and adopted that of degraded and low persons were henceforward 
called Nats. The pedigree shows the stage marking the fall and 
decline of these men. 

' In the same way, the Sansis and Kanjars are a degraded class 
of the Rajputs, and, so far as we have been able to find out, the 
Sansis appear to have disintegrated themselves from the Rajput 
stock in the days of Raja Ben, from whom Bhils, Sansis, and 
Kanjars trace their origin. It is a pity that the Sansis do not 
possess any records whereby some link uniting their ancestral 
stock with the Badias may be found. They live a vagabond's life 
in the jungle, and cause havoc throughout by their depredations, 
and, as a complete pedigree table is simply an impossibility, the 
salient features distinguishing the Sansis and Kanjars from the 
Badias may thus be summed up. The Sansis and the Kanjars 


have no natural religion, and it may safely be said that they owe 
allegiance to no religion. They are irreligious persons, though 
they have chotis [the Brahminical tuft of hair] on their heads, but 
they have no scruple in dining with a sweeper [Cuhra] and a 
Muhamadan, and eat anything indiscriminately, lead a savage life, 
and do not observe any Hindu ceremony, have no fixed abode or 
habitation, nor do they appear to belong definitely to any clan or 
sub-clan.' i 

The conclusion of the whole matter is, that there was, in 
ancient times, a submerged and outcaste people, Mlecha, scattered 
over the face of the land, which people have come down to the 
present day without any material, social, or economic change in 
their condition; that this people wandered over a great expanse 
of country without let or hindrance, hunting and trapping, until 
their hunting grounds became restricted by the spread of agricul- 
ture and civilised habitations ; that they then preyed on the 
human species not of their own race, and went abroad to seek 
fresh hunting grounds ; that they were tenacious of their existence 
and have survived, and that they are more or less of common 
stock, and were once upon a time homogeneous. 

7. Tribes which are Nomadic or Criminal, or both, but which 

are not ' Gypsies ' 

These are a multitude in the Western Plains, the arid tracts, 
and in the mountains. There are the Gadi shepherds, Ksatri, 
Brahman, etc., whose tradition is that they fled to the mountains 
from the wrath of the Muslims ; Ban Gujar (forest dairy men), 
Biloc (camel drivers), and others ; but above all and foremost, the 
Pachadas, divided up into a legion of tribes. The Mianas, of 
whom an account has been given by Kennedy, 2 belong to the last 
category. The Pachadas are a vast organisation of cattle-lifters, 

i In August 1910, the month in which all Bhantu tribes collect at the graves of 
their ancestors to sacrifice ; to perform religious ceremonies ; to arrange marriages ; 
to settle disputes, and try causes by their ]mncayats, or councils of elders, there 
came to Jawala Mukhi (a Bhantu clan gathering-place in the Kangra district) the 
Bhantu camps of Buta and Hira and the Bediya camps of ilamu, Debia, Cappan, 
and Umra. Two other parties of Bangalis or Bediyas, under Kharkali and Dopha, 
to which I have referred already, were held in check by me and prevented from 
joining the meeting. My Bhantu man Ciliia, who was sent to spy among them, 
reported a curious fact, that these Bangalis or Bediyas, whom the Gazetteer described 
as immigrants from Bengal and as having relations with Sansis, were divided into 
Mala and Bido exogamous divisions like his own people, and that intermarriages 
were arranged on this basis. 

2 Loc. cit., p. 126. 


and their system is termed rassa, meaning a cord. They work 
through thdngddrs, or receivers. Assuming that a bullock is 
stolen at Jhelam and a camel at Jaipur, the respective animals 
change places through the thdmgd&rs, the cord, or halter, passing 
from hand to hand. The trackers (khojis) who recover the animals 
are among the most efficient in the world. They will cross two or 
more rivers in their quest. The ' Gypsies ' have no present organi- 
sation on all fours with the above ; but, in past ages, when they 
were probably much more numerous, the whole scheme, in all 
likelihood, originated with them and passed into other hands. It 
is a most lordly sport, and the highest in the land have a hand in 
the game. 

8. Other Tribes not placed 
The Dagis have been bracketed with tribes the subject of this 
article. They are a Kolarian remnant in the north, and call them- 
selves Kol ; they are agriculturists (no ' Gipsy ' will have any- 
thing to do with agriculture), and they practise polyandry, whereas 
• Gypsies ' are monogamists ; hence they must be excluded. Minas 
are non-' Gypsy ' and so are Tagus, but their criminal methods are 
strangely like, though not their mode of life. Mangs and Mang- 
Garudis of the Deccan are beyond a shadow of a doubt of Bhantu 


origin. Candarwedis and Sonorias * employ the Bhantu slang and 
probably began with a Bhantu nucleus, and recruited from other 
classes. As regards the Bhatras or spurious Brahmans, their 
origin is obscured in great doubt. 2 Knowing this tribe, and 
having seen it under various circumstances, I am, on the whole, 
inclined to think that renegade Brahmans consorted with Bhantu- 
and gave this tribe a religious character which was recognised by 
native rulers and is still retained. 

1 Distinct from Sonarias. Sonaria is a tribal caste and Sonoria a criminal 
fraternity, recruited, like the Candarwedis, from several castes. 

2 The 'Gypsy' aborigines have marvellous memories, and the Brahmans, 
covering this long ago, made their brains the repositories of the sacred books. The 
business was taken up by whole families, and the epics parcelled out among them, 
each man taking so many hundreds of lines. In Mahara.stra, there are famili< 
Bhats whose memories are the repositories of all the books of the Vedas. 11 
many people believe these wandering Bhats to be debased or spurious Brahmans 
living with 'Gypsies.' One may see, in the courtyard of a rich Hindu Q< 
'Gypsy' with his castanets or wooden clappers, or with a pair of tongs, keeping 
time and reciting. No one appears to give him much heed, but if one pass by two 
hours later, he is still reciting. The Saiad Makhdiims of Multan and certain 
KoreSis have genealogical trees on scrolls twenty feet and more Long and m< 
complicated, the contents of which are also in the mental recesses of their D 
Send for the Duma and they will repeat their patron's pedigree back to Father 


One point, I think, must be conceded, and that is, that if the 
( rypsies of Europe are the descendants of the ' Gypsies ' of India, 
i here was not, in the days before their exodus, the great cleavage 
that now exists between Cuhra and Dom ; that there was a wider 
gulf between ' Gypsies ' and Kolarian and Dravidian, and that 
each kind was more homogeneous after its own sort. The true 
' Gypsies ' were probably Bhantu, Dom, and Banjara, and the 
mixed ivol and Bhil types of Badiya and Baoriah either did not 
exist or were fewer. Bhantu and Dom have never amalgamated, 
and it might even be suggested that these are the separate 
originals. Ties of consanguinity exist between Bhantu, or Dom, 
and Jat, or Pachada, and are a matter of common knowledge. In 
conclusion, why call the most primitive living t} T pe of Indian 
' Gypsy ' by a multitude of names, such as Kanjar, Sansi, Haburah, 
Beriha, etc., etc., when the entire race is known to itself by the 

one name of Bhantu ? 

( To be continued ) 


1. — Cases of Kidnapping 

' Independent of these there is another species of beggars, the gypsies, who form 
a distinct clan and will associate with none but those of their own tribe. They 
are notorious thieves as well as beggars, and constantly infest the streets of London, 
to the great annoyance of strangers and those who have the appearance of being 
wealthy. They have no particular home or abiding-place, but encamp about in 
open fields or under hedges as occasion requires. They are generally of a yellow 
complexion and converse in a dialect peculiar only to themselves. Their thieving 
propensities does not unfrequently lead them to kidnap little children whenever 
an opportunity presents. Having first by a dye changed their complexions to one 
that c orresponds with their own they represent them as their own offspring, and 
carry them about half-naked on their backs to excite the pity and compassion 
of those of whom they beg charity. An instance of this species of theft by a party 
of these unprincipled vagabonds occurred once in my neighbourhood while an 
inhabitant of London. The little girl kidnapped was a daughter of Captain Kellem 
of Coventry Street. Being sent abroad on some business for her parents, she was 
met by a gang of gypsies, consisting of five men and six women, who seized her 
and forcibly carried her away to their camp in the country at a considerable 
distance, having first stripped her of her own clothes, and in exchange dressed 
her in some of their rags. Thus garbed, she travelled about the country with them 
for nearly seven months, and was treated as the most abject slave, and her life 
threatened if she should endeavour to escape or divulge her story. She stated- 
that during the time she was with them they entrapped a little boy about her own 
age, whom they also stripped and carried with them, but took particular care he 
should never converse with her, treating him in the like savage manner. She said 
they generally travelled by cross-roads and private ways, ever keeping a watchful 


eye that she might not escape, and that no opportunity offered until when, hy some 
accident, they were obliged to send her from their camp to a neighbouring farm- 
house in order to procure a light, which she took advantage of, and "scrambling over 
hedges and ditches as she supposed for the distance of eight or nine miles, reached 
London worn out with fatigue and hunger, her support with them being always 
scanty and of the worst sort. It was the intention of the gypsies, she said* to have 
coloured her and the boy when the walnut season approached ' [Life and Adventur, s 
of Israel Ralph Potter (1744-1826), (Providence, 1824). Eeprinted in the Man 
of History, extra number, No. 16 (New York, 1911), pp. 50-51]. 

Eeading this account one would imagine that Potter reported the kidnapping 
case from personal knowledge and that it was well authenticated. But fortunately 
there is evidence that it was absolutely untrue, and that the Gypsies, thi 
captured and incarcerated, got off with credit and with what probably pleased 
them more, a handsome subscription. 

Here is the case as reported in Dodsley's Annual Register for June the 8th, 
1802 (xliv. 50*) :— ' A party of gypsies were brought up to the Public-Office, Bow- 
street, charged with kidnapping a female child, named Mary Kellen. It appeared 
that on Friday last this child, in a most wretched state, applied to some persons at 
South End, near Lewisham, for relief; and said she had just made her escape 
from some gypsies, who had stolen her from her friends at Plymouth. On beino- 
interrogated, she asserted, that she was the daughter of Captain K. of the 
marines ; that she was stolen about seven months ago, and that, after having been 
stripped of her cloaths, and dressed in a filthy garb, she was forced to wander with 
the gang, who treated her with the greatest cruelty. She also stated, that they 
lately entrapped a little boy, whom they treated in a similar manner. The gj p 
admitted that she had been with them ; but, instead of six or seven months, as 
she said, declared that she had only come to them about ten days ago, and then 
by her own request, one of the women meeting with her on Kennington Common 
apparently in the greatest distress, and she begging to be received among them. 
This assertion was positively denied by the child ; and the vagrants were commit ti d 
to the house of correction till the matter could be investigated. The consequence 
of further enquiry has been to prove, that the statement of Mary Kellen, respect- 
ing her being kidnapped by gypsies, was a complete fabrication. The <_ r irl ran 
away from the Rotherhithe poor house, and offered to go with these gypsies who 
met her at Kennington. She did not appear much disconcerted at being detected 
in her combination of falsehood; the magistrate committed her to the house of 
correction, and dismissed the uypsies, for whom a handsome collection was made 
in the office.' 

To expect veracity from one of the feminine sex in the witness-box and in 
the wrong would of course be absurd : still one cannot help hoping that the house 
of correction found some means of disconcerting that child ; and very probably i 
did in those less sentimental days, when Solomon and his advice were taken more 
seriously than they are now. 

It is perhaps not irrelevant to mention another case of kidnapping which 
occurred, or was said to occur, a few years earlier, in 1762 : — l Satui 
As some gypsies were travelling near Alton in Hampshire, a farmer in 1 
parts, who had lost a favourite little boy about two years bef re, 
along with them, whom he suspected to be his, went up to them and insisted 
upon stripping him. This being after some difficulty complied with, he 
discovered, by a mark on the boy's thigh, that it was his own child, and carried 
him home. The gypsies, apprehensive of the consequences, made oil', and though 
immediate pursuit was made after them, it was without success' The I 
Museum, vol. 1. p. 297). But, as the Gentleman's Magazine xxxii., 17' 
238), which just mentions the case, observes, 'this story is told in JO romantic 
manner, that we doubt the truth of it, and should be glad of better infoi n 


Equally suspicious is a story reprinted from the Leamington Spa Courier in 
The Times of December 26, 1832 -.—'Kidnapping— The following revolting fact 
ought tc be generally known :— About six months ago, two girls (13 to 
15 years of age) went with their parents to see the Bristol illumination; by 
ne accident they separated from their parents, and were overtaken in their 
way home by several lock-up Gipsy carts. They were seized by the drivers of 
them, put into separate carts, and threatened that if they made the least noise 
they should be murdered. One of these carts lately came within 4 miles of 
"Worcester, the owners of it being employed in collecting bones. During the 
absence of the man and woman belonging to it, one of the girls who had been 
kidnapped, made her escape to that city, and related her case to an individual, 
who kindly wrote to her uncle, John Bidgood, 17, Broad street, Bristol. He 
immediately sent her money and clothes to take her home, whither she was con- 
veyed on Thursday last. The Gipsy, on discovering his loss, had the audacity to 
offer a sovereign for her apprehension, saying she was his sister's child. He con- 
fessed, however, that he should have made a good deal of money of her by 
sending her into Wales. The girl stated that there was a little boy and girl in 
the cart when she was first taken, but they disappeared. She says the carts have 
the names Mears, Smith, Lewis and others, on them ; and that the owners went 
about collecting bones, and stole everything they could lay their hands on. "When 
children are stolen, they are stripped, their faces blacked, and ragged clothes 
given them to disguise them. She was treated in this way. It is to be regretted 
that means were not adopted to apprehend the scoundrel who claimed the 
child. ' E. 0. WlNSTEDT. 

2. — Spies 

One of the oldest and most frequent accusations brought against Gypsies was 
that they were spies : and they had, no doubt, excellent opportunities for observa- 
tion, while their retentive memories were perhaps a sufficiently permanent record 
before the days of scientific warfare. There is, however, another way of explain- 
ing the tradition ; for, in the past no less than in the present, it may sometimes 
have been worth while for educated persons to masquerade as Gypsies for the sake 
of obtaining information. Possibly the following incident, which occurred in the 
summer of 1907, illustrates this fact : — 

'At Shiel Bridge (Loch Duich) two tramps or gipsies passed me — a man with 
long black hair and beard, dressed in black or brown corduroy, and a brown 
skinned woman in dark brown dress, but short, somewhat like a divided skirt. 
The postmaster said, " Do you see these Gypsies ? They are German spies." I said, 
" What are they going to spy here?" He said, "They profess not to know the 
language, but you can notice that they are alert to all that is said. They don't 
beg. They have plenty of money, and even tender gold in payment of purchases. 
Yet to all appearance they are tramps, ragged, dirty, and poor." More followed, 
but this will suffice to give you an idea of their appearance, etc. 

' We motored on across Dornie Ferry and Strome Ferry, and eventually passed 
a promontory near Munkasdale (perhaps five days later) where we saw the two 
figures again. The man was eagerly pointing to sea, where islands and creeks lie 
in front, while the woman was attentively listening to his remarks. It was an 
isolated spot. Hearing the motor they turned round, and the man bending low, 
touched his breast, and extending his arm, called something sounding like, Oy oh, 
oy oh, and then saluted me. 

' We passed on to Dundonell Inn, a lonely inn on little Loch Broom. My wife 
and daughter were in their room on the east side. The inn faces the sea. The 
tramps passed the house, still looking like tramps, and when about 100 feet past, 


glanced furtively back. Seeing no one they crept into cover of the house, pro- 
duced a leather portfolio from the woman's dress, and rapidly began sketching 
noted down the windows and other details, stepped the road, and surveyed tin- 
scene. They were evidently highly educated people. Finally the portfolio was 
slipped again into the woman's dress, and they tramped on, a pair of common 
foreign tramps. W IvGLIS Clark.' 

3.— Gipsies in America, 1581 

We owe the following early reference to Gypsies in South America to tin- 
kindness of Miss Freire-Marreco of Somerville College, Oxford : 

Cedulas y provisiones del Rey Nuestro Senor para el Gobicrno e Provvicin, 
Justicia, Hacienda y Patronazgo Beat, etc. etc. desde el aiio 1541 & 1608. Pub- 
lished in Coleccion de Documentos Ineditos . . . de los archivos . . . de Ind 
Madrid, 1872, vol. xviii. p. 138 :— 

' El Rey. = Presidente e oydores de la Nuestra Audiencia Real que reside en 
la ciudad de la Plata de las provincias de los Charcas : Nos somos ynformado que 
encubiertamente an pasado a algunas partes de las Nuestras Yndias xitanos y 
personas que andan en su traxe y lengua vssando de sus fcratos y descono r 
viuienda entre los yndios, a los quales por su simplicidad enganan con facilidad ; 
y porque habiendose considerado los danos (pie caussan en estos Eeyuos, se dio orden 
en recogerlos, y siendo aca su vida y termino de tratar tan perjudicial, teniendolos 
la justicia tan a la mano, se entiende que lo sera alia mucho mas por las distancia* 
que ay de vnos pueblos a otros, con que se podran encubrir y disimular sus hurtosj 
y no conuiene que alia quede ninguno dellos, os Mandamos que con mucho cuydado 
os ynformeis y sepais si en essa prouincia ay alguno de la dicha nacion o que ande 
en el dicho traxe, y hauiendolos, ordenareis que luego sean embiados a estos 
Reynos, embarcanclolos en los primeros nauios que vinieren a ellos con sus mugeres, 
hijos y criados, sin permitir que por ninguna via ni canssa que aleguen quede 
ninguno en essas partes, porque esta es nuestra voluntad. Fecha en Elbas en 
de Hebrero de mill y quinientos y ochenta y vn ahos. = Yo el Rey. = Por mandado 
de su Magestad ; Antonio de Herasso. 

'En la Ciudad de la Plata, a cinco dias del mes de Nobiemlnv de mill y 
quinientos y ochenta y dos anos : los senores Presidente y oidores desta Real 
Audiencia en acuerdo de justicia, haviendo visto esta Cedula Real de Su M 
la obedescieron con el acatamiento debido, y en su cumplimiento dixeron que 1 
agora no se a tenido noticia que en el destrito desta Real Audiencia anden 
ningunos xitanos ni persona que anden en su hauito, y tendran cuydado de sauer y 
entender si ay algunos 6 que vengan de aqui adelante para cumplir y ex. 
que Su Magestad manda. = Ante mi; Joan de Lossa.=Entre renglones : y no 
conuiene que alia quede ninguno dellos. = Corregido consu original. = Joan Pa' 
de la Gasca.' 

4.— Tent-Gyfsies in Denmark 

As I have already stated, the few tent-Gypsies who from time to mm- travel L 
Denmark belong to the families of Toikun and Demeter. Andrew Toiki 
here always and is visited occasionally by his rela well as by his sons, who 

sometimes travel with them. All last winter 1910-11 the family liv< 
Br6nshoj, a suburb of Kopenhagen, and there in the inn during the 
holidays I met his wife, his eldest son, and a daughter. 

Andrew Toikun seldom leaves his wa^on— it seems that, in consequence 
numerous conflicts with the police, he is very nervous and allows his un- 
to manage his business operations. The other Sindi -all him, in mockery, ' Hi 


Milkman' and accuse him of unclean habits, in which, I expect, they are right, 
for his van is unpleasant and dirty. He is fat, inactive and pale, and, I think, 
eats every quarter of an hour. 

I was the bearer of greetings from the German Gypsies (Laitsi Vairox, etc.), 
many of whom the Toikuns knew, and with this introduction we fell easily into 
conversation— 'Philip Martin was away in Sweden just now,' — 'Angelo could play 
on a mouth-harp,' — ' Soft must exhibit her skill in dancing.' 

This summer (1911) I met the family again at Nykobing (Falster). It was 
increased by the presence of Philip Martin with his wife and child, and of Andrew 
Toikun's younger brui her with his wife and four children. A market was being 
held in the city at the time, and the Gypsies intended to give exhibitions of music 
and dancing. Andrew Toikun began at once to make excuses for having sent me 
an insolent letter, pretending that, at the time he wrote, he had received a letter 
from his brother in Sweden, who has the same name as I have, and that he thought 
I had adopted my name with a view to defrauding him. He had threatened to 
banish me from Denmark! However, we renewed our friendship and had some 
interesting conversation, particularly about the family of Eebekka Demeter with 
which I had travelled in the spring. 

His wife and daughter were at the entrance to take the money (10 ore each), 
and the two other women were telling fortunes : one of them also danced although 
she was enceinte. The young men played and the boys beat the drum. Philip 
Martin is an excellent fiddler, but he is a quiet man and disinclined to join in 
conversation. Angelo, whose handsome appearance usually attracts attention, was 
much more forward. He is given to drink, and lived for a time with Justine 

The family of Kurri (Peter Toikun) and Dika (Katharine) invited me to sit 
with them. Kurri complained of bad business, and that he had to be continually 
travelling and could not settle anywhere for any length of time. Besides which, 
he said he was ill with catarrh of the stomach. I consoled him as well as I could, 
and advised him to drink water instead of brandy — a prescription which was not 
to his taste ! I asked him whether he had been in Maribo (Laaland) in 1894 in 
the company of Anton Fejer (in Romani sip, Carlo), and he answered that he had, 
and that Carlo was his eldest brother. Another brother, Punka, died unmarried 
in Sweden some years ago, he said, — he was so good and gentle, and ready to help, 
that they had all grieved. I asked him further whether it was true that one of 
his brothers had two wives, a report which came to me from the island of Aro, 
where they had been in 1907. It was true he admitted, adding ' They were for 
ever quarrelling.' 

According to him his family is the only nomad Gypsy family in Denmark and 
Scandinavia — there are no other tent-Gypsies there, — but year by year travelling 
becomes more difficult. 

Two members of the band have been banished this year (1911) : Karl Petterson 
(in Romani sip, Bomba) and Mathe his brother, a pleasant little man, with a 
squint, whom I remember very well as the commander at Maribo. 

In answer to my inquiry as to where they intended to stay during the next 
winter, he replied probably in Odense or Aarhus. At the present time (23 Sep- 
tember 1911) they are at Nyborg (Fyn), but the band has divided. 

The following list, they said, contains all the members of the Lovari tribe :- 

Official Xame. Romani sip. 

Andrew Toikun = Johan Columbar Zurka 

Elisa Betta (his wife) Waruschanna 

Marietta Gripha 

Angelo Maddino 

Philip Martin Birritsch 



Official Name. 

Karl Petterson 
Peter Toikun 
Katharine (his wife) 
Anton Fejer 
Josef Petterson (my lame friend) 

Romani sip. 

Fetschella (Swallow) 


Karri or Gurri 



Dutsa or Bango (lame) 

Carlo, Punka (mulo), Kurri, and Zurka are brothers ; Mari the wife of Bomba 
being their sister. They all came originally from France, and travel with three 
tents in Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. The sound which I have written r in 
Gripha is a little rolling sound. 

Johan Miskow. 

5. — Measurements of Danish Gypsies 

The following measurements are those of five native Danish Gypsies. Edvard 
Enok is a musician living in Nykobing (Falster). Louise Borre was also an Enok 
by birth, cousin of Edvard, and is an 'artiste.' Larsine MJiggeli was ne'e Mundel- 
ing. Herman Bruun is a half-breed, his mother being a true Gypsy, sister of 
Edvard Enok's mother. He is a dark, well-built man, a circus-master by trade. 
They do not speak Bomani except for a few odd words. All have black hair and 
brown eyes. 











of Face. 

of Face. 

of Foot. 







Edvard Enok, . . 









Louise Borre, . . . 









Larsine Miiggeli, 







1 33 


Chr. Maggeli, . . 









Herman Bruun, . 





77 3 



Joiian M rsKow. 

6. — Early Annals 

1. 'In Stannington Church one Sunday morning in 1572 or L573 
Communion, Matthew and Ralph Ogle of Saltwick gave Thomas Topping, the 
bailiff of Shotton, "crewell words" because he had held bark some "geir i 
had restyd of the Egipcians concerning the corsinge of a horse'" (W. W. Tomlinson, 
Life in Northumberland during the Sixteenth Century, p. 146). 

2. J. C. Cox, in the Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History & 
Transactions, vol. i. (1879), pp. 36, 39, quotes from the Constable's accounts 
Reptonthe following item, which he says is the earliest reference to Gyp 

the Midland counties :-' 1602 It, given to Gipsie- y- \\x dive of Januarye 
to avoyde y e towne xx [pence].' 

3. There are three earlier references in the Burgery accounts of Sheffield 
published in J. D. Leader's Records of the Burgery of Sheffield (London, I 

p. 69. 'Item, payd unto Hugh Robertes the 14th of Februarie 1696 to pay the 
Watchmen with when the Gipsees were in the towne ijs.' 


p. 73. (Accounts of the year ending Martlemas 1597), 'Item, geven to a pore 
man, one Richard Hamon, and to the Gipsies vjd.' 

p, 78. 'Item, given the xxijth of June '99 [ = 1599] to certain] gybsees 


4. The Rev. I!. M. Serjeantson's History of the Church of St. Giles North- 
ampton, has three mentions of Gypsies, the first taken from the Parish Register, 
the second from the Churchwardens' account, and the third from the Feoffees' 
accounts : — 

' 1620, Aug. 24. Anne, the daughter of an Egyptian yt was executed *at the 
first Assizes that Sir Erasmus Dreyden was highe Shreift'e, was baptized' (p. 

' L642, August 10. "Given to the Egiptian Maide, 4 d ."' (p. 233. On p. 186 
it is stated that ' several sums of money were given to an " Egiptian maide " in that 

' 1642-3, Jany. 7. Paid for a sheete and burieng the Egiptian, 3/- ' (p. 238). 

5. The bailiff of the Honour of Peverel, who was one of the witnesses called on 
Sept, 25, 1625, in a case to decide whether Bramcote was in the Honour of Peverel, 
or was an independent manor, in his evidence 'saith that he came to Bramcote, 
where there were Gipsies whoe had committed an uprore, and had lost two peeces 
of gould, which being founde by two of the inhabitants of Bramcote, he went and 
challenged them and receyved it of them, as forfeyted to the Honor of Peverell ' 
(E. Trueman and R. W. Marston, History of Ilkeston, 1899, p. 161, from Chancery 
Depositions, 22 James i., Michaelmas, No. 72). 

6. Among the persons presented at the North Riding Quarter Sessions, Oct. 3, 
1637, was 'the Constable of Ugthorpe for not punishing certain rogues and vaga- 
bonds 'among them two calling themselves Egyptians) who were loitering about 
the said township, and begging, etc' (The North Biding Record Society, vol. iv., 
1886, p. 80). E. 0. Winstedt. 

7. — Early References to Gypsies in Germany 

(1) Nach der Bamberger Stadtrechnung erhielten im Jahr 1463 die Zigeuner 
ein Geschenk von 7 Pfund (Heller), ' darum, dass sie von stund an hin wegschieden 
und die gemein unbeschadigt liessen' (Anzeiger for Kunde des deutschen Mit- 
telalters, Bd. 1, 1832, p. 71). 

(2) 1424 'Ghegheven dem greven uth heidenschup 16 s.' ; at Hildesheim 
(Urkundenbuch der Stadt Hildesheim, Theil 6, ' Hildesheimsche Stadtrechnungen ' 
herausgegeben von R. Doebner, Bd. 2, 1896, p. 264). 

E. 0. Winstedt. 

8. — Gypsy Needlework 

The following is the gist of some information given to me by a Devonshire 
friend : — 

' About ten years ago I stayed in the village of Yealmpton, helping the vicar's 
wife with her parish affairs. Every week I went to the Mothers' Meeting, made 
tea for the women, and read aloud. One of the most regular attendants there was 
Thomasina Lane, a cheery old woman of Gypsy extraction, married to a labourer, 
and living in a three-roomed cottage in the village. She was, I believe, one of the 
Buckland tribe, and had two sisters, one named Concubina, the other Trefina. 
Mrs. Lane was always dressed in a dark woollen gown with a large apron, a little 
red shawl pinned across her breast, and a big black lace cap. She was the best 


needlewoman in the club, and one day she told me that her people gave her orders 
for shirts. She showed me some, of white linen, very finely tucked. One which 
fastened behind had embroidery let in between the tucks, and curious little straps 
on the shoulders. She told me she made the shirts according to the rank of the 
wearer, and that some of the chiefs had gold buttons on theirs. A Gypsy would 
give her an order as he passed through on his way from one fair to another, and 
would call for the finished garment on his return. Mrs. Lane died suddenly at 
the age of eighty-six. I did not see her after she was laid in the coffin, but her 
daughter told me that she looked beautiful ; that trails of ivy had been placed 
about her head, all her caps and bonnets at her feet, and between her hands a 
plate of cakes. When I asked for an explanation of the latter I was told " So 
that she should not go empty-handed." ' Dorothy Allma'nd 

15th Nov. 1911. 

9. — A Gypsy Christening 

It may perhaps be worth while calling attention to the following case, in which 
a parish showed considerable reluctance to christen a Gypsy child, as a counterblast 
to the suggestion that Gypsy baptisms were entirely due to gap's charitable treat- 
ment of them on those occasions : — 

'Susannah, daughter of Moses and Mary Cooper, Travellers, born in Martin 
[Merton], and the poor woman being desirous to have it baptized, though she had 
lain in but a week, carried it in her own arms to Martin Church, to tender it to 
me to Baptize it there on Sunday last, being June y e 30th. But Justice Meriton 
being informed by the Constable of her being in the Porch with that intention, 
went out of his seat in time of service to her, and took hold of her, and led her 
to the Court of his house, being over against the Church," and shut the gate upon 
her and her husband, and let them not out till sermon and service were over and I 
was gone home, and made the man's mittimus to send him to the house of correc- 
tion if he would not cary his wife and child out of the parish without being 
Baptized, and consequently registered there, which being forced to comply with, 
she brought up her child to me, to my house on this day, being Tuesday, July 2nd, 
complaining of her hard usage, and passionately desiring me to Baptize it, which I 
did by the name above in the presence of her husband, my wife, and Dr. Elir 
Pitchford. 1723. Edward Collins.' (T. F. Thiselton Dyer, Old English Social 
Life, London, 1898, p. 123, from the Wimbledon Parish Ptegister.) 

E. 0. WlNSTEDT. 

I hope it is not uncharitable to attribute Gypsy love of baptism in general, and 
this woman's anxiety in particular, to a superstitious motive, shared original 1 
Gypsies and gadze alike, but surviving among the former after the latter had 
abandoned it. It has been shown already by a quotation from Busbequius 
(J. G. L. S., New Series, v. 47, footnote) that such a superstition existed among 
the Turks in the sixteenth century. That an illegitimate use was made of baptism 
in Germany in the middle of the seventeenth is proved by the following rule from 
the Kirchen-policey-und procesz Ordnungen Desz . . . Earn, Augusti, /' 
Administratoris des Primats und Ertz-Stijfts Magdeburg, . . . Publii 
j ailgemeinen Land-Tage zu Hall, den 6 Julii 1652. . . . Qedruckt bey ■>,■■ 
\ Rajypoldten daselbst [a fact which he should rather have concealed, since the print- 
ing is remarkably bad!], ' Kirchen-Ordnung,' Cap. 3, no. 14, p. 12:— ' Weil es 
1 auch ein Aberglaubiger Miszbrauch ist, wenn denen Kindlein, s<> zur I'auffe 
I getragen werden, Corallen, Perlen, giildene oder silberne Kdmleiu und dergleii h( Q 
!zu dem Ende angehenget werden, dasz solche Sachen, wie gemeine Leuthe ri 

VOL. VI. — NO. I. ' 


zugleich solten die Tauffe empfangen, und eine sonderbare Krafft bekommen. So 
sollen die Prediger ihre Zuhorer von solchen A.berglaubischen Dingen, mit allem 
Ernste abmahnen.' 

Naturally Gypsies did not state their true motives to the priest, and evidence 
of the real basis of their belief in baptism is not likely to be found easily. But 
the baptized loadstone of Maddalena di Mariano {J. G. L. S., New Series, iii. 94) 
shows that they shared the general superstition, and it may have been a know- 
ledge of this fact that led the Magdeburg authorities (loc. tit., p. 17) to add as 
their last baptismal rule : — 'Der Zigeuner Kinder sollen die Prediger nicht also 
fort tauffen, sondorn vorhero bey der Obrigkeit sich Bescheids erholen.' 

Borrow's suggestion (Zincali, Introduction, 1908, pp. 32-3) that 'in their 
observance of the rite of baptism, they are principally influenced by a desire to 
enjoy the privilege of burial in consecrated ground,' is very wide of the mark, 
since the desire for Christian burial is of recent growth. It is significant, how- 
ever, that Borrow, who understood the Gypsy character, did not allege the 
mercenary motive which is commonly given as an explanation, and of which an 
early example occurs in Johann Benjamin Weissenbruch's Ausfuhrliche Relation 
(Franckfurt und Leipzig, 1727, p. 16) : — ' und ob sie gleich ihre Kinder tauffen, 
und die Tauffe bffters mehr als einmahl wiederhohlen lassen, so geschiehet dieses 
doch nur um Gewinns willen, deszhalben auch der offt angefuhrte Voetius, 
p. 656, mit verschiedenen rationibus beweisen wollen, dasz der Endzweck von der 
Tauffe bey solchen verruchten bbsen Buben nicht gesuchet, am allerwenigsten aber 
erhalten, und aus dieser heiligen Handlung von ihnen nur ein Gespott gemacht 
wurde, welches wir doch an seinen Ort gestellet seyn, und die unschuldigen 
kleinen Kinder der erbarmenden Gnade GOttes iiberlassen wollen.' 

10. — Crippled Angels 

Do the Bomane\ as a rule, think that one mutilated in this world will be so in 
the next ? A boy was shot in the leg, and, owing to neglect, must either lose the 
limb or his life. His mother would not allow the limb to be taken off because, 
she said, she could not have him a one-legged angel for all eternity. This seems 
as if it must have been a belief borrowed from the Indians across the Missouri 
river. Mart A. Owen. 

St. Joseph, Mo., U.S.A., 
Voth Nov. 1911. 

11. — Spanish Gypsies 

The Bev. J. A. Wylie's Daybreak in Spain (London, no date, but detailing a 
tour in 1869) devotes only a few lines to the Gypsies (pages 342-3). 

' Occasionally along the course of the railway come bits of hedge formed of the 
cactus, with its club-like leaves and its strong barbs. And, perched behind these 
bits of hedge, is seen at times a gipsy encampment. Around it is a littering of 
straw, rags, and chips of willow, with half-naked children playing about ; and, 
as the train passes, one may see a soft face with dark Oriental eyes peering out 
between the folds of the canvas. . . . 

'The gipsies in Spain are supposed to amount to 40,000. They make their 
livelihood by selling sand, manufacturing baskets, and clipping and doctoring 
mules. To these arts they add the less reputable ones of begging, thieving, and 
fortune-telling. Any one who will cross their palm with even the smallest coin, 
will forthwith learn what great things await him in the future. This skill in 


palmistry is taken advantage of by many who nevertheless affect to disbelieve it. 
The gitanos get drunk and quarrel ; they hatch robberies and spill blood ; and 
generally are at war with a world which is at war with them 

' Their women, if not beautiful, are pretty. Their faces, though dark, are 
pleasing ; their figures are handsome, their hands small, and their eyes burn 
with the fire of the East. In dress they show a preference for gaudy colours. 
They wear a red silk handkerchief on their head, tied under the chin ; their waist 
is enveloped in a yellow boddice, slashed with velvet, and sleeves which leave their 
arms bare to the elbow. A red flannel petticoat, descending but to mid-calf and 
bare feet, complete their tout ensemble. The men have something of a scowl upon 
their faces ; but the looks of the women are more kindly.' 

Alex. Russell. 

12. — Songs of Luriben and Kuriben 

Miss Gillington, in her Songs of the Open Road (pp. 24-5), has published 
another version of the Romani gili, 'Mandi jall'd to puv a grai,' about which 
something has already been said in this journal (J. G. L. S., New Series, iii. 
158-9). What was precisely the charm which popularised these verses so widely 
among English Gypsies that tattered remnants are still treasured by almost 
every family, is not apparent in any fragment yet recorded. In the hope of aid- 
ing some future specialist to reconstruct them, we give here three more variants, 
the first two of which were obtained ' at the prastering of the grais at Epsom ' 
before June 1910, and the last 'from the Egyptian rogues about Watford and 
Radlett' in January 1912. They were written down by Mr. Robert Phillimore, 
and forwarded to the Gypsy Lore Society by the Rev. C. L. Marson, to both of 
whom the gratitude of the Society is due. They have, as Mr. Phillimore himself 
says, ' all the ugliness of the genuine article.' 

(1) Mandi went in a ivos 
To Uin a bit of kos, 
And mandi got prastered 
Because he couldn't dzel. 

Up stepped the bala. 
Kako puh of mandi ; 
Hit him in the pur. 

When mandi dzel'd in the ivos, 
Muskro wanted to lal him 
'Cause he tsin'd the kos. 
Mandi wouldn't dzel. 

(2) All through the rakoli 
Kicking up a gudali 
'Long came a muskro. 
Tell dad leVd ! 

Up with my vastu, 

Hit him a nobbalo. 

S'up me diri dad, 

And he can't call [kur] well ! 


Ulitel [?] didikai, 

Your father's gone to x>uv the grai, 
Na [? near] the tober skai [?], 
Six o'clock in the morning. 

(3) Well done my Romani ! 
Del him up the maisa, 
Like my dear old dddus ; 
Then he did kor well ! 

Mandi went round to the stfiges 
To tsor a bit of kost : 
Out come the veshengro. 
Well done my Romani tsavi ! 

Did him on the knob : 
That 's the way to Icor my Romani tSavi. 
If you 're like my dear old dddus, 
Then you do kor well. 

Up came the gavengro 
To lei mandi apre. 
Prasti my Romani tsavi 
Like my dear old dad ; 
Then you do dzel well ! 

13. — The Marvellous Relation of 'Robert Smith, gypst, a true 

Believer in Mullers ' 

The following ghost-story was written out for me by Tommy Smith, alias Lee, 
alias Boswell, son of Lovinia Smith by her second husband Kenza Boswell. 
Tommy, who is a manufacturer and retailer of fosheno drabs, sometimes describes 
himself as ' a bit of a journalist,' on the strength of having helped some one to 
make a Romani translation of the Lord's Prayer for Tit Bits ! His literary 
ability hardly entitles him to rank himself with Engelbert Wittich of Pforzheim. 
Still, his tale may afford a few minutes' amusement, as an example of the way in 
which English Gypsies write their language. W. A. Dutt. 

I Puckerd tuty I Was going to Bitcher tuty a Mullers hokerben you Will find 
it on the other Side of this Paper But do Excuse My Bad Spelling as tuty gin 
romanychell are not very clever in that Way But I am doing My Best hoping 
you Will Be able to understand it. I Should Put a lot of rominess in But I am 
sorry to Say I can not Spell it like tuty I Wish I could, the tale I am going to 
tell you happined in My Mothers girlhood When She Was With her Mammy 
and dady But I do hope you Wont think me a half dindlow for Sending you this 
Midler tale, you Know all romanychell are Jaw trasht of Mullers. 

Now at the time I am Writing Says old robert Smith the real romanychell 
Mosh I Was hatching With My folky in one of the Most lonelyst Parts of york- 
shire and I used to Keep a Vaver thmsker Miler Which Means a Spanish donkey 
My Wife had Been ill Meny days and could not Kel any Bootsy So I Was forced 
to Jal Evere My cockro to lei Mandys giverben I had leld doster lover that 
divous and liviner tie So I can Pucker tuty I Was Very Mortow and thinking 
about My Dear romide geled carie rather Sig But to My Surprise When I got 
carie My romide Was Very Naflow So I had to get apray My Milers dumer and 


Kister Store Meors to lei the drabhingrow. you Must Know By this time I Waa 
quite Sober. But coming Back from the doctor I took as I thought a Nearer cut 
through Some fields and coming out upon four cross roads My Miler Kicked and 
jumped about I thought he Was going Mad he had Never Served me this trick 
Before I Was all of a driping Sweat and Was My donkey. Now turning around 
I Saw a Borrow cover coming out of the Bore it looked like a Pig for all the 
World his Eyes Was as Balls of fire he rund under My donkeys legs I Struck at 
him With My Stick serveal time But could not tutch him. at last he Put his 
tail in his Mouth and turned around three times and left me I Set My donkey 
going for all he Was Worth, how I got home I can not tell But When I 
reached the door of My tent I fell in in a exorsted condition When I came to 
Myself finding the doctor had Been tending My Wife he asked me the corse of 
My Exsitement I Explained to him all I could But he did not seem to Be a Bit 
Surprised as others had Seen the Same. But When the drabingrow had gone I 
Puckerd Mandys romide Sorkin cover about the Muller I Was so trashed and so 
Was She. in a few days She Was herself again I soon cheved My gry in the 
Wardow Packed up My Bits of covers and Pend Kosto divous to this Mulnew 
tan I Will Never have adoie apopley. 

14. — Gypsy Cures 

The following cures for whooping cough are from Mrs. Burton, who guarantees 
the efficacy of the second from personal experience : — 

1. Take the thick stem of an ivy plant — the kind that climbs up trees — make 
cup-like holes in it, and allow water to stand in these holes, adding a few black 
ivy berries. After the water has stood for a day and a night it is ready for the 

2. Get three-eighths of an ounce of white vitriol, adding about a pint and a 
half of spring water, and drink it. Alfred James. 

15. — Erzerum Gypsies 

Monsieur Arnold van Gennep kindly sends the following quotation from Sven 
Hedin's Overland to India (London, Macmillan, 1910), vol. i. p. 55 :— 

' According to M. Srabyan (French vice-consul at Erzerum, an Armenian by 
origin) some dozens of gipsy families of Christian faith are to be found in the 
territory of Erzerum. They lead a wandering life, but are distinguished from 
other nomad tribes in the country by their religion and language. Tl 
an Armenian dialect mixed with a number of Sanscrit and Parthian worda 
According to tradition these gipsies came originally from Egypt 1 

16.— A Tradition of Origin and other Glean] 

A few days ago I visited a Gypsy named Braun in Schweidnitz, a tori 
far from Striegau. He is a harp-player and horse-dealer, and, unlike the Gyp i 
who have hitherto been met in Breslau and Liegnitz, belongs to the Gen 
not to the Hungarian section of the race. He began by denying the ei 
of chiefs; but when, in the course of conversation, I happened to 
Wittich's pale Mo, my Gipsy woke up, talked about dadeskero vast and then 
chieftains! According to him, a Gypsy is pale Udo who accidentally dl 


from a glass from which a knacker (Rosssclrfachter) has previously drunk. If, 
however, lie has witnesses, for example his father or elder brother, that he did it 
unintentionally, the chief on their evidence declares him clean. A horse- 
3laughterer must not so much as touch a Gypsy waggon, or it is lost. 

Concerning the origin of the Gypsies, Braun said :— 'We are the most ancient 
people. We cannot work now, nor have we worked in the past. In the beginning 
we lived in caves, but the Swabian Knights came and drove us from the land, 
and since then we have been obliged to wander.' Is the reference to Swabian 
Knights a reminiscence of the Crusades, or of the immigration of Swabians into 
Hungary ? 

The German Gypsies seem to observe their customs more strictly than 
Hungarian Gypsies in Germany, for Fraulein Plinzner writes that her Gypsies in 
Berlin have bought a waggon in which an old Romungri had died. 

Reinhold Urban. 

17. — British Gypsy Crimes, 1911 

The statistics of British Gypsy Crime for the year 1911, made by the same 
methods as previously, are tabulated below. Their interpretation is somewhat 
difficult, because one fact which must be taken into account — and that the most 
important fact of all — is unknown : the Gypsy population of the British Isles. 
Hoylandin his Historical Survey (York, 1816) says, on p. 169, that it had come 
to his knowledge that a member of Parliament had stated to the House of 
Commons 'that there were not less than 36,000 Gypsies in Great Britain.' To this 
estimate Hoyland objected that ' To make up such an aggregate, the numerous 
hordes must have been included, who traverse most of the nation with carts and 
asses, for the sale of earthenware, and live out of doors great part of the year, after 
the manner of the Gypsies.' This objection would of course scarcely apply, if one 
used the M.P.'s figure in considering our statistics ; for nothing can be more 
certain than that such travellers and dilute Gypsies are classified as tatse Romane 
by the policeman and the magistrate. But when Hoyland sat down to count the 
cost of educating the Gypsies (p. 254) he halved the number and took the Gypsy 
population at 18,000. Roberts in The Gypsies (London, 1836), p. 174, said that 
the Gypsies in Great Britain had 'been calculated to exceed' 30,000, probably 
referring to the M.P.'s estimate ; and Hoyland's 18,000 was copied by many 
writers and may still be described as 'popular.' Kohl (Ireland, Scotland, and 
England, 1844, vol. iii. p. 192) considered it overrated, and Borrow in Tlie Zincali, 
ed. 1908, p. 32) gave as his opinion that 'The English Gypsies at the present day 
are far from being a numerous race ; I consider their aggregate number, from the 
opportunities which I have had of judging, to be considerably under ten thousand.' 
Joseph Lucas in 'Petty Romany' (Nineteenth Century, October 1880, p. 592) 
reduced the estimate for England and Wales to 'over 8000,' and James Simson 
in his Contributions to Natural History (Edinburgh, 1880), p. Ill, quotes a writer 
in CJiambers's Journal who said that ' In England there are at most 1500 Gypsies.' 
This mean figure, of course, roused his indignation, his own estimates varying 
between a quarter of a million and 600,000. In contrast with this exaggerated 
reckoning is Walter Simson's more reasonable opinion that the M.P. was nearer 
the truth than Hoyland (History of the Gypsies, p. 92). 

Here we may leave the subject, merely claiming that for police and statistical 
purposes 36,000 may perhaps be the best figure to use, since it includes the pasrats ; 
while those who wish for an estimate of the number of purer Gypsies in the 
country may, until more reliable figures are made available, use Hoyland's century- 
old estimate of 18,000. 



Damaging turf, etc., by camping, . 

Camping on the highway, . 

Allowing horses to stray, 

Obstructing road, van unattended, etc., '. 

Want of water-supply or sanitary accommodation 

Sleeping out, 

Making fires within fifty feet of road, 

Furious riding or driving, . 

Cart or van without lights, . 

No name on cart or van, 

Dog without licence or collarless. 

Hawking without a licence, 

Gun and trap without a licence, 

School-attendance, etc., 

Drinking when not bona fide travellers, 

3. Poaching, 

Taking wood, sticks, etc., . 


Hoaxing with fortune-tellm"-. 

Cruelty to horses, . 

Begging, . 

Cruelty to, or neglect of, children, . 

Deserting, or not maintaining, wife, 

5. Assaults (including assaults on police), 

Family quarrels, 

Drunkenness, simple, 

,, with horses, 

,, with children. 

Obstructing police, . 

Obscene language, . 

Using threats. 

6. Thefts, value less than ten shillings, 
,, value more than ten shillings, 

Stealing by ruse (not fortune-tellinu , 
Receiving stolen property, . 

7. Child-murder (Rose Loveridge), 


























18. — A Gypsy Salomk 
The following verses from Baraton's Poesies diverses, 1704, if it does not add to 
our scientific knowledge of Gypsies, is at all events an entertaining Story about 
their ingenuity. It shows also that in 1704, and in France, they had a repul 
as dancers. 



Un fameux Vagabond, Chef de Bohemiens, 

A peu pres comme d'Ambreville, 
Etant mort en paflant dans une bonne Ville, 
Sa femme qu'il laifToit pauvre, & fans aucuns biens, 

Mais du refte fine droleife, 

Fit tant qu'elle trouva moyen 

Par fon elprit, & fon adrefTe, 
De le faire inhumer comme un gros Citoyen. 
A fon Enterrement plufieurs Pretres parurent. 
Pour retribution, fcavez-vous ce qu'ils eurent ? 
Le Service fini, la Veuve toute en pleurs, 

Pour mieux jouer fa mommerie, 

Leur dit en foupirant : Meflieurs, 
Vous n'avez qu'a venir a. mon hotellerie, 

Et Ton vous y fatisfera. 
Cell aiTez, dirent-ils, chacun fe retira ; 

Et tous enfemble au bout d'une heure, 
Pour toucher leur falaire exacts & diligens, 

Se rendirent a fa demeure. 
Elle avoit une fille environ de douze ans, 
Elle luy fit ]e bee ; & la fauffe femelle, 

Quand les Pieties vinrent chez elle, 
Les montrant a fa fille avec des airs dolens ; 

Ecoute, dit-elle, Ifabelle, 
Ces Meflieurs aujourd'huy pour ton pere ont chante. 
Quoy, repondit la fille, ils ont eu la bonte 

De chanter pour defunt mon pere ? 

Sonnez du tabourin, ma mere, 
Et moy je danferay pour les remercier. 
Les Pretres en voyant cette forfanterie, 
Et de quelle monoye on vouloit les payer, 
Eux qui, comme Ton fcait, aiment bien le denier, 

S'en allerent tout en furie. 

19. — Bruchstucke aus dem ungarisch-zigeunerischen Sprachbuch des 
Zigeuners Nagt-Idai Sztojka Ferexcz, (Franz Stojka vox Nagy-Ida) : 
liomauc dldvd. Aus deji FJngarischen ubep.setzt. 

Die Zigeunernamen sind in zigeimerischer Schreibung viedergegeben, die 
ungarischen Orts- und Comitatsnamen in magyarischer Schreibung. Der Akzent 
i) bedeutet immer Dehnung. 

Die St a mm c der Zigeuner. 

Aus dem Geschlecht des Kucui and Djordji stammen die Pirancestji. Aus 
dem Geschlecht der Ciriklji und Ruva stammen die Janestji. Die Pirancestji 
v "linen grosstenteils im Jasz- und Heves-Komitat, die Janestji in der Gegend 
von Szentes und Pecska. Die Nachkommenschaft ist durch Misch-Ehen meist 
verwischt und spricht das Zigeunerische gebrochen. 

Aus dem Geschlecht des Zdravun6 und Piranca komrnt der Kazdkestji-Stamm, 
der zum grbssten Teil in der Gegend von Waitzen (ungarisch : Vacz) -wohnt und 


Von Kokoljb stammen die Pujestji, die gebildetsten Zigeuner. Sie sind 
schon zum grossten Teil im Pester Komitat angesiedelt, und woknten fruher in 

Von Bogostjo stammen die Bogostjb ; sie wohnen meist in Konidrom-Komita t ■ 
sie reden schnell und aus vollem Halse (laut !). 

Von dem Vajda (Hauptling, Woiwode) Neneka stammen die C*oke.stji, und 
die Tutestji, in Szentes angesiedelt; die Tutestji wandern meist in B&es- 

Die Nachkomnien von Kekerano und Purca sind die Porizinare und Patrinare • 
sie wohnen in der Gegend von Nagyvarad (Gross-Wardein) und beschaftigen 
sich mit der Herstellung von Sieben. Ausserdem sind sie meist Wegelagerer 
und Diebe. Ihre Sprache ist walachisch (rumanisch) und anders als die iibr 
Das Geschlecht der Camblestji und Grangestji kennt seine Vorfahren nicht. 
wohnen in der Gegend von Pressburg (Pozsony) und Raab (Gybr) und sind die 
zerlumptesten unter den Zigeunem. Hire Kleider schmiicken sie mit Muschebi, 
und die Weiber ihre Haare und Schiirzen mit weissen Knopfen. 

Von Kofojla stammen die Kope&stji (und) Bafael, ansassig in der Gegend 
von Vacz und Korb'sladany ; sie reden ein reines Zigeunerisch und ferl 
Kuhglocken an (Kolompdrlas). 

Die Kelderardk (Kelderarer) haben kein Land, keine Heimat, ihre Freude 
besteht im Wandern, sie ernahren sich vom Kesselflicken und Gravieren. 

Die Muldenmacher unter den Zigeunem kommen aus Bulgarien ; mit ihnen 
konnen die ubrigen Stamme der Zigeuner nicht sprechen, weil sie "Walachen (?) 
sind. Sie wohnen in Waldern und vertragen Stadt- und Dorfwohnun^en 

o — 


Die Musikanten haben nttr die halbe Sprache der Zigeuner, und auch d 
sprechen sie in jeder Stadt anders. 

Die Wanderungen der Zigeuner. 

In der Zeit der Barbaren stand schon die Burg Nagy-Ida. Die aus Afrika 
kornmenden Zigeuner fanden da ihre Unterkunft. Das Jahr, in dem sii 
besetzten, weiss man nicht, und ob sie die Burg gebaut haben, oder die Barbaren, 
— auch nicht. 

Nach mundlicher Uberlieferung will ich euch erziihlen, was die Zigeuner 
Nagy-Ida vertrieben hat. In jener Zeit war die Burg nicht mit Gewalt 
einzunehmen ; wer es versuchte verlor seine Mannschaften dort. 

I\Iit grossen Scharen waren sie in Kis (klein) Ida und Nagy (gross) 1 
hatten ihre Burg, und es war das Zigeunervolk ein Kriegervolk. Sie hatten 
zwar keine richtigen Gewehre, doch mit ihnen zusammenzutreffen, traute Bich 
auch Attila nicht. 

Viele Lander eroberte Attila, er kam mit grosser Macht nach Nagyida, doch 
die Zigeuner siegten, und Attila musste ihre Burg in Frieden lassen. 

Die Zigeuner blieben ruhig, hatten Gold und Silber in Hullo und Fiille, vie! 
Geschirr, Glaser, Service, so dass es ihnen an nichts mangelte. 

• Doch da sie sich nicht gem mit Feldarbeit beschaftigten, brachten ihnen die 
fruchtlosen Felder bald Hungersnot. 

Die Zigeuner, die das nicht aushielten, wollten sich nun in der Well mal 
umsehen, wandern, Kessel flicken, Bohrer anfertigen, in verschiedenen I 
Ihre schdne Burg iiberliessen sie dem Paul Stojka ; Burg und Hauptling brauch- 
ten sie nicht, sie wiirden in Zelten wohnen. 

Nach neun Seiten verteilten sie sich und wurden neun Stamme. Die Kinder 
und Frauen auf den Pferden, wanderten sie gegen Osten— Norden. 

Der erste Teil nahm den Weg nach Debreczen, und da sie sich dort 
fiihlten, bauten sie ihre Zelte. Der zweite Teil ging nach Szegedin, doch da 
dort nicht geduldet wurden, gingen sie nach Dorozma. 


Die dritte und vierte Gruppe wollten Ungarn durchwandern, die fiinfte und 
sechste zogen nach Bosnien. 

Die siebente ging iiber die Donau nach Simontorony. Die achte und neunte 
Gruppe ging nach Siebenbiirgen, die einen nach Hermannstadt (Nagyszeben), die 
andern nach Klausenburg (Kolozsvar). 

Tal und Hiigel in Ungarn hallten von ihnen wieder, spiiter fiel auch den 
Deutschen etwas ab, denn die neun Zweige mit den Nachfolgern Jubal's lieferten 
Musikanten auch fur das liebe Deutschland. U. e. w. 

Noch 45 vierzeilige Verse ! ! ! 

R. Urban. 

20. — Gypsies at Aylesbury 

A History of Aylesbury, by R. Gibbs (Aylesbury, 1885), contains two mentions 
of Gypsies in connection with that town, one of them apparently taken from the 
Parish Register for March 1739-40: 'Edward Bozwell, called the King of the 
Gypsies, was executed for horse-stealing, as was also Edward Smyth, another 
gypsy, together with Richard Tavener' (p. 358). This Gypsy king can hardly 
be identical with the father of ' Ashena, daughter of Edward and Greenleaf 
Boswell' buried at Stretham, near Ely, in 1783, 1 as her father's name probably 
would not be recorded, unless he were living at the time of her death. 

The other reference is of a later date and is taken from the ' Papers published 
by the Committee established at Aylesbury in 1845, for the purpose of Collect- 
ing and Diffusing Information on the Punishment of Death,' which appeared in 
local newspapers : — ' At the Spring Assize, 1802, James Ayres, more popularly 
known as "Jemmy the Gipsy," was convicted, at Aylesbury, of sheep stealing, 
sentenced to be hanged, and left for execution ; the execution was delayed. 
Executions were in those days so frequent that Jemmy was not missed among the 
victims by the populace under the scaffold. Nor was much public astonishment 
excited, or any questions asked, when, a few weeks after, he was seen superintend- 
ing the farm labourers of the then Under Sheriff. After the responsibilities of 
this occupation were ended for the day, each evening Jemmy regularly returned 
to gaol ; — dead in Law, dead in the opinion of the Judge who had left him to die 
according to Law, — but trusting, even in matter of life or death, to the good 
nature of the Under Sheriff, and to the honourable understanding thus established 
between them. After some time, Jemmy began to take liberties, and would visit 
the alehouse in his way home to gaol, and remain there to an undue hour, 
knocking at the gaol door for admittance when the night was far spent. On 
these occasions, the gaoler would rebuke him severely for keeping the gaol 
servants up to wait on him (Jemmy), and threaten that, next time, he (Jemmy) 
should find himself locked out ! In which case, what would become of him 
(Jemmy) ? Then there was a begging for forgiveness, and a promise of future 
regularity in his hours of return to that place from whence his sentence had been that 
he should be " taken to the place of execution," &c, &c, &c. More than once, too, 
a remonstrance was made by the Under Sheriff about a bad day's work performed, 
and then always a threat of " I '11 hang you next week, Jemmy." But Jemmy 
knew the kind-hearted Under Sheriff better. Three or four years rolled on in 
this triple league between convict, gaoler, and Under Sheriff. The last that was 
seen of Jemmy in public, at Aylesbury, was on the occasion of a harvest home 
supper, given by the Under Sheriff to bis labourers, in the garden at the back of 
his house, Jemmy playing the fiddle to the dancers. Shortly afterwards an order 

1 Groome, In Gipsy Tents, p. 117. 



was sent by the Under Sheriff to the gaoler to liberate Jemmy, who parted from 
his friends with regret on all sides ' (p. 498). 

The spectacle of a convict under sentence of death walking unattended about 
the streets on his or her business does not seem to have been uncommon in Ayles- 
bury. An instance is given of a woman whose warrant for some reason took a 
long time coming, and in the interval she was allowed to go out scrubbing L°ss 
fortunate than Jemmy, she received the warrant when cleaning up a public-house 
and philosophically remarking that 'what must be, must,' asked for a drop before 
she went, adding it would be her last drop but one (p. 497). But such stolidity 
is surely exceptional in a Gypsy, and, though he probably saved his neck by not 
attempting to escape, Jemmy must have been a singularly tame specimen of his 
race not to risk it. 

Besides these definitely Gypsy items there are one or two others which look 
suspiciously like references to Gypsies. 'In March 1814, Charles White was 
executed at Beading for horse-stealing ; in 1812 he had a son hanged at Ayles- 
bury ; the old fellow stood among the crowd to see the execution as an 
ordinary spectator, and witnessed the awful scene with the greatest com- 
posure. The populace were so incensed against him that but for the inter- 
ference of the Aylesbury constables his life would have been in danger ; 
he had three sons under sentence of death at one time ' (p. 545). 

That there was and is a Gypsy family named White has already been shown in 
another note, 1 and that some of them still travel in the neighbourhood of Reading. 
Nor is horse-stealing unknown in their family. So recently as 1870 George White, 
a hawker, aged 45, was sentenced to eighteen months' hard labour for stealing a 
mare from another hawker, David Cain, at Wokingham. 2 There is therefore a 
probability that Charles belonged to this clan : and their unfortunate propensity 
may perhaps account for the fact that, though this Gypsy family has certainly 
existed for over 250 years, it is still a very small clan. As the first recorded 
instance of the name is in conjunction with some of the Wood family before their 
migration to Wales, it may perhaps be worth mentioning that in 1878 one of the 
Whites had a verdict of manslaughter returned against him for killing his paramour, 
a Gypsy named Eliza Woods, on Bulford Down near Salisbury. 3 

Some doubt, however, attaches to Charles White and his sons, as none of the 
accounts that I have been able to find refer to them as Gypsies or hawkers or 
travellers, and the sons seem to have passed under the rather ill-omened alias fur horse- 
stealers — Exile, possibly their mother's name. Charles, it appears, was notorious 
and suspected of many thefts ; and he was tried at the Lent Assizes at R( 
in 1812, along with his sons Thomas and James. Thomas was sentenced to 
death, James was transferred to Hereford to take his trial there for the thefl of a 
Herefordshire man's horse, and apparently was condemned also, while the father 
was acquitted. Simultaneously Joseph White alias Exile, and John Exile vrere 
condemned at the Buckingham Assizes, and left for execution. The sentrn. e ws 
executed, as already mentioned on Joseph, but what became of John 1 have failed 
to discover. The father was again prosecuted at the Lent Assizes in 1811 at 
Reading, condemned and executed on the 2Gth or 28th of March, when he is described 
as Charles White, late of East Woodhay, Hants. 4 

1 J. G. L. S., New Series, iv. 3U4. 

2 Times, 27th Dec. 1869 ; Jackson's Oxford Journal, 1st Jan. 1S70. 

3 Times, 7th and 10th Oct. 1878. 

4 For Charles White's case cf. the Reading Mercury, March I ! and 28, 1814, 
and a contemporary diary edited by the Rev. C. H. Ditchfield under the title 
Reading Seventy Years Ago (Reading, 1887), pp. 13 and 16. For his bods' trials and 
executions cf. the Reading Mercury, March 9 and 30, 1812, and Jackaon 
Journal, March 7, 1812. 


At any rate, if not Gypsies themselves, they probably were mixed up with them, 
as most horse- thieves on an extensive scale seem to have been. Witness John 
Poulter alias Baxter, whose remarks on the Romney Cant have been quoted in 
the Journal 1 ; and also James Clase, alias Blue Jimmy, who started life as a 
boy ai .Salisbury, afterwards joined the Gypsies, and was executed at Ilchester 
on April 25, 1827, for the same crime. Though only 48 at the time of his death, 
he confessed to over a hundred thefts of horses. 

It has nothing to do with the point ; but I cannot forbear mentioning that 
another Gypsy suffered the extreme penalty at Ilchester in the same year. John 
Burton, a tinker, aged 30, was executed on September 12 for assault and robbery 
committed at Priddy Fair. He was the head of a gang who infested local fairs for 
that purpose : and tradition states that his father, like Charles White, attended 
the execution and exhorted him to die like a man. My authority, 2 which is dated 
I *05, adds that a sun of his had recently died and been buried, by request, in his 
father's grave. Also, that many years after the offence was committed, another 
of the gang, who had ' attained a highly respectable position and was a horse- 
dealer in a large way of business, 1 was tried at Taunton for the same offence and 
acquitted. Can any one supply the name of the son or of the accomplice, who was 
probably a Gypsy too ? 

To return to the Aylesbury book. Other suspicious names are those of Mary 
Web, a girl of thirteen, Isabella Harris, a widow, Eliza Harris, her daughter, 
and Eliza Collins, who are mentioned (p. 379) as being publicly whipped as 
vagrants at Burnham, Bucks, in 1699, and John Wilson and David Butler who 
were hanged at Aylesbury, the former in 1801, the latter some time later, for 
horse-stealing (p. 543;. The Wilsons are well known as Scottish Gypsies, and 
some Gypsies of the name may be found as far south as Norfolk ; and all the other 
names which occur on this list have appeared in our ' Affairs of Egypt.' I must 
admit that the members of these clans who have fallen under my personal observa- 
tion have all seemed very diluted ^osrats, but their connection with the roads is 
far from recent, as the following references will show, and it is therefore difficult 
to tell, whether any Gypsy blood there may be in them comes to them from 
remote Gypsy ancestors, as is probably the case with Scottish tinklers, or by recent 
intermarriage with Gypsies. Such questions can only be safely solved by 
elaborate research into Gypsy pedigrees and the publication of all records con- 
cerning vagrants of any kind. 

The latter is my only excuse for giving the following references. Iohn Harrys 
appears on Harman's list of rogues, and a similarly named person (John Harris), 
is among a list of vagrants in the Middlesex County Records, under the date 
Oct. 6, 1590, along with one Thomas Web. 'Zusanna f. Gulielmi Harris per- 
[egrinij ' was baptized at Chinnor, Oxfordshire, 30 July 1749. 'Ann, dau r . of 
Elizabeth Harris, a traveller, and base born, ; was christened at Newenden, Kent, 
on Aug. 27, 1797. John Webb was prosecuted for hawking glasses, 30 Sept., 
H> s . 'Noah, s. of Ellinor Webbe, a wandering beggar,' was buried at Wrock- 
wardine, Shropshire, on Aiy. 25. 1698. ' Walter Webb, Soj., but of the p. of 
■ in Wilts,' married Hannah Butler at Bruton, Somerset, on Apr. 3, 1739; 
and that Calne was a place frequented by Gypsies is shown by the tomb of 
Inverto Boswell there. Lucretia AVebb (nee Smith, a sister of Wisdom Smith) 
was buried at Headington Quarry on March 6, 1878, aged 50 years. Bosa Butler 
was prosecuted as a vagrant on June 21, 1620 ; 'Margaret Butler, taken at the 
Cittie of Oxford, was whipped here and sent to Stanton, in the Countie of 

1 New Series, vol. v., pp. 78-9. 

- W. H. Hamilton Rogers, Wat-Country Stories and Sketclies (Exeter, 1S95), 
p. 113. Cf. also the Times, Aug. 22, 1827, for Burton's trial at the Somersetshire 
Assizes at Bridgewater on Aug. 20. 


Glocester, where she last dwelled with a pasport, and hath for that here travile 
xl daies,' on June 18, 1600 ; and on the 27th of December in the same year Rich. 
Butler was whipt at Oxford, and ' sent to St. Edes in com. Huntingdon, where he 
last dwelt ut dixit.' 1 

To take the taste of that wearisome enumeration out of the reader's mouth I 
will conclude, apropos of nothing in particular but the casual mention of Inverto 
Boswell just above, with a description of what remains of his tomb given by 
A. E. W. Marsh in his book called A History of the Borough and Town of 
Galne (Calne, 1904?, p. 163), which contains some details that I have not 
seen elsewhere. ' Outside in the west wall [of the south porch of the church 
of St. Mary] are three panels of a monument of rather interesting character. 
The centre panel bears a rearing horse sculptured in relief, and, together 
with the other two panels, formed at one time part of an altar-shaped tomb 
erected to the memory of Inverto Boswell, King of the Gipsies, who i 
in Calne on Feb. 8th, 1774. The entry in the burial register is as follows :— 
" 1774, Feb. 10, a gipsey named Inverto Boswell died in the small-pox." The 
complete tomb stood on the south side of the churchyard, and it is said that for 
many years after the interment of the king his subjects used to visit the resting- 
place of his ashes on the anniversary of his death, and perform certain, probably 
commemorative, ceremonies. At the restoration of the church in 1864 the tomb 
was demolished, and three panels from it placed in their present position.' A 
footnote adds : ' It is an article of faith with some of the present day gipsies of 
the neighbourhood that the shade of Inverto Boswell visits at times the place of 
burial. Indeed, one of them confidently asserted to me that he has seen the 
ghostly visitant, but how he recognised it as Inverto's ghost he does not appear 
to know.' Can any of our members confirm this last detail or say why Inverto, 
who was only thirty-six at the time of his death, should be so well remembered ? 
It may be noted that the kingly title depends only on gdjo tradition, it is not 
claimed for him in the burial entry nor in the inscription on the tomb quoted by 
Morwood. 2 E. 0. Winstedt. 

21. — Henrt Kemble, the Actor, and the Gypsy Lees 

'There was no better company in the world than poor old Beetle' (this was a 
nickname of Kemble), 'and I used to look forward to those Sunday even 
which were generally prolonged until the small hours, bemoaning our exile, dis- 
cussing absent friends at the "Beefsteak," or listening to my friend's lengthy 
dissertations on the Lee family, an ancient gipsy stock of which Kemble used to 
solemnly aver that he was a lineal descendant.'— My Restless Life, by Harry de 
Windt (1909), p. 337. W". A. Dctt. 

22.— A Ruling Race of Githi 

Captain C. W. J. Orr, R.A., in his book on The Making of North A 
(London, Macmillan, 1911), conjecturally compares two races with 
one, the Shuwa Arabs, who are found in Bornu, the most easterly province of 
the Protectorate, bordering on Lake Tchad, he says little :— * I ' he Bon 

themselves and the various subject pagan tribes, there ar e scattered throuj 

1 The two last references are taken from a list of passports granted to < 
numbered N. 4. 2, among the records in the Town Clerk's office at Oxford. 

to thank the Town Clerk for permission to examine this and other documents. 

2 Our Gipsies, pp. 176-8. 


Bornu large numbers of Shuwa Arabs, speaking almost pure Egyptian Arabic, 

and leading a more or less nomadic life. They are greal breeders of cattle, and bear a 

resemblance both in features and habits to some of our gipsy tribes. 

They were said, in Denham's time [1821], to be able to put into the field 15,000 

riors, mostly mounted— a useful addition to the Bornuese army.' They came 
no doubt from Egypt, for, on p. 65, Captain Orr says : '. . . Islam was introduced 
into the districts bordering on Lake Tchad from the direction of Egypt in the 
eleventh century.' 

The second race occupies a position of exceptional importance, since its 
function for a century has been to supply rulers to native states. Of them 
Captain Orr relates: — 'The Fulanis, known also as Fellata, Fulahs, Pulbe, Puis, 
and by various synonyms, are unquestionably the most remarkable and interesting 
of all the tribes and nations of Equatorial Africa. Their origin is as obscure as 
that of the Hausas, but they differ fundamentally from the latter in almost every 
particular. The true Fulani is not negroid. His complexion is fair, his features 
regular, his hair long and straight. He speaks a language which resembles no 
other African tongue, but which has been stated by more than one authority to 
resemble that spoken by gipsies, and to be akin to the Indo-Germanic stock. He 
is nomadic, and is primarily a cattle-owner, driving his herds from pasture to 
pasture ... it is generally believed that the Fulani came from the East, possibly 
from India, possibly from Arabia, but curiously enough he is first known in 
Africa in the extreme west, not far from the shores of the Atlantic, and in 
historical times his movements have been from west to east. Fulanis have 
always kept aloof from other races, and have looked upon themselves as a "white 
race, 1 ' infinitely superior to the negro. Their pride of race has been justified, for, 
in practically all the principal kingdoms of Equatorial Africa, a Fulani has at 
one time or another played a leading part, and the race has always produced 
scholars and statesmen from amongst its members.' 

A footnote explains that 'The root of the word, " Ful," signifies red or ruddy, 
and denotes the complexion of the race ' ; and after mentioning several conjectural 
theories of origin, Captain Orr passes to 'the more solid realms of history, which 
take us back to a comparatively recent period, less than a thousand years ago, 
when Fulanis were undoubtedly settled in the country about the sources of the 
Niger. When Arab influence spread along the northern shores of Africa and 
thence pushed its way across the desert, carrying with it the green flag of the 
Prophet, the Fulani race was one of the first to accept the new religion, and not 
content with adopting it amongst themselves they proceeded to disseminate it far 
and wide throughout Equatorial Africa. 1 Thus we find Fulanis preaching the 
doctrines of Islam in Bornu and the Hausa States as early as the beginning of 
the thirteenth century. It is evident from the records of history that there must 
have been from the earliest times considerable differences in social status amongst 

members of the tribe, a fact always indicative of an advanced state of civilisa- 
tion. There was the uneducated nomadic class, wandering from place to place 
with its flocks and herds, holding itself strictly aloof from other races, and thus 
preserving to the fullest extent its racial features and characteristics. This class 
remains to the present day nomadic, exclusive, uneducated, speaking its own 
tongue, and in many cases retaining its old pagan beliefs. It is to these " Cattle 
Fulani," as they are termed nowadays, that we must turn if we wish to see the 
light complexion, the long and pointed noses, and the regular features, which 

1 On p. 256, Captain Orr states that ' . . . Islam was introduced into Hausa- 
laud from the West in the middle of the fourteenth century a.d. . . . A century 
later, according to the [Kano] Chronicle, the Fulani came to Hausaland, bringing 
with them oooks on divinity and etymology ; for before this there was only the 
Koran, with the Books of the Law and the Traditions/ 


were the obvious characteristics of the race before it intermarried with the negro 
and negroid peoples of Africa. The intelligence and the administrative capacity 
which are equally characteristic of the race must be sought in the Fulanis of the 
aristocratic class, who have risen far above the herdsmen, and in so doino- have 
mingled their blood with the ruling families of negroid tribes, and while retaining 
their intellectual qualities, have lost many of their distinctive physical traits, and 
adopted to a great extent the customs and even the language of those with whom 
they have coalesced. 

' From the fifteenth century onwards we constantly hear of Fulanis occupying 
positions of eminence in the African empires of that period, besides forming 
kingdoms of their own. The members of the aristocratic class seem always to 
have been characterised by an independence of character and an intellectual 
ability which marked them out for rule, while the nomadic element showed the 
same spirit of independence which they preserved in their wandering life, paying 
a cattle tax, but owning no allegiance to the chiefs in whose territories they 
pastured their herds.' 

At the present stage of our knowledge of these people it is useless to elaborate 
comparisons between them and Gypsies : what we need is measurements of 
'Cattle Fulani' and specimens of their language. It may be well to point out, 
however, that some striking dissimilarities are not fatal to the identification. The 
fair complexion of the Fulanis may be due to bleaching, if it be not a purely 
relative term. There are parallels for their religious ability and even for political 
enthusiasm (J. G. L. S., New Series, i. 68), and it is significant that they were the 
first to change their creed and embrace Islam when conversion was to their 
advantage. Finally, it is to be noted that the behaviour of Gypsies when in con- 
tact with a civilisation lower than their own is a thing of which we have no 
knowledge, and it is almost impossible to imagine what would be their conduct 
and history under such unusual circumstances. 

23. — The GvrsiEs of Gaudix 

' But the Barrio de Santiago— the gipsy quarter — is its special sight, I 
not easy to convey the least impression of the cave-dwellings inhabited by this 
strange race. They are located on the far slope beyond the Cathedral. The 
place suggests a huge group of gigantic ant-hills. It seems as though the \ 
after being filled up with a twelve-feet-deep deposit of the dry red soil, had 
denuded unequally by a flood, so as to be left studded over with peaked heights 
and hollows. Among these extraordinary unfamiliar mimic hills the have 

dug out their dwellings, windowless and, excepting the door, without air or 
ventilation, save for the chimney, which has been built with dry stones up through 
the ground above. To the beholder the whole gipsy quarter seems a greal fieh 
producing a crop of chimneys. Nothing else is seen, except the doors oi 1 
dwellings nearest the eye. In these awful hovels, crowded about in hundi 
even in thousands, live the gipsy men, women, and children, cheek by jo* I 
their poultry and their donkeys. They swarm like rabbits or like ants. 
win their bread by stealing, cheating, fortune-telling, and they ton 
cally and to long distances to practise their dexterous arts. They are, beside 
the tinkers and tin- workers of the country ; they are the dealers who 
trade everywhere in donkeys, mules, and horses. They form a large popu 
in Andalusia. More or less they are seen in many of the tov. as : somel 
have these settlements or towns quite by themselves, ami these are rather 1 
places to drive through after nightfall, as I once expei 
singularly by themselves. Their features mark them apart. 

speak their own language. Thev act together in a concerted manner for the reh 


any of their race who has the ill-luck to have come into the clutches of the law.' 
(Aloxander Cross, Easter in Andalusia, pp. 32-3, Glasgow, 1902.) 

Alex. Russell. 

24.— A Tinker Patriarch 

' The subject of our brief sketch is old Willie Nowland, the tinker, famed more 
for his hardiness of nature and longevity, than for his acts of philanthropy, scholar- 
ship, or (hiring. For one hundred years this son of travel has lived, and the other 
day his mortal remains received the rite of burial in our churchyard. The com- 
pany consisted of Isaac his son, another man, and two women, including Lizzick 
White, the bereaved widow ; and while the officiating clergyman offered up prayer, 
the females preferred to smoke the pipe of peace over the grave of their departed 
friend. Nowland was strong and healthy, and ever ready to do battle in the cause 
of family wrongs or sorrows. Woe be to the head of a Williamson or Macfee, 
should they have been guilty of any act of oppression or misconduct when Willie 
was near. At his bacchanalian shouts the terror in the camp at the quarry or by 
the dyke side was great ; and merry was the fight and much blood shed on his 
return home. . . . Many attempts have been made to improve the lot of our 
Orkney tinkers, but to no purpose ; as no sooner is a girl clad and partly educated 
than she rejoins her former friends, and from their unsettled nature no house 
residence will satisfy them for any length of time.' — Stromness News, March 7, 

The above Willie Nowland or Newland is the 'king' mentioned by F. H. 
Groome in the Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland in the article on ' Stromness.' 

Alex. Russell. 

8th May 1912. 

25. — Gypsies of Chaldea 

I find a reference to Gypsies in The Nestorians and their Rituals : with the 
narrative of a Mission to Mesopotamia and Coordistan in 18^2-1844, an d of a 
late visit to those countries in 1850; also, Researches into the present condition of 
the Syrian Jacobites, Papal Syrians, and Chaldeans, and an inquiry into the 
religious tenets of the Yezeedees. By the Rev. George Percy Badger, one of the 
Honourable East India Company's Chaplains in the Diocese of Bombay. London, 
1852, vol. i. p. 224. 

' " I am a Nestbraya," was the reply. To which the other answered : " Why do 
you not rather call yourself a Meshihaya ; for was not the Messiah greater than 
Nestorius ? " " Very true," retorted the girl, " but even the gipsies who play upon 
the tambourine celebrate the praises of the Messiah, and cry out Isa ! Isa ! but 
they are not Christians on that account." ' Fred. G. Ackerley. 

26. — A Gypsy Woman Preacher 

Edward Pease, Darlington, the ' Father of Railways,' records in his diary, 
Thursday, Feb. 4, 1847 : 'A female who was bom and educated Gipsey (sic), but 
early taken from them, had become a Wesleyan : First day she spoke rather 
long in the meeting, warning friends to repent, and that days of great distress 
were coming on the Land, that famine and bloodshed were approaching, that the 
inhabitants of their country must prepare for it. . . . How far this is the excite- 
ment of pious enthusiasm I do not determine, but there was visitation of heavenly 
love my conversation with her led me to believe.' 

Is there any other notice of a woman preacher of Gypsy stock ? I do not 
remember any other record of one. William E. A. Axon. 

SEP 13 1967 



S C I E T Y 


Vol. VI YEAR 1912-13 No. 2 

I.— GYPSIES AT GENEVA IN THE 15th, 16th, and 


By David MacRitchie. 

TN the Registres du Conseil at Geneva there are several 
-*- very interesting references to Gypsies. They are spoken of 
as Saracens and Boemi, or Boemiens, but on at least one occa- 
(1532) it is stated that they called themselves Egiptii, and 
there is no reason to believe that the two terms first noted wi re 
self-applied. Even when the entry only makes mention of 
Saracens or Bohemians, the editors of the Register have naturally 
assumed that the people in question were Gypsies. Of this there 
can be no reasonable doubt. 

The earliest entry is of 7th October 1477. It is very brief, and 
is as follows: — 'De serrazenis, quod loquatur castellano, quod 
vacuent villain,' or, as subsequently rendered into French, 
'Sarasins; ordonne qu'on parle an Chdtelain pourlesfain sortir 
de la vitte.' * This is an early instance of the forcible expulsion of 
Gypsies, whose visits, although often unwelcome, were everywhere 
tolerated in the fifteenth century, for at least a few days, There 
is, however, no indication of the period of their resident 
Geneva prior to 7th October 1477. 

1 Registres du Conseil de Geneve publk-3 par la Socii'-to d'Histoire ct d'An I • ol< 
de Geneve, t. iii. (Geneve, 1911, 8°), p. 44. 

VOL. VI.— NO. II. ' 


The next entry, dated 30th May 1.514, is in these words: — 
' Sarraseni, mala infinita infra civitatis limites facientes expel- 
luntur et a civitate bampniantur.' l The French rendering is con- 
densed into ' Sarrazins, faisant une infinite de mawx, chassis 
et bannis! Here, again, the ' Saracens ' appear in the same light 
as in 1477, as something of the nature of a plague, to be got rid 
of as effectively as possible. 

The third entry in point of date has already been cited by 
Lacroix in his Manners and Customs during the Middle Ages, 
from the English translation of which - I quote his statement : — 
'In 1532, at Plainpalais, a suburb of Geneva, some rascals from 
among a band of Gypsies, consisting of upwards of three hundred 
in number, fell upon several of the officers who were stationed 
to prevent their entering the town. The citizens hurried up to 
the scene of disturbance. The Gypsies retired to the monastery 
of the Augustin friars, in which they fortified themselves ; the 
bourgeois besieged them, and would have committed summary 
justice on them, but the authorities interfered, and some twenty 
of the vagrants were arrested, but they sued for mercy and were 

As this incident presents more than one notable feature, I 
shall cite also the original French version, which, like the French 
versions of 1477 and 1514, is to be found in the MS. ' Extraits 
des Registres Publics redige par Mr. Jaques-Flournois, Ministre 
du St. Ev.,' preserved in the state archives of Geneva. 3 The entry 
is glossed ' Boemiens,' and is as follows : — ' Certains larrons 
Boemiens q se nomment Egyptiens, an nombre de plus de 300 
tant hoes q e fees [hommes que femmes], qu'enfans frappent a 
Plainpalais les Officiers q leur defendoient d'entrer dans la ville : 
les Citoyens accourent au secours de leurs officiers : les Boemiens 
se retirent au Couvent des Augustins et s'y fortifient p r se 
defendre : les bourgeois les veulent piller, mais la Justice l'empeche, 
<l en prend une vintaine : ils demande pardon et on les renvoye.' 
The date in the margin is 18-19 December 1532. 

In the original Register, which is written in Latin, there are 
two entries relating to this incident. The first is dated 18th 
December 1532, and consists of the brief statement : ' Propter 
insultum latronum boemorum qui se dicunt Egiptii, detentis 
quindecim de illis fuerunt examinati.' Then, on the 19th Decem- 

1 Geneve, J Vlkat, Reg. Cons., 17, fol. 217. - London, 187G, p. 4U2. 

3 M$S. Hist., 48 


ber follows the entry : ' Iste Boemi nuper tricentum et ultra tarn 
virorum quam mulierum et liberorum in Piano Palacii offenderunt 
officiarios sibi civitatem interdicentes, et sicuti cives in sucursum 
suorum officiariorum currerent, boemi illi se retraxerunt et fortes 
fecerunt in conventum Augustinorum ut se defenderent ; cives 
voluerunt illos spoliare ; justicia obviavit : captis circa viginti qui 
veniam implorarunt, et propter Deurri fuerunt dimissi.' 1 

It will be seen that the French translation by Jaques- 
Flournois is substantially correct, except that it omits the ' propter 
Deum ' of the last line, an omission repeated by Lacroix. The 
reason of this may be that the ' Deum' is not legibly written, and 
the translator was unable to decipher the word. No alternative 
word, however, suggests itself. Accepting ' propter Deum ' as the 
correct rendering, we find therefore that the Gypsies were pardoned 
for the sake of God, although they had attacked the officers of the 
law, and had defended themselves in a neighbouring monastery 
against the citizens who came to the aid of their officers. 

At the first glance it may seem strange that the Gypsies were 
pardoned at all, and still more strange that they should have been 
pardoned 'propter Deum.' But it must be remembered thai 
Gypsies were at one time accorded, with what justice may be 
a matter of argument, all the privileges of pilgrims, and that, 
a certain sanctity attached to them in virtue of that character. 
Thus, in 1429, on St. Andrew's Eve, the town of Arnhem, in 
Guelderland, paid six guldens ' to the count of Little Egypt, with 
his company, to the honour of God ' ; and at the same time gave 
' to the same count and to the Heathen women, to the honour of 
God, a half malder [a corn measure] of white bread, a band of 
beer, and a hundred herrings.' In the year 1417 the noble Tran- 
sylvanian family of Horvath presented forty sheep 'to the poor 
pilgrims out of Egypt, in order that they, returning to Jerusalem, 
may pray for the salvation of our souls.' Moreover, the oil izens ol 
Amiens were granted Papal indulgences and pardons in acknow- 
ledgment of alms given by them to an earl of Little Egypl and hifi 
company of about forty persons who visited their town in Septem- 
ber 1427. It is further to be observed that the Gypsies al Plainpalais 
in 1532 took refuge, when pressed, in the monastery of the A.U 
tinian friars, where they prepared themselves for a siege. Monas- 
teries were no doubt used as sanctuaries by fugitives from the la* 
or from private revenge; but it can scarcely be supposed that 

1 Geneve, Archives d^ tat, Reg. Cons., '23, fol. 5Sv. Jovis, 19 Di 1538 


Augustinian monastery would have opened its doors to three 
hundred of the ordinary citizens of Geneva, in order to shield 
them from the results of an attack made by them upon the officers 
of the law. As pilgrims, however, the Gypsies could appeal suc- 
cessfully to the monks for shelter, and as pilgrims they could 
receive pardon ' propter Deum,' in spite of their having committed 
acts which would have rendered ordinary people subject to the 
most severe penalties. Aventinus, who wrote at this very time 
(the early part of the sixteenth century), complained indignantly 
that the pilgrim character borne by the Gypsies gave them a liberty 
possessed by no other elass. ' Robbing and stealing are prohibited 
to others, under pain of hanging or beheading, but these people 
have licence for them.' 

Later references to the presence of Gypsies, otherwise ' Saracens,' 
in Geneva are found in the state archives of Geneva : — 

1613. 'Du Samedy ]G e Janvier 1613 matin. Sarrasins. 
Mons r le premier syndique a rapporte qu'il fust hier adverty qu'il 
y avoit du coste de St. Gervaes des troupes de Sarasins qui 
faisoyent beaucoup de mal par les villages et enpourroyent faire en 
la terre de Peney ou a Jantod : pour a quoi obvier il fust conseille 
de les laisser passer en Savoye. Ce qu'il fist, et ordonna qu'ils 
passassent de la porte de Cornavin a la Porte Neufve et au Pont 
d'Arve soulz la conduite de quelques soldats. Arreste que s'il 
s'en presente encore d'autres pour passer, comme Ton diet, le 
passage leur soit refuse.' 1 

1665. ' Du 5 Juin 1665, le Conseil complet. Ayant ete rapporte 
qu'il y a des vagabonds, que Ton nomme Sarasins, qui estants venus 
dans les villages voisins en Savoye, courent la nuit dans les terres 
de la Souverainete, pour y voler, ayants mesmes pris ces jours passes 
une piece de toile chez tin blanchisseur, et qu'il est expedient d'y 
pourvoir. Arrete que. s'ils vont dans la Souverainete, il soit permis 
aux subjects de les saisir et mettre en lieu de seurte, et en cas de 
resistance et violence, ils sonnent le toxin et tirent sus, et que 
l'on donne charge aux Chatelains de leur en faire commande- 
ment.' 2 

1665. ' Du 17 Juillet 1665. Ayant este rapporte que les Sarasins 
qui sont dans le voisinage, ont menace de venir piller et desrober 
tout ce qu'ils pourront aux Conseillers de ceans, en leurs maisons 
de campagne, et a defaut d'y trouver quelque chose, d'y mettre le 

1 Geneve, Archives d'£tat. Reg. Cons., Ill, fol. 13. 
- [bid., Reg. Cons., 165, fol. 76 v. 


feu, a quoi il est necessaire de pourveoir. Arreste que Ton donne 
ordre aux subjects de courir sur eux et leur faire main basse au 
cas qu'ils entreprennent d'entrer dans les terres de la Sei^neurie 
pour y faire des vols et des larrecins.' 1 

For the extracts from the State Archives I have to thank 
M. Paul E. Martin, archiviste de l'Etat de Geneve, who kindly 
rendered me every assistance. 

Recorded by Bernard Gilli at- Smith 


' I have been waiting two hours and a half, ever since twenty minutes to four ' 
(Katar o sax&ti star bi-bise-minuteygoro zardv, dui s&xatja f epkdS), said Paisi 
Suljoff one day upon my returning home. And I was grateful to him, for the 
following tale, besides many other excellent points, contains this idea — often recurring 
in other paramisja — when you wish to travel, and you do not know which way to 
go, make a cake, one like Mrs. Heme's, if you like, but round enough to roll. Roll 
it, and follow the direction it takes. It will bring you every kind of adventure. 
Were I as independent as the Lalere Sinte, I would travel many thousand miles 
every year in this wise. 

I Maste % o 

1. Ulo kai ulo jek ^ora^di, isi-cla les jek chai. I 6hai phenil : 
" Abe Bdba, soske na les jekhe romnjd, te prandenes, tit a the thovil 
amen, tha the dikhel amen ? is^dliljam dzuvende." " E, SinJeo, te 
lav jekhe fomnjd, ne-li kacalavel tut e maresa arjgldl te most Me 
posle ne exmina-man." Prandeyghjds. 

2. Jek dies, dui dies, i romni phenel : " Te ttsa the 6haid paldl, 
me tuke kovdv romni ; te na lesa, na maygdv tut." Kcrglij<'is < ran n i 
jek bokoli, gele kai gele ande jekhe veses o dad thai iihai. Muklj&s 
o dadpe chaid dndo vet, thoghjds jak tha tKdtjol. " BeS-tu, Sinko, 
me kadzdv, te kidav pdnda kastd." Xo^avel 'pc elm id. 

The Step-mother 

1. There was once a Turk and he had a daughter. The daugl 
'Father, why do you not take a wife, and marry, that she may wash us, and took 
after us ? for we are eaten up with lice.' ' Heigh, Sinko, if I take B wife, will a 
not throw you your food in your face? And then I shall not interf 

2. One day, two days, the wife says : ' If you send away your d 

be a wife to you ; if not, I don't want you.' The wife made, a cake, and thej wen 
and they went, father and daughter, into a wood. The father left bis 
the wood and made a fire, that she might be warm. ' Be seati .1 here, 5 
go and collect more fuel.' He is lying to his daught er. 

1 Geneve, Archives d' Mat, Reg. Cons., 165, fol. 95 v. 


3. Beiti isi i rakli, dzi hi jalc, %al mard. Avel i meclca. 
PLresa sa kerel kdrig la. I chai phenel : " Tsi tut otdr, m&ndar, 
ma zayd-tV(t mdntsa, kai si man xoli. Mo dad geld IcaSteyge, 
aaw'ii fain panda." Pale i meclca kdrig i chai piresa. " Tsi tut 
otdr ! " i chai phenel, " ma zayd-tut mdntsa, zerre kachivdv jelche 
umblalesa oprdl tute ilia kathardv tut." I meclca pdle kdrig late 
piresa,. Dolel umbldl i chai, chivel kdrig i meclca, tutustinel o 
bald, thai phdrili sar alchdr. 

4*. Disilo. Aven o vurdondzides, the tovarinen kastd. Ho 
te dikhJn ? E chaid ! " Ee, momicentse, kakvo si sptila ? Ta si 
stanala ziva ? Ot taja mecka tsealo selo ne smee da doide ot taja 
gora." " Enh ! ne smee ? He ahe, de kosim ja palfl, ta piikna 
kato orej%.' So te dzan, te dikhen, tsealo gav liljds e ralcljd, igal- 
del la dndo gav, ta sdrofe dinen la nagrdda, kai mudargh- 
jds e meclcd. 

5. Liljds-pes i chai, geli-peske. I fomni dikldjds la. " Ne-li 
lilj anas paldl the chaid ? Soske all?" " Ache-liljom la paldl, ne 
inandines-li ? Dza, phuc tsalone gaves, 'xpx av< ^ v '^ • " 

6. Blevelilo. " Sun mdnde," i romni phenel, "tu the chaid dzi 
kai na les paldl, te no ovel mamui man nisavi, me tiike romni 
n'ovdv. A te lesa paldl, tu te zagubines la, me twice fomni 

7. Kerel jek bokolori, tsrkaljdmel la mdlcsus. Gelt kai geli i 
bokoli, dinjds ande jelche pust one asjaves. 

3. The lass is seated near the fire, and is eating bread. There conies a bear. 
With his paw he continually clutches at her. The girl says, ' Begone hence, from 
me, do not take liberties with me, for I have a grief. My father has gone for fuel, 
and he has not yet returned.' Again the bear goes for her with his paw. ' Begone,' 
says the girl, 'do not take liberties with me, or I will throw a fire-brand over you 
and burn you.' Again the bear goes for her with his paw. The girl seizes a fire- 
brand, hurls it at the bear, sets light to the fur, and he burst like a nut. 

4. Day broke. The carreteers come to load their carts with wood fuel. What 
do they see ? The girl ! ' Heigh, lassie, how did you sleep ? And you have 
remained alive ? The whole village does not dare to pass through the wood on 
account of the bear.' ' Ha ! It doesn't dare ? See here, I have burnt his fur, and 
he has burst like a nut.' They go and see, and the whole village took the girl and 
led her to the village, and all the Bulgarians made her a present because she killed 
the bear. 

f>. The girl betook herself and went. The wife [her step- mother] saw her. 
' And so you have sent away your daughter ? Why has she come ? ' 'I did send 
her away, don't you believe 1 Go, ask the whole village if I am lying ! ' 

6. Evening came. 'Listen to me,' the wife said, 'as long as you do not send 
your daughter away so that no one comes before me, I will not be a wife to you. 
But if you send her away and lose her, I will be to you a wife.' 

7. She makes a cake, and sets it rolling on purpose. The cake went and went 
and rolled into a deserted mill. 


8. BeSti si i thai dndo asjdv. Tamdm betelas thai X al mard, 
avdl&ke i ka x ni, kdrig Idte, kdrig late; 6i na X oratinel, i thai) 
sa thivel tro X es Jcdrig i ka X ni. thavrjd-da sa X an o tro x es. I 
ka x nipdle Jcdrig i thai, pale i chai na X oratinel- sa thivel Idke 
tro X es. Naklo so naklo, nasdldjili i ka x ni. Ahe okot&r ikljol 
Idkejek basno. Sa kdrig la, sa kdrig la o basno. Leske-da-ni sa 
atokd thivel tro x es, thai na x oratinel. Pdla o baino kdrig la 
saldinel, pdle 6i sa acokd chivel Uske tro X es teyal. 

9. Disilo. Lei pes adikd, ikljol angldl o asjdv, beiti si. Nak- 
jen Dasd. " A, Mome, sto diris tuka, ta ne si ides ? " Isi jek rom e 
Basentsa. " So rodes athe, te ndna dzas-tukc ? Adavkd asjdv si 
pusto. K ikljol Wee cipota, ta kadaravel tut." " E, so te kerdv ? ' 
Mi mdste x o te na mangel man. Mo dad-da-ni liljds man tin, 
ayghjds man athe, tha dchovav zidni. Zer pdsle me dades n>, 
may gel mi mdUe x o. Kabesdv, kdto nandi kai te dzav ; so te 
kerdv ? n 

10. Blev&ilo. BeSti si i rakli dndo asjdv, ta x al mard. 
Ikljol Idkejek dervis. Tharel pi tjiltjiln, o lulds. Ikljol mam in 
teste i chai. Dikhel i chai e der vises andt parne se X jen. Thargh- 
jds i tjiltjiin; sa kdrig i chai o derviti za x dl-pes Idsa. I elm 
tdinjel, na x oratinel. Pal'o dervU kdrig i thai, sa acokd, vastesa, 
e tjiltjunjdsa, piresa ritinel, calavel e thaid ; pdli i thai sa atob'/, 
sa tdinjel ta na x oratinel. 

8. The girl is seated in the mill. Just as she was sitting down to cat bre 

a hen comes to her, right up near to her, right up near to her ; she, the girl, does 
not sj>eak ; she continually throws crumbs to the hen. And the chicks all cat the 
crumbs. The hen again approaches the girl, again she is silent ; and all the time 
throws crumbs at it. There happened what happened and the hen disappeared. 
Behold there appears before her a cock. Nearer and nearer up to her comes the 
cock. And all in the same way she throws crumbs at him and does not speak l<> 
him. Again the cock strides up to her, again she in the same way throws crumbs 
for him to eat. 

9. Day broke. She betakes herself and comes out in front of the mill and is 
seated. Bulgarians pass. ' Ha, lassie, what are you remaining here for and why 
do you not go?' Among the Bulgarians is a Gypsy. ' What are you looking for 
here, and why don't you go ? This mill is deserted. Something will appi ar before 
you and frighten yon.' 'Alas! What am I to do'? My step-mother does Dol 
want me. My father took me and brought me here, and I remain miserable. I ■ 
otherwise my step-mother will not have anything to do with my father. 1 will 
remain here since there is nowhere for me to go ; what am 1 to do ' 

10. Evening came. The girl is seated in the mill ami is eating bread. 
A Dervish appears to her. He lights his tobacco, his pipe. The girl comes ou 
She sees him in his white clothes. He lit his pipe ; and begins coming up to the 
girl and making free witli her. The girl is silent and does not speak. A 
Dervish comes up to the girl, and in the same way touches her with his hand, wil 
the pipe, with his foot ; and again the girl just in the same way is silent 

not speak. 


11. Nakld so nakld, gardvdilo. Ikljdl Idlce jek kvdtfka. Sakdrig 
lajcdrig i 6hai, kvacinel (baMl). I chai-da-ni sa Elavil lake trdyes, 
sa a6okd, sa arokd, dzi kai baUl o basnd. Basto-li o baJnd, batinel, 
nana I ikljol nisto. 6i-da-ni telili, tha sovel. Suti suti ; disilo, 

12. Liljds-pes adikd ta kadzdl pe dadeste. " Sdske sinjdm be&ti 
athe thai ikljon mdnge zverovja,ta nana dza-mdyge?" Geli pe 
dadeste. So te dikhel la o dad liljds te rovel uprdl la: "Kai 
uljdn, SinJco, flat nakivdjiljan?" I chai phenel : " E,bdba,jekhe 
yomnjdke terki-keres man. Sa kerghjdnas tha tlidchjovav epkdS 
mantis. Thai ikistile mdygc adalkd zverovja, dita dita mi cJtib 
pekili an me m6ste ! " 

13. Dikhljds la i mdSteyo. "Ace lubnije, tu so rodesathe?" 
" So rodav ? Ake aljom t'inatjeske \~>ale me dadeste? " Ha ! acokd- 
li si, me inatjeske aljdn, te les te dades, te dikhes les dndo jakhd ?" 
fom vakjerel : " Tu kerghjdn one chaid sagubinjom asdl hike, 
fsferse ot siga an te daidte chiv tut ! " 

14. Lei pe chaid, o fom, mukjel la, e romn'jd. Gele kai gele, pe 
chaidsa, dii jekhe Jcheres. So te dikhen. Ando kher pherdo &xja 
thai sekakvo. " Han, Sinko, alcana peljdm amare baytdte? " Sa 
godjdsa akand, Bdba ; ta te dvla odikd lubni, tu te na pribirines 
la." Nakld so nakld. Hekje okotdr i yomni ali. Liljds te phucel 
e rakljd : " Kai gelo to dad ? " " Mo dad is! athe. So kakeres lesa ? " 

11. There happened what happened and he disappeared. A cackling hen 
appears before her. Near and nearer it cackles up to her, to the girl. And she 
always throws it crumbs and thus and thus until the cock crows. And when the 
cock crew the hen disappears and nothing more appears before her. And she lies 
down and sleeps. She slept, she slept ; day broke, she arose. 

12. She betook herself and will go to her father. 'Why am I seated here and 
wild beasts appear to me and I don't go away V She went to her father. When 
the father saw her he began to cry over her : 'Where have you been, Sinko, and 
you have been lost. ; The girl says : ' Ah, father, you cast me out for the sake of 
a woman. And you have caused me to remain as it were only half a human being. 
And those wild beasts appeared before me, and see, see, my tongue dried up in my 
mouth ! ' 

13. The step-mother saw her. 'Ha, you harlot, what are you looking for 
here ? ' ' What am I looking for 1 See, I have come in spite of you back to my 
father.' ' Indeed, is it thus, you have come back in spite of me, to take your 
father and look him in the eyes?' The husband says: 'You caused me 
to lose my daughter for your sake. For all I care get you hence now to your 
mother ! ' 

1 1. The husband takes his daughter and leaves the wife. They went and they 
went, father and daughter, till they came to a house. What do they see ? The 
house, inside, is full of clothes, and everything. 'Ha, Sinko, now we have fallen 
upon our luck ! 'Now be sensible this time, father ; and should that harlot come, 
do not tike her back.' There happened what happened. Behold the wife came. 
She began to question the girl: 'Where has your father gone?' 'My father is 


Dzal i raldi, vikinel pe dades ; avel o dad. "So rodes athe-ee 
lubnije? Me chaid mangljdn te zagubinav, ta tusa, rom thai 
fovrvni ta t'ovdv." Del andre o rom. " Dzar, Sinko, te lav o MlUi, 
te chindv la ! " I raldi pheriel: " Dzar, Bdba, kai 6i mdntsa but 
kerghjds thai khelghjds. Ta me te lav o kilici, tha the chindv la, te 
nakjel mi xoli" Lei o kilici i raldi, " Ee, tu mdntsa dzanesdi so 
kerghjdn? Tu man dxi akand te mudarkjares, amd isi man 
diesd t'ovdv dzivdi ! " TsUlel o kilici, lei Idkeri men, 


here. What will you do with him?' The girl goes, calls her~father ; the father 
comes. ' What are you looking for here, you harlot ? You wanted me to cast 
away my daughter, and that you and I should lie wife and husband.' The husband 
enters the house. ' Wait, Sinko, that I get the knife to kill her ! ' The girl says : 
'Wait, father, for she has wronged and scorned me much. And let me take the 
knife to slay her that my anger may pass.' The lass takes the knife. ' Ha ! Do 
you know what you have done to me ? You have attempted to slay me up till 
now, but fate has granted me days yet to live ! ' She draws the knife and cuts her 
throat. 0. M. B. S. 

Notes to the Text 

§ 1. ul6 kai ul6 . . . from uvdva: cf. sin4 Jcai sin6 'there vas once upon a 

§ 1. ne-li kacalavel tut e ma^esa ayylcti te mos . . . lit. 'will she not strike you 
with the bread before your face ? ' 

§ 2. l&sa paldl . . . according to the context here and further on, this expres- 
sion means ' to get rid of,' not ' to take back.' In Paspati it means ' to pursue.' 

§2. thathdtjol ... the th was unmistakable. Miklosich notes it in thdbjovav 
and once in thatjol, buk. (Mik. viii.), without being able to account for it ; cf. also 
my tharel in the Cordilendzis, and below in § .*!. 

§2. x°X av &' V e chaid . . . ' to deceive,' ' to lie to.' 

§ 3. tsi tut otdr . . . 'Get you hence,' imper. of t«idar. 

§3. ma zaxd-tut mdntsa . . . sometimes followed by mdnde, 'to take liberties 
with,' 'to be over free with,' on the analogy of the Bulg. zajdzdam. Cf. the ex- 
pression zaxaIjd«-]KS Idsa ' he was over-intimate with her.' 

§3. thai phdrili sar akhdr . . . Paspati pdrjontro for phdcji.i-nca ' to bur.-t. - 

§4. Ee, momicentse, etc. ... I must warn students of Bulgarian that quota 
tions in this language are in the vulgar Sofia dialect and romanified. 

§ 4. de kosgm ja palil . . . for palila. 

§4. igdtdel la dntlo gar . . . generally igdlel or igalil. 

§4. dinenla . . . perhaps for dini la. But I have not found th« 
in this dialect. 

§ 4. e meckd . . . accus. of mecka. They know the wor.l ricinl, but Beldom 

§5. tsalonegaves . . . nominative=tatfo=Bulg. tsealo. Cf. the obi 
dui = done', and § 7, pustone. 

§7. tsrkaljdnella . . . Bulg. tsrWjam 'I roll.' The Romani p 
the -ja- is exceptional. 

§7. mdksun . . . generally malcsii; Turk. -Arabic. 


ST. a/ndi jekhd pustond asjavds . . . asjdv is the classical word for a mill, Hindu, 
ijd (Mik. viii.). 

§8. sa chivil tn>xes . . . Bulgarian tr6%a 'a crumb,' plur. trdxi. But the 
< lypsies use a Greek plural for loan words the singular of which ends in a. 

§ 8. o dhavrjd-da sa x an ° trdx^s ■ • • see Mik. viii. 30, and note that the word 

\havrt, nol iavri. It is regrettable that Paspati should have omitted to dis- 
tinguish between these two sounds c and <-h, and thus have led all subsequent 
writers into error. 

§ 8. naSdldjili i kaxnl . . . pass, of naSaldv for naxavdv 'to cause to run away,' 
' to lose,' hence the meaning here is ' to be lost,' ' to disappear.' 

§ 8. saldlnel . . . Turkish salmak, with the usual addition of d to the stem. 

§9. kadaravdl tut . . . ' will frighten you,' causative of dardv 'I fear.' 

§ 10. ritinel . . . Bulg. rilam. 

§11. nakli'i so naikld, gardvdilo . . . pass, of garavdv, 'I conceal,' hence 'dis- 
appeared.' Cf. naSdldjili. Above, the ' Hiatus aufhebender v ' becomes I, as also 
in baSaldv. This is never the case in garavdv. 

§ 1 1. batinel . . . Turkish batmak ' to disappear,' 'set (of the sun, etc.).' 

§11. "i-r/ti-ni tdlili, tha sovel . . . The double particle da-ni corresponds exactly 
to the German postponed aber in narration — ' Sie aber legte sich nieder und 
schlief. ' 

§ 11. Suit, suti ... It is only in corrupt dialects that are found forms like 
sovdd ; is the classical form (Sanskrit partic. supta). Thus run6 * he cried,' 
from rovdv. 

§ 12. zverovja . . . zver is Bulgarian for a wild beast, plur. zvdrove, to which 
plural is tacked on the llomani plural in -ja. 

§ 12. tirlci-heris man . . . Instead of forming a verb, they have translated 
literally from the Turkish terk etniek. The final i is nearly always felt to be neces- 
sary by a true Rom ; cf. above § 10, dervlSi, elsewhere dervlL 

§ 12. dita, dita . . . for dikh-ta. Cf. Anglo-Romani dlta, bd ! 

§13. inatjdskt . . . 'out of spite,' from Turk. indd. Cf. Welsh Rom. spaitdke. 

§ 14. sa godjdsa akand, Bdba . . . lit. 'with all intelligence now, father,' i.e. 
' be sensible this time.' 

§14. te na pribirines la . . . from Bulg. pribiram. 

% 14. kai iii mdntsa but kerghjds thai khelgJijds . . . a rough form of alliteration 
(see translation). 

§ 14. te mudarkjares . . . causat. ' to cause to be slain.' 

§ 14. Id Idkeri men ... It means either ' to kill ' or ' to cut the head off' : lit. 
• takes her neck.' 


By Devev Fearox de l'Hoste Ranking 

{Continued from Volume 258) 

Manners and Customs 

N the section dealing with the mode of life of the Gypsies 
-■- Dobrowolski is in a sense disappointing. I have already 
pointed out that, from my own point of view, I think the author 

1 I have to thank cordially the Rev. F. G. Ackerley for his kindness in preparing 
this part of my paper for press. 


has made a mistake in confining himself too much to the Unguis- 
tic side of his subject, and that he has failed to attach sufficient 
importance to the question of traditions and customs. So also I 
find that he does not furnish us with any connected account of 
Gypsy customs, ceremonies, superstitions, and habits, such as we 
find in Wlislocki, but contents himself with giving isolated 
examples of events, and leaves us to draw our own conclusions 
from the casual hints met with in the conversations and stories. 

It is clear that the settled Gypsies, with whom Dobrowolski 
was chiefly brought into contact, must differ considerably from 
wandering bands such as the one which recently visited this 
country. It is only in quite recent times 1 that the Russian 
Gypsies have become house-dwellers; formerly the Gypsies of 
each district camped out in the fields, forests, and moors during 
the summer, and in the winter lived in barns. But now, as I 
understand, all Gypsies who habitually reside in a particular 
district are forced to live in houses ; though apparently there are 
still bands of wandering Gypsies who live in tents, and seem to 
be spoken of as ' Moldavian ' Gypsies. 2 


The house-dwellers do not seem to exercise any particular 
trade or handicraft ; I have not so far met with any reference to 
smith-work, nor to basket- or sieve-making, nor with any words 
connected with these occupations: they are evidently musicians, 
because reference is made to the Gypsies who used to come and 
play at the house of Dobrowolski's grandfather; but apart from 
this the men seem to devote all their energies to horse-dealing 
(including horse-stealing), sheep-stealing, and coring generally : 
while mang'mg, dukker'mg, and the hokano baro are the special 
province of the women. Even as regards horse-dealing and taking 
Dobrowolski does not give us much information: there is one 
example of a Gypsy talking to his horse, which I reproduce : 

1 See Pott, i. p. viii, second footnote, where it is stated that between I S3!) and 
1844 no less than eight thousand Russian Gypsies became sedentary. 

2 Are these the same as the Gypsy coppersmiths who visited England in 1911 12 
These people have wandered over the greater part of European Russia. I mel 

of the same type in Libau, Kurland, in 1904 or the preceding year. I 

form of the Rumanian Romani dialect, and Moldavia is that part oi Unman. a that 

borders on Russian territory. — F. G. A. 

:i It has been thought well not to attempt to indicate the Russian loan-word 
and pre-verbal particles in this article by any change of type, that device 
been found rather irritating to the reader. Verbs are frequently compounded with 


Prdsto, miro gr&ato ! 

Dur te prasti'ix. dalydlca byesc, a byagi! 

Ser avdsa po steto kxere, to me ddva tulce jovori, ddva tuka 
l-^asord i panorl. 

S>1 mdnde dyevo — trebi te duytdl. 

X'arrht take ni parube ni biknebd — zahopindva tut ado porti, 
prikopiTi&va tre kukdvl, vdva tut pomindt, so laco grdstoro 

I ni nazit mange (Insures gres. 

Sdvo tu sdnas grastoro i unasil tu miro suroro. 

I kormindyom te myesanJcisdsa, pol udovd, so tu unasil miro 


Ma %a7i tu o ruvd ! 


Sdgo, tixinkes, terdyou ! 

Jd zorales. Nd za zorales. 

(Hurry on, iny little horse ! 

There is far to go, far to go, but hurry on ! 

When once we get home, then will I give you dear little oats, 
1 will give you dear little hay and a drop of water. 

I have business to do — we must gallop. 

You shall not be swapped or sold — 1 will shut you up within 
gates, I will bind up your legs, I will remember of you that you 
were a good horse. 

I never had such a horse. 

Such a horse you were that you bore off my head. 

And after that I fed you a dear little bran-mash, when you 
carried off" my head '. 

Now, on ! 

.May the wolves devour you ! 

Slowly, gently, stop ! 

Go strongly. A gentle trot.) 

To this I add the following monologue about a wager, since, 
presumably, the race was to be on horseback, and the incident 
illustrates the Gypsy's pride in his steed. 

Russian prepositions, for which compare ./. G. L. S., New Series, iv. 236. (I was 
wrong in deriving Chackir from Russian : it is, of course, pure Romani for "burn : '). 
Russian words occur sometimes in their proper form, but more often with a 
Romani ending. A few instances will suffice : — Bocka, cask. Bok, side, flank. 
Center, " falling-sickness of horses" (Alexandrow's Dictionary). Gisto, clean. Dal- 
yoku, far. Davdi, give ! come now 1 Dyevo, business. Maya, I can. Nibut, any. 
Pominat, to remember. Sicds, at once. Tolko, only. Uie, already. U nas, (there 
to us, we have. Yamkiza, a little hole. Yeieli, if. Zdorov, health. — F. G. A. 


Davdi-ka tusa povtg%nki .- Icon hones obuxtela ; Icon hone's 

Kuli tu man obtradesa, mdnder gdrzo bravinto. 

Obtradesa — mdnder sasto ! 

Man tut obtraddva, to % tiitir sasto. 

(Let 's you and I have a bet : who can outstrip the other ; who 
can beat the other. 

If you beat me, a pot of brandy from me. 

If you win— a rouble from me. 

But if I beat you, then a rouble from you.) 

There is a rather amusing account of a swap between a Gypsy 
and a farmer, where each is trying to best the other. The asides 
between the Gypsy and his boy are instructive. The Gypsy 
begins : — 

' Don't you believe everything you hear.' 

' I trust you,' says the farmer. 

' If you trust me, that 's all right.' 

The Gypsy's son says : — 

" Dado, e gre'ske dandd Jcerde 'si, Ma rdk% te nd galydl kon 
nibut, popardsa 'do 'da yu'xayibe! A gazo law." 

(' Father, the horse's teeth are faked. God grant no one notices 
it, we shall get done over this swindle ! But the gorgio is a good 

The father answers :- — 

" A r a ^u^en nasti ! So Dvvel dela, odavd yavela, a uze parv- 
vdva ! Adydlce tcindva les e gazes, 6ke d%k bust ddva 'de lesti ade 
gazeste, a$no o rilyd lestir zdna ! " 

(' No ! Being done is an impossibility ! As God gives, so it will 
happen, but I am just making the swap! But T '11 so clip this 
gorgio's wings, just see how I '11 stick it into this gorgio, 1 s<> thai 
the wind will fly from him ! ') 

Finally, the swap is made; and from the exaggerated dissatis- 
faction of the Gypsy one is led to suspect that the gorgio has been 
badly done in the eye. 

This is all the more probable as Dobrowolski shows, by describ- 
ing the method by which a Gypsy fakes a horse's teeth, thai ilu\ 
are up to all the tricks of horse-dentistry : — 

1 lam not quite certain as to the translation of bus/ ddva '<>< Iteteadt ga 
but I think it is tolerably near. Dobrowolski translates it apideu dam ' I will 
give a match (-a pointed piece of stick).' In Paspati and in the Hungarian Gj p j 
dialect I find bust = 'a lance,' ' sharp point.' Bust Java may bo compared with such 
expressions as Rum. Gy. duma dun, ' I speak' ; Boh. Gy. karie dav, ' I shoot, 1 eto. 


' Horses are worn out. They take a cobbler's awl and dig out 
fairly deep holes in the teeth. They shape pegs of birchwood and 
drive them into the holes they have dug out — the holes become 
Muck, just as if they were natural marks. Then they undercut 
the canines which are worn away, and file them so that they are 
sharp : an old horse is made young, and passes for rising seven or 

Their expertness as horse-physicians is also illustrated by the 
examples he gives of common Gypsy recipes for sick horses. For 
instance : — 

Magu gres te velicLnan kuparoso i yare. Umyesti adavd rosolo 
uarmitlco: yezeli peresa nasvald, to add sastdlo te des ; a yezeli 
langdla pe gerdi, to trebi e kuparoso Ice gerdi. 

(I can doctor a horse with copperas and eggs. The eggs are 
added to cabbage juice: if the horse has the gripes, this mixture 
is given to him; but if he is lame, then you must bandage him 
with copperas.) 

Besides this the Gypsies, in certain cases, go to a white- witch, 
or even to a gorgio : — 

E greste mireste cemer. My horse has the staggers. 

Gazd Icodavd zinel. That gorgio knows about it. 

Jdnkogazd: yott dela pant. Go to the gorgio: he will give 



In a previous instalment of this paper instances were given of 
the mang'mg propensities of the Gypsy women : here are two 
instances of their mode of preying on the superstitions of the 

(a) Something is groaning in the house 

The Gypsy-Moldavians are on a tramping expedition. They 
must find where some rich peasant lives. Then they must use a 
cunning trick. They get some quicksilver: this they put into a 
goosequill, and beg the peasant to let them in for the night. 
The Gypsy woman also takes with her some clay. At night when 
every one is asleep she climbs up upon the stove, makes a hole 
somewhere upon the stove, — scrapes it out, that is. Then she 
takes the feather with the quicksilver, puts it in the hole, and 
cements it in with the clay. The next day, when the housewife 
makes a fire in the stove, the Gypsy woman goes on her way. 


As soon as the stove gets hot, something begins to si^h and 
groan in a muffled way as if it were a human beino- : < Oh ! oh : 
oh ! ' so sensitive is the quicksilver. The peasants do not know 
what this may be, and look for the house-spirit (brownie) that he 
may drive this devil out of the house and yard. They look under 
the table, behind the stove, and on the stove. Some one is 
groaning, but they can't find who it is. It is groaning worst at 
the stove: they must drive the devil out. Prayers have been 
said; they have propitiated the house-spirit; but something is 
still groaning; no power whatever can drive this devil out ! 

After some time other Gypsies arrive, but this Gypsy woman 
does not resemble the one that had been staying for the m'o-ht in 
the house. 'Let me tell your fortune,' she says to the peasant 
and his wife ; ' there is a devil in your house.' The peasant says. 
' Can you drive it out ? ' ' Yes, I can, but it will cost you very 
dear.' The peasant says : ' Take anything you like, dear little 
Gypsy woman, but drive this devil out of the house ! ' ' Well,' 
she says, ' if I don't drive the devil out, you can blame me ! ' 

Then she bids them all kneel, and begins to read out of a 
little book. By this time it is very warm in the house, the stove 
is well heated, and the groaning is at its loudest (this stuff loves 
the heat). The peasants are all kneeling, and the Gypsy woman 
says: 'Do you hear how it is groaning?' The peasant, weeping 
with fright, says: 'I can hear it all!' 'Do you hark how it is 
moaning ? It will moan all of you out of this house, which will 
become a desert ! Pray to the Lord ! But now don't fear, don't 
fear. Do you know why it is moaning now ? It is because I have 
begun to push him out! Now all of you lie flat down on your 
faces on the ground ! ' 

While they are lying on the ground the Gypsy goes into the 
entrance hall, and with a false key unlocks the door of the pantry, 
and makes her way to the money-chest. She unlocks the chest 
and takes out all the money. The Gypsy woman gets cm the 
stove, saying: 'I am going to make the sign of the cross on it.' 
There with a small knife she digs out the clay which covers the 
hole she had made, and takes out the quill with the quicksilver. 
The moaning and groaning ceased at once. 

The Gypsy woman climbs down from the stove and says to 
the peasants: ' Now stand up and pray to the Lord. You musl 
know that all idols, devils, and evil spirits of all kinds are sub 
to my book. My book is a magic one. Pray yon to the Lord 


for my sake: the evil ones would have moaned you out of the 
house, you and all your family would have perished. But in 
case you think I am deceiving you, I '11 stay the night with you 
for safety's sake.' The Gypsy woman remained for the night. 
During the night nothing happened; no moaning was heard. 
The Gypsy woman says : ' Well, this is because I did it for you 
conscientiously ; now you must do something for me, and do not 
you wrong me in paying me.' 

The Gypsy woman did not take much : they gave her as 
reward a round loaf of bread, a ham, and a piece of fat, with 
about a pound of salt and a peck of grits ; this was all her reward. 
The Gypsy woman thanked them for the gifts, guaranteed that 
all would now be quiet, and went her way to an appointed spot 
where the other Gypsies awaited her. 

The peasant, glad that the moaning was at an end and that 
quietness reigned, went to the chest to get some money to buy 
wine and hold a feast. He found the chest locked, but no money 
in it. He asked his wife : ' Where is our money ? The coffer is 
locked, but the money is gone ! That cursed devil which was 
groaning has taken it. Well, much good may it do him ! At 
any rate I am at peace now, and my household are safe !' 

(b) A sacrifice to the restless god at the cross-ways. 

A Gypsy woman comes to a peasant's house. ' Give me alms 
in the name of Christ,' she says to the housewife. 

The peasant woman says : ' Oh, there are many of your sort ; 
we are tired of you, you have tired out our patience ! ' 

' Lady,' says the Gypsy woman, ' I will tell your fortune.' 

' Well, how are you going to tell my fortune ? ' 

' Show me your hand ! ' 

The Gypsy woman, looking at the peasant woman's hand, 
says : ' Something is wrong in your household ; some mishap is 
going to fall upon you. There is some quarrel coming between 
you and your husband, and you have many enemies ; they envy 
you because you live so well.' 

The peasant woman sees that the Gypsy speaks truthfully; 
there has been some little quarrel between her husband and 
herself. The Gypsy gave the peasant woman some roots, saying 
they were roots of valerian. 

'Grind this root fine and put it into his broth; then your 


husband will love and cherish you. Now won't you give me a 
trifle ? ' 

The peasant gave her an alms; the Gypsy woman said she 
would come again, and if any evil thing came she would drive it 
out. In the night a Gypsy man came near to the peasant's 
cottage ; he cut off the head of a hen, and smeared the gate with 
the blood. Then he got into the yard, and buried the head in 
a marked spot near the cattle-shed. The next morning when 
the peasant got up and went out he noticed the blood-stains on 
the gates. He called his wife out and showed it to her ; then he 
said : — 

' Look here ! What is this ? It is blood, and human blood.' 

Said the wife : ' Well, did I not tell you what the Gypsy 
woman said, that some misfortune is hanging over us ; that evil 
people will not allow us to live in peace ? ' 

The peasant said : ' But what is to be done ? ' 

She replied : ' It is as if the Lord sent that Gypsy woman ! 
We must give her whatever she requires, but we must beg her 
to practise her witchcraft.' 

At that very moment came another Gypsy woman to the 
house ; probably she was sent to them secretly. ' Give me a 
trifle,' begged she. The peasant woman gave her an alms. 
'There is something uncanny about your alms!' 'Well, what is 
wrong with it ? : ' There is some blast upon your house ; all your 
cattle will die!' The wife ran and told her husband. The 
peasant came and begged the Gypsy woman to undo the spell. 
' Make it so that nothing evil shall be in my house, and no blood 
on my, gates.' 

And the Gypsy woman said : ' This has been done to you 1 >\ 
stealth, that all your cattle may perish. If you like, I can show 
you the very imp itself.' 

The peasant would have liked to see the fiend, but his wife 
standing by began to cry, and said: 'No, dear Vasili, not on am 
account would I like to see the devil; if I saw him I should die 
straight off ! ' 

The Gypsy woman consented to use her sorcery. First of all 
she ordered the peasant and his wife to kneel; then she began 
to read out of a book. Having finished her reading, she orden 
them to stand up. Then she bade the woman fetch a jug of 
water and a tumbler. She bade them again kneel, turned her 
back to them, and said : ' Pray to the Lord !' The ( fypsy woman 

VOL. VI. — NO. II. 


poured some water into the tumbler, and secretly broke a hen's 
cc% the white of which she poured into the water. Then she 
put in a bundle of hairs, and to the hairs there was attached a 
contrivance of this sort : — There was a small head made of wax 
(which looked like a real sparrow's head), with black points at 
each side which looked just like eyes. The hairs were carefully 
twisted together so that they would not come loose and the head 
fall off. When she had put this contrivance into the tumbler, 
she ordered the peasants to stand up. 'Just look,' she said, 
' what a funny thing there is in the tumbler ! Just see ! I have 
caught the cursed viper ! Come and look at him.' She put the 
tumbler on the window sill, and covered it with the palm of her 
hand. They stared at the thing in terror : the head was spinning 
round as if it were a viper. The Gypsy woman, pointing to the 
head, said : ' Now you know who the evil-doer was ; it was this 
viper which flies through the air, and takes the milk from your 
cows ! ' The peasant and his wife, seeing the horrible thing, 
bade her hide away the devil. ' Hide it away, pray ! lest we 
perish through this fiend ! ' 

The Gypsy woman said : ' We can't hide it here ; I will take 
it with me into the forest, and you must give me whatever I ask. 
I do not want anything of yours for myself. You will see ; 
everything will be all right, and there will be quiet in your 
house. I shall take no reward whatever, but whatever I tell you 
to put down in the forest you must give. As to my reward, 
none at all will be required now.' Then the Gypsy woman said : 
' Bring the table-cover which you use when a thanksgiving 
service is said and the icons are carried round.' The peasant 
brings the very best table-cloth. 'Now,' she says, 'fetch an 
uncut loaf of bread ; I will put it on the cloth. It is not for me ; 
I don't want it.' The peasant fetches a fresh loaf. ' Now bring 
a beef ham, and if you have a pot of butter bring one, — a full 
one which has not been opened yet. Then fetch a roll of linen ; 
you know that I don't need this for myself.' ' You know,' she 
says to the peasant woman, 'where the cross-roads are in your 
forest. Spread it out across the roads in the form of a cross.' 
And the peasant says : ' Oh yes ! The cross-roads in the forest 
are not far from here.' 

So the Gypsy woman says : ' All this will have to be spread 
out there at the cross- ways. It will all be there ; I will put it all 
down. The ham will be there, and the butter, and the bread, 


and the cloth ; I don't want any of it. If you like to o- there 
to-morrow very early in the morning, and if you don't find it 
there, that will mean that the devil has eaten it all. If he eats 
it all, he will give up troubling you for ever; if he does not eat 
it all, he will have to be solicited as:ain.' 

The peasant thanked the Gypsy woman; then she said to 
him: 'Come with me and I will show you something.' She 
took him out to the place where the Gypsy had hidden the hen's 
head in the cow-dung. She took out the head and showed it to 
the peasant and his wife. ' Just see what there is in your byre ! 
Your heads, and the heads of your cows, pigs, and sheep would 
have been cut off as this head is cut off. Do you recognise the 
head ? ' ' God knows what head this is,' said the peasant ; ' I see 
it has eyes and a nose.' ' Now,' said the Gypsy woman, ' we must 
throw this head into the fire ; I will throw it into the fire lest it 
should suck the milk from your cows. It is through this head 
that your cows did not give sufficient milk.' The peasant woman 
said to her husband : ' Did I not tell you that our brown cow 
was bellowing, and gave very little milk ? and that her eyes were 
starting out of her head ? I told you many a time that we were 
overlooked and bewitched. The milk is not like other people's ; 
it is all skim ; the top has been drunk away, and we do not know 
who has done it!' And the peasant says: 'Yes indeed, I have 
noticed it when feeding the cows ; they look as if they were 
asleep. We ought to be very thankful to this Gypsy woman.' 
The Gypsy woman then said : ' Yes, this is the very head that 
would not let you live in peace. You saw that I got this head into 
the tumbler; it was alive then, and had a tail, and spun round. 
Well, now it has been cut off, and it is lying in the cow-dung!' 
The peasant said: 'We will give you whatever reward yen 
like for it.' 'Oh!' said the Gypsy woman, 'I was not doing it 
for gain ! But I will come for your reward some other time.' 

The next morning the peasant went to the spot in the foresl 
where the things were put down, to see if the devil had eaten them 
all. He found nothing, not even the table-cloth! He scratched 
his head, saying: ' Well, whether the Gypsy woman has taken the 
things or the devil has eaten them, they are gone sure enough ! 

1 The peasants of Southern Russia believe firmly in the existence of a devil, in 
the shape of a flying dragon with the head of a cock (the c which Bi 

the milk from cows. Cf. Pott, i. page viii, first footnote. One is verj much 
inclined to connect the little wax head and its hairs with the melalo of Wlielocki 

(Aus dem inneren Leben der Ziyeuner, pp. 4-7). 

i ik) the gypsies of central russia 

Gypsy Stories 

Dobrowolski divides his work into three parts: Skazki, or 
Tales; Scenes from Gypsy Life; and Songs, with the airs to 
which one or two of them are sung. 

Some of the stories would have delighted Groome, as affording 
further variants of some of those which he has given in his Gypsy 
Folk-Tales : No. 1, for instance, is a version of ' The Brave Tailor ' ; 
while No. 3, ' The Fool who said the Wrong Thing,' is a version 
of a story which was current among schoolboys in this country 
when I was a boy. One of these stories, that of ' The Devil who 
married a Gypsy Girl/ I have given in an earlier number of this 
journal : there are two other Munchausen stories which I propose 
to give now, as they strike me as being peculiarly Gypsy in their 

An Unexpected Find 

Griyd me cavenza deste te p-^agds. Katir na liyape o ric. Me 
m%ydm strl-^cdir. Add cavore rasprastandine stra^dtir, a me 
yatyompe kizino — o dilane o cave name. Ne, me te blendindii 
yatyom. I zagiyom maskiro o res. PriuytKidyd man rdt. 
Zipunizo peskiro potcidyom told boki i pasiyom. A pe zorya len 
o basne te bagen. Fotsundva odorik. Me zdva ko savo-nibut 
gdv. Tolki pe zoriza ustyom, jdla kerdinitko, i rakirla: " Kdrilc 
tu zagiydn ?" A me rakirdva: " Zablendlndyom ! Viltzi man 
ke savo-nibut gdv." " Nu, yaventi manza ! " 

Liziyd ion intra pesa i yandyd man ko dembo ; odd dembo 
bi-makmkdkiro ; podo makusko besi% kunizd. I rakirla ado 
biyddSiko: "Ja,res mange e kunizd: a to me tut kukures karye 
ddva i zamardva, kuli tu mdnge kunizd na resdsa." Me nane, 
so te kerdu ! Davdi po 'da dembo te jail e kunizd te resdU. 
Zagiyom. pe sdmo makdsko,—cindyd karadinydsa e kunizd, 
domardyd. Per mdnde rakirla: " Le kunizd edre duplya!" — 
"Me ni resdva ni-sir." — u Res, a to mardva." Me zmekiom dre 
dicplya i peiosi adorik i na vizdva ni-sir. A ion dumindyd, 
kai man o ric is^yd. 

A me §5wpindva telo goro 'de duplya — odoi yagvin. Me 
ni-sir oddtlr na vijdva. Ne, bes*lo dives, beslo i vavir. Me 
iundva: skrabinape. Dikydva: o ric ke me o siro bankirdyd dre 
duplya. Me nane so te kerdu! QyVildy&m les paid kand — i o 
straxdVf/r dilpe pale" Hresa — i man, caves ternes, viiradvyd — i mo 


rikirdydmpe paid krdiye. A o ric socinelpe dre p x d n 

I kunizd vicurdiydm. Stdlo bit, mdnde kakand dui sttihi 
est. Me sicds podu X tildydmpe x ere te nasd a I "Dado, de e gren 
andre! Aven-ka! Ja! Dl x , so me omardyom-te." Diyd gren 
andre. Avydm Jc add dembo, i kunizd e rices zakediydm. Sldva 
tuka ta, Devla ! Sldva, kai mdn, o Divel, ra x iyd. I Vbrayd 
kunizdtir kindydm i poddeuka sidydm. 

I went with children to cut whip-stocks. A bear appeared from some place 
that you would never expect. I nearly died with fear. These children ran away 
in fear, and I was left alone — these idiotic children were gone. Well, I was Kit 
to wander. I went into the middle of the wood. The night surprised me. I put 
my thick coat under my ribs, and I lay down. At dawn the cocks will begin to 
crow. I shall hear them then. I shall go to some village or other. I did not 
succeed in stirring at dawn, a forest ranger came along, and said : ' Where are you 
going 1 ' And I said : ' I have lost my way ! Show me the way to some village.' 
— ' Well, let us go along with me ! ' 

He took me along with him and led me to an oak tree : that oak tree was 
without a head ; under the head a marten was sitting. And that keeper said : 
' Go, get me that marten : else I will shoot at yourself and kill you, if you do not 
get me that marten.' There was nothing I could do ! I set to work to climb the 
oak to catch the marten. I climbed to the very top, — he shot with his gun at the 
marten, he killed it. He says to me : ' Take the marten into the hollow of the 
tree ! '— ' I won't take it anywhere.'—' Take it, or I will kill.' I let myself down 
into the hole, and falling in there I can get out nowhere. But he thought that 
the bear had eaten me. 

But I groped away under my feet in the hole — there was honey. I can't get 
out of that anywhere. Well, I sat a day, and I sat another. I heard : there was 
a scrabbling I looked : the bear was bending his head down to me in the hole. 
There was nothing I could do ! I caught hold of him behind the ears— and he 
from fright moved backwards with his head, and dragged me, poor little fellow, 
out— and I caught hold of the edge (of the hole). But the bear fell to the ground 
and was killed. 

I pulled out the marten too. Consequently I had now two pieces of game. 
I straightway made off to go home: 'Father, put the horses to! Come along ' 
Get on ! See what I have killed.' He put the horses to. We came to that oak, 
and picked up the marten and the bear. Glory to Thee, God ! 
Thou, Lord, hast saved me. I bought shoes with the price of the marten, and 
I sewed for myself a gabardine. 

A bit of luck saves a Gypsy 

Protradlyd man o ddt k X erester aurl—i nanS mdnge, 
te kardpe. I p x utydm me gazendir X er latd, odd ya r£d lo 
Giyom, add love zakediydm i kerdydmpe—cisto beng—add yarid; 
i giyom nasdU lovenza piro drom. 

I po drom strenindyompe odd gaSenza x" 1 ''" 1 '■" ■ lc0 " '"' 

zakediydm. I o gaze raklrna: "So tu add yarzo oldrdydi 
A ye x rakirlagazo: " Kdi mire o lore add yarzd pa 


zakedfoyd ten. Dav&i-ka to u^tllds les! Dav&i fu^stlds, te dre 
bdclca te 6u vds, te dro kdstl te curdds : pokulya o love dodl%dsape ! 
K6U '8% zell o love, tdk i mekdsa; a kali nane love, to zamardsa ! " 
Mdn te 'sis curori, one davdi e bockiza te procindu ydmkiza te 
dfyrinda Katir avyd rd — davdi pasil bocka, te sungel. Me 'da 
dtrkiza vastoro procidyom i ruves pale pori oytKldyom. I 'da 
rd mekydpe te prastdl piro korci, i bockdsa ; i 'da bocka sdri 
rospxfigiyd ; i me, ternd cavo, unastyom, i lore -%ere yandyom, 
i romnydsa zapiyom : " Bdk, romni, gilt : kakand amende but 
love, kakand pojivdsa tdsa ! Nd gorine tu kakand ! " 

.My father drove me from home, — and I had not where to take refuge. And 
T found out the rich house of a farmer, his money was lying hid in the meal. I 
went, I pinched that money, and I smeared myself — a regular devil — with the 
meal ; and I bolted down the road with the money. 

And on the road I came across the gorgio whose money I had pinched, with 
some friends. And the gorgios said: 'How come you so smeared with meal?' 
And one gorgio said : 'My money was in the meal — that fellow has pinched it. 
Let 's collar him ! Let 's take him and put him in a barrel, and throw him into 
the bushes till we see the money ! If all the money is there, we will let him go ; 
but if there is no money, we will kill him ! ' 

But I, poor fellow, set to work and cut a hole in the barrel to look out at. A 
wolf came from somewhere or other, and began to sniff about the barrel. I shoved 
my hand out of the hole, and caught the wolf by the tail. The wolf set off 
running through the tree stumps, and the barrel with him ; and the barrel was all 
broken to bits ; and I, poor boy, got out, and took the money home, and drank it 
all with ray wife : ' Sing a song, wife : now we have lots of money, now we shall 
both prosper ! You are not unlucky now ! ' 

Another story seems more properly to come under the head of 
Gypsy Life, and shows the short shrift with which Gypsies some- 
times meet at the hands of peasants. 

Jeddart Justice 

Sir giyd o ddt e cavesa e grin te coren, i podgine ko naslega, i 
okraztli len o gaze, i o^tilde e caves. Ad ddt dlk-^ela pale 
kustosVt/r, so 6aveske Una te keren. Ek gazo pyenela : "Davdite: o 
yak%d te vipusivas!" A vavir rakirla: "Davdi, ede pyti * e 
zakopinds les jidones!" Trito rakirla,: "Davdi, fedir oblavdsa!" 
L'i net% i obladi. 

X'!, visine ; o ddt d1ky_yd te dlyd te rovel, igiyd kyere. I kurko 
: m Ikyd, e dlyd and/re ; i yavyd 'darik ke iou, i zllyd tele e petlydtvr, 
e cudyd 'de vurdo, i yandyd k-^ere. I o romni i o cave zarundle, 
i garade les adrep^d. 

A father went with his son to steal horses, and they came to a night restiDg- 
place, the peasants surrounded them, and caught the son. And the father watched 


from behind a bush what they would do to his son. One gorgio said : ' Come on : 
let 's knock his eyes out ! ' Another said : ' Come on : let 's bury him alive in 
the ground ! ' The third said : ' Come on : it's better to string him up ! ' They 
took him and hanged him. 

Well, there he was hanging ; his father seeing it burst out crying, and went 
home. And a week after he yoked his horses and drove there to him, and took 
him down from the noose, and put him on the cart, and took him home. And his 
wife and the children wept, and buried him in the ground. 

Social Customs 

I find the same defect in Dobrowolski's method of dealing with 
the social habits and customs as I have already noticed with 
regard to folk-lore and traditions. There are specific instances of 
particular baptisms, marriages, and deaths, evidently taken down 
from the lips of Gypsies ; but no attempt is made to give an} r con- 
nected account of the ceremonies that accompany these events, 
nor to set out any peculiarly Gypsy customs which may still 
survive. Much of what is told us simply bears on the rites of the 
Orthodox Church, and would apply equally well to any peasant. 
I have therefore not thought it worth while in many cases to 
reproduce the Gypsy text; but have simply given a summary of 
the description. 

The Gypsy House 

When a Gypsy is asked what is the difference between a Gypsy 
cottage and that of a peasant, the usual reply is: — 'Clstobutt ! 
Mot o lexer pirdalo trin dives (It is much cleaner ! Wash the 
house every three days). Also in our houses are many girls : you 
can't marry them all. k^er Saenza p^erdo ! (The house is full 
of girls!) Laco k X er tollco caenza. (A house is only beautiful 
through girls).' 

There is no cross beam across the cottage, which, according to 
the rites and superstitions of the peasants, has a symbolic mean- 
ing. There is no pol in the cottage: the pol is a partitioned- 
off space at the wall, near the stove, where animals are sometimes 

Nane bdngi gaziJcani kastant, a 'si bdngi romanl aastrunt 
(There is not a wooden poker such as the peasants use in the 
cottage, but there is a Romany iron poker). In a peasant s 
cottage there is seldom to be found a pestle for pounding fa 
kurdo amende, Icai o bdlavas kurena ; gazenda o bdlavaa Icara 
ade piri, o todl one ado kartta sye&c&sa tinglrna (We Gyps 


always have a pestle for pounding lard ; the peasants boil their fat 
on the fire in pots, and then chop it in a trough with a chopping- 


The floor of the cottage is of wood. When it is cold in the 
cottage a fire is lit on an iron oven-lid, laid right on the floor : — 

RoskSr yag maflcero Ityfo pe zaslonka, t'av&a kyer tato (Light 
a fire in the middle of the house on the oven-lid, and the house 
will get warm). 

In the floor is a trap-door, usually on hinges — (The Gypsy 
says): — Vile px a l, vikede o py>uyane (Lift the trap, get out 
potatoes). Do Ic^er besabndskiro, bdnzi (There are chairs and 
benches in the house), and also a sldniz, the narrow bench used by 
peasants. U nets seranduni laci (We have got good pillows and 
feather-beds) : the Gypsy likes to wallow on a soft bed. Do k^er 
develd romeste laci (The ikons in a Gypsy's cottage are good 
ones) : the Gypsy loves elegance, and he decorates his house with 
comparatively precious and beautiful ikons. 

To the Gypsy's cottage there is attached only one additional 
building (outhouse), Stdla as the Gypsies call it, zadvdrok, ' back- 
yard ' in the peasant's expression. The peasant's outhouse has 
only two partitioned parts, while the Gypsy stdla has four 
divisions. In the Stdla horses, cows, and pigs are kept ; and there 
also the hay is stored. Sometimes there is no outhouse, and the 
horses are kept under ' God's thatch ' (the open sky). 1 

Before and After the Marriage Ceremony 

When we come to deal with the ordinar}' events of life, we find 
that Dobrowolski has very little to tell us which can be classed as 
of peculiarly Gypsy origin : most of his details would apply to the 
case of any orthodox Russian peasant. It is only here and there 
that one can disentangle something which seems to be undoubtedly 
a Gypsy custom. I have already translated his description of the 
betrothal ceremony and the betrothal song. Later on he gives 
some sentences, descriptive of points connected with the actual 
religious ceremony, which show that it is conducted according to 
the orthodox rites ; though, if I understand the passage correctly, 
there seems to be also a ' bedding ' ceremony. 

Me del o devel sard sukdr ! May God give all good ! 

Wavela ioi obizeno amendir, te zalinds te pocitends. She shall 
not be affronted by us, we will regret and honour. 

1 Sttda seems to be the Hungarian Istdttd, ' a stable.' 


Kindva lake venko zvyetender, kindva lake treviki lace, 
nevyestdka peskiridka. I will buy her a wreath of flowers, I will 
buy good shoes for my own bride. 

Te jds talo venza de k X angeri, terdyovdsa po rusniko, za x ac- 
Jcirdsa memald. We will go under crowns to the church, Ave will 
stand upon the foot-cloth, we will light candles. 

Uryola o raSdi o venzi, pirivincina men tusa. The priest 
will put on the crowns, he will marry me and you. 

Lela men o druzko, lela men paid vastd. The groomsman will 
take us, he will take us by the hand, 

Pyena ione e bravinta, i duza kirna tirnen e postelydtir. 
They drink the vodka, they await the young folks from the 

tudl vdsa te pyds te gulinds. Then will we drink and 

Sukdr, so nane lajavo, so sukdr vigiyd. It is well that it was 
not a cause of shame, that it passed off well. 

Gulinenti i pienti, ijan tumenge k^erd, i lizdla menke vurdd 
i zdsa me k^eri. Sport ye and drink, and go ye home, and he 
will lead us to the waggon and Ave will go home. 

Avdsa k^ere, vdsa te pyds e bravinta, te %ds o parame. We 
Avill come home, and Ave will drink vodka and eat cakes. 

Otpiyi tradena len pe postel. Having drunk they conduct 
them to the couch. 

%rydsno ddt, o %ry6sno ddi, odald beste polo skamint. The 
father and the mother Avho gave aAvay the bride, they sit behind 
the table. 

1 na yiilyasen, romdle, sir slucilas, na ubraklren man nikdi : 
eyem barvalo, dolesa i rddo. Be not angry children, Iioav it has 
happened, do not reproach me : to Avhom is the Avealth, his too is 
the pleasure (i.e. you are Avelcome to all I haA r e). 

This passage seems to be of the nature of an epithalamium,. 
though it is not so called: it describes the ordinary features of an 
orthodox Avedding ceremony, combining the betrothal and the 
actual marriage; the Avalk to the church with the croAvns held by 
the groomsmen over the heads of the bride and bridegroom : the 
advance by the pair to the cloth of pink satin which is laid dowD 
for them to tread upon (superstition says that Avhoevcr first places 
a foot on the cloth will be ruler of the house); the holding of 
lighted candles by the pair; the placing on of the crowns, which 
Avith the interchange of rings marks the actual marriage; the 


circumambulation performed by the newly married pair, led by the 
priest (or here apparently by the best man) ; and the drinking of 
wine from the same cup. Then comes the return home to the 
wedding feast : the bride and bridegroom seem to be conducted to 
the couch (perhaps this is a solemn bedding, such as still takes 
place at peasant weddings in Brittany, and was common among 
all classes in Great Britain also three hundred years ago). The 
officials and the parents sit in the place of honour ' behind the 
table ' ; the table of honour being placed, in peasants' houses, in a 
corner of the room beneath the ikons, and the guests sitting 
behind it, facing into the room,'access to their seats being obtained 
by scrambling over the table. 

Birth and Christening 

There are no details of great interest given in connection with 
the ceremonies at birth. The account commences : — Biydndeya 
cavoro. — Jd paid p-^uridte te periJeir cavoris, a to te nd merel 
(A boy is born. — Go and fetch the midwife to care for him, that 
he may not die). Then as usual brandy is sent for; and 
messengers are dispatched to fetch the godfather and godmother. 
Apparently bread and salt are sent to the godfather : the passage 
runs : — Gin mar or 6 i lontiklr. P%&nd edo dik^loro. Later on 
comes a distinctively Gypsy incident, where the godmother 
' dukkers' the newly-born child : — 

Yd-ze te dVJcxdti cavores', ti vibaryola you, t% 'vela you baytalo. 
Me galivdva, me zinom, kirivi, sosa you avila te zalelpe ; me todl 
tuJce pyendva, kirivi. kanore zorali — i baytalo 'vela, Icoli dela 
o Divel, avela te zalelpe grinza, avela te parovil e grin. Koli dela 

Divel, vdva te gulindv ua krestnikoskero biydu. Tcuvdva leske 
sasto po poddrko. 

Let me have a look at the boy, that I may see if he will grow up and will be lucky. 

1 shall see, I shall know, gossip, what his occupation will be ; I will then tell 
you, gossip. His dear little ears are strong — he will be lucky, if God wills it, he 
will deal with horses, and will swap horses. If God wills it, I shall dance at my 
godson's wedding feast. I will give him a rouble for luck. 

Death and Burial 

During the recent visit of Gypsy coppersmiths to this country 
the papers were full of details with regard to the burial of one 
of their number; and some of them referred with a certain 
amount of fearful joy to the incantations supposed to have been 


muttered by the chief over the grave after the burial. Perhaps 
Dobrowolski's instances of the form of farewell uttered over the 
grave may explain these supposed invocations. The first is 
headed, ' Death of a beloved wife. Grief of the Gypsy. Lament ' : — 
romni miri zanasvdliya: te pal' rasdste te jds. Avyom ko 
raSai : " Zdorov, rasdya /"..." Zdorov ! So tu 'vydn ? " . . . 
" Miri romni cut te jidt." ..." Me sicds yavdva." 

rasdi yavyd : " Ti %ayan tu so? "... " yayom ta rid-but." 
. . . "So-z tu %aydn ?"..." Bukoro nd-butka." ..." Sir ze tu des 
patradt ?"..." A mdnge nd-butka." . . . RaSdi diyd patradi Idlce. 
Tdlki giyd o rasdi, romni meyd ; trebi te jds pale ratsdste. 

Neko, rasdi yavyd. Line te roven, line do grobo te tcuven .... 
"Sir nemozno kddine pasilo gerd, ? Ioi isis baytall, i sdmo priyu- 
tisca 'sis. Sard ko ydkiri 'sis. Nikdi na dik^esa adasave romnyd 
proti bd-%- Xatiydn kakdna bi-romnydkiro ! " Lini ado grobo. 
Rasdi zabagandyd. 

" Miri romnori, konesa man mekesa i peskire cavore'n ? 
Xasiyom me kakand! Nasadyom peskiri bdx-' So 'da Divel 
kirdyd? Add Divel kirdyd — cavore mire yasnenpe sirotenzal 
Java adorik, kdrik o yak%d na dik^na." 

" Nd, Nd, mek! Take romnyd latydsa, i o caven avela te 
kormine. Na za^odise adydke, more, a td yacela ado sero ]>/<'" ' 
Tu zines so ? Isci romnyd, but 'si po sveto ! Vipiyds mortval ! .' " 
"Mdnge adydke kirko 'si!" " Ai, piyds, more; fededir tuk' 
acela ! " Ndke, llyd te tcuvel ; ne i piyd i zabagandyd:— 

" Me po kockiza besto 'som, 
I peskiri baytori me nasadyom ! 

Xatiyom me, cororo, 

Peskire cavorenza ! 
Romalele, romalele, 
Na pomeken man, cavalale, 

Ado bard ado strddizo ! " 

My wife was ill : it was necessary to go for the priest. I came to the pries! 
' Good day (Health) Easai ! ' . . . ' Good day ! why have you come ?\ . . «My wil 
is barely alive.' . . . ' I will come at once.' 

The priest came : 'Have you eaten anything ?'...' I ate a very 111 I 
have you eaten ?'....' A little bit of liver.' . . . ' How can I communicate 
. . . 'But I only had a very little bit.' . . . The priest gave her the communio 
The priest had hardly gone, when my wife died ; it was necessary to go i 
the priest. 

' Well, the priest came. They began to weep, they began to beat th« 
[The Gypsy begs of the priest] .' Cannot one burr, a little incense about her 


She was a lucky wife, and was a refuge to us. All my hope was in her. You 
never saw such a woman for luck. I am lost without my wife ! ' They put her in 
the coffin. The priest chanted. 

[The husband began to lament] : ' My little wife, with whom have you left me 
and your children ? I am ruined now ! I have lost my luck ! God, what hast 
Thou done ? It is the work of God — my children are left orphans ! Thither will 
I go, where eyes see not [i.e. I will kill myself].' 

[The other Gypsies say] : 'Nay, nay, cease this ! We will find for you a wife, 
and the children will be fed. Brother, grieve not thus, what you have in your 
head is not good ! Do you know what ? Seek out a young wife, there are plenty 
in the world ! We will drink some vodka ! — ' I have bitterness enough without 
that ! [This is a sort of play upon goreylocki, and gorko.~\ ' See now, let us drink, 
brother ; there are better times coming for you ! ' He poured out a little ; he 
drank it off and began to sing : — 


' I am seated on the hillock, 
And I have lost my happiness ! 

I, wretched one, am lost, 

And my children with me ! 
Gypsies, Gypsies, 
Leave me not, my kinsmen, 

In my great grief ! ' 

Apparently the widower soon thought better of matters, and 
took the advice of his kinsmen ; for in the passage which immedi- 
ately follows this in the book, he is courting another girl. 

A specimen is given of the farewell to the dead, said over the 
grave, which is no doubt the incantation referred to by the 
English papers. It runs as follows : — 

Nd rov, so-s tu keresa ? 

Divel diyd, i Divel liyd. 

Zdrstvo leslce. 

Trebi btto leslce te pozivel birsa dui. 

Jan paid rasdste. 

Dente raidske trin zallcova love. 

Mei yavel o rasdi atasyd i me garavel. 

Yavyd o rasdi. 

Jdnte, prostinente ! 

Weep not, what can you do? 

God gave, God has taken. 

His is the Kingdom. 

He ought to have lived two years. 

i ro and fetch the prie-t. 

Give the priest three roubles. 

Let the priest come to-morrow and bury him. 

The priest has come. 

Go, make your farewells ! 


Another ' Farewell to the dead ' runs thus : — 

Mo cdvoro mdlenko, na zabisttr pe 'mende, pe cororende. 
Doslt, dosit. 
Nd ro, nd ro. 

My dear little son, forget not us, miserable creatures. 
Enough, enough. 
Weep not, weep not. 

Songs and Music 

I do not propose here to go into the question of the Gypsy 
songs, of which specimens — the majority of which come from the 
district of Kisilevsk — are given in the third part of Dobrowolski's 
work. Dobrowolski says that the Gypsy songs are short, but 
picturesque, and with a certain literary character. They hymn 
the Gypsy's daring and dauntless courage ; his bewitching love ; 
they bewail his bitter fate in prison ; his parting with his kin, etc. 
These would be obviously incomplete without the music which 
accompanies some of them ; and I leave this to be treated at some 
future time by a musician. I give, however, a lament from the 
village of Kudrazyevo, in the district of Yelninsk, which is sung as 
a sort of chant. It is called ' A wife's lament for household 
troubles ' : — 

Man o ddt otdvyd paid rom dur. Man rom mardyd, pro- 
tradiyd me. Ion px^cela me: "So tu yandydn tre psalendir 
zoralendir? "... Me Devla, Devla, curde man kukuskizdsa t'urnydu, 
Bestyom pe breziza nasuprati lexer. psal oxtUdyd puSkiza te 
stryelipe me kukdskiza. . . . Mro psaloro, me som tumari p%enori! 
Me man rom mardyd, protradlyd : mdrla, cingirla, protradela, 
hard priddnoya vimarela. Rom px^nela : so-z tu yandydn tre 
dadestir barvalestir, tre psalendlr zoralendvr ? Ne, su-z tu yand- 
ydn ? " Vimdrla o rop l i o rup i o sounakdi ... u Mri /<v " 
mri pxenori, nd ro ; jd tele brezizdte(r), jd tele!" I curdydpe 
kukuskiza manusesa. I zarundyd o ddt i o psald sare : ' Kattr 
tut yandydn o Divel? Nd ro, nd ro, mri pxenori! Sdro 'mdnda 
'vela ! Jid' avdsa, naserdsa i caV avdsa ; jid" avdsa I priddnoya 
ddsa lake, i o nip i o sounakdi, i sukdr Idsa te zivds." 

My father gave me in marriage far from home. My husband beat me, and 

ordered me away. He asked me: 'What did you bring fr tl mi( 

brothers of yours ? ' . . . God, God, change me into the form oJ a j uckoo 

that I may fly away. ... I perched on a birch-tree opposite my home. Mj 

1 Rop for rom, perhaps for the sake of alliterati. d with ntp. 


brother took his gun to shoot ine the cuckoo. . . . Dear little brother, I am your 
little sister ! My husband beat me, drove me forth : he beats, he whips, he 
drives forth, he thrashes out a big dowry. My husband says : ' What did you bring 
from your, rich father, from your mighty brothers? Eh, what did you bring?' 
My husband thrashes out both silver and gold. 

' My little sister, my little sister, weep not ; come down from the birch-tree, 
come down! ' And I the little cuckoo changed into human form. And my father 
and all my brothers began to weep : ' Whence did God bring you ? Weep not, 
weep not, my little sister ! We shall earn money, and shall be successful, and 
shall be satisfied ; we shall earn money and will give her a dowry, both silver and 
gold, and we shall live well.' 



By H. L. Williams of the Indian Police 
( Continued from p. 58) 

Part II. — Tribal Customs and Occupations 

1. Pancayats (Councils of Elders) and the Ordeal 

rPHE Pancayats are an institution in vogue among all the tribes 
which are the subject of this paper. They are usually con- 
vened at the August clan-gatherings, and the members are chosen 
from among the leaders of the camps, one or more of whom may 
be women. The councils of the Sansi and Beriha Bhantus, if 
not presided over by women, admit women as members. They 
adjudicate concerning compensation-claims for the abduction of 
girls, matrimonial and family disputes, the division of stolen 
property, offences against tribal laws, and so forth. Offenders 
may be required to undergo an ordeal of which there are several 
kinds. Subjoined are four examples, of which the first three are 
Bhantu and the fourth Baoriah : — 

(1) The ordeal called the gola. An iron ball is heated and the 
accused person takes it up in his hand. If his hand is scorched, 
he is declared guilty ; if his hand is unscathed, he is pronounced 

(2) The ordeal called the deba. A spot, about a yard square 
in size, is cleared. Upon this is placed a plate containing crushed 
food, and upon the food a lighted lamp and two pieces of stick, of 
which the complainant takes one and the defendant the other. A 
man is then selected, who first bathes and is then carried to a 


pool of deep water, where he plunges below the surface. Simul- 
taneously the two sticks are flung after him. When the diver 
comes to the surface he picks up one of the sticks, the owner of 
that stick, whether complainant or defendant, winning the suit. 

(3) Two balls are made of dough, one of which contains a 
rupee and the other a copper coin. Both are then thrown into a 
pot of water, and the accused is invited to dip his hand into the 
pot and take either the one which contains the rupee or the one 
which contains the copper coin. If he picks the ball fixed upon, 
he is declared to be innocent, 

(4) An axe is made red-hot. The accused is given twenty 
leaves of the ficus religiosa to protect his hand, and the axe-head 
having been laid on them, he must walk twenty paces. 

2. Omens 

Superstitious beliefs are allowed to affect also the course of 
their ordinary life, and they have great faith in omens. Baoriahs 
carry a family talisman called the Devakadana. When on their 
wanderings en famille, this thing always accompanies the tribe. 
Grains of wheat and the seeds of a plant, contained in a brass box 
with a peacock's feather and a bell, are all wrapped up in a white 
cloth stained with the imprint of a hand dipped in goat's blood. 
The whole is encased in Turkey red. Baoriahs do not embark on 
any enterprise without first consulting the talisman. This they 
do by taking at random a small quantity of grain out of the 
Devakadana and counting the number of grains, the omen being 
considered good or bad according as the number of seeds is odd 
or even. 

Among the Bhantus favourable omens are: — Meeting a milk- 
maid, a person carrying grain or money, a woman carrying a pot 
of water, a marriage procession, seeing a pig, etc. Bad omens 
are:— The cry of a jackal, the sight of a cat, mourning oyer the 
dead, a do? running with food in its mouth, a kite screaming on a 
tree, and the breaking of a pot by a woman when drawing water. 
A snake passing from right to left is good, but from left to right 
is bad. 

3. Religion 

The religion of the Indian 'Gypsies' who are not Hindu, or 
Muslim, is ancestor-worship, though some hold animistic belief 


They visit shrines held sacred by Indians, but only for external 
appearance sake. The true deities of the Bhantus are their 
ancestors Sidh Bina, commonly called Dada Bina (father Bina), 
Batla, Hetam, Toto, Mala, etc., and an ancestress Mai Lakhi. An 
oath on Hetam, Toto and Mai Lakhi, a Bhantu has been said 
never to break. Malang should also be mentioned as the spirit 
of an ancestor of some status, and they acknowledge Jainbhu and 
Kiikla as evil spirits. Old tumuli existing in certain places, 
supposed to have been erected by Bhantus of a bygone age for 
religious purposes and to contain the manes of their ancestors, are 
visited by Bhantus of the present day for sacrifice and ceremonial. 
One of these places is the cenotaph to Sidh Bma near Lahore, and 
Rajah Sansi, the burial place of the original progenitor of the 
Bhantus, near Amritsar, is a landmark in their ancient history. 
The sacrifice takes the form of slaying a cock and sprinkling the 
blood on the tumulus with incantations. 

There is one religious platform which is common to all Indian 
' Gypsies,' and that is the temple and cult of the Goddess Bhawani, 
Kali, or, since she possesses yet another name, Devi. All are her 
votaries : in her rites a blessing is asked on their enterprises — 
which are usually criminal — and at her altar omens are consulted. 

The oath, referred to above, is usually taken in the following 
manner : — A knife having been stuck in the ground and a circle 
drawn round it, the head of the pane adjures the culprit: je turn 
kiila, te turn ko had lo, 'if you have done the deed, then remove 
the knife.' Mai Lakhi is invoked to punish the accused if he is 
lying. Another method is to cause the suspect to go into the 
water up to his neck holding the knife in his hand, and there take 
the oath in the name of the Goddess. 

One-fifth of stolen property is distributed in charity and, after 
a successful expedition, Brahmans and Fakirs are fed. The 
religious dole is called Nardyan led hatha. 

4. Burial 

Among Indian ' Gypsies ' in general, the dead are cremated or 
interred, according to whether the tribe is in Hindu or Musalman 
country, but always face downwards, so that the spirit shall not 
return and give trouble. There are propitiatory rites and the 
corpse is adjured thus : ' Let not your spirit return to trouble us, 
lest we curse you.' On the seventh day, cooked rice, laid on 


leaves of the ficus religiosa, is placed on the ground : if a crow- 
eats it, the omen is good, not so if a dog eats it. 

Bhantus erect masonry monuments adorned with chattris, or 
cupolas, over their distinguished dead, and they are visited for 
sacrificial purposes in August. The Bhantu corpse— covered with 
a white sheet, if a man, or a red sheet, if a woman— is carried on 
a bed to the burial-place, and, during the journey, the bed is thrice 
rested on the ground. Cooked food and grain are also brought, 
the former to be distributed on arrival amongst the bearers of the 
body, and the grain to be bestowed upon the Fakirs and l)oms 
who attend the funeral. The latter receive also the shroud. On 
the seventh day after the funeral, a public feast is held in the 
encampment. A large wood fire is kindled on which incense is 
burnt, and the four leading men in the camp cast handfuls of rice 
in turn into the flames saying : ' Your dues have been paid, abstain 
from annoying us.' If a leading man dies, another feast is held 
on the fortieth day after his death. 

5. Marriage Rites 

Marriage rites vary according to whether the tribe follows the 
Hindu or the Musalman ceremonial ; but Bhantus and Badiyas 
following neither are married by phera, or circling. On the day 
appointed, four wooden pegs, a span long, are driven into the 
ground, forming a square. A fire is lit and cotton steeped in 
oil cast upon it. The couple circles round the fire seven times, 
with their garments knotted together (gath jofa), gifts are ex- 
changed and guests bring offerings (tambol), and so the ceremon} 
ends. The Baoriah wedding is equally simple. They beat small 
drums (dholak), and collect themselves round the bride and 
bridegroom. The head-man of the tribe offers the bride to the 
bridegroom, and then cloths are presented to both by the elden 
of each party. The couple are caused to bathe together, a 
which the gifts of clothing are worn by them. They are then 
made to sit again before the assembly for a while, and the feasting 
and drinking begin. Their favourite beverage is toddy. 

Marriage by Jcarewa, casting the veil, or marriage without a 
ceremony, is the only form permissible for widows, it is '\>r,\ 
also when an unmarried woman is destitute or has no parents. A 
man's surviving brother is required to marry his widow, or. in de- 
fault, she may claim compensation through a pandayat. W hen a 

VOL. VI. — NO. II. " 


widow remarries, bracelets of brass are put on her wrists, and a 
fine of five rupees imposed. A woman convicted of adultery 
is disgraced, and her veil torn, the male accomplice being fined 
from two rupees upwards by the pantayat The tongue of such a 
female is sometimes branded and her nose slit. 

6. Consanguinity with other Races 

As has been suggested already, all ' Gypsy ' tribes have not 
equally pure blood : modern practice and ancient tradition show 
that mixed marriages occur. The Pacadas take concubines and 
even wives from the ' Gypsy ' classes and from cognate races, such 
as the Machis and Jhiwars. The ties of consanguinity between the 
Jats, who are believed to be a people of Scythian descent, and the 
Sansis are in some parts a matter of common knowledge. At the 
present day, it is hard to tell where Jat begins and ' Gypsy ' ends. 
The Kanjars of the South trace their origin to Jat country in the 
following account which they give of themselves : — ' Many years 
ago, there were two brothers who resided in Bhartpur. Their 
names were Sains Mai and Sansi. The descendants of the former 
were called Berihas, those of the latter Sansis or Sansia Bhats. 
Each had a dialect of its own. The Sansis called the Berihas 
Dolis and themselves Bhantu ; the Berihas called the Sansis 

In The History of the Panjab, by Syed Muhamad Latif (Cal- 
cutta, Central Press Company, Limited, 1891), p. 335, will be 
found a genealogical tree of the Maharajah Ranjit Singh, the 
' Lion of the Panjab,' and in the following pages his descent is 
traced. In 1488, there died an ancestor of the Maharajah, named 
Kalu, a Bhatti Jat, who had settled at .Rajah Sansi, near Amritsar, 
and whose son, named Jaddoman, was believed to be really the 
son of a member of the tribe which frequented that place. Jad- 
doman was brought up in the Sansis' camp, and led the life of a 
freebooter with them. Budha, nicknamed Desu, fifth in descent 
from Jaddoman, became a Sikh in 1692. Nodh Singh (died 1752), 
the son of Budha, married the granddaughter of Besu, Sansi chief 
of Majitha; he was a famous highway robber, a dharwa, and, 
assisted by his wife's relatives, Golab Singh and Amar Singh, 
amassed much wealth. The latter became chiefs of Majitha. 
Carat Singh, the son of Nodh Singh, married the daughter of 
Amir Singh, Gujarwal, the grandson of Sim Nath, a Sansi whose 


conviction of the truth of the Sikh religion induced him to receive 
the pahul (Sikh baptism) at the advanced age of one hundred 
years. The ancestors of the Maharajah appear to have established 
themselves at Rajah Sansi, where they collected round them a 
number of Sansis, Mazbis (Bhangis), and other wandering robbers, 
and depredated the surrounding country. With these forces! 
Carat Singh, in 1762, engaged the invading army of the Afghan 
King, Ahmad Sah Durani, harassed the march of the Afghans, 
cut off their stragglers, and plundered their baggage. 

Thus the best Jat family has ' Gypsy ' blood in its veins. If 
the evidence is so conclusive in the case of the great Sardars, it is 
all the more so in that of the common people. It is conceivable 
that, if the Jats were once Scythians, they would have found the 
Hindus hedged in behind their impenetrable caste barrier, and 
that there was no one with whom to form matrimonial connec- 
tions except the Mlechas. 

7. Causes of Dispersal and Migration 

Judging from the experience of the present time, the causes 
which operate most acutely in the dispersal of the ' Gypsies ' are 
the restriction of their area, the extension of agriculture, the 
spread of canal irrigation, the reduction of jungle-land, and the 
diminishing quantities of game which is so necessary to their 
existence. The trouble may have begun under the later Hindu 
rulers, but there can be no doubt that it became accentuated 
when the Muslim power parcelled out the lands and introduced 
land-ownership and revenue-laws. Of the Sansis who frequented 
Rajah Sansi in the Sikh times but a small remnant is left, and of 
the host of Haburahs who roamed over the plains of Aligarh 
there are probably none now remaining. Given a broad expanse 
of country to wander over at his own sweet will, and plains 
abounding in antelope, jackal, fox and winged game, what more 
does a 'Gypsy' want? But the lack of these conditions ami 
things has developed in him qualities and habits which have 
brought him into great disrepute. It almost looks as if the 
Bhantu had declared a perpetual war to the knife against the 

One other factor has to be considered. The Asiatic ruler is 
cruel in his methods,— witness the treatment of the inhabitants oi 
Kafiristan by the Amir Abdurrahman in 1895, witness also the 
massacres of Timur the Tartar at the close of the fourteenth 


century. It may have occurred that a Muslim ruler ordered the 
massacre or expulsion of Bhantus and others at some period. 
Certain Badiyas of Karnal have imperial Mughal sanads (certifi- 
cates) some three or four hundred years old, engraved on copper 
plates, and certifying that they follow a lawful calling as jugglers and 
acrobats. The inference is that these testimonials were issued to 
them and other inoffensive tribes to protect them from extermina- 
tion and expulsion. 

As has been stated in the accounts of the Baoriahs, this people 
has a tradition that it was compelled, on account of scarcity, to 
migrate from Rajputana subsequent to the siege which the King 
of Dehli laid to Citor for the sake of a Princess Padmini. The 
Badiyas have the same legend ; and where all agree is that the 
particular siege was that by Ala-ud-din Khilji, which took place 
in 1303 a.d., and not the more recent and greater siege by the 
Emperor Akbar, when the Rajputs were finally crushed. The 
Gada Lohars told me that they were the artificers and engineers of 
the Rajputs in power in Citor, the Mmas were the swordsmen, the 
Baoriahs the musketeers, and the Bhils the bowmen of the Rajputs ; 
and that, on the fall of Citor, these various tribes swore an oath 
that they would wander over the face of the earth till the Rajput 


kingdom should be once again restored in Citor. The Gada 
Lohars wandered to Nepal and many distant countries. This is 
the only disturbance resulting in migration and dispersal of which 
I have heard from the mouths of the wanderers themselves. 

8. Homing instinct of Foreign ' Gypsies ' 

The homing instinct, to which the above story refers, is a real 
factor in the life of some ' Gypsies.' Evidence of it exists in the 
number of Mesopotamian, Persian and Central Asian ' Gypsies,' 
known to Indians under the names Irani, Biloe, Arab, and ►Sarni. 
who enter India each year by the north-western passes and spread 
themselves over the face of the land. Faizu Irani, the leader of a 
party of Persian Bhantus, told me that his itinerary lay between 
Constantinople and Calcutta. These wanderers sell ponies, ancient 
coins, Mursidabad rupees, trinkets, cutlery and such like, and 
plunder where they can. Sometimes, when their numbers in- 
crease and they make themselves objectionable, they are deported 
by order of Government under the Foreign Vagrants Act, as 
occurred in 1884. when four thousand of them were removed from 
the Nizam's dominions and expelled across the Afghan border. 


I never before saw such a turbulent crowd. The women wished 
to visit Dehli, and they literally charged and boarded the trains 
to the great inconvenience of the travelling public. Many bona 
fide passengers fled from their carriages, shops all round closed 
and barred their shutters as looting began, the confectioners were 
ravaged, and not a sugar-plum was paid for. 

I wrote as follows about this class in a monograph some years 
ago : — ' These are, according to Mr. Warburton, the Sansis of 
Central Asia. They are sometimes to be met with in the cold 
weather months with their flocks of sorry ponies, and may be said 
to migrate between Asiatic Turkey and the extreme South and 
East of India. Their means of livelihood are usually by the sale 
of sham and foreign coins, Brummagem ware and trinkets, and by 
fortune-telling. They are audacious frauds and cheats with the 
impudent and truculent demeanour of Sansis, hence the village 
folk are afraid of them. . . . These Gypsies are good linguists and 
very loquacious, a characteristic also of the Sansis, and they are 
also addicted to open pillage.' If this species, being of Persia, are 
asked: — 'Are you of Persia?' they will reply: Md Mughal mi 
hastim, 'we are Mongols'; if they are really from Syria, the 
answer will be: Md basindagdn-i-Irdn mi bdsim, 'we are natives 
of Persia,' or, Mulk-i-md haminjd ast, 'our country is here.' 

9. Rapidity of Movement 

The movements of Bhantu gangs are so rapid that forty miles 
may be covered in one night, during which time the marked 
houses may be burgled, some hundredweight of cotton stolen from 
the Jats' fields, and brass utensils left unguarded in their dwellings 

The celerity in travel of the Sansi dacoits can be inferred from 
the following passage, of which the present writer was the author : ■ 
—'On the 16th of May 1882, a gang of eight men arrived at 
Ambala from Aligarh. On that night they committed six or more 
dacoities on the Grand Trunk Road towards Karnal, walked along 
the railway to Rajpura, from whence, on May 17th, they wenl to 
Patiala by horse carriage, and from there to Nabha in ekkaa. On 
May 18th they put up in the inn and left the same evening for 
Patiala. On the way they plundered an ekka and reached Patiala 
morning of May 19th, from whence they worked their way to 
Pehoa, committing three dacoities on the road.' Under such cir- 

7 O 

1 Unpublished State Papers, Panjab, 1896. 


cumstances members of the band are apt to be detached from it, 
and a system of trail signs becomes necessary. 

10. Marking the Trail and Secret Signs 

When a camp shifts the following are some of the signs, giving 
the points of the compass, which are left to inform the stragglers 
and others in what direction the tribe has gone : 

(1) North. A stone placed on a mound. This conveys the 
idea of a mountain. The position of mountains is towards the 

(2) South. Scattered fragments of a broken pitcher. This 
shows that the pitcher has been broken, and that the water has 
flowed in a stream. The trend of rivers is towards the South. 

(3) Bast. Zig-zag marks are drawn upon the ground, supposed 
to represent the first shafts of the rising sun. 

(4) West. The Gulha, or cooking-place, is broken up. This 
signifies the extinction of fire, and is symbolic of the sunset in the 

Leaves from plants growing round the camp, usually a plant 
easily recognisable on account of its abundance, are gathered and 
placed in heaps under stones or clods at even distances along the 
route. The imprint of a foot, pointing in the direction taken, is 
made beside the heap of pattar, or leaves. At the starting-point 
the private mark of the tribe is scratched on a tree. A straight 
line with a curve at the end, traced with a stick on the soil, also 
indicates that the direction taken is that in which the straight line 
points. Sometimes a spray from the bough of a tree, broken off 
and laid on the ground near the cooking stones, with the broken 
end pointing in the required direction, is the only index. 1 Houses, 
which it is intended to rob, are marked with the charred end of a 
stick. The marking of the house is always done by the Bhatanis 
when out begging and dancing. 

Guttural and inarticulate sounds are uttered by Bhantus and 
Baoriahs when in custody, and when engaged in highway-robbery, 
to communicate with one another. The victims of a dacoity have 
described how their assailants have smitten and assailed them in 

1 Many descriptions of Indian trail-signs are given by Michael Kennedy in his 
book, Xotes on Criminal Classes in the Bombay Presidency (Bombay, 1908). He has, 
however, omitted to provide an index, and for this reason the following list of refer- 
ences may be useful :— Pp. 24 (Bhamptas), 54 (Chhapparbands), 71 (Kaikadis), 16S 
(Waddars), 17S-9 (Bauriahs), 201 (Marwar Baoris), 209 (Minas), 223 (Oudhias), 250 
(Sansis), 282 (Harnis). Kennedy's spelling has been retained. 


silence, except for the exchange among themselves of peculiar 
sounds such as hur hur and hun hun. If subjected to an 
interrogatory when in custody, Bhantus prompt each other by 
jerking the elbow outwards while scratching the head. There is a 
freemasonry among Bhantus by which they achieve recognition 
when not personally acquainted. Cries imitating those of jackals, 
foxes, or owls, all have their meaning; and the following are 
examples of communication by sound : — 

(1) Guttural sound, with the mouth closed, like the cry of a 
night-jar, 'police are coming.' 

(2) Palm of the hand held to the mouth to produce a squawk- 
ing noise, ' disperse, run away.' 

(3) A squeaking noise, like that of a mongoose, made by kiss- 
ing the palm of the hand, ' laggards come up.' 

Of signs with the hand the following have been given : — 

(1) Hand scratching the cheek, 'approach.' 

(2) Pointing with the elbow, ' lift the article.' 

(3) Striking the palm with the fist, ' wait.' 

(4) Hand on the chest and elbow raised, 'clear off with the 


(5) Hand raised to the shoulder and elbow lowered, ' drop it.' 

11. Language 

It would be idle to expect that a people scattered centuries ago 
throughout districts where many tongues are spoken would have 
one uniform speech. Regarding the languages of Indian ' Gypsies,' 
the Indian Census Report (1901) says: 'Their character changes 
with the locality using them, and, while retaining a backbone 
peculiar to the particular dialect, assimilates the local vocabulary 
and pronunciation.' This backbone consists of words— substantives 
and some verbs— from an unknown tongue, probably the parent 
of Bhantu, or universal 'Gypsy,' kept up by the tribes in their 
wanderings for home use, and to facilitate crime. It may be 
something more than mere coincidence that a Bhantu calls a 
Gentile Kdjd, for there are other parallels: compare, for instance 
European Gypsy jukel 'dog,' with the Bhantu word Shukal for the 
same animal, Badiya bhiikal, Mang jMTcail, Mang Garudi zukail, 
andliamoshi kuleal; and the down-country Bhantu r/nun, 'boy,' 
chai 'girl,' which are also Pacada words, with Bomani favo, the 
origin of which Pott and Miklosich could not trace. Remarkable 



also are laidra ' horse (stallion),' maila ' horse, lobu ' money,' balua 
' pig,' and Mang G.irudi laf ' money/ tuk and tukar ' a morsel,' and 
no doubt many more which are not heard in any Indian dialect 
spoken except Bhantu. The word for crime in Bhantu is gaim, 
and in other dialects gauni. Thus the Gauni-viar Harni, ' a 
handsome wench endowed with a saucy frankness,' who, if caught 


by her dupe, threatens to expose him for cohabiting with a Cuhri, 
is rightly termed the one who commits crime. 

The words of strange and obscure origin excepted, the rest of 
the subject of language may be summed up in Richardson's words : 
' They (the Badiya Nats) have two languages peculiar to them- 
selves, one intended for the use only of the craftsmen of the set, 
the other general among men, women, and children. The 
Hindostani is the basis of both ; the first in general being a mere 
transposition or change of syllables, and the second apparently a 
systematic conversion of a few letters. . . .* The following are 
examples of the latter from the Bhantu language: — 






come (past part.) 



to come 



























we shall go 



to go 






police station-house officer 




On the other hand it would be interesting to know in Avhat 
other Indian dialects Bhantu words such as the following occur : — 
ciwar 'a watchman or constable,' ghdbri 'goat' (possibly a 
disguised form of bakri), hingal ' bullock,' khapla ' salt,' khimat 
'buffalo,' hivj 'wheat,' hili 'night,' Idlsi 'cow,' pingi 'fire,' seth 
' gram,' sij>ri ' rice,' tntimda ' pig,' etc., etc. 

1 Asiatic Researches, vol. vii. p. 461. 


12. Use of Unguents 

Dr. Hans Gross, in his work on criminology, 1 says that some 
Gypsies in Europe are distinguished by a peculiar and offensive 
smell, which is likened to a ' compound of musk-rat tainted with 
rancid fat.' It pervades the air of a court-house and the soil of 
the ground where a camp has been for days after the Gypsies 
have gone. This identical smell distinguishes all the Bhantus 
and practically none of the other Indian 'Gypsies.' I have 
registered hundreds of Baoriahs under the Criminal Tribes Act, 
and they have not emitted a tithe of the odour that two or three 
Bhantus will create in a room. I have come to cross-roads and 
picked up the trail of a Bhantu camp by the scent, especially 
where the road has lain between tall hedges of brushwood. On 
searching a Bhantu camp, a number of clay pots are always 
found, containing grease of various kinds. A popular grease is 
extracted from the tail of the broad-tailed lizard, and jackal fat 
is used to promote virilit}'. I have attributed the smell to the 
use of such unguents, but it may arise from some other cause. 
A Sansi woman told me she had no use for water except to 
assuage thirst. Bhantus, in fact, seldom bathe, and not many 
can swim, whereas some Badiyas are strong swimmers, and the 
Moras, or water Gypsies, are amphibious. 

13. CJiarge of Cannibalism 

The charge of cannibalism has often been brought against the 
Gypsies of Europe, and from it their Indian brethren are not 
exempt. I reported as follows in 189G: 2 —' Agriculturists have 
a version that they (the Sansis) are still anthropophagous. I 
have had stories related to me of how some unfortunate rustic, 
bent on the restitution of some property of which he had been 
deprived, pursued the encampment and was seized and slaughtered, 
and, after being cut up in pieces, thrown into the cooking pots.' 
Another case involving a similar charge was reported by me in 
the same year:— 'The following incident may be mentioned as 
illustrative of the summary vengeance inflicted by Sansis on those 
who betray them. Ajmeri and Tota, Sansis of Uda'a camp, had 
been secured as approvers by the special agency employed in in- 

1 Criminal investigation . . . translated . . .from the System der Kriminal 

of Dr. Hans Gross . . . by John Adam . . . and J. Collyer Adam. Londop, I'."'., 
pp. 361-2. 

2 Unpublished State Papers, Panjab, 1890. 


vestigating dacoities of the past year. On the 27th of September 
1 895 Ajineri and Tota were sent with Manga Constable to Alwar 
and Bhartpur to obtain news of the perpetrators of the Paharganj 
dacoity of the 3rd of that month, which had been suspected to 
have been committed by members of Mihrpal's camp. On the 
9th of October, the whereabouts of the suspected gang was learnt 
at Kapiiri in the Bhartpur State, whence the constable was sent 
back to fetch a force of police to make arrests. Meanwhile the 
approvers took up their quarters in the camp of Miisa Habura. 
During the absence of the constable, an armed party of the 
suspected camp raided that of Miisa and kidnapped both 
approvers and carried them away. Subsequent inquiries removed 
all doubt regarding the fate of these men. The affair ended in 
a tragedy. Ajmeri and Tota were murdered by men of their own 
tribe in the Bhartpur State, and, after the crime, a section 
augmented the camps Uda and Darba in the jungles of Gurham. 
Mihrpal's was originally a dera of much multitude, and came 
from Kosi in the Mathura District, Uda's and Darba's being his 
offshoots.' The headman of Mihrpal's camp was a famous Sansi 
named Kaptan. According to my Sansi informers, Ajmeri and 
Tota were judged by the pane, condemned to die, and, to obviate 
discovery of their remains, their carcases were eaten. 

I may add here, as another example of a charge made against 
both Indian and European Gypsies, that kidnapping of children 
is a crime peculiar to the Bhantus ; nine-tenths of children 
kidnapped by them are females, and the object can be inferred. 

14. Hunting and Fowling 

Practically all Indian ' Gypsies ' are hunters and fowlers : those 
who are workers in rushes, grass and wattles, will drop their task 
at the sight of a jackal and make a rush for the nets. The more 
primitive the tribe, the better the hunter. 

Bhantus catch the sanda, or broad-tailed lizard, which dwells 
in rat-holes in the ground and lives always in fear of the cobra, in 
the following manner: — The Sansi sallies forth with a wooden 
mallet in one hand and a tuft of tough grass in the other. On 
his belly he wriggles up to the sanda's hole, rustling the tuft of 
grass with a noise which resembles the crackling of a snake's 
scales. The sanda comes up tail foremost, and blocks the orifice 
with his pachydermatous appendage. The Sansi then delivers a 


crushing blow with the mallet on the earth an inch or two on the 
inside of the sanda, closes the passage, cuts off retreat, extracts 
the lizard and stuffs it into his shirt. If a party of ' Gypsies ' 
have, in this way, been paying attention to a cavalry parade- 
ground, there is some hard swearing next day when the troop- 
horses turn somersaults. 

Not less ingenious is the method, common to Bhantus and 
other ' Gypsies,' of capturing sand-grouse. On a cross-piece at the 
top of a pole, the 'Gypsy' suspends an ochre-coloured sheet. 
Sand-grouse from all around come running up twittering in great 
excitement. When there are sufficient about him, the ' Gypsy ' 
throws the net. Natives say the birds are dsiq, enamoured, of 
the yellow garment ; the truth being that the ' Gypsy ' is all the 
time imitating the birds' own calls. 

Two things are the great stand-by of all ' Gypsy ' camps in the 
way of shikar apparatus :— the phanda, or noose, and the bdivar, 
or net. The first consists of sharp-pointed bamboo stakes of 
various sizes, in grooves of which, at the blunt ends, are attached 
thongs of catgut with running nooses and slip-knots. The 
bdwars are giant nets with pockets, into which the ' Gypsies,' and 
the dogs they always employ, drive the wild pig and jackals and 
spear them. In the jungle, the game make paths, and in these 
the phandas are planted for hare and partridge, sometimes 
arranged in a circle with a call bird in the centre. Moras capture 
the alligator by throwing the noose over his snout. This is drawn 
taut, and the amphibian having been secured with a strong rope 
is hauled by main force on to the bank. If an alligator escapes, 
a Mora is able to follow him into the water and attack him in his 
own element. People say that a crocodile is able to smell a Mora 
from a considerable distance, — which is not incredible ! 

For trapping wild duck, Gandhilas have an ingenious device, 
which is said to be known also to the Chinese: — On the extensive 
shallow swamps, called jhils, where the duck congregate, tin 
Gandhilas cause to float about, driven by the wind, a number of 
earthen pots. When the duck are quite habituated to the 
presence of these pots in their midst, a Gandhila, having on ins 
head a similar pot provided with two eyeholes, wades out int.) the 
swamp up to his neck in water, and finds his way into the flock 
of duck. There he seizes the birds under the water by the legs 
and tucks them away one at a time into a net. 

For porcupine, a trap is laid in the path fashioned by these 


animals through the brush- wood. The trap consists of a pit, over 
which are placed twigs, grass, and earth, the weight of the 
porcupine causing the fragile structure to collapse, and landing 
the creature in the pit from which there is no escape. The 
porcupine, after being killed, is encased in wet clay, and baked. 
The fire causes the clay to harden. When this has occurred, the 
clay mould is broken, and the cooked flesh removed while the 
quills remain adhering to the clay. 

A great deal could be written about Indian ' Gypsy ' sport. 
I shall end this brief account with a description of a big day with 
the Baoriahs. Having located a herd of antelope, they proceed 
to plant bamboo staves, about six feet apart, in two lines a mile 
or more long, forming an angle. At the head of each staff is 
a coloured tuft, and at the apex of the angle, formed by the two 
lines of staves, an open space is kept, which is planted with 
several rows of pliandas. The Baoriahs then with their dogs and 
tomtoms line up to form the third side of the triangle, and enclose 
the herd within it. At a signal, the men shout, the dogs bark, 
the tomtoms are beaten, and a forward movement begins. The 
herd moves towards the converging lines of stakes ; but, the 
leading buck not liking the look of the coloured tufts, glances 
aside, and he and his followers go off at a gallop for the opening 
at the apex. They seek to clear the lines of phandas at one 
spring, but the Baoriah knows how far an antelope can leap, and 
has calculated the distance to a nicety. The result is that half 
the herd is on the ground, sprawling and kicking, caught by the 
forelegs in the nooses. Their throats are then cut. Thus with 
phanda and bdwar and his cltukals (dogs), the Baoriah shikars 
the dkhri (antelope), gddar (jackal), lumbar (fox), and ciri (bird), 
and the Kajd with his gas-pipe is not in it ! 

15. Industries and Occupations 

Almost all Indian ' Gypsies ' manufacture traps and snares for 
catching game. Every Bhantu camp that I have searched has 
possessed a liberal supply of phandas (nooses), and, though the 
S;insi and Beriha Bhantus are the least industrious of their kind, 
I suppose that they are made by themselves. Mat-weaving is an 
occupation of the Doms : all who are popularly known as Cangar 
are basket-makers. The latter wander long distances to the 
river-beds to gather wands of the tamarisk, commonlv known as 


leh &ndpiUhi, with which to carry on their industry. The tribes 
engaged in this trade are the Barar, Mora, Dom, Cuhra, and 
others. Kilobaud Badiyas makes brushes, sieves, and winnowing- 
baskets. All ' Gypsies ' are sturdy and pertinacious beggars except 
the Banjaras— I have never known these to beg ; their ideas are 
too lofty for such a means of livelihood. The term for beggin^ is 
mdng pin he khdna. Selling love-philtres, charms, and roots 
possessing mysterious properties is a traffic peculiar to the Sansi 
and Beriha Bhantus. 

Snake-charming is confined to the Badiya Sapaidas. I knew 
also a tribe of Berihas who caught, kept, and exhibited snakes : 
but they did so because, they said, the people insisted on it and 
expected them to catch the snakes in their houses. They, how- 
ever, lost so many persons through snake-bites that they gave up 
the business. Badiyas enjoy so wonderful an immunity from loss 
of life by snake-bite that it goes without saying that they are in 
possession of secret antidotes which are unknown to any other 
tribe. It is popularly believed that a Sapaida has scruples against 
taking snake-life. This is true only with regard to their tame 
snakes ; wild snakes they destroy and eat. 

An occupation common to all ' Gypsies ' calling themselves 
Dom and Bhat is that of genealogists and pedigree-keepers to the 
landowners and yeomen. The Sansis, who are the Bbats of the 
Jat landlords, make special visits to their patrons' domiciles 
on occasions of domestic importance such as marriages, or births 
in the family, and are received with much ceremony and rejoicing. 
They receive munificent gifts, in return for which they recite 
the prowess of the family's ancestors in the past; the Bhatanis 
dance and sing ; the Mirassis (Doms) of the tribe provide instru- 
mental music, and the fun and frolic last for days. Unfortunately 
these periodical visits of the Bhantus are synchronous with a good 
deal of crime in the neighbourhood; and, since their patron 
extend their fostering patronage to their own pedigree-tellers and 
are indifferent to the loss and damage that the neighbours sustain 
at their hands, the consequences are sometimes unpleasant. 

Although Kanjar and Dom are numerous enough in the 
wandering state, there are, in the towns and villages, colonies of 
these people who occupy quarters known as Kanj vr-pura or 
Muhalla-Kanjardn, and Muhalla and Maddi Mvr&saicm. The 
Kanjar element is undoubtedly descended from the same common 
source as the Bhantus; but the town Mirassis seem to \>v akin in 


origin to the Cuhra-Doms. These classes provide all the pro- 
fessional nautches, the Doms having a monopoly of orchestral 
music, while the nautch-girls are all Kanjaris, also styled Kancanis. 
They must not be confounded with urban Paphians of the common 
or street class, for they stand high in the social scale of those who 
entertain the male sex. To every one who has seen the Kanjars 
and the Doms in their wandering state, a view of the same people 
in their quarters in the outskirts of the towns must bring home 
the fact that the huts which they occupy are none other than the 
pakkhi tents come to rest. Pernas are the same people as Beriha, 
the Bhantus who prostitute their women; and between Perna and 
town-Kanjar there is merely a distinction without any difference. 
Sansis, on the other hand, would scorn to traffic in their women : 
their lapses from morality are due either to their own choice or to 
certain contingent circumstances such as tribal policy and need. 
Beriha women will take up their abode in the prostitutes' quarter 
of a town for the sake of mere meretricious gain, just as the 
H;irni women follow their husbands to Bombay to pursue the 
oldest profession in the world and enjoy the patronage of Panjabi 
stokers and sailors : but the Sansi women will be found in a 
similar situation only when their object is to facilitate a burglary, 
to dispose of stolen property, or to further some scheme of swind- 
ling. The proneness of ' Gypsy ' women in the past to frequent 
the caklas (brothels) led no doubt to the creation of the town- 
Kanjar class. There is no other community in the cities that will 
have social relations with them. I once asked an Indian friend 
what he knew about the origin of these Kanjars : he replied, ' All 
I know is, that they are tukham-i-Saitdn (seed of the devil)!' 
Nevertheless, they thrive exceedingly, and such is the influence 
of the Kanjari dancing girls over the moneyed men, that large 
estates have passed from the hands of young aristocrats into theirs. 
They command prices running into hundreds of rupees for an 
entertainment. The Doms similarly are in the highest rank among 
skilled musicians, and the two classes, both in the cities and 
the jungles, are inseparable, since the music of the Doms is 
necessary to supply time and melody for the song and dance 
of the Kanjaris. In Jat country, it is said that no other 
women can compete with the Sansi songstresses in the fascina- 
tion and the amorous tone of their ghazals, mahbiib-jdnis 
and rabais, which are the varieties of love-song most dear to the 
Indian taste. Not only do the manners and ways of the town and 


country Kanjars agree, but also some of their agnates : but their 
ethnographical relations are not generally understood and I have 
therefore treated the subject at length. 

Other musicians among the Indian 'Gypsies' and cognate 
tribes are the Kaikadis of the Deccan, the Caras of Gujrat (nick- 
named by the Sansis ' Popliya '), and the Bhirains of the Panjab, 
who may, however, be a kind of Dom. Musical talent may be said 
to be confined to the Bhantus and Bhangis: the Banjaras and 
Baoriahs have little or no notion of it, and, of the Badiyas only a 
section practise it. Some Badiyas seek employment as palanquin- 
bearers, hence Dolia, the Bhantu nickname for them. 

An interesting class are the Banjara Gadia Lohars, blacksmiths 
who travel about with carts drawn by bullocks. They build their 
forge on the bare ground in a few minutes. Making a pipe in the 
soil, covered over with earth and plastered, they insert at one end the 
mouth of their bag-shaped bellows, 1 and at the other light a charcoal 
fire. With the left hand the smith works his bellows, and with 
the right manipulates the piece of metal on which he is engaged. 
His tools consist of an anvil, a hammer, a file and a few others. 
The Hesis work in the same fashion, and the Badiya Sikligars are 
also workers in metal and knife-grinders. They use a revolving 
grindstone fixed by its axis to two wooden posts planted in the 
ground, and turned by one man by means of a leather strap, 
while another man sharpens the implement. They also, like the 
Lohars, make their workshop on the open plain or in any con- 
venient place. 

16. Crime 

The meaning attached officially in India to the name ' Gypsy ' 
is ' wandering and criminal tribe,' and it is the criminal actions of 
such races which have made them an object of interest and study. 
An Anglo-Indian writer of note 2 states: 'Professional criminals 
really mean the members of a tribe whose ancestors were from 
time immemorial, and who are themselves destined by ii 
usage of caste to commit crime, and their descendants will 1 ie 
offenders against the law until the whole is exterminated and 
accounted after the manner of the Thugs. Therefore when a 
man tells you he is a Badhak, or a Kanjar, or a Sonoria. ho tells 

1 These bellows are of precisely the same type figured in the | 
opposite p. 195 of the last volume (vol. v.) of this Journal. 

2 India, by Sir John Strachey, London (Kegan Paul and Co.) I 888, p. 294. 


you, what few Europeans thoroughly realise, that he is an offender 
against the law, has been so from the beginning, and will be so to 
the end.' The Kan jar and Sansi Bhantus are first on the roll of 
crime, and it was from them in bygone days that the Thugs used 
to be recruited. Thuggi is no new trouble. In ancient times, the 
Emperor Akbar had 500 Thugs hanged; but Firoz Sah Khilji, 
one of the mildest of monarchs, put them in boats, conveyed them 
to Bengal and let them loose. Thevenot, the traveller, described 
their ways in 1665 : 1 — ' They use a certain slip with a running 
noose, which they cast with so much sleight of hand about a man's 
neck that they strangle him in a trice. They have another 
cunning trick to catch travellers. They send out a handsome 
woman upon the road who, with her hair dishevelled, seems to 
be all in tears, sighing and complaining of some misfortune which 
she pretends has befallen her. Now as she takes the same way 
as the traveller goes, he easily falls into conversation with her, and 
finding her beautiful, offers his assistance, which she accepts. But 
he hath no sooner taken her up behind him on horseback than 
she throws the snare about his neck and strangles him.' He 
refers, of course, to the Gaunimar whom I have mentioned 
already, and to the use to which, in the days of old, they put the 
phanda noose. 

The Civil Administration in India instituted a stringent in- 
quisition against all classes of ' Gypsies' in 1830 and the following 
years, in consequence of a gruesome discovery by Sleeman, which 
flashed upon the public conscience like a thunderbolt, that gangs 
of from 30 to 700 persons, known as Phdnsigars, or Thugs, had, 
for no one knew how long, been putting to death, from motives 
of plunder, untold numbers of people, by strangling them with 
nooses, or poisoning them with stramonium (dliatdra). Moreover, 
other gangs of wanderers called Baoriahs, Sonorias, Badhaks, 
Khicaks, etc., had, since time immemorial, committed gang- 
robbery and burglary, called dacoity, unchecked. Thugs interred 
their victims in graves called bhils, which, in Oudh, for example, 
were placed at intervals of five miles apart along fourteen hundred 
miles of road. Bandelkhand gangs had murdered 210 persons. 
Malwa and Khandesh gangs 232, and Berar gangs 385. Ramzan 
of Oudh confessed to 694 murders and Bahrain to 931. To most 
people it seemed incomprehensible that wholesale murder should 
be associated with religious ceremonies, and that Musalman and 
1 British India, by R. W. Fraser, London (Fisher Unwin), 1S96, p. 211. 


Hindu joined promiscuously in the worship of the Goddess Kali 
or Bhawani. But my readers know already that Indian ' Gypsies ' 
follow the cult of Bhawani and have heard, not only how they are 
Hindu, or Musalman, as fancy dictates, but also that what they do 
not know about thong-nooses is not worth knowing A Thu^i 
and Dacoity Department was created in 1840; Phdnsigars who 
escaped hanging, Baoriahs, and others, were conveyed to an 
Industrial Settlement at Jabalpur in 1838, whence they absconded 
as chance offered : vast numbers were recaptured, hanged, or 
transported. 1 

As in the past the Bhantu was foremost in Thuggi, so is he 
to-day in Dacoity. In the seventies, the Aligarh Sansiyas com- 
mitted 66 gang robberies in the Panjab, for which local Jats were 
arrested, and in some cases committed, but released when the 
crimes were traced to the Bhantus. The Sansiyas concerned were 
conveyed to a reformatory settlement at Sultanpur, in Oudh, 
and afterwards transferred to Kheri, where there may still be a 
small remnant. A train-load was transported to Jalalpur in the 
Multan District; and there, in 1908, I found only two women 
surviving married to local Jats, — the rest had fled. In 1882, the 
country round Lahore was ravaged by Sansi dacoits. In 1895, 
the country from Ferozpur to Gurgaon was depredated. In 1900, 
they turned their attention to Madras. In 1902, the Dehli country- 
side claimed notice from them. But their crowning exploit was 
completed in, or about, 1905, when Sansis from the Sutlej, under 
Sundar Singh, committed 137 gang-robberies, murders, and 
burglaries on a line from Dehra Diin to Gorakpur. Sundar 
Singh incurred the displeasure of his tribe, and, his life being 
threatened, turned King's evidence. It took the court several 
days to reduce his deposition to writing, and the judges remarked 
on the marvellous memory of a man who could neither read nor 
write and who yet did not allow a single detail of what had 
occurred during many months to escape mention, and who was 
corroborated in every particular. I have already remarked on the 
faculty of memory which these people possess. 

Such attacks are carefully planned and delivered in silence. 
When Kaptan led in a dacoity, witnesses have said that they have 
heard the cry of a jackal in the night, and the cadence of notes 
taken up as if by a pack; then dark forms, naked but tor loin- 

1 History of India, by Mountstuart Elphinstone, London (John Murray), 1905, 
p. 208. 


VOL. VI.— NO. II. 


cloths, with their faces trussed in scarfs called patlcaa, and 
swinging long staves over their shoulders with a circling motion, 
came bounding over the bushes and natural obstacles and rained 
crushing blows on the attacked. Hardly a word was spoken, but 
the robbers made guttural sounds while stripping and pillaging 
the victims. 

If the Bhantus excel in dacoity, the Baoriahs are no less 
proficient in burglary. In 1887, Colonel Gajraj Singh of Nepal 
was staying at Tuticorin in Madras. Baoriahs from Bidaoli, in 
the north, got wind of the fact that he was possessed of valuables, 
burgled his residence, and came away with swag amounting to 
239,000 rupees, of which 80,000 rupees were in currency notes and 
caused their undoing. The same Baoriahs, in 1873, had burgled 
Rajah Ram Singh's house at Agarji, in Central India, to the tune 
of 332,000 rupees. The gang resisted arrest, and Tota and Bma, 
Baoriahs, were shot dead by Mr. J. W. Williams, of the Police. 
Catru, the leader, died of his wounds in jail. 

The crime that is committed in India by people other than 
' Gypsies ' and their congeners is a negligible quantity. In the 
making and uttering of counterfeit coin, they are facile principles. 
Kidnapping female children is a crime peculiar to the Bhantus ; 
none of the others practise this particular form ; but decoying 
male infants to rob them of their ornaments is common to 
Baoriahs and most other tribes of ' Gypsies.' Sansi pickpockets 
at fairs are provided with a penknife, a pair of scissors and a sharp 
piece of glass, carried in folds of the turban, with which to cut 
pockets and the netted waistbands in which Indians carry money. 

Most Indian 'Gypsies' are adepts at the three card trick and 
the confidence trick. A favourite form of the latter is known as 
throwing the kara, or bangle. A bangle made of base metal, 
coloured to look like gold, is dropped. A Sansi accosts the finder, 
offering to go halves, hush money is given, and the kara is re- 
turned to the finder. Or a Baoriah, or Capparband, posing as a 
simpleton, offers a good rupee with an inquiry as to whether it is 
current. If it is accepted, he changes some counterfeit coins 
mixed with one or two more which are genuine. He can pass off 
counterfeits by sleight of hand, holding a short juggler's wand to 
justify the contraction of his muscles. The dupe is kept distracted 
by conversation, or, in other words, the success of the trick 
depends on diverting the attention of the audience. Similarly 
three or four Sansis will collect at a shop, and, while some haggle 


about prices to engage the shopkeeper's attention, others walk off 
with his goods. 

When in the neighbourhood of villages, Sansis steal goats and 
poultry. Cattle straying, or feeding in jungle or waste lands, are 
driven away with the herds of the tribe and sold as opportunity 
offers. They lift articles off carts and horse-vehicles going alono- 
the high road, and when troops are on the march are very expert at 
crawling into tents at camping grounds, and stealing clothing and 
boots. Luckily, they have no use for the arms, or they would prove 
the most expert rifle-thieves in the country. It is related of the 
Kanjar Sansis of Dehli, in the early years of the British occupa- 
tion, that, after having gutted a bungalow, or a tent, of its movable 
contents, they would tickle the ears of the sleeping occupant, in 
order to make him turn over on his side, so that they might 
remove the bed-clothes from beneath him. 

It might be thought that, with all this enterprise, the Sansis 
and others would be gifted with a good deal of courage. The 
reverse is the case. Baoriahs and some Badiyas have, on occasion, 
undoubtedly shown pluck ; but Bhantus do not possess that 
quality. Thugs would not adventure unless they were in the ratio 
of three to one of their victims, and the success of a Sansi dacoity 
has always depended on the suddenness of the onslaught, the 
complete state of unpreparedness of the attacked, and their un- 
armed condition, of which the criminals take care to satisfy them- 
selves beforehand. A few resolute men, warned in time, can hold 
their own against an array of Bhantus. 

17. A Native Account of the Bhdnhis 

I shall conclude this part with excerpts from a descriptive 
essay on the Bhantus by an observant young Indian official 
The particular camps which he had studied were those of. I .mm, 
Debia, Cappan, and Umra (Bediyas or Berihas), and Bute and 1 1 [ra 
(Sansis), whose wanderings lie in the Jammu and Panjab sub- 
montane regions. These Berihas or Bediyas must not be con 
founded with Badiyas, who have Rajput (jotras; the gotras of the 
former are :— Khattar, Mitthar, Luddar, Gharo, Madahar, Kalandar 
and Kharecar. The Sansi camps which associate with these 
Bediyas are the ordinary Panjahi Bhantus. 

' These people are Sansis by caste They call themselves 

Gandhilas, Bangalis, or Pernas [to the Kdjd]. They go to Lahore 


and Amritsar, where they call themselves Pernas, and mix with 
the Muhamadans there [the writer means with the Kanjars and 
Doms of the cities] They say that they belong to the religion of 
the Iinan Sari. They are afraid of settling down in one place and 
calling themselves by the name of Sansi, for, if they did so, they 
would be registered under the Criminal Tribes Act. 

' Their camps consist of numerous donkeys, ponies, dogs, snakes 
and fowls. Their animals destroy the crops of the village in which 
the}r put up. In the day-time, they keep a nominal watch over 
the animals, but, in the night-time, they intentionally allow them 
to graze on the fields having crops thereon. When the owners 
seize them for the pound, men and women rescue them forcibly. 
If, anyhow, the Jats succeed in taking the animals, the women 
and not the men pay the fine and take delivery of the animals. 

' When the Sansis come and encamp at a place, some of them 
go to the jungles with dogs on hunting expeditions; some go to 
beg; some to sell butis and giddar singhis, etc. ; some wander about 
in Sadhu's costume [ascetic's dress] ; some, disguised as doctors, 
assert that they take out worms from the nose, ears, or brain. 
The headmen go to see the big men of the village with large 
turbans on their heads. Each party of men has a different inten- 
tion and a different work to do. The men who go hunting in the 
jungles also acquaint themselves with the caves, etc., to take 
refuse in the same. 

' The men who go to sell the butis (charms) make relations with 
the villagers and say, " Look, I make you my religious brother. I 
give you this giddar singhi (jackal's horn), this will solve all your 
difficulties, and this will bring fortune to you," etc. etc. Some- 
times they will give the giddar singhi, mixed with sandhdv (ver- 
milion), to the so-called religious brother (dharm bhai), and tell 
him to place it in his box containing jewels and cash, or, if the 
man is a simple one, they ask him to show the box so that the 
giddar singh i may be placed in it by themselves, repeating mantras 
< incantations) over the box. In fact, there are no mantras, but 
their object is to gain knowledge of the contents, which, after 
some time, they steal. 

' Giddar Singlci. They say that one jackal out of a thousand 
has a horn on the head, which horn has numerous mysterious 
properties. But really they make it themselves in the following 
manner: — When they kill a jackal, they take out the sharp upper 
teeth (suas), with a portion of the skin bearing the moustache, 


then they wrap the teeth in the skin in such a manner that the 
teeth come in the middle, and the skin and whiskers around 

'Man mohani, or Enchanter of the heart. This is also an 
artificial thing. They pass it off as a prescription for hub, or love. 
Whenever a person has to present himself before an officer, or to 
attend a darbdr, or when anybody wishes to win the affection of a 
woman, or of a man if a woman, they advise him to keep it with 
him because the possession of this strange thing will solve all 
difficulties and all the desires will be fulfilled. 

' They collect maggots from dirt and old wood, and keep them 
carefully in a bag, and then ask people if any one wishes to have 
his maggots taken out. They keep a bamboo tube with them, 
and putting one end to the nose, or ear, of the victim blow mag- 
gots down the tube and frighten the dupe that he had many 
maggots in his head. Then they demand money to take out the 
maggot's nest. This chika, or nest, is really the skin of the paws 
of the iguana. This is taken off and dried up, and becomes a 
small, little thing. They put this in the mouth and it swells up by 
the wetness of the spit, and is blown down the tube in the manner 
described above. 

' A tame snake is let go behind a shop, or a house. Then they 
go in front of the house, and smelling here and there say, "We 
smell a snake in the house." The owner promises to please them 
if they will take off their clothes, and catch the snake. The naked 
Sansi, playing on an instrument called a bin with a cadar (cloth) 
in his hand, enters the house and catches the snake which was let 
off by himself. While inside the house, he takes particular note 
of the boxes, rooms, etc., to commit burglary later on.' 

The presence of Bhantus in the neighbourhood is indicated by 
the snatching of earrings or ornaments from the persons of sleeping 
women, and by mysterious stone-falls at night for two or three 
nights in succession. During this period people keep awake t<» 
watch their property, but when the stone-falls cease, the exhaust, ,1 
inhabitants sleep, and are robbed. Sometimes the raid is com 
mitted during the stone-fall, and my informant writes: 
party takes up the task of throwing stones ; the villagers run after 
them. The running thieves also shout out, " thief, thief," and the 
villagers, thinking them to be their own men, allow them t«> pass 
on. If taxed afterwards, the Sansis say:—" Are you in yoursei 
Is it credible that thieves throw stones and commit theft after 


rousing the people up?" They steal sugar-cane, maize, etc., by 
imitating the cries of jackals and foxes. The owners, thinking them 
to be such animals, are content with shouting from a distance to 
scare them away. They go to flourmills and steal the bags of flour 
by night. They rob threshing-floors in this fashion : — Two men 
swinging their arms run across the floor. The watchers pursue 
them. The remainder of the raiding party carries the grain away 
in their shirts. 

' Generally they say they have no liking for the flesh of sheep 
and goats, and that what is most delicious to them is the meat of 
jackal and iguana, but that is not at all true. If they are able to 
catch hold of any sheep or goat they kill it at once. If any one 
asks about the contents of the cooking-pot, they say it is the meat 
of jackal or iguana. 

' Some Sansis having ornamented their women so as to look of 
imposing appearance take them to a lonely place. The Sansi 
hides himself in a bush while the woman sits to attract any 
passer-by. She induces the comer to pay up the fees in ad- 
vance. . . . 

' With their camps they have got some surplus men whose 
names are not entered in the [police] roll-call. These men's wives 
become enceinte and give birth. When asked about who they are, 
they say they are widows. When questioned about the pregnancy, 
or about the children, they name a Jat as the father. . . . Sansis 
have got several names for one and the same person. 

' They select a rich man in the village to whom they pay 
several visits. They at first sell him stolen property for small 
prices. Then invite him to come to the camp for something of 
much value. The rich man goes to the camp with money. The 
Sansis also show him the property ; but, just as the purchase 
money is paid down, a person in the guise of a constable comes on 
the scene . . . The rich man, knowing that receiving stolen pro- 
perty is an offence, does not report the matter. 

' With their camps they have a number of crowbars, spears, 
and large needles. As regards the crowbars, they say that they 
use them for pitching the tents. The spears are for killing the 
otter, tortoise, etc., and the needles for sewing and fastening the 
Hies of the tents.' The writer shows how all these things have a 
burglarious use. 

' They make burglarious entrances so narrow that it would 
appear that a man could not pass through them, but these people 



give such a bend to the shoulder that the body diminishes in 
fatness and they creep inside. When the hole is completed, a 
turban is put on a stick and passed inside to see whether the in- 
mates are asleep or awake. ... If matches run short inside the 
house, they throw sand, and by its sound tell where are utensils, 
etc. If the owner begins to wake up, they imitate the voice of a 
mouse, and the owner again sinks to sleep. When the owner has 
got a ferocious dog, they can make it very gentle. If there is a 
bitch in season, a bit of cloth is smeared. ... The dogs stop 
barking, and begin to pay attention to the cloth.' 

Collected by R. A. Stewart Macalister, F.S.A. 

{Continued from Volume Y. page 234) 


Asti min hndnd sdpdki kddd ddivcfidki. Kuriismik 
grewdrdski. 1st' dbuskd potrini ; ndndossdnni Mrt&Umil. 
Stirde min hndnd kuridk-sdudie, ktmtirde potris u cardends&n. 
Ari min hndnd sap, pdn%dmd cif-kerdi, u gresma, u dtdsmd. 
Ldherde potris, Uirde min hndnd, bdgerde pdnulk kdndwfos u 
bdgerde gres kdndivios, u bdgerde kdndwios dtdski. 1 M gdl-keri 
wdssdn sap, wdld grewdras-kuri ni gdl-kerdndi wdMs: IcuridmSk 
sap li-djdti u 'rati. Potris bdlni, u p&nji illi tillik mlnjisun u 
ziriate keldndi potristd. Gdzdrsdnni u ningri ilkuridmd u 
ldhere° dsdpds gdkri grlwdrds-dlrl. Stirdi min hndnd u h&ldi 
bdhdrtd u potris mdrdindsdn, nl mdnde dkuridmd gd/lr yikdki. 
Naure atustd, laherdindis, cdririk pdci kiydkdnkd u rn&rdi ndis. 
Sdbdhtdn gdrd greward uydrta tillidtd. 2 Sdyil-kerd<>si« UWt- 
tmdli "Sap illi kuriurmiydf kindd gdri?" Cirdd dhnsbirr, 
greward "Huldi bdhdrtd, u potris mdrdinsdn." Mtndii lidlos 
grewdrd, bdndd dosdrds ktPiUirdiyd* gdrwdn u rdwdlird. 

There was away there a serpent the size of a camel. She was in the bouse of 
a sheikh. She had children : she put them in a hammock. The masters of tin- 
house arose from there, stole her children and hid them. The snake can* from 

1 Note variety of formulae for the genitive. 

2 An unusual case of declension of an adjective. 

3 Another remarkable example of polysynthesis— liiri (house) I <>r 
(loc. suffix) +eyd (predic. suffix). 

4 A very exceptional construction of the pnst tense of the predicative 6 


there, Bpat in the water, and in the cooking-butter, and in the flour. His [the 
jheikh | sons saw, they rose from there, broke the jar of water and broke the jar 
of butter and broke the jar of flour. The snake does not speak [i.e. take heed] to 
them, nor does the sheikh's household speak to her : the snake is in the house till 
to-day and to-morrow. His [the sheikh's] ehildren were many, and she [the 
sheikh's daughter] who was big among them and the boys play with her [the snake's] 
ehildren. She hitcsthem and entered that house, and no one saw that snake but 
the sheikh's daughter. She [the snake] rose from there and descended to the sea, 
and her children they killed them, they did not leave in that house but one. They 
sought for it, they saw it, it was hidden behind the things, and they killed it. In 
the morning the sheikh went to the big city. 1 The governor asked him, 'The 
snake that was in your house, whither did she go ?' The sheikh said to him, ' She 
went down to the sea, and her children we have killed.' The governor betook 
himself, bound the neoro who had stolen the cows and -went. 2 

Kan diy&s barini, yikdk 'aklilek yikdk mufaWc. Inhe" 
wdiisdn kiydk. Gdra nalicdnd, td-rdsre kuStdti de. Hnond 
gultilci mitl jiiri. Ldmma Idherddssd/fi gdl-kerdi dbsdnkd "Ahldn 
wdsdhldn bBnom-potrimmd." Gdl-kerdi 'aklikd "Atuja kaliinsdn, 
In) far mdniedr kuridmd." Sindd gdlisk, pdrdd kdlian wa gdra 
rai-kersdn. Wd bad-md gdra, gdl-kerdd baniskd Mi mufafflc 
" Par kes bardrkd, par barurka tdrdn das rndnd wd dnd." Pdr- 
ddsis wd gdrd pdnji. R< fiord. Ldherdd fmds. " Kii mdngtk 
mnisim? Ibkdra hruri? Hand imonds wd Band." Kurdussdn 
ilh ds. Rificrd, ldherdd gin a pdcis. "Kei mdngek gind? Demri 
gind mundk w'dndk ? " Kdrdd dbus. Rifitrd. Tul pdnddki 
pdnji kwdri dbus li-rdsra barns. Inhe° wdsi wdld mondk wdld 
dndk li-rdsra bdrus. Gdl-kerdd dbus 'dkil " Ka mond illildn- 
diirds ? " Gdl-kerdd, mufdld baruskd " Lak ekdjjds : rdsrusim " 
(mddd-kerdd, hdstus ut/istd) " min Mi kildom kuridk wd-dmmd 
audri ivdsim: kan ibkdra: kull-md rdudmi ktlrdmi dbtlskd 
mondk wd dndk, ldmma la mdndd wdstm kiydk." Gdl-kerdd 
dbuskdrd bdrus Mi 'dkili "Windirci, bard" (yd'ni jdndri inni 
bdrus mufalik) "windirci hnena dtu, intd bdlur kaliinkd ivd 
mil jdmi ndndm kesds." Mdndd bdrus wd gdra, ldmmd z ndndr 
kiids illi iktos pdnddstd. Bd'd-md gdra, bdrus kildd {mufdld) 
sdzristd hdrrdbki. Kan kdlie dharsdnni. Cirdd kaliinkd "Amd 
kirdmi dbrdnkd hdrr/ib ; mdnds bardmkd hdrrftb : Idmmdn 
gdricdr Jcumndr. Izd-kdn nl mdndes dbus, mdrdmrdn." Cinari 

1 In order, as the narrator explained in an Arabic gloss, to complain against the 
ro that otherwise appears abruptly in the last sentence. 
Phis whole story is very confusing on account of the ambiguity of the gender 
•f the pronouns. In any case, like some of the preceding tales, it is so condensed 
as to be barely intelligible. 

: For liimma, " when," we would naturally expect ta- " in order to."' 


wd hwdri kalienkd. Katie Mndi, lean ibkdre. Buldd sdzarta 
wd kdnidrd ben kalienkd, lean mandindi barusled miH-md gdl- 
kerdd dbsdnlcd. Ni Idherdd kiydk. Tilld-kali, mdndek di kum 
siriistd kumisma. Gdl-kerdd " Mdrd&mrdn, muhlaf tiUdski: 
mdrdmis, sindd gdlimkd." Mdrddssan gistdnen. Ni mdndd 
gttir tilld-kalid dbsdnkd. Garird bdrus 'dkil, rdsra, Idherdd ledlien 
mdririndi. Gdl-kerdd mufaliskd "Jean leerdd dhd kdmds?" 

Gdl-kerdd dbilskd " Ni mdnde " fd'l-ihrd. Zal-ihrd bdrus 

wa bird guWei : gdl-Jcerdd mufaliskd " kikd kerdor if en i ? Es-sd'd 
lahermdnni [gul], Ice keri minjimin ? Ndstdn hof lahermdnni." 
Wd-dmmd mufald nirddhrd jar. Bdrus ndsrd, bdrus el- dkil. 

Garird mufald guld-kuridt a, ivdMsi tilld-kali. Gdl-lcerdi abuskd, 
"lea kdlie?" Gdl-kerdd abuskdrd "Efeniwd ifeni ihrd dbuslca, 
hdli. Bdr dm ndsrd, bird." Gdl-lcerdi " Guzili, isti dmd wdtir, 
ndndnsdn min-§dn kumndnsdn." Gdrepdnji wdpdnji, ndndind- 
sdn. Ndnkcmrdindsdn kuridma. Minddsis, tirddsis gdnidmd 
bdndd kdpius gdnidki, kurddsi* bttdstd: gdri slcd-feri kdltmis 
mufalistd min-san kumndr mufdlas. Bad-ma gdri, mdndi dirus 
kuridma, wa dti-kerdi dgi. Gdl-kerdd mufald Idcidled "In 
dmdtd wa in-kikmmi dturtd dgi." Kdldi atustd gdnia-ddf 
bdnddsis. Puf-kerdd dgi dtustd. Tdti-hri pdni guzil. Htdlda 
gdlik-diri, tirddsis pdnuimd wd ndsrd. Cindd wddid, ni sdkra 
giili cindr erhdnd. Erhdnd Idherdd bdrus el- dkil wd gdl-kerdd 
db us fd'l-ihrd. Ari giili. Kdlimis dre wdsis leuridtd, ni Idherdi 
mat. N(Riri mufalistd, ni Idherddsis wdld Idcid. Ari kdhrydlcd. 
illi agtek, kdnidri minjis, Idherdi diris minjf. " Ahd k<imus 
mufedik." Gdri pacts Idmmdn mdrdris. Laherddsis cino 
wddid. Girdi dbuslca "Aru, binom-pitr, dru ta-Mmndn mdsi." 
u Mdrdsim, ni altdmi°." Garird leuridtd. Eisrilc. Wd pdnji 
(gib-hri gam ether disds) mdndd bdrus, garird guliled. wa ningra 
cmdrintd, mdrdri minjisdn gistdndn. Sled-ferd hrez : clrdti 
" Mufald mdrdri cmdridn illi himmdsmSni." Stirda guld mm 
sisik td-ldher mufdlas wd minards. Ni Idherdi sis pd nji. Pdrda 
cmdridn mdririndi wd gdrd barusled, wd pdrdd jdndri wd 
Ldmmd rdsra bdrus wd indkrdd dgi, hendfordd cmdridn wd 
Jcdndi. Mdnde deridsdntd li-sdbdhtdn. Wd-dmmd gtili Idmmdn 
kildd dis ni Idherdi cmdridn wdla jdndri. ' N\ leerdd. ilcdmds 
gdlr mufald." Rdsrdsis td-mdrdris. Idherddsis cindlk >>■■■ 
"Atu kerdor wdsim gis aha kdmds : gal r mdrd m ir ! ' Gdl-h rdA 
mufdld "Gdir-md mardmir!" Gdrtri leuridtd, dmmd. miLfdlA 
wd bdrus gdre didkdtd, ni Idherde minjis mat ; bdkv. sduiis /cam- 


kem&ndi bdrd. Wisre sdzdrdk dhdr laminni rih-hocdnd. Ni 
Idherde [kiy&lc] ild dre Star tmdli, koldindi goridn. Ldmmd 
rdsre did dre scui lis, Idkin mufdla kilda Idmmdn Idherdd radian 
wd tmdlian. Are. Pdrdd jdndri wd kilda sdzartd, wa ' akil 
ndsrd. Are gordndele dhdr sdzdrdki illi mufdla dtnis. Wisre 
cthdris. Ndnde absdnka Ices ; tirdindis dgrisan. Bdda fumnar 
mufdla bi-siri hdris, mutur-hrd wa hdll-hrd tmdlian siriitd. 
Gdl-kerde tmdlie " Wdrsr 1 ed-dinyitd w& rd'd-ferd dinyd ; ndstdn." 
Mdnde kesds wa ndsre. Nddi-lcerdd mufdla bdrus, cirdd dbus 
" Aril, lak efcesds ; dru, Jcemdn." Kddam-hrd 'dkil, sar kird. 
Cirdd mufdldkd "Kekd 'nkeye ivdsim ekesdsk ? " (sar mufdla kird 
goridnk bd'ri). Gdl-kerdd dbuskd mufdla "Kdmi idrdkak wdrdkd." 
Bad-ma kire minde hdlusan, gdre uydrtd. Gdir-lcerde kiyakesdn, 
pdrde kdrds, stdhfiirdindis dl sdndiik hdldwi, wa gdre kundnd 
huldwi dimd, wd rditrde. Rdsre giilid. Ldherdussan guli. Cirdi 
absdnka "Atme ni Jirisi, dtme did bare ni hrisi, yikdk mufalik 
y ikdk 'dkli ? " " Mikrin aha gdl-kerek dtsdntd ? Ame injandne : 
dme hdldwik kuninnc hrini : in lean mdngek, par minjimdn, 
Jullli jan." " Kenausim." " Hi'dci sdndtikmd, kiman." Hdldi. 
Ldmmd huldi, bdnde kdpid dtustd, pdrdindis wd gdre wddidtd, 
tilld dgik kerde, kurdendis pdnji [wd] sdndiik scnid, ldmmd wd$ri 
wa mri. Ba'd dis gdrire kuridtd, pdrde kiydkimn wd gdrfre 
didsdntd : giizelini, drarini, se hrindi. 1 

There were two brothers, one was wise, one was a fool. They had nothing. 
They went to seek [a living] till they reached a little village. There was there a 
ghul like a woman. When she saw them she said to them, ' Welcome to my 
sister's sons.' She said to the wise one, 'Go thou with the goats, let thy brother 
remain in the house.' He hearkened to her word, took the goats and went to 
pasture them. And after he was gone she said to the brother who was foolish, 
' Take food to thy brother, take to thy brother thirty loaves and eggs.' He took 
it and went. He walked on. He saw his shadow. ' What dost thou want from 
me ? [said he to the shadow] Art thou hungry ] Here is this loaf and this egg.' 
He threw them to it [the shadow]. He walked on, he saw him again behind him. 
'What more dost thou want ? Shall I give thee another loaf and an egg?' He 
threw them to it. He walked on. The length of the road he was casting to it, till 
he reached his brother. He had neither loaf nor egg when he reached his brother. 
The wise one said to him, ' Where is the bread which thou broughtest V The fool 
said to his brother, 'See that man: he followed me' (he pointed his hand to it) 
' from the time when I left the house he has been coming with me. He was 
hungry : all the while I was going on, I was casting to him a loaf and an egg, till 
nothing remained with me.' The wise brother said, ' Stay here, brother ' (you see, 
he knew that his brother was a fool), 'stay here thou, pay heed to the goats and I 

1 The story as here printed is a transliteration from the Arabic MS. of an 
intelligent native servant, corrected and accentuated by analogy with the stories 
collected by myself. It is the same story as that of which Ex. xiv is a bowdlerised 
version : compare the note to Ex. lxtx. 



will go and fetch the food.' His brother stayed and he went in order to fetch the 
food which he threw on the road. After he went his brother (the fool) climbed up a 
locust-tree. The goats were below it [lit. them]. He said to the goats, ' I will 
throw locust-pods to you : leave [some] locust-pods for my brother, "that 'when he 
returns he may eat. If you leave none for him, I will kill you.' ' He cuts and 
casts to the goats. The goats ate, they were hungry. He descended from the tree 
and looked among the goats, [to see if] they had left for his brother as he said to 
them. He saw nothing. A big goat, two pods were left on the point of its horn. 
He said, ' I will kill you, except the big goat : I will not kill him, he hearkened 
to my word.' He killed them all. He left only the big goat of them. 
His wise brother returned, he arrived, he saw the goats dead. He said to the 

fool, ' Who did this work 1 ' He said to him, ' They did not leave ' as it 

happened. 1 His brother was angry and feared the ghul : he said to the fool, 
' Why hast thou done thus ? When the ghul sees us, what will she do with us ? 
Let us flee lest she see us.' But the fool did not want to go. His brother fled, 
the wise brother. 

The fool returned to the ghul's house, the big goat with him. She said to 
him, ' Where are the goats ? ' He said to her, ' Thus and thus happened to them 
[lit. it], oh aunt. My brother fled, he feared.' She said, 'Good, let us rise I and 
thou, let us fetch them that we may eat them.' They went, he and she, fetched 
them. They caused them to be brought to the house. She took him, put him in 
a bag, shut the mouth of the bag, cast it on the ground : she went to summon her 
relations to the fool in order to eat the fool. After she went, she left her daughter 
in the house, and she lit a fire. The fool said to the girl, ' Open for me and I will 
make the fire rise for thee.' She loosened on him the string of the bag, which 
bound him. He blew up the fire for her. The water became well heated. He 
took up the ghul's daughter, put her in the water, and fled. He crossed a valley, 
the ghul could not cross there. There he saw his wise brother and told him as it 
happened. The ghul came. Her relations came with her to the house, she saw 
no one. She sought for the fool, did not see him or the girl. She came to the 
cauldron that was on the fire, looked in, she saw her daughter within. ' This is 
the work of the fool.' She went after him to kill him. She saw that he had 
crossed the valley. She said to him, 'Come, my sister's son, come to eat the meat. 1 
' If thou slay me I will not go.' She returned to the house. She was angry. And 
he (the sun set at the end of the day) left his brother, returned to the ghul, and 
went in among the chickens, kills all of them. The cock cried out : it said, ' The 
fool is killing the chickens that are in the coop.' The ghul rose from sleep to see 
the fool and to take him. She did not see him. He took the dead chickens and 
went to his brother and took the quern with him. When he reached his b] 
and lit a fire, he cooked the chickens and they ate. They stayed in their place till 
morning. And the ghul when day arose saw neither chickens nor quern. N 
one did this work but the fool.' She followed him to kill him. She saw that he 
had crossed a valley. 'Thou hast done to me all this work [nothing will serve] 
but that I kill thee ! ' The fool said, 'But that I kill thee '. ' She returned to the 
house, but the fool and his brother went to a village, they saw no one within : its 
owners remained at work outside. They sat under a tree to rest Thej 
nothing till four soldiers came, riding mares. When they reached th" Tillage, it- 
owners came, but the fool arose when he saw the people and the soldiers. Thej 
came. He took the quern and climbed up the tree, and the wise on,, fled. The 
horsemen came beneath the tree up which was the fool. The} sal ut.Jrr it. I hej 
[the villagers] brought them food : they put it before them. Tin' tool began to beat 
on the bone of his head, and let urine and excreta drop on the In ad[i ] ofthe soldiers. 

1 Fa'l-lhra is equivalent to 'and so forth'; nimande being the Brat won 
the brother's speech, which the speaker considers it unnecessary to r < | • 


The soldiers said, ' It is raining on the earth and thundering : let us flee.' They left 
tlic food and fled. The fool called his brother, said to him, 'Come, see this food : 
come, lei us cat.' The wise one approached, he began to eat. He said to the fool, 
' Why dost thou not eat this fond with me' (the fool had begun to eat the horse- 
dung). The fool said to him, 'I am eating vine-leaves.' After they had eaten 
tiny betook themselves, went to the city. They changed their things, took a 
donkey, loaded it with two boxes of halawi, and went to sell the halawi in the 
village, and moved on. They reached the ghul. The ghul saw them. She said 
to them, ' Are you not, are you not the two brothers, one a fool, one wise 1 ' 
' Whence dost thou say this of them ? We know them not : we are merchants of 
halawi : if thou desirest it, take from us, let us go.' 'Feed me.' 'Descend into 
the box, let us feed thee' [lit. eat]. She descended. When she descended they 
shut the lid on her, took her and went to the valley, made a big fire, cast her and 
the box together [on it] so that she was charred and died. After a day they 
returned to the house, took her things and returned to their place : they were well, 
satisfied, and happy. 


Gdren min hndna dmd u mdumtim-pitr td-nin kdremdn dhdr 
tidetd mavrniihri-pitros. Siten tdrdn drat erhdnd. Sdbdhtd a 
minda dl cm&ri min diiM ugdrd minjisdn ktirdntd. Kunddssdn 
bi-nim imhfla. Stirdd minhndna gind. Rdwdhren kuriemimtd. 
Meil-ihrd dedlcdtd uhit zdro, minda cmdridk-potres cmdriaki. 
Pdciisne, ktiUdt&ni. Kdnidre kdjje, ni Idherde tilli-cmdrid, 
Idherde kUUdtdn x sisMn. Circle kdjje "Ni pdrda cmdrian gd~ir 
Dura." Rasrindman tdrdn Jcdjjik, gdrndlirdendman diitd, 
nirdtvdmd 'n greivdrdskd. Cirdd grewdrd u uhu zaris jdndmsi, 
mindri° cmdrie [sic], uhu card illi wdsiis minari: wdrt-Jcerds 
dras u minds 6rds." Minde drds u gariuucrde palis paciis, u site 
in-dtos. tidbd/ifdu pdrdindis uydrtd. Are Domdnkd. Girde 
" Knii as potrd u/inV Cirde " In/te° abas/at boi : bcrtos mre/c." 
Cirdd grewdrd "Kikd mindri cmdridn min deimanki?" Stirdd 
min hnund " Pdrdmus tilld-tnadUstd." Cirde Dome "Pares." 
Pdrddsis tmalidskd. Cirda grewdrd H-tilld-tmdli "U/i.u pdrdri 
cmdriemdn, u rdsrinis pdnddsmd u minden cmdridn mnesis u 
2 gdrncR/.rdinis deita. Ardtiyos sitd. SdbdMdn nandinis uydrtd 
td-[di]kndlirdinis Domdnkdrd." Cirde Dome 'Ohio mnismdn 
in!" 'cirde: 'inhe° dbiiskd b6~i,boios mrek." Nandenos dburkd, 
[ya\ tilld-tmdli, hdttd ben hdstirkd, tuyis el/tdsmd u baniyis." 
Tmdli banddsis u cindd dtusta tdrdn wars. Lamina n fikk-Jcerdd 

1 Note rare ile slension of adjective. 

2 From this to the end has been wrongly printed ut the end of xxxviil : it should 
there be expunged, as well as the first two sentences of the appended note. The 
confusion was due to the disappearance of a loose leaf of my notes, which was 
overlooked and recovered too late. 



tdrdnd wdrsdn holird zdro u ndsra Cujetd u ivesrd erhund das 
wars u mra° erhdnd. 

We went from there, I and my uncle's son, to lead our donkeys down to that 
place of my uncle's son. We slept three nights there. In the morning he took 
[i.e. stole] two chickens from the village and went with them to the Christians. 1 
He sold them for half a majidi. He rose from there again. We went to our tents. 
That boy went towards a village, took a hen's chickens from the hen. They were 
behind him, they were small. The men [of the village] looked, they did not see the 
big hen, they saw the little birds. The men said, ' No one took the chickens but a 
Nuri.' Three men followed us, they made us return to the village, they conducted us 
to the sheikh. Said the sheikh, ' This boy I know, he does not take chickens, that 
boy who is with him takes them. Loose ye this one and take that one.' They took 
that one and made his arms return behind him [bound his arms behind] and slept 
in the night. In the morning they took him to the town. They came to the 
Nawar. They said, 'Whose son is this?' They [the Nawar] said, 'He has no 
father, his father is dead.' Said the sheikh, ' Why does he take chickens from our 
village?' He rose from there. 'I will take him to the governor.' Said the 
Nawar, 'Take him.' He took him to the governor. The sheikh said to the 
governor, 'This one takes our chickens, and we followed him on the road and took 
the chickens from him and made him return to the village. In the night he slept. 
In the morning we brought him to the town to show him to the Nawar.' The 
Nawar said, 'He is not one of us' ; they said, 'he has no father, his father is dead. 
We brought him to thee, governor, here he is between thy hands, put him in prison 
and bind him.' The governor bound him and sentenced him to three years 1 
imprisonment. When he completed the three years, the boy was loosed and fled 
to Egypt, and stayed there ten years, and died there. 

End of the Collection. 


Recorded by Bernard Gilliat-Smith 


The Moslem nomads of Eastern Bulgaria may possibly be none other than 
Paspati's 'Nomades de la Haute Bulgaria 5 They are the most filthy tribe I have 
ever met with in any country, literally swarming with lice and ever] 
vermin. At the present moment (September 8, 1912), while 1 am writing, there 
is a large camp of them on the great plain to the west of Varna, between the town 
and the British Cotton Mill 'Prince Boris.' A visit to this camp is an evenl 
easily forgotten. Beyond the last houses and huts of the Sedentaries an i 
ordinary sight, unique and weird, presents itself to the gaze of whomsoever may 
wander in so unsavoury a neighbourhood; for close by, enclosed with bo 
wire, is the refuse-heap of the town, at one end of which wild dogs are tearing 
the dark red carcasses of two horses. And on the open plain to the left are 
pitched some thirty ragged tents, distributed over an enormous area. Doa 
dogs are yelping and fighting, but the awful din which strikes the ear as you 
approach does not proceed from these animals. It comes from the shoul 

1 I.e. to European shopkeepers or residents. 


Bcreaniing, yelling horde, swarming in and out and among the tents. Some of the men 
are great brawny fellows, splendid in their rags and filth. Others are frail-looking, 
in. i n v are deformed. The small children are naked, and their dishevelled hair is 
literally between your fingers as the horde presses round you and you try to escape 
into the open air. The Sedentaries call them Zdgundzis. Surely they are those 
whom Paspati called f avouches. They eat mulano mas, and some of them 
admit it. 

I took this tale down from them about a year ago. It is incomplete and 
curtailed owing to the impossibility of fixing their attention upon the sentence 
they were dictating long enough to enable me to get it on to the paper. But I have 
heard it from them since : a brawny fellow sat alone in a smallish tent some yards 
off, and T sat in a larger tent with five or six others. The opening of the larger 
tent faced away from the smaller one, but I could see the story-teller through a 
hole in the cloth. He seemed to be shouting to the earth between his knees, and 
rolled his head and leered as he uttered the words at full speed. And my friends 
were all attention, and all held up their fingers to command silence while the whole 
of the tale was delivered on almost one note, and while I sipped my kaljardi from 
the one grimy little cup my hosts seemed to possess. 

And now I am impatient to be among them, for it is better to live and 
experience events than to read or write of them. 

The Story of 

< 'ampara-Bljuklu-Celebi-Mustafa 

Master Mustapha of the Whiskers. 

1. Silcai sijekphwro, nai te xal,nai te piel. Lel-pe, dzal-peske, 
Mr-da jaban- da. Lei pe pesikord, thovel audi cdnta. Dzal jekhe 
themeste kai nai pisiki odothe. E miskojd si but odothe themeste. 
Miisafiri kachel jekhe khereste. Besel, maro te ^al. 

2. Sura des dzene po jek has dndo vas. phuro dared kai si 
/. ; s7,-e i pis [ha. Phendds (dardilo): " Te %a maro te ond-gjore 
maren man." " Ame take in lam take kastd ; e miskojenge lam." 
Lei, iJcalel e cantdtar e pisikdkwo sero. manusd dardile, ikalde 
' mislcojen, tasavel i pisiJca. Sdra lel-pe, naUl ko thagar, des 

ne. I pisiJca on dzene tasadds. 

I. There is where there is an old man, he has nothing to eat, he has nothing 
to drink. He betakes himself, goes (into) deserts and wild places. He takes his 
little cat, puts it into his bag. He goes to a country where there are no cats. 
There are many mice yonder in that country. He will remain a guest in a certain 
house. Ee -its down to eat bread.. 

•2. Then there are ten people, each with a stick in his hand. The old man 
fears because he has the cat. He said (he feared) : 'Because I am eating bread, 
therefore they will beat me.' 'We have not taken the sticks for you; we have 
taken them for the mice.' He takes, he extracts from the bag the cat's head. The 
men feared, they took out (drove out) the mice, the cat throttles them. Then (the 
cat) betakes itself, and there run off to the king ten people. The cat has throttled 
ten people. 


3. Dzan, ciy garden kode manusen. Avel o phurd, del seldmi, 
pile jek kaljardi. Sdra ikalel katdr i cdnta Campard-BujilkUl- 
Celebi-Mustafd. thagdr del duma : « Phureja, bikin Campard- 
Biljuklu-Gelebi-Mustafd ameyge." Pdle odovd kdna del dtima 
phenel: " Mor gi le, e Gampard-Bujilklu-Celebi-Mustafd na-le." 
" So ma V ges tu ? " " sastipe mar/gdv. Jek pampdri maygdv, 
opa§ somnakdi o pat rup. Thai maygdv tumendar e fordske o 
pailove." thagdr phenel: " Dem, dem." Kail dchilo. Liljds 

thagdr e pisikd. Dzal-tar o phurd. 

4. thagdr phenel : " In phusldm so X al i pisika. Dm, phuien- 
les." " manut so X al, di-da x al" Avile e ridzdla. Phusen so x al. 

01 phendds : " Ando gies po jek mantis X aL" Dzan, agore o Rona i 
si, dzan, chinen jek manus. Sute aygle pisika. Pisika in X al, 
Romano mas Icai si. " Adid ka X oldili, ddha adzek mawU te 
thinen." Ande e manus. I pisika in X al. 

5. Phdnden e pisika sindziresa. kilito phaygle o vuddr. 
Thoven mas guruvand angle late : X al i pisika. Marnd cute W< . 
X aljds. Thdra dzumdja. Ikalde e pisikd te phirel e askerje'*' 
dndi caHija. I pisika pharjgli kalesko maskdr. Phenel o thagdr 
pe askerjeske: " Vardin-man, te na x al man i pisika:' Sutd-pt i 
pisika dardtar pe dumeste. " Te x al man i pisika" o thagdr d\ I 
duma. Daradena, naSli. 

6. Iklisti pe dzamia. Dzan te okurldr x ora X ajd. Tl 

3. They go, they call those men. The old man comes, gives a salute, they 
drank one (cup of) coffee. Then he takes out from the bag Campara-Bujiiklu- 
Celebi- Mustafa (i.e. Master Mustapha of the Whiskers). The king saj s : '0 o 
man, sell Master Mustapha .of the Whiskers unto us.' Then lie when Ik- speaks 
he says : ' My heart take, Master Mustapha of the Whiskers do nol take.' ' What 
then do you want V 'I want health. I want a ship, one half gold, one half sih i 
And I want from you half the money of the town.' The king says : ' I have 
given, I have given.' He consented. The king took the cat. The old raai 

4. The king says: 'We have not asked what the ca1 eal . Go, asi I 
'What men eat, it too eats.' The men came. They ask whal ii eats. II'- said 
'It eats one man a day.' They go, on the outskirts arc the <;.\ psi< . thej go, kill 

one man (from among them). They cast him before tin rut. Tin cal not 

eat because it is Gypsy flesh. 'It must lie angry, let them kill y< i oni nion man. 
They brought the man. The cat does not eal. 

5. They tie the cat with a chain. They close the door with a key. 'I 
place beef before it, the cat eats. They put bread before it, ii eats. To-morrow 
is Friday. They take out the cat to walk with the soldiei in th< market. The 
cat is tied to the waist (of the king). The king says to thi 

me, that the cat may not eat (destroy) me.' The eat jumped [lit. cast 

of fear upon his back. 'The cat will destroy me,' says the king. Thej fi 

it off, it ran away. 

6. It climbed on to the Mosque. The Moslems go t<> pray. They came out, 


dzele-tar; &6hilo <> imdmo thai o yodza. Phenel: "Sukar % 

t/'ji mill," /.■" i dikhel i pisika opre. "Pale i pisika," phenel, "te 
yuljel tele* kay&l amen." Daraile o yodza. " Hdide," phenel, "te 
naS&s avre themeste." Bile, nasle. 

7. Sdra dzal i /ii«i/,-<t, pale kai po them pa§ o phuro pale., 


they went off; the Imam and the Hodjas remain. One says: 'Beautiful is the 
Mosque,' for he sees the cat upon it. 'Then,' he says, 'if the cat were to come 
down, it would destroy us.' The Hodjas feared. ' Come,' says, one, ' let us run 
away to another country.' They started, they ran away. 

7. Then the cat goes back to its country, back to the old man. 

It is finished. 

Notes to the Text 

If the text were not unclear in some parts of the tale, the story would not be a 
N"omad Paramisi. Some readers will welcome this disconnected narrative, and it 
will remind them that I am really among Paspati's Nomads. 

The tale in question is supposed to be of the comic sort, and the funniness 
consists in the fact that every one is afraid of the cat. Its name, Oampara-Biijuklu- 
Celebi-Mustapha, creates roars of laughter. The men are afraid of the mice, but still 
more so of the cat. The old man coming in and drinking a cup of coffee also provokes 

A(/07'6 'on the outskirts' (i.e. of the town), is a hit at the Sedentary Gypsies 
whom they despise and whose CeribaSi they unwillingly submit to, for motives of 
policy, for he finds them houses during the worst month of the winter. If, how- 
ever, a fine week should intervene in December, they are out under the tents again, 
just for that period, returning afterwards for another spell in their huts, out of 
which they are, however, frequently evicted, owing to their inability to pay the 
Ueribasi the small rent required. 

The greatest mirth of all seems to be produced at the idea of the cat climbing 
on to the Mosque, when the Mosque is pronounced to be beautiful because Mustapha 
is on it. 

Note in the text the absence of the MouiUirung. The type of language is thus 
the Nomad type as defined by Paspati. Special Nomad forms consist in words 
toned down and shortened from the original more elaborate form found often in 
the language of the Sedentaries, such as in lam (Sed. nana liljdm), dem (Sed. 
dinjdm), <ji (Sed. vogi), kodd (cf. kodoli), *ut6 (Sed. chifte), adzek (Sed. adzai jek), 
ihli' (Sed. nikl6, and in Sofia ikistile), x'^j^ (>^ e d. uyljil), dile (Sed. dine). 

Note also the frequent absence of the accusative, where, in Sofia, it would be 
most unusual to omit it. Cf. par. 4,, rhintn jek manitS ior jekhe" manure's. 

The introduction of Turkish words icith the Turkish inflexion, eg. d~an te 
okurldr, is peculiar to the East Bulgarian dialects, both Sedentary and Nomad. 
The former do it even more than the latter. Another East Bulgarian peculiarity 
is net prohibitive, for ma. 

Kir-da jdban-da is pure Turkish (v. translation). So are rdnta, sora, on 
( = 'ten'), kail (from the Arabic), ridzdl, ddha, dzumdja and carXija (both with 
Ftomani endings), and bitdi. 



27.— The Gypsy and Folk-Lore Club 

T In the J. G. L. S. (v. 234) it was stated that Mr. Augustus John was President 
of the Gypsy and Folk-Lore Club. As this statement, if uncorrected, might lead 
friends to suppose that he was still a supporter of that institution, he has requested 
that the following notice should be published at once:— 'Mr. Augustus John 
repudiates all interest in, or connection with, the Gypsy and Folk-Lore Club 
Hand Court, London. In view of an entirely erroneous announcement, he wishes 
it to be known that he is not, nor ever would be, President, or even a member of 
that assemblage.' 

28.— No. 741 

It may interest some members to know that Messrs. J. W. Arrowsmith Ltd. 
11 Quay Street, Bristol, have still several copies of F. W. Carew's ( = A. E. G. 
Way's) novel No. 7^7 — Being the Autobiography of a Gipsy, and that they would 
be glad to dispose of them at the published price of 7s. (5d., with 4d. extra for 

29. — Proclamation 

p$l ©ottea ©naben SBtr Satt £f)eobor tyfaUy- 

©raf bet) SRfjctn, be§ $etl. SRomtfdjen 9?etd}§ (£tfc=©dja|metfter, 
unb (Sfiurfiirft, in 83at)tit, 311 ©ittidj Glebe, unb SBerg $crfcog, gihjt -511 
SftorS, Marquis 511 SSergen Opzoom, ®raf ju 33elben§, D^ontyeiut, bcr SKard unb 
9taycn[perg, >§err ju Otaocnjlein ic. k. — Sttacfybeme $Btr Don einigcr 3cit Ijero 
miffdtttgfi oememmcn miiffen, bail bevmablen unfet -§er|ogt^um Sfteutiutg mil 
atterlei) ^Bottler* 3igenter= 9ftaufcer« unb bergleidjen Vaganten-Weflnbel, ba bicfeg 
auS benen GHjutsSBatyrifdjien, unb anberet angelegener 9fteid)gs@tdnben Sanben uiit 
@rnfi, unb <©ct/drpfe ftavcf &ettri&en rotrb, angeljeuffet ju njerben 6egunne, 
t)ierburcb aud) bie attgemeine SBo^Ifafjtt, gantj fcefonbevS gefloijret lverbe, 6efonber8 
roeilen erroerjnt gottlofe offterS jnfammen gerottiette i?cutb nid't alleiu benen 
Untertfyanen je Linger je meljr feocbfi 6e[dnt>ern-lid) fallen, unb bie ©aa&en, baini 
ifyre aufhemm* unb 93efjerbergung yon i&ncn gleidjfam erpveffen, interne tie, m 
man tbnen ntdjt nacfy SSegefyren veidjet, SKorb unb SBranb anjutfoljen ftdj crfiibnen 
borffen, fonbern aucr; gegen biefeloe graufame iWorbtliateit, unb 5)ie&ere)}en, roie efl 
bie laibige (Srfaljrungen geben, au8$uu6en pflegen, unb jn fohtem (?nbe guten 
£l?ei[§ nut ©rfjiej?, unb anberen ©d)arffen ©ewo^t woM berfe^enet fldj 6efunben. 
QHg fefyen unS bann git 9(6fee(ffuug biefeS Sanb yerberulidH-n UnroeefenG, nub ju 
gdnfclid)er. 3lu8tott*unb 93ertreifrung fold? gum gr often ©rfniben, unb llberlafl bet 
Untertfcanen fid? an* unb eintringenben [iebetlic^gefa^rli(^»unnu§i»unb fdjfiblidjen 
lofen ©eftnbelS fcemufjjiget, uicbt nut atte Jjternribet yerfdubentlicr. fcbon in Xxud 
gegeoene Mandata, unb SanbgeBott u6erljau6t§: inSBcfonbere aier jeneo. iri 
©eylanb Unfet ©lorrourbigjter g|ut*03orfaf}tet JOANNES Wl III Id.M ( s 
rjocfcftfeeligften @ebdd?tnu3 unterm dato SKeufairg ben IS."" Octobria 1 7 1". burc^ 
offentlidjen Ivucf ju publiciren gndbigfl anbefotden babcn, bienui 511 Beftfittigen, 
erneuern, unb ju iebermannS ffiiffenfdjafft bind) nod>inablia.= offentlidien Ivnd Don 
$Bort, ju 2Bort in gegenrodrtigeS Mandatum eintragen julaffcn. 

VOL VI. — no. 11. K 


-£>9l ©otteS ©nabcn SBir So&ann SBityclm 

§Pfat|«©raff bet) 3t$etn, be3 §ett. 9iomt)rf)en SKcidjS ©rfc'Studjfefj, 

nnb Gljurfurft in SBatjrn, §u ©iilid), Glebe, unb 23erg §er|og, gtirft gu 
STOJrS, ©raff gu 23elben§, Dr-onricim, ber SWardE, unb Oiaveufperg, 4?err gu 
9fta»enjtein k. jc. — Qemnad) 6efannt, t»a8 an ©eiten ber Unfevm £>er|ogt()umb 
SfteuBurg angetegener (Reid)§*@tdnbe fur ernfiticue, unb fdmrttffe General- 
Mandata, roegen ber einfct/Ieid)enben 3'geiuer : unb anberen Vagierenben 
©eflnbelS in Xvud auggegangen, unb fdjrifftlicfyeu 3tu8gefertiget, and) gu 
jcbcimannS 5Bijfenfdjafft publicicrt lvorben feijen ; SBann aljer biefe bem SHauben, 
unb ©teblen ergeoene Bigeiner, jtarcfe Settler, mit atferfjanb falfrfjen 2lbfd;iben, 
unb $afj=$orten tterfckne, auSgeriffene ©olbaten, banh aubevc lieberlicfye 
Vaganten, umb witten biefelbcn alfo tton anberen Drtfyen tterfolget, unb ttertriben 
imben, umb fo meljrer unb (niuffiger Unfcrem «$er§ogtfyuni SfteuBurg, gu nidjt 
geringen ©cfyaben, unb Uberlafl ber llntertbancn, ftct? an: unb eintringen tl)un, 
(o beftnben SEBtr Un§ gtctcfcfatlS necessities, ju gdnfclirfjer 2(uj?s 3iott* unb 
SSertreibung fold) lieberlirfjen, qcfafirlirf?cn, unb fcf?dblirf?en Bigeiner, unb anberen 
unnuijen, unb lofen ©ejtnbetS, auct) lueiter gu geljen, unb fo gar bie Extrema gu 
ergreiffen. £tjuu beinnad) Unferer Otegierung gu -JfteuBurg alien unb jeben Unfereu 
OSer* unb Unter»93eambten, £anbs9ftidjtera $f(egem, unb beven S5enva(tern, 
0Urf)tcrn, Gafluern, SKautnern, 3ot;tuern, beren ©egenfdneibern, mie ntcfyt 
reeniger, and) benen bretyen ©tdnben, Unferer £anbfd)afft, unb inS ©emain aU 
Unfereu Untertbanen, abfonbertid) akr benen @rdn|=Ortt)en, r)ieutit, unb in 
jtrafft biefeS gndbigfl aubefel)(en, auf bie offterg mentionierte 3'geiuer, unb 
Vaganten, fo ficl> ingfunfftige ungefdjeudjter in bag Sanb herein begeben roerben, 
ail fdmlbigfi: unb moglidjftcn (StyferS gu invigilieren, bantit @ie gu SSer^afft 
a,ebrad)t, unb an ifyuen biefeg Unfer gemeffene Mandat ber ©dnrrttffe nacfc 
Exequieret ruerben iu6d)te. Unb givar erftlidicn lvotlen s lBir (Jrnft: unb 
gutter la fjigftcfy, bafl bie ienige, fo fid; in Itnfcrm £erfeogtl)umb SfteuBurg quo vis 
modo bctretten taffen, unb umb bicfe Unfere 3Serorbnung einige 3Biffenfd)afft 
gefyabt, ober, benen mit untertauffenben Umfldnben naclj, presumptive ivo[;I fyaben 
fbnnen, alfo gleid) auf bafj ©dnirvffifie torquiert, unb, nad) 6eftnben ber "Sad) 
abgejiraffet, nadjgefjenbS after, ba man ©ie int)ieftgen £anben lvieberum betretten 
lmirbe, ot)ne fernern Process an ben necujreu Beften gu foldjem Snbe an benen 
offentlid;en (Straffen aufgerid)teten @d)neU*®aIgen, il)nen felBften jur ©traff 
anberen aOer gum Exempel, unb nad)trucfiid)er QSertca^mung aufgeticncft, bie 
jenige abcr, ive(d)e fid) mit gtauBrourbiger Ignoranz, ober Univiffenlieit entfduilbigen 
tonucn, gu em^finblic^er Tortur (unter icclclien <2ie, lvegeu je§t gemelter i^rer 
Uiuviffenl)eit, ntebrmaleu evuftiid) gu 6efprad)cn) gegogen, allM fonberbar aud) 
Ratione Consortij examinieret, unb roann f'ein anberS Serh'ed^en yon i^nen 
beflnnben, ober <2ic iibcnviefen nmrben, uid)t§ befto jueniger mit cm^ftnblicfyen 
IRut^ens itvcidien auSge^auen, ber @d)neu'=©a(gett i^ncn o^neUnterfcbib=2)iann= 
unb 5Bei6§*$erfonen, auff ben JRucfen gcbrennet : unb fo bann gcgen gefctnrorner 
Ihtotjebt be§ SaubcS auf @t»ig mit bent betrobtidjeu 3ufa§ uerivifen, baf? felbe ttor 
tteritanbeuer maffen, auff iviebcr SBetretten o^ne afleS SKittel aufgel)encft lterben 
follen. <§o vooUtn s iBir aufy gndbigft, bafj auf bie jenige Sigciner, unb anbere 
bbfe unb gefa^rlid)e l*eutlj, fo ftci) bei) beueu Straiffen iviberfctjen, «&anb angelegt, 
unb gefralten 2)ingen wad) gar 3'euer auf ©ie gcben werben mo e, u;ie nic^t 
iveniger n\vnn bergleid)en fdjdblid)e8 ©eftnbl in bie 2)orffer fommet, unb fid; 


(finlogteren rcotte, bcif? alfo gtettf) (Sturm gestagen, unb fo n>or)l eine ©emainb ber 
anbercn 6esj ©traff gu £ilff fommcn folic, and) bajj fete jenige, fo etwann in benen 
2>5rfferen, obcv Smoben bergleicr)en £eutr)en gutrsilUgen Unterftijluff gegefren, unb 
fofcfjcS nit Den QSfigten, ober 2)otp=5»t)rcren seitticfe anjeigen, niit em^fmblicber 
£eit>3-©traf[ angefetjen rcerben foUeu, barnit ftcl) aber nicmanb, roer ber aucb urn 
mag, mit ber llmviffentjeit entfdbulbigen moge, unb tonne, ifi bifeS tlnfer gnabigftefi 
Mandat uicbt attein auff benen (£ant}(en in benen Jtirdjen, unb auffer beren be: 
benen ©emeinbcn, unb fonftcn btirrfigetjenbS offentlicl; ju 33erruffen, unb funb ju 
macben, fonbern aucb neoen benen @dmeU-ffia(gen, ober t)ol£ere ©allien, ober 
Tiafelen jur ^act;vict^t an§ut)efften, feffeu 2Bir Un3 gndbigfi berfeijen. ©eoen in 
Unferer 3ftejtben|*<Stabt SJieuburg an ber 2)onau ben 18. Octobris, Anno 1710. 
Ex Mandate* Serenissimi Domini, 

Domini ac Electoris Speciali. (L.S.) 

Sonbem gebietlien t)ievauf gnabigfr, bafj borangejogeneS mefyrmabl erueuerteS 
Mandat jebergeit foivot)! bety 98ejtraff= ctlS Processirung beren gefdnglicb, eiiu 
tonunenben 8anb«Sduffer, Vaganten, unb obbcfdn'ibcnen liebetiid), unb l)eilofcn 
©efhtbelS fur bie afleinige Diegul unb SfMcr/tfcfynur gebatten, unb ftcl) uinb fo 
met)r geborfamft, unb ^flic^tmafig barnadj geacbtei roerben folic, all btefeS Unferer 
■gndbigfien 9Biu*en§ SWeijnung affcrbingS geindfj ifi, unb tjicrburcb, and? bie 
5£ot)lfart unb @td)erl)eit Unferer Unterttjanen beforberet, unb erbalien roerben 
fan. ©egeben in Unferer Dteftbenfc @tabt SReuburg an ber -Donau ben 
11.*" Januari 1766. 

Ex Mandate* Serenissimi Domini, 
Domini Electoris Palatini 

Speciali. (L.S.) 

30. — New Forest Words 

The following words were given to me by an old soldier called Sherred, now a 
New Forest tent-dweller. He calls them ' old English,' and learned them many 
years ago from George Lee, a fiddler, who was one of the Hampshire and New- 
Forest Lees. Of this family only a few now remain in the neighbourhood of 
.Southampton, and they hold themselves aloof from every other Gypsy. 

burden, burten, plate. 

doracl drom, dark lane. 

jildi korro ! walk quickly ! 

kavi, kettle. He also gave pompi. 

kczi : brown kezi, bog myrtle ; green km, willow. The Lees use 

for silk. 
kunta, fork. 
mejik, sixpence. 
piela, basin. 
pdtza, pocket. 

rak ans, cups and saucers. He also gave drdfans. 
ran-draff, skimmer. 
sibsi, sibse, juniper bush. One of the Pages of Sholing gave me fchia 

word, some years ago, for a furze bush. 
skwejums, skwijums, beads. 
tshapi, purse. 
ishumaj, spoon. 

Al.K'K E. ( ill. I. IN. .i 


31. — Twiss ox Gypsies 

Borrow's description of the Gypsy innkeeper at Tarifa (Zincali, part ii. 
chapter iv.) might easily give rise to exaggerated ideas as to the dishonesty of 
such people and as to the accommodation they had to offer to travellers. On this 
account it may be well to reproduce what Richard Twiss, Esq., F.R.S., had to say 
about them. He visited the Peninsula in 1772-3, and published a very dull 
account of his travels, of which one edition in two duodecimo volumes was printed 
at Dublin in 1775, and entitled Travels through Portugal and Spain in 1772 
and 1773. On page 193 of the first volume he gives his only general account of 
the Gypsies : — 

' It may not be improper to mention the gypsies, who are very numerous 
throughout Spain, especially about and in Murcia, Cordova, Cadiz, and Ronda. The 
race of these vagabonds is found in every part of Europe : the French call them 
Bohemiens. the Italians Zingari, the Germans Ziegenners [sic], the Dutch Hey- 
denen (pagans), the Portuguese Siganos, and the Spaniards Gitanos, in Latin 
Cingari. Their language, which is peculiar to themselves, is every where so 
similar, that they undoubtedly are all derived from the same source. They began 
to appear in Europe in the fifteenth century, and are probably a mixture of 
E^vptians and Ethiopians. The men are all thieves, and the women libertines : 
they follow no certain trade, and have no fixed religion : they do not enter into 
the order of society, wherein they are only tolerated. It is supposed that there 
are upwards of forty thousand of them in Spain ; great numbers of whom are inn- 
keepers in the villages and small towns : they are every where fortune-tellers. In 
Spain they are not allowed to possess any lands, nor even to serve as soldiers. 
They marry among themselves : they stroll in troops about the country, and bury 
their dead under a tree. Their ignorance prevents their employing themselves in 
any thing but in providing for the immediate wants of nature, beyond which even 
their roguishness does not extend, and only endeavouring to save themselves the 
trouble of labour : they are contented if they can procure food by shewing fates 
[feats] of dexterity, and only pilfer to supply themselves with the trifles they 
want ; so that they never render themselves liable to any severer chastisement 
than whipping, for having stolen chickens, linen, &c. Most of the men have a 
smattering of physic and surgery, and are skilled in tricks performed by slight of 
hand. The foregoing account is partly extracted from le Voyageur Francois, 
vol. xvi., but the assertion that they are all so abandoned as that author says, is 
too general ; I have lodged many times in their houses, and never missed the 
most trifling thing, though I have left my knives, forks, candlesticks, spoons, and 
linen at their mercy ; and I have more than once known unsuccessful attempts 
made for a private interview with some of their young females, who virtuously 
rejected both the courtship and the money.' 

Honest the Gypsy innkeepers may have been, but their hospitality seems to 
have left much to be desired. On May 4, 1773, Twiss and his party' . . . arriving 
at the city of Murcia, we put up at an inn kept by gypsies : the first floor, which 
I occupied, was little better than a hog-sty ; I agreed with a French traiteur that 
he should furnish me with provisions ready dressed, as our landlord and landlady 
could not supply us with any thing' (vol. i. p. 241). On May 14 '. , . we got to 
Chiridel, where we passed the night on straw, in a venta kept by gypsies, " the 
doors and windows of which were always open, by reason of their [sic] being none 
to shut," as Taylor, the water-poet says, of a like hovel he was in when he travelled 
through Bohemia. Our landlady, however, very obligingly danced a fandando [sic] 
with the soldier, to the sound of a " tambour de Basque & Castanetas " ' (vol. i. 
p. 252). On May 18 his experience was similar to that of May 4, and he notes 
that Gypsy inns 'are called Mesones by the Spaniards' (vol.'i. p. 255, misnumbered 
265). At Ronda, on June 21, he recorded, ' All the inns here are kept by gypsies ' 
(vol. ii. p. 36). 


On page 249 of the first volume Twiss mentions that the district between Lorca 
and Granada was infested by troops of banditti, who lived in caverns in the moun- 
tains, but he does not describe them as Gypsies ; and on pa«e 115 of the second 
he says : ' The whole kingdom is over-run with French knife-grinders, tinkers, and 
pedlars, who collect much money by exercising these mean trades, after which they 
return to their own country, leaving the Spanish dons weltering in their pride, 
laziness, and misery.' 

Other statements which have a possible bearing on Gypsy lore are : (i. 168) a 
quotation from a ' dictionary, entitled, Sobrino Aumentado por F. Cormon printed 
at Antwerp in 1769/ describing the fandango as 'a kind of very lively dance, which 
the Spaniards have learned from the Indians ' ; (i. 231) that ' Most of the Valencians, 
in speaking Spanish, pronounce the ci like our English th ' ; and (ii. 4) that tarot 
cards were commonly used in good society at Granada. 

32. — Pindaric Gypsies 
In an article entitled 'The Conflict of Studies,' by Prof. A. W. Mair, in the 
Glasgow Herald for June 11, 1910, occurs the following interesting passage: — 
' Continually to the student of Greek new lights are rising ; the hitherto meaning- 
less is clothed with meaning, the hitherto unnoticed becomes of engrossing interest. 
Suppose that I see in the map the name of Falkirk. That the second part of the 
word is kirk = church is at once obvious. But what is Fall Now the knowledge 
of Greek at once suggests TroAidj, speckled, grey : it in Greek being represented 
in English by/, as iraTrjp = father. The "speckled church" in Gaelic would be 
eaglais breac — which is the name of Falkirk — known to north-country men for its 
famous markets — in the Highlands to this present day. But more : we are at once 
in the presence of the King of Little Egypt — of Johnnie Fa' (i.e. Fal, as wa'=wall), 
and the whole significance of the name is an open book. Nay, in the glorious ith 
Pythian of Pindar, is it not conceivable that the difficult phrase in line 98, m 
av6pa>na>v ae )(>v woXias i^avrJKev yaa-rpos, finds here its explanation— 
gypsy womb " ? ' Are we to infer from this that the Professor believes in the 
presence of Gypsies in Greece in classical times, or is he using the term "gypsy ' in 
a somewhat loose way 1 Alex. Russell. 

31si July 1912. 

33. — Turning Garments Inside Out 
I was conversing Avith my Gypsy friend Johnny Winter, or Pierce, alias Smith, 
who travels North Lincolnshire, about people losing their way in the dense fogs 
which sometimes roll up over our Wolds from the North Sea, an experience which 
has more than once happened to myself when crossing the bleak hills intervening 
between my home and a neighbouring church, when Johnny exclaimed, ' I Bay, 
rai, do you know what my old daddy used to do, if ever he gol losl ' 
turn his coat inside out and put it on again, and he wasn 't long before he fou 
the right road, leastways that is what he used to tell us boys.' Reflecting upon 
this usage, I recalled the custom, observed in the case of Isaac Eeron's burial, "I 
enclosing in the coffin some of the deceased man's garments turned i 
May there not be some link between the burial custom and the asa 
by Johnny Winter? Do the Gypsies believe that this parti torn aid 

mulo which perchance has lost its bearings in thai i 
touchingly described by George Smith of Coalville as 'the greal unknown 
unseen world of Tdtto paani (spirits) from whence no chodrodo 

8th August 1912. ___ GEORGE Hah 

1 I've been a Gipsying, p. 197. 


34. — Gypsy Dog-Killers in the Crimea 
' Kertcb, like all the other cities of the Crimea — in fact, we may say, like all 
Eastern cities — is infested with a superfluous and useless population ; noisy, 
troublesome, and sometimes threatening the personal safety of the public. We refer 
once more to those abominable vagrant dogs, which would at last become masters 
of the town, but for the wise though cruel measures taken against them. Gipsies 
arc at Kertch the executors of this work of carnage, and the proceedings are in 
this wise : — One of these honest Tsigans, invested on this occasion with the 
character of a public officer, and accordingly dressed up in some cast-off military 
coat, goes about dragging behind him the carcass of a dog clubbed to death the 
night before. He proceeds in this way through the different cpuarters of the city 
with a calm visage, but keeping a sharp look-out, for beneath his garment he carries 
a heavy bludgeon, a weapon fatal to the canine race. No sooner does the execu- 
tioner show himself in a street, than a horrible yelling immediately breaks out on 
all sides from this republic of dogs, who recognise their destroyer, and perhaps, 
who knows ? his victim. Immediately they rush forth from the houses, from the 
gardens on all sides, pursuing the imperturbable gipsy with their infuriated 
barking. The latter still continues his steady, leisurely progress, until the fatal 
instant when one of these enraged pursuers comes within reach of his bludgeon. 
As quick as lightning the blow comes down with murderous precision, and 
another Trojan is stretched by the side of the lamented Hector. In the evening, 
the Tsigan, after a good day's work, goes before the magistrate, and stretches out 
a hand stained with such or such a number of deaths. Each fractured skull 
brings him twenty-five copecks, or, if you will, twenty-five centimes.' — Travels 
in Southern Russia, mid the Crimea; through Hungary, Wallachia, & Moldavia, 
during the Year 1837. By M. Anatole De Demidoff. London, 1853, vol. ii. pp. 
215-6. Alex. Russell. 

Ibth August 1912. 

35. — Classification and Numbers of Wallaciiian Gypsies in 1837 
' However the case may be, this exiled people are enabled to subsist in "Wal- 
lachia more readily than in any other country, as it presents them the means 
of reconciling their natural indolence with the conditions necessary to ensure them 
the protection of the law. A portion of the Tsigan population live by labour ; to 
these is assigned the task of washing the auriferous sands borne down by the 
current of certain rivers, and it is with the produce of their patient toil at this 
employment, that they are enabled to jwy the poll-tax. In the second class are 
found masons, blacksmiths, cooks, and locksmiths ; occupations which the Wal- 
lachian population disdain to follow, but the greater portion are consigned to 
servitude, and swell with their useless and mischievous numbers, the household of 
the Boyards. Lastly, the third class of this people, without a name, from having 
received so many, live in a state of vagabondage and mendicancy. Half-clad, and 
exposed to the inclemency of the seasons, men and women encamp in the open air 
with a troop of hideous children, in whom it would be difficult to anticipate the 
handsome youths of both sexes, whom we see so graceful in form, and with so 
proud a deportment as soon as their precocious maturity is developed.' . . . 

' An article in the organic law of the principality ordains, however, that a fund 
shall be established for redeeming the Tsigans from vagrancy, and obliging them to 
build houses and dwell in them. This measure is beginning to be put in force.' . . . 
'Gipsies, servants of private individuals, 14,158. Gipsies belonging to the 
state (gold-gatherers), 5,635.'— De Demidoffs Travels in Southern Russia, and 
the Crimea ; through Hungary, Wallachia, .!' Moldavia, during the Year 1837. 
London, 1853, vol. i. pp. 207-!). Alex. Russell. 


36.— Gypsy Musicians in Hungary 

' It would be ungrateful, while lauding the music, were we to keep silence as to 
those who made it. The Fiired band was really a very good one, and it surprised us 
not a little to hear that it was composed entirely of gipsies; yes, that same thi» , 
lying, music-loving race, of whom we so often see a stray member in our own 
villages scraping a jig on a three-stringed fiddle, is found here too, and busy in the 
same idleness. But instead of strumming at village wakes with country bumpkins 
for their auditors, we found them here in stately festivals, ministering to the plea- 
sures of the nobles of the land ; and instead of a crazy fiddle, a wefl-conditi 
orchestra might have been formed out of the gipsy band. 

' The leader was not the least remarkable of the party, for, though not more than 
fourteen years of age, he was a most accomplished violinist. He had studied for 
some months under Strauss in Vienna, and had received high commendations from 
his master ; but what Strauss certainly had not intended to teach, though it was 
no slight element of his pupil's success, was a most perfect imitation of those 
extraordinary movements by which the body of the great waltz-player seems con- 
vulsed during his performance, and which our little Czigany took off so admirably 
as to keep his audience in a roar of laughter. I have seen the gipsies — Czigany, 
as the Hungarians called them— as actors also, and they are not very much worse 
than the generality of strolling players in other lands.' — Hungary and Transyl- 
vania. By John Paget. London, mdcccxxxix, vol. i. pp. 274-5. 

'At one of the first dinner parties to which we were invited, the attendance of 
the gipsy band was ordered, that we might hear some of the Hungarian music in 
its most original form. The crash of sound which burst upon us, as we entered the 
dining-room, was almost startling ; for be they where they may, gipsy musicians make 
it a point to spare neither their lungs nor arms, in the service of their patroi s. 
This band was one of the best in the country, and consisted of not less than t vi 
or thirty members, all of whom were dressed in smart hussar uniforms, and really 
looked very well. Few of them, if any, knew notes, yet they executed many \ ery 
difficult pieces of music with considerable accuracy. The favourite popular tune 
the Rakotzy— the Magyar " Scots wha hae "—was given with great force. I am more 
than ever convinced that none but a gipsy band can do it full justice. The i 
of the melancholy plaintive sounds with which it begins, increased by the fine dis- 
cords which the gipsies introduce, and of the wild burst of passion which closes it, 
must depend as much on the manner of its execution as on the mere composition. 
It is startlinor to the stranger, on arriving at Klausenburg, that no sooner is he 
lodged in his inn, than he receives a visit from this gipsy band, who salute him 
with their choicest music to do honour to his coming ; and it is sometimi 
annoying to find that he cannot get rid of them without paying them mosl hand- 
somely for their compliment.' — Ibid., vol. ii. pp. 478-9. 

Alex. Russei i . 

37. — Hungarian Gypsies in 1793 

'He [the Governor of Bude] receives no eeguiners (gipsh - inl 
a most wise regulation. No doubt it was not the bad example whi< 
give, which alone induced him to exclude those vagabonds ; bul he wish d to keep 
alive, in his regiment, a principle of honour, by considering his men a 

associated with thieves and vagrants; which is the « i 

zeguiners:— Travels in Hungary, with a Short Account of Vienna wi 
1793. By Robert Townson, LL.D. London, 1797, p. 77. 

' Pastor Benedict is well acquainted with the language of the &ypsi 
they are called in Hungary, Ziguiners ; he assured me that when he « n 


he conversed with sonic Knglish gypsies who understood him very well.' — Ibid., 

p. 248. 

'By the road-side [between Debretzin and Tokay] I found a large party of 
uners. How admirably they are pourtrayed by Cowper in these lines : 

I see a column of slow-rising smoke 
[13 lines quoted]. 

' Hungary may be considered as the seat of this people. They are here very 
numerous, and lead the same vagabond life they do in other countries. Several of 
the later Hungarian sovereigns have endeavoured to render them sedentary, but 
with not much success ; they still stroll about the country as tinkers and musicians, 
but are not seen in such hordes as formerly. It is but a few years ago (I think 
under Joseph n.) that about a score of them were condemned and executed in the 
Great Hontor county for being — Anthropophagists ; but, when it was too late, it 
was suspected that their Judges had been too hasty in their condemnation. They 
were not seen in Hungary before 1418. What their numbers are I could never 
learn ; but when the neighbouring country of the Buccovine was lately ceded to 
Austria, of seventy thousand inhabitants, one thousand were gipsies.' — Ibid., 
pp. 258-60. Alex. Russell. 

38.— Hungarian Gyspies in 1839 

' In the course of our ride, in a small valley a little off the road, the Baron 
showed me a colony of gipsies, — permanent, as he said, in contradistinction to others 
who are always erratic, — who occupy a little land, and do him some work for it. 
The reader may have remarked that I do not hesitate here, as well as in other 
parts of this Work, to speak of the Czigany of the Hungarians by the English name 
of gipsies, for it is impossible to doubt their identity. There is the same dark eye 
and curling black hair, the same olive complexion and small active form. Then 
their occupations and manner of life, different as are the countries and climates 
they inhabit, still remain the same ; fiddling, fortune-telling, horse-dealing, and 
tinkering, are their favourite employments,- — a vagabond life their greatest joy. 
Though speaking several tongues, they have all a peculiar language of their own, 
quite distinct from any other known in Europe. Here, as with us, they have 
generally a king too, whom they honour and respect, but I have not been able to 
make out what establishes a right to the gipsy crown. I believe superior wealth, 
personal cunning, as well as hereditary right, have some influence on their 

'They first made their appearance in this country from the East, about the year 
I 1^3, when King Sigmund granted them permission to settle. 1 Joseph the Second 
tried to turn them to some account, and passed laws which he hoped would force 
them to '_ r i v e up their wandering life and betake themselves to agriculture. The land- 
lords were obliged to make them small grants of land, and to allow them to build 
houses at the end of their villages. I have often passed through these Czigany varos, 
gipsy towns, and it is impossible to imagine a more savage scene. Children of 
both sexes, to the age of fourteen, are seen rolling about with a mere shred of cover- 
ing, and their elders with much less than the most unfastidious decency requires. 
Filth obstructs the passage into every hut. As the stranger approaches, crowds of 
black urchins flock round him, and rather demand than beg for charity. The 

'In Hungarian law they are called " new peasants/" The name of Pharaoh 

. Pharaoh's people, I imagine has been given either from contempt, or error. 

The name Czigany, by which the Hungarians call them, is so like the Zingari, 

Zigeuner, Gitani, Gipsy, of other nations, that I have no doubt it is the one they 

originally gave themselves." 


screams of men and women, and the barking of dogs- for the whole tribe seems to 
be in a state of constant warfare— never cease from morning to night. It is rare 
however, that when thus settled, they can remain the whole year stationary ; they 
generally disappear during a part of the summer, and only return when winter 
obliges them to seek a shelter. Others wander about as they do with us, gaining 
a livelihood, as accident throws it in their way. They are said to amount to sixty 
two thousand three hundred and fifteen in Transylvania, 1 The Austrian Govern- 
ment, I believe, is the only one in Europe which has been known to derive any 
advantage from its gipsies, but by means of the tax for gold-washing, to which we 
shall allude hereafter, it must derive a considerable revenue from this people. 
They are often taken for soldiers, and are said to make pretty good ones. Mosl 

of them are christened and profess some religion, which is always the seigneur's 

not the peasants' — of the village to which they belong. In fact the cnpsies have 
a most profound respect for aristocracy, and they are said to be the best genealogists 
in the country. 

' Their skill in horse-shoeing— they are the only blacksmiths in the country 

and in brickmaking, renders them of considerable value to the landlord. Whal is 
the exact state of the law with respect to them, I know not ; but I believe they are 
absolute serfs in Transylvania. I know the settled gipsies cannot legally take' per- 
manent service out of the place they were born in, without permission, or without 
the payment of a certain sum of money. 2 

'They are just as great beggars here as elsewhere, and just as witty in their 
modes of begging. A large party of them presented themselves one day at the 

door of the Countess W , whom they used to call the mother of the gipsies, from 

her frequent charities to them, with a most piteous complaint of cold and hunger 
— all the children, as usual, naked ; when the chief pulling a sad face, begged hard 
for relief ; "for he was a poor man," he said, "and it cost him a great deal to clothe 
so large a family." 

'Of the most simple moral laws they seem to be entirely ignorant. It is not 
rare to see them employed as servants in offices considered below the peasant to 
perform. They never dream of eating with the rest of the household, but re< 
a morsel in their hands, and devour it where they can. Their dwellings arc the 
merest huts, often without a single article of furniture. Having such difficulty in 
supporting themselves, as is manifested in their wasted forms, "in- cannot help 
wondering how they can maintain the pack of curs which always infest theirsettle- 
ments, and often render it dangerous to approach them. By the rest of the pi asantry 
they are held in most sovereign contempt. As I was travelling along the road one 
day, after my return from Turkey, my servant turned round as we nut a can]. ■ ■!' 
gipsies, and exclaimed, "After all, sir, our negroes are not so ugly as those in 
Turkey." — John Paget's Hungary and Transylvania. London, mdcccxxxix, 
vol. ii. pp. 324-7. Alex Hi —1:1.1.. 

39 — Roumanian Gypsies 

Chapter vi. of J. W. Ozanne's Three Years in Row ■ London, 18" 

entitled 'The Gipsy Race.' I quote the most interesting part of it :■ 

'The number of bands oilaoutari, or minstrels, whirl, tl . . formed, would defj 
any attempt at computation. Every cafe or beer garden 
troupes, according to the season, and admirably soothing was their mu lie, n hen 
ear became accustomed to their peculiar style of melody. The laoutan a 

1 ' This enumeration is taken from a very imperfeel statistical work, on h 
vania by Lebrecht, and is. I suspect, exaggerated. 

- 'In Wallachia, when I was there, they were sold as slaves in tie- open market. 
I believe this law has been since abolished.' 


wonderfully gifted in this respect. Without any previous study, without any ac- 
quaintance u itli the theory or principles of their art, they handle their instruments 
with a skill which seems implanted in them by Nature herself. Their tunes are of 
the most weird description, and are heard again and again with ever-increasing 
pleasure. More wonderful still to relate, after listening for the first time to an air, 
and without understanding a single note, they are able to reproduce it, in its most 
complicated form, with the strictest exactness, and with exquisite taste and ex- 
pression. No one who has not visited this country could believe to what a pitch 
this native talent can be brought. The laoutari also perform at balls, and, oddly 
enough, at funerals as well. Their favourite instruments are the violin, shah-aldja, 
or king of instruments ; the kobza, a kind of mandoline ; and the net, or panpipe, 
which they have brought from Persia. In Clausenburg, one of the towns of 
Transylvania, the Tzigans have formed a company, and, wandering from place to 
place, return after a certain time to head-quarters, where they divide their gains, 
which often amount to a considerable sum. 

'Formerly serfs, the Gipsies are now free men. They are cooks, blacksmiths, 
builders, and makers of bricks. Although some of them have settled down to the 
cultivation of the soil, the majority prefer a wandering mode of life, and alternately 
steal and beg. In the country they often dwell in tents, or in some hovel hastily 
contrived. There they are to be seen, pile-mele, men, women, children, pigs, and 
dogs. Idle to a degree, they are always studying how to exist without performing 
their daily round of work. Humour them, and they are easily led. Treat them, 
however, as your fellowmen and fellow-citizens, and you will make nothing of 
them. Such is their character. Moreover, so improvident are their habits, that 
all their employers are obliged to pay them back in food, for ail the money received 
at the end of the week is spent at the wine-shop on the Sunday, and nothing 
remains but starvation until the arrival of the following Saturday. 

'Besides these, there are a few Turkish Tzigans, called Turciti. They are 
Mahomedans from the other side of the Danube, and perform the functions of 
tinkers, or menders of kettles and pots. They speak the Gipsy language mingled 
with the Turkish tongue. In their leisure time they devote their attention to the 
rearing of buffaloes, the milk of which is their principal sustenance during the winter 

There are two distinct types of Gipsies in Boumania. One set have crisp 
hair and thick lips, with a very dark complexion. The others have a fine profile, 
regular features, good hair, and an olive complexion, all characteristic of the Indo- 
Caucasian race. The former are the descendants of the old emigrants, about whose 
origin so many different theories have been advanced. The latter are descended 
from the refugees of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, who left India at the 
time of the great Mogul invasions under Genghis Khan and Tamerlane. It has 
been remarked that while one race is easily to be taught and brought to a right 

i prehension of the advantages of civilization, the other delights in ignorance, 
and cannot be improved at any price. It is related that Joseph II. attempted the 
education of this obstinate tribe amid the mountains of Transylvania. The families 
were placed on various lordly domains and forbidden to quit them. But the in- 
habitants were at last compelled to get rid of them all. Houses were built for 
them ; they drove their cows in and pitched their tents alongside. And the 
children who were apprenticed among the villagers, seized the first opportunity to 
take themselves off, and soon rejoined their parents. 

' Among the Tzigans of Indian origin many men are to be found who are well 
versed in oriental traditions. The old people explain with wonderful sagacity, by 
astronomical phenomena, all the various religions. Even the little children catch 
the inspiration, and come out with most poetical allusions. A traveller relates 
that, as he was proceeding one day along the road leading from Shumla toRasgrad, 
the little ones who walked in front, seeing the sun rising in the east, exclaimed, 


" IopoMuel, There is Pan." " Jese de sobo Krin, He is leaving his couch,' ; said one ■ 
" Urgaha, He is climbing the heavens," cried another. And he showed the traveller 
the moon, whose white disc was fast disappearing in the west, amid the blue of the 
sky, and continued, " Iak ebhu dabes, The eye of the earth grows pale." 

' According to the Tzigans, all religion is based on the harmony of astronomical 
phenomena ; and Brahminism, Judaism, and Christianity are but forms of the 
religion whose cosmogonic mysteries have been revealed to them by their ances- 
tors. The sky is a vast sea of darkness, from which light emanates, and to which 
it returns. God is the ix, or the invisible axis, around which eternity revolves. 
The sidereal zone, which we term the zodiac, is the stole, or starry robe which God 
puts on in the east when Pan sets in the west. It is from this robe, the apo-stole, 
that have proceeded all the grand voices which have made themselves heard 
throughout all ages in this world of ours. The four points of the solstices and the 
equinoxes are the four principal heavenly messengers. The four seasons or times 
determined by these points, are the four great voices or oracles of God, His four 
great prophets or evangelists. The twelve months, which complete these four 
great times, are the twelve little books of God ; the twelve oxen or bulls of the 
night and the day, who sustain the ocean of the seasons and the brazen wail of 
Solomon's Temple ; the twelve tables of the laws of Moses and Romulus, in which 
are inscribed the Ten Commandments of Bud-dha, or Moses ; the twelve sons of 
Jacob, rocks of Israel at Sinai and the Jordan ; and the twelve apostles of Jesus, 
rocks of Christ at the Jordan and at Golgotha itself. 1 Whatever the estimate 
which we may form of the value of these traditions, it cannot be denied that they 
testifv to habits of meditation very different from those of the masters who so lonf 
bought and sold them in the open market. 

' The first laws in Roumania relative to the Tzigans of which mention is made 
go back as far as the reigns of Rudolph iv. and Stephen the Great, who made one- 
fifth of them state property. Other princes afterwards gave up the remaining 
four-fifths to the boyards and the monasteries. The Tzigans are divided into 
classes or tribes. First come the Laiesi, who follow a multitude of trades. To 
this class the laoutari belong. Next we have the Vatrari, or servants, who are 
employed in the great houses. The third division is that of the N 
atheists, the probable descendants of the emigrants of the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries. These are the most savage and wild of all the Gipsy race. Halt- 
naked, and living only by theft and plunder, they feed on the flesh of cats and 
dogs, sleep on the bare ground or in some ruin or barn, and possess absolutely n<> 
property of any kind. They have a strong resemblance to the negro physiognomy 
and character. Each of these tribes elects its judge and supreme head, who is 
called Bul-basha. The election is made in the open country. The judge and the 
Bul-basha formerly wore the full beard, a sign of nobility, always rodi 
horseback, and were clad in a long red mantle, coloured boots, and the Phrygian 

' The Tzigans are, as I have said, now free, and able to settle or roam w hen 
please. Their condition is improving every day; but the Roumans natu 
look down upon even the best of them. Gradual intermarriages with the I 
population may, however, finally place the more steady-going among them in the 
position to which they aspire.' 

40.— The Gypsyry at Klai sej 

'Immediately outside the town rises a little hill, which, viewed from the • 
of the street, presents the very strangest appearance. 

1 Compare the quotation from Vaillant'a Leu Homes, ■'■ '■■ I x 

vol. ii. p. 32.— A. R. 


partly burrowed in the earth, with a door-post in front and a lintel, and a small 
window at the side ; or on a bit of rocky ground, like a shelf, a hut is raised, 
and, as you come downwards from above, it is well to take care you do not step on 
the roof or enter the dwelling by the chimney. The drawing, though taken from a 
photograph made on purpose, does not give the strange fantastic air of the reality. 
As I wandered about on the slippery paths, the whole place grew alive with human 
beings emerging from scarce-seen doors, like rabbits from their burrows. 

This was a favourite resort of Borrow, when in Klausenburg. He used 
daily to pay his friends the gipsies a visit, for which attention they, as it would 
seem, mulcted him regularly of his silk pocket-handkerchiefs. " This is my 
last," he said one day to an acquaintance of mine, on starting for his accustomed 
walk, " they have had all the rest." 

' As 1 drove along the road, one of the children followed me a great distance, 
keeping up with my waggon, and performing all sorts of evolutions. 

' Borrow has a crotchet in his head about the continence of gipsy women. This 
notion seems to be a hobby of his, and he therefore maintains it, though notoriously 
inaccurate.' — Transylvania; Its Products and its People. By Charles Boner. 
London, 1865, p. 439. 

Pages 348-53 of this book contain a very interesting account of the Gypsies, 
too long to quote. Alex. Bussell. 

41. — Gypsy Beggars 

James Sainuelson's Bulgaria Past and Present, London, 1888, contains only 
two meagre references to Gypsies (pp. 19 and 185) ; both are complaints as to 
their begging propensities. Alex. Bussell. 

42. — Turkish Gypsies and the Evil Eye 

' A gypsy minstrel, a thing of shreds and patches, on his way to a wedding 
feast, protested that the Evil Eye would be upon him if I took his likeness, but I 
"snapped" him while he argued.' — The Balkan Trail. By Frederick Moore. 
London, 1906, p. 168. 

'Between meals the unknown (an American tourist) prowled the town carrying 
a small black box with a covered eye, which napped at every native she met. 
Tziganes fled madly down the roads. . . .' — Ibid., p. 192. W. A. Dutt. 

43. — Gitsies in Turkey 

' There is a Tsigane quarter in every large town in Turkey, and it generally 
stands somewhere near the circle of graveyards. It is always the most squalid 
quarter, holes in old walls, shanties made of flattened petroleum tins, caves in 
hillsides, serving the gypsies as abodes. They are a filthy people, and a burden 
to the community. They seldom till the soil, object to work, and live for the most 
part by begging or stealing. They stand alone in the world as a people without 
a religion, and their primitive instincts lead them to follow the natural bent of man 
to prey upon others. They came into Europe on the heels of the Turk, and re- 
mained in some of the countries from which he has been compelled to recede. In 
one of the Balkan states they are exempt from military service, as they cannot be 
held to routine ; in the others they are generally assigned to duty in the bands 
1 "cause of their talent for music' — The Lallan Trail. By Frederick Moore. 
I. radon, L906, pp. 197, 198. W. A. Dutt. 


44.— Gypsy Baptisms 

Through the kindness of the Rev. F. P. Gilbert, Rector of South Wootton 
near King's Lynn, Norfolk, I have received the following interesting extract from 
the Baptismal Register of his parish : — 

' 1831, Oct. 2. Erosabella, dr. of John and Ruth Killthorpe, Itinerant Gypsies. 
„ „ „ Curlinda, dr. of Chas. and Mary Lee, Itinerant Gypsies.'" 

In regard to the first of these entries, a clergyman dull of hearing may 
easily have mis-heard the surname; or, the Gypsies may have given on alias, 
a thing not at all rare, as those who search many registers know well. 1 
bella is without a doubt the ' Bella ' who appears on the Chilcot pedigree as 
a daughter of John Chilcot and Ruth Liti Lovell ; whilst Curlinda in the"second 
entry can be no other than Kerlenda, daughter of Charlie Lee and Union Chilcot, 
who became the wife of George (Lazzy) Petulengro. The substitution of Mary 
for Union is on a par with an existing Anglo-Romani usage by which Enos be- 
comes Amos ; Femi, Amy ; and Poley, George,— to the postman and gdje generally. 
Touching the use of their peculiar 'fore' or Christian names, in the presence of 
gdje, many Bomanicels are extremely sensitive. George Hall. 

29th August 1912. 

45.— The 'Xo^ano Baro ' in India 

In Mr. Thurston's Omens and Siqxrstitions of Southern India ( = 'the Madras 
Presidency and the Native States of Travancore and Cochin'), pp. 267-8, occurs 
the following passage : — 

'Two men were, some years ago, sentenced to rigorous imprisonment under the 
following circumstances. A lady, who was suffering from illness, asked a man 
who claimed to be a magician to cure her. He came with his confederate, and 
told the patient to place nine sovereigns on a clay image. This sum not 1 
forthcoming, a few rupees and a piece of a gold necklace were accepted. These 
were deposited on the image, and it was placed in a tin box, which was locked up, 
one of the men retaining the key. On the following day the two men returned, 
and the rupees and piece of gold were placed on a fresh image. Becoming in- 
spired by the god, one of the men announced that the patient must give a gold 
bangle off her wrist, if she wished to be cured cpuickly. The bangle was given up, 
and placed on the image, which was then converted into a ball containing the 
various articles within it. The patient was then directed to look at various 
corners of the room, and repeat a formula. The image was placed in a box, 
locked up as before, and the men retired, promising to return next day. This 
they failed to do, and the lady, becoming suspicious, broke open the box, in 
which the image was found, but the money and ornaments were missing.' 

M. Eileen Ltster, 

46.— John Galt and the Gypsies 

Neither in the Old Series of the J. G. L. S. nor in Groome's lis! of the 
English Romany Ryes in his Introduction to Lavengro (1901), is mention made i t 
John Gait. Though he uses no Romani words and, indeed, speaks of the Ian 
as a jargon, the Gypsy scenes in Sir Andre w Wylti seem to 1"' based on 
actual knowledge of the race, and show great sympathy with it. In chapter rlv. 
the hero falls in with a Gypsy band, and in the next enjoys their hospitality . I 
on he succeeds in establishing the innocence of the father and son, who are act 
of murder, and the Gypsies show their gratitude by assisting his candidature • 


he stands for Parliament ! The chapters in which the Gypsies appear are xlv., 
xlvi., xlviii., xlix., 1., lii., liii., liv., lv., lxil, lxxiii. Alex. Russell. 

Uth Oct. 1912. 

47. — Ztgainer Fortune-Tellers in 1455 

' There is a folk strolleth about much in the world, named Zygainer : this 
people, both man and wife, young and old, do greatly practise the art [Pyro- 
mancia] and mislead many of the simple.' 

The above passage is cpuoted by Jacob Grimm from the Book of all Forbidden 
Arts, Unbelief, and Sorcery, by Dr. Hartlieb, Physician-in-Ordinary to Duke 
Albrecht of Bavaria ; written in 1455 for Johann, Markgraf of Brandenburg. See 
(irimm's Teutonic Mythology, English translation by Stallybrass, vol. iv., London, 
1888, p. 1775. David MacEitchie. 

48. — Gypsy Depredations in 1819 

I was looking through a local magazine — The Fireside Magazine; or Monthly 
Entertainer : for the Year 1819, vol. i., Stamford, 1819 — of a type now extinct for 
matters in no way related to the affairs of Egypt, when I came across this long 
letter (pp. 84-7). It seems worth preserving in some corner of the Gypsy Lore 
Society's Journal. 

'Sir, — I occupy thirty acres of grazing land in one of the midland counties. I 
breed a few sheep, which I dispose of in proper seasons to the best advantage : 
my wite takes weekly to the next market-town the produce of 3 cows, with some 
eggs and occasionally poultry ; and thus, with care and industry, in spite of the 
tax-gatherer, we have been enabled hitherto to do something more than make both 
ends meet. I paid but last year five pounds to the mantua-maker of our village, 
to instruct my daughter Susan (for my wife says she is too tender to earn a living 
by hard work, and besides she is as tasty as our squire's lady herself) in the whole 
;:rt and mystery of female decoration ; and I have also just bought for my son 
iloger, a fine strapping lad of 15, new clothes from "head to foot," from "top to 
toe," (as the actor-man .said in the rector's tithe-barn last winter,) and he is going 
at Lady-day as servant-man to my worthy neighbour Meanwell. 

'But, Mr. Editor, I must at last be sent, and my poor wife with me, to the 
parish workhouse, unless a stop is promptly put to the depredations of a set of 
marauders, female as well as male, called gipsies, who have recently settled, I 
might say, in one of the bye-ways near my cottage. My flock, I am proud to tell 
you, have been, for many years, the fattest in the>e parts, and I have never lost a 
sheep by the rot, by drowning, or by any other casualty. Within the last half- 
year, however, two of my finest ewes, and a cade, "tender as a chicken," which 
my wife for months fed with her own hand with milk and reared with more care 
than many mothers do their children, have been stolen from me, and I have "proof 
positive " that some among the aforesaid gipsies are the thieves. Thus, sir, what 
was before a blessing to me, has become a curse ; my sheep, which are superior to 
all others in the neighbourhood, offer the best booty to the rogues by whom we are 
beset, whilst the less tempting flocks of the larger farmers near me, remain 
untouched. To be sure, their fences are broken and their hedges are torn up for 
fuel, wherewith to cook my mutton ; but their losses are trifling, though certainly 
vexatious, — mine are ruinous. 

' Thus situated, how am I to act ? To prosecute the thieves, would be certain 
ruin to me ; and if I were even able to surmount the expenses which I must 
inevitably incur, I should bring down upon my head the vengeance of the whole 
gang, who would not fail (besides, perhaps, redoubling their robberies) to do me 


some serious bodily injury, and probably set fire to my cottage in the dead of the 
night, whilst my wife and I were soundly slumbering* unconscious of the danger 
that surrounded us. If I do not prosecute the offenders, their depredations will 
not cease, I fear, till I have no stock left, and I must, in that case, be ruined. It 
was but yesterday morning I could observe, by certain feet-marks, that an attempt 
had been made to drive one of my cows out of the home-close, with the intention, 
no doubt, of taking her to the first stock fair for sale. 

' I have consulted with my neighbours as to the best course to pursue, and 
they have (with the exception of Mr. Pettifog the lawyer) advised me "of two evils 
to chuse the least ; " for that prosecution will unquestionably involve me in ruinous 
expenses, and perhaps inflame a set of desperadoes to such a pitch that nothing 
but the murder of me will pacify them ; while, to bear the evil patiently, to " grin 
and abide by it,' ; affords the chance, that, from the wandering habits of the \ 
bonds, they may, before I have quite lost all, quit this neighbourhood, only to 
commit the like enormities in some more distant district. 

'I am very little of a politician, Mr. Editor ; but I know that much has been 
written, and much more spoken, upon the blessings enjoyed by the inhabitants of 
a free country, — of a country in which "political and civil liberty is the very end 
and scope of the constitution." I value these blessings as highly as almost any 
man ; but I cannot help thinking that I am a sufferer, and not the only sufferer, 
by what I must denominate the overflowings of liberty ; and I am not yet of opinion, 
in spite of what our parson says almost every Sunday, that the English laws are 
the most perfect in the world, while a wandering houseless horde have it in their 
power to ruin any honest shepherd whose sleek flock may offer the temptation. If 
you, or any of your correspondents, can devise a remedy, pray do ; and I hen !■' 
promise the discoverer, for his pains, a bowl of the choicest cream in the dairy of 

'Zekiel Homespun. 

' Northamptonshire, Feb. 10, 1819. 

' P.S. Since writing the foregoing, I have heard, with joy mingled with fi 
that a couple of gipsies have just been convicted of horse-stealing at Peterborough 
and condemned, but that their sentence has been commuted for transportation for 
life. 1 Thus, thank God, there will be two less in the country. Would I could say 
two thousand. That there are and have been laws to restrain gipsies, I have the 
authority of a judge for asserting ; but some fresh legislative measure, suited to the 
present circumstances of the country, ought instantly to be adopted. If it will at 
all gratify your readers, you may print the following extract from Judge Llack- 
stone's work, which which [sic] was lent me by our justice. 

4 Outlandish persons calling themselves Egyptians or gypsies, are another object 
of the severity of some of our unrepealed statutes. These are a strange kind of 
commonwealth among themselves of wandering impostors and jugglers, « ho \urv 
first taken notice of iu Germany about the beginning of the fifteenth century : and 
have since spread themselves all over Europe. Munster, w ho is followed and relied 
upon by Spelman and other writers, fixes the time of their first appears! 
year 1417; under passports, real or pretended, from the emperor Sigismund, king 
of Hungary. And pope Pius II. (who died A. I). 1404) mentions them in his 1,. 
as thieves and vagabonds, then wandering with their families over Europe, under 
the name of Zagari ; and whom he supposes to have migrated from the 1 
the Zigi, which nearly answers to the modern Ciroassia. In the compass of a 
years they gained such a number of idle proselytes, (who imitated their Laaf 
and complexion, and betook themselves to the same arts of chiromanoy, 
and pilfering,) that they became troublesome and even formidable to mOBl of tie 
states of Europe. Hence they were expelled from France in the year 1560, and from 

1 Neweomb Boas and George Young. Transportation liecord . II « 
E. 0. W. 


Spain in 1591. And the government in England took the alarm much earlier; for 
in L530, they are described by statute 22 Hen. VIII. c. 10. as "outlandish people, 
calling themselves Egyptians, using no craft or seat of merchandise, who have come 
into this realm and gone from shire to shire and place to place in great company, 
and used great, subtil, and craft}' means to deceive the people ; bearing them in 
hand, that they by palmestry could tell men's and women's fortunes ; and so many 
times by craft and subtilty have deceived the people of their money, and also have 
committed many heinous felonies and robberies." Wherefore they are directed to 
avoid the realm, and not to return under pain of imprisonment, and forfeiture of 
their goods and chattels : and, upon their trials for any felony which they may have 
committed, they shall not be entitled to a jury de medietate linguae. And afterwards, 
it is enacted by statutes 1 & 2 Ph. & M. c. 4. and 5 Eliz. c. 20. that if any such 
persons shall be imported into this kingdom, the importer shall forfeit £40. And 
if the Egyptians themselves remain one month in this kingdom ; or if any person 
being 14 years old, (whether natural-born subject or stranger,) which hath been 
seen or found in the fellowship of such Egyptians, or which hath disguised him or 
herself like them, shall remain in the same one month, at one or several times, it is 
felony without benefit of clergy ; and Sir Matthew Hale informs us, that at one 
Suffolk assizes no less than thirteen gipsies were executed upon these statutes a few 
years before the restoration. But, to the honour of our national humanity, there 
are no instances more modern than this, of carrying these laws into practice.' 

The picture of the poor farmer persecuted by the wandering folk is striking, 
though possibly overdrawn. William E. A. Axon. 

4!J. — Talismans 

The other day Madaline Smith came to see me. She dukered my maid, and 
afterwards I teased her about her wonderful powers ! 

' You always sal at me, Rani, because I don't duker myself all the kovas I want. 
Do you know, I never go out without carrying things on me for good luck? 
Never ! ' 

' Have you got them with you now ? ' I asked. 

' Owali. You '11 sal when you dik them.' 

She brought out her purse, opened it, and took out a shrivelled piece of skin 
and a small piece of something unrecognisable. 

' That 's a piece of snake's skin,' she explained. ' I have had it such a long time 
it 's nearly all wasted away ; and that 's the end of a bullock's tongue. I wouldn't 
go anywhere without my charms,' she added. 

Before she left me I plucked her some thyme and rosemary, and told her it 
was very lucky to grow rosemary. ' Shall I tell you what luck it will bring you V 
I asked. 

• Owali, 1 she said eagerly, smelling it as she spoke. 

'It is said to bring babies,' I said. 

' Dordi! Rani! Take it back. Do! I won't have it.' 

' Oh, you must ; it is so sweet. And you need not grow it,' I said laughing. 

'I'm oJrashed of it, Rani. You jin I have got six now. I wouldn't spare 
one of them, but I don't want no more.' 

' You must put up with another if it comes,' I protested. 

'It will be all your doing, and I'll bring it round to you ; I swear I will. 
You '11 have to buy its first frock and kovas. Now, you jin.' 

She went away laughing and smelling her rosemary. 

Beatrice M. Dutt. 

18th November 1912. 






Vol. VI YEAR 1912-13 No. 3 


By R. A. Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A. 

(Continued from Vol. V. p. 305) 

HE extent to which Arabic can be drawn upon to suppl} 


deficiencies in the Nuri vocabulary is practically unlimited, 
and it is therefore necessary to exercise a selection. Those words 
given here of Arabic origin are confined to (1) words used in the 
series of stories; (2) a few indispensable words adopted withoul 
alteration; (3) words which, though evidently Arabic, have I 
modified or disguised in adopting them into Nuri. Arabic winds 
are denoted in the vocabulary by (Ar.) : this indication of course 
applies only to the first element of words compounded with h 
and hdcer. 

The alphabetic order followed is as stated in ^ I of the 
Grammar, neglecting the diacritic marks of vowel-length : 

abedd efg <J h h h ij k IclmnojirsSt f I u w y : 
vol. vl— no. hi. i 



1. db-. The syllable to which are affixed the pronominal suffixes 

of the 2nd and 3rd person sing, and plur. in the directive 
case. See Grammar, § 60. abtiskeka (xxxviii. 3) is a mis- 
take, induced by the common suffix -kaki, which see. 

2. dbd (Ar.). Address of endearment between near relations and 


3. dbu Ilnsan (Ar.). A nickname for the fox. 

4. Adam, n.p., 'Adam.' Abl. Addmdski, lviii. 2. 

5. ag, subst. neut. ' fire.' With indef. art. dgik. See Grammar, 

§ 46. Also means ' matches.' dsta ag ivasim, ' I have 

6. dger, prep., 'before.' Governs abl., as tiger kuriaki, xlviii. 6. 

Very often follows the noun, in which case it is enclitic, 
as in kuriisdn-dger, xxxix. 7 : ptirdd Msds pdnji min saliiis- 
dger u kdrdsis, ' he took the food from before his master 
and ate it.' Compounds with pronom. suffixes, as dgrir, 
' before thee,' i. 8 : an alternative form is dgriri. Used 
as adverb with verbs of motion ' forwards,' as raure dger, 
lxv. 4. 

7. dgi, by-form of ag, which see. Also means ' hell.' Accus. dgi, 

xiv. 18. 

8. dhdk, demonstr. adj., ' that' : dhdk kam, xix. 8. When doubled, 

as dhdk u dhdk, xii. 3, it means ' this one and that.' Also 
commonly demonstrative adverb, ' thus, in this manner ' (as 
x. 15). 

9. dhdli, adj. derived from dhl, which see: 'pertaining to a 


10. dhdli-kili, ' a tent-cloth.' Compound of dhdli and keli, which 


11. dhl (Ar.), ' a tribe, family' (dissyllable). Various forms with 

pronom. suffixes are titdom (v. 5), dhlomkd (v. 5), dhlus 
(ix. 4), ahlistd (xxvii. 9), dhlusan (xliii. 4), dhlisintd 
(i. 12). 

12. dhldn wd-sdhldn (Ar.). The common Arabic formula of wel- 

come, meaning something like ' hearth and home [are 

13. dhren, metathesis for erltSnd, which see. ' Hither,' xxxv. 11. 

14. dhdb. demonstrative adj., ' that, there, yonder.' See ahdk 


15. dhsan (Ay.). Comparative degree of Arabic adj. hds&n- 

' better.' 

16. ahdr, prep., 'under.' Constructed like dger, which see. Pre- 

fixed, as ahdr sdluski, xi. 12, min ahdr wdtdski, 'from 
under the rock ' ; ahdr Mzdrik, xiv. 7. Postfixed (less com- 
monly than dger) as bitds ahdr, ' under the earth.' With 
pronom. suffixes, dhdres, lix. 15; ahdris, lxiv. 5; dhdremdn. 
xx. 2. In the last the shortening of the vowel is due to the 
shift of accent. As adverb after verbs of motion, 'down- 
wards ' : gdra ahdr, xxxviii. 6 ; huldom ahdr uydrtd, ' I went 
down to the city,' x. 1. 

17. dher (Ar.), 'end.' 

18. wisd, sometimes \tlsd (perhaps Ar. issa, ' now '). Indef. adverb 

of time at beginning of a narration: 'now, once upon a 

19. dkwah (Ar.), ' yes.' 

20. ajib, ' tongue ' : properly jib, which see. 

21. djoti, adverb of time, 'to-day.' In liv. 4 used of a day in the 

past, a sort of historic present. Also in the general sense of 
' now ' : mtwdl Jean boli wans zerd, ajuti bizotd-hra, ' once he 
had so much money, now he has become poor.' 

22. dktar (Ar.), ' more, greater.' Comparative degrees of Ar. adj. 

kdtir, ' much.' Borrowed in Nuri to express the comparative 
degree of adjectives. See Grammar, § 52. kdfrite birindi 
dktar mnisman, bindiirde snotds, ' the thieves were more 
frightened than we were, (but) they scared the dog.' 

23. dkudra (Ar. akit, ' curdled milk '). See footnote to Ex. xcvii. 

24. dlatilya, 'a festival.' lammd best.mi-na-h'nhi ndnSm tilld 

dldUlyd, u midndi gis Dome, 'when we marry we hold ;t 
great festival, and all the Nawar come.' 

25. dmd, pers. pron., ' I.' See Grammar, § GO. 

26. dman, a ' bucket ' of hide, for drawing water. 

27. amdnd (Ar.), ' confidence.' ni'baskdrd belylsmd <nn"itn, 'he 

has no confidence in his friend.' 

28. dme,dme°, pers. pron., 'we.' See Grammar, § 60. In iv. 7 

dminni is an abbreviation for the directive timinsdnni. 

29. drnmd (Ar.), 'but.' Contracted to 'ma, iv. 10. 

30. dmr (Ar.), 'an order, command' (dissyllable), dmrdai, 'hia 

command,' xxxiii. 1. 

31. dmr-kerar, ' to command.' See dmr. 

32. ana, 'an egg.' Accus. and, xiv. 7. 


33. dr-, preterite and imperative stem of dliar, which see. 

34. dra, variant of wiird, which see : ' that one.' Ace. pi. drdn, 

i. 10, xvi. 11. Doubled, dr&n u dram, i. 20, 'these men and 

35. drdt, ' a night.' Used adverbially (like 'nights' in American 

English), xxviii. 2, xl. 1. With indef. art. drdtak, xlvii. 2, 

36. ardtan, adv. of time, ' by night.' 

37. arat-hocer, ' to become night.' Used chiefly or exclusively in 

the phrase drdtr' ed-dinya, ' night fell.' 

38. aratiyos, adv. of time, ' at night, in the night,' xxxv. 4, etc. It 

denotes a definite night, usually the night immediately 
following the events just related, whereas ardtan has an in- 
definite sense like 'nightly.' Thus rdliri aratiyos means 
'[something happened and] she went away that night,' 
whereas rakiri ardtan means ' she went by night [always 
resting during the days].' 

39. drdtos, xlix. 7, 1. 1. Variant of aratiyos, which see. 

40. dris, demonst. pron., ' this, that.' With indef. art. drsdh, ' one 

there,' ' he.' 

41. drzin, drzin, ' millet.' 

42. asndm (Ar.). An Arabic plur. subst. (sing, senam, ' an image, 

idol ') used in Nuri as though singular : ace. plur. dsndmdn, 
xlii. 5. With plur. pred. suffix (for simple plural), dsnd- 
mini, xlii. 2. 

43. d§ta, subst. verb, defective. See Grammar, § 115. Seems to 

be used as a rule rather to introduce a character than to 
state a predicate : thus dstd bizdtak, ' there was a poor man ' ; 
but kan bizdta or bizoteyd, ' he was poor.' Sometimes present 
in sense : see sentence quoted under ag. 

44. at-. The syllable to which the pronominal suffixes of the 

2nd and 3rd pers. sing, and plur. are affixed to form the 
dative of the personal pronouns. See Grammar, § 60. 

45. dtkiird, ' male.' In lxvii. 8, the only place where it occurs in 

the examples, it is for some reason hamzated. 

46. dime, pers. pron., ' you.' See Grammar, § 60. 

47. dtvs, ' flour.' 

48. atos-kdki, ' a mill ' (i.e., a wind or steam mill, not a simple 


49. dtrd, lxxx. 4 ; dtri, lxxxix. 4. A verb which seems to mean 

something like ' it was ' or ' appeared.' 


50. dtu, pers. pron., ' thou.' See Grammar, § 60. 

51. dtun, prep, with abl., ' above, over.' dmd huldom min dtun 

hditayiski, ' I leaped down from the top of the wall.' atun 
ySgrdki, lxiv. 14. Shortened to dtn- when compounded 
with the pronoin. suffixes, as dtnis, lxvi. 10, atneman, xx. 2. 
Not found postfixed. 

52. (Viuir, ' to come.' For paradigm see Grammar, § 122. Fre- 

quently used transitively, with the pronom. suffixes, as 
in sdbdhtdn drdsmdn cdndk, ' in the morning a boy came (to) 
us'; drosis, lxx. 16. drindemdn is thus used in xix. 12, but 
in xv. 12 it has a causative force, ' they made us come.' 
Note in this word the interjected short e, designed to help 
the pronunciation of the knot of consonants. In ii. 10, v. 3, 
xliv. 1, drendi or drindi seems to be the compound form of 
the 3rd plural preterite used absolutely, instead of the proper 
absolute form are : this, however, is probably merely the 
present-future, properly dltrendi. ' To be born ' : drd zdro, 
ndndosis nlm drat, ' the boy was born, she bore him at 

53. dkidri, apparently the 3rd sing. pres. of d~uar (which see), and 

meaning literally ' it comes,' but used in a quasi-adverbial 
sense of ' a journey, a space of time' of specified duration. 
Thus wisren audri nlm scU drat (xxvi. 9), ' we stayed, it 
comes 50 nights,' i.e., ' we stayed 50 nights.' 

54. dkidd, 'an old man.' Dat. sing., aiidetd, lxviii. 11, abl. sing. 

<Ridds(k), xviii. 9, dkvdes(k), xlviii. 8. Abl. pi. duddnM, 
xxxii. 3. 

55. dkidi, ' an old woman.' 

56. diini, for didnni, 'a comer,' 'coming'; in such phrases as 

dfcmi Mm a, ' next week , ; tmni wars, 'next year.' 

57. cmrd, dem. pron., ' that one'; also drd. The declension may 

follow the masc. or the neuter form (with or without s 
respectively), no doubt implying a real distinction originally, 
which has, however, been lost. Thus in the directive case 
tmrdkd, to a man, xxxi. 13, but dTardska, to a rod, in Ivii 
In lx. 8 we have wardkdrd, in Ixvii. 11 dlir&skdrd, l'"th tn 

58. (lAirdg, ' a sickle.' 

59. dkisd, 'a shadow.' Idherdd imsus pdcis, 'he saw his shadow 

behind him.' 

60. misd, ' a little bird.' 


61. imm-far, 'to dream,' lit. 'to strike a shadow.' cmsd-fird 

yicd, lxxxvi. 11. 

62. cmsdste, dem. adj., 'those.' cmsdste ziridte dri-hrendi siesta, 

' those children are accustomed to cold.' 

63. okivoal (Ar.), ' first.' <ulwuI h&terti, ' the first time.' Also 

' formerly ' : as dliwcll Jean wdsis zerd, ' formerly he had 
money.' cmwal hujuti, ' the day before yesterday.' 

64. dzra, ' last night ' ; also, ' this coming night.' 


65. bdbur (Ar., from French vapeur), ' a train, machine, engine.' 

66. baburi-pand, ' a railway.' 

67. bad, ' a grandfather.' 

68. b&da (Ar.), 'he began': an Arabic verb with Arabic inflection 

used in c. 71. 

69. bdgdr, ' to break ; ' also ' to lose ' (by a transaction) : as bdgiren 

kdliimma, ' we lost on the sheep,' xxvi. 6. bagirek, ' it is 

70. baginna, 'a nut.' 

71. bdgl, bdgdl (Ar.), 'a mule.' Abl. bdgliki, lxi. 7. Also pro- 

nounced bugl, dat. buglittt, xxxiii. 10. 

72. baliar (Ar. bahr), 'the sea.' Abl. bahdriki, lxiv. 5. 

73. b&has-lcerar (Ar. bdlias), ' to dig,' lxiv. 9. 

74. bdhri (Ar. baluir), ' incense.' 

75. bat, ' a wife.' Rarely heard without the pronom. suffixes, 

ba\dm, baiur, etc. 

76. bakila, ' a locust.' See pdka. 

77. bdkrd, 'a sheep.' Properly 'a ram,' with fern, bdhri, 'a ewe'; 

but though both forms are found the distinction is not always 

78. bake (Ar. with Nuri inflection), 'they remained,' xliii. 1. 

79. bdki (Ar.), ' the remainder.' With pronom. suffix bakiyos (for 

-osdri), ' the rest of them,' xxvi. 10. 

80. bdkla, ' a bean, beans.' bdklek-kesi, ' food of beans, a stew of 

beans,' xxxv. 10. 

81. bdkli (Ar. mdkli), ' fried, meat.' Loc. baklimd, x\i. 6. bdklik- 

kerd, ' a merchant or preparer of fried meat.' 

82. bdku (Ar.), ' they remained.' An Arabic verb with Arabic 

inflection which has crept into c. 65. 


83. bed (Ar.), 'mind, attention.' inde bdlor, xxxiii. 12, 'pay 

heed'; /era balismd, lvi. 5, 'he struck in his mind,' i.e. it 
occurred to him. 

84. bdldh, beldh (Ar.), ' a date-palm.' 

85. balds,' a bed-cover.' 

86. bdndr, bdndr, 'to bind.' mindSndis tmdlie, bdnde hastes 

pads, ' the soldiers took him, bound his arms behind him ' ; 
bdndi kdpid, 'she locked the door'; jibtis bdntrd, 'his 
tongue was tied,' I.e. he had a defect in speech; banvrik, 

87. bdninnd, 'a bond.' Loc. sing, banirme'sma, xix. 16. K<'>U 

pistds bdninnd,, 'a strap, the bond of the back.' i.e. a strap 
bound on the back. 

88. bans, ' a prison.' 

89. bar, ' a brother.' Vocative bard, lviii. 4. 

90. bar, 'trouble, vexation,' vii. 12. 

91. bard (Ar. burd), ' outside ' ; also ' outwards,' as min kdpidki 

u bard, ' from the door and outwards.' 

92. bdrdd, ' full' 

93. betrdd-kerdr, ' to fill.' 

94. bdrki (Ar. burdk), ' lightning.' 

95. bdrtdl-kerdr (Ar. bartal, ' a bribe '), ' to bribe.' 

96. bdrwds-wali, ' an eyebrow.' 

97. bdserna, ' married,' ix. 13. 

98. batik (Ar.), 'a water-melon,' lxix. 10. 

99. bdtind, 'a roil' (a weight between live and six lbs.). The 

plural is used contrary to the rule in Grammar, § 55, 
Obs. il, after numerals: das batman, xix. 23 : sal bdtm&n, 
Ixi. 8. 

100. bdtrd, ' loose, fluid.' 

101. bdtil-hocer (Ar. bdttdl, ' to stop '), ' to stop, intermit. ' 

102. bdlidr, ' to divide, share.' 

103. beVbXd, ' a bracelet' 

104. bdwi, ' a share.' Loses the I when compounded with pronom. 

suffixes, as bawds, ' his share.' 

105. bdzul, 'a beetle.' 

106. bad (Ar.), prep, governing abl. 'after,' as bo', I ktimuski, after 

his work' ; bad wdrsindiki, 'after the rain.' 

107. bad (?Ar. bael, 'some'), used in plur. form, with plur. 

pronominal suffixes, to form the reciprocal pronouns. 
Grammar, S 73. 


108. bcCdtn (At.), 'afterwards.' 

109. ba (Mid, ' a loaf of millet-flour.' 

110. bad-met (Ar.), 'after that, after.' bd'd-md stirdd rdwdhrd, 

' after he rose he departed.' 

111. bad-urdti, ' the day after to-morrow.' 
J 12. bd'ri (Ar.), ' excrement,' esp. of cattle. 

113. bkltil (Ar.), prep, governing abl. 'instead of: bedal kdmuski, 

' instead of work ' ; bedal Mkusdnki, ' instead of their 

114. beddl-md (Ar.), 'in requital for.' pdrdd mniscdn bSdal-ma 

ndsre nlm sal zerd, ii. 13, 'he took 50 pounds in requital 
for their flight ' (lit. ' instead of that they fled '). 

115. beldd (Ar.). 'a town, village.' In xxxiv. 7, 'a country,' for 

which in Arabic the plural beldd is used. 

116. beldh. See bdhih. 

117. beler, 'to imprison.' beldsis, ii. 5: Mlli belersdn, 'let him 

imprison them.' 

118. beli, ' a friend.' dmd wd-tiir belie hrini, ' I and thou are 


119. ben (Ar.), prep, governing abl., 'between.' ben ikieski, 

' between his eyes ' ; ben foilttdnki, ' between thieves.' 
With plur. pronom. suffixes, beni, as benisdn. In lxx. 13 is 
a variant, bind; in xciv. 11, bendtisdn. 

120. ben, ' a sister ' : rarely heard without the pronom. suffixes, as 

benisan, ' their sister ' ; beniskd, ' to his sister.' 

121. beni-kerdr (Ar. bana, ' to build '), ' to build,' lxii. 13. 

122. besiPadya, ' marriage.' min-s&n besinidydki, 'for marriage'; 

mdngdye bes(Ridye°, ' you do not want to be married.' 

123. bes<Piii-hocer (I Ar. bi-siut.d, ' together'), ' to get married.' 

124. bes'tlii-kerdr, ' to give in marriage, cause to marry.' With 

double accus., b.-k. potrus hdlus-diri, ix. 7 ; with accus. 
and directive, b.-k. diris nicRimus^ntrdskd, ix. 5. In lxx. 
9 the verb is used instead of b.-ltdcer. 

125. bi- (Ar.), proclitic preposition, ' with, for,' chiefly used 

(a) with Arabic words, as bi-sdldmi, ' in peace ' ; bi-tdmdm, 
' in completeness, complete, exactly ' ; (6) with numerals, 
or words having a certain sense of quantity, as bi-stdr zerd, 
' for four pounds ' ; jejdn-hre bi-disdk u ndnde bi-disdk, 
' they conceived in a day and brought forth in a day.' 

126. bidr, 'to fear' (r-preterite). na bids, 'fear not ye.' With 

abl. of thing feared, either with or without prepositions: 


as birom w&raniki,'! was afraid of the rat'; birom min 
ydrwdk, ' I was afraid of the bull ' ; lak mdtdn illi wesrendi 
erhond, birdmi mnessdnni, ' see the people sitting there, I 
was afraid of them ' ; blromi dturtd panddsmd, < I feared 
for you on the road ' [because of danger]. 

127. biccuidr, ' to salute.' 

128. biddi (Ar.). A word used to form the desiderative of verbs, 

or often a simple future. See Grammar, § 107. 

129. big, ' a moustache.' 

130. Ink, ' a pen ' (writing). 

131. biluJird, ' a monkey.' 

132. blnd\idr, causative of bidr, which see : ' to frighten.' bindkcrde 

sndtds, ' they frightened the dog.' 

133. btr&k, 'a coward': bdrom birdie, xxxix. 9. Probably the Jc is 

the indef. art., and the word should be bird, a verbal noun 
resembling herd. 

134. bis, ' straw.' 

135. btiw(Mi, 'fear.' biswdianki, 'for fear': see Grammar, § 40. 

Also bi.H: dmintd bisi hrend, lit. 'on us be the fear 
there,' i.e. do not you be afraid of that contingency you 

136. bitd, 'earth.' 

137. bi-tdmdm (Ar.), ' completely.' See bi-. 'In full: xxvi. (5. 

138. bitds-dirnd, ' the earth-digger,' i.e. a mole. 

139. bitdsmd-drari, 'a hedgehog.' 

140. biydti, ' a scissors,' 

141. bizutd, 'poor, a poor man.' When used as a substantive, 

declined as such, but when an adj., has the inflections of 
adjectives only, as described in Grammar, § 49. This word 
is almost always uttered, in whatsoever context, with ;i 
beggar's whine ! 

142. bldridygis, 'grapes.' 

143. blari, brdri, ' a cat.' 

144. bla-lcerdr (Ar.), ' to swallow.' 

145. bol, 'a father': rarely used without the pronom. suffixes. 

Voc. b<nd, lxxx. 8. 

146. bol, boli, adj. and adv., 'much, great, very, more.' Tsed 

generally in any intensive signification. sindom ihi 
kuridmd matini bol hdzdndi, ' I heard that t here w< 
people laughing a great deal in that tent ' ; MnMir bdli :> rd, 
'you have much money'; bulnd 'dsiis (with abbreviated 


plur. predic. suffix, see Grammar, § 79, Obs. in.), ' bis crimes 
are great ' ; h&tan pie, ka,n m&ngelc hoi, dimri, ' here is 
money, if you want more I will give you,' xxxiii. 13. Also 
in an extended sense, ' important, true, real ' : as didna hoi, 
' true religion,' xlii. 1. ' In excess ' ; ' scanty ' or ' lacking ' is 
sometimes expressed by hoi inhe°. 

147. brdri. See hldri. 

148. brinz (Turkish hirinji, ' first,' adopted in Ar. in the sense of 

'first-rate'), ' rice.' 

149. budr. In answer to the inquiry as to the Nuri for ' mouse,' I 

received the answer bddran-keri : this clearly means the 
budr-w&ker, but I do not understand btldr. The proper 
word for mouse is iki-kdMdtl, ' the small-eyed.' 

150. bug, 'a pig.' 

151. bugl. See bdgl. 

152. bunderi (Ar.), ' a flag.' 

153. bitrclkdnkdt (Ar. burdkdn), 'an orange.' 


154. cal, 'a well, pit.' 

155. cdmdd, 'bad, corrupt, counterfeit, stingy.' cdmdd pie, ' false 

coin ' ; cdmdd, hrd mdsi, ' the meat has become rotten.' 

156. cdmdd-kerdr, ' to destroy, corrupt.' 

157. cdmdd-kiydk, 'a bad thing,' with every possible variety of 

meaning, kildd dtsantd cdmdd-kiydk, ' a demon rose against 
them ' ; kiiri bdrdik cdmdd-kiydk, ' the house is full of cob- 
webs.' Kiyak is here used like our ' thingummy.' 

158. cdnd, 'kohl, antimony' [a cosmetic]. 

159. cdnbdginnd, ' an olive.' 

160. car, 'to say, speak.' d-preterite. nu civa, 'do not speak'; 

followed by the directive case of the person addressed, as 
cirde dbuskd, ' they said to him.' 

161. cdrdr, 'to hide.' min punj wars ni tirdd tmdlidnkdrd 

plen: ydm-in drd gordndeld ndsra, cdrdd hdlos hdrdb- 
ihHkdmd, ' for five years he has paid nothing to the soldiers 
(paid no taxes) : when the horseman came he ran away and 
hid himself in a ruin.' Sirios gis cdrird inhirik, ' his head 
was all covered with blood.' 

162. cdri, ' light.' kuridrtin inhe° minji cdri, lalierdese k&l* 


bdiurdn, dii-kerds curia, ' there is no light in your house, 
you cannot see each other, light the light.' 

163. cars, cdruE, 'a rug, bed, carpet.' Dat. sing, cdrustd, xxix. 7. 

kekd ni cdrMk ahdrim, ' why is there is no cushion under 

164. celd, ' trousers.' 

165. cenc, ' a side, border.' pdnialc nencesmd, ' on the sea-shore' ; 

cencaki rauci, ' walk on the side ' ; cencurmek, ' which is 
around thee,' xxxiii. 3. 

166. cic, 'a breast, nipple.' jurdk cicus mUtik, sdkere pindkir 

potrus, ' a woman with a disease in her breast cannot suckle 
her son.' 

167. ties, ' draughts ' (game), hdlli Mean ties, ' let us play a game 

of draughts.' 

168. cif, ' saliva.' 

169. cif -her dr, ' to spit.' 

170. cind, 'a little' of anything, 'a while.' gend cindk, 'a little 

longer' ; wisren cindk, 'we stayed for a while.' 

171. cindbri, 'after a little, afterwards.' 

172. cindr, ' to cut.' incindre" ciri, ' the knife does not cut.' ' To 

cross a river ' (compare the English colloquialism ' to cut 
across'), cinden Srid, 'we crossed the Jordan'; cinad 
H<mrdnatd, ' he crossed over to the Hauran.' Also ' I o 
imprison, keep in bond, condemn to imprisonment' ; cindd 
dtsiintd wis wars, ' he condemned them to twenty years 
imprisonment'; cnesatsuntd tdrdn das wars, 'keep ye 
them in prison thirty years. ' 

173. ciri, 'a knife, -razor.' Ace. sing, cirid, dat. cirii md. 

174. cirm, ' nasal mucus.' 

175. citind, ' strong.' 

176. cmdri, ' a chicken.' 

177. cdkmdk, ' tinder.' 

178. cond, ' a boy.' 

179. coni, ' a girl.' 

180. coj}, 'a whistle.' (Shakir denied that this word exist* -I in- 

stituting the Ar. sibdb.) 
I 181. Ciijd, ' Egypt.' 

182. C)iji,'an Egyptian': with indef. art. cfljiJc, xxxiv. S 

183. cukerd, ' deep.' cukeri cal, ' a deep well.' 

184. cukmd, ' flint and steel ' for striking fire. 

185. cukna, 'oil': with indef. art. cukn&k, s ■ oil,' 'v. 16. 



186. ddbis (Ar. d&bbds), 'a club.' Instr. sing, ddbismd, lxi. 17. 
1st. dab&ra (Ar.), ' a sledge-hammer.' 

188. clad, ' a grandmother.' 

189. ddf, ' a knot.' Instr. sing, with indef. art ddfaktf/md, 

xxxii. 3. 

190. ddhl (Ar.), 'protection' (lit. 'entrance'), dmd ddhlurmd 

hrdrni, ' I am under your protection.' 

191. dm, 'a mother.' Rarely used without the pronominal 

suffixes. Voc. duke, lxxiii. 10: de, xcii. 2. A Nawar asked 
to translate klf dbrfk a immak? ' How are thy father and 
thy mother ? ' gave Mfa ddl.ur wa bolur. It may be an 
accident that he reversed the order of the relationship, 
but it is possibly worth notice. 

192. d&li-kerar (Ar. ddlu, a bucket), ' to lower,' as a bucket into a 


193. dan, ' crops.' dude hire gis ddnds, ' the worms have eaten all 

the crops.' 

194. ddnds-kinnd, ' the crop-eater,' i.e. a locust. 

195. ddud-bdginnd, ' the tooth-breaker,' i.e. a chickpea. (Shakir 

scornfully rejected this word, substituting mewij.) 

196. ddn-dirgd, ' a porcupine.' Possibly ought to be kand-dirga, 

See hand. 

197. ddrd, ' a pomegranate.' 

198. ddri, ' a bride.' 

199. das, ' ten.' Used in counting, when the substantive is men- 


200. ddses, ' ten.' Used absolutely, as pdnjdn dasisne, ' they were 

ten (men),' xxi. 13. An uncommon form. 

201. dasndwiyd, 'a metallik,' a coin worth about a half- 


202. (Inidr, ' to wash.' blddi ddhdm hastim, 'I want to wash my 

hands ' ; ndn stal Myakim Villi dwudri, ' fetch and bring 
my things to the person who will wash them (the washer- 
woman)'; diftidrdenis or dciurdenis, 'we washed him'; 
/ «'< n uj.k-kaki Mi ddvfocmdi minj, 'a water-thing which they 
wash in,' i.e. a bath. 

203. dduar, 'to hurry.' dcfouandi, 'they hurry.' liii. 8. Imper. 


ddAis, xxix. 6. ni sdkrom ntiicdm pdnddsmd, Ulli wadih 
dakbri minjts, 'I could not walk on the road, there was a 
great river running over it.' 

204. djU/til, dtnd-uktinnd, ' a drum/ 

205. ddkini, 'soap.' 

206. ddurik-pani, ' a river.' 

207. ddwal, ' a camel.' Ace. sing, ddwal. 

208. dazgdni, ' a table.' 

209. ddzgi, ' a saddle' : also called goridk-ddzgi. 

210. de, 'a village.' Dat. sing, dedtd, xiii. 7, or detd, xxvi. 

17: loc. demd, lix. 4: directive dialed, lix. 2, dedknra, 
liv. 8: abl. didk, xiii. 5: ace. pi. dean, lxviii. 10: with 
indef. art. directive dedkdkd, xxvi. 17, loc. didlcwmd, 
iv. 4 : in the plur. the a of the inflections tends to be- 
come i, thus dat. deinta, xlix. 15; loc. deimma, xlix. 8: 
and also in the singular, though less frequent, as loc. 
d&ikdmd, liii. 4; abl. diik, xxxvii. 6. Loc. with prc»i. 
suffix demSnd, xxxiv. 15. 

211. delli-kerdr. See ddli-kerdr. 

212. dimi' (Ar.), ' a tear ' (of eye). 

213. dengis, ' a ship.' In full dengiz p&nidkdki, ' a ship, a water- 

thing.' In the oblique cases both words are inflected, as 
dengizmd p>dniakdkmd, xxxiv. 5. In lxiv. 2, dengiz 
pdnidhi, ' a ship of water.' Also pdnuik-dengiz, some- 
times mispronounced -dezgil. 

214. der, ' to give.' See paradigm in Grammar, § 122. 

215. deri, ' a place.' Loc. with indef. art. deridkdmd, xxxvii. 5 

In lv. 8 the anomalous form deridkdkdmd is perhaps pro- 
duced by the influence of the common suffix -kdki. 
pemwus-deri, ' a footmark.' 

216. derij-hucer (Ar. ddrdz, 'a step'), 'to step/ derijri, she 

stepped,' lxxvi. 87. 

217. dermdn, 'a drug, medicine.' 

218. des, 'ten.' See das. Accus. disind, xiii. 13. 

219. des, 'a place, habitation.' desim, 'my place, my usual camp- 

ino-.o-round.' Very common with superdehnite article, 
lidesdsmd, xlix. 3, edesdsmd, lii. 13. 

220. dest (Ar.), ' a parcel, bundle.' 

221. dfang, ' a shot, bullet.' ferindmdn tdra n dfang, they fired 

three shots at us ' ; dfdng-far, ' to shoot.' 

222. dfin-kerdr ( Ar. dufn, ' he buried '), « to bury.' 


223. dhdndb l (Ar.), ' a tail.' 

224. di, ' two.' Sometimes pronounced dii, as in xv. 8. Con- 

structed usually with singular, as di wars, xi. 9, sometimes 
even with indef. art., as dl bdkrdk, xlix. 14 ; but occasion- 
ally a plural form appears (an old dual ?), as di bdre, xiv. 1. 
An ace. plur. form is sometimes found in oblique cases, 
as diand kdnilemd, xxix. 5. With pred. suffix dieni, 
xxxvii. 5. 

225. did, ' two.' Variant of di, xviii. 12. 

226. diand (Ar. din), ' religion.' 

227. diand. See di. 

22N. diar-hocer, 'to show oneself, appear.' didr-ihra kdjjietd, 
lxv. 8. 

229. dib (Ar. dubb), ' a bear.' mdnus Mi jdri dibesmd uydrmd 

ndndri bdli pie, ' the man who goes with a (dancing) bear 
in the town gets much money.' 

230. dies, diis, or dis, ' two,' when the substantive is not ex- 

pressed. With pred. suff. diesrte, diisni. tdsre dis, ' two 
(men) were drowned.' 

231. dif, ' tobacco '; difds-hdti, ' a cigarette.' 

232. dii, See di, 

233. dikndlidr, ' to show, exhibit': causal of a verb dik- to see, 

not used in Nuri. See Grammar, § 108, Obs. n. 

234. dii. dili, ' clay, dust, ashes.' dilosi dgiki, ' cinders ' ; Idhdmi 

dili mansdstd, ' I see mud on the man.' 

235. dinyd (Ar.), 'the world, universe, Aveather.' drdtrd ed-dinyd, 

' the universe " nighted," ' i.e. night fell ; wdrsr' ed-dinyd, 
' the universe rained,' i.e. rain fell. (The ed- in these 
sentences is the Ar. article.) 

236. dira, 'far, distant.' dird jar, 'let him go far away, send 

him off'; dird 'nhe°, 'not far, close by, near.' Also 

237. dirar, ' to split, cleave, tear.' dirde Mian, ' they rent [their] 

clothes ' ; dirde bitds id-kerdnd ktlrid, ' they dug the earth 
to make a house.' In lxviii. 21, dirde-kerdendis is a con- 
fusion of two grammatical forms, resembling the expressions 
cited in Grammar, § 119. bitasmd dirar, 'to plough': 
see sentence quoted in Grammar, § 89. 

1 The initial of this word is a different letter from (/( j instead of j), but as it is the 
only word in the vocabulary beginning with this letter it is not worth while making 
a separate heading. 


238. dirar, ' to travel as far as.' dird Till-uydrtd, ' he travelled 

as far as Damascus.' 

239. dirgd, ' long, tall.' tilld-tmdlidk dirgik windirdd dgrildnki, 

' an officer who was tall stood before them.' 

240. dirgi, ' a lizard.' 

241. dirgwd, ' length.' dirgwdistd disdsk, ' for the whole day ' : 

dirgwdistd drdtdk nl jdndom siicdm, ' I could not sleep 
the whole night'; drd rdlidri fird snutdsmd dirgwdistd 
pdnddsk, 'he came walking and beating the dog all the 

242. diri, ' a daughter.' 

243. diri-kerdr, ' to make ashes, to winnow, scatter.' 

244. dirncmar, causative of dirar, ' to cause to split.' dinxni rdd, 

wdlos, ' he caused its hair to split,' an expression for ' he 
skinned ' an animal. 

245. dirs, ' a furrow.' 

246. dls, ' a day.' kei pdrdri disdsma, ' what (wages) does he get 

in the day ? ' 

247. dls, diis. See diis. 

248. disdn, ' during the day, by day.' Compare tirdtdn. Kiurd 

pndrd disdn, ' snow fell during the day ' ; potrom kdm-keri 
disdn u drdtdn, ' my son works day and night.' 

249. dikvu (Ar. dibs), 'grape-treacle.' 

250. diya-, diye-, etc., for words beginning thus see dia-, die, etc. 

251. dizgi. See ddzgi. 

252. dom,'a, Nuri.' 

253. domdri, ' the Nuri language.' 

254. dondd, 'a tooth.' cmdd inhe° dbuska ddnde, jdndre jdAiS/r 

kHds, 'the old man has no teeth, he cannot bite his 

255. ddnddn-deri, 'a jaw.' See Grammar, § 30, Obs. 

256. dunddn-masi, ' gum ' (of teeth). 

257. ddni, 'knee.' 

258. dosdra, ' a negro ' ; dosdri, ' a negress.' 

259. ddwi, ' a large wooden spoon.' 

260. drdrd, 'rich, happy, satisfied.' dm ,•>■};. lie is satis 

lviii. 1 ; drariyd, 'he was satisfied.' lxii. 14. 

261. drard-kerdr, ' to satisfy.' 

262. drd$, ' threshing.' Ibh drdniki, ' the threshing-sledge,' a board 
with iron teeth dragged over the wheat od the threshing 


263. dre-hdcer, ' to be accustomed.' See sentence under dusdste. 

264. dre§, ' a spindle.' dreSdki pd§m&k&M, ' a spindle for wool.' 

265. drird, ' cracked.' dste unldimdn dl kutki, yikdk mnissdn 

drlrik, u yikdk kdnos bdgirik giS, mdnde° mueslis kiydk, 
' we had two cups, but one of them is cracked, and the 
handle of the other is broken altogether, nothing is left 
of it.' 

266. du (Ar. ddu), ' light.' 

267. dud (Ar.), 'a worm.' 

268. du-hdcer, ' to be lighted.' mihcdri du-hrik, ' the candle is 


269. dft-kamdr. ' to light.' dii-kam mihcdrid, ' light the candle.' 

A rare word. 

270. dii-kerdr, ' to light.' dmd hujuti dn-kerdom mihcdrid, ' I lit 

the candle yesterday.' 

271. dztri (Ar. zdziri), ' an island.' 


272. ddf, ' thread.' mdsidk ddfos, ' a vein.' 

273. dcmwi (Ar.), ' a light.' 

274. dla (Ar.), ' a rib.' 

275. doher (Ar.), 'noon.' 


276. B-, the superdefmite article. See Grammar, § 20. 

277. ifeni, '• thus, in that manner.' inni ni kerdisi ifeni, 

mdrdomrdn, ' if you do not so I will kill you.' 

278. eke, proclitic demonstrative plural, ' these.' ehe tmdlie, ' these 

soldiers ' ; ehe kmttinini, ' these (men) are thieves.' 

279. ejj, ' soul, life, spirit.' ejjds minji, ' the life in him, he was 


280. el-, the Arabic definite article. See Grammar, § 22. 

281. elgdm (Ar. lizm), ' a bridle.' 

282. elhdsmd. See li°. 

283. erhind, adv. of place, ' here ' : used after verbs both of motion 

(' hither ') and of rest, drom erhind, ' I came hither ' ; ni 
Idherdomur erhind, ' I did not see you here.' Sometimes 
pronounced hrind. 


284. erhdnd, 'there, thither': used similarly to erhenti. Some- 
times pronounced hrond. 

285. /<x(Ar.), 'and.' In phrase fa 'l-ihrd, and what happened/ 

' and so forth,' to avoid the repetition of a narration already 
known. See c. 32, 48. 

286. fddi (Ar.), ' empty, leisured.' 

287. fd\ (Ar.), : a shadow.' 

288. fdlka (Ar.), 'division, fragment': fdlkik, used as adj., 


289. far, 'to beat, strike': for paradigm see Grammar, § 122. 

There are a number of meanings in the verb, all analogous 
to the radical significance: to strike' (of the evil eye) — as 
biromi yegi^om, inni ilci ferdsis, 'I fear (for) my horse thai 
the eye has struck him ' : ' to kick ' — as ferdsim yigir, ' the 
horse kicked me': 'to dig' — kikd fak hdstirma Mtas 
inhe° unkiir tawar? 'why do you dig (strike in the earth) 
with your hands, have you no spade?' (Note in this sen- 
tence the instrumental and locative cases, similar in form 
but contrasted in meaning): 'to shoot' — ferindman tdran 
dfang, ' they fired three shots at us.' The last sentence 
illustrates the double accusative found after this verb : 
compare ferdsis ciria, ' he struck him with a knife,' xxvii. 4. 
(It may, however, take a locative: fdmi sndtdsmd, ' I 
[on] the dog':) dri laci ffrik w'inhir huldek mne&U, "the 
girl came beaten, and blood falling from her.' 

290. farik-kerwr (Ar. ferrik, 'he divided'), 'to divide.' 

291. fdrsali, 'lead' (metal). Shakir gave me this word, but after- 

wards corrected it to kar§eni, which see. 

292. fdsddi (Ar. f&sdd), ' a quarrel.' 

293. fdsar-kerar (Ar. fdstir, 'he interpreted'), 'to explain 


294. fdza-kerar (Ar. fizz, : he leapt ' I), ' to chase.' . 

kdjjdn pacisan, 'we chased the men behind them.' 

295. fel, 'a bag.' rezurddsis feUma, ' he put it in a bag.' 

296. fenna, 'a beaten man,' xxxiii. 7. 

297. fisi, ' a beating ' : used chiefly in the ablative, in the phrase 

mdrdr fesiki, 'to kill (figuratively, not literally) witb 



298. /£-, Arabic proclitic preposition, 'in.' 

299. fikk-hvcer, ' to be loosened.' 

300. fikk-kera'r (Ar. jikk, ' he loosened '), ' to loosen ' ; also ' to com- 

plete,' of a space of time, lam m<1 fikk-kerda tdrdnd icdrsdn, 
'when he had accomplished the three years.' 

301. fir&n (Ar.), ' mice.' Plur. of Ar. far, xcviii. 5. 
802. fonydr (Russian loan-word in Ar.), ' a lantern.' 

303. frid-kerar (Ar. ferid, ' he spread '), ' to spread out ' (as a 


304. far-hdcer, ' to be delighted.' 

305. furwe (Ar.), 'a sheepskin coat.' 


306. gd-kerdr. See gdl-kerar. 

307. gdli, ' a cheek. 

308. gdli (Ar.), ' a saying, talk, a word.' mdnus ni jande° gdli ke 

ihrd, ' the man did not understand what was said ' (lit. did 
not know the talk, how it was). 

309. gdl-kerar (Ar. kal, ' he said '), ' to speak, say.' Often pro- 

nounced gd-kerdr. gdl-nd-ker gis Mi jdnisi, ' say all that 
you know.' 

310. gam, ' the sun.' 

311. gdmi, 'the moon.' Shakir rejected this word: the proper 

word is jindir. 

312. gaud,, 'a flower.' 

313. ganila, 'a flower, tilli-liakdrd bdrdik ganild, 'the garden is 

full of flowers.' 

314. Ganild-de, 'flower-village,' a name for Jericho: in full, 

G.-d. Mi ah&ri, 'the flower- village which is beneath' 
(Jericho is at the bottom of the Jordan depression). 

315. gar, ' a testicle.' 

316. gdrd. See jar, and Grammar, § 122. 

317. gdrda, 'safe, well, good.' gardik, 'he was alive,' xxvii. 11. 

dtu gdrda hrfiri ? common salutation 'Are you well ? ' 

318. gdrdd-hocer, 'to recover from sickness,' xlv. 7. 

319. gdrdd-kerdr, 'to cure.' 

320. gdrddni, ' safe and sound.' 

321. gdri, ' a pot, pottery.' nan gdrid, pindkiim, ' fetch a jug, let 

me drink.' 


322. gdriak-kirwi, 'a coffee-pot.' 

323. gdrien-bdginnd, 'the breakable thing of pottery (?),' i.e. 

pottery. Abl. gdrien-bdginndnki, 'made of pottery,' 
xlii. 1. 

324. gdrlr, ' to return.' See Grammar, § 122, s.v. jar. 

325. gdrnttur, ' to cause to return, bring back ' : causative of 

32(3. gas, ' herb, grass.' <mdi naiiari gdsdstd, 'the old woman is 
seeking for a herb'; hull sikl gdsdski, 'every sort of 

327. gdsi, ' green'; also as subst. 'spring' (season). 

328. gastimi, ' a seal ring.' 

329. gastimi- semi, 'owner of a seal ring,' i.e. a sheikh or village 


330. gdlidirmd, ' scratching ' (the skin). 

331. gdzdr, ' to bite, sting.' sap gdzardi dnglom, ' the serpent 

stung my finger'; muzd kUstotek pdmmtd, gdzdrdd pi mm, 
'the shoe is too small for my foot, it pinched my 

332. gazinna, ' a bee.' 

333. gazinna elhdsM, ' a spur.' 

334. gdzinni, ' a scorpion.' 

335. gehal, 'good, well, happy.' gehd/t livriri? 'Are you well?' 

gehdi hdei, ' may you be well,' ' thanks to you.' 

336. gend, 'again, further, another, besides.' par g< tkdk 

kiriuiak, 'take another cup of coffee'; mdrdosis u kdjjifi 
mardosis gind, xxxix. 27; gind tirdd zerdak, x.x.xi. 7: 
gind cindk,V another while, a little longer'; g&na m 
jdmi Panuik-uydrtd, 'another month (after a month) 
I will go to Beirut.' 

337. gesu, gesuwi, ' corn.' 

338. gir, girl, 'butter.' 

339. gis, ' all, every, the whole ' : as adverb, ' entirely, wli<»ll\ .' 

340. gistdne, 'all of them.' kdre kdlie gUtan&n, 'the goats ate 

all of them': with pronominal suffixes, gtit&n&mtim,, etc. 
riPadri gistdniman pdnmk cencesmd, ' we all are walking 
on the sea-shore.' Ace. also gUtdni n. 

341. gdni,'a bag, purse.' diim g&nidk pie, 'give me a purs 


342. gordndeld, 'a horseman': nom. plur. gorandel I for ace. 

in v. 6. 


343. gdri, gSri, 'a mare': ace plur. goridn. goridk-dizgi, 'a 

saddle': gdrWc-svritihus, 'a saddle-girth.' 
:; \ [. g6ridn-kuri, ' a stable.' 
345. gorimti, 'a packing-needle.' 
'.; M>. guru, goru, gdrwi, ' a cow ' : ace. plur. gorwdn. 

347. gdrw&, 'a bull.' 

348. gdrw&rikaki, ' belonging to a cow, bovine.' mdsi g., ' beef.' 

3 19. grand, ' heavy.' As adv., mistd-hrom grdni, ' I became very 
sick.' xlv. 7. 

350. gref, 'a song.' gref-kerdr, ' to sing.' 

351. gres, 'clarified butter,' for cooking, into, mdsid grSsma, 'fry 

the meat.' 
•T>2. grewdrd, ' a sheikh.' 

353. guldd, 'sweet,' both literally and metaphorically, mdnus 

uhil guldek hoi, 'that man is very agreeable.' As subst., 
' honey, sugar ' ; dsti giddd deurmd ? ' is there any honey in 
your village '. ' 

354. galdl, 'sweet coffee': in the phrase kirwi u giddi, 'bitter 

and sweet coffee ' (which are drunk alternately at feasts). 

355. Gtild'-uydrd, ' the sweet town,' i.e. Jaffa, so-called because of 

the orange gardens around it. 
■ \')6. giirgl, 'a throat.' gurgirlc hdros Mi dhdr uJccirk, 'the bone 
of your throat which is under your beard,' i.e. your 

357. gdza, a corruption of guzil, which see. ja bdrdd-ker 'ibtdr 

kiiSt, gfizd bdrdd-ker, 'go fill your arms with firewood, fill 
[them] well.' 

358. guzd-hdeer, ' to become fine.' keruutris bldrid mdsi u sal 

min-Zdn guzd-hueer, 'he feeds the cat with meat and rice 
that it may become handsome.' 

359. giic'X-kiyak, ' the good thing,' i.e. hdddivi, a popular sweet- 


360. guzil (Turkish;, 'beautiful, good, generous, happy.' guzil- 

l-ker kiiria, ' make the room tidy.' Also guzeli. 

361. guzeli, ' truth.' 

3(i2. guzel-pand, a main road, high road.' lammd jan uydrta 
rdudne guzil-panddsTrid, rdiidni rain hlaiik cenedsmd, 
' when we go to the city we do not walk on the main road, 
we go through the countryside.' 

363. guzelwemd, ' a favour,' xcviii. 4. 

364. guzel-w&%, 'clear-sighted, clairvoyant,' xcii. . 4 >i». 



365. gab-hdcer, ' to set ' (sun). 

366. gdjiita (Ar. gafal, ' he was careless '), adv. in form of a dative 

case, ' by chance.' 

367. gtttr (Ar.), 'except, but that, unless.' inhe unknsdn gdlr 

soli, lv. 5 ; gdrdm mdrami gear Htiya in-gdrdd-kerdom, ' I 
was going to die only God made me recover ' ; tirdti greivdrds 
elhdsmd gdlr ndndd jiiri, ' he put the sheikh in prison un- 
less {i.e. until) he brought the woman.' A very common 
use is elliptical, in the sense 'nothing will satisfy but' — a 
usage borrowed from Arabic. A good example will be 
found in xxv. 9 ; compare nlrdahrd tmdli pardssan, gd/lr 
tdrdn sal zerd, ' the governor would not take them (the 
200 pounds) : nothing would satisfy him but 300 pounds,' 
xvi. 16. In n% ivdrt-kerdos gdlr ta-mra°, 'he did not 
loosen him till he died,' it has the sense of 'until.' rain 
gd/lr (Ar.), ' without.' 

368. gdhr-kerdr (Ar.), ' to change ' (clothes, etc.). 

369. gdli (Ar.), 'dear, expensive, highly esteemed.' dtu gdli 

hruri unkim, ' I think highly of you.' 

370. galib-hdcer (Ar. gdlib, ' he conquered '), ' to conquer, surpass.' 

371. gdla-hocer (Ar. gala, ' he boiled '), ' to boil.' 

372. gdni (Ai\), 'rich.' 

i 373. gdrib (Ar.), ' strange, a stranger.' 

374. gd&Ui (Ar.), ' a trickster.' 

375. gdzdli (Ar.), ' a gazelle.' 

376. geb-hucer (Ar.), ' to be far away.' gfddgibrik, ' theghul was far 

away ' ; gibdri, lx. 10, ' he was distant.' In gebri gam, 'the 
sun set,' liii. 2, there is a confusion with gab-hdcer, which see. 

377. gem (Ar.), ' a cloud, mist.' 

378. glb-lidcer. See geb-Jtdcer. 

379. gula (Ar.), ' a ghul, demon.' 

380. gfdek-kdki, ' the property of a demon,' xiv. 13. 

381. gurb (Ar.), ' west ' ; gdrbdsta, ' westward.' 

382. gusben (Ar.), 'compulsion': in phrase gusben tirndtd, xl. J 4, 

' compulsion on me,' i.e. I must. 

383. gus-kerar (Ar.), ' to sprinkle.' 

3>S4. giiz-kerdr (Ar.), 'to bore, make a hole.' gflz-k&rdoss&n, ' he 

perforated them.' 
385. Guzze (Ar.), ' the town of Gaza.' 



: 36. ha, demonstr. part., ' lo, behold, there is, this is.' ha kuridmik 
pdnji, ' there he is in the house'; ha gdnd pirndnM, ' this 
flower is for noses' [i.e. is cultivated for its scent]; dme° ha 
dgrir hreni, 'here we are before thee'; ha karfrmfimi, 'this 
is our donkey.' In xix. 7 h<< stands for alia, as a demonst. 
adjective: ha kdmdsmd, 'in this work.' 

387. hdd-hdcer, ' to approach, climb up to.' 

388. hddi (Ar.), ' this.' hddi d.idnd zerddn, partisan, ' these two 

pounds [ = here are two pounds], take them,' xxviii. 5. 

389. hdddttd, 'see, behold, lo.' 

390. hand, ' see here ! take this ! ' xxix. 2. 

391. hdri, ' an}', whatsoever.' hdri kiyd mdngek dimri, ' whatso- 

ever thing you want I will give you.' 

392. hat, ' here, behold, lo.' hat dren, ' see, we have come.' 

393. hatcm, 'here, behold,' xxxiii. 12. 

394. hdtitd, ' here, in this place.' h. ben h&stirki, ' here he is 

between thy hands,' xxiii. 13; dme h. wesreni, i. 9, like 
hand, which see; hdtdm pie, 'here is money,' xxxiii. 12. 

395. hdivdrd, 'ablow'(?). 

396. he, ' they, these ' : abbrev. for ehe, which see. he jureni, 

xix. 16. 

397. henmidr, ' to cook' : causative in form, but the simple verb 

was not found. 

398. hi (Ar.), ' she ' : used with reference to the gender of an 

Arabic word, as in inv i hisatarik, ' that it is a trick.' Here 
the Arabic pronoun agrees in gender with the Arabic 
feminine noun sdtdra, but the Nuri predicative suffix does 
not: strict logic would require Satdrik. 

399. hib-kerdr, ' to prevent,' xvi. 12. 

400. hindd, 'beyond.' hindd gave td-lv.mndnd xvinni piend, 

'they went abroad to eat and drink.' In hinder, ' further' 
(as are hinder, 'they came further'), there may be a trace 
of a comparative degree, otherwise lost. 

401. hitar, ' a piece, fragment.' See xcii. 14 footnote. 

402. hnend, ' here.' Used only after verbs of motion from, in the 

sense of ' hence,' and always with the preposition min : as 
jas min hnend, ' go hence.' Contrast erhhid, which means 
motion towards, or rest in. In xxiv. 8, min hnend . . . 


min hrina seems to mean (starting from one point), ' in 
this direction and in that.' 

403. hndna, ' there ' : similar to hnina, and similarly used. In 
laherden Domini hndna, ' we saw that there were Nawar 
there,' hndna is used for hrdnu . 

•104. hdcer, auxiliary verb : see Grammar, § 116. Usually forms 
intransitive or passive verbs, whereas kerar forms transi- 
tive verbs. This rule, however, is not without exception. 
With the preposition Unkf, compounded with the pronom. 
suffixes, it supplies the place of ' to have.' It also denotes 
possibility : hdri, inhore°, ' it is possible, impossible.' A 
curious transitive use is sometimes found, in the sense of 
'to suffer, allow': as la hrdsman la jan w&la junto n, 
'he did not allow us to go or to come'; ni hrdsis gdl- 
nd-kerdr waMs, 'he did not let him speak with him/ 
xxxiii. 9. 

405. hrina. See erhina. 

406. hrende , verb-like form from hrina, used only in the nega- 

tive : ni hrende , ' they are not here,' xlviii. 6. 

407. ku, abbreviation for ithM, which see. 

408. hiinda, ' yonder.' See hinda. 

409. hundari, ' yonder, over there': an adjective, whereas hunda 

is an adverb. See lii. 1, 2, tidesasma elhundtiri . . . • 
hunda edesasta, 'in that yonder place . . . she came 
yonder to that place.' Perhaps, however, el-Mndari is 
a corruption of illi hunda hri, ' which is yonder.' 


410. hadi-kerdr{Kv.), ' to present.' 

411. hadir-hdcer (Ay.), ' to be ready ' ; to Mdn ca n ' thai wen 

be present.' 

412. kafr (Ar.), ' a horse-hoof.' 

413. Hatfa (Ar.), the town Haifa. 

414. hmt (Ar.), ' a wall' 

415. h&kim-kerar (Ar.), ' to judge, condemn.' 

416. hakk (Ar.), ' truth.' 

417. haMra(Av.),< a plantation': also haMri. hakuridnu 

' he is in the plantation.' 


j is. h&jj 'car for k&jj-hdcer (Ar.), ' to go on pilgrimage.' 
4 1 it. hal (Ar.), 'state, condition': with pronominal suffixes sup- 
plies the place of the reflexive pronouns: see Grammar, 
§ 66. 

420. h&lawi (Ar.), a sweetmeat composed of sesame-oil, honey, 


421. hdlu (Ar. h&ULn), 'immediately.' Jidlu garici, 'return at 

once': timd biddi jam Sdeta hdlu, l I want to go to that 
village at once.' 

422. kdmdm (Ar.), 'a pigeon.' 

t23. how il-h rar (Ar.), ' to load ' a donkey, etc., xiv. 15. 

424. Iia a i''ii (Ar.), 'flowers.' hanun mineri, 'he is gathering 

flowers' (where the subst. is, as in Arabic, collective): a 

smgle flower in Arabic is hanuneh. 
4-J.r,. hdrami (Ar.), 'a thief.' 
420. harb (Ar.). ' wi r, right, battle.' 
427. hdrb-lceritr, ' to right, make war.' Sometimes transitive, as in 

English, ' to fight a man.' 
42n h&ssdd (Ar.), 'a harvester.' 
429. hassiri (Ar.), 'a carpet.' 
4:!' i. hasisi (Ar.), 'grass.' 

431. hdtta, 'see, behold': abbrevation of had otto , which see. 

432. ffdlirdn, the Hauran. Dat. Haltrdnata, occasionally Hdliri- 


433. hdliivil-hrfcer (Ar.), 'to surround, make a circuit, besiege': 

with dat. hd/uivil-ihre dita, they surrounded the village, 
xiii. 7. 

434. M : a. i < Ar.), ' a faggot of firewood.' 

435. hidma. See hid-ma. 

436. hldd-kerar (Ar.) 'to pull down, ruin, destroy.' gdrur hidd- 

herelc Jcuria wold manisi, 'are you going to destroy the 
house or will you leave it [standing] ?' 
t37. hid-ma (Ar.), ' until' ; also hedma. 
438. hilim (Ar.), 'a dream.' 

drt-lcerar (Ar.), 'to plough.' 
of, ' seven.' 
441. hra, hri. See /iJc< r. 

/• ( Ar. /' a n iu'i, ' he blessed; and analogous meanings), 
'to be easy.' humi-Hira jdni UhU zdro Icren (Ire ddids 
dndsis, kalican inhe , 'it was easy for us to know when 
that boy was bom, it is not a secret.' 

440. I, 




443. hdfifd (Ar.), ' light ' (weight). 

444 haiydl (Ay.), ' a horseman.' 

445. hiUydm (Ar.), ' tents.' Plur. of Ar. Mrni. 

446. hat (Ar.), 'a maternal uncle'; hdlus diri, 'his uncle's 


447. hdli (Ar.), 'a maternal aunt;' kdlyom, 'my aunt.' 

448. hdli (Ar., hulleh, 'a lowland, valley'), 'valley, waste, uninhabited 

country.' Loc. hdlatmd or halima, lv. 4, lxviii. 3: abl. 
htildliki or hdliiki, xxxvi. 1 ; hale-mat, ' the people of the 
wilderness,' xxvi. 19 ; snotds haldlilci, 'a Avilderness dog,' i.e. 
a wolf. 

449. Haiti (Ar., ' Hebron,' the ordinary Arabic name for the town ; 

short for Haiti er-Rdhmdn, ' friend of the Compassionate," 
[i.e., Abraham, friend of God]). Sometimes the oblique 
cases are formed as though from a nom., Halill: as abl. 

450. hdll-hocer, 'to pass excrement.' 

451. hdlli, halli (Ar.), 'let, permit, suffer': see Grammar, § 99, for 

use. hdlli belesan, ' let him imprison them,' vii. G : hdlli jan, 
' let us go,' i. 15. 

452. hdmfdr-h'iur, 'to purr' (cat). 

453. Mmili (Ar.), ' fat.' 

454. hanzir (Ar.), 'a pig.' 

455. liar, 'a bone.' hards pUtdk, 'the spine, backbone'; hards 

petah, ' a rib.' 

456. hdrab-herdr (also hirib-lcerar) (Ar.), 'to ruin, pull down. 


457. hdraf-kerdr (Ar.), ' to chatter, talk, relate a story.' 

458. hdrdwar, hdrdwdri, 'a child, infant,' c&ni Mrdw&r, 'an 

infant girl.' 

459. lidri, 'a finger-nail' 
4(50. haribi (Ar.), ' a ruin.' 

461. hdrmdn (Ar.), 'a threshing-floor.' 

462. hdrrtib (Ar.), ' the locust-tree.' 

463. hdrstdlar, 'to groan.' hdrMldri, sfrios u pitos tiknalcfaidai, 

bol inhiri pitusmd, 'he is groaning, his head and Ins 
stomach pain him, there is too much blood in bis body. 1 


t54 hdst, ' a hand ' : abl. hdstdski. rime ben hdstir hrini, ' we are 
between thy hands' (at thy disposal). 

165. hdidjb (Ar.), timber, wood for carpentry' (whereas hUSt is 

firewood): abl. hdMbiki, lxiv. 3. 

166. Ar.), ' time, occasion.' Used to form the frequentative 
numerals, as gdl-kerdd igdli tdrdn hdterd, ' he said that 
word three times.' Wesrend td-iJcd-ferd hrez dwwdl hdterd, 
' we waited till the cock crew three times.' 

167. hat (Ar. hdtt), 'writing, handwriting'; 'a leaf,' whether of 

paper or of a tree, hatin i Mi kiendi, ' they are leaves which 
they eat' (referring to cabbage); ndlird cdnd hdtdntd, ' the 
boy sought for the papers.' Also ' a writing, document, 
especially 'a magic spell': inker dbuskd hdtdk,hdUi mu- 
fdld hdcer, ' make a spell against him, let him become 
mad.' Ujdldom dbrun 1 hdtdk — Ni drd timinkd hdtdk — 
Amd '('i jih hromi, wjaldumus HaMdsan, 'I sent you a 
letter — No letter came to us — I am surprised, I sent 
it with Khalid.' 

+ ! is. Jidt-finnd, 'a writing-striker,' i.e. 'a hatib,' the clerk, teacher, 
and religious leader of a Palestinian village. 

469. hdwdzd (Ar.), ' a gentleman.' 

170. hdzdr, : to laugh.' kikd hdzek? 'why do you laugh/' dme 
h&zdw i dt listd, ' we are laughing at him ; ' zaro hdzrd Idmn a 
audd gdl-kerda igdli,' the boy laughed when the old man 
said that word.' 

471. hazn (Ar.), ' a treasure.' 

4-72. hdznd%dr, causative of hdzdr, ' to make to laugh, amuse.' 

1-7::. Ijulnn-keror, ' to imprison,' xliv. 16. 

+74. him a' (Ar.). ' a chicken-coop.' 

47."). hirib-kerdr, hrib-kerdr. See hdrdb-kerdr. 

476. hlaf (Ar.), 'another, a substitute.' kdbl-md gdrd Till-uydrtd 

Jean ndmus Hdsam. ; . Idkin pindd hlaf nam dbuskd uydrmd, 
2)Sndd ndmds Mdhmud, 'before he went to Damascus his 
name was Hasan, but he took him another name in the 
city, he took the name Mahmud.' With the prononi. 
suffixes as hlaftsdn, 'instead of them.' 

477. KUvUdr, causative of huldr, which see: ' to cause to descend, 

to lower.' hlaurdom kuzid mi n pititimki, 'I lowered the 
log from my back'; 'to pitch a tent; xv. 12. kiri 

1 Note the abbreviation for nhrdnkii. 


hldkiari gorwak Mhryima, ' he causes milk to descend from 
the cow into a vessel/ ' he milks the cow.' 

478. hlif(Ar.), ' recompense,' as in the imprecation, lxxxi. 36. 

479. hlvs-kerdr (Ar. hulas, ' he finished'), ' to finish.' n% hlvs-Jcerti 

kdmomlissd, ' my work is not finished yet.' 

480. hof(Ar.), 'fear ' : used as a conjunction, 'for fear, lest,' lxiii. 8. 

481. hrez, ' a cock.' 

482. hri, 'heart, breast.' hror, 'thy breast'; gdlos vim kdmaski 

hi'ddd hremamma, 'the news of that business has sunk 
into our hearts'; hruntd (hrumta) jwrdumi, 'I am sad' 
(lit. ' I have taken to heart '), also ' to be enraged,' 
liii. 16, lvi. 9. Transitively, ' to console ' : td-pdrdnd hurusmd,, 
lvi. 4. 

483. Urih-lwcev (Ar.), ' to be ruined.' 

484. hsdrd (Ar.), ' a loss.' 

485. hiigi, ' a pig.' 

486. hujuti, 'yesterday.' 

487. huldr, 'to descend, fall.' hulda inliir siriuski, 'blood fell 

from his head': &ma huldom mndtdii (min atun) hdbl- 
tayiski, 'I leaped clown from the wall.' 2nd sing. pres. by 
metathesis uhlek, lxxv. 11. 

488. Hurkala, ' a Druze ' : in the plur., ' the land of the Druzes.' 

489. hurm, ' a small hole, eye.' siiik hurmos, ' a needle's eye.' 

490. hurusmdj. See hri. 

491. Huyd, ' God, heaven, sky.' 

492. Hriyd'is-Sikd, ' God's voice,' ' thunder.' 

493. Imzdk-kerdr (Ar.), ' to pierce, bore.' 

494. ibkara, ' hungry.' 

495. ibkarwwid, 'hunger' : generally used in abl. plur. ibkdnvdl.- 

dnki [they perished] 'from hunger.' See Grammar, § M), 

496. ibrinz. See brlnz. 

497. ibsis, ' a mixture of flour and oil.' 

498. ibsut-hdcer (Ar. bdsdt, 'he was content'), 'to be satisfied, 

content, happy.' Preterite 3rd sing, ibsutrd. 

499. ibt (Ar.), ' armpit.' See sentence quoted under g 

500. ibzim (Ar.), ' a buckle.' 


501. idndrd, ' a quarter dollar,, quarter majidi.' See imhild. 

502. idrdk, ' grapes.' 

503. idrdkikktiki, ' belonging to grapes.' 

504. Hi i, proclitic demonstrative feminine: see Grammar, § 67. 

505. ihris-kerdr, ' to smash, destroy.' 

506. iki, 'an eye.' ben ikiiski, ' between his eyes'; ikiismd, ' on 

his eyes'; uhii mdnus sd'dos ben ikiiski, 'that man's 
happiness is between his eyes,' i.e. he is very fortunate. 
Also ' the evil eye' : see sentence quoted under far. 

507. iki-kdntoti, ' the little-eyed thing,' i.e. a mouse. 

508. Ikji, 'the blade of a knife.' ciri tdrdn ikji minjt, ' a knife 

with three blades.' 

509. ikpis. See knpd. 

510. iktdf ( Ar.), ' a bond.' cindd iktafis ciriimd, ' he cut his bonds 

with the knife,' lxix. 22. 

511. iktar, 'to bind: iktussdn pacts, 'he bound them (his arms) 

behind him,' xxiii. 8 ; iktor fdsddi, ' thou didst bind the 
quarrel, set them quarrelling,' lxxvi. 33. 

512. ikbdl (Ar. kabl), ' before, in front of.' 

513. illi (Ar.), rel. pron., 'which.' See Grammar, § 70. 

514. imbessir (Ar.), ' a messenger.' 

515. imcira/r, ' to kiss.' 
51 G. imgdlda, 'naked.' 

517. imh-. See mi . 

518. i mil flu, 'a majidi, a Turkish dollar' (worth about 3s. 4d.j. 

519. tmk&ri-hdcer (Ar.), ' to get the better of, deceive.' 

520. imsafy-kerd/r (Ar.), 'to wipe, clean, wash.' 

521. in (Ar.), 'if.' 

522. in-, present-future negative prerix : see Grammar, § 87, 89. 

523. infid-hdeer (Ar. nefed, ' he broke into '), ' to break into, com- 

municate with ' (a passage). Preterite infidnl. 

524. inhir, ' blood.' 

525. inhirik-aldsma, abbrev. for inhirik elh&sma, ' in the blood- 

prison,' a specially stringent place of confinement for serious 
criminals. The translation adopted in the examples ' con- 
demned cell' is not strict, as the prisoner is not neces- 
sarily to be executed: it is, however, close enough to be 

526. injir, 'a fig, fig-tree.' 

527. in, 1 1 (Ar.), ' that, how.' sindd tilld-tmdli inni hu tmdli 

illi sarkasmik mra°, lvi. 3: often used to introduce a 


quoted speech, as hdrdf-kerde inni ' mindindmdn,' i. 12. 
cird' dmdkd inni hdwazd ni hrende , 'he said to me 
that "the gentleman is not here.'" Also used for f if': 
inni ni kerdisi efeni, mdrddmrdn, 'if you do so I will 
kill you.' 

528. insi-kerar (Ar.), ' to forget.' nu insi-ker egdldn, ' do not 

forget those words.' 

529. insdlldh (Ar.), ' If God will,' i.e. I hope so. 

530., in&d-kerdr (Ar.), ' to draw up,' as a bucket from 

a well. 

531. intd-kerdr, ' to stretch ' (?) ; intd-kerdd hdlos, lxxvi. 44. 

532. isdm, 'now.' 

533. isti, imperative of star, which see. 

534. itbuk-hucer (Ar.), ' to shut up, close up.' 

535. izd-kdn (Ar.), 'if; more literally, ' if it were [that].' Occa- 

sionally shortened to lean. 

536. izgdndd, ' a tent-peg.' 

537. jadmRiinnd, 'pepper.' Shakir rejected this word, substi- 

tuting wisndliinnd. 

538. jdldwia, ' a cloak,' the outer garment of the fellahin. 

539. jdma. See zdmd\ 

540. jdndr, 'to know.' dmd jdnddmi gilzSl aruri dmdkd, 

'I know well that you have come for me'; jdnek gdl- 
nd-kerdr Turki? 'can you speak Turkish?' tilla-tm&li 
jdndek illi Idci dirusi, ' the king knows that the girl is 
his daughter.' 

541. jdncmdr, causative of jdndr, ' to inform.' 

542. jdndir, jdndr i, ' a mill.' 

543. jar, 'to go.' See paradigm in Grammar, $ 122. Also 'to 

try, attempt': dkidd gdrd gdl-Jcerd, 'the old man tried t>> 
speak.' As an auxiliary to express futurity: gdre p&rlndi 
ddwiti mnesim, ' they were going to take the camel from 
me'; hoior jdndek gdrd jdri, ' your father knows that he 
wants to go.' A curiously pleonastic expression is /.-. 
gdrfir jak kerek (lit ' What are you going to go to do 
'What are you about to do?' But this may lie due to 
Turkish influence, -jak being the syllable which implies 
futurity in the Turkish verb. 


544 jdtro, 'a son-in-law.' 

545. ;,///. ■ barley.' 

546. jdtodr, ' to bite.' See sentence quoted under ddndd. 

547. jdkutri, ' a wife's sister.' 

548. /(Hiiro, 'a wife's brother.' j'tutriiskdrd is directive with 

pronoirt. suff. xxxviii. 17. 
54! i. jeb. See zeb. 

550. j&jdn-hocer, ' to become pregnant.' 

551. jejenni, 'pregnant.' 

552. jib, 'tongue,' both the organ and speech, jibomdn Domdri, 

' our language is Nuri.' 

553. jindir, 'the moon.' 

554. jndrjiiri, 'a woman.' See Grammar, § 47. 

555. jiil, 'a louse.' 

556. jumdrdd (Ar. ztimtirddd, ' an emerald '), ' green.' 

557. j tin. See j aar. 


558. ha, interrog. 'where?' less commonly ' what ? ' lea Jcerek ha 

kama'sma, 'what are you doing in this business?' 'what 
affair is it of yours ? ' 

559. kdcel, ' a vegetable marrow.' 

560. kacella, ' bald.' 

561. kacln ml , ' a liar ' ; kacinnini, ' they are liars,' vii. 9. 

562. kacinn is, ' falsehood.' 

563. kacna/Uar, 'to discredit.' 

")i)4. Icahri, Icdhri. 'a cooking-pot.' Loc. kdhry&ma; abl. kdhrydki. 

565. kdhwdl, 'gunpowder.' 

566. kdjjd, ' a man,' almost always ' a gentile,' the gdjo of European 

Romani. In i. 17 it is used exceptionally of Nawar. 
Directive with indef. art. kdjjdkdskd, xlix. 6. kdjji, 'a 
woman. 1 

567. kdjjdnkdki, ' the property of gentiles; xxv. 4. See kdki. 
."us. fcdj)'i, ' a woman.' Seekojjrf. 

569. kdki, ' property.' bedal Icaktisanki, ' instead of their property,' 

xi. 14. Most frequently used in composition, as described 
in Gram mar, § 44. 

570. /,-<'/. ' skin.' dirde Jcdlos, ' they split his skin, wounded 



571. kdlcuulr, 'to shake.' kdldhrdd sirios sdMmd, 'he shook his 

head in sleep.' 

572. kdldwd/i, 'dried figs.' 

573. kali, ' a goat.' The a generally shortens in the oblique cases, 

as kdlidmmd, xiii. 3. 

574. kali, ' a strap.' 

575. kdlidnkdki, ' a cave.' See Grammar, § 44. 

576. kdlidn-ksnnd, ' a goat-eater,' i.e. a wolf. 

577. kdlidn-kuri, 'a sheep-pen, cave.' 

578. kalif-hocer (At.), 'to cost, pay': abbreviated to kdlifdcer. 

mdngdri des hot zerd kdlifdcer atsanta, 'he wants to pay 
them seventeen pounds,' xxxi. 10; kdlif-hri Idci l p6listd 
wis u tctran zerd, ' the girl cost her husband twenty-three 
pounds,' xl. 19. 

579. kdm (Ar. 'how much?'), 'what?' ruin kdm disdski, ' from 

what place ? ' xlv. 3. Also ' how many ' : 'a hunt dis, ' for 
how many days ? ' 

580. kam, ' work ' : generally smiths' work, but loosely used of 

business, affairs, amount, etc., as ehe tirde gis aha k&mas, 
' these paid all that amount,' xxii. 7 ; tawdbre ek&mdstd, 
' they ceased from that occupation ' (highway robbery), xvi. 
18. kdmdk, ' a piece of work,' xiv. 2. The word seems to 
be feminine. 
58] kdmdr, ' to work ' : not common, Jedm-kerdr being used 

582. kdm-kerdr, ' to work.' 

583. kdm-kernd, 'a workman,' especially 'a smith.' kuriis&ntd 

gdre kdm-kerne bad kdmdski, ' the workmen went to their 
houses after work.' 

584. Jean (Ar.), 'was': see Grammar, § 11G. Not inflected in 

Nuri, except that the 3rd sing. fern, kdnet appear- in 
xcii. 1. 

585. kan, 'an ear.' dim kdnur, 'give me your car.' i.e. attend, 

pay heed. Also 'the handle' of a vessel: kdnos bdgin 
' its handle is broken.' 

586. kan (Ar.), 'if: short for Lzu-kdn, which see. lean mdngek 

bol, dimri, xxxiii. 12. kdnidrd ben kalUnka lean ma ndi ndi, 
'he looked between the sheep [to see] if they had left [any- 
thing],' c. 26. 

587. kdndr, 'to pluck, tear.' lednde ikies, 'they tore out his 



588. Mm ■■'"•', 'ajar': mm Mn&wi gir, xxii. 2. 

589. Jcomd, 'a fork'; ledndos m&si&k, 'a meat-fork.' 

590. /■•"/"/, ; throat.' 

591. kdnddfinnd, 'a pair of tongs'; also h-fenn&8 &gik, 'tire- 


592. kan-dirgi, ' a hare.' See /u//ri. 

593. kanid-hdeer (Ar. /ctfmd, 'he followed'), 'to look': preterite 


594. kdntld, ' a piastre.' indiim star ustar Icantla,, ' give me eight 


595. kdnis-kerdr (Ar.), ' to sweep' with a broom. 

596. fcip* (Turkish / t u/>rf), ' a door, gate ' ; 'the mouth of a vessel.' 

597. karm (Ar.), 'a vineyard.' 

598. Iccirri, ' worth.' karri maldt goniiski zerdi, ' worth the full of 

a ba^ of gold,' xcv. 10. 

599. kdrseni, ' lead ' (metal). Perhaps the -ini is the predic. sufF., 

the word being simply kars. 

600. kdrwi, ' a reward.' 

601. kuZnis, 'a lie': for hicni*. 

602. kdtafne (Arabic kettif, with shortened pred. suff.), 'they are 


603. kali, interrog., ' where ? ' lvii. 9. Also in phrase wisti unkimin 

kdti dis, ' stay with us a few days,' where kdti is a transla- 
tion of Arabic kam, ' how many ? ' which has likewise lost 
its interrogative sense in this phrase. 

604. kdti, ' a lemon.' 

605. katyds (Arabic kdddis), ' how much.' As katyds sd'a [ = Arabic 

kdddes es-m'a], ' what o'clock is it ? ' 

ii06. kali, ' the bed of a river.' l&herde wddid dird inhe° ka/uos, 
'they saw that the valley was not very deep' (lit. that its 
bed was not far). Also ' a sieve,' xcii. 23, 24. 

607. kdivuh, interrog., 'when?' Jcdwuh ga/risi rdwdlwsi, 'when 
are you going to go ? ' 

60s. kdzma (Ar. kdddum), -an adze.' 

609. ke, kii, kiik, 'what?' ke Jcerek, 'what are you doing?' 
Loc. Mma kii/nek tiras, 'for how much will you sell these?' 
In xiii. 8 ke is for ka, 'where?' Abl. keiski, 'whence, 
why ? ' In kiik (as kiik namiir, ' what is your name ? ') the 
-ik is probably the indef. art. Directive kika, ' why ? ' Dat. 
(of kiik) kikatd. In xxiii. 13, Mica is ' what ? ' Ice inkerdn 
imufaldsmd, ' what will we do with this fool ? ' 


610. kici, ' a flea.' 

611. kefenni, ' a shroud.' 

612. kei, keik, kSkd, See Ice. 

613. kildr, 'to play.' keliFuAr, 'to cause to play,' e.g. to make 

bears or monkeys perform tricks. 

614. kill, ' clothes.' 

615. kerd, keri, 'a maker' of anything: as bdklik-kerd, 'a preparer 

of fried meat.' 

616. Kirdk, the town of Kerak. Abl. Ker&kaki. 

617. Icerdr, 'to make, do.' For its auxiliary use, see Grammar, 

§ 117. Also to ' pretend ' : ke'rtiri Uhu illi wesrik jdneri ze 
edidnanki illi gdl-kerandi, ' that man sitting there pretends 
to understand like the two who are speaking.' 

618. kettif-kerdr (At.), ' to bind.' 

619. kicild, 'a beshlik,' a coin worth about 6d. 

620. kifd (Ar. klf), 'how?' kifd hriiri, 'how are you?' Also 

kifdni, as in kifdni hdlur, ' how are you ? ' 

621. kildr, 'to rise up, to climb.' kildd sdzretd, 'he climbed the 

tree.' ' To dawn ' (day) : kildd dis, kildd subd, ' day, morn- 
ing dawned.' ' To come out* : kildd min kuridki, ' he came 
out from the house.' ' To grow ': kildd gas, ' the grass grew.' 
Used transitively in xii. 3, kdnd kildis, ' who roused it V [a 

622. kilcmdr, causative of kildr, ' to raise.' siske sisdsdn kildliandi 

sdzdrimd, 'the birds are singing in the tree'; kildkbmi dgi, 
' I cause a fire to rise,' i.e. blow it up. 

623. kindd, ' whither ? ' kindd gdruri, ' where are you going ? ' 

624. kinin, kinind, 'whither?' kinen gdre k&lie? 'where have 

the goats gone ? ' kinind gdrnri, ' where are you going ?' 

625. Mr, kiri, ' cheese, milk.' 

626. kirwd, 'a fish, locust, worm, leech.' pdnmk kirwa Icand&ma 

nimeri, ' the water-fish that catches in the throat' (a leech, 
which often catches incautious drinkers at wells and 

627. kirwi, interrog. particle, ' what is the matter ? ' 

628. kisib-hocer (Ar.), 'to gain, win': preterite, kisibren, xxxv. 


629. kitd, ' lame.' 

630. kitrd, ' what ? how much ?' kitrd dessdn mdsdsmd Btatankd, 

'how much (wages) do you give these fellahin in the 
month ? ' 
VOL. VI. — NO. III. N 


631. Idyd, 'a thing': commonest with indef. art. kiydk, kiydk 

The art. indeed has become so completely fused with it 
that the article survives in the plural, as kiydkdn, vii. 12, 
and the word can even take a double indef. art., as kiydkak, 
xxi. 7. ni . . . kiydk, ' nothing.' 

632. klinnd. See kolinnd. 

633. kdldr, ' to loosen.' kolddssdn, ' he loosed them,' xlix. 13 : 

passive koldrcu, 'he was set free,' li. 7. 'To dig' a grave: 
kdldti mdllcadti dbuskd, ' he dug a grave for him.' ' To fall,' 
of rain : ivdrsinda dmintd kdldi, xxxv. 20. 

634. kolinnd, klinnd, 'a box, a key.' kolinnd min kuzidk, 'a 

wooden box.' 

635. kdmdr, ' charcoal.' 

636. Icon, ' who ? what?': interrog., indeclinable, as kon disdsta? 

' to what place ? ' 

637. kdnd, ' who ? what ? ' kdnd kildis, ' who roused it ? ' 

638. kdnik, 'who?' Probably kdnd with the indef. art.: kdnik 

jdrom, ' who is my neighbour ? ' xxxiii. 3. 

639. konuski, ' whence, from what cause ? ' konuski uhn Idgti, 

xix. 3. Abl. of kdnd. 

640. kor, ' blind, one-eyed.' 

641. kotd'-kerdr (Ar.), ' to cut, divide.' 

<i42. Jedtik, 'a cup. 5 par kdtkos kirwidk, par gind kdtkak, ' take a 
cup of coffee, take another cup.' 

643. kri-lrrdr, ' to hire.' 

644. kren, krena, krhii, ' where ? whither ? ' krind gariiri ? 

Uydrtd, ' where are you going ? To the town.' 

645. krumbi (in Egypt. Ar., a cabbage), ' cauliflower.' 

646. ksdldr, ' to draw, drag, pull, lead an animal.' ksdldd s&las, 

' he pulled the rope,' lvii. 3 ; Jddlddmsi, ' I conducted it ' 
(the camel), x. 2 ; Iddlddmis, ' I dragged her ' (woman), 
iii. 5. Sometimes constructed with locative, as ni ksdld 
ukc I in ma, ' do not pull on my beard,' xxxii. 4. Compare 
the use of the locative after far. 

647. Ida/ (Ar.), ' a bond.' 

648. ktl, 'how many ?' ktl wars abdr (abbrev. for dbdrka), 'how 

many years have you, how old are you ? ' ktl sd c d aruri, 
' how many hours (journey) have you come ? ' ktl kdnila 
pdrdor gorwdn ? ' for how many piastres have you bought 
the cows?' ktl zdro unkiir? 'how many children have 


649. ktlb-herar (Ar. kdtdb, ' he wrote '), ' to write.' 

650. ktif-kerdr (Ar.), ' to bind.' 

651. Mvr, ' a European, a Christian, a monk ' : in lxiv. 4, ktiri ; 

associative kttrdsdn, lxiv. 5. 

652. ktirdnkdki, ' a church.' See Grammar, § 44. 

653. hue, ' a chin ' ; kuc&m-wdli, ' my beard.' Also ' beard.' 

654. huh, 'when?' huh dtidsi unkimdn, 'when will you come 

to us?' huh besnd-kerek bdrur tillds, 1 'when will you 
marry [cause to marry] your big brother.' 

655. hncir, 'to fall.' kuXrd disdn pndrd, 'snow fell during the 

day ' ; birdmi ddwdldntd kuidndi, ' I fear that the camels 
may fall.' Of a share of plunder, 'to fall to the lot of : 
kullmaneska kuird bawds, ' to every one fell his share ' 
xiii. 17. 

656. kukeri, ' a puppy.' 

657. hull (Ar.), ' each, all, every.' 

658. hulUhi. In lxxvi. 11 miltlif hrdmi min kulleki was trans- 

lated to me, ' I am weary with hunger ' : but the sense 
seems to be, according to the sense of the Arabic words 
borrowed, ' I am set free from everything.' 

659. hwll-ma (Ar.), ' all that, all which ' (and the like), ' whenever, 

the whole time that, while,' lxix. 15. 

660. kidlman (Ar. hull min, 'all of), 'all, everyone': declined 

like an ordinary substantive : directive kiillmdneska or 
kullmdndskd. Tilld-tmdli bares intussdn ktillmdnds 
t'dla-kerddssdn, 'the king gave each of his brothers an 
important office' (lit. gave them that he made them great). 

661. kullmdnhum (Ar. kull minhum, 'all of them'), 'all, every- 

one.' Used in Nuri without special reference to the third 
person : as ttrdd hullmdnhum mnescdn zirdn zdrdd, ' every 
one of us paid a pound apiece.' 

662. kullyikd (Ar. hull, with Nuri yiha), 'everyone'; also 

hullyihdh. Declined like a substantive, hullyihdkdshi, etc. 

663. kundr, ' to sell.' 

664. kuninnd, ' a merchant.' 

665. kunjd, ' a pillow.' 

666. kfcpd, ' ajar': by metathesis ihpis, lxxvi. 87. 

667. hur, ' a bellows.' 

668. kdri, ' a house, tent, room.' A feminine word. 

1 Note unusual declension of adjective. 


669. kwri, ' one-eyed.' See kor. 

670. ki'i-nik-hnirlns, <a tent-pole.' 

671. hdriSk-salii, a master of a house.' 

672. kurifo-Mranki, 'a donkey-house,' i.e. a khan, inn. Short- 

ened for kv/riisan-k. 

673. Jcursdhi, ' rheumatism.' 

674. ktirtft, ' short/ wdrsindimd dls kurtelci, ' in winter the day 

is short.' 

675. /cu£, 'a time, occasion': used like hdterd to form the 

frequentative numerals. £7m mantis kuvrdj tdran ku§ 
z&mariisma : kei ihra minjfs ydm-in kuidri? Av/tval 
hdtera dre klartni, pdrde kiydJcis u mdmdendis imgdldd. 
Tani hdterd kdv/mes mdnindse mra°, pdrdendis td- 
molendis. Ldmmd tirdindis mdlkddmd, kilda iiiin 
mdlkddmd u hire mate u ndsre. Tdlit hdterd kuvrd discm 
dgmd, inhe mat unkiis, illi laheris td-pfaidris dgiki. 
L dmi n<l a <ire mdte gdrire, ni Idherde mnSs kiydk gdl/r 
wdsrek ii hares dUdsi. ' That man fell three times in his 
life : the first time came the bedawin, took his things and 
left him naked. The second time his family thought him 
dead, took him to bury him. When they put him in the 
grave, he rose from the grave and the people feared and 
fled. The third time he fell one day in the fire, there was 
no one with him to see him to take him from the fire. 
When the people came and returned, they saw nothing but 
ashes and the cinders of his bones.' 

070. MB, ' firewood.' 

(177. hHM6t&, ' small, little.' 

078. kPstvtd-pdfild, ' a quarter kabak ' (a copper coin worth about 

\ farthing). 

07 9. kdstdtd-yegir, ' a foal' 

080. hustnti-goru, ' a calf.' 

681. hit§tdti-kukeri, ' a puppy.' 

682. kihi,'EL log, timber,' usually wood for carpentry, as opposed 

to kvJt, ' firewood.' kolinudk min kiizidk, ' a wooden box '; 

Sbalas dawmtd hiyakan-k'&zia, 'put the box of things on 

the camel.' 
083. kiizidk-d/i r'nind, ' a saw.' 
684. kwdkra, 'round.' sap kwdkrik mitt wirgd, tirdik sirios 

piStistd, ' the snake was round like a ring, its head put on 

its back.' 


685. kwar, causative of kui&r, ' to cause to fall, throw down ' ; 

kwdsis, xxxvi. 7 ; ni Java , lxvii. 4. In lxiii. 8 kowa or kwa 
seems to mean ' take heed lest,' and is probably a different 

686. kwar, 'to cast, throw ' ; also kdrdr. Preterite kurdd (to be 

distinguished from ktrda). 


687. kdddm (Ar. Jcadddm, ' before '). Properly a preposition or 

adverb, 'before'; but capable of being declined as though 
' in the presence of : kdddmkd dmdkd, ' to my presence. 5 

688. kddam (Ar.), 'a footprint, step,' lxix. 15. 

689. kdddm-hoeer (Ar.), ' to advance towards, come into the pres- 

ence of.' 

690. kddd-md (Ar.), 'as much as': used for comparison of 


691. kddihi (Ar. kddih), ' tinder.' 

692. kaf (Ar.), ' palm of hand, paw.' 

693. kdfiri (Ar.), ' an infidel.' 

694. kdgdt (Turkish), ' a letter, a book.' 

695. kdh-kerdr (Ar. kdhijd), ' to cough.' 

696. kal (Ar.), 'he said.' Used in Nuri without inflections. 

697. kal, 'skin.' 

698. kMa, ' black.' 

699. kdlbac, a word to which the pronom. suffixes arc added to 

form the reciprocal pronouns ; see Grammar, § 73. 
laherdesa kalbdtdran, 'you cannot see one another '; hldr, 
u snotd mangcinde kalbd%6sdn, ' the cat and the dog do not 
love one another.' 

700. kdli-cmdri, ' a turkey.' 

701. kdndr, 'to strip.' isti, Jean Hlur, s4ci, 'rise, take off thy 

clothes, (and) sleep.' 

702. kand, ' a thorn.' 

703. kandild, ' a prickly pear, cactus.' 

704. kdr, ' a donkey, a mule. ' birds 'imlm, ' the price of a donkej 

kdri, ' a she-ass.' 

705. kar, 'to eat.' See paradigm in Grammar, § 122. 

706. kdrddis, ' a head of millet.' 

707. kardn-kennd, ' a donkey-eater,' i.e. a wolf. Of. Mli&n-UwniL 


70s Mrdtx tilli-gdri, 'a mule.' Idherden matini koldindi kdrdn 

tilU gorini (sic), 'wo saw people riding mules.' But the 

Arabic b&gl is more commonly used. 
7<>:i. Jcdri, 'a she-ass.' See kar. 
7 pi. k&rib, k&ribi I Ar.), ' near, neighbourly.' 
71 I. kdrmi, 'itch.' 
71-2. kdrtdld (Ar.), 'a hammock.' 
7 1 :}. k&rt&n-hdcer I Ar.), ' to be quarantined,' as Egyptians generally 

are when endeavouring to enter Palestine. 
7 11. kdsr (Ar.), 'a castle.' 
71-"). Mtd, 'vinegar.' 
7 1 1;. k&ti dsi ( Ar. kaddis), ' how much ? ' 7c. wdrsur, ' how old are 


717. /v/MAr.), ' a bunch' of fruit. 

718. kdlv, 'a mosque, shrine.' gdrd kdudsta, 'he went to the 

7I!>. kufai (Ar.),' strong.' 

720. kdkic&ne, kcmci. See kdutisi, ' plunder ' ; also ' a secret.' See 

sentence quoted under Imnn-hvcer. 

721. tedium, [animi (Ar.), 'a pile, heap'; also 'a family, tribe, 


722. kdlit, ' a thief: kd/tdeni, ' they are thieves.' 

72.S. kd/tutdr, : a hyaena.' kdlitdri, lix. 6, properly ' a she-hy;ena,' 
but probably used loosely. 

7 24. kdkiMr, 'to steal.' Idhcrdom illi kemtirendi, 'I saw the 
things that are stolen ' 

725. kdktii, ' a female thief: kdlUieni, ' they (women) are thieves.' 

72ti. kdRitinnd, 'a thief; kdlvtinnini, 'they are thieves,' vii. 5. 

727. kdutiS, kdiiti§i, 'stolen goods, plunder': in lxiii. 2 abbre- 
viated to huici; in xlvii. a plural kemedne appears. 

72s. kav. wa (Ar.), ' power.' 

729. kdliivum-hdcer (Ar. kdlim i, 'to be piled up.' 

7:io. kefil-hocer (Ar. /,v//7, 'a surety'), 'to make or become 

731. ken, * a pig.' Doubtful word. 

kendkar, causative of kar, ' to feed ' : followed by accus. of the 
food, as l/encmrdossdM mona, iii. 6. 

7:;:; /( ; - food': accus. kes (xviii. 2) or kekls (xxix. 5), the former 
being commoner. 
I ki§-kerdr, ' to prepare food, to cook.' 
5. kirwd, kirwdri, 'bitter.' 


736. kirwi, ' coffee ' : also ' a cafe ' (the Arabic kahweh has both 

meanings). See guldi. 

737. kisli (Ar.), 'a barracks.' With pronom. suffix, lvii. 1. 

738. kldra, 'a bedawi, a nomad Arab.' Sometimes pronounced 


739. khmdr, causative of kular, ' to cause to ride, give a mount to ' : 

kldlirdusis, xxxiii. 10. Also ' to raise [i.e. to cause] a noise.' 
See quotation under sas. 

740. kkminnd, ' a stirrup.' 

741. kleri, 'a female Bedawi.' 

742. Minna, ' a ladder.' 

743. kok-finnd, ' a muezzin,' the mosque attendant who summons 

to prayer. 

744. kol, 'an arm.' 

745. kol-ahdr, ' armpit.' 

746. kdldr, 'to ride.' Idherden Mi koldindi timna karini, 'we 

saw those who were riding appear like donkeys ' (in a mist). 
Also 'to embark' on a ship: kolden p&nuik-dengizma, 
xxvi. 11. 

747. kom. See kd/u/m. 

748. kondr, ' to strike ' (tents), kdnds kuridn, ' lower the tents.' 

749. kri-kerdr, ' to read.' 

750. kubr (Ar.), ' a grave.' 

751. Mfd (Ar. kuffeh), 'a basket.' 

752. kum (Ar.), ' a horn.' Also 'a pod.' 

753. kuss-kerdr (Ar.), ' to cut.' 

754. kuwusi, 'a fit.' 


755. V See li. 

756. la (Ar.), ' no, not.' la hrusmdn, ' he did not suffer us,' iii. 11 ; 

la . . . wdld, 'neither . . . nor'; la kdren vdld piren, 
xlvi. 12. 

757. la (Ar. lalt,), ' if, even though.' 

758. Idci, Idci, 'a girl.' 

759. Idgis, ' a quarrel, dispute.' 

760. IdgU-kerdr, ' to quarrel, dispute with, scold.' With associa- 

tive of person quarrelled with: as lagti-kerdwm b&tdss&n, 
'I quarrelled with her father.' Also used absolutely, 'to 
make a disturbance,' or the like. 


76] . ,, causative of Idher, 'to cause to see, show': cf. 
.,.. ama lahdu&mri Jciydk nl laherddris, 'I will 
show you something you have not seen.' 

,-. to see.' lak mattCri Mi wesri ndi, ' you see the people 
sitting there ' ; dma nl laherd&msdm, ' I did not see them ' : 
;, r/ .,/,7 bitdsmd kanawfak bardik zdrdi, 'he saw in the 
• ii, a jar full of gold'; inhe' yikdk illi mdngari Idher 
fin qo one likes to see [himself] beaten ' : a circumlocu- 
tion expressing the pass, infin. 'to be beaten.' 

stars.' A doubtful word, evidently meaning ' the 
seen things.' 
See U-. 

765. Idji, 'disgrace, shame.' 

766. Idji-kerar, 'to be ashamed.' ni [sic] laji-ker mnesim, 'do 

not be ashamed of me.' 
; Aim. 'but.' 

768. I ur (Ar.), ' to meet.' 

». laid, 'dumb.' 
77i. mmdn, laminni (Ar.), 'when.' Used in c. 20 in 

uncommon sense of ' until, in order to.' 
77 1. l&n, a compound of la, 'if,' and preverbal prefix in-, 

772 ' '/-.'to bring, fetch.' Probably a mere variant of ndndr. 

kii Id a'},' r, ■ which have you brought ?' 
77 • mud.' dma mangdmijam tihti pdnddsma, fihti pand 

gU lasik, birrfmi ddwdidntd kuidndi, I prefer to go on 
this road, this [other] is all mud, 1 am afraid the camels 
will slip.' 
774. Imt (Ar. la), ' no, not.' Idherim inni bol tinkiim tim'die wa 
inni km, ' lie will see whether I have many soldiers or not,' 
lvi. 6. As negative answer to a question 'no,' xli. 12. 
Sometimes induces hamzation in following verb, as in i. 2. 
It is curious that the ordinary meanings of the Arabic 
words la, 'not.' and Idle, 'if,' are as a rule interchanged 
in Nuri. The latter is, however, used for ' if sometimes, as 
in 1. 6. 

( Ar. >, ' if.' See la, 'if,' and preceding article. In Arabic 
always, and sometimes in Nuri, used to introduce an 
impossible condition. See Grammar, § 124. 

' a stick, rod, pole.' Sometimes pronounced rdmri. 
I Ar.), ' necessity, it is necessary; 


778. lekd-kerar, leyikd-kerar, 'to swear an oath.' 

779. U-, la- (Ar.), proclitic prep, 'to': of place, U-RiMka, 'to 

Jericho ' ; of time, ' until,' li-d/ani zim'd, ' to the next week,' 
xxx. 4 ; of person, after verbs of speaking, cirdd bizdtd I'-illi 
drarik, lviii. 1. With another preposition, gdre li-dger 
gind, 'he went a little farther.' Also means 'with,' as 
laltftm, 'with them,' iii. 2 (where -hum is Arabic 3rd person 
plur. pronom. suffix). 

780. li , lihi, 'iron.' For declension see Grammar, § 47. The 

dat. and loc. sing, are the regular words for ' to prison ' and 
'in prison' respectively. dma ferdmi elhds Mi liihrik 
fdgijmd, ' I beat the red iron with a hammer ' ; dma ferdmi 
luhre elhdydn tdgjdrnmd, ' I beat the red irons with 

781. Umm-kerdr (Ar.), ' to pick up.' 

782. limdn (Ar.), 'a lemon, lemon-tree.' Norn. pi. limdne, lxiv. 7. 

783. li°-uktinnd, ' an anvil.' 

784. loh (Ar.), 'a board,' especially 'a threshing-sledge' (a board 

studded with flint or iron teeth on its under surface and 
dragged over grain to be threshed, lvi. 11). 

785. Ion, 'salt,' 

786. Idlira, 'red.' luhra Mi hastdsta Hydra, 'the red which is 

put on the hand,' i.e. ' henna ' ; li° luhrik min dgiki 
kwriwmd, ' the iron is red from the fire in the house.' 

787. luhri, 'a tomato.' According to one narrator the same word 

was used for a hare (lxxv. 1); but Shakir ridiculed this, 
giving the word kan-dirgi. 

788. Lydd. The town of Lydd, near Jaffa, 


789. ma (Ar.), 'not.' Idli ma Idherddm, ' if I did not see. unless I 


790. mddd-kerar (Ar.), ' to stretch out, lengthen, point [the 


791. mafatili (Ar.), 'keys ': declined with Nuri inflections, lx. 12. 

792. mdhdl (Ar.), ' a place'; mahalttrmti time hrini, na/n zareskd 

moncik, ' we are in your place ( =we are your guests), get a 
loaf for the bov.' 

793. mahkdni (Ar.), ' a bottle filler.' 


_ — 

rg4 m „ .,/ (At.), 'the sacred carpet' sent annually in the 
pilgrimage to Mecca. 
mdfyrdzi (Ar. mdhraz), ' an awl.' 

"";, ' female.' See the note on dthird, which also applies 
to this word. 
tjbdmi, 'a girdle.' 
798. mdj-fdmdi, 'prayer.' 
7 • l. mtij-f<kr, ' to pray.' jyV-7 maj-fumndr, ' he went to pray.' 

). m»/a h&Sttii, 'a mosquito.' 
B01. m&MUt, 'a sand-fly.' 
... ,//-r/.77;, * a house-fly.' 
- 13 ,. faint (Ar.), 'a machine'; in xci. 24 'a prison,' from the 
Ar. makin, ' firm, sound, solid.' 

804. Mdkhd, ' Mecca.' 

805. mdlk&dd, 'a grave.' 

806. mdm&, 'a wife's father, father-in-law': voc. sing, mdma, 

xxviii. 5. 

807. mdmi, ' a wife's mother, mother-in-law.' 

808. mdnar, 'to stay, remain,' a verb capable of a variety of 

meanings and constructions. Intransitively, as oil rndnde 
ithii des&smti, ' they did not stay in that place.' Also tran- 
sitively, 'to leave' — about equally common: as b&Wm 
,,1'lixfnsnt'lu delkdmd, ' my father left us in a village,' liii. 1 ; 
mdndd snuttis, 'he left the dog,' lxiv. 10. The common 
salutation Hihjd mdnanir is apparently a corruption of H. 
mdnarir, ' God leave you,' i.e. suiter you to remain alive; 
the contrasting imprecation being Htiya impdrdrir, ' God 
take you.' Both are found in Ex. xcii. In the sense of 
' to suffer, let, permit': nl nunuUndrnun hb.nidn, ' they did 
not permit us to pitch [tents],' iii. 8 ; cf. xxvi. 18. In lx. 2 : 
zdrdk potrirki td-mdndnd bdlir jijan-hocand, ' give 
me a boy from your sons that your wives may remain 
[ = become] pregnant,' offers an unusual use of the verb. It 
also means 'to think, deem, suppose,' if indeed this be not 
;i different verb. In this sense the word seems generally to 
have the pronominal suffixes, as inanindsi kdfatisi, 'they 
thought it stolen,' x. 2. 
;/, ' love, desire, affection.' 
810. mAngdr, 'to love, desire, want, wish': tilld-tmdli mdngdri 
■ m ple,dmti kal mii nihrom ', ' the king desires to give 
me money, I said I did not want it.' Also 'to lack': in 


drur urdti mdngdri dmdtd kam, wBsdmi, 'if 3^011 come 
to-morrow work will be lacking for me ( = 1 shall be at 
leisure), I shall be sitting ( = idle).' 

811. mdngis, ' a desire, a petition.' 

812. mdngis-kerdr, ' to beg.' 

813. mangisnd, ' a beggar.' Properly abbreviated from mangi- 


814. mdni, 'a button.' mdnius ikies, ' the iris of the eye.' 

815. mdnj, 'midst, middle, loins.' na rauci pdnddsmd mdn- 

jismd, cencdhi rmvci, ' do not walk in the middle of the 
road, walk on the side ' ; min Jcuridk mdnjeski, ' from inside 
the house.' 

816. mdnjinwd, adj. ' middlemost.' mdnjinwd-potros, ' her middle 

son ' (second out of three). 

817. mdnits, 'a man.' See declension in Grammar, § 46. 

818. mar, ' slaughter.' 

819. mdrdnd, mdrnd, ' a corpse.' 

820. mdrdr, ' to die ' ; also ' to kill,' the causal, *mdrmtar or the 

like, being never used, dmd Mydmi inni mdri boiom urdti, 
' I fear that my father will die to-morrow.' Pret. 3rd sing. 
mrd, mra°, but mdrd in xxxv. 3. Sometimes figurative, as 
mrini sieshi iwars Mi ningri, ' we died of cold last year ' ; 
mdrdusis fSsiki, ' he killed him with blows,' in both cases 
an exaggeration. 

821. mdrdi, 'a demon.' 

822. maris, ' death.' Mrib drik maris, : death is come near.' 

823. mdrinnd, mdrinni, ' a demon.' With predic. suff. mdrinyek 

[for mdriimi-ek], lxxiv. 10. 

824. mdrird, ' dead ' (passive of mdrdr). 

825. mdrnd. See m&rdnd. 

826. mas, mdsi, 'a month.' 

827. mdsi, 'meat, flesh.' With indef. art., lx. 15, lxii. 12. 

828. mdsidlc-ddfos, ' a vein.' 

I 829. mdsis (Ar.), ' thread, cord.' 

1 830. mast, mdsti, 'laban,' i.e. artificially soured milk. 
831. mat, ' people, inhabitants, persons.' i7iJte° mat erJahid, ' there 

was no one there'; deiJc mat, 'the people of the village, 

I 832. mdlim, m(Mimd, ' a paternal uncle.' Like all words denoting 

relationship, seldom used without the suitable pronominal 

suffix. Voc. sing, mtmmd, xv. 13. 


■a pat< rnal aunt.' 
. (Ar.), 'a minaret.' 
er (Ar.), * to approach, tend towards.' 

■ lentils.' meji-keS, ' lentil food, a lentil stew.' 

■ (Ar.), 'a king 

, ,- 1 Ar. ma mdr), ' a sub-governor of a district.' Dat. sing. 
mt mrdstd, direct, sing, mi mrdskdrd. 

■ I (Ax.), ' a sickle.' 
. i ,„. wa, 'soft.' 

.'■;;. • a chickpea,' See dand-bdginnd. 
mey il-hdcer. See meil-hvcer. 
!. mi . ' a face.' Sec mix . 

dri, ' a light, a candle.' 
ndn, ' a guest/ xxix. 6. 
. m Ih, ' a nail ' (carpenter's). 
• -7 an, mikrin, mikrini, 'whence ?' 

mill (Ar.), preposition 'from.' With abl., as ruin Cftjaki 

'from Egypt'; with dat., xiii. 19, by an error of speech. 

(Ar.), 'without': ruin <]<n >■ kiy&Jci, 'without a 

thing,' iv. 6. See gdir. min-sdn (Ar.), 'for the sake of a 

person, ' in order to ' do an action. Further uses, all derived 

with the word from Arabic, are illustrated by gis mdte gore, 

nda Mahmrid min hdlos, 'every one went, Mahmud 

stayed alone'; mne uydrika min dl wars, ' stay in the 

city for the space of two years,' 1. 5. 

- I. ////'//. -a rotl,' a measure of weight, about 5 to 6 lbs. See 


ir, 'to take, capture, gather, collect.' lanfin mindri, 'he I 
is gathering flowers'; mindindsdn tnialie, 'the soldiers 

k tin m; ' To pitch ' a tent (perhaps a different verb): j 
minds kiiridn, 'pitch ye the tents'; mindik hurios, 'his; 

at was pitched' (this should be mindik, as hurl is 
inine). ' To touch' : nu min hdstim, 'do not touch my 

51. "" 7 ''. 'to cause to take.' With directive, as minalir-l 

'a kldrdnkd, 'we caused the Bedawin to take them.' 
a pincers. : 
' in, on. with, over.' Usually constructed with pronorn.; 

m my notes. When one asks a Nuri for the name of ami 

''• tL - word of which the answer consists is often hamzated, as in 



suffixes, as minjim, minjirdn. In the 3rd sing., minjt alone 
is often used instead of minjis, and in xiv. 3 there is yet 
further abbreviation, minj. A variety of relationships is 
indicated by this preposition : e.g., boios wdktli minjis, ' her 
father is in authority over her,' xl. 16; hustdtd minjimdn, 
' the small one from among us,' xxxix. 4 ; MM Icerek minjis, 
' what will you do with him,' xxiii. 13 ; mdngardd minjis 
nim sal zerd, ' he wanted fifty pounds for her,' xxii. 5 ; 
h uldd elhdsta minjisan, he went down to prison with him ' ; 
8'oten minjis ' we slept in it,' xxv. 2. 

854. min-sdn. See min. 

855. minsdr (Ar.), ' a saw.' 

856. miritik. A word given me by Muhammad Husen for ' by 

luck.' It evidently has the predic. suffix, but I cannot 
analyse it further. 

857. mis (Ar.), ' no, not.' 

858. mis nihra , -lire , 'he would not.' See Grammar, § 119, Obs. 

Always hamzated, even when ending in a consonant, as mis 
nihren . 

859. mistd, 'sick, ill.' 

860. mistd-hocer, 'to fall sick, ill.' 

861. mistwiom, ' I was sick,' xlv. 6. 

862. miswdr (Ar.),' a journey.' 

863. mitl (Ar.), ' like.' dtu mitl zdro Imiri, 'you are like a boy ' ; 

mitl-ma (Ar.), 'like as, just as.' 

864. miiiji, ' chickpea.' See mewij. 

865. mne, fern, imperative of nuhidr, ' stay, remain,' 1. 5. 

866. mnes, preposition, always used with pronom. suffixes ' from, 

from among.' For mnissdn is often substituted mniscdn. 
Sometimes the compounds are formed as though from a 
prep, mnesi, as mnesis, mnesisdn. Thus, pdrde mnismdn 
pUman, ' they took our money from us ' ; mnesman inhe°, 
min Uhu deik, ' he is not from among us (one of our people, 
but) from yonder village.' Like Arabic min, used in the 
sense of 'than' after comparative degree: kd/Ute birendi 
dktar mnesman, ' the thieves were more frightened than we 

867. molar, ' to bury.' 

868. mona, ' bread, a loaf.' nan zareska moudJc, ' hand a loaf to 

the boy ' ; par monds, ' take the loaf.' Declined often as a 
neuter subst., with mona in the accus., as xxxvii. 6. 


.ker&r, 'to bake bread.' 
870 m&nd-JcerTid, 'an oven.' 
871. m&rSe, 'ants.' 
s;_ ', 'a boot, shoe.' 

m u :l face.' The stem of the oblique cases is imh- (compare 

It ■ iron,' stem elk-). Icajjiini rodndi, imhisdntd fdndi u 

fandi,' the women are weeping, smiting their faces and 

sTL mUfdld (Ar.), subst. and adj., 'a madman, fool'; also 'mad, 

crazy, furiously angry, foolish.' 
875. m tifaiti, hdcer, ' to become mad.' 

6. mUgdra (Ar.), 'a cave.' 
877. Mugrdbi(Ar.), 'a Moor.' 

mUgrdblydt (Ar.), cl-m. } 'the evening,' lxxii. 11. Also 
mtigrib, xcv. 14. 
I. mtihldf (Ar.), 'save, except.' With abl., muhldf tillaski, 

' except the big one.' c. 28. 
I. mukettif (Ar.), 'bound.' 

881. muknisi 'Aim. 'a broom, brush.' 

882. mttktdS (Ar.), ' a melon-field.' 

I Ar. ). 'no. not.' See mis. 

4m ma l Ar. ' waxed, waterproof), ' thick ' (of cloth). 
885. mutti/r, ' urine.' 

,/, ,'iin r-hocer, ' to pass urine.' 
887. mu'dllaka (Ar.), ' hanged, suspended.' 


Sv >y /<". uu, the negative of the imperative mood: na wa Unkiman, 

' do not come among us.' Loosely used in other connections, 

a no. ndndes/ why did you not fetch ? ' 

Ndblus, the town Nablus. Direc. Ndblusashi, abl. Ndblusdk. 

, ' to dance': lacie nacindi hdrmanatd, 'the girls are 

dancing on the threshing-floor.' 

ur [Ar. nddd, ' he called'], 'to call, summon.' iiddi- 
. iro dl hdterd, 'the boy called the old man 

<•"'/• ( Ar.), 'to steal, seize.' 
• ndhr (Ar.), ' a river.' 

Ml (Ar.), 'a palm-tree.' 


895. nam, ' a name.' 

896. ndndr, ' to bring, fetch, conduct, get, obtain, take, give ; bear 

[child],' and allied meanings, all depending on the sense 
of transferring a thing from one place to another, nan 
zariskd mondk, ' fetch [and give] a loaf to the boy ' ; ndn- 
dindsan pmtbdginyetd, ' they led them to the courthouse ' ; 
ndndi jtiri zdrdk, ' the woman bore a boy ' ; ndndi cmdri 
dnd, ' the hen laid an egg.' 

897. nanlcauar, ' to cause to bring, fetch.' 

898. ndr (also nlr), ' to send, lead, conduct, guide.' innin, ' we 

will send,' xxxviii. 15; nen, ' we sent,' xl. 12; fern, impera- 
tive neyi, 1. 7 ; impdr egesuwi u esalas wa ne sider bdkikd, 
wd rcmds lideridki u intes tdni d4ridmd, ' take this corn 
and this rice and send (them) to thy grandfather's wife, and 
take her from that place and put her in another place ' ; 
gdrd td-nirsan, 'he went to send them,' lxxxviii. 16; 
nirddssdn tilla tmalieslcd, 'he conducted them to the 

899. ndrnd, ' a man ' — properly and almost invariably denoting a 

Nuri, contrasted with kdjjd, ' a man of alien race.' 

900. ndsdmdhni (xlii. 7) is Arabic ismdhni, ' forgive me,' with 

prefix nd, here otiose. 

901. ndstdr, ' to flee.' 

902. ndtr, ndttir (Ay.), ' a watchman.' 

903. ndudr, 'to seek.' Usually constructed with dative of the 

thing sought : dmd ndurom dturtd, nl IdherddmUr, ' I 
sought for you, but did not see you ' ; ndliren tdrdne 
kdjjdntd, ' we sought for the three men.' Probably causal 
of ndr (which see), though the sense is considerably modi- 
fied if so. 

904. ndwa, ' new.' kuri ndwilc, ' the house is new.' 

905. nazi (Ar. ndze), ' a she-camel.' 

906. nejjdr (Ar.), ' a carpenter.' 

907. nl. Properly the negative of the preterite indie, but some- 

times extended in use to the other tenses. Nl are Unkirdn, 
' did they not come among you ? ' Properly does not induce 
hamzation, but sometimes does so by analogy with in- : nl 
Idherde , i. 7. Prefixed to the subst., in the sense ' not a ' 
followed by preterite: as nl kdjjdk koldussdn, 'not a man 
loosened them.' With present tense, nl biydni , * we do 
not fear,' iv. 12. 


nifu . there is not, wa - aot.' See hdcer. 
- e mi ■< i ra°. 
910 (Ar. nil, 'blue '-of washerwomen and dyers), 'blue, 

'ill. nili, a species of edible mallow (Arabic Mibbezi) eaten as a 

912 , i,'& stew of mallow.' 

913. nhii, nfmi, ( a half.' Declined like a subst. nimfe&n, 'half 

of them.' Followed by the nominative, as nlm wars, ' half 
a year.' na wa v/rdti had dfsas nfmi. 'do not come to- 
morrow after noon.' 

914. nim-ar&t, 'midnight, at midnight.' 

915. nfm-dls, ' noon.' 

916. -imhtla, ' half a [Turkish] dollar,' a half majidi piece. 

917. n vmr (Ar.), ' a panther.' 
9 1 v -«n., 1 fifty ' (half a hundred). 

919. ning-hdcer, 'to enter,' with a variety of allied meanings, as 

to pierce, prick.' Su° ningri ungUrmd, 'the needle 
pricked your finger'; niiigra kurid/ma, 'he entered the 
house.' Extended in meaning to 'pass away 'or the like: 
mrini sieski iwars Mi ningri, ' we perished from cold last 
year.' The conjugation is not very regular: imperative 
hot Jcdpid u nigsi, ' open the door and enter.' 

920. u Ir, ' to lead, conduct, guide.' See new. 

921. nirda°,nvrdahra°. See radi-hdeer. 

922. n isub-kerd/r, ' to build, erect.' 
I. /"'. See na. 

'■. nigi, a measure of weight, Arabic okiye, roughly about half a 
125. nusub-lcerar. See nisub-kerar. 
926. nut-hocer (Ar.), ' to leap, jump.' 

, an uncommon form of the superdefinite article, xxiii. 14. 
-' ..a kid.' 

' that.' Loc. drama, lx. 14 : ace. pi. r>rdn, Ix. 13. A variant 
of dura, which see. 

to prophesy,' xcii. 39. wfcji 

I ft,' a lip.' 


932. pdci, prep., 'behind.' Constructed similarly to dger, which 

see. Thus pdci kiydJcdnki, xxxix. 15, but kiydlcdn-pdci, 
xxxix. 22, both meaning ' behind the things.' After verb 
denoting 'to send for"': ujaldd pdci Jcalimislcd, 'he sent 
after his family,' xi. 4, where the directive is probably 
induced by the implied sense ' motion towards.' 

933. pdfild, ' copper ' ; also ' a kabak,' a Turkish coin now worth 

about a farthing, pdfild ktistdtd, ' a quarter kabak.' 

934. pai, ' a husband ' : rarely used without the pronominal 


935. pdkd, ' a locust.' Also bdkild. 

936. pdkild, ' a porcupine.' 

937. pdkild, ' a feather.' 

.938. pal, ' a shoulder, an arm.' 

939. pal, ' a bed.' tvisti paldsta, ' sit on the bed.' 

940. pdlpala, 'a bond'[?]. tirden led/tutas pdlpdldstd, ' we bound 

the thief,' lxxxii. 6. Doubtful word. 

941. pdltd (Ar. bdltd), ' a small axe, a pickaxe.' 

942. pand, 'a way, road.' hdlli mate Mi kerandi cdlan in-Jcerand 

bitas dhdr pdnddh, 'let the people who make cisterns make 
a way [tunnel] under the earth'; kinda hri pand diitd, 
' where is the road to the village ? ' 

943. pdni, 'water, the sea.' rdlmni gistdM&man pdwiak cencesDui , 

' we were all walking on the sea-shore.' It may also mean 
'mud': as bad warsindiki gis ihrd pdni, ' after the rain 
everything turned to mud.' 

944. pdni, ' a comb.' 

945. panidh-dengiz , ' a ship.' See dengiz. 

946. pdnuik-kdki, ' a water-thing,' i.e. a bath, barrel, water- 

pipe, etc. 

947. Panidk-uydrd, Beirut (' the water-city '). 

948. pani-hucer, ' to become wet.' 

949. pani-unkdl-keri (Ar. nukul, 'to transport'), ' a water-carrier.' 

950. panius-ikidk, ' the pupil ' of the eye. 

951. panj, pdnji, 'he, she': 3rd sing, personal pronoun. Abl. 

pdnjik, xli. 2. Feminine in xi. 2, and often elsewhere. 

952. pa^njdn, ' they' : 3rd plur. personal pronoun. 

953. pdrdr, pdrdr, ' to take.' par monds, ' take the loaf.' Also 
VOL. vi. — no. in. o 


,1 a lor gdrw&n, 'you have bought the cows.' 

']■. 5e i s usually defined by the addition of the adverb 

'imlin, which see: .is pdrdd bottom snutak 'imlen (lix. 1), 

In \ father I ought a dog.' Also, of a woman, ' to conceive': 

I,,;, Mi pdrddsrd, Ixxii. 13. 

a piece, fragment.' See xcii. 14 and note. 
ila, a kumbaz,' i.e. a long garment worn by men, reach- 
ing to the feet and girded round the waist. 

d, ' wool.' 
• ,'. ■ a veil, a cloth, a puggaree.' pdti Mi imhor imsdh-lceri, 
1 the cloth that wipes your face,' i.e. a towel. 
pah, ' a foot, a leg.' ytgrilc-pdliUs, ' a horse-hoof (for which 
the Arabic hdfr is also used) : pa%Ms-siri, ' the head of the 
leg,' i.e. the thigh: yigir ferdsim p'Riumma, 'the horse 
kicked me on my leg.' 
poll-, a stem from which are formed some of the tenses of 
dfUar, 'to come.' See Grammar, § 122. Possibly this is 
the original form of the verb. 

vh-bagin n\, ' a court-house, place of assembly, guest-house of 
a village, public hall of any kind.' The double n disappears, 
owing to the accentuation and the length of the word, in 
the oblique cases, as in the dative pd/Ubdginyita. See 
G rammar, § 113. 

1 a wheel ' of a carriage. A doubtful word : it prob- 
ably simply means 'its foot' (pdki-Us). See Grammar, 

30, Obs. 
ndr, 'to take, lift.' See quotation under Jcus. Also 'to 
bring, send, give' : pinde aminta ubare (vii. 11), 'they 
brought these troubles on us.' 'To arouse' a disturbance, 
make a noise: sdsds nl pende (xxxii. 2), 'he did not 
make a noise.' Especially used with nam, ' a name,' for ' to 
•jive a name' to oneself or another: pindd ndmos Hdsdni, 
"he called himself Hasan' ; Hi pendsi ndmos drdsJc, 'what 
you call that ) ' 
ir, ' to cause to take, to exchange,' xxxviii. 6. 
a Bedawin encampment or settlement, di pird, hull 
wri, ' two settlements, ten tents [in] each settle- 

'/•, -to spend.' gdra pesndurdos, -he went and 
spent it.' 

belly.' Used figuratively, as bdrdd-h rd pitos urn rata, ' he 


deceived us' (lit. 'his belly became full against us'); petor 
bdrdek mukr dmintd, ' you beguile us ' (lit. ' your belly is 
full of deceit [Arabic mukr] against us '). 

967. peivindi, 'a shackle, fetter.' Probably for ptfti-indi. 

968. pmr, ' to drink.' bv~iom pird c&mdi pdni, mistd-hrd mnisi, 

' my father drank bad water and became sick from it ' ; 
kek uhtt illi piesi, dmd janame , ' what is this you are 
drinking, I do not know it ? ' pidr cicdk, ' to suck ' [infant 
or young animal] ; westi, pi kirwi, ' sit and drink (some) 
coffee.' As in Arabic, and by a curious coincidence in 
Irish, the verb for ' to drink ' is also used for ' to smoke ' : 
pictmi dif, ' I smoke tobacco.' 

969. pidz, pidzi, ' onions.' 

970. pindlidr, ' to give to drink, cause to drink.' 

971. pintfidrus difak, 'a tobacco pipe.' 

972. pinji, ' a tail ' of an animal. 

973. pird, ' wine.' 
974*. pirn, 'a nose.' 

975. pisdr, ' to grind.' jdndri drzin pisdri, ' a mill that grinds 


976. pis, ' drink, a drink.' kes u pis, ' food and drink.' 

977. pist, 'a back' (human). 

978. pitr, ' a son ' : enclitic form. See potrd. 

979. pld, 'a para,' the smallest Turkish monetary unit, -^ of a 

piastre. No para coins are now in circulation. See pie. 

980. pldli, ' money.' 

981. pie, 'money': declined sometimes as a masc, sometimes as 

neut., with ace. plen or pie. The plur. of pld. 

982. plenden-pdrinnd, ' a money-changer.' 

983. pndrd, 'white'; also any conspicuously white substance, as 

' snow' or 'lime.' pndrd illi ben wiiteiki tiydri §ka 'nhe°, 
' the lime put between the stones (of the house) is not 
dry ' ; kiiird pndrd disdn, ' snow fell during the day.' Also 
pronounced prdnd. pndrd ikies, ' the white of the eye.' 
984-. pot, ' a husband, bridegroom.' Usually compounded with a 
pronominal suffix. 

985. pari, ' smallpox.' 

986. potrd, ' a son, a child.' potrow, kdm-keri disdn u drdidn, ' my 

son works day and night ' ; nidnsdki di potrd dbus, ' a cer- 
tain man had two sons.' pitr is an enclitic form, used 
after a genitive; as trndlies-pitr, ' an officer's son.' 



■ / a Jew.' 
I r , ' to blow ' [bellows]. 

, L bellows ' : onomatopoeic word, the ' puff-maker.' 
10. ptonj, ptinji, numeral adj., 'five.' 
191. pfrnj&ne, 'live' (subst.). Ace. punjena, xliv. 16; abl. 
ptinj&n&nki, lxi. 14. 
2, p&njfa, ' live.' in counting, or when used absolutely, xxi. 11. 


rdbtt (Ar. rtib'a), -a quarter.' 
a. ni hi' (Ar.), 'spring grass.' 

/.vn//- (Ar.), 'to pasture,' xcvi. 1. 
radi-Mcer (Ar.), 'to want, require.' Chiefly used in the 
preterite negative, which has become one word, nirddhrd 
(</ for d). Also rid-hocer, from the present tense of the 
Arabic word. 
!i!»7. ral/l (Ar. I, ' trappings of a camel' 
1 18. rahisi I Ar. rdhfs), 'cheap, inexpensive, of little worth.' 
<. raji-hdeer ( Ar. ' beseech'), ' to beg, beseech,' lvii. 6. 

L000. /■ r (Ar. ra§s, ' to sprinkle'), ' to sprinkle, pour water.' 

Preterite lxxxiv. 4, or rejfrdu, xc. 11. 

L001. Ramalla, the village Ram Allah, north of Jerusalem. 
1002. /.' Imleh, the town Ramleh, near Jaffa. 
Ion:;. , Ar. rami), ' sand.' 

•r, ' to follow ' : rdsri mufdhis, ' she followed the fool.' 

Also 'to make for' a place: rdsren 'ad vdesds, 'we made 

tin for that place.' Hence 'to make up with, reach, 

arrive at': kvlden aratan, rdsren kurian nim-drdt, 'we 

mnted by night and reached the tents at midnight.' 

1005. r o\ 'to cause to reach, to conduct': causal of rds- 

L006. r to go, walk, move, depart ' : as a rule causal in form 

only, but see the sentence quoted under nar. 

. ' the act of going.' Udnl rdusimki, ' in return for my 
, ang,' xxviii. 11. 

/• ( Ar. i, ' to go ' : chiefly if not exclusively used 
in the preterite, as rawahra, ' he went.' 
i ' i Ar. ), ' to make to go, send.' 
. to tremble.' pdnji rdzari biswtudnki, 'he is 
trembling from fear.' 


1011. rdzdri, 'a trembling, shivering.' rdzdri dtustd tativdidk, 'a 

shivering from fever is on him.' 

1012. rad-fdr (Ar. ra'd, ' thunder'), ' to thunder.' 

1013. rai-kerdr (Ar.), ' to feed, pasture ' cattle. 

1014. reji-hdcer, ' to rise up.' p&nddsta Bet-l&hrnaki rejfrd dmintd 

dili mitt dtds jdndrik,' on the Bethlehem road there rose 
up on us dust like the flour of a mill.' 

1015. rekdb-kerdr, ' to make to ride, place, deposit.' 

1016. rezaiidr, ' to drop, pour.' drd td-tdr kiSds sirUsmd, 

reztRirddsis felema, ' he was going to put the food in his 
head [mouth] but dropped it in a bag.' 

1017. Rihd, Rihyd, ' Jericho.' Arab. er-Rihd. 

1018. rid-hdcer, ' to will, desire.' Idmmd rlddcer Hnya, ' when God 

wills.' See radi-hocer. 

1019. rih-hdcer (Ar.), ' to rest.' 

1020. rindd, ' a horseshoe.' 

1021. riset (Ar.), 'a feather.' 

1022. ris-Jidcer, ' to become angry ' : only used apparently in the 

preterite, risrd, ' he was angry.' "With predic. suffix fern. 
risrik, ' she was angry,' iii. 3. 

1023. rizk (Ar.), 'fortune, property.' deim goniak pie td-jdm 

naucdm rizkom, ' give me a purse of money that I may go 
and seek my fortune.' 

1024. roar, ' to weep.' bolom mrd, rodmi dtustd, ' my father is 

dead, I weep for him'; Idci biswdldnki rodri, 'the girl 
weeps for fear.' 

1025. rud-ltocer, ' to answer.' Preterite rddrd, lxxvi. 35. 


1026. sdbdb (Ar.), ' a cause, reason.' 

1027. sdbdhtd (Ar. subh, ' morning '), adv. of time ' from the 

morning,' xvi. 3. 

1028. sdbdhtdn (ib.), adv. of time ' in the morning.' Compare 


1029. sdbdk-hdcer (Ar.), ' to come up with, overtake, precede.' 

Pret. sdbdkrd, lxix. 7. 

1030. sdbd' (Ar.), 'a lion.' Arab, dual sdbd'in, lx. 14; also 

sdbua, xcvi. 5. 

1031. sdddf-lidcer (Ar.), ' to come upon, meet.' 

1032. saf&h-lcer&r (Ar.), 'to make a contract, writing.' 











, Aim. a friend.' 
i | ,\ i- . ■,,„), 'a plate.' 

edl, ' a hundred.' Accus. or abl. plural from saidne, lv. 13; 
Utn, xliii. 13. 

>-r',M/ (Aim, ' a goldsmith.' 

8<fflyid~h6cer I Ar.), ' to hunt ' game. 

sdk-hdcer, ' to be able.' cfo tZis m sdlcren sticen, ' for two days 
we could not sleep ' ; insdkrome , ' I cannot, have no 
power, am sick, tired'; zdro sdkre\ 'the boy is tired.' 
Willi dat. of object, 'to get the better of, overcome': 
pdnji sdkrti tf/mM&, ' he got the better of me.' 

snklr-kerar (Ar.), ' to shut up, close, imprison.' In xiv. 4 
8&kirdi is probably for sdkir-kerdi. 

sdJcndkudr, 'to cause to be able, help, give assistance,' 
xxv. 19. 

8&kdi ( Ar. sdko), ' a coat, jacket.' 

sal, said, ' a rope.' Also the 'aJcdl or loop of goat's-hair rope 
by which the head-veil is secured. Also ' cord, string,' as 
in xxxii. 3. 

sal, sdli, ' rice.' Accus. sing, sal (vi. 7), sdli (ix. 2), or sdlds 
(xliii. 12). 

salami (Ar.), ' peace.' 

sdndiik (Ar.), ' a box.' 

s&p, sdpi, ' a snake.' Accus. sdpds, xxxvi. 6. 

ear (Ar. sar, ' he became '). This verb is borrowed, with its 
Arabic inflections, to express ' to begin': lammdn slndi 
igali r&ri sdret, ' when she heard that saying she began 
to weep'; sar nduari dsndmistd, 'he began to seek for 
his idols.' 
80S, • noise.' Accus. sdsas, xxxii. 2. Of the song of birds: 
s,v ■ sasdsan Hldlidndi sdzretd, drd dtsun Icdjja, misre, 
' the birds were raising their song in a tree, a man came 
to them, they tied [new away] ' ; sdsdk ferd hrez, ' the cock 

I Ar. as Is), ' foundation ' of a building. 

sleep.' Loc. sdSmd, ' in sleep,' xxxii. 3. 
Ar.), • together.' 

. 'a master, owner.' pdltik-sdlii, 'the owner of a pick- 

e, i.e. the pickaxe-wielder in a gang of labourers. 
Sometimes treated as indeclinable: cirdd kuriak-salii, 
■ he said to die lord of the house,' xxxiii. 11. 


1053. sawut-kerdr (Ar. sot, 'voice'), 'to lift up the voice, 


1054. sdyil-kerar (Ar. sa'al, ' to inquire '), ' to ask,' a question. 

With dat. of person asked : sdyil-kerdd 'Aisdstd, xxxiii. 1. 

1055. sdzdrd (Ar.), ' a tree.' Properly sdzdrd, but often pronounced 

with initial s even in Arabic. 
1050. sad (Ar.), ' an hour.' 

1057. satttdsna (Ar. sad, 'hour'), 'at once, immediately.' ihi 

kiiri 'dtki bol,dmmd ihi kuri ndivih bol, la intirdor kiizid 
minji cdmdd hdri sadtdsnd, kuid/ri timnd dil, ' this house 
is very old, but that house is quite new, if you put 
timber in it it will rot immediately, it will fall like 

1058. sad (Ar.), ' happiness.' sad-kerar Htiya subdhur,' may God 

make your morning happy, good morning.' 

1059. saek Jcwwusi (Ar. with Nuri predic. suffix), ' he was fallen in 

a fit,' or ' in a faint,' xxxv. 3. 

1060. sdken (Ar.), ' ashes.' 

1061. said (Ar.), ' a basket.' 

1062. sellim-kerdr (Ar.), ' to send,' also ' to deliver, save.' 

1063. sSmdk (Ar.), 'a fish.' 

1064. semmdk (Ar.), ' a fisherman.' 

1065. si, 'cold.' Dat. siesta, abl. sieski. The plural is not used, 

even in the connexion noted in Grammar, § 40, Obs. : thus 
mrini sieski (not sienki), ' we were perished from cold,' 
lv. 3. 

1066. sid (Ar.), ' a grandfather.' 

1067. sidi (Ar.), ' my lord ' ; respectful term of address. 

1068. sidr (Ar.), ' a terebinth-tree.' 

1069. sih (Ar.), ' a skewer ' of metal. 

1070. sijndtidri, a word given me for ' bug,' but evidently the 

causal of some verb and not the insect's name. 

1071. silda, ' cold, unhappy.' wd/t sildik, ' the air is cold.' 

1072. sinar, ' to hear ' : dmd sndmsi, ' I hear him.' With abl. ' to 

hearken to': sindd gdlisk, 'he hearkened to her word,' 
c. 5. 

1073. sink, ' chest ' (of body). 

1074. siri, ' head.' Ic&piak-sirius, ' a door-lintel ' ; pauUs-siri, ' the 

thigh.' Used, as in many languages, in counting cattle, 
xxvi. 16. 

1075. sirtdwi, ' a headdress/ especially a fez or a puggaree. 


,,,;,; . ' a bird,' especially a small chicken. 

1 1 »77. sit-. See sicdr. 

r, ■ to sew.' gorisnd ta-siwdn kurid, ' a needle to sew 
the tent ' ; siivlrdi kili, 'she sewed the clothes.' 

1079. slal ( Ar.), ' baskets.' 

1080. slcfiidr, 'to cause to sleep.' 

1081. aluh-h rdr < Ar. Mlah, 'he stripped'), 'to strip off' clothes or 

an animal's skin. 

1082. sn ir, 'to inform, relate, cause to hear': causal of sindr, 

' to hear,' lvi. 8. 
in-.; • id, ' a dog, jackal.' 

I, 8notd8-hald%iki, 'a wolf.' snotas-hdldiiki hard gis bdkrdn, 

■ the wolf ate all the sheep.' 
5, sdrnd, 'a coop' for chickens, somdsdn cmdridnki, 'the 
chickens' coop.' 
1086. sot I Ar.). l a voice.' /ar soif, ' to shout.' 

r. sruh-hdeer (Ar.), ' to feed ' animals, lxxii. 11. 
j 1 iss. stdd-hdeer, ' to hunt, chase ' animals. In lxxi. 14, stdd-ihrom 
tdros means, apparently, 'I have exacted vengeance for 
1"- I -•'. ' steel' 

■ stuh-Jcerdr, ' to split.' 
a needle.' 
1092. s Ar. stibh ). ' morning; 

1 " ' : ■ s car, ' to sleep.' ja erhdna ajuti, siici wd-dmmd dlidmi, ' go 
there to-day, sleep, and I will come ' ; pdnji swdri star das 
dl8 a. §tar das drdt, u star das drat ni sware , 'she sleeps 
forty days and forty nights, and forty nights she does not 
sleep sticdr aha, ' let him sleep.' 
L094. rio/r£ (Ar. stifrd), ' a table; especially a dinner-table. 
I ' I 15. siikir-h rdr ( Ar.), l to shut; See sdHr-kerur. 
1091 < Ar.). ' a market.' 

1097. s \ 'sleep,' xlv. 11. Also sdl 
1098 vr \ compare Ar. sdwdrd, ' a bracelet '), ' a wrist.' 


W(Ar.), 'a net.' 
1 1 " n - ir I Ar.), ' to break in pieces.' 

1 ln l <alcr (Ar. sukr), 'sugar; 

- " '(Ar.),' to strip.' See sMh-k 



1103. 8am,, only in Ar. phrase min-idn, 'for the sake of.' 

1104. Mrdra (Ar.), ' a spark.' 

1105. Sark (Ar.), ' the East.' 
HOG. Sas, 'six.' 

1107. Mtdrd (Ar.), 'a trick.' 

1108. kmra-hocer (Ar.), ' to plot.' 

1109. sdzdrd. See sdzdra. 

1110. §e, 'happy.' 

1111. $e-hocer, 'to be happy.' &%yomi, ' I am happy ' ; sehra,'he 

was happy.' 

1112. sibdbd (Ar.), 'a whistle, flute.' 

1113. Hbbdk (Ar.), ' a window.' 

1114. Hb-hdcer, 'to leap.' Pret. sibrd, lxxvi. 63. 

1115. sibriyd (Ar.), 'a dagger.' 

1116. MIcti, l a voice.' 

1117. &7cZ (Ar.), 'a sort, kind.' 

1118. Hm-kerar (Ar.), 'to smell.' biddi jam sim-kerdmi wd%as, 

' 1 want to go to smell the air,' a literal translation of an 
Arabic phrase for ' to go on pleasure.' 

1119. Hngi, 'a locust-tree.' The Ar. name Jxarmb is more com- 

monly used. 

1120. sivb, 'a part, spot,' Ixx. 13. 

1121. sitd (Ar.), ' winter.' 

1122. Skd, 'dry, hard.' 

1123. ska-fdr, ' to call, cry' : ska-fird min kuridk manjeski ' kdnik 

illi barik ? ' Cirda uliu 'dma hrdmi,' ' he called from inside 
the house, " Who is outside ? " The other said, " It is I." 
1 To invite ' : inklllah auni wars slca-fimi min-sdn besmid- 
ydki, ' I hope next year you will invite me to (your) mar- 
riage.' ' To give the call to prayer from a minaret.' ' To 
crow' (cock) : Skd-ferd Jirez, ' the cock crew.' 

1124. Skd-hucer, 'to become dry, harden, solidify.' 

1125. £H, 'a complaint.' 

1126. Ski-fdr, 'to complain.' 

1127. sndr, kiduddr, 'to burn.' sndmi btnnr, 'I burn [ = curse] 

thy father,' lxxii. 13. 

1128. Srid (Ar.), the river Jordan. 

1129. stdldr, ' to put, lift, load ' (animal) : followed by dative, as in 

Stdlds ddwaidtd kiydkdn-kdzid, ' load the box of things on 
a camel ' ; stdldindom tdte kdrastd, ' the fellahin put me 
on an ass.' ni stdldr ivfild intmidr, 'not to put or to 


place/ an idiom for 'to make trouble,' xliii. 14; Stdlaim 

,,/,-, ' wake me from sleep.' Causal verb in the same 

Mldiirdindis di sdndiik, 'they loaded it (the 

donkey) with two boxes.' 

H30 ir, 'to cause to load.' Used like the simple verb 

r, which see. 
1131, Star, ■ four.' Ace. plur. stdrnd, viii. 13. Star u star, ' eight ' 

,• ih shn- u y ileal-, 'nine.' 
1 L32 four,' used in counting. 

] 133. tir, ' a camel.' dtiwal is, however, the usual word. 
L134. Stir&r, 'to rise up, stand.' kilca insteye , ' why do you not 

stand V lxii. 12. 
I 135. $Ukf(Ar.), 'a piece, fragment.' 

L136. Mti, 'a water-melon'; 'the hub of a wheel.' (The Ar. 
b&ttth has both these meanings). 

1 L37. t&- {tan- before verbs beginning with d). Proclitic particle, 
prefixed to verbs to denote ' in order that, so that, until.' 
See Grammar, § 123. Sometimes, though rarely, used 
before words other than verbs, as td-dd inhe° Jciydk, vi. 8, 
' till there was nothing more.' 

I l.*!s. tdgij, ' a hammer.' See sentences quoted under li°. 

1 l-V.K tdkni, ' a large wooden dish, platter.' 

1 I 10. tdla" ( Ar. talt'a), ' a mountain.' 

1141. tdli, ' rest, remainder.' talyosman, xxvi. 14, : the rest of us.' 

I 142. tdman, ' until,' lvi. 12. 

1 14:;. t&m&li ( A r., but Egyptian rather than Palestinian), 'always.' 

1144. tan, 'a bed.' sitindi tdnak&sma, xxxii. 1, 'they sleep on a 

I 1 15. />//-. See ta-. 

1 146. tdngd, ' narrow." tdngi pand, ' a narrow road.' 

1147. tdni Ar.), ' second, another.' 

1148. tar, ' arrack.' kuri tdras piendi mirtj,'a house that they 

drink arrack in,' a tavern; pirik tar, sitelc, ncmrSIc u 
${rio8 bardeh, insakreye ralicar, 'he drank arrack 
and lav down, ho wandered about and his head was 
full, he could not walk (steadily).' tdras mdtdsJc, 
- perspiration.' 
''•■ ' to pur, place, pay.' he cjdra (sic) tele, ' What art thou 



going to pay ? ' Preterite root tird-, tird. ' To betroth ' a 
girl : mdnde Idcid bdnlrik dtustd kiiridk-kapi, tirdik 
dtustd yikdk, u pdnjl mdngari yikdk ugzas hldfus, ' they 
kept the girl locked up [because] she was betrothed to 
one and desired a lover other than him ' ; tirdd sirios 
' he laid his head ' down to sleep ; int' unglermd, kustbdni, 
' put a thimble (Arabic word) on your finger.' ' To pay ' ; 
min punj wars ni tirdd tmalidnkdrd plen, ydmin drd 
gordndeld ndsrd, cdrdd hdlos hdrdb-didJcdma, 'for five 
years he has not paid money to the soldiers ( = taxes), 
when the horseman came he fled and hid himself in a ruin.' 

1150. tdran, ' three ' ; tdranemdn, ' we three.' Also t&rane (xviii. 

11) or tdrand (xxxviii. 23), tardnes (xliii. 1, lv. 1), with 
predic. suff. tdrdnisne or -isni (xviii. 1, lxiv. 1) : ace. plur. 
tdrdndn, lxiv. 9; abl. tdrdndnki, liii. 11. tdran u tdran, 
'six'; tdr&n das, 'thirty.' 

1151. tardnes, 'three,' used in counting. 

1152. tdrcdnd, ' curds.' 

1153. tdrncb, 'a youth.' 

1154. tas-hdeer, 'to be drowned.' tdsre dls p>dnidma, 'two men 

were drowned in the sea.' 

1155. tdsnaudr, 'to choke' (transitive). 

1156. tdsti, tdsti, ' a small wooden dish.' 

1157. tat, ' heat, fever.' tdtik, ' there was heat,' xxvi. 2. 

1158. tdtd, 'hot.' 

1159. tatd-hdeer, ' to have fever.' 

1160. tdtds-disi, ' summer.' 

1161. tatiuai, ' fever.' tdtd-hori u razari dtustd tatvxUdk, ' he is 

fevered and shivering from fever.' 

1162. tali, ' leaves ' of plants. 

1163. tdlidr, 'to put, place.' tali pdnidma sJcd-monas, 'put the 

dry bread in water.' Neg. present 2nd sing, intweye . 
Causal of tar, which see. 

1164. taund, ' thin.' ' Abd Allah nl kare° kddd-md kdrd Hdsdn, 

uhu Umnek uhu hdmili, ' r Abd Allah did not eat as much 
as Hasan, so the one is thin the other is fat.' 

1165. tdwdb-hdeer (Ar. tab, he repented), ' to repent, stop, 

cease.' tdwdbre ekdmdstd,, ' they ceased from that work/ 
xvi. 18. 

1166. tawdr (Ar. turfyeh), 'a spade, hoe.' 

1167. tab (Ar.), ' weariness, trouble.' 


I !,,- \r.i. 'you put, give/ Ixxxvi. 4. 

1169. //-. Particle used in forming the pronominal expressions, 

', ammar, § 64. 

1170. tikndk&r, ' to cause pain, to hurt.' siriom tikncmrmi, ' my 

bead pains me.' 
1171 UU&, 'big, great.' tilUk, 'it was big'; tillaski, xxxiii. 2, is 

apparently an ablative used as a kind of superlative, 
_• reatest.' 
1 172. UM-cmari, 'a duck, a goose.' 
i | 73. tilld-Mkiird ( Ai\), ' a garden.' 

I 1 74-. tillti-hdcer, ' to become great, increase ' : tilld-hre, lx. 5. 
I 17."». tilld-mdnus, ' a great man, a sheikh,' xx. 6. 
117,i. tllla-ptifM, 'a big kabak,' i.e. the complete coin, to dis- 
tinguish it from the smaller half kabak and quarter kabak. 

See pctfild. 
I 177. tllla-tm&li, any important official, as sultan, king, general, 

_<>vernor, etc. 
I i 7s. tilla-z&m i (Ar.), ' the great mosque,' i.e. Mecca. 
1 L79. tilli-kdhri, 'a cauldron.' 
I L80. tllli-s&i, ' a thousand." 
1181. till'-uy&ra, 'a big city' — the proper name for Jerusalem, 

I » mascus, or Constantinople. See Grammar, § 9. 
L182. timna, 'like': followed by nominative, timna bis, 'like 

straw'; hri timna tmdlies-bd/l, 'she became like a 

I L83. tirasala, ' thirsty.' tirasali-hri, 'she became thirsty,' lxi. 6. 
1184 ' nauar, ' to cause to pay, make to pay, extort,' vii. 3. 

1 185. tirwdli, a sword; With the pronominal suffix of the 2nd 

person the I assimilates to the r on each side of it, as 

1186. tiwib-hocer. Seetav-rrfj-hocer. 

I I v 7. tmdli, 'a soldier.' Also any officer from a king downwards 

< though tilla-tmdliis generally used for the higher ranks). 
tmaliemmini, 'they are with the soldiers' (i.e. in the 
army l. 

1188. tmdlies-bdl,, 'an officer's wife,' from queen downwards. 

pdnji intd gtizd kill beniskd, hri timna tmdlies-bdl, 
he gave fine clothes to his sister, she became like a 

1189. traHrar, ' to shave,' lvi. 6. 

1190. Ming, ■ a water-skin; for carrying water. 


1191. turwdli. See tirwdli. 

1192. tus-hocer, ' to wander, err, go astray,' lv. 6. 

1193. tdkyib-kerar (Ar.), ' to make good, reconcile.' 

1194. tdrdbis (Ar. plural), ' a tarbush, fez.' 

1195. tat, 'a fellah, peasant, agriculturist.' 

1196. tdt-kdjjd, 'a fellah,' xxxvii. 6. 

1197. tatwdri, ' the Arabic language.' 

1198. tcmwdl-hdcer (Ar.), ' to be a long time, stay, delay.' tduwdl- 

hresi ederiemmd, ' will you stay long in these places ? ' 
na tttidoci dmintd, ' do not delay us, do not be late for us.' 

1199. tir-hdcer (Ar.), ' to fly.' 

1200. tlif-hdcer (Ar.), ' to become loose, free.' 

1201. tnub-hocer (Ar. tdnib, 'a protege), 'to put oneself under 

another's protection.' tmibren atsunta, xvi. 7. 

1202. tol, ' forehead.' 

1203. toll, ' a cloth, a handkerchief.' 

1204. Tubdriyd, 'the town Tiberias.' Dat. Tubdryitd, xxxiv. 6. 

1205. till, tfdet (Ar.), 'length.' mdnus wesrik kuriimd, sindd 

kdutdri barik, ttllet drdtos pdnji rdzdri biswtiidnki, ' the 
man was sitting in the tent, he heard a hyeena outside, 
the whole night he was trembling for fear.' Used 
adverbially as in Arabic, tul pdnddJci kivdri, ' the length 
of the road he keeps throwing,' i.e. he was throwing things 
all the time he was walking along the road. c. 11. 

1206. rind (see tdund), 'fine, slender.' 

1207. tor (Ar.), 'vengeance.' 


1208. «-. Superdefinite article. See Grammar, § 20. 

1209. u, wd (Ar.), conjunction 'and.' 

1210. ugjd, 'crooked.' ugjd kerdd dirZos bitdski, 'he made his 

furrow (in ploughing) crooked.' Also ' lame.' 

1211. ligji, according to Muhammad Husain, ' a pair of pincers ' ; 

but Shakir rejected this. 

1212. ugzd, 'a lover.' See sentence quoted under tdiidr. 

1213. ugli (Ar.), 'boiling.' 


I ., | , masCi 8 ing. ]>roclitic demonstrative, ' that.' Sometimes 

otiose, as in drd tihii ktiMdr, iv. 2, which means simply 
a hysena came.' Used sometimes before a plural subst., 
&M Icdjje, i. 16. 

1215. ' h It /■• ( 1 x xv. 11). See h alar. 

[216. tiMiU (Ar. imperative, ' finish '). A word borrowed and 
conjugated with the Nuri verbal inflections: as nhlusindi 
tyre, 'the women will finish' their quarrel, xix. 7. 

1217. uhtur-hfct r, ' to advance further, proceed.' 

[21 1 ddr, 'to send, send for, send after.' biddi ujdldmur 
wydrtd, garici hdlu, 'I want to send you to the town, 
return at once'; ujdldd pacts, ' he sent after him.' 

L219. vukci, 'a beard. 1 

1220. '<'/', 'to cast, strike, throw down, lay down, cast out, 
knock (door).' 

L221. uktinnd, 'a bell' ( = the beaten thing). But also 'a chisel,' 
in the sense of a beating thing; wutan uktinnd, 'a chisel 
for cutting stone.' See li° -uktinnd. 

1222. ukummd. See lxxii. 5, and footnote. 

1 22-". ; ngli, ' a finger ; the spoke of a wheel.' 

1224. Unlet-, preposition, always compounded with the pronominal 

suffixes; 'with, among, around, in company of.' Used to 
form the periphrastic expression for ' to have,' for which 
there is no direct equivalent : tistd ytgir unkim, ' I had a 
hoi Of motion around: g&rom unlets, nl Idherddm 

Jcdpid, ' I went round it, and did not see the door.' Of 
motion towards: drd dnktvm, 'he came to me,' vi. 1; 
contrast sit' ttnktim, ' they slept with me,'xvi. 2. unkera, 
unkeri, with the accent shifted to the first syllable and 
the Arabic article el prefixed, is treated as a possessive 
•ctive meaning ' that of yours,' 'the (person or thing) 
with you.' 

1225. U cerdr (Ar. nukitt, 'he transported '),' to carry, trans- 

fer, transport.' 
1226 ti, ' to-morrow.' bad urdti ' (the day) after to-morrow ' ; 

•dti jdri, ' he will go to-morrow.' 
1227. n rp, ' silver.' 
1 228. • a penknife, razor.' 

ird, 'a town, city, market,' Dat. uydrtd, used for 
locative in iii. 10. 

. ' to comb.' uzar siriar, ' comb your head.' 



1231. wd (At.), ' and.' See u. 

1232. wd-dmmd (Ar.), ' and, but.' 

1233. wdddd-kerdr (Ar.), ' to send for.' Governing accus. 

1234. wddi (Ar.), 'a valley, river.' wisam dturtd wddidmd, 

' I will wait for you in the valley ' ; wddidkdmd, ' in a 
valley,' liii. 9. 

1235. wdhri, ' a daughter-in-law,' 1. 6. 

1236. w&\, 'wind, air.' 

1237. wd% zirdi, 'cholera': a literal translation of the Arabic 

name of the disease, el-h<fiu% el-dsfdr, ' the yellow wind.' 
wd~i zerdi (or w6a illi zerdi) mdrdi gis nidtdn, ' the cholera 
killed every one.' 

1238. wtttdskdki, ' a window' ; also ' a winno wing-fork,' ivtUdskaki 

illi firi Mrmdnmd : see Grammar, S 44. 

1239. wdhili (Ar.), ' a deputy, a person invested with authority.' 

1240. wal, wdli, 'hair.' walur kdlik bol, 'your hair is very 


1241. wdld (Ar.), ' and not, nor.' la jan wdla pauan, ' we do not 

come nor do we go.' There are a variety of shades of 
meaning, all borrowed from Arabic usage ; thus, ' if not, 
unless ' : ndnelc barfir-pitrds wdld wisek elhdsmd, ' you 
(must) bring your brother's son or else you will stay in 
prison.' 'Not a': ni mdndd wUsdn wdla kiydkdk, ' not 
a thing remained with them.' 'Or': gdrur hidd-kerdr 
kurid wdla mdnisi? 'are you going to pull down the house 
or leave it standing?' wdld . . . wdld = ' neither . . . 
nor ' : in xxxix. 5 is a succession of four repetitions of 
the word. 

1242. wdrd-kerdr, ' to clothe.' 

1243. wdrd-kerdmdr, ' to cause to be clothed, give clothes to.' 

wdrd-kerdurd&ndis Jciyakis, ' they caused her to be 
clothed in her things,' xi. 6. 

1244. wdrakd (Ar. wdrdk), ' a leaf of paper or of a tree. 

1245. wdrdn, ' a rat.' birom wdrdniki, ' I was afraid of the rat.' 

1246. wars, 'a year.' 

1247. wdrsdr, ' to rain.' wdrsdri, ' it is raining ' ; wdrsrd ed-dinyd, 

' it rained ' : see dinyd. The word wars, used for ' year,' 
possibly indicates a custom of counting years by winters. 


ndd,'& cloud, rain, winter.' warsindimmd jdni, 'in 
the winters we go away.' 

I j : i , i-Jcerdr, ' to loosen, set free ' from prison, etc. 

. preposition, used only in compounds with pronominal 
suffixes, ' with, along with.' Used, like unlet, as a peri- 
phrasis for ' to have,' possibly, however, with a slight 
difference of meaning, as in the corresponding Arabic 
expressions : thus pie Wnkim seems to mean, 'the money 
I own ' : }>!<< wdM/m, ' the money in my hands.' There are 
some modifications in pronunciation to be noticed, wdst 
is often used instead of tudsts, ' with him ' ; but wherever 
wdH is found it always means watts, never the simple 
preposition. Thus bdros n% gdl-kerdd wait, ' his brother 
did not speak with him.' The I sometimes disappears, 
when the a is lengthened and accentuated, as in icuJmdn, 
wdSrdn, alternative forms of wdsimdn, wdiirdn: on the 
other hand it is often doubled, as in ivastiman. wdssdn 
sometimes passes into wdsedn, as in xx. 7. Sometimes 
man, wihan are to be heard : see xxvi. 7, xxi. 7. 

L251. "•'/•'. 'coal, ashes.' n~ laherde gd/lr wasrik, 'they saw 
nothing but (that) there were ashes.' 

L252. wd§dr, 'to burn.' Opt. tirdindis dgtd min-sdn wdstdrus, 
' they put it on the fire to burn it.' Pret. vxtsri, Ex. c. 

1253. wat, -thirty.' a doubtful word: see Grammar, § 55, 
Obs. v. 

1 2-"U. wat, ■ a stone.' See wtit 

L255. wdzdr, ' to flee.' 

I 256. wdzir (Ar.), ' a vizier.' 

L257. wesdr, 'to stop, stay, sit, be idle, be at leisure.' Also 
'■ 7,7,-, as in a \ wi Ui, a common welcome, 'come and sit 

1 258. wesin nd, ' a chair.' 

1 259. wesldM,r, ' to cause to stop, cause to sit, give a seat to.' 

». we8tindwi, 'a metallik'— a coin worth about a half- 
I 261. "•<--. See wdM. 
1 262. "■< itdr. See wisdr. 
1 263. wi, • twenty.' 

L264. wihwd, a feast, festival' wihivelc ed-dinyd, 'it is a feast- 
day.' lit. the universe is a festival. See dinya. 
ir, ' to keep a feast.' 


1266. ivih-hdcer, ' to be cooked.' wilvrd,, xxxviii. 5, ' it was cooked.' 

1267. windirdr, ' to stop, stand.' windir etna, 'wait a little.' 

1268. windirnd, 'a standing place.' kok-finndsk ivindirna, 'a 

muezzin's standing place,' i.e. a minaret. Also ' a rain- 

1269. windrdkidr, ' to cause to stand, set up, erect,' lvii. 2. 

1270. winni (Ar.), lit. ' and that I,' but used simply for ' and, but.' 

Very often used to introduce a statement constructed with 
the predicative suffix, winha (lxxvii. 3) means 'and that 

1271. wirgd, ' a ring.' 

1272. ivis, 'twenty.' 

1273. wisntiviiinna, 'pepper.' 

1274. wut, ' a stone, a cliff'.' lamina kwira min ahdr wutdski, 

sirios gis cdrrfri inhtrik, 'when he fell down the cliff his 
head became quite covered with blood ' : pand iruten! gis, 
' the road is rough, all stony' ; tilld wut, 'a rock.' 

1275. ya (Ar.), particle prefixed to the Vocative. 

1276. ya, 'or.' kdr el-unkeri kdrak ya kctri? 'is the donkey you 

have a he-ass or a she-ass ? ' 

1277. ydkni, 'clever.' manusi ydkni bol, Ci a very clever man.' 

1278. Yciman (Ar.), the province of Yaman in Arabia. 

1279. ydmindrd. Like Arabic ya tdrd, to emphasise a question: 

yamindra hnund pdnjl ? ' is he really there ? ' 

1280. yd-ret (Ar.), ' Oh that, would that.' yd-rit fdmsd, ' would 

that I beat him.' 

1281. yclssdk-kerdr (Turkish yclssdk, 'it is forbidden'), ; to forbid.' 

1282. ya ni (Ar.), 'that is to say, id est' Used like the English 

colloquial interjected 'you know, you understand.' 

1283. yeg, yigd, 'a file, sharpening-stone, hone.' fima yigernti 

ciria, nl cinare°, ' I will sharpen (lit. strike) the knife on 
the hone, it does not cut.' 

1284. yegeni, ' a big man, a giant' (doubtful word). 

1285. yigir, yigri, ' a horse.' 

1286. yicd, 'a sheikh, lord, master.' 

1287. yika, yikdk, 'one.' yikdk . . . yikdk, 'one . . . the other.' 

Directive singular, yikdskd. yikdk lu~>cer, ' to become one, 
be reconciled.' 
vol. vi. — NO. III. p 



3 , / , / ;/„, ( Ar. 'dkab, 'a heel': in the peasants' dialect 'nkb = 
after | ' then, therefore, it follows that.' 
1 289. '/<"" (Ar.), ' a day.' Used in periphrases for ' when' without 
reference to a particular day. as yom Mi, y&m-in, lit. 
'the day that.* Thus, ydm-in Idherdi dims dgrnd rdsri 
m u fdlits m m-sdn m&rWris, ' when she saw her daughter in 
the fire she followed the fool to kill him.' 



L2 13. 





zdlam (Ar.), ' heavy, gloomy, oppressive.' (Initial t, notj.) 
ztf/mdn (Ar.), ' a while, a long time.' min zdradn, lvi. 1, 'for 

a long time.' 
zdri, 'a mouth.' hulda inhfr zariiski, 'blood fell from his 

zdro, 'a boy.' See Grammar, § 47. 
z&'l-lwcer (Ar.), ' to become angry, vexed.' 
:■ (Ar.), 'like, similar to.' ze ediananki, 'like those two'; 

:> !/es, 'like him,' lxvii. 7; ze-ma (Ar.), 'like as, just as,' 

xcii. 8. 
zelcdfen ni, 'a fiddle.' 
zerd, ' gold, a gold coin ' (a Turkish pound, English sovereign, 

French napoleon, or similar coin : the half of these pieces 

is called nvm zerd). 
:< : r<!.<7, 'yellow.' 

•da, zSrdi, ' a gold coin,' such as would also be called zerd, 

which see. zerdd zerdd, ' a pound apiece.' 
zlam (Ar.), 'men' of inferior rank, servants or peasants. 

This is a plural, the singular in Arabic being zelami (see 

lxxvi. 55). But in Nuri it can take the native plural 

suffis as zldme, xliii. 6. 
zod (Ar.), ' excess, surplus.' 

2 zarm (Ar.), ' the jinn, demons.' 
''• (Ar.),' a pocket.' 
04. zehdnam (Ar.), 'hell.' In Ex. lxii. apparently conceived of 
as a person. 
1305. :V;.T,Ar.), 'a fine.' 

(Ar.), ' a pair, couple.' 



1307. 'a (Ar.), ' for.' 'a him dis ? ' for how many days ? ' 

1308. 'dbbi-kerdr (Ar.), ' to roll up ' a thing in paper, etc. 

1309. ' abid-hocer (Ar. 'abd, ' a slave'), ' to worship, serve.' 'abidord, 

an irregular form consisting of the present 'abid-hori 
contaminated with the preterite 'abid-hra, xlii. 2. 

1310. 'ad (Ar.), ' again, further.' 

1311. 'ddel (Ar.), 'stout, fat, well-favoured.' 

1312. 'ddi (Ar.), el- ddi, 'the manner,' used adverbially in the 

sense ' as usual.' 

1313. 'did (Ar.), 'a feast, birthday, celebration.' 

1314. 'aidtintyos, adverb of time, ' on a feast-day.' 

1315. 'alii (Ar.), 'a family, household': becomes '(tilt- or 'dlldt- 

before the pronom. suffixes in Arabic, and similarly in 
Nuri, as in 'allatiskti, xxxvii. 3. 

1316. 'd\sd, ' now.' Mi gdren ke'rdni 'dlsa? 'what are we to do 

now ? ' See d\sa. 

1317. l A%sd (Ar.), ' Esau ' : but used by the Muslim population as 

the name for Jesus. . 

1318. '<ns-hdcer (Ar. 'cus, ' bread, life '), ' to get a living.' ta-dXsncdn 

(=\Us-hdcdn), ' that we might get a living.' 

1319. 'dkili,'dJdili (Ar.), 'a wise man; sensible, wise.' 

1320. 'dlbi, ' a box.' 

1321. 'allak-hucer (Ar.), ' to be hung.' 

1322. 'alldk-kerdr (Ar.), ' to hang ' (transitive). 

1323. 'dmma, 'timmdl (Ar.), a particle defining a present meaning 

in the present-future tense of the verb. See Grammar, 
I 107. 

1324. 'dmr-kerdr (Ar.), ' to build up.' 

1325. 'dnab (Ar.), ' grapes.' 

1326. 'ard (Ar.), ' land.' 

1327. 'ark (Ar. 'arak, ' a cliff'), ' the summit ' of a mountain. 

1328. 'ars (Ar.), 'a bridal, wedding.' 

1329. 'dsi (Ar.), ' rebelliousness, criminality.' 

1330. 'asfnri (Ar., 'asfilr), ' a small bird.' 

1331. 'a-sdn (Ar.), ' for the sake of.' Similar to the more frequent 


1332. 'dtek, apparently an error for aids, 'flour,' lv. 16. 

1333. 'dtkd (Ar. 'atiJc), 'old, ancient.' ihi kilri 'dtki bol, 'this 

house is very old.' 

— — » 


.'- ■ cer ( Ar.). ' to return ' : pret. 'cwddra. 
/• ' tailless.' 

ker&r < Ar.), ' to make a dispute, dispute with.' 
,/.-/.-. rar (Ar.), 'to invite.' 
& (Ar.), 'a wonder.' 
rdin, an adverb derived from r lmZ£ (which see) and used 
with the verb p^rar to give it the sense of ' to buy.' pdrda 
kdrdk, ' he took a donkey' (i.e. presumably, stole it); pdrdti 
tic 'imlen, ' he bought a donkey.' 

1340. ' Imli (Ar.), 'price, value, money.' 'imlos boli, 'it is dear'; 

'im/6« ril/jfsi, 'it is cheap.' 

1341. 'wm-hdcer, ' to swim.' hulda jp&nv&ina ta 'um-hucer, kvA/rd 

•g& min ungluski, 'he went into the water to swim, a 
ring fell from his finger.' 


able, to be, 103S. 
above, 51. 
accomplish, to, 300. 
accustomed, to be, 263. 
Adam. 4. 

advance, to, 1217. 
idvance towards, to, 689. 
adze, 608. 
affection, 809. 
afraid, to be, 126. 

06, 110. 
after a little, 171. 
after that, 110, 1222. 
ifter to-morrow, day, 111. 

■'•aids, IDS, 171. 
again, 336, 1310. 

•cable, 3.'..;. 

iculturist. 1 195. 
alh 17. 

all, 339, 657, 660, 661. 
all of them, 340. 
all that, I 
allow, to, 404. 
always, 114.". 
among, 1224. 
amuse, to, 472. 
ancient, 1333. 

I, 285, 1209, 1231, 1232, 1270. 

and not, 1241. 

angry, to be or become, 1022, 1294. 

another, 336, 476, 1147. 

answer, to, 1025. 

ant, 871. 

antimony, 158. 

anvil, 783. 

any, 391. 

apiece, 1299. 

appear, to, 49, 228. 

approach, to, 387, 835. 

Arabic (language), 1197. 

arm, 744, 938. 

armpit, 499, 745. 

around, 1224. 

arouse, to, 962. 

arrack, 1148. 

as much as, 690. 

ashamed, 766. 

ashes, 234, 1060, 1251. 

ask, to, 1054. 

ass, she-, 709. [See donkey.] 

assembly, place of, 960. 

assist, to, 1040. 

attempt, to, 543. 

attend, to, 585. 

attention, 83. 

aunt, maternal, 447. 

paternal, S33. 

awl, 795. 




axe, 941. 

back (human), 977. 

backbone, 455. 

bad, 155. 

bag, 295, 341. 

bake, to, 869. 

bald, 560. 

barley, 545. 

barracks, 737. 

barrel, 946. 

basket, 751, 1061, 1079. 

bath, 946. 

battle, 426. 

be, to, 43, 49. 

not to, 908. 

bean, SO. 

beans, stew of, 80. 
bear, a, 229. 
bear, to (child), 896. 
beard, 653, 1219. 
beat, 289. 
beaten, 296. 
beating, 297. 
beautiful, 360. 

bed, 163, 939, 1144. 
bed (river), 606. 
bed-cover, 85. 
Bedawi, 738. 

female, 741. 

bee, 332. 
beetle, 105. 
before, 6, 512, 687. 
beg, to, 812, 999. 
beggar, 813. 
begin, to, 67, 1047. 
behind, 932. 

behold ! 386, 389, 392, 393, 431. 

Beirut, 947. 

bell, 1221. 

bellows, 667, 989. 

belly, 960. 

beseech, to, 999. 

beshlik (coin) 619. 

besides, 336. 

besiege, to, 433. 

betroth, to, 1149. 

better, 15. 

better of, to get the, 519. 

between, 119. 

beyond, 400. 

big, 1171. 

bind, to, 86, 511, 618, 650. 

bird, 1076. 

a small, 60, 1330. 

birthday, 1313. 
bite, to, 331, 546. 
bitter, 735. 
black, 698 
blade (knife), 508. 

blind, 640. 

blood, 524. 

blow, a, 395. 

blow, to (bellows), 98S. 

blue, 910. 

board, 784. 

boil, to, 371. 

boiling, 1213. 

bond, 87, 510, 647, 940. 

bone, 455. 

book, 694. 

boot, 872. 

border, 165. 

bore, to (perforate), 384, 493. 

born, to be, 52. 

bottle-filler, 793. 

bound, 602, 880. 

bovine, 348. 

box, 634, 682, 1045, 1320. 

boy, 178, 1293. 

bracelet, 103. 

bread, 868. 

break, to, 69. 

break into, to, 523. 

break in pieces, to, 1100. 

breast, 166, 482. 

bribe, to, 95. 

bridal, 1328. 

bride, 198. 
bridegroom, 9S4. 

bridle, 201. 

bring, to, 772, 896, 962. 

bring back, to, 325. 

broom, 881. 

brother, 89. 

brother-in-law, 54S. 

brush, 881. 

bucket, 26. 

buckle, 500. 

bug, 1070. 

build, to, 121, 922. 

build up, to, 1324. 

bull, 347. 

bullet, 221. 

bunch (fruit), 717. 

bundle, 220. 

burn, to, 1127, 1252. 

bury, to, 222, 867. 

business, 5S0. 

but, 29, 367, 767, 1232, 1270. 

butter, 338. 

clarified, 351. 

button, 814. 

buy, to, 953, 1339. 

cactus, 703. 

cafe, 730. 

calf, 680. 

call, to, 891, 1123. 

call to prayer, to, 1123. 


I, 207, 1133. 

- ii. 
c irpenter, 906. 

: 794. 

•. . to, 1225. 

-•;. 1220. 
i • out, to, 1220. 
••. 7 1 1. 
I 13. 
ild ron, 1 17'-'. 
iWi r. 6 15. 
cau3e, a, 10-<>. 

t<>. [See Grammar, § 108.] 

cave, ")7-~>. ">77. s7i>. 

' .■, v>, 1 Hi.". 
celebrations, 1313. 
chair, 1258. 
chance, by, 366. 
change (clothes), to, 368. 

icoal, 635. 
chasr, to, --'94, 1088. 
chatter, to, 4">7. 
cheap, 998. 
cheek, 3 ( >7. 
cheese, 625. 
chest (of body), 1073. 
chicken, 176, 1076. 
chickpea, 195, 841, sol 
chiH 158, 986. 
chin, Ii53. 

el, 1221. 
choke, to, 1155. 
cholera, L237. 
• bxistian, 051. 
church, • 
city, 1229. 
clairvoyant, 364. 
clay, 234. 
clean, to, 520. 
clear-sighted, 364. 
cleave, to, 237. 
clerk, l 
clever, 1277. 
cliff, 1274. 
(limb, to, 621. 
climb up to, to, 3^7. 

ik, ."ills. 
close, to, 1039. 
close by, 236. 

■ up, to, 534. 
cloth, 957. 1203. 
clothe, 1242. 
clothed, caused to be, 1243. 

ea, 1)14. 
cloud, 377, 1248. 
club, IS 

coal, 1251. 
coat, 1041. 
cobweb, 157. 
cock, 481. 
coffee, 736. 

sweet, 35 1 . 

coffee-pot, 322. 

cold, 1065, 1071. 

collect, to, 850. 

comb, a, 944. 

comb, to, 1230. 

come, to, 52. 

come out, to, 621. 

coming, 56. 

command, a, 30. 

command, to, 31. 

communicate with, 523. 

company of, in, 1224. 

complain, to, 1126. 

complaint, 1125. 

complete, 125. 

complete, to, 300. 

completely, 137. 

compulsion, 382. 

conceive, to, 953. 

condemn, to, 415. 

condemn to imprisonment, to, 172. 

condemned cell, 525. 

condition, 419. 

conduct, to, 896, 898, 920. 1005. 

confidence, 27. 

conquer, to, 370. 

console, to, 482. 

Constantinople, 1181. 

content, to be. 498. 

contract, to make a, 1032. 

cook, to, 397, 734. 

cooked, to be, 1266. 

cooking-pot, 564. 

coop (chickens), 474, 1085. 

copper, 933. 

cord, 829, 1042. 

corn, 337. 

corpse, 819. 

corrupt, 155. 

corrupt, to, 156. 

cost, to, 578. 

cough, to, 695. 

counterfeit, 155. 

country, 115. 

couple, 1306. 

courthouse, 960. 

cover, to, 161. 

cow, 346. 

coward, 133. 

cracked, 265. 

crazy, 874. 

criminality, 1329. 

crooked, 1210. 



crops, 193. 

cross (river), to, 172. 

crow (cock), to, 1048, 1123. 

crowd, 721. 

cry, to, 1123. 

cup, 642. 

curds, 1152. 

cure, to, 319 

cushion, 163. 

cut, to, 172, 641, 753. 

dagger, 1115. 

Damascus, 1181. 

dance, to, 890. 

date-palm, 84. 

daughter, 242. 

daughter-in-law, 1235. 

dawn, to (morning), 621. 

day, 246, 1289. 

day, by, 248. 

dead, 824. 

dear, 369. 

death, 822. 

deceive, to, 519, 966. 

deem, to, SOS. 

deep, 183. 

defect in speech, 86. 

delay, to, 119S. 

delighted, to be, 304. 

deliver, to, 1062. 

demon, 157, 379, 821, 823, 1302. 

pertaining to a, 380. 

depart, to, 1006. 

deposit, to, 1015. 

deputy, 1239. 

descend, to, 4S7. 

desire, 809, 811. 

desire, to, 810, 1018. 

destroy, to, 156, 436, 456, 505. 

die, to, 820. 

dig, to, 73, 237, 289, 633. 

discredit, to, 563. 

disgrace, 765. 

dish, small wooden, 1156. 

dispute, 759, 760, 1336. 

distant, 236. 

distant, to be, 376. 

divide, to, 102, 290, 651. 

division, 288. 

do, to, 617. 

document, 467. 

dog, 1083. 

dollar, 51S. 

donkey, 704. 

door, 596. 

downwards, 16. 

drag, to, 646. 

draughts (game), 167. 

draw, to, 646. 

draw (bucket), to, 530. 

dream, a, 438. 
dream, to, 61. 
drink, a, 976. 
drink, to, 968. 

to give or cause to, 970. 

drop, to, 1016. 

drowned, to be, 1154. 

drug, 217. 

drum, 204. 

Druze, 488. 

dry, 1122. 

dry, to become, 23, 1124. 

duck, 1172. 

dumb, 769. 

dust, 234. 

each, 657. 

ear, 585. 

earth, 136. 

East, 1105. 

easy, to be, 442. 

eat, to, 705. 

egg, 32. 

Egypt, 181. 

Egyptian, 182. 

embark, to, 746. 

empty, 286. 

encampment, 964. 

end, 17. 

engine, 65. 

enraged, to be, 482. 

enter, to, 919. 

entirely, 339. 

erect, to, 922, 1269. 

err, to, 1192. 

European, 651. 

evening, 878. 

every, 339, 657. 

everyone, 660, 661, 662. 

exactly, 125. 

except, 367, S79. 

excess, 1301. 

excess, in, 146. 

exchange, to, 963. 

excrement, 112. 

to pass, 450. 

exhibit, to, 233. 
expensive, 369. 
explain, to, 293. 
extort, to, 1184. 
eye, 489, 506. 

evil, 506. 

eyebrow, 96. 
face, 843, 873. 
faggot, 434. 
faint, to, 1055. 
fall, to, 487, 655. 
fall (rain), to, 633. 
false coin, 155. 
falsehood, 562. 


Urn ly, II, 721, 1315. 


, 376 < 

• . 1 15. 

v , sou. 
■ , 363. 
35, 180. 
to, 126. 
121 I. 1313. 

to celebrate a, 1265. 

!.i . . "ii a, 1314. 
937, 1021. 
732, 1013, 1087. 
. i, 1195, 1196. 
female, 796. 
tival, 24, 1264. 
772, ^96. 

— tO cause to, 897. 


1157, 1161. 
. to have, 1159. 
- 194. 
fiddle, 1296. 
fifty, 918. 

dried, 572. 
. 426. 
lit, to, 427. 
file, 1283. 
fill, to, 93. 
fine, 1206. 

. 1305. 
, to become, .' 
r. 1223. 
. to, 179, 1216. 
tire. 5, 7. 

firewood, 676. 
. 63. 

26, 1063. 
Miiaii. 1064. 
lit, a, 754. 

990, 991, 992. 




901, 1255. 

el, 184. 
.17, 1332. 
and oil, 497. 
Mow. ;. 312, 313, 424. 
fluid, 100. 
flute, 1112. 
fly. a, 802. 
fly, to. li yg. 

follow, to, 1004. 

food, 733. 

fool, foolish, 874. 

foot, 958. 

footprint, 688. 

for, 12.3, 1307. 

forbid, 1281. 

forehead, 1202. 

forget, 528. 

forgive, 900. 

fork, 589. 

formerly, 63. 

fortunate, 506. 

fortune, 1023. 

forwards, 6. 

foundation, 1049. 

four, 1131, 1132. 

fox, 3. 

fragment, 288, 401, 954, 1135. 

free, to become, 1200. 

to set, 1249. 

fried meat, 81. 

friend, 118, 1033. 

frighten, to, 132. 

from, 848, 866. 

full, 92. 

furious, 874. 

furrow, 245. 

further, 336, 400, 1310. 

gain, to, 628. 

garden, 1173. 

gate, 59G. 

gather, to, S50. 

Gaza, 3S5. 

gazelle, 375. 

general, 1177. 

generous, 360. 

gentleman, 469. 

get, to, 896. 

ghul, 379. 

giant, 1284. 

girdle, 797. 

girl, 179, 758. 

girth, saddle, 343. 

give, to, 214, 896, 962, 1168. 

gloomy, 1290. 

go, to, 543, 1006, 1008. 

cause to, 1009. 

goat, 573. 
God, 491. 

going, act of, 1007. 
gold, 1297. 
goldsmith, 1036. 
good, 317, 335, 360. 

to make, 1193. 

goose, 1172. 
governor, 838, 1177. 
grandfather, 67, 1066 
grandmother, 188. 



grapes, 142, .502, 1325. 

belonging to, 503. 

grass, 326. 

spring, 994. 

grave, a, 750, 805. 
great, 146, 1171. 

to become, 1174. 

greater, 24. 

green, 327, 556, 910. 

grind, to, 975. 

groan, to, 463. 

grow, to, 621. 

guest, 792, S45. 

guesthouse, 960. 

guide, to, 898, 920. 

gum (of teeth), 256. 

gunpowder, 565. 

habitation, 219. 

Haifa, 413. 

hair, 1240. 

halawi (sweetmeat), 359, 420. 

half, 913. 

half dollar, 916. 

hall, public, 960. 

hammer, 1138. 

hammock, 712. 

hand, 464. 

handkerchief, 1203. 

handle, 585. 

handwriting, 467. 

hang, to, 1322. 

hanged, 8S7, 1321. 

happiness, 1058. 

happy, 260, 335, 360, 1110. 

happy, to be, 49S, 1111, 

hard, 1122. 

harden, 1124. 

hare, 592. 

harvester, 428. 

Hauran, 432. 

have, to, 404, 1224, 1250. 

he, 40, 951. 

head, 1074. 

headdress, 1075. 

headman of village, 329. 

heap, a, 721. 

hear, to, 1072. 

hearken, to, 1072. 

heart, 482. 

heat, 1157. 

heaven, 491. 

heavy, 349, 1290. 

Hebron, 449. 

hedgehog, 139. 

heed, to pay, 83, 585, 685. 

hell, 7, 1304. 

help, to, 1040. 

hence, 402. 

henna (cosmetic), 756. 

herb, 326. 

here, 13, 283, 392, 393, 394, 402. 

hide, to, 161. 

high-road, 362. 

highly esteemed, 369. 

hire, to, 643. 

hither, 13, 283. 

hoe, 1165. 

hole, 489. 

hone, 1283. 

honey, 353. 

hoof, 412. 

hope, to, 529. 

horn, 752. 

horse, 1285. 

horseman, 342, 444. 

horseshoe, 1020. 

hot, 1158. 

hour, 1056. 

house, 66S. 

household, 1315. 

how, 527, 620. 

how many, 648. 

how much, 579, 605, 609, 630, 716. 

hub (wheel), 1136. 

hundred, 1035. 

hunger, 495. 

hungry, 494. 

hunt, to, 1037, 10S8. 

hurry, to, 203. 

hurt, to, 1170. 

husband, 934, 984. 

hytena, 723. 


idle, to be, 1257. 

idol, 42. 

if, 521, 527, 535, 586, 757, 771, 775. 

ill, 859. 

image, 42. 

immediately, 421, 1057. 

important, 146. 

impossible, to be, 404. 

imprison, 117, 172,1039, 1074. 

imprisoned, 86. 

in, 125, 298, 853. 

incense, 74. 

increase, 1174. 

inexpensive, 998. 

infant, 458. 

infidel, 693. 

inform, to, 541, 1082. 

inhabitants, 831. 

inn, 672. 

instead of, 113. 

intermit, to, 101. 

interpret, to, 293. 

invite, to, 1123, 1337. 

iron, 780. 

island, 271. 


71 1. 

t, 1041. 

■- 666. 
j iw, 265. 

314, 1017. 
Jerusalem, 1181. 


jinn (demons), 1302. 
i . L128. 
judge, to, 415. 
jump, to, 926. 
kabak (coin), 933, 1176. 

tk, 616. 
key, 634, 791. 
kick, to, 289. 

kill, to, 820. 
kind, a. 1117. 

king, 837, 1177. 

ki99, to, 515. 

knee, "257. 

knife, 17.' 1 .. 

knock, to. 1220. 

knot. I- 

know, to, 540. 

k .lil (cosmetic), 158. 

kumba/. (garment), 955. 

laban (milk), 830. 

: . .k, to, 810. 

1 1 king, 1 47. 

ladder, 74_'. 

lame, 629, 1210. 

land, 1326. 

language, 552. 

lantern, 302. 

larynx, 356. 

Ia3t night, 64. 

laugh, 47". 

head), to, 1149. 
1 iy down, to, 1220. 

■1, .719. 
lead, to, 646, 898, 920. 

17 1162, 1244. 
. 926, 1114. 

* 308. 

leisure, be at, 1257. 
leisured, 286. 
lemon, 604, 7s2. 
length, 241, 1205. 
lengthen, to, 790. 

let, to, 451, 808. 

letter, 694. 

liar, 561. 

lie, 601. 

life, 27'.'. 

lift, to, 962, 1129. 

light, a, 162, 266, 273, 844. 

light, to, 269, 270. 

light (weight), 443. 

lighted, to be, 268. 

lightning, 94. 

like, 863, 1182, 1295. 

lime, 983. 

lintel, 1074. 

lion, 1030. 

lip, 931. 

little, 170, 677. 

living, to get a, 1318. 

lizard, 240. 

lo, 386, 389, 392. 

load, to, 423, 1129. 

cause to, 1130. 

loaf, 109, 868. 

lock, to, 86. 

locust, 76, 194, 626, 935. 

locust-tree, 462, 1119. 

log, 682. 

loins, 815. 

long, 239. 

long time, a, 1291. 

look, to, 593. 

loose, 100. 

loosen, to, 300, 633, 1249. 

loosened, to be, 299, 1200. 

lord, 1066, 1286. 

lose, 69. 

loss, 484. 

louse, 555. 

love, 809, 810. 

lover, 1212. 

lower, to, 192, 477. 

lowland, 44^>. 

luck, 856. 

Lydd, 788. 

machine, 65, 803. 

mad, 874. 

mad, to become, 875. 

madman, 874. 

make, to, 617- 

maker, 615. 

male, 45. 

mallow, 911. 

stew of, 912. 

man, 817, 1300. 
man (gentile), 566. 

pertaining to, 567. 

man (Xuri), 899. 

man, a great, 1175, 1284. 

mare, 343. 



market, 1096, 1229. 
marriage, 122. 

give in, 124. 

married, 97. 
marry, to, 123. 
master, 1052, 1286. 
master of a house, 671. 
matches, 5. 
meat, 827. 
Mecca, 804, 1178. 
medicine, 218. 
meet, to, 768,J1031. 
melon -field, 882. 
merchant, 664. 

of fried meat, 81. 

messenger, 514. 

metallik (coin), 201, 1260. 

middle, 815. 

middlemost, 816. 

midnight, 914. 

midst, 815. 

milk, 625. 

milk, to, 477. 

mill, 48, 542. 

millet, 41, 706. 

minaret, 834, 1267. 

mind, 83. 

mist, 377. 

mole, 138. 

money, 980, 981, 1340. 

money-changer, 982. 

monk, 651. 

monkey, 131. 

month, 826. 

moon, 311, 553. 

Moor, a, 877. 

more, 24, 146. 

morning, 1092. 

from the, 1027. 

in the, 1028. 

mosque, 718. 
mosquito, 800. 
mother, 191. 
mother-in-law, 807. 
mountain, 1140. 
mouse, 149, 301, 507. 
moustache, 129. 
mouth, 1292. 
mouth of vessel, 596. 
move, to, 1006. 
much, 146. 
mucus, 174. 
mud, 773, 943. 
muezzin, 743. 
mule, 71, 704, 708. 
Nablus, 889. 
nail (carpenter's), 846. 
nail (finger), 459. 
naked, 516. 

name, a, 895. 
name, to, 962. 
narrow, 1146. 
near, 236, 710. 
necessity, 777. 
needle, 1091. 
negro, negress, 258. 
neighbourly, 710. 
net, 1099. 

next (year, etc.), 56. 
new, 904. 
night, 35. 

at, in the, 38, 39. 

by, nightly, 36. 

to become, 37. 

nipple, 166. 

no, 756, 774, 857, 883. 

noise, 1048. 

noon, 275, 915. 

nor, 1241. 

nose, 974. 

not, 756, 774, 789, 857, 883, 888, 907. 

now, 18, 21, 532, 1316. 

Nuri, a, 252. 

Nuri language, 253. 

nut, 70. 

O (sign of Vocative), 1275. 

obtain, to, S96. 

occasion, 466, 675. 

occupation, 580. 

occur to (idea), 83. 

oil, 185. 

okiye (weight), 924. 

old, 1334. 

old man, 54. 

old woman, 55. 

olive, 159. 

on, 853. 

once, at, 421, 1057. 

once upon a time, 18. 

one, 1287. 

one (a certain), 40. 

one, to become, 1287. 

one another, 699. 

one-eyed, 640, 669. 

onion, 969. 

oppressive, 1290. 

or, 1276. 

orange, 153. 

order, an, 30. 

order to, in, 848, 1137. 

outside, 91. 

outwards, 91. 

oven, 870. 

over, 51, 853. 

overtake, to, 1029. 

owner, 1052. 

packing-needle, 345. 

pain, to cause, 1170. 


ii of hand, 692. 
tree, B4, B94 

; • r. '117. 


coin), !*T'.*. 
pil Ml, 220. 

■. 1120. 

; to, 919. 

u e, to, 995, 1013. 
pauper, 141. 

. 578, 1149. 
e, 1044. 

t , 1 1 95. 
pen (sheep), 577. 
.i: :• . 1228. 

pi -[/lc. 831. 

. 537, 1273. 
perforate, 384. 
permit, to, 451, 808. 
perspiration, 1149. 

on, 811. 
piastre, 594. 
pick up, to. 7^1. 
<c, 941. 
101, '.'54, 1135. 
pierce, to, 493, 919. 
150, 154, 185, 731. 
n, r_''_'. 
piled up, to be, 729. 

rimage, go on, 41S. 
pillow, 665. 
pincers, S52, 1211. 
pinch, '.", 331. 
pipe (tobacco), 971. 
pit, 1 54. 

pitch (tent), to, S50. 
place, 215, 219, 792. 
place, to, 1015, 1149, 1163. 
plantation, 417. 
♦e, a, 1034. 
tter, 1139. 
, to, 613. 
t, to, 1108. 

237, 439. 
pluck, to, 5^7. 

720, 727. 
1 303. 
7. ''2. 
point, to, 790. 
pole, 77ti. 

.egranate, 197. 
r, 141. 

ipine, 196, 936. 
- He, to be, 404. 
| 321. 

pottery, 321, 323. 
pound (coin), 1297, 1299. 
pour, to, 1000, 1016. 
power, 728. 
pray, to, 799. 
prayer, 798. 
precede, to, 1029. 
pregnant, 551. 

to become, 550. 

presence of, in, 687. 
present, to, 410. 
prevent, to, 399. 
price, 1340. 
prick, to, 919. 
prickly pear, 703. 
prison, 88, 803. 

in, 780. 

proceed, to, 1217. 
property, 569. 
prophesy, to, 930. 
prosperity, 1023. 
protection, 190. 

to enter under, 1201. 

puggaree, 957. 

pull, to, 646. 

pull down, to, 436, 456. 

pupil (eye), 950. 

puppy, 656, 6S1. 

purr, 452. 

purse, 341. 

put, to, 1129, 1149, 1163, 1168. 

quarantined, 713. 

quarrel, 292, 759. 

quarrel, to, 760. 

quarter, 993. 

quarter dollar, 501. 

quarter kabak (coin), 678. 

queen, 11SS. 

railway, 66. 

rain, 1247, 1248. 

rainbow, 1268. 

raise, to, 622, 739. 

ram, 77. 

Ram Allah, 1001. 

Ramleh, 1002. 

rat, 1245. 

razor, 173, 1228. 

read, to, 749. 

ready, to be, 411. 

real, 146. 

really, 1279. 

reason, 1026. 

rebelliousness, 1329. 

recompense, 47S. 

reconcile, 1193. 

reconciled, to be, 1287. 

recover, to, 318. 

red, 786. 

relate, to, 457, 1082. 



religion, 226. 

remain, to, 78, 82, 808, 865. 

remainder, 79, 1141. 

rend, to, 237. 

repent, to, 1165. 

require, to, 996. 

requital for, in, 114. 

rest, to, 1019. 

rest (remainder), 1141. 

return, to, 324, 1334. 

cause to, 325. 

reward, 600. 
rheumatism, 673. 
rib, 274, 455. 
rice, 14S, 1043. 
rich, 260, 372. 
ride, to, 746. 

cause to, 739, 1015. 

ring, a, 1271. 

rise up, to,;621, 1014, 1134. 
river, 206, S93, 1234. 
road, 942. 

main, 362. 

rock, 1274. 

rod, 776. 

roll, 1308. 

room, 668. 

rope, 1042. 

rotl (weight), 99, 849. 

rotten, 155. 

round, 684. 

rouse, to, 621. 

rug, 163. 

ruin, 460. 

ruin, to, 436, 456. 

ruined, to be, 483. 

sad, to be, 482. 

saddle, 209, 343. 

safe, 317, 320. 

sage, 1319. 

sake of, for the, 848, 1103, 1331. 

saliva, 168. 

salt, 785. 

salute, to, 127. 

sand, 1003. 

sandfly, 801. 

satisfied, 260. 

to be, 498. 

satisfy, to, 261. 
save, to, 879, 1062. 
saw, 683, 855. 
say, to, 160, 309, 696. 
saying, a, 308. 
scanty, 146. 
scatter, to, 243. 
scissors, 140. 
scorpion, 334. 
scratching, 330. 
scream, to, 1053. 

sea, 72, 943. 

seal-ring, 328. 

seat, give a, 1259. 

second, 1147. 

secret, 720. 

see, to, 389, 431, 762. 

see here, 390. 

see there, 386. 

seek, to, 903. 

seize, to, 892. 

self, 419. 

sell, to, 663. 

send, to, 898, 962, 1009, 1062, 1218. 

send for, to, 1233. 

sensible, 1319. 

serve, to, 1309. 

set (sun), to, 365. 

set up, to, 1269. 

seven, 440. 

sew, to, 1078. 

shackle, 967. 

shadow, 59, 287. 

shake, to, 571. 

shame, 765. 

share, a, 104. 

share, to, 102. 

sharpening-stone, 1283. 

shave, 1189. 

she, 398, 951. 

sheep, 77. 

sheepskin coat, 305. 

sheikh, 329, 352, 1175, 1288. 

ship, 213, 945. 

shivering, 1011. 

shoe, 872. 

shoot, to, 289. 

shore (sea), 943. 

short, 674. 

shot, 221. 

shoulder, 93S. 

shout, to, 1086. 

show, to, 233, 761. 

show oneself, to, 228. 

shrine, 718. 

shroud, 611. 

shut, to, 534, 1039, 1095. 

sick, 859, 

to be, 861. 

to fall, 860. 

sickle, 58, 839. 
side, 165. 
silver, 1227. 
similar, 1295. 
sing, to. 350. 
sister, 120. 
sister-indaw, 547. 
sit, to, 1257. 

cause to, 1259. 

six, 1106. 


570, 697. 
Bky, 491. 

bi i, 818. 
sledge-hammer, l v 7. 

», 1050, 1097. 

p, to, 1093. 

cause to, 10S0. 

ider, 1206. 

II. »'77. 
smallpox, 985. 

•li, 505. 

II, to, 1118. 
smith, ~<^'■•■ 
sim>k'', to, 96S. 
snake, 1045. 
snow, 983. 
.so that, 1 137. 
p. 205. 
Boldier, 1187. 
solidify. 1124. 
son, 978, 986. 
son-in-law, 544. 
song, 350. 
sort, 1117. 
soul, 27!*. 

,1 106. 
spark, 1104. 

• k, to. 100, 309. 
spell (magic), 467- 
spend, to, 965. 
spindle, 264. 
spine, 455. 
spirit. 279. 
spit, to, 169. 

split, to, 237, io90. 

spoke (wheel), 1223. 
spoon, wooden, 259. 
spot, 1120. 
;. ■ ,.i, i... :;o."». 
spring (season), 327. 
sprinkle, to, 383, 1000. 
} r, 333. 
Btable, 344. 
stand, to, 1134, 1267. 
— cause to, 1269. 
iing-place, 1268. 
Btar, 763. 
., to, SOS, 865, 1198. 
I, t... 724, 892. 
steel, 1089. 
>ti-p, 65s. 
Btep, to, 216. 

to, 331. 
gy, 155. 

stirrup, 7 K). 

stolen goods, 727. 

stone, 1254, 1274. 

stop, to, 101, 1165, 1257, 1267. 

stout, 1311. 

strange, 373. 

stranger, 373. 

strap, 574. 

straw, 134. 

stray, to, 1192. 

stretch, to, 531, 790. 

strike, to, 289, 1220. 

strike (tent), to, 748. 

string, 1042. 

strip, 701, 1081, 1102. 

strong, 175, 719. 

substitute, 476. 

suck, to, 968. 

suffer, to, 404, 451, 808. 

sugar, 1101. 

sultan, 1177. 

summer, 1160. 

summit, 1327. 

summon, to, 891. 

sun, 310. 

suppose, to, 808. 

surety, to make or become, 730. 

surpass, to, 370. 

surplus, 1301. 

surround, to, 433. 

suspended, 887. 

swallow, to, 144. 

swear, to, 778. 

sweep, to, 595. 

sweet, 353. 

swim, to, 1341. 

sword, 1185. 

table, 20S, 1094. 

tail, 223, 072. 

tailless, 1335. 

take, to, S50, S96, 898, 953, 962. 

cause to, S51, 963. 

talk, 308. 

talk, to, 457. 

tall, 239. 

tavern, 1148. 

teacher, 468. 

tear (eye), 212. 

tear, to, 237, 587. 

ten, 199, 200, 21S. 

tent, 445, 668. 

tent-cloth, 10. 

tent-peg, 536. 

tent-pole, 670. 

terebinth, 1068. 

testicle, 315. 

that, 8, 14, 34, 40, 57, 527, 929, 1214. 

that is to say, 1282. 

the, 2S0. 

thence, 403. 







there, 284, 403. 
therefore, 1288. 
these, 278, 396. 
they, 396, 952. 
thick, 884. 
thief, 425, 722, 726. 

female, 72"). 

thigh, 958. 
thin, 1164. 
thing, 631. 
think, to, 808. 
thirsty, 1183. 
thirty, 1253. 
this, 8, 40, 388. 
thither, 284. 
thorn, 702. 
those, 62. 
thou, 50. 
though, 757. 
thousand, 1180. 
thread, 272, 829. 
three, 1150, 1151. 
threshing, 262. 

floor, 461. 

■ sledge, 262. 

throat, 356, 590. 

throw, to, 6S6. 

throw down, to, 685, 1220. 

thunder, 4<J2. 

thunder, to, 1012. 

thus, --'77. 

Tiberias, 1204. 

tidy, 360. 

timber, 465, 682. 

time, 466, 675. 

tinder, 177, 691. 

to, 779. 

tobacco, 231. 

to-day, 21. 

together, 1051. 

tomato, 787. 

to-morrow, 1226. 

tongs, 591. 

tongue, 20, 552. 

tooth, 254. 

torn, 288. 

touch, to, 850. 

town, 115, 1229. 

train (railway), 65. 

transfer, to, 1225. 

transport, to, 1225. 

trappings of animal, 997. 

travel as far as, to, 238. 

treacle, 249. 

treasure, 471. 

tree, 1055. 

tremble, to, 1010. 

trembling, 1011. 

tribe, 11, 721. 

trick, 1107. 
trickster, 374. 
trouble, 90, 1167. 
trousers, 164. 
true, 146. 
truth, 361, 416. 
try, to, 543. 
turkey, a, 700. 
twenty, 1263, 1272. 
two, 224, 225, 230. 
uncle, maternal, 446. 

paternal, 832. 

under, 16. 

unhappy, 1071. 

universe, 235. 

unless, 367, 1241. 

until, 435, 437, 770, 1137, 1142. 

urine, S85. 

to pass, 8S6. 

usual, as, 1312. 
valley, 448, 1234. 
valve, 1340. 
vegetable marrow, 559. 
veil, 957. 
vein, 272, 828. 
vengeance, 1207. 

to exact, 10S8. 

very, 146. 
vexation, 90. 
vexed, to be, 1294. 
village, 115, 210. 
villagers, 831. 
vinegar, 715. 
vineyard, 597. 
vizier, 1256. 
voice, 1086, 1116. 
wait, to, 1267. 
walk, to, 1006. 
wall, 414. 
wander, to, 1192. 
want, to, 810, 996. 
war, 426. 
was, 584. 

wash, to, 202, 520. 
waste, 44S. 
watchman, 902. 
water, 943. 
water-carrier, 949. 
water-melon, 98, 1136, 
water-pipe, 946. 
water-skin, 1190. 
way, 942. 
we, 28. 

weariness, 1167. 
weather, 235. 
wedding, 1328. 
weep, 1024. 
welcome, 12. 
well, 317, 335, 357. 



rd, 381. 
ime, 948. 

609, 030, 630 6 : 
■ be matter, 627. 
■• ■ i , 39] . 
wheel, 961. 

wl I. 77", L289. 

when e, 609, 639, 847. 

- 603, '.0'.). 644. 
w hit 1., 513. 

while, a, 170, 659, 1291. 
whistle, 180, 1112. 
white, 983. 

of ej e, 983. 

whither, us:.. 624, 644. 
who, 636, 637, 638. 
:-. 339. 

:ay, night, etc.), 241. 

lly, 339. 
why, 609. 

. 7."). 
wilderness, 1 I s . 
will, to, i 
win, to, 628. 
wind, 1236. 
window, 1113, 1238. 
wine, 973. 
winnow, to, 243 
winnowing-fork, 1238. 
wint :. 1 121, 1248. 
to, 520. 

wise, 1319. 

wish, to, S10. 

with, 125, 779, 853, 1224, 1250. 

without, 848. 

wolf, 576, 707, 1084. 

woman, 554, 568. 

wonder, to, 1338. 

wood, 465. 

wooden, 682. 

wool, 956. 

word, 308. 

work, 580. 

work, to, 581, 582. 

workman, 583. 

world, 235. 

worm, 267. 

worship, to, 1309. 

worth, 598. 

worth, of little, 99S. 

would not, S58. 

would that, 12S0. 
wrist, 1098. 
write, 649. 
writing, 467. 
Yaman, 127 s1 . 
year, 1246. 
yellow, 1298. 
yes, 19. 
yesterday, 486. 

day before, 63. 

yonder, 14, 408, 409. 
you, 46. 
youth, 1153. 


13 1967 

^/ry of to 





Vol. VI YEAR 1912-13 No. 4 


OUR visitors, the Coppersmiths, Bataillard's favourite stud} r 
and, in a gadzo sense, the most important Gypsy tribe 
known, have now left Great Britain, and we begin in this number 
of the Journal of the Gyjisy Lore Society to publish the informa- 
tion collected by various members from them or about them. 
Since the two names, for commercial and domestic use respec- 
tively, which most of them bore, and the fact that surnames were 
not always used, make the identification of individuals rather 
difficult, tables of two of the principal families are added at the 
beginning which will, it is hoped, both assist the reader and 
facilitate future study of these interesting people. It should be 
noted that the order in which the names appear is not always that 
of age. The gratitude of members is due to the press-agencies 
mentioned under the illustrations, for they have most kindly 
allowed the Society to use their excellent photographs free of 

VOL. VI. — NO. IV. Q 



Nikola K61a or Wdrso, chief. 
oka /.) 

Nikola (Kola) = Liza (/.). 2 
Janko=V61a(/.). 3 
IVrka (/.) = M6rkos (Burda). 4 
Rupunka (/.) = Parvolo (Janko). 5 
Za2a (Sophie) (/.) = Adam Kirpats. 6 
.Pavlena or Parvolena (/.) 

Vn.lnas or Fardi (age 52 in 1912, 

Vasili (Woriso) 
Rajida (/.). 
Aniiska (/.). 
Tinka (/.). 


i an. 
=sPara§iva /. . 


Nina (/.). 


Jantsi club-footed). 
= W6rsa (/.). 





Vdr2a /.). 
= J6no. 

.-liter, name unknown. 
1 iied a< r ed 15. 

Pavdna /. . 
= Sdvolo. 

;nka (/.). 
= T6ma. 

Liiba (/.). 
Dika (/.). 
. Jiswan. 

Wajriia=Riipis (/.). 
Wajtsulo - Siraza ( /.). 

Putsuranka (/.). 
I. Liza (/.). 

Fr^stik (Wdrso) = Liza (/.). 





Terka (/.). 

( Wdrso. 

! Lola. 

I Wajtsulo. 

U'orza (/.). 

T« rka (/.). 

-Tsukiiro (Milos) Uemeter. 

1 Issue. Went to Mexico many years 
J ago. 







Milos (Mi'xail) Tsoron, 9 age 55, in 
1913 = V6rza (/.), d. of Bum- 
bulo, now dead. 

Dzuri (Dzdrdzi Demeter). 
= Malika (/.) 


: Kak(t)ariaska (/.). 


= Bursita (Terka) (/.).» 

Dfka (/.). 

= Mi^ail. 

Antiska (/.). 

Terika (/.). 

•-Langus, s. of Tsajeko. 

Terika (/.). There were two 
daughters of the same name. 

'Todor (T6doro) = Lfza (/.). 10 
Janko = Sidi (Sidonia) (/.). = Luba (/.). 
Savolo (Antonio) = Rupis (/.). 
Rupiinka (/.) = Frankoj. 
Luba (/.) = Frank oj. 
Liza (/.) = Frestik (Wdrso) son of 
Savolo (see opposite). 







Saveta (/.). 

Liza (/.). 

Baptsi (/.). 


1 GrantSa's brother Giinia, married to Binka, was father of Kokoi ( = V6r2a) 
whose sou WdrSo's portrait was the optional frontispiece of vol. iv. W6r§o's wife 
Saliska bore him a female child in Birkenhead, whom the Hon. Secretary, being 
godfather, named Saveta after her godmother. 

2 Issue, several children including Franik and the ever-fascinating Todi. 

3 One baby, Rai. 

4 MorkoS was a deformed dwarf, son of Jorska and Katin or Katrin. He had 

5 Several children, including Baldka. 

6 Adam, also called Piidamo, had a daughter Zaga by a previous wife. /?aza 
(Sophie) died at Mitcham, leaving issue. 

7 Vasili wrote his name Vasilio. 

8 This family pronounced the surname Tsiiron. 

9 Mr. Winstedt was informed that D2ord2i Demeter and his brother MiloS were 
uncles of Parvolo, Nikola's son-in-law. 

10 Children:— AnuSka (/.) 15, Tekla (/.) 9, Rupiinka (/.) 7 and Liitka (?n.) 3. 

11 The children, if any, of this and other marriages, as also MiloS's grand- 
children, are unrecorded. 



Jlv Eric Otto Winstedt 

r i i| j i trly years of the twentieth century should remain nearly 
mi morable in Gypsy history as the early years of the 
gfl to which they afford a welcome and instructive parallel. It 

was in the second decade of the fifteenth century that Western 
i; ,:■ pe was overrun by huge bands of wanderers who were noted 

erywhere by chroniclers as the first Gypsies seen in the town or 
country of which they were writing, though later research has 
shown that in Germany, at any rate, smaller gangs had already 

d seen and described under the name of Ishmaelites or 
Kaltschmiede. In 1906 Western Europe was again troubled by a 
recrudescence of wandering among the Gypsies. A large band 
overran England, and notices of similar bands appeared in French, 
German, and Swiss newspapers. Though they were wealthy 
enough as Gypsies go, these bands had, however, none of the regal 
magnificence attributed to certain 'Dukes' and 'Barons' of the 
fifteenth-century Gypsies. But only a few years later Augustus 
John revealed the existence of a mysterious tribe of Gypsy copper- 
smiths, met by him in France and Italy, and his account of their 
fabulous wealth, their magnificence and their strange behaviour, 

Is like an Arabian Nights' tale. It was just after the publica- 
tion of his article 1 that I received a telegram inviting me to Liver- 
pool to see some similar Gypsies, who had halted there on their 
way to America; and needless to say I accepted the invitation 
with alacrity. Nor was I disappointed in what I saw. All the 
barbaric glamour of the East was there : but if the reader looks to 
find it reflected in this article, as it is in Augustus John's paper, 
he will be grievously disappointed. I confess to having little or 

faculty for such genre-painting : besides Augustus John, with 
\ true artist's cunning, has chosen to paint them in their rarer 

of joy and grief; while I have set myself to describe their j 
habits and customs, and their everyday life, as I found it during a J 
week's visit to Liverpool immediately after their arrival, a month 
I pa subsequently sleeping in an upper room— if it could be 

called a room— at the back of the old drill-hall in Birkenhead, 
where they were encamped, and spending the whole of every day 

heir company, and one or two visits to their temporary homes 

1 J. a. L. N'.,iv. 217. 


in London, Manchester, and Nottingham. For many supple- 
mentary details I am indebted to Messrs. Ackerley, Bartlett, and 
Shaw, and to our Honorary Secretary. 

If my description seem duller than it should be, that is not 
entirely my fault: for these Gypsies differed from the normal 
Gypsy in their extraordinary seriousness and their application to 
work. Though occasionally they would while away their hours of 
relaxation with songs and Russian dances, this was generally done 
when strange gaze were present, to whom they might afterwards 
pass round the hat for baksheesh. When they were alone they 
spent the time in discussing with desperate earnestness the plans 
for the next day's campaign and the various chances of obtaining 
work in different towns or different kinds of factories. Even when 
they condescended to tell a tale, the}^ generally boiled it down to 
its bare bones. There were none of the vain repetitions and other 
artistic devices of the born tale-teller. Plain unvarnished facts 
were what they seemed to like. So there is some appropriateness, 
though I fear little amusement, if I confine myself to plain 
unvarnished facts in treating of them. 


The first arrivals were the chief, Nikola {alias Worso 1 ) Tsoron, 
with his sons Nikola (Kola) .and Janko, his married daughters 
Bupunka and Sophie (Zaza), their husbands Parvolo (alias Janko) 
Tsoron and Adam Kirpats (alias Piidamo) ; his brother Andreas 
(alias Fardi) ; Worso Kokoiesko and some of the latter's relatives, 
eight families in all, comprising some forty persons. They 
came to Liverpool from Marseilles by train about the 27th of 
May 1911, and camped on a vacant building-plot behind the 
abattoir. On the 31st they crossed into Cheshire, their ignorance 
of English enabling them to pass off successfully forty persons as 
fourteen on the ferry-boat : and in Birkenhead they settled on the 

1 Nikola was his gaZikdno andv, W6rSo his Romano antiv. Most, indeed probably 
all, of these Gypsies had similar double names ; but they showed little ingenuity in 
the Romdne andva, Worso and Janko being so common that it was impossible to 
determine the person meant without an explanatory addition. Some of these 
Romani names appear to correspond v itli particular gaSo names; for instance 
every Andreas in this band seemed to be a Fardi. But this is probably true only of 
a limited number of names. Milos and his family pronounced their surname Tsiiron, 
unlike Nik. da's, who said Tsoron. But their usage in this and other names was 
not always consistent. For instance, on the gravestone of Sophie, who belonged to 
Nikola's party, the name was spelled as Tschurou, while on a plaque worn by Sidonia, 
a daughter-in-law of Milos, it is spelled Rumanian wise Cioron. 

,,,,: QYPS1 COPPERSMITHS' invasion of 1911-13 

ground by the railway-line in Green Lane, Tranmere, 

liar to many of us as the perennial camping-place of 'big- 

Kenza Boswell's family and the Robinsons. For this patch 

.lust and cinders, where I believe the English Gypsies paid 

at the rate of about 3s. Gd. a month per tent, the foreigners 

arged £9 a month, and later, when the number of 

increased owing to the return of some of those who had 

. ed to the old drill-hall, an unsuccessful attempt was made to 

e this rent. On Saturday, June 17, a second and larger 

ichment, containing Grantsa Tsoron, the father of Nikola, his 

Ji-wan and Jantsi, and his sons-in-law Jono and Savolo, with 

Borne others, joined the first party and must have brought their 

number up to nearly a hundred. On the arrival of this party all 

the first detachment, except Andreas and Adam Kirpats, moved 

with a few of the new arrivals into the old drill-hall, near the 

ruined priory, where they paid £14 a month, and erected either 

tents, or, in most cases, only the side canvas of tents with curtains 

drawn in front at night-time, along each side of the great barn, 

the chief Nikola occupying a raised platform near the door. 

On July 7 Adam Kirpats with his wife and his sick boy went 
<>n ;i pilgrimage to Czenstochoa, stopping, on the return journey, 
some weeks in Berlin with Milos and Matej,and arriving in Birken- 
head again about a month later. At the beginning of August 
there was a quarrel between Nikola and Worso Kokoiesko's 
relatives, in consequence of which Nikola, with his sons and sons- 
in-law, left the drill-hall and returned to the Green Lane camp. 
Very soon after this the camp began to break up. Andreas was 
sent to Glasgow on the 10th to spy out the land and find a 
Stopping-place. On the 18th the seven families left in the drill- 
hall migrated to Dublin, where they settled in South Lotts Road, 
Ringsend Road; while, about the same time, Nikola went to 
l/'Tidon to find a camping-place, and two men, probably Frankoj, 
son or son-in-law of Mi'^ail (alias Milos) Tsoron and Janko son 
°f I :<>n (alias Tsurka Demeter), 1 came over from 

1 Germany to Birkenhead to see what England was like, and after 
>pping three days followed Nikola to London. 
It was no doubt these two who were mentioned in the papers 

• r was his wife's name ; but one cannot help suspecting some connection 

a i- rson an,! an older Surga alias Georg Demeter, whose son Anton was 

I at B n ourt in 1850 (A. Dillmann, Zujtuntr-Btich, Miinchen, 1905, p. 57). He 

illed D2uri, a familiar form of D26rd«. Mr. Ackerley heard the surname 

prono UI . lemeter by one of the sons of MiloS. 


about the 23rd as having called at the Austrc-Hungarian con- 
sulate in London for a permit to allow fifty of their tribe to pass 
through England on their way to America. On the same day the 
party remaining at Green Lane moved to London, and settled in a 
yard in Battersea Park Road. 

Three days later they were induced by the sanitary authorities 
to quit, the seven pounds rent, which had been paid for a month's 
possession, being refunded; and they moved to a house and 
grounds in Garratt Lane, Wandsworth. Just when they were 
moving Mi'^ail Tsoron (alias Milos Demeter) with his brother 
Dzordzi and probably Worso (alias Lolo) Kosmin 1 and his band 
arrived from the Continent and joined them. For the premises in 
Garratt Lane £85 were paid for six months' tenure. But a few 
days after their arrival Milos and Dzordzi with their families took 
a large house called Cliff Lodge, in Grassenhall Road, Southfields, 
paying £80 for a half-year's rent. The separation from the others 
was due to a quarrel of some kind, but what kind I am not sure ; 
and, in spite of it, more or less friendly relations were kept up 
between the camps. Matej took another house in Walham Green. 
The sanitary authorities of Earlsfield were not long in raising objec- 
tions to the camp in Garratt Lane, and on September 11 Nikola 
and Lolo, with their following, left it for Miller's Farm, Beddington 
Corner, Mitcham, where they paid £12 a month for a field. 

The Dublin camp soon got tired of Ireland, and their presence 
at Folkestone on their way to Spain was noticed in many papers 
of September 26 and 27. 

Shortly after the move to Beddington, Sophie Kirpats fell ill, and 
her funeral on October 14 was also freely discussed and illustrated 
in the press. Towards the end of October complaints of sanitary 
authorities and interfering neighbours began to be common. 
Nikola was summoned to abate a nuisance, and summoned again 
and fined seven pounds because he had not abated it. The 
Southfields group were more fortunate ; for, in spite of a complaint 
signed by many of the residents in the district, nothing could be 
done to evict them from their house, and even so finicking a 

1 The surname was also pronounced Kuzmin at times. Some of the party 
passed under the name of Maxim or Maximoff; at least three children, named 
Miska (10), Nikola (9), and Ivan (7), gave that surname when attending a school at 
Leeds. One of the family seems to have paid another visit to England this year, as 
in the Evening Neius for June 11, 1913, there is a notice about tho theft of a pocket- 
book containing French, Canadian, Russian, and Hungarian paper-money from a 
Russian Gypsy chief named Maximoff, as he passed through London. He went on 
to Paris. 

•48 i in: gypsy coppersmiths' invasion of 1911-13 

oa a sanitary inspector could find no holes to pick in its 


About the end of November the Beddington party began to 
split up. First there was the so-called theft of Adam Kirpats's 

and money, followed by his departure to Spain and thence to 
Hungary. Then the rest migrated, Nikola's closer relatives to 
Glasgow, where they camped at Kelvinhaugh; a party of twenty- 
six to Dundee, where they paid £5 a month to camp at 
Wester Chepington Park; another small party to Aberdeen ; and 
the Kosmins to Leek and thence to Leeds, whither the Southfields 
detachment followed them about Christmas time. Whether 

rdzi and Matej split off and returned to the Continent then or 

r 1 am not sure. When I saw him in the second week of 

• •mber, Dzordzi was intending to join his son and the Kosmins 
at Leek; and later I heard that he had gone first to Germany 
and thence to Cuba, Mate] to Budapest. In Leeds the Kosmins 
occupied two houses in Cobourg Street, and Milos's family four in 
Trimbles Street and two behind it. In addition they rented a 
workshop at 30s. a week. This rent was afterwards raised to £5, 
which they agreed to pay, but did not. A summons was served 
on Frankoj ; but it is doubtful if he answered to it, as they left 
almost immediately. 

On May the 8th, 1912, Andreas and Jono reappeared in Liverpool 
from Belfast, taking lodgings in Duke Street; and they reported 
that Nikola with his sons and sons-in-law had sailed a few 
weeks earlier for South America, making a fruitless call at Madeira 
on the way. A week later they were joined by Grantsa and the 
rest of the part} r ; and on the loth they left for London and Dover, 
whence they set sail for Monte Video. 

About the same time the party at Leeds shifted their quarters 
to Manchester, where they took three houses and a yard in 
I lr< >ughton Lane, Salford, and a neighbouring street. The Kosmins 
drifted abroad, first to France and then to Spain ; while Mi'los and 
his family moved to Nottingham at the beginning of October, 
and inhabited two houses in Gregory Boulevard and one with a 
workshop attached in Prospect Street. They were joined by a 
brother of Milos and some others, including Lazo Demeter, who 
e from France, 1 and about the beginning of March 1913 they 

' Tlie Da ■-. February 1, 1913, and other papers of the same date, noticed 

the arrival of thirty ' Bulgarian ' Gyjisies at Dover, who were refused admission to the 

try. They probahly were more of the same clan, for the Tsorons at Notting- 


shifted their quarters to Bolton-le-Moors. Some of the Demeters 
left Bolton about the middle of June and stayed a few weeks in 
Falkner Street, Liverpool, on their way to Montreal. 


The original home of these people is far from certain; for, 
though they were free enough in talking of their wanderings, 
there were many things about which they were strangely secretive. 
For example, even when I was actually living in the same house 
with them, our Honorary Secretary was paying nightly visits 
to them, and both of us were on the best of terms with them, we 
neither of us heard a word about Andreas's departure to Scotland 
until he was starting for the station. Nor could we ever get a 
clear explanation of any of their quarrels and disagreements. 
Any reason that was given differed in the mouth of each person 
who gave it; and the statements they made about their origin 
were equally inconsistent. One of the parties met by Augustus 
John abroad professed to be Caucasian, which agrees with the 
description on a picture-postcard sent to Mr. MCormick represent- 
ing Tmka's brother and his family performing in a theatre in 
Lemberg, Galitsia ; 1 the other party claimed to be Russian. The 
latter statement is the one that Nikola and his kin always made 
to us; and there is no doubt they had spent a great many 
years in Russia. As a trade-name, however, they insisted on 
calling themselves 'Hungarian coppersmiths'; but that was 
admittedly only a trade-name. To Dr. Sampson and one other 
person in Liverpool, and apparently to reporters on their arrival 
in London, they professed to be Galitsians ; and to Mr. A. Machen, 2 
Galitsians or Ruthenians. The same claim was made by a part)' 
noticed in France in 1907. 3 Nor were the opinions of Russians 
and other interpreters much more consistent. One declared their 
dialect was that of the Don Cossacks, while Mr. Sieff thought it 
was North Russian, an opinion he supported by pointing to 
their knowledge of Dobrowolski's friend Ivka. 4 A Pole in Liver- 
ham, on being shown the illustration in the Daily Graphic, recognised them as 
amrire Roma, though they did not seem to be certain who they w ere. I am told that 
some of them wore spiral silver buttons as big as saucers ! 

1 I spell the name of this part of Austria with ta instead of c because it is so 
pronounced, and to avoid confusion with the Spanish Galicia. 

* Academy, December 9, 1911. 

3 J. G. L. $., New Series, ii. 136. ' J. G. L. S., iv. 199. 


I declared their Polish was bad, and that he found it better to 
converse with them in Russian. This applies especially to Nikola 
and his closer relatives. Savolo professed to be Hungarian, and so 
did both D2drd2i and Milos. One of the latter's sons said he was 
born at Belca; but whether he meant one of the several towns 
nan ic I Belc* in Bohemia, or Belz in Galitsia, I do not know. 
Two men, probably Fninkoj and Janko, who arrived in advance of 
Rlflo^'s partv. according to the newspapers, called at the Austro- 
Hungarian consulate for a passport. Milos's brother, Dzordzi, too 
told me he was negotiating through that consulate for a passport ; l 
but it seemed a complicated process. They had referred him to 
Trieste ; and in a letter, which I had to read to him, the authorities 
at Trieste spoke of information they were endeavouring to 
obtain from St. Petersburg. I think it referred to his children's 
hi r tli and military service ; but as on that occasion I had to read 
letters in English, French, German, and Italian, endeavouring to 
explain them in the same tongues or in Romani according to 
! i nlxi's whim, answer a running fire of questions addressed to 
me in Romani by the other members of the circle round his fire, 
and interpret for a friend, all at the same time, I may perhaps be 
excused if 1 am not very clear on the point. 

They too may perhaps be excused if, in their wanderings, they 
have almost forgotten the place from which they started. How 
extensive their wanderings have been may be inferred from the 
statement of Milos to Mr. Pohl, a Hungarian friend of Mr. Ferguson, 
who inquired particularly about them. Milos declared that he was 
born at Cracow — one may note that this was where John Coron, 2 
from whom Kopernicki picked up many of his folk-tales thirty or 
forty years ago, was located in prison 3 — that he left that town 
twenty-two years ago, and travelled in Russia for about two years, 
visit ing most of the large towns. Then he returned to Cracow, and 
after a short stay wandered through Silesia to Prague and thence 
to Vienna and Budapest. He had since visited Transylvania, 

itia, and Slavonia, and three of his sons had married Hungarian 
Gypsies and another an Italian Gypsy— but these are again to be 

t ofortunately none of 113 ever saw their passports, if they had any ; but from 
ks made on one occasion it may be doubted whether they were always 
I by straightforward means ; so perhaps we did not miss much. 
- /. G. /.. S., Old Series, i. 84. 

variant of one of these tales ('The fool and his two brothers') was 
rvolo to me in the small hours of the morning, and will be found in the 
following article. 


taken as very vague terms, meaning probably members of similar 
tribes temporarily located in, or born in, those countries. From 
Austria they passed to Italy, where a half-brother bought land and 
settled ; thence to France, where they stayed some four years ; and 
so on, probably through Switzerland to Germany, where they were 
when Adam Kirpats met them in July. 

It was apparently one of the K^smins who gave a London 
reporter 1 a somewhat similar itinerary. He said he was born at 
Warsaw, left it when five years old, and had since travelled through 
Hungary, Croatia, Servia, Bulgaria, Rumania, Italy (where he was 
in 1909), France, and Germany. His view of the party was that 
they were a mixed band, consisting of Russians (presumably Nikola 
and his relatives), Hungarians (presumably Milos, Dzdrdzi, and 
Savolo), and Poles (presumably the Kosmins). The first arrivals in 
Birkenhead had travelled as widely, starting from Russia and ending 
up in Spain, Portugal, and France. 2 One of this group, who wore a 
Japanese coin, even professed to have been in Japan ; but that, I 
fear, was mere vanity, for they were certainly proud of their 

They seem to have abandoned the ordinary Gypsy modes of 
wandering almost entirely, and to travel now by train. But this 
change is probably quite recent. The first arrivals said they lived 
in vans until they reached France, and discarded them there. 

Communication is kept up between the various bands partly by 
dictating letters and sending costly telegrams, and partly by the 
still more costly means of sending messengers. For instance, there 
came a messenger from Russia to Birkenhead to announce the 
death of one of the women's relatives. Time and money seemed to 
be no object on these occasions. Andreas travelled from Scotland 
or Belfast to Budapest to fetch a bori, probably for his son Vasili, 
before leaving for America, though the boy is far too young to 
marry for three or four years ; and on my last visit to Milos's 
family at Nottingham, I found a youth, one of the Demeters, who 
had recently come from Paris, possibly also with a view to fetching 
a wife. 3 But even so they inevitably lose touch with one another 

1 Daily News, August 28, 1911. 

2 A photograph of some of their children (Baldka, Andreas alias Fardi, Rajida, 
Parvolena, Zaga, and two other girls) appeared in The Sphere, September 12, 
1908, p. 233, over the title ' Group of young Gipsies travelling in Europe.' But that 
address is rather vague. 

3 This reason was given by women. But their minds are apt to run on such 
things ; and more probably he was sent on in advance by the group who have joined, 
them since. 

mi: oypsy coppersmiths' invasion of 1011-13 

ai tin. Nikola's wife had not seen or heard from her brother, 

who appeared on the picture-postcard I have already mentioned, 

twenty years; and Andreas seemed to know nothing of his 

i- Terka since she went to Mexico with her husband Tsukuro 
(M lo i Dem^ter thirty years ago. 

America must be inundated with similar Gypsies. As well as 
Nikdla's sister and her husband, these people spoke of a large band 
who had gone to America some six years ago. A few had returned 
lately and reported that the rest would follow them, but they never 
came. Inquiries at shipping agencies resulted in the discovery 
that the steamer on which they embarked had sunk (tasjol o 
paraftddo). And doubtless some of the constant notices of rich 
Gypsies, who accuse each other of stealing money or running away 
with (laughters, who probably require little enticement, refer to 
similar bands. But it is difficult to claim identity. For instance, 
one would have supposed that the band interviewed by MacLeod x 
was composed of Gypsies similar to our friends, but, when shown 
the photograph in the Journal, they at once pronounced them to 
be Servian Gypsies. 

Their presence all over Europe has been recorded recently. 
Augustus John has described meetings with closely related bands 
in France and Italy. Miskow has found others in Denmark and 
Khrenborg in Sweden. Miskow's friends have even invaded 
Iceland — the Tsorons once proposed to go to Greenland when they 
W( ire looking at a map and taking reckless shots as to their next 

mation — and ruined themselves for their pains. A photograph 
taken at Choisy le Roi, of a band of coppersmiths whose dress, 

s, and general appearance leave no doubt that they were some 
ol the same clan, was published in Le Petit Journal on August 9, 
1911. And in the same year there appeared a troop in Budapest 
under the leadership of Adalbert Quec. 2 He professed to be a 
< ralitsian by birth, and said the nine families under his leadership 
had met at Warsaw two years ago and formed a band which had 
Bince visited Paris, Belgium, Germany, South France, and Trieste. 

> ] assessed 200,000 krone. Another band was noticed in France, 
wno '!' ed double value for articles obtained to mend, and 

Bhowed large sums of money. 3 Photographs of similar Gypsies in 
' md appear in the Wide World Magazine for March 1910, 4 

1 ■'■ G. /.. S., New Series, iii. 81. -' Sahburger Volkshlatt, January 18, 1911. 

■'■ G. I.. S., New Series, ii. 136. 

Zielinski's account of the Demeters and others who visit Poland 
(J. G. L. S., Old Series, iii. 109). 


where one inay be seen hammering a pot on the dopo. Gypsies 
with all the characteristics of our friends were described in Rome 
in 1889 and in 1908. 1 Mr. Ackerley saw a similar band at Libau 
in Kurland in 1903 or 1904, and heard of others at Lamballe in 
Brittany in August 1911. Nor has England entirely escaped visits. 
Milos's son Todor had been in England before for a short time, and 
the chief Nikola too at some recent date. Possibly both were in the 
mysterious band, whose arrival at Dover and departure for London 
were noted in November 1909.' 2 Another man had been here, some 
six years ago, landing with a large party at Hull, and visiting Leeds, 
Sheffield, and Liverpool on the way to or from America. 3 One 
of Lolo Kosmin's tribe was born in Liverpool twenty-eight years ago. 
This date coincides with the well-known invasion of ' Macedonian ' 
Gypsies, and that very mixed band apparently did contain some 
coppersmiths, as the chief Michael said that in Rumania, pre- 
sumably his native land, some of his followers made and recleaned 
copper-pans; and their passports called them Chaudronniers. 4 

Nor are older references to similar bands of Gypsies in Western 
Europe lacking. About the year 179G Vidocq met a Gypsy named 
Caron, 5 which looks very like Wlislocki's Tscharo c and our Tsoron, 
at Lille. He was passing as an itinerant doctor, especially of 
animals, from which he also removed charms; and he wanted 
Vidocq to throw some powder into mangers at farms to give him 
an opportunity of practising his calling. But the chief occupation 
both of Caron and of the rest of his troupe, some thirty people, 
who were at Malines, seems to have been " cauring " as described by 
Borrow in his Lavolil. They pretended to give more than their 
face-value for certain coins, and in picking them out palmed 
others. 7 Caron's wife and another woman were so expert that 

1 Alfredo Labbati, 'Gli Zingari a Roma' in Ars et Labor, December 190S, 
pp. 930-4 ; and J. G. L. S., Old Series, i. 248. 

2 J. G. L. S., v. 128 ; and Daily News, 20th November 1909. 

3 Probably he was with the band who are mentioned in J. G. L. S., New Series, 
i. 370. 

4 Chambers's Journal, vol. iii. (1886), p. 578. 

3 Cf. The Memoirs of Vidocq . . . translated from the French (London, 
182S-9), vol. i. pp. 55-62, iii. 180-184, iv. 190-193. The name is once spelled 
Coroin, and Borrow (Zincali, J. Lane, 1902, p. 236) spells it Caroun. Possibly he 
used the original French edition, which I have not been able to see. Other names, 
omitting French and German aliases used by the band, were Langaim, Ruffler, 
Martin, Siscpue, Mich, Litle, old mother Lavio, and Bitche, which look like a 
mixture of proper names, Christian names, and nicknames. 

6 Vom ivandernden Zigeunervolke, p. 60. 

7 This trick is evidently still practised by French Gypsies, as two were arrested 
for it recently in London [Morning Advertiser, February 7, 1913) ; and, as a Gypsy 


they could palm nearly half any number of coins without being 
noticed, In addition they indulged in picking pockets and in 
burglary, and two of the women went about dressed as well-to-do 
widows with the object of taking in the clergy by getting into 
their confidence and then robbing them. This visit to France and 
B triura was not their first. A friend of Vidocq's had seen Caron 
am I another of the band in prison at Ghent some three years before. they had returned to Hungary in the interval, as Caron 
stated that his mother had been hanged at Temesvar in the previous 
year. They had spent six months in France just before Vidocq 
mot them, and had made the country too hot for themselves. But 
later, when he was in the detective force (between 1809 and 1827), 
they reappeared in Paris, and he had them arrested and imprisoned 

for theft. 

It is disquieting not to find metal-working of any kind men- 
tioned among their trades ; but they may have discarded it 
temporarily for a more lucrative though less honest employment. 
All the other evidence is in favour of their belonging to the same 
tribe as our visitors. Those in prison at Ghent had called them- 
selves Moldavian Gypsies ; but Caron told Vidocq that his mother 
, who was hanged last year at Temesvar, belonged to a gang of 
( ivjisies (Bohemiens) who were traversing the frontiers of Hungary 
and Bannat, where I was born in a village on the Carpathians.' 
The costume they were wearing when Vidocq first met them was 
like that of the coppersmiths : ' Under their blue frocks [frock- 
coats ?] ornamented with red embroidery, the men wore blue waist- 
coats with silver buttons, like the Andalusian muleteers ; the 
clothing of the women was all of one bright colour.' One of the 
latter was dancing with a turban on her head, which may perhaps 
have been only the handkerchief worn by all married women. 
VMnrq refers too to strange songs, 'which I mistook for a funeral 
psalm,' exactly the impression which would be conveyed to the 
uninitiated listener by songs sung in the monotonous chant used by 
the coppersmiths. Besides, metal- working, though no doubt it was 
always practised by them, may have been of less importance in 
days when there were greater facilities for obtaining money by 
r means. Borrow too mentions prolonged excursions of 
Moldavian and Hungarian Gypsies in foreign lands, especially in 

i Wallachisch-Meseritsch, Mahren, is described as earning his living ' durch 
chen Eandelmit alten Miinzeii ' (Dillmann, Zi<jtuner-Buch, pp. 44, 45), 
I inter it is still known farther east too. 


Italy and France, from which they returned laden with plunder ; l 
but he does not refer to metal-working. 

There is no doubt, however, that all these large bands of 
Wallachian and Hungarian nomads who indulged in wide wander- 
ing in the west of Europe were of the same stock as the Calderari, 
about whom Bataillard was always asking for further information, 
and that his Calderari were identical with our coppersmiths. He 
could not hear of their presence in France before 1866, when there 
appeared a large band of 150 persons, who generally moved about 
in companies of thirty or forty. These were followed by smaller 
bands in 1869. 2 Their presence at Saint Jean de Luz in 1868, 
1870, 1872, and 1874 is noted by Wentworth Webster, 3 who remarks 
on the curious fact that in the south of France and Spain they 
always seem to follow the same route and stop at the same places, 
Avhence Groome 4 infers reasonably enough that these journeys have 
been going on for many years, if not for centuries. De Rochas 
mentions visits of Hungarian and Moldo-Wallachian Gypsies to 
the Basque country, and especially a band which he saw himself 
at Perpignan in 1875 under the leadership of one Georges 
Micklosich. 5 In 1878 they appeared again at Paris, and Monsieur 
E. Cartailhac, who was taken with other members of the French 
Anthropological Society to visit their camp at Saint-Germain, gives 
a description of it, which leaves no doubt that they were identical 
with our coppersmiths : 

' La caravane se composait de six a sept voitures portant des 
tentes, des instruments de travail, des hommes, des femmes et 
surtout une multitude d'enfants de tous ages. Deux des hommes, 
qui paraissaient les chefs, etaient ornes de gros boutons ovo'ides en 
argent. Les femmes avaient dans leur chevelure des pendeloques 
diverses, parmi lesquelles pas mal de vieilles pieces de monnaie 

' Les enfants mendiaient avec la plus grande persistance et la 
plus grande obstination, et, sous ce rapport, bien des adultes se 
montraient encore enfants. 

' Comme langue, ils comprenaient a peine le franrais, parlaient 
assez bien l'italien et couramment le hongrois, ainsi qu'a pu s'en 
assurer M. de Pulszki. 

1 Zincali{J. Lane, 1902), pp. 11, 12, 373. 

2 Les demiers travaux (Paris, 1872), p. 5 and the note at the beginning. 

3 J. G. L. S., Old Series, i. 77-8. 

4 Gypsy Folk-tales, p. xxxix. 

5 Les Farias de France (Paris, 1876), pp. 280, 289. 


• i •,. SO nt des ferblantiers plutut que des chaudronniers. Pour- 
tanl bien que travaillant plus specialement le fer, ils font aussi les 

,minodages et reparations aux ustensiles de cuivre. Leur plus 
jrand emploi est l'&amage.' 1 

Bataillard also, speaking of earlier bands, calls attention to the 
[ ar ge silver buttons, by which they might be recognised, and to 

i ii >uchdiganes ou grandes Cannes ' of their chiefs. 2 Pouchdigane 
19 obviously a bad attempt at reproducing the Rumanian word 
bwdugcm ' club,' which was known to the Tsorons, though rovli 
was the word they used for their staves. 3 From the few technical 
terms mentioned in Bataillard's Les Zlotars, it appears that the 
L878 band employed other Rumanian words which were used by 
our coppersmiths, e.g. tsaparik ' sal ammoniac' Their bellows were 
of the same kind too, and for an anvil they used a long iron bar 
with a small head, which corresponds to the dopo. 4 

Obviously these Gypsies were of the same type as the recently 
noticed bands of coppersmiths. Indeed it is very probable that some 
of the Todors were in the camp at Saint-Germain in July 1878, 
as Joska Dodor was born at Perpignan in 1878 or 1879. 5 The 
details obtained from the Todors and their companions show too 
thai Bataillard was wrong in limiting the incursions of these 
nomads into France to the years following 1866. There must 
have been bands there in 1849-50, 1855-56, 1859-62. Probably 
the partv who passed through Frankfort in April 1851, and stated 
that their destination was Algeria, 6 traversed France too. Besides 
M. do Mortillet, annoyed by Bataillard's suggestion that he had 
never seen a Gypsy before 1878, asseverated that he had often 
seen Gypsy chaudronniers in Savoy and Dauphine in his youth, 

1 Congris international des sciences anthropologiques, Paris, 16-21 Aout 1878, 
No. 17 de la serie (Paris, 1880), p. 302. 

- / question (Paris, 1877), p. 61. 

But -miliar bands, including Demeters, in Poland used the word buzogany. 
ft. ./. <;. /.. .v. Old Series, iii. 109. 

• /. ■ / ■ Paris, 1878), pp. 518, 519. 

/.'.'. L. S.,iv. 237. Mr. Ackerley, who has examined some of Bataillard's notes, 
now at Manchester, since the above was written, has not found any Todors among 
the lists of names ; but Toikons and Demeters appear in plenty, which confirms the 
identity of Bataillard's Calderari and our coppersmiths. He finds also references 
Mts of Calderari to Englandin 1S68, 1871, 1874, and 1878. As early as circa 1760 
a Allan, the Northumbrian piper, met a Transylvanian Gipsy tinker in Scot- 
laud ; but he seems to have come alone with his wife, not in a band of Calderari 
I. Chompson, .1 New . . . Life of James Allan, Newcastle, 1828, p. 2.33). 

Folk-tales, p. xxxviii. A troop of similar Gypsies was actually 
seen in Algeria in 1S71-2 (Bataillard, Notes et questions sur les Bohe'miens en Algerie, 
• ■^'<- !'■ •"• I and a solitary Hungarian Gypsy among native Gypsies in North 
Afn i 889 J. 6. L. S., Old Series, ii. 120). 


and noticed them probably before Bataillard took any interest in 
Gypsies. 1 If he meant this seriously, he must have been speaking 
of days before 1840, and unless he referred merely to local tinkers, 
his testimony would be a valuable link between these later bands 
and the wanderers mentioned by Borrow and Vidocq. 

To return to the problem of their original home. Their 
statements are too various and too vague to carry any weight 
without support ; but their dialect proves beyond a doubt one 
thing — that they must have spent centuries in a Rumanian- 
speaking country. Far the greater number of their loan-words 
are Rumanian ; and among the texts recorded from them was 
a Romani version of part of a Rumanian national epic ' Novae 
and Gruja.' Practically all their other loan-words were Slavonic; 
but there is some evidence that these were of later introduction, 
as they were used more frequently by the young men than by the 
old. For example, though they all used the Slavonic loan-word 
paraxodo for a steamer, the old people used hero for all other 
vessels ; but many of the young peoj3le did not know hero at all, 
and used various Slavonic words for different kinds of boats. 
This was natural enough, as all except some of the children, who 
had been born since they have been wandering in Western Europe, 
spoke some Slavonic tongue ; but in the whole camp at Liverpool 
only one old lady, who may have belonged to a different tribe 
before her marriage, could speak any Rumanian. Rumanian 
loan-words, too, they seemed to regard as pure Romani. Linguistic 
evidence then is in favour of their having originated from some 
Rumanian-speaking country, though for the last hundred years or 
so they had spent most of their time in Slavonic lands. It cannot 
have been much less than a hundred years ago that they migrated 
into Slavonic districts, for even the eighty-seven year old 
Grantsa declared that he spent his youth in Russia. 

Rumania would seem the natural place in which to pick up 
Rumanian loan-words and songs ; but I have carefully said a 
Rumanian-speaking country, because the claims of at least two 
other countries have to be considered. Galitsia has a fair amount 
of support. Nikola's party occasionally claimed to be Galitsians, 
and so did the Quecs in Budapest ; Miios was born at Cracow, and 
Kopernicki met John Coron there thirty or forty years ago. Now 
the population of Galitsia is fairly evenly divided between Boles and 

1 Conrjres international des sciences anthrojwh'jiques, Paris, 16-21 Aout 1S78, 
No. 17 de la serie (Paris, 1S80), p. 1GG. 

VOL. VI. — NO. IV. R 


benians, both Slavonic-speaking peoples, so that the Slavonic 
Loan-word* might have been picked up there. But this can hardly 
have been their original home, as it does not account for the far 
mure important Rumanian element in their language. It seems 
unlikely, too, that the Tsorons at any rate can have lived there 
during the lifetime of the present generation, as their Polish was 
bad : and it is disquieting to find that, though they readily claim 
to be Galitsians when far away from Galitsia, Tinka's brother, 
when performing in Galitsia, made no such claim, but apparently 
stated that he came from the Caucasus. Besides, it is difficult to 
see how they could have subsisted in Galitsia, if Bataillard is 
correct in saying that bronze and copper vessels are not used 
there, earthenware taking their place. 1 

Transylvania has stronger claims. "Wlislocki heard of a 
Transylvanian Gypsy chieftain, Peter Tscharo, who was slain at 
Tohan in 1818, while trying to lead his clan into Rumania. 2 His 
surname must surely be the same as our Tsoron, especially as the 
/( was not always clearly sounded. 3 If so, he is sufficient evidence 
of the presence of some of the clan in Transylvania in 1818. 
Transylvania, too, and the Banat have the advantage of being full 
of Rumanians. In that south-eastern corner of Hungary there 
are ten provinces in which the Rumanian population is as high as 
GO to 90 per cent, of the whole, and in eight others it reaches 

1 Lei Zlotars, p. 551. 2 Vom wandernden Zigeunervolke, p. 60. 

:; It has been suggested to me that Tsoron or Tsoro is nothing but a title 
meaning 'head,' ' chieftain.' But to this there are several objections: (1) It 
is true that these (Jypsics occasionally said *oro as well as Zero for ' head,' but they 
said tSoro ; nor apparently did Wlislocki's friends, as his form of the word is 
('2) The name was not confined to the chief himself. His brothers, sons, 
and remoter relatives, even the tin}' children, if asked for their full name, gave 
on as their surname. (3) It was mainly, if not entirely, used in dealings with 
gaSe. The chief, for instance, was Nikola Tsoron to the gaze with whom he dealt ; 
but \\ o G rantSasko to his relatives and friends. This last point makes it exceed- 
ingly probable that it is only a gazo name which has been adopted, possibly quite 
itly, since W6r8o (Garaz), who was son of Kokoi alias Fanaz (son of Grantsa's 
brother Gunia (Zingaro), and first cousin of the chief), used no surname, though he 
should have been a TSdron, if Grantsa was. It can, therefore, hardly be a family - 
or clan name, like Kiri and Aschani in the instance of a complete Gypsy name 
given by Wlislocki (Vom wandernden Zigeunervolke, p. 65): 'Ambrusch Petreskro 
Kiri Aschani ' : ami, if it were, it would not affect my argument, as it would still 
a name and not a title. Kokoi, too, may be compared with Kukuya, a tribal 
of Gypsies in Transylvania and Poland (cf. Vom wandernden Zigeunervolke, 
p. 69, and Ethrwlogiiche Mittheilungen aus Ungarn, iii. 251). But both may be 
manias names, as Cucu is found as a proper name in Rumania, and ciora 
•roe (literally ' a crow') is used as a Sjjitzname for Gypsies. I suppose 
Mojsa 6ur»r could hardly belong to the Tsoron family, though the 
dialect of the song ho sang {J. G. L. S., Old Series, i. 290-3) is practically 
identical with theirs. 


30 to 60 per cent., and of the 274,940 Gypsies in Hungary in 1893, 
67,000 called themselves Rumanians and used Rumanian as their 
mother-tongue. 1 There would therefore be no difficulty in 
accounting for the Rumanian loan-words in the coppersmiths' 
dialect, if they came from Transylvania or the Banat. The dress 
of the men, too, is perhaps best accounted for in Hungary, where 
a similar costume was used formerly by gaze, and is affected by 
Gypsy chiefs : for, though one must admit that most of its items 
may be paralleled from Russia, Poland, and other countries, the 
red and green stripes on the trousers, it may be noted, are the 
Austro-Hungarian national colours. Again, these Gypsies use 
soba for a 'room,' the sense it bears among Transylvanian 
Rumanians, in contradistinction to actual Rumanians, who use it 
for a ' stove.' " 

On the other hand, it must be admitted that they employ 
some Rumanian words which are marked as specially Moldavian 
in dictionaries : that the costume is not very convincing : and that 
they certainly are not identical with the Rumanian-speaking 
Gypsies of Transylvania mentioned by Jekelfalussy and Wlislocki. 
They do not count Rumanian their mother-tongue, as most of 
those Gypsies do : and they never use the forms attributed to 
those Gypsies by Wlislocki in his Sprache der transsilvanischen 
Zigeuner. 3 So, if these Gypsies were natives of Transylvania, they 
must have been a small tribe which kept to itself, and does not 
enter into statistics. 

In the case of such incorrigible wanderers as our friends, it is 
always possible that they may have been equally at home on 
either side of the Carpathians. Indeed in days when slavery 
threatened them on both sides, those mountains may have formed 
a refuge and a connecting link rather than a dividing line. If 
names are a reliable test there is evidence, besides the presence 
of a Tsoron in Transylvania in 1818, and another in Galitsia 
thirty or forty years ago, which points to members of the same 
clan existing both in Rumania and in Transylvania. Ferencz 
Sztojka, a Gypsy friend of the Archduke Josef, lived at Nagy-Ida 
in Transylvania ; but Stoica is a Rumanian name, 4 and Con- 

1 Jekelfalussy, Ergebnisse der in Vngarn am 31. Jdnner 1893 durchgefiihrten 

Zigeuner- Conscript ion, Budapest, 1895. 

2 Constantinescu's Rumanian Gypsies use it for 'stove'; cf. Probe de limba §i 
literatura 'Tiyanilor, p. 90, te des yag la sohdte. 

3 E.g. p. 59, imperfect with a prefix dfost-. 

4 The name Demeter occurs too in Constantinescu in the form Dumitru ; and in 
a list of students and professors at Jassy in 19U1-2, I find several persona named 


u collected songs from some of the Stoicas in Rumania. 

qcz Sztojka, however, though, judging by the only specimen 
of his work that I have seen, he uses mainly Rumanian loan-words, 
not seem to have been aware of any Rumanian origin of his 
own clan, as he refers to other Gypsies in Hungary as speaking 
Wallachian. From the inverted form of his name it is probable 
that Kerpages Gyorgy, about whom Seifart wrote an article, 1 which 
unfortunately I have not been able to see, thought himself a Hun- 

.n ; but his name, which must be the same as that of our Adam 
Kirpats, is Rumanian. 2 The difficulty in the way of this view is 
that .Maria Theresia's and Josef's laws tried to stop wandering, and 
until L856 the Gypsies of Rumania were slaves and ought to have 
been unable to quit the country. But admittedly some of them 
were nomadic ; and, given nomadic Gypsies, laws and boundaries 
mean very little. Besides, their slavery was only a matter of 
custom and not of law till 1816 ; 3 and custom would be even 
er to evade than law. Vidocq's Carons seem to have had no 
difficulty in passing from Moldavia to Temesvar: and the vocabu- 
laries from Transylvania, the Banat, Bukovina, and Bessarabia, 
published by Miklosich, show that Rumanian Gypsies spread over 
all the lands where the Rumanian language was spoken. 4 


The principle upon which these groups of wanderers are 
formed is rather a mystery ; indeed there seem to be several 
different and contradictory principles at work. Both patriarchal 
descent and the rule mentioned by Wlislocki as observed by some 

Dimitriu and Demetriu and a Stoica. TSdron I cannot find, unless it is a variant of 

u (firan means 'peasant'), which appears in the Jassy list; but there are 

several similarly formed names, e.g. Tiron, Thiron. In the Statuta nee non liber 

lotorwn jyhilosophorum ordinii in universitate sli/diorum Jagellonica ab anno 

1849 arc quite a number of Thoruns and Thorons, Coszmyns and 


1 1 hi,, s.v. Seifart (Karl). 
= a patcher, a botcher, a mender. The word occurs in Vaillant's 
Grammaire as kirpas'. 

., Gli Zimjari, pp. 130-1. 

:eable that whereas modern accounts are more apt to refer to these 

Calderari as Hungarians, in older accounts, for example those of Vidocq 

arrow, they are more often called Wallachian or Moldavian. Similarly 

G. L. S., did Scics, iii. 109) refers to Hungarian Gypsies, 

mon £ "'"" visit Poland; but he quotes a law of 1624 against 

(*., ii. 239). This may point to Wallachia and Moldavia 

home, and Transylvania as a later centre of the clan, which 

mnt tor the use of both -Moldavian and Transylvanian words. 


Transylvanian Gypsies, that a man enters his wife's clan on 
marriage, 1 are apparently recognised, though they are self- 
contradictory. For example, the nucleus of the first arrivals 
consisted of Grantsa Tsoron, aged 87, with his sons Nikola, 
Andreas (aged 52), Jiswan, and Jantsi, and their children and 
grandchildren. But three of his married daughters, Vorza, 
Pav6na, and Rupunka, with their husbands Jono, Savolo, and Toma, 
and their families, were also present in Liverpool and London. 
As Pavdna and Savolo separated from the rest and returned to 
Hungary to join the husband's relatives when the camp in London 
broke up, while Rupunka and Tdma also disappeared, whither I 
am not sure, possibly to Spain, and the only other living daughter 
Terka had gone to America years ago with her husband 
Mi'los Demeter, one might have inferred that this clan was really 
patriarchal, the adhesion of Vorza and her husband, who went to 
Monte Video with the rest, to her relatives rather than his being 
due to some accident. Bat in that case the chief Nikola, 
Grantsa's eldest son, ought only to have had his two sons Nikola 
and Janko, with their wives and families, and his unmarried 
daughter Parvolena, or Pavlena, with him ; whereas he had also 


his three married daughters, Terka, Rupunka, and Zaza (Sophie), 
with their husbands Morkos, 2 Parvolo, and Adam Kirpats, and 
their children. 

Besides, in his case we have definite evidence that Wlislocki's 
rule was observed by him even to the expulsion of a son-in-law 
from the tribe on his wife's death and the retention of her children 
in it. Shortly after Sophie's death in London, the papers were full 
of the so-called theft of a gold belt containing £400 from Adam 
Kirpats, his flight to the Continent on its recovery, and the pursuit 
by the chief, who took from him his two youngest children at 
Victoria Station. But a week or two before his flight Adam 
Kirpats had told me that he would be leaving the band shortly ; 
and the later arrivals took great pains to assure me that there was 
no robbery in the case, and that Nikola, as the wife's father, had 
a right both to the money and the children. It was gozveribe that 
caused him to concede his right to the eldest child, as that child 
was subject to fits, half-idiotic and very delicate ; while to Zaga, 

1 Vom wandernden Zigeunerrolke, p. 61. 

2 The final .s of this name was often pronounced very weakly if at all. Murko 
occurs as a female Christian name and as a family name among Gypsies of South- 
Eastern Moravia (/. G. L. S., Old Series, ii. 2208). 


Adam's daughter by another wife, 1 he of course had no claim. 
Here again the presence of Zaga in the camp shows that the rule 
is not strictly observed; if it were, she should have been left 
behind with the first wife's relatives. But, though the later 
arrivals recognised Nikola's right, when questioned by Mr. Pohl 
on the subject, they said that in their family the general practice 
was for the wife to go with the husband's clan, not the husband 
with the wife's. However their practice does not seem to have 
been consistent, as Dzordzi's son, who was married to a daughter 
of Lolo Kosmin, left London with the Kosmins, while Dzordzi 
himself accepted his identity with his wife's family, at least to the 
extent of changing his name sometimes from Tsdron to Demeter. : 
The presence of the sons and their families with the father 
instead of with their wife's relatives might be accounted for, if one 
assumed that all these people claimed to belong to the royal tribe, 
since Wlislocki states that an exception to the general rule was 
made in the case of such persons. But it is much more probable 
that the rule is dying out, and that the various families follow 
their own inclination, attaching themselves to any chieftain whose 
ability and success attracts recruits, even if they are only remotely 
connected with him. This would account for the presence of 
Wdrso Kokoiesko and his brothers in Nikola's camp, though 
they were only cousins. Adhesion, in such cases at any rate, 
seems to be voluntary. Wdrso's brethren, for instance, broke off 
from the others as soon as they quarrelled. How far the chief's 
authority and power extended it was difficult to judge; but his 
authority probably depended more on moral force than on any 
definite powers. For example, Nikola quite evidently had no 
authority which enabled him to repress the malcontents in the 
quarrel at Birkenhead : his voice was merely a powerful one — in 
every sense of the term— in the general dispute. Nor had he any 
authority which enabled him to force his recalcitrant son-in-law 
nder up the money, which he and even disinterested parties 
like Mflos obviously regarded as rightfully his after his daughter's 
h. He had to resort to what gaze in their ignorance looked 
upon as theft, though to all the other Gypsies it was only finesse; 
and it was at the last moment, and apparently by something very 
like physical force, that he induced him to surrender the two 
So, if any legal jurisdiction existed among themselves, 
and it is possible that some such thing did exist, since one of the 

1 Adam's first wife was also his aunt. 


children once proposed to have a mock Romdno kris, it was rarely 
used, and pretty certainly the chief would not have had the sole 
voice in it. 

The adjustment of the quarrel at Birkenhead — which apparently 
never was adjusted — and all other matters of common concern 
were discussed in perpetual parliaments (dhuans), in which all the 
men took part, the chief presiding. The women were not admitted 
to such councils, and endeavoured to keep the children quiet for 
fear of angering the phuro — as the chief was often called — when 
serious matters were under discussion. On the one occasion when 
the women tried to take part — and that was when the quarrel at 
Birkenhead was fast threatening to become a fight and not a 
conference — they were forcibly driven away by the chief and 
others. But on this occasion, as on most others, his authority 
seemed to rest on his vigour and energy rather than on any 
special powers. 

Some outward signs of respect were paid to him and his wife 
by the tribe. We were carefully instructed that the proper modes 
of addressing them were kdko l and bibe, not phrdla and phenje, 
which were used to the rest ; and on one occasion when he entered 
the Green Lane camp as a visitor from the drill-hall, all rose and 
did not reseat themselves until he had entered a tent. But this 
uncomfortable ceremony was unusual. 

His responsibilities were as hard to determine as his authority. 
He did not direct the search for work in any way ; every man 
foraged for himself, and such was Nikola's energy that he 
generally managed to have the first pick. When work was obtained, 
he seemed to take the general direction, whether it was his own 
or other people's ; and he seldom did much work himself. 
According to a Bohemian interpreter, who was with them both 
in Liverpool and London, he promised the others payment for the 
work they did for him, but did not give it. It is possible that he 
regarded such work as his due ; though one could not help 
thinking that his brother Andreas at least, who often worked for 
him, must have had some share of the profits. He was regarded 
as rich, and did not seem to obtain as much work himself as many 
of the others. 

In return for work done for him, it was Nikola who undertook 
all arrangements. He came to England to spy out the land 
months before his tribe actually migrated ; and, when they did 

1 MiloS was similarly addressed by his party. 


migrate, ho and a select band came on in advance, and only 
mmoned the others when he had made sure that there was a 
pmspect of obtaining work. It was he who found and 
bargained for the camping-places both in Liverpool and London, 
whither he again preceded the main body, having dispatched 
Andrew to investigate Glasgow. And he seems to have contri- 
buted largely to the travelling expenses, since he gave trin mi— 
3000 francs presumably— towards the cost of the journey from 
France to England, his son Nikola giving 2000. 1 As they had 
made 20,000 and 10,000 francs respectively in Lisbon not long 
before, they could probably well afford to do so. 2 And in any case 
the wealth of the principal members of the band was very con- 
siderable. The chief was reported to be worth £30,000. When 
offering to deposit the value or twice the value of the utensils 
taken away from factories to mend, they would often pull out 
pocket-books stuffed with French 100 franc notes, amounting to 
three or four hundred pounds, besides a handful of large gold 
coins. The belt stolen from Adam Kirpats in London was said to 
be worth £150 itself and to contain £300 or £400; and he was 
looked down upon by the others and regarded as poor. Yet 
even he could afford to spend £30 on a journey to Czenstochoa in 
the hope of restoring his child to health. 

In the case of illness no expense was spared ; Parvolo had 
undergone a very expensive operation for appendicitis in Paris. 
Nor were their business transactions conducted on economical 
principles. They thought nothing of travelling from London to 
I lardiff on the off-chance of obtaining work there, though one 
could not conceive how the little they obtained would pa)* for the 
railway journeys to and fro and the cost of transport. They were 
equally reckless of expense in hiring stopping-places, and paid the 
most absurd sums for very indifferent accommodation. Still, in 
spite of their considerable expenditure and their grumblings both 
at the small amount of work they found 3 in England and at the 

1 These separate contributions, and the fact that some members of the band 

re considered rich and others poor, are sufficient to prove that communism is not 

practised by these groups as it was said to be by Bataillard's Calderari {Lts Zlotars, 

p. 549). But Adalbert Quec'a band at Budapest asserted that each person drew 

y once a month from the common purse (Sahhurner Volksblatt, January 18, 


; The whole band there (probably Nikola and his sons and sons-indaw alone) 
i.OOO francs. 

Largely due to the fact that enamelled iron has ousted copper from domestic 


unwillingness of customers to pay well, they seem to have 
prospered here. Nikola before leaving London bought a large 
number of £5 pieces, and few of his following were without them 
when they appeared in Liverpool on their way to America. 
Milos's family too, when I saw them in Nottingham, all wore new 
£5 pieces in their hair, and his son Tddor's wife said she — or 
perhaps she meant the whole company — had bought twenty-five. 


Their appearance was impressive, for most of them carried 
themselves with the grace and dignity, and behaved with the natural 
courtliness, which characterises the high-class Gypsy all the world 
over. Few of them were above medium height, indeed on the 
average they probably fell below it, though Nikola, his father, and 
two of his brothers were not far short of six feet, and the giant 
Lolo Kosmin must have exceeded that measurement by several 
inches. Almost all of them were s}anmetrical and well made, and 
possessed more strength than one would have supposed. Nikola, 
for instance, electrified the first factory I visited with him, by 
proposing to carry to the station himself a vessel which the 
manager declared two ordinary men would refuse to lift ; and the 
slight and rather delicate-looking Parvolo on one occasion carried 
on his back two large copper vessels, which stood more than half 
his own height and were nearly square, up the long flight of steps 
from the Birkenhead underground railway. Personal deformities 
were not unknown, for there were among them one dwarf, one 
club-footed man, 1 and a child who had fits and appeared more 
than half idiotic. 

Their skin was remarkably clear and sallow, and lacked the 
darker brown tint and the burnished copper appearance of most 
true-blooded Gypsies ; indeed, according to Mr. Gilliat-Smith, 
their colour was practically identical with that of the Russian 
peasantry. But this may have been due to their being less 
exposed to the elements than the normal wandering Gypsy. In 
most cases their complexion was thoroughly Gypsy in one respect, 
that there was no red tint. But there were exceptions, in whom 
one could not help suspecting some yazo blood. Andreas's hand- 
some wife, for instance, was pale and pink-faced, and so were all 
her children. So too was one of the young women in Milos's camp, 


while another was a round, rosy, apple-cheeked person, whom one 
would never have taken to be a Gypsy if one had met her away 
from her surroundings. Such complexions were rarer among the 

!, though Lolo Kosmin had the appearance of a huge John 
Bull. There was one other noticeable difference between the men 
and the women. Whereas most of the men were of the oval- 
faced, hawk-nosed, highly aristocratic Gypsy type, far the greater 
number of the women were of the round-faced, snub-nosed type. 
Some of them were certainly pretty, but very few could be called 
handsome, while many of the men were strikingly handsome. 1 A 
few of the women, notably the chiefs son Janko's wife, had an 
intermediate type of face, square rather than oval, with a small 
Roman nose, and among the later arrivals were two women and a 
girl who had the same type of face as the men, while a few men 
and boys were of the round-faced type ; but as a general rule the 
distinction held good. 2 

The impressiveness of the men was heightened by their bushy 
black beards, of which they were inordinately proud. Razors were 
never used ; the beard being allowed to grow as soon as it would, 
which in some cases was very early, for Todi, aged five, had a 
distinct fringe round his jaw. 

Their dress was even more noticeable than their beards, and 
indeed they attracted a good deal of attention in the streets. 
When in their company, one was frequently pestered with 
questions as to their nationality. The questions were generally 
prompted by mere curiosity ; though once I feared a more sinister 
meaning when I felt a heavy hand on my shoulder and a thick, 
half-drunken voice asked if my friend was a Mormon missionary. 

1 MacRitchie in his description of the ' Macedonian Gypsies ' of 1885, notes that 
nen were handsomer than the women {Chambers 's Journal, vol. iii., p. 579). 
.1. W. Ozanue, Three rears in Roumania (London, 1878), p. 62, mentions two types 
anion,' the Rumanian Gypsies, one with thick lips and crisp hair, the other with 
regular features, good hair, and an olive complexion. The former, he asserts, are the 
descendants of ' old emigrants,' by which he seems to mean ' immigrants,' the others 
of refugees of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The two types are of course 
ci immon wherever there are Gypsies ; but in England at any rate there is no such sex 
distinction as there seems to be among these coppersmiths. 

; W6rSo Elokoiesko, whose photo served as frontispiece of the fourth volume of the 

. may be taken as a characteristic specimen of the men. Compare also 

itua John's frontispiece to volume v., which represents these Gypsies, and the 

illustration on p. 11 of the 1st edition of R. Urban's Die Zigeuner und das Evange/ium 

1906), or p. _>1 of the 2nd edition (Striegau, n.d.). The latter shows the 

the men's costume, and the ddpo with a pot being hammered on it. But the 

' t,UI f the women differs in some particulars from that of our coppersmiths. 

■ skirts are shorter, they have top boots instead of ordinary boots or shoes, and 
thry do not appear to wear coins or ornaments. 


Nottingham, ."nn February 1913 


Themselves they were sublimely indifferent to any amount of 
attention ; but when, a few evenings after their arrival, they 
accompanied us to a theatre in Liverpool, they inquired carefully 
before starting if the gaze were nasul, and whether they ought to 
carry pistols. Like the ' German ' Gypsies in 1906, apparently they 
were provided with them and had had necessity to use them in 
Portugal, where one man had been killed and Parvolo wounded. 

The general effect of the costume was that of a uniform. Their 
black or dark blue coats were decorated with a geometrical pattern 
of braid (ttinovi) back and front, and so were their waistcoats ; 
and there were two rows of huge silver buttons on the coats, one 
on each side, and one row on the waistcoats. These buttons 
varied in size and shape, many being as large as, or even larger 
than, a hen's egg, and shaped more or less like an acorn in its cup. 
These were heavy — possibly solid — and smooth. Others Avere 
smaller, about the size of a walnut, and made of open filigree 
work. 1 There were six or eight of these buttons in each row, 
besides smaller buttons on the side pockets of both coat and 
waistcoat. Milos wore heavy buttons, which he had had made 
in Italy, of gold not silver, and decorated with longitudinal 
bands of beautifully chased decoration in low relief. Adam 
Kirpats and Nikola, the husband and father of Sophie, dis- 
carded these buttons at her funeral, but the rest wore them. 
Lolo Kosmin and his sons did not indulge in such ornaments, 
perhaps because of their relative poverty, perhaps from some 
difference in custom. Several of Lolo's troop wore ordinary 
clothes, of an extraordinary cut. 

The trousers of those who wore the characteristic costume were 
baggy, and had wide red and green stripes down the outer sides, 
generally Avith braid over them. Nikola's son, Janko, said that 
to wear no braid was the sign of a chief and a chief's son. But 
Janko's statements were not always unimpeachable. For ex- 
ample, he also exhibited the stripes to a Russian visitor as a sign 
that he had served seven years in a Cossack regiment, which Avas 
quite impossible, as he was only eighteen ; and he admitted that 
it was not true in subsequent conversation. Possibly they Avere 
cast-off military trousers, as the Russian seemed to accept the 
statement. These trousers Avere innocent of buttons, being made 

1 Both kinds may be seen on the accompanying photograph of TYxlor and his 
wife. (Fig. 1.) Large silver buttons called bomhiky are mentioned in an article 
on the Gypsies of South-Eastern Moravia in J. G. L. S. t Old Series, ii. 228. 


like bunting breeches, and kept in place with a belt. The)' were 
slit at the ankle, and were wrapped tightly round the legs under 
the top-boots, and fastened with tapes. The boots were of soft 
leather, either unadorned or decorated with a stitched pattern, 
and generally unpolished except in the case of those who con- 
red their personal appearance. When having them mended, 
they were very particular that the soles also should be of soft 
I leather, and neither thick nor heavy. 
Their shirts were of the same flimsy figured stuff as the 
women's dresses, the predominant colour being usually red, though 
Andreas and Nikola occasionally wore bright blue shirts. The 
newspapers spoke of two Gypsies, probably Janko Mi^aiesko and 
Frankoj, wearing scarlet coats when they first arrived in London; 
but the Gypsies assured me they did not possess anything of the 
kind, and it must have been their shirts that the reporter meant. 
The shirt had a frill collar attached, and full sleeves gathered at 
the wrist. An old soft felt hat, totally out of harmony with the 
rest of their costume, generally completed their external outfit, 
though the party who went to Scotland and Belfast returned 
resplendent in new green plush hats. 1 When one saw them 
undressing one was surprised to find that most of the men wore 
a long white petticoat, reaching nearly to their ankles. This, with 
their shirts, formed their night garments, and in the day it was 
twisted round their legs and tucked under their trousers. Socks 
were generally replaced by a coloured handkerchief or less elabo- 
rate rags wound round the feet and ankles. 2 When at work some 
of them slipped on a pair of loose overalls to protect their trousers, 
while others, the burly chief in particular, would put on a woman's 
skirt or a large apron. 

Whether this dress is distinctive of any particular nationality 
I am not prepared to say definitely. They themselves asserted 
that it was the dress of the Transylvanian Gypsies, and it certainly 
corresponds in many particulars with the costumes of the Hungarian 
Gypsy chiefs mTissot'sL'Hongrie,though. none are quite so prodigal 
of silver. Braided coats with big buttons are said to be character- 
hie man in the camp at Beddington, and Milois when in Bolton, wore fez- 
caps made of astrakhan or some similar skin ; and one or two children 
nary fezes, which were bought in France. 
Ir. Ackerley tells me that tins is common among Russian peasants and 
>bably all over Eastern Europe; and, according to Mr. F. Shaw, Matty Cooper 
ed linen rags for stockings, and often changed them several times in 


istic of such Gypsies by Grellmann and Colocci, 1 and Mr. Farga tells 
me that the Gypsies of Hungary ' try to get hold of the antique 
Hungarian dresses with shining buttons and elaborate trimmings, 
etc' This is very probable, as in England too Gypsy dress is 
generally only peculiar in being old-fashioned. But top-boots 
and baggy trousers over them are common in Russia and other 
Slavonic countries, and braided coats are not unknown there ; and 
' silver-plated buttons, the size of a pigeon's egg,' are attributed to 
Lithuanian Gypsies too. 2 In a recent photograph of some German 
colonists from South Russia, who were emigrating to the United 
States, the men were wearing top-boots, baggy trousers, and shirts 
of exactly the same type as these Gypsies, though they did not 
seem to wear any coats and waistcoats. The Polish Gypsy king, 
portrayed in the Wide World Magazine for March 1910, too, wears 
a very similar costume. So, though it may be true that it is the 
costume of Transylvanian Gypsies, it is not very safe to assert 
that it is worn only by those Gypsies. 

The women's raiment, so far as an outside observer, not very 
observant in such matters, could penetrate into its mysteries, ap- 
peared to consist of a flimsy blouse of any bright colour, especially 
red or yellow, a skirt and an unlimited number of petticoats of 
the same material. No corsets were worn, and in the case of 
young girls the blouses were often cut rather low in the neck and 
short in the sleeves, reaching barely to the elbows. In the winter 
some of them wore thicker jackets when out of doors. Stockings 
were generally worn, but not always ; and at night no change 
appeared to be made except that the band on their outer skirts 
was loosened. Married women and widows always wore a hand- 
kerchief on their head, a privilege denied to the unmarried girls. 
On the subject of the material of their dresses a mere male cannot 
be expected to know much, and I can only say that once, when in 
a rash moment I went shopping with the chief's wife, she insisted 
on being shown all the silks in the shop, and, after rejecting half 
of them as outrageous in price and the other half as worthless, 
departed woman-like without making a purchase. But for ordi- 
nary wear something less costly was used ; and at coronation time 
dozens of yards of cheap flags were bought and cut up, regardless 
of pattern, into aprons and children's shirts. 

1 Cf. Grellmann, Historischer Versuch iiber die Zujtuner, 2nd ed. (Gottingcii, 
1787), p. 66 ; and Colocci, Gli Zingari, pp. 190-1. 

2 J. G. L. S., Old Series, ii. 108. 

270 mi: GYPSY coppersmiths' invasion of 1911-13 

The women wore ordinary shoes or boots, except that Tinka, 
who was old enough to know better, occasionally indulged in the 

ty of bright scarlet shoes. She was very particular as to the 
quality, and was prepared, with grumbling, to pay a fairly high 
price for them. Aprons, and occasionally silk shawls, completed 
their attire so far as mere utilitarian clothing was concerned. 
Bui in the women's case the most important point was vain 
embellishment. Except when they were travelling, their hair, 
which was plaited in two tails, hanging one over each shoulder, 
and daily greased with butter, was adorned with some six huge 
crold coins in each plait. Other similar coins were hung on strings 
round their necks, the more the merrier ; silver coins were little 
accounted, and only worn by some young girls. Many of them 
had coral necklaces too, and bracelets and rings galore. One of 
Tinka's bracelets was a huge golden serpent as thick as one's 
thumb, with great emerald eyes glaring from its raised dragon-like 
head. 1 Most of the men, too, wore large gold rings, and Nikola had 
a huge coin in a gold setting hanging from his watch chain. 
The coins used were gold pieces of every nationality from Japan 
to America, and one which I pawned for Parvolo was priced by 
the pawnbroker at £3, 15s. A coin belonging to young Janko 
Suvolosko was a Spanish gold-piece of Ferdinand vi., dated 1758 
and weighing 26 - 55 grammes; while Z.iga had an English sove- 
reign of 1790. To use so small a coin as a sovereign was very 
exceptional. Wdrso Kokoiesko's wife, however, had two sovereigns 
in each ear, and some had bracelets made of two rows of sovereigns. 
The usual coins were 100 franc, or in the case of English money 
£5 pieces, though Tinka had one enormous Turkish coin, which 
must have been worth considerably more, and some of the women 
in Manchester wore British gold medals almost three inches in 
diameter. They were obviously collected in second-hand shops. 
The coins for pawning were not taken from their wives' hair, as 
most of the men had a plentiful supply besides ; and the pawn- 
ing was only temporary accommodation, which they seemed to 
prefer to changing their foreign notes. They always redeemed 
the pawned coins. 

On state occasions the women put on elaborate gold or silver 
filigree belts. Todor's wife was wearing a beautifully wrought gold 
one once when 1 visited the camp at Southfields, and Sophie was 

For thiscf. Fig. 2, -which with Fig. 1 gives an idea of the women's dress in 


buried in a massive silver belt. That must, however, have been 
Adam Kirpats's second-best girdle, as a few weeks later Nikola tried 
to get from him, besides sixty Austrian gold pieces, a still more 
elaborate belt. It is thus described in the Standard for November 
27, 1911: — 'It was as big as a boxer's championship belt and 
seemed to be all in solid gold. It had 28 £4 gold pieces, in 
American, French, and Austrian money, let into it, and the gipsy 
hurriedly explained that these only were gold, and that the massive 
setting and the hanging tassels were of gilded silver. The belt, he 
said, was worth about £150.' These belts, which I fancy occasion- 
ally served as receptacles for money, were only worn by the 
women, 1 and it was presumably on the ground that it was his 
daughter's property that Nikola claimed it. This explains why 
Worso, son of Morkos, aged sixteen, when telling me he contem- 
plated marriage very soon, added in an apologetic kind of way the 
extraordinary reason that a wife was a handy thing to keep one's 
money for one. 

For the men as well as the women there was an outward and 
visible sign of matrimony. None but married men carried a stick 
(rovli). The youthful Janko, who, though married and the father 
of one child, still lived in his father's tent, had only an ordinary 
crook-handled walking-stick with chased silver work round the 
handle. But fathers of families, who had separate tents, carried 
long silver-headed staves. If they were too poor to afford the 
silver work, they still carried the plain staff, presumably as a sign 
of independence. 2 The wood was invariably Malacca cane, some 

1 Silver belts are mentioned by Justinger as worn by the Gypsy dukes and 
earls in Switzerland in 1419. (J. G. L. S., Old Series, i. 282.) But neither 
the belts nor the strings of coins in their hair and round their necks appear 
to be peculiar to Gypsies. 'Plenty of silver waist-clasps and coins completed 
the costume' of some Albanian women mentioned in Miss M. E. Durham's Burden 
oj the Balkans (London, Nelson, s. a., p. 340), and there are other references 
in the book to women, ' a-dangle with coins' (p. 311), 'gold-coin necklaces' 
(p. 155), pigtails ornamented 'with old brass buttons, obsolete Austrian coins' 
(p. 195), and a 'silver waist-clasp and strings of obsolete Austrian kreutzers, 
roughly silvered ' on a bride (p. 150). In a picture of a ' Tcheremisse girl ' in 
Harper's Monthly Magazine (June 1889, p. 11) I notice a string of coins hanging 
over each shoulder, besides a kind of breastplate of coins, and more in her head- 
gear. Probably both the belts and the coins are common in the Balkans and 
Russia. An English Gypsy, one of the Coopers, is described by J. Greenwood 
(Odd People in Odd Places, London, n.d., p. 4) as wearing an odd-looking neck- 
lace made of shells and teeth and strange-looking coins. But this can hardly be 
more than a coincidence. 

2 Some of the youths, who were approaching the age of matrimony, had these 
staves made in preparation for that event, but did not carry them. Janko Savolosko 
used a headless staff, asserting that he was not allowed the silver ornaments. 


four or five feet in length, and a foot or so at each end was covered 
with carved silver casing, a gold coin being occasionally let in at 
the top. To mere gazo eyes all these sticks looked alike : but the 
Gypsies themselves declared that the rest were nothing in compari- 
B< >n with the chiefs staff. Certainly it was one of the largest ; but 
the only visible differences between it and others were that, instead 
of being one straight piece, it tapered inwards about six inches 
from the top as though a small peg-shaped piece had been fitted 
on to the top of the straight staff; and that, in place of the 
ordinary flower work, the carving on the silver represented 
innumerable little cross-legged Buddhas. In the camp at South- 
tields there was also a staff, probably belonging to Milos, on which 
were carved human figures. They were not cross-legged Buddhas, 
and unfortunately I did not see them close enough to be able to 
describe them, but they struck both me and my companion, Mr. 
F. Shaw, as being of decidedly Indian workmanship. Possibly, 
then, there may be some traditional Indian forms for stick-heads 
handed down and used only by chiefs. Nikola, when questioned 
about his staff, appeared to know that the figures were Buddhas, 
and that Buddha was an Indian god. Further questioning only 
elicited an answer that he had not seen Buddha himself, but copied 
him from a model ; but whether the model was an older stick, or 
merely a figure of Buddha, seen by chance, I could not find out. 

The carving of the silver work was done in most cases 1 by 
themselves, they declared : and so too were the magnificently 
carved silver samovar, bucket and tea-tray owned by Nikola, and the 
gilded silver goblets, eighteen inches to two feet high, which were 
occasionally exhibited in the Southfields camp. If this was true, 
like many foreign Gypsies, they must have been expert silver- 
smiths, though they did not practise the art for gain. 

The clothes of the children varied more than those of their 
p.irents. Up to the age of five or six, and even older, a simple 
shirt, of the same flimsy and bright-coloured material as the 
women's dresses, was sufficient for either sex. These shirts were 
open and generally unbuttoned nearly to the waist, and appeared 
to be worn neither for warmth, which they certainly could not 
have conveyed, nor for decency, for which they often hardly sufficed. 

had his buttons made in Italy, and Milanko, though unmarried, got 

k made in Belfast. According to Tudor, the carving of Nikola's staff was 

tor him in Paris; and possibly one must not take their claims to this 

kind of workmanship very seriously. One may note, however, that Sztojka said 

ari ' ernahren sich vom Kesseltlicken und Oravieren' (•/. G. L. S., vi. 73). 


Photo, by Newspaper Illustrations. 

Wandsworth, 28th August 1911 


One faun-like creature of seven or eight disported himself in a 
shirt which barely reached his hips. Even Liza, a most particular 
and sedate little damsel, who hardly ever played and rolled in the 
dust with the rest, and who insisted on wearing a bari rojta like a 
grown-up woman at the christening of Worso Kokoiesko's baby, 
though she had the greatest difficulty in keeping it on, habitually 
paraded herself in a shirt split down the entire length of the back. 
On one occasion, when we were sitting talking late at night, she 
discarded even this flimsy fig-leaf, and came and danced before us 
in her modesty, which considering the enjoyment she showed in 
the double sense of the word pharadi, when a folk- tale in which it 
occurred was read out, would have been a very inadequate garb 
for a colder evening. Some of the younger male children possessed 
knickerbockers and boots, but seldom wore them during the 
summer. The imp Todi, 1 for instance, varied his sex in the most 
bewildering fashion, appearing now in knickerbockers and now in 
a feminine-looking nightgown. But as soon as they began to 
realise that they were growing up, they affected more elaborate 
clothing, in spite of obvious discomfort. Franik, who only a year 
or so before must have disported himself in the single rag, sweltered 
through the hot summer in a navy blue suit of French cut, made of 
cloth about as thick as a normal carpet. However, the possession 
of eleven golden coins the size of half-sovereigns as waistcoat- 
buttons no doubt compensated for the inconvenience. Any 
country's costume seemed to do for a first suit. Baloka in Liver- 
pool wore the costume of a Savoyard Italian, which the cast of his 
features favoured; and in London he was gorgeously arrayed in 
the brightest of crimson shirts and a mountebank's gold-spangled 
breeches ; the epileptic boy possessed a red plush coat ; while 
Vasili, who was very little older than them, affected an exact 
reproduction of the men's costume, filigree silver buttons and all. 2 
But Vasili was a spoiled eldest son and took himself seriously, and 
once I found him standing before a looking-glass, adjusting his hat, 
trying the effect of a newly acquired cigarette-holder, and com- 
menting aloud on his general appearance as but Sukar, an opinion 
which in my heart of hearts I fully endorsed, though I could not 
but reprove him for his feminine vanity. 

1 For this name cf. Paspati'a Tndis (fitudes mr les TchinrihiavS*, p. 631). An 
' affectionate diminutive Todika was used too j with which one may perhapB com- 
i pare Paspati's Babikis, Nenekis. 

2 Cf. Fig. 3. 

VOL. VI. — NO. IV S 


Dwellings and Customs 

Their tents were practically all made according to one pattern, 
which with slight variations appears to be universal on the 
Continent, the tents used by English Gypsies being of fairly 
modern origin, and a separate development. In putting up 
these tents, they begin by making a hole eighteen inches deep 
in the ground with the dopo, a great nail-shaped piece of iron 
some five feet long, which serves as a kind of anvil on which 
to balance the copper pots when they are being beaten. 1 In this 
hole they fix an upright post (Paspati's beli), some eight or nine 
feet in height and five inches in diameter ; 2 and then balancing 
themselves on a rickety ladder lodged against the pole they tie 
or nail to the top of it the thick end of a longer pole, the 
berdnd. Over this second pole they stretch a huge piece of 
sail-cloth (poxtdn), water-proofed (malchlo) if procurable, fastening 
it tightly round the top of the vertical post — an operation which 
entails still more precarious balancing on the ladder — and also 
to a point near the other end of the berdnd. Then two more 
undressed poles, tied together at their thin ends, are brought 
and the loose end of the berdnd is placed in the crutch formed 
by the tying. By raising the cross ends, and with them the 
berdnd and canvas, until they are some ten feet from the ground, 
a triangular entry to the tent is formed, the lower thick ends of 
the two front poles not being sunk into the earth but merely 
resting on it. The canvas is then pinned out, the space enclosed 
being roughly a triangular prism, although the berdnd slopes 
slightly upwards to the front. The back end of the tent is 
closed with canvas, usually sewn to the side cloths. The front 
was left open in some cases, and only covered partially at night, 
but generally two or three short poles were fixed in the earth 
a little distance away from the front of the tent and a regular 
: balk ' made. In wet weather trenches were dug round the tents. 3 

Though unfortunately I took no measurements of a tent, an I 
idea of the size and cost may be formed from the purchases 
made on one occasion by the chief after a whole morning's 
haggling. He bought a piece of white sail-cloth with red stripes 

1 For the d6po cf. Fig. 6 and p. 290. 
In many foreign Gypsies' tents this pole is not used, and the berdnd slopes 
down to the ground at the hack of the tent. 

a tent in process of building cf. Fig. 4 ; for the general appearance of 
tents, Fig. 5 ; and for a ' balk ', Fig. 6. 


Photo. by London News Agency. 



Photo, hy Daily Mirror. 




(poxtdn lole dromensa) 59 yards long (lungo) and 50 inches 
wide (bughlo). This he required to be sewed together in five 
strips of eleven and a half yards : and for the cloth ready sewn, 
with tags for the pegs to pass through, an extra bit sewn on 
to strengthen it at the place where it is fastened to the berdnd, 
and a rope inserted in the front hem, after much bargaining 
he agreed to pay £8, a price which he professed at any rate to 
consider very high compared with foreign prices. 

A tent varying in shape from that here described was built 
by Adam Kirpats after his return from Czenstochoa. It was 
roughly in the shape of a house, having four upright posts at 
the corners surmounted by sloping poles to make a gable, and, 
if I remember rightly, a centre post in the front as well as the 
back. Parvolo's tent too had four posts, though it was otherwise 
normal. The tents erected by Milos and Dzordzi at Southfields 
are described in the papers as ' conical.' Unfortunately I saw 
them mainly in the dark; but, so far as my recollection goes, 
they were octagonal, with poles some six feet in height, and the 
roof sloped together at the top so that they looked more like 
bell-tents in shape than like the ordinary tent. They differed 
also from the tents at Birkenhead and Beddington in having 
wooden floors raised a few inches from the ground. 

All tents were carpeted, except in the ' balk ' which was used 
for rough house-work, and the carpets were swept frequently. 
These carpets were apparently picked up in second-hand shops, 
as several times, when I was out with them, they haggled for a 
carpet, but invariably rejected it as too dear. The chief indulged 
in the luxury of a drawing-room suite of luxuriously padded 
armchairs and a sofa, which were ranged along the back of his 
tent; but it was only when gazo visitors were present that he 
put himself to the discomfort of sitting on them. 1 

The other tents were innocent of such refinement, and the 
main articles of furniture — if they can be called articles of 
furniture — were the serdnds, eiderdown- beds as large and as 
thick as normal-sized feather-beds. Of these each family must 
have possessed from a dozen to twenty, and of an evening one 
would find them piled up on each side of the tent to a height 
of three or four feet. It was between these things that they slept 
even in the hottest of weather, with one or more underneath 

1 Usually, of course, they sat on the ground in the traditional Gyj sy 


,!,,.„, one above, and another behind as a pillow; and why the 
children were not smothered is a mystery to me, as in the 
morning <>ne would see them crawling out from underneath a 
) lllv . ,.,,/ w ith which they had been covered head and all. 

During the day these Serdnds were always carefully taken out 
of the tents and thrown over palings or on the ground to air, 

ept that one was generally left in the tent to tempt the 
unwary to sit on it, until he was warned by a scream from some 
agitated mother, and on looking carefully found an infant almost 
buried in its depths. For, though Vola occasionally fitted up 
a hammock-cradle for her infant, little Rai, the krand was the 
usual cradle as well as bed. Even in the railway train, when 
the family was migrating, these serdnds were not all packed up 
as luggage 3 but some were taken into the carriages and piled on 
the scats and on the floor to sit and loll on. They were covered 
with the same gaudy and flimsy material of which the women's 
clothes and the children's shirts were made, and the covers were 
changed frequently, which, as they would bear little washing, 
added to the women's interminable sewing. Judging by their 
softness and lightness, they must all have been made of the 
purest eiderdown, and their value must have been considerable. 
The only normal eiderdown quilt which I saw in the camp was 
counted of so little value in comparison that it was used as a 
carpet for children to play on. 

There was little else to be seen in the tents except perhaps 
some ornamental drapery and a few pictures (ikons) hung on the 
back wall. These were chiefly religious subjects, 1 for example the 
virgin of Czenstochoa, but some had photographs too and picture 
advertisements, or even regimental memorials, probably to keep 
up the appearance of having fulfilled their military service. Then 
there was the table (sJcafidi), some four feet in diameter and 
fourteen inches nil' the ground, supported by four legs and quaintly 
painted. 2 This, however, was generally rolled away in a corner 
except at meal-times. More prominent was the samovar which 
was in constant use. For ordinary occasions they had common 
brass or silver-plated samovars; but for distinguished visitors the 

1 They were of a Byzantine type, such as are commonly used by members of the 
Orthodox church. 

A round tabic about three inches off the ground is universal in Albania (cf. 
M. E. Durham, The Burden of the Balkans, p. 144). Similar tables are used 
bern Europe by nations who do not use chairs, and, as with these 
' they are rolled away after use. 


chief would produce a magnificent solid silver samovar weighing 
twenty-three pounds, and Parvolo and others claimed to own similar 
treasures. The chiefs was ornamented with tasteful decorations 
in high relief, which he said he had executed himself; and he 
produced a similarly decorated silver salver and a huge silver 
bucket, nearly twice the size of an ordinary bucket, which was 
used to hold wine on festive occasions. Mi'los too had two huge 
wine-cups, some eighteen inches in height and shaped like 
tumblers. They looked like gold, though he said they were gilded 
silver. But these things were only brought out occasionally for 
exhibition : generally they were hidden away in the trunks and 
boxes, which stood at the back of the tents. At Bolton Mi'los also 
produced a beautifully embossed silver flagon, about eight inches 
high, with a lid, handle, and small spout, which Todor said was 
made by one of his uncles. 

Domestic animals they did not keep as much as most Gypsies, 
perhaps because their mode of travelling rendered it difficult to 
transport them. But the chief owned a despicable little mongrel 
dog, and some others had small birds in cages. 

When they became house-dwellers they, like most English 
Gypsies under the same circumstances, simply camped in one room 
of the house and left the others untenanted. This was the case in 
the mansion at Southfields, at Manchester, at Leeds, and even at 
Nottingham, where the four families who were there had between 
them three houses. They stocked their serdnch and their 
other belongings in the kitchen and lived there, though visitors 
were invited into a normally, but rather scantily furnished 
sitting-room. 1 For each of these houses they were paying £2 a 
month, and one family indulged in the luxury of an English maid- 
servant. Though quite familiar with such modern refinements as 
the telephone, they have a horror of gas, and have it cut off in 
the houses they inhabit. On one occasion, when Janko and I spent 
a night in Leeds — and if any one wants an unpleasant hour or 
more, may I recommend him to set out without baggage and with 
a wild and not over clean-looking Gypsy coppersmith and try to 
find a hotel that will take him and his companion in — Janko was 
so afraid of the gas that he left it burning all night. 2 He also 
slept on the top of the bed in his clothes. 

1 The furniture was hired or bought by the Gypsies and did not go with the 

2 At Nottingham, however, Milois's tribe seem to have been reconciled to gas. 


Still their habits in some respects were more like those of house- 
dwellers than of the normal tent-dweller. They usually sat up 
till well after midnight. Consequently, except for two old widows 
who retired and rose before the rest of the camp, they were not 
early risers. Once indeed a man at Birkenhead was inspired to 
start beating a copper pot directly under my window at five o'clock 
in the morning; but normally it was nearer ten than nine when 
the men drifted drowsily, cigarette in mouth, into the yard, only 
just out of bed. Sometimes business would call them into the 
town earlier. If so, they departed breakfastless, making up for it 
at times by a cup of tea on the way, but often marching all day, 
or at any rate till midday, in the raging heat, oblivious of food and 
drink, so long as there was a factory chimney in sight. Otherwise 
they would start hammering a pot in a desultory fashion while 
the women boiled water in the samovars, and then drop oft', one by 
one, as the children called them, to take a glass — glasses not cups 
were used — of tea and some bread and butter. About eleven they 
settled down to work, and work appeared to go on unceasingly until 
darkness put a stop to it. Nor did night always bring rest from 
labour. The only evening I was in the camp at Beddington, many 
of them were working in their tents by lamp-light, and when I 
reached Mitcham Junction close on midnight, the sound of their 
hammering was still audible at more than a mile's distance. 

Of course rests were taken, and men would saunter to the tents 
and disappear temporarily, presumably to partake of the contents 
of stew-pots, which were frequently to be seen on the fires ; but 
no general breaks occurred at meal-times, and indeed when they 
fed was rather a mystery to me. Perhaps one who had not 
forsworn meat and tea, the staples of their diet, and who was less 
averse to female society, might have penetrated the mystery ; but 
there was little inducement for them to invite me to partake of 
what they knew would have been refused. At first, when they had 
no work to do in the camp, the main meal of the day seemed to be 
taken about five or six o'clock, when they returned from commer- 
cial travelling : but afterwards this habit was broken, and the only 
fixed rule was that as soon as work was discarded in the evening 
they settled down to tea and bread and butter, with occasional 
additions in the shape of red herrings or rice pudding. But their 
diet appeared to consist almost exclusively of fowl. Once I saw 
two loins of mutton, a goose and three fowls all waiting together 
in one pan to be cooked ; and T6dor at Nottingham invited Mr. 


Atkinson and myself to sit down to a meal consisting of stewed 
meat, besides a fowl, vegetables, and stewed pears. The fowls were 
generally bought alive, and seemed to be chosen rather for their 
size than for their tenderness ; but as they were invariably 
boiled, this presumably made little difference. Of English meat 
they had no high opinion, complaining that it was too hard to eat ; 
nor, judging by the chiefs remarks and treatment of the edibles 
set before him on one or two occasions when I saw him feed in a 
restaurant or hotel, had they any high opinion of English cooking. 
Almost all their meat was boiled, and they used nothing in the 
shape of an oven : but occasionally things were fried. 

Their table-manners differed in a few particulars from those of 
English Gypsies. They used a circular table (skafidi), but seldom 
condescended to employ knives and forks. Fowls were dismembered 
by the simple process of pulling them limb from limb with the 
fingers, while the younger children sat round and helped them- 
selves to spoonfuls of the broth in which they had been stewed. 
Bread was torn to pieces and buttered by smearing it in the butter, 
which, either by choice or through the accident of the hot weather, 
was always in a semi-liquid condition. Andreas's family, whose 
pink faces perhaps denoted an admixture of gazo blood, generally 
used knives for spreading butter on bread; and Parvolo, when 
questioned as to their habit, responded with a shrug and a lapse 
into bad grammar, x&sa suridsa, bi-suridsa. 1 The omission to use 
cutlery was certainly not due to ignorance of its use. When they 
took a meal in a restaurant they were perfectly at home with all the 
table accoutrements ; indeed the chief made a point of lunching 
in respectable restaurants, and afterwards spoiling the magnificence 
of his appearance and conduct by touting for orders in the kitchen 
when his meal was finished. Tea was generally drunk without 
milk, but with a liberal allowance of sugar, and it was the 
universal beverage and freely indulged in. 

Alcoholic drinks they seldom touched. At first some of them 
— women especially — seemed to have some little hankering after the 
wine they had left behind them in France ; at all events they did 
not deny themselves the pleasure of begging for gifts of bottles. 
When Mr. Ackerley visited them at Bolton on April 17, 1913, 
there was some special festival in honour of which they were 
drinking wine. But even then it was rather an abstemious proceed- 
ing, as they mixed Bordeaux with gingerbeer. On this occasion 

1 He corrected himself to bi-Suridke. 



M r. Ackerley noticed one odd ceremony, that the first glass used was 
dipped into the tiagon before it was filled, but none of the others. 
Usually even the hottest of days and weariest of walks failed to 
raise a thirst in them ; and it was only when there was absolutely 
no other way of killing a half-hour before the return of some 
human manager of a factory who was taking his lunch and a 
healthy drink with it, that they could be induced grudgingly to 
consume a small glass of lager beer. Even then Janko, aged 
eighteen and already married and a father, considered himself too 
young for such powerful liquor. Occasional drinking bouts were 
talked of. News came, for instance, from Trieste that there had 
been a light among some of their relatives there, resulting in 
the death of one or more, and Parvolo explained pili, matili hai 
mwrde />e. Frestik too related how, when he was a child, Andreas 
in Bacchic frenzy had hit him on the head so hard that for a 
month he was rendered idiotic, and when he recovered had for- 
gotten Romani and had to learn it again. And once, under the 
corrupting influence of a Romano Raj, who shall be nameless, the 
sedate Andreas drank six bottles of lager in as many minutes and 
danced and sang. But this was an aberration, and therefore ex- 
cusable, as it did not interfere with the ruling passion for money - 
makinsr. For that 1 am convinced was at the bottom of their 
abstinence, far more than any abstract appreciation for sobriety. 
Lolo Kosmin, the one person who had any real tendency to drink, 
was looked down upon, because it made him poor in comparison 
with the rest ; and even he, if Dzordzi Demeter (who at the time 
had a grievance against him for tearing eight gold coins out of 
Dzdrdzi's wife's hair and not returning them) could be believed, 
was at his best when other people paid for the drink. And his 
was not bad, indeed his capacity was as enormous as his 
person ; for — again if Dzordzi can be trusted — he was capable of 
drinking ten tumblers of neat brandy (ardkia) on end. 

But Lolo was a music-hall artiste, not a coppersmith, and 
suffered from the artistic temperament, in which the others, unlike 
most Gyspies, seemed to be rather deficient. It is true that, if the 
silver work they claimed to have executed themselves was really 
done by them, then they had considerable talent in that direction, 
there is no evidence save their word that it was done by 
them : and in some cases the stick-heads were admittedly carved 
by gaze. None of them could play the violin, and only one of the 
first arrivals could play an accordion, and he did it pretty badly. 


Indeed for music they fell back on the insidious gramophone, of 
which Nikola possessed a rather good specimen. Most of them 
could sing to their own satisfaction ; but to the ordinary uniniti- 
ated western hearer it was a very monotonous performance. To 
me— speaking as an entirely unmusical person — it sounded very 
similar to the monotonous chant in which one hears Italian 
peasants, and Arab camel-drivers too for that matter, indulging at 
their work : similar melodies are probably common in southern 
and eastern countries. Tinka's brother, however, must have had 
musical ability, as he and his family dance and play in theatres, 
and Lolo Kdsmin and his tribe are all music-hall artistes by 
profession, and only coppersmiths when they fail to obtain other 
work. Presumably they are competent artistes, as they were said 
to have obtained an engagement to perform at the Alhambra in 
London, but to have thrown it up because they were asked to have 
a second rehearsal. 1 One of Lolo's nieces or daughters, aged fifteen, 
sang A j ! Lumaj, lumaj, luludja in a theatre at Leeds; and one 
evening at Manchester she favoured us with this and many other 
songs — several of which Mr. Gilliat-Smith, who was present, recog- 
nised as popular among the Sofia Gypsies — in about seven different 
languages. But her voice, though surprisingly strong for a young 
girl, seemed to me unpleasantly harsh. Indeed, like the voice of the 
only English Gypsy girl of my acquaintance who has sung in public 
and won prizes in singing competitions, it reminded me of a 
gramophone. Perhaps, however, both were heard under bad 
conditions in a small room. The rest of the troop I did not hear 
perform, except that one afternoon in London two of the men 
strummed on a guitar and a mandoline 2 and sang in the same 
monotonous style as the Tsorons. 

At step-dancing they were more expert : and in it they 
obviously took a keen interest. They were always asking to be 
taken to a theatre where they could see dancing, and at a variety 
entertainment they hung in breathless excitement on every step of 
the step-dancer, while they welcomed pirouetting ladies with little 
enthusiasm. Though the girls and women professed to be able to 
dance and occasionally practised, yet strangely on such occasions 
as the tribe indulged in dancing themselves, which was generally 
on Sundays, it was only the men who performed ; and one evening, 

1 Leland met ' a very picturesque compauy of Roumanian Komanys, who both 
sing and play,' at Stockholm in 1881) («/. O. L. $., Old Series, i. .SI 7). 

2 Vania Kosmin, I am told, played the mandoline rather well. 


when they treated us to a short dramatic entertainment, in which 
one man acted as though drunk (kerdel mato) and carried on a 
dialogue— in Russian unfortunately — with his wife, it was the 
younger Nikola who donned feminine garments over his other 
clothes, threw a veil over his head and took the female part. This 
recalls significantly what W. V. Herbert says of the Gypsies of the 
Balkan States: 'The boy dances, generally in girl's clothes— a 
peculiar tribal custom of which I have been unable to discern 
origin or purport, for a certain state of things is, and always has 
been, so generally and openly acknowledged as an existing fact 
throughout the Orient, that any dissimulation would seem super- 
fluous.' 1 It may perhaps be worth adding that the 'state of 
things ' so delicately hinted at by Mr. Herbert was quite as openly 
acknowledged among these Gypsies as in any Oriental nation, and 
similarly regarded as perfectly natural. Allowing for this Oriental 
trait, the morals of the whole party, men and women, were above 

They knew a little about boxing and wrestling, but, besides 
dancing, the only form of entertainment they seemed to take any 
enthusiastic interest in was card-playing. Even the tiny children 
learned ' banker ' almost without teaching ; and their elders on one 
occasion spent an entire night playing some game, which none of 
us who were present at the beginning knew. Unfortunately my 
absolute ignorance of cards prevents me from describing it, though 
I watched it for several hours. Mr. Ackerley saw them play a 
Russian game called duratski ; and I quote his description of it. 
' All cards below nine are removed. Two people play. Six cards 
are dealt to each, and a trump turned up. The players may substi- 
tute cards from their hands for this trump ; but I am not clear as to 
what circumstances make this allowable. After every trick the 
players draw one card each from the pack, the winner of the trick 
drawing first. The last draw includes the trump card. Points are 
scored according to the number of court cards (including tens) in the 
tricks. If they are equal, there is a count-out of values. In one 
instance a player counted out to seventy-two, and announced that 
the other would have sixty-six. He scored either one or two 
points for this. Eight points make the game.' This can hardly 
have been the game they played on the occasion when they kept it 
up all night, as more than two were playing then. Needless to say 

1 By-path* in the Balkans (London, 1906), p. 40. 


they played for money ; otherwise they would probably have taken 
little interest in the occupation. 

The children seemed rather deficient in games ; begging being 
the one at which they were most expert. But they were utterly 
free from the dishonesty with which visitors to such camps often 
charge the children. Those with whom we were most intimate 
would rifle all our pockets to see if we had brought them sweets 
or other gifts ; but, though they begged for nearly every article as 
they abstracted it, they invariably returned them all : nor would 
they take such liberties with any one else. Of actual games I 
noticed only ' pitch and toss ' (arjol, arjisha), ' knuckle-bones ' ; an 
infantile game called hovlo vast, which consisted in taking a child's 
arm by the wrist, the hand being allowed to hang loose, and trying 
to shake the latter so that the child hit its own face ; and a game 
which someAvhat resembled ' tip-cat.' The latter was played with 
a cylindrical billet of wood about four inches long and three inches 
in diameter, shaped roughly like a large reel of cotton with a pen- 
handle inserted in the hole and projecting about four inches at 
one end. A metal ring about three inches in diameter was dangled 
by a piece of string, and the game consisted in passing the ring 
over the projecting wooden axis, jerking the billet into the air and 
catching it before it fell to the ground. These, however, were but 
vain toys ; and even the children seemed happier when engaged 
in the business of begging. 


At quite an early age they put off childish things, and took to 
the serious occupation of beating copper pans, and the no less 
arduous task of searching for the pans to beat. What the latter 
was like I know from bitter experience gained in many weary 
days of commercial travelling with them in tropical heat round 
Liverpool, round Birkenhead, round Manchester, and even as far 
as Leeds. 1 For they spared neither time nor money in their search 
for work, when in Liverpool going to all the places mentioned 
and to the Isle of Man. Later they told me that since they had 
been in London they had visited Cambridge, Eton, Cardiff and 
other Welsh towns. Day after day, with one or other of them, I 
tramped miles upon miles, starting with the idea of visiting certain 

1 When unattended by myself they often engaged an interpreter to accompany 
them, paying him 2s. a day. One Bohemian youth practically lived with them, 
and accompanied them from Liverpool to London, Glasgow, and South America. 


Factories, but deflecting at the sight of every large chimney, every 
big hotel, and, when with Worse- Kokoiesko, almost every open door. 
And I earned little gratitude because of my signal ill-success in 
wringing orders from people, who often had no copper pots— and 
certainly none that required mending; who had their own copper- 
smiths on the premises; or who had been visited twenty times 
already by other members of the band. Sweet, confectionery, 
biscuit, and jam manufactories, chemical and dye-works, hotels, 
restaurants, hospitals, breweries, distilleries, places where woollen 
cloth and felt hats were made, even workhouses, all offered a field 
for their importunity. The foraging was not organised in any 
way, the result being that often one firm would be pestered by 
visits of company after company of coppersmiths on the same day, 
and the least success of one of the number in any factory aroused 
the others to a perfect pitch of frenzy in attacking similar 
establishments. Assurances that there was no work to give them 
were quite unavailing. 'Then tell him to let me see his works ' — 
or ' his kitchen ' — was invariably the next request. If, as was 
usually the case, the man reasonably objected to showing wild 
heathen over his establishment, that too did not discourage them. 
' Make him show me a pot (Pen les te sikavel man jek kekdvi), te 
dikhati la forma.' Presumably this meant ' that I may see the 
shape' ; but I was never very sure of it : and I think, if they had 
realised my ingenuity in devising various reasons for refusing the 
request, they might have had a higher opinion of me. For indeed 
my modesty rebelled at importunity beyond a certain point; and 
frequently part of the time they intended me to spend in exorbitant 
demands, for such they were rather than requests, I spent in 
offering profuse apologies for their unreasonableness. To them 
nothing seemed impertinent : the methods of an American com- 
mercial traveller would have struck them as bashful and retiring. 
1 have seen, and tremblingly accompanied, Worso, when he pushed 
open a half-closed door, traversed a long passage, descended a 
flight of steps, opened another door, and stood quite unabashed with 
a hall pleased, half-disappointed air, looking in at the dressing- 
room oi a millinery establishment, and nodding reassuringly to 
i frightened occupants. Nor was anything impossible to them. 
I the first day on which I went out with the chief, we visited 
)ry where the manager was distinctly averse to foreigners, 
and declared he had a contract with a firm to repair his pans, and 
equently had no work to give. The only foreigner on the 

a i.^. ^"^ *-"'V IV/lV^jjJ 


premises, a Belgian youth learning English methods of trade, 
remembered having seen similar Gypsies in Belgium two years ago, 
and pointed out that they had been banished from the realm. 
But there were two large copper pans, more than six feet in 
diameter, packed on a cart ready for dispatch to the contractor, 
and Nikdla intended to get one — and, after half an hour's frantic 
discussion, he did get one, and with it a written contract that, if 
he repaired it satisfactorily gratis, he should have twenty-five 

Of written contracts they fully appreciated the worth — so far 
as it told on their side ; but they never seemed to realise that 
failure to fulfil their part of the agreement exonerated the other 
party ; or perhaps they considered that being in possession of the 
copper pot and of unlimited assurance, they were not likely to 
come to much harm. Anyhow they broke their promises reck- 
lessly. The chief, for instance, on that occasion repaired the first 
pan well and did it up to time ; but when given four more he kept 
them some weeks longer than the contract permitted, protested 
strongly against allowing the pots to be taken home and examined 
before payment was made, and demanded an exorbitant sum, some 
£200, for his work. Finally, when both parties had put the affair 
in lawyers' hands, he agreed to take £65. Again, Parvolo suc- 
ceeded in carrying off a pan, which only required slight patching 
and was in daily use, from a dye-works in Manchester after six 
o'clock one evening, with a promise that he would return it by 
eight o'clock next morning. At nine o'clock the next morning I 
looked down from my room on to Parvolo's tent, into which I 
could see, and Parvolo was sleeping peacefully. At 10.30 I found 
him, just out of bed, squatting bird-wise on the edge of the pan 
smoking a cigarette; and he smiled as I approached, and said to 
me : ' This is the pan I promised to take back by eight this 
morning. To-day or to-morrow you must write a letter for me, 
telling the man to come here and see it weighed before I begin it.' 
I believe on this occasion no date was stipulated in the contract, 
but the pan lay untouched for three weeks, and then, just before 
they left Birkenhead, he sent a telegram to the owner telling him 
to come at once and fetch his pot, or it would be taken away. 

The contract that they insisted on having was one authorizing 
them to repair a pan, the owner paying four shillings a pound for 
the new copper added and being allowed one shilling a pound for 
the old copper taken out. Work was thrown in gratis, and no 


stipulation was ever made as to the amount of repairing that was 
;,, bedone. This latter omission was one which caused constant 
complaints on the part of the unwary manufacturer, who imagined 
that his instructions to repair only meant patching up a crack, and 
found that a new bottom had been inserted, and the whole pan 
heated, hammered, re-tinned inside, and furbished up until it looked 
like a new one. Insistence on their part that it was as good as a 

new one which may have been true — did not better matters, when 

the price charged was at least as much as the pot had originally 
cost and sometimes more. In one case Worso's brothers demanded 
£10 for repairing a pan which the owner showed me in a price-list 
marked at £8 new ; and, after an hour or more of squabbling, they 
succeeded in obtaining the money, possibly because the owner, a 
mineral-water manufacturer, was too busy owing to the hot weather 
to be able to devote more time to the matter. 

Besides, they would descend to any means to extort the money. 
On this occasion the pot had been taken back on a Saturday, and 
when the owner had refused to pay them till Monday, they had 
be^ed for an advance on the score of starvation during the week- 
end, coming down from £5 to 2s., which he gave them. There may 
have been some little truth in the plea of poverty, as Worso and his 
brothers, who had done the pot, were always referred to as desper- 
ately poor; and on one occasion the chief, who perhaps took some 
responsibility in such cases, was seen to give Worso's wife a packet 
of tea out of his own pocket. But one could never rely on such 
pleas. Two members of the band once called at Messrs. W. H. 
Flett & Co. 's jam factory, and after unsuccessfully soliciting orders 
with abject pleas of poverty and starvation, thrust into the 
astonished manager's hands, in order that he might not be afraid 
to trust them, a handful of large gold coins worth seventy or 
eighty pounds ! 

How the exorbitant prices they charged were reached appeared to 
be a mystery to the manufacturers, several of whom suggested, with 
emphasis, that the weighing had something to do with it. Certainly 
t'he mention of weighing was always kept in the background till 
the pot was safely in the camp, and then the owner was requested 
to come and see it done. He came fuming at having his time 
wasted in a special excursion to Birkenhead, and his wrath did not 
decrease when he found that his pot was weighed on an uncertified 
machine with foreign weights. The incredulous asked how they 
were to know whether the weights used for the preliminary and 


final weighings were the same ; and that was a question I always 
found hard to answer. Certainly there was something that made 
repairing exceptionally profitable, more profitable than the making 
of vessels. Make things they would not, and either refused the offers 
point-blank, or left them unfulfilled ; but any battered pan that 
would usually be disposed of for old metal was good enough to 
mend. There is little doubt, however, that those who suggested the 
possibility of juggling with the scales did the Gypsies an injustice. 
The following estimate, worked out from details given by a Liver- 
pool firm, who employed the coppersmiths to mend a pot which 
had cost £12 when new, will show that, even without fraud, their 
profit was considerable. The contract was the usual one, but to 
simplify the calculations the price to be paid for new copper 
(including work) is taken at 3s. instead of 4s., on the assumption 
that the weight of new copper added was equal to the weight of 
old copper removed, and allowed for at the rate of Is. a pound. 

cwt. qr. lbs. lbs. 

Original weight of pot, 1 1 8 or 148 

Weight after removing bottom, .... 2 21 or 77 

Old copper removed = new copper added, . . 2 15 or 71 

The Firm's Payments : 

71 lbs. of copper (and work) at 3s., .... £10 13 
71 lbs. of old copper, worth 4id. a lb., . . . 1 6 7| 

£11 19 7h 

Tlte Gypsies' expenses : 

71 lbs. of new copper at 9 id., £2 16 2| 

Labour : say 10 hours at Is., 10 

Coke, materials, etc., say 3 5 

£3 9 7i 
Profit, 8 10 

£11 19 7£ 

Of the work itself there were few complaints : and an article 
in The Times 1 admits that it was, for some purposes, superior 
to ordinary coppersmiths' work, though expensive. The writer's 
technical description of the work, and its difference from ordinary 
methods, is worth quoting :— ' They [the joints] are distinguished 
from others by the entire absence of overlapping seams or patches, 
and rivets are not used at all. 

1 October 25, 1911. 


Patching operations arc carried on as follows. The hole or 
weak spot is opened out, by cutting and filing, into a star shape, 
and a piece of copper is then cut to template so that the 

rations of both hole and patch fit well together. The patch 
thus lies flush with the surfaces of the vessel inside and out, 
and by judicious tapping the edges of the serrations are brought 
pnicl ically into contact with each other, the patch by this operation 
I . . • i 1 1 «_r lirmly sustained in place. Spelter is then melted into the 
minute interstices, the complete union of the edges being com- 
paratively easy on account of the intimate contact produced by the 
hammering. The job is finished off with a file, the inside of the 
patch in the case of fruit pans being tinned. A repair thus carried 
out presents a remarkably neat appearance, and close examination 
is necessary in order to locate the mend. 

' For securing the bottom of a cylindrical vessel a sheet of metal 
is flanged in the ordinary way, and the flanged edge is serrated and 
fitted to a similarly serrated edge of the cylinder, subsequent 
operations being as already described. The top of a cylindrical 
still of moderate size may be similarly attached, the resulting 
vessel having none of the laps, rivet heads, or projections character- 
istic of those manufactured in the ordinary manner. 

• This system seems to have decided advantages in connexion with 
the manufactures of fancy soaps, of jams and delicately flavoured 
Irs, of scents and fine chemicals generally, where it is desirable 
to use pans which present a perfectly smooth interior. Owing to 
rivet heads and lapped seams the thorough cleansing of ordinary 
is a difficult matter. . . . For vessels subjected to any consider- 
able pressure the method is obviously unfitted, and it is probably 
too expensive, even if suitable, for adoption in the coppersmiths' 
shops of engineering works.' 

Excellent and accurate as this account is, it is written entirely 

from the point of view of a practical engineer interested in strange 

methods of work, and the writer has omitted to refer to several 

matters which have importance ethnologically. Since he has 

borne testimony, as an expert witness, to the excellence of the 

Gypsies' work, it may be well to record that this excellence was 

lie result of two things which British coppersmiths have cast 

tl„, i! long ago— old-fashioned ways and old-fashioned 

lustry. The Gypsies toughened their copper by patiently and 

lly hammering the whole surface of the vessel, a long and 

■»us task, and thus added greatly to its strength and 



durability. But their dexterity in brazing copper, which was so 
thin that it would have melted or burned in the hands of a native 
workman, they owe directly to the archaic bellows they still use. 
In contrast with the mechanical blowers now found in every 
civilised workshop, these ancient windbags enable the smith so to 
regulate the strength of the blast that the temperature of his forge 
is completely under control. 

The bellows of our visitors are somewhat better made than the 
bellows from Kabylia figured by Professor van Gennep, 1 those 
photographed in Northern Nigeria by Dr. Macfie, 2 and those 
described by Paspati, Bataillard, and Kopernicki, 3 as used by 
European Gypsies. But there is no difference in principle or in 
the manner of using them. They are used in pairs, each element 
of which consists of a triangular bag of flexible well-tanned goat- 
skin, measuring about two feet from the open base to the apex, 
where a tapering copper tube about eighteen inches long is 
attached. The open end can be closed by pressing together two 
strips of wood, which are fastened to the lips of the leather bag 
and themselves bear small loops of leather for the insertion of the 
thumb on one side and the fingers on the other. 4 

The burning coke of the forge-fire is contained in a roughly 
circular hole in the ground, about nine inches in diameter, in the 
side wall of which, plastered with clay, is firmly fixed a small but 
heavy iron nozzle, about eight inches long, the twyer or tue-iron of 
British smiths. In shape it resembles a ' button-mushroom,' with a 
very thick but hollow stalk ; and it is perforated by a conical hole, 
widest at the end of the stalk and constricted to a small orifice in 
the centre of the rounded head, which projects into the fire. The 
stalk end of the nozzle having been cleared of earth, the points of 
the copper tubes of two bellows are thrust quite loosely into its 
mouth, and the blower, generally a boy or youth, seats himself 
cross-legged behind them, facing the fire. Opening one bag by 
separating his fingers and thumb, he raises the strips of wood 
attached at the mouth to a vertical position in front of himself, 
and thus fills the bag with air. He then closes the mouth by 
clenching his hand on the wood and forces the sticks downwards 
into a horizontal position upon the bag itself, thereby pressing out 

1 J. G. L. S., v. 195. 

2 Revue d'Ethnographie, 1912, p. 2S1. 

3 J. G. L. S., v. 195-6, footnote. 

« See plate, J. G. L. S., v., opposite p. 195 and Fig. 6. 

VOL. VI. — NO. IV. T 


the air through the nozzle into the heart of the fire. While press- 
ingand emptying one bag he simultaneously raises and fills the 
other, so that the blast is continuous. 

The Gypsies were often ambitious enough to attempt the 
repair of vessels so heavy that it was difficult to move them with- 
out blocks and tackle, which they did not possess. They under- 
took, for instance, to tin the inside of a copper cauldron that 
weighed four hundredweight — and did tin it. But in such cases 
they used modern blow-lamps, and in Leeds and Manchester the 
ancient leather bellows hung idly on the wall replaced by a machine 
bolted to the floor and turned by a handle. 1 Evidently, therefore, 
they were not prejudiced against modern implements on account 
of their modernity, but rejected them, as a rule, because they were 
inconsistent with nomad life. And indeed their shears, pincers, 
files, mallets and hammers, as well as such materials as hard 
solder, tin, borax, and killed spirit, were bought in shops and did 
not differ from those universally used by ordinary craftsmen. 

They sometimes bought rivets too when they needed them, but 
occasionally they manufactured them themselves by an interesting 
process : — Taking a piece of sheet copper measuring about lj by 1 
inch they rolled it into a spiral cone, inserted the pointed end into 
a hole in an iron bar, and flattened the projecting part with a 
hammer to make the head. 

Their equipment of tools was remarkably small. Excepting 
the instruments already mentioned they had only the dopo, which 
corresponded with the blacksmith's anvil (kov&ntsa), never seen in 
their camp. The dopo is a bar of iron about two and a half inches 
square and four or five feet long, pointed at one end for insertion 
in the earth, and having a small flattened top at the other on 
which the pot was balanced. In general appearance it is very like a 
gigantic cast-iron nail. 2 Their apparatus was ill adapted for the 
manufacture or repair of large vessels, but the courage with which 
they faced apparently impossible tasks was admirable. Nikola and 
his tribe even made a new saucer-like bottom for a pan six feet in 
diameter, cupping a sheet of copper by the primitive method of 
digging a hole of approximately the required shape in the ground 
and beating the sheet into it with mallets. 

It is scarcely necessary to add that, being illiterate, they used 

1 In the camp at Beddington they had a similar machine, but they did not 
always use it. 
- Cf. Fig. 6. 


neither measurements nor sketches, but took dimensions by means 
of knots in pieces of string. 

Contrary to the custom of most Gypsies, the women took 
practically no part in bread-winning : indeed the men were 
shocked at our suggestion, when they complained at first of lack 
of work, that they should make small copper things and let their 
wives hawk them. The women of course professed to tell 
fortunes ; and at first they seemed to be eager to learn the English 
for the ordinary fortune-telling utterances, but they were too lazy 
to persevere. Zaga at times, with the help of an interpreter, 
told a fortune to some reporter or other gazo who seemed anxious 
for it ; but her attempts were of precisely the ordinary kind and 
very feeble at that. 

There was, however, an unusual and elaborate method practised 
on several occasions. This has been described by A. Machen in 
the Academy for December 9, 1911, from which I quote: — 'Cold 
water is brought in an ordinary glass, the glass is covered with a 
towel, and you are invited to press down the towel with your 
fingers and make sure that the water is really cold. This done, 
various conjurations follow. Some of the water from the glass is 
sprinkled abroad ; hot ashes from the wood fire are scattered in 
the air, and (the towel tightly held over the mouth) the vessel is 
whirled round and round. Then the old woman asked my name, 
and having gathered the sounds as best she could, she chanted 
them and wailed them over fire and water ; and suddenly leaning 
forward she held the glass against my ear, and the water bubbled 
vehemently : this I was told was a sure sign that I should be very 
fortunate. The noise was not the hissing of effervescence such as 
might be caused by dropping in some powder, but the true 
bubbling sound.' The same method was employed for the benefit 
of Mr. Ackerley, 1 except that fire did not enter into the charm and 
he had to drop a coin in the water and blow on it before the glass 
was wrapped up. He was told he would hear a little devil in the 
glass, which is reminiscent of the Russian Gypsy fortune-telling 
mentioned by Dobrowolski. 2 Mr. Ackerley and Augustus John 
were given charms. That given to the former looked like a piece 
of wax or a light-coloured stone ; but unfortunately he lost it 
before he could have it examined : in the latter case what looked 
like a fragment of wood or bark with a little salt was knotted in a 

1 And for a special correspondent of the Evening News (November 24, 191 1). 

2 Cf. /. G. L. S., iv. 122 and vi. 97-8. 


corner of his handkerchief. Mr. Ackerley was subjected to the 
same ordeal as MacLeod, 1 of having his hand pressed against the 
stomach of the two women who tried to tell his fortune. There is 
little doubt that they do practise fortune-telling in countries where 
they can speak the language ; and probably it is mixed up with 
some kind of hokkano baro. One old lady at any rate among the 
later arrivals was much interested on hearing that their brethren 
in England kept up the art, and inquired whether they made as 
much as £100 a time by it. When I denied that, she descended 
to £50 and thence to £10 : for less she did not seem to think it 
was worth doing, and was full of contempt when told they did 
it for a shilling or so. 

Beyond fortune-telling their only contribution was begging ; 
and there one must draw a distinction. The first arrivals, Nikola's 
immediate relatives, professed wealth and scorned to beg ; but 
their successors begged furiously and corrupted some of the 
former arrivals. Mi'los and Dzordzi's party, however, never 
descended to it. Among the men, begging in general was rare 
and confined to special occasions ; among the women, with a 
few exceptions, it was lamentably common. 

Like most foreign peasants, they carried water-pots and such 
things on their heads. For the rest the women devoted their 
time to cooking, marketing, and sewing. Their sewing was 
interminable, owing to the flimsy character of the material of 
their own clothes, the children's clothes, the men's shirts, and the 
serand covers. There were periodical washing days; but the 
stuff would stand little rubbing, and so new garments were always 
being made. If they had any spare time, they loafed about the 
streets in companies, marketing or staring in shop-windows ; and 
some part of their time was devoted to laundry work and keeping 
the children clean. For personal cleanliness was a characteristic 
of the whole band. Copious ablutions were performed in the 
morning and often after work was finished too ; and the women 
made inquiries for the public baths in Birkenhead and visited 
them. Of insects, the camp was entirely free, except that the 
courtly Andreas once or twice caught something, presumably lice, 
in his hair. But that was an exception, a speciality of his own : 
I did not notice any other grown up persons doing the same, and 
the children were certainly free from anything of the kind. 

The women, like the men, all smoked, with the exception of 

1 ,/. O. I. S., New Series, iii. 83. 


Andreas's wife and daughters. But unlike English Gypsy women 
they only smoked cigarettes. So too did the younger men, and 
they all showed a preference for Russian cigarettes. It was only 
the patriarchs who indulged in long and expensive meerschaum 
pipes (luljdva), though many of the younger people had elaborate 
cigarette holders (mustika, muitoka). The children, too, all smoked 
almost from their cradle. 


Of beliefs and superstitions I have little evidence. Old 
Nikola professed to believe firmly in o baro Djel, but his son 
Janko frankly confessed infidelity. They appeared to recognize 
only two religions, as they asked me whether I was Musulmano 
vej Katoliko. By the latter the Tsorons seemed to mean Roman 
Catholic, not Greek Church as one would rather have expected 
from people who had lived mainly in Eastern Europe ; though in 
London some of the others professed to belong to the Orthodox 
church. 1 Probably they had very little, if any, idea of the 
difference ; or perhaps, like most Ruthenians, they really belonged 
to the Uniate Church, which accepts Roman dogma though it 
retains the Eastern rite. According to Mr. Bartlett, Milos's family 
posed as Roman Catholics, but crossed themselves instinctively in 
the manner of the Orthodox church, though occasionally on repeti- 
tion they varied it. Worso's child was baptized in a Roman Catholic 
church and they had no fault to find, except that a woman sitting 
by me kept asking why the child's hair was not cut as it was in 
Spain. Adam Kirpats and his wife had sufficient faith in the 
shrine at Czenstochoa, which they said was a Roman Catholic 
shrine, to take an expensive journey thither to cure their sick 
child. But perhaps it was not so much faith as a last resource 
in this case. 

That child's case was somewhat mysterious. When they 
arrived he seemed normal, except that he was far more ill-natured 
than any of the other children and was subject to occasional 
fainting: fits. Doctors had been tried abroad, and were tried in 
Liverpool in vain. Medical opinion was unanimous that rest was 
the only cure, and that the child might recover later in life. But 
the parents were not satisfied. Presumably magic rites were 
resorted to. For example, once when a fowl was being slaughtered 

1 Daily News, Augsst 28, 1911. 


for the boy's consumption, the mother was noticed to draw a circle 
in the ground round herself and the fowl, wring its neck, cut the 
head off, scrape a cross in the soil, stick the knife in the ground 
•rsection and leave it thereuntil the fowl was plucked 
and thrown into the pot. Again, on one of the front posts of this 
Family's tent three small branches of a thorn bush 1 were tied with 
a red ribbon, probably to keep evil spirits away. Mr. Shaw, when 
visiting the camp at Liverpool, had to write for them to a witch- 
doctor at Bradford. How in the world did these people, who 
could not speak any English at the time, hear of a witch-doctor 
at IJradford ? They were told to describe the child's symptoms 
and enclose a lock of his hair, which must not have been touched 
as it was put into the envelope. But apparently the witch-doctor, 
too, was unsuccessful, for a few weeks later Adam and his wife and 
the child took return tickets to Czenstochoa at a cost of over 
thirty pounds. They sent glowing accounts from Berlin, where 
they stopped with Mi'los and Matej on the way back, declaring 
that the child was perfectly cured. But when they reappeared in 
Liverpool the fainting fits occurred as before, and, in addition, the 
boy appeared to be and was treated as an idiot. Myself, though 
I had spent over a week in their company before, he did not 
recognize ; and his elders taught him the Roinani words for things, 
as though they found him at a loss for his own language. There 
was a vacant and glazed look, too, in his eyes w T hich at times made 
one suspect him of being, at any rate, partially blind, and which 
certainly had not been there before his pilgrimage. 

In ghosts they were firm believers. One night when all were 
sitting peacefully in the drill-hall at Birkenhead, Vola, who had 
gone into the courtyard to fetch some water, rushed screaming 
and half fainting into the shed, declaring that a man in white 
shirt-sleeves had tried to catch hold of her. In a moment there 
was a tremendous uproar, the women crowding round Vdla, the 
men rushing into the courtyard, all gesticulating and shouting 
wildly. As no man was forthcoming, and the caretaker declared 
that the gate was locked and that no one had come in or gone 
out, tiit- most generally accepted theory was that there was a 
ghost there ; and afterwards the women would only go out in twos 
and threes after dusk, if absolutely necessary. Later our Honorary 

The belief in the power of hawthorn as a preventive against the influence of 
evil spirits is ancient and widespread. See Samter, Geburt, Hochzeit und Tod, 


Secretary beguiled the time in telling some children a tale of 
a ghost in the room at the back of the hall where I slept ; and 
ever after I was repeatedly asked if the ghost had visited me, and, 
if they heard any noise when they thought I was in bed, the 
Gypsies would shout inquiries to me. Some of the children wore 
amulets, that of the sick boy being something stitched in a piece 
of furry skin ; and they must have regarded small children as 
specially subject to evil influences, as, like many English Gypsies, 
they refused to allow a baby to be photographed. 

In the matter of ceremonial defilement they were not so 
particular as many English Gypsies; for example, they did not 
reject food which had touched a woman's dress. They must have 
observed the ordinary taboo of women for some time after child- 
birth, as they would not let Mr. Bartlett shake hands with Frankoj's 
wife a week after she had given birth to a child at Leeds. So far 
as we could ascertain there were not any ceremonies performed 
at the birth of Worso's child, though we cannot be certain, as 
we were not there at the time. It is noticeable that the chief 
Nikola, his two sons and his son-in-law Parvolo, quitted the drill- 
hall the very same day and apparently about the very same time 
as the birth took place, and returned to the Green Lane camp. 
One thinks naturally of the belief mentioned by Wittich that a 
birth in a caravan defiles the caravan, and wonders if the same 
applied to the drill-hall. 

Unfortunately the secretiveness of the Gypsies, from whom 
one could hardly ever extract an explanation of any of their acts, 
makes it impossible to assert definitely that this was or was not 
the case, especially as the birth was synchronous with several 
violent quarrels. It seemed itself to be the cause of a quarrel 
between Worso and his wife, as for several days previous to it he 
was said to be knocking her about. That, however, was pre- 
sumably a private matter ; but there was a more general quarrel 
when the camp split up. Inquiries on the point from children 
merely elicited the answer Ui zanau ; their elders shrugged their 
shoulders and answered equivocally; and the chief, when I 
questioned him a few days later, asserted that he had left because 
the newer arrivals fed like savages (%tma dzungales), adding 
something about the women which 1 could not catch. 1 Probably 
its origin lay in the all-important matter of work. A few days 
earlier one of Wdrso Kokoiesko's relatives turned up with an 

1 It sounded like Su (?) pt U zulia. 


enormous quantity of pots and pans to mend. He had obtained 
them from the Liverpool Town Hall, but circulated a report that 
from a large hotel. Thereupon there was a feverish 
rush to all the large hotels in Liverpool, with little or no result. 
Then presumably the deception was discovered; and I returned 
one morning to find the delinquent, with his back against a pillar 
and a hammer in his hand, surrounded by his supporters, and the 
chief and his supporters facing him, all clamouring, until the chief's 
enormous voice prevailed. The women came flocking out and 
tried to join in the quarrel, but Nikola seized his stately wife 
unceremoniously by the shoulders, and, aided by others, pushed 
her and the rest back into the hall. The quarrel raged for some 
Lime, getting very near to blows on the part of the chief and his 
opponent. Long and earnest dhvans took place nightly for the 
next few nights, but the split remained permanent. This no doubt 
was the main reason for the move of Nikola and his followers from 
the hall : but whether some failure in proper observances at the 
birth was the last straw that determined their departure, I cannot 


About marriage ceremonies, too, I know very little. They are 
apparently conducted among themselves, as in a joking proposal 
made to our Honorary Secretary, he was told the men would per- 
form the ceremony. In most cases they take place quite early. 
Janko, who was only eighteen, was already a father; and Worso 
Morkdsko, aged sixteen, intended to marry soon. Sophie's eldest 
son must have been at least nine or ten, though she was only 
twenty-seven at the time of her death ; and just before Andreas left 
for Monte Video, he went to Budapest and fetched a bori, appar- 
ently for his son Vasili, though the latter was only twelve or 

.Money enters very much into the marriage question, as into 
everything else, among these people. The young man, as soon as 
he starts earning, begins to collect gold coins for his future bride 
to wear; and unless the bride's father is a very wealthy man, the 
bridegroom's father has to pay a considerable sum of money for his 
son's bride. Dzordzi Demeter had paid 2500 marks for a daughter 
of Lolo Kosmin as a bride for one of his sons, and was bitterly 
repenting his bargain, as she slept thirteen hours a day and refused 
to cook (tti kamel te kjiriavel) or to sew. Probably the payment 
of this dowry was the main part of the ceremony, as it was in the 
case of the Gypsy wedding in Poland described by Kajetan Dunbar 


in the Wide World Magazine for March 1910. The prices paid in 
that Polish camp were far higher than those mentioned by our 
Gypsies, and reached as high as 10,000 roubles (£1000). 

Of their funeral ceremonies more is known owing to the death 
of Sophie or Zaza, wife of Adam Kirpats and daughter of Nikola, 
during their stay at Beddington Corner. For the details about 
her burial I quote from the information collected at very great 
trouble from all the parties concerned, and kindly placed at my 
disposal by Mr. F. Shaw : — 

' Sophie lay ill at Mitcham for some weeks owing to want of 
proper attention after giving premature birth to a child, for which 
the Gypsies had not called in either doctor or midwife. On 
October 10, 1911, her condition became so serious that a specialist 
was summoned and she was removed to Carshalton Cottage 
Hospital, where an operation was performed on her. But it was too 
late; and on the 12th she died. On the next day a party of the 
Gypsies called on the undertaker and ordered an oak coffin, with 
brass fittings and a fringe round it. They gave him the exact 
measurements for the coffin, which they required to be made un- 
usually large, at least six inches too long, and big enough to contain 
a person of 18| stone, though Sophie was not at all a big woman. 

' On going to the mortuary he found that the body had already 
been prepared for burial by some of the Gypsy women ; and the 
nurse told him it had been washed with salt and water. The body 
was dressed in the ordinary clothes of the women, including no 
less than five petticoats, and all the clothes were perfectly new. 
The arms were crossed upon the breast ; and the undertaker was 
warned that he was not to remove or even touch the headdress. 

' The clothes worn by Sophie during life were neither burned 
nor buried (as stated in some newspapers), but were given by the 
Gypsies to neighbouring cottagers. 

' The next morning the Gypsies were very angry to find that 
the body was in the coffin, and that it had been screwed down. 
They insisted upon having the lid removed, and when this was 
done they put a new pair of boots on the body, and clasped 
round the neck a necklace consisting of twelve large gold coins, 
two of them being English £5 pieces. A massive silver belt 
was buckled round the waist, and a towel, a piece of soap, and a 
small mallet were placed in the coffin. 

'During the time that the body was unburied the Gypsies 
were terrified of darkness. The hooting of an owl filled them 


h fear, and even the chief would not leave his tent after 

ini',,11 unless accompanied by one of the men. 
During the time the body was in the mortuary there were 
frequent sprinklings with water accompanied by "lamentations," 
the men standing by with lighted candles in their hands, or 

sers in which they burned cone-shaped objects about one 
inch in diameter at the base and two and a half inches high. 
They refused to allow the undertaker to screw down the lid 
again, and wanted him to take the coffin along the road to the 
churchyard as it was, simply covered by the pall. 1 This of 
course could not be done. So in the end the lid was loosely 
laid on the coffin over the pall, which was of lace lined with 
yellow satin and having a deep fringe of blue. This the Gypsies 
themselves provided. There was no other attempt at decoration 
— no flowers or anything of the kind. 

' At ten o'clock the body was borne from the mortuary to 
the hearse by Nikola and Lolo Kosmin on one side, and Adam 
Ki'rpats and Morkos the dwarf on the other. The two first-named 
are very tall men, and they had to rest the colfin on their arms 
in order that Adam and the dwarf might use their shoulders. 
Even then the body was in great danger of being tipped out. 
The chief mourners discarded the silver buttons on their coats 
and waistcoats. Nikola wanted the driver to walk at his horses' 
heads instead of sitting on the box, but this was not consented 
to. Although there were four mourning coaches in the cortege, 
nobody rode in them. 

' As the procession proceeded from Carshalton it was joined 
by various groups of women from the camp, who behaved in a 
most extraordinary fashion, tearing their hair, beating their 
breasts, wailing and throwing themselves upon the ground. In 
some cases the men of the tribe had to restrain them, and hold 
their arms so that they should not do injury to themselves. 2 
Both men and women were dressed in their gaudiest clothes; 
Nikola wearing a heavy gold chain, but the large egg-shaped 
silver buttons usually worn on his coat had been removed. The 

1 In Kumania the corpse is carried on a bier exposed to the public gaze 
(•). W. Ozanne, Three Years in Roumania, London, 1878, p. 162). Cf. also T. 
• V o, From Carpathians to Pindus (London, 1906), p. 293 : ' The dead person 
is carried uncovered to church, that he may behold this fair world for the last time, 
and take from it a last farewell.' Mr. Ackerley tells me this is the case in Russia 

' This, too, is a gazo custom in Rumania (Ozanne, p. 163) and in many Eastern 


only children attending the funeral were three belonging to 
Adam Kirpats, and babies in arms who were not old enough 
to be left unattended in the camp. Nikola walked immediately 
behind the hearse followed by the crowd of Gypsies, talking 
excitedly — many of them smoking. All the men were bare- 

' The Roman Catholic burial service was used, and was con- 
ducted by Father Pooley of Mitcham, who said the Gypsies 
seemed to understand the ceremony perfectly. At Mitcham Old 
Church the coffin was taken to the little mortuary chapel and 
placed upon low trestles. Nikola next removed the lid and the 
tribe gathered round, the women wailing and shedding tears. 
Again the body was sprinkled with water. At this stage of the 
proceedings gold, silver, and copper coins were put in the coffin, 
apparently according to some rule, for in some instances, when 
the Gypsies had not the necessary copper, they asked spectators 
to change silver pieces, sometimes taking less than their face 
value in order to get the particular coins required. 

' After a flask of water had been placed in the coffin the lid 
was once more screwed down, and the service proceeded with, 
but it was soon stopped in order that some of the men might go 
to purchase a supply of candles. Then the chief requested that 
the lid of the coffin might be unscrewed in order that the 
mourners might take a last look at the body. This Father 
Pooley permitted, but when the lid had again been put on 
and the Gypsies wanted it taken off once more, he refused, and 
at length the service in the chapel was concluded. The coffin 
was carried to the grave by four of the Gypsies, followed by all 
the men of the tribe bearing lighted candles in their hands. 
The women did not join in the procession, but sat on the ground 
in groups, wailing, lamenting, and smoking. Before the coffin 
was placed in the grave the chief asked the undertaker for a 
mallet and chisel, intimating that he wanted a hole cut in the 
coffin. Accordingly some holes were bored with an auger, and 
an aperture about eight inches square was made in the left-hand 
side of the coffin, near the foot. 1 When the coffin had been 

1 According to J. Slavici, Die Rumanen in Ungarn, Siebenbiirgen und der 
Bukovina (Wien, 1881), p. 172, in Bukovina two holes are often bored in a coffin, 
| one on each side near the head of the corpse, so that the dead person may be better 
able to hear the wailing. Cf. also T. Stratilesco, p. 293 : ' In places where it is not 
allowed to bury the dead uncovered, two little windows are cut on both sides of 
the coffin, about the head, for the dead to breathe, they say, and Bee his friends, 



red into the grave the chief produced a bottle of rum, and 
after ceremoniously pouring some on the coffin, drank some 
himself and passed the bottle round to his companions. When 
the service at the graveside terminated, the women all returned 
to the camp, but many of the men remained watching the grave 
until it had been filled with solid brickwork instead of earth 
and a heavy stone slab placed upon it. 1 During this vigil the 
chief remained seated on the ground, while the other Gypsies 
stood about smoking and talking cheerfully. After a time some 
of them went away and returned with bread and ham, with 
which they refreshed themselves. 

' Later in the day, after all the Gypsies had returned to the 
camp, a ceremony called trisn was observed. This consists of 
placing some ashes in a large copper vessel round which the 
Gypsies gather with wailings and incantations. This observance 
was repeated on November 21st (forty days after the death). 
On Tuesday, three days after the funeral, the grave was visited 
by some of the men, who poured beer over it from a bottle, 
which they linally broke upon a neighbouring tombstone. 
They went again on the day that the camp was vacated. Nine 
days after the funeral a feast was held, and, according to an 
interpreter who lived with the Gypsies, would again be held at 
intervals of three, six, and twelve months after the date of the 
burial.' 2 

With this excellent account should be compared the 
ceremonies described by Mr. Augustus John as taking place at 
Marseilles after the death of a member of a similar band in 
Belgium. On the arrival of a messenger from Russia at 
Birkenhead on August 7, 1911, announcing the death of a brother 
of one of the Gypsies there, we heard the sister singing a lament 

and hear those who lament after him, and take leave of them.' Stratilesco also 
mentions that among Rumanians the friends give the measurement for the coffin, 
hut are careful not to make it too large, as that would mean another death in 
the family (p. 292) ; and that before the lowering of the coffin-lid, the priest throws 
wine across the dead (p. 294). It would seem as though the Gypsies had copied 
these customs, either misunderstanding or wilfully altering them. 

1 A small iron cross, about two feet high, with foliated ends, a wide transverse 
bearing a heart on which 'Sophie Tschuron' is cast, and a circle with 
' J.M.J. ' at the top and 'R.I. P.' at the bottom, was afterwards placed on the 

- The names of these feasts were given by Vasili as pomtina enja djesinge, 

6ve kurkdnge, pomdna d6pa» e bSrMshi, and pomcina b5rseski. The same 

. under the same name pomdna, are attributed to the Rumanians by J. 

Uavici, Die Rumdnen, p. 172, except that the first is on the fourteenth not the 

ninth day : they continue till the end of the seventh year. 


in the drill-hall. But unfortunately it ceased as we entered, and 
we did not observe any other ceremonies. This lament was 
probably extemporary ; * but among their songs was one describing 
the death and burial of a certain Tjerka and the forlorn condition 
of her husband and children. 

The extravagant expression of grief noticed at the funeral is 
not confined to such occasions; for under the influence of any 
passion their usually sedate behaviour at once gave way to 
wildness. When her son fell down in one of his fits, Sophie 
would walk up and down with distorted face, clutching her hair 
and wailing a dirge, and even the queenly Tmka would give way 
to tears and lamentations. And in moments of anger they were 
equally uncontrollable. Once, when Mr. Atkinson and I were 
sitting in the house at Southfields drinking tea with the amiable 
Todor and his wife, a man burst into the room with a naked 
infant under each arm, plumped them down on the floor, shouted 
maren pe, and disappeared as he had come. Todor sprang to his 
feet, called to us to follow, and insisted on our doing so. So we 
blundered down pitch-dark stairs and passages into the garden. 
There, between the two tents of Milos and Dzordzi,in a torrent of 
rain was a youth with nothing on but his trousers and a shirt 
torn into shreds, raving and struggling like a madman with three 
or four others who were trying to hold him. Past, him Todor led 
the way, guided by the noise, to Dzordzi's tent, which on account 
of the rain had been closed with ' balks ' so that there was only an 
opening about a yard square to creep in at. Inside was the entire 
party, about forty or fifty people, in a circle, round the blazing 
brazier in the centre of the tent, all, save one youth who stood 
sullenly silent, clamouring at the top of their voices and 
gesticulating wildly. The dispute got so heated that even the 
two patriarchs, Dzordzi and Milos, had to be forcibly restrained 
from taking their coats oft' and going for each other ; and every 
few minutes it was rendered livelier, as the violent youth outside 
contrived to drag himself and the people who were clinging to him 
through the small opening of the tent, nearly bringing the whole 
structure on our heads. Repeated ejections, the rain, and still 
more his own ravings, tired him in time ; but the clamour lasted 
for half an hour or more, and we left it still going on, though 

1 In London some of Lolo Kosmin's band sang a song, which must have been 
more or less extemporary, as it mentioned London and their inability to get work 
there. But they may have merely inserted topical references in an old ditty. 


rft | her more peaceably, when we managed to slip away unseen. For 
ftngely they refused to let us go until the dispute was over, 
though the noise was such that we could not possibly make our- 
,. s heard as peace-makers. Tn this case, fortunately, the knife 
with which the noisy youth attacked the silent one was wrested 
!,,,„, him before any damage was done; but letters from Trieste 
reported that a quarrel among a band there ended fatally; and 
certainly the quarrelsome youth on this occasion would not have 
stopped short of murder, if he had not been prevented. But 
their anger passed quickly. On the next day the two were quite 

friendly again. 

Of education it is hardly necessary to speak in the case of 
Gypsies. Most of them had received none in the ordinary sense 
of the term, and they were excellent examples of its futility. A 
wide experience of the world and native common sense and 
acuteness had made them wise enough ; and I doubt if any of 
the persons who traded with them complained of their ignorance. 
They were expert in money reckonings; though it must be 
admitted that the chief in translating £250,000 into francs got the 
sum wrong ; but that is hardly to be wondered at, when he was 
dealing with money of which he had little experience. What was 
more surprising was their inability to learn English. They 
declared that French, Italian, and Spanish presented no difficulty 
to them : and the chief had picked up very fair German in eight 
months' residence there: many of the children, too, were fluent 
linguists, and could speak, more or less, as many languages as they 
had years; but English they were very slow in acquiring; indeed, 
many of them departed after eight or nine months stay little wiser 
than when they came. One reason perhaps was that, in most of 
rhe large towns, they found such a liberal supply of Jewish 
interpreters that they had little necessity to wrestle with the 
language, and natural laziness prevailed. Mi'los's family progressed 
better than the others, and most of them can speak a little now; 
and in Nottingham they had to, for lack of interpreters. His 
grandchildren, too, have been attending school, when not playing 
truant, in all the towns they have visited ; but the others seemed 
expert in evading it. Vasili and Milanko, however, had somehow 
Learned their letters sufficiently to write their names; and among 
their elders Vania Kosmin and one of Worso Kokoiesko's relatives 
possessed the same accomplishment. 

Though they despised almost all other Gypsies and had little 


to do with them, they had picked up in their wanderings some 
little knowledge of Romani dialects. They could understand 
Dobrowolski's Russian Romani and Gilliat-Smith's Ldlere Sinte 
specimens when read to them ; and Milanko knew the song Sosa 
Grisa} Andreas, who was a purist and highly interested in 
Romani, once indulged in a dissertation with illustrations of 
differences between their own Romani, Russian Romani, and the 
Romani of the Suite, by whom he probably meant German Gypsies. 
The Russians, for instance, would use dikdem and not dildem, 
while the Sinte said barikerati and na in place of na'is and Ui. 
But linguistics are outside the limits of this article, and Mr. 
Ackerley has undertaken to treat of what was collected by most 
of us who visited them. So here I leave him to take up 
the tale. 


with Texts and Vocabulary 
By Frederick George Ackerley 


THE specimens of the nomad Gypsy Coppersmith dialect with 
which we have to deal were collected in England by sundry 
members of the Gypsy Lore Society. The circumstances were 
probably unique, in that the Gypsies and ourselves used Romani 
as the ordinary medium of conversation. Usually recorder and 
reciter had no language in common save Romani itself. Thus 
explanations of doubtful phrases were exceptionally difficult to 
obtain. French was useful in some cases, but German hardly at 
all. Only one of us knew any Russian, and that not of the fluent 
conversational order. Most of us were unskilled in the recording 
of strange sounds, and consequently there is a good deal of varia- 
tion in spelling. In editing these texts I have tried to make the 
spelling fairly uniform, having due regard to the frequent inter- 
change of sounds in the actual speech of the Gypsies. On the 
whole, it has not been difficult to eliminate the personal peculiari- 

1 J. Q. L. S.,iv. 125. 

n« >■!• 


ties and mistakes of the recorders. In the matter of aspirated 
consonants, one of our workers confesses that he fails to hear the 
aspirate, and in handing me a text suggested that I should supply 
fchem whore they ought to be found. This I have not always done, 
as it would have involved a degree of editing which would have 
rendered the texts untrustworthy. I have retained an aspirated r 
in sonic instances, in accordance with the record lying before me, 
though I suspect that the orthography owes something to a 
remembrance of Dr. Sampson's Welsh Gypsy Tales, in which rh is 
used to represent a Welsh sound. 1 

English-speaking people are notoriously bad recorders of 
foreign vowel-sounds, because our own so-called long vowels are 
always combined with a glide. Thus our long o is really o plus 
glide- w, and our long i is i plus glide-j. This peculiarity of our 
speech provides many pitfalls. "We have a difficulty in appreciat- 
ing a genuine pure long vowel. Furthermore, our r is generally 
vocalic and not consonantal. In this Romani dialect the elision 
of a following s causes compensatory lengthening of a vowel, but 
the resulting pure long vowel is apt to suggest, to an English ear, 
the presence of our glide-r. Thus ansurimasko becomes ansuri- 
md'ko, and is recorded ansurimarlo. One of my correspondents 
notes that ' they continually confused s and r, as in lesko, lerko, 
and many other cases.' Now it is obvious that in the example 
cited the Gypsy said li'ko, with a lengthened 5, though one might 
compare tur for ttisa (J. G.L.S., New Series, i. 135). When once 
the cause of this confusion is recognized, it is easy to discover the 
cases where r should be deleted or 5 inserted. But one cannot so 
easily decide as to the real quality of the vowel in such a word as 
to-, ' to clean.' In one case, where two records were made at the 
same time, there appear the variants to-les, and tor-les. Perhaps 
this should be tou-les, toa-les, or even tos-les, but it is impossible 
to decide from the manuscript which is right. 2 

Mr. \\ mstedt writes that he is quite certain that there was a strong aspirate 
in rhing, fairly sure that it occurred also in rhil, but that he is not absolutely 
• rtaiu that it was audible in rhod-. 

• I take this opportunity of acknowledging the very ready help that has been 
given me by Mr. E. 0. Winstedt, the Rev. D. M. M. Bartlett, Mr. B. J. Gilliat- 
Smith, and the Hon. Secretary of the Gypsy Lore Society. It has been a privilege 
to u..rk with them. Mr. Bartlett is to be congratulated on having, in the midst of 
strenuous parochial labours, obtained the best literary specimen of the dialect, the 
fine first fragment of the Novako epic. His manuscript shows plainly what care 
and patience he must have brought to the task. Mr. Sidney W. Perkins has 
rendered valuable help in tracing etymologies, and has laid us under an obligation 
by lending me his copy of Sztojka's book. It is also due to onr Gypsy friends that 


I. Extempore Conversations 

The text of these conversations is not in a very satisfactory 
state, the first two being early records taken down before the 
writers were accustomed to the peculiarities of the dialect. The 
translations are inevitably studded with lacunae. The general sense, 
however, is tolerably clear, and they are valuable as specimens of 
the conversational style. 

(a) Dictated by Jdnko, the chief's son, and Fristik Savolosko, 

4 June 1911 

Sdmas dndo Portogdl, them laso. Kola 1 Ija dnde Lizboa 2 
dez mi. 3 dad la Koldsko la biz mi, pai biitsi. Akand 'vilja 
(v.l. 'vilom) dnde Anglia. Kola da dui mi; o Jcdko Worso da 
trin mi. Avilo man 4 dnde Mar silia oyto zene: alo me e kom- 
pania Nikola. Worso Kokoiesko, Sorensa po mui, da star gdlbi, 
Mui Suho, 5 dndo Liverpool de dnde Marsela. Haj avd te kero 
mandzin dnde Anglia. Ka . . . [Fight at this point !] 

Akdna zas dnde Russia, S. Peterburg, te tsinds kherd, ta te 
Uinds gras : ka si Idve tsinel, ka naj love kosel le graste'n. 
K6la le Mi-^aUsko zed dndo Peterburgo te Uinel star kliera : dnde 
jekh te bssel, dnde jekh te %al, dndo /cava te kalel, 6 dndo kava te 
zil ando. 

We were in Portugal, a fine country. Kola got ten thousand francs in Lisbon. 
Kola's father got twenty thousand by his work. Now we have come to England. 
Kola gave two thousand ; uncle gave three thousand. There came to 
Marseilles eight of a party : there came Nikola's company. Worso Kokoiesko, 
with a beard (pi.) on his face, gave four pounds, Thin Face, in Liverpool and in 
Marseilles. And I come to make a fortune in England. He who . . . 

Now we are going to Russia, S. Petersburgh, to buy houses, and to buy horses : 
he who has money will buy, he who has no money will groom the horses. Kola 

their share should not be forgotten. We have been met by them with more patience 
and kindly good-fellowship than we had any right to expect. Pe sastimaste, phra- 
lale! Te keren but mandzin ande Amtrika! 

1 Eldest son of the chief of the same name. Here the chief is Kiiko WdrSo and 
dad la KoldSko. 

2 Portuguese Lisboa 'Lisbon.' 

3 ' Ten thousand francs.' Ten milreis (two guineas) is too inconsiderable a sum 
for a Gypsy to mention. 

4 Avilo man . . . alo me. These are probably ethical datives following 

5 ' Thin Face,' a nickname applied to our Hon. Secretary, otherwise known as 

6 There is some doubt about these verbs. Kalel, v.l. x a l ( 'h "light be compared 
with chalav ' wash' (Mik., v. 25). 2il looks like a loan-verb with stem sutiix ■>. 

VOL. VI. — NO. IV. U 


, on f Mi, hai I goes to Petersburgh to buy four houses : in one to sit, in one to eat, 
nother to dance ?)> in another to live in(?). 

(b) From Worfo, son of Morkos' Ts~6ron 

.1 vile o Rom anda Russia, haj piren le Romensa le Franzosos- 

■.■„ i undo thema, haj keren butii le Romensa le Franzososkensa, 

/,,,; /, „ love. TSi den anda 1 dez mi; den le po did po trin 

Li Rom I? Ru88iake bari % ^ lengi- Gsndina pe so te 

n. Teporin 3 le ho leher leforo'ko. Ko rat, ko djes, kerena baro 

i /msa* run trajena ande Russia. Maj hut love kerenas 

ande hoda Russia, haj akuna and' el thema Ungarinkorosa, 5 Haj 

ma naj IcanU. 

The Gypsies came from Russia, and they travel with the French Gypsies in 

countries, ami do work with the French Gypsies, and get money. They do 

noi pay <>ut ten thousand francs ; they pay them by two or three hundreds. The 

in Gypsies arc very angry with them. They consider what to do. They 

' them to the Town Hall. By day, by night, they do great work, . . . they 

r in Russia. They used to make more money in that Russia, and now in 

the regions of Hungary. I have no more (to say). 

(c) From Janko, son of Nikola Tsoron, 23 August 1911 

Ame savias ando Portogal haj kerdom but mandzin, kerdam 
jefta-var-deS taj pandz mi franki, o dad ho e sail, o Kola ho 
Wor&o. Avilam ando Marseilles t'asunas kdtar o Milos haj kdtar 
• i Mdtej haj le won. 7 ASundjam lendar ks dine pe stradza ande 
1 1 alia. WorSo gsndisajlo wo f avel ande Anglia te kerel patsa. 8 
A vil ande Anglia kerdjas j><itsa. Avilo-tar palpale ando Marsel. 
Mutodja vo he ta i Av<iii<< naj but laH,saj trajil pe ande Anglia. 9 
Avilem amende andi Anglia e kompania Worsoske. Besljam ando 
Liv( rpool trin son. La Pudamo 10 pesko romniasa haj gelo ande 
Berlin kotar araklja le Mitoses taj Matejes ando Njantso. 

1 Den anda, '.' 'pay out.' Or should one read tSiden anda 'they put out,' i.e. 
' they expend '? 

2 'They give two or three hundred at a time.' 

3 Rum. tabari. 

4 A new sentence may begin here, ' The Russians, they live in Russia,' which 
seems a foolishly obvious remark. 

n-inlcorosa and Franzososkensa above are curious formations, the latter 
g derived from the < lypsy genitive of Rum. Frantuz ' Frenchman,' with perhaps 
a side-glance at the Rum. adjective franfazesc. 
r ' Ilo-hajo. 
■ Where they had come.' Le is possibly short for avile, participle plural. 
i. The word moans police permit to reside. 

I England is not very good, one can exist in England.' 
10 Nickname of Adam KirpatS. 


Njantso but las"o te kerel buUi. Dinje lovaria gazeturi 1 te yp-^aven 
le Rom andi butsi. Avilo o Franlcoj hoj Janko ho 2 Dzarjesko te 
diken sar si Anglia. Von kana avile o Worso na(s) khere. Ando 
London sas. BeUo o Frankoj trin ratja amende haj gelo-tar anda 
London pala Worso te keren patsa. Frankoj leske familiasa — 
waj k' avela andi Anglia waj ka nits"? Haj ame Luini za-tar 
anda London te kerav butsi te pirela me po milione frankoj 

We were in Portugal and made much wealth, we made seventy-five thousand 
francs, the father and the son, Kola and Worso. We came to Marseilles in order 
to hear from Milos and from Matej where they have come. We heard from 
them that they were deported to Italy. Worso thought he would come to 
England to get permission. He came to England and got permission. Back 
he came to Marseilles. He related that England is not very good, (still) one 
can live in England. We, Worso's company, came to England. We camped 
in Liverpool three months. Pudamo with his wife took and went to Berlin, there 
he found Milos and Matej in Germany. Germany is very good for doing work. 
The newspapers reported (?) that the Gypsies cheat in their work. Frankoj came, 
and Janko the son of Dzuri, to see how England is. When they came Worso 
was not at home. He was in London. Frankoj stopped three nights at our 
place, and went off to London after Worso to get permission. Frankoj with 
his family — will he come to England, or will he not ? And we are going off on 
Monday to London that I may do work. . . . 

(d) From Jono, brother-in-law of Nikola 

Ame ando Belfast, ame kerdam kakavi. Fdrdi sa ando 
Ungriko, haj x a ^J as ^ nn m ^ frdnkuri, ta Ija bori i kdtar Patika. 

Savolo manga 5 lila kana ame zas ande Amerika. Ame 
dile tsi som: ame but godjaver som, 'me tsi trada le'ka lila. Ame 
les x°X a dJ om - Ljam la boria haj aviljam kada. Haj kana 
pahva & galbi. Ame naj love, phrala. Me sim baro 7 nas valo, 
phrala; man dukhal 'per, phrala; man da dosto, phrala. 8 

1 'They gave monies to the newspapers,' or 'the newspapers gave monies,' can 
hardly be the sense. There were some protests against the inclusion of this 
sentence, the reason being, as the recorder understood, that the newspapers had 
accused the Gypsies of dishonesty. 

2 One would expect le instead of ho. 

3 Partja is probably a variant of patSa, but cf. Rum. parte, share, portion. 

4 Evidently a much gilded damsel who was with Fardi's party at the time this 
was dictated. 

5 Read ma/ngsl. 

6 Read phrala, da— "brother, give." 

7 Note this example of baro used as an adverb. The identical expression is 
found in Song iii. f. and Paspati, p. 412, has the exactly similar "pard nasvald, 
(Nom.) grave (ment) malade." 

8 A delightful example of Gypsy begging. Once started, this sort of thing 
threatened to go on all day with patient persistence. 


W,. W ere in Belfast, we made kettles. Fan! i was in Hungary, and expended 
three thousand francs, and got a bride from Patika. 

■ !.. ,. ben we are going to America. We are not fools : we are 
mv C ute, wedonol band him tickets. We deceived him. We took the bride 
:m ,l" ,„,,,,. here. And now, brother, give pounds. We have no money, In-other. 
I might} ill, brother; my stomach aches, brother ; give me plenty, brother. 

II. Tales 
i (a) The Fool and his two Brothers 1 
(From Parvolo, alias Janko Tsoron) 

Sas trifi phral. Bui sa godiaver, thaj jek dilo. Thaj mulo 
lengo dad. Thaj phendia lengo dad, " Za per tale." 2 Kano vo 
merela, te avel sako phral kothe leste. Haj phendia o phral o 
baro,"Za tu,phrala dilija,k' amaro dad." Lia o phral o dilo 
jek leas' (borta ), :; h*j thodela po dumo, haj gelo kapesko dad. Haj 
a si [In lesko dad, haj dia les jek bal kalo. Kano vo tsinol les, 

'del undo kodo bal jek gras kalo. 

Haj phendia o r,n\peratd, kon khodela ka leski rakli ando 
kher, 3nkssto, kodoleske dela. Thaj phendia o phral o haro, 
- Hajdt .' /thru hi, te dikas kon khutela kai rakli." Thaj phendias 
<> '/ do, " Meg me, phrale, te dikau je me kothe." Haj marde Is' 
l< sko phral ; Ui mekle les. Thaj line le dui phral le grasten, haj 
gele-tar. Haj lias phral o dilo o bal, haj ker dilo leski jek gras 
ando bal, haj gelo-tar. Areslia peske do phralen, areslo palal : 
haj jtusle les " Kon tu san, manusa ? " Vo si manus depelmesti. 4 
Haj mardel le zorales peske phralen ; haj gelo-tar kai rakli. Haj 
huklo ando kher kai rakli Haj lias la raklia peske : haj tsumida 

lesko sokro, le diles. 

Haj tradela leskro sokro peske dui zamutren {godiaver 
zamutrc) le invdar&it. Isiriliia. Haj avilo-tar o dilo ka pesko 5mp{ raid, thaj phendia o dilo te del les pusJca te mudarel je 
ft i:,rildio. haj la/- dilo phaglias e puska, haj gelo-tar peske 
dujt gorensa. Vo sas trito. Haj pirde leske sogore so 6 
is, haj Isi murdade kantsi tsiriklia. Haj dilo mudardias 

1 This tale was dictated slowly, syllable by syllable. 

'■' Zn per tale. Glossed 'Go to bed.' Probably for zav te per av tele. Compare 

'to go to bed,' ./. G. /.. X., v . 3.-,, s , v . tele. 
■■ Borta was given as a variant. 4 Glossed vitjaz. 

La. Perhaps one should compare the often meaningless use of li=vi, also, in 

Qtinescu's talcs. So again live lines from the end of this paragraph. 
In the translation 1 take so to be a mistake for haj ; but the sentence is not 
It might be "walked after what he (the emperor) sought." 


le IcaHesa but Uirildia, bi-pusltako. Haj avile leske sogore, haj 
diJde le Uiriklian : haj den pe duma " dilo mudardias but 
Uirildia, haj ame Mi mudardiam kanU." Haj mangen le Uiri- 
klian kdtar o dilo, te del le lenge. Haj phendia o dilo " Kana la 
te sinav tumaro prasail (per) le kiriasa, atunUi dav tume le 
Uirildia, haj phenau 1c o 'mperato Ice tume mudardian le 
Uirildia." Haj kana sindia o prasaU lengo, haj del lenge i Uiri- 
ldia, haj gele-tar khere. 

Haj dildias smperato le but Uirilde, haj lovodil pesko do 
zamutren. Haj pusel le diles " Tu Ui murdan kanU?" Haj 
phenel o dilo le smperatoski "Me kudala Uirildia me murdardem 
le. Tu man Ui patsjas? Me fondem le suriasa lengo prasau, 
tha dem lenge le Uirildia." Haj vasdas smperato lengo gad, haj 
dildia lengo prasan. E Uirikli si but lasi. Haj phendias 
smperato ke leske zamutre, " Bile manus ! soste von mekle te 
sindias lengro prasau ? " 1 

Thaj ma naj kanU. 

There were three brothers. Two were wise, and one a fool. And their father 
died. Now their father said, 'I am going to take to my bed.' When he dies, 
each brother is to come there to him. And the big brother said, ' Do you go, 
foolish brother, to our father.' The foolish brother took a stick and put it on his 
shoulder, and went to his father. And his father got up, and gave him a black 
hair. Whenever he cuts it, there will come out of this hair a black horse. 

Now the emperor said, whoever climbs up to his daughter in the house, on 
horseback, he will give her to that one. And the big brother said, ' Come along, 
brother, to see who will climb up to the girl.' And the fool said, ' Let me, 
brothers, see (whether) I too (can get) there.' And his brothers beat him ; they did 
not let him. And the two brothers took the horses, and off they went. But the 
foolish brother took the hair, and there was made for him a horse from the hair, 
and off he went. He caught up his two brothers, he caught them up from 
behind : and they asked him, ' Who are you, man 1 ' He is a hero. And he beats 
them severely, his brothers ; and off he went to the girl. And he climbed up into 
the house to the girl. And he took the girl for himself : and his father-in-law 
kissed him, the fool. 

And his father-in-law sent off his two sons-in-law (the wise sons-in-law) to kill 
birds. And the fool came to his father-in-law the emperor, and the fool said that 
he should give him a gun that he too may kill birds. And the fool took and broke 
the gun, and he went off with his two brothers-in-law. He was the third. And 
his brothers-in-law walked (about) whom he sought, and they did no! kill an} 
birds at all. But the fool killed with the stick many birds, without a gun. 
And his brothers-in-law came and saw the birds : and they said to themselves, 
'The fool has killed many birds, am! we have killed none.' And they beg 
the birds from the fool, that he should give them to them. And the fool said, 

1 This tale is a very feeble version of a istury of the Cinderella type obtained 
fromaTSoron at Cracow, and published in J. (.'. L. S., Old Series, i. tv4 S. This 
and the following translations are made exceedingly bald and literal on purpose. 
Their object is merely to elucidate the grammatical meaning of the texts. 


.. wlil „ | kake and cul your bellies with the knife, then will I give you the birds, 

I riu tell tl aperor thai you have killed the birds.' And when he ha 

cut their belli. I them the birds, and they went off home. 

x L the emperor saw the many birds, and praises his two sons-m-law. And 
h i the fool 'Have you killed none?' And the fool teUs the emperor, It 
w /. , whQ kl |, rl , fc hose birds. S-ou do not believe me? I cut their bellies with 
the knife and gave them ill- birds. 3 And the emperor pulled up their shirts, 
.,.„, loo] ,.,i ,,, tin ir bellies. The birds are very good. And the emperor said to 

i D !;, w, ' Silly fellows ! why did they let him cut their bellies ? ' 

I have no more. 

(b) A Providential Meal 
(From Worso, son of Morkos Tsoron) 
Si jek phuro Rom haj ek phuro rhing. 1 Von si tsore. So, 
gsndina pe, Devla, te x an arat - Fhuro rhin 9 ka J phenela le 
phwro reske : "Za-ta! an amenge te %<xs." " Katdr me dzamav 2 
i u menge te x aw, ke naj love man ? " Phuro rhing gela, malavela 
haj rovela. Delarena dui zene ando wes te tjiden barburitsa. 
Haj <> Rom t§ arakhena barburitsa. Son? Devla, kam-kerena? 
El k'avel lenge gazo ando drom, haj pusena les"Si tumanro? 
te da mange kotor manro te x^s. Kame-meras 4 bokhatar. Tu tsi 
d( n mange manro, kame-meras." Mang baro. 5 "Naj ma manro 
te dava tumen." Delarena pengo drom khere. Phuro rhing so 
• m-kerela, Devla ? Roimasa zala. Phendi "Me merava bare rat 
baro bokhatar!' Arakhena ando drom pas-manro haj kolumpilje 
haj mas. Von aradujina pe lc arakhle kodomanro haj kodo mas. 
Zana khere; arasena khere ; dela i kekavi ando vas, haj thola pai 
ande kekavi: haj tliol o mas 6 and re te tjiron. Haj thona pe 
skafidi te x an - Kada tjiron. Xana pxdai skafidi zi kana Ui 
xlj ena pe-~ 

Then' is an old man and an old woman. They are poor. What, think they, 
God, are they to eat to-night? The old woman says to the old gentleman, 

1 Rhing. Why this should be masculine all through this tale I cannot say. It 
Is feminine in Italian Pvomani. 

I> aii anav. 
a for so. 
4 Karru may he merely k'ame accented on the first syllable as in ii. d. : soste 
phrala, . . . Mr. Winstedt, however, prefers to take learnt as a variant of 
i- the future prefix. 

' This seems to be an aside, reminding one of Borrow's tale ' Mang, Praia,' in 
the Lavo-Lil. 

• - is plural, meaning ' the provisions.' 
' This vulgar expression I have paraphrased by one slightly less vulgar but 
equally expressive of repletion. Literally, ' until they evacuate themselves.' TU 
in this phrase is redundant. Compare, for instance, zi-puni-tB in Text iv. c. 
(though there it may represent not the Romani negative but Paimanian aci), and 
£i-kdna-tSi in v. b. sentence IS. 


' Go and bring us something to eat.' ' Whence shall I go and bring you some- 
thing to eat, for I have no money ? ' The old woman goes and begins to weep. 
The two together set off into the forest to gather barberries. But the Gypsies do 
not find any barberries. What, God, shall they do ? Lo ! there comes to them 
a gorgio on the road, and they ask him, ' Have you bread ? give us a bit of bread 
to eat. For we shall die of hunger. If you do not give me bread then we shall 
die.' Beg hard. 'I have no bread to give you.' They set off on their way 
home. The old woman, what shall she do, O God ? She goes with weeping. 
She said, « I shall die the long night with great hunger.' They find in the road 
half a loaf and potatoes and meat. They set off because they have found that 
bread and that meat. They go home ; they arrive home ; she takes the kettle in 
her hand, and puts water in the kettle : and she puts the meat in to stew- 
And they place for themselves a table to eat. These things are cooked. They 
eat at the table until they are fit to burst. 

(c) The Lost Child 
(Lolo Kosmin's son-in-law) 

Sukar paramiU. Sa phuri zuvli, sas la * phuro rom, haj na 
la kive. A sa 2 la jek savo ternoro. " Devla ! Devla ! nais tuke, 
Devla! te cUla me jek savoro." 

Te dzal ando ves, dzal arakhel baro kopdts. Haj 'xfisajlo an do 
ves. Rodel les e phuri, o phuro rodel les ando ves. Haj ^aldli 3 
o ruv. 

Rovela phuri taj phuro anda savo. "Devla ! Devla ! Devla ! 
Devla ! " Midi i phurori. Asilo phuro. 

" So te kerav me zeno." 4 Zalo ka thagdri mangel vdreso but si. 
Haj toles kale gras, ande stala, kale gras. Haj dela o gras dab. 
Haj undo. Haj pabarde ando sidumd. Ha line o ukira, haj 
sude pe barwdl. 

A sweet tale. There was an old woman, she had an old husband, and she had 
no children. And she had one young boy. ' God, God, thanks to Thee, 
God ! for giving me a little son.' 

He (has) to go into the wood, he goes, he finds a big tree. And he is lost in 
the wood. The old woman seeks him, the old man seeks him in the wood. And 
the wolf ate him. 

The old woman weeps, and the old man (weeps) for the boy. ' God ! 
God ! God ! God ! ' The old woman died. The old man remained. 

'I know what to do.' He goes to the king, he asks for any sort of work. 
And he was cleaning a black horse, in the stable, a black horse. And the horse 
kicks him. And he died. And they burnt (him) in the straw. And they 
took the ashes, and cast them to the wind. 

1 Sas la, v.l. sa lala : saxalala. " MS. so. 

3 Xaldli. Glossed in pantomime 'howling,' but this probably was an attempt 
to explain o ruv. Head x'dj a ( s ) ^ e (*')- ^ ^ ie gl° ss is right compare Rumanian 
haldlae 'noise,' French hiu-ler, Latin ululare. 

4 Me zeno, v.l. me na dianau, ' I do not know.' 


(d) Sastruno Kher (The Iron House) l 

Sas hi i 80,8 '■' eh ph » ro haj phurori. Haj na le savoro oyto-var- 

,/, s ber Haj pormo arekddile 3 lengs dui raklorz pel phurimata. 

Haj o phuro Ija le, haj phandada le ando sastruno khsr. Haj 

V on beSIS, le dni phral, bis hers. Haj pormo von kothe barile. 

I/,,; von his hers manures tsi dikle. Pormo o maj baro phral 

plu ndja le tsignesks phraljslcs * :—Soste ame, phrala, bssas 5 kdti 

uw/i fohh kher? A i'-ta amenge, phrala, k' amaro phuro dad. 

Haj ame te phends amars'ka phure dadjs'ks 6 :— "Ame trolnd te 

L<is amengs anda kado sastruno kher avri." K' ame, phrala, sam 

vitjdza. Ame trobul te dzas amengs pe lumia, te dikas sar si pe 

I a m in le rndnus. 1C ame zumavas amari zor. K' asundjam ande 

gav serekano de5-u-do Serensa ; ame trobul te zumavas amari zor 

(e mudara 7 les. Ka Jcodo serekano buti manusen mudardja, haj 

sako hers trobul te del les pole 8 sero manuskano, haj ame trobul 

te mudaras Jeodoles SereJcanos te trajil e tern haj lumia, haj ame 

dui zene trajsaras po tern haj pe lumia. 

Once upon a time there was an old man and a little old woman. For eighty 
years they had no child. And then two boys were granted them in their old age. 
Ami the old man took them, and shut them up in the iron house. And they 

■ > 1, the two brothers, for twenty years. And so they grew big there. And for 
twenty years they never saw a man. Then the bigger brother said to the little brother : 
VV hy, brother, do we stop here in this house ? Come along, brother, to our old father. 
Ami let us say to our old father: — 'We must go out of this iron house.' For, 
brother, we are heroes (giants). We must go into the world, and see what people are 
like in the world. For we will prove our strength. For we have heard in a village 
(there is a monster with twelve heads ; we must prove our strength by killing him. 
For this many-headed monster has killed many men, and each year must be given 
him a human head for each one (of his heads), and we must kill this many-headed 
creature so that the country and the world may exist, and we may dwell together 
in the land and upon the earth. 

1 The first half of this tale was obtained from Vania Kosmin. Later it was 
revised and continued by one of Mixail TSoron's baud. 

- Sas kaj sas, ' there was where there was,' ' there was and there was,' or 'there 
There is a variant in the MSS. saspe, with which cf. Mik. Beitrdge, 
iv. ',] ■. h'ts pts/ct , na has pdskejek raj. 

I " idil . A good instance of the grammatical excellence of the Coppersmiths' 
dialect. It is the third person plural of the past tense of the passive of the causative 
of the verb arakli- " to find." It is difficult to express in English the full sense of 
the Romani idiom. 

4 Mss. phraljeka and phraljake. 
M SS. bysas and bersas. 

MSS. amareka phuro dadjeska, and amarake phure dadjake. 
' Recorded mudarar, for mudara(s). The vowel is lengthened in compensation 
for the loss of s. 

distributive, 'for each of his heads.' 


III. Songs 

(a) Gaze, Gaze 

Of this song two versions were obtained from members of 
Nikola Tsoron's party. That obtained by myself has the middle 
stanza which is lacking in the other record, and also shows an 
important variant in the third stanza. I print the three stanzas 
together, adding separately my variant of the third. The singer 
complains that the men have been let out while the women are 
still shut up, and begs for freedom. Evidently Ave have here a 
Gypsy Women's Suffrage manifesto. 

Gaze, Gaze, msri Gaze, Lady, lady, my lady, 

Mori sjemo 1 luludzoro, My dear little flower, 

Tssrde opre tje papuUia Pull on your shoes 

Kaj si pe lende set horn- Which have on them a hun- 

Te puterdau 2 trin komburia 
T anldin are 3 le roburia* 
Te den andre 5 ande birturia, 
Thaj ma %an, te maj pien, 
Pestji voja te ksren. 

dred knots. 
Let me untie three knots 
That the thieves may escape, 
That they may enter into taverns, 
And eat more, and drink more, 
And do their pleasure. 

Dengi dela, msri Gaze, 
Te saj pia me dopas rajtji. 
Pilem aba dopas rajtji, 

snke saj te pja 'me sor o 

Phuria ! ode man le gsn- 

Fedvoraka "' but si duri, s 
La romniake but gsnduria. 

He gives money, my lady, 
That I may drink half the night. 
I have already drunk half the 

Yet I can drink the whole 

Old woman ! give me your 

Fedvora has many longings. 
The wife has many thoughts. 

: Sjemo. Glossed 'I like very much.' 

2 Puterdau. One expects puterau. 

3 Anldin are, v.l. te dtn avri. 

4 Roburia, v.l. roltxri, robula. Glossed 'robbers.' One expects 'slaves.' 
Cf. Rum. rob. 

5 Den andre 'they enter.' But see J. G. L. S., iv. 230. There is a variant ti 
del ando virto. 

6 A conjectural reading. The MS. has ardenuin. Add may be compared with 
aU ' take,' in the Vocabulary. 

7 Mr. Winstedt guesses this to be a proper name. 

8 Duri. I take this for Rumanian plural of dor. Cf. Mik., v. 18, ddru. 


l.,i,ir,sl;t kada butji, 

I., rom traden, kaj 'men nitsi. 

Oj ! Gaze, msri Gaze, 
.}/..,•(' s/n i to luludzoro, 
Ti tradas sor o rajtji 
Te maj pias o dopa§ rajtji. 

Shameful is this work, 
They let the men depart, and us 

Oh ! lady, my lady, 

My dear little flower, 
Let us depart all the night 
To drink more half the night. 

Variant of the last stanza. 
Bare lazaveste 1 butji, Very shameful is the work, 

Le rom traden, thaj 'mi nits'. 

De mangsandre,msnge,Gaze, 2 
Te kij tradal sor o rajtj i 

Te del andre 
Andro bustaja. 3 

They let the men depart, and us 
Come in to me, to me, lady, 
That he may let (us) depart 
all the night 
To enter 

Into the gardens. 

(b) Dear Girl 
(Kodo-kaj phendja paramitsi o Mildnko ta Vasili) 

Kara* ma, Devla, sirikli 

Te ^« pe hanger i, 

Te la manga luludzi, 

Te tan la manga po maskav, 

Br age §ij. 
T asel manga maj sukdr, 

Drdge sij. 
Koko roso ando tsdro, 
Platfajamo* ko tsdvo, 

Drdge Hj. 

Make me, O God, a bird 
To fly to the church, 
To get me a flower 
To wear it at my waist, 6 

Dear girl. 
That it may remain more sweet 
to me, 

Dear girl. 
This rose in the pot, 
I will give pleasure to the lad, 

Dear girl. 

1 Lazaveste. An instance of the common change from k to t. 
- This line seems corrupt. 

; Bustaja. Plural of buslan ; cf. du$maja from duhnan. 

' For this form of the Imperative see Mile, xi. 43. This line occurs several 
times in Coustantineacu, e.<j. Song xvii. 
•' Lit. ' To put it for me at the waist.' 
PlatSajdmo for platSeau ma, compare amboldame in Text v. c. 



Jamen l sam e wajda 

Tsigno haj bid zanglo. 

Mang wajda, Is Romengi, 

Mol te pien. 

Te 'me lasa moloti 

Trin djes haj trin ratja. 

Pe mol e loli 

Kadeti mi piava, 

Gad ti dzarava 2 

Le bare bulengo 

Paruni dildengo. 

Jandi kusma me zava, 

Wolba molajtji mangava. 

I mail 3 si man sivo graj, 

Wo na yal, na pjel, 

Le kanentsa drom d' asunel. i 

Kadjiti me tradala 
Jando biatsi d' arasava 

Dui djes haj trin ratja. 5 

(c) Drinking 

(From MiLinko) 

We are the chieftains 

Little and well known. 

Beg chief, for the Gypsies, 

Wine for them to drink. 

Let us take wine 

Three days and three nights. 

In the red wine 

I will drink a barrel, 

I will stretch (my) shirt 


(Made) of silken kerchiefs. 

Into the inn I will go, 

I will demand a pint of wine. 

I too, I have a grey horse, 

He neither eats nor drinks, 

That he may hearken to the 

road with his ears. 
A cask shall carry me 
That I may attain to drunken- 
(For) two days and three nights. 

1 Jamen. I cannot explain the -n except as accidental nasalization. 

2 In a variant this is gad dzindzardva. Compare Anglo - Romani dindz-, 
J. G. L. S., New Series, iii. 221. The whole variant is interesting : — 

Ja mensam en wajda, 
T%igno haj but -angalo, 
Kajditsi me pidva, 
Gad dzindzarava, 
Ja mensam ek Frankoj 
Le Matejesko. 

The first line was glossed 'I am half one chief.' For en read ek, and translate 
'We (two) are one chieftain.' One would, however, expect ame not amen, which 
appears in both versions 

3 SeeMik., ix. 23. 

* It has been suggested that this may be part of a riddle, to which Professor 
Petsch agrees. The cask is the grey horse which neither eats nor drinks. 
Kanentsa may be a pan on Rumanian cand ' a pot.' The singer means that he will 
sit astride of a cask with the cork out of the bungdiole, and so will ride to 
' the great unknown and unseen world of Tdtto padni, from whence no chovrodo 
returns,' to quote the egregious George Smith of Coalville. 

5 There is some resemblance to lines of this song in the song printed in 
/. G. L. S., New Series, ii. 119. I take this opportunity of suggesting a textual 
amendment in the first stanza. Read : Ci Ico&talil maj but volba {\olba) ek Selaiii, 
' it will not cost more than a shilling a pint.' 


i n 


Ale Rinp,—&j! &?'•' &j/ 

(d) Ale Rino 1 
(From Milanko and Vasili) 

Ale Rino —Girl ! Girl ! Girl 
Thy too white mouth 
And thy too slender waist 
And thy black, black eyes 
Have cut me to the heart. 
Oh ! I have maidens ; 

■ i mui doyamd—foj ! 
II,, j tjo mdslcar do-sand— kj ! 
ffaj tijag kale, kale—$ej I 

nde man pa'l prafave?— Sej ! 
. I ; .' si ma manga sovori ; 3 — h ) .' 
.1 / 8 i ma mangalolodH;-iej! Oh! I have flowers; 

/ aha na borori.—Zej 1 Oh ! now have I a bride. 
,,, tso X a haj loli :-Sej ! I have a coat and it is red 
Kdna-godimdnglamdnditdvla Whenever. 
Sdngla inandi prastajel—§ej ! 4 

(e) Aj ! L 

Aj ! Lumaj, 5 lumaj, lumaj !- 

Luludz ia ! 
Eamp< 6 man, daje? pel zoria. 
Aj ! Po kowdjUi </<i<l melalo ; 
I po svirdjtsi gad />" mo. 

A ngardem la ando khas, 
Eaj tjinddm lake kila ' mas. 

Savi koda kaj avel? 
Sano mallear pagavel. 

umaj, Lumaj ! 

- Oh ! World, world, world ! 
Flowers ! 
Mother, I arose at dawn. 
Oh ! on the smith is a dirty shirt ; 
And on the musician is a white 

I brought her into the hay, 
And bought for her a pound of 

Who is this that comes ? 
She bends a flexible waist. 

1 This song was said to be a new one, just brought from Hungary ; and Ale Rino 
was described as Matejesko Bumbulestango bori. 

,. ./. <;. I.. S., New Series, ii. 4S, where the editorial comment is wrong. 
\ovori. Glossed 'girls.' but possibly Sovari 'Groschen,' of Mik. Beitrdge, 
iv. 11. 

1 A variant of the last two lines runs : — 

Kana-godi me to?i la 
Angla mandi sa voj praslela. 
the translation 'whenever I put it on she always runs before me (to 
meet me . M angla, tavla, and sangla were glossed rolcie 'skirt,' but possibly by a 
misunderstanding. Subsequently some Gypsies of Milos Tsoron's party denied the 
existence of any such words, except sangla 'apron.' The reader must make the 
best he can of a bad job. ' Wasili x°X a, U'' tut ■'' quoth one lady with a laugh. 
1 Lumaj. Always thus in singing : for livme. 

8 Hampe. Glo sed 'got up.' Mr. Gilliat-Smith writes: 'in Sophia they said 
the woid was \an-pe, " to eat," a reflexive of sorts. In Varna \ul j>t mange, daj( , 
kola I ne usual corresponding line.' 

' Variant dah , here and in the ninth line. 8 Kila ' kilogramme ' ? 



Aoigardem la, daje, po tramvaj, Mother, I took her on the tram- 

Tsindem laks sumnakaj. 
Savi Jcoda Jcaj aven ? x 
Sando 2 matfcar pagaden. 
Oj ! Uaj, rosi Uaj, 
Rosi, bini ! bini ! 

I bought her gold. 
Who are these that come ? 
They bend a slim waist. 
Oh ! maid, rosy(?) maid, 
Rosy, bravo ! bravo ! 

(f) Tsutso 
(From Vasili, with variant version by Fardi) 

Le man Tsutso Jce ssm tsati; 

Sove bogonen traddti. 

Te maj trades duwar so 

Pdstt mdnde na paso. 

Ts' dnde Pesta W araslim? 

Bdro nasvdlo pelim , 

Pe pwnrende paslerem.* 

Take me Tsutso who am a lad 

Six ' crocks ' I drive. 

Though you drive twice six 

Do not come near me. 

I did not reach Pesth, 

I fell very ill, 

I sat down on my heels. 

IV. Ballads 

(a) The Conscript 

(Recited by Vania Kosmin, and subsequently revised by two 
members of Milos Tsdron's band) 

Usti-ba dade le 5 Get up, father, 

Rdno raninlco tihdra Early, very early in the morning 

Taj dza-ba ha raj o baro 6 And go to the policeman 

Ta le-ba, tu, ta le-ba And get, you, and get 

lil o pdrno The white paper 

1 The last four lines form a refrain which is sung to a different melody and in 
quicker time. Mr. Gilliat-Smith has often heard this song in Bulgaria ; it seems to 
he a great favourite. Compare a version given by Gjorgjevic, Dit Zigeuner in 
Serbien, p. 119. 

2 Sando. A variant of sano. 

3 Glossed 'nous n'avons pas arrive a la Pesth,' but surely the verb is in tin- 

4 Fardi's variant has the verbs in the second and third lines in the third person, 
and tsua has the extraordinary form sal. There are at the end two additional 
lines : — 

Andc Tsulsa da Sukar 
Te Sej e terni. 

5 DcuUle. The revisers pronounced this naj luso. The same form was, however, 
passed in the third line from the end. Here they preferred dado. 

6 v.l. Taj dza-ba, dza-ba dadi ka raj o baro. The revisers preferred Taj dza lea 
raj k' o baro. 


y, „„ I n mem x M« (t " } So that the y do not take me for 

a soldier. 

m momgSla mvro tSavo love, My boy, he does not demand 

ra j na kamelUve, The policeman does not want 

Ta ka mil m ire 2 kale' grastes. He wants my black horse. 

.1/, / ; da va mire kale grastes. I will not give my black horse. 
Xi&a 8 t&tnen tire kretse bala, Doubtless they will cut your 

curly hair, 
Me kale grasten na dav. I will not give black horses. 

Slu Hnesa jeg beri You will serve a year 

Haj vavir, haj vi d£asa x ala ~ And another, and also will go to 

dendi the soldiers 

Haj javesa glavno x^l^do. And you will become a general. 

Be manjek mardoro Give me a little rouble 

Te Una mange Icaltse ta gadoro, To buy me breeches and shirt, 
Te na pirav nangoro, That I do not walk about naked, 

T( ,i asan maskar he gaze, That they do not, laugh among 

the gorgios, 
H< ! <Iade le, sar %aladende ud- Ah! father, how shall I go to 

• •?■* the soldiers ? 

Ha Mire §ora po jek The (hairs of) your beard 

Na po jek utssrddva. One by one will I pull out. 

(b) Padjainno and Padjamni 5 

(From Fardi) 

Padjamnd, Devla, so ksr'la ? What.O God, does Padjamno do ? 

Xorvindjako kaj ksrela, 6 ...... 

Xurdi butji kaj ksrela. He does little work. 

Or ' So that the soldiers do not take me.' Singular for plural. 
Mire, Tin- MSS. have mire*. 
J Kiba. Glossed by the revisers 'sans doute.' The word is probably Hung. 

' • in vain' (see the Vocabulary). 
' The revisers read sar me khere dzavava. Of udzav they said: Naj miSto. 
Jlamjo lav. It is of course dzav with a non-Romani preposition prefixed. Cf. Mik., 
xii. 24. 

; Fardi said this si but phuri. I have printed the proper names according to 
a uniform spelling. In the MS. the following variants appear : Padjano, Paijamno, 
Padjamneja, Padjamni, Padjani, Patjomni. 
8 Perhaps ' lie commits whoredom,' or ' makes himself (the husband) of a whore.' 
Hum. curva ' whore.' 



Padjamni anda moste 1 kaj Padjamni says aloud 

" D' asunes tu, Padjamneja, 
Ds sar me tut kaj Ijim 
Xolba moljati Ui piljam, 

(Te meren tje kivi /) 2 IchanUi. 

Ka birtu mansa dzasa 
Xolba mol ame te pjas." 

Padjamno so ksrela ? 
Lila pe, Devla, kaj zala 

Ko birto o baro, 
Xolba molajtji mangela. 
E Padjamni so ksrela ? 
Kai zidavonja zala, 
FarmiU ande mid thola. 

" Asunes tu Padjamneja, 
Te meren tje save kana, 
Ko mui la Ui vasdesa." 

Padjamno ko mui vasdela. 
Kada Padjamno phenela : — 
" Xala man kurvo xaljano, 3 

Xan tu kurvu Ije terme. 
Be man kurotsera pai." 
Pe meral kaj paruval. 

" Mek ks zasa kaj durjala 4 
Kaj si e salka e bdndji, 
Kothe tu pai pesa." 

' Listen, Padjamno, 

Since I took you 

We have not drunk a pint of 

(May your children die !) not 

a drop. 
You will go with me to a tavern 
That we may drink a pint of 

What does Padjamno do ? 
He betakes himself, God, and 


To the big tavern, 

He calls for a pint of wine. 

And what does Padjamni do ? 

She goes to the Jews, 

She puts medicine (?) into the 

' Listen, Padjamno, 
Now may your children die, 
You will not lift it to your 

Padjamno lifts it to his mouth. 
This says Padjamno : — 
' Blear-eyed whore, it is eating 

The worms will eat you, whore. 
Give me clean water.' 
He is dying and changing 

(colour ?). 
' Let us go to the waters 
Where the crooked willow is, 
There shall you drink water.' 

1 Anda moste. Cf. Mik., iv. 25, and o mui, laut, aus vollem Halse. 

2 The oath implies: 'If I speak not the truth.' Cf. Gjorgjevi6, p. 129. Like 
the English Gypsy, « God strike me mulo,' which is often used as an asseveration 
before an unusually big hoxaben. 

3 Xaljano. I am not sure about this : perhaps 'you eaten whore.' Or 'thou 
hast eaten me,' if the -o can be taken as a mere prolongation. 

4 Durjala. Plural of devrual, or some similar form. It might be a verb from 
dur, far. ' where it is far off. ' 


Kana khsrs von Sana, 
K a i salka < bandji arssena. 
Kana vo Jco pai bandjola : 
Padjamni tsi ruUta lela 
.1 /m/" pai le Sudela. 
Khsn Padjamni. 
Lak' Save la puSena 

A'.//, dale, amaro dad?" 

A .,.';/./: vo avil, 
Ka khsr prizardd aSilas." 
Laics sen', leads phendi : — 

Kaljan Us, Ijiirvo Jcaj bestiju, 

\»in tiii hv/rvo Ije tjerme 
Le /"' fatsa la phuvidjte." 

So lalea save Jcsrena? 

Ko birsvo le gavjeko, 

Orastes u ga4 nges Icaj Ijena ; 

Trill i'u i'il una k' angrs tjidena, 

K angrs jag Icaj (Una, 

La 'ride jag Sudena, 

Lalco uM/ra pe barwal meksna. 

Now they go home, 

They reach the crooked willow. 

Now he stoops to the water : 

Padjamni takes a sandal 

She pushes him into the water. 

Padjamni (comes) home. 

Her children ask her 

' Where, mother, is our father ? ' 

' He is coming immediately, 

He stopped at a house you know.' 

Her children said this : — 

' You have eaten him, whore and 

May the worms eat you, whore, 
(The worms) upon the face of 

the earth.' 
What do her children do ? 
To the mayor of the town, 
They take a horse of the towns; 
They collect three wagons of coal, 
They set fire to the coal, 
They throw her into the fire, 
Her ashes they leave to the 


(c) NovalxO and Gruja 
(Obtained from one of Mllos Tsdron's band) 

There is in Rumanian folk-song a cycle of epic poems dealing 
with the adventures of a hero named Novae and his sons Gruja 
and Gruitsa. Though the following two fragments cannot be 

itified with any of the published parts of the Rumanian ballads, 
there seems no reason to doubt that they are derived from Rumanian. 
These two portions do not run consecutively. The first is defec- 
tive at the end, and in both there are phrases which I do not 
altogether understand. But with all their defects I look upon 
them as by far the most important, as they are the longest, of our 
sum pies of the Nomad Gypsy Coppersmiths' repertory. As 
imens of the dialect they must take a high rank. The reader 
should compare Mariencscu and Herrmann, "Novak und Gruja" 
111 '■ gische Mitteilungen aus Ungarn, iv. pp. 76-8, 124-6. 



Okothe tele ande %ar 

Gruja haj o Novaho 

Othe x an h a j PJGn pe shafidi 

Kaj si herde" sar ambrol. 

Novaho x a l t a j PJ e ^ 

Novaho nshszil. 

Le'ho dad Uingar dja : — 

" Soj herdja Gruja ? " 

" Si tu gsndo Tsaligrado'ho ? * 

Down there in the valley 

Gruja and Novako 

There they eat and drink at a 

Which is shaped like a pear. 
Novako eats and drinks, 
Novako is angry. 
His father cried : — 
' What has Gruja done ? ' 
' Is it Constantinople that you 
are thinking of? 
Vaj si tu gsndo ansurima'ko?" Or is it marriage that you have 

in mind ? ' 
" Man na ma gsndo ansurima- ' I am not thinking of marriage, 

Haj si ma gsndo Tsaligrado'ho." And I am thinking of Con- 
Tsi vorba anda mui - Ui motola, Not a word does he utter, 
Ando Tsaligrado'ho aratsela. He arrives at Constantinople. 
Kaj vo, Devla, haj pirela o Where, God, does Gruja 

Gruja ? 
Kaj Anitsa birtositsa. 
Kaj but mol piela. 
Tsi piel pes sar kaj piel pe, 

Lela vadra vastarestar 
Ta tradel la zi fundoste. 
Ta Anitsa hrismaritsa 
Vuderdjas pe, z 
Lole herija ando punro Ijas, 
Taj ho 'mperato nasljas, 
Parne gada haj wasdjas, 
Ko 'mperato arasljas. 
Amparato la dihhljas 
Trivar ternilo. 
"Aj ! Anitsa hrismaritsa ! 
Vaj ti mol gstisajli ? 

walk ? 
To Annie the tavern-keeper. 
There he drinks much wine. 
He does not drink like an ordi- 
nary drinker, 
He takes a bucket by the handle 
And tosses it off to the bottom. 
And Annie the tavern-keeper 
Dressed herself, 
Put on her red boots, 
And ran to the emperor, 
She lifted up her white shirts, 
She reached the emperor. 
The emperor (when) he saw her 
Became thrice as young again. 
' Hallo ! Annie the tavern-keeper ! 
Is your wine done ? 

1 Tsaligrado'ho for Tsalvjradoslco. In the next line also read ansurimasko. 
Literally, 'is there to you a thought of Constantinople? ' 

2 Anda mui 'aloud.' Mik., iv. 25. 

3 Untranslatable as it stands. I take it for vurjadjas pe, Mik., viii. 90. 

VOL. VI. — NO. IV. 



Vajti bofflce Sutile?"* 

"Mwro mol t&i gsiisajli. 

Ek prikasa d' aviljas, 

Da desara cV andaj rjat. 

Ek manu8 kaj avilas, 

LeakifaUa sar ilcona, 

Taj lesko stato sar kotana, 

Taj leski stadji 

Sar e bordfa le khaseski. 

11, * j /si piel pe sar kaj piel pe, 

Ma tela - e vadra vastarestar 

Taj tradel la zi fundoste.' 
Amparato so phenela? 

Are your casks run dry ? ' 

' My wine is not done. 

A misfortune has come, 

This evening in the night. 

There was a man came, 

His face like a picture, 

And his figure like a soldier, 

And his hat 

Like the stack of hay. 

And he drinks not like an ordi- 
nary drinker, 

But he takes the bucket by the 

And tosses it oft' to the bottom.' 

The emperor, what says he ? 

'Asunes tu, Anitsa krUmaritsa ? ' Do yo u hear, Annie the tavern- 
keeper ? 

De Is tjei pe lesko was, 
Haj inuJc potrel o pogrebo 
La moliasa lo, plmriasa, 
Haj muk piel sode kamel, 

Kajditi te piel, 
Zi-j>uni-th inaUol, 
Me les tj astaras 
Aj te phandas, 
Haj me les te gstisaras, 

Ke kado si o Gruja o zoralo. 
Mn j xalas lesko dad 
Trivar o Tsaligrado." 3 

Amparato so kerela ? 

Ek mil Xora^a kaj vasdela. 

A nde tjemtsa* e nevi les kaj 

Kaj deS-u-duj Ujasuria 

Put the key in his hand, 
And let him open the cellar 
With the old wine, 
And let him drink as much as 

he wants, 
Let him drink a barrel, 
Till he becomes drunk, 
That we may capture him 
And bind him, 
And that we may make an end 

of him. 
For this is Gruja the strong. 
His father used to eat more 
Three times, the Constantino- 

What does the emperor do ? 
He brings up a thousand Turks. 
They put him in the new prison, 

At twelve o'clock 


1 This line is bracketed in the MS. It may have been a gloss on the preceding 

M'i'ela in the MS., possibly haj Ida ; cf. line 19 above. 
3 For Tsaligradosko. * F or temnitsa. 


Les amblavena. 

Novako kaj asunela 

K' o Gruja amblajimasko, 

Trin pasuria kaj tola, 

Ka Gruja kaj aratsela, 

Haj le Grujas wo kaj Ida, 

Haj V amparatos ek pafona kaj 

Trin djes leskijak asvin mekela. 
Le Grujas wo kaj Ida 
Khere ningerela. 
Haj les ansurila. 
Ande kangeri kaj zava, 1 
raSaj molitva kerda, 
Lda 2 asva ande jakha kaj dela, 
Taj momelia kaj merena ; 
Gruja pivlo atsela. 3 

They will hang him. 

Novako hears 

That Gruja is to be hanged, 

Takes three strides, 

Reaches Gruja, 

And he takes Gruja, 

Gives the emperor a buffet, 

His eye waters for three days. 

He takes Gruja 

He takes him home. 

And he marries him off. 

I go to the church, 

The priest prays, 

He weeps, 

And the candles go out ; 

Gruja remains a widower. 

(d) Novako' s Brotlter 


#o wo, Devla, kam-kerela ? 
Anda Xora%dj kam-dzala, 
Kape'tsi dadestsi pirdmni kam- 
Kaditi o kam-pda, 
Jdndo po drumo o kam-dzala, 
La vadrdsa wo kam-pda. 
Lela vddra wastarestar ; 

Tsi-kdna tula 4 la fundoste. 
" Aj ! Tiro dad basa 6 kathe : 
Wo sa bar mdro kamddo." 
Novdko kam-kerda ? 


What, God, will he do ? 

To the Turks he will go, 

To his father's mistress he will 

g °'. 
He will drink a barrel, 

Into the road he will go, 

He will drink with the bucket. 

He takes the bucket by the 

handle ; 

Until he drains it to the bottom. 

' Ah ! your father was here : 

He was our great friend.' 

(What) will Novako do ? 

1 Read zala, or zana, unless this is a personal touch on the part of the reciter. 

2 Omit lela, which seems to be a doublet of the termination of the last word. 

3 The last three lines appear to be added from some later part of the ballad, in 
which the death of Gruja's wife and another visit to the church to bury her must 
have been described. 

4 Tula. Literally 'sets it.' 

5 Basa. This may be aba sa ' already was.' But any explanation of the word 
must be highly speculative. Bar, in the next line, might also be aba. I do not 
like to take ba: bar as equivalent to Rum. ba ' not.' 


SophenH&tiXoraxd? Tidena What say the Turks to him? 

They assemble, 
>, m n itsa les angore'n. And they take him into prison. 

Kkerjdtso 2 tii sari tHpvmdstii ' In the prison you are not in a 

position either for drink or 
for food. 
I will take money, 3 1 will throw 
it in to you.' 
1 An - ta mange o piro, haj ' Bring me the pen and ink and 

Ldvo baraj, ><xlo dnde trite." 

mila, haj hsrtija: 
Tn // amaro dad dzangares* 
Kodo hsrtjitsa. 

.i; ' Mar tu, rdklo, le goran 

I In j mi ko masTear." 5 

Tn nape, Divla, haj telarena. 

So ivitjdzo kam-avela ? 
" Anda la TLorayan&ngo mui 

paper : 
Do you go bring to our father 
That little paper. 
Ha ! Beat, boy, the necks 
And . . . waist.' 
They betake themselves, God, 

and they are off. 
What hero will come ? 
'From the mouth of the Turks 

you have escaped, 
Ajl Ando kadalesko muj tsi Ah! From this man's mouth 

Bdri so r pal ka§-prung-witzia 6 

perena : 
Buzdogdno, tsi dalaim, kerela; 
. I lulaj jek diimo Sudela. 

" A ml a th vitza san, bre ?" 7 

" Gruitsa moro dad, 
A Novdko moro phral." 
" Tu mudarddn tje phrales." 
" Me kerdv les pdle nevo, 
. Ij ! Ntvo, haj pdle neve ! " 

you will not escape.' 
His great beard falls upon . . . 

He uses a club, not a fist ; 
From one he strikes off the 

'From what race are you, 

bre? 1 
' Gruitsa is my father, 
And Novako my brother.' 
' You have killed your brother.' 
' I will make him new again, 
Ah ! New, and new again ! ' 

1 I 'In n, probably a mistake for j^hcw n, 

' Little house.' 
3 The translation is a mere guess. 
• I >'. nitjares = dza 5ngar< *. 

If >ni = ma one could translate ' beat the (horses') necks and not at the waist.' 

' Young tendrils of a tree ' ? Rumanian, prxmc ' infant ' ; vita ' vine shoot.' 

Brt '. A Rumanian interjection. 
1 The whole of this is difficult, and the translation must be taken for what it is 

n. One cannot say that the action of the story is in any way clear, and the 
relationships in the last few lines are wrong. . 


V. Miscellaneous 

(a) Fragment recited by one of Jono's daughters 

Dav tujek diklo I will give you a handkerchief 

Te koses o nak ; To wipe your nose ; 

Dav tu angrusti I will give you a ring 

Pala . . . kotsak. After . . . button. 

(b) Sentences 

1. Jankola Ijas pa peske butsi des-taj-dui pfund, Jankola 

received £12 for his work. 

2. Dzala te najol pe, he is going to bathe. 

3. Tii maj palpate, (I Avill) never (come back) again. 

4. Tsi del bsrsin, it isn't raining. 

5. Dau les tiiki dnde tso vas, I give it you as a remembrance, for 

a keepsake. 

6. Me bi-masesko nasti trtijaa, I cannot exist as a vegetarian. 

7. Daralo sas o gras, the horse was frightened. 

8. Pamiarau' misto, I ' tin ' well. 

9. Lezni tsindam la 'me, trin zene, we three together bought it 


10. Me dzav po dzezus tdlaj phuv, I will go on the underground 


11. Pirome jisto kskavi, me andv te dikJidv les, sar si pirome, a 

cauldron [or] kettle is cracked, I will bring [it] to see it, 
how it is cracked. 

12. Te trajis but taj mistoj dnde but bsrs, may est thou live long 

and well for many years. 

13. Ande fore le bdre maj misto amenge, maj but butsi keras, in 

the big towns it is better for us. we do more work. 

14. Naj ma kdna te dav tusa duma; avesa maj palal te dav tusa 

duma, I have no time to talk with you now ; you will 
come later that I may talk with you. 

15. Diklde taj gele-tar, they looked and departed. 

16. Pipe sastimaste, (reply in drinking health). 

17. Sar te phenau tulci ? How am I to put it ? 

18. Me Ui demas tu e kakdvi zi-kana-tsi potxind<'< u dnde tserha e 

love. Haj tu sdnas amdro Horn, /</ dem tu'i e kakdvi audi 
fabrika. Tu san amdro Horn, patsivalo. Le gazen t&i 
dane le kakavla zi-kdua-tsl potsiueu khere e love. I would 


QOt have .^iven you the kettle until you paid the money in 
the tent. But you were our Rom, and I gave you the kettle 
in the factory. You are our Rom, trustworthy. To gorgios 
kettles are not given until they pay the money at home. 

I.i. Kaj totHl le suria, (knifegrinder) who sharpens the knives. 

21 >. List of Funeral Feasts : — 

I'omana enja dzestngi, feast on the ninth day after the 

Pomana save kurkdngi, six weeks' mind. 
Pomana dopas bsrseski, six months' mind. 
Pomana bsrseski, year's mind. 

(c) A Letter 

The following is a Romani passage in a letter written on 
August 1, 1912, by Frank Polacek, the Bohemian interpreter, from 
I Yi nli's dictation. I give it in the spelling of the original :— 

Avilem po parachodu haj ci-meklao 1 te hulas tele ando Monte 
Video. BeMem ando Buenos Aires kurko-po-paji, haj amboldem 
palpate, haj hulistem tele ando Monte Video, lesa o maro 2 Consul 

Has devlesa, te aves bachtalo. Me ci-aniboldame z palpate ando 
Evropa. Mangav tuka but bah, katar o del haj vi se* praleska 
Imj dadeska haj tiro sa familia. 5 Andreas Tschuron, p.p. 
F. Polafak, interpreter. 

We arrived in the steamer, and we were not allowed to disembark in Monte 
Video. We stayed in Buenos Aires a week on the water, and returned again, and 
disembarked in Monte Video. . . . 

Remain with God ! may you be fortunate. I shall not return again to Europe. 
I beseech good luck for you from God, and also for your brother and father and 
your whole family. 

1 Meklao for meklas. The acoive voice is used for Passive in the Preseut Tense, 
mtkel, it is allowed ; so here ' it was not allowed.' 

- Read nmaro. I do not grasp the meaning of this phrase. 

s 1 mbolda me. Compare gSndi me ' I think,' given as a correction of gSndimrau ; 
and platsajdmo, Text iii. b. The word is dissected in the Vocabulary. 

' h=lSe=tje=tire. 

1 Tiro sa familia. The position of sa is interesting. 

(To be continued) 



By George Fraser Black 

rjlHE following notes on the Gypsies in Armenia are copied 
J- from the manuscript collections of the late Mr. A. T. 
Sinclair, now in my possession. 

It was the custom of Mr. Sinclair to write to missionaries and 
others whom he thought likely to be in a position to aid him, 
asking them to furnish him with a brief account of the Gypsies 
in their neighbourhood, their numbers, the names the Gypsies 
gave themselves, and those which others called them, their 
trades, customs, a few words of their language and their numerals. 
The letters herewith printed are answers received in response 
to his inquiries. The letters exist only in Mr. Sinclair's trans- 
cript, and seem to be somewhat abridged. They are given here 
as they occur in his manuscript copy. 

Notes on Gypsies of Van, Armenia, by the Rev. George C. 
Reynolds, D.D., American Missionary. March, 1886. 

So far as I can learn there are no Gypsies in this district, 
except the small settlement here in this cit}\ This consists of 
about fifty houses. Multiplying this by five, which is probably 
not far from the average number in a house, gives 250 as the 
number of individuals. Two traditions prevail as to their origin. 
First, that they emigrated from China. The common name 
Chingani is supposed to favor this view. Secondly, from India ; 
in confirmation of which it is said many of their words resemble 

As a rule these people do not increase rapidly, nor live to 
a great age. The other nationalities do not intermarry with 

Personal appearance. Average height about five and a half 
feet. Usually of spare form. Complexions dark, perhaps inclined 
to yellow. Eyes narrow, and a little inclined upwards and out- 
wards, black and shining. Hair black, straight, and abundant. 
Beard the same and stiff. Forehead low. Head narrow, and 
long in occipito-mental diameters; often shaved except a tuft 
at the occiput. Chin long and pointed. Nose long, straight, 
and round at the end. Mouth large. Teeth white and large. 


Religion. They claim to be Moslems, and circumcision is 
mpulsory, but in other respects their Islamism is merely 
nominal. They are not particular about observing Ramazan, or 
prayers. They have no moolah, only a sort of sheikh. Each 
wears a .harm written in Arabic to keep off the 'evil-eye.' 
rcerers, or fortune-tellers, both male and female, are found 
among them. In practising this [sorcery] they use the shoulder- 
blades of oxen, and gather omens by throwing beans, or grains 
of barley, on the ground, and observing how they fall, and also 
palmistry. They also pretend to heal diseases by sorcery, charms, 
etc. To secure success, a black chicken must be killed, and this 

r wards falls to their share. 

Business. Some have trades. A few practise agriculture, and 
they have fields a few hours distant from this city, near which 
many of them pass the summer in tents. Their trades are 
hereditary, forming a sort of caste, which however are not cut 
off from intercourse with each other. The most general trade is 
that of sieve-makers. Those for flour are woven of horse-hair ; 
coarser ones of strips of rawhide. Secrets of the trade are trans- 
mitted from father to son. They also make a sort of rude 
tambourine, with rings inserted to shake, and also a sort of 
vessel, like a tambourine without rings, for holding dried fruits, 
etc. They also make blacking-brushes, brushes for cleaning 
//'ov/££e-bottles, also a kind of black pigment for the eyes, and a 
short bone spoon for applying it. They serve as musicians, 
playing on drums, tambourines, and a sort of rude violin of four 
strings with a sounding-board shaped like a large wooden ladle. 
They are also singers. A company of these musicians usually 
includes one or two lads from twelve to twenty years of age, 
selected from their handsomest boys, who allow their hair to 
grow long, and wear a peculiar dress. At weddings and other 
they dance with a sort of castanets, wearing girls' clothes 
(and are afterwards used for pederasty). The company also 
includes a clown, who wears a high pointed cap with two or 
three fox (?)* tails appended, and who makes jokes. His object 
i amuse and keep off the 'evil-eye.' Some of the people 
keep dogs and practise hunting. Some, again, live by begging 
■ iid pilfering, with a special penchant for appropriating hens. 

Mod*' of life. They are very degraded, treat their women as 
slaves, often beating and cursing them. Except the musicians 

' for ' in Mr. Sinclair's manuscript, obviously a slip. 


and (lancers, they are filthy and foul smelling ; generally live on 
old and spoiled meat, fruit, etc., because cheaper. Women wear 
long garments reaching to the feet, and cover the head like 
Turkish women, and wear ear and nose jewels, as do the men 
sometimes. They also occasionally tattoo the forehead and 

They learn languages readily, and usually know all spoken 
in their neighbourhood. Children, until ten or twelve years of 
age, go about bare-foot and nearly naked, even in the snows of 
winter. On the first day of Lent they go about among the 
Armenian houses, with earthen vessels, gathering up all non- 
fast food which may remain. 

Language. They keep their own proper language to a certain 
extent among themselves, though it is largely mixed, and outside 
they use the language of those among whom they may be. They 
have no special written characters, and so far as they use any 
it is the Arabic. They pronounce their own language with a 
sort of musical accent. 

The name by which they call themselves is Doom. The 
Armenian writers' name is Kunchoo, and in conversation Bosha. 
The Turks call them respectively CJnngdne, and Mutrub or 
Murtub. They prefer to be called Bey-zdde, ' son of a Bey.' 

The following are a few words of their language : muna, 
bread ; milnas, man ; bdnee, water ; gam, sun ; muftdf moon ; 
jenenee, star ; sdrodd, dog ; backra, sheep ; Khoya, God ; gar, 
house ; ma, I ; tu, you ; kashtoom, I eat ; beeshtoom, I drink [?]. 

Numerals : yegd, one ; dewey, two ; trail, three ; isJttar, four ; 
penj , five ; shesh, six ; haft, seven ; hasht, eight ; nu, nine ; de, 
ten; veest, twenty ; see, thirty; chtd, forty; banjo, fifty; si, 100; 
hdzdr, 1000. Between fifty and one hundred the same as 

Letter from the Rev. R. M. Cole,D.D., American missionary 

at Bitlis. April, 1886. 

. . . There is no community of Gypsies residing in this imme- 
diate vicinity, though nomadic companies of them come about 
every year for basket-making, hair-sieve making, etc. They seem 
to betake themselves to the warmer regions in old Mesopotamia 
during the winter. There are said to be many of them in the regions 
i about Aintab and Corfa. The native geography of this country 


puta down their number in Turkey at 50,000, so I have been told, 
sharpers in most senses of the word. They seem to 
to pa mselves off as Turks in the land, since that race 

:tril | their language hold the reins of government. They are, 
howeveri great linguists, and readily adapt themselves, both in 
1 inguage and dress, to the race and country in which they may 
have occasion to travel. In Persia they take on the appearance 
and language of that country, I am told. The Turks despise these 
s, and I have been told regard them not of the race of 
men, and that both they and their money are unclean, so that 
. | the Turks] do not even collect taxes of them. Their testi- 
mony is not accepted in courts, and their oath is not valid. They 
have no religion or priests, so as to be spoken of as Mohammedan or 
( Ihrisl ian. The Turks in their language give them various epithets 
as Boshxih (worthless), Mutrub (beggars), Chinganah (clowns) ; 
while the Gypsies speak of themselves as the beg zdda (excellent 

They are great enchanters, dancers, and skilled thieves, as 
well as pretended alchemists. Their boast is rather begging than 
hard work, and if in altercation among themselves they seek for 
derogatory words they will say to one another, ' may you be obliged 
to earn your bread by work, not by begging.' I am told the bravery 
of the race lies rather in the women than in the men, and the 
former are expected to have the greater care for the support 
of the family. That when marriage is to be entered into the 
female seeks the male, and only secures his assent to the arrange- 
ment after promise of a future support. 

So much I have been able to gather up by inquiry here, 
though it is possible there may be some little inaccuracy in it. 


50.— Tue Gypsy and Folk-Lore Club 

Mr. \V. Townley Searle requests the insertion of the following reply to a note 
which appeared on p. 1 15 of this volume of the J. G. L. S. :— 

' Oi ber 30th, 1911, Mr, Augustus John joined the Gypsy and Folk-Lore 

linary member, paying the ordinary subscription. On April 13th, 

pted the position of President. On June 3rd he "reluctantly relin- 

honour" owing to his "lack of social attainments" (I quote from the 

lence before me as I write). Moreover, it was Mr. Augustus John who 

the name of the Club publication. From this you will judge that this 

an's statement that he " is not, nor ever would be, President, or even a 


member of this assemblage," is entirely erroneous, for at the date your paragraph 
was written he was both.' 

[The paragraph to which Mr. Augustus John referred appeared in the Daily 
Sketch on December 10, 1912, and included him among 'Friends of the movement 
or members of the Club.' The methods of the Gypsy and Folk-Lore Club have 
won the indignant disapproval of members of the Gypsy Lore Society who have 
attempted to support it. Among others Mr. Augustus John gave the new venture 
his willing aid at the beginning, and was unluckily persuaded to become its first 
president. When personal experience had convinced him that it was undesirable 
to be connected with the Club in any capacity whatsoever, he sent his resignation 
to Mr. Searle in the polite terms quoted above. — Ed.] 


Helsingfors, 1901. By Arthur Thesleff. 

By chance there have come into my possession twenty copies of the above- 
named work, and I offer them at £l, 10s. each, post free. E. Ljungborg, 
Torsgatan 22, Stockholm, Sweden. 

52. — John Buclle 

The fact that a Gypsy of the name of John Buckle — or, more correctly, John 
Buclle, which should probably be pronounced as Buckley — was buried at Malmes- 
bury in 1657, was mentioned long ago by Crofton in his Annals (J. G. L. S., Old 
Series, i. 24). But the extract from the Abbey Register, which is quoted in full 
by his authority (Rev. J. M. Moffatt, History of the Town of Malmcsbury, 1805, 
p. 71), is sufficiently curious to bear reprinting : — 

'John Buclle, reputed to be a gypsie, deceased September 21, 1657, at John 
Peryn's house, upon the Ffosse, in Shipton parish in Glocestershire ; and was 
buried in King Athelstone's chapell by King Athelstone, and the Lady Marshall, 
within the abbie church, at Malmesbury. This buriall was September 23, 1657. 
Howbeit, he was taken up again by the meanes of Thomas Ivye, esq ; who then 
lived in the abbie, and by the desires and endeavoures of others, out of the said 
chappell was removed into the church yarde, and there was re-buried neere the 
east side of the church poorch, October 7, 1657, in the presence of Thomas Ivye, 
of the abbie, esq ; Pleadwell of Mudgell, esq ; Rich. Whitmore, of Slaughter, in 
the countie of Glocester, and Dr. Qui, of Malmesbury, with very many others.' 

It may be noted that there is no claim to the title of King, which is attributed 
to him by Crofton. 

The extract was quoted in the Cheltenham Journal for February 19, 1910. 

F. C. Wellstood. 

20th November 1912. 

Though the name of this Malmesbury Gypsy looks like Buckley, Wilts is not, 
so far as I know, a county travelled by the Buckleys ; but it is and has been for 
many years much frequented by Bucklands. In the Old Series of the J. G. L. S., 
vol. iii. p. 122, two entries relating to Bucklands arc quoted from the Seend 
Parish Register, or rather from a copy of it made by an old parish clerk :— ' Ann, 
a Gipsy child, daug r of Sympathy Bucklan, base-born, was baptized 4th July 
1802,' and ' Mesela, a Gipsy child, daug r of William and Susanna Bucklan, was 
buried the 25th April 1805.' Edward Buckland, father of Norwood's friend of 


I Led .it the Lent Assizes at Salisbury in 1821 for the murder 
at Seagrj {Jackson's Oxford Journal, March 17, 1821) and con- 
Possibly Hi' . Buckland and Mary Buckland of Melksham,' 
d al Devizes on November 20, 1655, were Gypsies too: and 
oly the widow of Uriah (alias Butcher) Buckland, a son of old Dimiti 
Lolly Smith, and her children, always winter round Swindon, 
w |,]|. I tuckland, sun of Dimiti the younger, who was a brother of Uriah, has 

house al Highworth. It seems, therefore, worth pointing out a coincidence 
the entry in tin' Malmesbury register and Dimiti's family. John Buclle 
- p| ,. Old Dimiti's son John was always known by the nickname 
Shipton ; from him the nickname was handed down to his nephew John, son of 
I limit i the younger, though in his case it was generally shortened to Shippy; and 
J i:. i* has descended to his son John. This strange nickname has 
rtainly been handed down for three generations; and, if it can be 
d down for three generations, there seems no reason why it should not have 

1 n handed down for an unlimited number. Is it possible that, after the death 

ihn Buclle at Shipton, the name of the place where he died was substituted 
for tin' < Shristian name of some relative previously called John, in order to avoid 
mentioning the dead n in name, according to Gypsy custom : and that the nick- 
has continued to lie applied to all the Johns in the family since that time? 
The change from Buckley to Buckland is no serious difficulty, especially in the 
case of Gypsies; indeed it is probable that the Buckleys and Bucklands were 
originally one clan. Nor, if the name were meant to be pronounced Buckle, is the 
connection impossible, since I have recently come across an example of the converse 
change. At Barton, near Eeadington, lives an old lady of eighty-five years of age, 
and, according to Gustun Smith, another Gypsy inhabitant of the 
village, was Jabez Buckland, son of Jabez Buckland, no connection with the 
mentioned Jabez of Highworth, but some sort of relative to Turnaper Buck- 
land. Turnaper certainly had a brother of that name, who is said to be still alive : 
but, unfortunately, on visiting this old woman, I found her too childish and her 
Ljihed to give me any information about her husband's people. That, 
■■>r, is not the point here. My point is that, though the eldest daughter 
tted that her father's name was Buckland, in process of gajifying themselves 
they have changed that name, which is well known locally as a Gypsy name, to 
le, and are known by this name to their neighbours. If that change can take 
now, the converse could certainly have taken place years ago, when the 
forms of proper names were by no means fixed. 

Incidentally J may mention that the extracts from the Seend Register quoted 

from the Old Series of the J. G. L. S. are given in quite a different form in 

Uogist, vol. iii. (1879) p. 397. There they appear as 'Ann, daughter of 

B icklen (single woman, and one of the people called Gypsies), July 4, 

' ; and ' Meselo, daughter of William and Susanna Bucklen (being one of the 

1 ! psies), Ap. 25, I 305.' Presumably this, which is taken from the 

tself, not from a copy, is the more reliable form. One other Gypsy 

: the extracts given in The Genealogist :— ' Sarah, daughter of 

i Dix [single woman, and one of the people called Gypsies,- ; baptized 

I »ix is otherwise unknown to me as a Gypsy name ; but travellers 

of Dixon are still to be found, chiefly round Manchester. 

E. 0. WlXSTEDT. 

53. — A Gypsy Convict 

• in fiction are not to be neglected by students, especially 
B arc based on actual experience. In Chapter vi., Part ii. of Fedoi 


Dostoieffsky's The House of the Dead (English translation in ' Everyman's Library,' 
London, 1912), there figures a Gypsy called Koulikoff, whose knowledge of horses 
and general versatility are highly extolled. 'He was a Tsigan all over in his 
doings, liar and cheat, and not at all the master of his art he boasted of being. 
The income he made had raised him to be a sort of aristocrat among our convicts ; 
he was listened to and obeyed, but he spoke little, and expressed an opinion only 
in great emergencies. He blew his own trumpet loudly, but he really was a fellow 
of great energy ; he was of ripe age, and of quite marked intelligence. When he 
spoke to us of the nobility, he did so with exquisite politeness and perfect dignity. 
I am sure that if he had been suitably dressed, and introduced into a club at the 
capital with the title of Count, he would have lived up to it ; played whist, talked 
to admiration like a man used to command, and one who knew when to hold his 
tongue. I am sure that the whole evening would have passed without any one 
guessing that the "Count" was nothing but a vagabond. He had very probably 
had a very large and varied experience in life ; as to his past, it was quite unknown 
to us.' Chapter ix. tells of his unsuccessful attempt at escape. 

Alex. Russell. 
29th November 1912. 

54. — Banishments from Denmark 

Some Gypsies arrived in Denmark from Germany this summer and were 
shortly afterwards banished from Faaborg (Fyn) to Als in Schleswig. The 
following were their names : — 

Max Paul Schultz, 


in Schoneberg, 

19 Feb., 1887. 

Johan Pohl, 


„ Liebstadt, 

9 Feb., 1895. 

Otto Petermann, 


,, Hemmerdorf, 

28 July, 1895. 

Karl Goe( = Pohl), 


„ Halle, 

11 May, 1882. 

Rosa Petermann, 


„ Nordhausen, 

[?] 1874. 

Josef Wending ( = Galina 

= Ridung = Widuch), 


„ Elsass, 

18 April, 1843. 

Marie Matza, 


„ Elsass, 

27 Feb., 1858. 

Johan Miskow 

ctober 1912. 

55. — Inverto Boswell again 

In a recent note 1 I had occasion to mention Inverto Boswell, and quoted 
an authority who printed an entry in the Calne parish register, stating that 
Inverto 'died in the small-pox.' At the time I was not aware that local 
tradition, some seventy years after his death, assigned a different reason for it ; 
and, as that tradition is not without interest, I quote it here from the Wander- 
ings of a Pen and a Pencil, by Alfred Crowquill [i.e. Alfred Henry Forrester] and 
F. P. Palmer (London, 1846), pp. 279-81 :- 

' In this churchyard [Calne] there is a tomb of one called a " king of the 
gipsies." We have sketched the tomb ; the inscription runs thus : — 

[Here follows a sketch of the tomb, which was apparently then intact. It is 
a solid-looking altar-shaped tomb, with a roofdike canopy supported by pillars 

> «/. G. L. S.,vi. 7G-77. 


,,m the four corners of the tomb. In one of the ends is a panel with a 

rfiirrounded by a wreath in high relief on it.] '"Under 

• be body of Inverto Boswell, son of Henry and Eliza Boswell, who 

this life the 8th day of February, 1774. The Lord gave and the Lord 

• J . away, Messed be the name of the Lord." 

in, who had entered into the merits of our guide, made inquiry as 

,,,,! ,,f the "monarch of the lanes," thus nobly sepulchred. The clerk's 

j epu i icfa he seemed to be) . . . gave tongue to this brief recitation:— 

I don't know -it's a goodish bit back since, you see ; but Nelly Jones she 

jj rill . wise she's a-going a' ninety year or more, and she had it from them as 

followed the burying. You see, sir, there was gipsies in White Horse Vale, and 

young an before his turn come to be king on 'em. Nelly Jones says that 

. the tinkler's grandfather, told her as an old doctor as knew Latin, and all 

of things, ordered the lad to be christened " Inverto" as soon as he was born 

of his mother, because " Inverto" means as he wasn't bom like other people no how, 

but 1 don't know nothin' about old wives' talk, so there it must be. Well, when 

be grow'd up he went all over the world, they say, with the camp, and the 

donkeys, and the rest ; and at last, when he was made king, he lived with his 

father and mother, near [Jffingdon, which made 'em put the " White Horse" on his 

tomb, for the sake of the place. They made no show, as some of the gipsies do, 

ied very poor ; and men, women and children were all as brown as a basin 

of coffee grounds. Well, the father and mother couldn't tell what to make of 

their son, for all at once he seemed going into a decline, and none of the 

physi they took him to could make any great hand of him. Time went 

on, and they found out he was desperately in love with a farmer's daughter, down 

in the vale there. The farmer's daughter was fond of him ; but her father 

threatened to hang and drown her, and twenty things beside, if ever she thought 

to church with a Heathen gipsy, because it ran in his head the whole 

ere not one squint better than born rogues and common thieves. Well, sir, 

'!o no how for the young chap to die because he couldn't have the 

fanner's daughter ; so old Boswell and his wife for once in their lives dressed 

themselves up in such a proud way as no one ever saw before, and marched into 

the Grange one morning, just as the farmer was looking over his Michaelmas bills. 

Well, as Nelly Jones says, after a grand huff and a precious wrangling, this was 

what it all come to. The gipsy offered to count guinea for guinea with the girl's 

r, as lone; as he liked to go at it, provided he should say yea to the match 

if Boswell laid down the most of the gold on his own side the kitchen table. 

: the game began, for the farmer loved money, they say, and put his whole 

soul in it at all times. The farmer's bag was soon emptied. Boswell matched the 

sum, and his wife popped into his fist a second bag, to carry on the bargain ; so 

all shook hands round, and the girl was won. The young man got lively 

i, but it lasted just a week ; for the lass put on something light to go a merry 

making in, at a brothers "outcome," and died of an inflammation in no time. It 

11 over with King Boswell. He never lifted up his face after they put her 

under ground. They moved him near to Studley about Christmas, and he died 

s the sheep began to drop their lambs, about the beginning of the year.' 

This story, which seems to represent rather the Uffington than the Calne 

on, need not necessarily be contradictory to the statement in the parish 

ter that he died of small-pox. Small-pox may have supervened and been 

the ultimate cause of his death. 

worth noticing. Though he is called ' king ' throughout, the 
of the tale, like that of the inscription and the entry in the register, 

igainst his having any right to the title. It is exceedingly unlikely that he 
king during his fathers lifetime, and there is little doubt that his father 

nother were Henry, King of the Gipsies, and Elizabeth, his wife, who were 


buried in Ickleford church in 1780 and 1782, aged respectively ninety and seventy 
years. 1 

The tradition tells too against the idea one is apt to conceive from the talk of 
old Gypsies and from Borrow, that marriage with gdje was practically unknown 
and strongly objected to by all Gypsies till a hundred years ago or even less. 
Doubtless there were, as there are now, Gypsies who had objections to it ; but still 
Borrow himself had to admit that it did exist, and it does not seem to have been 
so very uncommon. Here we have Gypsies, real old black originals according to 
the description of them, who had no objection to the mixture ; the objection came 
from the gdjo side. So it did a few years later in the case of Tobias Smith, a 
Bedfordshire Gypsy. The banns of marriage were published at Haynes in Bedford- 
shire between 'Tobias Smith (Gypsey) Single man & Elizabeth Dines Spinr r , 
17 & 24 Apr. 1791.' In the register .a note is added : 'N.B. The Banns with- 
drawn at y e instance of Eliz. Dines (a Minor) & her Mother,' and another to the 
effect, 'Tobias capitally convicted of Horse Stealing at Bedford Lent Assizes, 
March 10th 1792 ; Executed April 3rd 1792.' 2 It is possible that Tobias 
was only following in the footsteps of his father James, since his mother Jemima 
' had some education in her youth ; she lived several years in service, and after- 
wards took up with a Gipsy,' and one of his uncles, most likely her brother, 
was a house-dweller at Great Stourton. 3 At about the same period probably, 
' Fair maid ' Smith, daughter of ' Jemmy the Gypsy king,' who is pretty 
certainly identical with James Smith buried at Launton in Oxfordshire aged 
more than a hundred in 1830, was married to a mason, and received £500 as her 
dowry. 4 Again, it must have been some ten years before Inverto Boswell's death 
that Thomas Heme, the father of Borrow's Thomas Heme, married an Oxfordshire 
villager's daughter, as their daughter Elizabeth was born at Chinnor in 1763. 5 
And the marriages of Merrily Cooper with Isaac Jowles, another mason, and 
of the Gypsy woman, who protected John Steggall about 1797, with her gdjo 
husband, would probably fall in the same period. 6 Now considering how very few 
Gypsies of that date there are about whose lives and marriages one knows any 
exact details, when one can mention six or seven within some thirty years in 
whose case marriage with gdje was either contracted or at any rate seriously 
contemplated, it does not seem as though the event can have been particularly 
rare in the latter half of the eighteenth century. 

Nor is there any reason for supposing that it was an innovation then any more 
than it is now. Any one who has waded through the mass of evidence relating to 
the Canning case in Howell's State Trials, vol. 19, must have noticed how admir- 

1 Groome, hi Gipsy Tents, p. 117. 

2 The Parish Register of Haynes . . . transcribed by William Brigg (1891), 
p. 119. 

s T. Tattershall, An Account of Tobias Smith (1792), pp. 2, 5. But if, as seems 
highly probable, this James Smith is identical with the one buried at Turvey in 
1S22, aged 105, then his wife Jemima would be a daughter of Elizabeth Robinson, 
who, according to Groome (In Gipsy Tents, p. 113), was a Gypsy. James and 
Jemima are called ' Egyptians ' in the entry of their daughter Sophia's baptism at 
Haynes, January 18, 1784 (The Parish Register of Haynes, p. 83). 

4 For 'Fair maid' cf. T. F. Tyerman, Notices of the Life of John Pratt 
(Oxford, 1861), p. 21 ; and for the burial of James Smith cf. Groome, In ■ Gijmj 
Tents, p. 120. In the Parish Register at Launton, which I must thank the Vicar for 
kindly allowing me to examine, the entry runs, 'James Smith, Wendlebury, Jany. 
16th, 95 years.' 

5 Borrow, Lavolil (1907), p. 121 ; and Groome, In Gipsy Tents, p. 114. 

6 For Merrily cf. J. G. L. S., New Series, i. 397-8; and for the other Gypsy 
cf. John H. Steggall: a real history of a Suffolk man . . . narrated by himself 
(London, 1857), passim. 


..Klv m iry Squires and her family illustrate the Gypsy becoming gajified through 
intermarri i Wit aesses from Dorsetshire state that they remember Mary for the 
„ thirty years— the date of the trial was 1753: she used to travel with a donkey 
'„,| dri jsed as a Gypsy, and they imply she camped; but at the time of the 
! for some years previously she and her son and daughter were travelling 
as ordinary packmen and packwomen (if there is such a word) selling clothes and 
silver lace, and they slept in lodging-houses and inns, and were not dressed as 
Gypsies. The sou had lodgings in Newington, the daughter was engaged to 
a settled gdjo ; and, as well as references to some relatives in Kent, who travelled 
and sold goods like themselves, there are others to a Mrs. Squires in the Borough, 
and a relation 'who belongs to the customs, named Samuel Squires; he lives in 
White Bart-yard.' He certainly cannot have been a Gypsy, and pretty obviously 
the late lamented Mr. Squires was a gdjo, who had married a Gypsy girl. Nor 
is there much doubt to what clan Mary herself belonged, when one finds that in 
L710 ' Mary and Elizabeth Squire, alias Skamp (!) were ordered to be whipped' 
in the euromarket at Worcester. 1 And personally I am always tempted to think 
that the celebrated Margaret Finch's history was much the same as that of Mary 
Squires. .Margaret died in a tent ; her niece who succeeded her died in a hut ; 
her granddaughter, who succeeded the niece, was a house-dweller ; and thereafter the 
Kin lis disappear from Gypsy history, the next Norwood queen of whom we hear 
being Sarah Skemp. 2 It certainly looks as though gdjo blood had entered the 
family in Margaret's generation, and in three more generations the Gypsy blood had 
been diluted out of it. And one cannot help suspecting that that gdjo blood came 
in with Mr. Finch, as Finch is unexampled as a Gypsy name before or after, 3 
unless one is rash enough to equate it with the Finco or Fingo of an early Scottish 
record, which may not be a name at all. 4 As Margaret was born about 1630, her 
marriage would take place in the second half of the seventeenth century ; but 
the seventeenth century is a particularly dark period of Gypsy history, and 
I cannot adduce any parallel for admixture with gdje in it. When one turns, 
however, to the records of the sixteenth century, one rinds several laws against gdje 
consorting with Gypsies. Laws are very seldom made for things which have not 
occurred, and one may reasonably take it that gdje did consort with Gypsies in 
the .sixteenth century ; and consorting could not go on for very long without 
intermarriage ; so that, on the whole, there is tolerable evidence that intermarriage 
has been no very rare thing ever since the Gypsies have been in England. The 
r< -nits are various. At times the Gypsy blood and habit of life predominate : 
this seems to have been the case with the Chilcots. At other times it is absorbed : 
this, if my suggestions about the Squires family is right, is what happened in their 
»■. It has certainly happened in the case of the old Oxfordshire Smiths, who are 
practically all settled and hardly distinguishable from gdje. And at other times 
the result has been a race of half-breeds, like Thomas Heme and his descendants. 

E. 0. Winstedt. 

1 J. Noake, Notes and Queries for Worcestershire (London, 1856), p. 84. 

a Cf. F. W. Hackwood, The Good Old Times (London, 1910), p. 215. 

: Some descendants maybe on the roads still, as George Finch, a Gypsy, was 
tined thirty shillings for driving without a light and using indecent language at 
Heywood's Heath in 1911 (Mid-Sussex Times, 21st February 1911), and the name 
appears on the list of Gypsy names in Leland's Gypsies, p. 305. 

4 Cf. MacRitchie, Scottish Gypsies, pp. 37-43. It has been suggested that Satona 
Fingo and Nona Fingo stand for sako navengo and ' no navengo' (J. G. L. S., New 
Series, i. 162). May I venture a suggestion that Hatseyggow, a name which occurs 
in the same list, simply means ' German ' ? All the German Gypsies, whom Messrs. 
Atkinson, Thompson, and I met last summer in a tramp through Western Germany 
Isass used x^tsiko for 'German.' The word was quite distinct from gajo, and) 
may be a variant of haxiko from haxo ' a peasant,' though it is a very odd one. 



By Alexander Russell 

G. = Gypsy. Gs. = Gypsies. 

The original Indexes of the three volumes of the Journal of the Gypsy Lore 
Society, Old Series, 18S8-92, extend in all to eight pages, and are little more 
than a Table of Contents of the principal articles. Volumes such as these, how- 
ever, dealing with so many different aspects of the 'affairs of Egypt,' necessarily 
contain widely scattered references that must be brought together for the use of 
the student, and so a large and comprehensive index is required if the volumes 
are not to lose half their value. 

The system followed js that of the Indexes of the New Series. There are 
important sub-alphabets under 'Folk-tales, Incidents of,' 'Names, G. Christian,' 
' Names, G. Surnames,' ' Names, G. Tribal or Eace,' ' Newspapers,' ' Notes and 
Queries,' 'Occupations, G.,' 'Romani words worth noting,' 'Songs, G.,' 'Super- 
stitions, G.' A list of 'Errata' is given at pp.i.379-80 of Vol. I., 387-8 of Vol. 
II., 262 of Vol. III. To that list should be added one misprint which is constantly 
giving trouble in the proof-sheets of the New Series. This is the title of Groome's 
In Gipsy Tents, which is misprinted with a y nineteen times. Even in articles 
by Groome himself it is misprinted, as also on the title-pages of his Kriegspiel, 
and his Gypsy Folk-Talcs. In the volumes of the Old Series Sampson is the only 
one who prints it correctly. Alex. Russell. 

Stromness, Orkney, 
December 1913. 

A., A.R.S., A Spanish G. Vocabulary, 

(note), i. 177-8. 
Adi-dddi, da dubeld, dd-di!, (song), ii. 

Abebcromby, John : The First Mention 

of Gs. in Finland, ii. 73-4. 
Aberdeen, Gs. at, in 1527, ii. 292 ; in 

160S, ii. 344. 
Abo [Finland], Gs. in jail of, in 15S4, ii. 

Accent : in Brazilian Romani, i. 62 ; of 

Romani, i. 97. 
Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of 

Scotland, (ref.) i. 54; (quot.) ii. 233 

(fn.). ^ 
Arh mi hdri ! arh mi Jcdri, (song), ii. 91. 
Acrobats, G., i. 51, 171; ii. 130, 134, 

196 ; iii. 100. 
Actors, G., iii. 100, 185. 
Actress, G. , ii. 151. 
Acts. See Laws. 
Additional Notes on thr Irish Tinkers and 

their Language, (note). By the Rev. 

J. Ffreneh and Editor, ii. 127-8. 

VOL. VI. — NO. V. 

Additional Notes on the Spanish Gs., 

(note), ii. 192. 
Additions to G. -English Vocabulary. By 

H. T. Crofton, i. 46-8. 
Adelbobg, i. 315. 
Adjectives : comparison of, in Slovak - 

G. dialect, ii. 247; in Puissian dialect, 

iii. 10. 
Adultery, punishment of, i. 51; ii. 135. 
Aethiopes, G. race-name, i. 337 (fn.), ii. 

Afaxassieff, (quot.) iii. 146 (/.».). 
Aff6: Dizionario precettivo, (ref.) iii. 90. 
Africa, Gs. in, i. 221; ii. 120. 
Agariens, G. race-name, i. 226. 
Agriculturists, G., ii. 149. 
Ainzarba, Zotts removed to, i. 74; ii. 

Ait bu Gerak, Hadji Omar, (quot.) ii. 

Ajuchdshu (Ajufdshii), G. race-name, ii. 

76, 77. 
Alardus, Lambertus : Westphalens 

Monumenta, (ref.) i. 273 (fn.). 



. „,,„... Indians: folk-tales their re- 

' : ,09 ' , « ,. , # 

i 0/ A.-/' England. 

i. _ 

.1 m . Northumberland <■• 

piper, ii. 266 77. 

I ,. i:; ; (quot.) i. 170. 

b, Slovak-G., i. 161. 

AlpineG ., i. 171. . 

. numbers of (jrS. in, l. .i.i. 

' ' '' "''" 
America, Gs. transported to, n. 61, 62. 

./,„.,. m '/. Letter, ,1», (note), i. 171 

/', imps, (note), iii. 186. 
\.,,. i G at, in I 127, ii. 31. 
Amulet . G., i. 118-9 ; ii. 171; iii. 57. 
Amulet sellers, G., ii. 192. 
■ ■ ymology of, i. 50. 
my of Melancholy. See Burton. 
and i/"''' '•" Britons. See Mac- 
i;r tie. 
Ancient Mysteries. Si < Hone. 
Anderson: Scottish Nation, (quot.) ii. 

Anderson, Dr. Joseph: Scotland in 
tan Times: The Iron Aye, (ref.) i. 
Andree, Richard : Die Metalle bei den 

NaturvSlkern, (ref.) iii. 181. 
Andrew, Duke, i. 267, 324, 325, 328, 

334 : ii. 42, II. 
A drew of Etatisbon, i. 267; ii. 4G; 
Chronicon d>'. ducibus Bavariae, (quot.) 
L 344 [f.n.); ii. 38 (/.».)• 
A drian, Ferdinand von: Der W'dien- 
cultua A ler und Europdischer 

VOlker, iii. 161, (quot.) iii. 162, 164, 
(ref.) 163. 
Andro pani e macio, (song), iii. 133. 

a Oraeca. See Boissonnade. 
Anecdotes of J. Macpherson, the Ancient 
Musician, (note), iii. 

my Gleanings. By Francis 
11 I rroome, i. 102-5. 
angriisli ' ring,' iii. 35 (f.n.). 
.1 Angstburgenses. Set Gassar. 

A ina ■ - ducum Bojariae. See Aventi- 

A • Ecclesiastici. See Baronius. 
I i ■ I'- 'in in Hunganae. See Pray. 
I i ?«( vici. See Crusius. 

noli d'ltalia. See Muratori. 
! i \tm i icorum continuatio. 


I bt rdeen. See Kennedy. 
I nd, 'The, (ref.) i. IS. 

(iit. See Wilson. 
Annalsofth Four Masters. SeeO'Don- 
lain of the Reformation. See Strype. 
Anromori, mythological figure, ii. 99. 
Antiquarian G from [b< rdt • n- 

■>>" s Turreff. 

-'/' n, l iong), ii. 140. 

. i. 50. 

,' i. 165. 
Arabian J The, (note). By 

. 310. 

Arabic: known to Sicilian Gs., iii. SS ; 
loan-words in Romani, i. 2:34 ; ii. 133, 

Aramaic loan-words in Romani, ii. 

Aran k a, Hegyi, G. actress and singer, 

ii. 157. 
Archaic: features in Romani, ii. 187; 

forms in Shelta, ii. 207. 
Archduke Josef. ,S'ee Josef. 
Arc him istorica. See Hajden. 
Arguments and Decisions. See Mac- 

Armed (is., i. 361; ii. 346; iii. 22S, 

Armstrong: Gaelic Dictionary, (ref.) 

iii. 247. 
Arnheim, Gs. at, in 1429, ii. 35. 
Arolsen, (Is. attend fair at, i. 33. 
Art of Juggling. See Rid. 
Article in Russian Romani, iii. 13. 
Artificers, G., i. 303 ; ii. 381. 
ARWIDSON, (ref.) i. 350. 
As mandi was a jal/in' to the boro gav, 

(song), ii. 191. 
■asar, meaning of, i. 50. 
Aschani, G. tribe in Transylvania, i. 

Ascoli, ii. 187; iii. 89 ;, 

(ref.) i. 58 ; (quot.) iii. 85. 
Asia Minor, Gs. in, in 1st c. , i. 249. 
Asikanoi (Asikani), G. race-name, i. 223, 

Aspirates lacking in Brazilian Romani, 

i. 63. 
Assemblies of Gs. , i. 21. 
Astrologers, G., ii. 381. 
Atavistic type, iii. 234. 
'Adiyyavoi, G. race-name, iii. 6 and 

(fn.), 7 (f.n.). 
Athletes, G., ii. 196. 
Atingar, G. race-name, ii. 200. 
Atinghars, G. race-name, ii. 198. 
Atsigani, G. race-name, i. 187. 
'ArcriyKavoi, G. race-name, i. 225 ; ii. 

Atsincan, G. race-name, iii. 5, 6. 
Atsykanoi, G. race-name, i. 223. 
Attire, strange G.,i. 17. See Costume. 
Auchmuty, General, i. 374. 
Augsburg : Diet of, issues decree against 

Gs., i. 264 (f.n.); Gs. at, in 141S, 

i. 324. 
Auld Licht Idylls. See Barrie. 
Auraicept na n-ices, (quot.)ii. 264. 
Australia, Gs. in, iii. 127-8. 
Austria, Gs. in, i. 171-2 ; iii. 99-104. - Hungarian Items, (notes), i. 

Authors, G., ii. 151, 156-60. 
Aventinus : Annales ducum Bojariae, 

(ref.) ii. 45 (f.n.). 
Axon, W. E. A., i. 305 ; ii. 380 ; The 

C/iiiu/hmn'ros of Venezuela, (note), i. 

306-7 ; The G. in the Moon, (note), i. 

375-6 ; Romany Sony* Englished, ii. 

5-7 ; Stray Chapters in Literature, 

Folk- Lore, and Archaeology, review 

by H. T. C, i. 167. 
Aytoun, Prof., (ref.) i. 350. 



Bacon, (quot.)ii. 371. 

Bad Mother, The, Roumanian-G. Folk- 
Tale, i. 25-9. 

Bad weather associated with Gs., ii. 134. 

Baden, numbers of Gs. in, i. 32. 

Badger's foot used as love-philtre, ii. 

Bag-pipe, ii. 127, 275-7, 378. 

bax 'luck,' Hi. 36 (f.n.). 

Ii'ii> mjri • waistcoat,' ii. 2 ; iii. 150 (/.v.). 

Baillie, Mathew, ii. 174' and (f.n.), 

Baillie, Captain William, ii. 360. 

Baines : History of Lancashire, (ref. ) i. 

Baird, ii. 175. 

bajrilja, i. 129 (f.n.). 

Baki Zade Ciiusni, i. 249. 

Balaam, i. 144. 

Baldinucci : Opere, (ref.) ii. 159. 

Bale, Gs. at, in 1419, i. 2S2 ; in 1422, i. 
337, and (f.n.). 

Bdlesto nokyas and bokochesto peryas, 
(song), ii. 88. 

Balfour: Cyclopaedia, (ref.) i. 224 

ba/ivaz ' lard,' i. 58. 

Ballad of Johnnie Faa, (quot.) i. 42 

Ballad Society's Roxburghc Ballads, 
(ref.) i. 23. 

Ballad-singers, G., ii. 130, 134. 

Balogh, Jancsi Ipolvsaghi, G. writer, ii. 
156, 158. 

Baloicas and porno, (song), ii. 88. 

Banff, Gs. tried at, in 1700, ii. 302. 

Banishment proposed forGs. of England 
and Wales, i. 13. 

Banners of German-G. tribes, i. 51. 

Baptisms, G., i. 51; ii. 133, 139; lack 
of, dangerous, i. 111. 

Baramy, ii. 99, 102, 162, 164. 

Barbadoes, Gs. transported to, ii. 61. 

Barbary Corsairs. See Lane-Poole. 

Bargoensch van Roeselare, Het. See De 

Barlow, John, ii. 209, 257 and (f.n.), 

baro hukaben, i. 175. 

Baroniiis : Annates Ecclesiastici, (ref.) 
iii. 7 (f.n.). 

Barrenness, G. charm against, ii. 165. 

Barrere and Leland, (refs.) ii. 216, 
217; iii. 1S6, 190. 

Barrie, J. M. , Auld Licht Idylls, (quot. ) 
i. 179; The Little Minister, (quot.) iii. 

Bartalus, i. 315. 

Baruxi, Al, i. 224. 

BarvaM Romane', (note), i. 173. 

Basket-makers, G., i. 4, 77, 287; iii. 135, 

Basler Chronik. See Wurstisen. 

Basque Legends. See Webster. 

Bataillard, Paul : i. 43, 50, 306, 355 ; 
ii. 137 (f.n.); iii. 05, 86, 154 (f.n.), 
177, 252 ; Beginning of the Immigra- 
tion of the Gs. into Western Europe 
in the Fifteenth Century, i. 185-212, 
260-80,324-45; ii. 27-53; DeV Appari- 

tion des Bohimiens en Europe, (ref.) i. 
6, (quot. )36, (refs.) 185,186 (f.n.); Les 
D6J>uts de V Immigration des Tsiganes, 
(ref.) ii. 315; Les Derniers Travaux 
(ref.) i. 188 (f.n), 264 (f.n.), 265 (f.n) 
305 ; Egyptian Days, (note), i. 373 
Mat de la Question, (refs. ) i. 187 ( f.n.) 
188 (f.n.), 194 (f.n.), 198, 202 (f.n.) 
203 (f.n.), 204 (f.n.), 263 (f.n.) 
270 (f.n.), ii. 51 (f.n.); Les Gitanos 
d'Espagne, (quot,), i. 36, 37, (ref.) 194 
(f.n. ) ; Lettre a la Revue critique, (refs. ) 
i. 187 (f.n.), 189 (f.n.); Note addi- 
tionnelle, (ref.) i. 190 (f.n.); Nou- 
velles recherches sur V apparition des 
Bohemiens en Europe, (refs.) i. 7, 185 
(f.n), 186 (f.n.), 187, 188 (fn.), 190 
(f.n.), 194 (fn.), 195 (fn.), 196 (f.n.), 
197 (f.n.); UOrigine des Tsiganes, 
(quot.) ii. 63; Sur les Origines des 
Bohemiens, (quot.) i. 81 (f.n.), (ref.) 
192 (fn.). 

Bath-attendants, G., i. 4. 

Bdto, tu merinhaste, O, (song), i. 69. 

Battles of the Gods, The. Transylvanian 
G. legend, iii. 162-3. 

Baudrimont, Vocabulaire de la Langue 
des Bohemiens, (refs.) i. 45 (f.n.), i. 
59 and (f.n.), 76, 77 (f.n.), 84. 

Bavaria, Gs. in, in 1424, 1426, 1433, ii. 38 
(f.n. ) ; lack of G. colonies in, i. 32. 

bawarij, i. 224. 

Bawiiri j = Gs. , ii. 251. 

Beames, ii. 187. 

Pearla eagair : not Shelta, ii. 265. 

Bearla eagair and Shelta, (note). By 
John Sampson, iii. 247-8. 

Bearwards, G., ii. 76, 149; iii. 68. 

Beauteous dove, with golden sheen, (song), 
i. 295. 

Beddoe, Dr. John, iii. 177. 

Bede, the Venerable, i. 141, 142, 144 

Begsars, G., i. 42, 51, 178, 205, 251, 
287; ii. 134, 192, 316; iii. 31-3, 100, 
10S, 124, 138. 

Beggars' Bush, The. See Fletcher. 

Begging speech, G., i. 131. 

Beginning of the Immigration of the Gs. 
into Western Em-ope in the Fifteenth 
Century. Bv Paul Bataillard, i. 185- 
212, 260-86, 324-45 ; ii. 27-53. 

Beiim and Wagner : Bevblktrung der 
Erde, (ref.)i. 120. 

Behram Gur, i. 1, 51, 73, 225 (f.n.); 
ii. 189 ; iii. 178. 

Beilrdge zur Kenntniss der Som-Sprache. 
See Midler. 

Ii itrage zur Kenntniss der Zigeunermun- 
dar/en. See Miklosich. 

Belgian Artillerymen in England in t 
(note). By David MaeHiUhie, iii. 252 -3. 

Belgian ' Nutons' and Gs., (note). By 
D. MacRitchie, iii. 254-5. 

Belgium, Gs. in, iii. 134-42, 232-8. 

Belgrade, Gs. in, iii. 27-38. 

Bell : Dictionary of the Law of Scotland, 
(ref.)ii. 179 (f.n.). 

Bell, Colonel Mark S., (quot.) iii. 178. 

Bell, Robert, (quot.) ii. 335 (fn.). 


Bellows, G.,iii. 139-40. _ 

Belt*, silver, in possession ot I4iy us., 

Bemischen, G. race-name, i. 207, 208 

: l,,s history of tlie diffusion ot 

folk bales, i. 113. . 

By <;. A. Gnerson, l. 118. 
.ml derivation <>f, i. 118. 
th - 'no, The, 

mg), ii- 90. 
Beni Baochar, G. race-name, ii. 197, 198. 
Beni Baochos, '■• race-name, ii. 198, and 

p, .1. Theodore, (quot.)iii. 186-7. 
Berbers, description of, ii. 194. 
Berne, < is. at, i. 282. 
/;. rrur < 'hronik. See Justinger. 
1;i.];m.m, i. •247. 
. ii. 249. 
ithelot: Ethnographia dt las Islas 

w, (ref.) ii. 198 [f.n.). 
. . cognate forms of, ii. 18S. 

'■ /■ I'.rde. See Behm. 
Betlac: Nouvelle Ghronique de /layonne 

F.)i. 80 (f.n.). 
]:■■/ Came, G. race-name, ii. 197. 
Beziers, numbers <>f (is. in, i. 40. 
Bhdj'purl and G. grammar, resemblances 

of, .. 71-2. 
Bhoj'purl and G. vocabulary, resem- 
I 'la tiers of, i. 72. 

Biarritz, entrt les Pyr4n4es el VOcean. 

Bibliography: English-G., i. 153-60; 

Polish-G., ii. 237-8: of South-Russian 

I.-., ii. 79; of ' Zingaresche,' iii. 92-3. 
. /{'ys, (song), i. 139. 
jar and (he House of Fleming, (refs. ) 

ii. 174 (f.n.), 2.16 ; (quot.) ii. 360, 361. 
Bihari grammatical forms, i. 98. 
BlB w;i, Q. musician, i. 315. 
Biro (mayor), G. leader, iii. 109. 
Bishop, Mis., iii. 177. 
Black : a G. colour, ii. 60 ; cats, iii. 218 ; 

dog, G. superstition about, iii. 44, 4.1. 
Blacksmiths, G., i. 201, 202, 203 and 

(/.n.),205,208(/.n.); ii. 196; iii. 120. 
Blair, D., letter of, (quot.) iii. 127-S. 

',''.< larter, (quot.) iii. 2.1k 
Blanket, <i., i. 332 and {f.n.); and 

Roman toga, i. 103. 
Blonde Gs., i. 134; ii. 154, 379. 
blue, a <;. ,ul,,ur, iii. 138. 
Bl (7MI N B LI II, ii. 167. 

English-(b Fulk-Tale, iii. 


i .' Bobby rag, (song), iii. 203. 
' (ref.) iii. ISM. 

BOBHTUKOK, Otto, translation from, 

iii. 2-21. 
I'-". I- EUTSCH, ii. 7s. 
Bohemia, settled (is. in, ii. 1 : 
Bohemians (Bohemiens, Boemiens, Bo. 

hemi, Bohemiennes, Bohemios, Boh- 

men), G. race-name, i. 3, .".7, 77. 83, 

103, 142, 168, 185, 208 (f.n.), 324 

(/.»..); ii. 7, s, 9, 120, 124, 125, 316; 

iii. 12!, 134, 232, 236, 254. 
Bolt Liszt. 

Boissonnade : Anecdota graeca, (ref.) 
i. 268. 

Bold D raker imongero, The, (song), iii. 75. 

Boldizsar, Jozsi, G. musician, ii. 157, 

l^logna, Gs. at, in 1422, i. 261 (f.n.), 

Bomblky, G. silver buttons, ii. 228. 

Bommel, Gs. at, in 1429, ii. 36. 

Bootmakers, G., ii. 149. 

Borde, Dr. Andrew : Thefyrstboke of the 
introduction of Knowledge, (quot.)i. 10. 

Borrow, George, i. 72, 102, 103, 134 
(f.n.), 288, 289 ; ii. 3, 4, 92 ; iii. 
231, 247 ; as newspaper correspon- 
dent, i. 152 ; life in Spain, i. 150-3 ; 
stolen by Gs., i. 150; The Bible 
in Spain, (quot.) iii. 128; Lavolil, 
(refs.) i. 6, 224; (quot.) ii. 81 (f.n.), 
(refs.) ii. 6, 82 (f.n.), 216, 217, 
267, (quot.) 274; (refs.) iii. 74, 75, 
76, 77, 78, 79, SO, 150 (f.n.) ; 
(quot.) iii. 188; (refs.) 243, 248; The 
Zincali, (quot.) i. 37 ; (refs.) i. 38 
(f.n.), 43, 170, 232, 352; ii. 59; 
iii. 35 (f.n.), (quot.) 62, 159 (f.n.), 

Boscha, G. race-name, iii. 6. 

Boswell, Sylvester, death of, ii. 191. 

Bouche-Leclercq : Histoire de la divina- 
tion dans I'Anliquite', (refs.) i. 373. 

Bough, Sam, and Gs. , iii. 227. 

Bourciiard : Usi e costumi di Napoli, 
(ref.) iii. 91. 

Brand and Ellis : Popular Antiquities, 
(refs.)i. 12, 16, 19. 

Brassai, i. 315, 316. 

Braziers, G. , i. 232; ii. 360. 

Brazilian and Shetland Gs. By F. H. 
Groome, i. 232-5. 

Brazilian Romani: grammar, phonetics, 
and vocabulary of, i. 57-70. 

Brickmakers, G., ii. 153. 

Brigands and the Miller's Daughter, The. 
Polish-G. Folk-Tale, ii. 277-81. 

Brk;ht : Travels in Lower Hungary, 
(refs.) i. 7, 11 ; iii. 36 (f.n.), 64, 76. 

Brockie : Gs. of Yetholm, ii. 277. 

Bronze- workers, G., ii. 3ti0 (f.n. ) ; iii. 

Broom-stick marriage, i. 351. 

Brosset, Herr (quot.), iii. 5. 

Brugsch-Bey, Henry: History of Egypt 
under the Pharaohs, (quot.) ii. 193, 
194-5, 290 (f.n.). 

Brunswick, numbers of Gs. in, i. 32. 

brusndris, i. 23S ; iii. 176. 

Bryant, Jacob, (ref.) ii. 4. 

Bu Bacchar, G. race-name, ii. 198. 

Bu Bacchar [R. G. Haliburton] : G. 
Acrobats in Ancient Africa, ii. 193- 
203, 2SS-91. 

Budapest Folk- Lore Society, i. 167-8. 

Budge = lambskin, iii. 59. 

'Budget,' marriage over, i. 351. See 

Buffalo-breeders, G., i. 3. 

Buffaloes, ii. 131. 

Bugatchelo, Dr., collector of Romani, 
i. 5. 



Bulgaria, numbers of Gs. in, i. 120. 
Bullkin, William : Bulwarke of Defence, 

(quot.) i. 16. 
Bulletin of the Historical Society of 

Utrecht, (ref.) ii. 37 (f.n.). 
Bulobarz, ii. 198. 

Bulwarke of Defence. See Bullein. 
Bulwer Lytton as a Romany Rye. By F. 

H. Groome, iii. 219-27. 
Bcnyax, John, i. 52 ; ii. 377-8. 
Burgh Records of Glasgow, (quot.) ii. 338, 

Burial rites, G., i. 5, 54, 77. 
Burke, Ulick, (quot.) iii. 246. 
Burn ye, burn ye fast, Fire!, (soug), 

i. 111. 
Burnet : History of the Reformation, 

(ref.)i. 13. 
Burns: History of Parish Registers, (ref.) 

i. 19, 20. 
Burns : Macpherson's Lament, ii. 126, 

Burton, Lady Isabel : An Episode from 

the Life of Sir Richard Burton, ii. 

Burton, Sir Richard, i. 116, 223 (f.n.); 

incident in life of, ii. 365-7 ; letter of, 

(quot.) ii. 318; obituary notice of, ii. 

317-9 ; work in G. lore, ii. 31S. 
Burton, Robert : Anatomy of Jfelan- 

choiy, (quot. ) iii. 256. 
Bustrou, Florio : Chronique de Chypre, 

i. 188. 
Butler, Hudibras, (quot.) i. 247. 
Buttons: silver, i. 203 (f.n.); ii. 22S ; 

iii. 109, 156, 180; gold, iii. 156. 
Byzantium, Zott removed to, i. 74. 

Caballero, Fernan : Cuentos y Poesias 

populares Andaluces, (quot.) i. 140. 
Cabbalists, G., ii. 288. 
Cage-makers, ii. 134. 
Caird, John, tinkler, i. 52. 
Gaird=Mimus, (note), iii. 127 ; (note), 
v by D. MacRitchie, iii. 183-5. 
Gajori romani, (song), iii. 133. 
Caldarari (Calderari, Calderar), i. 202 ; 

ii. 51 (f.n.), 200; iii. 4s. 
Caldean, G. race-name, i. 247. 
Galderaj, I, (song), iii. 4S. 
Calendar of State Pa2Krs, (ref.) i. 17, 

Calendar of State Papers — Domestic — 

Elizabeth, (ref.) i. 20, 21. 
Calico worn in summer by Gs., iii. 157. 
Callot, iii. 63. 
Cuiloi ''.»• • Bohemians.' By D. MacRitchie, 

ii. 7-17. 
Calon, G. race-name, i. 58. 
Calvish s: Opus chronologicum, (quot.) 
^ i. 206 (f.n.); (ref.)i. 212. 
Camerars : Meditations hisloriques, iii. 

Camp et la Cour de D. Carlos, Le. See 

Campaigns and Cruises in Venezuela, 

(quot.) i. 306, 307. 
Campbell: Lives of the Chief-Justices, 

(refs.) i. 10; iii. 252. 
Campbell, Dr. James, i. 223. 

Campbell of Islay, i. 2 ; West Highland 

Tales, (refs.) i. 355 (f.n.); ii. 320, 

330 (fn.); (quot.) iii. 150. 
Canyoujas to stariben'/, (song), ii. 81-2 

and (f.n). 
Can you rokra Romany?, (song), ii. 81 

(f.n.). _ 

i/cioneiro dos Ciganos. See Moraes. 
Cant and slang derived from Shelta, ii. 

Cantemir, Prince Demetrius, (quot.) i. 

186 (f.n.). 
Canzoni antiche de popolo italiano. See 

Captains, G., power of, i. 51. 
Cakew, F. W., No. 747, (rev.). By 

H. T. Crofton, ii. 315. 
Carlyle, Mrs., (quot.) ii. 256. 
Carnoy, i. 323; iii. 158 (f.n.): Xoles 

upon the Gs. of Constantinople, (note), 

ii. 58-60. 
Carrion eaten by Gs., iii. 223 (f.n.). 
Uascarrotac, derivation of, i. 81 and 

Cascarrotac : mixed Basque and G. 

population, i. 76-84 ; confused with 

the Agots, i. 77 ; come from Spain, 

i. 77. 
Cascarrots, G. race-name, i. 77, 79 and 

(f.n.), 80, 81,83. 
Cascarrots of Ciboure, The. By the 

Rev. Wentworth Webster, i. 76-S4. 
Casimir Jagellon, King, protects Gs., 

ii. 239. 
Cassillis, Lady, ii. 358. 
Castes of Crimean Gs., ii. 75. 
Castles and Mansions of the Lothians. 

See Small. 
Catalan 1 : Discorso, (ref.) ii. 159. 
Catalogue des livres manuscrits et im- 
primis. See Landau. 
I latalonia, Gs. of, i. 35-45. 
Catalonia, Constitution of, i. 37, 247, 302. 
Catin, G. race-name, i. 168 (f.n.). 
'Cat's silver,' lucky stone, iii. 217, 218. 
Cattle-breeders, G., i. 250. 
Cattle-dealer, G., ii. 123. 
Caumaro, G. race-name, i. 16S (f.n.). 
Caveat. See Harman. 
Cazalis, Dr. Henry, ii. 3S0 ; L 'Illusion 

(quot.), i. 375 ; ii. 7. 
Celtic Britain. See Rhys. 
Celtic Scotland. See Skene. 
Cenac-Moncaut, i. 76 ; Histoire des 

Pyrenees, i. S3. 
Central African Gs. By R. W. Felkin, 

i. 220-2'. 
Cephalic index of Gs., i. 250 ; ii. 167. 
Ceremonial purity, <i., ii. 141. 
Cervantes: Don Quijole, (quot.) iii. 

Chaho, Augustin : Biarritz, entre les 

Pyr6n4es et VOcean, (ref.) i. 82. 
Chair-mak< rs, ( •., i. 287. 
( !hair-menders, G.. ii. 125. 
chat, meaning of, i. 50. 
Chaltsmide, G. race-name, i. 350 and 

Chambers, Robert: Domestic Annals oj 

Scotland, (quot. ) ii. 60-1, 361. 


I 'I 

• . . i. 332. 

I i i 233. 

I, i rmon of, (quot.) in. 

. ; o! African <;. married women, 
|, i. 288 : ii. 272. 

Cm V i ref.) in. 63. 

, k1 ,G i B, 175, 25] : Li. 124, 252. 
• yellow,' iii. 7 I. 

. /' - Si Wright. 

i :, 1 ; i 1 . I I I . 

Child, Prof.: English and Scottish 
Ballads, (refs.) i. 350; ii. 

Child, Theodore : A Visittoth Moscow 

,ii 124 ii. 
( Ihildren thrown about, i. 171. 
oej weepf , G., iii. 256. 

, ros of Vi i" ">!". Th , (note). 
By W. E. A. Axon, i. 306-7; (note), i. 
3 4. 
('In ' , ' .. race-name, ii. 21. 

kro ruk ' ivy,' iii. "JOS (f.n.). 
!oi ghiloi, i. 122. 

i Is and Gs., i. 168 ( f.n.), 
253, 337 ( f.n.), 339, 340-1, 343 (f.n.) ; 
iii. 15, 91, 137. 
( 'hristm . Si e Sandys. 

Carols: The Thru- Magi. 
By Wentworth Webster and David 
MacRitchie, i. 135-45. 
Christm ' Eve rites, iii. 166 

mica di Bologna, (quot.) i. 33-4-6. 
' 'onstanct , iii. 152. 
( 'hronicle of Liibeck. See Rufus. 
Chronicle of Olaus Petri, (quot.) ii. 73. 
Chro n " Ball. 

Chronicon de ducibus Bavariae. See 
Andrew of Ratisbon. 

onicon Forolivienne. See Fra Gero- 

nicon Helvetictim. S'eeTschudi. 
Chronicon Mirabile, (ref.) i. 17, 20. 
micon Rhat tiai . St e Sprecher. 
' 'hypn . Set Bustrou. 
de la ville dt Metz. Set 

<raphia. Si ■ Malalas. 

k van Medemblik. See Van 

Church invaded by Gs., i. 2 l. 
churi, i. 105 : iii. 189. 

loa, G. race-name, i. 57. 
mo* no Brazil, Os. See Moraes. 
nu, G. ra , i. 243. 

c ice name, i. 340. 
CU I'om, hod' kamav tut, (song), 

iii. •_'_'. 

r " ' name, i. 188,324 ( f.n I, 

' G. i e name, i. 103, 340. 
' ' ; - race name, i. 340 and 

, G., i. 202. 

■ G. , iii. '_'.") 1 . 
' • .. i. 42. 

of the Vulgar 
i ose . 

■'" Os. based upon M 

h'ounavine's Philological Researches, 

[Table], ii. 172. 
Cleanliness, G., i. 31; of Cascarrots, 

i. 78. 
Clouds in east on Whitsunday morning, 

G. superstition about, ii. 223. 
Cloustost, \V. A. : Popular Tales and 

Fictions, (refs.) iii. 110, 143 {f.n.), 

Clowns, <:., ii. 149. 
Cobblers, <!., ii. 149. 
Cobra-tamers, G., i. 312. 
Cockal, (note). 13y John Sampson, iii. 

Coiners, G., iii. 236, 23S. 
( 'ollectanea. See Specklin. 
COLOCCI, Marquis Adriano ; Gli Zin- 

gari, (rev.), i. 241-2, (quot.) ii. 7; 

Gli Zingari in Africa, i. 304 ; The 

(,'itanos of To-day, i. 2S6-9 ; Gs. in 

South America, (note), iii. 124 ; The 

Words ' Gurko ' and ' Simo,' (note), 

i. 245. 
Colour sense among English Gs., i. 167. 
Colours, G., ii. 60. 
Come suv me, Come siiv me, (song), iii. 

Commentarius de praecipuis generibus 

divinationum. See Peucer. 
Commerce and Navigation, of the Eryth- 
raean Sea. See M'Crindle. 
( 'ommerce of the Ancients. See Vincent. 

COMMINES, (quot.) i. 50. 
Commons' Journal, (ref.) i. 16. 
Gongrega dei llozzi de Siena, La. See 

Consonants in Brazilian Romani, i. 

Constable, Archibald, i. 373; iii. 125; 

'■Egyptian'' Days, (note), i. 310; Gs. 

and Church Discipline, (note), ii. 380; 

Gs. of Oudh, (note), i. 170. 
Constable, A. H., ii. 64. 
Oonstantinescu, Dr. Barbu : i. 115; 

J'robe de Limba si Liferatura Tsiga- 

uilor din Romania, translations from, 

i. 25-9, 345-9 ; ii. 142-6 ; iii. 142-7. 
Consumption, G. remedy for, iii. 60. 
Contes Populaires de Lorraine. See 

Contrabandists, G., i. 42. 
Contribution a Phistoire des Tsiganes. 

See De Goeje. 
Contribution to English G., A. By John 

Sampson, ii. 2-5. 
Contributions to the History of the Heidens, 

in Guelderland. See Sloet. 
Conveyances of 1417 band few or none, 

ii. 48. 
Coolkv : Negroland of the Arabs, (ref.) 

ii. 197; (quot.) ii. 200. 
COPMARLET, Madame: Goldjano, i. 244. 
( Jopper bottoms stolen by Gs., i. 252. 

< Joppersmiths, G., i. 171. 
Cordier, H., i. 323. 

< lordova, » ts. in, i. 287. 

I lORMAG : Glossary, (refs.) ii. 207, 210. 
Corner, i. 270, 271 (f.n.), 272 and 

(f.n.), (quot.) i. 274-5 (f.n.), (refs.) 

326 ( f.n.); ii. 48. 



Coronation Ceremony in Ohio, (note), i. 

Corpus historiae medii aevi. See Eccard. 

Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. See 

Correction, A (note), i. 54. 

Corrieri, Dr. A. G., writer on Gs., i. 

Corsica, Gs. enter, in 1881, i. 204 (f.n.), 

Cosmographie ivniverxelle. See Munster. 

Cosquin, ii. 147 ; Contes Populaires de 
Lorraine, iii. 150 ; his theory of dif- 
fusion of folk-tales, i. 113-4. 

Costume: of Catalonian Gs., i. 38, 39; 
of English G., iii. 156; of Lithuanian 
Gs., ii. 10S-9 ; of African Gs., i. 221 ; 
of Lithuanian G. women, i. 251 ; G., 
i. 309 ; ii. 12 ; iii. 249 ; of Spanish G., 
ii. 192. 

Costumes used in the Italian ' Zingaresche. ' 
By E. Lovarini, iii. 160-1. 

Counterfeit Gs., i. 359. 

Counterfeiting the King's Seal, G. 
accused of, i. 12. 

Cox, Sir George, iii. 150. 

Crane, Prof. Thomas Frederick : Italian 
Popular Tales, (ref.) iii. 145 (f.n.). 

Crawfurd : The Peerage of Scotland, 
(ref.)i. 6; (quot.)ii. 229. 

Creation of the Mountains, The. Tran- 
sylvanian-G. legend, iii. 163-4. 

Creenies, ii. 220-1. 

Crescimbeni : Comentarj, (ref.) iii. 90. 

Cresset : De Odio Satanae, iii. 136. 

Crete, Gs. in, in 1322, i. 188. 

Crimean Gs. By H. T. Crofton, ii. 

Crimean Gs. amalgamate with Tartars, 
ii. 77. 

Criminal Trials of Scotland. See Pit- 

Crisfi, Dr., collector of Romani words, 
i. 5. 

Crofton, Henry Thomas: i. 169, 204 
(f.n.), 311; ii. 180, 229; iii. 252; on 
portrait of Charlotte Stanley, ii. 317 ; 
on volulura, iii. 159 (f.n.); Additions 
to G. - English Vocabidary, i. 46-8, 
(refs.) ii. 3; iii. 77, 78, 80; -amus, 
-imus, -omus, (note), i. 50 ; -asar, 
(note), i. 50; Crimean Gs., ii. 74-9; 
Dialect of the English Gs., see Smart; 
Early Annals of the Gs. in England, 
i. 5-24, (refs.) ii. 173, 233, (quot.) ii. 
234, 235 ; An Euglish-G. Incident of 
the Sixteenth Century, (note), iii. 58 ; 
The Former Costume of the Gs., ii. 52 
(f.n.) ; Hand- List of Boohs, etc., in 
English relating to Gs., i. 153-60 ; 
King John of England and the Tinkers, 
(note), i. 244 ; 'Zee' and 'Leek' (Gyp. 
' Purrum'), (note), iii. 243 ; Letter to 
Academy, (refs.) ii. 127, 128, 217; 
Orthography and Accent, i. 96-7; 
People of Turkey, (note), i. 120 ; review 
of Axon's Stray Chapters, i. 167 ; review 
of F. W. Carew's No. 747, ii. 315; 
Romanichel, (note), i. 50. 
Cross, a G. sign, iii. 137. 
Crow's eye used as love-philtre, ii. 225. 

Crusids: Annates Suevici, (refs.) i. 265, 
324 (f.n.). 

' Csardas ' Dance, iii. 106-7. 

Csorba, Johann, G. burgomaster of 
Debreczen, ii. 160. 

Cni utos y Poesias populares Andaluces. 
See Caballero. 

Cufic coins in Orkney, i. 234. 

Curses, G. , iii. 214. 

Curtin : Myths and Folklore of Ireland, 
(ref.)ii. 381. 

Cyclopaedia. See Balfour. 

Cygans, G. race-name, i. 266. 

Cyprus, Gs. in, in 1468, i. 188. 

Czacki, Thadeus, Polish writer on Gs., 
ii. 94 (f.n.), 240. 

Czigany, G. race-name, i. 243 ; ii. 14S. 

Czigany Nyelvatan. See Josef, Arch- 

Czyngany, G. race-name, ii. 116. 

D., C. S., writer on Matthew Baillie, ii. 

daden 'father's,' iii. 75. 

dai = mere and maire, i. 45. 

Dalbono, C. F. ; Gli Zingari e le Zin- 
gare, (ref.) iii. 91. 

Dancers, G., i. 51, S0(/'.n.), 220, 222, 250, 
317; ii. 125, 149, 192; iii. 189. 

Dances : of Basques and Cascarrots, i. 
82-3; G. lascivious, ii. 125. 

Dancing run of Cascarrots, i. 79-80 

Danilowitsch, writer on Gs., iii. 4 

Darfur, Gs. in, i. 221. 

Darramboure, M. and Mde. , supply in- 
formation on the Cascarrotac, i. 76-7. 

Dasent, (ref.) i. 25 ; iii. 149. 

dafchen 'father,' ii. 3. 

Date of Romani, ii. 187. 

D'Aulnoy, Madame, i. 83. 

Davanni, ii. 100, 162. 

Davidson, Thomas : Groome's Theory of 
the Diffusion of Folk- Tales by means of 
the Gs., i. 113-6; Gs. and Tattooing, 
(note), iii. 250-1 ; review of Leland's 
G. Sorcery, ii. 367-74 ; review of 
Wlislocki's Volksdichtungen, ii. 374-6; 
review of Volksglaube und religibser 
Branch der Zigeuner, iii. 240-1. 

Davuldshi, G. race-name, ii. 75. 

De C, D. G. : D. del dial. Git., (ref.) ii. 
183 (f.n.). 

De Castro, Dr. Luiz, i. 233. 

De Goeje, i. 51, 75, 191, 234; iii. 178 ; 
Contribution a Phisloire des Tsigam s, 
i. 192 (f.n-); The Jleidens of tin 
Netherlands, ii. 129-37. 

Dk Golstein, Baron, ii. 37 (f.n.). 

De Gur.KRNATis : Zoological Mythology, 
(rets.) i. 2.".; iii. 146 (f.n.), 150, 213 

De L'Afriqve. See Leo Africanus. 

De Laplane, (quot.) i. 327-8. 

De la Poesie Francoise. See Raynuoard. 

De L Apparition des Boh4miena m 
Europe. See Bataillard. 

De man mol la durul'asa, (song), i. 131. 

De menca dde tejalaste, (song), i. 68. 



I , ■ i . - \, Marquia and Cayetano 

i Legislation 

.1 i iot.) ■• s -'- 

/» l resset. 

1, r, ,,ii,k, .1. Watts : Ob. : Some 

;, (rev.), ii. 316. 
D R iohas, Dr. Victor, i. 76, si ; Ces 

Pariaadt France et a" Espagne, (ref. ) 

i. :t:. i /.»). (quot.) i. 35, 36, 37-8, 40, 

U, 42, 13, 77 (/•»); (refs.) 78, 81; 

ni. L76(/n.). 
D 8 H.'. \i,i. RO, Gerhard, decree or, 

i. 210. 
D Sbyn : (ref.) ii. 210 (/.«.); HetBargo- 

ire, (rev.), ii. '249-50. 
Id Smkt, .1. J.: Recueil det de 
-. i a.)i. 208(/.n.), 332(/.n.). 
])i; run. Baron: Sur les Turcs et lea 

Fart i J, (ref.) i. 3. 
I 1 Ziklinski, Vladislav Kornel : Notes 
0$, of Poland and Lithuania, ii. 

237 1": \ on the Nomadic Gs. of 
tnd, iii. 108 9; .Votes on the Gs. of 

Russia, ii. ;'>»i.'?-4. 
Dead, the : and the mountains, iii. 218- 

g : oath by, ii. 134. 
Death oj a well-known English G. , (note). 

By John Simpson, ii. 191. 
I 1 brei sen, G. burgomaster of, ii. 160; 

numbers of Gs. in, ii. 153. 
I ' formities rare among Gs., iii. 100. 

aeracy of (Js., i. 308. 
I' kker, iii. 256, 257; Lanthorne and 

Candlelight, (quot.) iii. 248-50. 
/' cker on the (,'s., (note). By John 

Sampson, iii. '248-50. 
Del ' • ii " chuma yny rinheni chai, 
mg), ii. 90. 

D i drammatiche. See Moniglia. 

1' :i i [LO, rditor of Coleccion de Cantes 

Flamt ncos, i. 140. 
I M tfHAM, ii. 197. 
Des Reaux, Tallemant: Les Historiettes, 

(quot.) iii. 229. 
Description of England. Set Earrison. 
Description of 1417 band, i. 273-4. 
D of /he Shire of Tweeddale. 

Dksi oussi aux, i. 322. 
Deutschea Burgerthum im Mittelalter. 

1 '■ .s. at, in 1420, i. 328, ii. 129; 

in 1429, ii. 34. 
Devla soske man tu mardyel, (sons), iii. 

105. ° 

Dgipten Dgippenessen), G. 

■name, ii. 250 ; iii. 255. 

f i h< English Gs., The. See 
Smart and < Irofton. 
D»'a/ec of the Gs. of Brazil, The. By 
dolf von Sowa, i. 57-70. 

A onai Biography, (ref ) 
iii. 227. 

v of Slang, Jargon, and Cant. 
ind Loland. 

m. 247. 

"\ ../. s.. 


Dictionnaire de Vancienne langne Fran- 
caise. See Godefroi. 

Dieffenbach, (ref.)ii. 154. 

DlERCKS, Gustav, ii. 63. 

Diffusion of Folk-Tales, The, (note). By 
David MacRitchie, iii. 253-4. 

Dikla, iii. 155, 158-9. 

DlLiCH, Wilhelm : IFessische Chroniek, 
(quot.) i. 205. 

Dinant, iii. 253. 

Dio ti salvi bella Signora, (song), iii. 46. 

Dirks, J., i. 285 (/.«.); Geschiedkundige 
Onderzoekingen, (ref.) i. 329 (f.n.), 
(quot.) i. 329 (f.n.), (refs.) ii. 27 (f.n.), 
36 (f.n.), 37 (f.n.), 38 (f.n.), 136; 
Heidens of Egyptiers, (quot.) ii. 137 
[f.n.), (ref.) 236 (f.n.), 250 (f.n.), 
(quot.) ii. 334, (refs.) iii. 231 (f.n.), 
255 (f.n.), (quot.) iii. 255, 257. 

Dirty Gs., iii. 139. 

Discorsi accademici. See Salvini. 

Discorso. See Catalani. 

Discouerie of Witchcraft, The. See 

Disease due to demons, i. 111. 

Diviners, G., ii. 288. 

Divorce among tinklers, i. 179. 

Dizionario precettiro. See Affo. 

Djeemas, G. magicians, ii. 98. 

Doerfers, Swiss nomads, ii. 64. 

Dog-clippers, G. , i. 41. 

Dogs as Draught Animals, (note). By 
Charles Strachey, iii. 123. 

Dogs : for draught, iii. 63, 123 ; owned 
by Gs., i. 6; ii. 14. 

Doine. See Grenville Murray. 

Domestic Annals of Scotland. See Cham- 

Doms, professions of, i. 71. 

Dom*, Jats, and the Origin of the Gs. By 
G. A. Grierson, i. 71-6. 

Doncaster. See Miller. 

Donkey-clippers, G., i. 41. 

Dorchester, trial of Gs. at, in 1559, i. 15. 

Dorka, Hungarian-G. Folk-Tale, ii. 

Douce : Illustrations of Shakespeare, 
(quot.) i. 80 (f.n.). 

Dowojno-Sylwestrowicz, Mieczyslaw : 
The Lithuanian Gs. and their Lan- 
guaqe, i. 251-8; The Lithuanian Gs., 
ii. 107-9. 

Dowry : dispute about, i. 248 ; large, 
for G. daughter, i. 4. 

Dowry of an English-G. Bride, (note), 
i. 177. 

Dr. KopernickVs 'Tale of a wise young 
Jew' (note). By David MacRitchie, 
iii. 253. 

Dr. Solf on the German Gs., (note), i. 

Dragon, The. Slovak-G. Folk-Tale, iii. 

Drama, ('.. in, i. 19. 

Drinking of G. men, ii. 1 40. 

Drunkenness cured, iii. 16S. 

DSava mange audi kricma, (song), iii. 

Dschewdet, Pasha, ii. 149, 150; iii. 
153 (f.n.). 



Dshepar, ii. 75, 76, 77. 

Da Cange : Glossarium, i. 373. 

Du Langage secret dit Ogham. See 

Duffield, A. J., The Last Will and 

Testament of Malddros, (note), ii. 253. 
Dui Tovarisha, : A Slovak-G. Tale. 

By Rudolf von Sowa, ii. 53-5. 
Dull Laithne, ii. 262. 
dukerau, i. 299 ; iii. 176. 
Dunbar, Captain: Social Life in Former 

Days, (ref.) ii. 352 (f.n.). 
Dunbar, William, (quot. ) ii. 233. 
Dupuis : Two Years' Residence in 

Ashanti, (quot.)ii. 197. 
Dusevel, ii. 32 (f.n.). 
Dutch, Roinani words in, ii. 136. 
Dwarfs, Gs. confounded with, iii. 134, 

135 (f.n.). 
Dwarfs of Mount Atlas, The. See Hali- 

Dyalog of Syr Thomas More, Knight, A, 

(ref.)i. 7. 
Dyeing by Gs., iii. 156. 
Dynamitters, G. race-name, i. 50. 
Dynamitters, (note). By F. H. Groome, 

i. 50. 
Dyrlund, M. F. : Tatere or/ Xatmands- 

folk, (refs.) i. 7, 272-3 (f.n.), 282 ( f.n.), 

341 (fin.); ii. 236; iii. 254. 
dzeka, derivation of, i. 120. 
Dzeka, (note). By I. Kopernicki, i. 120. 

Early Annals of tin Gs. in England. By 
H. T. Crofton, i. 5-24. 

Earth from ' lucky ' mountains for 
bridal bed, iii. 212. 

Earthenware shops, G. , i. 309. 

Eccard : Corpus historiae medii aevi, 
(ref.)i. 272; ii. 38; Historia Studii 
etymologici linguae Germanicae, (ref.) 
ii. 45 ( f.n.). 

Educated Gs., i. 40; ii. 160. 

Edward hi., charter of, (quot.) i. 50. 

Edward vi.'s Jotimal, (quot.) i. 13. 

Edzell, church-bell of, cast by Gs., ii. 

Eggeling, Prof. J. : review of Groome's 
Article 'Gs.' in Chambers's Encyclo- 
paedia, ii. 1S6-9; review of von Sowa's 
Mundart, ii. 245-9. 

Egg-shells and witches, iii. 39. 

' Egypt ' as a European Place-Name, 
(note). By D. MacRitchie, i. 52-4. 

' Egyptian ' Day*, (note). By Archibald 
Constable, i. 310; byEmil Thewrewk 
de Ponor and P. B., i. 372-3. 

Egyptians, G. race-name : 

Egyptians (Aegyptians, Egipcians, 
Egipcioac, Egipsianes, Egiptiaci, 
Egiptianis, Egiptians, Egypcions, 
Egyptenaars, Egypti, Egyptianes, 
Egyptiani, Egyptoac, Gipcyans, 
Guphtoi, Gyptian, Gyptien, Gyp- 
tos, Gypty), i. 4, 8, 10, 12, L4, 19, 

20, 23, 37, 52, 53, 168 (f.n.), 179, 
214, 226, 233, 247, 269, 308. 330, 
331, 373; ii. 8, 9, 12, 16, 17, L8, 

21, 23, 24, 34 (f.n.), 36, 37, 01. 
64, 116, 120, 126, 130, 138 (f.n.), 

Egyptians, G. race-name— continued. 

149, 180, 201, 20S, 233, 236, 250, 
290, 293, 294, 295, 299, 300, 301, 
302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 334, 335, 
336, 337, 33S, 339, 341, 343, 344, 
345, 346, 348, 349, 350, 351, 352, 
353, 355, 356, 361, 362; iii. 136, 
232 (f.n.). 
Einwauderung der Zigeuner, Die. See 

Elektschi (Elekdschi), G. race-name, ii. 

75, 76. 
Elizabeth, Poor Law Act of, (quot.) i. 

Elliot : Faces, X. II*. Provinces, (ref ) 

i. 224 ; Supplementary Glossary, (ref.) 

i. 224. 
Elliot and Dowson, (ref.) i. 224 (f.n.), 

225 (f.n.). 
Elliott, Ebenezer, i. 309. 
Ellis. See Brand. 

Ellis, Henry : Original Letters illustra- 
tive if English History, (quot.) i. 24. 
Elynoure Rummiuge. See Skelton. 
Elvsseeff, A., iii. 87 ; Material* for the 

Study of the Gs., ii. 93-100, 161-71. 
ElzevieR, Rammelman, (quot.) i. 329 

(f.n.) ; (ref.)ii. 37 (f.n.). 
Emblem, Romani, ii. 190. 
Embroiders, G., ii. 149. 
Emigration from Hindustan, G., date of, 

ii. 169. 
Eminent Welsh G. Family, An, (note), 

iii. 124-5. 
En el portal <<< Belen, (song), i. 140. 
Enault, i. 288. 
Enchanters, G., ii. 288. 
Encyclopaedia Britannica, (refs.) i. 224, 

226, 232. 
Enessei, G., writer on Gs., ii. 151. 
Engineer, G. , ii. 160. 
England, Gs. in, in 1440 (?), i. 6. 
Enqlislt. and Scottish Popular Ballads. 

See Child. 
English Fair alleged to date from the 

Arrival of the Gs., An, (note), ii. 380. 
English G. Dress. By John Sampson, 

iii. 155-9. 
English-G. Incident of the 16th Century, 

An, (note). By H. T. Crofton, iii. 

English G . Songs. See Tuckey. 
English G. Songs and Rhymes. By John 

Sampson, ii. 80-93. 
English G. Words, (note). By John 

Sampson, iii. 246-7. 
English Gs. banished to Norway, i. 11 ; 

to Calais, i. 11. 
English Wayfaring Life in the Middle 

Ages. See Jusserand. 
engro, i. 97. 

Entertainers, G., ii. 108. 
'Eiuoigjiia iv qidou, i. 268. 
Episode from the Life of Sir Richard 

Burton, An. By Isabel Burton, i. 

Ercolano. See Varchi. 
Erfurt, Gs. at. in 1432, ii. ."s (f.n.). 
Erreurs ft le* Viritis, Le$. See Salgues. 
eskro, i. 97. 



I ■ , I ■ i i i oa ii- 351. 

uwgraphia dt 'a Ida Canarias. See 

raphy of the I '<> njab. St e Ibbet- 


/:/„,/, dt pAi onvparie sur V argot. 

M icbel. 

'. j sur Vhiatoire dt Prusse. Set 

La vine. 

//•., , / ,,;,■, rsale. See Whiter. 

mology of 'Gurko,' (note). By J. 

Pincherle, i. 169. 
I ins. Dr. Sebastian, (quot.) i. 145. 
K\ i.kkst. Miss G. G. : Syrian-G. vocabu- 
lary, ii. 25 7. 
Every Day Book. See Hone. 
Exchange of wives among tinkers, i. 

/.'. cursions in the Crimea. See Koppen. 
Execution of < is., i. 14. 
Exercitatio Linguat Zingaricae. Sec 

Inhibitors of animals, G., 1 i i- 138. 
Exploits of Two G. Girls, The, (note), ii. 

L23-4. ' 
Expalsion from <i. clans, ii. 141. 
K tracts from the Council Register of the 

Burgh of Aberdeen, (quot.) ii. 2!) 1-2, 

292-4, 295. 
Extracts from the Records of the Royal 

Burgh of Stirling, (quot.) ii. 64. 
Extraits dee anciens registres des Gonsaux 

dt la Ville de Tournai. See Vander- 

Eye, G., i. 38, 172. 

Fahkichs. G., (quot.) i. 206 and (f.n.) ; 

(ref.) i. 212. 
Face, • ;., description of, i. 134. 
Familiar objects, fairy-lore 'associated 

with, i. 118. 
Family of Shelta-speaking and Eomani- 
king Highland Tinkers, A, (note). 
By I). Fearon Ranking, ii. 319-20. 
Farawni, G. race-name, i. 226. 
Parmer, G., ii. 378. 
Farm hands, (i., i. 4. 
Farriers, G., i. 232, 250; ii. 149. 
Fabsaid, Fenius, ii. 2(i4. 
Fast mid loose, description of the game, 

i. 19-20. 
Fi cundity of Gs., i. 37, 38; ii. 226. 
I i lieini (Fehemis), G. race-name, i. 222 ; 

iii. 155, 159 {f.n.). 
Felkin, K. W. : Central African Gs.'i. 

221 1 2. 
Fi iidalism fatal to (is., iii. 237. 
Fi i;i sen. Rev. J. : Additional Notes on 
Irish Tinker* and their Language, 
te), ii. 127-8 : A Modem Enchan- 

I, ii. 126. 
. The. Hungarian-G. Folk-Tale, 
ii. 65 6. 
FiddlerB, G., ii. :;i-l ; iii. 27, 32, 42. 
Filigree work and gold beating attri- 

buted to Gs ,i 221. 
FlKDtoi : Shah Nama, i. 51, 73, 75; ii. 
131 : iii. ITs 

r ' V* '■ . in Finland. By 

John Abercrombj . ii. 73-4. 

Fishermen, G., i. 77; ii. 149. 

Flaussoie, G. garment, ii. 30. 

Fleet, (<|uot.) i. 71. 

Fi.ktchek, John : The Beggar's Bush, 

(quot.) iii. 59. 
Flour used in fortune-telling, iii. 62. 
Flower plucked from grave, G. super- 
stition about, i. 294 (f.n.). 
Flynt, Josiah, (quot.) iii. 186. 
foculatrices, i. 207 (/.«.)■ 
Folk-tales : consolation of, i. 108, 109 ; 

a religion, i. 108, 319. 
Folk-tales — 

English-G. : Bobby Rag, iii. 201-4. 
De Little Bull-Calf , iii. 208-11. 
De Little Fox, iii. 204-8. 
Hungarian-G. : Dorka, ii. 68-9. 
The Fiddle, ii. 65-6. 
How a G. cheated the Devil, ii. 


How the Devil assisted God in the 

Creation of the World, ii. 67-8. 

The Origin of the Hungarian, 

the German, the Jew, and the 

G., ii. 69-70. 

Lithuanian-G. : The G. and the 

Devil, ii. 55-6. 
Miscellaneous : G. Dispersion, ii. 
105, 106. 
Obertsshi, ii. 100-1, 104. 
Tale of Alor, ii. 103. 
Tale of a great Sage, ii. 102. 
Tale of the Wanderings of 
Jandra, ii. 101-2. 
Moravian-G. : The Princess and the 

Forester's Son, i. 89-95. 
Polish-G. : The Brigands and the 
Miller's Daughter, ii. 277-81. 
The Golden Bird and the Good 

Hare, ii. 282-0. 
Tale of a Foolish Brother and of 

a Wonderful Bush, i. 84-9. 
Tale of a Girl who ivas sold to 
the Devil, and of her Brother, 
i. 145-50. 
Tede of a wise young Jew and a 

golden Hen, i. 227-31. 
The Witch, ii. 327-34. 
Roumanian-G. : The Bad Mother, i. 
The Red King and the Witch, i. 

The Two Thieves, iii. 142-7. 
The Vampire, ii. 142-8. 
Shelta : The Red Man of the Boyne, 
iii. 23-5. 
The Two Tinker Priests, iii. 
Slovak-G. : The Dragon, iii. 84-5. 
Dui Tovarisha, ii. 53-5. 
The G. a7id the Priest, iii. 147- 

O Minarix, i. 25S-60. 
Phiiro Sasos, ii. 323-7. 
The Three Girls, iii. 81-2. 
The Two Children, iii. 82-4. 
Transylvanian-G. : The Battles of the 
Gods, iii. 162-3. 
The Creation of the Mountains, 
iii. 163-4. 



Folk-tales — continued. 

The Quarrel of Sun-King and 
Moon- King, iii. 216. 
Welsh-G. : An Old King and his 

three Sons i?i England, iii. 110-20. 
Folk-tales, Incidents of — 

Adoption by robbers, i. 91. 
Advice of old man, iii. 1 12. 
Alor and Gati's love, ii. 103. 
Apple, one pound, i. 147. 
Apples, golden, ii. 282; iii. 110. 
Apple-tree, golden, i. 27 ; pursues 

robber, i. 27. 
Bacon : and egg cause pregnancy, 

iii. 207 ; door of, ii. 154. 
Ball for all comers, i. 258. 
Ball of yarn flung between horse's 

ears, iii. Ill, 112. 
Baramy, ii. 102. 
Baths, fine, i. 227. 
Bear : and fox, ii. 54 ; lame, iii. 117. 
Bed : beautiful but unoccupied, i. 

229 ; of snakes and frogs, iii. Ill, 

Beggars get soldier's wealth, ii. 3'2.~>. 
Bells of horses' heads, ii. 154. 
Bird, golden, ii. 282, 286. 
Birth of all things, ii. 102. 
Bolt of sucking pig, ii. 154. 
Boy with golden star, iii. 83. 
Boys fighting over father's pro- 
perty, i. 147. 
Breeches stolen from thief, iii. 143. 
Brigands. See Robbers. 
Brothers : and father given to devil, 

ii. 66 ; beaten and given money, i. 

85, 86 ; given money, i. S7 ; made 

into ropes, ii. 66. 
Bull-calf pet, iii. 208. 
Bulrush as horse, ii. 72. 
Burial: in forest, ii. 144; under 

threshold, ii. 147. 
Burning : a punishment for un- 

chastity, iii. 205. 
Bush : abode of fairy, i. S5, 86, 87, 

Butcher's boy, i. 259. 
Cap thrown in direction of light, i. 

90 95 
Card-playing, i. 28 ; ii. 283. 
Cask with cow in it, i. 149. 
Castle : entered by hole in wall, i. 

92 ; of silver, i. 146. 
Child : killed by vampire, ii. 145 ; 

resurrected by vampire's heart, 

ii. 146. 
Childless emperor, i. 25. 
Children devoured by Sun, iii. 

216 ; exposed, iii. 83. 
Christ, elder tree, and ivy, iii. 20S. 
Church : of cheese, ii. 154 ; eaten, 

ii. 154. 
Cloak : and saddle stolen by noble- 
man's son, i. 1 4.S ; giving invisi- 

bility. i. 148. 
Clothes left at well, ii. 280. 
Cock consulted, ii. 69. 
Cock's feet: sign of demon origin, 

ii. 143. 
Competition in lying, ii. 56. 

Folk -tales, Incidents of —continued. 

Cooked food in guarded press, i. 

Copper palace, i. 347, 348. 
Country thief, iii. 142. 
Crabs with candles, iii. 146, 147. 
Crime exposed, ii. 147. 
Csardas danced by devils, ii. 73. 
Curd squeezed to frighten monkeys, 

iii. 209. 
Dance on knife blades, iii. 81. 
Dancing of Hungarian, German, and 

Jew, ii. 70. 
Daughter : bewitched, iii. 205 ; 

sold, i. 145, 146. 
Daughters : shot by father, iii. 82 ; 

three, i. 145. 
Dead lad restored to life by magic 

pig, water, and apple, i. 29. 
Death and Eld take Red King's 

son, i. 349. 
Demon : lover found in grave, ii. 
143 ; trsnsformed into sapling, i. 
Devil : and heaven weep at G.'s 
playing, ii. 72 ; and mirror, ii. 65 ; 
Imrned black, ii. 68 ; carries off 
hero in sack, ii. 329 ; dwells in 
lake, ii. 55 ; promises to help G. 
at price of his fiddle, ii. 70 ; over- 
come by G., ii. 55 ; up a tree, ii. 
67 ; white, ii. 67. 
Devil's impudence, ii. 68. 
Devils : as lovers, iii. 81 ; perform 

task for hero, ii. 330, 331. 
Diamond; forest, iii. 81; horse and 
garments, i. 87; ring and dragon's 
tongue for recognition, iii. 210. 
Doctors fail, i. 228. 
Dog killed, i. 91. 
Door of fat bacon, ii. 154. 
Dove and soldier, ii. 147. 
Dragon : killed when putting on 
boots, i. 149 ; killed with gut of 
calf, iii. 209; kills bull-calf, iii. 
209 ; put in jar, i. 26 ; vanquished, 
iii. 85 ; with twenty-four heads, 
iii. 84. 
Dream, ii. 327 ; iii- 83. 
Ducats, three bushels of, ii. 279. 
Earth, the, covered with water, 

ii. 67. 
Eggs stolen from crow, iii. 142. 
Eight: servants held by banish- 
ment, i. 231 : vears' journey, i. 
Elder bush and Christ, iii. 208. 
Eleven dragons killed, i. 26. 
Exchange of garters, watch, and 

handkerchief, iii. 114. 
Fairies give advice, i. 229 ; live on 

the mountains, iii. 161. 
Fairy helper, i. 85. 
Father and mother resurrected, ii. 

Feather, smelling at, i. 149. 
Feathers, three, from golden bird,ii. 

Fiddle: entices lover, ii. 66; 
found by G., ii. 66. 


Folk-tales, rncid i ' 'nued. 

I , Ireii, iii. 83. 

Flowei rowing out of girl's grave, 
ii. 144, I 17. 

den by witch, i. 345. 

: so,,, i. 84; ii. 282. 
I room, i. 26. 

Forest: diamond, iii. 81; great, 

i. 25 : iii. 110. 
Fore ter, drunken, deserted by wife 

and children, i. 90. 
Four: cages and birds, ii. 284; 

days' feast, i. *7 ; flights of stairs, 

i. 92 : sonB, ii. 53. 
I born of woman, iii. 205 ; 

obtains food for mother, iii. 206. 
I i ig hunting, i. 88. 
Garters, watch, and handkerchief 

, ., »ed, iii. 114. 
Germ , creal ion of, ii. 69. 
Girl : -slain by demon lover, ii. 

144 ; with golden star, iii. 83. 
Girl's father and mother slain by 

demon lover, ii. 144. 
Olass forest, iii. 

1 as old man, 2. 

G ilden : apples, iii. 110,114; apple- 
. i. '-'7 : boy w ith apples, ii. 

I 15; forest, iii. 81; garments, i. 

86 : haired bride of Sun, iii. 216 ; 

heu and chickens, i. 230; ii. 381; 

horse, i. 86 ; ii. 285 ; scissors, i. 

92 ; star, iii. 83, 
• .".isc consulted, ii. 69. 
1 rass and bulrush weeping at G.'s 

fiddling, ii. 70. 
teful animals : hare, ii. 284. 
Grief, valley of, i. 348. 

I • . : creation of, ii. 69, 70 ; defeats 

Devil, ii. 55 • disguised as priest, 
iii- 147; girl married by squire, 
iii. 202. 

soul out of fiddle, ii. 72. 

Hind cut off, ii. 147. 

Handful of sand to create the 
earth, ii. 67. 

Handkerchief used as test of pater- 
nity, iii. 1 is. 

Hue : as horse, ii. 28 1, 285 ; lame, 
ii. 284. 

Ibad of thief cut off, iii. 1 13. 

Hen and chickens of gold, i. 230; 
ii. 381. 

l ,r roand sv n wife escape, 

ii. 332. 

Heroic lad, i. 25. 

II irse : divine, ii. 102; with twelve 

i. 27 : with twenty-four 

b tail bitten off by sow, i. 27. 
I welve di i, 25. 

d, creation of, ii. 69. 
H Land recovered, iii. II!). 

door, i. 229. 
Jai I,, j s, ii. 101. 

•Tar, dragon in. i. 26. 

. ii. 69 : wise i 
227, 228, 2'_".». 

■ ips, i. 91. 

Folk-tales, Incidents of — continued. 
Key in egg, i. 149. 
King's : daughter to be devoured by 

dragon, iii. 209 ; feast, i. 84, 87; 

son thrown into prison, ii. 2S3 ; 

three sons, iii. 110; treasury 

robbed, iii. 14.'.'. 
Knife : bloody, ii. 54 ; left in tree 

as mark, ii. 53. 
Lad cut in pieces by dragon, i. 29. 
Lake, devil dwells in, ii. 55. 
Lice hunting, i. 85, 86 ; ii. 330, 331. 
Linen clothes, room full of, ii. 280. 
Lying, competition in, ii. 56. 
Magic: apple, i. 27; pig, i. 27; 

water, i. 28. 
Maiden : and lad w T ed,i. 29 ; beauti- 
ful, ii. 6.">. 
Malta, ii. 102. 
Meat stolen, iii. 145. 
Mid-day meal of mountains and 

marshes, i. 2S. 
Miller rewarded, ii. 334. 
Miller's daughter, i. 258 ; ii. 277. 
Molasses, cask of, iii. 143. 
Mother : and dragon burned, i. 29 ; 

frees dragon from jar, i. 26 ; 

plots son's death, i. 26. 
Mother-in-law, cruel, iii. 202. 
Needle and thread stuck in man's 

back, ii. 143. 
Needles to help keep awake, i. 346 ; 

ii. 2S2. 
Nobleman's : dream, i. 227 ; son, 

ii. 327 ; son married to princess, 

i. 231 ; wife and Jewess give birth 

to sons on same day, i. 227. 
Noise, great, iii. 114. 
Noiseless gun, i. 91. 
Oats scattered to mark route, ii. 279. 
Obertsshi, ii. 100-1. 
Old man's : advice, ii. 328 ; iii. 208 ; 

head cut off, iii. 115. 
Old : soldier, ii. 323 ; thief's 

advice, iii. 143, 144, 145 ; witch 

denounced, iii. 207 ; woman, ii. 

142, 2S0. 
Ox : stolen from foolish peasant, iii. 

146 ; takes devil on horns, ii. 68. 
Palace burned down, ii. 281. 
Paper floor, i. 95. 
Parents recognised, iii. S4. 
Parson deluded by thief, iii. 149. 
Peasant: rewarded, ii. 281; robbed 

by Jew, i. 146. 
Pees, bodies hanging from, ii. 280. 
Pig, magic, i. 27. 
Pilgrim's sufferings, ii. 101. 
Polyandry , iii. 143. 
Poor man, ii. 53. 
Portrait of princess, i. 22S. 
Priest: ill treated and robbed by 

O., iii. 148; stolen from church 

in a sack, iii. 147, 148 ; thrashes 

< •. u oman, iii. 147. 
Princess : in castle, i. 91 ; kissed, i. 

86, 87 ; parts with gold ring,i. 87 ; 

seemed by foolish son, ii. 285; 
i ks father of her child, i. !•.'-> ; 

sleeping, iii. 1 14. 



Folk-tales, Incidents of — continued. 

Prohibitions : to ransom brothers, 
ii. 286. 
to take wife to church, ii. 147. 
Punishment : death for failure, ii. 

Pursuit by robbers, ii. 280. 
Queen of the birds, i. .347. 
Raven gives news of sweetheart, 

ii. 69. 
Recognition scene, i. 88, 95 ; iii. 

Red man of the Boyne, iii. 23. 
Regret : mountain of, i. 348 ; plain 

of, i. 347. 
Rescue of comrade's body, iii. 144. 
Resurrection of slain daughter, iii. 

Reward : for good service, ii. 324 ; 

for killing robbers, ii. 279 ; for 

saving life, ii. 281; for slaying 

devil, ii. 55 ; rejected, iii. 25. 
R«wards : half kingdom, i. 346 ; 

king's daughter, iii. 146. 
Robberband, ii. 54. 
Robbers : as noblemen, ii. 277, 279 ; 

eleven slain, ii. 278 ; hundred, ii. 

281; slain, i. 93 ; three, ii. 277 ; 

twelve, ii. 147, 278 ; twenty-four, 

ii. 326. 
Room full of money, ii. 2S0. 
Rope of dog's gut, ii. 154. 
Route marked with oats, ii. 279. 
Sabre : on nail, i. 26 ; to extermi- 
nate army, i. 88. 
Sack : hidden in, ii. 329 ; of money, 

inexhaustible, ii. 326 ; you can- 
not escape from, ii. 326. 
Sand burns devil's hands, ii. 68. 
Sands, golden, ii. 72. 
Screams, loud, ii. 284. 
Seven days' feast, i. 87- 
Seventy-seventh land, ii. 147. 
Sham priests, iii. 26. 
Shoemaker's daughter, iii. 82. 
Sickness caused by love, ii. 145. 
Silver : castle, i. 146 ; garments, i. 

85 ; -haired bride of moon, iii. 

216; horse, i. 85 ; ii. 285. 
Sister : beaten to death by drake's 

wings, ii. 336. 
Sleeping : beauty, i. 93 ; princess, 

iii. 114. 
Soldier : iii. 82 ; and dove, ii. 147 ; 

killed by robbers, ii. 326 ; sent to 

hell, ii. 326. 
Soldiers made drunk, iii. 144. 
Somersault, i. 346. 
Son of old age, i. 147 ; taunted at 

school, i. 147. 
Stepfather, cruel, iii. 208. 
Stick : invincible, ii. 326 ; thrown 

in water, becomes tree, ii. 67. 
Stone cross, i. 347, 349. 
Straw, hidden in, ii. 280. 
Suckling of sow of other world, i. 

Suicide, saved from, iii. 24. 
Sun's dark clothes, ii. 101; hiding 

place, ii. 101; journeys, ii. 101. 

Folk-tales, Incidents of — continued. 
Swan-maiden escapes, ii. 328-9. 
Swan-maidens, three, ii. 327. 
Swans carry hero over pond, iii. 

Swift journey, iii. 112, 114. 
Tailorsaves man from suicide, iii. 24. 
Tale reciters, i. 84. 
Tasks : to carry off king's daughter, 
ii. 285. 
to cut down forest, ii. 329. 
to drain pond and save the fish, 

ii. 331. 
to guard food-press, i. 346. 
to kiss king's daughter, i. 85. 
to restore : forest, ii. 330 ; 

pond, ii. 332. 
to secure thief, ii. 282. 
to steal silver horse, ii. 2S4. 
to take princess, i. 91. 
Tavern free to those who relate ex- 
periences, i. 93. 
Three: daughters, i. 145; iii. 81; 
sons, i. 84 ; tobacco pipes, ii. 
324 ; wishes, ii. 326. 
Toe wounded, i. 88. 
Towers of sheep's milk cheese, ii. 

Town thief, iii. 142. 
Transformations : baby into demon, 
i. 346. 
bear into young man, iii. 118. 
brother into strings, ii. 66. 
father into box, ii. 66. 
flower into girl, ii. 144, 145, 

husband into drake, ii. 333 ; 
into old man, ii. 333 ; into 
meadow, ii. 332 ; into swan, 
ii. 333. 
leaves of trees into men, ii. 68. 
maiden into salt-spring, ii. 69. 
man into fly, iii. 81. 
mother into stick, ii. 66. 
old man into beautiful youth, 

iii. 115, 116. 
wife into church, ii. 333; into 
duck, ii. 333 ; into flower, ii. 
Trap to catch clever thief, iii. 149. 
Twelve ladies, ii. 283. 
Twenty-four robbers, i. 91. 
Twins, iii. 83. 

Two tinkers as priests, iii. 25. 
Ugly old men, iii. 110, 111. 
Vampire bursts, ii. 146. 
Vault of money, iii. 83. 
Wand : and key, i. 229; beautiful, 

i. 148. 
Warm breeze, i. 346. 
Watch recovered from tree, iii. 1 18. 
Water from great mountains, i. 27. 
Wheat : a protection against witch- 
craft, iii. 204. 
Wife: released from imprisonment 
in oak, i. 149 ; transformed, ii. 
332, 333. 
Wind, hut of the, i. 317. 
Wine, two bottles of, ii. 284. 
Winged horse, i. 27, 28. 


Folk tales, Incidents of -conlinu 
Wi he . i hree, ii. 326. 
Witch sister: killed, i. 348; beaten 
to death by Bwan's wings, ii. 333. 
Women eaten, iii. 8 !. 

W len axe and spade, ii. 329. 

Wretchi '1 horse, ii. 285. 

tfourig gentleman rescues naked 

iii. 203. 
youngi : robbed by Ins 

brothers, iii. 116 : sets out on 
travels, i. 347 ; successful, i. 347; 
to be beheaded, iii. 117. 
Youngest swan-maiden captured, 
ii. 328. 
Folk-tales, Variants of, i. 25, 345; ii. 
f.n.), 142, 330 (/.».), 381 ; iii. 81, 
B4(J »•), HO, 145 (f.n.), 149-51. 
ols, < ■. race name, i. 37. 
Forli, Gs. at, in 1422, i. 336. 

vin this rokli they lel'd me apri, 
(song), iii. 79. 
Fortune-tellers, ('... i. 7, 8, 16, 19,24, 
12, 171, 212, 220, 222, 232, 247, 250, 
251, 287, 304, 331,371 : ii. 21,94, 125, 
130, 1 19, l'.'--'. 196, 197, 366; iii. 36, 
62, 95, 101), 108, 120, 127, 135, 139, 
232 [f.n.). 
Fortune-telling : iii. 86, 87 ; G. method 
of, iii. 3G-7 ; of Sahara tribes, ii. 199. 
Four-eyed bitch, iii. 213. 
FowLIS, Lady, trial of, ii, 305. 
Fi;\ Geronimo: Chronicon Foroliviense, 

uot.) i. 336-7 (f.n.). 
Frag Si tish History, (quot.) 

ii. 339. 
Francesco-Maria, Duke, edict of, 

againsl Gs., i. 216. 
Frankfurt-on-the-Main, Gs. at, in 1 4 IS, 

i. 275 ; in 1434, ii. 39. 
Fran : von MiUoskh. By F. H. Groome, 

iii. 1-2. 
Fraser, Sir W. : Tin Lennox, (ref.) ii. 
177 i f.n.) : Memorials of thi Mont- 
rjomeries, Earls of Eglinton, (quot.) ii. 

,/ \'tirriLon't< s. .sV-eHarman. 
Fkesufield, Edwin, (quot.) iii. 241-2. 
fritchus, iii. 246. 
Frog: G. hatred of, ii. 227 : G. super- 

on about, ii. 141. 
Frontiers, <!., made by language, i. 210. 
Frossakd, E., writer on Pyrenean Gs., 
i. 83. 

I'm: : Letters and Memorials of J. 
ii'. Carlyle, (ref.)ii. 256. 
Funeral customs: <■., ii. 228; Spanish 

neral procession, Roumanian G., ii. 
Furnaces, primitive, iii. 234-5. 
Fin Mr. Smith's Mys- 

. i. 31 1-2. 


of, (quot.) iii. 190-1. 

rdof Little Egypt ' 

( lAIDOZ, Henri, ii. 1 19. 
Gaily sing tht bird . (song), ii. 6. 
GaLITZIN, Prince, buys G. wife, ii. 125. 
Gallovidian Encyclopaedia. See Mac- 

( ialloway, raid of Gs. upon, i. fl ; ii. 229. 
Galloway Gossip, (quot.) ii. 220-1. 
Game, G., ii. 142. 
Gargar i<;argari), G. race-name, ii. 196, 

197, 199. 
Garland of Laurel. See Skelton. 
GaRKEZ, (iustave, i. 340 (f.n.); his 

work inG. lore, i. 189-90 (f.n.). 
Gassar, Achil. Pirmin : Annales Angst- 

burgenses, (quot.) i. 324 (f.n.). 
Gaster, Dr. M., ii. 381. 
Gati, mythological character, ii. 103. 
Gaunerschen, G. race-name, i. 207 (f.n.). 
Gazetteer of Scotland, (quot.) ii. 175, 

Gender in Russian Romani, iii. 7. 
Genealo'/ie of the Sainteclairs of Rosrfyn, 

(ref.)'ii. 303 (f.n.). 
General, G., ii. 159. 
Genesis, ii. 51 {f.n. ). 
Genitive forms originally adjectives, i. 

Genitive in G., The. By G. A. Grier- 

son, i. 97-9. 
Gentlemanly G., A, (note), ii. 380-1. 
George ii., Vagrant Act of, (quot.) i. 

George iv., Act of, (ref.) i. 23. 
German Empire, Gs. expelled from, in 

1500, i. 7. 
German language familiar to 1417 band, 

ii. 45. 
Germanische Volkslieder tier Vorzeit. See 

Germanised Gs., i. 30. 
Geronimo de Alcala : Alonso, (quot.) 

i. 170. 
Geschiedkundige Onderzoekingen. See 

Gesner, Conrad : Milhridates, i. 273 

Gewhassi, G. race-name, i. 222. 
Ghajar, G. race-name, i. 222. 
Gianandrea, Prof. Antonio, i. 213, 220. 
Giancaeli, Gigio Arthemio, iii. 85. 
Gilly Goolies, ii. 127. 
Gitanas que son siempre, Las, (song), i. 

1 39. 
Gitani, G. race-name, ii. 117. 
Gitanos, G. race-name, i. 37, 38, 41, 42, 

43, 52, 168 (/.n.), 226, 286, 287, 302, 

300; ii. 117, 120; iii. 124, 134. 
Gitanos of To-day, The. By Adriano 

Colocci, i. 2S6-9. 
Gittee, Prof. Aug., (quot.) ii. 249-50. 
Glamour : Sir 'Walter Scott's definition 

of, (quot.) i. 42 (f.n.). 
Glance at the Servian Gs., A. Bv David 

MacRitchie, iii. 27-38. 
Glasgow, Gs. in, in 1579, ii. 33S. 
Glassmakers, G. , iii. 191. 
Glendook : Scots Arts of Parliament, 

(quot.) i. 6. 
Goab, Jacobus, (qnnt.)iii. 6-7 (f.n.) 
Goblet, <;. captain's, ii. 150. 




Godefroi : Diet, de I'ancienne langue 
frangaise, (refs.)i. 325 (/.n. ), 332 (f.n.). 
Goidelica. See Stokes. 
Golden Bird and the Good Hare, The. 

Polish-G. Folk-Tale, ii. 2S2-G. 
Golden Legend. See Longfellow. 

Goldjano. See Copniarlet. 

Goldsmiths, G., i. 232. 

Goldwashers, G., ii. 149. 

Goritz, Gs. at, i. 133. 

Gottingen, Gs. at, ii. 23. 

Governess, English, employed by Hun- 
garian G., i. 173. 

Graham, Rev. W. : Lochmaben Fire 
Hundred Years Ago, (ref. ) ii. 179 (/. n. ). 

grai, horse, i. 45. 

Grammuire Rommane. See Vaillant. 

Grammar, Fiabe, novette e racconti. See 

Grammars, G. , ii. 156. 

Granada, Gs. of, i. 287 ; ii. 192. 

Grant, James : Old and X* w Edinburgh, 
(quot.) i. 53. 

Grantoff : Die Liibeckischen Chroniken 
in niederdeutscher Sprache, (ref.) i. 273 

I [RAY, Sidney, letter of, (quot.) i. 174. 

Great trial have I made u-ith this bit of 
coal, (song), iii. 49. 

Greek loan-words in Romani, i. 37 ; ii. 

Greeks, G. race-name, i. 37, 247. 

Green : aG. colour, i. 51 ; ii. 60 ; iii. 156 
(f.n.); forbidden to outlawed Gs., ii. 

Greene, Herbert W., i. 245; Simo, 
(note), i. 170. 

Greeting, G., i. 130. 

Greifswald, Gs. at, i. 272. 

Grellmanx, iii. 136 ; his theory of G. 
origin, i. 1, 186 and (f.n.) ; Historical 
Surrey, (refs.) i. 206, 264 (f.n.), 275 
(f.n.), 279 (f.n.), 324 (f.n.), 341 (f.n.), 
344; ii. 51, 94, 149, 154, 155, 168, 227 
(f.n.); iii. 135 (f.n.); (quot.) iii. 153 
(f.n.), 232 (f.n. ), (refs. ) 248 (/. a. ), 255 

Grenyille-Murray : Doine ; or Songs 
and Legends of Roumania, (quot.) ii. 
142 (f.n.). 

Greyhounds kept by Gs., iii. 250. See 
also Dogs. 

Grierson, G. A., ii. 187, 1S9; Beng 
(note), i. 118 ; Doms, Jots, and the 
Origin of the Gs., i. 71-6 ; The Genitivt 
in <•'., i. 97-9; Maithil Ghrestomathy, 
(ref.) i. 98. 

Gricorieff, iii. 2, 4, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 
16 (f.n.). 

Grimm, (refs.) i. 345; ii. 142, 147; iii. 

Griselini, iii. 135 (f.n.). 

gro, i. 97. 

Groom e, Francis Hind es: i. 134 (f.n.): ii. 
52, 119 ; iii. 159 (f.n.), 187, 189; Anglo- 
Romany Gleanings, i. 102-5 ; Article 
' Gs.' in Chambers's Encyclopai dia : re- 
view by J. Eggeling, ii. 186-9; Article 
'Gs.' in Encyclopaedia Britannica, i. 
54, (ref.) 350 (f.n.); Brazilian and 

Shetland Gs., i. 232-5; Bulwer Lytton 
as a Romany Bye, iii. 219-27 ; Dyna- 
mitters, (note), i. 50 ; Franz von Mik- 
losieh, iii. 1-2; The Gs., (rev.), by D. 
MacRitchie, ii. 313-5 ; (quot.) ii. 313-4, 
314-5 ; G. Registers, (note), iii. 122 ; 
G. Statistics, (note), i. 120; In G. 
Tents, (refs.) i. 17, 43 ; (quot.) i. 53; 
(ref.) i. 90; (quot.) i. 353 ; (ref.) ii. 1 
(f.n.); (quot.)ii. 12 (f.n.); (refs.) ii. 
24, 49 (f.n.), 80, 82, 126 (f.n.), 191 
(f.n.), 221, 303 (f.n.), 378 : iii. 59, 64, 
75, 79, 110; (quot.) iii. 124; (refs.) 
iii. 156 (f.n.), 157 (f.n.), 190, 191, 229 
(f.n.), 244, 251 ; Of a Tinker Berean 
and of a Highwayman, (note), i. 31)9-10; 
Persian and Syrian Gs., ii. 21-7 ; Pre- 
fatorial Note to An Old King and his 
Three Sous in England, iii. 110; The 
Princess and the Forester's Son, (Folk- 
Tale), i. 89-95 ; The Red King and the 
Witch: A Roumanian G. Folk- Tale, 
i. 345-9; A Roumanian G. Folk-Tale, 
i. 25-9 ; The Seven. Languages, (note), 
i. 374-5 ; Transportation of Gs. from 
Scotland to America, (note), ii. 60 2 ; 
Two G. Versions of the Master Thief, 
iii. 142-51; The Vampire: A Rou- 
manian G. Story, ii. 142-8 ; Was John 
Bunyan a G. ?, (note), ii. 377-8 : Wes- 
teriousness, (note), ii. 381-2. 

Groome's Theory of the Diffusion of F oik- 
Tales by means of the Gs. By Thomas 
Davidson, i. 113-6. 

Grose : Classical Dictionary of the Vul- 
gar Tongue, (refs.) iii. 59, 76. 

Grossics, John : Little Chronicle of Bale, 
(refs.) i. 278 (f.n.), 331 (f.n.). 

Groups, G. , ii. 135. 

Guessani, G. race-name, ii. 199. 

Guler de Veineck : Rhaetia, (quot. ) i. 
276 (f.n.); (refs.) i. 277 (f.n.), 2S0 ; 
(quot.) i. 280 (f.n.) 

Gurbet, Gurbeti, G. race-name, ii. 75, 
78, 79. 

gurishi ' groat,' ii. 90 (f.n.). 

Guttural sounds of Catalan Romani, i. 

Gtorgyi, Voivode, ii. 153. 

Gs. , all modern, from one stock, ii. 1S7. 

Gs. and. Church Discipline, (note). By 
Archibald Constable, ii. 380. 

Gs. and Tattooing, (note). By Thomas 
Davidson and Editor, iii. 250-2. 

Gs. ami the Morris-Dance, (note), iii. 
188-9; (note). By David MacRitchie, 
iii. 256. 

Gs. as Glassmakers, (note), iii. 191-2. 

Gs. as Workers in Wax, (note), iii. 

Gs. iu Hi /ilium. The. By Henri Van 
Elwen, iii. 134-12. 232 8. 

Gs. in South America, (note). By the 
Marquis Colocci, iii. 121. 

Gs. in tlo Mn rchi ■-■ of Ancona during the 
16th, nth, ami ISth Centuries, The. By 
Adriano Colocci, i. 213-20. 

Gs. '■ • Turkestan, (note), i. 51-2. 

Gs. hi ' ritd in/ tin Queen's Chaplain, 
(note), ii. 256. 


I a \! tor, The. By A. Elys- 

■ :!. .. 240 

My David MacRitchie, 

i. 35-46. 

ylon, The, (note), i. 312. 
Se( Mar Ritchie. 
* ulh, (note). By Arch. Constable, 
i. 170. 

; Alps, (note), i. 1 1 L-3. 

Sei Brockie. 
: outcastes from Hindu castes, ii. 


■me Curious Investigations. See 

De Pej • r. 
who are not Gs., (not*-), ii. 122. 
67. Acrobats in Ancient Africa. By Bu 

Bacchar, ii. 193-203, 288-91. 
0, and the Priest, The. Slovak-*;. 

Folk-tale, iii. 147 -".1. 
67. Aw '77i Hungary. By Vladis- 

lav Kernel, ii. 65-73. 
0. Ceremonial Purity, (note). By Kair- 

engro, ii. 382; (note). By John Samp- 
t, iii. 58. 
Q. Cliarms, (note). By C. G. Leland, i. 

lis. 19. 
0. child'* Christmas, A. By Theodore 

Watts, ii. 1. 
0. Colonies in Camiofa, (note). By Ru- 
dolf von Sowa, i. 374. 
67. Colours, (note). By D. MacRitchie, 

ii. 60. 
O. Dispersion. Folk-Tale, ii. 105, 106. 
0. Grammar, bythe Archduke Josef, 1 

By Emil Thewrewk de Fonor, ii. 148- 

O. Heirloom, A, (note). By George 

Smith, i. 17<>, 
O. i wuz born'd, A, (song), iii. 203. 
O. in the Moon, The. (note). By W. E. 

A. Axon, j. 375-6; (note), ii. 380. 
67. Music. By Prof. Herrmann, iii. 

67. Musicians in Wales, (note). By J. 

riog Hughes, i. ISO. 
67. Parallel, A, (note). By D. MacRit- 

chie, ii. 126-7. 
67. 1. By Eli/.. R. Pennell, ii. 

i 77. 
67. Registers, etc., (note). By F. H. G., 

iii. 122. By David MacRitchie, iii. 

<>te). By John Sampson, ii. 
'*'• S Mourning. By A. Herrmann 

1 II. v. Wlislocki. i. 289-95. 
. (note). By F. If. Groome, 
i. 12 

By John Sampson, 

iii. I 

Iht Adriatic. By J. Pincherle. 
i. 132-4. 

A, (note). By John 
n, iii. 244-5. 
'->■ . i. 208 (f.n.). 

Hahn, (ref.) i. 25; ii. 142. 147. 
;ult, iii. 

Hair worn in plaits by (is., iii. 157. 
Hajden : Archiva istorica, (ref.) i. 188 

Hale, Sir Matthew : /'/■ a •• oj the Crown, 

(quot.) i. 24. 
Halensee, G. assembly at, ii. 252. 
11 ai.ibukton, R. G. : The Dwarfs oj 

Mount Atlas, iii. 135 (f.n.); The PeopU 

of the 'Dar-bushifal,' (note), iii. 62. 

Sec also Bu Bacchar. 
Hall, Edward: Chronicles, (refs.) i. 7. 
HalliwblL: Dictionary, (ref.) iii. 186. 
Hamburg, Gs. at, i. 272. 
Hampson : MediiAeviKalendarium,(vei.) 

i. 244. 
Hamza of Ispahan, i. 73 ; iii. 178. 
Hand-List of Books, etc., in English re- 
lating to Gs. Compiled by H. T. Crof- 

ton, i. 153-60. 
Hanging as punishment for consorting 

with Gs., i. 21 ; ii. 340. 
Hangmen, G., ii. 149, 340. 
Hare, Augustus J. C. : Wanderings in 

Spain, (quot.) ii. 192. 
Hakes 1 , Arnold von, ii. 50. 
Hariupol (Hariampol, Herepoli), Gyp- 

syry in, i. 3. 
Harleian MSS., (quot.) i. 20. 
Harmas, Thomas: A Caveat, (quot.) i. 

17 ; ii. 175 (f.n.), 216 ; Fraternatye of 

Vacabondes, (ref.) ii. 204. 
Harpers, G., i. 180; iii. 124. 
Harriott, (refs.) ii. 4 ; iii. 80. 
Harrison: Desc?-iptio7i of England, 

(quot. ) i. 8. 
Hase : Notices <t extraits des manuscrits, 

(ref.)i. 268. 
Hasse, Dr., i. 190 (f.n.). 
Hats, white, worn by Gs., iii. 157. 
Hawker, G., i. 304. 
Haya grela miri Shleya, (song), ii. 

He presses warm my hand, (song), ii. 5. 
Healthy appearance of Catalonian Gs., 

i. 37. 
Hedgehog : a G. delicacy, i. 44, 177 ; the 

favourite food of the Susi, ii. 290 ; the 

< r. seal, i. 51. 
Heiden (Heydens, Heidens, Heidenen), 

G. race-name, i. 2S2, 285 (f.n.), 2S6 

( f.n.); ii. 34, 35, 37, 38 and (f.n.), 39, 

41, 130, 135, 136, 137a?id (f.n.), 138, 

250, 334; iii. 231. 
Heidens in Overijssel, De. See Mol- 

Heidens of Eg See Dirks. 

//, i,l. ns of the X' therlands, The. By M. 

J. de Goeje, ii. 129-37- 
Heikens-mannekes, G. race-name, ii. 138. 
Heister, (quot.) ii. 154. 
Helebes, G. race-name, ii. 196, 199. 
Hemachandra, (refs.) i. 73, 97, 98, 99. 
Hendenreich, Tobie : Lei/jzigische Chro- 

'.■", (quot.) i. 275 (f.n.). 
Henry viii. : Letters, etc., Foreign and 

Domestic, (ref.) i. 8; Act of, against 

Gs. (1530), (quot.) i. 9. 
Herak, Gabriel, G. musician, ii. 228. 
1 lerdsmen, G., i. 2 V 7. 
Herodotus, ii. 187: iii. l"> n , 177. 



Herrmann, Dr. Anton : i. 105, 106, 107, 

110, 121, 123, 131, 322; iii. 105, 106; 

his collection of G. airs and songs, i. 

124; G. Music, iii. 151-2 ; Hungarian 

and Wallachian G. Rhymes, iii. 22 ; 

Little Egypt, iii. 152-5 ; Prisoners' 

Laments, i. 289-93 ; review of Szigl- 

igeti's A Czigany, iii. 120. 
Hessische Chronik. See Dilich. 
Hext. Sir Edward, letter of, (quot.) 

i. 21-2. 
Hilton, Robert, convicted of felony for 

calling himself a G., i. 20. 
Hinduism. See Williams. 
Hindustani, Romani related to, i. 49. 
Hins, Eugene, (ref.) i. 117. 
Hismahelitae, G. race-name, i. 263 

Histoire de la Confederation Suisse. See 

Histoire de la divination dans I' 'Antiquite. 

See Bouche-Leclercq. 
Histoire de Sisteron, (quot.) i. 328 (f.n.). 
Histoire des Allemands. See Schmidt. 
Histoire des Pyrenees. See Cenac-Mon- 

Historia de la fegislacion de Espaiia. See 

De Montesa. 
Historia Maioris Britanniae. See Major. 
Historia studii etymologici linguae Ger- 

manicae. See Eccard. 
Historiallinen Arkisto, (quot.) ii. 73-4. 
Historical Account of Roxburghshire. 

See Jeffrey. 
Historical and Traditional Tales, (quot.) 

ii. 232 (/.«.)• 
Historical MSS. Commission, (refs.) i. 17, 

23, 24 ; ii. 173, 174. 
Historical Notices oj Scottish Affairs, 

(quot.) ii. 358. 
Historical Sketch of the Cygan People. 

See Na.rbutt. 
Historical Surrey. See Hoyland. 
Historiettes, Les. See Des Reaux. 
History of Boston. See Thompson. 
History of Dunbar. See Miller. 
History of Egypt under the Pharaohs. 

See Brugsch-Bey. 
History of English Poetry. See Warton. 
History of France. See Wraxall. 
History of Lancashire. See Baines. 
History of Ludlow. See Wright. 
History of Parish Registers. See Burns. 
History of Scotland. See Boece and 

History of Spanish Literature. See 

History of the Gs. See Simson. 
History of the Reformation. See Burnet. 
History of White ford and Holywell. Sue 

Hitchman, Francis : Richard F. Burton, 

K.C.M.G., (quot.) ii. 318. 
Hogg, James, ii. 178 (fn.), 179. 
Hdhencultus Asiatischer und Europaischer 

Vblker, Der. See Andrian. 
Hone : Every -Day Book, (ref.) i. 143 

(fn.) ; Ancient Mysteries, (quot.) 

ii. 24. 
Hooded cloaks worn by Gs., iii. 159. 

VOL. VI. — NO. V. 

Hooker and Ball : Marocco and the 

Great Atlas, ii. 28S. 
Hopf, Carl : Die Einwanderivng der 

Zigeuner, (refs.) i. 204 {fn.), 268; 

(quot.) i. 269; (refs.) ii. 50 (fn.), 

51 (fn.). 
Horse sacrificed at G. grave, i. 54. 
Horse-clippers, G., i. 41, 43 ; ii. 120. 
Horse-dealers, G., i. 30, 41, 42, 43, 173, 

220, 222, 250, 251, 332, 338 (fn.); 

ii. 47, 75, 116, 123, 125, 149, 160, 316, 

378 ; iii. 31, 34, 100, 108. 
Horse-doctors, G., i. 222, 232. 
Horses : G. love of, iii. 138 ; owned by 

Gs., i. 6, 10; possessed by 1417 band, 

ii. 47. 
Horvath, Franz, G. soldier, ii. 159. 
Hotten, (ref.) ii. 216, 217. 
Hottinger, Joh. Jakob : Swiss Ecclesi- 
astical History, (quot.) i. 281 (f.n.). 
House, description of G., iii. 35. 
Houssate, Arsene, ii. 9, 11, 16. 
How a G. cheated the Devil. Hungarian- 

G. Folk-Tale, ii. 70-3. 
How to cook a hedgehog, (note). By 

John Taylor, i. 177. 
How the Devil assisted God in the Crea- 
tion of the World. Hungarian-G. Folk- 
Tale, ii. 67-S. 
Howard, H., Earl of Surrey, Works, 

(ref.) i. 7; (quot.)i. 11-2. 
Hoyland : Historical Survey, (refs.) 

i. 9, 11, 13, 20; (quot.) ii. 175, 176. 
// ndibras. See Butler. 
Hughes, J. Ceiriog : G. Musicians in 

Wales, (note), i. 180. 
Huguenin : Les Chroniques de la ville 

de Metz, (quot.) ii. 37. 
Hunfalvy, Paul, i. 107. 
Hungarian and Wallachian 67. Rhymes. 

By Anton Hermann, iii. 22. 
Hungarian Gs. in 1490, ii. 116. 
Hungarian G. in Northern Africa, A, 

(note). By Madame Marlet, ii. 120. 
Hungarian G. offering to prove that he 

descends from 'King Pharaoh,' (note). 

By P. B[ataillard], i. 305-6. 
Hungary, numbers of Gs. in, i. 120. 

I a G. child was born, (song), ii. 6. 
Ibbetson : Ethnography of the Panjdb, 

(ref.) i. 75. 
Ibbetson, William John, career of, 

ii. 57; founder of G. L. S., ii. 57; 

The Origin of the Gs., i. 223-7. 
Ibn-al- Atir, i. 224 (/. n. ). 
Ibn Batdta, i. 224 ; ii. 197. 
Ibn Haukal, i. 74. 
If my little mother dear, (song), ii. 6. 
If you're a drukerimongero, (song), iii. 

Ignoring of Gs. by historians, i. 19S. 
Igritz, home of Gs., i. 280 (f.n.). 
Illegitimacy rare among Gs., iii. 103. 
Illusion, L'. See Cazalis. 
Illustrations of British History. See 

Illustrations of Shakespeare. See Douce. 
Illustration* of South- Austrian- Romanes. 

By J. Pincherle, i. 33-4. 



liiijn i, G., ii. 149. 

mil tfn peasant rejoices, (song), 

/ Egyplo. By the Editors, 

I in. 
/ \ht Land of Marvels. See Vernaleken. 
/ . urind tht trees loud mocm, (song), 

qUI ion for sickness, ii. 126. 
Indiana, G. race-name, i. 143 ; ii. 149. 

I oe . '|iiot. ) i. 355. 
/„, ins en FYana ■ Si t 

Io son Zingara che passegio, (song), 
i. 213. 
,, i. 50. 
Irish Bards. Sec Walker. 

, Tinkers and their Language. By 
David MacRitchie, i. 350-7. 
Ironmongers, G., i. 4. Sei Smiths. 
[ron working travelled from Africa to 

. iii. 141 (f.n.). 
/ Kopernicki. By David Mac- 

Ritchie, iii. 129-31. 

[STAKKI, i. 74. 

/• Uin 0. Items, (note). By J. Pincherle, 

ii. ]•_'■_' 1. 
/ ion <•'. Song, An. By Charles G. 

Leland, i. 212-13; (note), ii. 320. 
Itali'i/i Popular Tales. See Crane. 
I , an /' ' and t'nclr Habit*, (note), 

i. 2 
Italian ' Zingaresche.' By J. Pincherle, 

iii. 45-9. 

Jacob Schuyler's Millions. (quot.)iii. 245. 
Jakobi I'', Dr. Svetosar, iii. 216. 
Jamaica, Gs. transported to, ii. 61. 
JAMES IV. of Scotland and Gs., i. 7. 
James v. of Scotland and the tinkers, 

i. 245. 
Jamieson : Scottish Dictionary, (ref. ) 
iii. 159 (f.n.). 
dra, mythological figure, ii. 99. 
Jabdine : The Use of Torture in the 
■ I haw of England previously to 
the Commonwealth, (ref.) i. 22. 
theory of G. origin, i. 73-4. 
■ I iki and Romani, differences of, i. 

Jats : <;. race-name, ii. 131, 132; num- 
of, i. 75; six westerly movements 
of, i. 225 and (f.n.). See also Zotts. 
Jeffbey : Historical Account of Rox- 
burghshire, (quot. ) ii. 302. 
' like,' iii. 79. 
. obituary notice of, i. 371-2; G. 
Bohemian Tales, i. 304; Romani Cib, 
■i i. H (f.n.), 45 (fn.), 104, 165 
ii. 2, 3, 4,227 (f.n.); iii. 
: I. 76, 77, 156 (f.n,); 
nil: Gik-cesky, (ref.) iii. 176. 
, ii. 107. 
Jews' bouses, Gs. live in, iii. 108-9. 
, Prof, F., ii. 363. 

v,, n Meltzl. 
inih, G. rare-name, i. 223 (f.n.). 
jink, iii. 76. 
Jippenessen, G. race-name, iii. 255. 

Joest, Wilhelm : Tdtowiren Narben- 

zeichnen und Kdrperbemalen, (quot.) 

iii. 250-1. 
John - , King of England, illtreated by 

tinkers, i. 244. 
Johnny Faa, (song), ii. 84 (f.n.). 
Jokai : Romano czibakird sziklariben, 

(quot.) ii. 159. 

3, Sir W., on the Gs., i. 223. 
Jon.son, Ben : Masque of the Gs. Meta- 
morphosed, i. 23. 
Jobgensen, A. D. , ii. 235 (f.n.). 
JOSEF, Archduke, i. 121, 123; iii. 153 

and (f.n'.) ; Czigany Nyelvatan, (rev.), 

i. 48-9 ; synopsis of, ii. 14S-60 ; on 

tattooing, iii. 251 ; Romany Letter of, 

(quot.) ii. 378. 
Journal d'un Bourgeois de Paris, (ref.) 

i. 327 (f.n.)- (quot.) ii. 28-31, 48 

■ /. <■'. L. S., aims of, i. 1. 
Journal of the House of Commons, (refs. ) 

i. 12, 13. 
Journal of the House of Lords, (refs. ) 

i. 12, 13. 
Jubecien, G. race-name, i. 16S (f.n.). 
Jugglers, G.,i. 19, 37 (f.n.), 312; ii. 

196, 252 ; iii. 137, 138, 185. 
Jugoslavenske piesme. See Kuhae. 
Jukelestopori, (song), ii. 91. 
jungalipen ' ugliness,' i. 59 . 
JrssKRAM), J. J. : English Wayfaring 

Life in th< Middle Ages, (rev.), i. 167; 

(ref.) iii. 123. 
Justices terrorised by Gs., i. 21. 
Justinger, Conrad: Berner Ghronik, 

(quot.) i. 282; (refs.) i. 284; ii. 41, 

42 ; (quot, ) 48. 

ka, future prefix in Servian dialect, i. 

Kaiddve, lament, i. 2!)3. 
Kairexgero [F. H. Groome] : G. Cere- 
monial Purity, (note), ii. 382. 
Kale (Kalo), G. race-name, i. 33 (f.n.), 

Kalina, A : La Langue des Tsiganes 

slovaques, (refs.)i. 161, 162, 163, 164, 

165, 166. 
Kalman, SimonfTy, i. 315. 
Kdlo, kalo Kamlo, (song), ii. 92. 
Kamalavtut m'angaliate, (song), i. 242. 
Kammerjager, i. 135. 
Kanei, mange dzava, (song), iii. 133. 
Karatchi (Karachi), G. race-name, ii. 21, 

Karatehis, characteristics of, ii. 21. 
Karkari, G. race-name, ii. 196, 197. 
K ujman, Demetrius, famous G., ii. 160. 
karuni 'spider,' ii. 111. 
kasom ' how much,' iii. 35 (f.n.). 
Katona, Dr. L., (ref.) i. 106 ; iii. 106. 
Keker mandi koms kek juvel, (song), ii. 

Kel'e caje romani, (song), i. 131. 
Kelpies, i. 110; iii. 25 (f.n.). 
Kemenedshi, ii. 75. 
Ki:\ip, morris- dancer, i. SO (f.n.) ; his 

Nine Daies Wonder, (ref.) i. 80 




Kempe : Loseley MSS., (ref.) i. 12. 
Kenites : a clan of wandering black- 
smiths, ii. 62. 
Kennedy : Annals of Aberdeen, (ref.) i. 

141 (f.n.). 
Kerks, i. 224 (f.n.), 225 (f.n.). 
Kern, ii. 137, 138. 
Kettle-menders, G., ii. 134. 
King, G., i. 266. 

King John of England and the Tinkers, 
(note). By H. T. Crofton and D. 
MacRitchie, i. 244-5. 
King, Major J. S. on bawarij, (quot. ) ii. 

KlNGSLBY : Saint's Tragedy, (ref.) i. 109 

Kirk Kilizze, Gypsyry in, i. 4. 
Kizanlik, G. bathwomen of, i. 4. 
Mister ' to ride,' iii. 76. 
Kluch, I., collector of Romani, i. 160. 
klucheui 'hedgestake,' ii. 3. 
Knackers, G., ii. 149. 
Knapp, Prof. W. I., i. 151, 174; letter 

of, (quot.) i. 153 (f.n.); Life of Borrow, 

iii. 259. 
Knife-grinders and tinkers, a different 

class from Gs. in Catalonia, i. 41. 
kochak' ' button," iii. 35 (f.n.). 
Kogalnitschan, (ref.) iii. 78. 
Kohauth, Wen. : Exercitatio Linguae 

Zingaricae, ii. 155 ; Tentamen condis- 

cendae Linguae Zingaricae, ii. 155. 
kokal ' bone,' iii. 246. 
Komaromi, John, (ref.) iii. 154. 
konyo 'quiet, still,' iii. 247. 
Kopernicki, Isidore: i. 161; ii. 167 ; 

iii. 65 ; career of, iii. 129-30 ; 

death of, iii. 122 ; ideas on G. 

orthography, i. 169 ; notes on his 

Tales, ii. 381; work of, in G. lore, iii. 

130-1; Dzeka, (note), i. 120; 2\'oies on 

the Dialect of the Bosnian 125- 

31 ; Polish G. Folk-Talc*, ii. 277-S6 ; 

Tale of a Girl who was sold to the 

Devil and of her Brother, i. 145-50 ; 

Tale of a Wise Young Jew and a Golden 

lien, i. 227-31 ; The Witch, ii. 327-34. 
Kopitar, iii. 6. 
Kopten, W. : Excursions in the Crimea 

in the Baiddr Valley, translation from, 

ii. 74-9. 
kor 'throat,' iii. 35 {f.n.). 
Kordofan, Gs. in, i. 221. 
Koritari, G. race-name, ii. 78. 
Koritschxyak, Jacob, author of a G. 

grammar, ii. 155. 
Kortorar, G. race-name, i. 243. 
Kortrasch, G. tents, i. 243. 
Koshko grai, Romano grai, (song), ii. 93. 
Koskinen : Nuijasota, (ref.) ii. 74. 
Koster : Trarels in Brazil, i. 232. 
Kodnavine, Dr., i. 2 ; ii. 94; iii. 87; 

career of, ii. 95-6 ; work in G. lore, ii. 

kowanz ' anvil,' iii. 35 (f.n.). 
koya, ii. 113 ; iii. 176. 
Krantz, Albert : Saxonia, (quot.) i. 6 ; 

(refs.) i. 261 (f.n.), 273 j ii. 180. 
Kraszewski : Oksana, i. 258 ; The Hut 

near the Village, i. 258. 

Krause, Prof., ii. 94 (f.n.). 

Krauss, Dr. Friedrich S., (quot.) ii. 

3S0 ; collects Romani in Bosnia, i. 125 ; 

Sageu und Mdrchen des Sudslaven, 

(ref.)ii. 142,146. 
Kriegk, Dr. G. L., i. 207; Deutsches 

Burgerthum im Mittelalter, (quot.) i. 

208 and (f.n.), 275 (f.n.); (ref.) ii. 

kro, i. 97. 

Kroiin, Karle, i. 323. 
Kr/csuj, Voivode, ii. 153. 
Kuhac, Prof. J. H. : Jugoslavenske 

jnesme, i. 302 ; on Gs., i. 302-3. 
Kukuya, G. tribe in Transylvania, i. 

Kulda, B. M. : Moravski narodni po- 

hadky, (ref.) iii. 84 (f.n.). 
kumeni 'person,' 'people,' iii. 77. 

Labourers, G. , iii. 100. 

Lacroix : Manners, etc., during the 

Middle Ages, ii. 13 ; (ref.) ii. 15 (f.n.); 

(quot.) ii. 126-7 ; (ref.) iii. 185 (f.n.) ; 

(quot.) iii. 228-9 ; (ref.) iii. 255. 
Lahor, Jean. See Cazalis. 
Laing, W., letter of, (quot.) iii. 125-6. 
Laki, mythological figure, ii. 99, 103, 

Lakipadi, mythological figure, ii. 102. 
Lambskin shirts, iii. 157. 
Landit, Lendit, Gs. at fair of, in 1427, 

ii. 30 and (f.n.). 
Landulphus Sagax, (ref.) iii. 7 (f.n.). 
Lane-Poole, Stanley : Barbary Corsairs, 

(ref.) ii. 231 (f.n.). 
Lang, Andrew : his contribution to 

theory of diffusion of folk-tales, i. 

114 ; Custom and Myth, (ref.) i. 120. 
Language of the Luris, The, (note). By 

David AlacRitchie, ii. 120. 
Langue des Tziganes slovaques, La. See 

Lanthorne and Candlelight. See Dekker. 
Lassen, (ref.) i. 99. 
Last Will and Testament of Malddros, 

The, (note). By A. J. Duffield, ii. 

Latinghem, i. 330. 
Laudau, H. : Catalogue des livres manu- 

scrits et imprimes,^(rei.) iii. 189. 
Layisse, Ernest: Etudes surVhistoirede 

Prusse, (ref.)i. 344 (f.n.). 
Laws anent Gs. : Austria-Hungary, i. 

173 ; England, i. 9, 12, 13, 16, IS* 22; 

France, i. 7: ii. 119-20: Germany, 

i. 7, 207, 208; ii. 130: Holland, ii. 

130; Italy, i. 214, 215, 216, 217, 

218-19, 358-62; Portugal, i. 232 : Scot- 
land, i. 6 ; ii. 61, 296, 297-8, 299-300, 

300-2, 303-4, 335, 341, 345. .'Mil ; Spain, 

i. 7 ; Sweden, ii. 73-4 ; Turkey, i. 4. 
Laws and Customs. See M'Kenzie. 
Le koi rup'ni roi, (song), ii. 141. 
Leather-workers: G., ii. 59 ; of India, 

i. 104. 
'Lee' and 'Leek' (Gyp. Purrum), (note). 

By H. T. Crofton, iii. 243. 
Lbemans, ii. 13S. 
Leila, G. tribe in Transylvania, i. 243. 


I . . i. 275. 

■ . Bendenreich. 

of, (quot.) i. 171. _ 

.. Charles Godfrey : i. L07, 179, 

:;, I, 89, 115, 122, L89, 

198, '.II: iii. 1-1: Algonquin 

\, w England, i. 109 : Thi 

h ir Language, (refs. i 

116 : iii. 78, 157 (./'.'/• I : (quot.) iii. 

•■..I. , (r« l i. ", I (f.n.), l-'l 

f.n.) : (quot.) i. 356 ; ii. 59, 62 ; 

: 127, 218, 257 (/.n.) : ( 4 uot.) 

iii. 124 ; <■'. Charms, (note), i. 118-19 : 

ry, ii. 190 ; I ii. 368, 

172 3, :i7:i-4; (ref.) iii. 140 

(/'.;, bj Thomas Davidson, 

ii. 367-74; An Italian G. Song, i. 

212 13 ; i. 320; A Letter from 

Hungary, i. 121 I ; Notesonihe Three 

Ma , ote), i. 246-7; The Original 

i, it'ni their Language, (ref.) i. 71 

(f.n.) : The Paris Gongn ssof Popular 

. i. 317-21 ; review of the 

iduke Ji i.sef's ' Czigdny Nyelvatan,* 

i. I^-'J ; review of Ethnologische Mil- 

teilungen aus Ungarn,i. 105-7; Shelta, 

ii. 321-3; What wehave done, iii. 193-9. 

. I'he. See Eraser. 

Lenormant, i. '_' 17: Magit chaldaienne, 

Li. ■ A.FRICANUS, ii. 197, 200; Del'Afri- 

ef.) ii. 288 (f.n.). 
Lepsius : Standard Alphabet, (quot. ) ii. 

Lerch, P., ii. 76. 

ro, i. 127 (f.n.). 
Lk^i.ik: History of Scotland, (quot.) iii. 
127, 184. 

er from a Romani Krallis, (note). 
By J. Pincherle, ii. 378. 

rom Hungary, A. By Charles 
G. Leland, i. 121 l. 

and Memorials of ./. W. Carl 
Leyden, Gs. at, in L420, i. 329; in 1430, 

ii. 37 ; in 1434, ii. 3 
Leydi . (quot.) ii. 27(1. 

a\ Sron, (ref.) ii. 17:;. 
Lir. lay Gs., i. .'159. 

Liebich, Die Zigcuner, (refs.) i. 47; ii 
I. 92 (f.n.); (quot.) ii. 134; (refs.) ii. 
139 (f.n.), 141 (fn.), 183 (/.n.),382; 
in. 35 (f.n.); (quot.) Hi. 58 : (refs.) iii. 
77. 78, 7!) : (quot.) iii. 156 (f.n.). 
'. Set Wat kins. 
stones : G. notions of, iii. 
165 : as talismans, iii. 215. 

.iii. 207 (f.n.). 
i Ml 7. i. 262. 
Lindni r, John, (quot.) ii. .'is (f.n.). 
Line-fishing introduced by Cascarrots, 
i. 79. 

• lie Value of the Irish Anna's. 
St. >kes. 

' Romanie,' (note). By 
David MaeRitchie, iii. 252. 
. i. 170. 

313; iii. 151; Des 
refs.) i. 314, 315, 316: 
(quot.) ii. 160. 

Lithuanian Gs., The. By Mieczyslaw 

Dowojno-Sylwestrowicz, ii. 107-9. 
Lithuanian Gs. and their Language. By 

M ieczyslaw Dowojno - Sylwestrowicz, 

i. 251-8. 
Little Bull-Calf, Be, English-G. Folk- 

Tale, iii. 2ms ||. 
Litth Chronicle of Bale. See Grossius. 
Little Egypt. By Prof. Herrmann and 

Editor, iii. 152-5. 
Little Egypt : i. 265, 270, 280, 324, 369 ; 

ii. 33, 149. 
Little Fox, De. English-G. Folk-Tale, 

iii. 204-8. 
Little Minister, The. See Barrie. 
LiTTKi;, i. 325 (f.n.). 
/ ires of the Chief -Just ices. See Campbell. 
Loan-words in Romani : i. 37, 234 ; ii. 

133, 168, 189, 247. 
Local Historian s Table Boole. See 

Loch Etive and the Sons oj Uisnach. 

See Smith. 
Lochmaben Five Hundred Years Ago. 

Set Graham. 
Lochmaben : privileged class in, probably 

Gs., ii. 178-9. 
Lodge, Illustrations of British History, 

(ref.)i. 12. 
Lofty tree in forest high, (song), i. 295. 
London Labour and London Poor, The. 

See Mayhew. 
Lonely sits the bird above, (song), ii. 6. 
Longfellow: Q olden Legend, (quot.)i. 

Lope de Vega : Nacimiento de Christo, 

(ref.)i. 143 (f.n.). 
Lord Lytton: 'The New Timon,' Part 

IV., (note), iii. 257. 
Lord, who has made this earth so fine, 

(song), ii. 6. 
Lords'' J, in run I , (ref.) i. 16. 
Loseley MSS. See Kempe. 
Lovarini, E. : Costumes used in the 

Italian ' Zingaresche,' iii. 160-1; Re- 
marks on the ' Zingaresche,' iii. 85-96. 
Love Forecasts and Love Charms among 

the Tent-Gs. of Transylvania. By 

Heinrich von Wlislocki, ii. 221-5. 
Love-potions, i. 253 ; ii. 224-5. 
Love-story, G., i. 172. 
lovina 'beer,' iii. 52 (f.n.). 
Lowbeys, West African tribe, perhaps 

connected with Gs. or Luri, i. 54-5. 
Lowbeys, The, (note), i. 54-5. 
Lower: Patronym. Brit., (ref.) ii. 17.°.. 
Lower Egypt, Duke of, ii. 35. See edso 

Little Egypt. 
Lubechischen Chronih n in nicderdeut- 

scher Sprache, Die. See Grantoff. 
Lucas, J. : Yet holm History of the Gs., 

(quot. )ii. 335 (f.n.); (ref.)iii.l85(/.n.). 
Lucky hills, iii. 167, 108. 
Ludolf, J., (ref.) i. 324 (f.n.). 
Ludwig, i. 262 (f.n.). 
Likarich collects Romani in Syrmia, 

i. 125. 
Luri (Ljuli, Looris, Luli, Lurs), G. race- 
name, i. 51, 52, 75, 120 ; ii. 131 ; iii. 

177, 178. 



Ma cinger man, ma mar man, (song), 
iii. 105. 

Md kin duva grai, (song), ii. 87. 

M'Crindle: Commerce and Navigation 
of the Erythraean Sea, (ref.) i. 225. 

M 'Donald, John, Campbell's story- 
teller, i. 354. 

MacElligott, ii. 265. 

MacFirbis, Dudley, ii. 262. 

Machado y Alvarez, Prof. , i. 289. 

M'Iloxtris, John, Perthshire tinker 
silversmith, iii. 187. 

Mackay, ii. 217. 

M'Kenzie, Sir George, i. 6; Collections 
etc. ; (quot. ) ii. 230-1 ; Laws and 
Customs, (ref.) ii. 348 (f.n.); The 
Science of Heraldry, (quot.) ii. 230. 

Maclaurin : Arguments and Decisions, 
(quot.)ii. 357, 361. 

Maclellan of Bombie, i . 6 ; ii. 229. 

Macpherson, J., stories about, iii. 

Macpherson 1 8 Lament. See Burns. 

MacRitchie, David; i. 204, 319; ii. 
84 (f.n.), 266, 275: iii. 22, 177; 
Ancient and Modern Britons, (refs.) ii. 
12 (f.n.), 357 (f.n.); iii. 248; The 
Arabian Jugglers, (note), i. 310 ; 
Belgian Artillerymen in England in 
1327, (note), iii. 252 - 3 ; Belgian 
'Ntitons' and Gs., (note), iii. 254-5; 
Caird = Mimus, (note), iii. 1S3-5; 
Callot's 'Bohemians,' ii. 7-17; Christ- 
mas Carols : The Three Magi, i. 140-5 ; 
The Diffusion of Folk-Tales, (note), 
iii. 253-4 ; Dr. Kopernicki's, ' Tale of 
a Wise Young Jew,' (note), iii. 253; 
Egypt as a European Place-Name, 
(note), i. 52-4 ; Ethnologische Mitteil- 
ungen a us Ungarn, 18S7, 1SSS, (rev.), 
i. 107-13 ; A Glance at the Servian 
Gs., iii. 27-38; Groome's The Gs., 
(rev.), ii. 313-5 ; Gs. and the Morris 
Dance, (note), iii. 256; The Gs. of 
Catalonia, i. 35-45 ; The Gs. of India, 
(quot.) i. 74; (refs.) i. 191; ii. 137 
(f.n.); iii. 141 (f.n.), 178 (f.n.), 185 
(f.n.), 252, 258; G. Colours, (note), 
ii. 60 ; A G. Parallel, (note), ii. 126- 
7; G. Soldiers, iii. 228-32; Irish 
Tinkers and their Language, i. 350-7 ; 
Isidore Kopernicki, iii. 129-31 ; King 
John of England and the Tinkers, 
(note), i. 245 ; The Language of the 
Luris, (note), ii. 120; Liquor called 
'Romanic,' (note), iii. 252; Notes on 
Dr. Kopernicki's G. Tales, (note), ii. 
381 ; Notes on the Three Magi, (note), 
i. 247 ; Obsolete G. Usages, (note), iii. 
62-3 ; A Peculiarity of G. Utterance, 
(note), i. 170; The Race oj Cain and 
the Modern Gs., (note), ii. 63; A Re- 
markable Error of Borrow's, (note), 
iii. 63-4; Romani Equivalents of Gdjo 
Surnames, (note), iii. 188 ; Romani 
Words in the Waverley Novels, (note), 
iii. 189-90, 253; 'Romany Budge,' 
(note), iii. 59 ; Romany Budge, Fur 
Rommenis, or Lambskin, (note), iii. 
252; Ruddlemen and Gs., (note), iii. 

256-7 ; Scottish Gs. under the Stewarts, 
ii. 173-81, 229-37, 291-307, 334-63; 
A Scottish John Bunyan, (note), i. 52 ; 
The Seven G. Jargons, (note), iii. 
128 ; The Sin of ' Consultation with 
Witches' and its Punishment, in Six- 
teenth-Century Scotland, (note), i. 375 ; 
The Testimony of Tradition, iii. 135 
[f.n.) ; Tinker Tale- Tellers and News- 
mongers in Asia Minor, (note), iii. 
Mactaggart : Gallovidian Encyclo- 
paedia, (quot.) ii. 232 (f.n.); (ref.) 
iii. 230 (f.n.). 
Magahiya D6ms, i. 7G. 
Magi as Gs!, The, i. 141-5. 
Magic : Leland's definition of, ii. 372-3. 
Magie chalda'ienne. See Lenormant. 
Magicians, G., iii. 137. 
Magpie, G. superstition about, ii. 134. 
Mahmud of Ghazni, i. 225 (f.n.). 
Mahommed, Hadgi, (quot.) ii. 199. 
Mahommed ben M. el Sdsi, (quot.) ii. 

Maiden, she wishes for ribbon and rose, 

The, (song), ii. 6. 
maila ' donkey,' iii. 78, 253. 
Majmu'au't-Taivdrikh, (ref.) i. 73. 
Major, John : Historia Maioris Brit- 

anniae, (quot.) i. 310. 
makaras — kantshu = whip, ii. 108. 
makhel, ' to besmear,' iii. 251. 
Malalas, Jno. : Chronographia, (ref.) 

iii. 6 (f.n.). 
Manasse, Aaron : Les Mysteres du 

Nouvel-An a Geneve, (rev.), i. 369-70. 
Mandi's churri purri dai, (song), ii. 86. 
Manners, etc., during the Middle Ages. 

See Lacroix. 
mdnro, derivation of, i. 76. 
MS. Vol. of Sermons Preached at Hull 
by Samuel Charles, A Nonconformist, 
1678-1690, (note), iii. 123. 
Many the stars in heaven that shine, 

(song), ii. 5. 
Maracusa, North African game, ii. 291. 
marau 'to beat, strike,' ii. 183. 
Marcinkowski, Regent of Gs., ii. 239. 
Marco Polo, i. 224. 
Maria Theresa dollar: andCs., i. 321 ; 

used as amulet, i. 118-9. 
Marionette-showers, G. , ii. 23. 
Markovics, Alexander, ii. 155. 
Marlkt, Madame : A Hungarian G. in 
Northern Africa, (note), ii. 120 ; Die 
Zigeuner unter den Siidslave?i, (rev.), 
i. 302-3. See Cbpmarlet. 
marno, iii. 33 (f.n.). 
Marocco and the Great Atlas. See 

Marriage: divinations, ii. 223-4; over 
the 'budget,' i. 351 ; over the tongs, 
i. 179; celebrated on Whitsunday, i. 
51 ; of the trees, iii. 166 ; ('•., ii. 139. 
Marsden, ii. 94, 168. 
Marshall, William, i. 51 ; ii. 174, 275, 

357 ; iii. 230, 244, 245. 
MARTINIUS, (quot.) i. 103. 
Mara, Devla, kas kames, l'aj I, (song), i. 


Marwiok: Sketch of History of High 
/' Edinburgh, (ref.) i. 6. 

nd < Is., i. 32. 

L. 110 1. 

i. .">79. 
]/,, Metamorphosed. See 


M isUDl : /' ^V, (ref.) i- 224 


1/,, far /■/(> ftudy o/ <Ae Cs., 

! Av V. ■/. Kounavine. By A. 
Elysseeff, ii. 93-106, L61-72. 
"-/c' ' Hy,' ii. 1-1. 
mdthori 'fly, 1 ii. 1 3 1. 
M itrav, i. 315, 

. mythological figure, ii. (10, 102. 
idds, (note), i. 170-1. 
Mayhkw : London Labour and the 
Ion Poor. ii. 23 ; (quot.) iii. 
I 19. 
Maylor, \' L. : Sicilian G. Fortune- 

/'. ! era in 1850, (note), iii. 126. 
Mazaris (Mazari), iii. 154 (f.n.) ; 
' riiua ev q.0ov, i. 268 ; oveipos 
/uera rr\v dvafiiuatv, (quot.) i. 269. 
Meaning of Counting-Out Rhymes, The, 

(note), iii. 183. 
Mi itTMi . Edouard : /,'< r la 

Vie et leu Ouvrages de Jacques Gallot, 
(quot.) ii. S; (refs.) ii. 8 (f.n.), 9 
Mecklenburg-Strelitz, numbers of (Is. 

in, i. 32. 
Medii Aevi Kaiendarium. See Hamp- 

Miditation historiques. See Camerars. 
Melancholy, G., iii. 108. 
Members, list of, i. 181-4 ; ii. 383. 
Memoir of Elliott. Se( Searle. 
Mimoires surVInde. Se( lleinaud. 
Memorabilia of the City of Glasgow, 
(quot.) ii. 61-2. 

lis of the Montgomeries, Earls of 
Eglinton. See Fraser. 
Mi - . Joh. Bur. : Scriptores 

m Germanicarum, (refs.) i. 324 
[f.n.); ii. 38 (f.n.). 
Mendacity of Gs., iii. 60. 

QHINI, Signer Mario: Canzoni 
anh- ialiano, (ref.) iii. 


•0, i. '.'7. 

, i. 309. 
Mereshkofskt, ii. 79. 
'•1 rino, Prof. A. Fernandez: Observa- 

de la 
Real Academia Espanola, (rev.), i. 

o, i. 97. 

. 42 and (f.n.), 370. 

workers, G., ii. 149; iii. 135, 252. 

'kern, Die. See 

ms of Gs., i. 2. 
a folk-tales, i. 115-6. 
. in 1430. ii. 37. 
■ Prof. Kuno, ii. 321, 322: Onthe 

a, ii. 

Mii;kovio: Versuch finer Darstellung 
der Lebenswi i i der Zig., (ref.) iii. 215 

Michael, Duke, i. 267, 280, 325, 337 
(f.n.); ii. 42, 44. 

Michel, Francisque : i. 45 (f.n.), 76, 
77 (f.n.), S3; Etude de philologie com- 
paree sur Vargot, (ref.) iii. 85; /.e 
Pays Basque, (quot.) i. 79-80 (f.n.) ; 
Uomancero du Pays Basque, (ref.) 
i. 81. 

Middleliurg (Walcheren), Os. at, in 
1430, ii. 36-7. 

Middlesex County Records, (ref.)i. 21. 

MlDDLETON, Dr., tried at Cordova for 
shooting a G., i. 178. 

Mi-duvel's Wardo, iii. 207. 

Mirxosich, Franz: i. 37, 115, 118. Hi9. 
234, 235, 269 ; ii. 2, 74, 93, 94, 151, 
187, 246; Beitr. zur Kenntn. der Zig.- 
mmid, (refs.) i. 10, 160, 162, 163, 164, 
165, 166; iii. 59; career of. iii. 1; 
death of, ii. 377 ; letters of, ii. 157 ; 
Marchen und Leider der Zigeuner der 
Bukowina, (ref.) i. 25; Memoir, (ref.) 
i. 263 (f.n.) ; Uber die Mundarten und 
Wanderungen der Zigeuner, (refs.) i. 
47, 58, 60, 125, 163, 164, 165, 166, 194 
(f.n. ) ; ii. 146 : iii. 74, 76, 78 ; work in 
G. Lore, iii. 1-2 ; writings of, iii. 1. 

Milk-sellers, G., iii. 27. 

Miller: Doncaster, (ref.) iii. 122. 

Miller: History of Dunbar, iii. 125 

Miller, Hugh : My Schools and School- 
masters, (ref.) iii. 25 (f.n.) ; (quot.) 
iii. 59-62. 

Millin, A. L. : Voyage dansles Departe- 
men's du. Midi, (ref.) i. 135. 

Minaris, O : A Slovak-G. Tale. By K. 
von Sowa, i. 258-60. 

Minche, (note). By John Sampson, iii. 

Mini .vi. Paolo, (quot.) iii. S7. 

Miola : Le scritture in volgare, (ref.) iii. 

Misct lany of the Spalding Club, (ref.) ii. 
362: (quot.) iii. 232 (f.n.). 

Mr. Gear i< Smith and his G. Adhert 
(note). By John Sampson, ii. 191. 

Mitchell, J. G. : Le Gampet la Gourde 
D. Carlos, (ref.) i. 153. 

Mithridates. See Gesner. 

Mitra (quot.), iii. 251. 

Moawia, Caliph, transports Jats from 
Basra to Syria, ii. 131. 

Modern Enchantress, A, (note). By the 
Rev. J. Ffrench, ii. 126. 

Modona (Modon), Gs. of, ii. 50. 

.Moffat : History of Malmesbury, i. 

Molhuysen, P. C. : De Heidens in Over- 
ijssel, (refs.) i. 329 (f.n.); ii. 34 

Moll, ii. 138. 

Mommsen : Corpus Inscriptionum Lati- 
narum, (quot.) i. 372. 

Monasteries, Gs. given as slaves to, i. 
1S7, 188 (f.n.). 

Mongol loan-words in Romani, ii. 168. 



Moniglia, G. A. : Delle poesie dram- 

matiche, (ref. ) iii. 87. 
Monkey-wards, G., i. 312; ii. 149, 196. 
Montanira soy, senoras! (song), i. 307. 
Moon, G. superstitions about, ii. 7, 380 ; 

iii. 217. 
Moor, Major : Oriental Fragments, 

(quot.) i. 104-5. 
Moors, G. race-name, i. 142, 143 ; ii. 

229, 230, 231, 232. 
Moraes, Mello : Cancioneiro dos Cigaiio*, 

i. 57 ; Os Ciganos no Brazil, i. 57. 
Morality, G., degenerating, ii. 170. 
Moravian Gs. from Hungary, ii. 226. 
Moravske narodni pohadky. See Kulda. 
mori, ii. 100. 

Morris-dancers, G., i. 80 (f.n.); ii. 233. 
Mortillaro : Nuovo dizion. sicil. , (ref .) 

iii. 86. 
Morwood : Our Gs., ii. 191 (f.n.). 
mo8Jtan=mochton, i. 310. 
Mother, trouble not thy breast, (song), ii. 

Mountain-worship by Gs., iii. 161-9. 
Mountebanks, G., i. 37 (f.n.), 42, 79 

(f.n.); ii. 149, 196, 234 (f.n.); iii. 

Mousetrap-makers, G. , ii. 134. 
Moyen Age et la Renaissance, Le, (ref.) i. 

Mugger, G., iii. 251, 255. 
Muhit, (ref.)i. 74, 75. 
Muller, Dr. Friedrich, i. 115; Beitrdge 

zur Kenntniss der Rom-Sprache, (ref.) 

i. 25, 161 ; ii. 142, 146; collects Romani 

in Syrmia, i. 125. 
Muller : Histoire de la Confederation 

Suisse, (ref.) i. 279 (f.n.). 
Muller, Sophus, iii. 234. 
Munster : Cosmographie universelle, i. 

261 and (f.n.); (quot.) i. 262, 273 

Muratori : Annali d'ltalia, (quot.) i. 

337 (fn.) ; Rerum Italicarum scrip- 
tores, (refs.) i. 336 (f.n.), 337 (f.n.). 
Murischa dance, iii. 189. 
Murray, Philip, iii. 73; (quot.) iii. 

Music: G., uninfluenced by Hungarian, 

i. 314 ; Romany quickness in learning, 

i. 122 and(fn.) ; G., iii. 151-2. 
Musicians, G., i. 4, 30, 32, 42, 51, 122 

and (f.n.), 171, 173, 250, 315, 318; ii. 

75, 125, 126. 134, 151, 153, 158, 196, 

378 ; iii. 22, 100, 151, 191. 
Musulman Gs., i. 3, 51, 264 (f.n.); ii. 

My dai's cherikl never puker'd a hukipen, 

(song), ii. 91. 
My dear father left this earth, (song), ii. 

My dear young boy, so fine, (song), ii. 6. 
My mush is jaVd and the beng may lei 

him, (song), ii. 89. 
My Schools and Schoolmasters. See 

Mysteres du Nouvel-An a Geneve. See 

Myths and Folklore of Ireland. See 


Nacimiento de Christo. See Lope de 

Nails of the Crucifixion, The, (note), iii. 

Names, G. Christian — 

Abraham, i. 180 ; ii. 252 ; iii. 124 
and (f.n.). 

Adam, *i. 180. 

Adolphus, ii. 90. 

Agnes, i. 233; ii. 341, 350; iii. 122. 

Aiken, ii. 292. 

Airos, ii. 83,84 (f.n.). 

Albert, ii. 38. 

Alexander, ii. 354. 

Alfred, i. 176. 

Algar, iii. 58. 

Alice, i. 17 ; ii. 81, 83, 382. 

Amy, i. 12 ; ii. 300. 

Andreas, i. 259. 

Andrew, i. 16, 304; ii. 380; 
' Duke,' i. 267, 325, 326, 328, 334, 
343 ; ii. 42, 44. 

Andro, ii. 302, 354. 

Anica, i. 131. 

Ann, ii. 140 ; iii. 122. 

Anne, i. 18. 

Anselo, ii. 314. 

Anteane, ii. 297, 301. 

Anthony, i. 7 ; ii. 235, 236, 302. 

Antonio, i. 232. 

Archelaus, i. 180. 

Bacriu, iii. 142. 

Bagdan, ii. 74. 

Baptist, i. 12 ; ii. 300. 

Barbara, i. 24. 

Barbara Dya, ii. 292, 293, 294. 

Bartholomew, i. 23. 

Bastiaen, ii. 334. 

Beli, iii. 109. 

Benjamin Wood, i. 180. 

Berkes, i. 173, 174. 

Bernard, ii. 297, 301. 

Biagio, ii. 123. 

Billy, iii. 62. 

Booey, ii. 83. 

Botar, i. 350. 

Boye, i. 304. 

Brucey, ii. 90 ; iii. 245. 

Byron, ii. 191 ; iii. 245. 

Caleb, ii. 252. 

Carnathia, i. 304. 

Caspar, ii. 53. 

Catharine, ii. 334. 

Cecil Tennant, iii. 122. 

Charles, i. 23 ; ii. 378 ; ' Duke,' ii. 

Charlotte, ii. 317; iii. 121. 

Christopher, i. 16. 

Cock, i. 8. 

Conde, ii. 267. 

Constant, iii. 122. 

'Crowy.'H. 80, 92(/. ».). 

David, i. 176, 311 ; ii. 347. 

Deliah, iii. 199, 210. 

1) i:\ier, ii. 297, 301. 

Demeter, iii. 109. 

Didi, ii. 228. 

Donald, ii. 362. 

Dorka, ii. 68, 69. 

Eduard, ii. 354. 


:. Christian— continued. 
IBD, i. 17, 176. 
ib, ui. 122. 
Elizabeth, i. 17, is, 24; Li. 61, 171 

».); iii. 22. 
I , 371; ii. 252, 256. 

.ii. ::.") I. 

Km ii., ii. 378. 

Emma, ii. 252. 

Esi B i.u. " Queen,' ii. 175. 

Hi r Faa, ii. 274. 
Ktiii i ENDA, iii. 200, 201. 
I oi riA, i. 232. 
i ti:, iii. 109. 
Ii i:n LNDO, i. 232. 

In ina, ii. 320. 

Vi i i. 371 ; ii. SS ; iii. 244. 

Fi.okis, iii. 42. 

FB IMPTON, i. 374. 

Fkani es, i. 129. 

' SfCESCO, ii. 122. 
■ ii:, ii. 354. 
I'i: \Nfis, i. 24, 1 I I. 

. ./, ii. 157, L58, 159. 
<; IBRIEL, ii. 228. 
6AWIN, ii. 354. 
GELEYR, ii. 207, 301. 
George, i. 12, 16, 304; ii. 194, 295, 
296, 300, 302, 377 ; iii. 201 ; 
• Earl,' ii. 292. 
Gilbert, iii. 73 (f.n.). 
Giles, i. 8. 

I \, iii. 181. 
Grasta, ii. 297, 301. 

< rRIMBO, < riant, iii. 62. 

Haoar, i. 174; ii. 318, 365, 366, 

Harie, ii. 354. 

II irriet, iii. 73 (f.n.). 
II \i:kv. ii. 348. 
Hary, ii. 343. 

Hi i i .. ii. 292. 293. 294. 
Eelene, ii. 352, 353, 354. 
Henrie, ii. 354. 
Eenry, ii. 252, 348; 'King,' iii. 

121. (Hadji), ii. 59. 
Isaac, ii. 91, 92; iii. 208 (f.n.). 
Isabella, ii. 252. 

EL, iii. 73 (f.n.). 
ISSOBELL, ii. 354. 
J., ii. 191. 
Jacintha, i. 232. 

CK, iii. 110. 

i. 16, 176 ; ii. 190-1, 266-77, 

302, 348, 352, 353, 354, 362, 377; 

iii. 187. 
Jani i, ii. 68. 

■ si, ii. 156, 158. 
J ine, i. 371. 
Jane Matilda, i. 304. 
•1 wit. ii. (il. 

•' ' '■■ I 122 (f.n.); iii. 03. 
Jean, ii. 61, 271. 
Jean-Charles, iii. 229. 
ne, ii. 3:> l. 

. i. 174. 
•'i.M. iii. 201. 


Jeremuh Wool, i. ISO. 

Names, G. Christian — continued. 

Jimmy, i. 179. 

Joan, i. 14. 

Joao, i. 232. 

Joe, 'brown,' iii. 127. 

JOHANN, ii. 160. 

John, i. 12, 16, 17, 18, 84, 90, 145 
(f.n.), 180, 227 (f.n.); ii. 53, 61, 
174 ( f.n.), 194, 209, 252, 257, 258, 
295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 
302, 320, 350, 351, 354, 358, 361 ; 
iii. 22, 23, 81, 82, 83, 84, 110, 
124; 'King.'ii. 118; iii. 121. 

John Robert, iii. 182. 

John Wood, i. 180. 

Johne, i. 233. 

Johnne, ii. 302, 352, 353, 354. 

Johnny, i. 42 (f.n.); ii. 84 (f.n.), 
87, 234, 276, 302, 347 ; iii. 158, 
180, 244. 

Jonas, iii. 122. 

Jone, i. 18. 

Joshd, iii. 201. 

Jozsi, ii. 157, 158. 

Jubal, iii. 117, 118, 119, 120. 

Julia, iii. 245. 

Julie, ii. 302; iii. 105. 

Katharene, ii. 354. 

Katherin, i. 233 ; ii. 350. 

Katherine, i. 18. 

'Kenza, ii. 90. 

Kit, i. 8. 

Klara, iii. 168. 

Kropan, iii. 41, 42. 

Lancelot, ii. 314, 315. 

Lavinia, ii. 1. 

Lazar, iii. 169. 

Lazarus, ii. 80 and (f.n.), 3S1, 382. 

Lementina, ii. 314. 

Lenda, iii. 199, 203. 

Levi, ii. 117. 

Lias, ii. 83, 84 (f.n.), 86, 87 ; iii. 
207 (f.n.). 

Lipfay, ii. 159. 

Loriae, iii. 245. 

Lucrece, ii. 354. 

Luis, i. 232. 

Luke, i. 129. 

Mabile, ii. 61. 

Mackenzie, iii. 245. 

Magassen, i. 137. 

Manful, ii. 92 ; iii. 199. 

Manoel, i. 232. 

Mansfield, ii. 252. 

Margaekt, i. 19, 24; ii. 316, 354. 

Maria, i. 131, 132, 133; ii. 123; 
iii. 83. 

Mariano, i. 288. 

Marika, ii. 65, 66. 

Marina, ii. 228. 

Martin, iii. 229. 

Martyn, ii. 297, 301. 

Mary, ii. 61, 254, 255, 256 ; iii. 123. 

Mary Ann. ii. 252. 

Mastro, i. 248. 

Matilda, i. 174, 304. 

Matteo, ii. 123. 

Matthew, ii. 174 (/.: 
256, 380. 

Maundrew, iii. 122. 

f.n.), 254, 255, ! 



Names, (!. Christian — continued. 
Meredith, iii. 125. 
Merioee, ii. 354. 
Mesela, iii. 122. 
Meshach, iii. 73 (f.n.). 
Michael, 'Duke,' i. 267, 277 (f.n.), 

330, 331, 333, 337 (f.n.), 338, 343 ; 

ii. 42, Hand (f.n.), 267. 
Milivoj, iii. 213. 
Milo, iii. 38. 
Mimy, iii. 225, 226,227. 
Miranda (Mandra), iii. 200, 207, 

210, 211. 
Mojsa, i. 290. 

Moses, ii. 345, 346, 347, 348. 
Moyses, ii. 352, 353. 
Murdo, i. 233 ; ii. 350. 
Murko, ii. 228. 
Mustapha, i. 3. 
Nathaniel, i. 304. 
Ned, ii. 252. 
Nichoalz, ii. 302. 
Nicholas, ii. 377. 
Nita, ii. 143, 144, 145, 146. 
' No Name,' iii. 207. 
Noah, iii. 73, 208 (f.n.), 210. 
Nona, ii. 297, 301. 
Northallion, iii. 73 (f.n.). 
Notari, ii. 160. 
Oliver, i. 23; iii. 73, 204 (f.n.), 

208 (f.n.). 
Oscar, iii. 73, 245. 
Owen, i. 305 ; ii. 252, 256, 321, 322, 

Pancho, ii. 117, 118. 
Patrick, ii. 362. 
Paul, ii. 159. 
Peter, i. 129 ; ii. 61, 224. 
Peterkin, i. 347, 348. 
Petru, iii. 42, 43, 44. 
Philip, iii. 73, 155, 156. 
Phillip, ii. 297, 301. 
Phillipe, i. 11. 
Phoebe, ii. 37S. 
Pinto, i. 232. 
Plato, ii. 382. 
Poley, ii. 88. 
Pyramus, ii. 314, 315. 
Rachel, ii. 174 (f.n.). 
Racz, i. 173. 
Randall, i. 176. 
Raphael, i. 305, 306. 
Ravu, iii. 22. 
Reiney, ii. 252. 
Ricardo, i. 232. 
Richard, i. 16, 24. 
Robert, i. 16, 17, 180; ii. 302, 338, 

339, 341, 347, 354, 358 ; iii. 125. 
Robin, ii. 35S. 
Roger, i. 17. 
Rosa, ii. 123, 224. 
Rosannah, i. 304. 
Rowland, i. 18. 
Rukny, iii. 217. 
Sabi, iii. 39. 

Sam, iii. 121, 156 and (f.n.). 
Sampson, ii. 86, 87. 
Samson, ii. 315. 
Samuell, ii. 354. 
Sandie, ii. 357. 

Names, G. Christian — continued. 
Satona, ii. 297, 301. 
Sebastiane, ii. 297, 298, 299, 300, 

301, 302. 
Sei.ina, i. 304. 
Shandros, iii. 244. 
Shanny, iii. 201. 
Shuggurn, iii. 158. 
Shuri, iii. 244. 
Sidney, i. 174. 
Silvanus, ii. 12 (f.n.). 
Sinfai, iii. 244. 
Sinfi, ii. 1, 91 ; iii. 201. 
Solomon, i. 180. 
Sophia, ii. 118. 
Stefano, ii. 123. 
Stbphan, iii. 39, 212. 
Sugar, i. 174, 175. 
Susanna, iii. 122. 
Sylvester, ii. 191 ; iii. 243, 244, 

Sympathy, iii. 122. 
Tehanna, ii. 252. 
Tenas, ii. 157. 
Teni, ii. 191. 
Tennant, iii. 122. 
Theodor, iii. 17. 
Theodore, i. 3. 
Theophilus, i. 180. 
Thomas, i. 16, 18; ii. 256; 'Earl,' 

ii. 31 32 33 34. 
ToM,'i. W; ii! 80, 91 ; iii. 156,201, 

Tommy, ii. 86. 
Towla, ii. 297, 301. 
Trafalgar, ii. 245. 
Tyso, iii. 245. 
Ursula, ii. 82, 272. 
Valentine, i. 180. 
Valentyne, i. 18. 
Vojin, iii. 39. 
Wallis, iii. 245. 
Walter, i. 54. 
Wasti, iii. 199, 201, 207, 211. 
'Wester, ii. 92, 382. 
William, i. 17, 19, 51 (f.n.), 176, 

180; ii. 118, 174, 252, 268, 271, 

275, 339, 357, 360, 361, 380 ; iii. 

122, 125, 230, 244, 245. 
Williame, ii. 354. 
Wynie, iii. 2