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3 1833 01776 5667 



Vol. 14 APRIL-JULY, 1921 No. 1-2 



Illinois State 
Historical Society 


Published Quarterly by the 

Illinois State Historical Society 

Springfield, Illinois 

Entered at Washington. D. C. as Second Class Matter under Act of Coneresa of July 16, 18W 

accepted for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in section 1103, 

Act of October 3, 1917, authorized on July 3, 1918. 

[Printed by authority of the State of lUlnois.] 



or THE 


Jessie Palmee Webeb, Editor 

Associate Editors: 
Edward C. Page 
Andrew Russel H. W. Clendenin 

George W. Smith 


Dr. Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 

Vice Presidents 

George A. Lawrence Galesburg 

L. Y. Sherman Springfield 

Richard Yates Springfield 

Ensley Moore Jacksonville 

Charles L. Capen Bloomington 

Edmund J. James, University of Illinois. .Urbana-Champaign 

E. B. Greene, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Charles H. Rammelkamp, President Illinois College 


George W. Smith, Southern Illinois State Normal University 


Richard V. Carpenter Belvidere 

Edward C. Page, Northern Illinois State Normal School 


Andrew Russel Jacksonville 

Walter Colyer Albion 

James A. James, Northwestern University Evanston 

H. W. Clendenin Springfield 

John H. Hauberg Rock Island 

Orrin N. Carter Evanston 

Stuart Brown Springfield 

Rev. Ira W. Allen La Grange 

Secretary and Treasurer 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Assistant Secretary 

Miss Georgia L. Osborne Springfield 

Honorary Vice Presidents 
The Presidents of Local Historical Societies 


I. Officers of the Society vii 

II. An appeal to the Historical Society and the Gen- 
eral Public ix 

III. T. E. Musselman, A. M., A History of the Birds 

of Illinois 1 

rV. Charles S. Zane : Lincoln as I Knew Him 74 

V. Charles 0. Paullin: Abraham Lincoln in Con- 
gress 1847-1849 85 

VI. Colby Beekman: Reminiscences of P. P. Gros- 

boU 90 

"VTI. N. M. Baker: Pioneers of Macon County 92 

VIII. Mrs. Joseph C. Dole : Pioneers of Coles County 107 

IX. Edwin H. Van Patten : Brief History of David 

McCoy and Family 122 

X. Mrs. George Spangler : Tazewell and Woodford 

Counties. Early Marriages and Wills 133 

XI. Lillian Ewertsen: Camp Roosevelt, Builder of 

Boys 161 

XII. Editorials- 
Double Number of the Journal 167 

Medill School of Journalism Dedicated 168 

Lincoln Birthday Observances 176 

Wesleyan Social Center University of Illinois. . 178 

Field Museum Opens 184 

Memorial Trees 189 

Memorial Day Observance 198 

Minor Notes 202 

Gifts to the Library and Society 219 

CONTENTS— Concluded. 

Xin. Necrology — 

Major Edward S. Johnson 225 

William Reid Cnrran 228 

Mrs. Benjamin H. Ferguson 233 

Dr. Jolm F. Snyder 239 

XIV. List of Publications of the Illinois State Histori 

cal Library and Society 247 


Objects of Collection Desired by the Illinois State Historical 
Library and Society. 

(members please read this circular letter.) 
Books and pamphlets on American history, biography, and gene- 
alogy, particularly those relating to the West ; works on Indian tribes, 
and American archaeology and ethnology ; reports of societies and insti- 
tutions of every kind, educational, economic, social, political, coopera- 
tive, fraternal, statistical, industrial, charitable ; scientific publications 
of states or societies; books or pamphlets relating to all wars in which 
Illinois has taken part, especially the collection of material relating to 
the present great war, and the wars with the Indians ; privately printed 
works ; newspapers ; maps and charts ; engravings ; photographs ; auto- 
graphs ; coins ; antiquities : encyclopedias, dictionaries, and biblio- 
graphical works. Especially do we desire — 


1. Every book or pamphlet on any subject relating to Illinois, or 
any part of it; also every book or pamphlet written by an Illinois 
citizen, whether published in Illinois or elsewhere; materials for Illi- 
nois historj- ; old letters, journals. 

2. Manuscripts; narratives of the pioneers of Illinois; original 
papers on the early history and settlement of the territory ; adven- 
tures and conflicts during the early settlement, the Indian troubles, or 
the great rebellion, or other wars ; biographies of the pioneers ; promi- 
nent citizens and public men of every county, either living or deceased, 
together with their portraits and autographs ; a sketch of the settle- 
ments of every township, village and neighborhood in the State, with 
the names of the first settlers. We solicit articles on every subject 
connected with Illinois historj-. 

3. City ordinances, proceedings of mayor and council; reports of 
committees of council; pamphlets or papers of any kind printed by 
authority of the city ; reports of boards of trade and commercial 
associations; maps of cities and plats of town sites or of additions 

4. Pamphlets of all kinds ; annual reports of societies ; sermons 
or addresses delivered in the State ; minutes of church conventions, 
synods, or other ecclesiastical bodies of Illinois; political addresses; 
railroad reports ; all such, whether published in pamphlet or newspaper. 

5. Catalogues and reports of colleges and other institutions of 
learning; annual or other reports of school boards, school superintend- 
ents and school committees ; educational pamphlets, programs and 
papers of every kind, no matter how small or apparently unimportant. 

6. Copies of the earlier laws, journals and reports of our terri- 
torial and State Legislatures ; earlier Governors' messages and reports 
of State Officers; reports of State charitable and other State institu- 

7. Files of Illinois newspapers and magazines, especially complete 
volumes of past years, or single numbers even. Publishers are earn- 
estly requested to contribute their publications regularly, all of which 
will be carefully preserved and bound. 

8. Maps of the State, or of counties or townships, of any date; 
views and engravings of buildings or historic places ; drawings or 
photographs of scenery, paintings, portraits, etc., connected with Illi- 
nois history. 

9. Curiosities of all kinds; coins, medals, paintings; portraits, 
engravings; statuary; war relics; autograph letters of distinguished 
persons, etc. 

10. Facts illustrative of our Indian tribes — their history, charac- 
teristics, religion, etc., sketches of prominent chiefs, orators and 
warriors, together with contributions of Indian weapons, costumes, 
ornaments, curiosities and implements; also stone axes, spears, arrow 
heads, pottery, or other relics. 

It is important that the work of collecting historical material in 
regard to the part taken by Illinois in the great war be done 
immediately, before important local material be lost or destroyed. 

In brief, everything that, by the most liberal construction, can 
illustrate the history of Illinois, its early settlement, its progress, or 
present condition. All will be of interest to succeeding generations. 
Contributions will be credited to the donors in the published reports 
of the Library and Society, and will be carefully preserved in the State- 
house as the property of the State, for the use and benefit of the people 
for all time. 

Your attention is called to the important duty of collecting and 
preserving everything relating to the part taken by the State of Illinois 
in the present great World War. 

Communications or gifts may be addressed to the Librarian and 

(Mrs.) Jessie Palmer Weber. 

Four Common licneficial Farm F)irds. 

"- h v.\ Qua 


By T. E. Musselman, A. M. 
Illinois as Nearly as we can Picture it in 1818. 

In 1818 at the time Illinois entered the Union as a state, 
the territoiy within its boundaries was a wilderness of woods, 
rivers, swamps, and prairies, penetrated occasionally by wind- 
ing game trails and cultivated only on a few prominent situa- 
tions along the rivers where a tiny fort gave protection to a 
meager village. 

Hero in the very heart of America, lay Illinois, a veri- 
table bird land, which was due to its ideal geographical lo- 
cation; to the great variety of physiographical conditions; 
and to the growth of nearly every type of vegetation required 
by the bird home-seeker. 

Each spring tremendous flights of birds swept northward 
in huge waves, entering Illinois at the junction of the Miss- 
issippi and Ohio rivers. As they migrated northward they 
passed from the cedar grown foothills of the Ozark range 
into the tremendous lowland forests of hard and soft wood, 
which then characterized nearly all of southern Illinois. Many 
clear streams ran slowly through this magnificent growth of 
great trees and occasionally broadened into pretty lakes 
whose surfaces were broken by growths of w^ater-lilies, spat- 
ter dock and other water vegetation while the borders were 
lined with cat-tails, arrowhead, willows, and cottonwood. 
Swamps galore bordered these tiny streams many assuming 
pretentious size particularly along the Indiana border, in 
which location were found southern cyjiress, swamp oaks, 
gums, sycamore and corresponding trees, many of which grew 
to unusual size. 

High in these trees nested countless hawks of numerous 
varieties. An occasional eagle upon finding a tree which gave 
a view over miles of valley, placed her aerie in the topmost 

2 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 

branches. Great-horned owls, Barred owls, Screech owls and 
Bullbats filled the dark hours of night with weird noises; 
while the day time was resplendent with the flying of such 
brilliant birds as the Great Blue Herons, Yellow-crowned 
Night Herons, American Egrets, Cardinal Eedbirds, and 
Tanagers. Even the harsh cry of the Carolina Paroquet was 

In the lower situations the Prothonotary Warblers nested 
by the hundreds in the woodpecker holes which literally rid- 
dled many of the willows and birches along the swamps. The 
sedges, iris, and rank vegetation in the water were alive with 
nesting rails, gallinules, coots, and ducks, while the Hooded, 
Blue-winged, and Kentucky^ warblers were not uncommon in 
the grasses along the moist banks. Farther back in the woods 
the giant Northern Pileated Woodpecker after mounting some 
resonant limb would beat a tattoo which in volumn and rapid- 
ity sounded like a trip hammer; and immediately the hundreds 
of smaller woodpeckers hearing the challenge would hunt 
smaller limbs and try unsuccessfully to rival the bold mon- 
arch. Skulking in the brush were the majestic wild turkeys 
while sailing above without any apparent wing motion circled 
the Turkey Buzzards. 

So ideal were the conditions that thousands of birds 
stopped their travels here, and many a southern bird strayed 
northward and spent happy weeks in these solitudes. Occa- 
sional reports of the appearance of the Roseate Spoonbill and 
the Anhinga have come down to us and no doubt many other 
rare southern varieties tmknown to us, frequented these 
woods when conditions were most ideal. 

PASSEjg-QER Pigeons by the Millions. 

Probably the most unusual of all the sights occurring in 
these woods were the flights of the Passenger Pigeons going 
into roost or returning to their nesting sites. Flocks number- 
ing into the millions would approach the roosting site, their 
wings making a noise resembling thunder. Here they Avould 
settle in the trees in such numbers that their weight would 
often break the limbs. In the morning the flocks would leave 
for their feeding grounds and so great were the numbers of 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Historij of Birds of Illinois 3 

the individuals that they literally shut out the light of the 
sun for hours. The following description by Alexander Wil- 
son, the great ornithologist, was written sometime prior to 
his death in 1813, and tells of one of these flights down in 
Kentucky where the conditions were similar to those in Illi- 

"About 1 o'clock the (Passenger) pigeons which I had 
observed flying northerly the greatest part of the morning 
began to return in such immense number as I never before 
had witnessed. At an opening by the side of Benson Creek, 
I was astonished at their appearance. 

"They were flying with great steadiness and rapidity at a 
height beyond gunshot in several strata deep, and so close to- 
gether that could shot have reached them one discharge would 
not have failed of bringing down several birds. From right 
to left, as far as the eye could reach, the breadth of the vast 
procession reached, seeming everywhere crowded. Curious 
to determine how long this appearance would continue, I sat 
down with my watch in hand at 1 :30 P. M. for more than an 
hour, but instead of diminuation of this prodigious proces- 
sion, it seemed rather to increase, both in numbers and rapid- 
ity of flight. Anxious to reach Frankfort before night, I rose 
and went on. At 4 o'clock that afternoon I crossed the Ken- 
tucky River at the town of Frankfort, at which time the liv- 
ing torrent above my head seemed as numerous and as ex- 
tensive as ever. The great bi-eadth of space which this mighty 
multitude preserved would seem to intimate a corresponding 
breadth of their breeding place, which several gentlemen who 
had lately passed through part of it told me was several miles 
wide and — they estimated — about forty miles long, in which 
every tree was absolutely loaded with nests of young birds." 

The Prairie Districts Years Ago. 

No doubt, the many migrants lingered because they hated 
to desert the attracti%Tiess of the southern woods and swamps, 
yet the migratory instinct urged the majority of them forward 
into the prairie districts to the north which welcomed them 
with tremendous growths of rich grass, in many places higher 
than a man's head. The occasional streams were lined with 

4 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 

thickets of sumac, button wood and willow, interspersed with 
clusters of ehns, oaks, and maples, which in spots extended in- 
to woods, the size of which often threatened the existence of 
the prairie. This encroachment of the forest was somewhat 
held in check, however, by prairie fires which annually oc- 
curred during the late fall. These occasional wood clusters al- 
lowed the forest birds to add their numbers to the large variety 
of native prairie birds. The following interesting account of 
a trip to the prairies west of Olney, Eichland County on June 
8, will give an idea of the number of species and individuals 
which inhabited the central state even as late as 1871. The 
writer is none other than the venerable Eobert Eidgway and 
the article appears in the introduction to his, ' ' The Ornithol- 
ogy of Illinois" Part 1, page 14. 

"The day was a delightful one; for, although the heat 
ranged above 80 degrees, the fresh prairie breeze tempered it 
to a delightful mildness. Besting upon the cool green sward 
in the shade of a large elm in the hollow, our ears were de- 
lighted by such a chorus of bird songs as we have heard 
nowhere else. Among the leafy arches overhead the Balti- 
more Orioles whistled their mellow flute-like notes, accom- 
panied by the soft contented warble and joyous carol of the 
Warbling and Eed-eyed Vireos ; the birds of the meadow were 
chanting on every hand their several ditties, while the breeze 
wafted to us the songs of various woodland species. In the 
scrubby jungle, a Mocking-bird filled the air with his rich 
medley of varied notes, the singer leaping in restless ecstacy 
from branch to branch, with drooping wings and spread tail, 
or flitting from tree to tree as he sang. A Brown Thrasher 
poured forth a ceaseless accompaniment as he sat perched 
sedately upon the summit of a small vine-canopied tree— a 
contrast in bearing to the restive, sportive Mimus, his rival in 
vigor, and superior in sweetness, of song. Several Yellow- 
breasted Chats interpolated their loud cat-calls, vehement 
whistlings, and croaking notes. These three, loudest of the 
songsters, well nigh dro^^^led the voices of the smaller birds ; 
but in the brief intervals — "between the acts" — were heard 
the fine and sweet, though plaintive song of the little Field 
Sparrow, the pleasant notes of the Chewink, the rich whist- 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 

History of Birds of Illinois 

lings of the Cardinal, and the clear, proud call of Bob White. 
Upon proceeding to the thickets and thus interrupting the 
louder songsters, the wondrously strong and vehement notes 
of the Chickty-beaver Bird or tVhite-eyed Vireo greeted us 
from the tangled copse, and soon a song we had never heard 
before — the gobbling, sputtering harangue of Bell's Vireo — 
attracted our attention and, of course, our interest. In the 
more open woods marking the border of the timber, the sev- 
eral woodland species were noticed ; there the vermilion Tan- 
ager or Summer Red-bird warbled his Robin-like but fine and 
well sustaining song, the Blue Jays chuckled and screamed 
as they prowled among the branches, and gaudy Red-headed 
Woodpeckers flaunted their tri-colored liveiy as they sported 
about the trunks or occasional dead tree tops. 

"On the open prairie, comparative quiet reigned. The 
most numerous bird there was "Dick Cissel" (Spiza Ameri- 
cana), who monopolized the Iron-weeds uttering his rude but 
agreeable ditty with such regularity and persistence that the 
general stillness seemed scarcely broken; hardly less numer- 
ous Henslow's Buntings were likewise perched upon the weed 
stallvs, and their weak but emphatic 'se-wick' sounded almost 
like a faint attempt at imitation of Dick Cissel 's song. The 
grasshopper-like -ft-iry trill of the Yellow- winged Sparrow, 
the meandering wavering warble of the Prairie Lark (Oto- 
coris alpestris praticola) — coming apparently from nowhere, 
but in reality from a little speck floating far up in the blue 
sky, — and the sweet 'Peek-you can't see me' of the Meadow- 
lark, completed the list of songs heard on the open prairies. 
Many kinds of birds besides those already described were 
seen, but to name them all would require too much space. We 
should not, however, omit to mention the elegant Swallow- 
tailed Kites which now and then wheeled into view as they 
circled over the prairie, or their cousins and companions, the 
Mississippi Kites, soaring above them through the transpar- 
ent atmosphere ; nor must we forget a pair of croaking Rav- 
ens who, after circling above for a short time over the border 
of the woods, flew away to the heavy timber in the Fox River 

6 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 

In all ninety-five species were seen by this eminent orni- 
thologist in the small prairies, while tlie birds in the neiglibor- 
ing woods brought the total to one hundred and forty species; 
all probably breeding within a radius of five miles. "As large 
a number of regular summer residents as any locality of 
equal extent in North America can boast," said Mr. Ridgway. 

As a comparison, I wish to say that, at the present time 
although but fifty years later, a collector hunting through 
the same territory during the same month would be fortunate 
to record fifty to sixty summer residents. The writer while 
listing birds at the height of the migration season has never 
been able to record more than 105 species in one day, while 
the average number during the summer months is more nearly 

Wild Fowl, on the Illinois River Years Ago. 

Along the Illinois river and the Mississippi river about 
the 40th degree were wonderful lakes and sloughs where Rails, 
Cranes, Gallinules, Coots and Ducks lived and nested in un- 
believable numbers. The article herewith printed gives an 
account of how the ducks came in during the early days before 
the incursion of drainage districts, pump guns, automobiles, 
launches, etc. This stirring account of the abundance of 
the wild fowl in the wild rice fields along the Illinois river 
more than fifty years ago, is taken from an article written 
by the graphic pen of Mr. T. S. Van Dyke, contributed many 
years ago to the columns of Forest and Stream, from which 
the different excerpts given below are taken. This is the 
story, as he tells it — a story of the last days of the muzzle- 
loading shotgun: 

"It was a bright September afternoon, the day after 
my arrival at Henry, that my friend and I were paddling up 
the crooked slough that leads from Senachwine to the Illinois 
river. Wood Ducks, Mallards and Teal rose squealing and 
quacking from the slough ahead of us, but he paid no atten- 
tion to them, and I soon ceased dropping the oar and snatch- 
ing up the gun and getting it cocked and raised just as tlie 
ducks were nicely out of range. When we reached Mul Lake 
— a mere widening and branching of the slough at the foot of 
Senachwine — we drew the boat ashore. Huge flocks of Mai- 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 

History of Birds of Illinois 

lards rose with reverberating wings from the sloughs all 
around us and mounted liigli, with tlie sun brightly ghincing 
from every plume. Plaiidy could I see tlie sheen of their bur- 
nished green heads and outstretched necks, the glistening bars 
upon their wings, the l)nnd of white ui)on their tails, sur- 
mounted by dainty curls of shining green. 

"There were already in sight what seemed to me enough 
of ducks to satisfy anyone. Long lines of black dots streamed 
along the blue sky above Senachwine, up the Illinois and over 
Swan Lake — between tlie river and Senachwine — while from 
down the slough, up the slough, from over the timber on the 
west, and the timber along the river on the east, came small 
bunches and single birds by the dozen. Shall I ever forget 
that big Mallard that bore down upon nie before I was fairly 
hidden in the reeds? He came along with sublime indiffer- 
ence, winnowing the air with lazy stroke, bobbing his long, 
green head and neck u]i and down, and suspecting no danger. 
As he passed me at about twenty-five yards, I saw, along the 
iron rib of the gun, tlie sunlight glisten on his burnished 
head. I was delightfully calm, and rather regretted that let- 
ting him down was such a merely formal proceeding. If he 
were further off, or going faster, it would be so much more 
satisfactory. Nevertheless, he had to be bagged, whether 
sl<ill was required or not, so I resigned myself to the neces- 
sity and pulled the trigger. The duck rose sky^vard with 
thum])in2: winirs, leaving me so benumbed with wonder that 
I never thought of the other barrel. 

"But little time was left me for reflection, for a Wood 
Duck, resplendent with all his gonreous colors, came swiftly 
down from the other direction. Every line of his brilliant 
plumage I could also plainly see along the gun, for I was as 
cool as before. Yet this gay rover of the air never conde- 
scended to fall, sheer, rise, or even quicken his pace, but sailed 
along at the report of each barrel as unconcerned as a gos- 
samer web on the evening breeze. 

"T concluded to retire from the business of single shots 
and go into the wholesale trade. This conclusion was firmly 
braced by the arrival of fifteen or twenty ^Mallards in a well- 
massed block. They came past me like a charge of cavalry, 

8 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 

sweeping in bright uniform low along the water, with shining 
necks and heads projecting like couched lances. I could see 
four or five heads almost in line as I puUed the first trigger, 
yet only one dropped, and that one with only a broken wing. 
As they rose with obstreperous beat of wing, I rained the 
second barrel into the thickest part of the climbing mass, and 
another one fell with broken wing, while another wabbled and 
wavered for a himdred yards or more, then rose high and 
himg in air for a second, then, folding his wings, descended 
into a heavy mass of reeds away on the other side of the main 
slough. Meanwhile, my two wounded ducks, both flattened 
out on the water, were making rapid time for the thick reeds 
across the little slough, and both disappeared in them just as 
I got one barrel of my gun capped. 

" So it went on for an hour or so. There was scarcely a 
minute to wait for a shot, yet in that hour I bagged only four 
or five ducks. 

"While gazing a moment into the blank that despondency 
often brings before me, two Blue-winged Teal shot suddenly 
across the void. With the instinctive quickness of one trained 
to brush shooting I tossed the gun forward of the leading 
Teal about the same space that I had been accustomed to fire 
ahead of Quail at that apparent distance. The rear duck, 
fully four feet behind the other, skipped with a splash over 
the water, dead, while the one I had intended to hit skimmed 
away unharmed. I had fallen into the common error of tyros 
at duck shooting, viz., underestimating both the distance and 
speed of the game. 

"The number of ducks increased by the minute. They 
came with swifter and steadier wing and with more of an air 
of business then they had shown before. Those hitherto fly- 
ing were nearly all ducks that had been spending the day in 
and around Senachwine and its adjacent ponds and sloughs. 
But now the host that during the day had been feeding in the 
great com fields of the prairie began to move in to roost, and 
the vast army of traveling wild fowl that the late sharp frosta 
in the North had started on their southern tour began to get 
under way. Long lines now came streaming down the north- 

ToLXiv.No.i History of Birds of Illinois 9 

em sky, -widening out and descending in long inclines or long, 
sweeping curves. Dense bunches came rising out of the hori- 
Eon, hanging for a moment on the glowing sky, then massing 
and bearing directly dovra upon us. No longer as single spies, 
but in battalions, they poured over the bluffs on the west, 
where the land sweeps away into the vast expanse of high 
prairie, and on wings swifter than the wind itself came riding 
down the last beams of the sinking sun. Above them the air 
was dotted with long, wedge-shaped masses or converging 
strings, more slowly moving than the ducks, from which I 
could soon hear the deep, mellow honk of the goose and the 
clamorous cackle of the brant. And through all this were 
darting here and there and everywhere, ducks, single, in pairs, 
and small bunches. English snipe were pitching about in 
their erratic flight; plover drifted by with their tender 
whistle, little alarmed by the cannonade; Blue herons, Bit- 
terns and Snowy Egrets, with long necks doubled up and legs 
outstretched behind, flapped solemnly across the stage, while 
Yellow-legs, Sand Snipe, Mud hens. Divers — I know not what 
all — chinked in the vacant places. 

"The nerves that felt but a slight tremor when the Ruffed 
Grouse burst roaring from the thicket, now quaked like aspens 
beneath the storm that swept over me from every point of 
the compass. There I stood, the converging point of in- 
numerable dark lines, bunches and strings, all rushing toward 
me, at different rates of speed; indeed, but even the slowest, 
fearfully fast. 

"Hitherto the ducks had all come from the level of the 
horizon. But now, from on high, with rushing, tearing sound, 
as if rending in their passage the canopy of Heaven, down 
they came out of the very face of night. With wdngs set in 
rigid curves, dense masses of Blue-bills came winding swiftly 
down. Mallards, too, no longer with heavy beat, but with 
stiffened wings that made it hiss beneath them, rode down 
the darkening air. Sprigtails and other large ducks came 
sliding down on long inclines with firmly set wings that made 
all sing beneath them. Blue--s\dnged Teal came swiftly and 

10 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 

straight as the flight of a falling arrow, while Greenwings 
shot by in volleys or pounced upon the scene with the rush 
of a hungry hawk. In untold numbers the old Gray geese, 
too, came trooping in, though few came near enough to give 
us a fair shot. Nearly all of them steered high along the 
sky until over Senachwine Lake, or Swan Lake — a little below 
us to the northwest — then, lengthening out their dark strings, 
they descended slowly and softly in long spiral curves to the 
bosom of the lake. Brant, too dotted the western and north- 
ern skies, marching along with swifter stroke of wing and 
more clamorous throats, until over the water's edge, then 
slowly sailing and lowering for a few hundred feet in solemn 
silence, suddenly resumed their cackle, and, like a thousand 
shingles tossed from a balloon, went whirling, pitching, tumb- 
ling and gyrating down to the middle of the lake. Far, far 
above all these, and still bathed in the crimson glow of the 
fallen sun, long lines of Sandhill Cranes floated like flocks of 
down in their southward flight, not deigning to alight, but 
down through a mile of air sending their greeting in long- 
drawn, penetrating notes. 

"Myriads of ducks and geese, traveling from the North, 
swept by, far overhead, without slackening a wing. Far 
above us, the Mallard's neck and head, looking fairly black 
in the falling night, could be seen outstretched for another 
hundred miles before dark. "Darkly painted on the crimson 
sky," the Sprigtails streamed along with forked rudders set 
for a warmer region than Senachwine. Widgeon sent down 
a plaintive whistle that plainly said 'good-bye.' Bluebills, 
Wood Ducks, Spoonbills and Teal sped along the upper sky 
with scarcely a glance at their brethren who chose to descend 
among them. And far over all, with swifter flight and more 
rapid stroke of wing than I had deemed possible for birds so 
large, a flock of Snowy Swans clove the thickening shades, 
as if intending to sup in Kentucky instead of Illinois. 

"Yet, of those that tarried, there were enough for me. 
With tremulous hand, I poured my last charge into the heated 
gun, and raised it at a flock of Mallards that were gliding 
swiftly downward, with every long neck pointed directly at my 
devoted head. Wlieeooo shot a volley of Green-wings between 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 History of Birds of Illinois 11 

the Mallards and the gun ; kssss came a mob of Blue-wings by 
my head as I involuntarily shifted the gun toward the Green- 
wings; wiff, wiff, wiff, came a score of Mallards along the 
reed tops behind me, as, completely befuddled with the whirl 
and uproar, I foolishly shifted the gun to the Blue-wings. As 
I wheeled at these last Mallards, after making a half shift of 
the gun toward the Blue-wings, they saw me, and turned sud- 
denly upward, belaboring the air with heavy strokes, and just 
as I turned the gun upon them a mass of Bluebills, with the 
sound like the tearing of forty yards of strong muslin, came in 
between, and just behind me I heard the air throb beneath the 
wings of the j\lallards I had first intended to shoot at. The 
gun wabbled from the second Mallards to the Bluebills, and 
then to the Mallards behind me — each chance looking more 
tempting than the last — and finally went off in the vacancy 
just over my head that the Mallards had filled when I raised 

"You who think you know all about duck shooting, if yon 
have never been in such a position, have something yet to 
learn. Excitement and success you may enjoy to the fuU, 
but wliile your ammunition lasts you know nothing of the 
pleasures of contemplation. Amid the shock, and jar, and 
smoke, the confusion of even loading the quickest breech- 
loader, and retrieving the ducks even with the best of dogs, 
you see nothing compared to what you may see without a 
gun. As I dropped the worthless gun upon a muskrat house, 
and sat down upon the top of it, the whole world where I had 
been living vanished in a twinkling and I found myself in 
another sphere, filled with circling spirits, all endowed with 
emotions, hopes and fears, like those that Dante saw in Para- 

"There, indeed, was the great sea of being, but all one 
vast whirlpool that engulfed the soul of the poor powderless 
"tenderfoot," while his ears were stunned with the whizz 
and rush of wings all around his head, with the thump and 
bustle and splash of ducks alighting in the water before him, 
the squeal of Wood Ducks, the quack of Mallards, the whistle 
of Widgeon, the scape of traveling snipe, the grating squawk 
of Herons, Egrets and Bitterns, the honk-honk of Geese, the 

12 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 

clank-a-lank of Brant, and the dolorous grrroooo of the far 
off Sandhill Crane." 

Shifting this picture quickly from the Dliuois Eiver -west- 
ward, we arrive at the Mississippi river which also was a 
wonderful haven for birds. 

The Mississippi Eiveb Long Ago. 

Lima Lake, located eighteen miles above Quincy, Illinois, 
was a tremendous swamp situation particularly attractive 
to the wild fowl and birds. Yearly the White Swans, White 
Pelicans, and myriads of ducks and geese fed there for days 
on their migratory trips to and fro. An occasional Swan was 
reported to have nested there in the early days and one stray 
oologist collected 250 full sets of eggs of the Prothonotary 
"Warbler among the willows and birch about its borders. King 
Eails, Wood Cock, and allied birds nested there by the thou- 
sands, while hundreds of hollow willow trees sheltered the 
nests of the now rapidly decreasing Wood Duck together with 
an occasional nest of the Hooded Merganser. 

Eagles on the Mississippi. 

Everywhere in those days birds seemed abundant. Along 
the Mississippi river proper the Eagles were ever in evidence 
and took a mighty toll of carrion and material thrown into 
the waters by the occasional slaughter houses situated along 
its banks wherever some smaU town had grown. 

One veteran editor recently wrote: "The presence of a 
pair of Eagles recalls the days of half a century ago when 
the locality where these birds are now seen was simply alive 
with Eagles which were attracted by the offal discharged into 
the river from the pork houses at Keokuk. 

"The 'Plough Boy' was operating between Keokuk and 
Warsaw at that ]ieriod, and the big birds would come so close 
to the craft, in gathering the food, that they became a common 
object of curiosity to passengers who marveled at the strength 
exhibited in lifting from the water, loads apparently larger 
than themselves." 

Toi.xiv.No.1 History of Birds of Illinois 13 

Vabied Physiogkaphical Featuees of the Nobth State 
Attracted Bieds, 

As the birds passed northward beyond the center of the 
state they encountered rougher country. In many places lime 
stone cliffs and high clay banks bordered the streams. Happy 
colonies of Cliff and Barn Swallows built their houses along 
these rocky fastnesses while the clay banks were honey 
combed with thousands of holes from which the Bank Swal- 
lows flew, twittering in their sweet contentment. Pine trees 
grew on the crests of many of the cliffs while a heavy natural 
growth of ferns added variety to the valleys. 

As the migrants traveled onward they approached the 
lake district which was one of the most ideal situation for 
bird life in the United States. This was due largely to Lake 
Michigan which was a veritable inland sea, also to the numer- 
ous small lakes, the sand dunes, marshes, prairies, and hills, 
which were graced with an assortment of trees, shrubs, 
grasses and water growth equal in variety to almost any situ- 
ation known. 

To Our North. 

Thus Illinois with Lake Michigan on the northeast wel- 
comed millions of ducks, snipe, gulls, terns, and other water 
birds, to say nothing of many strays from the Atlantic coast 
such as the Jaegers, Dowitchers, Turnstones, Knots, etc. 
Directly north of her border lay a network of thousands of 
lakes, which attracted the Ducks, Grebes, and Loons ; while in 
the ^^inte^ from the extreme North beyond these bodies of 
water, same irregular flocks of Bohemian WaxAvings, Cross- 
bills, Pine Grosbeaks, and Snowfiakes, which found a refuge 
from the bitter cold of the Arctic regions near that neutral- 
izing agent, Lake Michigan. At irregular periods of twelve 
of fourteen years a pestilence attacked the Arctic hares caus- 
ing a terrific decrease in their ranks. Upon such occasions 
of food shortage, the dreaded Goshawk and the Snowy Owls 
deserted their northern solitudes and visited the land of 
plenty, at which time they have been found in abundance over 
the entire state. 

14 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 

To OuB West. 

The trackless prairies to the west sent surprises in the 
form of Harris Sparrow, McCo'wn's Longspur, Townsend's 
Solitaire, Swanson's Hawk, etc., to say nothing of many va- 
rieties requiring close identification such as the Parkman's 
House Wren, western Meadow lark and others. 

To OuE South. 

So direct were the river connections with the South that 
during the mild seasons large number of rare species strayed 
northward. Particularly did this apply to river and marsh 
loving birds. These rare visitors included the Eoseate Spoon- 
bill, Anhinga, Carolina Paroquet, Florida Cormorant, etc. 

To OuB East. 

Finally Illinois was geographically close to the rough and 
heavily wooded East, a condition which accounted for many 
of the eastern varieties which w'ere occasionally recorded 
within her boundaries. 

Because of these various conditions, Illinois could expect 
birds of ocean, lake, river, and swamp, birds of upland and 
lowland, forest and prairie, including stray visitors from 
East, North, South, and West, which lingered within these 
ideal conditions. No matter what Nature required for each 
species or how fastidious might have been the taste of the 
individual bird, somewhere in this great land of wonderful 
streams, lakes and marvelous verdure could be found a site 
■which would arrest the flight of the bird home-seekers or 
migrants. One hundred years later the land could scarcely 
be recognized as the same. Certain it is, that the bird mi- 
grants of a century before would have looked with bewilder- 
ment on the ravages which civilization has made on their 

Illinois as Seen at the Time of Heb Centennial. 

The Ozark hills still are sparsely dotted with occasional 
clusters of Juniper. Huge mounds of earth with strange 
shafts show the entrance to numerous bituminous coal mines. 

ToLXiv.No.i History of Birds of Illinois 15 

The forests have disappeared and in their place stand small 
farms with their orchards bordered with split rail or barbed 
wire fences. As the birds travel farther north the farms 
become more elaborate. Neat woven wire fences stretched 
tightly on metal posts everywhere greet the eye. Scarcely any 
fence corners are tilled with hazel brush and blackberry briers. 
Everywhere the brush and grass are burned to rid the farmer 
of the dreaded chinch bug. 

Well defined roads lined with poles and wires lead from 
hamlet to village and then on to the towns and cities which are 
filled with noise and confusion, strange lights and odors, and 
soot belching smokestacks. 

Li despair the birds might turn to the rivers which form- 
erly were bordered with lakes and swamps. But here the 
transformation is even more astounding. At times rivers 
which formerly were clear steady streams, now have become 
eurly, muddy floods, speeding on to the Gulf, while at other 
times they wend their ways slowly through sand bars and 
mud flats. On the banks, an occasional sentinel still stands 
to suggest the giants of the former forest primeval, while 
the islands of silt and the low banks are almost impenetrable 
witii river willows, poplars, and cottonwoods. Where once 
Btood the swamps now are wonderful farms, which are pro- 
tected from the floods' wrath by huge levees. High power 
electric wires lead to tremendous pump houses where all 
drainage and seepage is pumped into the river. 

From time to time, tremendous bridges topped with a 
network of telegraph and telephone wires stand across the 
path of the bird migrants checking them in the freedom of 
their flight, dropping those which dare question the right of 
way bruised and wounded into the boiling, muddy waters be- 

The endless prairies no longer welcome the migrant with 
a wealth of tall grass and wooded morass. Instead the tilled 
land, rich in its yield of com, grain and fann products, seems 
almost endless to all birds seeking cover. 

The cliffs which once were so thickly populated with 
swallows still welcome those visitors which care to accept of 
their hospitality; however, the cutting of the trees on the 

16 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 

crests above, has often caused erosion to set in, and the soil 
which originally filled the crevices and encouraged the growth 
of vines and columbine has now largely washed away on many, 
while other such situations have changed little in one hundred 
years. Some hills have been blasted away and the stone has 
been reduced to lime and cement. The building of roads has 
often resulted in the cutting away of hiUs and in these cuts 
the Bank Swallows always have found an abundance of suit- 
able nesting sites. 

Even Lake Michigan to the north is less hospitable noMf 
than formerly, with its metropolis and chain of suburban 
towns. True, many of these maintain bird sanctuaries and 
protect the birds that loiters in the cemeteries and parks. 

All nature seems to have been shorn of its rough spots. 
Gradually the hills and forests are being cut down and the 
swamps and lakes are being drained and fiUed in. Modern 
farming dooms the natural growth of the land, while the 
demands of the cities force the farmer to make every acre 
productive. In one century the land has changed from a ter- 
ritory of woods and prairies boasting a dozen or so mere 
villages and 55,162 people (census of 1820) to a live, pulsating 
commonwealth with hundred of cities and towns surrounded 
by thousands of modem, scientific, farms in which live more 
than five and a half millions of people. 

The Peobuem of the Land Tbansfoemation and the Bird. 

And the birds ? Well, it is a scientific fact that the dis- 
tribution of bird life within a certain locality is affected by 
the character of the vegetation. Naturally with the revolu- 
tionary character of the conditions within our state through- 
out the past century due to land clearance for farming, the 
bird life accordingly has changed to conform with the sur- 
roundings. The result is that the status of the present bird 
population is practically everywhere dissimilar to that of the 
bird dwellers of a century ago. A few varieties have been 
able to change their habits and thus kept pace; they are stiU 
here. Some varieties which were then rare have now in- 
creased in numbers while many of the then common varieties 

ToLXiv.No.! History of Birds of Illinois 17 

have now decreased, most of them having migrated elsewhere 
or nearly ceased to exist. Unf ortmiately, we have too many 
examples of the latter. 

Where Have the Passenger Pigeons Gone? 

And where are the millions of Passenger Pigeons whieli 
once graced the southern woods, nesting in such numhers as 
to burden the trees with their weight? They are gone for- 
ever, a sacrifice to man's greed and avarice. They have not 
migrated elsewhere. They are extinct. The following 
graphic description by Alexander Wilson will give a slight 
idea of one of the reasons for their passing. 

"As soon as the young were fully grown and before they 
left the nests, numerous parties of the inhabitants from all 
parts of the adjacent country came with wagons, oxen, beds, 
cooking utensils, many of them accompanied by the greater 
part of their families — and encamped for several days at the 
immense nursery. The noise was so great as to terrify their 
horses, and it was difficult for one person to hear another 
speak without bawling in his ear. 

"The ground was strewed with broken limbs of trees, 
eggs and young squab pigeons which had been precipitated 
from above, and on which herds of hogs were fattened. 
Hawks, buzzards and eagles were sailing above in great 
numbers and seizing the squabs from their nests at pleasure; 
while from twenty feet upward to the tops of the trees the 
view through the woods presented a perpetual tumult of 
crowding and fluttering multitudes of old pigeons, their w^ngs 
roaring like thunder, mingled with the frequent crash of 
falling timber. For now the axe-men were at work cutting 
down those trees which seemed to be most crowded with nests 
of the young birds, and contriving to fell the trees in such 
manner that in their descent they might bring down several 
other trees. The falling of one large tree sometimes pro- 
duced two hundred squabs, little inferior in size to old birds 
and almost one mass of fat." 

Farther north the birds were netted commercially and 
John C. French is my authority in quoting the shipment of 
crates of live pigeons as numbering one hundred and seventy- 

18 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 

five thousand a year from single dealers of whom there were 
many. So numerous were the pigeons that they could be 
bought at $1 a dozen. Bait nets and traps were used. One 
man secured 300 dozen live birds at one haul from a house 
over a salt spring. EverjTvhere the ceaseless slaughter con- 
tinued until the birds were reduced to a few scattering flocks, 
the last of which was seen in 1905. They have been entirely 
wiped out by unrestricted shooting, trapping, etc. 

The South State Situation Now. 

With the cutting of the Southern woods and the replacing 
with little farms and small towns and mining properties, we 
find the disappearance of the nesting hawks and eagles. No 
longer do we hear of Wild Turkeys within our borders, while 
the Carolina Paroquet is a thing of the past. Some Cranes, 
Egrets and Night Herons are still to be found in the few 
remaining swamp situations and the Pileated Woodpecker 
is a rarity whose occurrence marks its appearance as a red 
letter day on the calendar of the bird lover. 

Evolutionary Character of the Situation. 

One naturally asks, "With all these varieties of birds 
gone do we find southern Illinois destitute of bird life?" No 
indeed ; as the forests were cut away and farms and meadows 
snp]ilanted them, so did the farm and meadow loving birds 
following the forest and swamp loving birds which had died 
or migrated elsewhere. Bluebirds, Robins, Grosbeaks, Black- 
bird, and many varieties of sparrows gradually assumed pos- 
session as the situation continually increased to suit their 
demands. The hawks are in little evidence, except the Spar- 
row Hawk which cheats some Woodpecker out of his rightful 
home or builds in the rafters of an old barn or in the steeple 
of the country churcli, still causing havoc to the now increas- 
ing numbers of grasshoppers and mice. 

Many of the birds of the central and northern Hlinois 
situations particularly the prairie and plain birds have in- 
creased; while many others will probably never again be seen 
in these situations. The most notable loss is that of the Miss- 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 History of Birds of Illinois 19 

issippi and Swallowtail Kites which are gone from this lo- 
cality and only an occasional report now comes that a Raven 
has bi'cn seen in the far north land. 

The few Eagles that now appear are mercilessly shot at, 
even though they are our national birds, symbolic of "Lib- 
erty." Until recently, the only place where the Eagle has 
been able to maintain its numbers has been in Alaska. Several 
years ago, however, the Alaska Government placed a bounty 
of 50 cents a head on all Eagles killed. From April 30, 1917 
until April 10, 1919 about 5600 Eagles had been killed. This 
probably represents one-half to two-thirds of the Eagle popu- 
lation of Alaska. If we are not heedful, the tragedy of the 
Passenger Pigeon will be reenacted with the Bald Eagle. 
Yearly fewer of these beautiful big birds travel South and 
remain with us as migrants. 

Very early n the last century, many scientists and natur- 
alists began to appreciate the economic, as well as the aes- 
thetic value, of our birds. This resulted in a movement to 
import many varieties of helpful European birds into 
America. Had the Skylark and other such beautiful songsters 
accepted our hospitality as readily as did the English House 
Sparrow and the Starling, we might have called the action 
successful, but instead, we have to admit that the importation 
has proved a failure. 

The English Sparbow. 

In 1851 and 1852 a number of English Sparrows (Passer 
domesticus, were brought from Europe and were liberated 
at Brookhii, N. Y. It was not until the early 70'ies that a 
few over zealous natives of Illinois bought a number of pairs 
of these English parasites and liberated them in this state. 
So prolific are they, and so able to adapt themselves to the 
conditions of this country that at the present time they are 
so numerous as to constitute a pest. "Without song, being 
noisy, diity and quarrelsome, they have developed into one 
of tlie worse nuisances ever perpetrated upon the American 
Public. The Illinois State Legislature recognized this and 
placed a bounty upon each bird killed, but their increase was 
not curbed by this action and the bounty was later withdra\\m. 

20 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.8. 

Mr. Eobt. Eidgway says of it, "It is in every respect a firsi- 
class nuisance, to be classed along with the house rat and other 
noxious vermin." 

The Stakung. 

This bird, likewise, has been able to maintain its exist- 
ence because it can withstand the rigors of the American win- 
ters. It looks like a short tailed blackbird, and builds its 
nest about domestic dwellings. Its habits are reported to be 
similar to those of the English House Sparrow. However, 
we shall pray that it will not develop to be such a disagreeable 
pest. The Starling has just been reported in Illiaois (1922) 
at Champaign-Urbana. 

It is to be hoped that in the future, no more birds will be 
brought to America for propagation purposes, imless the 
government is sure of their beneficial qualities. Better that 
we should join our efforts to those of the Audubon Societies 
and protect the birds which we now have with us, and in- 
crease the number of individuals and varieties by the estab- 
lishment of bird sanctuaries, game preserves, and the proper 
enactment of game laws, thus allowing them suitable nesting 
sites and protection while rearing their young. 


The phenomenon of yearly migration of birds has been 
one which has caused a great deal of wonderment for many 
years. In the course of the last fifteen or twenty years a 
great deal of progress has been made in solving many prob- 
lems pertaining to this subject. Yet, because of the lack of 
proper observers in localities over different parts of the state 
who can give a sufficient amount of time in securing complete 
records each day, we lack a great deal of co-ordinated data. 

Illinois birds might be classified into four principal 
groups and one secondary class ; namely, permanent residents, 
summer residents, winter residents, regular spring and fall 
migrants, and a subsidiary class of irregular migrants and 

Peemanent Residents. 

By a permanent resident, we mean a bird which is to be 
seen in any given locality at aU times of the year. The con>- 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 

History of Birds of Illinois 


mon pei-manent residents of Illinois are such birds as the 
Crow, Blue Jay, English Sparrow, Quail, Cardinal, Red-tailed 
Hawk, Barred Owl, Screech Owl, Great Horned Owl, Downy- 
Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker, Red-bellied Woodpecker, 
Goldfinch, White-breasted Nuthatch, Tufted Titmouse, 
Chickadee, etc., any or all of which an interested person may 
record at any season of the year in almost any part of the 

The Flicker, Red-headed Woodpecker, Ruffed Grouse, 
Carolina Wren and others are permanent residents in some 
sections of the state, and are differenth^ classified in other 
places. For example, select Quincy, which is one of the most 
centrally and the most westwardly located city in the state. 
With us the Song Sparrow is a permanent resident, because 
one can go out at any season of the year and get records of 
it ; yet, the bird that dodges in and out of the brush piles along 
the creek during the winter time, is not the same bird which 
nests with us in June. 

The winter bird moves on to the North when the spring 
migration gives us such an abundance of other Song Sparrows 


k Re$.idemce- 


T. E. Musselman 

J. I. s. H.s. 

which in turn pass northward, and Quincy gets as summer 
residents a few birds which wintered far south of us. Thus 
at Quincy the bird is always with us. 

In northern Illinois, they consider the Song Sparrow as 
a summer resident, while south of us it is practically a winter 
resident. The middle part of the state is the place where the 
winter and summer zones overlap, and consequently we have 
the birds with us constantly as shown in the accompanying 

By rearranging the lines in the above map, the ratio may 
be changed so that birds winter entirely south of us and sum- 
mer entirely north of us. This an-angement would make 
such birds merely migrants at this point. 

Because of this condition a complete list of winter resi- 
dents in all parts of the state is almost impossible without 
zoning the seasonal wanderings of each bird. 

Summer EEsroENTS. 

By summer resident we mean a bird which migrates into 
the state in the spring and spends its summer in this locality, 
returning south in the fall. 

The principal summer residents are: 



Wood Thrush 


Brown Thrasher 



Yellow-breasted Chat 

Northern Yello'W'throat 

Yellow Warbler 

Protbonotary Warbler 

Red-eyed Vireo 

Warbling Vireo 




Wood Pewee 

Crested Flycatcher 




Migrant Shrike 




Indigo Bunting 

Rose-breasted Grosbeak 


Field Sparrow 

Chipping Sparrow 

Grasshopper Sparrow 



Redwing Blackbirds 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 History of Birds of Illinois 23 

The principal summer residents are — Concluded. 

Mourning Dove Swift 

Killdeer Whippoorwdll 

Spotted Sandpiper Niglithawk 

Yellowlegs Cuckoos 

Woodcock Great Blue Heron 

Coot Bittern 

Rails Wood Duck 
Night Herons 

Winter Residents. 

The winter residents are those which make their appear- 
ance sometime during the fall or early winter and remain 
in t-his locality until the warm winds of spring send tliem 
northward to their summer home. The common winter resi- 
dents are : 

Bro^\^l Creeper J unco 

Golden-crowned Kinglet Tree Sparrow 

Winter ^Vren Lapland Longspurs 

While in the northern part of the state, the following are 
regular winter birds : 

Pine Siskin Redpoll 

Snowflake American Crossbill 

together with many water nirds. 

Regtilak Migrants. 

In addition to these, we have a large number of birds 
which are mere transients, passing northward in the spring 
and returning southward in the fall. Many of these birds 
we see for a day or two while enroute from summer to win- 
ter homes or xace versa, and we can scarcely learn to know 
them because of their short stay. This group includes many 
of the warblers, fly-catchers, thrushes, ducks, terns, gulls, 
and other water birds. 

Irregular Migrants and Strays. 

Finally, we have a large number of migrants which come 
irregularly and often are not seen again for several years. 

24 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 

This group includes the Goshawk, Snowy Owl, Bohemian 
Waxwing, Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker, Northern Shrike, 
Pomarine Jaeger, Evening Grosbeak, etc., most of which 
are winter residents when they do visit us. 

After examining these classifications, one immediately 
wonders why the birds have such variable migratory habits, 
thus allowing us to classify them in this way. Many valuable 
articles have been written for different scientific magazines 
and a variety of reasons have been assigned as the direct 
cause of such flight. 

Some authors give the desire for food as the main cause 
of the yearly migration flight. No doubt this does affect a 
certain class of birds. The gulls from the frozen lake dis- 
trict of the North appear along the Mississippi river during 
late January and Februaiy. They fly along the shores at the 
point where the ice is breaking and there feed upon the abund- 
ance of dead fish which have been starved to death in the 
shallow water, or which have been caught in the ice and have 
finally been washed upon the banks. As soon as the food 
supply begins to wane, the gulls move onward. 

Years when we have large supplies of persimmons, bar- 
berries, and dried wild grapes, tremendous flocks of Cedar 
Waxwings may be expected. Even occasional flocks of Bo- 
hemian Waxwings make their appearance and remain as long 
as the food supply is abundant. But even with such apparent 
illustrations as this, I can not believe that the food supply 
is the direct cause of migration, for during September and 
early October with the supply of insects at its greatest, hordes 
of insect-eating birds leave the Northland and pass on 
through the state working southward, leaving behind them 
an abundance of food. 

Reverse the situation. During the winter, tremendous 
flocks of birds have gathered in Mexico, Central America, 
and South America, in which tropical and semi-tropical coun- 
tries, insects, berries, and fruits are at all times abundant. 
If food were the stimulus which excited their migratory flight, 
all would be permanent residents. None would leave this 
land of plenty to endure the hardships of a flight across the 

VOL XIV, No. 1 History of Birds of Illinois 25 

Gulf of Mexico, to enter a land just emerging from the desola- 
tion of winter's ice and cold; but such is the case. 

Other authors give the cause of migrations as an in- 
herited instinct which has been passed on to the birds through 
thousands of generations, from tht^ time of the glacial period 
when the birds were forced from their northland homes to 
the warm countries about the equator by the tremendous force 
of ice which pushed down from the Northland. A natural 
desire to get back to the old northern home has been felt in 
successive generations ever since the Glacial Period, and 
yearly as spring begins to open up the land to the North, 
something impels these birds to gather in large numbers 
for the northward journey. E\-idently it is a homing instinct. 
Recent experiments in banding birds show most certainly that 
the migrants do manifest a tendency to return to the same 
general locality whence they wei-e reared, and here they build 
their nests and raise their young. These are several of the 
theories governing the yearly cycle of migratoiy birds which 
we watch and study and yet do not fully understand. 

The following discussion of migration is taken from the 
192 Illinois Ai-bor and Bird Day Bulletin. 

"About seven-eighths of our different species are travel- 
ers, making annual journeys back and forth between their 
summer and winter homes. The regions occupied as such 
homes are now known for very nearly all of the three hundred 
and more different kinds of Illinois birds, and the principal 
facts are published so that anyone can look them up. Further- 
more, the general routes followed by the birds in traveling 
back and forth between summer and winter homes are also 
known for most of the species. An examination of the pub- 
lished data shows that birds of nearly one-half (487c) of the 
species regularly found in Illinois have their summer and win- 
ter homes entirely separated, necessitating a migration by 
all of the individuals of those species over the intervening 
territory, annually, in each direction. For some species these 
may be journeys of but a few hundred miles, while for others 
they are thousands of miles. Summer residents of Illinois 
that winter in the states next south of us do not have far to 
travel, but birds that nest in or near Alaska and the Arctic 

26 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 

regions, and have their winter home in the sonthem half of 
South America, make journeys of 8,000 or 9,000 miles twice 
each year. 

The birds of more than one-third (36%) of our Illinois 
species journey beyond the boundaries of our country to reach 
their winter homes. A few kinds, winter in the West Indies, 
others in Mexico, a greater number in Central America, and 
representatives of more than one-fifth (21%) of our Illinois 
species push on into South America for their winter feeding 
grounds. Among these are included many thrushes, warblers, 
swallows, tanagers, flycatchers, cuckoos, snipe, and sandpip- 

The accompanying map shows the migration routes fol- 
lowed by most birds that leave the United States for the 
winter season. It is similar to one in a bulletin of the United 
States Department of Agriculture (No. 185) on the subject 
of a bird migration, prepared by W. W. Cooke who, when 
living, was a leading authority and writer on that subject. 

"Most Illinois birds which migrate beyond the boundaries 
of the United States doubtless follow route 3, which involves 
a direct flight across the Gulf of Mexico to the southeastern 
part of Mexico, and then travel overland into Central Amer- 
ica, and many of them go still farther into South America. 
A few, like the Cliff Swallow, fly around the gulf through 
Mexico (route 4) and a few, like the Bank Swallows and 
Bobolinks, follow route 2 via Cuba and the Carribean Sea 
directly to South America. 

"It soon becomes apparent to those who make an effort to 
keep approximately complete records of the birds found in 
their localities, that these migration flights with the conse- 
quent changes Ln the bird population are going on actively 
during the greater part of the year. In central Illinois, the 
arrival of birds from the south usually begins in February 
and often before the middle of the month. From this time 
on for nearly four months there is a continually shifting popu- 
lation, and not until sometime in June have the last migrants 
that hail from South America, taken their departure for 
more northern regions. In August the return journey is 
Tinder way and birds on their way to the South American 

Vol XIV, No. 1 History of Birds of Illinois 


28 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 

winter quarters are again with us for a brief time. Not until 
December have the last autumn migrants left us again for 
the south. In the spring migration, the greatest number of 
new arrivals and the longest lists of birds seen on a single 
trip are usually recorded early in May or, less frequently, 
in the last week in April." Frank Smith, A. M. in 'Illinois 
Birds as Travelers.' 


An experiment which was maintained for a period of 
four years by Professor Frank Smith, writer of the preceding 
excerpt, who is the head of the Ornithology Department at 
the University of Illinois, Urbana, and the writer who spent 
one year at White Heath, Piatt County, Illinois, and three 
years at Quincy, Illinois in securing comparative migration 
records, produced some very interesting data concerning rela- 
tive migration of birds along the 40th degree of parallel at 
the two extremes of the state. 

The University records of first arrivals for a number of 
years show that certain birds make their appearance each 
year at about the same time. Early in March, there is often 
a large bird movement which "n'ill bring the Phoebe, Killdeer, 
Fox Sparrows, Meadow Lark, Kingfisher, Song Sparrows, 
and many others. A little later other groups of birds make 
their appearance. Thus, from year to year, as one bird of 
an associated group made its appearance, one can naturally 
expect other birds which had in former years made their 
appearance about the same time to appear in conjunction with 
the new arrival. 

The following record gives the appropriate date at which 
the spring migrants and summer residents have made their 
appearance in x\dams County, Illinois, for a number of years. 
These dates wiU, generally speaking, hold good for any city 
in Illinois along the 40th degree of parallel. Naturally, any 
town farther south should have a relatively earlier date of 
arrival, while the towns farther north would have a propor- 
tionately later date. 

Vol. XIV. No. 1 History of Birds of Illinois 29 

Average of Spring Arrivals. 
Date of 
Arrival. Variety. 

February /Bluebird 

17 iRobins 

23 [ Golden-crowned Kinglet 

24 j Pintail Duck 

25 [Sparrow Hawk 

30 Killdeer 

March [jMallard Ducks 

3 [Meadow Lark 

6 Purple Finch 

10 Grackle 


[Savannah Sparrow 



Eedwinged Blackbird 
Fox Sparrow 

Winter "Wren 
Green-winged Teal 

15 Migrant Shrike 

19 Spoonbill Duck 

20 Wood Duck 

(Mourning Dove 
White-throated Sparrow 

(Field Sparrow 
Chipping Sparrow 

30 T. E. Musselman J.I.S.H.S. 

AvEEiAGE OF Speing Akbivals — Continued. 
Date of 
Arrival. Variety. 

March — Concluded, jTowhee 

27 [Scaup Duck 

- [Purple Martins 

[Yellow-bellied Sapsucker 

n [Florida Gallinule 

[Blue-winged Teal 

April [Great Blue Heron 

1 JHemiit Thrush 

2 Pied-bUled Grebe 

3 Swamp Sparrow 

[Brown Thrasher 
* iMyrtle Warbler 

[Jack Snipe 
[Spotted Sandpiper 

6 Semipalmated Sandpiper 

[Tree Swallow 
[Vesper Sparrow 

^^ [Bachman's Sparrow 
[Grasshopper Sparrow 

12 Bank Swallow 

14 Whippoorwill 

15 Swift (later in the central state 

19 Little Green Heron 

„„ [Gnatcatcher 
[House Wren 

21 Eed-headed Woodpecker 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 History of Birds of Illinois 

AvEKAGE OF Spring AiiBivALS — Continued. 


Date of 

April — Concluded. 








(Rose-breasted Grosbeak 
Pine Warbler 
Palm Warbler 

[Olive-backed Thrush 
JBlack and White Warbler 

Wood Thrush 

Scarlet Tanager 

["King Bird 
. \ Warbling Vireo 
[Baltimore Orioles 

(Gray-cheeked Thrush 
Northern Yellow Throat 
Wilson Thrush 

Water Thrush 
Yellow Rail 
Red-eyed Vireo 

Great-crested Flycatcher 
Magnolia Warbler 
Wilson Warbler 

Black-throated Blue Warbler 
Yellow Warbler 
Least Flycatcher 
Chestnut-sided Warbler 
BlackpoU Warbler 

Indigo Bunting 
Kentucky Warbler 
Wood Pewee 

32 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 

AvEEAGE OF Speing Aeeivals — Concluded. 
Date of 
Arrival. Variety. 

Mty — Concluded. 

4 Night Hawk 

[Cape May Warbler 
^ [Catbird 

9 Prothonotary Warbler 

10 Canadian Warbler 

11 Yellow-billed Cuckoo 

JYellow-bellied Flycatcher 

[Ruby-throated Hummingbird 

High aijd Low Babometric Phessuee Theory. 

Why do many varieties of birds sometimes arrive upon 
the same night, and is there anything which causes such a gen- 
eral bird wave to occur at some times, whUe upon other occa- 
sions the birds make their appearance in ones and twos ? The 
writer was glad to be able to con-elate his records with those 
of Professor Frank Smith, A. M., who had written many arti- 
cles on this phase of bird migration, and whom I have to 
thank for most of the infonnation I have gained concerning 
the migration of birds. I refer all readers to his articles in 
the Illinois Audubon Bulletin for the spring and summer of 
1918; and to a more comprehensive article m the IllLnois 
Arbor and Bird Day Circular for the spring of 1921, from 
which the several excerpts herewith printed were taken. 

"A study of the daily records made in the months of 
February to May inclusive, during the years 1903-1918, at 
Urbana, Illinois, furnish ample evidence that there is a great 
lack of imiformity in the amoimt of migration activity on 
successive nights. On some mornings we have found large 
numbers of new arrivals belonging to as many as 15 or 20 
species not previously seen that season, and such movements 
are very likely to be preceded and followed by several nights 
of very little activity. Such extensive movements or bird 
waves, as they are called, are evidently independent of any 



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Vol. XIV, No. 1 History of Birds of Illinois 33 

particular food conditions, since they commonly involve birds 
as unlike in food habits as are the green herons, black and 
white warblers, and fly-catchers. Extensive bird waves com- 
monly occurred with us, while records were being kept, at the 
end of February, soon after the middle of March, near the 
end of April, and early in May. The early May movement 
was the greatest of all, and at its height, we expected to list 
70 to 80 different species a day and see multitudes of individ- 
uals. A study of the weather maps of such times of migration 
activity reveals a close correlation between bird waves and 
special weather conditions. The greatest flights of night mi- 
grants have taken place at times when the weather maps have 
shown the near approach from the west, of an area of low 
barometric pressure, Avith the accompanying rise in tempera- 
ture, and southerly winds. The two weather maps which are 
reproduced will serve as illustrations of such maps. On each 
of the days of the two dates borne by the maps, birds of more 
than 100 species were seen listed in the vicinity of Urbana. 
On one of these days, April 29, 1901, birds of 32 species were 
seen for the first time during the season, and 14 "first rec- 
ords" were listed on the other day, May 7, 1916." — Frank 
Smith, A. M., in 'Illinois Birds as Travelers.' 

When spring comes, the tendency of all the birds seems 
to be to return to the nesting grounds which have been used 
for generations by their progenitors. The birds naturally 
move northward gradually, unless they are checked by 
steady north winds. Should these winds be local in nature, 
with south winds farther to the south, it causes birds to move 
up to the point where the north wind has banked the birds, 
and the longer tbe period of stagnation at this point, the 
greater become the numbers and variety of birds which as- 
semble there. When the areas of barometric pressure rear- 
range themselves, as shown in the accompanying maps, so 
that a general south wind results, the birds suddenly are re- 
leased and move northward in a so-called "bird wave", ar- 
riving in tremendous numbers as far as the south "nand is ef- 

In completing our records for the last three years, I 
found that as a general thing birds arrived in Quincy and 
Champaign on the same night. There were exceptions to this, 

34 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 

however. Occasionally a number of the birds would be seen 
in Quincy one day and similar varieties would be seen in 
Champaign after the next night. The question naturally 
arose, why should this be? A careful study of the weather 
maps again revealed a curious condition. When the birds 
were banked south of Illinois and an area of "highs" and 
"lows" had appeared which developed a general south wind 
which released these birds, the time at which this south wind 
began to blow had much to do with the time of arrival of the 
birds. The majority of these smaller birds are weak in flight 
and for protection's sake they migrate at night. If the south 
wind approached Quincy about midnight or later, the birds, 
taking advantage of the wind and darkness, would arrive 
during the early morning hours and at daybreak cease their 
migrations. Champaign, being across the state would not be 
affected by this south wind until sometime later in the day. 
Naturally the birds, banked south of Champaign, would not 
move until the next night, when they would move northward 
on the south wind, and consequently would then appear 
twenty-four hours later there, than at Quincy. 

The above theory applies definitely to the spring migra- 
tions. In the fall, the prevailing w^ds are from the north. 
By reversing the arrangement of "highs" and "lows", one 
can tell approximately when the birds will move southward. 
As a general thing those birds which were the last to come 
in the siDring are the first to pass in the fall and any birds 
which winter just south of Illinois Unger late into the fall in 
this locality before being driven south by the chilling blasts 
of winter. 

Having seen the effects of migration upon our bird life, 
it is necessary that we have an authentic list of all the va- 
rieties of birds which live permanently, or have migrated to 
our borders, together with their nesting data. The following 
list was taken from the Audubon Bulletin published in the 
spring of 1917 and I have enlarged upon the descriptions and 
have supplemented it with information from Mr. Frank Smith 
of Urbana, Mr. Otho Poling of Ocean Beach, California, Mr. 
Harold Holland of Galesburg, Mr. B. T. Gault and Mr. Ruth- 
ven Deane of Chicago, The Spring Migration notes of The 
Chicago area, compiled by James D. Watson, George P. Lewis, 


Vol. XIV. No. 1 History of Birds of Illinois 35 

and Nathan F. Leopold, Jr., together with records taken from 
several of the leading magazines on ornithology, covering 
years back. 

Check List of Bibds of Illinois, 

Holboell's Grebe. 

Rare winter and spring migrant in Illinois, even in the 

Lake INIichigan district. 
Homed Grebe. 

.Nests occasionally in northern Illinois, a rare winter 

migrant in central Illinois, a common spring migrant 

along Lake Michigan. 
Eared Grebe. 

A rare spring and fall migrant along Lake Michigan. 
Pied-billed Grebe. (Hell-diver) 

A common migrant over the entire state. It occasionally 

nests in swampy situations along the Mississippi and 111- 

nois rivers and along Lake Michigan. 


Great Northern Diver. 

Spring and fall migrant over the state. Nests occasion- 
ally in the northern part of the state. 

Black-throated Loon. 

An Arctic bird which rarely visits Hlinois. 

Eed-throated Loon. 

A rare winter resident in northern Hlinois. 

Jaegers and Skuas. 

Pomarine Jaeger. 

A northern variety which occasionally visits Lake Michi- 

Long-tailed Jaeger. 

One seen September 21, 1915, Dune Park, Indiana. One 
found dead at Cairo, Illinois, on the Mississippi River 
in November, 1876. 

Gulls and Terns. 
Kittiwake Gull. 

A northern gull that visits Lake Michigan occasionally in 
the winter. 

36 T. E. Musselman J.I.S.H.S. 

Glaucous Gull. 

Rare winter visitor to Lake Michigan from the Arctics. 
Iceland Gull. 

Occasionally it gets as far south as the Great Lakes dur- 
ing the winter time. 
Great Black-backed Gull. 

Seen along the coasts of North America occasionally 

wandering south to the Great Lakes. 
Herriag Gull. 

One of the commonest of our winter residents. Active 

in eating fish killed by the winters 's severity. 
Eing-billed GuU. 

A fairly common winter migrant along Lake Michigan, 

occasionally seen in the central part of the state. 
Laughing Gull. 

Essentially a coast bird. According to Professor Cooke 

a few pass up the Mississippi duriag the summer as far 

as Southern Illinois. 
Franklin's GuU. 

A western plain g-uU, seen rarely along the Mississippi 

Bonaparte's Gull. 

An unusual little winter migrant in the central and south- 

ei'n part of the state. Common migrant along Lake 

Sabine's GuU. 

An Arctic gull, a very rare migrant to Lake Michigan. 
Gull-bUled Tern. 
Caspian Tern. 

Irregular in its distribution. At times it appears in 

some nimibers along Lake Michigan. 
Royal Tem. 

A very rare visitor from the south and east. A doubtful 

species in Illinois. 
Forster's Tern. 

Rather a common bird in certain sections of northern 

Illinois. Seen rarely along the Mississippi River. Has 

been found nesting in northern part of the state. 
Common Tem. 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 lUstury of Birds of Illinois 37 

A common migrant in the northern part of the state. 
Least Tern. 

Seen occasionally in late sununer along the Mississippi 

Black Tern. 

Common in north. Seen as a migrant in April and late 

July along the Mississippi. Nests in north part of the 

state in abundance. 

Snake Bird. 

Found in swamp locations of southern Illinois. Its nests 

have been taken there. 


Double-crested Conuorant. 

Found in the south and central part of state. Nests at 
Havana on the Illinois, and above Quincy on the Missis- 

Florida Cormorant. 

A summer resident in the southern part of the state, 
nests having been taken there. 

Mexican Connorant. 

Specimens have been taken at Cairo. 

American White. 

A regular spring and fall migrant which nests far north 

of us and winters south of the state. 
Brown Pelican. 

But one record, made at Warsaw, IHinois. 

Ducks, Geese, Etc. 

American Merganser. 

Common winter duck in the north, seen irregularly over 

the rest of the state. 
Red-breasted Merganser. 

A winter resident, particularly numerous in the north 

along Lake Michigan, where it occasionally nests. 
Hooded Merganser. 

Nests over the state in wooded swamps. 

38 T. E. Mussehnan j.i.s.h.s 


Probably confined as a breeder to Northern half of State. 
Regular and common migrant often ^^dntering in the cen- 
tral and southern parts of the state where the water is 

Black Duck. 

Seen as an occasional spring and fall migrant in central 
Illinois becoming more common in the North, where it 
sometimes nests. 


An occasional migrant through the state. Increasing re- 

European "Widgeon. 
A rare stray. 


A possible breeder in northern Illinois. Eegnilar, though 
uncommon migrant in spring and fall along the Illinois, 
less common than formerly along Lake Michigan. 

Green-winged Teal. 

A common migrant over the state which occasionally 
winters in the south part of the state. Nests in north 
part of the state. 

Blue-winged Teal. 

Regular migrant over the entire state. Nests irregTilarly 
over entire state. 

Cinnamon Teal. 

An irregular migrant from the West. 


Nested formerly in northern Illinois and may do so now. 
Common migrant spring and fall along the Mississippi, 
less common along the Illinois River. 


Common spring and fall migrant over the state. Nests 
sparingly in the northern part of state. 

Wood Duck. 

Nests in cavities in old willow trees. Once a common 
nesting bird over the entire state. Now less numerous 
due to summer shooting and the cutting do"«"n of avail- 
able nesting sites. 

Vol. XIV. No. 1 History of Birds of Illinois 39 


Very rare fall migrant along the Mississippi and Illinois 
Elvers, fairly common but erratic migrant on Lake Michi- 

Canvas-back Duck. 

A common spring migrant particularly along the Illinois 
river. Much less common on the Mississippi river. Sel- 
dom seen in the fall. Not a common bird along Lake 

Greater Scaup Duck. 

Eather uncommon spring and fall migrant along the 
Mississippi and Illinois Eivers. 

Lesser Scaup Duck. 

Very common migrant in spring probably nesting in 
northern Illinois. Not so abundant in the fall as in the 

Eing-necked Duck. 

Eather an uncommon migrant, very similar to its close 
relative the Scaups. Nests in the northern part of the 

American Golden-eye. (whistler). 

An occasional migi-ant along the rivers in the late fall. 
Very abundant on Lake Michigan. 

BarroTv's Golden-eye. 

A rare winter migrant in the north, (western bird). 


A common late fall and early spring migrant often to be 
found among the floating cakes of ice on the Mississippi 
Eiver. Fairly common along Lake Michigan. 

Old Squaw. 

A regular winter migrant on Lake Michigan. Very rare 
in the central state. 

Harlequin Duck. 

A rare migrant. Larry St. John sport writer of the Chi- 
cago Tribune reports several in Lake Michigan recently. 
It. is a lover of s-uift water. 

American Eider. 

Eegarded as a strav to Illinois. 

40 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 

King Eider. 

An unusual winter migrant on Lake Michigan. A rough 
weather bird. 

American Scoter Duck. 

Common winter visitor on Lake Michigan. 

White-winged Scoter. 

An uncommon winter migrant on Lake Michigan. 

Surf Scoter. 

Abundant fall and winter visitor to Lake Michigan occa- 
sionally were in the central state. 

Euddy Duck. 

A not uncommon species which has nested in the north- 
ern part of the state. 

Lesser Snow Goose. 

A regular spring and fall migrant along the Mississippi. 

Greater Snow Goose. 

Not uncommon during migrations. 

Blue Goose. 

I have seen it once in the fall on a sandbar in the Mis- 
sissippi with a flock of snow geese. Reported by Prof. 
Cooke as a spring migrant along the Mississippi. 

White-fronted Goose. 

Rather common migrant along the Mississippi. 

Canada Goose. 

Common migrant, many in capti%'ity in central state 
where they breed readily. Nest in the northern part of 

Hutchin's Goose. 

A reg-ular migrant, though not numerous during the 
spring and fall along the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers. 

Cackling Goose. 
Rare Migrant. 


Migrant, spring and fall. 

Whistling Swan. 

A migrant. Several flocks have been seen at Lima Lake, 
Illinois since the Federal Migration Bird Law went into 

Vol. XIV. No. 1 History of Birds of Illinois 41 

Trumpeter Swan. 

No recent records. 

Bitterns, Herons and Crcmes. 
Roseate Spoonbill. (?) 

Reported to be an occasional resident of southern swamps 

about 1850. 

A specimen was killed in Adams County on the Miss- 
issippi about 1887 by 0. C. Poling, and one in Jay County 

Ind. in 1887. 
White Ibis. 

Seen by Ridg^vay in 1878 on the Wabash. 
Glossy Ibis. 

One killed near St. Louis. A very rare summer resident. 
Wood Ibis. 

Not uncommon late summer visitor to Southern and Cen- 
tral Illinois. 
American Bittern. 

Summer resident in swamp and river districts over the 

entire states. Nests generally over the state. 
Least. Bittern. 

Summer resident over the entire state, nesting generally. 
Cory's Least Bittern. 

A peculiar color-phase of the Least Bittern-one record. 
Great Blue Heron. 

Common summer resident over the entire state, nests 

American Egret. 

Probably not nesting now. Formerly nested, generally 

in south and central parts of state. 

One killed in October 1921 at Quincy, others seen. 
SnoA\'\' Heron. 

Restricted to an occasional stray in the southern part of 

the state. 
Reddish Egret. 

Verj- rare migrant to southern Illinois. 
Little Blue Heron. 

Late summer resident in Southern Illinois. 

42 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 

Green Heron. 

Common summer resident over entire state. It nests 

Black-crowned Night Heron. 

Over entire state as a migrant, nesting in many parts 

of the state. 
Yellow-crowned Night Heron. 

Summer resident in the southern states. Nests in swamp 

districts. It strays farther north. 
Whooping Crane. 

An occasional pair may be found along the Illinois River. 
Sandhill Crane. 

Nested formerly, but doubtless not now. 

A bird common in Florida which is reported to have 

strayed to Illinois. 

Rails, Gallinules and Coots. 

King Rail. 

Common marsh resident over the state during the sum- 
mer time. Nests generally over the state. Very abund- 
ant at Lima Lake. 

Virginia Rail. 

Summer resident over the entire state. 
Commoner to the north where it nests. 

Sora Rail. 

Common summer resident over entire state, nesting gen- 
erally from the central part of the state northward. 

Yellow Rail. 

Found over the entire state. 
Less common then other Rails. 

Black Rail. 

Nests in Northern and Central and possible Southern 

Purple Gallinule. 

Rare in northern state. Recorded occasionally in cen- 
tral state and commoner in the South. 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 nistory of Birds of Illinois 43 

Florida Gallinule. 

Common summer resident over the entire state. 

Nests in the marshes generally. 
American Coot. 

Connuon migrant over the entire state. 

Nests from the central portion northward in swampy 


Red Phalarope. 

Rare Migrant from the far north. 
Northern Phalarope. 

Eare Migrant during May and October. 
Wilson's Phalarope. 

Summer resident in north, nesting in the Calumet regions 

and elsewhere. 

Seen occasionally in the central states about the swamps. 

Avocets and Stilts. 
American Avocet. 

Rare migi-ant. 
Black-necked Stilt. 

Rare migrant. 

Snipe, Sandpipers, Etc. 

Once common but now an irregular summer resident over 

the state. Increasing. 
Wilson's Snipe. 

Migrant in south and central part of the state. Nests 

in north pai't of state. Occasionally winters in Adams 

County and increases in number towards the south during 

the winter. 
Short-billed Dowitcher. 

An Atlantic seacoast bird that has been recorded from 

Cook Co. 
Long-billed Do-n-itcher. 

A rare sti-aggler. Seven seen and one specimen taken 

at Calumet, May 14, 1920. 

44 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 

Stilt Sandpiper. 

A spring and autumn migrant which passes through very 


Occurs sparingly along the Lake Michigan territory. 

Purple Sandpiper. 

An Atlantic Ocean variety which has been known to stray 
to Illinois along Lake Michigan. A rarity. 

Pectoral Sandpiper. 

A migrant over the state and although some are found 
as summer residents, they are not known to nest. 

White-rumped Sandpiper. 

Reported by Chapman as an abundant migrant along the 
Mississippi. One flock was seen by the writer in 1918. 

Baird's Sandpiper. 

Uncommon migrant along Lake Michigan during May 
and September. 

Least Sandpiper. 

May have nested very rarely in former years. A com- 
mon migrant. 

Eed-backed Sandpiper. 

Not a common migrant in south or central Illinois but 
occasionally plentiful in Cook County along the lake. 

Semipalmated Sandpiper. 

Occasional summer resident, but do not nest. A migrant 
which is more common in fall then in the spring. 

Western Sandpiper. 

Common during migrations. 


I have never recorded it down state, but it is reported as 
a regular migrant along the Lake in Cook County, par- 
ticularly during August, September and October. 

Marbled Godwit. 

A migrant wherever there are wet prairies and fresh 
water marshes. Not very numerous. 

Hudsonian Godwit. 

A spring and fall migrant over entire state. 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 History of Birds of Illinois 45 

Greater Yellow-legs. 

Occasional Summer Resident, and may breed in North- 
em Illinois. Common migrant. 

Lesser Yellow-legs. 

A common migrant which breeds very rarely in northern 

Solitary Sandpiper. 

Common migrant and casual summer resident but haa 
never been found breeding. 


Reported by Nelson as a rare summer resident in the 
marshes and wet prairies of northwestern Illinois. (Prob- 
ably the western willet). 

Western Willet. 

Authority— W. W. Coole. 


Found in the north state. 

Bartramian Sandpiper. 

Summer resident over the state in the prairie districts, 

where it nests. 
Buff-breasted Sandpiper. 

Rare migrant. 

Reported occasionally along the Mississippi River as fall 

migrant. One reported from the Chicago district in 1916. 

Spotted Sandpiper. 

Common summer resident over the entire state, nesting 

Black-bellied Plover. 

A few non-breeding birds are Summer residents in north. 

Long-billed Curlew. 

Authority of Nelson who once found it nesting in North- 
eastern Illinois. 

Hudsonian Curlew. 

Seen only as a migrant. 

Eskimo Curlew. 

Spring and fall migrant. 

46 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 

Black-bellied Plover. 

Arrives in Cook County in May. 

A few remain but most go north returning in September 

and remain until October. 
American Golden Plover. 

Occasional in spring and common migrant in the north 

during the fall. 

Common over the entire state as smnmer resident. 

Seen in the upland fields as well as in lowland marshes. 

Nests generally. 
Semipalmated Plover. 

A common migrant over state. 

A few remaia as Summer Residents in the north and 

may breed there. 
Belted Piping Plover. 

Uncommon Summer Resident along Lake Michigan where 

it still nests. 

Turnstones, Oyster-Catchers. 

Earely seen in May, more generally seen as a migrant 

along Lake Michigan during August. 
Bob-White, Grouse, Etc. 

Distributed as a permanent resident over the entire state. 

Scattered in north but numerous in central and south 

part of state. 
Euffed Grouse. 

Nests in North and Central part of state (eastern) and 

possibly of rare occurrence in Southern Illinois. 
Willow Ptarmigan. 

A very doubtful species. Has been taken in Wisconsin. 

Found over the entire state. Becoming verj^ uncommon 

in Central Western part of state. 
Prairie Sharp-tailed Grouse. 

Nested formerly in North Eastern Illinois. Once at Wau- 

kegan. A northern bird. 


Vol. XIV. No. 1 History of Birds of Illinois 47 

Wild Turkey. 

A few are supposed to be in the heavy river bottom woods 
of Southern Illinois. 


Passenger Pigeon. 

(Once nested sparingly in North Eastern Illinois, and 
in abundance in the southern woods. Now extinct.) 

Mourning Dove. 

Summer resident which nests over the entire state. It 
spends the winter in scattered flocks in the Southern part 
of the state and southward. 

Turkey Vulture. 

Abundant in south and fairly common in center state. 

Eare summer resident in Northern Illinois. Nests on 

the ground in hollow trees from central state southward. 
Black Vulture. 

A few are seen in the southern part of the state. 

Haichs and Eagles. 

Swallow-tailed Kite. 

Eare even in southern Illinois. Half a century ago it 
was a common resident, nesting throughout the southern 
half of the state. 

T\Tiite-tailed Kite. 

Eare. One reported from Eantoul by George Ekblaw 
during the winter of 1916. 

Mississippi Kite. 

If any are now to be seen in the state, it will be in the 
south. Once common throughout the state. 

Marsh Hawk. 

In Northern and Central Eastern part of state said to be 
uncommon if not rare. Along the Mississippi marshes 
in Central to the south it is a permanent resident in 
goodly numbers. 

Sharp-shinned Hawk. 

Found over entire state. Nests in the north counties 
much more than in the south, although it nests generally. 

48 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 

Cooper's Hawk. 

Common over the entire state. Similar in distribution to 
the above. 


Bare \\dnter migrant. Migrates into the states occasion- 
ally, as does the Snowy Owl. Both are forced south from 
the sub-arctic regions when a periodic scourge kills off 
tlie varying hares upon which they normally live. Very 
common along the Illinois River in winter of 1918. 

Western Goshawk. 

A rare stray in southern Illinois. 

Red-tailed Hawk. 

Common resident over the entire state, nesting through- 

Krider's Red-tailed Hawk. 
A very rare stray. 

Western Red-tailed Hawk. 
A casual migrant. 

Harlan's Hawk. 

A casual migrant. 

Mexican Gosgawk. 

Rare stray to our southern border. 

Red-shouldered Hawk. 

Common over the entire state, nesting generally. 

Swainson's Hawk. 

Very rare migrant from the west and north. 

Broad-winged Hawk. 

Native over the entire state, nesting throughout. 

American Rough-legged Hawk. 

Rather rare spring and fall migrant. 

Ferruginous Rough-legged Hawk. 

A western bird which occasionally strays into Illinois. 

Golden Eagle. 

Formerly nested in different parts of state. 
Rarely seen except as a winter migrant. 

Bald Eagle. 

Now rare winter migrant. 

A few are killed each year. 

Even in Alaska where they were formerly able to hold 

their own, a bounty is now paid for killing them. 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 History of Birds of Illinois 49 

Prairie Falcon. 

A mere straggler from the West. 
Richardson's Pigeon Hawk. 
Duck Hawk. 

Found in southern Illinois where it sometimes nests in 

the tall sycamore trees. 
Pigeon Hawk. 

Rare summer resident and may nest in th^e north. 
American Sparrow Hawk. 

Winters irregularly over the state. 

A very common summer resident nesting generally over 

the state, in holes in dead trees, in barns and church 

American Osprey. 

Rather rare summer resident wherever there are large 

bodies of water. Rare visitor over the Mississippi River. 


Bam Owl. 

Not uncommon permanent resident in central and south- 
ern Illinois. Some nest in holes in the clay banks along 
the Mississippi near Quincy. Generally found in bams 
and church steeples. 

American Long-eared Owl. 

To be found over the entire state. Nests generally. 

Short-eared Owl. 

Possibly confined as a breeder to Northern Illinois. A 
common winter and spring bird in the Mississippi River 
lowland swamp situations. General over the state in 
such situations. 

Barred Owl. 

Permanent resident in the dense woods over the entire 
state, nesting generally. 

Great Gray Owl. 

A very rare northern owl having been taken in Cook 

Richardson's Owl. 

Very rare northern owl tliat may reach northern Illinois 

50 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 

Saw-whet Owl. 

No breeding records for Illinois but a summer resident 

in N. W. Indiana (Lake Co.) Found a dead specimen 

March 15, 1914 at Quincy. 
Screech Owl. 

Common peiTQanent resident over entire state. It nests 

Great Horned Owl. 

Permanent resident over the state, nests generally. 
Arctic Horned Owl. 

Strays into Illinois from the north during its winter 

Snowy Owl. 

A periodical winter migrant from the far north. 
American Hawk Owl. 

This day flying owl seldom gets south of the Canadian 

boundary. One captured in Kane County in 1869. 

Louisiana (Carolina) Paroquet. 

Once common in the southern Illinois woods. 

The few living specimens are now isolated to the swamps 

of Florida. 

Cuckoos and Kingfishers. 

Yellow-billed Cuckoo. 

A common summer resident over the entire state. More 
abundant in south, nests generally. 

Black-billed Cuckoo. 

Summer resident over entire state. Eather uncommon 
in south but abundant in the north. 

Belted Kingfisher. 

A summer resident over the entire state with an occa- 
sional stray as a winter resident where ever the water 
remains open. Nests wherever a bank borders water. 

Ivory-billed Woodpecker. 

Probably extinct in Illinois. 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 riistory of Birds of Illinois 51 

Hairy Woodpecker. 

Permanent resident over the entire state, nests gener- 

Southern Hairy "Woodpeckers. 

Probably replaces former in extreme southera Illinois. 

Downy Woodpecker. 

Permanent over the state, nesting in all sections of the 

Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker. 

Unusual winter migrant to northern Illinois. A number 
recorded during the winter of 1919. 

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker. 

Migrant in south and central state. Nests in the north 
]>art. It winters in the south part of the state in small 

Northern Pileated Woodpecker. 

Resident over entire state. Pare in central and northern 
Illinois. Several recorded annually from river islands 
above Quincy. 

Eed-headed Woodpecker. 

In the south part of the state many winter, a few even 
%\-inter in the central state. Summer resident in quanti- 
ties throughout the state, nesting generally. 

Red-bellied Woodpecker. 

Permanent over the entire state but rare in Northern 
Illinois. Nests throughout the state. 


Permanent resident in the south part of the state. 

Northern Flicker. 

More or less permanent over the entire state, migrates 
heavily in spring and fall. Probably replaced by Flicker 
in extreme Southern Illinois. 

Whip pa or will, Sivift, and Eumming Bird. 

Chuck-will 's-widow. 

Casual summer resident in Southern Illinois and prob- 
ably nests. 


Summer resident over the entire state, nesting generally 

52 T. E. Musselman 


A common summer resident over the entire state. Prob- 
ably replaced largely in northern Illinois by Sennett's 
Nighthawk. Nests commonly on top of tall buildings 
where the flat roofs are covered with gravel. 

Sennet's Nighthawk. 

Summer resident in the northern part of the state. 

Chimney Swift. 

A summer resident over the entire state. Originally 
built in hollow trees. An increasing variety. 

Euby-throatcd Hummingbird. 

Common summer resident over the whole state, nesting 



Common summer resident over the entire state. Increas- 
ing in numbers. 

Creasted Flycatcher. 

Common summer resident over state. Nests in old wood- 
pecker's holes and hollow limbs. 


Common summer resident over entire state. Nests under 
bridges, culverts, along cliffs and occasionally under 

Say's Pheobe Flycatcher. 

A stray from the west. Very few records. 

Olive-sided Flycatcher. 

Uncommon migrant about Chicago. Not abundant down- 
state. Passes on to the north to breed. 

Wood Pewee. 

Common over entire state as a sxunmer resident. It nests 

Yellow-bellied Flycatcher. 

A spring and fall migrant throughout the state. 

Acadian Flycatcher. 

A common migrant and summer resident over the entire 
state, preferring the damp woods. 

Traill's Flycatcher. 

Summer resident in northern, central, and probable in 
southern Illinois. 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 History of Birds of Illinois 53 

Alder Flycatcher. 

Not a common migrant. 
Lest Flycatcher. 

A migrant over the whole state. A summer resident in 

the northern counties. 


Homed Lark. 

A rather rare winter migrant in the northern state. 

Prairie Homed Lark. 

Permanent resident over the entire state, which is both 
increasing in numbers and extending its range. 

Crows and Jays. 

American Magpie. 

Eeported once in records of Robert Kennicott as a rare 
winter visitant in northern Hlinois. During the winter 
of 1921, Magpies were reported from Fargo, N. D. ; Black 
Hills, S. D. ; Sutherland, Iowa; River Falls, Wisconsin, 
so they may readily be expected again from Hlinois. 

Blue Jay. 

Common permanent resident over the entire state. 

Northern Raven. 

^^e^^' rare. Seen only as a winter migrant, generally in 
the northern part of state. Common throughout the 
state fifty years ago. 


Very common, permanent resident over entire state. In 
winter thousands congregate in certain localities in crow 
roosts. Quincy, Adams Co., has been the site of one such 
crow I'oost until 1922. Few birds have returned to the 
local roosts since that date. 

Clarke's Nutcracker. 

A western bird often reported from Kansas, Missouri, 
and Arkansas which is reported as having strayed to Hli- 


A European bird brought to America in 1890, appeared in 
Cleveland, Ohio in 1921 and in Champaign February, 
1922, which is the first appearence in Hlinois and the 
most westwardly record at the time of writing. 

54 T. E. Musselman J.I.S.H.S. 

Blackbirds, Orioles, Etc. 


An irregular migrant through central and western Illi- 
nois. Summer resident in the northern part of the state 
where they nest abundantly. Occasionally nest almost to 
the central part of the state. 


A common spring, summer and fall resident over the en- 
tire state, wintering in the southern part of the state 
along with flocks of Grackles and Redwings. 

YeUow-headed Blackbird. 

It nests in the northern Illinois swamps. Migration 
course is not through Illinois but probably to the west- 
ward. Seldom seen in the central or southern part of 

Eed-winged Blackbird. 

Sunmier resident over the entire state. Tremendous 
flocks of females occasionally winter about Quincy. 

Arctic Red-winged Blackbird. 
Authority of Oberholser. 


Summer resident over entire state, but the variety is 
questionable in the Northwest and Southern Illinois situa- 

Southern Meadow Lark. 

Breeding status not fully determined, probably restricted 
to central and southern part of the state. 

Western Meadow Lark. 

Occasional migrant in Adams Co. Commoner northward. 
A western variety with district song variation. 

Orchard Oriole. 

Summer resident over the entire state, nests throughout. 
Numerous in South, and rather uncommon in the north. 

Baltimore Oriole. 

Summer resident over the entire state, nests throughout. 

Rusty Blackbird. 

Occasional winter resident in southern part of state. 
Spring migrant in swampy situations. No nesting rec- 
ords in state. 

Vol. XIV. No. 1 History of Birds of Illinois 55 

Brewer's Blackbird. 

A mere stray from the West. 
Bronzed Grackle. 

Common over entire state. Winters in the south part of 

state, stray birds occasionally winter in the north. Nest 

over entire state. 

Finches, Sparrows, Etc. 

Evening Grosbeak. 

Irregular migrant as far south as the central part of 

Pine Grosbeak. 

Rare winter migrant in the north part of state. 

Purple Finch. 

An occasional winter resident in the south and central 
part of state. Spring migrant in tremendous quantities 
in central and western part of the state. Nests sparingly 
in the northern part of the state. 

House Sparrow. 

Constitute a pest over the entire state. 

American Crossbill. 

Very irregular winter migrant over state. More com- 
mon in north than south. To be expected near big pine 

White-winged Crossbill. 

Irreg-ular winter migrant. Breeds far north. 

Hoary KedpoU. 

Kare winter migrant in the northern counties of the state. 


Common winter migrant in the northern part of the state. 
But one record in Adams Co. Seldom seen in the central 
state. Breeds far north. 

Holboell's Redpoll (?) 

Greater Redpoll. 

A rare winter migrant in northern Illinois. 

American Goldfinch. 

Some members of this species are always with us, nesting, 
generally, throughout the state during July. A very 
large migratory movement is noticeable each spring dur- 
ing the middle of April. 

56 T. E. Musselman J.I.S.H.S. 

Pine Siskin. 

A winter migrant to northern Illinois. Occasionally seen 

in the central state as far as Champaign and Adams 

Snow Bunting. 

A winter migrant in the northern counties. One stray 

was killed in Adams Co. many years ago. Nests in the 

Arctic regions. 
Lapland Longspur. 

A winter migrant which often travels well down past the 

center of the state. 
Smith's Longspur. 

A Avinter migrant over the entire state. Not common, 

however very irregailar in appearance. 
Chestnut-collared Longspur. 

A native of the Great Plains which has been reported aa 

a winter straggler in Illinois. 
McCown's Longspur. 

A western bird which occasionally straggles into Illinois 

during its winter wanderings. 
Vesper Sparrow. 

Common summer resident over the entire state in grassy 

situations. Nests generally. 
Savannah Sparrow. 

Migrates over entire state. More common in the Eastern 

part of the state then Western. Fomid nesting by Eidge- 

way at Mount Carmel, also found it wintering there sev- 
eral times in mild seasons. 
Grasshopper Sparrow. 

A smumer resident throughout the state. A prairie bird. 

Nests generally. 
Henslow's Sparrow. 

Sununer resident locaUy over the entire state in prairie 

situations. Nests generally though not abundantly. 
Leconte's Sparrow. 

Recorded breeding in northeastern Illinois but record 

questioned. A rare migrant along western Tllinois at 

Quincy and Warsaw. 

Vol XIV, No. 1 History of Birds of Illinois 57 

Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow. 

A possible breeder in Northern Illinois. A migrant to be 
found in the long grass of the prairies. 

Lark SpaiTow. 

A summer resident over the entire state where prairie 
situations exist. Nests generally. 

Harris' Sparrow. 

Irregular migrant seen every several springs at Quincy 
reported elsewhere about the northern part of the state 
at rare intervals. October 31, 1921 a large wave of Har- 
ris' Sparrows was reported at Kansas City, Mo. It is 
extending its range eastward. 

"White-crowned Sparrow. 

A common migrant over the state, winters in southern 
Illinois, nests in Canada. No nesting record. 

White-throated Sparrow. 

Very conmaon migrant. Winters as far north as the 
central part of the state. No nesting record. 

Tree Sparrow. 

A common winter resident over the entire state which 
leaves for the northward in early March. 

Chipping Sparrow. 

A common summer resident over the entire state. Nests 

Clay-colored Sparrow. 

Classified as summer resident in Northern Illinois. A 
western variety which is very rare. 

Field Sparrow. 

Conmion summer resident over the entire state in rural 
fields where buckbrush, spice bush and other low grow- 
ing shrubben' exists. Nests generally, being a veiy com- 
mon host to the cow bird. 

Slate-colored Junco. 

Conuuon winter resident over entire state. Leaves for 
the north during March. 

Montana Junco. 

Rare winter straggler seen occasionally in the more north- 
ern countries. Several records in Champaign and one in 
Adams Co. 

58 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 

Shufeldt's Jimco. 

Bachman's Sparrow. 

Summer resident throughout the state, but chiefly in 
southern Illinois. Extending this range northward. 
Nests sparingly over entire state. 

Song Sparrow. 

Permanent resident over the central part of the state. 
Rather rare summer resident in southern and central Illi- 
nois. Breeds in the northern part of state. 

Lincoln's Sparrow. 

Winters in south, migrant in central state, and summer 
resident in north where it sometimes nests. 

Swamp Sparrow. 

Winters in southern Illinois and a few remain in the 
swamps of the central part of the state. It is a general 
migrant over state and nests in northern part of the state, 
although an occasional nest is found farther south. 

Fox Sparrow. 

A general spring and fall migrant. A winter resident 
in the southern part of state. No nesting records. 


Often ^^^nters as far north as Quincy. An early migrant 
nesting generally over the entire state. 

Ai'ctic Towhee. 


Permanent resident over the entire state. Eather rare 
in the northern state, very common winter and summer 
at Quincy and southward, often having seen eight or ten 
in one weed patch. Less abundant in the eastern part of 
the state. 

Rose-breasted Grosbeak. 

Only a migrant in the southern part of the state. Nests 
from the central part of the state through the northern 

Blue Grosbeak. 

A very rare summer migrant from the South which visits 
our southern most counties. Never reported in Ad- 
ams or Champaign county. 

Indigo Bunting. 

Summer resident over the entire state. Nests generally. 

Vol XIV. No. 1 History of Birds of Illinois 59 

Painted Bunting. 

One female seen by Ridgway, June 10, 1871. 

Common summer resident over the entire state. Nests 



Scarlet Tanager. 

Rather rare summer resident in the southern part of the 
state increasing in numbers in the central state and regu- 
lar summer resident farther north. Generally observed 
in high trees. 

Summer Tanager. 

A conmion summer resident in southern Illinois a mere 
migrant or stray in Adams Co. and a very rare summer 
resident north of the central part of the state. 


Purple Martin. 

Summer resident over entire state. Nests in boxes and 
the cornices of buildings. 

CHff Swallow. 

Summer resident over entire state. Local in nature. 
Scarce in Adams Co., except as a migrant. Very numer- 
ous in some sections. Builds its gourd shaped mud houses 
along on the eaves of bams and along cliffs. 

Bam Swallow. 

A general summer resident nesting under the eaves of 
the barns, sometimes inside on the rafters and occasion- 
ally on cliffs. 

Tree Swallow. 

Common summer resident over the entire state. Nests 
in isolated dead trees, particularly dead trees riddled 
with woodpecker holes situated in swamps or sloughs. 
Less common in the north part of state. 

Bank Swallow. 

Summer resident. Everywhere about state where clay- 
banks and water are in proximity. Flocks of hundreds 
will honeycomb a large clay bank, giving it a very unique 

60 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 

Jtough-winged Swallow. 

General summer resident. Nesting habits similar to those 
of the Bank Swallow. 

Northern Violet-green Swallow (?) 

Bohemian Wasrwing. 

Very irregular winter migrant. Common in central part 
of the state in 1920. Feed on juniper berries, persim- 
mons, rosebrier fruit, etc. 

Cedar Waxwing. 

Seen as a migrant over the entire state throughout the 
winter and spring. Nests irregularly from the central 
part of the state northward. 

Northern Shrike. 

A rare winter resident in the northern part of the state. 
But one record in Adams County. It lives in the far 

Loggerhead Shrike. 

The prevalent shrike in the southern part of the state. 

Migrant Shrike. 

Possibly confined as a summer resident to the northern 
half of state. Nests in the Osage orange trees at the 
hedge corners. Becoming scarce in many parts of the 
state because of the cutting away of the hedge fences. 
It will be interesting to note its future selection of nest- 
ing sites. 


Eed-eyed Vireo. 

Common summer resident throughout the woodlands of 
the state. Nests generally. 

Philadelphia Vireo. 

Regular, although tmcommon migrant throughout the 


Possibly a summer resident in northern Illinois. 

Warbling Vireo. 

Summer resident throughout state. Nests generally. 
Less abundant in the north, although reported to be in- 
creasing in numbers particularly in Knox Co. 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 History of Birds of Illinois 61 

Yellow-throated Vireo. 

Summer resident throughout the state, living in the bot- 
tom land forests. Nests sparingly over the entire state. 

Blue-headed Vireo. 

Rather uncommon spring and fall migrant. No nesting 

White-eyed Vireo. 

Nests irregularly over entire state. Not a common sum- 
mer resident in the north. 

Bell's Vireo. 

Irregular summer resident over state, although rare in 
Northern Illinois. Nests found yearly in low brush and 
tangled briers in Adams Co. Also found in similar loca- 
tions over the rest of state, particularly southward. 
Abundant in certain parts of Knox County. 

Wood Warblers. 

Black and VThite VTarbler. 

A spring and fall migrant throughout Illinois. An up- 
land wood bird. Nests beyond the state. It may nest 
occasionally in the north part of this state. 

Prothonotary "Warbler. 

Summer resident over entire state. Nests very abundant- 
ly in holes in willow trees about the rivers and swamps 
in southern and central part of state. Very common 
about Quincy. 

Swainson's Warbler. 

Rare summer resident; in swamps of southern Illrnois 

Worm-eating Warbler. 

Common species in southern Illinois, but a rare summer 
resident in the northern part of the state. Nests accord- 
ingly over the state. 

Blue-winged Warbler. 

A migrant which occasionally summers over entire state. 
It nests sparingly throughout the state. 

62 T. E. Musselmm j.i.s.h.s. 

Golden-winged Warbler. 

Migrant in southern Illinois, summer resident from cen- 
tral state northward. Nests from central state north- 
ward. Increases in number towards the northern part 
of the state. 

NashviUe Warbler. 

Ridg^vay states that it breeds in northern Illinois. Com- 
mon migrant throughout state in open woods. 

Orange-cro"v\Tied Warbler. 

Have found it a very rare migrant in western Illinois 
and generally reported over the state as very irregular. 

Tennessee Warbler. 

A common spring and fall migrant. Nests north of our 

Parula Warbler. 

Common migrant. Seen in wooded swamps during the 
summer. Nests sparingly through the state. 

Cape May Warbler. 

Eegular migrant in the western part of the state. In- 
creasing in numbers in northern Illinois. Hard to iden- 
tify as they move in the tree tops chiefly. 

Yellow Warbler. 

Very common migrant, nesting very generally over the 
central and northern portion of the state and occasionally 
in the south. 

Black-throated Blue Warbler. 

A common migrant over the state. 

Myrtle Warbler. 

Very early and common migrant. Often returns in fall 
and remains for days in great numbers. Seen both on 
the lawns and in the trees. A winter resident in the 
southern part of the state. Nests far north of Illinois. 

Magnolia Warbler. 

A very common migrant over the state. Nests far north. 

Cerulean Warbler. 

A rare migrant in the western and eastern and northern 
parts of the state. A dweller of the tall tree tops. Nests 
rarely throughout the entire state. 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 History of Birds of Illinois 63 

Chestnut-sided Warbler. 

A common and pretty warbler which may be expected to 

nest in nortbem Illinois. Common migrant over the entire 

Bay-breasted "Warbler. 

A migrant in fall and spring seen in the tall tree tops. 

Nests in the pine trees far north of Illinois. 
Black-poll Warbler. 

A common migrant over the entire state. No nesting 

Blackburnian Warbler. 

A beautiful spring and fall migrant over the entire state. 

It may nest rarely in the northern part of our state but 

although seen as a summer resident, no nests have been 

found as yet. 
Sycamore Warblers. 

Apparently confined as summer resident to southern Illi- 

Likes a swamp location where it may be discovered at 

the tops of the tall sycamore and elms. 
Black-throated Green AVarbler. 

A regular migrant. Nests in the pine forests far north of 

this state. Reported by Nelson as having found nest in 

northern Illinois. 
Kirtland's Warbler. 

A very rare warbler seen enroute to Hudson Bay region, 

where it nests. 
Pine Warbler. 

A very common migrant throughout the entire state. 

Nesting many places over the state. 
Palm Warbler. 

A very abundant spring migrant. Commonly seen on the 

ground or on the low wiUows. Breeds beyond the north 

border of state. 
Prairie Warbler. 

A rare migrant over the entire state ; less common in the 

west and considered very uncommon in northern Illinois. 

Nests have been found over the entire state, rarely in the 

north, much more common in the south. 

64 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 


Common migrant over the entire state. Nests occasion- 
ally in swamp situations in the northern part of this state 
although its nest is sometimes found in the central part 
of the state. 


A migrant along creeks and swamp situations, wintering 
occasionallj' in the southern part of the state. Nests far 
beyond our state. 

Grrinuell's Water-Thrash. 

A common migrant over the state. A possible summer 
resident in northern Illinois. 

Louisiana Water Thrush. 

Over entire state, principally the southern, central and 
eastern part of the state. Nesting generally. Eather a 
rare summer resident in the north. 

Kentucky Warbler. 

Seen as an uncommon migrant over entire state. Eare 
in north, commoner in south where it nests in the rich 
moist woods. Nests are far north as Adams County. 

Connecticut Warbler. 

An al3undant spring migrant, seldom seen in the fall. To 
be found in swamps in button brush and willow trees. 
Breeds far to the north of Illinois. 

Mourning Warbler. 

Spring migrant seen in low bushes and along rail fences, 

etc . 

Uncommon fall migrant. No nesting records. 

Maryland Yellow-throat. 

Common summer resident over the entire state. Nesting 
generally throughout. Birds commonly seen in brush 
and brier patches. 

TeUow-breasted Chat. 

Common summer resident over most of the state, becom- 
ing rarer toward the north. It nests in the wildest and 
thickest patches of bramble in the central and southern 
part of the state. 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 History of Birds of Illinois 65 

Hooded Warblers. 

A summer resident in Southern and Central Illinois, nest- 
ing in the damp woods. Eare in the northern part of the 

"Wilson's Warbler. 

A regular migrant throughout the state. Nests far north 
of Illinois. 

Canadian Warbler. 

A regular migrant throughout the state. Nests north of 

American Redstart. 

A common summer resident over the whole state. Nests 
throughout the central and northern part of state. Found 
in the thick woodland. 

Waff tails and Pipits. 

American Pipit. 

Common migrant in spring and fall in the western and 
northern counties. Very irregular in central and south- 
ern portions. 

Trre»s, Thrashers, Etc. 

Mocking Bird. 

Rare summer resident in northern Illinois. Seen irregu- 
larly in central Illinois during summer. In 1922 one spent 
the winter at Quincy and one was reported from Cham- 
paign during the winter. Abundant in the extreme south- 
em portion of state in suitable locations, nesting there 
regularly. Has been found breeding as far north as Knox 


Common summer resident throughout the state, nesting 

Brown Thrasher. 

A very common summer resident. Nests in hedge rows, 
and dense bushes over entire state. 

66 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 

Carolina Wren. 

Rare in the north. Uncommon thronghont the central 
part of the state except in rough situations where it is 
sometimes numerous. Common in Adams County. Com- 
mon in the southern portion. A wren of the woods and 
rocks. Increasing in numbers. 

Bewick's Wren. 

Eare in northern and western parts of state. Common 
in Eastern and Southern portions. It is enlarging its 
boundaries. Increasing in Schuyler, Pike and Adams 
Counties, where he seems to prefer the bams to bird 
houses. A bird of wonderful song. Nests from central 
part of state southward. 

House Wren. 

Found irregularly over the entire state. In some of the 
southwestern counties, its place is taken by the Bewick's 
Wren, while i>erhaps the adjoining county will have it in 
abundance. Nests generally. 

Parkman's Wren. 

A western form of the house wren, apparently more 
common than formerly believed. Common throughout 
western and northwestern Illinois. Nests generally 
throughout these locations. 

Winter Wren. 

A common little fall and spring migrant seen about the 
brush piles in woods or along creeks. Nests far north 
of Illinois. 

Short-billed Marsh Wren. 

Found any^'here in the state where wet meadows or 
sloughs allow the heavy growth of sedges and tall prairie 
grass. Summer resident. A very secretive bird. Nests 
generally, in these locations. 

Long-billed Marsh Wren. 

Summers throughout the entire state in swamps and 
marshes which are filled with rank growths of wild rice, 
cat-tails, and bulrushes. Said to spend mild winters in 
southern Illinois. Nests generally. 

Prairie Long-billed Marsh Wren. 

Summer resident in northern Illinois, but breeding status 
has not been fuUy determined. 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 History of Birds of Illinois 67 

Brown Creeper. 

A common winter migrant throughout the state. Nests 
far north of Illinois. 

Nuthatches and Tits. 

White-breasted Nuthatch. 

Common permanent resident throughout entire state. 
Nests early throughout its range. 

Red-breasted Nuthatch. 

A very irregular migrant in central and south portions. 
Appears in abundance every ten or twelve years. A few 
breed in northern Illinois. 

Tufted Titmouse. 

Uncommon summer resident in northern Illinois. Com- 
mon permanent resident in central and southern part of 
state, nesting throughout this range in high knot holes 
or old woodpeckers' holes. 


Common permanent resident throughout the entire year 
in northern and central part of state. At the 40th paral- 
lel it appears irregularly with the Carolina Chickadee. 
Nests in holes and low tree cavities. 

Carolina Chickadees. 

Apparently confined as a permanent resident to southern 
and central Illinois. Nests throughout this limit. 

Hudsonian Chickadee. 

A very rare straggler. One taken at Eock Island by Dr. 
J. W. Velie, years ago. To be watched for along the 
northern Counties. 

Kinglets and Gnatcatchers. 

Golden-crowned Kinglet. 

A winter migrant, more common in the northern state 
than south. Nests in far north woods. 

Euby-crowned Kinglet. 

A spring and fall tran.sient, common at apple blossom 
time, where it secures innumerable small insects about 
the flowers. Summers north of us and spends his win- 
ters south of us. He has a wonderful little song. 

68 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 

Blue-gray Gnatcatcher. 

A migrant over entire state. Numbers of them nest in 
Schuyler County, Illinois, although in Adams County, 50 
miles away it is an irregular, even rare migrant. A rare 
smnmer resident in the north part of the state. Nests 
regularly as far north as Knox Co. becoming abundant 
in the southern part of the state. 

Thrushes, Bluebirds, Etc. 

Townsend's Solitaire. 

A rare western bird which is a mere straggler in Illi- 
nois. Eeputed to be one of the world's most wonderful 
singers. One shot at Waukegan, December 16, 1875. 

Wood Thrush. 

Irregular summer resident over the entire state. Prefers 
the heavily shaded woodlands. In the western part of the 
state it is common in the cities where it nests readily 
on horizontal limbs of ebns and hard maple trees. A 
wonderful singer with a short metallic song of incom- 
parable sweetness. 

"Wilson's Thrush. 

Seen as a shadowy migrant of the underbrush in south- 
ern and central Illinois. A summer resident in the woods 
in northern Illinois and northward. 

Willow Thrush. 

The common form in northeastern Illinois, but hard to 
distinguish from Wilson's Thrush without taking speci- 

Gray-checked Thrush. 

Merely a migrant in Illinois, lacking song while traveling. 

Bicknell's Thrush. 

A rare migrant. Eecorded from Warsaw, Illinois. 

Alaska Hermit Thnish? 

Olive-backed Thrush. 

Migrant throughout state. Often singing slightly at 
evenings during his northern migration. 

Hermit Thrush. 

Very general and early migrant in spring. Nests north 
of state. 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 

History of Birds of Illinois 


Common summer resident throughout the state. Nests 
on window ledi^i's, tree branches, fence poles, fire escapes, 
and other odd places. Occasionally winters in central 
and southern part of state. Increasing. 
Southern Eobin. 

Extends its travels through the south part of the state, 
wliere it nests. 

Common summer resident over entire state. Migrants 

arrive in the middle to late February. Nest in boxes 

when unannoyed by English Sparrow ; otherwise, in knot 

holes and woodpeckers holes in the country. 

A careful reading of this list shows that many of these 

birds are no longer with us, though the wise legislation of 

the last ten years, promises to restore many of them to our 

state. First in importance of the restorative measures comes 

the passage of the Federal Migratory Bird Law and second 

the passage of state laws establishing game preserves and 

parks throughout the state. These two factors will tend to 

rehabilitate the bird life of the state. 

Federal Migratory Bird Act. 

In December 1916, the Migratory Bird Treaty between 
United States and Great Britain, in reference to "birds that 
migrate between Canada and United States was ratified and 
became a fact. 

The shooting of Migratory birds during the spring or 
nesting season was forbidden in the United States and Cana- 
da, and fall shooting was controlled by open seasons in select- 
ed zones. Not only did the law govern the time Ln which hunt- 
ing might be enjoyed in any part of the two-countries, but it 
also forbade the sale of game killed during the open season. 

Upon the law's going into effect, the good results were 
instantaneous. Eeports for the first year from game wardens 
all over the two countries showed the largest number of fall 
birds seen for many years. Each succeeding year the number 
of birds and varieties have increased, until this last season 
I was informed by practically every hunter that I asked, that 
the hunting was as good as any fall shooting he has ever had. 

70 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 

Many varieties of birds wMch have not been commonly seen 
for a great many years are beginning to make their reap- 
pearance. This includes the Woodcock, Swans, and many 
forms of ducks and snipe which were thought to be all but 

The following is an interesting newspaper account of the 
large number of ducks present along the Illinois Eiver in the 
spring of 1922, just six years after the signing of the above 

"Wild ducks are to be seen in almost every field located 
north and northwest of Rushville, the number in some of the 
fields being estimated at many thousands. To the south, in 
the Crane Creek and Coal Creek Drainage District, the ducks 
are said to be more numerous than ever before and countless 
thousands can be seen in the fields adjacent to the public road 
between Frederick and the river. Fields seeded to wheat are 
now their favorite feeding grounds and if this continues, there 
is a probability that the grcndng crops mav be considerably 
damaged."— Rushville (lU.) Herald, March 9, 1922. 

The Illinois State Legislature has re-enacted its game 
laws to co-ordinate with the Federal law, thus making more 
effective the protection of the migi'ants which come through 

State AuDUBOiSr Societt. 

One of the greatest factors for good in the protection of 
birds throughout our state is the Illinois Audubon Society. 
This organization not only watches all legislation that per- 
tains to bii'ds in the State Legislature, but it yearly publishes 
two of the finest bulletins on birds that are to be had in the 
United States. Its educational program has practically done 
away with the small boys' bird-egg collecting, and the study 
of bird life and its protection is now a part of the curriculum 
of nearly every public school. 

The Duck Clubs. 

Duck shooting has become one of the most universally 
enjoyed sports of the hunters of Illinois. Those living upon 
lakes and rivers have an abundance of opportunities in which 
to exercise their privilege. But many citizens of the interior 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 History of Birds of Illinois 71 

wish to enjoy similar sport with the result that along the en- 
tire Illinois Eiver, the sloughs and swamps are leased by 
groups of sucli men and hunting clubs are formed, some of 
which are very elaborate in their appointments. Live decoys 
are kept in large numbers and in many of these locations the 
Avild ducks are fed all winter long, which encourages their 
premanency as winter residents. 

Bird Study at oub Univeksity. 

The State University has maintained a course in ornith- 
ology- under the able instructions of Professor Frank Smith 
and several assistants. The course is covered by lectures, and 
by laboratory work; and the University Museum is used to 
supply the mounted specimens needed to illustrate the lec- 
tui-es. Recently a stereopticon machine Avith hundreds of 
slides has been installed ; so the students not only see perfect 
birds in mounted form but also see pictures of them in their 
native habitat. 

In 190G-07 and 1909 the state laboratory of Natural His- 
tory under the instruction of Stephen A. Forbes, the eminent 
state entomologist, decided to make a statistical survey of all 
the birds in Illinois. The active work was under the direction 
of Alfred 0. Gross, Ph. D., with an assistant, both of whom 
were experienced naturalists and taxidermists. They made 
three trips back and forth across the state ; one in the south- 
em portion, one in the central portion, and one in the northern. 
Their activities are recorded in the form of a bulletin issued 
by the state, which gives us a complete accounting of the bird 
life of Illinois during the simimer season. So wide has become 
the interest in bird life that elementary courses in ornithology 
have been instituted in nearly all of the state normal schools, 
and some very valuable information concerning nesting and 
incubation has been secured for science by the teachers and 
classes at the Western Illinois State Xonual at Macomb. 

No history of our state birds would be complete without 
an appreciation of Robert Eidgway, Curator of the Division 
of Birds, United States National Museum, who is a native 
Illinoisan with his home at Olney, Illinois. He is our master 
ornithologist and scientist who has written more than 500 
monographs on birds and many histories, one being a two 

72 T. E. Musselman j.i.s.h.s. 

volume Edition, "Ornithology of Illiaois" which was pub- 
lished by the state and is the most complete and authorative 
work on Illinois birds in existence. His greatest success is 
a 10 volume work, "The Birds of North and Middle Amer- 
ica," which is one of the most prodigious piece of scientific 
work ever attempted. It will stand as a monument to him 
and his name will ever be an honor to Illinois. 


After reading the data gathered here, one sees at a 
glance that Illinois has changed radically during the past 
century in the nature of its flora, with a corresponding change 
in the life and character of its birds. With the drainage of 
the swamps comes the destruction of numerous habitats so 
necessary to the life of many varieties of our birds. 

The increase in number of death-dealing contrivances 
such as electric wires, light-towers, pump guns, etc., have 
rapidly depleted the bird population. 

When we study the situation from an economic stand- 
point, we immediately recognize that the troubles of the farm- 
ers are increasing due to the multiplication of insect pests 
which can be controlled only by birds and the use of the spray. 
Unless the people appreciate the situation before it is too late, 
one of the most valuable helping forces of the fai-mer is apt 
to be depleted beyond a point where it is possible to replace 
it. The passage of the Federal Migratory Bird Act was one 
step in the right direction. The Federal Government has 
started the enactment of laws establishing tremendous forest 
reserves, and bird sanctuaries. 

Illinois as a state should not be far behind. There are a 
few wonderful situations in the state that should be pur- 
chased at once. All drainage activity at such points should 
be stopped and the birds should be given these vast expanses 
of waste land for their home sites. One of the most valuable 
of these locations is the incomparable Lime Lake district 
Ijdng some twenty miles south and east of Warsaw, Illinois. 
A second reserve in the north-western part of the state should 
be established along the Mississippi river, probably across 
from McGregor, Iowa. Several such situations should like- 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 History of Birds of llhnots 73 

wise be established on the Illinois river. Furthermore, one 
of the several cypress swamps in the southwestern part of 
the state, should be purchased so that birds traveling up the 
AVabash would have a sanctuary. 

These bird reserves should be large enough to allow a 
number of different associations so that not only the swamp- 
loving birds, but the upland birds could find a refuge. Un- 
less this action is taken very soon, Illinois, will find the lands, 
which now may be purchased at a very trifling amount and 
which at present have their natural forests upon them in un- 
drained condition, beyond the power of purchase. 

Private Game Preserves and Sanctuaries. 

At the present time, there are more than twenty-two pri- 
vately owned plots of land in the state, partly patrolled or un- 
der the care of the state. The largest of these is the 5,000-acre 
farm of ex-Governor Frank 0. Lowden. Add to these, hun- 
dreds of acres of land and swamp in the proposed state park 
program, together Avith a few large sanctuaries located in the 
various swamps of the state, and we shall soon be giving the 
birds a chance at propogation which they have not enjoyed for 
a half century. If the educational influence of the Audubon 
Societies is effective and the hunters can be taught to glory 
in the wild life about their preserves and refrain from shoot- 
ing everything that flies, fi'om ducks, gulls, and herons down 
to the tinp snipe and grass-hiding sparrow, then we shall be- 
gin to see more of the birds which made our swamps, rivers, 
and forests resplendent with beauty and happy with song 
a century ago. 

We have seen how great has been the change in our birds 
during the first one hundred years of the life of our state. It 
is a dangerous experiment to disarrange the balance of power 
in nature and if the state does not give immediate legislative 
protection to the birds in the form of numerous preserves and 
strict laws, I fear the next one hundred years \vi\\ show a 
decimation of our bird allies with an increase in the hordes 
of rats, mice, grasshoppers, and other insect pestSt causing 
disaster to the farmers' crops, to our native tree, in fact to 
the entire flora of the state. 


*By Chables S. Zane, Formerly Justice of the Supreme 

Court of Utah. 

(Eeprinted by Permission of the Sunset Magazine) 

There are not many men living today who can talk of a personal as- 
sociation with Abraham Lincoln. Nearly half a century has passed since 
the great President was sacrificed, more than that length of time since his 
inauguration. For ten years prior to Mr. Lincoln's going to Washington, 
perhaps the most interesting years of that wonderful life, Charles S. Zane 
practiced law in the same courts with him at Springfield, Illinois, and knew 
him well. Today Judge Zane is more than an octogenarian, but his mem- 
ories are vivid and that chapter of his long and useful life in which Lincoln 
was an inspiring figure is the most precious of his recollections. Judge Zane 
served for eight years as Chief Justice of the Territory of Utah, and after 
the first state election presided for several years in the State Supreme 
Court. His reminiscences, which follow, are a valuable contribution to 
the literature of Lincoln. *Judge Charles S. Zane, died in Salt Lake City, 
March 29, 1915. 

In those most interesting years in the life of President 
Lincoln, from the organization of the Eepublican party until 
his election to the presidency, he became a figure of national 
importance, whereas before that time his reputation had been 
hardly more than local. It was my good fortune, when a 
young man, to see something of his daily life during that 
period. On several occasions of more than ordinary interest 
his conduct came under my immediate observation. I heard 
the famous address, delivered after the opponents of the ex- 
tension of slavery had been almost discouraged by the Dred 
Scott decision. I was in his company while the balloting at 
the Chicago convention was in progress and when he received 
the news of his nomination. What I remember of President 
Lincoln may have some interest for others. 

The first time that I saw him was in Springfield, Illinois, 
a few weeks after the Eepublicans had nominated John C. 
Fremont for President in 1856. But before I ever saw him 

From Sunset Magazine, Vol. 29, October, 1912 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Llraobi as I Knew Illm 75 

I had been greatly attracted by his reputation, and had heard 
much about him. Early in 1850 I settled in Sangamon County, 
Illinois, in the neighborhood whence the militia company, of 
which Lincoln was elected captain, went out in defense of the 
Dlinois pioneers during the Black Hawk War. During the 
spring and summer of the latter year I was employed, a 
part of the time, on the banks of the Sangamon river, just 
below the bluff upon which New Salem had stood. There 
Lincoln had kept a store and had learned surveying, there 
he had read law and gained his first aptitude for politics. He 
had made a deep impression ujion the people there. The 
men who had known him, surrounded and embarrassed by the 
impediments and discouragements of those early years, re- 
garded him both intellectually and morally as far above the 
average man, and it could be seen from what they said that 
he had then exhibited dimly those virtues which made his 
later life so memorable. 

So fixed was this impression upon my mind, that in 1856, 
when I went to Springfield in order to fit myself for my pro- 
fession and to enter upon the practice, I first applied at the 
office of Lincoln & Herndon for admission as a student. Mr. 
Lincoln was not in the office at the time, and my disappoint- 
ment was very great when Mr. Herndon told me that there 
was no opening; but he gave me a letter to James C. Conkling, 
a well-knoAm laA\yer of Spring-field, and I obtained a place in 
the latter 's office. A day or two afterward Mr. Lincoln hap- 
pened to come in. Mr. Conkling introduced me to him, adding 
that I was a Republican. Mr. Lincoln shook hands with me 
in his kindly way, and the direct simplicity and naturalness 
of his bearing were then and still remain the exact impression 
upon me of his daily manner. There was a natural courtesy 
and real interest shoMTi toward me, with nothing of patron- 
age or condescension. His manner toward me, a young stud- 
ent in the office, was precisely the same as that toward my 
preceptor, an older and, of course, much more important man. 

After Mr. Lincoln had left the office, I started to the post- 
office. When I reached the street I saw Mr. Lincoln a short 
distance ahead, going in the same direction. Something 
seemed to attract his attention; he stopped and walked out 
to a self-raking reaping machine on exhibition. It was then 

76 Charles S. Zane J- 1- S- H. s. 

a new invention, and quite intricate in its construction. I 
had caught up with him and stopped to listen. It was the 
first selfraker that he had seen. He examined it with much 
interest, and then I listened to him explaining, in the fewest 
words but with great clearness, how power and motion Avere 
conunuuicated to the different appliances, especially to the 
sickle, the revohdng rake, and the reel. 

His faculty for comprehending and understanding ma- 
chinery I aftenvard saw exemplified when I heard him argue 
a patent case in the United States Court at Springfield. A 
number of models representing different machines had been 
introduced in eAddenee and they were upon the floor before 
the jury. During his argument, to get a better view of the 
different parts of the invention, he knelt down, and several of 
the jurors for the same purpose came to where he was and 
also got upon their knees. I had taken a vacant chair near 
Jackson Grimshaw, and the sight drew from him one of those 
remarks which were never wanting when he was in a court- 
room. I heard Grimshaw say to Archibald Williams, his 
colleague, in a low tone "I guess our case has gone to h — 1; 
Lincoln and the jurors are on their knees together." 

Mr. Lincoln gauged — no man more accurately — the es- 
sential difference between speeches in the courts and on the 
political platform. I had been in the office of the Secretary of 
State of Illinois when it was finally determined that Senator 
Douglas would have a majority on joint ballot of the members 
elected to the legislature, and had seen how philosophically 
he took his defeat and disappointment. He said: "It hurts 
too much to laugh and I am too big to cry." Then as he 
started out of the Secretary's ofSce, he said: "Well, I shall 
now have to get down to the practice. It is an easy matter to 
adjust a harvester to tall or short grain by raising or lower- 
ing the sickle, but it is not so easy to change our feelings and 
modes of expression to suit the stump or the bar." 

Intelligent men with impartial and liberal minds, while 
listening to Lincoln's arguments, appeared to ivant to agree 
with him. He never awakened prejudice by narrow and un- 
charitable statements or inferences. He never unnecessarily 
irritated his adversaries. While he did not arouse the pas- 
sions of the "hurrah boys" as much as some other speakers, 

Vol. XIV. No. 1 Lincoln as I Knew Him 77 

Iiis influence was greater with thinking men. The people liked 
to meet him and shake his liand. One morning T hai^pened to 
bo passing, when Mr. Lincoln, on his way to the .supreme court, 
met Governor Reynolds, who was an ardent Democrat and 
pro-slavery man; they shook hands very cordially and Rey- 
nolds said "I have not met you for a long time." After a 
few words Mr. Lincoln excused himself by saying; "I have a 
case to argue in the supreme court this morning and must 
go on." And as he passed on the old Governor said to us: 
"There goes a man I have never agreed with politically, and 
whom I have always opposed, but I woiild rather shake hands 
with him than any man living. I always feel when he shakes 
hands that he means just what the greeting should indicate, 
that he is my personal friend and ^\■ishes me well." 

On the day of Mr. Lincoln's death, the members of the 
Springfield Bar held a meeting in the old court-house in which 
he had practiced for so many years. On this occasion eminent 
and able men, among them Conkling, and Logan and Herndon, 
dwelt on the kindly disposition and moral qualities of him 
they termed the greatest and best of men. Stephen T. Logan, 
himself a distinguished lawyer, gave it as his opinion that 
Lincoln was a great laA\^'er, with this explanation — if he be- 
lieved his client was right, especially in difficult and compli- 
cated cases, he was the strongest and most comprehensive 
reasoner and la\^yer he had ever met — or if the case was 
somewhat doubtful but could be decided eitlier way without 
violating any just, equitable or moral principle, he was very 
strong — but if he though his client was wrong he would make 
little etfort. Judge Logan declared Lincoln a man of very 
profound and comprehensive \deAvs, and as free from narrow- 
ness as any man he had ever kno-u-n. In support of his opinion 
he said that he was a member of the Peace Conference that sat 
in the city of "Washington in February, 1861, and adjourned 
the first of the following March; that before starting home he 
called on his old townsman and friend, and in the conversation 
that followed, Lincoln said: "If agreeable I will read to you 
my inaugural" After he had finished, Judge Logan said: 
"I called his attention to the folloA^ang language: 

'I therefore consider that in view of the constitution and 
the laws the union is unbroken, and to the extent of my ability 

78 Charles S. Zone J- 1- S- h. s. 

I shall take care, as the constitution itself expressly enjoins 
upon me, that the laws of the union be faithfully executed in 
all the states. Doing this I deem to be only a simple duty on 
my part, and I shall perform it so far as practicable unless my 
rig-htful masters, the American people, shall withhold the re- 
quisite means, or, in some authoritative manner, direct the 
contrary. I tnist this will not be regarded as a menace, but 
only as the declared purpose of the union that it will con- 
stitutionally defend and maintain itself. In doing this there 
need be no bloodshed or violence ; and there shall be none un- 
less it be forced upon the national authority. The power con- 
fided to me will be used to hold, occupy and possess the prop- 
erty and places belonging to the government and to collect the 
duties and imports.' 

"I said to him," continued the judge, "that, in my opin- 
ion, he had better modify the last sentence, which is, 'The 
power confided in me will be used to hold, occupy and possess 
the property and places belonging to the government and to 
collect the duties and imports.' I told him that the southern 
people would regard that language as a threat and the re- 
sult would be war, the end and result of which human wisdom 
could not foresee. After I finished, Lincoln said: 'It is not 
necessary for me to say to you that I have great respect for 
your opinion, but the statements you think should be modified 
were carefidly considered by me and the probable conse- 
quences as far as I can anticipate them. The statements ex- 
press the convictions of duty that the great oiSce I shall en- 
deavor to fill %\dll impose upon me, and if there is patriotism 
enough in the American people, the union ^ill be saved ; if not, 
it Avill go down and I will go with it. ' As he had considered 
the situation and the probable consequences of the position he 
had taken and the convictions of duty he had reached, I felt 
it would be useless to discuss the subject further. And with 
mutual respect and good wishes we parted. Time has shown 
that Mr. Lincoln took a broader and more profound view of 
the situation and prospect than I did, and that I was wrong 
and he was right." 

Lincoln's story-telling is historic, but he never spent much 
time in telling a story. In public speaking he used few ges- 
tures and he was never vehement; he always expressed his 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Liitcoln as I Knew Him 79 

earnestness in his utterances and in liis countenance ; once, on 
returning from a meeting where lie had spoken for an hour, I 
said: "You must have been about worn out." He said: 
"No, I can speak three or four hours at a time -without feeling 
weary." On reaching the house we found a large basket of 
apples in the sitting room and were invited to help ourselves. 
Mr. Lincoln was a great eater of aijples. He said to me once 
that a man should eat and drink only that which is conducive 
to his owTi health. "Apples," he said, "agree with me," and 
he added, "a large per cent of professional men abuse their 
stomachs by imprudence in drinking and eating, and in that 
way health is injured and ruined and life is shortened." He 
was a close observer of natural laws. He regarded prudence 
in all respects as one of the cardinal virtues. 

On many occasions I saw Mr. Lincoln in the ordinary in- 
tercourse of life. It was noticeable how well he adapted his 
conversation and ways to the company and the surroundings. 
His readiness and willingness to accommodate himself to the 
people around him, his apparent desire to contribute his part 
toward rendering social intercourse enjoyable, always made 
him a welcome figure. In conversation he did not antagonize 
others, nor did he ever contend about trifles, and as to essen- 
tials he treated those differing from him with consideration. 
John G. Nicolay, his private secretary after his election, who 
had the best opportunity of knowing him, said that he was 
yielding and accommodating in non-essentials, but "inflexibly 
firm in a principle or position deliberately taken." Although 
he was born in a slave state and brought up among people who 
were in favor of slavery, he never wavered in his abhorrence 
of it from the day when he witnessed but one phase of the 
institution in actual operation. 

Mr. Lincoln's confidence in the justness of the anti-slav- 
ery battle never faltered through the years I knew him. In 
January, 1859, while the Democrats were celebrating the 
election of Stephen A. Douglas to the United States Senate, 
Archibald Williams, whom I have mentioned before, came into 
Lincoln's office and finding him writing said: "Well, the 
Democrats are making a great noise over their victory." 
Looking up Lincoln replied: "Yes, Archie, Douglas has 

80 Charles S. Zane J- 1- S- h. s. 

taken this trick, but the game is not played out. ' ' His elec- 
tion to the presidency in the nest year justified his confidence. 

What Mr. Lincoln's ideas upon strict matters of creed 
and religious doctrine may have been, no one can undertake 
to say. Perhaps he acted upon the dictum of the well-known 
man of letters who said that men of the world are all of one 
religion, but what that is, they never tell. Sometimes, how- 
ever, he discussed with his partner questions of metaphysics, 
as I happen to know. One day they were talking of the Spen- 
cerian philosophy — as to that part of it which bases ethical 
and moral considerations upon the attainment of happiness. 
As bearing upon the problem whether actions seemingly dis- 
interested are really any more than an enlightened self-inter- 
est, Lincoln referred to an incident in his own experience. 
He said: "One afternoon I was traveling in my buggy on my 
way to fill an appointment for a political speech in the even- 
ing, Avhen I came to a very muddy place in the road, by care- 
ful driving to one side I got tlirough. but I saw a hog stuck 
fast with his head still out of the stiff mud, and I knew that 
he would never get out without help, but my boots were pol- 
ished and I was dressed for the meeting and drove on; but 
thinking of the loss to the owner and the cruelty to the ani- 
mal, I did not feel satisfied and thought it would be wrong 
to leave the hog there to perish, and turned back and got 
out and pulled the animal from the mire to solid ground, then 
found some water nearby and washed my hands and drove on. 
My action seemed disinterested, but on further reflection I 
found that the act Avas done to regain my peace of mind, my 
ovra happiness, and was not entirely disinterested on my 

A number of those who have undertaken to write upon 
Mr. Lincoln's life have seemed to think that by picturing his 
life as squalid as possible they have thereby done him great 
honor. Particulars of his early years collected without judg- 
ment from those who either did not laiow the facts or had a 
motive in misrepresenting them, have been given to the pub- 
lic as authentic. Even his professional career has not re- 
ceived the credit to which his marvelous legal capacity entitled 
it. Sayings have been attributed to him which reflected sitn- 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Lincoln as I Knew Uim 81 

ply the commonness and vulgarity of the person repeating 
the saying. Details of this kind have been industriously col- 
lected by those who had not sufficient judgment to discrimin- 
ate between the original saying and coloring given to it by the 
mind through which it was filtered. He has been represented 
as uncouth in liis manner and unrefined in his daily speech; 
but any close observer ought to know that a man whose chief 
characteristic in manner was courtesy and kindness, and 
whose every written and authentically reported spoken word 
was notable for its finished propriety, was incapable of such 
a manner or of such conversation. 

About nine o'clock on the morning of May 18, 1860, the 
day when Lincoln was first nominated for the presidency, 
I went to his office in the city of Springfield. Soon afterward 
Mr. Lincoln arrived: He said as he came in, "Well, boys, 
what do you know?" We told him Seward was showing 
great strength. In a little while Mr. Edward L. Baker, the 
editor of the Illinois State Journal at Springfield, came in 
with two telegrams, the first saying that the delegates were 
coming into the convention hall, and the second conveying 
the intelligence that the names of the candidates for nomina- 
tion for President had been placed before the convention, and 
that Lincoln's name was received with the greatest enthusi- 
asm. Mr. Baker went out ; but in a short time returned with 
a telegram showing the first ballot, gi^-ing Mr. Seward 173 V2 
votes and Mr. Lincoln 102, the rest of the votes being scat- 
tered among other candidates for the nomination. Mr. Lin- 
coln looked at the dispatch, but gave no expression of satis- 
faction or dissatisfaction. Not long afterward he said: "The 
dispatches appear to be coming to the Journal office, by ar- 
rangement, I presume; we had better go over there." And 
Mr. William Davis and myself went along with him. On our 
way to the Journal office, we passed the foot of the stairway 
leading from the sidewalk up to the telegraph office, and Mr. 
Lincoln said: "We had as well go up, it must be about time 
for the second ballot to come." And we went up to the sec- 
ond floor of the building and into the telegraph office. The 
operator had just commenced receiving the second ballot, and 
when he had finished, he handed it to Mr. Lincoln. It stated 

82 Charles S. Zane J- 1- S- h. s. 

that Mr. Seward had received 184yo votes to 181 for Mr. Lin- 
coln. Seward had gained but 11 votes to a gain of 79 for 
Lincohi. While he did net give utterance to his feelings, I 
could see plainly an expression of satisfaction pass over his 
face as he read, for he had a ver\" intelligent and expressive 
countenance. We then went over to the Journal office. Soon 
afterward the local editor said he would go to the telegraph 
office and get the third ballot ; he thought it about time for it, 
and Mr. Davis and I went along. Very soon the third ballot 
commenced coming. The editor stepped behind the counter 
and looked over the operator's shoulder, and in a few min- 
utes the operator handed him the result. I saw they were a 
little nervous, and asked the result, but the editor made no 
reply. I then stepped around the encl of the counter and asked 
the operator for the result. He said that Lincoln was nomi- 
nate, but the editor wished to be the first to announce it to 
]\Ir. Lincoln. I overtook the editor and Davis a few rods 
from the foot of the stairs, and Davis was plying the editor 
with cjuestions, and he finally asked: "How does it look?" 
Whereupon the editor said : " It looks d — n bad. ' ' We walked 
back together to the Journal office. Mr. Lincoln and a num- 
ber of other men were there, and the editor undertook to 
call for three cheers, but the call lacked spirit, and I stepped 
upon a chair and waved my hat in the air and called for three 
cheers for the next president. Three rousing cheers were 
given, and then those who Avere there commenced calling: 
"Read the dispatch." It was read aloud and handed to Mr. 
Lincoln; whereupon he said: "I knew this would come when 
I saw the second ballot." He then received hearty congratu- 
lations from us all. A merchant from Boston, Massachusetts, 
who happened to be present suggested that it was of great im- 
portance to have Mr. Lincoln's life written at once. Lincoln 
looked at the man and said: "My friend, I do not see much 
in my life as yet to write about." After some further talk 
he went do^"n to the sidewalk, and several men were near, 
playing a game which consisted in knocking the ball with 
their hands against a building. ]\Ir. Lincoln had played occa- 
sionally with them to benefit his shoulders, which were a little 
stiff at times, as he said, and they ceased playing and came 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Lincoln as I Knew Elm 83 

up to congratulak' him. lie said: "Come up, boys, we will 
shake hands whih- we can, we do not know what effect this 
may liave upon our opportunities hereafter." Afterward 
ho looked over toward his house, and said, rather gravely and 
with evident sincerity: "Thei-e is a lady over yonder who 
is deeply interested in this news; I will carry it to her." He 
then walked south on the east side of Sixth street across 
Washingi;on street, and came in front of the Marine Bank. 
Robert Irwin, its cashier, came out and congratulated him; 
their friendship had been of long standing. He then walked 
on and a messenger boy Avho had come out of the telegraph 
office overtook him and handed him a message, for which he 
receipted, and after reading it he passed on to his house and 
to his wife. 

It has been stated by one, if not more, of his biographers, 
that this last dispatch was his first notification of his nornina- 
tion ; but the telegram announcing his nomination on the third 
ballot had been in his hands, as I have stated, as long as 
twenty-five minutes, and lie liad been congratulated by a num- 
ber of people upon his nomination, before this last telegram 
was handed him. This was due to the fact that there was di- 
rect communication between the Convention Hall and some 
newspapers. After all changes in the ballot had been made, 
a private dispatch from the superintendent of the telegraph 
company svas sent, and this was the telegram actually handed 
to ■\rr. Lincoln on the street. One biographer of Lincoln says 
that when he read the dispatch he was excited, but this is a 
total error. Any one who knew him would instantly say it 
was an error. He showed no nervousness or excitement, when 
he Avas first inf omied of his nomination, that I could discover, 
and I ]irobably noticed him as closely as anybody. I thought 
he read the dispatch containing the result of the second bal- 
lot with deeper interest than he did the third. He regarded 
his nomination as a foregone conclusion after he read the 
second ballot. That day he did not tell a story or "crack a 
joke" in my hearins:: he appeared to be graver and at times 
sadder than usual. I attributed this to an anticipation of 
the great responsibility that would aAvait him if elected. 

84 Charles S. Zane J- 1- S- H. s. 

Wlien Mr. Lincoln was inaug-urated in 1861, I was in 
Washington. I had called upon him there before that day, 
and went I left the city I went to the "White House to bid him 
good-by, but I found such a throng of senators and congress- 
men that I hardly felt justified in trespassing upon his kind- 
ness. A few years passed by, and the whole world had be- 
come filled with the amplitude of his fame. But I was never 
again to see alive the greatest man and kindest nature that 
I have ever known. 

By Charles 0. Paullix. 

Lincoln spent almost a year in Washington as the Repre- 
sentative to the Thirtieth Congress from the Sangamon dis- 
trict of Illinois. He arrived in the city about December 1, 
1847, for the first session, and found lodgings on Capitol Hill, 
at Mrs. B. Sprigg's boarding-house in Duif Green's row, two 
squares east of the Capitol. 

It was customary at this time for the Members of Con- 
gress to board in small clubs or messes, somewhat after the 
fashion now followed by students in college towns. The 
Washington newspapers of the olden time contain many ad- 
vertisements inserted by boarding-house keepers— usually 
women — informing the public that they could accommodate a 
"mess of members with pleasant chambers." 

Five of Lincoln's messmates were Pennsylvania Repre- 
sentatives — John Blanchard, John Dickey, A. R. Mcllvaine, 
James Pollock, and John Strohm — all men of little note, with 
the exception of Pollock, who later became governor of Penn- 
sylvania. In 1861, Lincoln appointed him director of the mint 
at Philadelphia, and it was while holding that office that he 
was instrumental in having the motto, "In God we trust," 
placed on the national coins. There were three other Repre- 
sentatives at Mrs. Sprigg's, Elisha Embree, of Indiana, and 
P. W. Tompkins, of Mississippi, men of no particular sig- 
nificance, and Joshua R. Gidding, of Ohio, for twenty years 
(1838-1859) the most distinguished anti-slavery leader of the 

In 1861 Lincoln appointed Giddings consul general to 
Canada, an office that he held until his death. There should 
also be mentioned as fellow-boarders of Lincoln, Gen. Duflf 
Green, a politician and diplomatist of some fame in his day; 
Nathan Sargent, a journalist, who wrote under the pen-name 


86 Charles 0. Paullin J- 1- s. H. s. 

of Oliver Oldschool, and Dr. S. C. Busey, of Washington. The 
variety of characters in the mess was quite sufficient to make 
the talk at the table as enjoyable as the eating. 

Mrs. Sprigg seated her guests at a long table, over which 
she presided. Dr. Busey, a young doctor, who had been re- 
cently admitted to the practice of medicine, sat nearly oppo- 
site Lincoln, whom, he says, he "soon learned to know and 
admire for his simple and unostentatious manners, kind- 
heartedness, and amusing jokes, anecdotes, and witticisms. 
When about to tell an anecdote during a meal, he would lay 
down his knife and fork, place his elbows upon the table, 
rest his face between his hands, and begin with the words 
'that reminds me,' and proceed. Everybody prepared for 
the explosions sure to follow. "I recall with vivid pleasure 
the scene of merriment at the dinner after his first speech in 
the House of Eepresentatives, occasioned by the descriptions, 
by himself and others of the Congressional mess, of the up- 
roar in the House during its delivery." ^ 

As a near neighbor to Lincoln, there lived in Duff Green's 
row, Simon Cameron, then Senator from Pennsylvania, and 
destined to become Lincoln's first Secretary of War. Lin- 
coln's future political rival, Stephen A. Douglas, then Sena- 
tor from Illinois, stayed at WUlard's Hotel, the chief hostelry 
of the city. 

Andrew Johnson, A Eepresentative from Tennessee ; Jef- 
ferson Davis, a Senator from Alississippi, and Alexander H. 
Stephens, a Representative from Georgia, messed at board- 
ing-houses on Capitol Hill, not far from that of Mrs. Sprigg. 
On the latter, Lincoln, in February, 1848, wrote to his law 
partner as follows : 

"I just take my pen to say that Mr. Stephens, of Georgia, 
a little, slim, pale-faced, consumptive man, with a voice like 
Logan's, has just concluded the very best speech of an hour's 
length, I ever heard. My old withered dry eyes are full of 
tears yet."^ 

Near Duff Green's row there was a bowling alley that was 
much frequented by the statesmen on Capitol HUl. Notwith- 

Vol XIV, No. 1 Lincoln in Congress 87 

standing Lincoln was a very awkward bowler, lie played the 
game with groat zest and spirit; and, whether successful 
or defeated, was always in good humor. At the alley, he often 
indulged in his favorite pastime of story-telling, and he read- 
ily gathered around him a crowd of eager listeners. 

Another resort of Lincoln was the post-office of the 
House. Here, his favorite seat, according to the newspaper 
correspondent, Ben Perley Poore, was "at the left of the 
open fireplace, tilted back in his chair, with his long legs 
reaching over to the chimney jamb. He never told a story 
twice, but appeared to have an endless repertoire of them al- 
ways ready, like the successive charges in a magazine grm, 
and always pertinently adapted to some passing event. It w^as 
refreshing to us correspondents, compelled as we were to lis- 
ten to so much that was prosy and tedious, to hear this bright 
specimen of Western genius tell his inimitable stories, es- 
pecially his reminiscences of the Black Hawk war.'" 

The librarian of the United States Supreme Court re- 
lates an incident that came to his notice, illustrative of Lin- 
coln's plain, unassuming, backwoods way of doing things. 
One day he came to the library and asked for some law books 
which he wished to take to his room. "When they were brought 
to him, he tied them into a bundle by means of a bandana 
handkerchief, and putting a stick, which he had brought with 
him, through a knot in the handkerchief, he shouldered it 
and marched off from the library to his lodgings. In a few 
days he returned with the books in the same way. * 

In the first session of the Thirtieth Congress, Mrs. Lin- 
coln stayed for a time with her husband at Mrs. Sprigg's. 
She was very retiring, and was seldom to be seen except at 
her meals. She took little part in the social life of the Capi- 
tol. Robort T., her eldest son, was with her. She did not re- 
turn to Washington for the short session. 

Mr. Lincoln was frequently named as a member of social 
committees of semi-official character appointed to give pub- 

» Al'en Thorndlke Rice, Reminiscences of Abraham Lincoln by Distinguished 
Men of His Time. p. 328. 
•Ibid., 96. 

88 Charles 0. Paullin j.i.s.h.s 

lie dinners or to hold patriotic balls. He was doubtless chosen 
for such duties more often than he would have been had his 
party in his State been more numerously represented at 
Washington. He was the only Whig member of Congress 
from Illinois. It is an interesting coincidence that Lincoln 
and Stephen A. Douglas were the Representatives of Illinois 
among the managers of the National Birth-Night Ball ad- 
vertised to be held on the night of Febraary 22, 1848, and 
also among the managers of one of the balls given on the 
evening after President Taylor's inauguration. 

On February 21, 1848, John Quincy Adams received a 
stroke of paralysis in the House of Representatives, and two 
days later he died. This melancholy event led to the post- 
ponement of the birth-night ball until March 1. Lincoln was 
one of the members of the House chosen to make arrange- 
ments for Adams' funeral. He was one of the managers of 
President Taylor's inaugTiration ball, held in an "extensive 
saloon," newly built on Judiciary' Square, near the present 
Pension Office. 

It was of this entertainment that Lincoln's friend, Mr. 
E. B. Washburne wrote: 

" A small number of mutual friends — including Mr. 
Lincoln — made up a party to attend the inauguration ball 
together. It was by far the most brilliant inauguration ball 
ever given. Of course, Mr. Lincoln had never seen anything 
of the kind before. One of the most modest and unpretending 
persons present, be could not have dreamed that like honors 
were to come to him almost within a little more than a de- 
cade. He was greatly interested in all that was to be seen, 
and we did not take our departure until three or four o 'clock 
in the morning. When we went to the cloak and hat room, 
Mr. Lincoln had no trouble in finding his short cloak, which 
little more than covered his shoulders, but after a long search, 
was unable to find his hat. After an hour he gave up all idea 
of finding it. Taking his cloak on his arm he walked out in 
the Judiciary Square, deliberately adjusting it on his should- 
ers, and started off bareheaded for his lodgings. It would 
be hard to forget the sight of that taU and slim man, with his 

Vol. XIV. No. 1 

Lincoln in Congress 

short cloak thrown over his shoulders, starting for his long 
walk home on Capitol Hill at four o'clock in the morning 
without any hat on.'" 

Lincoln's career in Con,2:ress ended with the inauguration 
of Taylor in March, 1S49. Twelve years later he returned to 
the Capitol as President-elect of the United States. 

Reminiscences of Abraham Lincoln by Distinguished 



Until about the year 1898 there stood on the old "Mc- 
Grady Rutledge Farm ' ', about four miles northwest of Peters- 
burg an old log cabin that was of particular interest to Lin- 
coln historians, as in it Lincoln plead his first law case, while 
he was yet a surveyor. 

Mr. Eutledge had several years before the above date sold 
the farm to Mr. P. P. Grosboll, who still owns it and to whom 
Mr. Eutledge many times told the stoiy of "Lincoln's first 
case", of which there has been but one attempt to record. 

About 1898 Mr. Grosboll wrecked the house and used 
many of the timbers from it in the construction of a corn-crib 
which is in use today. 

McGrady Eutledge was an associate of Lincoln during 
his residence at New Salem perhaps oftener than any other 
person, especially during the time Lincoln was a deputy sur- 
veyor under Calhoun, and it was he who brought Lincoln to 
the bedside of the dying Ann Eutledge, his cousin. 

At the time of this story the cabin was occupied by one 
who was a Justice of the Peace. Lincoln was surveying in 
the neighborhood one day, young Eutledge carrying chain. 
They were to eat dinner at the house of the Justice, and upon 
arriving there they found that "court was about to open", 
the case being that of the betrayal of an orphan girl "bound" 
to a neighboring family, by a dashing young man, who was a 
nephew of the Justice. 

When the hour of the trial arrived, Lincoln noticed that 
the young man was represented by a "smart lawyer" from 
Beardstown, while the unfortunate girl had no one to plead 
her cause, not even a sympathetic friend to comfort and shield 
her from the hard stares of a curious and unsympathetic 
crowd. Lincoln's heart was touched and addressing the Court 


VOL XIV, No. 1 Reminiscences of P. P. Grosboll 91 

informed him that as yet he was not a "regular" lawyer, 
though he had been reading law, and in the absence of other 
counsel asked that he might be allowed to represent the girl. 
The Court readily assented and Lincoln held a short talk with 
her, after which the case procevjded in an orderly and perhaps 
rather discouraging manner for Lincoln's client, and in due 
time tlie pleading of the "lawj'crs" began. 

Until now, Mr. Rutledge said, it appeared the girl had 
little chance for winning. She was an orphan "bound" girl, 
not considered the "equal" of the dashing young man whose 
family was of some social prominence in the pioneer commun- 
ity, and besides, he was the nephew of the Justice. Of Lin- 
coln's address to the Court we know but little, and Mr. Rut- 
ledge always gave this solemnly and slowly, as it had been 
impressed upon his mind so many years before. 

"The reputation of this young man", said Lincoln, "is 
like a white dress which has been soiled, but can be washed 
and made white again. But the reputation of this young girl 
is like a beautiful vase that has been crushed against a rock 
and is lost forever". And Mr. Rutledge added, as he stood 
hat iu hand gazing over the old room, "In this room Abe tried 
and won his first case long before he began to practice law, 
taking, as he always did, the right side of the case". 

Perhaps but two now living know the names of the princi- 
pals, which for obvious reasons they "forget", but Lincoln's 
part in the story is but another illustration of that generosity 
of spirit and s\Tnpathy of soul he always displayed, until to- 
day the world acknowledges him to be the "Greatest Humani- 
tarian of all time, barring only one other man, he too of hmn- 
ble birth — Jesus of Nazareth". 


By N. M. Baker. 

During the reign of King James the First of England, a 
colony consisting mostly of Scotch Presbyterians, though with 
a sprinkling of Highlanders and of English, was planted in 
Ulster, Ireland. These people intermarried with each other 
and to some extent with the native Irish ; so that the Scotch- 
Irishman as known to history is a blend of the Scotch, English, 
and Irish blood, A^^th the Scotch predominating. These colon- 
ists multiplied rapidly in Ireland, and emigrated in large num- 
bers to America during the Colonial period, Philadelphia be- 
ing their principal port of entry. As the pioneers of Macon 
County were almost exclusively of this stock, it becomes a 
matter of interest to learn the route of their travel and the 
different stages of the journey. I can illustrate both of these 
points by my own ancestors. About the year 1759 my great- 
grandfather, John Martin, w^ho had just escaped from a long 
captivity among the Indians, was li\dng in Cumberland Coun- 
ty, Pennsylvania, with his wife and small son, Josiah. In 
17S0 this same John Martin was living in Lincoln County, 
North Carolina, Avhile his son Josiah, then of military age, was 
fighting the British and the Tories along the Catawba and 
Broad rivers, and at the battle of the Cowpens. John Martin 
died in North Carolma, but in 1812 we find his son, Josiah 
Martin, my grandfather, comfortably established in Ruther- 
ford County, Tennessee, with a family of two sons and six 
daughters. Josiah died in Tennessee ; but in 1828 two of his 
daughters, my mother and my aunt, with their husbands of 
the same Scotch-Irish stock, reached the Ward Settlement, in 
Macon County, Illinois, and in the spring of 1829 they built 
what I believe to have been the first cabins in what is now Long 
Creek Township. Here they lived and died at a good old age; 
but their descendants have already followed the Star of Em- 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Pioneers of Macon County 93 

pire westward to the Pacific coast, and even beyond to Hono- 

And as this John Martin found his way from Pennsyl- 
vania to North Carolina, so many others during the Colonial 
period drifted from Pennsylvania and other colonies to the 
Carolinas and Virginia. They concentrated in Mecklenburg 
County, and are said to have issued a Declaration of Inde- 
pendence preceding the immortal document of 1776. They 
did not seek the flat lands of the coast, but rather the back 
country. They were the hill men, the sturdy fighters that 
kept the field as a forlorn hope under Marion and Sumter, 
after Charleston was captured and the Carolinas over run 
by Tarleton and Ferguson. These were the backwoodsmen 
that gathered at the call of the Colonels and fought the battle 
of King's Mountain. And it was the sons of these same men 
that enabled Jackson to defeat the British at New Orleans 
on the eighth of January 1815, — Jackson, who was himself a 
Scotch-Irishman, illustrating in his own character some of the 
best, as well as some of the worst, tendencies of that stubborn 
stock. The line of emigration, then, was, during the Colonial 
period, from Pennsylvania and the neighboring colonies to 
the Carolinas and Virginia, and after the Eevolution from 
Virginia and the Carolinas into Tennessee and Kentucky and 
Georgia, and later from all these states to Illinois. 

As late as 1840 there were very few people in Macon 
County who were not from the South. Out of 189 persons who 
were here before 1840, whose records it has been possible to 
trace, forty-five were born in Kentucky, thirty-one in Ten- 
nessee, thirty in Virginia, twenty-five in North Carolina, 
seventeen in South Carolina, eleven in Ohio, seven in Marj-- 
land, five in Connecticut, three in New York, three in Indiana, 
three in Pennsylvania, two in New Hampshire, two in Ala- 
bama, one in Massachusetts, one in Georgia, two in Ireland 
and one in England. Of these 189 it will be seen that 158 were 
from the South. It has only been possible to trace the route 
by which ninety-one of these reached Macon County. Seventy 
of the ninety-one came by what may be called the Carolina- 
Tennessee-Kentuck\- route. 

These people were pioneers almost by instinct, at least 
through the inheritance from several generations of pioneer- 

94 N. M. Baker j.i.s.h.s 

ing ancestors. They were a homogeneous people, having the 
same aspirations and ideals. They were very democratic. 
There was a greater equality of condition at the first than ever 
has been since or ever will be again. Nobody was better off 
than bis neighbor. True, some men brought more money with 
them than others, and so could enter more land if they 
wanted it; but the land-hunger of most of them was satisfied 
when they had secured from 80 to 160 or 300 acres, for land 
was the cheapest and most abundant thing there was, and why 
should a man want more of it than he could make use of? 
Few had imagination enough to look forward and see the 
country filled up and fenced as it is today. Most of the pio- 
neers believed that there would be plenty of free pasturage 
on Government land in the prairies for ever and ever, amen. 
Neither was it necessary to cultivate many acres. The stock 
ran wild in the woods and prairie from spring till the snow 
flew in the fall, and it did not take much grain to feed all the 
stock necessary for family use through the Avinter. And why 
should anyone try to raise much morel For a good many 
years there was no market, no chance to sell either stock or 
grain except to suj^ply the needs of new settlers ; and these did 
not come in a flood, neither did they bring much money with 

I do not know that the hardships of the first settlers have 
been exaggerated but they have been set out in undue propor- 
tion. The real pioneers had more leisure than we, their sons 
and grandsons, have today. The head of the family built 
his house with his own liands, it is true, but it did not take 
him as long to do it as it does to get a house built now. To be 
sure, there was not at the first a foot of sawed lumber in it, 
but neither was there in the house of his neighbor, so he had 
the comfort of being in the fashion. After the few acres of 
corn were laid by, the wheat-patch harvested and tramped out, 
and the flax in the flax-pen, there was little more to do dur- 
ing the glorious months of the fall but to hunt and fish and 
visit the neighbors, and attend camp-meetings if religiously 
inclined; and horse-races and shooting-matches furnished 
plenty of excitement for those who were not. In the winter 
there was little to do but to keep wood cut to supply the all- 
consiuning open fireplaces, and to get in the small acreage of 

Vol XIV, No. 1 Pioneers of Macon County 95 

splendid corn, which, followed the southern custom, was sup- 
posed to be of course a winter job till the big snow kept nearly 
the whole crop buried till spring, and suggested the wisdom 
of an earlier harvesting. 

The first settlers had little money, and a good part of 
what they handled was of French coinage. The five franc 
piece passed for a dollar, though it was well known that it 
lacked five cents of being worth a dollar. But it was not the 
custom to be exact in making change. To be within a few 
cents of it was near enough ; indeed, to have insisted on pay- 
ment to the last penny would not have been good form, it 
simply was not done. 

These first settlers also brought with them the southern 
custom of doing business on credit, so far as they had any 
business to do. As soon as there was a sparse fringe of cabins 
along the edges of the timber, an enterprising huckster with a 
good span of horses and a two-story wagon bed traveled long 
distances, making up a load of beeswax, tallow, hides, furs, 
and live chickens, taking at the same time orders for sugar, 
tea, cotfee, and spices. The load was driven to St. Louis, the 
groceries hauled back, and when the man made his round for 
a second load he distributed the groceries in pajTuent for the 
first load. The same system was followed in the sale of hogs, 
as soon as there were hogs enough in the coiantry to make a 
drove. By agreement those from each settlement would be 
driven by their owners to a designated place. The buyer 
would be there with a pair of steelyards. Each hog would be 
sMiing up separately in a sort of leather breeching, and the 
steelyard was balanced as accurately as the kicking, struggl- 
ing, and squealing of the frightened pig would permit. In- 
deed, it is likely that they often got within from fifteen to 
twenty pounds of the real weight of the hog; but as two dol- 
lars and a half per hundred was the top price, fifteen or 
twenty pounds one way or the other were not supposed to be 
worth considering. These separate bunches of hogs wei'e then 
collected, and the whole drove taken on foot to St. Louis, but 
nobody expected any pay till the drover got back with the 
money. This custom was continued without question till one 
sad day the drover actually returned, (which was a wonder), 
but Whout the money ! This was a disaster to a good many 

96 N. M. Baker J- 1 s. h. s. 

people, but a good thing nevertheless, for it put an end once 
for all to this buying of stock in a wholesale way on credit. 

Of course the shooting-matches and horse races of the 
south were imported with the people. The prize in the shoot- 
ing-match was usually a fat cow. Each contestant had as 
many shots as he was willing to pay for. The four highest 
scorers each took a quarter of the beef, the fifth the hide and 
tallow, and the sixth the lead cut out of the tree against which 
the boards containing the marks were set. There was a 
race track in the river bottom, near the foot of the hill on the 
west side of the river, just south of the road leading to the 
bridge at the Spangler Mill place. It was a straight course. 
The racing horses were the cormnon farm stock. Cows and 
other animals wagered on these races would be driven to an 
enclosure and put in charge of a stake-holder before the race, 
and the loser's contingent honorably turned over to the win- 
ner after the judges had declared the result. There was con- 
siderable whisky consumed on these occasions, and sometimes 
there was Avhat Avould now be called a rough-house. Doubt- 
less the whisky was good so far as whisky can be good, for it 
was home-made, like nearly everything else. There was a 
"still-house" near a little spring on the east side of the river, 
about halfAvay between the Cowford and Spangler bridges, 
and the distiller was a genuine Kentuckian who advertised 
his owTi liquor by being a liberal consumer of the same. 

There is an old saying that if a Scotchman who is re- 
ligiously inclined is set do\vn in a new place anj-Avhere in the 
world, his first aspiration is for a church and his second for 
a schoolhouse near by it; and this is still characteristic of a 
Scotchman even though modified by a sojourn in Ireland. 
Many, if not most, of the Scotch-Irish of Virginia and the 
Carolinas were Presbyterians by inheritance, and that of the 
straightest sect, but during their stay in Tennessee and Ken- 
tucky they were mightily stirred by the historic revival of 
1800. Some of their ministers broke away from the old hard 
doctrines of election and reprobation, preached free-will and 
a salvation offered in the same sense to every man, and they 
also encouraged displays of emotion that, according to the 
old standards, were not seemly. There were ecclesiastical 
difficulties, the heresy hunter was abroad, and as a result an 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Pioneers of Macon County 97 

independent Presbji;erian Church was organized in 1810, pre- 
lixing the word Cumberland as a distinguishing mark because 
they were in the Cumberland country. So it was this modi- 
fied Presbyterianism that came to Macon County with the 
pioneers from Tennessee and Kentucky. 

We have a striking example of the influence of person- 
ality in the fact that the first settler often fixed many of the 
characteristics of the neighborhood, moral and social, for 
years to come. The spaces were very wide and empty ; people 
of similar feelings and faiths and practices were inclined to 
draw together for mutual encouragement and support. And 
so the country churches as they exist in this county to- 
day are mostly monuments to the religious faith and upright 
living of the men and women who first settled there. This 
is equally true as at Mt. Zion, where a village has grown 
up about a country church. The Ward settlement was a 
mixed community, part Baptists and part Cumberland Pres- 
byterians, and so there is a Baptist church and a Presbyterian 
church there today. The Methodists concentrated about Mt. 
Giliad, Long Creek, and the village of Decatur; the followers 
of Alexander Campbell near Harristown and at Antioch and 
the Cumberland Presbyterians at Mt. Zion, Bethlehem, Madi- 
son, North Fork, and Friend's Creek. There are living con- 
gregations of these denominations at all these places today, 
except that the Mt. Giliad church has been moved to Elwin 
and the Friend's Creek church to Argenta. Of course the 
prefix Cumberland has been dropped from these Presbyter- 
ian churches since the reunion with the mother church in 190fi. 

The Methodists and Cumberland Presbyterians brought 
with them not only their denominational faiths, but also one 
of the agencies which had had a large part in adding to their 
numbers in Kentucky and Tennessee. The pioneers main- 
tained five camp-grounds in Macon County; one at Mt. Giliad 
for the Methodists, and for the Cumberland Presbyterians at 
Mt. Zion, Bethlehem, North Fork, and Friend's Creek. These 
camp-grounds were permanent, the camps remaining and oc- 
cupied by the same families from year to year. "When the 
set time arrived the people of the community left their homes 
on Friday morning and took possession of their camps. All 

98 N. M. Baker j.i.s.h.s. 

business was forgotten, and during Friday, Saturday, Sun- 
day and Monday, services were held day and night. Usually 
after a short service Tuesday morning camp was brokeji, 
and the people returned home, though often when the inter- 
est seemed to require it the meeting was continued over 
another Sunday. These camp meetings supplied a real gos- 
pled need. The people lived so far apart that they could not 
attend a series of meetings and return home between services. 
The only chance for a protracted meeting was to come to the 
ground and stay there till the meetings closed, and people 
did come from twenty miles or more ; some in covered wagons, 
in which case they lodged themselves in and under the wagon, 
and many others on horseback, trusting to the hospitality of 
the campers. Pasturage and grain were provided for the 
horses, and everybody was fed and lodged. All this enter- 
tainment was free as the air of heaven, as free as the gospel 
that was being preached ; and be it said to the honor of the 
pioneers, of all religious and of no religion at all, that this lav- 
ish hospitality was but little imposed upon, for there were 
no tramps, no "Weary Willies" in those days. It must not 
be overlooked that these camp meetings also served a social 
need. People met who had not seen each other for a year; 
old acquaintances were renewed and new acquaintances were 

We have said that a Scotchman's first aspiration is for a 
church and his second for a school. It was so in this case. 
The subscription schools were irregular and unsatisfactory, 
and even after New England influences succeeded in secur- 
ing the adoption of the Free School system in this state in 
1855, the schools were very poor. How poor, a concrete ex- 
ample will illustrate. It was the arithmetic class; the prob- 
lem was in square root, the pupils had failed to solve it. 
The teacher also failed, and it was put over till the nest day. 
When it came up the second time, no progress having been 
made, the teacher decided that, though the solution reached 
was not right, it was near enough right to do, and let it go at 
that! Faced by these conditions, the good people of Mt. 
Zion, the real pioneers who were still living taking the lead, 
determined to establish a school where the Humanities could 

Vol XIV, No. 1 Pioneers of Macon County 99 

be taught. In spirit it was a church school from its inception, 
though not legally so. A Joint-stock Company was formed, 
members of all the Cumberland Presbyterian churches in the 
county taking stock, as did also liberal-minded Methodists 
and men of no church at all. These stock-holders put up a 
frame building, advertised the school, employed a Principal; 
and with the forks and poles of the old Camp-ground arbor 
still in place on the campus, the first term was opened in the 
fall of 1856. This frame building was soon burned, and one 
term of the Academj' was taught in the church, wliile the 
stock-holders, with commendable energy, were erecting a brick 
building in place of the frame. Having got the school well 
under way, the stockholders turned it over as a free gift to the 
Decatur Presbytery of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, 
and it thus became in law a church school, as it had been in 
spirit from the first. For sixteen years this school prospered 
and did a splendid work, drawing its students from Decatur 
and the surrounding country, from Montgomery and Bond 
counties, from wherever, in fact, Cumberland Presbyterian 
churches had been established. So I must claim for the 
Scotch-Irish pioneers from Kentucky and Tennessee the 
honor of establishing the very first school in Macon County 
where the higher mathematics, the sciences, and Latin and 
Greek were taught. 

In Smith's History of Macon County it is asserted that 
this Academy ultimately failed because of the establishing of 
Lincoln LTniversity, (now Lincoln College) in Logan County. 
I have never thought so. It ceased to exist because it was no 
longer needed. Under the Free School law. High Schools 
were opened in Decatur and in the surrounding towns, offer- 
ing practically the same courses of study. Mt. Zion Academy 
had bridged a gap ; it had given to at least one generation of 
the boys and girls of Macon and surrounding counties oppor- 
tunities that without it they would not have had. It was not 
killed by Lincoln College, it did not fail in the usual sense of 
that word. It ceased to function because its work was done, 
and well done. 

Such, then, were the real pioneers, such their habits and 
customs, such the conditions in Macon Count}' as shaped by 

100 N. M. Baker J- 1 s. h. s. 

them; and these conditions were but little modified by immi- 
gration from any other source till after the railroads were 
built in 1854. Decatur may have felt the influence of eastern 
immigration before that time, but the surrounding country 
hardly at all. After the timber land was taken up, and a strip 
of prairie a mil« or so wide along its edges, things in the coun- 
try stood stationaiy for several years, except that the original 
cabins mostly gave way to hewn log and frame houses. Dur- 
ing this period of arrested development, some attempts were 
made to get the surplus products of the country to a distant 
market. Emigrants from Norway and Sweden had formed 
a considerable settlement in Wisconsin, and were in need of 
milch cows, for home use and to give them a start of domes- 
tic stock. Cows that could be bought here for from sis to 
ten dollars could be sold there for thirty or forty dollars. So 
a considerable drove was collected, and as soon as the grass 
was sufficiently grovm in the spring was started on the long 
northern journey, grazing by the way. After reaching the 
Scandinavian settlement, the diminishing drove had to be 
herded while it was gradually distributed, an animal or two to 
each individual purchaser. When the young cowboys, who 
did not wait for the selling of the herd, returned, (they wallied 
all the way), they told wonderful stories of the bull-snakes 
they had seen, of the Tamarack swamps, and of the half- 
tmclerground houses covered with sods, a style of architecture 
quite unknown on this part of the frontier. From the nature 
of the case, however, this was but a temporary demand and 
was soon supplied. 

The possibilities of the Sangamon river as a water way 
were also tried. I do not think that it is mentioned either 
in Smith's history of the county, or in Mrs. Johns' recollec- 
tions ; but at least two flat-boats were built in this county and 
sent dowTi the Sangamon. One was built near Decatur, and 
I think it was loaded with bacon by Peddecord and Armstrong. 
The other was built near Spangler's mill and freighted, I 
think, with flour and meal and corn in the ear. This seems 
hardly probable, but my memory will hold it that way. There 
were no com shellers then ; and besides, I could go now to the 
place on the river bank where the pen was built and the com 

Vol. XIV. No. 1 Pioneers of Macoti County 101 

hauled and stored in it, waiting to be loaded when a sufficient 
rise in the river should enable the boat to start on its down- 
stream journey. I infer that these efforts to reach a market 
by water met with difficulties and were not very profitable; 
at least Ihey do not seem to have been repeated. 

The railroads, The Great Western, now the Wabash, and 
the Illinois Central, and the Free Scliool law of this state 
came into operation at aboiit the same time. Either alone 
would have changed conditions, both together produced some- 
thing of an upheaval. People liegan to come in of a different 
stock, with different habits and different standards. Penn- 
sylvania, during the Colonial period, was the goal not only 
of the Scotch-Irish; it also received a large contingent from 
the Palatinate and the neighboring Duchies and principalities 
of Gennany. These at first were mostly of the persecuted 
sects, dissenters from the established church, — Mennonites, 
Brethern of the Unity, and various others. Later, but still 
in the Colonial period, there was a considerable influx of ad- 
herents of the Lutheran and German Reformed churches. 
Some of these people remained and prospered in Pennsyl- 
vania, some found their way into the Shenandoah valley of 
Virginia, and from there to Ohio. Between 1854 and 1860 
they came to this county in considerable numbers, bringing 
with them their traditional love of the soil, their habits of 
thrift and industry, the Lutheran church, and also some of the 
dissenting sects that had their origin in Europe and that have 
})ersisted with little change since the Thirty Years War, — 
the Amish, the Dunkards, and the United Brethern, formed 
in this country by a union of two German sects. The names 
of the ministers of these churches at any roll call would clearly 
indicate the German ancestry of most of them. This was a 
very valuable addition to the population of the county, and 
all the more so because the most of them located their homes 
according to individual choice, without any attempt to draw 
together in colonies or to maintain their own language, and 
so were readily absorbed into the general citizenship. Some 
exception to this must be made in the case of the Dunkards, 
or Church of the Brethern, who have formed a considerable 
settlement in the northeastern part of the county, and retain 

102 N. M. Baker j.i.s.h.s. 

their peculiarities of dress and their attitude of passive sub- 
mission to, rather than active support of, the civil govern- 
ment. Also, a number of families came direct from Germany 
about 1853, and settled near together in what is now Blue 
Mound township. They organized a German Methodist 
Church which is still supported by their descendants, and the 
services in this church have been continuously held in the 
German language till the late war made the use of German 
unpopular. Another line of German immigration into the 
county was along the Illinois Central railroad. This road, 
in its construction through this part of the country, employed 
mainly German workmen, many of whom remained and be- 
came permanent residents of the county. The same, I think, is 
true of the Irish, who were employee! in building the Great 
Western road, now the Wabash. Few of these settled in the 
country districts, but Decatur owes many of its Irish families 
to this source. During these same years, many people from 
new England and other Eastern states found their way into 
Macon County, but we have but one "Yankee Colony." In 
1858 a dozen or more families from New Hampshire settled 
in mini township, bringing the Congregational church, a bit 
of the New England atmosphere, and the New England thrift 
along with them. 

This inflow of population stimulated business every- 
where. The vast bodies of government land in the prairies, 
that had found no takers at a dollar and a quarter an acre, 
had fallen to the Illinois Central railroad, and were being 
rapidly taken up from it on easy terms, but at a largely in- 
creased price. This prairie land was being quickly put under 
the plow, and frame houses and little groves began to dot what 
had been for ages the treeless prairies. There was also an 
increased activity along the edges of the timber. The pioneers 
found it worthwhile to increase their cultivated acres, not 
so much from the example of the new comers, though doubt- 
less that had its influence, but because there was now a market. 
What they did not need they could sell. There was more 
money in circulation, and barter and credit as the way of 
ordinary business mostly went out together. Even the old 
settlers began to receive and to pay the last penny in the 
settlement of a debt without protest ! 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Pioneers of Macon County 103 

The rich prairie lands, and the prospect of business in 
the thriving stations on the railroads, were the lures that 
brought most of this new immigration; but this was not all. 
School districts were being formed, and schoolhouses were 
being built, and the young men and young women of New 
England were prompt to come in and take possession. As a 
rule these were not experienced teachers. Many of them 
were narrow and provincial in their New Englandisms. Any- 
body from the east was supposed to be able to teach a west- 
ern school. The scholars they found were many of them 
young man and young women, anything over six and under 
twenty-one ; these young people were also narrow and provin- 
cial and proud, and not to be patronized by anybodj'. This 
brought two different civilizations, or at least two social ord- 
ers, into very close personal relations, sometimes with sur- 
prising resiilts. On first contact, it was apparent that teacher 
and pupils spoke different dialects of the English language. 
It had a queer sound, and each felt that the difference was a 
fault in the other that ought to be corrected. It is impossible 
to speak in general terms of the various points of view that 
had to be adjusted, but here is an illustration. A young 
teacher from New England was standing with some of the 
larger boys on the playground in front of a country school- 
house, when he suddenly asked, "Boys, what town is this?" 
The boys looked at him in astonishment, then the one who 
first found his tongue answered, "Town? Why, this isn't 
any town at all, it's the country!" TN^iich was very obvious. 
To the boys it seemed that the teacher had asked a foolish 
question ; to the teacher, the boys had seemed to give a foolish 
answer. Each knew the institutions of his own home county, 
but neither was broad enough to realize that those same in- 
stitutions did not necessarily prevail everywhere else. The 
teacher was thinking of the town as a political entity, the 
basis of one form of county government. But as we at that 
time had never had that sort of local government, and did not 
adopt it till 1860, the only idea the boys had of a town was 
a collection of houses. And so in many things the self assur- 
ance of these teachers as well as of these scholars had to be 
toned down a little. But there were good teachers as well as 

104 N. M. Baker j.i.s.h.s. 

poor ones, and as time went on the difference between Yankee 
or Southern or native born became less noticeable, or at least 
was less noticed. We were growing into something like a 
homogenous people when the fires of the Civil War quickly 
burned out all distinctions as to place of birth, and threw 
the people into the new alignments of loyal or disloyal, Union 
League or Knight of the Golden Circle. 

I will not attempt to tell the story of the developments 
during and since the Civil War, or the effect on conditions 
in the couaty of the arrival from Southern Europe of Greeks, 
Italians, Slovaks, and Lithuanians. Indeed, the processes 
of the melting-pot have not yet gone far enough to assure us 
as to what the result will be. It may be worth while to devote 
a little time to the question that has been raised, whether 
Eastern or Southern men have had most influence in moulding 
the countj^ into that Avhich it now is. 

Among the men of energy and public spirit who have 
started enterprises that have been profitable to themselves 
and beneficial to the public, some were from New York, some 
from Pennsylvania, some from Ohio, and some from Vir- 
ginia and the South. Jasper Peddecord, who started the first 
reliable bank in Decatur, was born in Maryland, and his as- 
sistant, Lowber Burrows, was from New England. The sec- 
ond reliable bank was founded by James Millikin, from Penn- 
sylvania, and his partner, Jerome R. Gorin, was born in 
Kentucky^ So the honors here seem to be even. The only 
man, so far as I know, who ever went to the United States 
Senate from this county, Eichard J. Oglesby, was bom in 
Kentucky. Of the five men from this coimty who rose to be 
Generals during the Civil War, two, Oglesby and Isaac Pugh, 
were born in Kentucky. G. A. Smith was born in Pennsyl- 
vania, and Jesse H. ]\loore in Illinois, but both of southern 
parentage; and the fifth, Herman Lieb, in Switzerland. As 
to beneficial improvements in the county outside of Decatur, 
the proprietor of Sjiangler's Avater mill was bom in Pennsyl- 
vania. This mill was built about 1840. I have failed to learn 
when Maffit 's mill was built, or from whence the Maffits came. 
The first threshing machine brought into the eastern part of 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Pioneers of Macon County 105 

the county was operated by John Bell, who was born in Ten- 
nessee. This machine threshed tlie grain, but the chaff and 
straw had to be separated by hand afterward. This must 
have been about 184(). The second thresher was run by a 
man named ]\Ialson, from Kentucky. It cleaned as well as 
threshed the grain, but the wheat was fed to it with such ex- 
treme care and caution that it took all day to thresh one hun- 
dred bushels. This, however, was a great accomplishment 
compared with tramping it out with horses and cleaning it 
with a hand-power fanning mill. This same man ran a circu- 
lar saw-mill with the same horse-power that ran the thresher, 
the first circular saw, I think, at least on the east side of the 
river. In these local matters that bettered conditions in the 
county, men born in the south and in the east seem to have had 
well nigh an equal share. 

But I cannot say as much as to those larger benefits that 
have come to this county in common with tbe other counties 
of the state, through acts of Congress and the State Legis- 
lature. Macon County is not far from the northern limit of 
the territory which was overflowed by this early invasion from 
the south. The real pioneers of the northern part of the state 
were mostly from the east ; and besides this, all through the 
soiithern part of Illinois there were professional men from 
the east, especially lawyers, who were active politicians and 
frequently rose to prominence and positions of influence. Lin- 
coln and Douglas, one born in the south, the other in the east., 
were rivals in Illinois for many years. Lincoln attained the 
higher office, but before that time Douglas exerted more in- 
fluence over legislation than he. To Douglas we largely owe 
the land-grant that secured the building of the Illinois Cen- 
tral railroad, to the great benefit of the county. The prime 
mover in securing the acts of Congress which made ]iossible 
the establishing of agricultural colleges in this and other 
states was Jonathan B. Turner, an eastern man. The division 
of the county into towns for purposes of local self govem- 
nu'iit came from New England, thonnh in this case it had to 
be adopted by a majority vote of the people, to which they 
wore not persuaded until some years after the legislature 
had passed the enabling act. And" the whole idea of the Free 

106 N. M. Baker j.i.s.h.s. 

School system as we now have it, bears all the marks of east- 
ern rather than southern influence. In these larger things, 
then, I must conclude, though with some degree of reluctance, 
that the influence of eastern men had predominated. But let it 
never be forgotten that so far as Macon County is concerned, 
the pavers of the way, the tamers of the wilderness, the real 
pioneers, were of Scotch-Irish blood, the descendants of the 
men who rescued the Carolinas from the grasp of the British, 
and to a great extent made Yorktown possible. 


By Mrs. Joseph C. Dole. 

History has aptly been called the camera through which 
we may view the events of countries and of peoples. The 
noble deeds of the soldiers and statesmen are recorded to 
stand as a monument to them and as an illustrious example 
for our emulation. 

The events of historj^ in general, then, are of greatest in- 
terest to us who come after. But of how much more value 
to us are the events which constitute the annals of our o\\ti 
home county and immediate ancestors! A history of Coles 
County is a pa^rt of the historj" of America. Local intelligence, 
wealth, prosperity make up a part of our national wealth and 
material greatness. The patriotism and self-sacrifice of our 
pioneers, the bravery and prowess of our soldiers, the high 
character of our statesmen are no small part of the pride and 
glory of our nation. In order to understand this period it is 
necessary to turn back the pages of the history of our County 
to the very first records that are kno\\-n and also to study the 
geography of this section. The present territory of our 
county was formerly a part of the State of Virginia, under 
the Royal Charter "From sea to sea" grants. Virginia in 
1784 ceded this territor>^ to the United States and this region 
was called the North West Territory. Thus Coles County 
comes of noble ancestry. When Ohio became a state Illi- 
nois was made a part of Indiana Territory, and in 1809 the 
tract of land comprising the present State of Illinois was 
organized into a separate teiTitoiy. It was composed at 
that time of two counties, St. Clair and Randolph. Shortly 
aftei^wards Madison County was set off from St. Clair and 
Crawford County sot off from Madison. By the time Illinois 
was received into statehood — 1818 — there were fifteen coun- 
ties. Crawford County was named for William H. Cra^-ford, 

108 Mrs. Joseph C. Dole J- 1- S- h. s. 

Secretary of the Treasury under Madison and Monroe; He 
was an honest man. Later he was a candidate for the presi- 
dency in 1824 when Jackson was elected. In 1819, the year 
following Illinois' admission to statehood, Clark County was 
formed. It was named in honor of George Rogers Clark, a 
native of A^irginia and a famous pioneer warrior. About 
twenty-five years before Illinois was organized into a terri- 
tory, Clark performed a great service to the civilization of 
the" central west. A greater achievement than Avas that of 
Napoleon leading a great anny across the Alps, which was 
so applauded by "the world ! Clark organized an army, all on 
his own initiative, and, Avith practically no funds, marched 
across the Alleghany Mountains which were then the barrier 
that protected the Atlantic colonies from the terrors of the 
Indians and French and later the English. He had never 
seen a steamboat nor heard of the railway train but he did 
understand Avar and the transportation of an army, so he 
built rafts and on them came dovra the Ohio to where Shaw- 
neetoAvn, Illinois noAV stands, then by difficult marches through 
swamps and marshes, across country to Kaskaskia on the 
Mississippi River and captured that important post from the 
British. Then he marched across the barren, marshy prairie 
to Vincennes, A\-hich he captured from the British, again, thus 
changing the oAvnership of all this territory in which lie our 
state and our county. Coles County Avas set off from Clark 
County in 1830. It embraced in its territory then what is now 
Cumberland and Douglas as Avell. It was named in honor of 
Edward Coles, second governor of the state, elected in 1822. 
As a general rule, it is said not to be safe to name a child or a 
county for any man yet living, even though he may be as wise 
as the sages, for one knoAvs not hoAv soon he may fall. But in 
the case of Coles County's name sake, he died with a name un- 
tarnished, a name fit to give to any county. He was a nati\'e 
of Virginia and a large slave oAAner. "Wlien he came to Illi- 
nois he brought his slaves AAdth him. Because he loved liberty 
he set them all free when he arrived here and gaA^e to each 
head of a family one hundred and sixty acres of land, thus 
complying Avith the law at that time that a freed-man must be 
self-supporting. The former 0A\Tier also gave bond that the 
ex-slaA^e Avould never become a public charge. To this last 

Vol. XIV. No. 1 Pioneer Days in Coles County 109 

wholly unreasonable and impossible reciuirement, Mr. Coles 
would not agree, so he was fined $2,()U0.00, but was never 
forced to pay it. By his action regarding slavery he shaped 
the destiny of our state in the matter of whether it should be 
free or slave. Coles County when organized in 1830, was 
twenty-eight miles east and west and about fifty miles north 
and south. At present it is bounded on the north by Douglas, 
on the west by Shelby and Moultrie, on the south by Cumber- 
land and on the east by Clark and Edgar. 

When Coles County was set off from Clark the latter was 
unwilling to give up a certain poi'tion of its count}' and in- 
habitants to the new county, and a settlement of energetic 
and progressive people; this accounts for the "jog" in the 
southeast corner of the county. In the northeast comer of 
the county there is another "jog," which was made to retain 
the village of Oakland, in Coles County, when Douglas was 
foi-m<?d. This village was regarded as having a splendid out- 
look for growth and development so Coles County was un- 
willing to give it up and the people of Oakland were unwilling 
to east in their lot with the new county. 

Treating Coles Coimty from a geographical standpoint, 
it is situated in latitude 40 north and in longitude 11 west 
from Washington and embraces about five hundred square 
miles. Its surface is gently rolling forming a beautiful pla- 
teau about 800 feet above "the gulf of Mexico. It is largely 
prairie and constitutes a part of what is kno^\^l as the Grand 
Prairie, one of the richest sections in the Mississippi Vallej'. 
The origin of our prairie land has been the source of much re- 
search. One theory is that the soil resulted from the de- 
composition of vegetable matter under water together with 
the fact that conditions here were not favorable to the growth 
of timber. At the close of the glacial period in the earth's 
fomiation, the most southern edge of the glacier came to just 
about the middle of the county and when the glacier began 
to melt and recede it left a rich residue of alluvial soil. This 
accounts for the different soil in the south and southeast part 
of the county. An immense amount of water was left on the 
soil when the glacier melted and although the draining of 
this county has gone on continuously since by means of our 
streams, evaporation and seepage into the soil, as well as by 

110 Mrs. Joseph C. Dole J- 1- S- h. s. 

artificial systems of drainage, our county is yet far from be- 
ing sufficiently Avell and evenly drained for the growing of the 
largest possible crops. The soil of our prairie land is deep, 
rich and productive on "which the original prairie grass grew 
very rank, higher than a man's head. As a rule the prairie 
occupied the higher ground and the timber, the low land along 
the streams, although there are exceptions to this. The va- 
rities of timber are numerous, all kinds of oak, walnut, birch, 
ehn, sugar trees, cottonwood and hackberry. 

Speaking of sugar trees I would like to quote a stanza 
found in Davidson's old history of Illinois: 

"The timber here is very good, 

The forest trees are sturdy wood. 

The maple trees its sweets atfords. 

The wahiut, it is sawed in boards. 

The giant oak the axman hails, 

Its massive trunk is turned to rails. 

And game is plenty in the State 

Which makes the hunter's chances great. 

The prairie wolf infests the land 

And the wild cats all bristling stand." 

In settling this country timber was regarded as a very 
important possession, so every settler bought a portion of 
timber land, although often times it was far removed from his 
prairie farm home. At one time timber land sold for more 
than prairie land. 

There are but two streams large enough to be called riv- 
ers in this portion of the country, namely the Embarrass and 
the Kaskaskia. The latter is known in this section as the 
Okaw because the early French settlers, who gave it the name 
of Kaskaskia, very early began to shorten it to "Kas", pro- 
nounced "Kaw", and, after the French habit, they prefixed 
the article "Au", so it became "Au Kas" and the later Amer- 
ican settlers naturally spelled it "Okaw". A coincidence is 
that the Ambraw, the American pronunciation of the French, 
"Embarrass," enters the Wabash Eiver near Vincennes, 
which was captured by General Clark and the Okaw flows into 
the Mississippi near the old trading post of Kaskaskia, which 

Vol. XIV. No. 1 Pioneer Days in Coles County 111 

was also taken by General Clark. The Ambraw rises in 
Champaign County and flows through Douglas and Coles 
forming the dividing line in Coles County between Morgan 
and Oakland, Charleston and Ashmore towTiships and Pleas- 
ant Grove and Hutton Townships. 

Before the days of railways, an old statute of Illinois de- 
clared the Ambraw navigable and numerous vessels were 
built at Blakman's Mill just south of Charleston. They were 
freight boats and carried the surplus products of the coun- 
try to the New Orleans market. AH kinds of fish abound in 
the Ambraw River. The Okaw flows through Okaw Township 
in the northeast part of the county. It too was lawfully 
navigable in the pioneer period but it was, and is, a dull, slug- 
gish and muddy stream. There are two other streams not 
large enough to be called rivers which have their source within 
the county, namely: the Little "VVabash and the Kickapoo, 
both named with Indian names. They begin near each other 
but the Wabash flows southwest and the Kickapoo oast. There 
is also a small creek in Morgan township called Greasy 
Creek, getting its name in a notorious fashion. In pioneer 
days, hogs were allowed to run in the timber to fatten on the 
oak mast and many were stolen and butchered although be- 
fore turning the hogs out in the open, the o^\■ners gave them 
certain ear marks to identify them. So when they were stolen 
and butchered, the thieves destroyed the heads by throwing 
them into this creek. On one occasion a band of these pioneer 
pork packers were overtaken at work scalding them in order 
to remove the hair but strange to say, all the hogs had first 
been decapitated ! To explain this unusual proceeding they 
said "they never could get a good scald on a hog while his 
head was on ' '. This became a local saying to typify a crooked 
deal of any kind. 

In Ashmore Township is another small stream which 
was named as a result of circumstances. A new comer in the 
neighborhood had an encounter with a certain kind of eat 
which lived in great numbers along this creek and this man 
was so overwhelmed with the success of the little animal's de- 
fense that he buried his clothes on the battle ground and 
christened the creek by the name of the Pole Cat, 

112 Mrs. Joseph C. Bole J- 1- S- h. s. 

In this county there are mimerous groves separated 
fi-om the main timber. What circumstances gave rise to their 
growth and how long they have been growing, is not known. 
Dodge Grove in Mattoon To^\^lship, about two miles north 
of the City, takes its name from the following legend : There 
was a family named AMiitley living near it who owned a race 
mare named "Dodge Filly". They took her to Springiield 
once, and having no money, staked the filly herself on the race 
and lost. They did not want to give her up so they brought 
her home secretly and hid her in this grove and although her 
new owners and the officers of the law searched for her they 
did not find her. Hence the name of the grove. Deadman's 
G-rove is in Lafayette Township on the north branch of Kicka- 
poo, took its name from the fact that a man named Coffman, 
living in the neighborhood, was found frozen to death in it 
in March, 1826. The corpse was found sittmg at the base of 
a tree with his horse's bridle thrown over the shoulder. Sam- 
uel Kellogg is reported to have carried the body on horse 
back without coffin or escort to the Parker settlement on the 
Ambraw, south of Charleston, for inquest and burial. 

Seven miles northwest of Charleston in Seven Hickory 
Township standing out in the open prairie, were seven hickory 
trees. This Avas very unusual because the hickory tree was 
not elsewhere found on the open prairie. The original trees 
long since have gone but a numerous progeny remain. 

In Humboldt Township near the village of Humboldt 
there is a small stream called Plat Branch. This was form- 
erly a camping ground of the Indians and their ponies at« the 
prairie grass, allowing the blue grass to spring up in its place. 
This then became the first blue grass patch in the county, and 
the grove there was so named "Blue Brass". 

The Drj" Grove is about four miles south of Mattoon and 
has borne that name from time immemorial. It is supposed 
to have been named by the first settler in a dry season. Buck 
Grove near Dry Grove gained its name from the numerous 
deer killed by the pioneers in this \-icinity. 

In the southern part of the county in Pleasant Grove 
Township is a tract called Goose Nest Prairie. About 1827 
a person named Jonah Marshall, seeing this fertile and at- 

Vol. XIV. No. 1 Pioneer Days in Coles County 113 

tractive region for the first time and probably thinking of the 
peculiar richness of a goose's egg exclaimed in an up-lifted 
voice "This is the verj^ goose nest". Just west is a point 
of timber known as Muddy Point, so called for its mud. An- 
other prairie is Parker's Prairie in the east part south of 
Charleston, named after George Parker its original settler. 

Prior to 1824 what is now kno^\^l as Coles County was a 
wilderness uninhabitated by civilized men. In 1824 the first 
settlement was made in the county by some pioneers from 
Crawford County on the Wabash where they had lived many 
years building forts, living in them and fighting the Indians. 
They were John Parker and his five sons and their families 
and Samuel Kellogg and his wife j\Iaiy, in all fourteen per- 
sons. They were from Tennessee originally and of the sturd- 
iest pioneer stock. The first house in Coles County was built 
by Benjamin Parker on the east bank of the Ambraw just 
east of and opposite the place where Blakman's mill was in 
what is now Hutton Township. It was a rude affair but 
nevertheless sufficient to turn the rain, break the force of the 
sun's burning rays and resist the chiUing blasts of winter. 
It consisted of a parlor, dining room and kitchen, and hed- 
rooms sufficient for fourteen persons. The walls were of un- 
hewn logs, the roof was made of clapboards weighted with 
poles instead of being nailed, the chimney was made of mud 
and sticks, the floor of puncheons neither he^\•n nor planed. 
The help to raise this cabin came from their old home in 
Crawford County, sixty miles away. They made it a social 
gathering and the women had a quilting at the same time. 
In the afternoon the men engaged in wrestling and other 
athletic sports. John Parker the ancestor of all these Parkers 
was a soldier in the Revolution as were almost, all of the 
settlers and their immediate ancestors. In the Fall of 1824 
Seth Bates and his sons and step sons, Levi and Samuel Doty, 
came to Coles County and settled the next S]iring in what, is 
now Lafayette Township, on the Kickapoo. Others came and 
started a mill and a tan yard there. Samuel Frost came to 
this settlement soon after and was the first merchant in the 
county and also carried the first mail through th-e county 
from Paris to Vandalia. There was an old trail leading from 

114 Mrs. Joseph C. Dole J- 1- s- h. s. 

Paris north to Danville and north from there to Detroit and 
on the south, as far as Vandalia, thus passing through Coles 
County where the state road now runs. In 1825 the present 
township of Ashmore Avas settled by the Dudley family who 
traced their line of ancestiy back to Robert Dudley, Earl 
of Lester who figured conspicuously during the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth of England. 

In what is now Pleasant Grove Township, the first settle- 
ment was made in 1829, on Goose Nest Prairie. Reverend 
Daniel Barham and sons witli Thomas Barker put up the first 
cabin. What is now Morgan Township was not settled until 
1830 when three families, the McAllisters, Clarks and Camp- 
bell, made a settlement on the west side of the Ambraw 
near Greasy Creek. These families had to go over into Ed- 
gar County to mill and to send their children to school. Mrs. 
Clark once spent eight weeks alone in her home during the 
winter of 1830 Avith sis small children, among the wolves and 
panthers, while her husband went east to the settlements for 

The territory now embraced in Oakland Township was 
settled first in 1829 by Samuel Ashmore, the Winklers and 
Hoskins families coming with him and making a settlement 
on Brushy Fork. At this time this was the only place in the 
county where the Indians had a village or trading post, but 
they and the white settlers are reported to have all lived in 
harmony together. 

The first settlement in what is now Charleston Township, 
was made in 1826 by Enoch Glassco and sons and J. Y. Bro-wn. 
They settled about a mile north of the present City of Charles- 
ton. The next year the Parkers came from their settlement 
on the Ambraw and settled on what is now part of the City 
of Charleston. Charles Morton came to this settlement about 
this time and first had a mill, but later opened a store and 
became the most enterprising merchant of the county. He 
lived on what is now the Decker farm and the settlement at 
Charleston was named for him. Hutton To^wnship was set- 
tled in 1824 or 1825 by John Hutton. In 1826 a settlement 
was made by some of the Parkers on what is now known as 
Parker's Prairie south of Charleston. Some time in the vear 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Pioneer Days in Coles County 115 

1826 a settlement was made at Wabash point in the present 
township of Paradise. The first white settler was Daniel 
Drake, the next were the Hart family. In this Wabash Point 
settlement they were a law unto thenisclves and they tolerated 
no disorder in their midst. When anyone committed a misde- 
meanor, they organized a court and tried the culprit, a jury 
rendered a verdict and the punishment was carried out. On 
one occasion a man was caught trying to steal anothers cow- 
hide and potatoes ; a court was at once organized with Thomas 
Hart as Judge, Silas Hart, attorney for tlie defendant and 
William Higgins and others, jurors. The trial resulted in 
a verdict of guilty and the punishment was fixed at twenty- 
nine lashes and banishment from the settlement and it was 
carried out. In 1826 Charles Sawj'er, a native of Kentuclvy, 
made the first settlement in the southern part of what is now 
Mattoon Township. He came first to the home of the True 
family, who lived in what is now Lafayette Township, looked 
about him for a suitable place to settle and selected a place 
on the Little Wabash on the north side of the timber. He 
hired a man named Bates from the True Settlement to build 
a cabin for him while he returned to Kentucky for his family. 
This cabin was the first white man's house built within the 
bounds of either Mattoon or Paradise ToA\Tiships. His 
brother, John Sawyer, came the next year and their cabins 
both stood in Section Twenty-eight of Mattoon To-\\mship. 

The homo and vicinity of Charles Sawy^er was the center 
of the settlement. It was the camping ground for all comers 
until they could build a cabin for themselves. He was the 
friend of all who came, a devout earnest Christian, a Metho- 
dist and was the first to aid in planting that church at this 
settlement. Tlie next year James Graham and fmnily came 
and located a little east of Charles Saw>'er. Mr. Graham was 
the local Methodist preacher of commendable zeal and an 
earnest christian man being widely knovm as one of the most 
able of the pioneer ministers of the west side of our county. 
Soon after, Elisha Linder came from Kentucky with his 
mother, two sisters and one brother and settled south of and 
adjoining Charles Sa^^Ter and Reverend Graham. Later, 
in 18r!2, came the Langstons. the Morrises and Richard Cham- 
pion, who settled just west of the first settlement. 

116 Mrs. Joseph C. Dole J- 1- «• h. s. 

North Okaw Township located in the extreme north- 
west comer of the county Avas much larger than it is at pres- 
ent, extending to the north in Douglas County. Later it was 
divided into north and south Okaw and what we know as 
North Okaw was then the south half of the county. North 
Okaw received its name from the river flowing through it. 
The name "Martin", Avas first suggested, after one of the 
early settlers but "Okaw" was decided upon. The Okaw 
River, with its ti'ibutaries, forms excellent drainage and is 
bounded with timber which in early days extended southward 
from the river over fully one-third of the tOAvnship. The other 
two-thirds to the south is a rich prairie land, deep black loam. 
A few settlements were made along the river in the timber as 
early as 1833 but the prairie land in the south two-thirds 
of the county was not settled until the great influx of popu- 
lation came with the railroad twenty years later. John Whit- 
ley with his four sons are recorded as among the first, if not 
the first, settlers that settled near the southwest limits of the 
toAvnship, on the Okaw. They came from Tennessee, coming 
up the Kaskaskia River, making settlements and as soon as 
other people joined them, pushing onward wdth the tnie pio- 
neer spirit. About the same time but higher up the river, 
Bailey Riddle settled. He was from North Carolina. Jesse 
Fuller came from Virginia in the fall of 1833 and settled east 
of the river in the outskirts of the timber bordering what is 
now Humboldt. In 1834, came Henry and Hawkins Fuller 
and others. Fuller's Point neighborhood retains their name. 
The next were William and Jonathan Graham, the Ellises, 
William, Robert and Jackson Osbern, William Harrison 
Smith, the Hoskins and Jacob Hoots who came here from Vir- 
ginia, Kentucky, Tennessee and Indiana. Because the Okaw 
bottoms were extremely unhealthful many settlers left after 
having the prevalent chills and ague, and no doubt this 
stopped immigration for a time to this immediate locality. 
The early settlers on the Okaw experienced more than the 
usual privations and hardships. The nearest mill was that 
of John Pervis, five or six miles south of the settlement and 
when the water was high enough to turn the wheel, the trails 
were impassable because of mud. Jesse Fuller opened a 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Pioneer Days in Coles County 117 

mill, in 1836, across the river so the people had to cross the 
river to obtain a grinding, the ox teams swam and the grist 
■was carried over in a canoe. In dry times, when the mills 
could not operate, the settlers had to go to Spangler's mill 
on the Sangamon near Springfield or to Baker and Norfolk's 
mill on the Ambraw. From the very first the church was 
present in the Okaw settlement, Reverend William Martin, a 
Eeg-ular Baptist, being their first minister. Once each month 
they held church in their homes. Their physician was Dr. 
Seth Montague who lived in Paradise Settlement. 

The mail was carried through North Okaw Township 
from Charleston to Springfield along the old Springfield 
Trace by stage. A relay station was established at the home 
of Wm. Harrison Smith just south and cast of where Cook's 
Mill now is. Mr. Smith was also the first Township Clerk 
when the county was organized. The first marriage in North 
Okaw occurred in 1836 when John Turner and Mathilda 
Simms were married. The first burials were made in 1835 
and they were members of the Ellis family. 

The winter of 1830 and '31 was one of unusual severity 
for Coles County pioneers. Snow fell continuously from the 
latter part of November until late in January, covering the 
ground to a depth of four feet. In February a warm spell 
melted this snow and a sudden freeze converted the country 
into a glare of ice, causing great hardship. A fair crop fol- 
lowed this winter and a few more settlers came and pros- 
perity seemed on its way. Just now in 1832 came Black 
Hawk's last stand against the whites in the northwest part 
of the state and Governor Re>Tiolds called for volunteers. 
Coles County furnished but few such men. Those who went 
were required to furnish their own guns, ammunition, horses 
and provisions until they arrived at the general meeting place. 
At this time they still had the old muster days when there 
was a general gathering of all the able bodied men at some 
point to drill. Later the day began to be regarded as one 
of general frolic and not of drill and so was abolished by the 
General Assembly. 

A most remarkable phenomenon occurred on the night 
of November 12th, 1833 ; it was known as the Falling Stars. 

118 Mrs. Joseph C. Dole J- 1- s. h. s. 

Mr. Tremble, an early minister, gives an account of it. He 
was on his way home from a mill west of Shelbj'ville, twenty- 
six miles from his home at the Wabash Point Settlement, 
with an ox team. He spent the night at the home of a friend 
near Shelbj-^-ille, asking his host to awaken him at 3 :00 o'clock 
in the morning so that he might have an early start. When 
he awoke he found his host and family very much excited over 
the ajjpearance of the heavens. He stepped outside the door 
and saw all about him what aj^peared to be the stars of the 
Heavens falling to the earth. He said they did not seem to 
roach the earth but died out about the time they reached the 
top of his liead. He tried to touch them but could not reach 
any. The family at whose liome he was visiting, thought the 
end of tJie world had come and urged him to remain with them, 
lie, however, thinking that he might as well be at his home 
at the Wabash Point Settlement or on the way there, as in this 
f^abin, if the world did come to an end, yoked his oxen and 
started forth. As he went along the way, at every settlers 
house, the people seemed crazed with fright and were on their 
knees imploring mercy. As it grew daylight, the stars be- 
came dimmer and dimmer until at last he could not detect the 
falling stars any longer. He reached his home safely and 
lived to be an old man. 

Another curious phenomenon occurred on December 20th, 
1836. It was a sudden freeze. It had been a mild day, thaw- 
ing, and raining, when about the middle of the afternoon, a 
heavy black cloud came from the northwest at the rate of 
twenty-five or thirty mUes per hour, accompanied by a terrific 
roaring noise and as it passed, Avater, chickens, and little ani- 
mals were frozen in its track, almost instantly. 

The first post office for Paradise To\\Ti3hip was located 
at the home of George Hanson in 1829. He named it in mem- 
ory of Paradise Post Office in Virginia, where he was born. 
The post office remained here two years and then was moved 
up to the state road just then being opened, to the relay house 
kept by William Langston. The post office remained here 
two years and then was moved to Richmond, some times 
called Old Richmond, an embryo to-wn a little to the west on 
the State Road, on the Houehin farm, where George W. Nabb 
kept a store. The post office remained here until the Terre 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 

Pioneer Days in Coles County 119 

Haute & Alton Railway was completed and Mattoon founded. 
There is notliing now on the site of the settlement called Old 
Richmond and the owner of the land last summer in di,i^Kiiig 
to construct a cistern dug into what he thinks was a grave of 
the old graveyard of the village, but the water came in so 
fast that he was unable to find out what was there. However 
he expects to drain it some day and excavate in that spot and 
see what old relics can be found. The location of Old Rich- 
mond was what is now about one-half mile west of the south 
end of the Long Lane southwest of Mattoon, on the State Road. 

The first school of Paradise or Mattoon Townships was 
taught the winter of 1827 and '28. James Waddill being the 
first teacher. In 1831, John Houchin attempted to burn brick 
in the settlement and built a cabin for the hands. The pro- 
ject failed and the cabin was appropriated by the settlers for 
school purposes. It had long slab seats, puncheon floor and a 
writing desk along one side. It had a fireplace of mud and 
sticks and along one side of the room a log was taken out and 
greased paper put over the aperture, for lighting the room. 
The teacher was paid so much per scholar and he boarded 
around among the patrons. Before the building was occupied 
as a school, a man named Ledbetter appropriated it for his 
family. Soon after, George Hanson went to order him out. 
Ledbetter chased him off with an axe. Hanson stubbed his 
toe in his flight and fell and Ledbetter split the back of Han- 
son's coat open with the axe. It was not until 1845 that the 
first school house built especially for the purpose was opened 
in Mattoon To\\'nship, this was just at the time of the first 
permanent school laws coming into force. It is not stated that 
any horse mills for grinding grain were built in Mattoon 
Township as the older settlements all had them and tlie set- 
tlers in this ^•icinity traveled to them. Pioneer mail facilities 
in the county were indeed meager, letters were few and news- 
papers a rarity. Postage, governed by distance, ranged from 
five to twenty-five cents per letter. 

The houses of the early settlers were very primitive. 
The chimney, at the end, was often five or sLx feet wide: on 
the inner side the crane was hung and cooking was done in 
various pots and kettles suspended from this crane. The floor 
was laid with split puncheons four to six feet long laid on 

120 Mrs. Joseph C. Dole J- 1- S- h. s. 

short round piles a few iiielies above the ground. Often times 
the cabin had only a hard tramped earth floor. A loft was 
often in the cabin gained by means of a ladder. The immi- 
grants rarely brought an extensive outfit for housekeeping, if 
any, so they made their own furniture, the bed being a rude 
affair placed in one corner, and made by placing an upright 
post about four feet from one wall and six or seven feet from 
the other. Poles were laid from this upright pole to each 
wall and slats placed upon them. Dried prairie grass was 
often used for mattresses until feathers could be obtained. 
Under this bed Avas often a smaller one made that could be 
pulled out at night and it was called a "trundle-bed". Tables 
were rude and the chairs were three legged stools. Pegs were 
di'iven into the walls to hang clothing on. The young people 
of these early pioneers soon grew^ old enough to marry and 
set up new homes. All they received for presents were gen- 
erally a few home-made household utensils, some good advice 
and perhaps a horse and saddle. They grew their own com, 
potatoes, wheat and a few garden vegetables in a clearing in 
the woods since they had as yet no plow that would turn the 
tough prairie sod. 

Eastern Illinois, in w^hich lies Coles County, is truly the 
prairie district of the state and therefor settlement was de- 
veloped slowly because few pioneers were brave enough to 
venture very far away from the timber. Along the more 
traveled trails from the Wabash River Settlements to those 
along the Illinois River, an occasional settler, more venture- 
some than the rest, built his cabin, but always where timber 
was near. An old record says that there w^as very little set- 
tlement upon this prairie until 1849 when there was a rush of 
immigration, in anticipation of the Douglas "Illinois Central 
Railroad" Bill, the discussion of which in Congress had at- 
tracted much attention to the Prairie Land of our state. At 
this time the largest settlements in Eastern Illinois were 
Danville, Paris, Blooming Grove and Decatur. In 1831, Coles 
County had only 31 voters but the beginning of the National 
or State Road in 1832 through this section, gave an impetus 
to immigration, attracting people from New York and Ohio 
especially. Other unfavorable conditions for colonization 
existed in this prairie section, at this time, namely : no mar- 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Pioneer Days in Coles County 121 

kets for the aKi'icultural products and therefore poor prices 
for them, so that by the end of this decade, 1840, there was 
a population in Coles County of only about Nine Thousand 

The heroic effort, patriotic zoal and religious fervor of 
our pioneers cannot be over estimated. No obstacle seemed 
too great, no task impossible of accomplishment. The history 
of the years following the pioneer period do^\Tl to the present, 
is indeed filled with noble sacrifices and acts of christian 
courage, but they would have been of no avail in the task of 
rearing the noble structure which is our Coles County without 
this splendid foundation that was laid by our pioneer fore- 


By His Gkaxdson, Edwin H. Yax Patten, M. D., 
Dayton, Wash. 

Da\dd McCoy, the subject of this sketch, was bom in the 
year 1790, either in Northern Georgia or Western South Caro- 
lina, the exact spot not being known. His parents, soon after 
his birth, removed to Tennessee, where young David grew to 
manhood and made a reputation for himself as a hunter and 
fisherman. Being by nature of a quiet and retiring disposi- 
tion, he felt more at home in the mountains with his rod and 
gun than in the villages of that date. Soon after he was of 
age he accompanied a married sister and her husband to the 
state of Ohio, where, however, he remained only a short time 
before going to Montgomery County, Illinois. Here he met 
and married Miss Mary Kirkpati'ick, (sometimes spelled Kill- 
patrick), who was born in Fayette County, Kentucky in 1800, 
and had removed with her parents from there to Montgomery 
County, Illinois. 

The j^oung couple, in company with the bride's brother 
and his wife, in 1819 removed to Sangamon County, the same 
state. They first settled upon land south of Eichland Creek, 
in Avhat is now Gardner Township, but finding that the piece 
of land upon which they had settled had been set apart for 
school purposes, and therefore could not be bought at that 
time, they abandoned their improvements and in 1823 moved 
to a spot ten miles due west of the old statehouse in Spring- 
field, where they made a home for their growing family. They 
had three children born to them on Richland Creek, two of 
whom died in infancy. 

Mr. McCoy had brought wnth him a plow suitable for 
breaking the tough prairie sod of that section, which he at- 
tempted to swing under the axle of his wagon, thinking that 
he thus could both hold the plow and drive the oxen. He soon 


David ^[cC( 

Vol. XIV. No. 1 History of David McCoy 123 

learned that this was. impossible, so bis good wife, like a true 
pioneer helpmeet, volunteered to drive for him; but then an- 
other diftieulty arose. The baby, which was too young to be 
left alone very long at a time, must be provided for, and David 
rigged up a box on the beam of the plow in which they carried 
the baby with them, and thus was their first plowing done. 

Experience soon showed him that sawed lumber was 
necessary for those of the settlement as well as for himself, 
and he built a dam on Spring Creek, which rau near his house, 
and erected a saw-mill, to which later he added grinding ma- 
chinery, much to the joy of his neighbors, for there was no 
other such mill for a hundred miles. 

Every year, when possible, he drove to St. Louis with a 
wagon load of strained honey and deer hides to be traded for 
groceries and other family necessities. When his oldest child 
was seven years of age he managed to procure shoes for his 
family, much to their joy and pride. Mr. McCoy very early 
made it a rule that the grist of a widow should not be tolled, 
and he also loaned money without interest to his less fortu- 
nate neighbors, if the jjurpose of the loan was to purchase 

His influence in the neighborhood soon became such that 
he was consulted upon all important matters, and was known 
as a man whose word was as good as his bond. One Sunday, 
it is said, that according to his custom, while grinding grain 
for his neighbors, two preachers, who had been holding meet- 
higs in the settlement for a short time, visited him soliciting 
money. After he had given them all that he had with him, 
they admonished him about his running his mill on Sunday, 
lie thought over this for some days and then determined 
tliat he would never do it again. This incident led to his con- 
A-iotion, and his conversion to a religious life. 

As further evidence of his character, it is said that one 
Sunday on going down to his mill, he found a neighbor help- 
ing himself to ground grain which did not belong to him. 
David simply went in and sat down to talk to the man, bidding 
him take what he really needed, but not to come again. Who 
this man was is not known to this day, for Mr. McCoy would 
never tell. David McCoy died in 1868 and his wife in 1846. 

124 Edwin H. Van Patten J- 1- S- h. s. 

There were born to David McCoy and his wife, Mary 
Kirkpatrick, eight children who grew to be men and women, 
as follows : 

Owen McCoy, born in Febiiiary 1820, went to California 
in the first rush to the gold fields of that state, and died there 
in 1856, unmarried. 

Hugh McCoy, born March 1821, died unmarried in 1848. 

Polly Ann McCoy, born AprH 8th, 1823, on Richland 
Creek, married Elihu Scott, who was born in Tennessee Aug- 
ust ISth, 1S21. To them were born six children, namely: 

Mary E. Scott, who was born July 30th, 1845, and who mar- 
ried Howard Sowle and lived near her mother until she died 
in 1877, leaving two children, Josephine and Charles. The 
boy lived to man's estate and clied some years ago, unmarried. 
Josephine lived after her mother's death vdih her grand- 
mother, and went to Oregon with her in 1879. She married 
"William 0. Munsell, and lives in Portland, Oregon. 

Martha J. Scott lived vnth her mother until she died in 

John B. Scott, was born in 1849, studied law under 
Scholes and Mather of Spring-field, Illinois, practiced for a 
time with the firm of Dolph and Dolph of Portland, Oregon, 
aftei-ward married in Oaksdale, Washington, where he was 
then living, and after retiring from business moved to Port- 
land where he died in 1921. 

Owen M. Scott, bom in 1854, married Elizabeth Taylor 
of Winona, Illinois, in 1884, was remarried after her death 
and now lives near Canby, Oregon. Has two children, a girl 
and a boy, named Lois and Herbert. Both are married and 
living in Portland. 

Elihu Scott, Jr., went to Oregon in 1878, was married 
twice, and died in 1914 lea^dng six children. 

Nancy McCoy, daughter of David McCoy, was born in 
1825, married Robert S. Bone, eldest son of Elihu Bone of 
Rock Creek, Menard County, Illinois. To them were born 
eight children as follows: 

Albert, their eldest bom only lived five years. 

David McCoy Bone, bom in 1845, married Mary P. Rai- 
ney of Petersburg, Illinois, and is living at Mt. Washington, 
Kansas City, Mo. They raised a large family. 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 History of David McCoy 125 

Mary Ellen Bone, born 1848, married Henry Colby, and 
died in 1915. They had three children. 

Hattie Z. Bone, born 1850, married "Wesley Moore, and 
died childless in 1875. 

Maria Bone, born 1853, died unmarried in 1875. 

Finis E. Bone, born 1856, married twice, and died in 1918. 

James Franklin Bone, born 1859, married Ella Paine, 
and lives at Fort Scott, Kansas. 

Robert Edgar Bone, born 1862, married Alice Keach, 
raised a family and is now liWng on the old homestead where 
he was bom, and is considered the commianity leader in that 
particular section. 

Thomas K. McCoy, son of David McCoy, was born in 
1827, married Martha Kendall in 1848, removed to Oregon at 
an early date, raised a family and died in 1876, while on a 
visit to Illinois. He had six children, three of whom are dead ; 
namely ]\Iary, Ella and Joseph. Three are living, Elihu 
Owen, Alice and John. The first named of the living children, 
E. 0. McCoy, lives in The Dalles, Oregon, and is president 
of the big flouring mills at that place, and has large inter- 
ests in Sherman County of that state. Alice married Frank 
Parker and lives in Seattle, Wash. John married and lives 
on a farm near TValla "Walla, Wash. 

William K. McCoy, another of David's sons, was born 
in Sangamon County Illinois, married in Arkansas and finally 
moved to Oregon, where he died and is buried by his sister 
Polly Ann near Walla Walla, Wash. He left one son who is 
believed to be dead. 

James P. McCoy, bom in 18.32, married ,Tane Seeley of 
Springfield, 111., by whom he had eight children, most of 
whom are still living. They are as follows: Harriett Mc- 
Coy, now living at Hobart, Okla.: Eobert Z. McCoy, civil 
engineer, lives at Eock River, Wye; Seeley McCoy, civil 
engineer, lives at Bakersville, Cal. ; Alice l^IcCoy, teacher at 
Topeka, Kans. ; Martha McCoy, dentist at Topeka, Kans.; 
David McCoy, lives at San Francisco, Cal. 

Joseph G. McCoy, the youngest son of David McCoy, 
married Sarah Epler, daughter of Jacob Epler, of Pleasant 
Plains, and raised a family as follows: Mayme McCoy, do- 

126 Edwin H. Van Patten j.i.s.h.s. 

mestic science teacher, Wichita, Kans. ; Florence McCoy, prac- 
titioner of Osteopathy, Wichita, Kans.; David B. McCoy, 
Lansing, Michigan, credit man for Oldsmobile Company. 

Rachel A. McCoy, the youngest daughter of David Mc- 
Coy, married Rev. John C. Van Patten and had six children, 
three of whom are living. They are : Ed-ndn Hugh Van Pat- 
ten, retired physician now living at Dayton, Wash. ; Francis 
W. Van Patten, farmer, died in 1889, leaving three girls; 
Jennie Van Patten, died of scarlet fever at five years of age. 
Ezra Lyman Van Patten, farmer living on the old home- 
stead near Dayton, Wash. ; William McCoy Van Patten, phy- 
sician in U. S. Health Dept., Seattle, Wash. 

Three of the sons of David McCoy, namely James, Wil- 
liam and Joseph G., were in the stock business in central 
Illinois in the sixties and were considered among the reliable 
men of their day. They were instrumental in opening up 
the western cattle trade, and at an early date Joseph G. Mc- 
Coy settled in Abilene, Kansas to look after their interests 
there, while James staid on his farm on Spring Creek and 
fattened the cattle, and William looked after the sales in 
New York City. The 'trade grew to immense proportions, 
but was eventually stopped by the so called Texas Fever, 
which was supposed to have been brought in by ticks on the 
western cattle. This broke them financially as it did many 
other good men in the same section of the country. Joseph 
G. McCoy, was the first Mayor of Abilene, Kansas. In 1874 
he wrote a history of the Cattle Trail of the southwest, said 
to be the first book published in Kansas City. They never got 
over their financial down fall but all died poor men, leaving 
their children as the only heritage to society. 

James McCoy, who was a very religious man, was in a 
train wreck some years before he died, in which he was ser- 
iously injured. He was taken care of by local Masons, to 
whicii Order he belonged. When he recovered sufficiently 
he returned to his home in Topeka. 

He told his wife that while lying in an unconscious state 
it seemed to him that he was standing on the bank of a small 
stream, and that the privilege was granted him to die and go 
across to an exceedingly beautiful land, or to get weU and 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 History of David McCoy 127 

return to his family. He said "When I thought of the many 
things I wanted to do for the children, I requested that I 
might recover. It seemed that a certain number of years 
was granted me to live." 

Time passed on, one evening while sitting with the fam- 
ily at his fireside, he was seized with an obscure hemorrhage. 
He had a premonition that the end was near. A physician 
was called who worked all night without success. "WTien morn- 
ing came James P. McCoy was gone. The allotted time was 


Compiled by ]Mrs. George Spanglek, Histoel\n of Peobia 
Chapter Daughters of the American Eevoltjtion. 
Considering tlie uncertainty of this mortal life and be- 
ing of sound mind and memory blessed be Almighty God for 
the same do make and publish this my last will and testa- 
ment in manner and form following (That is to say) First I 
give and bequeath unto Moses Shipman one wagon, four 
head of horses and gears three cows and two heifers for the 
benefit and use of himself and sons I do also give and be- 
queath to my nephew Da\dd Shipman of ShelbyviUe, Ky., six 
large silver tablespoons, six teaspoons (silver) one silver 
watch chain and seal also my interest in the balance of the 
Saint Clair claim containing about forty acres which is situ- 
ated near and joins the farm of Henry Shipman and David 
Shipman on Guesse Creek, Shelby^ille, Ky., and lastly all the 
rest and residue of my property of what kind and nature so- 
ever I give and bequeath unto George Shipman to be disposed 
of to the best advantage and place in the hands of my Exe- 
cutor for the sole use and benefit of said George Shipman 
when he becomes of age and the interest of same at six per 
cent to be paid annually for the clothing and education of 
said George Shipman and I hereby appoint John Barlow of 
Tazewell County and State of Illinois my sole executor of this 
my last will and testament revoking all former wills by me 
made in witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and 
seal the nineteenth day of February one thousand eight hun- 
dred and forty four. Signed, sealed, published and declared 
by the annexed name David Shipman to be his last will and 
testament in the presence of us w^ho have hereunto subscribed 
our names as witnesses in the presence of the testator. 
Walter B. Wallace, 
Daniel L. Bums. 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Will of David Shipman 129 

I Neile Johnson probate justice of the peace do hereby 
certify tJiat the foregoing is a true copy of the last will and 
testament of David Shipman as proved and recorded and filed 
in my office. Given under my hand and official seal this Oc- 
tober 6th, 1845. Neile Johnson, J. P. 

Signature as given above. 

David Shipman. 


Compiled by Mes. George Spanglee, Histoeia^t of Peokia 
Chapter Daughters of the American Eevolutiox. 

Jolm Dusenberry died on or about the 26th day of Sep- 
tember, 1823, without having made a will. His proj^erty was 
appraised at $209.50 including half a years pension due from 
the United States. David Dusenberry was appointed admini- 

William Crow died intestate on or about January 25th, 
1854. James Crow was appointed administrator and gave 
bond for $150.00. 

John Montgomery died on or about January 25th, 1845 
without having made a will. Found a document where his 
wife Elizabeth Montgomery relinquished all claim to his es- 
tate. George J. McGinnis was appointed administrator of his 
estate under bond of $200.00. An inventory of the estate was 
given as $16.87. 




Compiled by Mrs. George Spaxgler, Historian of Peoria 
Chapter Daughters of the American Revolution. 

In the name of God Amen, I Lemuel Gaylord of Evans- 
to'UTi in the County of Marshall, and State of Illinois do here- 
by make and declare this my last Will and Testament in ^Man- 
ncr and form follow-ing to- wit: 

First. It is my will that my funeral expenses and aU 
my just debts be fully paid. 

Second. As the pajTnent of such funeral expenses and 
debts I give de^-ise and bequeath to the heirs at Law of my 
beloved Son Aaron Gaylord deceased the sum of one dollar 
lawful money of the United States. 

Third. I give devise and bequeath unto the heirs at law 
of my beloved Son Orange Gaylord deceased the sum of one 
doUar lawful money of the United States. 

Fourth. I give devise and bequeath unto my beloved 
Son and daughters towit — Horace Gaylord, Lucy Gibson, Syl- 
via Griswold and Laura Sealey all and singular my Estate 
both real and personal Estate to have and to hold unto 
themselves their heirs and assigns forever to be equally di- 
vided between the above named Horace Gaylord. Lucy Gib- 
son. Sylvia Griswold and Laura Sealey and their heirs and 
assig-ns forever and lastly I herebv constitute and appoint 
Horace Gaylord and James Gibson Executors of this my Last 
Will and Testament revoking and annulling all former Wills 
by me made and ratifying and confinning this and no other 
to be my last will and testament. 


132 Mrs. George Spangler J.I.S.H.S. 

In Witness Whereof, I the said Lemuel Gaylord have 
hereunto set my hand and seal this tAventy-eighth day of ^iaj 
in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and tifty- 

Lemuel Gaylord (Seal) 

Signed, sealed, published and declared by the said Lem- 
uel Gaylord as and for his last will and testament in presence 
of us who in his presence and in the presence of each other 
and at his request have subscribed our names as witnesses 

James Beattt, 
Samuel Browning, 



Compiled by Mrs. George Spangler, Historian of Peoria 
Chapter Daughters of the American Revolution. 

In the name of God, Amen ! I, Barnet Houck of Balti- 
more County and State of Marj-land, being weak in body, 
but of sound and disposing mind, memory and understanding, 
considering the certainty of death and the uncertainty of the 
time thereof, and being desirous of settling my worldy affairs 
and thereby be the better prepared to leave this world when 
it shall please God to call me hence — do therefore make, pub- 
lish and declare this my last will and testament in form fol- 
lo^ving to-wit : 

First, and principally I commit my soul into the hands 
of Almighty God, and my body to the earth to be decently bur- 
ied at the discretion of my surviving friends and my Executor 
herein after named ; and after my debts and funeral charges 
are paid I give and bequeath unto my son John Houck, all my 
joiners tools of every description at his own will and pleasure. 

And lastly I devise, give and bequeath unto my beloved 
wife Barbara Houck her heirs and assigns forever all my real 
estate of land and (viz) one tract or parcel of land called and 
known by the name, Browns Chance heretofore conveyed by 
Richard and Nicholas Brown to me the Testator Barnet 
Houck by deed bearing date the twenty-second day of June 
in the year of our Lord Eighteen hundred and seven contain- 
ing fifty-three acres and three-quarters of an acre of land 
more or less. I also give and bequeath unto my said wife Bar- 
bara Houck a piece or parcel of land heretofore conveyed by 
Edward Stockdale (of John) by deed bearing date the seven- 
teenth day of May in the year of our Lord Eighteen hundred 
and nine it being part of a tract of land called Lauderman's 


134 Mrs. George Spangler J. i. s. H. s. 

Chance, containing three acres and thirty-seven square 
perches of land more or less. I also give, devise and bequeath 
unto my said beloved wife, Barbara Houck another piece or 
parcel of land heretofore bought of a certain Jacob Heten- 
brand now held by a bond of conveyance bearing date the 
twenty-seventh day of December in the year of our Lord eigh- 
teen hundred and two containing and laid out for two acres 
three-quarters and thirty perches of land more or less it being 
part of a tract of land called Heriotts Eetreat, I do give, de- 
vise and bequeath to my said beloved wife Barbara Houck and 
her heirs and assigns ever all the aforesaid tracts or parts of 
tracts of land at her own free will and pleasure. Item, I also 
give and bequeath imto my said beloved wife Barbara Houck 
all my personal estate or property which I own at her own free 
will except the Joiners Tools mentioned, bequeathed to my 
son John Houck, and lastly I do hereby constitute and appoint 
my wife, Barbara Houck, to be my sole executrix of this my 
last Avill and testament, revoking and annulling all former 
wills by me heretofore made; ratifying and confirming this 
and none other to be my last will and testament. In testi- 
mony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and affixed my 
seal this twenty-seventh day of April in the year of our Lord, 
eighteen hundred and twenty-eight, 
Barnet X Houck Seal 
Sighted, sealed, published and declared by Barnet Houck 
the above named Testator as and for his last will and testa- 
ment in the presence of us, who at his request in his pres- 
ence and in the presence of each other have subscribed our 
names as witnesses thereto. 

George Ebaugh, 
Jacob Bachman, 
Henry Ebaugh (of Geo.) 


Compiled by Mes. George Spanglee, Historian of Peoria 
Chapter Daughtees of the American Eevolution. 

In the name of God Amen, I, Christian Orendorff of 
Tazewell County and State of Illinois, being weak in body, 
but of sound and perfect mind and memory do make and pub- 
lish this, my last will and testament in the manner and form 
following (that is to say). 

First. I give and bequeath to my beloved A\dfe Elizabeth 
Orendorff, my bay horse to her proper use and dispose, I do 
also give and bequeath to my two sons Joseph Orendorff and 
Benjamin Orendorff, the one-half of my hogs belonging to 
my home place. I further give and devise to my son Alfred 
Orendorff, his heirs and assigns the east half of the southwest 
quarter of section numbered nine in Tpw. twenty-one north 
of range 2 west in the district of the lands offered for sale at 
Springfield, 111., containing eighty acres together with the 
mill thereon situated and the appertainces thereon to the said 
Alfred Orendorff his heirs and assigns forever provided that 
he shall provide for my said wife Elizabeth Orendorff, what- 
ever may be necessary for her use and comfort over and above 
what is and shall be hereon after provided; I do also give and 
bequeatli to my youngest son David Orendorff, two hundred 
dollars to be made out of a note which I hold of George A. 
Miles for one hundred and twenty dollars, one note which I 
hold against Elijah Atterbury for sixteen dollars, and a debt 
of ten dollars do by account against Isham Wright, all of Taze- 
well County, State of Illinois, the balance which may be want- 
ing to make the said sum of two hundred dollars to be made 
out of my half of cattle and hogs, which said sum of two hun- 
dred dollars when made and collect as aforesaid shall be let 
to interest until my said son David, shall arrive at the age of 
twenty-one years, then to be paid to him together with the in- 


136 Mrs. George Spangler j. i. s. h. s. 

terest that shall have accrued thereon; I also give, and be- 
queath to my said son David, one black colt to be paid to him 
within three months after my decease. I do further give and 
bequeath to my beloved wife, Elizabeth Orendorff, all the resi- 
due of my cattle and hogs not herein otherwise appropriated 
to her proper use and disposal, also I give and bequeath to my 
said \\'ife, Elizabeth Orendorff, all my household and kitchen 
furniture to her use during the term of her natural life, and 
at her death to descend to my and vest in my youngest 
daughter Nancy Orendorff, the balance that may arise from 
debts owing to me or property not herein named after the 
payment of my just debts to go to the use of my family — and 
I do hereby constitute and appoint my son, Joseph Orendorff, 
and George M. Miles, both of the county of Tazewell, and 
State of Illinois, to be executors of this, my last will and 
testament hereby revoking all former wills by me made. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal 
this 18th day of December, in the year of our Lord, Eighteen 
Hundred Twenty-nine. 

Sign and seal, 

Christian Obendokff. 


Compiled by Mrs. Geokge Spangler, Historian of Peoria 
Chapter Daughters of the American Revolution. 

1. John Stout to Fannie Stout, June 25th 1827, by Wil- 
liam Brown. M. G. 

2. Henry Landis to Elizabeth Green, June 28th, 1827, by 
William Lee. M. G. 

3. Abraham Hobbs to Elizabeth Evans, June 25th, 1827, 
by William Orendorff. J. P. 

4. Heiily Cleboru to Sarah Benedict, May 23rd, 1827, by 
Jesse Walker. M. G. 

5. Amos Lundy to Susanah Copes, August 16th, 1827, by 
Wm. Orendorff. 

6. Peter Curttright'^'to Temperence Kindle, October 
14th, 1827, by Geo. Hittle. M. G. 

7. Levi Donlev to Margaret McClure, November 8th, 
1827, by Mathew Robb. J. P. 

8. John Hester to Ann Dillon, November 11th, 1827, by 
John Summers. J. P. 

9. E. T. Orendorff to Rosana Orendorff, December 5th, 
1827, bv Isom Wright. J. P. 

10.' John Kimler to Mary Cox, Jan. 1, 1828, by Wm. 

11. Hugh Stout to Anny Brown, Feb. 2, 1827, by Wm. 
Brown. M. G. 

12. Henry Landers to Elizabeth Green, June 28th, 1828, 
by Wm. Lee. 

13. John Cooper to Rodv Clark, Jan. 22nd, 1828, bv Ja- 
cob Funk. J. P. 

14. William Dillon to Malinda Michel, Feb. 3rd, 1828, by 
Nathan Dillon. J. P. 

15. John Cox to Elizabeth Walker, March 18th, 1828, by 
Wm. Orendorff. 


138 BIrs. George Spangler J. i. s. H. s. 

16. Wm. Herford to Elizabeth Perry, April 3rd, 1828, 
by Isom "Wright. 

17. Hugh Barr to Matilda Summers, May 25, 1828, by 
Nathan Dillon. 

18. Abraham Hiner to Pheobe Dillon, June 22nd, 1828, 
by Jos. Dillon. 

19. Peter Shay to Jinnatta Alexander, June 27th, 1827, 
by Nathan Dillon. 

20. Michael Hittle to Mary Ewing, July 24th, 1828, by 
Isom Wright. 

21. Amasia Stout to Susan Smith, Oct. 15th, 1828, by 
Wm. Bro-wTi. 

22. James Hodge to Minerva G. See, October 23rd, 1828, 
by Wm. Orendorff. 

23. Hezikiah Davis to Sally T. Scott, Nov. 6th, 1828, 
by Jacob Funk. 

24. James Benson to Polly A. Hinshaw, Nov. 6th, 1828, 
by Ebenezer Rhoades. M. G. 

25. Daniel Smith to Margaret Scarlet, Nov. 28th, 1828, 
by Wm. Brown. 

26. Aron Eoads to Sally Glenn, Dec. 4th, 1828, by J. K. 

27. James Alloway to July Ann Walker, Dec. 4th, 1828, 
by Mathew Robb. 

28. Eleazer Hibburt to Angelina Read, Dec. 17th, 1828, 
by Isaac Scarritt. 

29. Justice E. Aument to Susan Berry, Jan. 19th, 1829, 
by Mathew Robb. J. P. 

30. James Alexander to Phoebe Dillon, Feb. 1st, 1829, 
by John Summers. J. P. 

31. John Thomeson to Catherine Carlock, Feb. 16th, 
1829, by Mathew Harbut. J. P. 

32. Thomas 0. RuUage to Sinthy 0. RuUage, Jan. 1st, 
1829, by Wm. Lee. 

33. Henry Miller to Temperence Evans, Mar. 12th, 
1829, by Wm. Lee. 

34. Richard Gross to Elizabeth Harbut, Mar. 15th, 1829, 
by Wm. Orendorff. 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Marriages in Tazewell County 139 

35. AVm. Swards to Sarah Million, Mar. 19tb, 1829, by 
Wm. Thompson. 

36. Alexander McLees to Phoebe Ricketts, Mar. 24th, 
1829, by Jessie Walker. 

37. John Sloiie to Sarah Scarlet, April 9th, 1829, by 
Wm. BrowTi. 

38. Chathan Ewing to Sarah Judy, April 12th, 1829, by 
Isom Wright. 

39. AVilliam MaxweU to Elizabeth Hobbs, April 9th, 
1829, bv Wm. Orendorff. 

40. James Walker to Jain Brock, April 19th, 1829, by 
Wm. Orendorff. 

41. Enoch Hawkins to Eebecca Ann Draper, Mav 8th, 
1829, by Geo. Hittle. 

42. John Griffin to Sarah F. Wilson, May 14th, 1829, by 
Jacob Funk. 

43. Ishmael Stewart to Sarah Mukel, Jan. 11th, 1829, 
by Geo. Hittle. Co. Comm. 

44. Jacob Hiner to Martha Dillon, Julv 9th, 1829, by 
Geo. Hittle. 

45. Thos. 0. Rutledge to Sarah M. Rutledge, Julv 14th, 
1829, by Gabrid W^t. M. G. 

4G. Sharwood Brock to Nancy Hana, August 15th, 1829, 
by Jas. Burleson. J. P. 

47. Archibald Clayl)om to Mary Galloway, June 9th, 
1829, by Isaac Scarrit. Missionary. 

48. Horation A. Sparge to Mary Ann Penbrook, July 
24th, 1829. by Wm. Thompson. 

49. John Hinckle to Sinthey Eads, Oct. 15th, 1829, by 
Jacob Funk. 

50. Cyrus Hebland to Eosanah Rush, Nov. 1st, 1829, 
by Joel Hargarves. 

51. Daniel Dillon to Ruth Huskins, Nov. 5th, 1829, by 
Nathan Dillon. 

52. Willberry H. Miller to Francis Williamson, Dec. 
13th, by Isom Wright. 

53. Peter Sparer to Elizabeth Messer, Dec. 27th, 1829, 
by Wm. Orendorff. 

140 Mrs. George Spaugler J- 1- S- H- s. 

54. Elisha Dickson to Mary BroAvai, Dec. 31st, 1829, by 
Mathew Robb. 

55. Jos. Blew to Hannah Moore, June 25th, 1829, by 
Nathan Dillon. 

56. Nathan Kinsey to Alvira Fisher, Feb. 11th, 1829, by 
Nathan Dillon. 

57. John Phillips to Mary Whitlow, Dec. 25th, 1829, by 
Wm. Thompson. 

58. Martin Scott to Lucinda Masrvvell, Feb. 26th, 1830, 
by "Wm. Thompson. 

60. Henry Dawson to Priscilla Habez, Feb. 18th, 1830, 
by Thos. Galaher. J. P. 

61. Jolm T. Hall to Jane Redman, Mar. 4th, 1830, by 
Daniel Meek. 

62. James Hendricks to Sarah Redman, Mar. 4th, 1830, 
by Daniel Meek. 

63. Thos. Chaney to Susan Maxwell, April 8th, 1830, 
by Jas. K. Scott. M. G. 

64. John Brown to Susan Hinshaw, April 1st, 1830, by 
Mathew Robb. 

65. Elijah Watt to Mary Ann Day, May 1st, 1830, by 
Jas. Burleson. 

66. Eli Redman to Elizabeth Sowards, April 8th, 1830, 
by Daniel Meek. 

67. Jos. Newkerk to Susan Harvey, Apiil 8th, 1830, by 
Joel Hargraves. 

68. Lavinas Meads to Anna Brienow, April 22nd, 1830, 
by Joel Hargrave. 

69. Wm. Shay to Jane Summers, April 25th, 1830, by 
Nathan Dillon. 

70. Jeremiah Beagly to Mary Ann Brown, May, 1830, 
by Joel Hargraves. 

71. Geo. Briggs to Margaret Meredith, May 20, 1830, 
by Wm. Orendorff. 

72. Robert Funk to Virginia Stringfield, April 13th, 
1830, by Jas. Burleson. 

73. Samuel Biggs to Nancy Mullen, May 23rd, 1830, by 
Ebenezer Rhodes. M. G. 

74. Harvey Batman to Ann Dunahoo, May 18th, 1830, 
by Jacob Funk. 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Marriages in Tazewell County 141 

75. Ebenezer Rhodes to Ann Troxell, Juno 14th, 1830, 
by Jas. K. Scott. 

76. David Statler to Mary Moses, July 22ud, 1830, by 
Neile Johnson. 

77. Joshua Wixson to Witthy Ann Johnston, July 22nd, 

1829, by Neile Johnson. 

78. Isaac Miller to Polly Heinleine, July 18th, 1830, by 
Wm. Miller. 

79. Newton Reader to Mintewell Johnston, Aug. 3rd, 

1830, by Neile Johnson. 

80. Arthur Alloway to Ann Wilson, Aug. 5th, 1830, by 
Mathew Robb. 

81. Elijah Bloyd to Rebecca Aaron, Aug. 5th, 1830, by 
Isom Wright. 

82. Uriah Brown to Mary Carlock, August 22nd, 1830, 
by MatJiew Robb. 

83. Thomas J. Fisher to Mary Haners, Sept. 9th, 1830, 
by Jas. Burleson. 

84. John L. Annset to Sarah Ann Hodge, Sept. 11th, 
1830, by Mathew Robb. 

85. John S. Scott to Ann Rolfson, Oct. 22nd, 1830, by 
Jas. E. Davis. M. G. 

86. John Benson, Jr. to Penana Hinshaw, Oct. 2l8t, 
1830, by Mathew Robb. 

87. Ambrose Pettecrew to Mary Ann Campbell, Oct. 
21st, 1830, bv A. N. Denning. J. P. 

88. Geo. Hittle to Nancy Judy, Oct. 13th, 1830, by A. N. 

89. Eli V to Elizabeth Coe, Dec. 9th, 1830, by Joel 


90. John Stout to Jane Stout, Oct. 1st, 1830, by A. N. 

91. James Alloway to Sarah Wilson, Nov. 24th, 1830, 
by Denning. 

92. John Newkerk to Ruth Dillon, Dec. 11th, 1830, by 
A. N. Denning. 

93. James Brown to Malinda Ann Benson, Dec. 20th, 
1830, by L. S. 

94. William Ashbum to Margaret Decker, Dec. 20th, 
1830, by Wm. Brown. 

142 Mrs. George Spangler J- ^- S- h. s. 

95. Nathaniel P. Johnston to Mary Ann Brock, Jan. 
2nd, 1831, by Isom Wright. 

96. Joiin Bennet to Sarah Fisher, Jan. 15th, 1831, by 
Nathan Dillon. 

97. Stephen A. McCan to Sarah Hughs, Jan. 16th, 1831, 
by A. N. Denning. 

98. Eeuben W. Williamson to Martha Pasley, Dec. 23rd, 
1831, by Jas. McDourle. M. G. 

99. Samuel July to Morandy Eichmond, Feb. 20th, 
1831, by Isom Wright. J. P. 

100. David Trimmer to Margaret Havins, Jan. 13th, 
1831, by Jacob Spawr. J. P. 

101. Charles Straley to Martha Warwick, Nov. 2nd, 
1831, by Thomas Galaher. J. P. 

102. Wm. H. Osborn to Mary Stewart, March 8th, 1831, 
by Nathan Dillon. 

103. Obed Graves to Margaret Fletcher, Mar. 1st, 1831, 
by Clark HoUenback. J. P. 

104. Ira Ladd to EKzabeth Galaher, Feb. 25th, 1831, bv 
John McDonald. M. G. 

105. William Meredith to Barbary Satterfield, Mar. 
13th, 1831, by Jas. Burleson. 

106. George Spawr to Rohody Walden, Mar. 20th, 1831, 
by Jacob SpaAvr. 

107. William Alloway to Fanny Harmon, April 5th, 
1831, by A. N. Denning. 

108. William B. Poplin to Eachael Harmon, April 5th, 
1831, by A. N. Denning. 

109. John Heath to Hannah Hughele, Mar. 30th, 1831, 
by S. E. Biggs. M. G. 

110. Malon Wilcher to Malinda Porter, Mar. 13th, 1831, 
by Jacob Funk. J. P. 

111. John Smith to Anna Havins, Mar. 31st, 1831, by 
Jacob Spawr. 

112. Idemiah Owen to Elizabeth Soward, May 1st, 1831, 
by Neile Johnson. 

113. Jessie Wixson to Archimasy Eich, April 14th, 1831, 
by Neile Johnson. 

114. Benjamin Stateler to Henrietta Lane, April 28th, 
1831, by Jas. K. Scott. M. G. 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Marriages in Tazewell County 143 

115. Elbert Dickersou to Obediance Maxwell, May 12tli, 
1831, bv Jas. K. Scott. 

116. James Stout to Margaret Stout, May 19th, 1831, 
by A. N. Denning. 

117. William Lucas to Anna Tuchstone, May 12tli, 1831, 
by Isom AV right. 

118. p]benezer Boms to Sarah Hobson, May 12th, 1831, 
bv Mathew Robb. 

119. Alexander Scott to Diana Etherton, May 18th, 1831, 
by Jas. K. Scott. 

120. Nicholas Lundy to Phoebe Troxel, May 18th, 1831, 
by Jas. K. Scott. 

121. Archibald Johnson to Sarah N. Davis, April 28th, 
1831, by Jas. E. Davis. 

122. Elisha Harrington to Mary Huchison, May 12th, 
1831, by Joel Hargrave. 

123. Samuel Asburn to Jane Stewart, June 23rd, 1831, 
by John "W. Asbun. 

124:. Frazier Sowards to Emaline Owen, June 19th, 1831, 
by Neile Johnson. 

125. Hugh Woodrow to Amanda Swingle, June 16th, 
1831, by Neile Johnson. 

126. Benjamin P. Brooks to Cinthy Ann Hirmmons, 
June 30th, 1831, by Jas. R. Da\ds. 

127. Isaiah Bro\\Ti to Eliza Ann Bailey, July 5th, 1831, 
by Joel Hargrave. 

128. Thomas Morris to Catherine Garvin, July 7th, 1831, 
by Joel Hargrave. 

129. John W. Thaw to Rebecca Monsis, July 22nd, 1831, 
by Archibald Johnson. 

130. Alexander B. Davis to Jane Buckhannon, Julv 
19th, 1831, bv Jas. Davis. 

131. William Bennet to Emalv Coldain, July 24th, 1831, 
by P. P. Scott. J. P. 

132 William Waller to Elizabeth Tade, June 29th, 1831, 
by A. N. Dunning. 

133. Jas. Wright to Guliclma Davis, Aug. 20th, 1831, 
by John Osborn. P. G. 

134. David Atterberry to Pollv Adams, Aug. 31st, 1831, 
by Wm. Miller. M. G. 

144 Mrs. George Spangler J- 1- S- H. s 

135. Stephen R. Biggs to Elizabeth L. Heath, Sept. 1st, 
1831, by Jessie Harb. M. G. 

136. Jas. Atterberry to Faneta E. Stroud, August 16th, 
1831, by Wm. Miller. 

137. Jas. Ford to Mary Cline, Sept. 22ud, 1831, by 
John Hodgson. 

138. Tinny Johnson to Luckv T. Ewing, Sept. 22nd, 
1831, by Wm. Miller. 

139. Jas. H. Aldridge to Mary Vaublauison, Nov. 22nd, 
1831, by Thos. Wiles. E. P. C. 

140. Frederick Trimmer to Nancy Orendorff, Dec. 1st, 
1831, bv Wm. Evan. J. P. 

141. Nathaniel Eddy to Malina Lindley, Dec. 10th, 1831, 
by David Reader. J. P. 

142. Robert Pasby to Lucy Perry, Dec. 29th, 1831, by 
Jas. E. Davis. M. G. 

143. Lot Lock to Malinda Welcher, Jan. 29th, 1832, by 
David Reader. 

144. Daniel H. Judy to Caroline Immington, Dee. 27th, 

1831, by Thos. F. Eailsback. J. P. 

145. Edward Wood to Katharine Hughele, Feb. 16th, 

1832, by Nathan W. I. Curt. 

146. S. B. Hallon to Jane Mury, Mar. 13th, 1832, by 
Samuel Woodrow. J. P. 

147. Lyman Porter to Mary Ann Patterson, April 12th, 
1832, by Jonas H. Hittle. 

148. Elias Van Court to Eleanor Shaw, May 31st, 1832, 
by David Reader. 

149. William Willson to Sarah G. McClure, June 20th, 
1832, by R. B. McCorkle. M. G. 

150. Abner Drum to Lydia Tromble, July 10th, 1832, 
by John Hodgson. J. P. 

151. Robert E. Shannon to Melissa Daniels, Aug. 7th, 
1832, bv David Reeder. 

152. Melvin Harper to Abagail Leek, Sept. 15th, 1832, 
by John Hodgson. 

153. Peter Hiner to Eliza Davis, Sept. 21st, 1832, by 
Nathan Dillon. 

154. Jacob Mickk to Amelia McCarson, Sept. 28th, 1832, 
by Nathan Dillon. 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Mairiagva iu Tazewdl CouHiy 145 

155. William Burket to Margaret Barrick, Nov. 20th, 
1832, by Daniel Meek. 

156. Wm. B. Berry to Sidney Ewing, Oct. 10th, 1832, 
by N. W. I. Curtis. 

157. Sanil. Stout to Margaret Palsby, Oct. 30th, 1832, by 
Jas. E. Davis. 

158. Nicholas Darsula to Serepla Brooks, Oct. 17th, 
1832, by Thos. F. Railsback. 

159. Landin Rich to Mary Washburn, Sept. 29th, 1832, 
bv Amasa Turner. J. P. 

160. Benj. Jones to Ann Stout, Nov. 29th, 1832, by Chas. 
Rich. M. G. 

161. Philip B. Miles to Delia Miller, Dec. 4th, 1832, by 
Isom Wright. 

162. George Craig to Caroline Harmhill, Dec. 3rd, 1832, 
by Thos. F. Railsback. 

163. Wm. Casey to Hannah Brannon, Dec. 25th, 1832, 
by Amasa Turner. 

164. Israel Tharp to Belinda Marsh, Jan. 12th, 1833, 
by Amasa Turner. 

165. AVilliam Peirce to Elizabeth Harms, Nov. 28th, 
1832, bv David Reader. 

166. Samuel Hodgson to Sally Sparrow, Dec. 27th, 1832, 
by Jas. E. Davis. 

167. Abraham Tharp to Margaret Stewart, Dec. 30th, 

1832, by Jas. McDowell. M. G. 

168. Conoway B. Rhodes to Sarah Harmon, Jan. 1st, 

1833, bv Jonas H. Hittle. 

169. Jas. McCoy to Katharine Shay, Feb. 4th, 1833, by 
Saml. Woodrow. 

170. Hartzell Hittle to Louisa Miller, Feb. 14th, 1833, 
bv Jonas H. Hittle. 

171. Jonathan Hellam to Sally Shay, Feb. 21st, 1833, by 
Nathan Dillon. 

172. Thaddeus Bonhan to Elizabeth McCorkal, Mar. 
25th, 1832, bv Biggs. 

173. John Sharp to Phoebe Ayers, Mar. 7th, 1833, by 
N. W. I. Curtis. 

174. Wm. McChire, Jr. to Katharine Price, Mar. 14th, 
1833, bv Saml. Woodrow. 

146 Mrs. George Spangler J. i. s.H. s. 

175. Jonathan Haines to Sarah Hinsey, Mar. 19th, 1833, 
by Michael Mann. M. G. 

176. William Holland to Jane Corvin, Mar. 31st, 1833, 
by Daniel Meek. 

177. Francis Bruzah to Margaret Stone, April 20th, 
1833, by Amasa Turner. 

178. S. B. Opedycke to Hannah Griffith, April 25th, 
1833, by Neil Johnson. 

179. Eees Morgan to Rebecca A. Reeder, May 5th, 1833, 
by Neil Johnson. 

180. George P. "Wylmott to Mary Ann Howard, June 
13th, 1833, by Neil Johnson. 

181. John Sundercand to Rebecca Beck, May 23rd, 1833, 
by Martin Fate. M. G. 

182. William F. Reid to Elizabeth Holland, June 12th, 
1833, by N. W. B. Curtis. 

183. Joel Brown to Margaret Ayers, July 14th, 1833, by 
Wm. Bro-WTi. M. G. 

184. Edward Mumblew to Sarah Ann Harvey, 16th, 
July 1833, by Amasa Turner. 

185. Benjamin Ayers to Harriett Elizabeth Reid, Aug. 
20th, 1833, by N. W. I. Curtis. 

186. Allen Donahoo to Kitty Ann Reid, Aug. 22nd, 1833, 
by N. W. I. Curtis. 

187. John 0. Hyde to Mary Hill, Aug. 18th, 1833, by 
Amasa Turner. 

188. John Seaman to Jane BroadwiU, Aug. 18th, 1833, 
by David Reader. 

189. Nicholas Lambert to Jane Wilson, Aug. 22nd, 1833, 
by J. H. Hittle. 

190. Henry Dunbar to Nancy Bandy, Aug. 28th, 1833, 
by David Reeder. 

191. Aaron Dillon to Malinda Hodgson, Sept. 4th, 1833, 
by David Reader. 

192. Elmore Shoemaker to Nancy N. Varbal, Sept. 6th, 
1833. bv N. W. I. Curtis. 

193. Henry Cheney to Celia Ayers, Sept. 19th, 1833, by 
R. B. McCorkle. 

194. William P. DUlon to Rebecca Ford, Oct. 9th, 1833, 
by Neil Johnson. 

Vol. XIV. No. 1 Marriages in Tazewell County 147 

195. Clemant Oatman to Abagail S. Travis, Oct. 17th, 
1833, by E. B. McCorklo. 

196. Lauson Holland to Elizabeth Bandy, Oct. 23rd, 
1833, by N. W. I. Curtis. 

197. Isaac Shay to Phebe McCoy, Oct. 21st, 1833, by 
Samuel Woodrow. 

198. James Boys to Jane Buckingham, Oct. 31st, 1833, 
by Daniel Meek. 

199. Charles W. E. Morris to Sarah Shaw, Oct. 26th, 

1833, bv Amasa Turner. 

200 Jacob Bennet to Eosomia Hebbard, Nov. 30th, 1833, 
by Archibald Johnson. M. 0. 

201. John Anderson to Mary Besaw, Dee. 14th, 1833, by 
Amasa Turner. 

202. Jesse Fisher to Catherine Bennet, Dec. 19th, 1833, 
by Nathan Dillon. 

203. Joseph Frost to Jacober Engal, Dec. 21st, 1833, 
by Jacob Engle. 

204. Lewis Edwards to Eebecca Hill, Nov. 22nd, 1833, 
bv Amasa Turner. 

205. Harden Oatman to Willmoth Bird, Dec. 24th, 1833, 
by E. B. McCorkle. 

206. David H. Holcomb to Laura A. Case, Jan. 1st, 1834, 
by Flavel Bascom. M. G. 

207. Josiah Brown to Margaret Hougtaling, Jan. 1st, 

1834, bv Neil Johnson. 

208. William Cline to Eachael Leonard, Jan. 2nd, 1834, 
by John Hodgson. 

209. Asa Earl to Manervy Eich, Jan. 2nd, 1834, by Jede- 
diah Owen. M. G. 

210. Daniel Hodgson to Catherine Dillon, Jan. 23rd, 
1834, bv John Hodsrson. 

211. David Prickett to Charlotte Griffith, Jan. 24th, 
1834, by Neil Johnson. 

212. Jonathan McPeak to Delilah Sparrow, Jan. 30th, 
1834, bv James E. Davis. 

213. Allen Eand to Mary Luk, Feb. 13, 1834, by David 

214. Elijah Brown to Mary T. Scott, Feb. 13th, 1834, by 
Neil Jolmson. 

148 Mrs. George Spangler J. i. s. H. s. 

215. Harvey Morgan to Sarah Shoemaker, Feb. 20th, 
1834, by Amasa Turner. 

216. Andrew Ropp to Jacobie Virgaber, April 10th, 
1834, by Christian Engel. M. G. 

217. Stephen Dobbs to Mrs. Jane Perkins, Feb. 25th, 
1834, by Samuel Woodrow. 

218. Benj. F. Piper to Lucretia Johnson, March 9th, 
1834, by Isom Wright. 

219. O. M. Hogh to Mary Ann Bayliss, March 20th, 1834, 
by Calvin W. Babbit. M. G. 

220. Sampson Bethard to Mary Belong, April 10th, 
1834, by N. W. I. Curtis. 

221. Hanson Huling to Mary Mury, April 2nd, 1834. 

222. Robert Owens to Margaret Trimble, April 17th, 
1834, by David Reeder. 

223. Johnston S. Adams to Venira Crocker, April 16th, 
1834, by 

224. Jacob Baula, Jr., to MoUa Kendig, May 1st, 1834, 
by N. W. I. Curtis. 

225. Chapman Williamson to Mary Sargent, May 24th, 
1834, by Jonas H. Hittle. 

226. Jacque Pichereau to Catherine Connette, May 26th, 
1834, by R. B. McCorkle. 

227. Elijah Watson to Mary Ewing, June 8th, 1834, by 
J. H. Hittle. 

228. Amos Davis to Charlotte Belong, June 14th, 1834, 
by N. W. I. Curtis. 

229. Jonathan Roberts to Sarah Caldwell, June 28th, 
1834, bv Samuel Woodrow. 

230. Henry Teets to Mary Shertz, July 8th, 1834, by 

231. Peter Simmiers to Catherine Shirts, July 13th, 
1834, bv Christian Engle. 

232. Michael Moseman to Mary B , July 13th, 1834, 

by Christian Engle. 

233. James Pillsbury to Mary Alexander, July 9th, 1834, 
by Flavel Bascom. 

234. John Wilson to Susanna Norris, July 20th, 1834, 
by J. H. Hittle. 

235. Franklin Miller to Mary Ann Bird, July 22nd, 1834, 
by W. Davenport. M. G. 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Marriages hi Tazewell County 149 

236. Nathan B. Gatland to Elizabeth Ann Hughs, July 
24th, 1834, bv J. II. Ilittle. 

237. Henry Teets to Anna Thomas, July 30th, 1834, by 
Benjamin Jones. M. G. 

238. Ejibraim Eobinson to Jane Ayers, Aug. 7th, 1834, 
by William Brown. 

239. Andrew Cross to Mary Kindig, Aug. 21st, 1834, by 
N. W. I. Curtis. 

240. Moses Scott to Harriett Alexander, Sept. 1st, 1834, 
by Nathan Dillon. 

241. William B. James to Jerusha Ann Bvrd, Sept. 
30th, 1834, by W. Davenport. 

242. Ambrose Eoberts to Lavina Ann Spears, Sept. 
24th, 1834, bv N. W. I. Curtis. 

243. Leonara Mathis to Matilda Gary, Sept. 24th, 1834. 

244. John Ashby to Mary Allen, Sept. 29th, 1834, by 
Amasa Turner. 

245. James M. Shannon to Emeline Deming, Oct. 8th, 
1834, by James A. Lindsy. M. G. 

246. Burton Jones to Mary Hail, Oct. 13th, 1834. 

247. William Cardill to Elizabeth Garren, Oct. 21st, 
1834, by Amasa Turner. 

248. Daniel Sowards to Sarah Ann Euske, Oct. 23rd, 
1834, by Amasa Turner. 

249. Wm. Forbes to Hannah Buckingham, Oct. 24th, 
1834, by Daniel Meek. 

250. Jonathan Dillon to Elizabeth Morris, Oct. 30th, 
1834, by Nathan Dillon. 

251. Aubert Lj-ismaur to Mary Buckley, Nov. 3rd, 1834, 

252. Amos Hadlock to Elizabeth Ayers, Nov. 20th, 1834, 
by Benj. Jones. M. G. 

253. John McLees to Mary Price, Nov. 27th, 1834, by 
Samuel Woodrow. 

254. Jacob Ballard to Matilda Brown, Dec. 11th, 1834, 
by Hodgson. 

255. Joseph W. Coolidge to Elizabeth Buchanan, Dec. 
17th, 1834, by James A. Lindsay. 

256. Joseph Kemp to Madaline Ingle, Dec. 23rd, 1834, 
by Christian Engle. 

150 Mrs. George Spongier J. i. s. H. s. 

257. Horrace Crocker to Lucy Ann Merithni, Dec. 22nd, 
1834, by N. W. I. Curtis. 

258. John L. Peck to Rebecca Brown, Dec. 24th, 1834, 
by Wm. Holland. 

259. James Downs to Isabel Ann Davis, Dec. 25th, 1834, 
by F. Bascom. 

260. Henry Cline to Eleanor Leonard, Jan. 1835, by 


Compiled by Mrs. Georcje Spaxgler, Historian Peoria 
Chapter Daughters of American Kevolution. 

1. Peter Ilininger to Margaret Horn, June 8tli, 1841, 
by Mathew Bracken. 

2. Kobert Jones to Eve Gross, June 6th, 1841, by Fr. H. 

3. John Becker to Madaline Rogev. 

4. Christian Sherts to Catherine Engle, July 29th, 1841, 
by J. Naut'izingen. 

5. John T. Becker to Mary Jane Bernard, July 26th, 
1841, by Phillip Q. Young. M. G. 

6. Isaac M. Allison to Ann Motfet. 

7. Christian Sein to Elizabeth Landis, Sept. 5th, 1841, 
by J. Baughman. 

8. Charles Bernard to Margaret Lewis, Sept. 5th, 1841, 
by P. Q. Young. 

9. PY'lty Berkey to Madaline Bettstey, Sept. 12th, 1841, 
by J. Naufzingen. 

10. Thos. Evans to Elizabeth Lynch, Oct. 7th, 1841, by 
Thornton Walker. 

11. Jeremiah Hodges to Sowards, Oct. 20th, 1841, by 
Thornton Parker. 

12. John Knishts to Elizabeth Kingston, Oct. 21pt, 1841, 
by E. B. McCorkleT M. G. 

13. Samuel Minors to Amanda Capel, Nov. 4th, 1841, 
bv "Wm. Davenport. 

14. Wm. S. King to Eliza M. Stevens, Nov. 9th, 1841, 
by S. Q. Cross. M. G. 

15. Peter Forney to Madaline Oyer, Nov. 20th, 1841, by 
M. Mosman. 

16. Thos. BroM-nfield to Elizabeth Grove, Nov. 18th, 
1841, by R. B. McCorkle. 

17. Geo. L. Barney to Marv Ann Rathbone, Nov. 28th, 
1841, by Benj. Williams. 

152 Mrs. George Syangler J.i. s.h.s 

18. Alman J. Eobinson to Hannah Crocken, Jan. 2nd, 
1842, by Thornton Parker. 

19. James Vantine to Melissa Black, Jan. 2nd, 1842, by 
Benj. Williams. 

20. James L. Horton to Sarah Jane Doretv, Jan. 6th, 
1842, by S. Q. Cross. 

21. Wm. H. Benton to Elaine Page, Jan. 13th, 1842, by 
E. B. McCorkle. 

22. Lewis Sweeney to Mary Ann Weckins, Feb. 16th, 
1842, by James Robinson. 

23. Benj. Rediger to Barbara Oyer, Mar. 28th, 1842, by 
Andrew Baughman. 

24. Henry M. Eobinson to Nancy Allison, Mar. 30th, 
1842, by E. H. Moffet. 

25. John Tannton to Hannah Grove, Mar. 31st, 1842, by 
E. B. McCorkle. 

26. Geo. Yeckley to Jacobina Yerkey, April 26th, 1842, 
by Thornton Parker. 

27. Solomon Davidson to Lncy Ann Willis, May 4th, 
1842, by Jas. Eobinson. 

28. John Bennon to Elizabeth Long, May 23rd, 1842, 
1842, by James Eobinson. 

29. Geo. W. Hobson to Eliza J. Bracken, May 26th, 
1842, by Nathan W. Curtis. 

30. Saml. Eodecker to , June 1st, 1842, by E. H. 


31. Sam C. White to Nancy McClain, July 14th, 1842, 
by Levi Moulton. 

32. Winton Carlock to Lydia Gaddis, July 14th, 1842, 

33. Michael Bettstey to , July 24th, 1842, 

by J. Naufzingen. 

34. Thos. H. Jenning to Amy Ann Hobson, Aug. 28th, 
1842, by W. C. Moore. 

35. Andrew N. Page to Nancy A. Grove, Sept. 22nd, 
1842, by E. B. McCorkle. 

36. Wm. Eockwell to Susan F. Eeeden, Sept. 29th, 1842, 
by Daniel Jones. 

37. Jos. Albrigh to Barbara Gingrey, Oct. 15th, 1842, 
by Andrew Baughman. 

VoLxiv, No. 1 Marriages in Woodford County 153 

38. Phillip M. Brown to Fanny Gaddis, Oct. 20tli, 1842, 
by Homer Peeber. 

39. Wm. S. Ma^arity to Sarah C. Travis, Nov. 3rd, 1842, 
by Wm. Davenport. 

40. Richard Bracken to Mary Ann Gavin, Nov. 10th, 
1842, by Nathan W. L. Curtis. 

41. Eobcrt Jones to Mary Beck, Nov. 13th, 1842, by 
Thornton Parker. 

42. John J. Simmons to Clarisa Crawford, Dec. 15th, 

1842, by Geo. Whitman. 

43. John Miller to Elizabeth A. Quincy, Jan. 26th, 1843, 
by Wm. Davenport. 

44. Wm. Bamby to Catherine Baker, Feb. 12th, 1843, 
by Isaac Eoberson. 

45. John Masa to Celia B. Dickinson, Mar. 16th, 1843, 
by Isaac Eoberson. 

46. Henrv E. Savage to Margaret Miller, Apnl 24th, 

1843, by Geo. Eav. 

47. Saml. Grant to Elizabeth Potters, April 13th, 1843, 
by Isaac Eoberson. 

48. Wanton Parker to Ann Patterson, May 11th, 1843, 
by S. I. Cross. 

49. Da\ad Ames to Sophia Fields, June 15th, 1843, by 
Geo. Whitman. 

50. Hiner Parker to Woolsey, June 20th, 1843, by Wm. 

51. Turner Cross to Ebalina Watkins, July 6th, 1843, by 
Jas. Eoberson. 

52. Henry Bouliar to Mary Savage, July 31st, 1843, by 
N. J. Stahl. 

53. Daniel Forgive to Delila Murphy, July 20th, 1843, 
by Amos Watkins. 

54. John I. Davenport to Lucy A. Bullock, Aug. 23rd, 
1843, bv H. 0. Palmer. M. G. 

55.' James Wright to Eve Margaret Grove, Aug. 24th, 
1843, by N. W. I. Curtis. 

56. Peter Stine to Ann Maxom, Aug. 24th, 1843, by Geo. 

57. John Sherts to Madaline Engle, Sept. 3rd, 1843, by 
John Naufzingen. 

154 Mrs. George Spongier J- 1- S- H. s. 

58. Garnet B. North to Jane Mundell, Aug. 31st, 1843, 
by Jas. Eoberson. 

59. Silas Gaddis to Saline Iben, Sept. 19th, 1843, by Jas. 

60. Wm. Turner to Sarah Ann Mundell, Sept. 21st, 
1843, by Morgan Buckingham. 

61. Wm. Hodge to Sarah Hopkins, Sept. 23rd, 1843, by 
Jefferson Horhan. 

62. Joseph Shoats to Elizabeth Naufzingen, Oct. 3rd, 
1843, by John Naufzingen. 

63. Benjamin Grove to Hannah Rinehart, Oct. 5th, 1843, 
by N. ^Y. I. Curtis. 

64. Jacob Garritson to Catherine E. Genoways, Oct. 
19th, 1843, by Z. HaU. 

65. Peter Fifer to Mary Curtis, Oct. 19th, 1843, by Z. 

66. Jacob Dowen to Mary Moory, Nov. 7th, 1843, by 
John Naufzingen. 

67. Joseph Brown to Minerva Williams, Nov. 19th, 1843, 
by Amos Watkins. 

68. Jas. Hodge to Sarah Vantine, Nov. 25th, 1843, by 
Thornton Parker. 

69. Christopher Winkler to Elizabeth Snyder, Dec. 26th, 

1843, by H. Bartles. 

70. Robert Mauhzites to Eliza Coons, Jan. 1844, by 
Wells Anderson. 

71. Peter Kennen to Catherine Baughman, Jan. 16th, 

1844, by John Gentry. 

72. John D. Clark to Louisa M. Clark, Feb. 18th, 1844, 
by Thos. Brown. 

73. John D. Grant to Judith A. Nagan, Feb. 22nd, 1844, 
by S. P. Gorin. 

74. W^m. Hoshor to Emily 

75. Christian Kennell to Madaline Kemp, June 9th, 
1844, by John Gentry. 

76. Jacob June 30th, 1844, 

by Jefferson Horhan. 

77. John Evans to Mary Parker, Aug. 8th, 1844, by Wm. 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Marriages in Woodford County 155 

78. Charles Moliter to Mary Phillip, Sept. 13th, 1844, by 
Thornton Parker. 

79. Cyrus A. Genoway to Diana Burt, Sept. 19th, 1844, 
by Thornton Parker. 

Si). \Vm. Hoshor to Emily Munn, Sept. 13th, 1844, by 
Thornton Parker. 

81. James Brown to Malula Carlock, Sept. 22nd, 1844, 
by A. Watkins. 

82. Boiij. W. Kindig to Elizabeth Page, Sept. 26th, 1844, 
by R. B. McCorkle. 

83. Garret Ai-mstrong to Malinda Patrick, Sept. 25th, 
1844, by S. P. Gorin. 

84. Thornton Parker to Martha Applegate, Oct. 22nd, 
1844, by S. Q. Cross. 

85. Wm. Mott to Mary Ann Morris, Oct. 27th, 1844, by 
Jas. Eobeson. 

86. Jas. Cannon to Mary Pratt, Nov. 7th, 1844, by Har- 
low Barney. 

87. Wm. C. Martin to Sarah Emily Davidson, Nov. 16th, 
1844, by Jas. Robeson. 

S8. Peter Weaver to Elizabeth Siple, Nov. 20th, 1844, 
by Thornton Parker. 

89. Samuel Q. Cross to Nancy A. Stephenson, Nov. 14th, 
1844, by A. E. Phelps. 

90. Ransom Rathbone to Elizabeth Beltz, Nov. 19th, 
1844, bv Thornton Parker. 

91. Edwin G. A to Charlotte Allison, Nov. 20th, 

1844, by R. X. MoiTet. 

92. Wm. Caldwell, Jr., to Belinda Thomas. 

93. James Crusenburv to Samantha Jane Bro^^^l, Dec. 
19th, 1844, by Abner Peeber. 

94. Conrad Bautz to Mary Jane Bettion, Jan. 11th, 1845, 
by Thornton Parker. 

95. Jos. Rosenberg to Veronica Bombeck, Jan. 9th, 1845, 
by A. Montuori. 

96. John Sumner to Mary Wenzel, Jan. 14tli, 1845, by 
A. Montuori. 

97. Alfred Williams to Elnora Derove, Jan. 11th, 1845, 
by Thornton Parker. 

156 Mrs. George Spangler J. i. 3. H. s. 

98. Alexander M. Laughlin to Harriet F. Kingsbury, 
Feb. 5th, 1845, by G. W. Elliott. 

99. David Kindig to Elizabeth J. McCord, Feb. 15th, 
1845, by E. B. McCorkle. 

100. Harris Whittaker to Charlotte Ann Duycus, Feb. 
27th, 1845, by Thornton Parker. 

101. David Smith to Minerva Jane Gardner, Mar. 14th, 
1845, by Jas. Eobeson. 

102. Isaac Bettion to Susan Bartels, Mar. 17th, 1845, 


103. Wm. Clevan to Elizabeth Cannon, Mar. 27th, 1845, 
by Harlow Barney. 

104. Isaac Watkins to Mary Goings, April 6th, 1845, by 
Amos A. Brown. 

105. David B. Gibbs to Ellen Louisa Neil, April 10th, 
1845, by Geo. Ray. 

106. E. H. Hardy to Eliza Powers, April 10th, 1845, by 
Geo. Eay. 

107. Wilson Tucker to Sarah Elizabeth Berry, April 
27th, 1845, by Wm. Davenport. 

108. Frederick Egody to Susan Bartel, May 24th, 1845, 
by Jefferson Hoshor. 

109. Presbury W. Hoxie to Lucinda R. Sherman, May 
15th, 1845, by H. G. Weston. 

110. Alfred Brozzelton to Delilah Crusinbury, June 8th, 
1845, by Amos Watkins. 

111. Le^\^s Ferree to Mary Ann Miller, June 9th, 1845, 
by S. Q. Cross. 

112. Peter T. Weber to Elizabeth C. Kern, June 24th, 
1845, by G. W. Elliott. 

113. John Q. Perry to Martha Elizabeth Todd, June 
19th, 1845, by Wm. Davenport. 

114. Horace Clarke to Mary Elizabeth Kingsbury, July 
31st, 1845, by G. W. Elliott 

115. Jos. Parker to Susan Moulton, July 31st, 1845, by 
Thornton Parker. 

116. Zephaniah E. Atterbury to Eliza Jane Moore, Sept. 
4th, 1845, by Jas. Eobeson. 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Marriages in Woodford County 157 

117. Richard Ilammett to Nancy Cannon, Oct. 5tb, 1845, 
by Ilarlow Barney. 

118. Samuel S. Burt to Angelina Eice, Oct. 23rd, 1845, 
by Thornton Parker. 

lli». David GratT to Barbar Jane Grove, Oct. 25th, 1845, 
by Chas. Babcock. 

120. Peter Eugle to Barbara Naffsinger, Oct. 26th, 1845, 
by John Nol'fsinger. 

121. Robert Owen to Mary Clingman, Dec. 9th, 1845, by 
Wm. E. Buckingham. 

122. John Mason to Sarah Knidelspyer, Dec. 18th, 1845, 
by John P. Eekles. 

123. Reuben Moulton to Susanah Ricketts, Dec. 27th, 

1845, by S. Q. Cross. 

124. JaB. Moore to Lavina Brown, Jan. 25th, 1846, by 
Abner Peeber. 

125. Phillip Jenkins to Malinda Sweet, Feb. 1st, 1846, 
by H. G. Weston. 

126. Samuel Nichola to Sarah Hodge, Feb. 9th, 1846, 
by Thornton Parker. 

127. Geo. Hadlock to Sarah Ayers, Feb. 8th, 1846, by 
Harlow Barney. 

128. Richard Hammett to Sarah Parker, Feb. 26th, 1846, 
by S. Q. Cross. 

129. Wm. P. Lucas to Margaret W. Park, Mar. 12th, 

1846, by H. D. Pabner. 

130. Wm. Wright to Sylvana Potter, Mar. 11th, 1846, 
by Harlow Barney. 

131. Alexander Woodcock to Martha Delong, Mar. 15th, 
1846, by Thornton Parker. 

132. James W^orley to Martha Ami Mulin, Apr. 11th, 
1846, by Harlow Barney. 

133. Amijah Doolittle to Sarah Johnson, Apr. 8th, 1846, 
by George Ray. 

134. Lewis Miller to Lydia Woodcock, May 20th, 1846, 
by Jefferson Hoshor. 

135. Edmond S. Harris to Amy Abagail Taylor, May 
19th. 1846, by W. E. Buckingham. 

158 Mrs. George Spangler J.i. s.h.s. 

136. Peter Schertz to Magdalina Garber, June 8th, 1846, 
by John Naffsinger. 

137. Geo. Eemley to Helen Eice, June 4th, 1846, by 
W. E. Buckingham. 

138. Samuel T. Suavely to Hilpa Dixon, June 23rd, 1846, 
by Jas. Eobenson. 

139. Irad M. Havens to Nancy Murphy, June 25th, 1846, 
by Eobert Baker. 

140. Jessie D. Havens to Martha M. Curtis, June 25th, 
1846, by Chas. Babcock. 

141. John Karker to Eve Parr, July 23rd, 1846. 

142. Lewis Hughes to Elizabeth J. Eobinson, Sept. 1st, 
1846, by Amos Watkin. 

143. Christian Esch to Nancy Garber, Aug. 30th, 1846, 
by Andrew Baughman. 

144. John Wells to Caroline E. Allison, Sept. 15th, 1846, 
by G. Moore. 

145. Marshall E. Davidson to Virginia C. Gorin, Sept. 
9th, 1846, by Jas. Eobeson. 

146. Joseph C. Eccles to Susanah F. Davidson, Sept. 
10th, 1846, by S. P. Gorin. 

147. Newton York to Mary Laton, Sept. 10th, 1846, by 
W. C. Moore. 

148. Geo. W. Doneho to Melisa Burt, Sept. 17th, 1846, 
by Chas. Babcock. 

149. Eobert W. Summers to Elasta W. Moore, Sept. 
30th, 1846, by Q. E. Lowra— . 

150. Thos. I. Clark to Louisa E. Stephenson, Oct. 1st, 
1846, bv Q. E. Lowra—. 

15i. Jos. Shirts to Ann Zehr, Nov. 8th, 1846, by John 

152. John Cary Barney to Ann Eliza Hadlock, Nov. 8th, 
1846, bv Harlow Bamev. 

153. Francis J. Barnard to Mary Mohr, Nov. 12th, 1846, 
by Amos Watkins. 

154. John Snyder to Susan Caldwell, Dec. 15th, 1846, 
by Jefferson Hoshor. 

155. John Boyden to Jane Gunn, Dec. 26th, 1846, by 
S. Q. Cross. 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Marriages in Woodford County 159 

156. Jacob Younger to Mary Hertz, Jan. 14th, 1847, by 
Amos. A. Brown. 

157. John Small to Nancy Eamscy, Jan. 13th, 1847, by 
Stephen R. Beggs. 

158. John Ropp to Nancy Forney, Feb. 21et, 1847, by 
Christian Ropp. 

159. John O. MeCord to Rebecca Jane McFadden, Feb. 
25th, 1847, by A. AVatkins. 

160. John D. Carson to Emily Moulton, Mar. 4th, 1847, 
by W. E. Buckingham. 

161. V'alentine Burkey to Madaline Naffsinger, Mar. 
14th, 1847, by John Naffsinger. 

162. Valentine Strapp to Barbara Ginger>', Mar. 2Sth, 
1847, by Christian Ropp. 

163. William T. Woosley to Cenith A. Dewees, April 8th, 
1847, by Jas. Robeson. 

164. Clinton L. Genoways to Minnie Mundell, April 1st, 
1847, by S. Q. Cross. 

165. Wm. A. Jennings to Mary Ann Robinson, April 
15th, 1847, by W. Davenport. 

166. John Peter Miller to Gusteen Claudin, May 21st, 
1847, by S. Q. Cross. 

167. Miletus West to Arabella Fauber, May 31st, 1847, 
by Patton Mitchel. 

168. Phillip Robinson to Barbara Eckstein, June 27th, 
1847, by A. Dovle. 

169. Allen Hart to Lucy Ann Davidson, July 11th, 1847, 
by Isaac Messer. 

170. Absalom Hoshor to May Jane Sowards, July 18th, 
1847, by Harlow Barney. 

171. Dempsey Hawkins to Mary Jane Owens, Aug. 3rd, 
1847, by Jefferson Hoshor. 

172. Nathan 0. Keeler to Mary Jane Arnold, Aug. 12th, 
by Jas. Robeson. 

173. Jeft'erson Hewett to Hannah Elinor Maxon, July 
29th, 1847, bv N. W. I. Curtis. 

174. Samuel Mullin to Sophia Ames, Aug. 22nd, 1847, 
by Abner Mundell. 

175. Jas. Shanklin to Sophia Catherine Crager, Aug. 
25th, 1847, by Geo. Ray. 

160 Mrs. George Spangler ^- ^- ^- ^- ^■ 

176. Michael Griner to Louisa Shock, Sept. 2iid, 1847, 
by M. Euppilius. 

177. Jas. M. Lee to Melissa Calfina Gunn, Sept. 6th, 
1847, by Benj. Younger. 

178. Samuel W. Schleigh to EUen 0. Neil, Sept. 9th, 
1847, by Wm. C. Pointer. 

179. Geo. Phipp to Elizah King, Sept. 15th, 1847, by 
A. Mundell. 

180. Abraham Eichey to Elizah Ann Evans, Sept. 25th, 
1847, by S. Q. Cross. 

181. Like T. Gardner to Sarah Moore, Oct. 10th, 1847, 
by McCord. 

182. Cliristian Gingery to Elizabeth Sbirtz, Oct. 24th, 
by Andrew Baughman. 

183. Eugene Claudin to Mary Ann Parsons, Oct. 16th, 
1847, by S. Q^ Cross. 

184. Wm. Major to Mary E. Dickenson, Oct. 21st, 1847, 
by Wm. Davenport. 

185. David BaUev to Nancy P. Jones, Nov. 12th, 1847, 
by C. N. Boblitt. 

186. Isaac Brown to Narcissus Moore, Jan. 2nd, 1848, 
by Abner Peeber. 


By Lillian Ewertsen. 

Illinois has the distinction of being the pioneer in a move- 
ment for perfecting better Americanization through the med- 
ium of the groat American boy. This is the first State in the 
Union whose educational institutions have taken a fonvard 
stride in the education of the boy by means of the sununer 

Realizing the gi'eat need for correlation between the 
school and vacation periods, the Chicago Board of Education 
established a national educational-training encampment for 
boys, kno^^•n throughout the country as a boy-builder, ' ' CA]\IP 
ROOSEVELT". Here, during the summer months, hundreds 
of boys who would otherwise waste their time in poolroom or 
equally undesirable haunts, are taught how to "play at use- 
ful work". It is found that by taking large groups of boys 
out in the open, close to nature, by giving them a carefully 
prepared program of health-building activities, they improve 
in health, their minds are cleared of cowwebs, and they become 
alert, keen mentally and clean morally, and return to school 
in the fall, one hundred percent more efficient, more desirable. 

The camp which uniforms each boy in khaki, thereby plac- 
ing all on equal footing and giving each boy a chance to ]irove 
his own merit, is the one which best teaches training in De- 
mocracy. Democracy is but another name for broad-minded- 
ness, for tolerance of one's brother man, of four-squareness. 

After a careful study, it has been found that the camp 
operated on a military plan, best inculcates this training. The 
boy in uniform is taught to roveronce the flag, and to obey the 
orders and instructions of his officers, because order and dis- 
cipline must prevail if the camp is to accomplish anything 
for those who are a part of it. The military organization and 


162 Lillian Ewertsen J- 1- S- h. s. 

discipline are not necessarily pre-eminent factors in camp 
life. They give to tlie camp an effective cohesive organiza- 
tion for its better management and discipline. These two 
important works accomplished, the military side of life should 
drop almost out of the picture, for there are other values 
which transcend the military achievements. 

One of these is systematic exercise. Out of a national 
necessity for sjTumetry in physical development has grown 
the science of physical education, a branch of education that 
is almost as highly specialized now as law or medicine or 
dentistry. That the addition of physical education adds ma- 
terially to the interests and benefits of life at camp goes with- 
out saying, and it is likewise true that the camp surround- 
ings bring an added value to the course in physical traiuiug. 
In other words, the boys respond more quickly and more 
whole-heartedly to the program of physical training, because 
it is an essential part of camp life than if the same program 
were presented to them without the flavor of camp routine. 
The plan of instruction should include not only the simple 
exercises of a routine nature, but active participation in such 
lively pastimes as swimming, baseball, rowing, boxing, and 
other activities. 

It may seem a bit paradoxical to remark that boys study 
harder during vacation time than at any other time, but the 
statement seems to be justified by the progress which is made 
at Camp Roosevelt. Boys who have somehow failed to make 
good on certain subjects at their home schools find opportun- 
ity through the summer school to make up past deficiencies 
and yet without missing the joys of the summer's outing. 
Why should not a boy grasp more readily the subjects studied 
out in the fresh air, under the trees? What better for a 
laboratory in geology than a summer day's hike through 
country holding many interesting secrets for the geologist? 

A camp where a boy can assimilate all this knowledge 
and training, and at the same time spend his days in the out- 
doors in a healthy, carefree way, is the finest solution to the 
problem of the boy's vacation. 

That not only educators, but men in other walks of life, 
believe thoroughly in this method is proven by the recent ao- 

Vol. XIV. No. 1 Camp Roosevelt 163 

tion of the U. S. War Department in offering the use of such 
equipment as tentage, cots, etc., by the action of the American 
Red Cross, in establishing a hospital, with a competent staff 
of doctors and nurses, who not only look after the health 
and sanitation of the camp, but whu give in addition, tliorough 
instruction in lirst aid and Red Cross ; by the active support 
of the Y. M. C. A., the Winchester Junior Rille Corps, and 
other organizations of national prominence. 

This pioneer movement in the direction of boy betterment 
is ideally located seventy-live miles from Chicago, near La- 
Porte, Indiana, on the site of what was formerly a boys' 
school. The tract includes and surrounds Silver Lake, (about 
eighty acres in extent), with sandy beaches, diving i)latform, 
etc. Large fields provide for tentage, sports of all kinds, and 
parade ground. The ground is rolling, well wooded and 
drained, and the surrounding country affords opportunity for 
hikes in every dii-ection. The buildings include a gymnasium, 
mess hall seating one thousand, kitchens, electric power plant, 
deep well, modem sewage system, large hospital, classroom 
buildings, bungalows, dormitories, and recreation rooms. 

The instigator of the Camp Roosevelt Plan is Major F. 
L. Beals, Professor of Military Science and Tactics and Su- 
pervisor of Physical Education in the Chicago Public High 
Schools. Lover and student of boys, Major Bc'als felt keenly 
that the summer vacation period is the time when boys slip 
back two steps for every step forward during the school 
year. Knowing boy psychology so thoroughly, he formulated 
a plan whereby the boy could have his fun and his play, in 
addition to his study and his work, and have all of this in a 
way that would bring the greatest good to him. This plan he 
submitted to Superintendent Peter A. Mortenson, who 
grasped at once the magnitude of such a plan, and aided 
Major Beals in founding the camp, which was made an aux- 
iliary of the Chicago summer school system. 

Being a public institution, of necessity the cost must be 
sufficiently low to attract tlie average American boy, not a 
select find pampered few. For this reason, Major Beals se- 
cured the support of public-spirited Chicago business men, 
who yearly contribute the necessary funds for the mainte- 

164 Lillian Ewertsen J- 1- S- H. s. 

nance of this immense undertaking, which opens its gates 
yearly to thousands of boys. The boys themselves pay a very 
nominal fee for the beneiits of the encampment. Mr. Angus S. 
Hibbard, former Vice-President and General Manager of the 
Bell Telephone Company, is Chairman of the Camp Roosevelt 
Association, in charge of financial matters. 

The camp is divided into two period of three weeks each. 
Boys may attend either one or both of these periods, the first 
of which begins on July 5. There are three divisions in the 
camp curriculum, the E. 0. T. C or military division; the 
summer school, which includes seventh and eighth grade sub- 
jects and all high school subjects ; and the Junior Camp, for 
boys from twelve to fourteen years of age. 

Illinois may be proud of this fori\"ard movement in edu- 
cation, for it solves a constantly growing problem which edu- 
cators the country over have not heretofore been able to cope 
with. Illinois has taken the lead. 



Double Number. 

Published Quarterly by tho Society at Springfleld, Illinois. 


Associate Editors: 

George W. Smith Andrew Russel H. W. Clendenin 

Edward C. Page 

Applications for membership in the Society may be sent to the Secretary of 
the Society, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield, Ulinols. 

Membership Fee, One Dollar — Paid Annually. Life Membership, $25.00 

Vol. XIV. Apbil-July, 1921. Nos. 1-2. 


Readers of the Journal of the Illinois State Historical 
Society will note that this is a double number of the maga- 
zine, being numbers one and two of volume fourteen, April 
and July 1921. The Journal like many other historical period- 
icals has been far behind in the dates of its publication. 
There are many reasons for this, but now that some of these 
conditions no longer exist it seems best to combine two num- 
bers for two or three issues and thus bring the Journal up- 
to-date. This will be an improvement in the Journal and a 
great convenience to its readers. 

The editors are soriy to adopt this course but it seems 
the best plan, and the attention of the members of the Society 
is directed to it. 

Carl S. Vrooman of Bloomington, former assistant secre- 
tary of Agriculture, was appointed February 4, chaii-man of 
the "gift com project", of the American Farm Bureau feder- 
ation. He will have charge of collecting the 50,000,000 bushels 


168 Editorial J- 1- S- h. s. 

of corn which the farmers of the country have offered to give 
to feed starving Europeans. Shortly after announcing Mr. 
Vrooman's appointment, J. R. Howard, president of the fed- 
eration, received a telegram from the heads of the raUway 
labor brotherhoods offering the services of trainmen free in 
moving grain from farms to seajDorts. President Howard im- 
mediately wired the various railroad executives, asking them 
to furnish the rolling stock free. 


"Uncle Steve" White, who is probably the oldest man 
in the state celebrated his one hundred and third birthday on 
Wednesday, February 9, with almost all his children present. 
From the reports that came to us, we believe that the rela- 
tives and friends of this aged man had a splendid time when 
they gathered at the old homestead with this old gentleman 
who has passed the century mark by three years according 
to the old family record. 

Uncle Steve as he is familiarly known is a veteran of the 
Mexican war and we would like to go to this old gentleman 
and get a real story for we have not had the plea- 
sure of interviewing him and getting his life's history. At 
present Mr. White is enjoying very good health and pos- 
sesses a keen and active mind for a man of his age. 

A large number of friends attended the party given 
in honor of "Uncle Steve" and it would take time to give 
the event the attention it deserves. He has fifty-three 
grand children and 5 great grand children. Late in the 
afternoon the children and friends of Mr. White departed 
for home expressing a desire to be with this old man upon 
many more such occasions. 


The Joseph Medill School of Journalism of Northwestern 
University was dedicated to the public service Tuesday even- 
ing, February 8th, 1921. Its classes began work at 5 o'clock 
the next afternoon. 

vol. XIV. No. 1 Editorial 169 

Its plans have been foniiulatcd, its purposes made known, 
and, in the Eov. George Craig Stewart's phrase of invocation, 
"the wedding of the newspaper and the University per- 
formed". And work begins. Decidedly the ceremonies in 
Patten gymnasium on the P]vanston cam]ius had distinction. 
The setting was good. The people assembled beneath a can- 
opy of green foliage that arched itself over many flags and 
lights. Above the speakers' platform hung a portrait of the 
editor for whom the school was named. IBeneath it sat one 
of his two daughters, one of his grandsons, three presidents 
of American Universities, editors, business functionaries of 
great newspaper properties, judges, educators and men of 
affairs. There was the roll of music, the glow of the purple 
of chancellors' robes, and the flash of the scarlet of the deans' 
gowns. The flags, the roses, the academic ritual, the digni- 
taries, all that was fine and fitting. It was a pity that the hun- 
dreds of men working down town on the morning's news- 
j)apers could not have seen it. It w^ould have given them a 
thrill of pride and happiness out of the picture, for it would 
have told them that the academic world is not aloof, but with 

Things that had meanings w^ere said cordially, earnestly, 
intimately during the dedicatory services. From Paris, Lon- 
don, and New York, from Florida, and from the lips of the 
editors and the three presidents on the platform there came to 
the 1200 listeners sentences that gave them much besides 
empty phrases and felicitation. 

There could hardly be a dedicatorj^ ceremony in w-hieh 
less idle talk was uttered. They all talked about and for 
an institution they want to have mean and stand for better 
writing, better scholarship, better workmanship and more 

They were very concrete. 

"Faith, hope and charity" said David Kinley, president 
of the University of Illinois. "Faith — that is the church; 
hope — that is the school; charity — that is the newspaper. 

President Scott, too, wasted no words in defining the 
reason for the school. He said: "For centuries we have had 
in America, schools of theologj-, for training the leaders in 

170 Editorial j.i.s.h.s. 

the church. For decades we have had normal schools for 
training leaders in the schools. But only now are we begin- 
ning to establish schools of Journalism to train the leaders 
for the press." And later: "Editors are cooperating because 
they believe the school Avill bring into the profession better 
trained men and women, that it will make some contribution 
to elevating the standard of the i^rofession, and contribute 
to the ethical religious leadership of the press." 

From Printing House square the overlord of the Thund- 
erer — Northcliffe of the London Times — sent a long message 
by wireless from which these thoughts spring at you: 
"Events of the last six years have widened and deepened 
channels of journalism, and increased the demand for pilots 
of public thought who know the waters far beyond the famous 
three mile limit of your eastern coast." 

Imbedded in the cablegram of Lauzanne of the Paris Matin 
was this: "The journalist has but one ancestor, Diogenes." 

From Petit Parisien, Senator and Editor Paul Dupuy 
said to the students in the audience: "As journalists you 
must remember always that you are the eyes, ears, and tongue 
of millions who depend upon you to see, hear and speak for 
them. ' '. 

And Warren G. Harding told them why the Marion Star 
is a success when he touched on his thirty-six years in Ohio 

"I send my cordial greetings to the students in the Medill 
School of Journalism, and wish them the achievement of 
stamping their individuality on their professions and their 
wcrk as Joseph Medill left his impress on a great journalis- 
tic achievement. Nothing surj^asses the possibilities for serv- 
ice that are vested in a great journal commanding the public 
confidence. That confidence is won through a soul in one's 
work and a good conscience in every utterance." 

Joseph Medill Patterson, on behalf of The Chicago Tri- 
bune, which is associated with the University in the founding 
of the school, surrendered it formally to the University au- 
thorities. Like Arthur Brisbane of Mr. Hearst's newspapers, 
like President Judson of the University of Chicago, he was 
very human. The si;rrender was complete and in disclosing 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Editorial 171 

the tei-uis of the fouudatiou, Mr. Patterson said: "President 
Scott made two stiimhitions — that he would take our money, 
and that lie wouldn't take our advice if he didn't want it." 

The aiulience knew President Scott and it shouted with 
appreciative laughter. 

Mr. Patterson paid his tribute to Eddie Doherty, the re- 
porter. The school was Doherty 's idea, he said: "For 
months amid mild snubs in the ollice and in academic halls 
he had worked on the idea and nursed it, and made it take 
form and allurement until editors and presidents took respect- 
ful notice. At last he won. As our chief said: "He came 
in with his story", which means in the argot of our profes- 
sion, to win against odds, to deliver, to make good. 

Doherty is in Mexico now or he would have been in that 
hall — writing this storj-, which would have been better. Mr. 
Patterson continued: "This school is started. Just as free 
as any school ever started. It w^as not started as a memor- 
ial. It was a growing, vital institution before its name was 
chosen. We are glad and proud that the name it bears was 
chosen because the name of a man whose record was long 
and honorable has been given to a school whose record, we 
believe, will be long and honorable. ' ' 

Some differences between the purposes and plans of the 
new School and the Joseph Pulitzer School of Journalism 
of Columbia University, were pointed out by the speaker, who 
said: "Perhaps there is an impropriety in my seeming to 
criticize that great school, but if ther^e is, it w^ill be extenuated 
by the fact that they wont care what I say about them." 

Again there was a shout from those who have detected a 
certain condescension in the attitude of our eastern colleagues. 
The gist of Mr. Patterson's point was that the new school 
did not, among ether things, propose to rear reporters who, 
if you sent tliem out to get a photograph of a prominent safe- 
blower, came back with a three column article on the indus- 
trial situation in New Jersey. 

Mr. Brisbane followed : He said the question of the even- 
ing w^as "If newspaper work is worth while, can it be 
taught?" He believes it can, but before he went into the 
question he paused to turn a very deft two-handed compli- 

172 Editorial J- 1- S- h. s. 

ment to the lady in black who sat at President Scott's right 
and to his predecessor on the platform. "I now have an 
interesting sidehght on the theory you will find discussed in 
Galton's work on heredity — that is, that genius is inherited 
only through the daughters of a great man. ' ' 

Then Mr. Brisbane bowed toward the lady and the audi- 
ence laughed delightedly. It was verj- pretty to see and hear 
— it was done so deftly. Here are some of Mr. Brisbane's 
forcible remarks: "The newspaper is to a nation what the 
voice is to an individual. 

The individual without a voice is nothing. A nation with- 
out a voice is the prey of any conspiracy. ' ' 

"Ladies and gentlemen, the American newspaper is the 
market square where 105,000,000 people gather every morn- 
ing and evening. ' ' 

"To see a thing clearly and to describe it simply — that is 
the reporter's task. "What is the newspaper man's business? 
Seeing clearly, keeping his head, using judgment and feeling. 
If you see an execution or a disaster, or cruelty or poverty 
and don't feel them, your reader wont feel -wnth you. The 
danger for a newspaper man is that he will cease to feel. 
To be a good newspaper man you must always keep jumping 

That prompted Mr. Brisbane to add that Steve Brodie 
did not jump off Brooklyn Bridge, but dropped off a dummy 
and then rowed out to it. 

Edgar T. Cutter, chief of the central division of the As- 
sociated Press, then cordially read messages from Frank B. 
Noyes and other officials of the great news dispenser, and 
President Judson, speaking of the old days, said that in his 
first reportoi-ial assignment he had tried to be humorous with 
the result that his editor said to him next day, "young man, 
you are very young." "When he remembered those days, he 
said "My thought is how I would have welcomed instruction 
in what not to say and how not to say it." 

From Robert E. McCormick, now in Europe, came a 
letter to the students, which was read by Dean James A. 
James, and from which we quote: 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Editorial 173 

"Let no man think be can be a successful newspaper 
cbai"h^tan. There are such people. AVe don't deny it. But 
Iboir success, though it glitters for a while, is neither sound 
nor lasting. It is ephemeral and the end of such men, as 
disaster after disaster in the annals of journalism proves, is 
ignominious. Nor do they survive so long in our profession 
as elsewhere. The man of unsound heart cannot day in and 
day out bare his unsoundness to the public eye without de- 
tection. "We, too, stand in the glare of a publicity that is piti- 

"Therefore the soul of our work is service — not alone 
public ser^^ce that is wide and inspiriting, but, as you will 
find when you at last swing into the work, personal ser-vice 
tliat imposes many obligations and makes many a heavy draft 
on your time, your |)atience, your tact, and, upon many occa- 
sions, your courage and your loj^alty to yourself and your 
community and countrj'. 

* ' But I would not have you think of your future as a kind 
of martjTdom. Yours will be a sen'ice that, I insist, is well 
requited. I am proud and happy to have been a factor with 
President Scott and Captain Patterson in establishing this 
new and intimate relation between the daily press and a 
great institution of learning. We needed the institution. We 
shall try, modestly enough, to prove to you that it needs us." 


On February 5, 1921, the first free scholarship of the Me- 
dill School of Journalism was established. The gift was from 
the Chicago Woman's Aid, and by a coincidence, benefits not 
only the Medill School of Journalism, but also another insti- 
tution which bears the name of the editor for whom North- 
western University's new foundation was named. 

Defining to President Walter Dill Scott the purposes of 
the Medill School of Journalism's first scholarship, Mrs. Ed- 
ward Gudeman, president of the Chicago Woman's Aid, said: 
"Because the Chicago Woman's Aid has been active in Amer- 
icanization work in the neighborhood of the Medill High 

174 Editorial j.i.s.h.s. 

School, our club has decided to make the new scholai'ship in 
Journalism available to students who complete the two years 
of junior college work at that school. In other woi'ds, the 
scholarship covers full tuition fees for one year in the Joseph 
Medill School of Journalism, and will be awarded to that sen- 
ior in the Medill High School, who in the judgment of 
the principal of that school, gives the best promise of success 
in the profession of Journalism." 

Miss Julia B. Stern, Chairman of the educational depart- 
ment of the Woman's Aid, explained further that the scholar- 
ship will cover tuition fees for one year in the regular day 
full time classes of the School of Journalism at Evanston for 
the Academic year, 1921-22. The Chicago Woman's Aid is a 
long established organization composed of Jewish women. Its 
headquarters are 4622 Grand Boulevard. It did great war 


The City of Springfield, the State of Illinois and Nation, 
joined by the little South American Republic of Peru, united 
Saturday night, February 12, in paying homage to Abraham 
Lincoln, at the Annual Lincoln Day Banquet at the Leland 
Hotel in Springfield. The affair, given under the joint aus- 
pices of the Lincoln Centennial Association and the Mid-Day 
Luncheon Club, marked the one hundred and twelfth anni- 
versary of the Great Emancipator's birth. 

The prophetic vision of deep religious convictions and 
ever present sense of justice of Springfield's greatest citi- 
zen were eulogized by His Excellency, Senor Don Frederico 
A. Pezet, Peruvian Ambassador to the United States; The 
Hon. William C. Sproul, Governor of Pennsylvania, Governor 
Len Small of Illinois and other speakers. 

Singing of "America" opened the meeting. The invo- 
cation was pronounced by Rev. Jerry Wallace, Rector of 
Christ Episcopal church. Clarence J. Root, president of the 
Mid-Day luncheon Club, after reading telegrams from Presi- 
dent-elect Warren G. Harding and General John J. Pershing 
expressing their regrets at their inability to accept the invi- 

Vol. XIV. No. 1 Editorial 175 

tations extended to them to speak at this year's banquet, ex- 
tended the greetings of the Mid-Day Club to tlie distinguished 
guests of the evening. 

United States Senator Lawrence Y. Sherman greeted the 
visitors in behalf of tlie Lincoln Centennial Association. 
Governor Small then was introduced as toast master of the 
evening. He declared, in his opening remarks, that Lincoln 
was a man of the common people, their hopes and their aspira- 
tions and therefore was able to sympathize with them at all 

Governor Small introduced Governor Sproul of Pennsyl- 
vania. The Executive of the Keystone State, in the course 
of his address, declared that "had Lincoln not lived and had 
not this nation through him not remained united, strong and 
self reliant, there seems to be little doubt but that civilized 
societ}' would have fallen in the recent crisis." 

The Peru^^an National Anthem was played before Senor 
Fezet began to speak. The visiting ambassador pleaded that 
all statesmen take Lincoln for their model, assorting that if 
they do, the "causes of many wars will vanish like morning 
mists in the sunlight." He declared that Lincoln belonged 
not to Americans alone, but to all just men everywhere. 

He said also "Today it has been my pri%'ilege to do honor 
to the memor\- of your great president, and in the name of 
my country, I have deposited a wreath bearing the colors 
of Peru at his mausoleum. This tribute I have paid imbued 
with the most intense sentiment of ray government, and peo- 
ple, wlio were thus afforded an op]iortunity to show their love 
and admiration for one of America's greatest citizens, and 
one of the world's most remarkable men, but also, in a vei'y 
real sense, carrying out what would have been the earnest de- 
sire and hope of my grandfather, the contemporan^ of Abra- 
ham Lincoln. "When I consider that I owe the privilege of 
having been given tliis opportunity to you, gentlemen of the 
Mid-Day Luncheon Club, to you gentlemen of the Lincoln 
Centennial Association, and to you. Sir, the Mayor of this capi- 
tal city of the great State of Illinois, I feel that I am indebted 
to you for what is probably the greatest honor that has ever 
been accorded me in my whole life. For what can compare 

176 Editorial J- 1- S- H. s. 

with the honor of being here today, in this the National Shrine 
of your most beloved statesman, invited to pay tribute to Ms 
great memory, and moreover, to be one of the famed few who 
have been given tliis privilege. 

And when I reflect that I am the first citizen of a Latin 
American sister Eepublic to be the recipient of this honor, I 
assure you, gentlemen, that I feel that verily a bond has been 
established between us, I feel that the undying spirit of the 
Great Emancipator stands before us as he lived, stretching 
liis hands out to us and drawing my people and yours closer 
together in intimacy and understanding. 

The Ambassador closed his remarks, with a Toast to Lin- 
coln, "Acknowledging what I owe to this great country, its 
government and people, I would beg you to do honor with 
me to the great Lincoln, the foremost statesman of America, 
by rising with me, and in a sense of true Lincohi Americanism 
pay a tribute of respect on this day of days in this city, hal- 
lowed by being the depository of his remains, to the man who 
today holds the honored and extolled position that Lincoki 
once held — To the President of the United States." 


Children in 10,000 rooms of Chicago schools reverently 
listened to the reading of the Gettysburg Speech Friday, Feb- 
raary 11, as part of the celebration exercises for Lincoln's 
hundred and twelfth birthday anniversaiy. Instead of gen- 
eral school exercises, each room provided its own program. 
In many, a pupil recited th-e emancipator's speech. In others 
it was read by the teacher. 

Children from all of the north side schools were invited 
to visit the Chicago Historical Society. Members of the So- 
ciety were present to explain the Lincoki exhibit and ]\Irs. 
Eleanor Gridley gave a talk during the daj^ on Lincoln: Boy 
and Man." 

Addison G. Pi'octor, the only living delegate to the Re- 
publican National Convention of 1860, spoke before the Chi- 
cago Historical Society on "Life Portraits of Lincohi." 
Proctor was just 21 years old when he came from Kansas as 

Vol. XIV. No. 1 Editorial 177 

a delegate to the convention that nominated Lincoln for 

Dr. M. M. Quaife, director of the State Historical Society 
of "Wisconsin, talked on "The Mystery of Lincoln's Genius." 
He has traced all of Lincoln's ancestors from the first Lincoln 
to come to America in 1G37 down to Thomas Lincoln, father 
of the president. 

The Lawyers' Association of Illinois gave a luncheon. 
Judge Marcus Kavanagh spoke on "Americanization and Lin- 

Birthday anniversaries of both Lincoln and Thaddeus 
Kosciuszko were obsei-ved by the Polish National Alliance in 
the Studebaker Theater. The anniversaries are on the same 
day. Judge Kenesaw M. Landis and Consul-General Sigmund 
Nowicki of the new Polish republic, were the speakers. The 
Grand Army and Memorial Association observed the anni- 
versary. The principal address was given by Attorney Frank 
C. Loesch. Col. George V. Lauman read the Gettysburg ad- 

The United States Daughters of 1812, State of Illinois, 
celebrated Lincoln's Birthday at the Chicago Beach Hotel. 
Col. John V. Clinnin gave the address. 

Gen. Henry Dearborn Chapter Daughters of the American 
Revolution met in the Fine Arts Building. The Right Rev. 
Samuel Fallows gave an address on Lincoln, and Chancellor 
L. Jenks, past president of the Sons of the American Revolu- 
tion gave a talk on "In the Spirit of the Revolution." 


The Fourth Presbyterian Church of Chicago celebrated 
the fiftieth anniversary of its founding with special ser\nces 
the second week of February, culminating in the Golden Jubi- 
lee services on Sunday, February 13th, when the Rev. Dr. John 
Timothy Stone, pastor of the church for the past twelve years 
delivered the Anniversary Sermon at tlie morning service, the 
Rev. James G. K. McClure, D. D., gave an historical address 
at the afternoon service and the Rev. Frank W. Gunsaulus, 
D. D., gave some reminiscences at the evening service. Fonu- 

178 Editorial J- 1- S- h. s. 

er pastors of the Fourth Presbyterian Church in the fifty 
years of its history have been: The Rev. Dr. David Swing, 
Rev. Dr. John Abott French, Rev. Dr. Herrick Johnson and 
Rev. Dr. WiUiam Robson Notmon, now deceased, and the Rev. 
Dr. Thomas C. Hall and M. Woolsey Stryker. 




One of the first private monuments of its kind other than 
State, Government and other official monuments erected south 
of the Mason-Dixon line to the memory of soldiers of 
the Union Armies who fought in the Civil War was dedi- 
cated February 12, Lincoln's birthday at Lynn Haven, 
Florida. Credit for the building of the monument goes 
to a former Illinoisan, Dr. William W. Krape, until a 
few years ago a resident of Freeport, Illinois and for- 
mer member of the Illinois legislature from the twelfth 
district. Dr. Krape is now mayor of Lynn Haven. He 
is a veteran of the Civil War, having sei-ved through the 
greater part of that conflict with the 46th Illinois Volunteer 
infantiy. Soon after his election as mayor of Lynn Haven he 
presented to the townsfolk, many of whom are Civil War 
veterans and former residents of northern States, the proposi- 
tion to build a monument in memoiy of Union Army Veterans 
who after the war settled in Dixieland. 


Lincoln College, Oxford, England was represented at the 
dedication of the social center building of the Wesley Founda- 
tion at the University of Illinois, Tuesday, Febniary 15th. 
John Wesley, the founder of the Methodist Society, was a 
fellow of Lincoln College for twenty-six years. In recogni- 
tion of that fact the seal of Lincoln College has been carved 
over one of the bay windows of the new Wesley Foundation 
building at the University of Illinois. The rector of Lincoln 
College in accepting the invitation to be present wrote, "We 
are much interested in your foundation and your recognition 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Editorial 179 

of its historical connection witli Lincoln College". The exer- 
cises in connection with tin; dedication covered four days. 
Representative churchmen were present from all over the 
United States and Canada. Four of the Bishops of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church took part in the program. Bishops 
Thomas Nicholson of Chicago, William McDowell of Washing- 
ton, F. J. McConnell of Pittsburg and Theodore S. Henderson 
of Detroit. A pageant by the University of Illinois students 
was a feature of the exercises. The pageant showed John 
Wesley as a student at Oxford University, as well as some of 
the later episodes of his life. The closing episode was an in- 
ternational one, parts were taken by foreign students of the 
University, Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, Hindustans and 
Latin Americans. Two of the most beautiful rooms in the 
building will be set apart for the use of the 230 foreign stud- 
ents of the University and will be known as the International 
rooms. The rooms were given by Mrs. Fannie E. Jolly of 
Grayville, Illinois in memory of her son, Mayo Jolly. The So- 
cial Center is the first of a group of buildings which the 
Methodist Episcopal Church has under way at the University 
of Illinois under its centenary program. The entire group will 
cost more than $1,000,000. The architecture is Gothic and the 
material used is Bedford stone. Among the trustees of the 
Wesley Foundation are Bishop Thomas Nicholson of Chicago 
and W. K. Heath, the president of the Chicago Federal Re- 
serve Bank. Dr. James C. Baker, the director of the founda- 
tion, has been in charge of this work at the University of 
Illinois for fourteen years. 


Extension of Roosevelt road as a scenic and historic high- 
way from Chicago to St. Louis, winding amid the beauties of 
the Illinois river valley, was proposed to State highway offi- 
cials in Chicago, February 14th. The plan, fostered as a trib- 
ute to the memory of the late president, was offered at a meet- 
ing at the Union League Club. Col. C. R. Miller, director of 
public works of Illinois promised his support. Other officials 
also were enlisted to aid in the campaign for its success. 

180 Editorial J- 1- »■ H- s. 

Roosevelt road is now completed from Chicago's lake front 
through Wheaton to Aurora and down the Fox river Valley 
to Ottawa and Pekin. The proposed extension will touch all 
spots of especial beauty along the Illinois river. "This pro- 
posal is a matter of great importance to future generations, ' ' 
declared W. F. Carlson, executive secretary of the Roosevelt 
Memorial Association. "The linking up of a roadway, hith- 
erto unthought of, that will take in the beautiful scenery of 
the Illinois, and giving it the name of Colonel Roosevelt, is a 
step in history." It was stated at the meeting that there now 
exists a number of highways running through the state, one 
of them a continuous hard road from Chicago to St. Louis. 
The latter may be called purely commercial, while the pro- 
posed Roosevelt way will link up the finest patriotic senti- 
ment with the best points of interest in our state. It is 
planned to organize a tour of the proposed right of way as 
soon as the weather permits. Engineers, members of the 
Roosevelt Association, highway officials and influential citi- 
zens from points along the highway will be invited. At the 
meeting the state was represented by Col. C. R. Miller, S. E. 
Bradt, Superintendent of highways; Thomas G. Vennum, as- 
sistant director of public works, and Clifford Older, chief engi- 
neer. The Roosevelt Memorial Association was represented 
bv Frank G. Logan, Jens Jensen, Frederick "W. Perkins, 
Howard V. D. Shaw, and W. F. Carlson. 


Professor Albert A. Michelson, whose star measuring ap- 
paratus has startled the scientific world, left Chicago Tuesday, 
February 15, for Paris, France, where he will lecture as an 
exchange professor in the University of Paris for three 
months. Incidentally he will visit London, where he will be 
decorated by societies and lecture on his discoveries. Pro- 
fessor JVIichelson before his departure viewed the fifth issue 
of films by the Society for visual education, of which he is a 
supporter. The films, which are being sent throughout 
America to bring expensive experiments to the smaller insti- 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Editorial 181 

tutions of learning, show(>d a number of experiments in 
electricity. The announcement of Professor Michelson's new 
device to measure the stars came last December, and at- 
tracted the attention of the scientific world. By it he has 
measured many of the greater suns in the visible universe, 
among them Betelgeuze, which was found to be many million 
times greater than our sun, and of such immensity it would 
fill the greater portion of our solar system. He also ascer- 
tained that one star, Olpha Orionis, has a diameter 300 times 
as large as our sim and a volume 27,000,000 times as large. 


Quincy is to be the first Illinois City to avail itself of the 
State law which pennits cities to create health districts and 
le\"y a special tax of 2 mills for its support, according to 
Health Commissioner John Dill Robertson who conferred 
with Quincy City Authorities, February 18th. 


Linking, six wars, extending from the Revolution to the 
late conflict ^dth Germany, Mrs. Mary Potter of Dwight, 
Illinois celebrated her one hundred and seventh birthday anni- 
versary, February 23rd. Mrs. Potter has a career that has 
no counterpart in the L^nitcd States. Her grandfather, a 
soldier of the Armies under George Washington; her father 
fighting against the British in the War of 1812; while she 
contributed supplies to the men who fought in the Mexican 
War, the Civil War, the War with Spain and finally the great 
World War. Mrs. Potter has a personal knowledge of the six 
struggles for liberty that has been granted no other person 
in Illinois, or perhaps in the United States. Mrs. Potter was 
bom in Essex County, New York, in 1814, four years before 
Illinois was admitted to the Union. She came to this state 
soon after it was admitted to Statehood and has lived here 
ever since. When they gave land away to attract settlers, 

182 Editorial j.i.s.h.s. 

Mrs. Potter and her husband procured one of the grants from 
the government, for a farm in Livingston County, and that 
tract is yet in her possession, one of the few pieces in Illinois 
or it may be in the middle west, which has not changed hands 
since the original grant from the government. Making this 
farm her home for more than sixty years, Mrs. Potter turned 
it over to a tenant when her husband died twenty-five years 
ago and has since lived in retirement in Dwight. All but one 
of her children died from the debility of old age. The only 
surviving child is a son, Albert, residing in Peru, Indiana. 
He and his children and grandchildren attended the celebra- 
tion of Mrs. Potter's one hundred and seventh birthday anni- 


FiFTEEx Hundred Citizens of Eureka Help Handle 
Se^^enty-two Wagons. 
(By Frank Ridgway.) 

With all the spirit of an old fashioned husking bee, Illi- 
nois fanners turned up their shirt sleeves and started the first 
gift corn rolling toward Europe's stai'ving children. Seventy- 
two heaping wagons rumbled into Eureka, Illinois on Feb. 
21st, 1921 bright and early from all parts of Woodford county. 

Pi'aetically every one of the 1,500 Eurekans donned den- 
ims, grabbed a shovel, and helped to handle the 2,600 bushels 
of com brought in by the fanners. Two com shellers were 
kept humming, while twelve men kept a constant stream of 
com ninning into the grain wagons and to the elevator, 
where it was mn into cars. Two cars were loaded. 

Frank Shamburg and Ed. Lehman donated the shellers. 
Frank Felter, president of the Woodford county farm bureau, 
brought his tractor from the farm to ran the shellers. The 
cobs were sold from $1 to $5 a load and the money will be 
used to buy more gift com. Some farmers were not able to 
bring their com in and 500 bushels more were loaded later. 

This gift com day was the first of eight planned in the 
county. The call did not go out until a few days before the 

Vol. XIV. No. 1 Editorial 183 

day appointed, when every fanner was asked to give half 
a bushel of com for every acre planted last year. The second 
gift com day was held at El Paso a few days later. Others 
were held during the following two weeks at Minonk, Benson, 
Eoanoke, Metamora, Secor, Washlium and Goodfield. Six- 
teen car loads of com all told will be given by Woodford 
county, basing the estimate on the number of bushels donated 
at Eureka. 

Similar days will be held throughout the com belt. Indi- 
ana farmers will soon begin to load gift corn at Valparaiso. 
Iowa farmers will start loading at about the same time. As 
soon as a sufficient number of cars are loaded they will be 
assembled into trains and started for the seabord and Europe. 

All of the Illinois corn, which is being handled under di- 
rection, of Howard Leonard, president of the state farm 
bureau, wUl be milled in the United States and sent to Poland 
and the starving children in central Europe. 

A total of 5,000,000 bushels will be given by American 
fanners — 1.000,000 bushels, milled, wiU be distributed by 
Hoover's European relief committee; 1.500,000 bushels, 
milled, and 500,000, sheUed, will go to Poland; 1,000,000, 
shelled, to China, and 1,000,000, milled, to European countries 
through a Catholic relief commission. 

Nine railroads have agi-eed to haul the gift com free of 
charge. C. S. Vrooman, director of the project, has asked 
W. L. Barnes, manager of the car service section at Washing- 
ton, for cars and for free billing. 

Final arrangements for the project were made at a con- 
ference of farmers, rail executives, relief committees, and 
millers held recently in the office of the president of the Chi- 
cago Board of Trade. 


Mayor Tliompson on Tuesday, Febmary 22, paid tribute 
to the city's hero dead, to whose memory the city unveUed a 
bronze tablet in the main corridors of the City Hall. "Amer- 
ica and American Citizens are proud of the American sol- 

184 Editorial J- 1- s. h. s. 

dier, living or dead", he said. "I yield to none in my respect 
for the flag and uniform of my Country". To these mothers 
and fathers of stalwart boys who in our latest War, in obed- 
ience to the call of their country, went forth to fight and to 
die under the call of Old Glory, I bring the consolation they 
may derive from the knowledge that their sons, just enter- 
ing into glorious manhood, died as soldiers of the republic in 
the performance of their duty, and that they, too, are en- 
titled to their full share of the honor and the glory which a 
generous and grateful nation accords to its defenders." The 
tablet was designed by Nancy Cox McCormack, who briefly 
explained the thought back of her work. 


Darid Charles Davies has been appointed head of the 
Field Museum, succeeding Frederick Skiff (deceased). Mr. 
Davies was bom in Wales, entered the Museum Service in 
1894. Before that he was employed by Marshall Field. Mr. 
Davies has superintended one of the largest jobs of moving 
knowTi. The entire museum with its many antiques and curi- 
osities has been moved from Jackson Park to the New Grant 
Park Building, and was opened to the public May 3rd. 


Final preparations for opening the New Field Museum of 
Natural History in Grant Park, May 3, were completed on 
Monday May 2, 1921. Just one year after the work of trans- 
feriing the 560 car loads of exhibits from the old structure in 
Jackson Park was started. Witnessing the finishing touches 
were Stanley Field, president of the board of directors; D. 
C. Davies, acting director; and John Ghmn, Superintendent. 
When the doors of the $6,750,000 structure are thrown open to 
the public, guards attired in new French gendanne uniforms 
were on duty to show visitors around. The decision to dress 
these men in the quaint imiforms which were worn by the 
guards at the World's Fair and later in the old Museum 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Editorial 185 

was made by the board of directors to maintain the atmos- 
phere of the old building. The IMuseum will be open every- 
day between 10 A. M. and 4 P. M., it was announced. Ad- 
mission will be free on Thursdays, Saturdays, and Sundays. 
On other days a charge of 25 cents will be made to cover inci- 
dental expenses. 

The first exhibition room after the entrance is passed is 
the Stanley Field Hall, where is seen an exhibit of East Indian 
jewelry of various ages. A Chinese gateway, nineteen feet 
high and more than sixteen feet wide adorns the southern 
end of the hall. The work was carved in teakwood by inmates 
of a Chinese or])hanage maintained by missionaries near 
Shanghai. Close by can be seen a number of bronze bathtubs 
used by ancient Romans. 

An exhibit of American Indian life showing totem poles, 
war clubs, weaving, and pottery is another interesting feature 
of the main floor. The Egyptian section contains mummies 
and coffins thousands of years old, ancient glassware and pot- 
tery work showing the artistic ability of one of the earth's 
first civilized peoples. 

Another striking exhibit is a roomful of mounted pre- 
historic animals of Africa, among them being the mastodon. 
Nearby is an Irish deer of the post-glacial period, and a great 
herbivorous dinosaur which was found by scientists in Colo- 
rado in 1901. In the piscatorial exhibit every known species 
of fish is represented, including the skeleton of a whale forty- 
five feet long. 

The first floor also includes the James Simpson theater, 
where 1,000 persons can be accommodated at scientific lec- 
tures which are to be given from time to time. 

The opening of the Field Museum of Natural History 
is important in the progress of Chicago as one of the edu- 
cational centers of the world. It is a step in the civilization 
and culture of mankind. The former site of the Museum, 
in the old World's Columbian Exposition palace of art in 
Jackson park, was not as advantageous as it might have been 
because of its distance from the hotels and business center of 
the city. It had many thousands of visitor, but their numbers 

186 Editorial J- 1- s h. s. 

will be greatly increased because of the new and convenient 
location in Grant Park. 

Housed in classic architecture and ranking near the top 
of the world's list of great museums, the museum is one of 
Chicago 's greatest institutions. 

The museum's huge American Indian Collections alone, 
counted the best and most extensive in the world, more than 
repay a visit. Museums are great storehouses of knowledge, 
accumulating material for the student, the scientist, the his- 
torian, as well as for intelligent laymen. 


It is hoped that the old Field Museimi building in Jack- 
son Park will be repaired and preserved at a cost of $1,640,000 
and this ^\'ill be done if the recommendation of the Municipal 
Art and town plan committee, Illinois Chapter of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Architects, is carried out. The Chicago Wom- 
an's Club, the City Club, and the board of governors of the 
lUirois Federation of "Woman's Clubs are working toward 
the cud of saving the building from ruin. A report urging 
that the necessary funds be raised by a miU tax on the south 
park districts was presented at the full committee meeting in 
the Cliff Dwellers' Club, February 12, and was then sub- 
mitted to the south park commissioners. The plan is to have 
a referendum on the tax at the earliest possible moment. 
"The building is in excellent shape," D. H. Burnham of the 
subcommittee said. "It could be covered with a permanent 
waterproof cement, re-roofed, and thoroughly repaired, and 
have an adequate, modem heating plant installed for 
$1,640,000," he states in his report. "The old art palace is 
practically unequaled as a pure example of architecture", 
George Maher, Chairman of the art committee said. "For 
sentimental reasons alone it should be preserved." Some of 
the uses advocated for the building are : A community recre- 
ation and art center, art branch of the Art Institute, space 
for the exhibit of the Trocadero collection, and other art ex- 

VOL XIV. No. 1 Editorial 187 

hibits. Tlie subcommittee which drew the report is composed 
of Mr. Bunham, Kichard E. Schmidt, Howard Shaw and 
Thomas E. TaUmadc-e. 

J. J. Russell, 92, of Lincoln, 111., who used to hop, step, 
and jump with Abraham Lincoln (although he was twenty 
years younger than Mr. Lincoln) has recently celebrated his 
fiftieth wedding auniversaiy with Angeline Aldenderfer Rus- 
sell, 88. When Lincoln traveled the Eighth Judicial Circuit 
from 1839 to 1857, he stopped at the Deskins tavern, across 
from the frame court house where he practiced law. The old 
Court House is still standing. A block to the west the young 
men of the towTi would gather to pitch horseshoes, hurl the 
maul, and for wrestling and jumping. "I always beat Abe 
in the hop, step and jump," Russell says, "but he beat me in 
the broad jump. His legs were too long for me." This town 
was early kno-wn as Postville, having been laid out by Rus- 
sell Post in 1835. Lincoln is a mile from the former town of 
the Kickapoo Indian Nation, on the banks of Salt Creek. 
The first whites came in 1819. 


Mr. and Mrs. Stephen B. Garrigus, 1020 Lathrop Ave- 
nue, Forest Park, Chicago, celebrated their sixty-second wed- 
ding anniversary', May 5, Mr. Garrigus is 87 years old and 
his wife 81. They Avere married in Lacon, Illinois, and 
came to Chicago forty-four years ago. The couple belong to 
two of the oldest families in Illinois. 

The Garrigus family in the days preceding the Civil War, 
had the only hotel in Lacon and among their guests was Abra- 
ham Lincoln. Mr. Garrigus ser\-ed with the Union troops 
throughout the Civil War. There are two grandchildren, 
Helen and Edna Davies, daughters of Mr. and Mrs. Davies. 
The aged couple have also a son, Percy and another daugh- 
ter Nettie C. Carrigan. 

188 Editorial 


Mr, and Mrs. Frank M. Pebbles, residents of Oak Park 
since 1865, celebrated their sixtieth wedding anniversary 
Sunday, June 26, 1921 in the home of their daughter Mrs. 
Fred Gr. Baker in Alameda, California. Three grandchildren 
and two great-grandchildren were among those present. Mr. 
Pebbles came to Illinois from Wisconsin to become ' ' ornamen- 
ter and designer" in the "old round house" of the Chicago 
and Northwestern railroad. In those days locomotives were 
named after various celebrities and it would be the duty of 
Mr. Pebbles to paint the countenance of the engine's name- 
sake on the headlight. 


GovEENOE Small Dedicates State Museum. 

The old streets where Abraham Lincoln walked as a 
grocery clerk, the old cabins where he probably told many of 
his famous stories, the old Rutledge Tavern wherein his 
friends had boasted "Abe could out-wrestle any one there- 
about", came back to life on May 19, 1921, with the dedica- 
tion of a museum in the State Park where old buildings are 
being restored. Only in place of a crowd listening to Abraham 
Lincoln or watching "Abe Lincoln" wrestle, there was a 
crowd listening to Governor Len Small. There is a Lincoln 
Museum at the center of the park. Representative Homer 
Tice of the Menard district presided at the ceremonies and 
introduced Judge G. E. Nelson, president of the Lincoln-Salem 
leagiae. Many of the State's Representatives and Senators 
were in the audience. "Although nearly ovei-whelmed in 
Springfield by business of State incident to this General As- 
sembly" the governor said, "I deemed it my sacred duty as 
governor and a precious privilege as a citizen of our grand 
commonwealth to meet with you today to pay homage again 
to the memoiy of Illinois' greatest son, that king of kindness, 
Abraham Lincoln." Governor Small paid further tribute to 
Lincoln and told how the State had grown since those days. 

Vol. XIV, No, 1 Editorial 189 

Then in olosin.ej he said, paraphrasing the Gettysburg address. 
"Let us be dedicated to the task for which he fought and died, 
that from our honored dead we consecrate ourselves anew to 
the cause for whicli he gave the last full measure of devotion; 
that we highly resolve that his sacrifice shall not be in vain ; 
that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom; 
and that govenmient of the people, by the people, and for the 
people shall not perish from the earth." 


CAEKrED Message Through Confederate Lines During the 
Wab of the Rebellion. 

Mrs. ^lary Elizabeth Doyle celebrated her ninetieth birth- 
day. May 21, 1921 in Chicago. Illinois. I\Irs. Doyle, the wife of 
a Civil "War Captain and the mother of Hon. C. J. Doyle, 
former Secretary of State, is one of the few women who car- 
ried messages through the confederate lines during the Civil 


(From the Chicago Tribune, April 22, 1921.) 
No finer memorial could any one ask than a tree. James 
Keeley's suggestion that a tree be planted on the national 
highway for everj- man who gave his life in the recent war is 
an inspiration. The Tribune has broadened the idea to 
make this tree planting a memorial of service, and we hope to 
get the support of the American Legion, all the patriotic so- 
cieties, the G. A. R. and other veterans' associations, and, of 
course, the press. 

The central idea in its latest form is that a tree shall be 
planted on a main highway for each man who served his coun- 
try in the late war, the tree to bear his name, unit, and serv- 
ice. There were over four million in the national army. It 
has been roughly estimated that at thirty foot inteiTals a line 
of trees on both sides of the national highway could be set 
from New York to San Francisco, and still leave more than 

190 Editorial J.i.s h.s. 

half the men without representation. The latter could be pro- 
vided for along the other main highway systems, north and 

The project, we think, should be taken up by states and 
we hope Illinois will lead off. Every Illinois man with the 
colors on sea or land, at home or abroad, should be commem- 
orated by a tree, a tree bearing his own name, somewhere 
along the main highways of this state. 

In the prairie country the plan should appeal especially, 
for we need trees for soil preservation, for road protection, for 
beautification. Every Illinois boy in the A. E. F. will remem- 
ber the fine trees that lined the French roads mile after mile. 
What an addition to the corofort of travel in our hot — or cold 
— and windswept countryside would be similar files of fine 
trees, traversing the landscape wherever the great roads run. 

The plan has a footing on practical grounds, for the 
planting of the memorial trees, besides yielding immediate 
benefits in making travel pleasanter, acting as windbreaks, 
etc., would undoubtedly stimulate tree planting by individuals 
and by communities as a permanent policy. 

The salvation of the soil productivity of the Mississippi 
valley depends upon forestation. 

But we place this tree campaign on higher grounds than 
the material advantage it assures. The American people have 
just passed through one of the great experiences of their his- 
tory. It was an experience of sacrifice, of high effort, of in- 
spiring accomplishment. That the nation rose to the test and 
met it in a spirit of which our ancestors might have been 
proud and our posterity will be pi'oud is due to the character 
of our people and especially to the character of the men who, 
at the battle front or in the camps preparing, did their duty 
with intelligent will and with a spirit unconquerable. 

To this character and to this spirit we can erect monu- 
ments and memorials of marble. But let us do more than that. 
Let us recognize the individual whose service went to make 
up the splendid whole by planting four million trees along the 
highways of the republic, each dedicated to a patriot who, 
according to the opportunity and place assigned to him, 
served loyally the common cause. 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Editorial 191 

The significance of this will, in The Tribune's opinion, 
sink de*p into the nation's consciousness, strengthening the 
sense of our nationhood and our common citizenship. Above 
all else it will write across the face of the continent, in sym- 
bols of living beauty, the real meaning of the American re- 
public, which is that our institutions, our strength, our pros- 
perity, our progress rest upon the individual citizen — private 
as well as general, from the President, with his heavy burdens, 
to the untried youth casting his first ballot. That tremendous 
reality we call America rests upon each of us, stones in a 
mighty arch which bears the nation's destiny and, we may 
say it without aiTogance, the foremost hope of mankind. 

This is what the planting of the trees will mean to us and 
to our successors. American representative democracy be- 
longs to the freeman, the individual who is not lost in class or 
caste, the essential unit, whose character and spirit sustain the 

No deeper, truer lesson of the meaning of American could 
be read in the benignant countenance of our beloved land. 
The trees will keep the lesson green for ourselves, for our pos- 
terity, for the world. 

President Harding indorses the Chicago Tribune's move- 
ment for soldier memorial tree planting along the highways 
of the country. In a letter to J. M. Patterson one of the 
editors of the Tribune, the President says he is "altogether 
responsive" to Mr. Patterson's request for an appeal to the 
people to participate in this memorial idea. "I can hardly 
think of a more fitting testimonial of our affection and grati- 
tude than this;" the President said. The following is his 

Washington, D. C, 
May 5, 1921. 
My Dear Mr. Patterson: 

I find myself altogether responsive to your request for an 
appeal to the people to plant memorial ti'ees along the import- 
ant public highways as memorials to the men who were sacri- 

192 Editorial j.i.s.h.s. 

ficed in the World War and, indeed, also to those who gave 
their service ■udthout the ultimate sacrifice. I can hardly 
think of a more fitting testimonial of our gratitude and af- 
fection than this. It would be not only the testimony of our 
sentiments, but a means to beautify the country which these 
heroes have so well served. A general adoption of this plan 
would, in the coming years, be noted as one of the useful and 
beautiful ideas which our soldiers brought back from France. 
The splendid avenues of France have been among the great 
delights and attractions to travelers there and a similar de- 
velopment would equally add to the beauty and attraction of 
our countiy. I am pleased to know that the idea has been al- 
ready taken up quite extensively and that considerable prog- 
ress has been made. If the cooperation of state, municipal and 
county administrations may be secured, as well as of the for- 
estry services of the nation and the states, it ought to be pos- 
sible to make a rapid advance in a comparatively short time. I 
hope that you and your coadjutors may be successful in se- 
curing a most substantial b-eginning in this direction during 
the present season." 

President Harding's indorsement of the memorial tree 
campaign makes the White House family unanimous on the 
subject, the first lady of the land, Mrs. Harding, having given 
the movement her approval Saturday, April 30th, when she 
planted a memorial tree for the State of Ohio, in the grounds 
of the American Forestrv Association. 


Governor Small, the State Highway Commissioners and 
the State Director of Agriculture gave their indorsement 
to plans to create roads of remembrance for soldiers of the 
World War on May 13th. They told State Adjutant William 
Q. Setliffe of the American Legion that a special meeting 
will be called on Wednesday, May 18, to decide exactly how 
the trees should be planted. "There is no law as to how far 
apart they shall be", said Adjutant Setliffe. "No permits are 
needed for planting these trees. The last question about dis- 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Editorial 193 

tances will bo decided upon Wednesday and the planting can 
begin at once." 

Peter Mortenson, Superintendent of Chicago's schools 
said: "The school children will want to help in these great 
'Roads of Eemcmbrance'. The idea of planting many at one 
time is, of course, the only sane way to do the thing, and 
much more will be accomi^lished than if the trees were planted 
individually. I will study on a plan whereby the children 
can assist and we will give it publicity in all Chicago schools. 
Many children who cannot plant a tree or perhaps ever buy 
a tree and pay for the planting, might want to give something 
to the American Legion to assist in the purchasing of a tree." 


The American Legion, through Major-General Milton J. 
Foreman, past department committeeman, and the State Ad- 
jutant, William Q. Setliffe announced on May 5th that the 
legion will plant the 10,000 trees the county board has offered, 
or as many trees as it can get, even if it is more than that, 
on the last of the month. 

It -will be a truly great Decoration day, when the great 
organization of American fighters begins the greatest of all 
memory roads with this service. "It is the greatest thing ever 
undertaken," General Foreman said, "and it deserves the 
help not only of the Legion, but of every individual who had 
a live interest in this great war — and that means ever>-body. 
I can think of nothing that will do the country such credit 
and the soldiers such honor as these Roads of Remembrance". 
Adjutant Setliffe says he will notify all American Legion posts 
in IHinois to do all they can toward getting the trees planted 
as soon as possible. He will issue a general bulletin. Of 
course there are soldiers who had money. There are soldiers 
who still have money, but there are any number who, with 
their familes, will want to give trees for their own soldiers, 
or their friends, and who haven't money. So if you can 
spare a little toward the Country's Roads of Remembrance 
send what you can to "The Chicago Tribune", Tree Editor. 

194 Editorial J- 1- S- h. s. 

There are 352,000 men and women in Illinois who served 
in the late war. Eventually there will be 352,000 trees to their 
everlasting memory, beautifying tlie roads of the State as 
nothing else could beautify them. The 10,000 trees wUl be 
planted under the watchful eye of experts who will, no doubt, 
volunteer their sei-vices. The forestry department at Wash- 
ington will give directions as to the distance apart the trees 
should be planted and the distance from the road. The trees 
that are best suited to Illinois will be chosen by foresters. 


In a telegram to "William Q. Setliffe of Chicago Adjutant 
of the American Legion of Illinois, the American Forestry 
Association today announces it wiU register every memorial 
tree planted in lUiuois on its national honor roll and send 
certificates of registration to each post or next of kin showing 
the date of the planting. There is no charge for these cer- 
tificates. The Association is registering memorial trees in 
one great honor roll from every state. 

The telegram to Adjutant Setliffe follows : ' ' Congratula- 
tions to the American Legion of Illinois on the great memorial 
tree planting plans, about which we have just read in the 
Chicago Tribune. Illinois will lead the states and set a great 
example to the rest of the country under the leadership of 
yourself and Colonel Milton J. Foreman. The American For- 
estry Association will register every tree planted on its na- 
tional honor roll and send without charge the certificate of 
registration to the post or the next of kin. Tree day pro- 
grams will be sent free to any post asking for it. 

The Association sent fifty tree day programs to Adju- 
tant Setliffe. This program is being used in thousands of 
places throughout the country. One of the biggest ceremonies 
thus far held under the auspices of the Legion was when a 
memorial tree was planted on the grounds of the Walter 
Reed hospital. The American Legion has issued bulletin No. 
38 to every post in the world on Memorial tree planting as 
foUows: "Department Adjutants are urged to notify their 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Editorial 195 

several posts that should they desire to include the planting 
of trees in their memorial activities, valuable information 
can be obtained by communicating^ with the American Fores- 
try Association, 1214 Sixteenth Street, N. W., Washington, 
D. C At the same time advantage should be taken of this 
opportunity to emphasize the titting part played by the proper 
setting of memorial trees to any form of memorial as well as 
to encourage both the protection and preservation of all trees 
now growing within our cities. Due to the great interest 
being displayed throughout the country and to many instances 
where trees are being planted, the American Forestry Asso- 
ciation is compiling a national honor roll for all memorial 

Tin Hat Design for Tags on Memory Trees. 

The American Legion for Illinois has decided upon the 
tags that are to label the memory trees for all soldiers of 
the World War. These trees that are to be planted along the 
nation's highways, to form across the country a great leafy 

Adjutant William Q. Setliffe, State Adjutant of the 
American Legion for Illinois, and his committee have decided 
there could be no more appropriate tag than one shaped like 
the famous tin hats or steel helmets that the boys wore in their 
overseas service. Among the sketches submitted this was the 
most popular, the suggestion having come from William Wis- 
ner, who drew the picture with the remark that no war need 
be named, the tin hat being peculiar to this greatest of all 
Wars, would be recognized instantly. The tin hat tag is being 
patented by Adjutant Setliffe. 

Adjutant Setliffe will ask firms dealing in bronze plates 
for bids, and when they are all in, the tree markers ynU. be 
ordered by thousands, and may be secured through the Amer- 
ican Legion. Each conmiunity wiU have to find out how many 
tags it wants, and order them from the Legion. The lowest 
possible price will be obtained, as the tree planting cost must 
be kept low in order that all 4,000,000 trees may be in place 
by Memorial day 1922. 

196 Editorial J- 1- S- H. s. 

There must be nothing on the tags for the memory trees, 
except the name of the soldier and his regiment. The Legion 
thinks it best not to name his rank. Only the date of his death 
if he died in action, and only his name and his regiment if 
he did not die in action. 

These trees are only for the glory of the soldiers, to per- 
petuate the memory of their serv'ice, and to give a great gift 
to posterity in these greatest of memory roads. The tree -will 
be planted by the State and in the State in Tvhich the soldier 
lived, so there need be no name on the plate but his. Mrs. 
J. DeLacy, secretary of the Illinois Gold Star Mothers, who 
had three sons in the war, and lost one of them, was chosen 
by the American Legion to speak for the Gold Star Mothers 
at the big celebration in Minneapolis, June 11, 1921. On that 
date 555 memory trees were planted along the city's Victory 
driveway, dedicated to the soldiers from Hennepin County, 
Minn., who were killed in the World War. 


Citizens Plant Trees as Memorial to Soldiers. 
"What plant we in these maple trees? 

Tribute from hearts that burn and ache, 
And hurt with restless throbs that make 

War's toll a lasting pain and deep, 
All through life's years to mourn and keep; 

And yet a gloiy pride and joy 
That brave young souls should earnestly 

Go fight and die for liberty 
We plant with these maple trees." 

It was this spirit that caused the people of Ogle Comity 
to plant a maple tree for the dead and a white elm for the 
Uving as a part of their tribute to the heroes of the World 
War. This County was the first in the United States to plant 
"Service Eows" of trees along the roads, just as the Chicago 
Tribune has planned to have them planted as memorials along 
the Dixie and Lincoln Highways. 

Vol. XIV. No. 1 Editorial 197 

Mrs. Horace G. Kanffman of Oregon, chairman of the 
Woman's organization for Ogle County, Council of National 
Defense, and author of the poem, at the beginning of this arti- 
cle, while the war was still going on had planned a tree for 
every dead and Ii\'iug soldier. The planting was started in 
the spring of 1919 and still continues. 

On Augiist 29, 1920, the Oregon Unit consisting of six 
townships, dedicated the Rock River Sers-ice row by erect- 
ing a re-enforced concrete pier on which was placed a bronze 
tablet at the point where the row begins. 

The Cliicago Tribune's tree Memorial plan has gained 
widespread approbation. At a meeting held recently of the 
Legionnaires Club the project was indorsed. 

Charles Lathrop Peck, president of the American Fores- 
try Association declares that in the Tribune plan of Memorial 
tree planting the greatest good will be found. 


Thirteen cities in Illinois have banded together and are 
going to make definite plans immediately to join in the Chi- 
cago Tribune's campaign of memorial tree planting and plant 
trees along Grant highway. This memory road before the 
summer is finished will link Chicago ■with the Pacific coast. 
The road is being made of concrete, part of it having been 

Colonel George D. Roper of Rockford, president of the 
Grant Highway Association, who carried through the dedi- 
cation and improvements, and W. G. Edens, the Vice Presi- 
dent, sent Malcolm Mackinnon of Rockford, the Secretary, to 
tell the Tribune of the highway Association's proposal. The 
cities that form the Association and will take over the respon- 
sibility of planting memorial trees to all soldiers along this 
road are: Chicago, Elgin, Hampshire, Marengo, Belvidere, 
Cherry Valley, Rockford, Freeport, Stockton, Elizabeth, Ga- 
lena, East Dubuque and Dubuque, Iowa, the only city not in 
Illinois. Galena was General Grant's home and his home is 
now owned bv the state. 

198 Editorial j.i.s.h.s. 

Major George S. Roper, father of the Association's presi- 
dent, was in charge of the commissaiy in the first regiment 
that General Grant commanded, and later Major Roper was 
a member of General Grant's staff till the end of the war. The 
Grant highway, which starts at Chicago, extended to Du- 
buque, Iowa, until the Armistice; then it was lengthened, and 
now it stretches across to Yellowstone park, crossing Iowa, 
Nebraska, and Wyoming. This summer it will be extended 
across southern Idaho, Oregon and to Portland, making a na- 
tional road from Chicago through to the Pacific coast. 

Chicago has varied interests, more than one trail, and 
some groups who will plant along other roads than the Lin- 
coln highway. But the Chicagoans who belong to the Grant 
Highway Association wiU center their planting interests 
there. A former member of Battery B, 149th Field Artillery, 
has a fai-m near Chicago, and this fall he proposes to plant 
a tree for each member of that battery, about 200 in all, in 
a clearing of about four acres. He will mark the trees for 
the comrades he fought with, and while he is considering 
hard maple trees for the living, and oaks for the dead, he in- 
vites suggestions. 

Veteeaks of FrvE Wars Maech to Honor Hero Dead. 

From the first blare of the trombones in ' ' Hail the Con- 
quering Hero Comes", to the last soft notes of "Onward 
Christian Soldiers", as the Salvation Army marched into 
the distance, it was one of Chicago's greatest Memorial day 

There were veterans of five wars who thus publicly paid 
homage to their military dead; there were thousands of Chi- 
cagoans in the revie^ving stand that stretched on Michigan 
boulevard from Chicago Avenue to Twelfth Street, who paid 
tribute to both dead and living. 

Behind the grand marshal, General James E. Stuart, him- 
self a veteran of three campaigns, there came the fast thin- 
ning numbers of Civil "War Veterans in automobiles — ^men 
who years ago swung as proudly down the boulevard as did 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Editorial 199 

the clean cut lads of the Resen'e Officers' training camp of 
this Memorial Day. There were among those white haired 
soldiers some who saw ser\-ice in the wars against the In- 
dians. Behind them, more numerous, were the campaigners 
of the Philippines, of Porto Rico, of Cuba, and of the Florida 
coast in the days of '98. They included men who climbed the 
walls of Peking during the Boxer rebellion. 

And then the veterans of the great war just closed — mem- 
bers of the American Legion, the Veterans of Foreign "Wars, 
the AVorld War Veterans, the Buck Privates Society. 
"Reilly's Bucks" were there— their first appearance in a 
marching line since their triumphal return from France. 
There were Canadian veterans preceded by a piper's band; 
a thin straggling line of Italian fighters, a group of French 
poilus, a company of Britons. 

And there were also — shall we say coming veterans of 
future wars? — the solid ranks of the National Guard, of the 
Naval contingent from the Great Lakes, of cadets from mili- 
tary academies and officers' training schools. Then closing, 
were the blue coated ranks of the policemen and firemen and 
the gray of the postal carriers. 

The parade at the revie^dng stand in front of the Grant 
park monument to General John A. Logan founder of Me- 
morial day, lasted two hours and forty minutes. It was 
nearly eight miles in length. Long after the first battalions 
were dispersing at Twelfth Street the columns were still gath- 
ering at Lincoln park. In the official stand were Gov. Len 
Small, General Stuart, Grand Marshal, and his staff, Colonel 
Marcus Kavanaugh, Colonel James Hamilton Lewis, Colonel 
John V. Clinnin, General Florenz Ziegfeld, and Colonel James 
A. Healy, Adjutant General Frank S. Dickson and his staff. 
Chief of Police Charles C. Fitzmorris, and Mayor Thompson. 

The Spanish-American "War Veterans were under the 
command of John "Wold. The American Legion was led by 
George Lee. Major-General Milton J. Foreman was in charge 
of the military division, -with Brigadier-General Abel Davis 
commanding the 1st brigade and Brigadier General Henry 
J. Reillv the 2nd brigade. 

200 Editorial J- 1- S- H. s. 

The parade, while the most spectacular, was not the 
dominating feature of this memorial day. It was in the 
scores of cemeteries that one found its real spirit. At Oak- 
woods one saw two tall, quiet men in civilian clothes walk 
slowly down a gravel path and reverently lay wreaths upon 
two graves, then stand silent for a moment or two. They 
were General John J. Pershing, chief of the staff of the 
American Army and his brother, James Pershing. The 
graves were those of their father and mother. General Persh- 
ing later went to Princeton, Illinois, where he decorated the 
grave of his sister, Mrs. Richard Paddock. Later he reviewed 
a parade and addressed several thousand persons at the 
Princeton memorial day exercises. 

At Graceland, over the grave of an unidentified soldier 
killed in France, the Veterans of Foreign Wars, Lake View 
Post, No. 235, held solemn services. In this same graveyard 
members of Lyon Post, No. 9, G. A. R., W. S. Hancock Post, 
No. 560, and Posts Nos. 91, 737, 540 and 575, G. A. R., assisted 
by Camp 6, Sons of Veterans and Posts 235 and 10 of Camp 
21, A. L. W. W., held services. 

In Mount Olive Cemetery Winfield Scott Post, 445, G. A. 
R., held its services at the monument which it has erected 
there. The sixteen survivors of the post were addressed by 
the Rev. Joshua Oden of the Irving Park Lutheran Church. 

At Mount Hope Cemetery G. A. R., Posts Nos. 444, 628, 
91 and 467, aided by Post No. 232 of the American Legion and 
Posts Nos. 513 and 177 of the Veterans of Foreign Wars, held 
services and decorated graves. 

At Oak Ridge, G. A. R. posts Nos. 602, 667 and 740, 
camps Nos. 74 and 75 of the U. S. W. V., and camps Nos. 61 
and 65 of the S. of V. conducted the ceremonies. 

At Mount Cai-mel Cemeterj^ a detachment of Company 
"A" 2d Infantry, I. N. G., fired a salute over the grave of 
Miss Carmelite O'Connor, the only nurse killed over seas, 
whose body is buried in Chicago. Among the speakers were 
Monsignor William M. Foley, Vicar General of the Great 
Lakes District; the Rev. John F. O'Donnell, former chaplain 
of the 132d Infantry; Captain D 'Archie, Chaplain of the Ma- 
rines, and the Rev. Edward Dandowsky. 

Vol. XIV. No. 1 Editorial 201 

At Forest Home Cemetery, G. A. R., Post, No. 706, U. S. 
W. v.; camps No. 74, V. F. W., camps Nos. 143 and 105 the 
A. L. W. W. ; camp No. 144 S. of V. ; camp No. 12 and D. of 
v., tent No. 4 conducted the sendees. 

At Waklheim Cemetery the Knights of Pythias were in 
charge of decorating the graves, at Woodlawn, the American 
Legion supervised the services and at Concordia the cere- 
monies were sponsored by various fraternal organizations. 

]\Iembers of the order of Red men held services in Lin- 
coln Park at the boulder which marks the burial place of 
David Kennison, last sundvor of the Boston Tea Party, and 
founder of their organization who died in 1852. Addresses 
were given by J. A. Kapps and W. H. Malone. The Bohemian 
Memorial Association, camp 30, U. S. W. V., and Post 38, A. 
L. W. W., held sendees and decorated graves in the Bohemian 
National Cemetery; G. A. R. Posts, Nos. 521, 467, and 91, U. 
S. W. v.; camps Nos. 51 and 58, American Legion Post, No. 
232, Posts Nos. 177 and 513, V. F. W., and Camp No. 6 S. of V., 
held sen-ices at Mount Greenwood. 

At Rosehill were members of eight posts of the G. A. R. ; 
at Oakwoods five posts. At Rosehill, Colonel Addison Jones 
of the regular aiTuy delivered the principal address. 

At Calvary three G. A. R., posts, Veterans of the Spanish- 
American and Great War held services. Special exercises by 
Evanstonians also were held at Calvary, following a parade 
in the northern suburb. More than 50,000 marchers of Polish 
origin held a parade of their o-\vn on the southwest side in 
honor of General Thaddeus Kosciusko, hero of the Revoli^- 
tionary "War. ^Memorial sei-vices under the auspices of the 
Polish National Alliance followed. 

At Palatine 1,500 school children. Boy Scouts, Campfire 
Girls, and Veterans of three wars pai-aded. W. G. Edens, Vice 
president of the Central Trust Company, made the address. 

For the first time in history Knights Templar acted as 
escort for another organization when they marched with 
Columbia Post 706, G. A. R., at Forest Home Cemeten\ 

202 Editorial j.i.s.h.s. 


Major Edward Kent Aiiastrong, Chicago, who was killed 
while in Red Cross Service in Palestine in 1919, will have a 
column dedicated to his honor in the new University of Illi- 
nois Stadium. 

According to a plan adopted by the Executive Com- 
mittee columns will be erected to each of the 183 Illi- 
nois Alumni and students who were killed in the World 
War. These memorial columns will be directly in front of 
the stadium gridiron and will surround a court of honor. 

In addition to these individual memoi'ial columns for 
those who died, each of the 75,000 seats in the mammoth new 
structure may be dedicated to soldiers and sailors of the state 
and university who fought in the war. Practically $700,000 
has already been raised for the stadium and it is expected that 
more than $1,500,000 will be pledged in the nation-wide cam- 
paign during the football season next fall. 


FrPTY Yeabs Seevice in Chicago's Schools. 

With fifty years of seiwice in the public schools to her 
credit, Mrs. Emily M. Carlisle Stevens, 210 South Ashland 
Boulevard, was honored at a dinner in the Great Northern 
Hotel Tuesday evening, June 21, 1921, by officials and em- 
ployees of the board of education. It was a surprise party. 
When Mrs. Stevens, who is retiring from her duties as chief 
statistician in the educational department, walked into the 
crystal room of the hotel to keep an engagement with an old 
friend, she was greeted by cheers of 125 of her associates. 
Speeches praising Mrs. Stevens were made by Trastee Hart 
Hanson, Superintendent Morteuson, and Charles E. Gilbert, 
Secretary. A locket set with pearls was presented by Am- 
brose B. Wright, Assistant Superintendent of Schools, in 
whose office she has been employed for the last thirty- 
one years. Mrs. Stevens has been a resident of Chi- 
cago for sixty-five years and graduated from the normal 
school when she was 17 years old. She became teacher in the 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Editorial 203 

Washington School immediately afterward and later she was 
elected principal of the Scammon school. She was trans- 
ferred to the board office in 1890. 


The flag which flew from General Grant's field head- 
quarters during the last days of the Ci\'il War and is now 
among the relics at Grant Tomb on Riverside Drive, New 
York, is prcsentc^d to the Grant Monument Association by the 
will of General Horace Porter. General Porter also left to 
the Association $10,000 to aid in the maintenance of tlie tomb. 
All of his letters and papers, swords, medals, and other war 
relics are bequeathed to his daughter, Mrs. Elsie ]\Ienden. 


Mrs. Lucinda Goodall of Marion, Illinois, celebrated her 
one hundred and third birthday on June 23, 1921, by helping 
cook dinner for a big birthday party. Her motto is, work 
hard, work right, eat meat and bread, and drink coffee, don't 
fear sun or rain, and treat everybody alike. Mrs. Goodall 
wears no glasses and often walks several miles. She has 
three children, thirty grandchildren, forty-two great-grand- 
children, and three great-great-grand children. 


Mrs. Harriet L. Mitchell, 96 years old, lays claim to being 
the oldest voter and Chicago Tribune reader in Oak Park. 
Mrs. Mitchell lives at 515 North Cuyler Avenue, with her 
daughter, Mrs. W. T. Robinson. She was born in Canada 
and has been a resident of Illinois since the Ci\al War. She 
has two daughters, nine gi-andchildren and twelve great- 
grandchildren li\'ing. Mrs. Mitchell voted at the last two 
presidential elections, and keeps well informed on all current 

204 Editorial ^- ^- ^- ^- ^■ 

Judge George W. Thompson for twenty-four years judge 
of the ninth judicial district and for years on the appellate 
benches of the Second and Third districts, died at his home 
in Galesburg, Illinois, Februaiy 5th after a years illness, 
aged 71 years. 

Mrs. Mary Fischer died of old age, February 11th, at 
the home of her daughter Mrs. Catherine PakuUa at 416 
Bixby Court, Chicago. Mrs. Fischer was bom in Posen, Poland 
in May, 1811. She came to the United States forty-three years 
ago wdth her daughter and son-in-law, Raymond PakuUa. 
Despite her advanced age, her faculties were clear up until 
a few hours before her death. In recent years her eyesight 
had failed to the extent she was unable to read, but she kept 
up with current events and was a keen conversationalist on 
topics of the day. She is survived by five children and eight 


"You are a pretty little girl, are there any more at your 
home like you?" Mrs. Susie B.Woodworth, who died Monday, 
February 14, at the age of 100, used to tell her grand children 
and great-grandchildren how Lincoln took her on his knee 
when she was 16 years old and said these words to her. Her 
father Isaac Bemer, enlisted with. Lincoln in the Black Hawk 
War and they were friends. Lincoln used to be a visitor 
at their home in New Salem. Mrs. Woodworth, a resident 
of Chicago for tw^enty years, died at the home of her daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Thressa W. Wines, 4632 Kenmore Avenue. She 
came to Illinois when she was 5 years old. She was bom 
in Overton County, Tennessee. Her grandfather John Witt, 
fought in the Eevolutionaiy War. Her body will be taken 
to Lake Maria, Wisconsin for burial in a cemetery near there, 
where Mrs. Woodworth 's husband and three children are 
already buried. 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Editorial 205 


Dr. Frederick James Volney Skiff, director of the Field 
Museum, Chicago since it was founded more than a quarter 
of a century ago, died in St. Luke's hospital, Thursday, Feb- 
ruary 24. He was 70 years old. Death was caused by Angina 
pectoris, superinduced by a complication of diseases, followed 
an illness of throe days. Dr. Skiff, who lived at the Parkway 
hotel, 2100 Lincoln Parkway, attended a meeting of the Mu- 
seum's board of trustees Monday afternoon. Dr. Skiff was 
born in Chicopee, Massachusetts. Ho moved to Lawi-ence, 
Kansas, in 1870 where he was engaged in newspaper work. 
Seven years later he went to Colorado as a member of the 
staff of the Denver Tribune, of which he became editor in 
ISSl. He was a member of the Colorado state legislature in 
1885-86, and was later commissioner of immigration and sta- 
tistics for Colorado. He was deputy commissioner general 
of the Columbian World's Fair in 1893, chief of staff to the 
commissioner general of the United States to the Paris Expo- 
sition of 1900, director general of the St. Louis exposition in 
1901, director in chief of fox-eig-n participation at the Panama- 
Pacific exposition in Seattle in 1911, and director general of 
the San Francisco exposition in 1915. These activities seiwed 
as foundation for his international fame. In 1904, Dr. Skiff 
was made a Commander of the Legion of Honor of France. 
He was entitled to wear the Order of the Crown of Italy, the 
order of the Red Eagle of Germany, the Order of the Double 
Dragon of China, the grand cross of the Sacred Treasure of 
Japan, as well as decorations bestowed by Leopold of Bel- 
gium, Francis Joseph of Austria and other sovereigns. He 
was sometimes referred to as the "most profusely decorated 
man in America." Dr. Skiff, who received the degree of mas- 
ter of arts from Colorado College in 1905 and degree of doctor 
of laws from George Washington University in 1908, was a 
member of American Institute of Mining Engineers, the In- 
ternational Museum Association of England and of the Na- 
tional Education Association. He is suiwived by his widow 
who was Miss Mary R. French of Garrett, Kansas. They 
wore married in 1876. Funeral seiwices were held in the New 

206 Editorial J- 1- S- h. s. 

England Congregational Church, on Monday afternoon, Dr. 
Frank W. Gunsaulus officiated. Burial was in Oakwoods 



Orland P. Bassett, a personal friend of Abraham Lincoln, 
died Saturday, February 26, at Pasadena, California, aged 86. 
Mr. Bassett organized the Pictorial Printing Company of Chi- 
cago and was the first horticulturist to commercialize the 
"American Beauty" rose. He had lived in Pasadena since 
1902. Mr. Bassett came from western Pennsylvania to Syca- 
more, Illinois in the late fifties, and started a newspaper there. 
In 1868 he came to Chicago and organized the Pictorial Print- 
ing Company, of which he was president until 1916, when he 
founded the "florist's firm of Bassett and Washburn. The body 
was brought to Hinsdale, Illinois for burial. 


Doctor Gunsaulus, prominently identified with Chicago 
life, first as a preacher and college professor and finally as 
head of Armoiir Institute, died early Thursday morning, 
March 17, at his home 2919 Prairie Avenue. Doctor Gunsau- 
lus was bom at Chesterville, Ohio, January 1, 1856. Son of 
Joseph and Mary Hawley Gunsaulus. Married Anna Long of 
Parsons, West Virginia, September 20, 1875. J. Ogden Ar- 
mour pronounced the following eulogy on Doctor Gunsaulus. 
"No eulogy can do justice to Doctor Gunsaulus. His life was 
one of achievement; his success lay in helping others to help 
themselves. He was a wonderful orator, a sound thinker, and 
a great organizer and, most of all, a real man, who leaves the 
world better than he found it. No one associated as I have 
been all my life, vfith such a lovable character could be other 
than bowed down with grief at his untimely passing. ' ' Doctor 
Frederick Shannon, rector of Central Church conducted the 
funeral services in the New England Congregational Church, 

Voi.xrv.No.1 Editorial 207 

^larch 19, assisted by Dr. Charlos W. Gilkey of the Hyde Park 
Baptist Church and Dr. Chxreuce T. Brown of the Austin Con- 
irregational Cluirch. Active pallbearers were Philip Annour, 
Eugene Thomas, Charles Stridiron, Alfred Hodge, George 
Allison and Raymond Thomberg. 


Humorist, Editor "A Line o Type or Two" on the Chi- 
cago Tribune died at his temporaiy home at 195 East Chestnut 
Street, Chicago, March 19. He was bom in Goshen, Massa- 
chusetts, on November 13, 1866, educated at the College of 
the city of New York. As soon as he was graduated he en- 
tered newspaper work, serving as a reporter and as a Avriter 
on several weeklies and dailies. Later he was an editor of a 
newspaper at Greenfield, New Hampshire. In 1895, Mr. Tay- 
lor married Miss Emma Bonner of Providence, Rhode Island. 
The following year he came west and was editor of the Duluth 
News-Tribune for three years. In 1899 he came to Chicago 
and began the career in which he became noted. A column 
known as "A Little about Everything" had been started in 
the Chicago Journal. Originally it had been intended to con- 
tain brief items of news. Gradually these were interspersed 
with humorous paragraphs and bits of verse. When Mr. Tay- 
lor took charge of the column he changed it materially and 
the column became famous. The editors of "The Tribune", 
impressed with the originality of his work and style, asked 
him to join "The Tribune" staif and he began to conduct 
"A Line o' Type or Two", a column that has been read and 
commented on all over the world. Its success was immediate. 
Almost immediately his initials "B. L. T." became as critics 
often have said, "the most famous initials in America." 
Proof of this was given by the post office officials, who often 
forwarded mail addressed only with the initials. In 1903, Mr. 
Taylor resigned from The Tribune to go to New Y'ork, where 
for six years he was a contributor to Puck and the New Y^'ork 
Sun. In 1909 he returned to Chicago and the Tribune and re- 
sumed "The Line". He was regarded as the dean of Ameri- 
ca's column conductors, having developed paragraphing into 
its present prominent position as a newspaper feature. His 

208 Editorial J- ^- S- h. s. 

daily mail was voluminous, his contributors numbering thous- 
ands. To make the Line became a coveted privilege for which 
some of the leading literaiy lights of the country strove. All 
masked their identity. Conducting "The Line" was only a 
part of Mr. Taylor's literary labors. He contributed verse and 
articles, particularly concerning golf, his favorite reci-eation, 
to many magazines. In addition he was the author of several 
books including "The Well in the Wood", published in 1904; 
"The Charlatans" 1906; "A Line o' Verse or Two", 1911; 
"The Pipesmoke Carry", 1912; and "Motley Measures", 1913. 
Mr. Taylor's home was in Glencoe. There survive besides the 
widow, two daughters, Alva Thoits Taylor and Barbara Les- 
ton Taylor. 


Louis Kurz, 87 years old, well known artist and painter 
of church paintings died at his home at 2141 North Clark 
Street early Monday morning, March 21st. Mr. Kurz, who 
was one of the founders of the Art Institute, came to Ctii- 
cago in 1852. He founded the lithographing house of Kurz 
and Allison. Mr. Kurz was a friend of Logan, Lincoln, Grant, 
and Longfellow. During the Civil War Lincoln asked him 
to make sketches of the iDattletields and his pictures were the 
tirst to be issued after the close of the war. "Washington's 
Entry into Trenton" was one of his famous historical paint- 
ings. Mr. Kixrz is sur\'ived by four sons and three daughters. 


"Like a Liberty bond, it is an investment, not a loss, 
when a man dies for his country". These words written home 
by Lieut. Dinsmore Ely, son of Dr. James Owen Ely of Win- 
netka shortly before he was killed in battle, will be carved in 
bronze on a memorial tablet to be placed on a wall of the 
Congregational Church of Winnetka. The design has just 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Editorial 209 

been completed by H. C. Stearns, instructor in design at the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology" of Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, and bids for casting have been asked. The tablet 
will be set early in the summer. It was at the request of 
Doctor Ely that the design was made at the school where 
Lieutenant Ely formerly was a student. The tablet is the 
second to be erected for him. The first was erected shortly 
after the third Liberty Loan drive, started by his $5,000 life 
insurance. The Memorial subscription authorized by him- 
self, brought upward of $1,000,000 from Chicagoans. 


Mrs. Mary" Emily Blatchford active in the establishment 
of the priman,' school system in Chicago shortly after the 
Civil War, and -R-idow of Eliphalet Wickes Blatchford, a ci^■ic 
leader in the early days of Chicago, died on March 30 in Port- 
land, Maine, at the home of her son Cliarles P. Blatchford. 
Mrs. Blatchford lived for many years at 1111 N. LaSalle St., 
and was one of the organizers of the Woman's board of Mis- 
sions. Mrs. Blatchford 's husband was one of the two trus- 
tees under Walter L. Newberry's will and is the man who 
planned the Newberry library". 


Mrs. George M. Pullman, widow of the car builder, 
George M. Pullman and founder of the city of Pullman, Illi- 
nois, died at the Raymond Hotel in Pasadena, California, 
March 28, at the age of 8'2 years. Mrs. Pullman was the 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. P. Sanger of Chicago. In 1867, 
she was married to Mr. George M. Pullman and they were the 
parents of tAvo daughters and two sons, Florence, Harriet, 
George M., Jr., and Walter Sanger. Only two sui-%-ive. Flor- 
ence, wife of Frank 0. Lowden and Harriet wife of Francis 
Carolan, of San Francisco. Accompanying the body from 
California were former Governor and Mrs. Frank 0. Low- 

210 Editorial j.i.s.h.s. 

den, Miss Harriet Lowden their daughter and Francis Caro- 
lan of San Francisco. They were met in Chicago by Mrs. 
Carolan, Miss Frances Lowden and Pullman Lowden. Fun- 
eral services were held Monday, April 4, from the home, 1729 
Prairie Avenue, Rev. Charles F. Wishart, former pastor of 
Second Presbyterian church read the sei'vices, assisted by 
Rev. Josiah Sibley, Pastor of the Second Presbyterian 
Church. Honorary pallbearers selected were: Robert T. Lin- 
coln, Marvin Hughitt, Cyrus McCormick, Judge Kenesaw M. 
Laudis, Brig. Gen. C. G. Dawes, Rensselaer W. Cos, John J. 
Glessner, John S. Runnels, John G. Mitchell, J. Ogden Ar- 
mour, John D. Field, John A. Spoor, T. W. Robinson, Erode 
B. Davis, Dr. Harry Pratt Judson, Dr. Joseph A. Capps, 
W. J. Chalmers, Dr. Frank Billings, E. F. Bryant and Edward 
A. Ayer. Burial was at Graceland Cemetery. 


Chicago has lost one of her most loyal and philanthropic 
citizens. In the winter of 1862 at Memphis, Tennessee, I first 
met Miss Harriet Sanger, the beautiful daughter of Mr. and 
Mrs. P. Sanger of Chicago. Sherman's Army was mobilizing 
in that city, preparing for the siege and capture of Vicksburg, 
the Gibraltar of the Mississippi River. General Logan was 
then in command of the 3d division of the 17th Army CoriDS, 
commanded by Major-General J. B. McPherson. It is safe 
to say no more magniiicient a body of men than these stalwart 
volunteer officers and men were ever assembled. The officers 
were busy all day organizing and traming troops for the gi- 
gantic movement in the early spring. But in the evening they 
participated in the social functions which are always given 
for officers at a militaiy post. ]\Iiss Sanger as a most charm- 
ing and fascinating young woman, had scores of admirers. I 
frequently chaperoned her, as in those days no young lady 
appeared at any social or dramatic entertainment without a 
chaperon. With escort of officers, we rode through the 
fathomless mud diiring the occupation of the city, accom- 
panied by the troops on horseback, from hospital to hospital, 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Editorial 211 

laden with all sorts of delicacies for the sick and wounded men 
who had not been sent north after the siege of Donelson, Pitts- 
burgh Landing, Corinth, and the tedious marches before 
reaching Memphis. Miss Sanger distributed with her own 
hands thousands of dollars worth of relief to the unfortunate 
soldiers of 18G2. In due time we were ordered north. Miss 
Sanger taking with her the admiration and heart of more than 
one gallant officer and the gratitude of many soldiers. As 
soon as she reached Chicago she joined the army of women 
workers for the Union soldiers of the Sanitary Commission, 
as the wife of Mr. George M. Pullman found her unchanged 
in her generous work for the unfortunate. Increase in wealth 
only ser\'ed to inspire her to multij)ly her charities, encour- 
aged by her generous and indulgent husband and finding op- 
portunity on every hand after the great conflagration of Chi- 
cago in 1871. Early and late she was found on her errands 
of mercy to the homeless, her own home sheltering for days 
many who had lost their all. Charity was not her only, though 
the greatest of her \'irtiies. Every enterprise for the ad- 
vancement of any good thing for Chicago received from her 
enthusiastic support. She had traveled extensively ; her home 
was filled with art treasures and articles of historic interest. 
One very remarkable characteristic was her talent for mak- 
ing her home attractive. She was ever ready to supplement 
her husband's fondness for entertaining and it is probably 
true that they entertained more distinguished people of our 
ovra and other countries in their own home than have any 
other private persons in the United States. Cliicago owes 
to Mrs. Pullman's memory a full measure of gratitude for 
what she did in the long ago and up to the day of her death 
towards maintaining its reputation for progress and hospi- 


Miss Therese Gilligan who died Thursday, April 14, at 
the United States Army hospital from a complication of di- 
seases contracted in France while an army nurse, was buried 
on Saturday, April 15, in Chicago. It was one of the first 

212 Editorial j.i.s.h.s. 

military funerals ever held for a woman. Miss Gilligan's 
body was conveyed from tlie Church to the cemeteiy on a 
regulation army caisson, and taps were blown and a firing 
squad discharged a salute after her body was lowered in the 
grave. Miss Gilligan whose home was at 743 West Fifty- 
fourth place was attached to the Juvenile Court for nine 
5'ears as a nurse. In 1917 she enlisted as an army nurse and 
served eighteen mouths overseas. Following her discharge 
she returned to the Juvenile court, but recently was compelled 
to give up her work and go to the hospital. The funeral was 
held under the direction of Delavan Post of the American 


Mrs. Lucy L. Fowler, for nearly thirty years a leader in 
Chicago's Educational and Civic Club life, died April 27, at 
Coronado, California, where she had lived since 1902. She 
was 84 years old. Mrs. Fowler, the widow of Attorney James 
M. Fowler, had been in ill health ever since moving west. Her 
only surviving child, Mrs. John V. Farwell, formerly Mrs. 
Dunlap Smith of 229 Lake Shore drive was with her at the 
time of her death. Lucy Louisa Cones was bom in Boston, 
Massachusetts. Her college work was done at the Packer 
Collegiate Institute in Brooklyn, New York. In 1859 she 
came west alone, having obtained a position as teacher in the 
Madison, Wisconsin High School. In 1863 Miss Cones mar- 
ried Attorney Fowler of Madison. They moved to Chicago 
ten years later. In 1875 Mrs. Fowler became a member of the 
board of trustees of the Chicago Half-Orphan Asylum, and 
later a member of the board of the Chicago Home for the 
Friendless. Mrs. Fowler was prominent in organizing the 
Illinois Training School for Nurses in 1880. She helped or- 
ganize the Lake Geneva Fresh Air Association which gave 
poor children a few weeks' annual outing. In 1890 she 
was elected president of the Chicago Woman's Club, and 
was also head of the Fortnightly Club. She was also a trus- 
tee of the St. Charles State School for Boys until she moved 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Editorial 213 

to California where Mr. Fowler died in 1909. Mayor Wasli- 
burne appointed her a member of the Chicago School board in 
1891. Three years later she was elected a tnistee of the Uni- 
versity of Illinois. The crowning recognition of Mrs. Fowl- 
er's sen'ico came in the naming of the Lucy Fowler Techni- 
cal High School. 


As a memorial to the late Peter Reinberg, former presi- 
dent of the county board, the Deer Grove Tract of the forest 
preserve is to be named after him and a bronze tablet bearing 
his name erected therein, according to an announcement April 
25, by forest preserve commissioners. The Deer Grove park 
is near Palatine, Illinois, about twenty miles from the busi- 
ness center of Chicago. 


Simeon Woodrow King, former United State Commis- 
sioner, the last survivor among the men who served as pall- 
bearers at Lincoln's funeral, died Tuesday May 3, at the 
James C. King home at 360 East Garfield Boulevard, Chicago, 
at the age of 88 years. 

Mr. King was born in Morgan County, Ohio. He was 
educated at T. Clarkson Taylor's academy in Delaware. 
Later he took a course at the Union College of Law after 
coming to this city in 1854. When the Civil war broke out, 
he was one of the first to answer Lincoln's call for soldiers 
and served on Governor Richard Yates' Staff at the Battle 
of Shiloh. 

After the war Mr. King was admitted to the bar, a few 
months later he was appointed United States Commissioner 
of Northern Illinois by Richard Drummond under the Lincoln 
administration. For three years Mr. King was county attor- 
ney. He was a member of the county board of supervisors 
and at one time was president of the south town board. 

214 Editorial j.i.s.h.s. 


Captain Milan C. Edson who served with Company "D" 
of the 63d Illinois Volunteers in the Civil War, died on May 
7, at Mesa, Arizona. 


William Grote former Mayor of Elgin, Illinois, died May 
15, 1921. He was born in Hanover, Germany, November 22, 
1849, and came to America a poor boy in 1866. At his death 
he was rated the richest man in Kane County. He was presi- 
dent of the Home National Bank and Vice President of the 
Home Trust and Sa\'ings Bank of Elgin. Mr. Grote was 
prominently identified with the Republican politics of the 
State, having been a close friend and adviser to former Gover- 
nors Yates and Deneen. He was twice a delegate to Republi- 
can National Conventions. He was an officer in thirty relig- 
ious, educational and charitable institutions, and a lay mem- 
ber of the Illinois Conference of the Evangelical Association. 
For the last twenty-four years he has been a member of the 
board of trustees of the Northwestern College of NaperviUe, 


Mrs. Mary Cunningham died at Urbana, Illinois May 16. 
She had resided for sixty-seven years in Urbana. She and 
her husband, the late Judge J. 0. Cunningham were personal 
friends of Abraham Lincoln. 


Lieutenant Colonel Charles C. Pierce, head of the Ameri- 
can War Memorials Commission, died of pneumonia in 
France, May 16, 1921. He resigned as rector of St. Mat- 
thew's Episcopal Church, Philadelphia to go to war and was 
awarded the Distinguished Service Cross and Cross of the 
French Legion. 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Editorial 215 


A Chicago heroine of the World War was honored Satur- 
day, May 28, when a memorial tablet was dedicated for Miss 
Lucile Pepoou, a nurse who died in France. The tablet was 
phioed in Independence Park near a tree planted a year ago 
in her memory. It is several hundred feet from tlie home of 
her parents Dr. and Mrs. Herman S. Pepoon, of 3842 Byron 
Sti"eet. Before volunteering for service Miss Pepoon was in 
the bureau of medical inspection of the health department. 
Dr. H. 0. Jones, assistant chief of the bureau presided at the 
exercises, and the dedicatory talk was given by Dr. Henry 
Spalding, chief of the bureau. Short talks were given by the 
Rev. A. S. Haskins, and Dr. John Dill Robertson. 

WILLIAM E. MASON, 1850-1921. 

Representative William E. Mason, Congressman at large 
from Illinois and former United States Senator, died in his 
apartment at the Congress Hall Hotel, Washington, D. C, 
June 16, 1921. He was 71 years old. Heart failure caused his 
death. He became seriously ill, but rallied and was believed 
to be on the road to recover}' when he suffered a relapse. 

Joseph G. Cannon announced the death of Mr. Mason in 
the House of Representatives immediately after it convened, 
the House then adjourned without transacting any business. 
A resolution expressing sorrow and sympathy was offered in 
the Senate by Senator McCormick of Illinois, and adopted 
unanimously. Representative Richard Yates, the other Con- 
gressman at large from Illinois, issued a statement eulogizing 
his colleague; he said; "It was his disposition to not only be 
devoted to duty but also to be the friend of the dowaitrodden, 
the oppressed, the 'under dog'. The tortured Cuban in 1918 
was the recipient of his strenuous efforts; his burning de- 
nunciations of Spanish brutality were not matched or equaled. 
The sufferer in the World War, and above all the Irishman, he 
championed and fought for until his latest breath. His place 
cannot be filled." 

216 Editorial j.i.s.h.s. 

William E. Mason. 

William E. Mason was esteemed to be one of the nation's 
wittiest citizens, one of its old time stump speaking, story 
telling orators, and one of its fighters. A politician since he 
was sis years old, he was born in the village of Franklinville, 
Cattaraugus County, New York, on July 5, 1850. He was one 
of ten sons of Lewis J. and Nancy (Winslow) Mason and he 
had four sisters. The elder Mason was a wagon maker and a 
pioneer. He moved west to Bentonsport, Iowa, in 1856. 
Mason got but 75 cents a day for his labor, and yet he managed 
to feed those fourteen children and two others whom he and 
his wife adopted. During the evening he made furniture, and 
after a time he became proprietor of a hotel and stocked it 
with home made furniture. 

William E. Mason was fifteen years old when his father 
died. He was thro\\Ti on his own resources. He got a job 
teaching school at Bear Creek and after he had thrashed the 
biggest boy had little difficulty. In 1868 he went to Des- 
Moines, Iowa, and began studying law in the office of Thomas 
Wethrow, who soon after was appointed general solicitor of 
a railroad, and moved to Chicago. Mason came with him, re- 
mained in his office a year, then studied in the office of John N. 
Jewett. He was admitted to the bar when he was 21 years 
old, was elected to the Illinois Legislature before he was 30, 
and was elected State Senator in 1882. 

It was iu these years that Mason became known around 
the stump circuit as an orator, a humorist, a story teller. 
When he would walk out upon the platfoiTU and shake his 
long black hair and lift his eyebrows, shrug his shoulders, 
start in telling yarns — he at once caught and held the atten- 
tion of his audience. 

He was elected to Congress in 1889 and was re-elected 
for the second term. But on his third attempt he was buried 
in a Democratic landslide. Five years later, in 1897, he was 
elected to the United States Senate by the Illinois legislature 
by a strict party vote, receiving 125 votes against 78 for John 
P. Altgeld. He succeeded Gen. John M. Palmer in the Senate. 
He became a spectacular figure in the Senate, taking first rank 
as a ready debater. His reputation won in the house, helped 
to establish him at once. 

Vol. XIV. No. 1 Editorial 217 

Mr. Mason was a persistent advocate of the niral free de- 
liven'- bill, and championed all bills favoring the rights of 
labor and attacking trusts and combinations of capital. He 
was one of the first to advocate the freeing of Cuba. After his 
defeat for re-election to the Senate in 1903 he was out of Con- 
gress for a number of years. He came back as Congressman- 
at-large for Illinois, put himself over \vithout an organization, 
without money, without even a headquarters. And he was 
twice re-elected with the aid of the Thompson-Lundin organi- 
zation with which he was affiliated. Following the war Con- 
gressman Mason became one of the active champions of the 
Irish Republic, and was the author of resolutions directing 
American recognition of that republic, and the exchange of 
diplomatic and consular representatives. In 1873 Mr. Mason 
married Miss Edith Julia White of DesMoines, Iowa, and 
they had seven children. The Mason home has their picture in 
a stained glass window. 

There are some, perhaps, who will point to Mason's record 
during the late war, and call him anything but patriotic. He 
opposed the declarations of war, the draft, the taking of Na- 
tional Guard troops to France. However, he pointed to a son 
on the fiinng line to show that he worked for the prosecution 
of the War, although he did not believe that America was 
right in entering it. 


James Nelson Buchanan died Wednesday, June 8, at his 
home, 5555 Kenwood Avenue. He was bom {)ctober 16, 1S49, 
at the southeast comer of Adams and Dearborn Streets, his 
parents having come to Chicago in 1839. In 1871 he entered 
the contracting and real estate business. Mr. Buchanan was 
a member of the Thirty-sixth General Assembly of Illinois, 
representing the second district; charter member of Company 
A, 1st regiment, Illinois National Guard. He served in the 
regiment eight and one-half years and retired as Captain. He 
organized and was elected Colonel of a regiment during the 
Spanish- American War, but hostilities ceased before the regi- 
ment was called into service. He is survived bv his widow, 

218 Editorial j.i.s.h.s. 

Isadore Berry Buchanan ; a daughter Mrs. George H. Lamber- 
ton; a son, William N. Buchanan, and two brothers, D. C. H. 
Buchanan and E. P. Buchanan. 


Sarah A. Cooke, better known as "Auntie Cooke, who 
died Sunday, July 10th, 1921 at the age of 94 years was buried 
Wednesday at Graceland Cemetery. For more than fifty 
years she worked almost night and day in missions, hospitals 
and churches. When the late Rev. D. L. Moody started out 
as an evangelist she was instrumental in leading him into the 
experience of "the baptism of the spirit", to which he attri- 
buted his great success in evangelistic work. 


Eugene W. Farrar, first white child bom in Dupage 
County, Illinois, died in Downers Grove Monday, July 25, 
1921, his home was only two blocks from the site of his log 
cabin birthplace. He was bom July 24, 1835, and his life has 
been spent in Downers Grove. He served in the Civil War as 
a Sergeant in the Thirteenth Illinois Infantry. He married 
Martha J. Carpenter in Downers Grove in 1866, and she sur- 
vives him, with their four sons and two daughters. 


Bakeless, John M. A. The Economic Causes of Modern Wars. David A. 

Wells Prize Essay. Gift of William College, Williamstown, Massachus- 
Belleville. Illinois. Anniversary Edition. Official Directory and Year Book 

of the First Presbyterian Church of Belleville, Illinois. 1914-1915. Rev. 

Charles A. Highfleld, Pastor. Gift of Judge H. Halbert, Belleville, 

Daughters of the American Revolution. Year Book, Aurora Chapter, D. A. 

R., 1920-1921. Gift of the Regent, Mrs. David J. Peffers, 2SS Downer 

Place, Aurora, Illinois. 
Daughters of the American Revolution. Letitia Green Stevenson Chapter, 

D. A. R., Bloomington, Illinois. Y'ear Books 1899 to 1921, except for 

the years. 1900-1901, 1907-190S. Gift of the Regent, Mrs. James R. Riggs, 

603 East Mulberry St., Bloomington, Illinois. 
Daughters of the American Revolution. Shadrach Bond Chapter, D. A. R., 

Carthage, Illinois. Year Book, 1921-1922, Gift of the Regent, Mrs. 

Mary L. T. Newcomer, Carthage, Illinois. 
Daughters of the American Revolution, Charleston, Illinois Chapter, D. A. R. 

Year Book, 1921-1922. Gift of the Regent, Miss Etta Nott, Charleston, 

Daughters of the American Revolution. Chicago Chapter, D. A. R., 1921-1922. 

Gift of Mrs. Charles E. Herrick, Chicago, Illinois. 
Daughters of the American Revolution. Governor Bradford Chapter, D. A. 

R.. Danville, Illinois. Year Books, 1909 to 1922. Gift of Mrs. J. W. 

Hunter and Mrs. Charles E. Wilkinson, Danville, Illinois. 
Daughters of the American Revolution. Stephen Decatur Chapter, D. A. R. 

Year Book, 1921-1922. Gift of the Regent, Mrs. E. L., Pegram, Decatur, 

Daughters of the American Revolution. Dixon Chapter, No. 418. Year 

Book 1921-1922. Gift of the Regent, Miss Anna G. Pratt, Dixon, Illinois. 
Daughters of the American Revolution. Ann Crooker St. Clair Chapter, 

D. A. R. Year Book. 1921-1922, Effingham, Illinois. Gift of the Regent, 

Mrs. C. F. Burkhardt. 
Daughters of the American Revolution. Fort Dearborn Chapter, D. A. R., 

Evanston, Illinois. Year Book. 1921-1922. Gift of the Cor. Sec, Mrs. 

Willard L. Pollard. Evanston. Ills. 
Daughters of the American Revolution. Rebecca Parke Chapter, D. A. R. 

Year Books. 1912-1920. Gift of the Regent, Mrs. A. I. Sargent, 393 N. 

Cherry st.. Galesburg, Illinois. 
Daughters of the American Revolution. Benjamin Mills Chapter, D. A. R., 
Greenville, Illinois. Year Book 1921-1922. Gift of the Regent, Mrs. F. E. 

Watson, Greenville, Illinois. 


220 Gifts of Books, Etc. j.i.s.h.s. 

Daughters of the American Revolution. Rev. James Caldwell Chapter, D. 

A. R. Year Book 1921-1922, Jacksonville, Illinois. Gift of Miss Effie 

Daughters of the American Revolution. Mattoon, Illinois, Chapter No. 71. 

Year Book 1921-1922. Gift of the Regent, Miss Emily Dole Obllnger, 

Mattoon, Ills. 
Daughters of the American Revolution. Mary Little Deere Chapter, D. A. 

R., Moline, Illinois. Year Book, 1921-1922. Gift of Miss Lucy D. Ev- 
ans, Moline, Illinois. 
Daughters of the American Revolution. The Puritan & Cavalier Chapter, 

Monmouth, Illinois. Year Book 1921-1922. Gift of the Regent, Mrs. J. 

Clyde McCoy, Monmouth, Illinois. 
Daughters of the American Revolution. Joel Pace Chapter D. A. R., Mount 

Vernon, Illiools. Y'ear Book, 1920-1921. Gift of the Regent, Mrs. W. T. 

Daughters of the American Revolution. George Rogers Clark Chapter, D. 

A. R. Year Book 1921-1922, Oak Park, Illinois. Gift of Mrs. Theo. L. 

Condon, Oak Park, Illinois. 
Daughters of the American Revolution. Madam Rachel Edgar Chapter, D. 

A. R., Paris, Illinois. Year Book, 1921-1922. Gift of the Regent, Mrs. 

W. T. Scott, Paris, Illinois. 
Daughters of the American Revolution. James Halstead Senior Chapter, 

D. A. R., Robinson, Illinois. Year Book, 1921-1922. Gift of Mrs. Kath- 

erine B. Newlin. 
Daughters of the American Revolution. Fort Armstrong Chapter, D. A. R., 

Rock Island, Illinois. Year Book, 1921-1922. Gift of the Regent, Miss 

Clara '^'hitman. Rock Island, Illinois. 
Daughters of the American Revolution. George Somberger Chapter, D. A. 

R., Victoria, Illinois. Year Book, 1921-1922. Gift of the Regent, Mrs. 

1. R. Gordon. 

Daughters of the American Revolution. Daniel Chapman Chapter, D. A. R., 
Vienna, 111. Year Book (Typewritten), 1921-1922. Gift of Mrs. P. T. 
Chapman, Regent, Vienna, Illinois. 

Felt, Dorr E. Radicalism in Great Britain. January 24, 1921. Gift of 
Dorr E. Felt. 

Houck, Louis, Boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase. Pub. 1901. Houck, 
Louis. Memorial Sketches. 1915. Gift of Louis Houck, Cape Girar- 
deau, Missouri. 

Huguenots. Story of the Huguenots. By Henry A. DuPont. Gift of Henry 
A. DuPont, 1711 Massachusetts Ave., Washington, D. C. 

Lincoln, Abraham. Address by James M. Coburn, read at Westminster Con- 
gregational Church, Kansas City, Missouri, February 10, 1921. Gift of 
Mr. Purd B. Wright, Librarian Kansas City Public Library, Kansas City, 

Lincoln, Abraham. Banquet, Programme and Menu of Lincoln Day Dinner 
held February 12, 1921. Gift of Mr. P. B. Warren, Springfield, Illinois. 

Lincoln, Abraham. Life of Abraham Lincoln In the Chinese language. Gift 
of the Commercial Press Ltd. Sales Office, C. 453, Honan Road, 
Shanghai, China. 

Lincoln, Abraham. Kharas, (Dr.) Theodore. Lincoln: A Master of Effi- 
ciency. Gift of Dr. Theodore Kharas, White Haven, Pennsylvania. 

Lincoln, Abraham. Piece of wood from roof of home at Elizabethtown, Ken- 
tucky, where Thomas Lincoln married Sarah Bush Johnston, December 

2, 1819. Gift of Rev. Louis A. Warren, Elizabethtown, Kentucky. Pre- 
sented to the Society at Annual Meeting, May 21, 1921. 

VOL XIV. No. 1 Gifts of Books, Etc. 221 

Lincoln, Abraham. Souvenir of Lincoln National Park, Elizabethtown, Ken- 
tucky. Gift of Rev. Louis A. Warren, Kentucky. 

Newspaper. Framed New York Herald, April 15, 1865. Gift of C. E. Fil- 
son, Cliapin, Illinois, Grandson of William J. Patterson, of the 101st 
Illinois Volunteer Infantry. 

Pageant. The Path of Progress. Gift of the author, Annah Robinson Wat- 
son. Memphis, Tennessee. 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Independence Hall, The National Museum, In- 
dependence Hall Group. Its History and Growth. 14 p 12°. Philadel- 
phia, Pennsylvania. Issued by the Department of Public Works, Bureau 
of City Property, 1921. 

Robertson, D. D. The Works of William Robertson, D. D. To which Is 
prefixed an account of his life and writings, by the Rev. Robert Lynam, 
A. M. Vols. VIII, IX, X, XI. London, 1S24. Printed for William 
Baynes & Son. Gift of Miss Martha Wilson, Lincoln Library, Spring- 
field, Ills. 

St. Cair County, Illinois. Historical Sketch of the County of St. Clair from 
Early Times to the Present, prepared for the Fourth of July Celebration, 
1876. By Edward William West. Gift of Judge William H. Halbert, 
Belleville, Illinois. 

Saddle bag carried through the Revolutionary War by Colonel Jabez Gross. 
Gift of Kirke D. Gross, Edwardsville, Illinois. 

Whig, American and Democratic Review, 12 Vols. 1837-1849, 1845-1851. Gift 
of Mr. Albert Thompson, Fullerton, Nebraska. 

White, (Rev.) John C. Sec. Journal of the 44th Annual Synod, Episcopal 
Church— Diocese of Springfield. Held in Pekin, lUinoia, May 11, 1921. 



Major E. S. Johnson, for twenty-five years custodian of 
the Lincoln monument, died at his residence Tuesday, Feb. 
15th, at 6:30 o'clock, after a lingering illness of several 
months. Major Johnson was 77 years of age and one of the 
best known Civil war veterans in Illinois. 

Major Johnson was bonx in Springfield, August 9, 1843, 
and has ahvays lived here, with the exception of the years 
spent in the aiTay and a short time in Chicago. In his youth 
he was a printer's apprentice. But the Civil war came along, 
and he enlisted in '61, with the Seventh Illinois infantry — the 
first regiment to leave the state. He was in the army four 
years and three months, seeing the fight through to the finish. 

After the war he entered the lumber business, alternating 
management of a yard with managing of hotels here and in 
Chicago. During the World's Fair he ran a hotel in the lake 
city. Then came his appointment as custodian of the Lincoln 
monument. On the first of September, 1920, he had served for 
twenty -five years as custodian of the monument. 

Major Johnson was a classmate of Robert T. Lincoln, son 
of Abraham Lincoln, whose age exceeds the major's but eight 
days. His father and Mr. Lincoln were great friends, and so 
he had many memories of the martyred president. At one 
time Lincoln used two rooms in the Johnson home for recep- 
tion rooms. Sometime ago in discussing this Major Johnson 

"It was at the time Lincoln was staying at the hotel, after 
having broken up housekeeping. He was well established in 
the hotel, but needed some reception rooms. So my father 
offered him two rooms in our house, and they were gladly re- 

It was Sergeant E. S. Johnson of the Springfield Grays, 
afterward Company I, commanded by Captain John Cook, who 
had the honor of leading the first squad of armed men into 


226 Major Johnson, 1843-1921 J- 1- S- h. s. 

Camp Yates. It was a detaiLto guard food supplies. Johnson 
was then a lad of about eighteen years. Company I was the 
first company of the Seventh Illinois Volunteer infantry, and 
the first in the state of Illinois to tender its services to Gov- 
ernor Richard Yates. That was about April 15, the day fol- 
lowing the firing upon Fort Sumter. 

Major Johnson was mustered into the three months 
service as a captain on April 22, 1861. On July 22, 1861, he 
was mustered into the three-year sei'vice as a first lieutenant 
with the Seventh Illinois Volunteer infantry. He was pro- 
moted to the rank of captain Febniaiy 15, 1862, and promoted 
to the rank of major April 22, 1864:. He was mustered out of 
service on July 9, 1864. 

Major Johnson has two daughters surviving him. They 
are Mrs. Genevieve Laugeman and Mrs. W. C. Stith both of 
New York City. 

The last rites for Major E. S. Johnson, Civil war veteran 
and custodian of the Lincoln monument, were held at the Cen- 
tral Baptist church at 2:30 o'clock, Thursday afternoon, Feb. 
17, 1921, Rev. Euchd B. Rogers officiating. 

Accompanied by the veterans corps of the old Governor's 
Guard, and Stephenson Post, No. 30, G. A. R., the body was 
borne to its last resting place. FuU military rites were per- 
formed at the grave. 

The pallbearers were : John B. Inman, John Underf anger, 
Robert H. Easley, Stuart Brown, William C. Sommer and 
George Fisher, three being members of the G. A. R., and three 
of the Governor's Guard. 

Interment was in Oak Ridge cemetery in the Clinton lot, 
besides Major Johnson's wife and son. 

The death of Major Edward S. Johnson, though it came 
at the ripe age of seventy-seven years and was among the 
things naturally expected, brings a deep and natural regret 
to the people of this community where he was bom and had 
spent practically all of his long and honorable life. It is es- 
pecially felt by those who, like himself, were natives of 
Springfield and who, with him, have seen the city grow from 

Vol. XIV. No. 1 Major Johnson, 1843 1921 227 

a frontier towii to a modern city, and those who were his 
comrades in arms in the great war for the union. 

Foi-merly in his business career as a hotel keeper and 
later in his position as custodian of the National Lincoln 
Monument, he was necessarily brought into contact with all 
kinds of people from all i)arts of the world, and it was charac- 
teristic of his gentle and kindly nature that he was able to 
impress upon the memoiy of all with whom he was associated 
his personality which was the natural outgrowth of such a 

Edward S. Johnson was married August 10, 1869 to Miss 
Laura I. Clinton of Springfield, who died several years ago. 

In his relation to the sur\avors of the ci\-il war who went 
with him through the stirring scenes of conflict and endured 
with him the hardships of service, his attitude was ever that 
of one whose whole heart was devoted to the task of preserv- 
ing the records of that time, keeping alive the old memories 
and strengthening the ties of comradeship. 

As a member of the older military organizations of 
Springfield he did much to imbue the young men of his time 
with the spirit of patriotism and sacrifice and to help train 
men for possible service in the defense of their countn*, so 
that when the time came he was ready to take his place as a 
leader and to render adequate service to the government. 

In Major Johnson, Springfield mourns a native son who 
has reflected honor upon her name, and a citizen who has 
always been found ready to respond to the call of duty. He 
has lived weU and deser\^es a peaceful rest and eternal re- 
ward, for he wearied not in well doing. 


(By Rauh Dempsey.) 

William Eeid Curran was bom in Hardin County, Ohio, 
December 3, 1854, and died at his home in Pekin, Illinois, 
February 26, 1921. 

One who rises to distinction above his fellow men, does 
so by reason of his exceptional value as a citizen and a public 
servant. Those qualities of a man which, blended together, 
determine his character, are difficult to portray. What Judge 
Curran achieved in his various activities evidences best the 
manner of man he was. From his works accomplished we may 
gain knowledge of his character and know why he was hon- 
ored by his fellows. 

When one knows the habits and environment of the for- 
bears, less difficulty is encountered in tracing to their origin, 
virtues and characteristics found in the offspring, than when 
that knowledge is wanting. Not much is known of the ante- 
cedents of William Reid Curran. His father, Thomas Smith 
Curran and mother Margaret Eeid Curran with their family, 
consisting of William Eeid Curran, and another son Charles 
who died in early manhood, moved from their home in Hardin 
County, Ohio, to a farm in Livingston County, Illinois in 1859 
where they lived until 1865 when the family moved to the 
Village of Chatsworth, Illinois. Here William Eeid Curran 
grew to manhood, and availed himself of the rather limited 
school facilities which Chatsworth offered at that early per- 

He had none of the advantages that wealth, social posi- 
tion or family influence may offer and he must have con- 
cluded in his early youth that such progress as he was to 
make, must come from his unaided efforts. Certain it is that 
with limited schooling, he became an educated man; with no 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 William Reid Curran, 1854-1921 229 

assistance from his family, he established himself in the pro- 
fession of the law and amassed a competency ; without family 
influence or prestige, he rose to distinction and honor in his 

Poorly equipped as he was, with knowledge gained from 
books; without college or university training and with his 
education in the law such as it was, gained by study in the 
office of Attorney Samuel T. Fosdick at Chatsworth, Illinois, 
over a period of two years during which he also taught a 
country school near Forrest, Illinois, on July 4, 1876 at the 
age of twenty-one years, he was admitted to the Bar of the 
State of Illinois. His admission to practice in the United 
States District and Circuit Courts took place in the month 
of April 1888, and in March 1897, he was admitted to practice 
before the Supreme Court of the United States. 

His first effort to establish himself in his profession was 
at the little Town of Delavan, Tazewell County, Illinois, in the 
year 1876 immediately following his admission to the Bar. 
He remained at Delavan with but indifferent success until the 
year 1880 when he moved to Pekin, the County Seat of Taze- 
well County, where he continued in the active practice of the 
law until a few days before his death. On December 28, 1876, 
not long after locating in Delavan, he was united in marriage 
with Mary C. Burgess and she and one daughter Bessie C. 
Smith survive him. 

His strong will, tenacity of purpose and determination to 
advance himself in the law, were put to the test when he 
entered the field in Tazewell County. Here he had to meet 
and cope with practitioners, ripe in experience and skilled in 
the arts of their profession, who were the peers of any of the 
lawyers of Central Illinois. Among these able lawyers he 
was soon accepted as an equal, and in time he was recognized 
as the leader of the Bar of his County, a position which he 
held until he gave up active practice in the Courts two or 
three years prior to his death. 

William Reid Curran was possessed of unusual strength 
of will, a clear vision, confidence in his fellow men and an 
abiding faith in the Christian Religion. He had a logical and 

230 Ralph Dempsey J- ^- S- H- s. 

retentive mind, stored with a mass of useful information 
which he commanded with facility. 

He was fearless in the discharge of his duties and tireless 
and ardent in his labors ; once having formed his opinion and 
determined upon his plan of action, nothing would change his 
conviction or cause him to waiver in his course, save proof 
that he was in the wrong. His influence in public affairs was 
always toward the right; his moral courage never was ques- 

No opponent ever concluded an engagement with him 
at the Bar without respect for his ability as a lawyer. No 
difBcult problem ever discouraged him. He was quick to see 
advantages in a situation which to his associates seemed hope- 
less. At aU times respectful to the Courts, he maintained his 
dignity as a lawyer and a man, and nothing moved him from 
his chosen course in the furtherance justly of his client's 
cause. Of commanding presence, possessed of unusual ora- 
torical ability and dramatic talent, the recognition which he 
gained among his fellow lawyers of Central Illinois as a trial 
lawyer of unusual skill and ability, he never lost For a per- 
iod of more than twenty-five years preceding his death, he 
appeared as counsel in every important case tried in the 
Tazewell County Circuit Court and his aid and counsel were 
often sought by lawyers and litigants in the Courts of many 
Counties throughout the State. If he was intemperate in 
anything, it was in work and in times of business stress, he 
drew heavily upon his seeming abundance of physical and 
nervous strength. 

He was active in the affairs of The Tazewell County, 
State and American Bar Associations. He was President of 
the TazeweU County Bar Association in 1902-1903, and the 
lawyers of this State honored him by electing him President 
of the State Bar Association for the year 1910-1911. 

His rare attainments as a lawyer were recognized by the 
Judges as well as the lawyers of his Circuit, and from 1886 
until 1894 he served as Master-in-Chancery of Tazewell 
County. The voters of his County honored him by electing 
him County Judge in 1894, a position which he held until 1898. 

Vol. XIV. No. 1 William Reid Curran, 1854-1921 231 

Wliile he was most wadely known as a lawyer and al- 
though the demands of his professional life were most heavy, 
he applied himself with diligence to many tasks in other lines, 
and took time to share with his fellow men the obligations of 

In 1911, he organized the Banner Special Drainage & 
Levee District in the Counties of Peoria and Fulton ia the 
State of Illinois, whereby thousands of acres of overflow land 
were reclaimed from the waters of the Illinois River and re- 
duced to cultivation in spite of difficulties which would have 
disheartened one of more limited vision and less courage. 

As a Director of the Lincoln Circuit Marking Association, 
and as a member of the Tazewell County Historical Society, 
and a Director of the Illinois State Historical Society, he dis- 
played a keen interest in the furtherance of the objects of 
those societies, as is so well known to members thereof with 
whom he was associated. 

He was instrumental in the organization of the TazeweU 
Comity Memorial Association, of which he was President at 
the time of his death, and during the last two years of his 
life, he gave freely of his time to the end that that associa- 
tion might bring about the erection of a suitable memorial 
in commemoration of the soldiers of aU wars who had claimed 
Tazewell County as their home. 

His faith in men was constant. He was ever ready with 
encouragement and aid for those who had failed or saw dis- 
aster confronting them. That his efforts to aid his fellow 
men sometimes came to naught, as seemingly they did at 
times, never discouraged him or weakened his conviction that 
the good in men far outweighed the evil in them and that 
his helping hand might be all that was needed to bring upper- 
most the good and turn them from the path of failure to the 
highway of accomplishment. 

His admiration for Abraham Lincoln, knew no bounds, 
and he never lost an opportunity to add to his knowledge 
of the life of the great emancipator. His address on the life 
of Lincoln delivered at Pekin on the occasion of the Lincoln 
Day Celebration February 12, 1909, later printed in pamphlet 
form, attracted favorable attention throughout the nation. 

232 Ralph Dempsey J- 1- S- H. s. 

This address was an unusual literary production and proved 
that its author had a rare knowledge of the character of the 
martyred President Lincoln. 

The Congregational Church of which he was a member, 
knew him as a worker in the vineyard and as one always ready 
to give freely of his time and to aid financially in advancing 
the cause of the Christian religion. 

As one of the founders of The Pekin Union Mission, he 
had the satisfaction of living to see the abundant good work 
of the Mission bear fruit. A few years ago he purchased and 
gave to the Pekin Union Mission, a building adjoining the 
property then owned by the Mission, in order that the work 
of that institution might be not retarded for lack of proper 
space. Fully conscious that the gift without the giver is bare, 
he took an active part in the conduct of the affairs of the 
Mission and continued as a teacher in the Mission Sunday 
School long after his physical strength had so failed him, 
that he was compelled to remain seated in conducting his 
class work. His sincere and unselfish devotion to this work 
after he had been forbidden by his physician to continue it, 
best evidences his keen desire to aid in the betterment of those 
in his home City who othei^n^ise would have grown up without 
the good influences of the Pekin Union Mission. Although he 
reached a high station in his chosen profession and was hon- 
ored for his activities in civic affairs, he will be as long and 
favorably remembered for what he gave and what he did to 
help make the poor boys and girls of his home City, better 
men and Avomen through his mission work, as for any other 
phase of his activities. 

To his memory can be most fittingly applied this tribute : 

He never failed to march breast forward. 

Never doubted clouds would break ; 

Never thought though right were worsted, 

"Wrong would triumph ; 

Held we fall to rise, are beaten to fight harder, 

Sleep to wake. 


High tribute to the memory of the kite INIrs. B. H. Fergu- 
son, a member of the lUiuois State Historical Society and a 
prominent social, civic and charity worker was paid Sunday 
afternoon, March 20, 1921 by a ku-ge number at special serv- 
ices held by the Springfield Art Association at Edwards 

Rev. J. T. Thomas of the First Presbyterian Church told 
of his association with Mrs. Ferguson during the last few 
years. Mr. Stuart Brown who was familiar with the work of 
Mrs. Ferguson from boyhood paid tribute to her in a brilliant 
address. The friendship beteen the Ferguson and Brown 
families dates back to the early youth of Mrs. Ferguson. 

Vachel Lindsay, read sevei'al appropriate poems for the 
occasion among which was "The Censor." Musical numbers 
were presented between addresses. Mrs. Latham T. Souther 
concluded the program with a review of the work done 
by Mrs. Ferguson for the Springfield Art Association and 
other like organizations of the city. 

Mrs. Helen Brown Read sang a number of songs. R. 
Albert Guest presided at the piano. 



By Stuakt Brown. 

The government eighty acre tract, upon which we stand, 
was first individually owned by William Kelly, who acquired 
it from the United States in 1823. 

This William Kelly was one of those five brothers, who 
came to Sangamon county in 1819. His brother, John, built 
on the corner of Second and Jefferson streets the first cabin 
erected within the limits of Springfield. There the first court 
in Sangamon county was held. 

William Kelly came from Rutherfurd county, North 
Carolina, and left the shadow of Asheville to come to live on 
the upper northern branch of the waters of Spring creek. 

In 1832 Kelly sold the whole eighty acres for $2800 to 
Dr. Thomas Houghan, who had come here from the north. 
On June 26, 1843, Dr. Thomas Houghan sold fifteen acres of 
that eighty, with his house to Benjamin Stephenson Edwards, 
and until this particular part of that fifteen acres was con- 
veyed to the Springfield Art Association, it remained in the 
control and was used by the Edwards' family as their home. 
Here in 1844 Alice Edwards Avas born; and, on this Ed- 
wards place she continuously lived until March 4, 1921. In 
our American unrest, our frequent change of abode, it seems 
remarkable to us that a woman should be bom, should live 
for 76 years and should die upon the same place. 

The conditions of the holding of this Edwards place but 
typify the conditions of Sangamon county. Here south met 
north and middle east. Here in 1839, B. S. Edwards, with 
cavalier forbears of Virginia, brought Helen K. Dodge, with 
Puritan forbears from Connecticut* 

* A brief biographical sketch of Mrs. B. S. Edwards, who was an honorary 
member of the Illinois State Historical Society was published In the Journal 
of the Society, Vol. II. No. 1, April, 1909. 


Vol. XIV, No. 1 j^ii,.^, Edwards Ferguson, 1844-1921 235 

In the conflict of ideas from widely separated places, we 
best reach the readjustment of conmion sense. Logan of Ken- 
tucky meets Conkling of New York City, Treat or Lockwood 
of westeiTi New York debates with Rejaiolds of Tennessee or 
Stuart of Kentucky, and strangest contrariety of fate, Doug- 
las of Vermont, advocating the right of territories to decide 
for themselves the ownership of slaves, opposes Lincoln of 

Benjamin S. Edwards I loved and admired. He had the 
southern pride and impetuosity, without it languor. He was 
my first questioner in the law. My beginner's book of legal 
study was Blackstone's Commentaries, and I proudly finished 
the introduction of thirty-four pages the first day. Mr. Ed- 
wards asked me how I was getting along at the end of the 
day, and I told him what I had read. He replied: "You 
should have taken a week on that." Then by a few questions 
he convinced me that he was right. 

I have known him to make a cutting remark to a friend, 
to brood over it until 11 o'clock at night and then walk a mile 
in darkness to make amends before he could go to sleep. 
I have heard that at one time when he was impressed by 
an appeal for the starving children of Asia Minor, he impet- 
uously deposited his watch and chain in the contribution bos 
and redeemed them next day at their original cost. 

]\rrs. Ferguson's mother was of a different temperament. 
Decided in her opinions, she was temperate in statement. 
Courteous to all was she — but no one presumed on that. I 
admired the calmness and the poise of her nature. 

It has been considered remarkable, by many of those who 
wrote about our distinguished fellow citizen, Mr. Lincoln, 
that he displayed qualities of culture and understandings of 
polite manners. They call him a "self made man," and con- 
trast his rude beginnings with his later conduct in high posi- 
tion. They forget the unusual and brilliant men and women 
with whom he lived here during many years. 

To us. who have known the Lambs, the Cooks, the Trum- 
buUs, the Edwards, the Forquers, the Bunns, the elder Mrs. 

236 Stuart Broivn J- 1- S- h. s. 

Ferguson — speaking only this day of a very few of those 
charming women related by family ties, it is not at all re- 
markable. We have always thought that among those charac- 
ter forming women, ]\Irs. Benjamin S. Edwards was not the 
least important. She brought to this middle post of civiliza- 
tion the breadth and influence of what was then known as 
Yale college with whatever of its New Haven environment 
there was for good breeding. She brought the traditional 
New England zeal of the Dodge family with its hundred year 
life of development. At the time Mrs. Ferguson grew up to 
girlhood there were no good common schools, such as we have 
now. Girls of her age received what education they had, in 
private schools or by tutors in the home. 

When she was 16 our Civil war threw the country into 
tunnoil and trouble. I do not believe she had what we call 
educational advantages, but she was a reader of good books 
from a well-selected home libraiy. She had the privilege of 
contact with people far above the average of that day. 

I have often thought that the persons who were a part 
of the growth of the state of Illinois from a small beginning 
to the glorious commonwealth of today, had special advan- 
tage, for they grew as science, art and general knowledge 
grew. Education is not so much what you know, as what you 
know how to use. From my acquaintance with Mrs. FergTison 
I should say she was a well-infonned person. 

Mrs. Ferguson had a rich heritage in her parents and a 
most rare companionship with her sisters, Helen and Molly, 
whom we know as Mrs. Condell and Mrs. Raymond. 

We were not of the same generation and our meetings 
were infrequent. As a growing boy I watched them from afar 
and with a boyish awe. We have always been proud 
in Springfield of our good women. We may have been 
provincial in the highest degree and yet, we felt in 
those days and still feel that Springfield had an atmos- 
phere of its own that could bear comioarison with much 
larger places. There was a gracious hospitality and a 
kindly spirit that permeated all circles. There seemed 
to be, I will not say a depth of learning, but a general culture 
that was marked. 

Vol, XIV. No. 1 jiiice Ferguson, 1844-1921 237 

There was a spirit of tolerance and yet there was a well- 
drawn line of conduct. 

How much of this we owed to the selected good people, 
who were sent to us from other parts of the state and how 
much we owed to other favorable circumstances, I cannot say. 

But we thought our women were above the average and 
among those to whom we attributed one satisfaction, were 
the ladies at the Edwards place. 

Mrs. Ferguson was greatly benefited by companionship 
\ni\i her husband. To that gallant yet modest soldier, who 
forgot that he could claim a title— to that honorable and up- 
right citizen, Benjamin H. Ferguson, Springfield owes much 
and then there was his owm mother, Mrs. Sarah Ferguson. 
I speak with venei'ation, when I recall the modesty with 
which she shrank from conflict about immaterial matters and 
the nobility and steadfastness with which she met the real 
things of life. My first real acquaintance with Mrs. B. H. Fer- 
guson was when I was ten years old. My father took me with 
him and we joined a party for a summer trip to Chicago, St. 
Paul and Duluth. I was not ten years old, but I can remember 
Mrs. Ferguson distintcly. My child's mind wondered how she 
could keep her travelling suit so immaculately clean after a 
day's dusty travel; how becomingly her hair graced her fore- 
head; how she could maintain serenity amidst those un- 
looked-for disturbances, which come out of a clear sky to all 

To my childish eyes she seemed old and now, when I 
think back and recall that she was not 25 years old, I can see 
her in a different light. 

The younger set cannot appreciate the real charm of Mrs. 
Ferguson because they did not know her in her happy time. 

The last part of her life she suffered much bodily pain — 
no one can work or play greatly when in pain. Yet as I look 
back upon our many meetings and reflect on what I have 
heard from others I do not recall that she ever spoke un- 
kindly of any one, that she ever displaj-ed anger or malice, 
that she ever did an unworthy act. Mrs. Fergiison had 
an urge toward the beautiful in nature. She wanted 
to raise to higher degree her appreciation of art and 
artistry. With a modesty all her o^vn, she wanted to 

238 Stuart Brown j.i.s.h.s. 

carry along witli her her friends and companions. She 
made no pretense to having technical knowledge. She en- 
joyed what was worthy and she wished others to enjoy it 
with her. 

She was sowing a seed, which, if you will but watch over 
it tenderly and keep it away from destructive agents, will 
grow and develop a flower beautiful. 

On the pages of the golden book of Spiingfield her name 
should be inscribed. 

,1MBS!^: ?^5 


(By a. R. Lyles). 

If an honest man is the noblest work of God, we do not 
hesitate to say that Doctor Snyder was entitled to that ap- 
pellation. For we who knew him best, were cognizant that 
honesty was his watchword. Strictly honest in all his rela- 
tions to his fellow men, and not afraid to criticize the man 
whom he knew to be dishonest. 

However we Avould not wish to leave the impression that 
honesty was his only commendable attribute, for he had many 
others. Had he not been kind hearted and sjonpathetic, he 
could never have made the success he did as a physician. 
He was all in all a man, possessing an intellect that was both 
broad and deep (in fact the very Mississippi of minds) cap- 
able of grasping great things, and not only of grasping them, 
but also of retaining them, and then of imparting knowledge 
to others in a most fascinating way. He did not have a col- 
lege degree, although he would have had, but the college he 
was attending had to suspend for lack of funds. Yet he was 
a graduate from the university of hard study and work. Be- 
cause of this he had a mind Avell stored with valuable knowl- 
edge, not only along one line, but a number of lines. 

He has many times told me that Geology^ would have 
been his favorite pursuit, if he had only had the time and 
money. As it was, he was a geologist of no mean ability, and 
I feel that if time and money had been at his command, we 
would have a better knowledge of geology to day than we 
now have. While the profession of medicine was his business, 
and he did not neglect that, he had hobbies, and one of his 
hobbies was that of Geolog>\ Another hobby in which he 
became quite proficient was that of American Anthropology 
and Archeology. When he had any spare time at all, it was 
used in study and investigation. He was for many years a 


240 A. R. Lyles J- 1- s- h. s. 

valued contributor to the Smithsonian Institute, and this in- 
stitution was one in Avhich he took great interest. 

The study of American anthropology and archeology was 
to him a most fascinating one, and much of his spare time was 
devoted to the study and collection of Indian antiquities. He, 
at one time, had in his possession one of the most valuable 
collections of Indian antiquities that had ever been brought 
together in the state of Illinois. He offered to present this col- 
lection to the state, provided a fire proof building would be 
furnished in which to shelter the collection. Nothing was 
done, and the state lost a most valuable archeological col- 

In addition to his love for the study of geology and the 
American Indian, I do not hesitate to say that few men have 
knoAvn more of the early history of Illinois than did Doctor 
Snyder. Even when he was most busily engaged in the 
practice of medicine, he never lost an opportunity to gather 
all the historical data that he could get together. Much of 
this data has never yet been published. I have read his bio- 
graphical manuscripts of early Cass County Doctors, which 
include all Cass county doctors up till 1861. Many of these 
sketches read like a romance, and with these sketches is in- 
terwoven much of the early historj^ of Illinois. He seemed to 
know all about every public man who had even gained any 
prominence in the state of Illinois, and many of the earlier 
ones he knew personally. He seemed to remember every thing 
he had ever heard of any public man, for he had a wonder- 
fully retentive memoiy. Yet he kept many notes of events, 
both of those which liad transpired during his lifetime and 
also of those which were handed dovra to hiBi. He was a versa- 
tile writer, but did not hesitate to express Ids opinion as he 
saw it. No favoritism was shown. To write the truth and 
nothing but the truth w^as his object. Few men have been 
as familiar with the early history of Illinois as was Doctor 

It was largely through his efforts that the Illinois State 
Historical Society was organized. He might have been the 
first president, but saw what was coming and placed in nomi- 
nation another man, and then immediately made a motion 
that he should be elected by acclamation. The society then 

Vol. XIV, No. 1 Br. John Snyder, 1830-1921 241 

made him vice president, and at the next election made him 
president. He furnished the society much valuable matei-ial 
for publication, and was a most loyal and ardent supporter of 
the society till the time of his death. Ho was also an honorary 
member of the Missouri State Historical Society, and was held 
in high esteem by the members of this society laecause of his 
interest in the early history of Missouri. He was a man who, 
even up till the time of his death, kept well posted on all 
passing events the world over, and I feel sure that he might 
have been a veiy successful writer of history, because of his 
wonderfully retentive memoiy, his versatility as a writer, and 
his intense love for the subject. 

Doctor Snyder was a physician of more than usual ability, 
and the greater part of his life was devoted to the relief of 
suffering humanity. 'While he was successful as a physician, 
and was always ready to respond to the call of those who 
needed his professional service, and while he was always in- 
terested in the welfare of his patients to the extent that he 
gave them his very best attention, he was not in love with the 
profession of medicine. He has many times told me that the 
profession of medicine was obnoxious to him. I can easily 
see why he so regarded it. He came to Virginia more than 
fifty years ago. The country was thinly settled. His work 
was mostly country work, and extended many miles in each 
direction. Many times the roads were almost impassable, for 
this was at a time when good roads were hardly thought of 
much less cared for. 

The method of travel was mostly horseback. Sometimes 
in a one horse cart, and often on foot. He has frequently told 
me that he often traveled all day through fields on foot, be- 
cause he could make better time than by riding a horse over 
roads that were two or three feet deep in mud. When the 
weather and roads were at their worst, the demands for his 
service were gi-eatest. This, he kept up for more than thirty- 
five years, with the exception of one term in the state legisla- 
ture. After the one term, he was thoroughly disgusted with 
politics, and returned to the practice of medicine. This was 
kept up through all kinds of weather, year after year, winter 
and summer, day or night, cold or hot, sunshine or rain, snow 
or mud, and sometimes over frozen roads that were so rough 

242 A. R. Lyles J- 1- S- h. s. 

that a good horse could only make four to five miles an hour. 
An d those who paid him least, demanded his seivice most. 
No wonder he became disgusted Avith the practice of medicine. 

When he first came to Virginia, more than fifty years 
ago, he began to make inquiries of the pioneer physicians of 
Cass county. This he kept up till he learned all he could about 
the early Cass county doctors. Later, he wrote a biography 
of each of these physicians, which extended up to about the 
time of the Civil War. I have had the pleasure of read- 
ing all these manuscripts, in which much of the early history 
of Illinois is intei-woven. 

The year of his birth was 1830. The place was near the 
celebrated French village of Cahokia, which is just across the 
river from the southern part of St. Louis. When he was three 
years of age, he, with his parents, removed to Belleville, Illi- 
nois. Here his father bought a block of ground near the 
public square, where he erected what at that time was known 
as one of the finest residences in southern Illinois. 

It was here that most of his boyhood was spent, at least 
till he was about fifteen years of age, when he was sent to 
McKendree college. He remained at old McKendree till the 
college was compelled to suspend for lack of funds. From 
here he went to a Catholic college in St. Louis, but before fin- 
ishing here his mother told him he must now decide on his 
future course. He had already made the acquaintance of 
Doctor McDowell, a renowoied physician of St. Louis, and had 
become a great admirer of Doctor McDowell. After some 
consideration, he decided to take up the study of medicine, 
and was soon in Doctor McDowell's college preparing him- 
self for future usefulness. After he had spent two years of 
faithful study here, it was discovered that he was a subject of 
advanced tuberculosis. The doctors infoiTued him, that to re- 
main in this climate meant almost sure death. To go west 
might be equally futile, but might prove beneficial. He finally 
decided to go to California, which at this time was promising 
rich rewards to all who might come that way, because of the 
recently discovered rich goldfields. It was not difficult for 
him to find company, and in a short time he had purchased a 
mule for the sum of fifty dollars, and had joined a caravan 

Vol. XIV. No. 1 Dr. John Snyder, 1830-1921 243 

and started out to take the advice of his teachers. I have 
heard him relate his expei'ience while crossing the plains and 
Rocky mountains, while on his way to the land of gold. It 
was full of rich reminiscences which I wish he might have put 
in writing. Before he had succeeded in crossing the plains, 
he in some way was lost from the rest of his companions, and 
was compelled to proceed the rest of the way in company with 
his mule only. He and his mule finally reached California, 
and there he sold the animal for the sum of three hundred dol- 
lars. But long before he reached Califomia he had i-egained 
his good health and was ready to battle with the world. 

After he had been in California for a little more than 
two years, he decided to return to his native state by way of 
Cape Horn and New York. He went to San Francisco and 
engaged passage on a sailing vessel which was to start soon. 
On the day the vessel sailed, and while he was on his way to 
tlie wharf, he met a friend he had not seen for years. Think- 
ing he had plenty of time, they returned to the hotel for a 
lit'tle while to talk over old times. The time passed more rap- 
idly than they were aware, and when he started for his ves- 
sel, he got down just in time to see it riding out majestically 
over the waves. That sailing vessel was never again heard 
from, and he later secured passage to New York by way 
of Panama. He decided now to finish his medical course, so 
went to Philadelphia, where he entered Jefferson medical col- 
lege where he later received his degree in medicine. After 
finishing at Jefferson, he decided it would be interesting if 
he could pass a medical examination for the position of sur- 
geon in the United States Army. Much to his surprise, he 
received the appointment, and was sent to Jefferson Barracks 
where he only remaind for a short time, and then was trans- 
ferred to southern Texas, and from there to the Black Hills 
of Dakota. "While on the way to Black Hills, they stopped 
and camped on the ground where Denver now stands. It was 
at that time a bare prairie, and inhabited by coyotes and 

He soon began to grow tired of the routine of army life, 
so he put in his resignation and decided to go to work. He 
then went to Bolivar, Missouri, where he became engaged in 

244 A. R. Lyles J- 1- S- «• S- 

tJae practice of medicine and raising a family, for it was tiere 
that he Avas married. He continued in the practice of medi- 
crae in Bolivar till the beginning of the civil war, when his 
patriotism overcame his desire to heal the sick. He joined 
the Confederate army under General Price, and received the 
appointment as Colonel. 

He was in a number of engagements, and while he did 
not receive an appointment as surgeon, was always ready to 
assist in taking care of the wounded after the battle. At the 
close of the war, he moved with his family to Virginia, Illi- 
nois, where he spent the rest of his life. His life span was 
a Little more than ninety-one years, and he retained his mental 
vigor through out his life. A more remarkable man in many 
ways, it has never been my good fortune to meet, and I have 
had the pleasure of many interesting conversations with him. 
We could not always agree along some lines, but we could 
agree to be good friends. We could neither agree in religion 
or politics, but I -w-ish to say that he did have a most exalted 
opinion of the Supreme Architect of the Universe. The God 
who doeth great things past finding out. The God who made 
his unchangable laws. The God who could hang the earth 
upon nothing and stretch the north over the empty place. 
"These are parts of his ways, but how little a portion is heard 
of him. The thunder of his power, who can understand"? 
This would about express his idea of God, although his theo- 
logical views might differ from those of the majority of peo- 
ple. His every act of life, from a public standpoint was evi- 
dence of his honesty of pui^pose. He was a man whom the 
lust of office could not kill, nor the spoils of office buy. A man 
"ft-ith a strong will and a ready hand. In all, a man well worthy 
of imitation. 


The Belleville News-Democrat of Monday, May 2, 1921, 
contained the following editorial on the life and death of 
Dr. J. F. Snyder. 

John Fi^iNCis Snyder, M. D. 

On last Saturday there died at his home in Virginia, 111., 
Dr. John Francis Snyder. Thousands and thousands of peo- 
ple in this state and many hundreds of thousands of them in 
this eovmti'y would never have learned that there is a citj' by 
that name in our state, except for the fact that Dr. Snyder 
lived his life and did his work there. 

"When he closed his eyes in the long and final sleep of 
death, there passed into oblivion a store-house on the facts 
and traditions and romances of Illinois history, greater and 
richer than the shelves and tomes of all the libraries in our 
state now contain. 

He was a wonderful character, robust, able, courageous, 
original, versatile, brilliant. He was one of the reaUy big 
men of Illinois, big physically, big emotionally and big intel- 
lectually. He was a pioneer and a frontiersman, a digger and 
a delver, a scout and an explorer in history and in science and 
in literature. 

When a man like that dies, the state and society suffers 
a loss that can never be replaced. He wrote the life of Adam 
W. Snyder, a wonderful genius, one of the many great men 
whom the city of Bellevillo has given to the state and to the 
country. He died in the middle and in the heat of a campaign 
for governor in which the nomination was equivalent to the 
election, and Adam W. Snyder was the nominee. 

We hold in our hand an autograph copy of Dr. Snyder's 
fine book on Adam W. Snyder, (who was his father,) which 

246 Tribute to Dr. Snyder j.i.s.h.s. 

is really the best and most entertaining history of Illinois 
ever written. It is a masterpiece of good English throughout 
and his chapter on Gov. John Reynolds is as clever a piece of 
character analysis as is to be found in all literature. 

We commend this book to the perusal of every intelli- 
gent niinoisan. Dr. Snyder was a truly civilized and enlight- 
ened man. All knoAvledge was to him an open book and 
seemed to come to him by intuition and absorption. He was 
above the clouds of prejudice and free from superstition as 
Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin or Thomas Paine. 

He was broad as the prairies and the seas and lived in 
the smishine of conviction, liberality and absolute fearless- 
ness. He was great in his profession, but greater still as a 
citizen and as a man. He was an ornament and a credit to 
his state, and really and trwij a benefactor of the human race. 

When he joined the silent caravan there left us forever 
and never to return from the long journey Avhat in our esti- 
mation was, taking it all in all, the typical man and first 
citizen of Illinois. 

Dr. John Francis Snyder deserves a monument in front 
of the State House at Springfield and not merely a tablet but 
a window in the Hall of Fame. 

List of Publications of the Illinois State Historical 
Library and Society. 

No. 1. *A Bibliography of Newspapers published In Illinois prior to 
1S60. Prepared bv Edmund J. James, Ph. D., and Milo J. Loveless. 94 pp. 
8 vo. Springfield. 1899. 

No. 2. 'Information relating to the Territorial Laws of Illinois passed 
from 1S09 to 1S12. Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., IB pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1S99. 

No. 3. *The Territorial Records of Illinois. Edited by Edmund J. 
James, Ph. D.. 170 pp. S vo. Springfield, 1901. 

No. 4. 'Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the 
year 1900. Edited by E. B. Greene, Ph. D., 55 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1900. 

No. 5. •Alphabetical Catalog of the Books. Manuscripts, Pictures and 
Curios of the Illinois State Historical Library Authors, Titles and Subjects. 
Compiled by Jessie Palmer Weber. 363 pp. 8 vo. Springfield. 1900. 

Nos. 6 to 27. * Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for 
the vears 1901-1920. (Nos. 6 to IS out of Print.) 

• Illinois Historical Collections. Vol. I. Edited by H. "W. Beckwith, Presi- 
dent of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library. 642 
pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1903. 

• Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. II. Virginia Series, Vol, I. Edited 
by Clarence Walworth Alvord. CLVI and 663 pp. 8 vo. Springfield. 1907. 

• Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. III. Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 
1S58. Lincoln Series, Vol. I. Edited by Edwin Erie Sparks, Ph. D. 627 pp. 
8 vo. Springfield, 1908. 

• Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IV. Executive Series, Vol. I. The 
Governor's Letter Books, 1818-1834. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and 
Clarence Walworth Alvord. XXXII and 317 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1909. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. V. Virginia Series. Vol. II, Kas- 
kaskia Records, 177S-1790. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. L. and 
681 pp. S vo. Springfield, 1909. 

• Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VI. Bibliographical Series, Vol. I. 
Newspapers and Periodicals of Illinois. 1814-1879. Revised and enlarged edi- 
tion. Edited by Franklin William Scott. CIV and 610 pp. 8 vo. Spring- 
field, 1910. 

•Illinois Historical Collections. Vol. VII, Executive Series, Vol. II. Gover- 
nor's Letter Books, 1840-1853. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and Charles 
Manfred Thompson. CXVIII and 469 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1911. 

•Illinois Historical Collection, Vol. VIII. Virginia Series. Vol. IIL George 
Rogers Clark Papers. 1771-17S1. Edited with introduction and notes by James 
Alton James. CLXVII and 715 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1912. 

•Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IX. Bibliographical Series, Vol. II. 
Travel and Description, 1765-1865. By Solon Justus Buck. 514 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield. 1914. 


248 List of Publications J- 1- S- h. s. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. X. British Series, Vol. I The Critical 
Period, 1763-1765. Edited with Introduction and notes by Clarence Walworth 
Alvord and Clarence Edwin Carter. LVII and 597 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1915. 

* Illinois Historical Collections. Vol. XI. British Series, Vol. II. The 
New Regime, 1765-1767. Edited with introduction and notes by Clarence Wal- 
worth Alvord and Clarence Edwin Carter. XXVIII and 700 pp. 8 vo. Spring- 
field, 1916. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XII. Bibliographical Series, Vol. III. 
The County Archives of the State of Illinois. By Theodore Calvin Pease. 
CXLI and 730 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1915. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XIII. Constitutional Series, Vol. I, 
Illinois Constitutions. Edited by Emil Joseph Verlie. 231 pp. 8 vo. Spring- 
field, 1919. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XIV. Constitutional Series, Vol. II. 
The Constitutional Debates of 1847. Edited with introduction and notes by 
Arthur Charles Cole. XV and 1018 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1919. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XV. Biographical Series, Vol. I. 
Governor Edward Coles. By Elihu B. Washburne. Reprinted with intro- 
duction and notes. By Clarence Walworth Alvord. 435 pp. 8 vo. Spring- 
field, 1920. 

* Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 1, Sep- 
tember, 1905. Illinois in the Eighteenth Century. By Clarence Walworth 
Alvord, 33 pp. 8 vo. Springfield. 

* Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 2. June 1, 
1906. Laws of the Territory of Illinois, 1809-1811. Edited by Clarence 
Walworth Alvord. 34 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1906. 

* Circular Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 1. November, 
1905. An Outline for the Study of Illinois State History. Compiled by 
Jessie Palmer Weber and Georgia L. Osborne. 94 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1905. 

* Publication No. 18. List of Genealogical Works in the Illinois State 
Historical Library. Compiled by Georgia L. Osborne. 8 vo. Springfield, 

* Publication No. 25. List of Genealogical Works in the Illinois State 
Historical Library. Supplement to Publication No. 18. Compiled by Georgia 
L. Osborne. 8 vo. Springfield, 1918. 

Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society. Vol. I, No. 1. April, 
1908, to Vol. XIV, Nos. 1 and 2, 1922. 

Journals out of print. Vols. I, II, IH, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, No. 1 of Vol. 
IX, No. 2 of Vol. X. 

Volume 14 October 1921-January 1922 Nos. 3-4 



Illinois State 
Historical Society 

Published Quarterly by the 

Illinois State Historical Society 

Springfield, Illinois 

entered at TVashington. D. C. as Second Class Matter under Act of Congress 
of Julv 16. 1894 accepted for mailing at special rate of postage pro- 
vided for in section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized on 
July 3. 1918. 




Jessie Palmer Weber, Editor 

Associate Editors 

Edward C. Page 

Andrew Russel H. W. Cleiidenin 

George W. Smith 


Dr. Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 

Vice Presidents 

George A. Lawrence Galesburg 

L. Y. Shermax Springfield 

Richard Yates Springfield 

FInsley Moore Jacksonville 

Charles L. Capen Bloomington 

Edmund J. James, University of Illinois. .Urbana-Champaign 

E. B. Greene, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Ch.^rles H. Rammelkamp, President Illinois College 


George W. Smith, Southern Illinois State Normal University 


Richard V. C.\rpenter Belvidere 

Edward C. Page, Northern Illinois State Normal School 


AxDREw RussEL Jacksonville 

"Walter Colyer Albion 

James A. James, Northwestern University Evanston 

H. W. Clendenin Springfield 

John H. Hauberg Rock Island 

Oreix N. Carter Chicago 

Stuart Brown Springfield 

Rev. Ira "W. Allen La Grange 

Secretary and Treasurer 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer "Weber Springfield 

Assistant Secretary 
Miss Georgia L. Osborne Springfield 

Flonorary Vice Presidents 
The Presidents of Local Historical Societies 


I. Officers of the Society vii 

n. An Appeal to the Historical Society and tlie 

General Public xi 

III. Josephine Craven Chandler. The Spoon River 

Country 249 

rV. Stuart Brown. Some Poets of Illinois 330 

V. Jacob W. Myers. Histoiy of the Gallatin County 

Salines 337 

VI. Ella MoiTis Kretschmar. John Wanton Casey. 

A biographical sketch by his daughter 351 

VII. The Old Court House at Metamora presented to 

the State of Illinois 365 

Vni. William I. Kincaid. Camp Butler National 

Cemeteiy 382 

IX. Rose Moss Scott. Earlv Schools and Churches 

of Edgar County.. ..." 386 

X. Editorials- 
Illinois Day Meeting. Illinois State Historical 

Society, December 3, 1921 395 

University of Illinois Stadium 397 

The jMorton Arboretum 399 

Chicago Fire Anniversary 401 

Chicago, from Tales of an 1822 Chicagoan 407 

Memorials to Soldiers of the World War 412 

Armistice Day. Third Anniversary Observed . . . 414 

Minor Xotices 416 

Gifts of Books. Pictures, Manuscripts, etc., to the 

Illinois State Historical Library- and Society. . 424 

CONTENTS— Concluded. 

XI. Necrology — 

Jesse A. Baldwin 429 

Stephen White 432 

XII. List of Publications of the Illinois State Histor- 
ical Library and Society 437 


Objects of Collection Desired by the Illinois State Historical 
Library and Society. 

(Members please read this letter.) 
Books and pamphlets on American history, biography, 
and genealogy, particulary those relating to the West ; works 
on Indian tribes, and American archaeology and ethnology; 
reports of societies and institutions of every kind, educa- 
tional, economic, social, political, cooperative, fraternal, 
statistical, industrial, charitable; scientific publications of 
states or societies ; books or pamphlets relating to all wars in 
which Illinois has taken part, especially the collection of ma- 
terial relating to the recent great war, and the wars with the 
Indians; privately printed works; newspapers; maps and 
charts; engraving; photographs; autographs; coins; an- 
tiquities; encyclopedias, dictionaries, and bibliographical 
works. Especially do we desire — 


1. Every book or pamphlet on any subject relating to 
Illinois, or any part of it ; also every book or pamphlet written 
by an Illinois citizen, whether published in Illinois or else- 
where; materials for Illinois history; old letters, journals. 

2. jManuscripts ; narratives of the pioneers of Illinois; 
original papers on the early history and settlement of the 
territory; adventures and conflicts during the early settle- 
ment, the Indian troubles, or the great rebellion, or other 
wars; biographies of the pioneers; prominent citizens and 

public men of every county, either living or deceased, together 
with their portraits and autographs; a sketch of the settle- 
ments of every township, village and neighborhood in the 
State, with the names of the first settlers. "We solicit articles 
on every subject connected with Illinois history. 

3. City ordinances, proceedings of mayor and council; 
reports of committees of council ; pamphlets or papers of any 
kind printed by authority of the city; reports of boards of 
trade and commercial associations; maps of cities and plats 
of town sites or of additions thereto. 

4. Pamphlets of all kinds ; annual reports of societies ; 
sermons or addresses delivered in the State; minutes of 
church conventions, synods, or other ecclesiastical bodies of 
lUinois; political addresses; railroad reports; all such, 
whether published in pamphlet or newspaper. 

5. Catalogues and reports of colleges and other insti- 
tutions of learning ; annual or other reports of school boards, 
school superintendents and school committees, educational 
pamphlets, programs and papers of every kind, no matter 
how small or apparently unimportant. 

6. Copies of the earlier laws, journals and reports of our 
territorial and State Legislatures; earlier Governors' mes- 
sages and reports of State Officers; reports of State charit- 
able and other State institutions. 

7. Files of Illinois newspapers and magazines, especially 
complete volumes of the past years, or single numbers even. 
Publishers are earnestly requested to contribute their pub- 
lications regularly, all of which will be carefully preserved 
and bound. 

8. Maps of the State, or of counties or townships, of any 
date; views and engra%dngs of buildings or historic places; 
drawings or photographs of scenery, paintings, portraits, 
etc., connected with Illinois history. 

9. Curiosities of all kinds ; coins, medals, paintings, por- 
traits, engravings; statuary; war relics; autograph letters of 
distinguished persons, etc. 

10. Facts illustrative of our Indian tribes — their history, 
characteristics, religion, etc., sketches of prominent chiefs, 
orators and warriors, together with contributions of Indian 
Aveapons, costumes, ornaments, curiosities and implements; 
also stone axes, spears, arrow heads, pottery, or other relics. 

It is important that the work of collecting historical ma- 
terial in regard to the part taken by Illinois in the great war 
be done immediately, before important local material be lost 
or destroyed. 

In brief everything that, by the most liberal construc- 
tion, can illustrate the history of Illinois, its early settlement, 
its progress, or present condition. All will be of interest to 
succeeding generations. Contributions will be credited to the 
donors in the published reports of the Library and Society, 
and will be carefully preserved in the Statehouse as the prop- 
erty of the State, for the use and benefit of the people for all 

Your attention is called to the important duty of collect- 
ing and preserving everything relating to the part taken by 
the State of Illinois in the great World War. 

Communications or gifts may be addressed to the 
Librarian and Secretary. 

(Mrs.) Jessie Palmer Webeb. 



(Mrs. Carl B. Chandler) 


My Mother and the Memory of 

My Father 


I. The Valley of the Sangamon 255 

n. The Valley of the Spoon 271 

III. Old Lewistown 284 

IV. Old Lewistown— Continued 298 

V. The McXeely Mansion 312 

VI. The Church of St. James 316 

VII. School Days of the Poet 320 

VIII. Here and There 326 


Whatever is implied by that vague term the genius of 
places is comprehended in all justness of conception by the 
new collateral field of literary endeavor now coming into 
such general recognition and appreciation — the literature 
of locality. How much it has enriched the field of letters 
may be fully known only to the bookman who, denied the 
opportunity for travel, for personal adventure and discovery 
in regions made familiar during long evenings under the read- 
ing lamp, is yet obsessed by that strange nostalgia — the 
"nostalgia of unknown lands." 

Through the labors of the literary geographer he now 
may come to know the London of Dickens almost as Dickens 
knew it; he may traverse the Cevennes with Robert Louis, 
the "well beloved," and his little ass, Modesta, or the long 
lovely reaches of the Thames with Meredith; the Eliot coun- 
try is as an open book, and who does not know his Wessex 
is, of a certainty, innocent of Hardy. In America already 
the "Thoreau Country," " Whittier-Land, " and many other 
localities have come to have a significance proportionate to 
the deep interest which they hold for the literary pilgrim, 
and sufficiently recog-nized even by the most illiterate driver 
of the sight-seeing automobile; Indiana as the habitat of a 
large and flourishing school of writers — poets, novelists and 
journalists — is in the making; Bret Harte and Mark Twain 
have bequeathed us fertile fields beyond the Mississippi ; but 
Spoon River, that small and tortuous stream lying like a bit 
of negligible twist upon the map of Central Illinois — Spoon 
River has arrived. 

As comprehended by Edgar Lee Masters, Spoon River is 
both a river and a town. It is, in reality, a collective expres- 
sion made to cover the several community groups which go 


Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 The Spoon River Country 253 

to make up the social entity of his book. His material is 
drawn from six or seven counties and includes the area 
watered by two small rivers. A glance at the map of this 
region will show how the various towns to which allusion is 
made are grouped. To the valley of the Sangamon belong 
Chandlerville, Winchester, Atter'bury, Clary's Grove and 
Mason City; wliile Ipava, Summum, Bernadotte and London 
Mills are in the more or less immediate vicinity of the Spoon. 
Between these two is the majestic and slowly flowing Illinois 
receiving upon her placid bosom the turbulent outpourings 
of the lesser streams. Strangely enough, the two chief focal 
points round which the drama of "Anthology" ranges, 
do not come by name into this remarkable collection 
of epitaphs. They are Petersburg and Lewistown. They are 
confessed to by Mr. Masters in the following words: 

"I have lived in Illinois all my life save the first year 
of my existence, which was spent in Kansas. I grew up to 
twelve years of age in Petersburg, when we moved to Lewis- 

"Both Petersburg and Lewistown are full of quaint and 
picturesque types of character, but of a dissimilar sort. Peters- 
burg and its environs are noted for their high-bred Virginians, 
their buoyant, zestful, rollicking Kentuckians, given to story- 
telling, to fiddling, dancing and horse-racing. Every prank 
and eveiy burst of humor on the part of Lincoln had its 
counterpart among the dozens of the oldtimers of this local- 
ity. There are some of this class of people around Lewis- 
town, but they lived on a less joyous level, while the town 
itself took a more serious tone and even an intellectual one 
from the New Englanders who divided the control of af- 
fairs with the Liberals and threw each other into a clear re- 
lief unknown to Petersburg. 

"People ask me how I came to write 'The Spoon River 
Anthology,' Well, they must look back to the days I have 
just brieflv sketched to get its origin." 

254 Josephine Craven Chandler J. i. s. H. s. 

It will be seen, bj' the foregoing, that Mr. Masters has 
concerned himself not only with individuals but with com- 
munities, and this is significant for it is only by relating the 
individual to the community tliat one may come to an intelli- 
gent comprehension of his relation to the country in which 
he dwells, the soil from which he springs and to which he is, 
in ways that are both alien and integral, related. 

This volume is designed for the assistance of those whose 
enthusiasm for the poetry of Edgar Lee Masters may inspire 
them to visit the country which his genius has immortalized. 

Although it concerns itself with those places compre- 
hended by the "Spoon River Anthology," its territory in- 
cludes, incidentally, the locales of a number of poems of a 
later issue by the same author. Of these "Christmas at In- 
dian Point" and "Old Piery" belong to the Sangamon Val- 
ley, "Steam Shovel Cut" to the Valley of the Spoon, and 
"At Havana" to a point on the eastern bank of the Illinois, 
and nearly opposite to the mouth of the Spoon — the "house 
and fish boats" of its allusion being the first sight 
to greet the eye from the long bridge that spans the for- 
mer river at that place. 

My whole life having been lived, with the exception of 
certain school years, in what I have chosen to call the Spoon 
River Country, my knowledge of this region may, I think, 
claim to be authoritative. In my youth, which was spent in 
what I have broadly classified as the Sangamon Valley, I 
had at my command the same resources of anecdote and 
common allusion which gave to Mr. Masters his finest charac- 
terizations; and with "Doug" Armstrong and Aaron Hatfield 
I have sat at meat. In my later life my residence changed to 
the northern portion of the region under consideration and 
Lewistown, Beniadotte and other Spoon River towns came 
within my ken. 

Such personal knowledge as I have of the people and 
places coming within the compass of this work has been aug- 
mented from manv outside sources. I have had recourse to 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 

The Spoon River Country 

the llliuois State Historical Society Journals; the various 
histories of Menard, Mason and P'ulton Counties ; to Mr. T. J. 
Onstot's "Lincoln & Salem;" to Mr. Harvey Ross' "The 
p]arly Pioneers;" to the files of the Fulton Democrat; to notes 
which ^Ir. Francis Love made of an interview with Major 
Walker in collecting certain data to be use^i in the Tarbell 
"Life of Lincoln;" to various Lincolniana, and to infinite 
correspondence and interviews with friends and family con- 
nections of the characters coming under discussion. For all 
such valuable assistance I wish to acknowledge my obligation 
and to express my thanks. 


The Valley of the Saxgamox. 

Although this little river has found its way into litera- 
ture through "William Cullen Bryant and his "Painted Cup," 
and into history through its association with the young man- 
hood of Abraham Lincoln; and although its neighborhood 
has furnished the inspiration for no less than eight characters 
of Mr. Masters' "Anthology,' yet its identity, for the uses 
of that book, is lost under the collective title "Spoon River." 

Physiographically speaking the Valley of the Sanga- 
mon, though claiming one hundred and twenty miles in length, 
scarcely exceeds two miles at its point of greatest width ; so 
that it may be regarded as a slight vicarious atonement for 
the un-recognition of the "Anthology" that for the purposes 
of this book — which, of course, are merely those of com- 
mentation — the Valley of the Sangamon is allowed to stand 
for all the Spoon River country lying south and southeast 
of the Illinois River. 

So considered, Petersburg must be regarded as the nu- 
cleus. It was here that IMasters spent most of those early 
years before he moved to Lewistown; here he came to know 
personally, and through the infinite resources of anecdote and 
familiar allusion, that group of characters which are among 

256 Josephine Craven Chandler J. r. s.H. s. 

the most benign and ennobling of the collection; and here 
he came beneath the spell of those two men who were to prove, 
immediate family influences aside, the most constant sources 
of inspiration in his life and art — his grandfather, Mr. Squire 
D. Masters, and Abraham Lincoln. 

It was to the home of Mr. Squire D. Masters that Mr. 
Hardin Masters — the father of Edgar Lee — brought his 
wife and infant son on his return from the brief sojourn in 
Kansas that gave to that state the honor of the poet's birth. 
Here the boy lived with his parents during his tenderest 
years, and here after his father abandoned the farm for the 
profession of the law, many happy weeks were spent each 
year. Even after the removal of the Hardin Masters family 
to Lewistown the boy returned each summer to dream away 
the happy days at the old place, to delve amongst the books of 
his grandfather's library, to prowl his grandmother's attic 
for treasure — quaint old costumes, discarded furniture, faded 
photographs and other joy-invoking "rulics," as he called 
them (the usage of that word is still sacred to the memory of 
that time). Care-free days lived under the apple trees with 
Burns, in the great hay-barns, or on those joyous journeys 
through woods and fields with the beloved grandmother which 
are among the treasured memories of every grand-child of the 
Masters clan. 

The old Masters home still stands. It is now in posses- 
sion of the poet's uncle, Mr. Wilbur Masters, though it has 
been remodeled in recent years and its aspect is somewhat 
changed. ' ' The Squire ' ' and his wife are both dead but their 
deeds live after them and there are none in all the neighbor- 
hood but do them honor. Their gifted grandson himself has 
paid them tribute in the epitaphs of "Davis Matlock" and 
"Lueinda Matlock." In these two characterizations he has 
used the Christian name of his respective grandparents, al- 
though the grandfather was invariably known by the first of 
his two names. Squire being in this case both a cognomen and 
a sign of office, so that his full signature would read Squire 

(Grandfathir of the poet.) 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 The Spoon River Countnj 257 

Davis Masters, Esquire. The surname is also a matter of fam- 
ily history, Elizabeth Matlock being the name of Mr. Squire 
Masters' mother. 

Although a farmer, Squire Masters was a man of excel- 
lent education; an intelligent, well-rounded man and one 
given to the acquisition of "material things as well as culture 
and wisdom," having a fine presence and dominating per- 
sonality. A neighbor of his said to me: "No matter what 
day of the week it was. Squire INIasters always impressed me 
as being just ready to start to church." Indeed the allusion 
was a typical one, for his deeply spiritual nature seems to 
have found its fullest expression in religious exercise. Not 
only was he a leader in all church activities in his neighbor- 
hood, but his private devotions were so earnest and so full 
of dignity that one of the family who knew stenography was 
induced to take down one of the "blessings" invariably in- 
voked before meat. It was a perilous undertaking, for dis- 
covery would have involved the almost certain displeasure of 
the dignified old man, but the task was accomphshed success- 
fully and the various copies which were made from it are re- 
garded by those possessing them as among the most treasured 
mementoes of the beloved grandparent. 

The devotion of tlie poet's grandfather to the cause of tem- 
perance once suggested to the youthful Edgar Lee who was 
granted many pranks — being the favorite grandson — a joke 
that nearly brought him to confusion. He had found in the 
wood shed a can of bright red paint. He solidly covered a 
board with it and when it was dry made with white the pic- 
ture of a foaming glass over the legend "Beer 5c a glass," 
and the further embellishment of a hand with a pointing 
index finger. He placed the sign at the near by cross road, 
with the hand pointing toward the Masters house. 

That evening the "Squire" was busying himself about 
the chores and had started to the barnyard with a pail of 
swill when the first "customer" arrived. He was bleary eyed 
and somewhat unstable as he approached. "I see you've 

258 Josephine Craven Chandler J. i. s. H. s. 

somethiug to sell," he essayed. "Where 'bouts do you keep 
it, Squire?" Mr. Masters had a cider mill on his farm and 
supposed the remark to constitute an insinuation that he 
kept "hard" cider on the place. His wrath was superb. 
He set down his pail of swill and stood back from it with 
elaborate dignity. "Now, sir," he said, "that's all I have 
to offer you about this place. If that suits your taste, just 
help yourself and no charge." 

How the visitor contrived his exit is not known, but a cer- 
tain small boy made a cautious escape from the scene and re- 
covered the sign board without loss of time. It is still num- 
bered among the "properties" of the woodshed, but the true 
history of its brief usefulness was never explained by him to 
the master of the house. 

"Lucinda Matlock" so essentially characterizes the life 
and philosophy of Lucinda Masters that the analogy is un- 
mistakable : 

I went to the dances at Chandlerville, 

And played snap-out at Winchester. 

One time we changed partners, 

Driving home in the moonlight of middle 

And then I found Davis. 

We married and lived together for seventy 

Enjoying, working, raising the twelve chil- 

Eight of whom we lost 

Ere I had reached the age of sixty. 

I spun, I wove, I kept the house, I nursed 
the sick, 

I made the garden, and for holiday 

Rambled over the fields where sang the larks. 

And by Spoon River gathered many a shell. 

And manv a flower and medicinal weed — 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-1 The Spoon River Country 259 

ISlioutiiig to the wooded hills, singing to the 
green valleys. 

At ninety-six I had lived enough, that is all. 

And passed to a sweet repose. 

What is this I hear of sorrow and weariness. 

Anger, discontent, and drooping hopes? 

Degenerate sons and daughters, 

Life is too strong for you — 

It takes life to love life. 
The incident of the dance at Winchester, except that it oc- 
curred not in "middle June" but sleighing time, is one that 
Mrs. ]\[asters delighted to relate to her children and grand- 
children. The story always finished in the same way, refer- 
ring to the change of partners: "And after that we stayed 
changed"; or if by any chance it ended differently — this 
romance of Grandfathers and Grandmothers — there was al- 
ways a demand for the old version. "And Grandmother, did 
you stay changed after that?" And she would answer, "Yes, 
after that we just stayed changed". 

It is true that the twain were married and lived together 
for seventy years ; that she bore twelve children, though three 
died in infancy; that she wove, and spun, and kept the house, 
and nursed the sick, and made the garden — this splendid vital 
woman — and most notably it is true that for holiday she 
"rambled over the hills where sang the larks." Her intense 
love of nature was the attribute which above all others en- 
deared her to her family. 

Across a portion of the farm runs a little creek, a tribu- 
tary of the Sangamon, and this was the objective of many de- 
lightful journeys. On these occasions it is said that her 
joyousness and elation transcended every difficulty and that 
she freed herself to the great gladness of the universal mood, 
htr knowledge of plants and animals was amazing and added 
to this was a fund of folk lore that made these trips an in- 
finite delight. She lived, in truth, to the age of ninety-six 
and from "Anger, discontent and drooping hopes" she was 

260 Josephine Craven Chandler J- 1- S- h. s. 

delivered through lo, those manv years, by her superb love 
of life. 

Edgar Lee has attested his respect and love for his 
grandparents bj^ the further tribute of the dedicatory inscrip- 
tion which appears on the fly-leaf of the volume of his poems 
called "The Great Valley" which reads: 

To the Memory of 

Squike Davis axd Ltjcinda Masters 

Avho, close to nature, one in deep religious faith, the other in 

pantheistic rapture and heroism, lived nearly a 

hundred years in the land of Illinois 

I inscribe 
The Great Valley 
in admiration of their great strength, mastery of life, hope- 
fulness, clear and beautiful democracy. 

Edgae Lee Masters. 

In that collection of poems the one "I Shall Never See 
You Again" voices a grief and passionate regret that cannot 
fail of appreciation among those who have kno-\vn through 
close association or intimate report the character of Lucinda 
^Masters, and of the close tie that united her to her grandson. 

The farm of "Sevigne Houghton" adjoins the Masters 
farm, and this is the neighborhood of the Kincaids. 
Where are Uncle Isaac and Aunt Emily, 
And old Towney Kincaid and Sevigne Houghton — 
All, all are sleeping on the hill. 

Goodpasture, Hoheimer, Trenary and Pantier are names 
familiar to this region but no incident in their lives appears 
to have connected them with the "Anthology". Apparently 
their names alone have been made to serve ; but the character 
of "Aaron Hatfield" is authentic. 


Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 The Spoon River Count ry 261 

The Hatfield farm is twice referred to. That character 
designated as "The Unknown" recalls how 
As a boy, reckless and wanton, 
Wandering with gun in hand thro' the field 
Near the mansion of Aaron Hatfield 
I shot a hawk perched on the top of a dead 
ti-ee ; 
and ' ' Hare Drummer ' ' wonders : 

Do the boys and girls still go to Siever's 
For cider after school in summer? 
Or gather hazelnuts among the thickets 
On Aaron Hatfield's farm when the frosts 
The Hatfield mansion was, in its day, the most preten- 
tious in the neighborhood. It has since burned, but the old 
Menard County atlas has preserved it for us with all the 
quaint dignity of the wood cut. To this period of his life 
belongs the "memory-picture" of the pioneer: 
Better than granite. Spoon Eiver, 
Is the memory picture you keep of me 
Standing before the pioneer men and women 
There at Concord Church on communion day. 
Speaking in broken voice of the peasant youth 
Of Galilee who went to the city 
And was killed by bankers and lawyers ; 
My voice mingling with the June wind 
That blew over the wheat fields from Atter- 

While the white stones in the burying ground 
Around the church shimmered in the summer 

And there, though my own memories 
Were too great to bear, were you, pioneers, 
With bowed heads breathing forth your sor- 

262 Josephine Craven Chandler J. i. s. H. s. 

For sons killed in battle and the daughters 

And little children who vanished in life's 

Or at the intolerable hour of noon. 

But in those moments of tragic silence, 

When the wine and bread were passed, 

Came the reconciliation for us — 

Us the ploughmen and hewers of wood. 

Us the peasants of Galilee — 

To us came the Comforter 

And the consolation of the tongues of flame ! 
Concord church is three miles north of Petersburg. It 
was established in 1830 and was the first church of the de- 
nomination known as the Cumberland Presbyterian to be 
established in the county. The building in which Aaron Hat- 
field worshiped is now replaced by a modern structure but 
the "white stones in the burying ground around the church" 
still shimmer in the summer sun, and the June wind still 
blows across the wheat fields from Atterbury three miles 

One wishes that he might have remained on his com- 
fortable farm and might, eventually, have come to rest in 
that old graveyard that is sweet with clover and odorous with 
arbor \^tae biat history relates that in his latter years he sold 
the farm and moved to Petersburg, investing his substance in 
a home, a store, a lumber yard, a flouring mill and various en- 
terprises. The guileless temperament of the kindly old man 
made him unfit for commercial life, and partly through bad 
management and partly through the contrivance of the un- 
scrupulous he lost one after another of his various possessions 
and came, in the end, almost to penury. His misfortunes so 
preyed upon him that before Ms death his mind began to show 
atfection. He died at the age of eighty. One hopes that 
sometimes in those later years to him also 

came the comforter. 

And the consolation of the tongues of flame! 


Vol. XIV, Nos. 3-4 The Spoon Riier Country 263 

Miller's Ferry, but a few miles north and east of Concord 
Church, is the "Miller's Ford" of the "Anthology". The 
"deep woods" of "William Good's" allusion still cover the 
hills on the right bank of the Sangamon at this point, and 
doubtless you still can see , i™i:~v,f 

The soft wunged bats fly zig zag here and there. 
Here "Thomas Ross" saw a clifY swallow make "her nest 
in a hole in the high clay bank ' ' and drew from it an analogy 
of his own life. 

To "James Garber" the place had a sjTnbolic meaning. 
He bids the passer-by, after life shall have brought him "un- 
derstandings," take thought of him and of his path 
who w^alked therein and knew 
That neither man or woman, neither toil. 
No duty, gold nor power 
Can ease the longing of the soul. 
The loneliness of the soul ! 
All the associations of this place are sad, and saddest of 
all perhaps are the musings of "Russell Kincaid" in those 
last days of his life when he sat in the 

forsaken orchard 
Where beyond the fields of greenery shimmered 
The hills of Miller's Ford;^ 
voicing an atavistic longing that he might have been a tree, 
Then I had fallen in the cyclone 
■\^Tiich swept me out of the soul's suspense 
Where it's neither earth nor heaven. 
One character, at least, of this group may be identified. 
"James Garber" is the same who "wrote beautifully," and 
whose letter, written for "Hannah Armstrong" was, maybe, 
"lost in the mails". His real name was Jacob Garber and 
the letter incident is authentic. He was, at one time, a 
neighbor of Hannah Armstrong, though she belonged, at an 
earlier period, in the Clary's Grove group. 

Mr. T. J. Onstot says in his "Lincoln & Salem": "Mil- 
ler's Ferry was * * * once surveyed for a town and was called 

264 Josephine Craven Chandler J. i. s. H. s. 

Huron. My brother R. J. Onstot has a plat of it in Lincoln's 
own handwriting and prizes it very highly. The town looks 
very fine on paper, though there was only one house in it in 
its earlier days". 

"Walter Pater, writing of Leonardo da Vinci, says that 
"two ideas were especially confirmed in him as reflexes of 
things that had touched his life in childhood beyond the 
depths of other impressions — the smiling of women and the 
motion of great waters." 

It is so that all true biography should be written. In this 
sense all art is autobiographic, since in creative work alone 
man records the "adventure of his soul". It is in the study 
of those impressions "especially confirmed in him" as a re- 
flex that we come to the life of Abraham Lincoln and its in- 
fluence upon the life and art of Masters through its immediate 
association with the Spoon Eiver country. 

Three characters of the "Anthology" are concerned with 
Lincoln: "Anne Eutledge", "Hannah Armstrong" and 
"William H. Herndon"; four poems of the collection, 
"The Great Valley", "The Lincoln and Douglas Debates", 
"Autochthon", "Gobineau to Tree" and "Old Peiry", and 
not less than four poems from the volume called "The Open 
Sea" are written ai'ound him. 

New Salem, the home of Lincoln from 1831 to 1837 is two 
miles south of Petersburg, and just southwest of Salem is 
Clary's Grove. Clary's Grove is, in fact, exactly what the 
name implies, a grove. It is not found on any map but Lin- 
colniana has comprehended it too completely to require fur- 
ther proof of authenticity. There is no history treating of 
these early years of Lincoln that does not speak of the 
Clary's Grove boys and their staunch adherence to him from 
his initiation among them in the famous wrestling match with 
Jack Armstrong till their final dramatic appearance in 1859 
at the hall of the convention which gave him the nomination 
that ultimately placed him in the Executive Chair. 

Clary's Grove was one of the first neighborhoods to be 


Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Tj)c Spoon River Country 265 

inhabited by the wliites. Most of the settlers came from Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee. Among the prominent families were 
the Clarys, Armstrongs, Watkinses, Potters, Jones and 
Greens; all fine staunch people, but whose boys were typical 
sons of the frontier; fond of drinking, hard riding, horse- 
racing, dancing, fiddling and all rude sports, particularly 
those which constituted tests of strength. Among the Wat- 
kinses and Armstrongs, especially, there persists to this day a 
tradition of horse-racing and fiddling. There is, as there has 
always been, a "Fiddler Watkins" and a "Fiddler Arm- 
strong", and a race track is a common adjunct of their ample 

Where is old Fiddler Jones 
Who played with life all his ninety years. 
Braving the sleet with bared breast, 
Drinking, rioting, thinking neither of wife 

nor kin, 
Nor gold nor love nor heaven? 
Lo ! He babbles of the fish-fries of long ago, 
Of the horse-races long ago at Clary's Grove, 
Of what Abe Lincoln said 
One time at Springfield. 
"Fiddler Jones" was the brother of "Hannah Arm- 
strong". All of that family were "first class fighting men", 
tall and fine looking. The family came from Green County, 
Kentucky, and Jolm, who was never addressed or spoken of 
by any other name than "Fid" or "Fiddler", had, while in 
that state, received considerable education. He played "by 
note", composed, and even wrote music for his violin. He 
was a dancing master as well and was distinguished by a 
manner and bearing quite at variance with the crude behavior 
of his period. Many of his pupils still recall liim clearly and 
his name is associated with nearly all of the festi^-ities of his 
day. His fiddle, which was really a viola, is still the cher- 
ished possession of the family. He died a few years ago in 
Fairbury, Nebraska, leaving behind him a comfortable estate. 
His mantle has, happily, fallen upon the shoulders of his 

266 Josephine Craven Chandler J- 1- S- ^- S- 

nephew, Mr. John Armstrong of Oakford, Illinois, son of 
Hannah Armstrong. His music is still in requisition and his 
clear memory makes him one of the few living men connecting 
the present generation with the Great Emancipator. 

The friendship between Lincoln and the Armstrongs 
began just as history relates, with a wrestling match between 
Jack Armstrong and Lincoln — an affair in which the latter 
came out victor. Thereafter Lincoln lived with the Arm- 
strongs for a time and always, one is told, regarded their 
house as his home ; indeed the motherly Hannah treated him 
as one of her own sons. The opportunity for requital of her 
great kindness came to Lincoln when he undertook the de- 
fense of William Armstrong (better known as "Duff"), the 
youngest son of the family, in the famous "almanac trial" 
which ended in his acquittal. 

It is the same son who, in the epitaph, "Hannah 
Armstrong," is called "Doug." Mr. John Armstrong has 
told me the letter incident referred to in the "Anthology." 
Duff, he said, had asked for his discharge from the army, 
having become painfully affected by sciatic rheumatism. The 
discharge had been granted but the papers, for some reason, 
withheld for a time and the boy kept on guard duty though 
his suffering was considerable. He wrote his mother asking 
her to appeal personally to "Abe", to urge matters, so Mrs. 
Armstrong got "LTncle Jakey" Garber to write the letter. 
Soon a telegram came from the President saying that Duff 
would be home immediately and so, presently, he was, and 
one is glad to know that "Aunt Hannah" did not have to 
travel all the way to Washington as demanded by the ex- 
igencies of art. She was one of the fine old women of her 
generation, living into the nineties and dying in Winterset, 
Iowa. As for Duff, he became, after the war, a veterinarian 
and has eaten many a meal in my father's house as he went 
from one point to another about the countryside. 

The town of New Salem, which declined with the build- 
ing up of Petersburg, has been rebuilt within the last sev- 
eral summers. The Old Salem League was formed for this 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 The Spoon Rircr Country 267 

express purpose, and the plan is to make the village a per- 
manent memorial to him who for a season lingered there. 
William Randolph Hearst had previously bought the site and 
donated it for the purpose. Sevei'al log houses have been 
constructed, some of them exactly, and all of them approxi- 
mately upon the sites of the buildings that formerly com- 
prised the village.* 

The splendid pageant written and directed by Florence 
McGill AVallace and staged on the New Salem common on the 
2nd and 3rd of September, 1918, as a part of the Centennial 
observance of the State of Illinois, brought those who saw it 
strangely close to that period of Lincoln's life. All those 
taking part in the performance were, wherever possible, 
members of the families of those involved in the history so 
revivified. Some of the cabins wore occupied by descendants 
of the very people who built the originals, and this personal 
element in the participation of the Menard County folk gave 
to the enterprise a spirit unique in pageantry. 

Four episodes from the life of Lincoln while at New 
Salem constituted the dramatic theme. 1. The coming of the 
Big Brother (the arrival of Lincoln at Salem on a flat-boat). 
2. Arrival of Clary's Grove boys (the initiation of Lincoln 
among them by way of a wrestling match). 3. "Captain Lin- 
coln" (the incident of the Clary's Grove boys choosing a cap- 
tain for the New Salem contingent for the Black Hawk war). 
4. Sunday afternoon in Salem. The village belle, Anne Rut- 

The last mentioned episode comprehends Lincoln's woo- 
ing as well as his great grief after the death of her who was 
his first sweetheart. It was, as it might well have been, the 
most stirring and significant of them all, for there can be no 
doubt that his love for Anne Rutledge was the greatest of 
the shaping forces that touched that soul already starred 
bv destinv. 

•Since made a State Park by Act of the Legislature, approved April 
.S. 1919. Contains museum where Lincoln memorials and relics will be 

268 Josephine Craven Chandler J. i. s. h. s. 

Out of me unworthy and unknown 

The vibrations of deathless music: 

"With malice toward none, with charity 
for all." 

Out of me the forgiveness of millions toward 

And the beneficent face of a nation 

Shining with justice and truth. 

I am Anne Eutledge who sleeps beneath 
these weeds. 

Beloved in life of Abraham Lincoln, 

Wedded to him, not through union, 

But through separation. 

Bloom forever, Republic, 

From the dust of my bosom ! 
Anne Eutledge ! A fragrance hangs about the name — 
the "Fragrance of things destined for immortality." Al- 
ready the hand of the iconoclast has been at work, but he has 
anticipated his hour, and the affirmation of history, based 
upon the authentic testimony of those yet living, has made 
her place secure. No myth, no "legend", may obscure her 
claim who has inspired to great purpose the heart of a great 

Her body was laid to rest in the old Concord cemetery. 
Not the one adjacent to the church in which Aaron Hatfield 
worshipped, but one about a mile away, lost, not only to the 
view, but almost to the memory, and which no longer has 
even a road by way of approach. Her ashes have since been 
removed to Oakland cemetery which is on a beautiful wooded 
hill near Petersburg. Within the year a great granite boul- 
der has been erected to her memory, having the Masters' 
epitaphic poem, taken from the "Anthology," graved upon 
its face, but prior to the placing of this monument a rough 
stone taken from the dam of the old Eutledge mill at New 
Salem most appropriately marked the grave of this sweet 
girl whose unostentatious nature sought no exaltation but 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 The Spoon River Country 269 

the exaltation of the spirit. Even to approach that spot is 
to feel the recriidescence of old pain. One is tense with the 
agony that searched the heart of Lincoln on that storm-torn 
nii^ht when he cried out to his friend: "Oh, I cannot sleep 
while the rain is falling on her grave ! ' ' One is sad with the 
denials of her youth and of her tender passion. But to visit 
the little town wliere she has lived, and where, near-by, her 
kinsfolk go about their daily rounds, wliere the drama of her 
brief life was enacted, is to feel the dignity of life and the 
great peace of soul-quietness. 

In "William H. Herndon" Masters has crystalized the 
long retrospect of the man who, better than any other, knew 
the character of Lincoln after its nature had reached its full 
maturity and during the period of his professional life. The 
law-partnership of the two men began in 1843. Lincoln was 
then thirty-four and Herndon was nine years his junior. 
Their partnership was dissolved only by the death of the 
senior member in Ford's Theater in 1865. 

Horace White in his introduction to the second edition 
of the Herndon "Life of Abraham Lincoln" says of the 
author: "What Mr. Lincoln was after he became President 
can best be understood by knowing what he was before. The 
world owes more to Wm. H. Herndon for this particular 
knowledge than to all other persons taken together. It is no 
exaggeration to say that his death .... removed from the 
earth the person who of all others had most thoroughly 
searched the sources of Mr. Lincoln's biography and had 
most attentively, intelligently and also lovingly studied his 

j\Ir. Herndon spent his declining years on his farm. The 
old house, which is, as described, "perched on a bluff," over- 
looks the Sangamon. It is on what is known thereabout as 
the Menard County Eoad. He was seventy-three at the time 
of his death. He had lived in great times and had seen much 
history in the making; moreover his last great task had been 
the preparation, with the assistance of Mr. Jesse W. Weik, 
of the three volume biography of the man who had engaged 

270 Josephine Craven Chandler J. i. s. H. s. 

first his admiration, then his love, aud afterwards his sense 
of the patriotic responsibility which his knowledge dictated 
towards the coming generation. 

No line of "Herndon" may be omitted from this work; 
not the poet's vision of the old man gazing into the shining 
glass of his memory; nor his vision of the old man's vision; 
nor the strangely Japanese comprehension of the whole in 
the association of natural phenomenon : 

There by the window in the old house 
Perched on the bluff, overlooking miles of 

My days of labor closed, sitting out life's 

Day by day did I look in my memory. 
As one who gazes in an enchantress ' crystal 

And I saw the figures of the past, 
As if in a pageant glassed in a shining 

Move through the incredible sphere of time. 
And I saw a man rise from the soil like a 

fabled giant 
And throw himself over a deathless destiny. 
Master of great armies, head of the republic. 
Bringing together in a dithyramb of recreat- 
ive song 
The epic hopes of a people ; 
At the same time vnlcan of sovereign fires. 
Where imperishable shields and swords are 

beaten out 
From spirits tempered in heaven. 
Look in the Crystal ! See how he hastens on 
To the place where his path comes up to 

the path 
Of a child of Plutarch and Shakespeare. 
O Lincoln, actor indeed, playing well your 

Vol. XIV. xNos. 3-4 Tjif, Spoon Rirer Count nj 271 

And Booth, who strode in a mimic play 

witliin a play, 
Often and often I saw you. 
As the cawing crows winged their way to 

the woods 
Over my house-top at solemn sunsets, 
There by my window, 

The Valley of the Spoon. 

It is interesting to conjecture in considering the geo- 
graphic nomenclature of the country from which Mr. Mas- 
ters drew the material for his "Anthology" just why he 
should have chosen "Spoon Eiver" for the title of his book. 
There was, for alternative, that lovely Indian name of 
Sangamon; and Lewistowm is a town so closely associated, 
serving as prototype in fact, that to all intents and purposes 
Le^x-istown is "Spoon River." It is true that the characters 
dra^\Ti from this section enormously preponderate numer- 
ically; that the name holds in an exceptional degree, by the 
very fact of its strangeness, what Amy Lowell calls the 
"pungency of place;" and there is the matter of phonetic 
syzygy ! Is there not a story concerned with Margaret Fuller 
and her awakened appreciation of the beauties of her OAvn 
tongue through the admiration of an Italian friend, for that 
word — so homely of association and so beautiful for the dis- 
posal of its consonants and vowels — cellar door? And cer- 
tainly the name Spoon River, once one has come to love it, 
whether from the felicity which it confers upon the ear or 
through the divining vision of its great interpreter — Spoon 
River is exquisite to say. 

Although four or five generations suffice to tell the tale 
of the Englishman's association with this river, alread.v there 
has grown up about it, as about those brilliant figures that 
have passed from the realm of history to high romance, that 
mass of incident which unconsciously has been shaped by the 

272 Josephine Craven Chandler J. i. s. H. s. 

syutlietic tendencies of the imagination to what the French 
biographer delights to call a legend. Something of evil is 
implicit, a "power of sinister presence," but ^vithal a loveli- 
ness so intimate and compelling that it must lie forever like 
a mistress upon the heart-memory of those who love her. Cer- 
tain adjectives inhere: the "classic" Spoon, the "turbid" 
Spoon, the "treacherous," the "lovely;" but more significant 
than these, and harking back to an ancienter tradition — the 
' ' raging ' ' Spoon. The women have a saying, those old women 
who sit at windows, that every year the river takes one hu- 
man life as toll. 

It lies in the heart of that rich region embraced by the 
Mississippi and the Illinois rivers and flo^^'ing south and 
southeast enters, after many sinuations, the latter 
stream. It has measured, perhaps, in its turnings one hun- 
dred and fifty miles, and there is evidence that, with the per- 
verse selection of inanimate things, it has not disdained 
sometimes to change its course. Three lovely loops of water, 
reached from the southern end of Thompson's Lake, known 
as The Horseshoes from the physiographic term applied to 
such formation, attest that years ago the river approached 
its point of confluence with the Illinois through closely con- 
voluted turns, reminding one, somehow, of the aesthetic phe- 
nomenon involved by certain musical endings where the stress 
of the impetus is eased by the crashing of conventional 

"Whatever dramatic moment laid its imperative command 
upon the genius of the Spoon in that time long past may not 
definitely be ascertained, but less than a score of years ago 
the sudden movement of a gigantic ice-pack, opposing exi- 
gence to indirection — made a third channel outward enter- 
ing the Illinois farther to the north by half a mile and ap- 
proximating to what must have been an earlier estuary. So 
does the old order forever change and the will of nature, like 
the will of man, reverse the decision of yesterday. 

Although the occupation of the Sangamon and the Spoon 
River valleys by people from the east and south was contem- 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-1 Thf Spoun liiicr Country 273 

poraueous, the latter reyiou wuuld seem to have offered su- 
perior inducements, for it Hes in the heart of what is known 
as the "Military Tract." This tract constitutes all the land 
embraced by the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers as far 
as the northern line of Bureau and Henry counties and in- 
cludes a region of great fertility. By an act of Congress 
each soldier who had participated in the War of 1812 was 
entitled to a quarter section and as soon as the provision was 
made the hardier souls ventured thither to claim their new 
possessions. Revolutionary soldiers, some of them. Men like 
"John "Wasson": 

Uh! the dew-wet grass of the meadow in 
North Carolina 

Through which Rebecca followed me wail- 
ing, wailing. 

Lengthening out the farewell to me off to 
the war with the British, 

And then the long, hard years down to the 
day at Yorktown. 

And then my search for Rebecca, 

Finding her at last in Virginia, 

Two children dead in the meanwhile. 

We went by oxen to Tennessee, 

Thence after years to Illinois, 

At last to Spoon River. 

We cut the buffalo grass, 

We felled the forests, 

We built the school-houses, built the bridges. 

Leveled the roads and tilled the fields 

Alone with poverty, scourges, death .... 
But if they found hardship here they found a land offer- 
ing a hospitality that had not failed of the appreciation of 
their predecessors, for the Indians from the earliest time 
seem to have shown a predilection for this locality. Al- 
though they have not been awarded their just dues at the 
hands of the state or by its men of science, and much that 
might constitute a source of intelligence and information 

274 Josephine Craven Chandler J. i. s. h. s. 

regarding the preliistoric inhabitants of this region has been 
wasted through agrarian thrift and the wanton plunder of 
relic hunters, yet there are still visible a number of Indian 
mounds throughout the valley which the investigation of 
archeologists has shown to be important. Chapman's "His- 
tory of Fulton County" says: 

There is not a township in the county which 
does not contain more or less of these traces, and 
in some of them are works which in extent and char- 
acter ■u'ill compare with any in the West. 
On a farm in Kerton township, which lies to the right 
of the mouth of Spoon River, is a tield known as Mound 
Field, containing aboi;t twenty-five acres. It is located on 
the summit of a high bluff. To quote again from Chapman: 
In this field is a level space of five or six acres 
inclosed by two rows of circular, cup-shaped depres- 
sions, inside of which are large mounds which must 
originally have been thirty or forty feet high. To the 
south of this level the bluif line Avith its indentations 
forms the border of the field, and here are the re- 
mains of not less than one hundred and fifty thou- 
sand human beings buried literally by the cord! 
Where the bluff begins to descend it appears as 
though a step had been cut with the bluff face not 
less than ten feet high, and here were corded skele- 
tons, laid as one would cord wood, but •with the bodies 
arranged just as one Avould preserve the level of 
the file best without regard to direction. This burial 
place follows the bluff line for some distance where 
skeletons appear to have been covered by some light- 
colored clay which must have been brought from 
considerable distance, as it is not found in the local- 
ity. There are also two pits near the brow of the 
bluff on the side hill, which appear to have been 
originally about forty feet in diameter and of 
great depth and which have been walled up by plac- 
ing skeletons around the outside as one would wall 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 The Spoon River Country 275 

a Avell, covering the work with the same clay as the 
other burial place. These skeletons are excellently 
preserved, in many places the smallest processes of 
bone being in as good condition as though buried 
a year ago^ Over the entire surface of the lield — 
which is in cultivation — the liuman hand cannot be 
placed without putting it on broken potter}', bones 
and shells. 

Passing up the river one finds a great mound near Sepo, 
observable from the train; the Bernadotte country furnishes 
interesting terraces of artificial character; and in the region 
of London Mills are several extensive earth works — undoubt- 
edly pre-historic — that have received little or no attention. 
Hereabouts, too, is a burying ground of the modern tribe of 
Pottawatomi, and several Indian skeletons have been found 
in trees. 

Sac, Fox, Chippewa, Kickapoo and Pottawatomi, often 
mere off-shoots of these nations and lacking tribal cohe- 
rence, were found here when the pioneers arrived. The rich 
bottom between California Bend on Spoon River and Liver- 
pool on the Illinois "constituted," says Dr. Strode, of whom 
I shall speak later, "almost one continuous camp site of an- 
cient as well as modern Indians." The reason for the great 
popularity of this location he thinks apparent, for as he 
points out, "the river furnished fish, turtle, water fowl and 
fur-bearing animals; great forests gave them game, nuts, 
honey and so forth; and in every ravine were fine springs 
of water." One township further up the river came to be 
known as Deerfield because it was literally "the field of the 
deer" — the habitat of thousands. 

The advent of the Frenchman, though unfruitful of 
much that has made for permanence in America, is still elo- 
quently reminiscent in its nomenclature. In the valley of 
the Spoon, however, it is nearly lost. Maquon, deriving from 
a term meaning "big," which is the name they gave to this 
little river, and "Petite," one of the tributaries, are no more 
heard; only the lovely "prairie," the "meadow" of our Eng- 

276 Josephine Craven Chandler j.i.s.h.s. 

lisli tongue, persists. "Reeves Prairie," one hears, and 
"Toten's Prairie," and the names have a pleasant native 
sound; but "Maquon" first passed into "Mequeen" before 
an accident fastened its present name upon it, and "Petite" 
has suffered a like degeneration and is known upon the maps 
as "Potato Creek." 

The legend that concerned itself with the changing of the 
river's name is to the effect that on a day when a great party 
of men were rafting on the river a dinner had been prepared 
beforehand in a great iron pot which should serve to hold the 
heat until the noon hour. Utensils were limited, and one can 
imagine the consternation of those hungry men when the 
spoon — the one spoon which was to serve them all — was some- 
how dropped overboard. From that small perversity of fate 
the river's name was changed and it is not the least of the 
amusing incidents that have changed the face of history. 
One feels instinctively that there never would have been a 
"Maquon Anthology". How much, one comes to wonder, 
how much of destiny is hazard? 

The migrations of the pioneers, like those of the Indians, 
tended always to follow watercourses and progress was 
marked by the erection of mills. Sawmills and mills for the 
grinding of grist were established all along the Spoon in the 
decade denoted by the twenties, the last to be erected repre- 
senting always the farthest outpost of civilization. At Water- 
ford, Duncan Mills, Bernadotte, EUisville, Seville and London 
Mills the turning of the great wheels performed enormous 
labors and served as social nuclei around which towns in- 
variably were built. Some of those mills still stand, though 
fallen into decay, and always the riffles in the stream establish 
hypothetically their location. Not only was the operation of 
a mill a thriving business in that early day but the capital re- 
quired for its establishment argued a man of substance. The 
miller was usually the Avealthy man of his community; one of 
considerable influence, and if, indeed, success came late for 
the gratification of his own ambitions, he might still hope for 
their fulfillment through the greater opportunities which his 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 The Spoon River Count 11/ 277 

wealth would give to his boys and girls; nor, in the case of 
"Oak TuttsV' father does one feel these aspirations to have 
been touched with the ignoble: 

My mother was for women's rights 

And mv father was the rich miller of Lon- 
don Mills. 

I dreamed of the wrongs of the world and 
wanted to right them. 

"When my father died I set out to see peoples 
and countries 

In order to learn how to reform the world. 

I traveled through many lands. 

I saw the ruins of Eome, 

And the ruins of Athens, 

And the ruins of Thebes. 

And I sat by moonlight amid the necropolis 
of Memphis. 

There I was caught up by wings of flame, 

And a voice from heaven said to me: 

"Injustice, Untruth destroyed them. Go 
forth ! 

Preach justice ! Preach truth ! ' ' 

And I hastened back to Spoon Biver 

To say farewell to my mother before be- 
ginning my work. 

But see how the Nemesis of fanaticism finds out this vil- 
lage Hamlet, for: 

They all saw a strange light in my eye. 

And by and by, when I talked, they dis- 

'\Vliat had come into my mind. 

Then Jonathan Swift Somers challenged me 
to debate 

The subject (I taking the negative) ; 

"Pontius Pilot, the Greatest Philosopher 
of the World". 

And he won the debate by sajing at last. 

278 Josephine Craven Chandler J. i. s. h. s. 

"Before you reform the world, Mr. Tutt, 
Please answer the question of Pontius Pilate ; 
'What is truth!' " 

London Mills is the northermost town of what we have 
chosen to designate as the Spoon River Country. It lies in a 
bend of the river whose bank is so thickly wooded that it 
seems a great green arm about the thriving little town. The 
trees of London Mills, like all those in this bottom, make a 
marvelously luxuriant gro^vth, and stand about the lawns and 
streets with all the dignity that a forest heritage bestows. 
Across the river from the town I particularly recall one giant 
elm, conveying by its prodigious height, the great reach of its 
extended arms and the enormous thickness of its trunk such 
a look of power and significance that it seemed the number 
of its centuries alone could not account for its "eternal look", 
the sense of history it conferred upon the landscape ; one felt 
it to be "part of and related to a mighty past", linked with 
great destinies and high emprise. It is in the nature of elms 
to seem to wait but this great patriarch, bearing within it stir- 
ring memories of the past, must find it long, with only the 
vagrancies of fishermen, the whispering of lovers and the 
small business of the nesting birds, patiently to bide its hour. 

Following down the stream from London MiUs, passing 
Ellisville, Babylon and Se\'ille, slipping between the terraced 
hills that rim the river on the right and the mani-patterned 
grain-fields on the left, one comes to Bernadotte. 

At Bernadotte one lingers with delight, for here one 
savors in the little drowsing town, so obviously fallen upon 
the period of its decline, remote in time and place from the 
bustling life around her, "an aroma, as from wine that has 
been many years in bottle." Perhaps because her tragedy 
is the tragedy of arrested growth one senses here more keenly 
than at any other place along the river the spirit of the pio- 
neers whose ambrotypes "Rutherford McDowell" used to 

enlarge. Men who were . , . 

m bemg 

When giant hands from the womb of the world 

Tore the republic. 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 The Spoon River Country 279 

William Walters, who was the first settler of Bernadotte 
township, arrived in 1826. Within five years three mills were 
built along the Spoon in close proximity, suggesting the feas- 
ability of platting off a town. It is said that Mr. AValters 
bought the present town-site of Bernadotte for fifty deer 
skins, but this was, by no means, his most important trans- 
action with the Indians for, though they were fairly treated 
by the whites, their pilfering, their restlessness, and the lurk- 
ing spirit of treachery they betrayed made them dangerous 
neighbors in the end, and their expulsion became a matter of 
necessity. It was in the curve of the river just above Berna- 
dotte known as Great Bend that they were finally rounded 
up by the whites under the informal but efficient captaincy of 
Mr. Walters, driven across the state, across the Mississippi 
at the point then known as Yellow Banks, the present site of 
Oquawka and bidden never to return. 

For many years Bernadotte throve mightily, for not only 
was she situated in the heart of a rich farming district but 
the timber on her surrounding hills, the limestone under them, 
her fishing industry, her two packing houses and many other 
small, thriving enterprises gave her a commercial life that 
promised well. Furthermore the natural beauty of her situ- 
ation upon the river, surrounded by her seven verdant hills 
made her a pleasure place for all the neighboring towns, and 
visitors came to her by hundreds on holidays and Sundays 
through the summer. 

It was the coming of the railroad through the country 
that worked her ruin. For her situation, which had been to 
her advantage when the river was the chief means of trans- 
portation, now proved to be her undoing and her prosperity 
passed to the towns that were more fortunate. 

These were the thorough-going days when the life of 
trade was sustained by its own resources and the last monu- 
ment to this period, perhaps, passed with the tearing down of 
the old covered bridge a few years ago. This bridge, which 
spanned the Spoon, was put up entirely without the use of 
steel or iron. The stone for the abutments was quarried 

280 J osepliine Craven Chandler J. i. s. H. s. 

from the ^dcinity ; the selected timber that went to the making 
of the superstructure was brought from the woods near by 
having been hewed into shape where it fell; wooden pins 
bound together the remarkable trusses. A thorough-going 
bridge, I say, that stood for seventy years and might have 
stood for seventy more had not the spirit of the times — that 
strange haunter of men — searched out even this quiet place 
and demanded fresh tribute, this time of concrete and steel 
and iron. 

The old mill which still stands has lately been put into 
repair and is now in operation. Above it looms the hill. 
Mount Pleasant, which commands the to^\Ta and between them 
is the ancient hostelry that has served the village for so many 
years. Together they form the background for that figure 
touched with pathos and with dignity, "Isaiah Beethoven": 
They told me I had three months to live, 
So I crept to Bernadotte, 
And sat by the mill for hours and hours 
Where the gathered waters deejDly moving 
Seem not to move: 
world, that's you! 
"iou are but a widened place in the river 
Where life looks down and we rejoice for her 
Mirrored in us, and so we dream 
And turn away, but when again 
We look for the face, behold the low-lands 
And blasted cotton-Avood trees where we 

Into the larger stream ! 
But here by the mill the castled clouds 
Mocked themselves in the dizzy water ; 
And over its agate floor at night 
The flame of the moon ran under my eyes 
Amid a forest stillness broken 
By a flute in a hut on the hill. 
At last when I came to lie in bed 
Weak and in pain, with dreams about me, 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 The Spouii Rlcrr Country 281 

The soul of the river entered my soul, 

And the gathered power of my soul was 

So swiftly it seemed to be at rest 

Under cities of cloud and under 

Spheres of silver and changing worlds — 

Until I saw a Hash of trumpets 

Above the battlements of Time ! 
Mrs. Maude McCaughey, a fine intelligent women who 
has kept the hotel for many years, who is familiar with the 
"Anthology" and many of its characters, assures me that she 
never had a guest of that strange name. No one in the vil- 
lage had heard of Isaiah Beethoven ; but I who have sat for 
hours by the mill where the "gathered waters, deeply mov- 
ing seem not to move," and have lain in that chaste room 
whose hand-woven carpet and woolen quilt evoke the memory 
of another day and heard the water falling over the dam all 
through the quiet night — I protest that verisimilitude begets 
a strange con\'iction! 

Bernadotte was until recent years the home of Dr. Wil- 
liam Strode, who is the "William Jones" of the "Anthol- 
ogy." Here, in the old square house upon the river bank, 
he got together those amazing collections and compiled the 
data deduced from his tireless researches in the fields of 
ornithology, conchology and zoology in general. How it was 
possible despite the demands of his profession — and to add 
to this, the demands of a large and growing family — to satisfy 
his scientific instincts and enthusiasms; to attend to his 
large correspondence, that "converse afar with the great;" 
for those many contributions to scientific journals; for lec- 
tures ; for every public enterprise that claimed his S}-mpathy 
and co-operation — all this is well nigh inconceivable. A 
glance at the list of his collections fills one with astonish- 
ment: Mounted birds, 225; scientific bird skins, 500; fresh 
water clams or niads, 550 species; fresh water univalves, 
400; and these are but the outstanding classifications. 

282 Josephine Craven Chandler J. i. s. H. s. 

Dr. Strode 's work in classifying the mussels of Spoon 
River is of considerable service, for here are found the larg- 
est and finest fresh-water clams in the world, the unionidoae, 
or niads, having sometimes been found to measure nine and 
a half inches in length and to weigh nearly three pounds. In 
recognition of his work in this particular field the United 
States National Museum has done him the honor to name a 
species of fresh-water mussel for him — the Pleurobema Stro- 
diana. The Strodiana is about the size of half of an English 
walnut and has a beautiful amber colored shell with some 
striated lines running through it. 

Some years ago Dr. Strode sent a consignment of shells 
to France. By comparison Avith the depauperate species 
found in European countries these mussels must have caused 
considerable astonishment, for the curator of one museum 
wrote him with delightful hyperbole that his native city of 
Bonn "was but a small walled town" and that he feared he 
would not be able to get them into it. 

An hour with this wizard of the Spoon spent among his 
mussel shells is something to remember. There is a story I 
have heard of a visit which the poet-naturalist Ernest Mc- 
Gaffy once made w^th him to one of these great clam beds; 
of Dr. Strode, his sleeves pushed up to his arm-pits, his legs 
incased in rubber waders, standing for an hour or more in 
the stream, tossing out one shell after another, fitting each 
with its scientific name and discoursing familiarly on the 
subject all the time. It was probably under the impulse of 
the astonished admiration evoked by this and similar ex- 
periences that the poet was moved to write on the fly-leaf of 
the copy of his "Poems of Gun and Rod" which he presented 
to his friend: "To Dr. Strode, whose knowledge of nature is 
so comprehensive and various that the little I have learned 
seems nothing in comparison." 

The correspondence of this modest, almost retiring citi- 
zen of Bernadotte, and later of Lewistown, brought the world 
strangely close to this remote community, establishing -with 
points far and wide invisible lines of communication and 


Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 The Spoon River Country 283 

many a foreign postmark came to mingle its almost inde- 
cipherable legend with "the stamp of Spoon River." In this 
house was entertained, betimes, the "County Scientific As- 
sociation" to wliich "Perry QoU" so ardently desired admis- 
sion before his ,-..^1,1 

little brochure 

On the intelligence of plants 

Began to attract attention, 
and an atmosphere more native to its interests scarcely 
could have been found. I could find no history of Perry 
Qoll, but a certain highly intelligent farmer in that commu- 
nity by the name of Henry Qoll is well remembered. AVhether 
or not he ever applied for membership in that organization, 
it is remembered that he was its occasional host. He used, 
also, to operate a little steamer on the river — an excursion 
boat designed to serve the pleasure seekers who came to Ber- 
nadotte in the summer time. His character doubtless offered 
a suggestion to the creative mind of Masters. 

But other interests than those of science were served 
in the hospitable home of the Strodes. The mistress of the 
house, by her deep and intelligent interest in letters and 
ideas, and by the charm and magnetism of her personality, 
drew about her a group of writers and thinkers who already 
were beginning to find their way into the literature of 
the day. Edgar Lee Masters and his sister Madeline; 
Margaret George, whose verse was appearing in such maga- 
zines as The Century, Lippincott's, The Atlantic Monthly; 
W. T. Davidson, editor of the "Fulton Democrat," published 
at Lewistown, a lecturer and writer known all over the state ; 
that "Reverend Abner Peet" whose trunk containing "the 
manuscript of a lifetime of sermons" suffered such ruth- 
less destruction at the hands of "Burchard the grog-keeper," 
the Reverend Stephen Peet, in fact, a man of much distinc- 
tion, editor of "The American Antiquarian and Oriental 
Magazine"; Ernest McGaffy and his ^vife, and many others. 
Mrs. Strode, herself a writer, was even during those busy 
years contributing to such magazines as "The Youth's Com- 

284 Josephine Craven Chandler J. i. s.H. s. 

panion" aud "The Boston Educator," and a more ambitious 
enterprise was under way. One glimpses a social and intel- 
lectual preoccupation that must have been surprisingly in- 

But lest the associations of Bernadotte leave us heavy 
it is well to recall that from the country hereabouts that 
"rugged nurse" the soil has produced many characters un- 
trammeled by a too great rehnement. There was, for in- 
stance, that great bully of "The Spooniad" — 

hog-eyed Allen, terror of the hills, 

That looked on Bernadotte 

No man of this degenerate day could lift 
The boulder wliich he threw, and when he 

The windows rattled, and beneath his brows. 
Thatched like a shed with bristling hairs of 

His small eyes glistened like a maddened 

As he walked the boards creaked, as 
he talked 
A song of menace rumbled. 
Yes, there were lusty spirits in the Valley of the Spoon! 


Old Lewistown. 

Lewistown, the first town to be established in Fulton 
County, was just turning its half century when there came 
to bide mthin its gates that small uneasy guest — a child who 
wondered. What his welcome would have been had the citi- 
zens of this place had intimation of his brooding genius is 
an interesting point of speculation, for although the distinc- 
tion which the author of the "Anthology" conferred upon the 
town is indubitable, yet by its publication it cannot be de- 
nied that, like "Percival Sharp," he "stirred certain vibra- 
tions in Spoon Eiver." The plaint of "Zarathustra," "The 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 TJie Spoon liivcr Country 285 

poets lie too much," has found its echo here in sad reversal. 

Mr. Masters has told us that he was twelve years of age 
when he came to Lewistown, and ten years of his life were 
lived here, but whether the two hundred and fourteen char- 
acters that went to the creation of the book which was to 
herald him to fame some twenty-three years after his de- 
parture from the town, were the result of conscious memory 
or merely of "that inward shaping force" which psycho- 
logists tell us is the tenure of the formative period, one 
feels that these were years of tremendous significance; that 
the moment that compassed the awakening of his intel- 
lectual and of his sense life, in a community somewhat alien 
to him, was precisely that which the virginal curiosity of the 
child and the dream power of the poet should convert to 
the ends of art. These years that were filled ^vith wonder 
and speculation; with Burns and Poe and Keats and Shelly; 
with the infinite pains and experimentation that produced 
four hundred poems — these years gave him, if nothing else 
as net result, that most delicate of all the materials of 
genius, the very corner stone of his abounding fame, the 
idiom of a people. 

Though the spectacle that inspired the "Anthology" 
grew out of the small trade and petty enterprise of those lean 
years following the Civil War, the poet has paid tribute to 
the pioneers and to that stalwart generation following them 
as the epitaphs of "Judge Somers," "Washington Mc- 
Neely," "Herndon" and many others show; and no poet 
that America has produced, not even excepting ■\Vliitraan, 
has voiced so constantly a sense of the pageantry which an 
intimate knowledge of her history inspires. 

The period of Masters Avas contemporaneous with the 
third generation in the life of LeAvistown — the shirt-sleeve 
period if you -will. It was his good fortune to arrive upon 
a time rich in anecdote and through this medium he came to 
an amazingly intimate comprehension of its historic back- 
ground. His association with the people of the town and 
country in his school and social life, his knowledge of the 

286 Josephine Craven Chandler J- 1- S- H- s. 

petty political intrigues — the scandals of the court-house 
circle — which his father's position as one of the leading 
lawyers of the town opened to him, gave him the immediate 
present; and the many intervening years between the inci- 
dents that concern the lives of his characters and the "mo- 
ment of invention" proved, no doubt, that very important 
period of transition involving the phenomenon familiar in 
all creative work — the translation of the concrete into terms 
of the abstract, and back again, through the medium of art 
to the concrete. A process implying a little loss compen- 
sated by an enormous gain; a rediscovery of incident 
touched only with significance; a fealty that concerns itself 
with life, rather than with fact. 

In all essential ways the characters of the "Anthology" 
are re-created. It is true that nearly all of those two hun- 
dred and fourteen names in the table of contents — the in- 
vention of which has elicited the astonished admiration of 
his critics — may be found on the tombstones, in the tele- 
phone books, and on topographical maps of the Spoon River 
country, but with the exception of perhaps a scant dozen, 
they are names re-assembled, re-created in composite like 
the characters they represent. The psychology involving 
the relation of a name to the personality denoted by it is 
not yet fully comprehended, but almost everyone has felt 
the matter to have significance. George Moore once pointed 
out that all lyric poets have beautiful names — names abound- 
ing in vowels and liquids — Alfred Tennyson, Charles Alger- 
non Swinburne, Dante, Gabriel Eosetti; but Thackery! 
Thackery is of course a novelist inspired by the acrid spirit 
of the ironic — a satirist by the very force of his name. A 
whimsey of course, but an idea opening a field of specula- 
tion that is not without its importance. It was his theory that 
a man's work proceeds from his name. 

Apparently to Mr. Masters names have stood, first of 
all, for locality, but no fixed method of characterization is 
discemable. Sometime by the substitution of a single let- 
ter or by the transposition of one, a character true both to 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 The Spoon River Count nj 287 

fact and life seems clearly indicated; sometimes by the com- 
bination of a distinctive Christian name and a surname two 
characters will appear to be suggested and again, by an allu- 
sion to some apparently unimportant incident— a cage of 
canaries or a cedar tree on the lawn — the identity of the char- 
acter involved will, to those long familiar with the town, 
seem to be implied. 

All such "identifications" are confusing and, for the 
most part, misleading. Excepting a very limited number of 
characters, only suggestions have been furnished by tlie peo- 
ple of Spoon River — suggestions from which the creative 
mind of the poet has evolved a community so genuine and 
so significant that "Spoon Eiver" has been said to trans- 
cend locality and to belong to the very "Comedie Humaine" 
of life itself. 

It is, perhaps, because the "Anthology" is so intensely 
local that it may claim to be so largely universal, reminding 
one of that paradox of Masters' applied to Lincoln in his 

O great patrician, therefore fit to be 
Great democrat as well! 

The people of Spoon River have, by inadvertence, paid 
tribute to Mr. Masters' authenticity of vision by their 
prompt and sometimes resentful recognition of the personnel 
of his book. One is reminded of the situation in which 
Charles Dickens found himself after having projected his 
Yorkshire schoolmaster — Mr. Squeers — upon the pages of his 
"Nicholas Nickelby." INIr. Squeers was, in fact, a creature 
made from scraps of memory; from impressions received 
when — and here the analogy continues — he was a "not very 
robust child, sitting in by- places," and synthesized into a type 
— but a type so telling that more than one Yorkshire school- 
master laid claim to being the original. One even consulted a 
solicitor as to the grounds on which he might obtain redress, 
as if he coveted the honor of establishing in that way the 
association with his name of the ignorance and brutal cu- 
pidity for which that character is synonym. 

288 Josephine Craven Chandler J. i. s. H. s. 

Such a predicament, though embarrassing, is, in a sense, 
the highest praise. Mr. Masters' small town is — the average 
small town. His studies include ten or twelve social groups, 
two doctors, half a dozen lawyers, ten or twelve politicians, 
two editors, two bankers, several poets, artists and fiddlers, 
four preachers, seven prostitutes, two nymphomaniacs and 
a scattering of hypennorons beside the great number of 
characters not lending themselves readily to classification. 
An average grouping perhaps for a town of twenty-five 

It is unfortunate for the fair name of Lewistown that 
the untutored mind is prone to oversensitiveness in the con- 
templation of morbid psychology. There is no doubt that 
such a character as "Henry Wilmans" infinitely outweighs 
in its impressiveness a half dozen such characters as 
"Thomas Trevelyan," "William and Emily," and "Aaron 
Hatfield." Even so unprovincial a critic as Miss Lowell has 
been impelled to wonder "if life in our little Western cities 
is as bad as this why everyone does not commit suicide." 
"Spoon Eiver," she declares, "is one long chronicle of rapes, 
seductions, liasons and perversions," and gravely adds that 
"it is a great blot upon Mr. Masters' work. It is an obliquity 
of vision, a morbidness of mind which distorts an otherwise 
remarkable picture." 

That Miss Lowell believed herself to be discussing 
"Hanover, Illinois," absolves her from imputation of 
personal malice, but a careful scrutiny of the matter 
reveals not more than sixty-five out of the two hundred 
and fourteen characters in the book to be, according to 
Shavian classification, "unpleasant." Mr. Masters is, with- 
out doubt, in the "Anthologj^" as in his later books, pre- 
occupied with pathology, but sixty-five out of two hundred 
and fourteen does not, perhaps, represent a ratio dispropor- 
tionate to the conditions of life itself — and more than vdth 
pathology, Mr. Masters is preoccupied with Life. 

Lewistown by no means predisposes to suicide. Its 
streets are tree-embowered and "wonderful for grass." Its 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 The Spoon River Country 289 

business houses are ranged about the square, in the center 
of which stauds the courthouse. A fountain splashes in a 
park near by, and here and there about the town stand the 
dignified old mansions of that steadfast second generation 
that had its share — and that no mean one — in shaping the des- 
tinj' of the nation in the moment of her greatest peril. Reach- 
ing out from it towai'd the east and south and west are 
stretches of lovely hill country declining gently towards the 
valleys of the Spoon and the Illinois ; while to the north are 
great expanses of prairie, those fertile faimlands, "fair as 
the garden of the Lord." Decidedly, Lewistown does not 
predispose to suicide. 

If a town, like an institution, is "the lengthened shadow 
of a man" then LewistoAvn may be said to measure the moral 
stature of Ossian M. Ross. He was the first soldier of the 
"War of 1812 to claim his quarter section in the Military Tract, 
but he was not the first adventurer into this promised land. He 
found there before him a certain John Eveland located upon 
the banks of Spoon River and he, in turn, had been preceded 
by a figure so vague in outline as to be almost legendary: a 
Dr. Davison, a recluse and misanthrope whose one desire was 
to be alone ; a man of considerable culture as his speech and 
the refinements of his cabin showed. He lingered only a little 
while after the influx of people from the East began, moving 
to the Starved Rock country, where, eventually, he died. So 
romantic and mysterious a figure he seemed, so strangely 
touched with tragedy that Mr. "\V. T. Da\-idson wrote a novel 
founded on his character, called "The Hermit". He pub- 
lished the story in his paper the Fulton Democrat, and within 
the present year, his daughters who have continued the paper 
since his death, at the instance of a number of the "faithful 
readers" have run it again in its columns. Strangely enough 
an accident has discovered to them, within the last few 
months, that the purely conjectural hypothesis upon which 
Mr. Davidson based the hegira of his hero to the land of 
wilderness — a tragedv of his love life — was correct. 

290 Josephine Craven Chandler J. i. s. h. s. 

The tale is chiefly valuable as a commentary upon the life 
and manners of that early day. A description of Dr. Da^'i- 
son's ascent of the Spoon may be of interest here and taken 
as a fairly faithful picture of that wilding stream. It must 
be remembered that Editor Davidson was writing in the 
splendid adjectiverous nineties. 

"The sun was going down on a delicious summer 
day — going down beneath an enchanted western forest of 
giant oaks, elms, sycamores and walnuts. The eastern 
shore of the river was hills and sand ; a little way above 
an emerald isle (the little detached strip of land that is 
called Cuba) on the west, and beneath the arches of great 
trees a smaller clear shining river. 

" 'It is the River Mequeen', and the doctor stood up 
hat in hand ; and bowing low he gently said, ' My queen ! ' 
"But four oars swept the boat forward swiftly, con- 
stantly, round the bends of beautiful clear water; the 
pebbles many feet below were plainly seen; the water 
seemed full of fish; at every turn there was something 
new to admire. The glistening white sandbanks; the great 
trees drooping over the silvery stream as though to pro- 
tect and bless it; through forest aisles an occasional 
glimpse of the gorgeous prairies to the east or the bold 
and glorious hills to the south and west— the almost 
deafening chorus of the birds ! There were no vandals 
to shoot or stone them in those days. Eveiy tree was 
a song-bird's home. They passed many herds of red 
deer and turkey." 

This description, barring the deer and turkey, and possi- 
bly the clearness of the water — for the Spoon takes toll of 
many farm lands — is quite as true now as then, though no 
mention is made of the luxuriant growth of vines that give 
the river an almost tropical aspect. The place is still a para- 
dise for birds : cardinals, orioles and prothonotory warblers 
flash their gold and crimson back and forth across the stream ; 
the red-winged blackbird flaunts his brilliant shoulders from 
the topmost branch; the tanager, that velvet miracle, flits 
from spray to spray of overhanging bough, holding you fast 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 The Spoon Hivei- Country 291 

with the tantalizing seduction of his black and scarlet. Many 
curves of the river hold in a close embrace timbered thickets 
so dense with vine and implicated undergrowth — the haunt 
of bats and owls and creeping things — that they seem to offer 
the challenge of the "Woods of Westermain", 
Enter these enchanted woods 
You who dare ! 
Ossian M. Ross came to Illinois from Seneca, New York, 
in 1820. He brought with him, besides his family — a wife 
and three children — a blacksmith, a carpenter, a shoemaker 
and several other workmen and their families. His first pause 
was at Alton on the Mississippi but after a year spent at that 
place he decided to push on toward the ultimate objective, 
followed the Mississippi northward to the Illinois, ascended 
that river as far as the mouth of the Spoon, and penetrated 
inland on the waters of that stream to a point adjacent to the 
section to which he was entitled in the "bounty lands". 

Mr. Harvey Ross, a son of Ossian Ross, who published in 
his declining years a book called "The Early Pioneers and 
Pioneer Events of the State of Illinois" has written with de- 
lightful attention to the importance of minutiae : 

' ' My father on examining his map found that his land 
was about six miles north of Mr. Eveland's place. He 
took some of his men, and with his compass, chain and 
field notes had no trouble in locating his land. Father 
selected the quarter section north of Lewistown for our 
home, and built a log house on the north side of a little 
creek that ran through the land, and near a fine clear 
spring of water. The location was sixty rods northeast 
from Major Walker's present residence." 
Writing of Mr. Eveland, who w^as the first to welcome 
them to the country, and incidentally glimpsing the crudity 
and hardship of these early days, he says : 

"LIr. Eveland had a large family of ten or twelve 
children, part of them gro^vn. They had some twenty 
acres in cultivation, and were engaged in raising stock. 
They had come into this country from Calhoun county, 

292 Josephine Craven Chandler J. i. s. h. s. 

making the trip up the Illinois and Spoon River partly 
by land and partly by water. Before leaving Calhoun 
county they consti'ucted a pirogue (a large canoe). It 
was hewed out of a cottonwood tree. The length of the 
boat was forty feet, and was about four feet wide. It 
was run by sail and also by oars. On this craft they 
shipped their hogs and also their goods. 

"This pirogue is entitled to more particular atten- 
tion, because it was put to many uses of convenience and 
utility among the early settlers. It was the first craft 
used to carry people across the Illinois River at the 
mouth of Spoon River, and it was the first craft that 
the Phelpses used" (we shall come to the Phelpses later 
on) "in shipping their first stock of goods from St. Louis 
to Lewistown, and this was the first stock of goods ever 
brought to Fulton County. This pirogue Avas also used 
by the early settlers to run down Spoon River to the Illi- 
nois River, and thence do\\aa the Illinois River to the 
mouth of the Sangamon River, and then up the Sanga- 
mon to Sangamon town, where there was a watermill to 
which our people took their grain to be ground into 
breadstuff. A great deal of skill had been used in dig- 
ging out and constructing this pirogue. For years it 
took the place of the magnificient steamboat and railway 
trains that later generations employed." 
When Mr. Ross came to the present site of Lewistown, all 
that country lying between the Mississippi and the Illinois 
rivers and extending to the northern boundary of the state 
was included in the county of Pike. Mr. Ross immediately 
took steps to effect the organization of Fulton County, and 
by 1823 he had accomplished not only this but the town of 
Lewistown had been platted from the quarter section which 
came to him from the government, and had been established 
as the county seat. In 1825 Peoria county also was carved 
out of this great territory, but until that time the whole north- 
ern portion of the state, including people from Ft. Dearborn 
(now Chicago) had had to come to Lewistown for marriage, 
tavern, and ferry licenses ; to pay their taxes, and do all the 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 The Spoon Rlfer Country 293 

county business. The old court record book for 1823 gives 
under the date of June 6th: 

"On motion it was ordered that Ossian M. Ross have 
license to keep an inn or tavern in the house where he 
now resides in said county by paying the sum of ten dol- 
lars in state paper. 

"On motion it was ordered that the following be the 
list of tavern rates, to-wit: victuals 25c, horsekeeping 
per night 37M;c, lodging per night 12Vi;c, whiskey per half 
pint 12VL.C, rum and gin per half pint 25c ; French brandy 
per half pint 50c, wine per half pint STViC, and all other 
liquors in like proportion." 

On the record book for January 27th, 1823, we find three 
county commissioners "having been appointed agreeable to 
the act of Congress" reporting among other matters, the dona- 
tion by Ossian M. Ross to "said County of Fulton a good war- 
rantee deed in fee simple for the following towm lots for pub- 
lic buildings." These lots are for the site of a court house 
and jail, for a "burying yard", for a meeting house, a school 
house, a Masonic Hall and not less than six lots for a "public 

Having thus generously dowered the town which he had 
named for his little son Lewis, and helped to put in motion 
the machinery of civilization in this new country, Mr. Ross, 
at the end of the decade, moved to new pastures across the 
Illinois, and there, at a point just opposite to the mouth of 
Spoon River, gave himself afresh to the labors of organiza- 
tion and established the town of Havana, at which place he 
lived until his death. 

The first merchant to open a store in the newly platted 
town was Judge Stephen Phelps. He came with his five sons 
from Sangamon County in 1824, to which place they had ar- 
rived from Palmyra, New York, four years earlier. A few 
months later he was joined by his son-in-law .John "W. Proctor 
and his vrife. The Phelps and Proctor families have been 
closely associated ever since, through marriage and business 
afiBliations. When Judge Phelps was established he took his 

294 Josephine Craven Chandler J. i. s. H. s. 

son Myron into partnership with him and the store came to 
be known under the name of "Phelps and Son". In time the 
daughter of Myron Phelps married Charles Proctor, a relative 
of John W. Proctor, and he became a member of the firm; 
Henry, the son of Myron Phelps, ultimately succeeded to his 
father's place and the firm name became "Phelps and Proc- 
tor"; and finally, on the retirement of Mr. Phelps, Mr. Proc- 
tor took his son Charles, Jr., now grown to manhood, into 
partnership and he is now in active management of the store 
which is approaching its centennial. 

The sons of Judge Phelps were, like their father, natur- 
ally adapted to the mercantile business. Charles and Myron 
remained with him in the store at Lewistown; Sumner and 
Alexis went to Yellow Banks — now Oquawka — on the Mississ- 
ippi where they established a Trading Post, but William, in 
whom the spirit of adventure predominated, found abundant 
opportunity for its exercise in the operation of the Indian 
trade about Lewistown. Much of the Phelps' business, both 
at Lewistown and at Yellow Banks was Indian trade and the 
preeminence of their success in dealing with the red-skins was 
due to their honesty and their unfailing kindness to them. 
Although the valleys of both the Spoon and the Illinois Rivers 
were thickly populated ^vith the Indians, yet many came from 
great distances, and Judge Phelps kept a house for the ex- 
clusive accommodation of such. Mrs. Phelps, too, had a 
motherly eye upon them and no squaw or papoose ever lacked 
for care or food while within her province. 

But especially beloved among these people was the 
young son of the Judge and Mrs. Phelps, William. Al- 
though he was but sixteen when he tirst arrived in Lewis- 
town, he had attained the height and proportion of a full- 
sized man; his great strength, together ^vith his athletic 
taste and skill, won the admiration of the young braves and 
he entered with them into their games, wrestling, running 
and target practice and sometimes joined them on hunting 
and fishing trips. They gave him the name of Che-che-pin- 
e-quah, meaning powerful shoulders, arms and neck. His 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 2' lie Spoon River Country 295 

hands, they said, were like a woman's but having the grip of 
a bear. 

Che-che-pin-e-quah's popularity with the Indians stood 
him in good stead when his father allotted him their trade for 
his portion of the business. So impatient he was to prove him" 
self that instead of waiting for the furs and other peltry to 
be brought to him he went out among the Indian villages and 
collected it from them and soon had a great shipment, and 
was off without delay to St. Louis to market it. 

At first a canoe was used for transportation; then a 
raft was requisitioned and poles and sails were employed; 
but afterwards as the trade became more extensive and the 
values of the furs increased, better transportation facilities 
became necessary, so this intrepid youth, now arrived at the 
age of nineteen, purchased a first class river boat which he 
christened "The Pavilion," and which he anchored at Ha- 

His cargoes by this time were considerable. Mr. Harvey 
Ross tells of seeing the boat loaded at one time. He says: 
' ' The cargo consisted of barrels of pork and honey, packages 
of deer-skins and furs, barrels of dried venison, hams, bees- 
wax and tallow, sacks of pecans, hickory nuts, ginseng, 
feathers and dry hides." Ordinarily four days were re- 
quired to make the trip to St. Louis, but adverse conditions 
of weather and high water so increased the difSculties of 
transportation that several weeks were occupied with the trip. 
The brothers at Oquawka patronized the boat and the return 
trip brought supplies to the Lewisto\vn store. In his twenty- 
fourth year Mr. Phelps — who was now and always afterward 
known as Captain Phelps — married Miss Caroline Kelsey of 
Lewistown, and went with her into the wilds of Iowa, where 
he established a trading point near the present site of Des 
Moines — a post which he maintained for sixteen years. It 
was from this period of his life that Llr. W. T. Da^ddson and 
Miss Margaret George drew the material for their novel called 
"The Yellow Rose," taking their title from the name which 
the Indians gave to the lovely blond woman who was the Cap- 
tain's wife. 

296 Josephine Craven Chandler J- 1- s. H. s. 

These years on the frontier were filled with adventure 
and enterprise. No fur trader of his time was more favor- 
ably nor better known than Captain Phelps. The volume of 
his business was enormous, his customers among the Indians 
extending as far as the Eocky Mountains. He was univer- 
sally trusted by the people among whom he dealt and the con- 
fidence which he gained at this time made him of signal serv- 
ice to the Government at the time of the Black Hawk war. He 
was a warm personal friend not only of Black Hawk but of the 
chief who was to succeed him, Keokuk, and although he joined 
Captain Gains' company of Illinois Volunteers at the begin- 
ning of the Indian trouble, his sympathy for the red men and 
their desire to recover the territory lost through the ignor- 
ance and cupidity of their chiefs, never failed him. At the 
close of the war, and after he was released from his confine- 
ment at Fort Monroe, Black Hawk returned to his people and 
eventually built himself a house, after the manner of the 
white man, near the home of Captain Phelps. But the old 
chief was disheartened. His power was gone; his old home in 
the Rock River country lost to him forever, and in few months 
he died. It is probable that in his passing Black Hawk left 
no friend who grieved his loss more sincerely, nor who after- 
wards did his memory greater honor than Che-che-pin-e- 

During the time of the Indian troubles Captain Phelps' 
boat was requisitioned to help in the removal of captive In- 
dians and of their squaws and papooses iip the Mississippi 
and across to the western side where their new territory 
was located. On one of these trips an incident occurred that 
evermore endeared him to the Indian people. There had 
been a great bustle and confusion in getting the Indians on 
board, and by some chance two squaws had left their babies 
behind asleep in their wigwams. The boat was well under 
way when they discovered their loss and in great excitement 
and distress, their black hair disheveled, tears running down 
their cheeks and milk streaming from their breasts, they 
rushed to the captain — their one sure friend — and implored 
him to return. He immediately reassured the frantic women, 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 The Spoon River Couutnj 297 

rang the bell, ordered the boat back to shore, and the 
papooses were restored to their mothers, to their great joy 
and immeasurable relief. Later on, when the Indian troubles 
were at an end, the two squaws brought their little rescued 
boys to the trading post for the Captain to see, and to repeat 
again and again expressions of gratitude; nor did they fail 
to find many services of kindness to render him, his wife and 
his children in after years. 

In 1846 Captain Phelps sold his trading post and boat 
and returned to Lewistown where, as also at Havana and 
Ipava, he entered the mercantile business, built an elevator 
on Spoon River, operated the ferry across the Illinois at Ha- 
vana and, after the Civil War — during which period he served 
as Provost Marshal for his Congressional district — bought 
many acres of the hill country about the Spoon, and there, 
where in his boyhood he had visited the wigwams of his In- 
dian friends, put his herds to graze. In his later life, ten 
years after the death of the "Yellow Rose," he married Miss 
Tillie M. Guernsey, a woman of much cultivation, whose af- 
fection still keeps green the memory of this remarkable man. 
The Indian friends of Che-che-pin-e-quah never forgot him, 
nor failed to avail themselves of every opportunity to send 
him messages of greeting. His old friend Keokuk had 
died soon after the Captain's departure from the trading 
post, but Chief Joe of a later generation, vriih his two wives 
and several children, once planned to visit him. They had 
reached Peoria when the illness of one of the children neces- 
sitated their turning back and the trip, much to the regret of 
both the Captain and his Indian friends, was never consum- 

The long adventiarous life of this man would furnish a 
volume of fascinating tales. He was, himself, a famous story 
teller and one who never hesitated to turn a point against 
himself. There is one which he used to tell as illustrating 
his belief in the efficacy of prayer. 

As a boy he had visited the lead mines of Galena where 
his brother Myron had certain interests. Once, when walk- 
ing over the rough country thereabouts, his attention was 

298 Josephine Craven Chandler J- ^- ^- H- ^• 

attracted by an eagle circling high above him. Thinking to 
discover its eyrie, he kept his eye upon the bird and inad- 
vertently wandered out of the beaten path and stumbled 
into one of the open pits. The moment was a perilous one; 
the rough stone ledge on which he had been able to fasten 
his hold was crumbling beneath his weight; below him, for 
all he knew, yawned a bottomless abyss, and in that frantic 
moment he searched his memory for prayer. The Lord's 
Prayer escaped him, but his childhood's supplication was too 
firmly rooted in subconsciousness to desert him now, and there, 
hanging by his hands, this great strapping youth prayed, 
"Now I lay me down to sleep." At that point his hold gave 
way and he fell, helpless but unscathed, to the bottom of the 
pit — a distance of perhaps four feet ! 


Old Lewistown — Continued. 

Pei-haps the next man of importance to take up his abode 
in Lewistown, one who was to keep for many years a shaping 
hand upon her destinies, was he who is referred to in the 
introductory poem of the "Anthology," "The Hill," as 
Major Walker who had talked 
With venerable men of the revolution. 

His death occurred as late as 1897 and his memory, which 
remained undimmed to the last, covered with wonderful clear- 
ness and precision nine decades of a century. 

Major Walker was a native of Virginia, and a man who 
already had arrived at considerable distinction when he came 
to Illinois for, while yet but twenty-one, as Major in the state 
militia, he had been appointed to the command of the escort 
of Lafayette when that great man paid his fourth -visit to 
this country in 1824, accompanying him during almost all of 
that triumphal trip through Virginia. 

In 1835 the Major, then a man of thirty-two, came with 
his bride of a year to Illinois and to Lewistown. He subse- 
quently built a commodious house on the very place that 
Ossian Ross had left five years earlier, and there he lived 
out, in dignity and unfailing usefulness, his remaining years. 

Talked With 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 The Spoon River Country 299 

In politics the Major was a Wliig of most uncompromis- 
ing conviction, scliooled in the school of great statesmen and 
great men. In Virginia he had listened to such men as 
Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, John Kandolph and 
Henry Clay; and in the new land to which he had adventured 
he was to meet and to hold in the close intimacj' of an abid- 
ing friendship one whose destiny was to carry him to in- 
finitely greater heights — Abraham Lincoln. 

^lajor Walker's acquaintance with Lincoln began in 1838 
when both were serving in the Legislature in the old State 
Capitol at Vandalia. Adlai E. Stevenson, in an address on 
Stephen A. Douglas which he delivered before the Illinois 
State Historical Society, said of that bod.v: 

"The Tenth General Assembly was the most notable 
in Illinois liistory. Upon the roll of members of the 
House, in the old capitol at Vandalia, were names in- 
separably associated with the history of the State and 
the Nation. From its list were yet to be chosen two Gov- 
ernors of the Commonwealth, one member of the Cabinet, 
three Justices of the Supreme Court of the State, eight 
Representatives in Congress, six Senators, and one Presi- 
dent of the United States. That would indeed be a not- 
able assemblage of law makers in any country or time, 
that included in its membership : McClernand, Edwards, 
Ewing, Semple, Logan, Hardin, Browning, Shields, 
Baker, Stuart, Douglas and Lincoln." 
The chief measure before the Legislature at tliis time 
concerned the building of the Illinois Central Railroad, a bill 
having been introduced to obtain from Congress grants of 
land to aid in its construction. This measure, which Major 
Walker felt to be disastrous to the fortunes of the state, was 
warmly approved by Lincoln, showing even in that early day 
his certain vision and statesmanship, for it was the very suc- 
cess of this measure that contributed more, perhaps, than any 
other issue of that day, to the great prosperity of Illinois. 
Those familiar with this period in the state's history will re- 
member how the completion of the road marked the beginning 
of an era of marvelous development in Illinois and gave a 

300 Josephine Craven Chandler J. i. s. h. s. 

new impetus to all lines of industrial progi'ess. The five 
years following the passage of that bill saw an increase in 
the population of the state from nine hundred thousand to 
near one and a half million, and the prosperity of the state 
was assured. The final passage of the bill was due cliiefly to 
the labors of Stephen A. Douglas, though Justice Breese had 
advocated the measure in a former session. 

The friendship established between Major Walker and 
Lincoln at Vandalia was augmented during the following as- 
sembly to which they were both re-chosen from their respec- 
tive counties: The Capital, in the meantime, had been re- 
moved to Springfield and it was while the two were attending 
Legislature there that the intimacy grew and became for the 
]\Iajor a fruitful source of reminiscence in the years that 

In an interview which Mr. Francis M. Love of Le^vistoAvn 
had with him in 1895, he spoke of the evenings when Lincoln 
would come to his room and how, when tired of telling stories 
he would ask for a little music and he, the Major, would play 
for him. Also when he went to see Lincoln the beloved fiddle 
would go along. It was not all stories and fiddling though. 
Many grave matters were discussed and among them the one 
that always transcended all others — the question of human 

On one of these visits Lincoln bantered the Major for a 
wrestling match. The Major was a fine figure of a man, 
almost as tall as Lincoln and well proportioned, but he was 
no wrestler. He referred him, however, to his friend and 
colleague Jonas Eawalt. Eawalt, who shared with Walker the 
leadership of the Whig party in Fulton County, was a man of 
smaller build and for that reason Lincoln demurred. The 
Major, however, assured him that he need not stand back on 
that account; Rawalt accepted the challenge and the match 
was on. Lincoln, given his choice of the holds, chose the back 
hold which was just what Rawalt wanted. 

"Did Lincoln throw him?" asked Mr. Love. 

"Well, I guess not" laughed the Major, enjoying the 
affair afresh in reminiscence. 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 The Spoon River Country 301 

"Throw Rawalt? I guess not! There was not a man 
in that Legislature could do that. Rawalt threw Lincoln be- 
fore you could count ten to save you. You see Rawalt came 
from the logging country in Illinois where he had a great 
reputation as a wrestler. Lincoln laughed as heartily as any 
of us over the incident. ' ' 

An amusing aifair wliich the Major liked to laugh over 
was in reference to a temperance lecture that was held in the 
old Free Mason Hall in Lewistown. Lincoln had been asked 
to address the meeting, but he was trj-ing a case that evening 
before Judge Douglas. "So," said the Major, "Lincoln asked 
Cal Winehel, another visiting attorney, to go over and make 
the speech for liim. He knew that Winehel was a drinking 
man but thought he would make a very fine temperance 
speech. When he had finished speaking they passed the 
pledge around for Cal Winehel to sign. 

'What?' says Cal, 'me sign that! Well, I guess not. You 
don't find me doing anything so foolish as to sign a temper- 
ance pledge. Why,' he said, 'I'd rather be shot than sign it!' 

"Lincoln," continued the Major, "used to tell the story 
often on Cal Winehel who afterward became a judge and a 
good one, but never, so far as I know, quit drinking." 

Lewistown has boasted four court houses in its time, but 
the one that is always referred to as the "old Court House," 
the one round which the pleasantest memories cluster, the one 
which "Silas Dement" burned on that moonlight night (De- 
cember 14th, 1895), was designed and built under the direc- 
tion of Major Walker in 1838; one John Tomkins, being the 
master-builder. It was burned on the Major's ninetieth 

The court house burning is one of the several dramatic 
foci which give to the "Anthology" almost the suggestion of 
a plot. It directly involved the fortunes of at least three 
characters of the book: "Silas Dement," who performed the 
incendiary deed, "W. Lloyd Garrison Standard" who de- 
fended the "patriot scamps" who planned the affair, and 
"A. E. Culbertson" who voiced his disaffection from the 
grave that "Editor Wheadon" and "Thomas Rhodes" 

302 Josephine Craven Chandler J. i. s. H. s. 

should be given a tablet of bronze while his own contributions 
of labor and money toward the building of the new temple 
are but memories among the people 

Gradually fading away, and soon to descend 

With them to this oblivion where I lie. 
None of these names in any way suggests the principals 
involved in the court house scandal, nor did the "Silas De- 
ment" of the actual occurrence suffer incarceration in the 
penitentiary at Joliet, though a certain "presumptive de- 
linquent" laid in jail for a season pending trial; but there is 
no one in Lewistown or Fulton county not familiar with one 
version or another of the alleged plot arising out of one of 
the town's epic struggles to retain the county seat. In 1878 
her claim had been contested by Canton, a thriving manufac- 
turing town in the county; in 1888 Cuba, another a\'id neigh- 
bor, sought to win the prize ; and pending the rounding of an- 
other ten years, Canton was supposed again to be casting 
covetous eyes in her direction. It seemed ob\'ious that some 
drastic measure must be i-esorted to. If the old court house 
should be destroyed and a new one built before the time ar- 
rived for the next contest it was fairly certain that the County 
would not consent to a fresh draft upon her funds for many 
years to come. However that may have been the court house 
burned, and there was a great scandal. Certain prominent 
men were tried for conspiracy, but nothing came of that. The 
county refused to shoulder the expense of a new building and 
the new court house was built by private subscriptions from 
citizens of Lewistown and the immediate vicinity. 

The event of that night in December of 1895 as described 
by "Silas Dement" is a dramatic one: 

It Avas moon-light, and the earth sparkled 

With new-fallen frost. 

It was midnight and not a soul was abroad. 

Out of the chimney of the court house 

A grey-hound of smoke leapt and chased 

The northwest wind. 

I carried a ladder to the landing of the stairs 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 The Spoon Rirrr Coniifri/ 303 

And leaned it against, the tranie of tiie trap- 
In the ceiling of the portico 
And I crawled under the roof amiil the rafters 
And flung among the seasoned timbers 
A lighted handful of oil-soaked waste. 
Then I came down and slunk away. 
In a little while the fire-bell rang — 
Clang ! ('lang ! Clang ! 
And the Spoon River ladder company 
Came with a dozen buckets and began to pour 

In the glorious bon-fire, growing hotter, 
Higher and brighter, till the walls fell in. 
And the limestone columns where Lincoln 

Crashed like trees when the woodman fells 

When I came back from Joliet 
There was a new court house with a dome. 
For I was punished like all who destroy 
The past for the sake of the future. 
The building which Major AValker had designed upon the 
lines which the Virginians had adapted from the old Greek 
ideals — the rectangular structure relieved by four great pil- 
lars in front — was a thing to please the eye, being both simple 
and dignified. Its upper story was originally reached by means 
of a circular stairway on the inside, but the danger and in- 
convenience of that arrangement soon urged the advisability 
of having the stairway placed on the outside from under the 
deep portico. The total cost of the building was only eight 
thousand dollars, and it is amusing to discover that those 
great columns which were quarried from the Spoon River 
bottom, cost but one and a half dollars a section. It is not 
true, as "Silas Dement" would have us believe, that in the 
tire they "Crashed like trees when the woodman fells them". 
They w^ere in fact left standing and the two central ones — the 
pillars between which Lincoln stood to make his great speech 

304 Josephine Craven Chandler J. i. s. H. s. 

in 1858 — were afterwards removed to the cemetery and there 
erected as a memorial inscribed "To Our Patriot Dead". 
The others may be found in sections, placed here and there 
about the town, used chiefly as mounting-blocks before the 
houses of the citizens who hold the old building in beloved 

The old court house, from its very earliest history cher- 
ished the tradition of great men. As early as the forties 
Judge Stephen A. Douglas was presiding at the Fulton 
County court and Edward Dickinson Baker (the beloved 
"Ned Baker," "the silver tongued") frequently plead be- 
fore its bar. Mr. W. T. Davidson, in his "Famous Men I 
Have Known in the Military Tract" says of him: 

"From my sixth or seventh year I vividly recall 
that splendid specimen of young manhood as he appeared 
in the old court-house, always crowded by people of the 
county who came to meet their favorite party leaders 
and to feast upon their oratory. 

"But Ned Baker was in a class by himself. If he 
only spoke for five minutes to court on some point of 
law, the crowded court room was all attention. But if in 
a murder case he spoke for hours Ms audience was 
thrilled to the verge of collapse. Two-thirds of a cen- 
tury lias passed, but I can see that straight, lithe, blond, 
graceful youth as he swayed his audience, jurors, the 
bar and even the judge upon the bench with the music 
of his voice and his word-pictures, his irresistible logic, 
his illustrations, and the unconscious, spontaneous, per- 
fervid oratory that come as fresh to me as when a child 
— like the musk of an ancient queen that fills her apart- 
ment an age since she is dead. 

"Glorious Ned Baker, who led our Illinois troops 
from victory to victory in Mexico, and while a United 
States Senator from Oregon, was shot dead at Ball's 
Blut¥ in 1861 while leading a brigade in that heroic battle 
for the Union." 

General James Shields was a familiar figure here. He 
was not onlv a great orator and a great soldier, but was 

Vol. XIV. No3. 34 The Spoon River Country 305 

afterwards distinguished as the only American to be chosen 
as United States Senator from three states. When Ste- 
phen A. Douglas resigned from the bench of the Supreme 
Court of the State of Illinois he was appointed by the Gov- 
ernor to till his unexpired term. Francis O'Shaughnessy, in 
an address delivered at the dedication of the monument to 
General Shields at CarroUton, Missouri, November 12th, 191-4, 

"Shields' fame might have been locked up in the 
sheepskins of law libraries had not President Polk called 
him from the Supreme Bench to the office of Commis- 
sioner General of the Land Office of the United States. 
He had just set to work in a broad, intelligent way to 
administer the affairs of this big office when the annexa- 
tion of Texas, followed by a chain of rapid events, cul- 
minated in a war with Mexico." 

Judge "William Kellogg came to Canton, Illinois, in the 
earl.v forties and Fulton County claimed him until 1863 when 
he went to Peoria. No man of his period had a surer grasp 
of the politics of the time, nor a more prophetic vision. He 
was Lincoln's closest friend and advisor from the birth of 
the Republican party until his (Kellogg's) retirement from 
his third term of Congress in 1857. Lincoln was himself, of 
course, in attendance on almost every term of court through 
these years. 

But not only could the bar of Fulton County boast vis- 
itors of distinction ; these splendid forties saw also the de- 
velopment of a number of Le^\^stown 's citizens who later 
were to come into prominence in her own and broader fields. 
W. C. Goudy, who had come here from the east to study law 
under Judge "Wead, and incidentally to lay the foundation of 
that career that was to gain him, for many years in later 
life, the undisputed title of Chicago's leading la^^-y^r; S. P. 
Shope, afterwards Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of 
Illinois; Leonard F. Ross, hero of Vera Cruz and Cerro 
Gordo, educated to the law but making his claim to recogni- 
tion in the Civil War when, after the capture of Fort Donel- 

306 Josephine Craven Chandler J- 1- S- H. s. 

son, he was commissioned Brigadier General; and Col. L. W. 
Ross, for whom the town had been named, and who was des- 
tined to become its greatest and most constructive citizen 
and who was just beginning his long and brilliant career in 
law and politics. 

The next decade was to see the names of Robert Inger- 
soU, William Pitt Kellogg and S. Corning Judd added to the 
already glorious roll of the old courthouse. Ingersoll the 
audacious, the brilliant, the great-hearted — in those days a 
radical Democrat — engaging here at Proctor's Grove and at 
other points all over the district, in those joint debates with 
Fulton's "Old Man Eloquent," Judge Kellogg, which left a 
trail of brilliance that lingers still in the memories of those 
who heard them — debates that were destined to end in defeat 
for Ingersoll in the race for that coveted seat in Congress 
which he had hoped to win from Kellogg; William Pitt Kel- 
logg (a distant relative and law partner of the Judge), hand- 
some, young, elegant in those days, avoiding the dn;dgery of 
the office, but lounging about the court-house and the offices 
of his Lewistown friends on court days, delighting them with 
his wit and brilliant anecdote and who was to become in turn 
Lincoln Elector, Governor of the Territory of Nebraska, re- 
construction Governor of Louisiana, and finally Senator from 
the same state; and S. Corning Judd, who in the seventies 
as Chancellor of the Episcopal Diocese of Illinois came into 
prominence through his prosecution for the Episcopal 
Church of the case against the Rev. Dr. Cheney, which com- 
menced in 1869 and is considered one of the most important 
cases of this kind ever conducted in this country, and who 
was appointed Postmaster of Chicago under Cleveland 
in 1885. 

But the Golden Age of Lewistown was probably denoted 
by the fifties, a period of .srreat importance in the history of 
the whole of Illinois. Its development was coincidental with, 
if indeed, not attriliutable to, the sudden rise of the press to 
a position of enormous poAver and influence and its wilful 
shaking off of the old trammels and restraints that hitherto 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 The Spoon Hirer Country 307 

had made it an organ of subservience rather than of leader- 
ship. It was the great hour of the "country editor" in Illi- 
nois, and the press found in this state, which was virtually 
the arena of the great slavery struggle that was to terminate 
in the Civil War, an instrument made to its hand. 

It was an anti-slavery editor, Paul Selby, who called to- 
gether the Illinois editors united on this sentiment and or- 
ganized a party which should take unqualified grounds in 
opposition to slavery, and out of this meeting grew the or- 
ganization of the Republican party, born and nourished in 
this State, and giving to the nation one of its greatest Presi- 
dents and to the world one of its greatest Liberators. 

Back of the leaders on either side of this issue were 
ranged a stalwart group, and the battle might be said to have 
been fought to its ultimate conclusion in the columns of these 
newspapers. Among those on the Democratic side in un- 
flinching support of Douglas was W. T. Davidson of Lewis- 
to\vn; a "country editor," to be sure, but wielding one of 
the powerful pens in the Military Tract, having at his 
disposal all the gifts of invective, sarcasm, pathos and illumi- 
nating humor. "It is not too much to say" wrote a con- 
temporary, at his death, "that Davidson belongs in that small 
class of really great editors; that he was to Illinois provin- 
cial journalism what Bennett, Greeley, Dana, Storey, Medill 
and other master journalists were to national newspaperdom. 
He had filled and dominated his restricted sphere as thor- 
oughly and well as they did their larger fields." 

In Mr. Davidson's later life he held for the character of 
Lincoln the most intense veneration and reverence. He 
came to be regarded as an important authority on Lincolniana 
and his lectures on Lincoln and Douglas were delivered all 
over the United States. He was one of Lewistown's most 
picturesque characters. 

The two greatest days in the history of the town, those 
on which it bases its surest claim to historical recognition, are 
known upon its calendar as "Douglas Dav, " and "Lincoln 

308 Josephine Craven Chandler J. i. s. H. s. 

Lincoln and Douglas had become, as will have been seen, 
familiar figures about the streets of Lewistown in the forties, 
and the passing years had brought to both — but particularly 
to Douglas — increasing fame. Douglas was at this time the 
most noted man in America, and the Democratic Party was 
looking forward to the next Presidential election to place him 
in the Executive Chair. The country was prescient with 
some great danger to the Union growing out of the increasing 
agitation over the question of slavery and state's rights and 
Lincoln, though lacking the fame of Douglas was believed to 
be no mean opponent. The challenge which Lincoln had given 
Douglas for that series of debates throughout the state, which 
has come to be referred to as the "hundred days' contest," 
had been accepted and the Lewistown speeches preceded the 
first of those engagements — the Ottawa debate — by a few 
days only. 

Masters, in "The Lincoln and Douglas Debates," which 
is included in the collection of his poems called "The Great 
Valley," has put into the mouth of his uncouth philosopher 
a description of that day. 

them were great days. 

One time the Little Giant came here with Linkern 

And talked from the steps of the court-house ; 

And you never saw such a crowd of people; 

Democrats, Whigs, Locofocos, 

Know-nothings and Anti-masonics, 

Blue lights. Spiritualists, Eepublicans 

Free-soilers, Socialists, American — such a crowd. 

Linkern 's voice squeaked up high, 

And didn't carry. 

But Douglas ! 

People out yonder in Procter 's Grove, 

A mile from the Court house steps, 

Could hear him roar and hear him say : 

"I'm going to trot him down to Egypt 

And see if he'll say the things he says 

To the black republicans, in northern Illinois." 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 The Spoun Uircr Country 309 

It made you shiver all down your spine 
To see that face and hear that voice — 
And that was The Little Giant ! 

And then on the other hand there was 
Abe Linkern standing six foot four, 
As thin as a rail, with high-keyed voice, 
And sometimes solemn, and sometimes contiic 
As any clown you ever saw, 
And runnin' Col. Lankfor's little steamer, 
As it were you know, which would bobble the skiff, 
Which was the law; 
And The Little Giant 's other foot 
Would slip on the bank, whicli was the constitution 
And you could almost hear him holler ' ' ouch. ' ' 
And Linkern would say: This argument 
Of the Senator's is thin as soup 
Made from the shadow of a starved pigeon ! 
And then the crowd would yell, and the cornet band 
Would play, and men would walk away and say: 
Linkern floored him. And others would say : 
He ain't no match for the Little Giant. 
But I'll declare if I could decide 
Which whipped the other. 
Proctor's Grove, where Douglas delivered his address 
on this occasion (you remember how "Hod Putt" beholding 
How Old Bill Piersol and others grew in wealth 
Robbed a traveler once in Proctor's Grove) 
is still referred to by its original name, although it is now 
platted into town lots under the name of Davidson's Sec- 
ond Addition. It formerly comprised thirteen acres shaded 
by magnificent forest trees. It lies to the south and 
west of the town, M-ithin walking distance, and used to be 
the forum for all open air speaking in the early days in 
the history of Lewistown. It was the place where po- 
litical rallies were held, and Fourth of July celebrations, and 
especially was it noted as the theatre of those stirring 

310 Josephine Or ave7i Chandler J. i. s. h. s. 

debates that used to engage the wit and eloquence and logic 
of the public men of that day. It was at Proctor's Grove 
that William Pitt Kellogg once crossed swords with S. Corn- 
ing Judd; here IngersoU and Judge William Kellogg began 
their series in their senatorial race of 1860; and here the 
voice of almost every distinguished man possessed of the 
gift of oratory in central Illinois was heard at one time or 

But the red letter day for Proctor's Grove is forever 
fixed in its history as August 16, 1858 — ' ' Douglas Day. ' ' 

The importance of the occasion can be imagined. On 
the Friday preceding the Monday which was the 16th the 
"Little Giant" had spoken at Havana, and on Saturday morn- 
ing a committee of Lewistown's citizens from the Democratic 
ranks — I note among them the names of W. C. Goudy and 
Col. L. W. Ross — went to that place to escort Douglas to 
their city. Several miles out of town they were met by a great 
concourse of people come out to do him honor ; a brass band 
played, and much cheering went to the general effect of a 
triumphal entry into the to-\\Ti. Mr. Douglas was entertained 
at the house of Mr. Goudy, and during that three days ' stay, 
for he remained till Tuesday morning, hundreds of citizens 
called upon him ; the string band, that ubiquitous small town 
adjunct, serenaded him, a display of fireworks added its 
glare and glory, and all went splendidly. 

On Monday morning, however, an effigy of "Douglas 
the Traitor " was found conspicuously displayed in the square ; 
also the ropes of the Democratic pole had been cut and a 
small civil war threatened. Excitement ran liigh but the mat- 
ter was finally passed over in the press of the great occasion. 

Immense delegations came to Lewistown from every town- 
ship in the county. It was estimated that half the county 
was there, for it must be remembered that not only was this 
section of the state intensely Democratic but Douglas had 
been for twenty years its political hero. Therefore when 
he began his speech that day in Proctor's Grove he literally 
looked down upon acres of faces, probably 5,000. For the 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 77,p Spoon River Country 31 1 

first and only time in his experience, it is said, his voice was 
unecjual to the occasion and after he had spoken for an hour 
Col. Ross was called upon to address the people in his stead. 

On the following day, wliich was August the 17th, Lincoln 
came to Lewistown. He, also, came from Havana where he 
had gone to address the people. He was escorted from that 
place to Lewistown by a committee consisting of Major 
Walker, his old friend, John W. Proctor and others. He 
also was met by a delegation, though a much smaller one 
(seventy-six horsemen, seventeen wagons and buggies are 
mentioned). No doubt the brass band came again into play; 
he too, was serenaded duly and there was much greeting and 
hand-shaking to be gone through. At two o 'clock that after- 
noon, he spoke from the portico of the old court house. How 
singularly at home be must have looked! That tall, gaunt, 
dramatic figure, full of grave dignity, standing between those 
great columns of unpolished, native stone. 

It is recorded that he began simply and directly, as was 
his usual way, addressing his remarks, apparently, to an old 
man on the right flank of the crowd. He spoke earnestly 
for several minutes ; then some men on the other side called 
out: "Abe, you've talked to them fellers long enough. Now 
talk to this side awhile." Whereupon Lincoln quietly apolo- 
gized for his preoccupied manner and made the rest of his 
speech to the other side ! 

Lincoln 's audience was by no means so large as Douglas ' 
had been, but it gave him close, even rapt, attention. Major 
Walker heard him with awe and wonder. Twenty-five years 
had passed since he had heard his voice in debate, and al- 
though he had been told that his friend had made great pro- 
gress in the matter of public speaking he was not prepared for 
the power and eloquence, the tremendously mo\'iug quality 
of his simple speech. 

It was on this occasion that Lincoln delivered the glow- 
ing eulogy on the Declaration of Independence which the 
London Times commented on as worthy to be preserved among 
the Nation's classics. 

312 Josephine Craven Chandler J. i. s. H. s. 

Lincoln was entertained at dinner that night by Major 
Walker, spent the night with Mr. John W. Proctor, and the 
next morning was driven by the Major to the point — thirty- 
two miles aAvay — where he was to take his train. The Major 
bade good-bye to Lincoln there, and neither he nor Lewistown 
was to see his face again. 


The McNeely Mansion. 

Perhaps the most interesting monument to the fifties 
still extant in LeAvistown is the stately old house which Col. 
L. W. Ross, son of Ossian Ross, built in the middle of the 
decade. Although it has passed from possession of the 
family, and has sustained some injury from fire, it is still in 
an excellent state of preservation, having been restored by 
Mr. A. J. Ray, with a fine sense of fitness and an appreciation 
of its liistoric A'alue. Mr. John Kennedy is the present owner 
of the house. It is, by common consent, identified with the 
McNeely mansion of the "Anthology." So descriptive of 
the Ross fortunes are the first lines of the Washington Mc- 
Neely epitaph — except that the girls were sent to Notre Dame 
and Vassar — that it reads like true biography : 

Rich, honored by my fellow citizens. 

The father of many children, born of a noble mother, 

All raised there 

In the great mansion-house, at the edge of the town. 

Note the cedar tree on the lawn ! 

I sent all the boys to Ann Arbor, all the girls to Rockford, 

The while my life went on, getting more riches and honors — 

Resting under my cedar tree at evening. 

The years went on. 

I sent the girls to Europe; 

I dowered them when married. 

I gave the boys money to start in business. 

They were strong children as apples 

Before the bitten places show. 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 The Spoon River Country 313 

Also three uames of the McNeely children are Ross 
names; but Mary died in infancy; John, who "lied the coun- 
try in disgrace," was the bright particular star of the fam- 
ily, and Jennie who, peradventure, "died in cliild-birth," is 
Mrs. (Jr. K. Barrere of Los Angeles, California, and has just 
written me in response to my inquiry if I might without of- 
fense to her so identify her old home : "I have not the least 
objection to your speaking of the McNeely mansion as the 

Ross home Adverse criticism has such a different 

meaning to me from what it once had. It is only the reflec- 
tion of one's own \'iewpoint. There are two sides to every- 
thing in life, including people, and it is up to us which side 
we see." It is an amusing incongruity, considering the fate 
of "Jennie," that Mrs. Barrere 's letter ends: "I wish you 
might see our three grandsons. They are the joy of our 

Colonel Ross was forty-three when he began the erec- 
tion of the "mansion-house at the edge of the town." Al- 
ready honors had begun to find him out. He had been t^vice 
chosen to a seat in the Legislature ; his service in the Mexican 
war had brought him the title of Colonel ; he had been Presi- 
dential Elector in 1848; and he was the acknowledged leader 
of the Democratic party in Central Illinois. 

In early life he had married Miss Frances Simms, the 
daughter of a fine old Virginia family, a sister to the wife of 
Major Walker, and a thriving group of boys and girls was 
g^o^^'ing up about liim, crowding the modest limits of the 
parental quarters. Moreover, to build a house is an instinc- 
tive act in man — a reaching out, perhaps, after some portion 
of that material permanence that is the undoubted tenure of 
things that are made with hands. 

Somewhere along the Hudson Colonel Ross had once 
seen a house that exactly pleased him. He had obtained the 
plans, and now that a permanent home was in contempla- 
tion, he carried them out to the last architectural minutia. 
The house stands today exactly as when completed. The 
main body of the building is the old square form with the 
wide hall running through the center, but it extends 

314 Josephine Craven Chandler J. i. s. H. s. 

in the rear ou three different levels, after the New 
England fashion, adapting itself to the gentle decline of the 
land at that point, beginning with the kitchen and servants' 
quarters and terminating in the wood and carriage houses. 
Indeed the most interesting view of it is obtained from the 
rear, but trees and shrubbery obscure its fine proportions 
from the camera. 

The house, which contains seventeen rooms, was built 
of brick burned in its own door-yard, the stone for its foun- 
dations came from the valley of the Spoon, where, also, the 
lime for the plaster was kilned — a fine old house, as native to 
its surroundings as the forest trees on its lawn. H. V. V. 
Clute, a young master carpenter and wood-worker, came from 
the East and spent a year on its interior finish, and the win- 
dow and door lintels, the paneled infolding shutters of the 
long French windows of the East Parlor, and the banisters 
of the fine old double staircase attest his skill. 

The house is set in spacious grounds. There was for- 
merly a small deer-park of twenty acres in the rear, and 
There is a garden of acacia, 
Catalpa trees, and arbors sweet with vine. 

Although the building was completed in 1857, and be- 
came a place of hospitality from its inception, yet owing to 
that troublous period preceding the breaking out of the Civil 
War, the hard years of its duration, and those immediate to 
its conclusion, no social event of importance took place there 
until in 1869, when the eldest daughter of the house gave her 
hand in marriage to Mr. E. M. Hinde. 

Mr. Hinde, who is always affectionately referred to as 
"Judge" Hinde, lived, until his death two years since, in 
Lewistown and the lovely oval face of Ellen, long since de- 
ceased, looks out from a canvas above his mantlepiece — 
"judge" by courtesy only, a tribute, lie used to declare, to 
his connoisseurship in good whiskies and fine horses. Indul- 
gence in both these tastes had long since been relinquiehed, 
but the title persisted, perhaps on other grounds, for he was 
to the end past master of that subtler, finer sport — the almost 

. Ht l H».«. ' =^' 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 The Spoon River Country 315 

perished iiower of his generation — a racouteur of delightful 

Whatever traditions have come to the enrichment of the 
history of this place, none are more dramatic than those as- 
sociated with it through the events of the Civil AVar. Those 
were stirring times in a section of the state that was essen- 
tially Democratic. At a meeting held in the old court-house 
on April 3rd, 1861, Leonard F. Eoss withdrew from the old 
party, but his brother, Colonel Eoss, remained in the Demo- 
cratic ranks. In 1863 he was chosen a member of the House 
of Eepresentatives, and being twice re-elected, served till 
1869. But those early years of the war were tense years for 
Lewistown and there was a time when, owing to trouble en- 
countered in making enrollments for the draft, and in arrest- 
ing deserters, the Provost Marshal of the Congressional Dis- 
trict sent a company of German cavalry — always referred to 
as the Dutch cavalry — to Fulton county. A Little later these 
were reenforced by fifty additional cavalry and a company of 
eighty infantry. Arrests in the south end of the county had 
aroused the people in that section to a point of insurrection. 
"There are no words," says an old newspaper account, "to 
tell the horror and excitement of that day." A mob of six 
or seven hundred armed men came up from the south of 
the county and sent in an ultimatum that unless the prisoners 
were given up, they would be rescued at whatever cost. Colo- 
nel Eoss as leader of the Democratic party naturally came 
under the suspicion of being in s^Tupathy with them, and as 
one of the counter-moves on the part of the military, a cannon 
was trained directly upon the fine new house. 

Matters were, of course, adjusted. The prisoners were 
not surrendered, but they were granted an immediate trial 
under Judge David Davis of Springfield, and were acquitted. 
The old offensive enrollins: officers were removed and men in 
whose fairness the county had confidence, named in their 
places. Both sides profited by the experience and thereafter 
the enrolling went on without resistance: such deserters as 
were arrested surrendered quietly : and after a time the mili- 
tarv marched awav. 

316 Josephine Craven Chandler J. i. s. H. s. 

Many memories stand about this place; memories of 
famous people entertained at its hospitable board; memories 
of love and passion evinced by a package of old letters, tied 
with a faded ribbon, slipped down between the inner and 
outer walls and discovered by workmen after the recent tire ; 
memories of the pains of birth and death; of towering ambi- 
tions and of spiritual disasters ; and memories of that long 
procession of the dead who came to lie, one by one in the 
hbrary with windows looking towards the west and, presently, 
in the " burying-yard " which their sturdy progenitor, Ossian 
Ross, had bequeathed to the city in its infancy, and where so 
many friends and kindred already were "sleeping, sleeping, 
sleeping, on the hill". 

It may be interesting to know that the tradition of the old 
Ross line has been carried on by the Colonel's eldest son. John 
Ross, like his father, entered the profession of the law. He 
began his career in politics by serving one term in the Legisla- 
ture of his native state but soon afterwards he went to Wash- 
ington, D. C. He was made postmaster of the capital city un- 
der Cleveland and during the Harrison administration re- 
ceived the appointment making liim one of three commis- 
sioners of the District of Columbia, a position which he held 
until his death. His tw^o sons, throughout the late great war 
served their country in France, Tenny Ross as Lieutenant 
Colonel in the regular army and Lee ^vith the engineering 
forces; and the latter's son has but lately graduated from 
West Point. 

Not all the memories are sad that stand about the old 
"McNeely mansion". 


The Church of St. James. 

It is strange that during the uneasy period of the Civil 
War there should have been added to the to^vn of Lewistown 
the structure that has proved, perhaps, the most constant 
aesthetic influence throughout the whole of the Spoon River 
country — The Episcopal Church of St. James. 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 The Spoon River Country 317 

As early as 1859, we loarn from the files of The Fulton 
Democrat, an organization of that denomination was formed 
and a phin was made to build a "beautiful Gothic church". 
On the old vestry book the name of S. Corning Judtl appears 
as Senior Warden and it was doubtless chiefly due to him that 
the ideals in church architectures, just beginning to obtain in 
the East, found expression in this little western town. 

Mr. Judd, who has been referred to in the chapter on Old 
Lewistown, was born in New York state, and had, before com- 
ing to Illinois in 1854, a various experience. He studied law 
in the eastern part of the state, passing his examination in 
Albany; took up the practice of his profession in Syracuse; 
presently became editor of the Syracuse Daily Star — an old- 
line AVhig paper, devoted to the interests of that party as 
represented by Webster, Fillmore and other famous political 
men. He relinquished that post to accept a position with the 
Department of the Interior at Washington. After eighteen 
months spent in that city he returned to Syracuse becoming, on 
this occasion, both proprietor and editor of the Dally Star. 
Upon the general disruption of the Whig party he sold his 
paper and ventured west, coming to Lewistown and entering 
into a law partnership with the Honorable W. C. Goudy as 
previously stated. 

He was twenty-seven when he came to Lewistown but he 
had, from earliest manhood, been an ardent churchman; was 
familiar with the best in church architecture of his day; and 
it is probable that he was acquainted with, and interested in, 
the work and ideals of that organization known as the "New 
York Ecclesiological Society" which was formed in 1848 for 
the avowed purpose of working certain radical changes in 
ecclesiology. the chief principles of which were the adoption 
of the Pointed Gothic of the Augustan Age of Architecture, 
deep chancels, proper furniture for chancels, altars, and the 

The value of this pioneer movement in America scarcely 
can be over estimated when it is remembered that prior to this 
time church building throughout the country had consisted 
almost altogether in the erection of unpleasing rectangular 

318 Josephine Craven Chandler J. i. s. h. s. 

structux'es, cn;dely reminiscent of Grecian temples, and 
uniting in mongrel assortment, the elements of domestic and 
of commercial architecture. ' ' I suppose ' ', said Ralph Adams 
Cramm, in his "Quest of the Gothic", "there is no more 
awful evidence of rampant barbarism than that which exists 
in the architecture of the United States between the years of 
1820 and 1840." It seems strange indeed that up to the build- 
ing of Trinity (New York City) by Upjohn in 1847, not a single 
church, constructed along the lines of the fourteenth century 
Gothic, was to be found on this continent; and so undeveloped 
was the whole body of liturgical science that it was not till 
1860 that the rector of even that leading church had the cour- 
age to vest its choir. 

The labors of the Ecclesiological Society covered a period 
of five years, ending its career in 1853, and already, in '59 — 
so fast the flame of beauty runs — in this remote western 
tovra of — at that time — less than a thousand inhabitants, a 
"beautiful Gothic church" was in contemplation! The suc- 
cess of this ambition, culminating in 1865, was due to the en- 
terprise of Mr. Judd who secured, through influence, the 
plans for the building, from a New York church architect of 
considerable fame, Ed\\^n Tuckerman Potter. He consented 
to furnish them only on the consideration that no expense 
should be spared in the erection of the building that w^ould 
make for the complete development of the design. In ac- 
cordance with this stipulation Mr. Judd obtained the bulk of 
the funds for the enterprise from the East. He furnished 
from this source, about $6,000, and the people of Lemstown 
contributed the remaining $2,000 required. 

This architect, the son of Bishop Alonzo Potter, was one 
of the first exponents of the Gothic in America. He has to his 
credit a number of fine churches in this country, notably the 
Church of the Heavenly Rest, N. Y., Colt Memorial Church at 
Hartford, Conn., and the Church of the Good Shepherd, as 
well as the Memorial Hall at Schenectady, N. Y., but it is 
doubtful if he has left to do him honor any building, either 
large or small, more perfectly conceived in the faith of the 
Seven Lamps than the little church at Le-\vistown. 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 The Spoon River Country 319 

As originally built — for a wing has been added since — 
the building was 66 x 26, but the satisfying proportion of the 
angle of its pointed roof to the architectural demands of the 
mass, the propriety of its moderate buttresses, the grace and 
fitness of its slender tower, all conspire toward the expres- 
sion of that consummate art "without which", says Rodin, 
"the greatest cathedral is less than the smallest church that 
has it ' '. 

It is built of brick, now time and weather-worn to a lovely 
monochrome, and relies alone for oraament, upon a design of 
brick-work that is thrown out in mild relief and which extends 
around the building some four feet, perhaps, below the eaves ; 
and upon the effect of the long hand-wrought hinges across 
the door of the portico. 

The master carpenter employed in the construction of the 
church was that H. V. V. Clute who had come West at the 
behest of Col. Ross several years earlier. The stone and brick 
work was awarded to local workmen but a masonry-artist 
from Peoria, Robert Turner, was employed for the ornate 
portion and a man was brought from Chicago for the interior 
painting and gilding. 

St. James has a very beautiful marble baptismal font, the 
gift of the Rev. Dr. Clarkson who was the rector of that St. 
James Episcopal Church of Chicago for which this one was 

It is unfortunate for Lewistown that St. James is falling 
into disrepair. Many of its more able parishioners have 
moved away or died, and this lovely monument to the spiritual 
and aesthetic aspiration of an earlier day, which has won the 
praise of every lover of good architecture who has come with- 
in its neighborhood, is suffering decline. Mr. Frederick 
Fultz, whose name is associated with some of the best early 
civic and domestic architecture in Chicago, made at one time, 
elaborate drawings of the building, and pronounced it, in his 
opinion, one of the most beautiful and perfect examples of 
Gothic architecture in America, but unfortunately for the pur- 
poses of this book, these di-awings have disappeared since 
his death, and no trace of them can be found. 

320 Josephine Craven Chandler J. i. s. H. s. 

Time and the tenderness of vines is over it, but already 
there is about this little church, but slightly more than half a 
century old, the pathos of an unregarded beauty ; the fleeting 
loveliness of things that are conceived in the high faith of love 
and aspiration, but are fore-doomed, after the brief flowering 
of an hour, "to pass and to be as dust that is blown now this 
way and now that, and in the end is gathered to the wilderness 
of lifeless things." 


School Days of the Poet. 

For the purposes of poetry the education of Shakespeare 
according to Ben Johnson was, perhaps, ideal — "a little Latin 
and less Greek. ' ' An academic training is necessarily an em- 
barrassment to an ego seeking ' ' a gesture of mine o'ft^a. ' ' The 
contemplations of "Theodore the Poet" are more directly 
to the purpose; and just as Mr. Masters has conceived his 
characters as drawing their philosophy from their occupa- 
tions — "Griffy the Cooper" from his tubs and "Dow Kritt" 
from digging "all the ditches about Spoon Eiver" — so we 
may suppose as autobiographic his conception of the boy who 
sat for long hours 

On the shore of the turbid Spoon 

With deep-set eye, staring at the door of 
the crawfish's burrow. 

Waiting for him to appear; 

Who wondered in a trace of thought. 

What he knew, what he desired, and why he 
lived at all; 
and, as a significant intimation of that "orientation of the 
soul to the conditions in life" which is Masters' own defini- 
tion of poetry, the introspection which completes the poem: 

But later your vision watched for men and 

Hiding in burrows of fate amid great cities. 

Looking for the souls of them to come out. 

So that vou could see 

Vol. XIV. No3. 3-4 The Spuun River Country 321 

IIow they lived, aud for what, 

And why they kept crawling so busily 

Along the sandy way where the water fails 

As the summer wanes. 
The ten years which the poet spent in Lewistown seem 
to have been variously employed ; in school — both the grades 
and high ; in newspaper work in a local office ; in sundry ad- 
ventures in long-distance journalism; and in reading law in 
his father's office — which undertaking was one of not un- 
mixed enthusiasm and suffered the interruption of a winter's 
study at Knox College at Galesburg, Illinois. Also there was 
a continual preoccupation with literature, especially poetry, 
and endless experiments in verse. Four hundred poems 
before he was twenty-three ! It was as a little boy in the 
grades that he came under the tutelage of that benign char- 
acter Esther Sparks, who is the "Emily Sparks" of the 
' * Anthology. ' ' 

The extreme tenderness which Masters has brought to 
the conception of the women of his characterization is in- 
finitely divining; those forsaken women, "Louise Smith" 
and "Mary McNeely," regarding, each, her soul's disas- 
ter; "Flossie Cabanis" transcending the sordid failure of 
her life by that prayer which was the voice of her histrionic 
aspiration; "Caroline Branson," and the tragedy of the 
"room with lamps;" "Edith Conant," the pity of her 
unromembered beauty; "Elizabeth Childers," who cries to 
the child who died with her death voicing the suffering of 
women too fine for the harsh conditions of life ; even the 
prostitute "Georgine Sand Miner," who cries out against 
her ultimate degradation, 

If Daniel had only shot me dead ! 

Instead of stripping me naked of lies, 

A harlot in body and soul ! 
"Emily Sparks" is one of the most subtly rendered, 
as she is one of the most universal, of all the Spoon River 
folk. She is long since dead, but the "eternal silence" of 
her that spoke to the soul of "Reuben Pantier" is eloquent 
to a larger audience: 

322 Josephine Craven Chandler J. i. s. h. s. 

My boy, wherever you are, 

Work for your soul's sake, 

That all the clay of you, and all the dross 
of you. 

May yield to the fire of you 

Till the fire is nothing but light ! . . . . 

Nothing but light! 
It was during his first year in the high school that Mas- 
ters came under the influences of the teacher who proved 
to be his greatest inspiration, and who awakened in him an 
abiding interest in literature — Miss Mary Fisher. 

Miss Fisher was a young woman of twenty-seven when 
she came to Lewistown in 1885, and her preparation had been 
exceptional. She had studied in Chicago, Edinburg and 
Boston. At Boston she had touched elbows with the Con-' 
cord School, had caught the flame of its enthusiasm for let- 
ters and ideas and here in Lewisto'wn in the one year of her 
sojourn, she held aloft the torch. Ten years later she began 
the publication of a series of books that established her 
claim to a place of distinction in the field of letters and 
gave proof of her exceptional breadth and vision as an edu- 
cator. Between the years of 1895 and 1902 she published 
successively "Twenty-five Letters on English Authors," 
"A Group of French Critics," "A General Survey of Amer- 
ican Literature," and a novel, "Gertrude Dorrence." 

The inspiration and value of the work of such a teacher 
is always incalculable. In Miss Fisher's group at Lewistown 
were two others beside the now illustrious Edgar Lee, who 
were destined to feel the stirring of ambitions and of un- 
doubted gifts — Julia Brown, who afterwards became the wife 
of Dr. William Strode, and of whom I have already spoken, 
and Margaret Gilman George. 

Margaret George, though coming under the influence of 
Miss Fisher, was not of the high school. A faulty heart 
valve, which caused her too early death, rendered her health 
inadequate to the rigor of the public school so that it was 
necessary for her father to instruct her at home. As a re- 
sult the scholarship of this frail young girl was exceptional. 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 ^7,g Spoon Rii-er Count ry 323 

Not only was she a mistress of English, but she had a work- 
ing knowledge of French and was a fine Greek scholar. Her 
penchant was for the classics, and she had a remarkable 
knowledge of the Bible. Among the mementoes which her 
mother now treasures is a little Oxford Bible given her by 
the Poet when they were both very young. "For Margaret 
from Lee" is inscribed on the fly-leaf. 

This period was one full of dreams and plans and small 
exciting adventures for the ambitious youngsters. There is 
a delightful story of a compact entered into by Edgar Lee 
and Margaret, to write the very worst ballad conceivable 
and to undertake to get it published. Nothing came of Mas- 
ters' venture — perhaps he succeeded too completely — but 
Margaret wrote a long sentimental tale in rhjTne which she 
called "The Ballad of the Dishcloth" and sent it to Eugene 
Field who was then conducting the "column" called "Flats 
and Sharps" in the Chicago Record. Its immediate accept- 
ance filled her with unholy glee, but on its publication it was 
found that Field had taken liberties Avith the concluding 
stanzas, and her triumph was changed to chagrin. 

"The Ballad of the Dishcloth" concerned itself with 
the love aflfair of a housemaid, her lover the butcher boy, 
and a shadowy third, a rejected suitor — the milkman. The 
dishcloth was the signal to the lover that the mistress was 
away and he might venture upon a call. After a time it was 
decided that he should go away to seek his fortune, but 
should return within a year to make her his bride. True to 
his pledge the lover returns, and his emotion on finding the 
dish cloth out and the tragic denouement, as described by 
Margaret, is as follows: 

"Oh. trust sublime!" he fondly eried, 

And ran to kiss the signal white, 
But as he reaolied the casement's side 

What tableaux met his frenzied sight. 

There stood false Susan with a man 
Her head reclining on his breast : 

He loudly praised the dish-cloth plan 
The while her coral lips he pressed. 

324 Josephine Craven Chandler J- ^- S- H. s. 

One leap the frantic lover made 

And with the rival wiped the floor! 

In her own dishcloth choked the maid 
And left the scene forever more. 

But Gene Field had omitted the last two stanzas and 
substituted in their stead: 

There sat false Susan in a chair 

Resplendent still in buxom charms, 

Holding, Oh, horror and despair ! 
A puling infant in her arms. 

"What means this spectacle?" said he. 

Brushing a scalding tear aside ; 
"I thought you would not come," said she, 

"And so became the milkman's bride." 

"What means the dishcloth then," he cried, 

"That from your upper casement .swings?" 

"That's not a dishcloth," she replied, 

"That's where we dry the baby's things!" 

The home of Margaret constituted the nucleus of what 
might be called the literary group in Lewistown. Mr. B. Y 
George, who was the Presbyterian minister of the place, was 
a scholarly, broadminded man. He occasionally contrib- 
uted to the periodicals, especially church journals; lectured 
at intervals on literature and the Bible; took a deep and in- 
telligent interest in the questions of the day, and never 
wearied of the society of the young folks growing up about 
him. Mrs. George will be remembered chiefly as a person- 
ality — a woman who found a delightful humor in the spec- 
tacle of life. She used to give entertaining talks on George 
Eliot, Shakespeare and the Brownings before Women's 
Clubs and in the homes of "literary" people, but it was only 
among the intimates of the inner circle of her friends that she 
abandoned herself to those moods wherein impersonation, 
augmented by a natural gift of mimicry, made the relation 
of the merest incident, having the elements of social comedy, 
a thing to be remembered. 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 The Spoon Ricer Country 325 

The Georges had two daughters. The younger, Amie, *is 
uow regarded as one of the foremost educators in the United 
[States. She is the American representative of the Montes- 
sori system ; is the head of that school in Washington, D. C, 
and to her contributions on the subject to various popular 
magazines is chietly due the prompt and intelligent accept- 
ance, in this country, of the methods of that school. 

Margaret, the elder daughter, would seem to have in- 
herited, in fortunate conjunction, the intellectuality of the 
father and the taste and personality of the mother. "The 
good stars met in her horoscope," and only the briefness 
of her life, perhaps, defeated her dreams of a place of per- 
manence among the Lyra Americana. In the seven years 
between her graduation from Lewistown High and her mar- 
riage her poems found their way into the best magazines 
of the day; The Century, Atlantic, Harper's, Scribner's and 
many others. Her poem "Shrived," which appeared in 
Lippincott's, elicited from the editor of that magazine praise 
that did much to establish her place among the younger 
poets, and already she had begun to be spoken of as the 
"coming poet of the West." In 1890 she collaborated with 
Mr. Davidson in the production of a novel, but this was 
merely an experiment and proved less interesting to her 
than her verse. A photograph of her in her young girlhood 
shows an exquisitely delicate profile, and in the delineation 
of the high fine brow and the full curved mouth, that supreme 
combination found in women who achieve in love and art 
— passion and intellect. 

She married in 1895 Mr. W. T. Davidson, and left at 
her death a little son, Gilman, who was in the late war with 
the flying corps in France. 

Several years after her death her husband began to 
collect her poems from various sources, and to print them 
in the columns of his paper under the caption "Her 
Songs." "I have found," he says by way of explanation 
of the previously unpublished verses, "a trunkful of manu- 

•Miss Anne George, now Mrs. Robert Miller, Evanston, Illinois. 

326 Josephine Craven Chandler J. i. s. H. s. 

scripts, written many of them, on scraps of paper, some in 
dim penciling, some mere fragments with pages missing; a 
holy jumble of precious gems." 

As if some prescience of her early doom had been vouch- 
safed her — she died of heart failure — there was found among 
the many exquisite songs of gladness and love, and hope and 
heart-break — those "things that perish never" — "Mora- 
tura. ' ' 

I am the mown grass, dying at your feet — 
The pale grass gasping faintly in the sun : 
I shall be dead long, long 'ere day is done. 
That you may say, "The air today was sweet." 
I am the mown grass dying at your feet. 

I am the white syringa, falling now 
When some one shakes the bough; 
What matter if I lose my life's brief noon? 
You laugh, "A snow in June?" 
I am the white syringa, falling now. 

I am the waning lamp that flickers on, 
Striving to give my old unclouded light 
Among the rest that makes your garden bright : 
Let me burn still till all my oil is gone. 
I am the waning lamp that flickers on. 

I am your singer, singing my last note — 
Death's fingers clutch my throat! 
New grass will grow, new flowers bloom and fall. 
New lamps play out against your garden wall. 
I am your singer, singing my last note. 


Heee akd There. 

That all the people of the "Anthology" are not "sleep- 
ing on the hill" is evidenced by the occasional presence upon 
the streets of Lewistown of an uncouth individual, ragged 
and unshorn, whom inquiry discovers to be that digger of 
ditches about Spoon Eiver, "Dow Kritt". His occupation is 
in harmony with his appearance, and whatever his philosophy 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 The Spoon River Country 327 

might prove to be on close acquaintance it is obvious that he 
does not "need to die to learn about roots". A certain 
Cliarley Metcalf is pointed out as "Willie Metcalf". His oc- 
cupation, and his place of residence as well, is a local livery- 
stable. His talent for handling horses is well known; indeed 
his sense-oneness with all forms of nature suggest a certain 
atavism. A simple, harmless soul! "William Jones", who 
has been identified as Dr. Strode, late of Bernadotte, is daily 
seen about the round of his professional calls or occupied with 
civic business. A room of his office suite is occupied by his 
collections and one great cabinet and several tiers of moth- 
proof boxes containing bird-skins (each Avrapped in its tiny 
shroud) have obtruded themselves within the confines of the 
office proper. 

But every passage about the town evokes, for the lovers 
of the "Anthology", the drama of the past. The courthouse 
which "Silas Dement", on his return from Joliet, found built 
on the site of the one wliich he had burned; the bank whose 
failure involved not less than ten characters of the "An- 
thology"; and Beadle's Opera House (the "hall of Nicolas 
Bindle") all stand as monuments to the past, and keep in the 
steadfastness of brick and stone, "the glory of their fallen 

Beadle's Opera House, which belongs to the estate of the 
late Mr. R. M. Hind, has passed into disuse as a place of en- 
tertainment since the advent of the cinematograph. Its fres- 
coes are dim with time and the spider has made his lair in the 
long deep recesses of the windows ; the walls of the dressing 
rooms are scrawled with the names of many mummers ; and 
on the deep stage 

that overlooks the chairs 

and where a pop-eyed daub 

Of Shakespeare, very like the hired man 
Of Christian Dahlmann, brow and pointed 

Upon a drab proscenium outward stared, 
odd bits of "property" stand about with a pathetic patience. 
Here walk the ghosts of "Flossie Cabanis" and of "Ralph 

Josephine Craven Chandler 

J. I. s. H. s. 

Barrett, the comiug romantic actor" who enthralled her soul; 
here "Harry Wilmans" heard the Sunday-school superin- 
tendent make that flamboyant speech which sent him to the 
rice field near Manila and through 

days of loathing and nights of fear 

To the hour of the charge through the steam- 
ing swamp 

Following the flag : 
and here was staged one of the episodes of "The Spooniad" 
which "Jonathan Swift Somers" conceived in epic mood but 
never carried to completion. Of those two conflicting forces 
in Spoon Eiver it was the liberals who 

in the hall of Nicolas Bindle held 

Wise converse and inspii'iting debate. 

Lewistown has two cemeteries. The one 

AVhere holy ground is and the cross 
Marks every grave 
lies to the east of the town. It covers three slopes of a hill on 
the summit of which is a great gray Christ upon a cross. 
Gallighers, Maloneys, 'Daniels and many other names be- 
speaking a Celtic origin are found upon those gravestones 
but one looks in vain for the name of "Father Malloy". 
There never has been a Father Malloy in the town, it ap- 
pears, but a certain Father Thebes answers to that descrip- 
tion. Every one was fond of Father Thebes, especially the 
boys. But one insists on a Father Malloy. The name car- 
ries conviction — and "Spoon River" is a large territory. 

The Protestant cemetery, which also is on a hill — which 
covers several gentle knolls in fact — is north of Lewistown 
and is separated from the town by a ravine. No pleasanter 
place could be found for long, long sleeping. A winding road 
leads through it, flanked on either side, in the summer, by 
purple phlox ; great elms and small sweet cedars fill the place 
with restful shadows and with pleasant scents and sounds; 
and on the central eminence stand those limestone pillars 
already hallowed by the memory of Lincoln and inscribed to 
"Our Patriot Dead". All about one are names, that to the 
literary pilgrim, are essentially "Spoon River" names; all 


Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 27,e Spoon River Country 329 

about one on the quaint moss-grown slabs are willow trees 
and gates ajar, harps and lambs and upward pointing hands. 
Suddenly through the trees one is startled to descry the figure 
of a woman upon a marble shaft. Even the long grasses can- 
not stay the impatience of the feet! " 'Percy Bysshe Shel- 
ley ' ' ', one says softly with amazement. ' ' Can there really be 
a 'Percy Bysshe Shelley' in this place?" But astonishment is 
scarcely less on finding upon the pediment that supports the 
classic figure 

William Cullen Bryant 

Died March 24, 1875 

Age 24 years. 

Investigation proves that the young man was a relative 
and namesake of the poet. His father was that Honorable 
H. L. Bryant who introduced Douglas to his audience in Proc- 
tor's Grove on the occasion of his great speech. William 
Cullen like "Percy Bysshe Shelly" of the "Anthology" was 
the victim of an accident, having been killed by the discharge 
of a gun while duck hunting on Thompson's Lake. The 
marble statue is a dramatic figure against the massed back- 
ground of the cedars, and the coincidence of the two names 
is a sufficiently illuminating commentary upon the literary 
method of Masters. 

In all this silent place one may hear no sound save the 
wind in the branches of the trees, the insect voices in the long 
grass and the importunate incessant crying of a flock of tit- 
mice that have their haunt in the neighboring ravine. Only 
the "memories" are here, their 

eyes closed with the weariness of tears 
An immeasurable weariness ! 
And yet the loiterer for an hour will find in these grassy paths 
now bright with sun, now soft with shadows, these low 
mounds and unostentatious gravestones, how all things con- 
spire for peace, and those who are a little weary may find 
themselves reflecting, as Shelley in the Protestant cemetery 
without the walls of Rome where his body came ultimately 
to rest: "It w-ould almost make one fall in love with Death 
itself to think one should be buried in so sweet a place." 


By Stuart Brown. 

Lawyers sometimes step aside into fields where poppies 
grow. You know Bacon ^vrote Shakespeare; at least a law- 
yer said he did — Illinois can offer John Hay and Brand Whit- 
lock and Edgar Lee Masters as examples. 

Poetry is the words in the dictionary dancing ragtime ; a 
day dream set to music; a mental mirage flitting through 
deserts of facts. Like tobacco it is sometimes a soporific or 
an excitationer. Like mushrooms it is sometimes edible and 
sometimes poisonous. It is melodic or it may be spasmodic. 
It Avalks, runs, gallops, balks and spins bact^vard. Some poets 
use iambs and trochees without knowing it. It has as many 
feet as a centipede. 

No one ever defined it — no one ever will. Its exponents 
do not know why — they simply do ; they cannot help it ; they 
break into poetry as a burglar does into a bank with a sledge 

We have had all kinds in Illinois, and why should we 
not — 

Fancy has no bound ; 

It travels the world round ; 

Now it's near, now it's far; 

Now it skips from Star to Star ; 

Watches worms beneath the sod, 

Then reaches up to God. 
There are topics a plenty: The Mound builders; The 
Indians; The Trapper; hunter, voyageur; The Mormons; The 
French, Spaniards, English; The Immigrant from every 
clime; The Great Lake; The great and little rivers; The 
cyclone; The prairies and the prairie fires; The complex en- 
tanglements of the great city and the changeable face of 
Nature and all the many moods of man and charms of en- 


Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Some Poets of Illinois 331 

trancing woman. If you cannot get along without the hills 
and the salt waves, why go dream about them. 

You have all seen McCutcheon's picture of the little boy's 
vision of the corn shocks. Hear what Micah P. Flint, another 
Illinois boy wrote in 1825, about the Mounds of Cahokia : 

"I saw the plain outspread in softened green 
Its fringe of hoary cliffs by moonlight sheen 
And the dark Une of forest, sweeping round. 
I saw the lesser mounds which round me rose, 
Each was a giant mass of slumbering clay. 
There slept the warriors, women, friends and foes, 
There side by side the rival chieftains lay ; 
And mighty tribes, swept from the face of day, 
Forgot their wars, and found a long repose. 
Ye mouldering relics of departed years. 
Your names have perished not a trace remains, 
Save, where the grass grown mound its summit rears 
Prom the green bosom of j-our native plains; 
Say! do your spirits wear oblivion's chains 
Did death forever quench your hopes and fears 
Or, may it be that still ye linger near 
The sleeping ashes, once your dearest pride. 
And could your forms to mortal eye appear. 
Could the dark veil of death be thrown aside. 
Then might I see your restless sliadows ghde, 
"With watchful care, around these relics dear." 

Take a writer of today, Lew Sarett : 

' ' When stars ride in on the wings of dusk 

Out on the silent plain. 
After the fevered fret of day, 

I find my strength again. 

Under the million friendly eyes 

That smile in the lonely night. 
Close to the rolling prairie's heart, 

I find my heart for the fight. 

Out where the cool long winds blow free, 

I fhng myself on the sod; 
And there in the tranqnil solitude 

I find my soul — and God." 

332 Stuart Broivn J. i. s. H. s. 

Yesterday and today are uot so far apart. Let me give 
you a part of an old song written by B. F. Taylor of Wheaton, 
a "Chicago Journal" man of the sixties: 


"The breath of the leaves and the lyrics of dawn 

Were floating away in the air ; 
The brooks and birds were all singing aloud, 

The Violets making a prayer, 
With eyes that upturned so tearful and true 

Like Mary's of old, when forgiven. 
Had caught the reflection and mirrored it there 

As bright and as melting as heaven. 

The groan of the wretched, the laugh of the glad. 
Are blent with the breath of a prayer. 

The sigh of the dying — the whisper of love, 
A vow that was broken, are there ; 

There dimly they float mid the ripe golden hours 
Along the bright truths of air." 

Here is another old one by John Howard Bryant, of 
Bureau County, a brother of William Cullen Bryant. In this 
one do you find Bryant or Coleridge? 


"That soft autumnal time 

Is gone, that sheds upon the naked scene, 
Charms only known in this our Northern clime. 

Bright seasons far between. 
The mighty vines that round 

The forest trunks, their slender branches bind, 
Their crimson foliage shaken to the ground. 

Swing naked to the wind. 
The sunny noon is thine 

Soft, golden, noiseless as the dead of night ; 
And hues that on the flushed horizon shine 

At eve and early light. 
Far in a sheltered nook 

I've met, in these calm days, a smiling flower, 
A lowly aster, trembling by a brook, 

At noon's warm quiet hour. 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Sum e Puds of Illiitois 333 

And something told my mind 
That should old age to 

Childhood eall me back, 
Some sunny days and flowers 
I still might find 

Along life's weary traek." 

Today the same feeling is expressed in a verse from 
Thomas Wood Stevens in 


"Across the drifting sands 

The drifting snows 

Of many winters face 

And many springs fill the 

Moist shadows 

With the gentian's blue, 

And deeper sink the trails ; 

And treaties by my people's 

Council fire 

Bargain my people's hunting 

Grounds away. 

There were a host of other singers. I do not call them 
minor singers. There are larks, mocking birds and nightin- 
gales. Each sings its own sweet song, yet they are different. 
However, John Hay came along in the sixties and lifted Illi- 
nois poetry into the lime light. Little Breeches, Jim Bludsoe 
and Banty Tim will be with us for long. Would you like a 
contrast again? The Civil War and the World War were 
both fought for freedom. Take one verse from John Hay's 
"When the Boys Come Home." 

"The day will seem brighter 

When the boys eome home. 

For our hearts will be lighter 

When the boys come home. 

Wives and sweethearts will press them 

In their arms and caress them. 

And pray God to bless them 

When the boys come home." 

And note the difference in atmosphere when you read Carl 
Sandberg's verse on "Jaws." 

334 Stuart Brown ^- 1- S- H. s. 

"Seven nations stood with their hands on the jaws of death. 
It was the first week in August, nineteen hundred fourteen. 
I was listening, you were listening, the whole world was listening, 
And all of us heard a voice murmuring: 
"I am the way and the light. 
He that believeth on me 
Shall not perish 

But shall have everlasting life. ' ' 
Seven nations listening heard the voice and answered : 

"Oh Hell!" 
The Jaws of death began clicking and they go on click- 
ing. "Oh Hell!" 

Rather strong. 

Did Donald Robertson have Sandberg in mind when he 
wrote The Cannibal. 

"Deep in the Jungle of a city's streets. 
With other wild untamable sad things, 
A man who might have held high court with kings 
Of Thought, roams aimlessh', and greets 
Each tardy morning with the smile Death meets 
"When kissing some defiant skull, and flings 
All hope of hope into the wind, that sings 
A requiem o'er a world of shows and cheats. 
Then in the lonely caverns of the night. 
Where weird unholy fancies hoot and caw, 
Dark rebels to the primal voice of Law, — 
He thinks, and being thus alone, apart 
Eats out his palpitating bleeding heart." 

You have had some of the dote. I now present the anti- 


Illinois, adieu to thy flies and mosquitoes, 

Thy black, muddy roads, with their soil three feet deep ; 
I was anxious to gaze on thy beautiful features, 

But in parting I feel no desire to weep. 

Farewell to thy dark green alluvial ocean, 

Thy rank waving tall grass and cattle in herds ; 

Thy "fever and ague," creating emotion 

Expressive of feelings much louder than words. 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Some Poets of Illinois 335 

I pa.ssed o'er thy valley by daj- and nocturnal, 

Thy sun made my head aehe, thy moon gave a chill; 

And I now write it down for my friends and the Journal,* 
'Tis my first and last visit, let what happen will. 

I had heard of thy beauty, been told of thy treasures. 

Of thy wild game and wild flowers "blushing unseen;" 

I long had been anxious to taste of thy pleasures, 

Forgetting that pleasures were followed by pain. 

Adieu, Illinois ! and to all thy pale livers, 

Thy lily-faced ladies and yellow-skinned men, 

I entered thee smiling, and leave with the shivers; 
Let other folks love thee, but I never can. 

— M. H. JENKS. 

•Published in the Newton Journal, 1847. 

I have not forgotten Lucy Larcom, Eva Munson Smith, 
Mrs. Bumsey and Mrs. Cotteau, pioneers in women's song. 
Nor, Carrie Jacobs Bond and Harriet Monroe who hold a 
torch high today, with many others like them. I quibble like 
some lawyers and say they are poetesses. Really, could not 
some woman speak of them. 

Provincial pride leads me to give you a verse from my 
friend and fellow to^^^asman, Walter Patteson. I have read 
with rare delight many of his verses that shine bright to me. 


(A Memory) 


Night on the prairie ! 
Lender the canopy of the star-sown sky, 

Touched with the shimmer of the moonlight thrown 
Across wide spaces of the night that lie 

Between the earth and heaven, while adown 
The silver pathway laid of purest sheen. 

Glide silently the spirits bearing gems 
To deck the halls of night's fair radiant queen. 

More brilliant far than royal diadems. 
Night on the prairie ! 
Although the earth seems bathed in dreamy peace. 

The air is vocal with the night bird's song 
From some far copse, and never seems to cease 

The chorus of the frogs that all night long, 

336 Stuart Broun j.i.s.h.s. 

In deep bass and shrill trebel alternates 

Its waves of melancholy sound and keeps 

The air a-tremble, while the earth awaits 

The coming dawn ; the prairie never sleeps. 

Night on the prairie ! 
Across the line of vision flickers bright 

Now and again, the firefly's fitful lamp; 
The hum of insect life, that stirs by night 

Falls on the ear and from vapors damp 
That shroud the pool, dim figures seem to wave 

Long arms in air as o'er a haunted spot. 
Ghosts beckon, clad in garments of the grave 

And when we seek to grasp them, find them not. 

Night on the prairie ! 
How often have I seen the prairie spread 

Before my eyes with all its nightly train 
Of moonlit beauty and high overhead. 

The calm stars shining down upon the plain 
And heard the wild weird music of the night 

Made by the frogs and by the whip-poor-will, 
Filling my heart with sadness or delight ; 

How often now I seem to hear them still. 

Now that Eugene Field, the inimitable, and Bert Leston 
Taylor, that jolly driver away of dull care have gone, there 
are three men who occupy the present day stage. If I lived 
in Indiana and were describing them, I should say that Sand- 
berg wrote in blood what he sees in the gutter, 
Masters Avith an asbestos pencil etches with blue vitriol on 
Italian marble. 

Lindsay writes with a drum stick while he obtains ela- 
tion of spirit by clashing the craibals with the other hand. 
Lindsay joins to an interesting pen a most wonderful gift 
of recital. I don't know what the psychology of it is, but if a 
man should ask you alone to cackle like a goose or bray like 
an ass, you w^ould probably be insulted. Lindsay can make 
a whole hall full do these things and they seem to de- 
light in it. 

We of Illinois are especially proud of these men who 
have taken a place of such great eminence in the world. 


By Jacob W. Myers. 

Tradition has it tliat from time immemorial salt has 
been produced and manufactured at the salt springs in 
Grallatin County, on the Saline River, near the present town 
of Equality. There is much evidence to bear out the truth of 
the tradition. In and around the region of the two principal 
springs is found a kind of pottery or earthenware whose ex- 
istence can be explained in no other way than that it is frag- 
ments of large pots or kettles used in evaporating the salt 
water. Later on the early settlers used iron kettles of a 
size and shape similar to the ones used by the Indians, made 
of clay. The settlers got their idea of that kind of kettle 
from the theory that the Indians made use of the large earth- 
enware kettles for salt making. Many farmers in that locality 
possess some of these old iron kettles today, which they use 
for various purposes. 

The two principal springs are known as the "Half j\Ioon 
Lick" and "Nigger Spring." '"Besides the pottery found 
in this region, there have been found various Indian relics, 
such as arrow heads, tomahawks, vases and other similar 
articles. The earliest known English people to settle in this 
locality came about 1800 or 1802. '=» They found these fa- 
miliar relics and this specie of pottery iinlike that found in 
other localities. This pottery seems, because of its shape, to 
bo fragments of large kettles or pans. 

Professor McAdams ''"describes these pans as being 
from three to five feet in diameter. He found two whole 
ones used as a casket, near St. Gene^^ieve, Missouri. 

"I The spring is also called "Nicrger Well," "Nigger Furnace" due 
probably to the fact that slaves were worked there. 

'-'1 Smith. O. W.. Salines of Southern Illinois. Transactions 111. State 
Hist. Society 1904. page 246. 

'■" Report of HI. Board. World's Fair Conim. 1S93. page 2S3. 

338 Jacob W. Myers •'■ ^-S- "• ^• 

Local tradition has it that the French and Indians made 
salt there pre\'ious to the coming of the English in 1800. It 
is reasonably certain that the French understood the pro- 
cess and that Indians knew the locality of the springs. An 
English gentleman writing, in 1770, to the Earl of Hills- 
borough <** remarked on the abundance of the salt springs 
in the region of Wabash and Saline Elvers. 

It is, indeed, certain that someone was making salt 
before the English came. A short sketch of Illinois pub- 
lished in 1837 says: *^' "The principal spring was formerly 
possessed by the Indians, who valued it liighly and called it 
the Great Salt Spring; and it appears probable from a vari- 
ety of circumstances that they had been long acquainted with 
the method of making salt. Large fragments of earthen- 
ware are continually found near the salt works, both on and 
under the surface of the ground. They have an impression 
of basket and wicker work. ' ' 

There has been some controversy between scientists 
concerning how these kettles or pans were made, but all are 
agreed that they were used in salt making. 

It is rather impossible to say just how long before the 
coming of the English into this region it was that salt was 
made. But Capt. Thos. Hutchins, '"' writing in 1778, twenty- 
two years before that time says: "The Wabash abounds with 
salt springs. Any quantity of salt may be made from them 
in a manner now done in the Illinois Country." 

This evidence it seems is sufficient to prove that salt 
was made several years before the English came into the 
region. Indeed, if we may judge anything from the amount 
of broken pottery, concerning the length of time salt was 
made here, we would say that it was several years before 
there is any record of it being made. Mr. Geo. E. Sellars 
'" of Gallatin County -visited the place in 1854 and he says 

n' Smith. G. W., Salines ot Southern IHinois. Transactions III. State 
Hist. Society, 1904, page 246. 

(•■■' Ellsworth, Hon. H. L., 111. in 1S3?. A Sketch. Page 27. 
(c> Topographical Description of Va.. page 54. 
(-) Popular Science Monthly, Vol. 11, page 573. 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 aulUitin Cattiity Saliiu's 339 

that there was an abundance of this pottery all about the 
springs. On a cultivated ridge above the spring he found 
acres actually covered. This particular ridge of which he 
speaks is just south of the spring. His theory is that the 
salt brine Avas carried up there and let the water evaporate. 
Probably there was no timber on this ridge and it presented 
a better position for carrying on the process of evaporation. 
The writer of this article remembers passing through that 
region a few years ago and seeing fragments of this pottery 
sticking in the banks on either side of the road where it 
had been worn do-wai b}^ travel and erosion. Some of these 
fragments were five or six feet in the ground. So evidently 
the process had been carried on several years before we have 
a record of it. 

On jMarch 1, 1784, Virginia ceded all her lands north of 
the Ohio river to the general government, except a reserva- 
tion for bounty lands. AVith this cession went the salt 
springs, that is they became the property of the United 
States. It took some little time to get the territorial govern- 
ment into operation. On March 3, 1803, Congress authorized 
the Secretary of the Treasury to lease the salt springs and 
licks for the benefit of the government. Hamilton, then Secre- 
tary of the Treasury instructed Harrison, Governor of Indi- 
ana Territory, to lease the springs and licks. In the summer 
of 1803 Governor Harrison leased the salines on Saline River 
to a Captain Bell of Lexington, Kentucky. Bell was probably 
working the salines there before tliis time by permission of 
the Indians, because Reynolds '^' says the first white man to 
settle in Shawneetown was Michael Spinkle who came in 
1802, and about the same time came a Frenchman, La Bois- 
siere who settled there and ran a ferry to accommodate people 
who were coming out of Kentucky to the salt works of Saline 

Captain Bell worked till the end of 1806 when John Bates 
of Jefferson County, Kentucky, leased the works, and he 
worked there till in 1808 when Isaac White became lessee. 

<^> Reynolds. Pioneer History of Illinois, page 93. 

340 Jacob W. Myers ^- is- h. s. 

An Act of Congress of March 26, 1804, provided among 
other things that "all salt springs, licks, wells with the neces- 
sary land adjacent thereto were reserved from sale as the 
property of the United States." The territorial governor 
was authorized to lease these salt wells and springs to the 
best interests of the general government. April 30, 1804, 
Governor Harrison appointed Isaac "Wliite of Vincennes to be 
government agent and reside at the works and collect the 
revenue due the United States. He assumed his duties and 
was assisted by John Marshall who probably resided at Shaw- 
neetown. Where White resided is not definitely known, but 
probably at the "Nigger well" '"*. 

On Sept. 8, 1806, White became Captain of the Knox 
County Militia and perhaps gave up his duties as agent, be- 
cause the records show that he himself became a lessee in 
1808. How long he held the lease is not exactly known, but 
not later than the early part of 1810, for a letter of March 13, 
shows that H. Butler was lessee at that time.*"" 

Professor Smith '"> in his article says that in 1811 Cap- 
tain White sold his interests in the salt works to three men, 
Jonathan Taylor of Randolph County, Illinois, Charles Wil- 
kins and James Morrison of Lexington, Kentucky. I do not 
know where he gets his authority for this statement and can 
reconcile his statement with the letter of Butler only on the 
grounds that perhaps the "Nigger Spring" and "Half Moon 
Lick" were leased separately. 

From the beginning of 1808 to 1811 Leonard White 
''-* seems to have been government agent and later on seems to 
have become interested in saltmaking himself. On March 7, 
1809 '"* Ninian Edwards was commissioned Governor of Illi- 
nois, and at the same time became superintendent of the 
United States Salines. As superintendent it was his duty to 
make all contracts for leasing the salt works, to collect the 

»> Transactions, HI. State Hist. Society, 1904, page 248. 

io> Butler to Edwards, Chicago Hist. Collections HI, page 49. 

11) Transactions, 1904, page. 49. 

1-) Ibid. 

15) Edwards, N. W. Life and Times of Ninian Edwards, page 30. 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 dallatin Count i) Salines 341 

rent, and provide for the .shipment and sale of the salt which 
was delivered to the government in lieu of cash rent. The 
rental "** of all the salines in Illinois demanded by the govern- 
ment was ten per cent of the salt produced. From certain 
conditions which were required to be inserted in the leases 
we see that the amount would not be under 12,000 bushels 
aiuuudly and might be more. 

I will not quote the conditions in full that were to be in- 
serted in each contract. There were six sections of these 
conditions. *'''* The lessee was to make annually 120,000 
bushels of salt. There was a penalty of one bushel for each 
bushel short of this and the penalty was secured by a con- 
stant deposit of salt in the hands of the United States agent. 
The rent was to be paid quarterly in salt, calculated upon the 
basis of 120,000 bushels. Conditions were to be introduced 
to prevent the waste of timber and to encourage the use of 
coal; to encourage which the superintendent was authorized 
to diminish the rent. The superintendent could lease the 
works to one or more companies, but no lessee could be en- 
gaged directly or indirectly with any other salt works. 

Attempts were made to lessen the fuel and to make use 
of coal as well as wood. H. Butler •"" while he was lessee made 
an experiment with "air furnaces to reduce the amount of 
fuel used". In his letter to Edwards he said, "I also have 
a proposition to make in regard to manufacture of salt with 
coal, altogether". The government had promised to pay for 
permanent improvements made by lessee, and Butler ex- 
pected to receive pay for these improvements, and the propo- 
sition he wished to make was concerning what he should re- 
ceive if the experiment with, coal was successful. I do not 
know whether he ever carried out the experiment. 

The problem of securing fuel was a great one, because of 
the distance it had to be hauled. As the timber was cleared 
away the furnaces were moved back farther and farther from 
the wells and the brine was piped by means of hollow logs or 

"<> Transactions, 111. State Hist. Society. 1905, page 357. 

"•I Edwards. History of Illinois, page 31. 

I "II Butler to Edwards Chicago Hist. Coll., vol. 3, page 50. 

342 Jacob W. Myers J- i-S- h. s. 

pipes made by boring four inch holes through the logs 
lengthwise. These were joined end to end, but the joints 
were not always tight and there was much loss from leakage. 
It has been estimated that over one hundred *''* miles of such 
piping was laid from 1800 to 1873. They were considered as 
improvements and no doubt there was some graft in the pipe 
lines. Many old pipes were taken up and relaid as new for 
which the government paid as permanent improvement. When 
one lessee took over from another all pipe lines were put in as 

In 1812 Congress took action to provide that the timber 
would not give out. The President was authorized to reserve 
not less than one township of the laud around the salt works 
from sale. A committee composed of Leonard White, Willis 
Hargrave and Pliillip Trammel made a commission to select 
lands to be reserved as the "Saline Eeservation". They 
selected 96,766.79 '"* acres. A little later Mr. Sloo *'^' made 
an inspection tour and added 84,000 acres more to it. 

From 1807 to August 26, 1818, the entire rental accruing 
to the United States from the Salines on Saline River was 
158,394 bushels and the total cash turn over, for the same 
time was $28,165.25. The importance of this saline may be 
shown by the fact that during the same time Ohio turned in 
only $240.00 while Indiana, Kentucky and Missouri made no 

April 18, 1818, '"" Congress passed the Enabhng Act, en- 
abling the people of Illinois to form a constitution. Section 
6, part 2, says, "all salt springs within such state and the 
land reserved for the use of the same shall be granted to the 
said state, for the use of said state, and the same to be used 
under such conditions and regulations, as the Legislature of 
said state shall direct ; Provided, the Legislature shall never 
sell, nor lease the same for a longer period than ten years, at 
any one time". Thus when Illinois was admitted as a state 

(17) Transactions, LI. State Hist. Society, 1904, page 254. 

(18) Transactions 111. State Hist. Society, 1904, page 249. 

(i») Mr. Sloo was registrar of the Shawneetown Land District. 
(.-0) Blue Book of Hlinois, 1907, page 81. 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 GaUatin County Salines 343 

the valuable salt works became the property of the state. At 
that time there were five distinct leases of salt wells and 
springs from the United States to individuals, made by 
Ninian Edwards representing the government, and all bear- 
ing the date of 1817. These leases were ; '"'* '1' Willis Har- 
grave and Meridith Fisher; (2) Jonathan Taylor; (3) George 
Robinson; (4) James Ratcliff; (5) Timothy Guard. 

The Legislature which met at Kaskaskia in the winter 
of 1818-19 authorized the Governor to continue the leases with 
these men. The benefit of certain unexpired leases of the 
United States Government from August 26, 1818, to June 19, 
1820, fell to the state. 

During the early history of salt making the manufactur- 
ers relied only upon the natural springs, but later they bored 
wells. It is impossible to say how many of these wells were 
bored, but there was probably as many as a half dozen, for 
we find that in 1817 there were made five distinct leases. The 
first wells were not very deep, but later ones were made 
deeper. Timothy Guard, one of the lessees of 1817, dug a 
deep well at the "Half Moon Lick" about 1825. The well 
was dug about sixty feet deep and walled up, and then a bor- 
ing made in the bottom. This well furnished a fine quantity 
of brine and was used till 1854. Mr. Guard quit the salt 
making in 1830. 

About the year 1854 a company <-' was formed to make 
salt on a larger scale than ever before. The company was 
composed of Stephen R. Row^en, Andrew Mc Allen, Challon 
Guard, Abner Flanders, Broughton Temple and Joseph J. 
Castle. They bored another deep well, and expended a great 
deal of money in preparing the plant. The company broke 
up and Temple and Castle became the sole o\vners of the 
plant. They proceeded with the construction of the plant 
and installed an outfit of the best type. The iron kettles 
were superceded by large iron pans twelve to twenty feet 
wide and sixtv or more feet in length. There were three 

'->> Transactions, HI. State Hist. Society, page 251. 

'==> Transactions, State Hist. Soc. 19^4, 255. Some of this material I 
have gotten from old settlers who know about the salt works of this period. 

344 Jacob W. Myers ^- ^-^^ ^- ^• 

rows of such pans comiected with one smoke stack. Coal 
which had been discovered at a nearby hill was now used 
entirely for fuel, and a tram-way was built from the mine to 
the furnace. Thus the mine was modern in all its features. 
Temple and Castle o^\^led and operated the mine from 
1854 to 1873. They are said to have made five hundred 
bushels every twenty-four hours. About the beginning of 
1873 they thought the brine could be transported easier than 
the fuel, so they started to build a larger and newer plant 
nearer the coal mine. The work of construction was started 
but hard times, caused by the panic of 1873, came on and 
work stopped. Salt became cheaper Avhen the crisis had 
passed over and they never finished the new plant. In the 
course of time the machinery was removed and nothing but 
the old coal mine marks the site of the new plant. 

Thus ended one of the great industries developed dur- 
ing the early history of the state. At one time, before the 
development of steamboat navigation on the Mississippi 
River, the surrounding country had to rely upon its own 
production of salt, because it was too far and expensive to 
transport it from New Orleans by packhorse and the other 
earlier methods of transportation. Most of the salt was pro- 
duced at the Gallatin County Saline. St. Louis and Kas- 
kaskia were made distributing points. 

How long the state remained in control of the salt works, 
or whether it controlled till the end in 1873, I have been un- 
able to find out from Avhat material I have been able to 

The price of salt varied. This was due of course to 
several reasons. At first it was sold for $1.50 per bushel. 
By an Act of Congress, approved July 30, 1813, *-'' a duty of 
twenty cents per bushel was laid upon imported salt, which 
enabled the home manufacturers to supply the demand at a 
better price. In 1822 *'^' the price of salt was reported to 
have fallen from $1.25 to fifty cents per bushel, because of 

<=3) u. S. statutes at Large, Vol. 3. page 49. 
(54) Niles Register XXII, page 112. 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Gallatin County Saiincs 345 

discovery of copious and strong wells. In 1828 *'''' an official 
report of the superintendent of the (iallatin County Salines 
stated that about 100,000 bushels of salt were made an- 
nually and sold at from twenty to thirty cents per bushel. 
In 1830 *-"' Congress reduced the duty on salt to fifteen cents 
per bushel, and after December 31, 1831, it was to be only ten 
cents. So the price was regulated mainly by new discoveries 
and by import duties. 

It is difficult to tell exactly how much salt was produced 
here at the Gallatin County Saline. The amount varied at 
different times. In 1814 Samuel J. Mills, '-'> a missionary 
from Connecticut, wrote in his report that 3,600 bushels were 
made each week. This would make 187,200 bushels annually. 
In 1819 '-*' an indefinite statement was made to the effect that 
from 200,000 to 300,000 bushels were made annually, and sold 
at from fifty to seventy-five cents per bushel. In 1809 *-°' we 
find that one of the conditions in the contract for rental of the 
works was that not less than 120,000 bushels should be pro- 
duced annually. Later on Temple and Castle are reported 
to have made 500 bushels every twenty-four hours. The 
brine was very strong from the new well and a great deal 
could be made from it. 

There were salines in Vermilion County, the Big Muddy 
Saline, and a saline at St. Genevieve, Missouri, but the Gal- 
latin County Saline produced more than all the others com- 

When wood was used as fuel large tracts of land were 
reserved from sale to be used in connection with the indus- 
try. All this land was given over to the state when Illinois 
Territory became a state, on condition that it should never 
sell any part of the land. But later on the central govern- 
ment authorized the state to sell some of the land. An Act 
of Congress <"" May 24, 1828, authorized the sale of 30,000 

<.-•■'> House Journal Illinois. 1S2S-9, page 63. 

'=") TT. S. Statutes at Large. Vol. 4. page 419. 

(271 Transactions. HI. State Hist. Society. 1915, page 273. 

'='^ McKenzie View of IT. S. 1819. page 29S. 

(^fi Edwards, N. W., Life and Times of Ninian Edwards, page 30, 

C30) u. S. Statutes at Large, Vol, 4, page 305. 

346 Jacob W. Myers J- ^S- h. s. 

acres. Another Act of January 19, 1832, *^'' authorized the 
sale of an additional 20,000 acres. The proceeds of these 
sales were to be applied to whatever the state should direct. 
The total amount of land reserved was 180,766 acres. I have 
been unable to find whether all the land was sold or not, but 
there is today in that locality some land known as the "res- 
ervation." I do not know how much there is of it or to 
whom the title belongs. I do not know when all the land 
was sold or Avhether some of it still belongs to the state. 
These facts my material does not show. 

So far in this paper I have discussed various phases of 
the salt industry and manufacture. There is one phase that 
I have left for the last, but not without a purpose. This is 
the question of slavery in connection with the manufacture 
of salt. 

Philip Francis Eenault, <^-* as agent for the company of 
St. Phillips, introduced the first slaves into the Illinois 
country. In 1720 he purchased five hundred slaves in St. 
Domingo and transported them to Illinois to work in the 
mines. However, mining did not prove successful here and 
many were employed in Missouri and Iowa, while a portion 
of them were purchased by the French settlers, and the off- 
springs of these formed a great part of the slave population 
of Illinois down to the time of the election of Governor 

The Ordinance of 1787 prohibited slavery in the North- 
west Territory ,_ of which Illinois was a part. This caused 
the settlers some little trouble and they complained and 
threatened to move to Missouri, so to pacify them it was 
agreed that those then holding slaves could continue to hold 

In 1805 the Legislature of Indiana passed a law which 
permitted the bringing in of slaves to work "within the tract 
of land reserved for use of the salt works near Shawnee- 
town." They could not be permanently held here but were 

'-11 U. S. statutes at Larpe, vol. 4, page 496. 

•■^•-1 Blanchard, Riifus. Hist, ot Illinois, page 139. Transactions. IIL 
State Hist. Society, 1907, page 14S. 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Gallatin County Salines 347 

hired to persons by their owners for a certain length of 
time. This law provided '■"' that slaves over fifteen years 
of age might be brought in from slave states and within 
thirty days the owners might enter into an agreement with 
the said slave by which the slave agreed to work in Illinois 
for a stated time for a consideration, if within the thirty 
daj's the slave refused to enter into such an agreement the 
owner had thirty days in which to return him to a slave 
state. It seems as though this was especially favorable to 
the salt works on the Saline River Reservation and evidently 
many slaves were employed there. Some of the men of to- 
day living in the region of the salt works say that at one time 
nearly all the work was done by slaves. '"* Certain it is that 
some slaves were employed there. Timothy Guard purchased 
some slaves in Tennessee and brought them in to work there. 
One of these slaves, p]Iliot by name, purchased his o-\vn free- 
dom, and later that of some of his relatives. Mr. Elliot's 
son is now living near Equality and has yet his manumission 
papers in Timothy Guard's own hand writing. I do not 
know whether he actually paid $1,000.00 or whether he was 
given his freedom when he had earned that much for Mr. 
Guard, and was given it as a consideration for working in 
Illinois. It is probably the latter which he did, for he 
would likely have no chance to earn any money himself. But 
for his brothers and mother he paid cash because he was 
then free to earn his own money and the price he paid was 
much smaller than for himself. 

The Constitution of 1818 provided that no slaves should 
be brought in, thereafter, except such as should be used un- 
der a contract to labor at the salt works near Shawneetown. 
The contract was limited to one year, but it was renewable. 
However, no slaves were to be brought in after 1825. The 
constitution further provided that any violation of tliis act 
would "effect the emancipation of such person from his ob- 
ligation of ser-vice." All indentures entered into without 
fraud or collusion prior to making of the constitution, ac- 

(3'> Transactions, ni. State Hist. Society. 1904, page 250. 
("<> See also Transactions 1905, page 357. 

348 Jacob W. Myers j.i.s.h.s. 

cording to laws of the territory, Avere to be held valid and 
the persons so "indented" were to be held to a fulfillment 
of the agreement in the contract. Indentures made after 1818 
were not valid unless the person indenting himself was in a 
state of freedom at the time of making the contract. Inden- 
tures made by negroes and mulattoes were valid for only one 
year. These last two statements might lead one to think that 
there were white person indented, but I was unable to find 
any record of such. 

The interpretation of the constitutional provision was 
elastic enough to include the Big Muddy Saline '^^* "within 
the tract reserved for the salt works near Shawiieetown " 
and slaves were used at that saline. 

Slave labor, under these restrictions, was not so profit- 
able or economical as one at first glance might think. The 
lessee had to pay a liberal hire, board and clothe, and give 
medical attention to the slaves; was responsible for their 
safe keeping, and had to return them to their OAvners be- 
fore the expiration of each year to prevent their constitu- 
tional emancipation. They could return them under a new 
contract, but each time they had to actually be returned to 
their owners and then brought back from the slave states. 
This was expensive and a great waste of time and money. 
Because of this I do not believe there were so very many 
slaves used. There may have been several free negroes who 
indented themselves. 

In the two counties of Randolph ''^"^ and Gallatin in 1820 
there were precisely five hundred slaves. After 1825 slav- 
ery was entirely prohibited and those negroes working at 
the salt works were either indented or were paid wages the 
same as any one else. 

In this paper I have, with the materials at hand, tried 
to trace out the history of one of the earliest and largest 
industries of the pioneers of the southern part of the state. 
Today there remains only a few signs of the once great en- 

(35) Transactions, ni. State Hist. Society, 1905. page 357. 

(30) Boggess, A. C, Chicago Hist. Society's Collections, Vol. 5, page 178. 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 

Gallatin County Salines 349 

terprise, and the traveler passing through the region could 
easily miss them. 

The paper is by no means complete, nor do I claim to be 
accurate in every detail. I have done what I could with the 
materials at hand. Perhaps if I had had more time I might 
have gained much information from interviews with certain 
men at Shawneetown and Equality. Perhaps an interview 
with Mr. Elliot would reveal much concerning slavery. But 
I have done as best I can with the materials at hand. 

350 Jacob W. Myers 


Blauchard, Rufus, History of Illinois to Accompany a Map. 
Chicago 1883. 

Boggess, A. C, Settlement of Illinois. Chicago Historical 
Society's Collections V. 1908. 

Edwards, Ninian W., History of Illinois 1778-1833 and Life 
and Times of Ninian Edwards. Springfield, 1870. 

Ellsworth, Hon. H. E., Illinois in 1837, a sketch. Philadel- 
phia, 1837. 

Greene, E. B., and Alvord, C. W., Governors' Letter-Books 
1818-1834. Illinois Historical Society's Collection IV. 
Springfield, 1909. 

Harris, N. D., History of Negro Servitude in Illinois. Chi- 
cago, 1904. 

House Journal of Illinois, 1828-29. 

Hutchins, Capt. Thomas, A Topographical Description of 
Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland and North Carolina, 
ed. by F. C. Hicks. Cleveland, 1904. 

Niles Weekly Register XXII, XXV, Baltimore. 

Portrait and Biographical Record of Johnson, Massac, Pope 
and Hardin Counties. Chicago, 1893. 

Report of Illinois Board of World's Fair Commissioners. 
Chicago, 1893. 

Reynolds, John, The Pioneer History of Illinois. Belleville, 
1852. My Own Times. Belleville, 1855. 

Sellars, George E., in Popular Science Monthly for Septem- 
ber, 1877.' 

Transactions, Illinois State Historical Society, for 1904-5-7. 
Springfield, 1904-5-7. 

United States Statutes at Large, vols. 3 and 4. 

Washburne, E. B., The Edwards Papers. Chicago Historical 
Collection vol. 3. Chicago, 1908. 



By Ella ]\Ioeris Kbetschmar. 
An address before the Tazewell County Historical Society.* 

It was from the staid old community of East Green- 
wich, Ehode Island, with blue Narragansett Bay beating at 
the foot of its hill, that John Wanton Casey, who was born in 
that village on June 19, 1803, fared forth to Illinois in 1831, 
a mighty journey, a thrilling adventure in that day. 

His ancestors had been identified since 1658 with Rhode 
Island's economic, political and social history. His father, 
Wanton Casey, being in affluent circumstances, was able to 
give his numerous family the best education that could be 
commanded, and such other advantages of culture and re- 
finement as the times afforded. Not the least of these was 
the privilege of meeting in their home the men of letters of 
political and economic prominence of the New England of 
that day. 

Of Wanton Casey, The Magazine of New England His- 
tory says: "In 1774, when but 14 years of age, he was one 
of the incorporators named in the charter of the Kentish 
Guards, and upon the breaking out of the Revolution served 
with his company in the field until January, 1779, when he 

• NOTE. — This biographical sketch of John Wanton Casey has been 
compiled by his three children, Mary L. Cummings, Edwin A. Casey, and 
Ella M. Kretschmar. 

\\niile the obligation of presenting such a record for filing in the State 
and Tazewell County Historical Societies was pressing. — since the subject 
played a large and fine part in the history and development of the region 
in which he lived. — yet on account of the nearness of relationship the ob- 
ligation had of necessity to be not only modestly approached but written 
with greatest care, each fact used scrutinized and weighed with the utmost 
exactness, and contributing circumstances or background as unassumingly 
set forth as was consistent with sincerity. In short, a less interested 
biographer from the mass of material available would have deduced a much 
more prideful history, but perhaps on that account less acceptable to the 
modest, scholarly gent'eman who is its sublect. 


352 Ella Morris Kretschmar J. i. s.h. s. 

was sent bj' his father to Xantes, France, to acquire a sound 
mercantile edvication in the business house of Jonathan Wil- 
liams, agent of the Colonies in that city. He remained in 
France, spending a year or more in Paris. * * * In 1783 he 
returned to East Green-n-ich by way of London." 

The History of Washington and Kent Counties, Rhode 
Island, make extensive mention of AVanton Casey, among 
other things the following: "Wanton Casey was the son of 
Silas Casey in East Greenwich in the last half of the last 
century (ISth). In one of his father's ships near the close of 
the War of the Revolution Mr. Casey was sent abroad to 
finish his education, and especially to learn the French lan- 
guage. For this purpose he resided in Paris for two years 
just prior to the exciting times of the Revolution in that 
country. * * * Xo man was more identified with East 
Greenwich than Wanton Casey. His house was on the corner 
of Main and Division streets, a prominent object as you 
enter the town from the north. Here Mr. Casey reared a 
large family and his home was the center of a refined and 
cultivated circle through all his long life." 

John Wanton, though of a distinctly literary and philo- 
sophical bent, elected to follow a business career rather 
than to enter one of the learned professions. At the age 
of 25 he entered the banking house of one of his father's 
friends in 'New York City. It was while thus engaged in 
learning the banking business along conventional lines that 
his imagination fell under the lure of the great West, which 
was represented by pamphlets flooding the East, as the El- 
dorado of the known world, the land of romance, of un- 
paralleled beauty and of Opportunity, beckoning to the citi- 
zens of the Atlantic States and far-off Europe. 

After many and grave consultations with his parents, 
John Wanton finally received their consent to forego an as- 
sured future in the East and to cast in his lot and inheritance 
with the hazards of a new and distinct State. He brought 
into Illinois $25,000 for investment, a vast sum in that day, 
especially for so young a man to administer in an undevel- 
oped region under untried conditions. 

Voi.xiv.Xos.34 John Wanton Casey 353 

It is assumed that the Historical Society of a state val- 
ues biographies of its pioneers for a two-fold reason: First, 
as a record of the talents, vision, courage, adventures, hard- 
ships, achievements and material substance the individual 
poured into the hopper of state building; second, for the in- 
cidental side-lights on background which help the historian 
to reconstruct sequentially a history of general conditions 
during years when records were not kept. 

If in tliis chronicle some experiences and detail not es- 
sential to a brief outline history of the subject's life are 
given, it is to contribute such glimpses of local color inci- 
dent to the passing years. 

It is a matter of conjecture why Illinois instead of old 
St. Louis, which was the veritable romance of American 
life of that time, became Mr. Casey's fixed goal. The jour- 
ney by stage, by canal, and rivers — finally came to an end 
at Grafton, Illinois, on the Mississippi. Here a long pause 
of over a year was made, undoubtedly for readjustment and 
full observation of the new country and conditions. The 
next move was a trip up the Illinois Eiver, \vith incidental 
inspections of bordering regions, until the packet-boat drew 
into the wharf at Pekin, then called Town Site on account 
of its favorable location and because it was under discus- 
sion for the future capital of the State. Mr. Casey concluded 
to stop oflF here for a closer view, which resulted in his de- 
ciding to remain permanently, no more promising spot, in 
truth, having come under his observation in all his journey- 
ings. Its jet-black loam, half-covered by wild flowers, pro- 
claimed it one of the future granaries of the new Western 
empire. Here he made his home from 1831 until his death, 
March 18. 1881. 

Quantities of land were taken over by Mr. Casey, by pur- 
chase outright from the government, for himself, and one of 
his brothers. 

In makins: his surveys of adjacent regions for land 
purchases he discovered that the supply of general merchan- 
dise and agricultural implements had not kept pace with the 

354 Ella Mollis Kretschinar J- 1- S- h. s. 

demand. This led him to a decision to open stores at several 
points — Pekin, Havana, Beardstown, Mackinaw, Sugar 
Grove, and one as far away as Sangamon County. Not hav- 
ing had practical experience along mercantile lines, he put 
an experienced man in charge of each store, spending his 
own time in going from one store to another, checking up 
his books, and taking orders to be filled on his yearly visit 
to New York (a trip requiring six weeks) or on his more 
frequent trips to St. Louis and New Orleans. 

Money being scarce, products and commodities were ex- 
changed by the world-old medium of barter. ]\[r. Casey 
soon found it necessary to put up warehouses in connection 
with his stores for the storage of grain, the river being at 
hand ready to bear such argosies of wealth to selected ship- 
ping points. 

All of the mercantile ventures were carried on in a large 
and liberal spirit, wliich not only expanded the grain busi- 
ness but earned for Mr. Casey the respect and confidence 
of those he served. In this connection it may be mentioned 
that he furnished farmers with merchandise and agricul- 
tural equipment, waiting on their ability to pay, never once 
foreclosing a mortgage — as was the practice under similar 
circumstances in that day. 

It was a rich and fascinating life, this sharing in the 
fundamentals of building a new and great state. 

How strange it seems in this day, when Chicago is but 
four railroad hours distant from Pekin, that Mr. Casey could 
have actually had the following experience in the 40 's. He 
left Pekin on horseback to go up to a point near present 
Eockford — then called the Rock River Country — to enter 
some land. During the afternoon of the third day of his long 
ride he found himself at a point he had passed some hours 
before — so discovering that he was lost. As twilight came on 
he was taken with a chill — occasional ague being a casual 
concomitant of life in river towns. He felt unable to pro- 
ceed or even to build a fire for comfort. Dropping to the 
ground, he unsaddled, and, looping an extra bridle into the 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Juhii Wantun Casey 355 

oue on the horse, he slipped liis arm through it and laid 
down, with saddle for pillow. High fever followed the chill, 
aggravated by the daiiiijuess of the shelterless open. The 
torturous hours of semi-delirium were broken at last by the 
frightened restlessness of the horse, and that most dreaded 
of all night cries in thinly settled regions — the howls of 
wolves. Nearer they came and nearer until the awful half- 
circle of fiery eyes could be seen. Unable to rise, all Mr. 
Casey could do as they drew still nearer was to shout "Get 
outl Keep off!" and brandish an arm. Such tactics would 
have been useless against wolves famished from hunger, 
but in this case it was enough to hold the skulking cowards 
at bay. Mr. Casey said the time of danger seemed an eter- 
nity, but the creatures must have come in the last hours of 
the night, for before his voice and strength were wholly ex- 
hausted, dawn came, the light sending his tormentors scur- 
rj-ing to a distant wood. With escape, hope and strength 
mounted. Getting on his feet, with effort lifting his saddle 
to its place, he walked beside his horse in a new direction. 
Within an hour or two he saw the curling smoke which in 
all new countries means shelter, food, and kindly welcome. 

As the population of young Pekin and the surrounding 
country grew and activities extended, Mr. Casey was able in 
the early 50 's to discontinue his mercantile enterprises and 
devote himself to the grain business exclusively. In the 40 's 
he acquired a half interest in a fleet of canal boats and barges 
plying between Pekin, St. Louis and New Orleans, which in 
the 50 's went also up to Chicago. The return trips of 
the boats from the South brought many of the luxuries of 
life to the shippers, as Mocha and Java coffee in original 
packets, loaves of sugar, drums of figs, boxes of blue layer 
raisins, preserved citron and ginger, guava .ielly, fine syrups, 
choice tea, spices, wax candles, brandy and wine, and many 
other items. 

It may be mentioned here that on one occasion, in Mr. 
Casey's home, when an invoice of such luxuries was being 
put away in the storeroom, Mrs. Casey noticed, as the coffee 
was being poured into a stoneware receptacle, a strange 

356 Ella Morris Kretschmar J- 1- s. h. s. 

beau. Examiniug it, she concluded it was tlie seed of some 
plant, and at a venture planted it in a flower bed bordering 
alongside a piazza at the west of the house. It came up, and 
in course of time proved to be a wisteria vine — probably the 
first in Illinois — so vigorous in the new rich soil that soon 
yearly there was a crusade of exquisite purple bloom covering 
the long lattice to the porch roof. 

Mr. Casey retired from business after the Civil War, 
confining his activities to looking after his widely scattered 
holdings in real estate. Being public spirited, he also inter- 
ested himself in matters concerning civic development. 

In the 30 's there had already been attracted to Central 
Illinois young men who later were to acquire national, and a 
few of them international fame. Preeminent among these 
was the "awkward young law^^er from Springfield," whose 
name is sacred — and must ever be — on every American lip. 
He was a well-known figure in Pekin Avhere, when on the cir- 
cuit, he sometimes lingered on his way to Tremont, then the 
county seat. He naturally singled out congenial minds, 
among them Mr. Casey, to whose scholarship he modestly 
paid much deference. In later life it was a proud memory 
for Mr. Casey that he had encouraged Great Abraham Lin- 
coln to study Latin, suggested special books of literary value 
for his reading, and often discussed vdih him intimately 
measures that were pending in Springfield or in Washing- 
ton — when he was a struggling young lawyer, striving in 
every way to broaden his mental equipment. 

In the many years of his residence in Illinois, Mr. Casey 
knew \drtually all the great men of the State, some as familiar 
acquaintances, others as intimate friends, entertaining many 
of them in his home. Among these were Lincoln, Stephen A. 
Douglas, David Da\is, Lovejoy, CuUom, Yates, Logan, 
Oglesby, Ingersoll, and many others. 

At this distance of time it seems rather extraordinary 
tliat in a new country a man of Mr. Casey's calibre and at- 
tainments did not engage actively in the politics of his day, 
hold office and otherwise attain goals dear to ambition. The 
answer is simple. Mr. Casey had strong political instincts, 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Juhn Wanton Cuisty 357 

aud prot'ouudest interest iu all the vital questions of his 
time, but instinct and interest were coupled with an uncon- 
querable personal reserve, which went with him through 
life. There was but one incentive which could move him to 
forego his prejudice against making a public appearance. 
His intense Americanism never permitted him to decline 
when asked to deliver a Fourth of July oration. 

But though Mr. Casey shunned everything savoring of 
the limelight, he felt deeply his political and other public 
responsibilities, and discharged them fearlessly through the 
medium of his pen. For years he wrote for the St. Louis 
Republican, and throughout his life in the AVest wrote for 
the newspapers of his to^\^l and State — never for pay — spe- 
cial articles and editorials. A great mass of these writings 
were found among his papers when he passed on, but only 
a small remnant selected at random were preserved. A few 
of these, perhaps fifty, are at hand at this writing. The com- 
pilers of this chronicle are amazed at the quality and \'igor 
of the output of their father's pen, and profoundly regret 
that the great mass was destroyed. 

Before the "War, when States Rights and Slavery were 
the subjects literally raging in all minds, Mr. Casey's pen 
was dipped in flame, though never sensational; and in the 
whole range of his later writings he was always clear, force- 
ful and logical. This ranije included such subjects as The 
Significance of Political Parties; Reaffirmins; the Monroe 
Doctrine; Judicial Elections; The Currency: Repudiation; 
Resumption; Labor and Capital; Fiatism; Amendment of the 
Constitution; The Presidential Term; Congress — Its Person- 
nel; Filibusterina: in Congress; The Credit System; Com- 
munism; Sabbath Musings; Railroads; Community of Lan- 
.sruage; Foreign Travel. 

Though the last of his articles were written in 1879, 
some of them are strikins:ly pertinent today. Many of his 
visions have been fulfilled, others are on the way to fulfill- 
ment — as, for example, the deep canal connecting Chicasro 
with the Illinois River — while others are under discussion, 
as a waterway from the Great Lakes to the Ocean. Some of 

358 Ella Mollis Kretschmar J- 1- s. h. s. 

his forebodings of fifty years ago alike have been fulfilled, 
as the dangers of unrestricted immigration, and the giving of 
full franchise to unassiniilated foreigners. 

A Whig and later a Republican, Mr. Casey was above all 
else an ardent American, jealous for our Constitution, our 
ideals, our best development, proud of our resources, proud 
of the West, about which he wrote glowing accounts for 
Eastern publications. He was fearless in discussing our 
political mistakes, but never without urging the logical rem- 
edy. His vision for the West was an acknowledged inspira- 
tion to the State builders of his time. 

On the death of an uncle in 1864, Mr. Casey inherited 
that greatly coveted American honor, membership in The 
Order of the Cincinnatus — the organization formed by 
George Washington for his officers, to be perpetuated for- 
ever, by inheritance, through the eldest male heir. He was 
most proud of this honor, and much pleased to hold the cer- 
tificate of membership signed by Washington. But his mag- 
nanimity was such that when his next younger brother, Gen- 
eral Silas Casey, who lived in the East, appealed to him to 
be allowed to represent him at the yearly meeting and ban- 
quet of the Society, in Boston, July Fourth, he consented to 
the arrangement. He lent him the certificate and wrote a 
letter delegating him to represent him for the time being — 
he could not cede his membership by the laws of the or- 
ganization, nor would he have done so to the prejudice of his 
son, Edmn A. Casey. 

On the death of General Silas Casey, his son, General 
Thomas L. Casey, assumed that he was to enjoy the same 
privilege at his uncle's hands that his father had enjoyed; 
and his uncle, doubly magnanimous, permitted him to do so. 
But after Mr. Casey's death his son, Edwin A. Casey, was 
recognized by the Society as his father's successor; and he 
will be succeeded by his grandson, Hartwell D. Casey. 

But alas for magnanimity — ^the original certificate of 
membership signed by Washington was not returned to Mr. 
Edwin A. Casey, it having been stolen from the wall where 
it hung in General Casey's home. 

Vol. XIV. xos. 3-4 Juhn Wanton Casey 359 

Having briefly recounted Uio circumstances of Mr. 
Casey's coming to Illinois, his business career, and his re- 
lations to political and public affairs, it now becomes a 
pleasant duty to take up the more intimate affairs of his life. 

It was in 1843 that Mr. Casey's heart's romance opened 
up to him — a romance that went with him uimiarred to the 
last hour of his life. The lady was Miss Elizabeth Moore 
Morris, daughter of Samuel Morris, of Harrisburg, Penn- 
sylvania, whose antecedents were of Revolutionary impor- 
tance. Mr. Morris had undertaken the long journey West- 
ward, at the advice of a physician, in search of health for 
two delicate members of his family, finding it for one on the 
way. He expected to return to the East within a few months. 
His objective was Peoria, but the boat breaking do\ra at 
Pekin, he was detained there for some time, and concluded 
to remain there permanently, after settling up his affairs in 
the East. 

The pretty tale of the first meeting of the future lovers 
was told at their own fireside to the compilers of this chron- 
icle many years later. It was on an autumn day, and the 
Pekin store was its background. To quote from the actors : 

He — "I heard a sweet, refined voice asking for shoes, 
incredibly number twos." 

She — "I saw a tall, handsome man with brown curly 
hair walking behind the counter down to the front from a 
desk at the back." 

Clerk — "We don't keep such small numbers." 

He (smiling — "Pardon me, but are you not mistaken in 
the number?" 

She (flushing) — "No, a number two is what I wear" — 
advancing a little foot clad in a fashionable Eastern shoe. 

Followed a glance, long held, and lo, the primitive store 
was filled with star-dust and dreams instead of the most 
commonplace things. The little shoes of Turk satin, match- 
ing the gown — such funny little shoes, neither high nor low, 
lacing at the sides and heelless — were tenderly preserved 
until the youngest of the family had grown to young 

360 Ella Morris Kretschmar j.i.s.h.s. 

Hasty marriages were not according to the conventions 
of that day, and it was after a courtship of over a year that 
the marriage took place January 3rd, 1845. The objective 
of the wedding journey was Peoria, by carriage, and when 
one considers the foundationless roads of 1845, over bottom- 
less black loam, in January, one realizes its hazards were 
greater than an eventless trip to New li;ork today. 

Within two years after his marriage Mr. Casey pur- 
chased a site for a home. When his fellow townsm'en, whose 
homes were clustered near the river, heard that it was to 
be bounded by Elizabeth (Elizabeth street was named after 
Mrs Casey), Fourth and St. Mary's streets, they protested 
to him that he was going into the country and would never 
have neighbors. Two years later, the court house Avas built 
on Fourth, Elizabeth and Court streets. The year 1849 saw 
the completion of the Colonial house (here reproduced) 
planned by Mr. Casey himself and built not by contract but 
by day's work to insure greater soundness. It still stands 
in dignity, though shorn of its beautiful surroundings, a 
large wing at the back, its window blinds and most of its 
chimneys — a testimony to the good workmansliip of seventy- 
five years ago. Its grounds were a setting of beautiful trees, 
shrubbery and flower beds, rose bordered walks, a large 
lawn to the east, and beyond a garden with fruit trees. On 
St. Mary's street at the east were the stable and its yard, 
and a cow pasture was on St. Mary's and Fourth streets. 
The long frontage on Elizabeth street was bordered by 
honey locusts and elms. Sloane & Company of New York 
furnished the house, Vick of Eochester the grounds and gar- 
den. It is interesting to note that both of these firms are in 
existence today, and of prominence. 

How commonplace the above facts today. How like a 
near fairy story in 1849 Such a house and grounds were a 
departure from the traditions of the times, and region; and 
the furnishings had to be freighted across the mountains 
and brought in part by canal and rivers. The result was so 
rare for the Illinois of that time that people came from near 
and far to make inspection of both house and grounds. 

vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Juhn W'aiiluii Casey 361 

lu this comfortable home, with its pleasant environment, 
John Wanton and Elizabeth Casey lived their happy lives, 
reared their children, and entertained their many friends. 

Children in their earliest years see their parents with 
eyes of abounding faith, later with more critical vision. But 
when they have measured life by experience and observa- 
tion, they secretly sit in solemn judgment on those who bore 
them. And so sitting — at over three score years — the chil- 
dren of John and Elizabeth Casey bow in humility and grati- 
tude before them. 

They are grateful that the mental atmosphere of their 
home was ever one of harmony, happiness and high-minded 
living; that they heard no sordid talk about money, no evil 
gossip, never a coarse word or jest; that the conversation at 
the family table was an education in the events and interests 
of the day; that they learned from their parents that hospi- 
tality is both a duty and a pleasure; that charity is a grate- 
ful obligation; that strong men are chivalrous; that books 
are a part of life; and many more articles of faith that have 
not only sweetened their days, given them fixed standards 
of judgment, but also have been a rock under their feet in a 
different age, a diiTerent order of living. 

Comparing notes, they find certain most amusing con- 
clusions held in common during early childish years, as — 
that God may be the greatest of all beings, but not as good 
as our father and mother ; that going to church is awful be- 
cause of sermons, but that many gro^\^l people go to sleep; 
that fathers and mothers read books and magazines to each 
other, especially on stormy days ; that Indian stories are 
shivery and delicious; that having preachers who talk re- 
ligion at supper is a hardship that must be cheerfully borne ; 
that fathers always put footstools under mothers' feet when 
the family circle gathers; that fathers write endless pages 
about dull things, and read them to mothers; mothers like it! 
Hospitality in new countries is not only a social obliga- 
tion, but part of the happiness of life, and the Caseys' home, 
from the first, was ever a center of hospitality. In Illinois 
in the 40 's entertaining was beginning to take on the lavish 

362 Ella Morris Kretschmar J- 1- S- h. s. 

form which in the 50 's reached a point equal to that of Co- 
lonial clays in the East. Tables groaned, and if they did not, 
it was because they were over-stoutly built. Why notf In the 
use of milk, eggs, butter, meats, game of all kinds, vegetables, 
and wild and cultivated fruits ad infinitum there was no 
slightest need for economy. If there was lacking the sophis- 
tication of older cuisines, housewifely methods preserved 
fine original flavors, and lavishness of variety made up for 
the things not then procurable in the AVest. In most homes 
there were touches of inherited china and silver to add to 
the creditable recently purchased table service, and perhaps 
no one in Illinois today can entertain more acceptably than 
did the host and hostess of the 50 's. 

One of the later by-phases of hospitality in the Casey 
home, which delighted Mr. Casey's family on the occasion 
of evening parties, was the grave manner in which the host 
would enter the arena where young men were contending 
for the favor of the belles of the evening, and by liis courtli- 
ness, gallantry, and charm of conversation, carry off the 
honors — and the favor of the belles. 

During the early years of his life in the West, Mr. Casey 
organized Pekin's first temperance society, and throughout 
his life was an abstemious man. But there was one small in- 
dulgent spot — how human — in his sweeping denunciation of 
liquor drinking. He had a measureless admiration for the 
intellect and oratory of Daniel Webster, as well as an af- 
fectionate regard for the man. He was always intensely in- 
dignant when Webster's attitude toward the temperance 
question Avas referred to in print or public speech; but in the 
privacy of his home circle he would sometimes mention, half 
in shame, half in pride, how many drinks Webster could take 
before making a critical speech, without affecting the lucid 
clearness of his thought, his unanswerable logic, his charm, 
and sheer power of oratory. 

As has been mentioned, Mr. Casey retired from active 
business at the end of the Civil War. His years passed se- 
renely in congenial pursuits, writing for the newspapers on 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 John Wanton Casey 363 

the topics of the hour (always constructively), in wide read- 
ing, in the diversion of mathematics, the care of his affairs, 
church work (he was junior warden of St. Paul's Episcopal 
Church for many years, also secretary-treasurer of the 
vestry), and in the enjoyment of friendships. 

One of the friendships of his later years always caused 
a smile in the family circle, when mentioned — that for Rob- 
ert Ingersoll. There existed something akin to an attach- 
ment between the two men so widely separated by years and 
temperament, and of such antithetical beliefs. Mr. Inger- 
soU's atheistic utterances caused his older friend deepest 
concern. But remonstrances and arguments — wliich some- 
times drew listeners — always ended with: "Well, Mr. Casey, 
if I am ever converted to religion, I shall join the Episcopal 
Church out of deference to you." 

All proper minded men are generous to their ovai, but 
family generosity was a characteristic of Mr Casey to a 
degree that is rare. From his children he Avithheld nothing 
that he could give. For their beloved mother all that he had 
was hers as well. When his parents died he waived his share 
of everything in the East Greenwich home — filled with rarely 
interesting and beautiful things — in favor of liis sisters. 

Up to within a few months of his death, Mr. Casey's pen 
never flagged in its service for the good of his country and 
State, and for the furthering of the best ideals of living. He 
had been in vigorous health all liis life— indeed, he once 
boasted that he had not been ill a day in fifty years — and 
was confined to his bed but for three weeks at the last. The 
end came without violence and characteristically. When 
coma had almost overwhelmed him, a nurse entered the room 
and said softly: "Mrs. Casey, you have eaten nothing all 
day; tea is served. Won't you come to the table?" Back 
from the very borderland of the Beyond the dear patient 
fought his way. and turning his dimming eyes to the white 
haired lady of his heart, he feebly whispered: "Take some- 
thing, dear, to sustain you." With this last chivalrous 
thought the eves closed, a few more breaths and he was 

364 Ella Morris Kretschmar J- 1- s. h. s. 

gone — the star-dust of Ms life fading into the warm col- 
ors of a greater dawn. His earthly remains lie today in 
Lakeside, the cemetery of Pekin, his home town for fifty 
years. jHis son, Edwin A. Casey, some years after his 
father's death, had placed at the head of two graves a monu- 
ment which bears no prideful epitaphs, but instead, that 
which would have been his father's dearest Avish. It reads 
(with only dates added) : 

Here Lie 

John Wanton Casey 


Elizabeth Moore Morris 

His Wife 


By J. C. Irving. 

The history of the Court House at Metamora is "au oft 
told tale," but very interesting, and especially so on the oc- 
casion of the transfer to the State of the Old Building as a 
Lincoln Memorial and Historical Museum. 

On the location of the county seat at Hanover (now Meta- 
mora) June 17, 1843, by commissioners selected for the pur- 
pose, donations of land, to\\ai lots, cash and labor were sub- 
scribed. A contract was made by the county commissioners, 
with "\Vm. Rockwell and Samuel S. Parke on June 4, 1844, 
who sublet the contract to David Irving for $4,400, and he 
with Denzil Holland, a carpenter, erected the building. The 
aforementioned Samuel S. Parks was operating a steam saw 
mill one mile north of the village (in what is now known as 
the Theena pasture) and the lumber for the building was 
sawed there. 

A brick yard existed just northwest of Oakwood ceme- 
tery and was conducted by "Captain Wilson," but was not 
of sufl5cient capacity to supply all the brick, and Irving and 
Holland purchased 40 acres of timber a half mile east of the 
other yard (on the farm now owned by John Schrepfer) and 
there burned the remainder of the brick required. They 
also burned a part, if not all, the lime required at the "Old 
Stone Quarry" near the abandoned coal mine, northwest of 

Nature had been prodigal in her gifts of raw material, 
and did her part in the building. 

A large portion of the lumber was black walnut and 
today stands as evidence of its stabilitv. 

366 J. G. Irving J- 1- s. h. s. 

The stairs leading to the court room led up from the 
rear eud. After passing through the long Hall on the ground 
floor one ascended either right or left passing two small jury- 
rooms and into the court room, facing south. In the south 
end of the room was the elevated seat of the judge. In front 
of the judge was the clerk's desk, surrounded by a railing, 
and around the outside of this rail ran a wide shelf upon 
which the lawj^ers arranged their books. The body of the 
room was occupied with black walnut benches. The desk of 
the jury box was on the left of the judge. 

In 1870 the stairs were changed to the front of the build- 
ing and the arrangement of the court room was changed, but 
the original building stands the same as when erected, with 
the exception of two wings erected about 1884. 

With some repairs and care the building will sur^^ve 
many generations yet. 

The wi-iter does not claim to recall all of the able attor- 
neys who have practiced at the Bar of the Old Court House, 
but will submit the following : 

Judges : Samuel Treat, Harriot, "Williams, David Davis, 
Samuel L. Richmond, John Burns, Mark Bangs, David Mc- 
Cullough, N. M. Laws, X. W. Green, S. S. Page, N. H. Worth- 
ington, T. M. Shaw. 

Attorneys — from Metamora: S. L. H. Haskel, Cyrus 
Niles, S. P.'Shope, C. H. Chitty, George I. Kettele, W. P. 
Brown, R. T. Cassell, Jos. J. Cassell, M. H. Cassell, W. L. 
Ellwood, S. S. Page, George T. Page, Hill, J. M. Fort, S. M. 
Garrett, John Clark, Wm. G. Ewing, Louis F. Feilitzsch, S 
V. Jones, George C. Christian, Hon. A. E. Stevenson, Zach. 
Taylor, John L. Bay, E. T. Perry. 

Lawyers — from abroad: Abraham Lincoln, Springfield. 

From Peoria— R. G. Ingersoll, N. Grove, S. D. Puter- 
baugh, S. L. Hopkins, J. K. Cooper, John S. Stevens, W. H. 
Horton and William O'Brien. 

Ben Prettyman, Pekin ; Robert Williams and Thos. Ker- 
rick, Bloomington 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Old Cottrt House at Mctamura ;567 

From El Paso— A. j\r. C'avan, W. S. Gibson, John T. 
Harper, Walter Bennett, AV. li. BuUoek, W. G. Kaudall, 
W. W. Hammond, Peoria; A. S. Triule, Chicago. 

From Minonk — Martin L. Newell, Davidson, Thomas 
Kennedy, J. A. Reily, W. C. Simpson. 

Leonard Swett, Chicago; Geo. A. Gill, Washburn; John 
W. Dougherty, Washington, HI. 

From Eureka— B. D. Meek, J. A. Briggs, C. H. Radford. 

From Lacon — Hon. Geo. 0. Barnes, R. M. Barnes, Bob 
Edwards, Joseph Ong, David Miller, Winslow Evans. 


Ex-Governor Joseph W. Fifek in Dedicatory Address. 
(Copied largely from Metamora Herald, August 26, 1921.) 

The official transfer of the old Metamora court house to 
the State of Illinois, to be preserved for the ages as a Lin- 
coln Memorial Museum, was celebrated by Metamora in con- 
nection with the annual Woodford County Old Settlers' re- 
union, and thus the occasion was made a noteworthy one. 

By action of the last session of the legislature the State 
accepted the ofl'er of the village of Metamora to deed the 
historic old building entire and unconditionally to its care. 
Former Governor Joseph W. Fifer, in the absence of State 
Senator Simon E. Lantz, appearing as the representative 
of the State, received from Mayor J. C. Snyder the deed to 
the property. 

Ex-Governor Joseph W. Fifer of Bloomington, who one 
year ago at the Old Settlers' picnic in Metamora set in 
motion the project of the State of Illinois taking charge of 
the building, delivered the dedicatory address. Governor 
Fifer, in his address last year, pointed out that the old build- 
ing is the last remaining court house in the state in which 
Abraham Lincoln practiced law and he pledged that he would 
endeavor to enlist the support of the governor and legis- 
lators in an official move to preserve the old court house. 
Senator Simon E. Lantz took up the matter and introduced 
a bill in the last assembly, which he successfully put through 
the senate, and Representatives Charles E. Turner, ISIichael 
Fahy and D. S. ]\Iyers pushed the bill through the house, dur- 
ing the closing days of the session, and it was duly signed 
by Governor Small. 


vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Old Court House at Metamora 369 

Has an Interesting History. 

A halo of iiiteresting history clusters around the ven- 
erated old structure. It was built in 1845 by David Irving, 
father of J. C. Irving of Metamora, from native burned brick 
and lime and hardwood lumber sawed from the virgin forest. 
Abraham Lincoln, as a circuit riding lawyer, had been attend- 
ing court in Old Versailles, the first county seat of Woodford 
county, and on the removal of the county seat to Metamora 
he continued to ride the circuit with the presiding judge and 
the other lawyers from one county seat to another. He was 
a regular attendant at court in Metamora, except possibly 
during the sessions of the legislature of which he was a mem- 
ber for several years, and continued to ride the circuit until 
the late fifties. There are still a few people living who saw 
Lincoln in the actual trial of cases in the old court room on 
the second floor. Other men of prominence who attended 
court in the old building were Judge David Davis, who after- 
ward became a justice of the LTnited States Supreme Court; 
Adlai E. Stevenson, who practiced law in Metamora for ten 
years and afterward became Vice President of the United 
States ; Eobert G. Ingersoll, who though an agnostic was one 
of the most scholarly men of his day; and there are others 
who achieved state and nation-'nade fame. 

The old building had served as the Woodford county 
court house for half a century, when in 1896 an election 
changed the county seat to Eureka. Upon the building of the 
new court house the old building was deeded to the \nllage of 
Metamora. It has been used as a village hall, board meeting 
place, etc., and has been kept in a fair state of repair. A 
year ago the village turned the old court room over to the 
Metamora post of the American Legion as a meeting place 
and the post has kept the upper rooms in presentable shape. 
The day was not far distant when more extensive repairs 
would be needed if the old building was to be preserved and 
the village welcomed the suggestion that the state assume 
OAvnership and care of the building. 

370 '/■ C. Irving 

J. I. s. H. 

To Be Lincoln Museum. 
At a recent conference between Colonel C. E. Miller of 
the State Department of Public Works and Buildings, Sen- 
ator Simon E. Lantz and a local committee appointed by 
Mayor Snyder, the plan was agreed upon to make of the 
building a Lincoln museum, gathering together local me- 
mentoes of Lincoln and articles of pioneer life and placing a 
competent care-taker in charge. This matter -will be taken up 
at once after the formal transfer of the deed. 

Old Settlees' Eeuniox. 

Coincident with the big feature of the day the annual 
reunion of the Old Settlers of Woodford county takes place. 
The day's program opened with a band concert at 9 o'clock 
in the morning by Elgin's band of Peoria, and at 10:30 the 
annual Old Settlers' session was held. 

The amusements during the morning hours were a horse- 
shoe tournament between the Woodford county team and 
teams representing surrounding counties in this part of the 
State and a ball game. 

At the high school ball grounds the Wasliington Lib- 
erties and Metamora staged a game at 10 a. m. 

Airplane Flights. 

Between 12:30 and 1:30 Mark Arnold, daredevil aerial 
performer, made ascensions. Airplane passengers were car- 
ried during the day. 

Great Program Afternoon. 

Elgin band gave a half hour's concert from 1:30 to 2:00 
o'clock and the dedication program began promptly at 2:00 
o'clock. Ex-Grovernor Fifer gave an historical address dedi- 
cating the old court house to the State. Immediately there- 
after Mayor Snyder presented the deed to the property to 
Governor Fifer, who made a short address of acceptance. 

Hon. Frank Gillespie, brilliant Bloomington attorney and 
orator, delivered the annual address to the Old Settlers, and 
short informal talks followed by Kepresentatives Turner, 
Fahy and Myers, and by visiting Old Settlers. 


Transfer of Old Metamora Court House to State 
Has Great Setting. 

Occasion in Connection With Annual Reunion of Old Settlers 

Results in One of Biggest Days of 
Metamora 's History. 

As the days of more than half a century ago when Lin- 
coln and Douglas made campaign speeches in Metamora, 
when the first train went through the toAvn or when a great 
barbecue was given at the close of the Civil War, have been 
often referred to as Metamora 's biggest days, so the occa- 
sion of the transfer of the old Metamora court house to the 
State of Illinois, to become known throughout the Union as 
the "Lincoln Memorial Court House at Metamora," will be 
recounted by the present generation in the years to come. 

The dedication, held in connection with the annual "Wood- 
ford County Old Settlers' reunion in Metamora, made a 
day of double interest, because of the gathering of many 
notable and interesting personages of an older day, that 
virtually formed a connecting link with the days when Abra- 
ham Lincoln trod over the same ground upon which the 
thousands were gathered, with the present era of automo- 
biles and airplanes. Gray-haired people reflecting over the 
past could not but note the wide variance between the horse- 
back and market-wagon days of sixty years ago and the auto 
lined streets, while aloft an airplane flitted about. 

Great Day's Program. 
The day's program was quite in keeping with the spirit 
and importance of the occasion. Judge Gillespie, in his ad- 


372 J. C. Irving j.i.s.h.s. 

dress, stated that he considered the occasion sacred, and 
those who listened to the addresses of Ex-Governor Fifer, 
Judge Gillespie, W. L. EUwood, James Piper, Prof. B. J. 
Eadf ord and President Irving were so impressed. There was 
an air of dignity about it all that was not lost sight of in the 
pleasantries, the amusements and sports incident to a cele- 
bration. Everything was clean, orclerly and enjoyable, and 
satisfaction was expressed and reflected on every hand. 

The program was carried out to the letter, ^vith the ex- 
ception of the absence of Senator Simon E. Lantz, deputed to 
receive the deed to the old court house. Ex-Governor Fifer 
acted in his stead, receiving the deed from Mayor J. C. Sny- 
der, and acknowledging its receipt on behalf of the State. 

President J. C. Irving presided throughout the program, 
calling the assembly to order at 10:30 in the morning, after 
a short concert by Elgin's band of Peoria. Eev. J. D. Cal- 
houn of Washington gave the invocation and Dr. J. I. Knob- 
lauch, on behalf of Metamora, gave the address of welcome. 
Dr. Knoblauch made a plea for an increase in membership 
in the Old Settlers' association, which resulted in many new 
names being added to the roster. Attorney W. L. Ellwood of 
Peoria responded to the address, on behalf of the Old 

J. C. Irving Re-Elected. 

J. C. Irving was re-elected president of the Old Settlers' 
association, at the business session held. Miss Lillian Theena 
was elected secretary. Resolutions upon the death of mem- 
bers during the year past were adopted. 

During the noon hour the park was a great picnic ground, 
many of the visitors having brought picnic baskets. Hot 
cot¥ee was served free at a stand in the park. 

An airplane flight preceded the afternoon program and 
Elgin's band gave a concert until 2 o'clock, when Governor 
Fifer delivered his dedicatory address, a masterful effort, 
which appears in part in this issue. At its close Mayor 
Snyder tendered the Ex-Governor the deed to the old court 
house property, to forever remain the property of the State. 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 QUI Court House at Metamora 373 

Judge Frank Gillespie of Blooroington delivered a beauti- 
ful address immediately following the delivery of the deed. 

Prof. B. J. Radford of ]<]ureka, who claimed the prize as 
the oldest native son of Woodford county, having been born 
here in 1838, spoke remiuiscently. He related that in the 
old court house building he had heard Abraham Lincoln, 
Judge Logan, David Davis and Bob IngersoU speak. He sat 
on the wheel of the wagon from which Lincoln spoke in Meta- 
mora in 1858, and in Galesbui'g he stood for three hours dur- 
ing the delivery of the debate speeches of Lincoln and Doug- 
las. His father served on a jury in a case in which Lincoln 
appeared as counsel and he remembers his father telling his 
mother that he sat up until 2 o'clock in the morning listen- 
ing to Lincoln telling stories. 

The contests and sports took place immediately at the 
close of the oratorical program, and included various races 
for prizes. 

Benson was the winner of the baseball game of the after- 
noon, trimming Roanoke 16 to 3, in what proved to be an 
uninteresting game. Ehresman was on the mound for Ben- 
son and had the game in hand all through. Breyne, the 
Roanoke twirler, was batted all over the lot, and to make 
matters worse his field support failed him badly. 

The morning game of baseball between the Washington 
Liberties and IMetamora was won by Metamora, 16-2. 

The game of horseshoes between DeAvitt and Woodford 
counties was won by Dewitt county. The purse was $50. 

The day's program wound up with a free moving picture 
show in the park, a concert by Elgin's band and a pavement 
dance, the music being furnished by Dusey's orchestra of 
Peoria. Fully 2,500 people saw the picture show and the 
dancers numbered nearly 150 couples. 

The crowds in mid-afternoon were probably as large as 
have ever been seen in INIetamora. The estimated attendance 
by different judges ran all the way from 6,000 to 10,000. It 
was an orderly crowd and, while there were plenty of police 
on hand, their principal duties were in directing traffic and 
fiarnishing information. 

374 J- C. Irving J- ^- ^- H- s. 

Great credit is due tlie business people of Metamora, all 
of whom contributed generously, as did also a number of 
interested citizens, some of them from quite a distance. Par- 
ticular credit is due President J. C. Irving for his part in 
arranging the program and his skillful handling of the 
same, and to the executive committee, E. AV. Knoblauch, J. 
W. Miller, F. AV. Wagner, AVm. Noe, E. V. Giehl and Wm. 

Address of W. L. Ellwood. 

It is with much pleasure. Dr. Knoblauch, that on behalf 
of the Old Settlers present I respond to your cordial wel- 
come extended us by the citizens of Metamora. 

None know better than I of the enterprise, hospitality 
and goodfellowship wliich your citizens always show when 
the Old Settlers gather here, for I have missed very few of 
their meetings held here during the last twenty-five years. I 
know that no community in the State has a greater appre- 
ciation of the importance and value of these gatherings, or 
does more to contribute to the comfort and pleasure of its 
guests than the citizens of this beautiful little village. 

It is with me, sir, doubly pleasant to have the privilege 
of speaking at this time in reply to your address of hearty 

Metamora will ever be near and dear to my heart. I 
have been intimately acquainted with it and its older citi- 
zens for over 50 years. In 1865 my mother, a Avidow of the 
Civil AVar, moved to this toAvn from a farm near the village 
of Mackinaw. 

Here my sister and myself grew to adult age. AA^ith the 
exception of six months spent in AV"atseka, where I first opened 
a law office, Metamora was my home from 1865 to November, 
1896. Here I studied law and practiced my profession for 
more than 20 years. Here I have experienced success and 
sore defeat, happiness and sorrow. Here my children were 
born, and their mother, and my mother and my maternal 
grandparents, and other relatives, lie at rest in your beauti- 
ful cemetery of Oakwood. I was intimately acquainted with 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Old Court lluHse at Mdamoia o7j 

your citizens of 50 years ago, and know tliat Ihe early settlers 
of this town were an enter^jrising and intelligent people and 
representative of the better class of Americans. Among 
them were the Pages, the Perrys, the "Whitmires, the Cassells, 
the Bantas and Kays, Babcock, Kockwell, Keeder and Kel- 
logg, Shope, Cross, Irving, (Jish, Chitty, Clark, Plauk, Ste- 
venson, Lamson, Hartley, Kipp, Conrad, Kohman, and many 

More than 50 years ago Metamora had a good public 
library where the standard works of history and biography, 
and the best works of fiction and miscellaneous literature 
could be found. For many years, perhaps over 35, there was a 
society here known as the Independent Order of Good Fel- 
lows. This was a debating society, formed during the War 
of the Rebellion, and it met once a week and debated all kinds 
of questions. It was entertaining and instructive, and many 
men who have since achieved success and distinction, made 
their first speech in the Good Fellows' hall. 

Metamora has much of which to be proud. It is one of 
the most beautifully located villages in Illinois, surrounded 
by a country extremely beautiful and fertile, occupied by an 
industrious, intelligent and patriotic citizensliip. 

Few communities of its size have had more men who have 
left them to become distinguished in the business and polit- 
ical world, than this. Simeon P. Shope became a leading 
lawyer of Fulton county, and one of the Judges of the Su- 
preme Court of Illinois. Adlai E. Stevenson became a mem- 
ber of Congress, First Assistant Postmaster General, and 
Vice-President of the United States. John L. Ray became 
one of the leading lawyers of Champaign county and for 
many years stood at the head of its bar. Andrew Banta be- 
came a prominent lawyer, and a member of the Legislature 
in Kansas. Samuel S. Page became a Circuit Judge of this 
District after he moved to Peoria, and later became one of 
the most successful and brilliant trial lawyers of Chicago. 
His brother, George T. Page, became one of the leading 
la-\vyers of Peoria, and is now a Judge of the United States 
Circuit Court at Chicago, -which ofl5ce he holds for life. Dick 

376 J. C. Irving j.i.s.h.s. 

Hartley, born here, is the State's Attorney at Salt Lake City, 

I can not express the pleasure I feel in knowing that 
today the State of Illinois is to receive a deed for the old 
Court House across the way, and is to take over its care and 

That old building is historic. Built in 1843, it has been 
the scene of many hotly contested trials. Its courts have 
been presided over by an able and distinguished line of 
judges. Among them have been Samuel H. Treat, afterwards 
a judge of the United States Court. David Davis, after- 
wards United States Senator, and a member of the Supreme 
Court of the United States, Mark Bangs, Richmond, Burns, 
Shaw, McCulloch, Laws, Green, S. S. Page and Nicholas E. 

Its walls have echoed to the eloquence of Abraham Lin- 
coln, Leonard, Swett, George 0. Barnes, John Burns, N. E. 
Worthington, Adlai E. Stevenson, W. W. O'Brien and that 
prince of orators, Robert G. IngersoU. 

I hope that your citizens will ever take an interest in that 
old building. To the young men and women of this com- 
munity and county I would say, take an interest in your 
community and county, and acquire a knowledge of the his- 
tory of your county and of the men who preceded you, for 
in the lives of the men who have gone before and have de- 
veloped and improved this section of our beautiful land 
there is much to inspire and* emulate. 

Governor Fifer's Address. 
In a little speech a year ago at this place, I suggested 
that the old Court House be taken over by the State. The 
suggestion seemed to make a favorable impression upon the 
good people of this County, and through their efforts, and 
the efforts of their representatives in the General Assembly, 
a bill to that end became a law at the last session, and the 
Court House is now the property of the State. I congratu- 
late the people of Woodford County, and the people of the 
whole state, upon the fact that the only remaining Court 

Vol. XIV. xos. 3-4 Old Court House at Mttamora 377 

House of the old Eighth Circuit is to be cared for and pre- 
served by all the people. 

The value of this modest temple of justice is not in its 
splendid architecture, nor in the materials of which it is 
built, but rather in the sacred memories that cluster about it. 
In this regard it is doubtful if a more important or valuable 
court house can be found in the United States. There were 
times when Abraham Lincoln, Adlai E. Stevenson, Robert G. 
IngersoU and Judge Uavid Davis all met under the roof of 
that building, not only once, but many times. No one would 
have belie\ed at that time that within the walls of that un- 
pretentious structure there were assembled a future Presi- 
dent and Vice-President, a future Judge of the highest Ju- 
dicial Body in the world, and the Greatest orator of his age, 
and yet this all proved to be true. 

The old Eighth Circuit, as it is now called in history, 
embraced substantially the same territory that is now in- 
cluded in the Third Supreme Judicial District. Judge Davis 
was the Judge of the Circuit, and nearly all of the leading 
lawyers of the Cii'cuit followed him from court to court, and 
I have been told they went from county to county in the fol- 
lowing order: From Sangamon to Tazewell, theia to Wood- 
ford, McLean, Logan, DeWitt, Ford, Piatt, Champaign, Ver- 
milion, Edgar, Coles, Shelby, Moultrie, Douglas and thence 
back to Sangamon. 

It was in riding the Circuit that Lincoln became ac- 
quainted with the great lawj'ers of Central Illinois, and laid 
the foundation of that success which placed him in the Presi- 
dential chair, and gave him a fame greater than that of any 
man of his time. 

It was here in this County, in the midst of this people, 
that Adlai E. Stevenson, who was one of the ablest and most 
discreet statesmen of his time, laid the foundations of his 
future success. 

It is equally true that Judge David Davis is much in- 
debted to the influence of the bar and the people of the old 
Eighth Circuit for a career which placed him on the Su- 

378 J- C. Irving J- 1- S- h. s. 

preme Bench of the United States, and gave to him a reputa- 
tion as one of the greatest Judges of that august body. 

So it will be seen when all these facts are considered, that 
I have not over-stated the case when I say that the building 
which we dedicate today is the most important and the most 
memorable structure of the kind to be found in the United 
States. It is to be hoped that the Governor of the State will 
appoint some worthy custodian to have charge of it, and to 
see to it well that it is preserved in all respects as we see it 

I know of no one better qualified for the position of cus- 
todian than Mr. J. C. Irving of this city, whose father, I am 
told, erected the building many years ago. 

While this memorial is now the property of the State, 
to be cared for by the state, yet, my fellow citizens, it must 
always remain in your special keeping; in the keeping of 
Woodford County. 

It is well kno\vn that the Daughters of the American 
Revolution are marking the trail of those who rode the old 
Eighth Circuit, and when that work is completed, I am sure 
that the point of greatest interest will be found right here in 
your beautiful little city of Metamora. 

My fellow citizens, you will note that great men never 
come singly, but in groups. The Revolutionary War gave 
to the world many great names. Washington, Hamilton, Jef- 
ferson, Madison, Monroe, Adams, and many others. It can 
clearly be seen that a successful revolution, and the estab- 
lishment of free institution in a wilderness, was destined to 
send some names to the pantheon of fame, and so it was. 

Jackson was the last Revolutionary President, and from 
Ms time down to the inauguration of Abraham Lincoln, the 
Presidential chair was filled with mediocrity. The event of 
the Civil War gave birth to another group of great names, 
and among them the name of Abraham Lincoln, that strange 
man who came among us, strode across this little grain of 
sand of ours, and disappeared leaving the world in wonder 
and amazement at his great achievements. 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Qi^i Court llousc at Metamora 379 

It is not only true that great men come in groups, but it 
is true also that the event and the man must come together, 
if one's greatness is to be known by the world, and it is 
equally true that no man can be truly great miless he at- 
taches his name to some great movement for the benefit 
of mankind. All these conditions united to make Abraham 
Lincoln the greatest character of his age. It is doubtful 
whether Abraham Lincoln would have been known to the 
world, had it not been for his great rival and contemporary, 
Stephen A. Douglas. The names of Lincoln and Douglas 
will be forever associated together, and these two men are 
now justly regarded as the greatest statesmen this country 
has produced since the era of American Independence. 

Friends, let us all emulate the example of the great men 
who once assembled in yonder building. Let us guard with 
the most scrupulous fidelity, even to the sacrifice of life itself, 
the political institutions which have been handed down to us 
by the august hands of our Revolutionary Fathers. 

Attorney GrLLESPiE's Addeess. 
Attorney Gillespie said in part: "And Abram said unto 
Lot, let there be no strife, I pray thee, between me and thee, 
and between my herdmen and thy herdmen ; for we be breth- 
ren. Is not the whole land before thee? Separate thyself, 
I pray thee, from me: If thou wilt take the left hand, then 
I will go to the right ; or if thou depart to the right hand, then 
I will go to the left." 

Pioneering is a law of life — a vital principle of life. 
Without the pioneer civilization would die. The fact that 
we have old settlers pre-supposes the pioneer, the new settler 
of long ago. 

It is of the pioneer who in his evolution has produced 
the old settler, I speak today, and in speaking of them I say : 
"Not as white saints without a blot 
"We celebrate the deeds they wrought. 
For they were made of average clay. 
As mortal men are made today, 

380 J. C. Irving J- 1- s. H. s. 

For always iu dark hours of need 

A mau is furnished for the deed. 

And always when the storm clouds lower 

Strong men are ready for the hour, 

And thus from earth's most common breed 

Spring heroes fit for every need." 
Just common men have kept the world and civilization 
going. They have the dynamic power of body and soul. 
They, and they alone, have the power of movement, of loco- 
motion, and it is they who have gone out and pioneered. The 
sons of Abraham were the sons of Hagar, an Egyptian hand 
maid. The world is peopled with men of the royal blood of 
common men. 

"If thou wilt take the left hand, then I will go to the 
right; or if thou depart to the right hand, then I will go to 
the left. ' ' This is the language of Abraham to Lot, and Lot 
became the pioneer, for he went out into the plain, and 
Abraham dwelt in the land of Canaan. 

The pioneer, the old settler, had to give up something. 
To be successful he must always forget self in the grosser 
sense. His prayer must ever be: "Lord help me live from day 
to day, in such a self-forgetful way, that even when I kneel 
to pray, my prayer shall be for others. Help me in all the 
work I do to ever be sincere and true, and know that all I'd 
do for you must needs be done for others. Let 'self be 
crucified and slain and buried deep; and all in vain may ef- 
forts be to rise again, unless to Uve for others. And when 
my work on earth is done, and my new work in heaven's 
begun, may I forget the crown I've won while thinking still 
of others. Others, Lord, yes others; let this my motto be; 
help me to live for others, that I may live like thee." 

And so our fathers gave up established civilization, and 
took up their abode in the wilderness. They gave up every- 
thing, that they might achieve, that they might become cul- 
tured in liberty and freedom, and they built this Eepublic 
wisely and well. And they built Illinois. I love the waving 
fields of grain, the dawTiing skies of gold and sun, the twilight 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Old Court House at Metamora 381 

hours when day is done; it's all in Illinois! Here lie the 
green graves of our sires, of men who fought the country's 
wars, the loved and lost of passing years, in Illinois, my 


By William I. Kincaid. 

It seems fitting, in the absence of any record of the 
history of Camp Butler and its U. S. A. Hospital and Camp 
Hospital, that it would be well for the present and future 
generations of Central Illinois that an account of its organ- 
ization, and what it accomplished during its existence, from 
1861 to 1865, be written as a history, calling to mind the fact 
that the beautiful spot. Camp Butler National Cemetery, is 
of interest to every citizen of Sangamon and adjoining 
counties as the resting place of so many of our brave sons 
and brothers — both Union and Confederate. As we pass and 
repass this God's Acre — see Old Glory floating to the breeze 
and the glistening white of the marble markers at each 
grave, bringing to our minds the great sacrifice and cost of 
reuniting in one our battle-torn and blood-stained country 
— lest we forget. He who undertakes the writing of tliis his- 
tory must needs do it from memory, and so necessarily Avill 
not promise accuracy in regard to dates, but will approxi- 
mate as nearly as possible. 

The writer's first knowledge of the camp was when the 
Eendezvous Camp was established at Clear Lake in 1861, 
which was continued until the Winter of '62. On account of 
bad roads and the difficulty of transporting commissary 
stores and men through Sangamon county mud, the camp 
was changed to Camp Butler on the Wabash & Western Rail- 
road (I have wondered why it was called Camp Butler; was 
it named for General Ben Butler?), where it continued until 
the close of the war. 

The writer enlisted Aug. 13. 1862, in a company raised 
by Sheriff J. M. Hurt, of Athens, Menard county, and went 
into camp expecting to be part of the 114th Illinois, seven 
companies being of Sangamon county, two from Menard 



Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Camp Butler 383 

and one from Cass completing the regiment. My company 
was transferred to Camp Latham at Lincohi and with eight 
companies of Logan, "A" of Sangamon, Capt. Henry Yates, 
"K" of Menard, Capt. J. M. Hurt, became the 106th Illinois 
Infantry, which left Lincohi Nov. 8 for the field, worked its 
way south until June '63, when it joined in the Siege of 
Vicksburg. The writer, on a forced march down the Yazoo 
Valley, on June 7, was stricken with heat or sunstroke, from 
which he did not recover for six months, and was furloughed 
home by special request of Gov. Richard Yates, which act 
will cause me to revere his memory as long as life lasts. And 
when I have had opportunity, I have honored the father in 
being faithful to the son, Richard Y^ates, Jr. 

My admittance to the general hospital at Camp Butler 
was in November, 1863, as a patient unfit for field service, 
and from that date begins the recollection of nearly two 
years' service as acting assistant steward in the U. S. A. 
General Hospital, which at that time consisted of two wards, 
one near the main entrance to the camp and the other in the 
northeast corner of the camp. Each ward contained sixty 
cots and was under the management of Superintendent of 
Hospital Dr. "\Vm. Sturgis, whose office was in Springfield. 
Dr. A. G. Kinkead was surgeon in charge at Camp Butler, 
with Chas. F. Mills as steward, John J. Cook druggist, Henry 
Hays and Allen Bradley as clerks. The second ward was 
under the care of Dr. Mills, an Englishman, who was his 
own surgeon, druggist and clerk combined; wrote no pre- 
scriptions or kept any record of his work; would fill his 
pockets -ndth pills and powders and arms full of bottles and 
would proceed to dose the boys for whatever ailed them, all 
from one spoon or medicine glass. This continued until the 
middle of December, when an order came from the Surgeon 
General, U. S. A., that a record of patients' diagnoses of 
ailments and treatments be kept and forwarded daily to the 
department, through surgeon in charge and superintendent 
of Hospitals. It was at this time that the writer began his 
career as assistant steward, as the need of one who could 

384 William I. Kincaid J. i.s.H. s. 

keep the records, portion out quinine and compound cathar- 
tic pills. The lot fell to me, as I had had four months' ex- 
perience in a drug store and was the only one in the ward 
who had the proper credentials. Doctor Mills said that he 
could not stand so much unnecessary red tape, and so ten- 
dered his resignation, which was accepted by the department. 
Up to this time, the most of the hospital record was in car- 
ing for the Confederate prisoners captured at Arkansas post, 
as the markers in the National Cemetery will show. But the 
assembling of troops by enlistment and draft made it neces- 
sary to enlarge the capacity, and during the winter of '63 and 
'64, under the supervision of Steward Mills, seven new 
wards of sixty cot capacity and a large office building were 
erected, and an enlarged corps of surgeons and clerks were 
added. Dr. H. B. Buck, U. S. V., was made superintendent of 
hospitals; Dr. Wm. Sturgis, surgeon in charge, with A. Q. 
Kinkead of Greenfield, 111., A. V. Goltra of Springfield, J. L. 
Gray of Macon, 111., Stimmel, Thrall and Hough, of Ohio, all 
contract surgeons, with the addition of H. D. Hill, U. S. A., 
steward, of Ohio, W. D. Forbes, G^tu Allen and Chas. Hutch- 
erson as clerks, which completed the hospital corps, of which 
the writer is the only surviving member. 

At that time there were no organizations save the Sani- 
tary Commission — no Y. M. C. A., Red Cross, Salvation Army 
nor Knights of Columbus to look after the sick and wounded, 
so the commission secured the services of Mrs. Sarah Gregg 
of Ottawa as Matron (the boys all called her Mother Gregg), 
with a Mrs. Moore, Mrs. Tynan and Miss Tierney as her 
assistants. Their work was the distribution and preparing 
of delicacies for the very sick ones, and it was surely appre- 
ciated by the boys. We were pretty well supplied with jellies, 
jams, canned fruits and such other articles as were contrib- 
uted by the Sanitary Commissions throughout the country. 
Among the active ones was Loami, Indian Point, Irish Grove, 
Mason City, Walker and Lease's Grove and many others 
who contributed liberally. The headquarters of the commis- 
sion was in the Lincoln Homo in Springfield. Considering 

II! in 




Mi^s.Mooi^G Mi^^X.D.TQrvtvQy 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 

Camp Butler 385 

the conveniences of that time, soldiers in the Camp Butler 
Hospital were well cared for. The greater number of graves 
in the cemetery are of the boys whose parents or friends 
were not able to take them home to the family burying 
grounds. When a patient died his remains were kept long 
enough to inform his parents or friends and get word as to 
the disposal of the body. Very many who were able to do so 
came and brought better cofiBns and took them to their homes, 
and many have been removed since the war; and others who 
have come to Camp Butler with the intention of moving their 
loved ones, when they have found such a well kept and cared 
for resting place, have been content to leave them undis- 
turbed. A few years ago a man came from Texas to take 
home the remains of a brother (a Confederate), and when 
he saw the cemetery and noted the care that was taken of it, 
lie returned home, saying that he would rather have his 
brother's body resting in Camp Butler Cemetery than in the 
little "God's acre" in the southland. 

It is to be regretted that a fire that destroyed the office 
building in the Fall of '65 burned all the hospital records, 
which would have been quite an asset to the Historical So- 
ciety of Springfield — that is such a factor in calling to mind 
all the achievements of the past, and, "lest ice forget," re- 
minding the coming generation of the great heritage that has 
been handed down to them and to charge them that there is 
as great a need of loyalty and patriotism today as there was in 
the days gone by. And may they so live and act that they 
may always be able to say: "I am proud of the fact that I am 
a citizen of this great State of Illinois, the State that gave 
to the Nation a Lincoln and a Grant. ' ' 


By Eose Moss Scott. 

The first school in Edgar County was opened in a log 
building in Hunter Township, in what is known as the North 
Arm neighborhood. 

It is worthy of note that the goose quill pen was but 
three years behind the pioneer's axe. The honor of teach- 
ing this school is generally given to Amos Williams. Mr. 
Williams was considered a competent teacher for this time, es- 
pecially in writing, as shown by the early records of the 
county. His method of writing his name officially is worthy 
of note. It was signed "A. Williams," all the letters of his 
name being capitals and joined very closely. 

The first school district of this county was organized by 
the Coimty Commissioners Court on March 7, 1826, and em- 
braced the ^-illage of Paris and the adjacent farms. A peti- 
tion was presented by Smith Shaw, praying for a school dis- 
trict, which was granted. The boundaries of this district al- 
most conform to those of the "Paris Union School District." 

The Paris schools have had an official existence since 
1826. The same Amos Williams, who had the honor of be- 
ing the first teacher in the county, was the first teacher in 
Paris in the year 1824. The first school building was a rude 
structure of logs surrounded by a stockade and stood at the 
south end of the alley which divides the block on the south 
side of the public square. This school house stood on the 
southeast corner of a lot then owned by General Alexander, 
which was part of his homestead. 

This school was taught by Amos Williams in 1824. Isaac 
Alexander taught school in the same house in 1828. In 1835 
one room in a building south of where the Baptist church 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Earhj Institutions Edgar Co. 387 

now stands, was used as a school room. The first school 
houses were of logs. The seats were benches without backs, 
desks were shelves along the wall. Here pupils sat to learn 
to write. In building the school house one log was left out 
above tliis shelf to furnish light. A fireplace heated the 

Whatever book a child could procure was his text book. 
The teacher was paid by the father, paying a fixed price for 
each child he sent, and the teacher "boarding around" for 
at least part of the pay. 

The boy or girl who could "read and write and do sums" 
was considered well educated. 

There were schools kept in various places in the 
county as people came, but until 1855, and the enactment of 
the Free School Law, educational opportunities in Edgar 
County were limited to those who were able and willing to 
pay the expense, which that law required the public to pay. 

After the enactment of the Free School Law of 1855, the 
Paris School District at once took the steps necessary to re- 
ceive the benefits of that law, by selecting a site and erecting 
a good building with seven rooms. The same enterprise was 
exhibited throughout the county and school districts organ- 
ized. The public school system at first met with some oppo- 
sition, but the beneficial results soon became apparent. For 
a person to speak of the public schools in any manner other 
than to acknowledge their merits would classify the speaker 
as opposed to good government. 

Pro\'isions were made by the General Government before 
the organization of Illinois as a State or Territory, for the 
education of its people, by the donation of Section 16 of 
each to-miship of public lands for the maintenance of public 
schools within that township. 

The present office of County Superintendent of Schools 
had its origin in the office of School Commissioner, who was 
appointed by the County Commissioners' Court to negotiate 
the sale of tlie Sixteenth section. His duties were similar to 
those of a real estate broker. His only compensation was a 

388 Rose Moss Scott J. i. s.h. s. 

percentage on lands sold. The first School Commissioner 
was Jonathan Mayo, who was appointed in 1843. Mr. Mayo 
was succeeded by Garland B. Shelledy, who was succeeded 
by Mr. Kelly. 

During this time a law was passed by the Legislature 
giving the County Commissioner power to examine and 
license teachers. 

The first man called to this important duty was Sheridan 
P. Eead, in 1858, after the public school system had been in 
operation about four years. "VVe find in his report to the State 
Authorities the following: "Under the present law there 
has been a great improvement in the schools of this county. 
The districts are erecting good comfortable houses, and T 
do not fear but that Edgar County will take a high stand in 
educational matters hereafter. The great want that is felt 
here now is for well qualified teachers." In 1841 Edgar 
Academy was established by Rev. Henry I. Venable on a 
tract of about six acres, where the Catholic church and school 
are now situated. 

This school was opened on the first of December, 1841, 
by Eev. and Mrs. Venable, as a private enterprise. It was in- 
tended this should be a school for girls, but during the first 
year several boys made application for instruction in the lan- 
guage and mathematics; it was then decided to change the 
plan and take both males and females. 

Rev. Venable was assisted in his efforts to meet the 
wants of the country for educational facilities by funds fur- 
nished to him without the payment of interest in most cases. 
The erection of the buildings and the employment of an ade- 
quate supply of assistants involved a heaw expenditure. In 
the Spring of 1848 a subscription was made to make the 
school a Presyterian institution, and the property was passed 
to the control of a Board of Trustees. 

This school was continued until 1868. The young men 
and women who received their academic education at this 
school numbered more than one thousand, some students 
comina: from Indiana. John C. Means, John W. Blackburn, 
Miss Nancy Stout and Miss Jane Dayton were teachers. Mr. 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Eaiiy iHntitutioHti Edijar Co. 389 

Nelson succeeded Kev. Veuable as principal. Most of the 
students came on horse back. Those living some dis- 
tance would spend the week end, when the weathei- was in- 
clement, with those living nearer the school. In those days if 
you wished to go for a visit you went, and when you arrived 
it was not necessary to present your card. Soon after the 
Edgar Academy was placed under the auspices of the Pres- 
byterian Church of Paris by Mr. Venable in 18-18, the Meth- 
odists of Paris instituted the Methodist Seminary under the 
auspices of the Methodist Church. 

Colonel Mayo gave a block of ground between East Court 
and East Wood streets for a site — a beautiful tract covered 
w-ith forest trees. A two story brick building was erected 
thereon for the school. 

Rev. Jesse H. Moore was the principal. This school to 
some extent was a rival to Edgar Academy. In 1869 the 
Paris Union School district was organized under a special 
charter, and this building was then used for public schools. 


The first church in this county was in the North Arm 
neighborhood. In 1818 the Rev. Joseph Curtis and his wife, 
Hannah, came to North Arm, and he established a Methodist 
Class at the home of Jonathan Mayo (who lived there at 
that time). The class consisted of Mr. Curtis and w^ife, 
Jonathan Mayo and wife, John Stratton and wife, and Sallie 
Whitley. Mr. Curtis was the first minister to preach the 
word of God in Edgar County. The place of meeting was 
soon moved to the Curtis home on the Clinton road, where 
for 24 years they worshipped. The North Arm brick church 
was built in 1842 and stood at the first cross roads east of the 
present church. 

The first church organized in Paris was the Methodist 
Episcopal in 1823 by Rev. H. Vreedenberg, and the Presby- 
terian Church was organized in 1824. Both denominations 
worshipped in private residences or in the court house for 
some time and until church buildiners could be constructed. 

390 Rose Moss Scott J- ^- S- h. s. 

The Methodists geuerally met at the home of Smith 
Shaw, who was one of the original members of the church. 
In 1837 a brick church was erected by the Methodists on 
West Wood street, which was used as a place of worship until 
1855. Some of the first Methodists of Paris were the Shaws, 
the Mayos, Munsells, Sandfords, Lawrences, EUiotts and 

In the log cabins in the forest or on the edge of the 
prairie could be found people who longed for the coming of a 
missionary, that they might hear the gospel. Even the trails 
of that time were not barriers, as people would go miles to 
church. Eev. Isaac Reed was such a missionary. The fol- 
lowing extracts are from his diary: 

Spring, 1824 — A Macedonian call has been sent to me at 
Vincennes, from Paris, 111. I returned word I would come. 

Summer — Paris is the county seat of Edgar County, but 
a very small place of about eight cabins. It lies on the 

November — At a meeting held in the school house at 
Paris, 111., Nov. 6, 1824, after public worship, members of 
the Presbyterian Church were by prayer solemnly constituted 
into a church, by the name of the Presbyterian Church of 
Paris, John Bovell, William Means, James Eggleton, Adriel 
Stout, Amzi Thompson, Samuel Vance, Christian Bovell, 
Nancy Thompson, Barbara Alexander, Elizabeth Blackburn, 
Hannah Baird and Vary Vance. Samuel Vance, John Bo- 
vell and William Means were elected Ruling Elders. 

In 1835 the Presbyterians erected a church on East 
Washington street, on a lot given to them by Samuel Vance. 
This was the first church erected in the county. This build- 
ing was used until 1855. That year the Preslsyterians built 
a new church on North Central avenue. The Methodists 
built a church the same year on North Main street. These 
churches were the chief attraction in Paris for many years. 

In 1826 the New Providence Presbyterian Church was 
established in Elbridge Township, in the Ray and Ewing 
settlement. Religious services were held there with more 
regularity during the next few years than in Paris. The 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 j.jarly Institutions Edgar Co. 391 

church building was of logs and stood where the New Provi- 
dence Cemetery now is, on a very handsome site in the midst 
of a grove of large beech and sugar trees. 

In 1831 the settlers in Richwoods formed an organiza- 
tion to be known as Concord Baptist Church. The names 
Redmon, Bennett, Frazier, Kester, Johnson and Black were 
some of the pioneers of Kansas Township who believed 
church principles the right basis for community life. They 
met in homes for some months, and built a log church in 
1832. The first pastor was Rev. Newport, who served for 
twelve years. 

The church at Grandview has an interesting history. A 
foresighted pioneer, named John Tate, gathered a party in 
Augusta County, Virginia, and led them to Illinois, where 
they arrived in September, 1837. They came in wagons and 
by families. 

In this spot on the grand prairie they settled, giving it 
the name of GrandWew. The thoughtfulness of these emi- 
grants and their high valuation of religion and education 
appear when it is kno\\Ti they brought with them a minister 
and school teacher, the Rev. John A. Steele, also a doctor, a 
brother of the clergyman. 

Divine services were held in the simple Presbyterian 
fashion in their houses and the church dulv organized on the 
27th of July, 1838. 

In 1837, under Rev. John A. Steele, a Presbyterian 
Church was organized at Hitesville. Capt. James Hite do- 
nated the site and helped generously with the building. Since 
1831 a Sunday School had been conducted in the Hite home. 
He brought the literature from Kentucky. 

The Old School Baptist Church was organized at Paris 
by Rev. Daniel Parker in 1824. For ten years the meetings 
were held in the court house. 

The Baptist Church at Bloomfield was built when Bloom- 
field was a thrivino: town in the 40 's and the stores equaled 
those of Paris. Bloomfield at this time was an important 
point on the liighway laid out in 1823 from Vincennes to 

392 Rose iloss Scott J- 1- S- h. s. 

The Sunday Schools of Edgar County were begun at an 
early date. In 1832 Adriel Stout organized a Sunday School 
in the court house at Paris. Mr. Stout was a Presbyterian, 
but he in\-ited all who would to attend his Sunday School. 
From that time as churches were organized, Sunday Schools 
were instituted. In the country they were generally opened in 
May and closed in October, bad roads hindering the attend- 
ance during the "Winter months. During the Summer basket 
meetings were held in groves or school houses, ministers 
preaching in the morning and afternoon. These hardy 
pioneers were the people who brought civilization to Edgar 
County and the lUinois country. 

"Then let us sing of the pioneer, 

The hero hardy and strong, 
Who "blazed the way" for better days, 

When the road was dark and long; 
They were heralds of a better time, 

These men who went before, 
For they wrought for coming ages, 

In the brave days of yore; 
Though hands were hard and calloused, 

And cheeks were brown with tan. 
They knew each drop on the wrinkled brow, 

Was the sweat of an honest man. 
And thus it is in every cause. 

Which lifts aloft the rights of man. 
Some one must travel on before, 

Some one march in the van ; 
And every sacred, God born truth 

Which to this world hath come. 
Hath had its sturdy pioneers 

Who bore the torch of faith alone." 

Information about North Arm Church received from 
Mrs. J. T. Musselman. Eichwoods Church from Miss Ita 
Briscoe of Kansas. Diary of Eev. Isaac Reed from paper 
written by Rev. Ira Allen when pastor of church at Paris, lU. 

Other information taken from Historv of Edgar County 
edited by H. Van Sellar. 




Published Quarterly by the Society at Springfield, Illinois. 

Associate Editors: 

George W. Smith Andrew Russel H. W. Clendenin 

Edward C. Page 

Applications tor membership in the Society may be sent to the Secretary of 

the Society, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield, Illinois. 
Membership Fee, One Dollar — Paid Annually. Life Membership, $25.00. 

Vol. XIV. Oct., 1921-Jan., 1922. Nos. 3-4. 




The annual Illinois Day meeting of the State Historical 
Society was held in the Senate Chamber in the State House 
on Saturday evening, December 3, 1921, at 8:15 o'clock. Mr. 
E. "\V. Payne, Mr. John G. Keplinger and Doctor A. R. Crook 
were members of a committee of arrangements. Doctor Otto 
L. Schmidt, President of the Society, presided and in his 
address told of the Society's work and plans. He announced 
that the day of the meeting was the one hundred and third 
birthday of the State of lUinois and told of its immense politi- 
cal and material growth during these years of Statehood. 
Doctor Schmidt paid a tribute to the work of historical and 
patriotic societies in preserving historic sites in the State 
and the collection, preservation and in some measure the 
pubUeation of its historical records. ]\Iuch has been done 
but much more remains to be done. 

Doctor Schmidt spoke of the duty of the people of Illinois 
to preserve the important Indian mounds in the State, espe- 


396 Editorial J.i.s.h.s. 

daily the groups situated in Madisou and St. Clair Counties, 
chief among which is the Great Cahokia or Monks' Mound. 
This group has during the past summer and autumn largely 
under the patronage of the University of Illinois received 
the attention of Professor Warren K. Moorehead, a noted 
scientist who with a corps of assistants has been making brief 
preliminary and by no means exhaustive surveys. Professor 
Moorehead has had neither the time nor the money to make 
thorough explorations but from the work accomplished he has 
no doubt as to the archaeological value of the mounds. The 
State University will publish Professor Moorehead 's prelimi- 
nary report as one of its Bulletins. 

Doctor Schmidt said that one of the speakers of the 
evening, Dr. H. M. Whelpley of St. Louis, would speak more 
in detail in regard to the work of Professor Moorehead and 
the importance of the preservation of the mounds. Dr. 
Schmidt introduced the first speaker, Mr. F. X. Busch of 
Chicago, who spoke on the French in Illinois. This subject 
though often discussed by historians of the Middle West is 
full of romance and charm. Mr. Busch is a descendant of 
some of the early French settlers of the State and the story 
of his own ancestors and their contemporaries has been a 
favorite and engrossing study with Mm for many years. Mr. 
Busch entertained and instructed the Society with the recital 
of this phase of the State's early history and contributed 
many new and personal anecdotes of our French pioneers. 

The second speaker on the program was Dr. H. M. Whelp- 
ley, a noted archaeologist and anthropologist, president of 
the St. Louis Academy of Sciences, whose subject was the 
Indian Tribes of Illinois and the Mississippi Valley. Dr. 
Whelpley 's address was illustrated with lantern slides which 
he has had made from original sources to illustrate his lec- 
tures. He gave an interesting talk on Illinois Indians and 
some of their noted chiefs, as well as interesting anecdotes 
and legends of them. He gave a particularly fine description 
of the Great Cahokia Mound which had been mentioned by 
Doctor Schmidt. After the exercises were over a reception 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Editorial 397 

was hold in tho Historical Library under the auspices of a 
committee of ladies of which Mrs. James A. Rose was chair- 
man. The speakers of the evening Mr. Busch and Doctor 
Whelpley, lilrs. Whelpley, Dr. 0. L. Schmidt, Mrs. Jessie 
Palmer Weber, Mr. and Mrs. John G. Keplinger and Pro- 
fessor and Mrs. Crook were entertained at dinner before the 
meeting by Mr. and Mrs. E. W. Payne at their residence. 


The contract for the University of Illinois Memorial 
Stadium was awarded September 22, 1921, to Holabird & 
Roche, Chicago architects. The cost is to be $2,000,000. The 
Chicago architectural firm has acted in an advisory capacity 
to the University for several years, and even before the eon- 
tract award, had submitted a number of attractive designs. 
Tho feature of the proposed plan is a three-deck arrangement 
for the seats, an idea which has never before been tried in 
American University stadiums. This plan enables the spec- 
tator to sit nearer the playing field, and eliminates curved 
ends. Actual construction work is expected to start early 
next spring following the nation-wide alumni campaign which 
it is hoped will net more than $1,500,000. 

H. J. Burt of Chicago, general manager of Holabird & 
Roche, graduated from Illinois in 1896. He will supervise 
the work. 

The campaign to raise the fund for an athletic stadium 
at the State University produced splendid results last spring, 
when pledges for approximately $700,000 were obtained from 
the students. The Autumn opened with what is called a plus- 
campaign to raise students' pledges to the million dollar level. 
The Alumni mark is $1,500,000. There are nearly 50,000 
graduates and former students of tho LTniversity, and, with 
the pace set thus far, it would seem the loyalty of the Illini 
may be relied upon to meet the call. 

The project deserves not only the support of students 
and almnui, but of the people of the whole State. Athletics, 

398 Editorial J- 1- S- h. s. 

or, more accurately speaking, physical training, at the Uni- 
versity is broadly conceived to produce benefits for all the 
students. While the University is proud and has a right to 
be proud, of the victories of its famous football eleven, this 
does not evershadow the democratic interests of general train- 
ing and the diversified athletic interests of the student body. 

The stadium, therefore, is not an indulgence of pride. It 
is not a luxury. It is a necessity if there is to be real education 
in Illinois. It is the University's college of physical weU 
being, which is the basis of mental and moral health. It is 
Illinois ' temple to the sane mind in the sane body. 

The Memorial Stadium will be the center of a lOO-acre 
recreation field to be located on the south campus. The total 
cost of the recreation field, including the stadium structure, 
will be $2,500,000. 

The stadium will extend 1,000 feet north and south, 650 
feet east and west, and will provide seats for 75,000 spectators. 
The seats will be concentrated in the two center stands. There 
will be a ground floor and two balconies in each stand, a 
feature distinctly unique in stadium construction. There will 
be no columns in front of any of the spectators, the balconies 
being supported by cantilevers from the rear. Each of the 
two center stands is to be 520 feet long, 160 feet deep and 
100 feet high. "Within each of these stands there is to be a 
hall, to be known respectively as the East Memorial Hall and 
the West Memorial Hall. In these halls are to be placed the 
Memorial columns and tablets dedicated to the Ulini dead. 
There will be a quarter-mile track and a 220-yard straight 
away within tlie stadium in addition to the football field and 
baseball diamond. 

Construction of the center stands will begin during the 
summer of 1922 and will be completed in about one year. 

As already mentioned, seven hundred thousand dollars 
of the amount needed for the recreation field has already been 
subscribed by the student body. The remaining funds will 
no doubt be subscribed by the Alumni. 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Editorial 399 


One of the most interesting of recent public gifts is that 
of Mr. Joy Morton, wlio has given 400 acres of liis estate west 
of Chicago and will there establish an arboretum. The Chi- 
cago Tribime, which is especially interested in trees and their 
increase, has published several articles expres.'^ing apprecia- 
tion of Mr. Morton's generous inspiration and it congratu- 
lates Chicago and Illinois upon its new educational resource. 
To any one who has visited Kew Gardens in London, or the 
Arnold Arboretum in Boston, the news that Illinois is to have 
a garden of the same nature is good news. 

Arboriculture, meaning not only forestation on a large 
scale by public agencies as in the national domain but the 
cultivation of trees by private indi\'iduals, should be not only 
a permanent public policy, but a private habit. Mr. Morton's 
arboretum, wliich will be a laboratory for studying and devel- 
oping all varieties of tree life, -will be an invaluable resource 
and educational influence to this end. It is to be farther from 
a city than Kew or the Arnold Arboretum, but in these days 
of the automobile and other rapid transit, it will be an inter- 
esting objective for touring, for outings, and for trips of 
serious study. It lies on the projected Pershing road about 
ten miles west of the new McCormick Zoological garden, 
another point of great interest, and together they make a 
valuable addition to Chicago's resources of pleasure and 

With the extension of the forest preserves and the build- 
ing of good roads, such features of Chicago's expanding 
environs are most welcome. It is worthy of note that the 
donor of the new arboretum is the son of the late J. Sterling 
Morton, who, as Secretary of Agriculture under President 
Grover Cleveland, was the founder of Arbor day. As a citi- 
zen of treeless Nebraska Mr. Morton knew what trees would 
mean to the prairie mid-continent, and he exerted a beneficent 
influence in awaking the love of trees in a generation of 
western young folks, sowing seed now apparent in the ever 

400 Editorial j.i.s.h.s. 

increasiug realization of the delight and usefulness of wood- 
lands and tree shaded roads. 

The arboretum will rival anything of its kind in the 
world. Mr. Morton, who is President of the Morton Salt 
Company, has given 400 acres, part of his 2,000 acre farm 
at Downers Grove, to what will be known as the Morton 
Arboretum. It will be to the scientific forester and gardener 
what his laboratory is to the chemist, and to the everyday 
nature lover a spot where he can see both his own native trees 
and trees imported from foreign lands. 

Until recently Mr. Morton's plans were known only to a 
few friends, but he has given out a memorandum prepared 
by 0. C. Simons, formerly connected with Lincoln Park, who 
is in charge of the work. 

The memorandum reads in part as follows: "The site 
of the proposed arboretum lies in Du Page County, ten miles 
due west of the new Zoological gardens in Riverside. It 
consists of a wide valley through which runs the east fork 
of the Du Page river, bounded by hills wooded with splendid 
specimens of native trees and shrubs. 

The Kew gardens in London, the Jardin des Plantes in 
Paris, the Tervuerns in Brussels, the Arnold Arboretum in 
Boston, and Shaw's garden in St. Louis, have been carefully 
studied and their desirable features will be incorporated in 
the new arboretum. 

"I have cherished the plan for a long time," said Mr. 
Morton. "I shall endow the arboretum so that it always will 
be able to carry on the work planned for it. 

"Work on the project has been going on for some time 
and already 40,000 evergreens have been transplanted. I 
expect it to be open to the public inside of two years." 

The arboretum will still further associate the name of 
J. Sterling Morton and his son with the great movement to 
plant trees in America, to replenish and replant its too 
nearly exhausted forests and to bring beauty and verdure to 
the treeless prairies. 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Editorial -101 

A tree is the symbol of peaceful and fruitful life. Lately 
the beauty and sigiiiticance of trees as memorials to our 
patriot dead has become recognized. Mr. Morton's gift is a 
new and important help, for which Chicago and Illinois will 
owe him lasting gratitude. 


The Semi-Centennial of the great Chicago tire of October, 
1871, was observed as "a tire prevention — and no accident 
week." A festival play depicting the history of Chicago was 
given in Grant Park. The Art Institute assisted in preparing 
the scene in the play entitled "The Rebirth of Beauty." 

The stage setting for this scene was a reproduction of 
the Court of Honor, the chief beauty of the World's Fair of 
1893. A beautiful and statuesque young woman was selected 
to portray France's Statue of the Republic. Architecture, 
sculpture and painting were represented in the Procession 
of the Arts. Edmund S. Campbell, head of the Architectural 
School, and Elmer Fosberg, head of the Art School of the 
Art Institute, had general charge of this scene of the play. 

At the time of the Great Chicago Fire, October 8-9, 1871, 
John M. Palmer was Governor of Illinois. He was also 
Governor of the State at the time of the adoption of the 
Constitution of 1870, our present Constitution. 

Roswell B. Mason was Mayor of the City of Chicago at 
the time of the great fire. 

The Chicago Board of Education has voted to name the 
new school at Keeler Avenue and Eighteenth Street the Ros- 
well B. j\rason School in honor of Mayor Mason and of the 
semi-centennial of the great fire. 


Letter of 1871 GrvES a Graphic Picture of the Fire. 

Thomas M. Hoyxe "Writes Wife of Conflagration. 

A few days after the conflagration Thomas M. Hoyne 

wrote to his wife, Mrs. Jennie T. Hoyne, who was at that time 

402 Editorial J- 1- S- h. s. 

visiting her fatlier, Moses B. Maclay in New York. Mr. 
Hoyne is still living. He is the son of Thomas Hoyne, once 
elected Mayor of Chicago, and the father of former State's 
Attorney Maclay Hoyne. The letter was published in the 
Chicago Tribune of October 6, 1921, and as it gives such a 
vivid picture of the great tire and the desolation of the fol- 
lo^\iug days, it is hereby republished by permission of the 

Letter, dated Chicago, October 15, 1871. 

My dear Jean: This is the first time since the fire that 
I have really felt as though I had the time to sit do^vn and 
write a letter. I received a letter from you and one from your 
father yesterday. It is a week today since the breaking out 
of the fire, but it seems a month, for into this terrible week 
have been condensed the experience and terrors of years. It 
is such a week as I hope never to pass through again. . . . 
On last Sunday evening at about 9 :30 the fire alarm sounded, 
and looking from our back window to the southwest we saw 
that there was a terrible fire raging. The wind was blowing 
a gale from the southwest and everything being dry as tinder, 
I knew there would be a large fire, but as we had the river 
between us and the fire, I retired without feeling any anxiety. 
About half past 2 I was startled from my sleep by hearing 
father come in excitedly. I sprang from bed and met him at 
my door. He said he thought our office was in danger and that 
if I wished to save anything I had better go down and get it 
out of the safe at once. I dressed, and father, Jim, Frank and 
I started on the run. 

We took the wheelbarrow to bring away the account 
books. When we reached Washington street we found it 
impossible to get through that way, as the Courthouse was 
already in flames. (Mr. Ho^^le details other vain efforts to 
reach the office, from which the books, he learned later, 
already had been saved, and tells of their return to their 
periled home.) 

The scene on Wabash Avenue was a terrible one. Men, 
women, and children thronged the walks and streets dragging 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Editorial ■ 403 

trunks aud carrying bundles conlainiug all they had been able 
to save — all pushing south in the hope of finding some place 
of safety. We reached home and told them they had better 
pack up. I found we were safe for the present, as two long 
depots with a wide space between them had checked the tire 
and turned it to the north. Lizzie and I then went down 
Wabash Avenue to Van Buren Street, and there watched the 
progress of the fire. It was on Van Buren Street west of 
State, and we were in hopes that the strong wind would pre- 
vent its coming east, but it did not. It reached State Street 
and then commenced working up south against the wind. I 
watched the progress of the fire up State Street, and deter- 
mined that when it reached the new clubhouse on the corner 
of State and Harrison it would be time for us to go. It did 
reach it in about two hours and we commenced to move. AU 
our clothing went first to Mrs. C. 0. Stone's, including your 
big trunks. The silver and valuables followed, and then our 
library was sent to the Doctor's. Then we picked up such 
other things as were of most value. But here came upon the 
field of action a new actor. General Sheridan took command 
and blew up the clubhouse. Then he blew up two houses on 
Harrison Street in the rear of the Methodist Church on the 
corner of AVabash Avenue. This saved the church. Then he 
blew up two houses in the middle of the brick block on the 
corner of Wabash Avenue and Congress Street. 

This made a break and saved the Michigan Avenue hotel. 
It was on fire once, but they saved it, and when I saw the wall 
of Scarmon's house fall, I felt that we were safe. Terrace 
Row went like tinder. 

Monday was a fearful day. . . . All day long the 
crowd poured by our house, dusty, thirsty, hungry and look- 
ing the very picture of despair. Where they all went to I 
cannot imagine. Every one was hurrying along with what 
he or she could carry and considered most valuable. Poor 
Mrs. Hobson, the milliner, went by dragging a cart loaded 
with her all, her daughter following and pushing behind. But 
this is only what I saw. This was upon the south side. The 

404 Editorial J- 1- S- h. s. 

north side -svas ten, yes, a hundred times worse. Here they 
escaped and left the tire. Then the fire followed and drove 
them on before it. The rapidity with which the flames trav- 
eled cannot be appreciated without hearing the stories of 
those who went before it. It did not stop to burn one building 
and take another in order, but it leaped over buildings and 
sent its fiery messengers ahead, so that men found themselves 
hemmed in, and while they were watching the flames in front 
of them they burst out beliind them. 

Mrs. Horton (wife of the late Judge Oliver H. Horton, 
a i^artner of Mr. Hoyne) came over the river about 3 o'clock 
to see the fire, and when she started home she found she was 
cut off from the north side entirely. We found her on our 
steps at 5 o'clock. She rested a little while, took some break- 
fast, and started for home. She walked over on the Twelfth 
Street bridge, then north on the west side until she had got 
beyond the fire and reached home just as Mr. Horton was 
lea^-ing the house for good. He had packed up such valuables 
as he could carry and removed them to Lincoln Park upon 
the island there which you remember perhaps. 

Thousands had taken refuge there, but the flames swept 
through the trees and grass and burned up the goods which 
had been placed here for safety and forced the people to the 
water's edge and into the water, where many of them stood 
holding things before their faces to protect them from the 

Mrs. Horton lay upon the ground all night with a wet 
handkerchief over her face to prevent suffocation from the 
smoke. They managed to preserve their lives and goods from 
fire through the night and in the morning got off to the west 
side. They are now with us. These incidents are but speci- 
mens of the common experience of thousands. Many lost 
their lives. How many, it will be impossible for some time 
to learn. The papers are filled with advertisements of hus- 
bands, wives and children advertising for the lost ones from 
whom they have been separated. In the midst of all this 
suffering should we not thank God that he has spared us our 
lives and a house to live in and consider our losses small 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Editorial 405 

compared ^vith others? AVe have health, energy, and good 
spirits, and while we have these we cannot and do not com- 
plain. We can work. There is no aristocracy here now. All 
are reduced to one common fellowship. But our troubles 
were not over with the great fire. We had no rain, the winds 
were still high, and no water. The water works were de- 
stroyed with the rest, and a spark might set us all off again. 
We have not, therefore, felt easy, but have every night kept 
watch on this block, as they have throughout the city. 

We have organized a patrol and take turns of three hours 
apiece and watch the alleys and streets, and yet it would seem 
this was not enough. The city is full of scoundrels who have 
poured in on us from every direction for plunder, and they 
seem bent upon the destruction of what remains of our city. 
(Mr. Hoyne describes a battle to save the Hoyne barn, 
which was found in flames some time after the big fire was 
over, and which he believed was set by one of the ghouls, 
several of whom he said had been shot when caught setting 
fires. He continues:) 

I am not of a blood thirsty disposition, but I must say 
that during the past week I have had a fearful desire to shoot 
some one, and we all on this block have been anxiously looking 
for the men every night. And now, my dear Jean, for the 
future. I thank heaven every day that you are not here. Our 
business is entirely destroyed for the present. AVe can collect 
no money here nor get a cent of what is due us from the bank 
until they get their vaults open, and then can pay only a small 
per cent. I have in my pocket a few dollars, but see no pros- 
pect of getting any more, so you must depend upon what you 
have for some time, and if you could spare it. I would even 
like you to send me a $5 bill. This is reversing the order of 
things, but the fact is, there is no money here, and we must 
work along until the banks can get on their feet again. Every 
bank in town was destroyed (except some small institutions 
on the west side). We have opened an office in the basement 
and propose to work and live like poor people, as we are, until 
we can get up again. I have no fears that we shall not succeed 
in time, but we have got to be a little careful at present. AVTiat 

406 Editorial J.i.s.H.s. 

do you thiiik of this, my dear Jean! Cau you deny yourself 
many of the things which you have been accustomed to and 
live like the rest of us in Chicago? 

Love to all at home. I am your atfectionate husband, 



Charles G. Blanden of Oak Park, who supervises a big 
loop office building during the day, and writes poetry evenings, 
is the winner of the $100 prize offered by the Association of 
Commerce for the best words for a new Chicago song. 

Mr. Blanden is the "Laura Blackburn" of the Tribune's 
Line o' Type column, and is the author of several books of 
verse. He waives all rights to the song, which is donated to 
the city by the Association of Commerce. It was presented in 
connection with the semi-centennial of the Chicago Fire, Oct. 
2-15. Three of the seven verses and the chorus follow : 

Behold! she stands 

Besides her inland sea 
With outstretched hands 

To welcome you and me. 

Chorus : 
Chicago, Chicago, 

Chicago is my home; 
My heart is in Chicago 

Wherever I may roam. 

Though she be last 

Great city, east or west. 
The die is cast ; 

The world shall hail her best. 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Editorial 407 

Her vision leads, 

Her motto is "I will"; 
Tliougli great her deeds 

Her dream is greater still. 


Some Memoirs of the Late Alexander Beaubien. 

By John KIelley. 

One hundred years ago this month, on January 28, 1822, 
Pottowatomie Indians, who still made Fort Dearborn their 
habitat, celebrated the arrival of a male child, who, according 
to all accounts, was the first-born on the site of Chicago, in 
whose veins mingled the blood of the white and the red man. 

His father, Jean Baptiste Beaubien, was a Frenchman, 
and his mother, Josette La Framboise, was a half-breed 

Five or six times had the stork visited Fort Dearborn 
before it brought little Alexander Beaubien, but on all pre- 
vious visits it had left behind a full-blooded white child. The 
Indians manifested no interest in these children. 

But the Beaubien case was different. Word of the big 
event was passed from one tepee to another along the banks 
of the river, and the braves and squaws came trooping over 
to the Fort wrapped in blankets and wearing their prettiest 
feathers. They brought presents fashioned from leather and 
beads for the mother and child. 

That night bonfires were kindled on both banks of the 
river and the Pottowatomies danced as they never danced 
before, in honor of the first white and red papoose born in 

Alexander Beaubien, with whom this writer was well 
acquainted, lived to a good old age. In his latter years it was 
his custom to give a party on each anniversary of his birth, 
and it was my privilege to be an in^-ited guest at several of 
these gatherings. 

40S Editorial J.i.s.h.s. 

We would have a bite to eat, sometliing to drink, and then, 
"Uncle Alec" would play the fiddle and call oft* the figures 
of a quadrille. When the guests were tired of dancing, 
"Uncle Alec" would entertain Avith stories of early Chicago. 
I acquired a lot of information, particularly relating to the 
life of the man who is the subject of this sketch. The story 
gives an idea of the marvelous growth of Chicago in the 
century that has passed since Alexander Beaubien was born. 

In 1804, the year that the United States built its first 
fort at Chicago, there was only one white family here, that 
of John Eanzie. Jean Baptiste Beaubien, father of Alexander, 
visited Chicago tho same year as a trader, but did not remain. 
Subsequently Beaubien married an Ottawa squaw named 

Soon after the Fort Dearborn massacre of 1812 Mr. 
Beaubien purchased a log house from the widower Charles 
Lee, who was slain by the Indians. This cabin was a short 
distance southeast of the ruins of the fort. Close to it was 
another log house occupied by Francis La Framboise. His 
wife was the daughter of a Pottowatomie chief. 

At the death of his Indian wife in the latter part of 1811 
Mr. Beaubien was left with two children. He was tall and 
good-looking, just the sort an Indian maid would admire. 
Josette La Framboise, daughter of the French trader men- 
tioned previously, lost her heart to the widower, and they were 
married by Father Eechere, a missionary priest. 

Miss Josette was a nurse in the family of John Kinzie 
at the time of the massacre, and she accompanied Mrs. Kinzie 
and her children from Chicago to a place of safety across the 
lake. Mr. Kinzie had been apprised of the contemplated 
attack by a friendly Indian. 

Fort Dearborn was rebuilt in 1816. At the same time 
a warehouse or factory, as it was called, for the storage of 
goods belonging to the government, designed for distribution 
among the Indians, also was re-established. This warehouse, a 
two-story structure, was not molested at the time the fort was 
destroyed. In 1823, when the government abandoned the 
factory, it became the property of the American Fur Com- 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Editurial 409 

pany, and was later sold to Jean Baptiste Beaubien, -who occu- 
pied it as a dwelling until 1839. 

A few weeks after the birth of Alexander Beaubien, 
Father Stephen Badin, a Koman Catholic priest, visited Fort 
Dearborn. Father Badin was ordained at Baltimore in 1793, 
and it was said he was the first Catholic clergyman ordained 
in the United States. He was sent out as a missionary to the 
Indians, and he visited the site of Chicago as early as 1796. 
That was eight years before the first white settler took up 
his abode here. 

Father Badin was hospitably received by Jean Baptiste 
Beaubien and his wife, both of whom were Catholics. Mass 
was celebrated the following Sunday at the Beaubien home, 
and in the afternoon little Alexander was baptized. This was 
the first ceremony of its kind in Chicago. 

Chicago was not much of a place when Alexander Beau- 
bien first opened his eyes. There were only five or six log 
houses here besides the fort, which was garrisoned by about 
thirty soldiers. Michigan Avenue was an Indian trail. Wild 
animals roamed the woods where now stand fifteen or sixteen 
story buildings. Probably no other man in the world's history 
could say with him: 

"I saw my birth place grow from a settlement of half a 
hundred persons to a metropolis of more than two million 

From copious notes which T made at the birthday parties 
given by my venerable friend, I have transcribed those inci- 
dents which "Uncle Alec" regarded as the most interesting 
of his early life. The matter is arranged chronologically. 

"My earliest recollections of Fort Dearborn are of the 
soldiers stationed here, and of my playmates who were Indian 
hoys. "When I was about seven years old, I began going to 
school. My brother Charles, who was several years older 
than me, was the teacher. He taught only one term. 

"The next year I went to a school which was taught by 
Stephen Forbes. That was in 1830. Both of these schools 
were of a private character, and the few pupils who attended 

410 Editorial J- 1- S- h. s. 

were kept at their stutlies only two hours a day. In 1832 Mr. 
Forbes was elected the first sheriff of Cook County. 

"My grandmother La Framboise, a full-blooded Ottawa, 
was taught to read and write English by her husband. She 
in turn taught her own children. Consequently she was the 
first school teacher here. 

"What may be called the first regular school in Chicago 
was opened in 1832 by John Watkins on the north side of the 
river. Two of my brothers and I attended. AVe had to cross 
the river in a canoe. There were several families of Indians 
still living near the fort, and Billy Caldwell, a half-breed who 
Avas known as Chief Sauganash, offered to buy books and 
clothing for all the Indian children if they would dress like 
Americans, but they turned it dowm. 

"During the winter of 1830-31 a debating society used to 
meet once a week at my father's house, and I took keen delight 
in listening to the oratory. My father was president of the 

"The Democrat, a weekly newspaper, and the first one 
established in Chicago, was brought out in the latter part of 
1833. John Calhoun was the editor. He came here with a 
printing outfit from York state. My father and my uncle, 
Mark Beaubien, who kept the Sauganash tavern at Market 
and Lake streets, Avere among the first subscribers. 

"On the day of publication my father would send me to 
the printing office for his paper. It was at the southwest 
corner of South Water and Clark streets. I also would get 
Uncle Mark 's paper and two or three others which I delivered. 
That probably gives me the distinction of being the first news- 
boy in Chicago. 

"In the Fall of 1832 George W. Dole slaughtered the first 
lot of cattle and hogs ever packed in Chicago. His slaughter 
house was at the southeast corner of Dearborn and Lake 
streets. This was the beginning of the packing industry in 

"The arrival in Chicago of a piano in 1834 also made it 
a memorable year. It was the first piano brought here, and 
my father was the purchaser. He bought it at Detroit, and 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Editorial 411 

had it shipijed here by boat. My sisters, who had been taught 
to play ill a convent school in Detroit, were the envy of all 
the girls in town. 

"The first draw bridge across the Chicago river was built 
in 1834. It was located at 'Old Point', now knowm as Dear- 
born street. Everybody in town turned out to see the new 
bridge the day it was completed. Two or three years before 
this bridge was built the first ferry across the Chicago river 
was established by my Uncle Mark. He was ferryman and 
tavern keeper at the same time. 

"Another matter of importance took place in 1835. In 
that year my father purchased sixty-six acres of land which 
now is the retail district of Chicago at one dollar and twenty- 
five cents an acre. The conveyance was made to him by the 
government land agent. Later the transfer of the tract was 
contested and the United States Supreme Court decided 
against him. The citizens held an indignation meeting and a 
protest signed by all the early settlers was sent to "Washing- 
ton, but to no avail. That land today, which rightfully belongs 
to the Beaubien heirs, is worth hundreds of millions. 

"The first bank in Chicago was established in 1835. It 
was called the Illinois State Bank and was located at Lake 
and South Water streets. William H. Brown was cashier. I 
knew him well. A couple of years after he came here he built 
a residence at Pine and Illinois streets that cost ten thousand 
dollars. At that time it was the grandest house in Chicago, 
and we used to speak of it as the mansion. 

"The most notable event of 1836 was the erection of 
what Avas called the Saloon building at the southeast corner 
of Lake and Clark streets. It was a three-story structure 
and finished in the best materials. The citizens made more 
fuss over that building than they do now over a skyscraper. 
Contrary to popular belief, there was no saloon in the build- 
ing. The French word 'salon' was the real name of the 
building, but it was easier for the citizens to call it 'saloon'. 

"The year 1837 -will always be a memorable one in Chi- 
cago history. That was the year we became a city, with a 
population of about 4,000. The boundaries of the town were 

412 Editorial j.i.s.h.s. 

extended from Halsted street to Wood on the west side, from 
Ohio street to North avenue on the north side, and from Har- 
rison street to Twenty-second on the south side. The lake 
was of course the eastern boundary. 

' ' The tirst election under a city charter was held in May. 
William B. Ogden and John H. Ivinzie were the opposing 
candidates for Mayor. About 700 votes were cast. Every 
voter was compelled to write his o^vn name on the ballot for 
the man he voted. Mr. Ogden was elected. 

"The first city hall or council chamber was in an upper 
room in the Saloon building. 

"In 1839 my father moved to his farm at Hardscrabble. 
It was in the vicinity of Throop street and the river. From 
there he moved to Naperville, where he died in 1863. He was 
in his eighty-fourth year." 

Mr. Beaubien joined the police force in 1863, but resigned 
five years later to engage in private detective work. He 
returned to the police department in 1882 and was retired on 
a pension in 1903. He died March 25, 1907. 

Beaubien court, a short, narrow street, east of Michigan 
avenue and extending from Randolph to East South Water 
street, was named in honor of Alexander Beaubien, by the 
city council a few years before his death. The site marks 
the vicinity where he spent his boyhood. 

— Reprinted bv permission from the Chicago Tribune, of 
Jan. 8, 1922. 

To honor the memory of four members who died in the 
great war. Delta Tan Delta fraternity, the oldest Greek letter 
organization at the University of Illinois, has commissioned 
Lorado Taft to make a memorial relief for the Chapter House 
in Champaign. The relief commemorates Thomas Goodfel- 
low, 1920, of Peoria, killed in action at Chauteau Thierry; 
Philip Overton Smith, 1917, of Damille, 111., died at Minne- 
apolis; Ralph Egley Gifford, 1917, of Onarga, 111., died at 
Camp Colt, Pa.; Everett L. Harshbarger, 1917, of Ladoga, 

vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Editorial 413 

Ind., died at Great Lakes Naval Station. Lieutenant Good- 
fellow, the full length figure in the relief, was a freshman 
and a football player. 


The one hundred and tenth anniversary of the Fort Dear- 
born massacre in the War of 1812, was celebrated with cere- 
monies under the auspices of the American Legion in Chicago, 
Monday, August 15, 1921. Col. John V. Clinnin placed a 
wreath on the monument at Eighteenth street and the Lake 
front, which marks the graves of the Americans who fell in 
the engagement. The monument was the gift of Mr. George 
M. Pullman. AVilliam Prentice read an extract from the diary 
of William Prentice, who was on the staff of General Har- 
rison during the war. 

The document, which has never been printed, was loaned 
for the occasion by the Chicago Historical Society. It was 
recently presented to the Society by the Prentice family. A 
report of the battle written by Lieut. AVilliam Francis at the 
time, was read by his grandson, William Francis, Jr. 

A salute was tired over the graves of the soldiers by a 
detail of overseas veterans, from the 2d regiment. This will 
probably mark the last celebration of the event, as the monu- 
ment is soon to be removed on account of excavations for 
track space by the Illinois Central Railroad. 

The figure of a dough-boy standing upon a pedestal was 
unveiled at Morton Grove, Cook County, Illinois, on July 31, 
1921. The monument was the gift of the Women's War 
Working Circle of Morton Grove. Miss Virginia Poehlmann, 
daughter of the president of the village board, unveiled the 
statue. Coroner Hoffman and August Poehlmann were 
among the speakers. 

414 Editorial J.i.s.h.s. 


Oak Park and River Forest 's war memorial, to be placed 
ill ScoAdlle Park overlooking- Lake street, Oak Park, will em- 
phasize the world's hope that j^eace is here to stay. The 
granite and bronze monument, designed by Gilbert P. Ris- 
wold, %\all show Columbia sheathing her sword. Before her 
stands a sailor, soldier and aviator. Every man, woman and 
child was expected to contribute toward the memorial's 
$65,000 fund in the drive which began Saturday, October 15, 
in the Oak Park village hall. 

Frank J. C. Borwell is chairman. 

The Caruso American Memorial Foundation seeking 
$1,000,000 for annual musical scholarships and prizes as a 
permanent memorial to Enrico Caruso and his art, has an- 
nounced the names of the men and women who have accepted 
membership on its National Committee. Illinois members 
are William Butterworth, Moline, 111., president of the Deere 
& Co. ; Osbourne McConathy, Evanston, 111., president Music 
Teachers' National Association. 


In the hush of falling snow, all Chicago that was on the 
streets November 11, 192], stood with bared head and eyes 
turned to the east for a full minute in reverence to the mo- 
ment three years ago in France when four years of carnage 

Street cars, teams, automobiles — all that was in motion — 
halted. "The voice of the city" for the minute changed from 
the roar of traffic to the resonant sound of bugles playing 
"taps" for Americans sleeping in France. 

Formal observance of the third Armistice day began 
throughout Chicago immediately after the clock hands indi- 

Vol. XIV. xos. 3-4 Editorial 415 

cated the hour of 11. One of the GoUl Star mothers, who had 
gathered at the Chicago Historical Society, sobbed when 
whistles herakled the moment of peace. Her son was one of 
the "unknown dead." Margaret Anglin tlien arose and re- 
cited the lines "To These," written by Vachel Lindsay for 
the occasion. Her voice sounded high above the blasts of 
tlie whistles. "And all shall end in peace," she finished. 
Then grasping the hilt of a sword worn by George AVashing- 
ton in the French and Indian wars, she flashed the weapon in 

Commander Evangeline C. Booth of the Salvation Army 
led 500 in prayer for the success of the disarmament confer- 
ence, at the thirst Methodist Church. 

At the United States public health service hospitals, filled 
with convalescing soldiers, special ceremonies were held. 
City-wide and stretching through the towns on the north 
shore, American Legion posts. Boy Scouts, Community Cen- 
ters, churches and clubs observed the day in a multitude of 
ways, of which the planting of memorial trees was the most 

Speeches, dances and mass meetings enlivened the even- 
ing of the anniversary. Consuls and vice-consuls were guests 
at an elaborate ball at the Morrison Hotel held by the Cana- 
dian Club of Chicago. Nations represented Avere France, 
Great Britain, Italy, Belgium, Sweden, Poland and Cuba. 
C. C. ^McCullough, president of the International Rotary Club, 
was present. 

A spectacular series of tableaux showing the boundary 
line of the United States and Canada, the first Armistice day 
"over there" and over here; "the allies," and other martial 
scenes were given, followed by dancing. 

More than 1,500 Chicago Elks and their women friends 
thronged the lodge at 174 West Washington street, where a 
number of speeches were followed by an informal dancing 
party. Following the address of welcome by Exalted Ruler 
William J. Sinek, Gen. Abel Davis, Lieut. Col". Earl Thornton, 
and Attorney William Chones spoke. 

416 Editorial J- 1- S- h. s. 

A dance was given by the Lincoln Park Post of the Amer- 
ican Legion at the Lincoln Turner Hall, Diversey boulevard 
and Sheffield avenue. Aldermen of the Twenty-third and 
Twenty-fourth Wards led the grand march of 500. 

Before speaking at Elks' lodge, General Davis addressed 
a mass meeting in the Patten gjonnasium in Evanston. He 
paid tribute to the "unknown hero" buried at Arlington ceme- 
tery and expressed the hope that the conference in Wasliing- 
ton might spare the world a repetition of the gory four years. 

Springfield, Peoria, Bloomington and other Illinois cities 
held special observances of the day. 

After several setbacks John McBarnes and his wife 
believe they finally have arranged that McLean County shall 
have a $300,000 War ]\Iemorial Building, which will be in 
charge of the American Legion. Mr. McBarnes offered 
$150,000 for the building, stipulating the county was to pro- 
vide a similar sum. But the voters refused to 0. K. his 
proposition. He then asked Illinois Wesleyan LTniversity to 
raise the other $150,000, but was again turned downi. Mr. 
McBarnes persisted, and finally persuaded the super\'isors to 
let him have a $20,000 site for the proposed memorial, Avhich 
the board had purchased before the voters declined to pass 
the bond issue. Mr. McBarnes has promised to build the 
memorial, and the Legion will attempt to raise by popular 
subscription the remaining $150,000. 

William Elza Williams. 64 years of age, former Demo- 
cratic Congressman from Illinois, died at his home at Pitts- 
field, Illinois, Tuesday, September 13, 1921. 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Editorial 417 

Mr. Williams wa.s a native of Pike County, Illinois, and 
was engaged in the practice of law with his brother, A. Clay 
Williams. He served two terms in Congress as Congress- 
man-at-large from Illinois, and two terms from his home 


Thomas Proctor, in whose bed Abraham Lincoln is said 
to have died, is a pauper in the City Home on Blackwcll's 
Island, the New York Times states. He was formerly a 
lawyer in New York, but a breakdo^^^l of his health about ten 
years ago caused financial embarrassment which resulted in 
ins being sent to the home in 1915. 

Proctor, when 17 years old, was a clerk in the War De- 
partment and had a room in the lodging house opposite Ford's 
Theater, where Lincoln was shot by the assassin, J. Wilkes 
Booth, is the story told by Proctor and corroborated by his 
friends. Proctor was returning to his rooms shortly after 10 
o'clock that night, he said, just as a number of men crossed 
the street carrying the unconscious form of Lincoln. Proctor 
directed the party to his room, where the President was laid 
on his bed, and died the following morning. 

Proctor and Robert T. Lincoln, the latter the President's 
son, are believed to be the only surviving witnesses of Abra- 
ham Lincoln's death. 

William S. Porter, 73 years of age, died at Jacksonville 
on September 24, 1921, and was buried in Jersey\-ille, 111. It 
was believed in the passing of Mr. Porter, the last member 
of the Lincoln funeral train crew which bore the body of the 
martyred President from Washington to Springfield has 
passed away. Mr. Porter at the time was 17 years of age and 
was the youngest member of the crew. 

418 Editorial J- 1- S- h. s. 




Mr. and Mrs. John Schneider, who are the oldest living 
residents of Livingston County, celebrated their sixty-sixth 
wedding anniversary September 3, 1921. John Schneider is 
90 years of age, and his wife 87. 

At this anniversary were their six living children : C. A. 
Schneider, E. J. Schneider, Mrs. A. L. Fisher, Mrs. Emma 
Wierscher, Mrs. W. J. Burgess and Mrs. R. F. Bradford. 
There are a dozen grandcliildren and four great grandchil- 
dren. It was at the home of Mrs. R. F. Bradford that the 
anniversary dinner was given. 

The subject of domestic happiness was discussed at the 
dinner. "To have a successful married life you just form a 
companionship on a basis of love, faith, and understanding," 
said John Schneider. 


Mr. and Mrs. Amos Bare of Grayslake, Illinois, cele- 
brated their sixtieth wedding anniversary at the home of their 
daughter, Mrs. H. R. Struthers, on August 6, 1921, surrounded 
by children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren. 

Mr. and Mrs. Bare are respectively 80 and 76 years of 
age, were residents of Chicago's west side for more than fifty 
years, and moved to Grayslake last Fall. Mr. Bare spent 
nearly all his life in railroad work, and for more than twenty 
years was a conductor on a passenger train running into 
Chicago from the West. 




George W. Hotchkiss, 90 years old, with gray locks and 

spry physique, and Mrs. Hotchkiss, two years his junior, cele- 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Editorial 419 

brated their sixty-fiftli wetkliiig auuiversary at their home, 
1015 Elmwood Avenue, Evanstou, Illinois, on August 14, 1921. 

Mr. llotchkiss has three distinctions. First, he is among 
the last of the "Forty-niners"; second, he is one of the oldest 
living lumbermen; third, he is the man who rirst published a 
lumber journal. He still writes for publication. Mr. Hotch- 
kiss is secretary emeritus of the Illinois Lumber and Mate- 
rial Dealers Association. When seventeen years old he 
started around Cape Horn for California. It took 154 days 
to make the journey. He signed the petition for the admission 
of California as a state. In 1877 he came to Chicago and has 
been here ever since, living in Evanston. 

The first lumber journal in the country was edited by the 
old gold miner in Michigan. It was the Lumberman's Gazette. 




The sixtieth wedding anniversary of Mr. and Mrs. Charles 
G. Winter of Harrington, Illinois, w^as celebrated by the entire 
population of their village at a reception in the Barrington 
Methodist Episcopal Church, October 2, 1921. Mr. W^inter 
was born in Campton, N. H., November 30, 1835. He came to 
Chicago in 1854. For several years he was manager of the 
old Gault House, which stood on the present site of the Chi- 
cago & Northwestern Railway Station. He was married to 
Miss Emma Adella Caldwell of Port Gibson, N. Y., in Bar- 
rington on October 2, 1861. 

For two years after the ceremony, they lived in Chicago, 
then moved to Barrington and have lived there ever since. 
Three children, two sons and a daughter, are dead. 




Arlington Heights attended a birthday party on Tuesday 

evening, August 2, 1921. Every one in the northwest suburb 

420 Editorial j.i.s.h.s. 

was there, from Mayor P. Gr. Morse to little Jimmy Hines, the 
grocery boy. It wasn't the town's anniversary, either. It 
was more than that — it was the one hundredth birthday anni- 
versary of "Grandma" Kennicott, known and loved by every 
member of the community. All day the toAvn made ready for 
the celebration. The citizens marched in parade to the home 
of the oldest settler and presented her with one hundred 
American beauty roses, one for each year of her life. Five 
generations of her family were present. The festivities were 
limited to half an hour. Mrs. Kennicott is still active and 
happy, but it would not do to test her strength too greatly. 
Mrs. Kennicott was born August 2, 1821, at Lisbon, N. H. 
Her father, a Methodist circuit rider, started west with his 
family in 1838. He passed through Chicago, but kept on 
because Chicago was then mostly swamp land. He settled 
at Elk Grove, where the first white settlers had arrived four 
years previous. "While her father was preaching at Half Day, 
the northern point of his circuit, his daughter Mary met 
Joseph E. Kennicott. They were married a few months later. 
They lived at Elk Grove until 1856, when they moved to 
Arlington Heights. Mr. Kennicott died a quarter of a century 
ago. He was one of several brothers, all pioneer Chicagoans, 
among them being Dr. John A. Kennicott of the Grove, Dr. 
Asa Kennicott, William, Hiram and Alonzo Kennicott. 

Mrs. Kennicott 's memory of her journey to the unsettled 
West is still clear. "We met many Indians," she says, "but 
most of them were friendly." We would travel a few days, 
then rest a day or two. I recall that my sisters and I knitted 
all during the journey. The first white resident of Elk Grove 
was Dr. Miner. I remember John Whiting, whose son still lives 
here; and George Knowles and the Draper and Caleb Lamp 
families. My father was a circuit rider in the Wheeling dis- 
trict. Through his efforts a Methodist church was established 
in Elk Grove, and later he formed congregations in Dunton, 
now Arlington Heights. ' ' 

Mrs. Kennicott is not critical of the girls of today, of their 
styles and their habits. She does say, though, that it might 
be better if they were taught the science of housekeeping. 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Editorial 421 

"I don't know why I live so long," she muses. "It must 
be because of my faith in God. Moderation in living and faitli 
in tiod ax-e the only recipes for long life that I know." 

The Tagore professorship of law in the University of 
Calcutta for 1922-23 has been tendered to Prof. James "W. 
Garner of the University of Illinois. Professor Garner has 
been conducting one of the round table conference groups in 
connection with the Institute of Politics in session at Williams 
College, Williamstown, Mass., August 13, 1921. He is the 
first American ever to receive the appointment, which in the 
past has fallen to distinguished foreign jurists. The offer 
was received by cable from the Vice Chancellor of the Univer- 
sity of Calcutta. 




Tliis is an unusual and absorbing book. Here is an Ameri- 
can man of affairs — no soldier himself, though sprung of a 
line of valiant soldiers — who has written with large authority 
and deep stimulation on w^hat i.s — superficially — the least 
spectacular phase of war making, but is intrinsically its most 
^^tal, most difficult, and, in the final adjudication on cam- 
paigns, its most important problem — the problem of supply 
and supply movement. 

Its unique attribute is that a military monograph on sup- 
ply and the co-ordination of purchase and movement has been 
transmitted by the touch of genius into a human document 
that is genuinely alive. 

2 vols, large octavo pp. IX + 344 ; VI + 283 ; pictures 71. 
Houghton Mifflin Co., Pub., Boston, Mass., 1921. 

422 Editorial •'■ ^- ^- ^- ^• 

Hon. Frank 0. Lowden, former Governor of Illinois, has 
accepted the chairmanship of the Illinois Committee of the 
Near East Relief according to the announcement made at the 
State Headquarters. 


Six months ago there was a vacant 1,200 acre farm two 
miles Avest of Hinsdale, Du Page County, Illinois. Recentl.v its 
600 residents living in 200 homes incorporated it as the village 
of Westmont. 

A novel question which, it is claimed, involves "a basic 
principle striking at the heart of industrial development" was 
brought before the Supreme Court in Washington, January, 
1922, by a woman attorney, in a petition filed by Florence 
King of Chicago, as counsel for the Cro^^Ti Die and Tool 
Company. In the memory of the oldest Supreme Court em- 
ploye, it is the first patent case filed by a woman counsel. 


Dominick Dork, 100 years old, is dead at Galena, Illinois. 
He boasted that he had never been ill until after he had passed 
his ninetv-fifth birthdav. 

White Eagle, a deaf and dumb Indian, attended the good 
roads show at the Coliseum as a representative of the Custer 
Battlefield Highway Association. Among many other talents. 
White Eagle is a poet. 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Editorial 423 

A tablet has been recently installed at the University of 
Chicago in the main hall of the Reynolds Club, honoring 
Joseph Reynolds, the "Diamond Joe" of river steamboat 

The Reynolds Club was built at an expense of $80,000 
from the $113,123 left the University by Mr. Reynolds to 
provide a memorial for his son. The remainder provided the 
establishment of the Joseph Reynolds scholarships. 


Atkinson, Wilmer. Autobiography of Wilmer Atkinson. Published by the 
Wilmer Atkinson Co., Philadelphia, Pa., 1920. Gift of the Atkinson 
Battey, George M., Jr. 70,000 Miles on a Sub-Marine Destroyer, or the Reid 
Boat in the World War. With sketches by Sergius J. Becker. ... 448 
p. 120, Atlanta, 1920. The Webb & Vary Co., Publishers. 
Bramwell (Rev.), William. A Sale of Government Land at Springfield, 
Illinois, 1S56. Extract from Mss. Autobiography of Rev. William C. 
Bramwell, 1S59. Copied by Milo Custer, Bloomington, 111. 
Brown, John Park. Fox River Valley and Other Verse. 72 p. 12°, Elgin, 
111. Watch on the Fox and Other Verse. Gift of Brethren Publishing 
Co., Elgin, Illinois. 
Carter, Allan J. The Bolshevist substitute for a judicial system. A brief 
analysis of the manner in which the extraordinary commissions for 
combating counter revolution, speculation and sabotage, familiarly 
known as the "chaika," have come to dominate Soviet Russia. By 
Allan J. Carter. Gift of Hon. Orrin N. Carter, Chicago, 111. 
Chicago College Club. Year Book. 1921-1922. Gift of the Club, 153-155 

North Michigan Avenue. Chicago, 111. 
Chicago Tribune Co., Publishers. Freedom of the Press. Two volumes, 

1922. Gift of the Chicago Tribune Co. 
Daughters of the American Revolution, Morrison, Illinois. Morrison Chap- 
ter Year Book, 1921-1922. Gift of the Regent, Mrs. Ida Barnum. 
Daughters of the American Revolution, Rossville, Illinois. Chief Shaubena 

Chapter Year Book, 1922. Gift of the Regent. Mrs. Eli Dixson. 
Daughters of the American Revolution, Sterling, Illinois. Rock River 
Chapter, Year Book. 1921-1922. Gift of Mrs. J. M. Bickford. Sll East 
Third street. Sterling, 111. 
Daughters of the American Revolution, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois. Alli- 
ance Chapter Year Books. 1905-1906, 1906-1907, 1907-190S, 190S-1909. 
1909-1910. 1910-1911, 1911-1912, 1912-1913. 1914-1915, 1915-1916. 1916- 
1917, 1917-1918, 1918-1919, 1919-1920, 1920-1921. Gift of Mrs. George W. 
Busey, Urbana, Illinois. 
Fish, StujTesant. Unveiling of the Memorial to the Mothers of the Revo- 
lution, Oct. 9. 1921. Contains address by Stuyvesant Fish at Conti- 
nental Village Farm, June 25. 1921. Gift of Stuyvesant Fish. 
Garrison, Don. Rhymes of Summertime. Gift of the Author. 
Genealogy. Buckingham Colonial Ancestors. Also copy of Descendants 
of Dan and Philena Buckingham. Printed for private circulation. Chi- 
cago, 1920. Gift of George Tracy Buckingham, 105 South LaSalle 
street, Chicago, 111. 
Genealogy. Church Family. Records of the Church Family from 1700 to 
188S. Reprint by Frank J. Wilder. Gift of Frank J. Wilder, 2S Warren 
Avenue, Somerville, Mass. 
Genealogy. Daniel or Daniels Family. By George F. Daniels. Gift of 
Frank J. Wilder, 28 Warren avenue, Somerville, Mass. 

Vol. XIV. xos. 3-4 Qifts of Books, Etc. 425 

Genealogy. Family Memories, by Mary Ann Hubbard. Gift of Miss Sarah 
Marsh, 22 Bellevue Place, Chicago, 111. 

Genealogy. Illinois. Some Old Family Records. No. 8. Compiled and 
printed by Mile Custer, 1104 Low street. Bloomington, HI. Gift of 
tlie compiler. 

Genealogy. Illinois. Old Family Records, 2 and 3. Re-compiled, revised 
and printed by Milo Custer. Rutledge Family Records. Compiled and 
printed by Milo Custer. Gift of Milo Custer, Bloomington, Illinois. 

Genealogy. Sanders Family. Genealogy, ancestors and descendants of 
John Sanders. Fort Covington, N. Y. Prepared by George Rich, Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 1922. Gift of Mr. George Rich. 

Illinois. Clippings and scrap books. Illinois material. Gift of Fred P. 
Watson. Mt. Vernon, Illinois. 

Illinois. Goudy's Illinois Farmer's Almanac and History of Useful Knowl- 
edge for tlie Year 1844. Gift of Mr. Ensley Moore, Jacksonville, Illinois. 

Illinois. Hancock County, Illinois. Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois. 
Edited by Paul Selby, Newton Bateman and J. Seymour Currey. 
Hancock Countv, Illinois. History of. Edited by Charles J. Scofield. 
Two volumes. 8', Munsell Pub. Co., Chicago. HI. Gift of Charles J. 
Scofield, Carthage, Illinois. 

Illinois. Medal, 1855. Gift of Frank J. Wilder, 28 Warren Avenue, Somer- 
ville, Mass. 

Illinois. Oak Park, Illinois. History of Oak Park Told by the Trees. By 
Dorothy Evans, winner of Watson Prize Essay Contest in Botany, 
June, 1921. Gift of the George Rogers Clark Chapter, D. A. R., Oak 
Park, Illinois. 

Indiana. The Pageant. Indianapolis Centennial, 1S20-1920. Gift of W. O. 
Bates. Woodruff Place, Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Jones, George W. The Trials of the Christ. Were they legal? 53 p. 8", 
1922. The Argus Printing House, Robinson, Illinois. Gift of the Author. 

Journal of a Lady of Quality. Being the narrative of a journey from Scot- 
land to the West Indies, North Carolina, and Portugal, in the years 
1774-1776. Edited by Evangeline Walker Andrews in collaboration with 
Charles McLean Andrews. Gift of Yale University Press. 1921. 

Kahn, Otto H. A Plea for Prosperity. Gift of the American Business Men's 
Association. 354 Fourth Avenue, New York. 

Lincoln, Abraham. Anderson (Col.), W. J. Reminiscences of Abraham Lin- 
coln. By Colonel W. J. Anderson (Typewritten). Gift of George P. 
Hambrecht, Wisconsin State Board of Vocational Education, Madison, 

Lincoln, Abraham. Barton (Rev.), William E. on Abraham Lin- 
coln. The Grand Army Hall and Memorial Association of Illinois. 
Sunday, Feb. 12, 1922. Gift of Rev. W^m. E. Barton. Oak Park. Illinois. 

Lincoln, Abraham. Huntington Art Gallery, San Gabriel, California. Pre- 
sentation and Unveiling of the Memorial Tablets. Commemorating the 
Lincoln and Burns Event, Nov. 19. 1S63. Abraham Lincoln. Memorial 
Meeting. Feb. 3. 1909. Abraham Lincoln. Rev. Alexander H. Leo. Abra- 
ham Lincoln. George R. Snowden. Abraham Lincoln. Walter George 
Smith. Gift of the Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery, San 
Gabriel. California. 
Lincoln, Abraham. Wisconsin's Part in the Celebration of the Half Cen- 
tury Anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation. Pamphlet. Gift 
of George P. Hambrecht. Wisconsin State Board of Vocational Educa- 
tion, Madison, Wisconsin. 
Macbeth-Evans Glass Co. Fifty Years of Glass Making. Gift of the Mac- 
beth-Evans Glass Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

426 Gifts of Books, Etc. J- 1- «• h. s. 

McCordic, Fletcher Ladd. A Tribute to Fletcher Ladd McCordic, First 
Lieutenant, SSth Aero Squadron, A. E. F., 1S91-1919. Gift of Air. and 
Mrs. Alfred Edward McCordic, Winnetka, Illinois. 

Maps. Portland Cement Association, Publishers. Map of Illinois show- 
ing construction progress on Federal aid and State bond issue roads 
to date, Dec. 31, 1921. Gift of the Portland Cement Association, IH 
West Washington street, Chicago, Illinois. 

Medals. Three Christopher Columbus Medals World's Columbian Exposi- 
tion, Chicago, 1892-93. Gift of Mr. DeWitt Smith, South Second street, 
Springiield, Illinois. 

Memorial to the late Judge John W. Warrington. Gift of the Cincinnati 
Law Library, Court House, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Minnesota State Historical Society. A History of Minnesota. By William 
Watts Folwell. In four volumes. Vol. I., 1921. Gift of the Minnesota 
Historical Society. 

Mormons. The Book of Mormon. Published by the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter Day Saints. Salt Lake City, Utah, 1922. Gift of Dr. 
James E. Talmage. 

Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union. Annual Report, 1921. 
Gift of Mrs. George A. Carpenter, Illinois Vice Regent, 945 North Dear- 
born street, Chicago, Illinois. 

Newspapers. The Irving Gazette, Irving. Ill Vol. I., July 13-Dec. 21, 1872. 
The Nokomis, Illinois, Gazette. Vol II., Feb. 15. 1873: Vol. IV., Nov. 
28, 1S74. Presented to the Illinois State Historical Library by the estate 
of Harry F. White, one time Editor of the Nokomis, Illinois, Gazette. 
During Governor Shelby M. Cullom's term of office as Governor of 
Illinois, Mr. White served under him as Captain of the Governor's 
Staff. :Mrs. Harry F. White, 208 Taylor street, Topeka. Kansas. 

New 'Vork. Long Island. The Evolution of Long Island. A Story of Land 
and Sea. By Ralph Henry Gabriel. Gift of the Yale University Press, 
New Haven. Conn.. 1921. 

Park College, Parkville, Missouri. Nauva. 1922. Park College. Gift of 
Mrs. George A. Lawrence, Galesburg, Illinois. 

Periodicals. Ladies' Repository. Vols. 10, 11, 12, 18, 1850-1852. Published Cin- 
cinnati. L. Swormstedt and J. H. Power. The Christian Family 
Annual. Vol. 3. Edited and printed by Rev. Daniel Newell, New York 
(no date). Gift of Mrs. Paul Graham, Springfield, 111. 

Pictures. Camp Butler. Reprint from the original photograph. Gift of Mr. 
A. W. Kessberger. Springfield, Illinois. 

Pictures. First Fortification Northwest Territory. Campus Martius. His- 
toric garrison built by an expedition led by Rufus Putnam. Also plat 
of fortification copied from original drawing. 

Pictures (Two). Land Office Ohio Company, Marietta. Ohio. Now owned 
by the Colonial Dames of Ohio. Also newspaper clippings of Marietta, 
Ohio. Gift of Miss Mary E. Jlason, 629 North Third street. Marietta, 

Portraits. Oil Portrait James T. B. Stapp. By James W. Berry of Van- 
dalia. Gift of William S, Ennis, 39 Schiller street. Chicago, Illinois. 

Rushville, Illinois. First Presbyterian Church. Eightieth Anniversary, 

Sangamon County. Historical material. Compiled by Mrs. Knapp. Gift 
of Mrs. Chas, E. Knapp, Springfield, Illinois. 

Spanish American Institute. Gardena, Cal. Annual Report, 1922. Gift of 
the Institute. 

War of the Rebellion. Truth of War Conspiracy, 1861. Gift of Heo John- 
stone, Idylwlld, Ga. 



August 9, 1854. December 7, 1921. 
(By Henry R. Balj)\vik.) 

Jesse A. Baldwin was born upon a farm in the Township 
of Greenwood, McHenry County, Illinois. He was one of a 
large family of children, and he early learned habits of indus- 
try which remained with liim throughout his life. He studied 
in the country schools and his education was supplemented 
by a brief course at the State University of Illinois and by 
constant home study throughout the remainder of his life. 
He taught school in country districts, and the last year of his 
teaching was at Crystal Lake, Illinois. T\Tiile teaching school, 
he studied law under Judge Murphy, of Woodstock, Illinois. 

He became an Assistant United States Attorney under 
Mark Bangs, then the District Attorney of the United States 
in Chicago, and continued in the position of Assistant U. S. 
Attorney during a part of the later incumbency of Joseph B. 
Leake as District Attorney. He resigned his position to 
engage in the general practice of law in the city of Chicago. 
His earnest application and his natural ability, together with 
his acquirements, soon placed him in the forefront of his pro- 
fession in the practice of the law. He was a wise and able 
counselor and an earnest, aggressive and efficient advocate. 
He was twice elected to the Circuit Court bench in Cook 
County, Illinois, where he served as a judge of that court for 
twelve years. In that position he brought the same industry, 
energy and ability to bear which he had exhibited while in 
the practice of the law; and his wide knowledge of the law, 
together with his general grasp of affairs and his sense of 
justice and courtesy of manner, enabled him to render effective 
service to the public. 

It is interesting to note that the study of law seemed a 
characteristic of the children in his father's family. Jesse's 
eldest brother, Norman Baldwin, was engaged in the practice 

430 Jesse A. Baldwin, 1854-1921 J.i.s.h.s. 

of the law wheu the Civil War broke out. He immediately left 
his office to volunteer in the armies of the Union, where he 
gave up his life for his country. His brother, Sebre D. Bald- 
win, had completed his law studies and was about to be 
admitted to the bar, while ser\ as County Superintendent 
of Schools in McHenry County, Illinois ; but his death inter- 
vened. His brother. Dr. A. E. Baldwin, while in the practice 
of his profession in Chicago, studied law and was admitted 
to the bar in Illinois, although he never practiced law here 
and is now engaged in the general practice of medicine at 
Kettle Falls, Washington. His youngest brother, Henry R. 
Baldwin, was a law partner of the decedent in Chicago for 
nearly twenty years. 

At the time of his death. Judge Baldwin was a resident 
of Oak Park, Illinois, where he had resided for more than 
thirty years with his family. Early in his life, he married 
Fannie M. Benton, and to them were born several children, 
three of whom and his widow survive him: Theodore W. 
Baldwin, now a resident of California ; Norman L. Baldwin, a 
captain in the regular army, now stationed in China, and 
William Storrs Baldwin, now living in Oak Park. Others of 
his children died in their childhood ; also, his grand-daughter, 
Nancy, died in her cliildhood and her remains lie in the family 
burial lot at Greenwood, Illinois, with those of her mother, 
Louise Baldwin Squire. 

Judge Baldwin was interested in all matters which con- 
cerned the good of the community in which he lived and of 
the larger community in which he wrought. He was inti- 
mately connected with the educational affairs and institutions 
at Oak Park, and served for a time as village attorney. He 
was one of the founders of the Oak Park Trust & Savings 
Bank, and nearly always — up to the time of his death — he 
was one of its board of directors; and during all the time, 
except when he was on the bench, he was its attorney. He 
was a director of the Central Free Dispensary; was for many 
years an officer of the Eeligious Education Association; and 
was a trustee of the Rush Medical College and a trustee of 
the University of Chicago for many years before his death. 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Jesse A. Baldwin, 1S54-1921 431 

lie was also deeply interested in the work of the Illinois State 
Historical Society. 

Judge Baldwin was a member of the First Baptist Church 
at Oak Park for many years, and was one of the founders of 
the Chicago Baptist Social Union. He was also a member of 
and chairman of the Educational Committee of the Northern 
Baptist Convention. However, he was not a strong sectarian, 
but his sympathies extended to all religious beliefs and organ- 
izations, and his friendships and his associations included 
those of all religious beliefs and organizations, as well as 
many wliich were not connected with any religious organiza- 
tion. Of him it might well be said : 

He was a kind and loving husband ; 

An affectionate and indulgent father; 

A patriotic citizen; 

An honest and successful lawj^er; 

A just Judge ; and 

A Christian gentleman. 

STEPHEN WHITE— 1818-1921. 

Stephen White, the oldest resident of Montgomery 
County, Illinois, and one of the last Illinois Veterans of the 
Mexican War, died at his home, four miles south of Coifeen, 
at 9 a. m. on Thursday, September 8, 1921, at the age of one 
hundred and three years, six months and twenty-nine days. 

Stephen White was born February 9, 1818, the year in 
which the State of Illinois was admitted to the Union. He 
was the son of Ambrose White, who came to Illinois from 
Kentucky in 1817, and settled in East Fort Township, Mont- 
gomery County, on Shoal Creek, near where that stream 
crosses the line between Montgomery and Bond Counties. 
There Ambrose White passed the remaining years of his life. 

Stephen White's funeral took place from the Mount 
Moriah Church, four miles south of Coffeen, on Saturday, 
September 10, 1921, and the remains were buried in Mount 
Moriah Cemetery. 

On August 5, 1921, just a month before the death of Mr. 
White, the ^lontgomery County News published an interest- 
ing account of the life of this remarkable man, which we re- 
print as follows: 

Uncle Stephen White, who lives in a modest cottage 
four miles south of Coffeen, in the settlement known as New 
Boston, or "White Town," as it is sometimes called, is as 
old as the State of Illinois, having been born February 9, 
1818, the year Illinois was admitted to the Union, and he still 
lives near the spot where he was born. According to Mr. 
White's statement, he will be 104 years old on the 9th day of 
next February, if he should live that long. 

He is the son of Ambrose White, who came to this county 
from Kentucky in 1817, and settled on the East Fork 
of Shoal Creek, near where it crosses the county line be- 
tween ]\[ontgomery and Bond counties. The scenery in that 
locality is, perhaps, the most picturesque in the county. It is 
very much broken, but the hills slope gradually to the creek, 


Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Stephen White, 1818-1921 433 

and show evidence of being covered with soil that is unusu- 
ally fertile, for the wheat and oats shocks were thick upon 
the sloping hillsides and fields of fine corn were in evidence 
on every hand. There is a wide stretch of bottom land, and 
along the banks of the creek and crowning some of the hills, 
there are still virgin forests of considerable extent that 
make the scene one of unusual loveliness. On one of these 
hills, overlooking the creek and rich bottom land, lives Ste- 
phen White, bowed by his weight of over a hundred years, 
feeble and almost helpless, yet with a mind as bright and 
active as it was fifty years ago, and a memory that is mar- 
velous for one of his years. 

Mr. White loves to talk of the old pioneer days when he 
used to hunt deer and wild turkey up and dowm the creek and 
over the verdant hills. 

In an interesting conversation with the old patriarch, 
he told of the struggles of his boyhood days, but insists they 
were the happiest days of his life. In those days every pio- 
neer family tanned their o^\^^ hides and made their own shoes, 
and Mr. White never owned or wore a pair of shoes until he 
was old enough to earn the money to buy them. When he 
was nine years old he began working for Newton Coffey, 
the man who afterward sold the twenty acres upon which the 
original ^nllage of Hillsboro was located, to the County Com- 
missioners for $50, to be the site of the county seat of Mont- 
gomery County. He worked for Mr. Coffey for $1.50 a 
month at first, but his wages were gradually raised as he 
grew older and stronger. He worked for Mr. Coffey six 
years, and the last year he got a "man's wages," or $10 a 

He relates the following incident that took place while 
working for Mr. Coffey: "I must have been ten or eleven 
years old when, one morning, !Mr. Coffey loaded up a wagon 
load of bacon and, hitching an ox team to the wagon, he 
started me to Vandalia, about 25 miles away, with it. Mr. 
Coffey himself made the trip on horseback. Of course the 
iourney with the ox team was very slow and it was very late 
when I returned. Mr. Coffey got dmnk at Vandalia and he 

434 Stephen White, 1S18-1921 j.i.s.h.s. 

told me to go on home and he would follow later. As I was 
returning through a piece of timber not far from home, I 
was attacked by a pack of wolves, which had been attracted 
by the smell the bacon had left on the wagon. They circled 
around the team and wagon, snarling and snapping, and 
they scared me and the oxen half to death. I fought them 
off with my ox whip and the oxen broke into a run, and when 
we came in sight of home, the wolves disappeared. Mr. Cof- 
fey did not get home until 12 o'clock the next day." 

Mr. White says he was chased home twice by panthers, 
once when he had got big enough to "go sparking." He had 
been up the creek one night to see his girl and was returning 
very late on foot, through the timber, when he heard a pan- 
ther scream not far away and the animal got after him. In 
telling of this incident, he said: "I was scared stiff, but I 
started to run toward home, and I don't believe a boy ever 
ran as fast as I did, before that time or since. A high rail 
fence, staked and ridered, was between me and the house, 
but I cleared it like a deer and got into the house just in 
time, for the panther followed me to the door." Mr. White 
says he used to see plenty of bear on the creek. They were 
the little black fellows and not very dangerous. 

In 1846 Mr. White enlisted for the Mexican War in 
Company E, Third Illinois regiment. He went to Mexico and 
was in two big battles. Vera Cruz and Cerro Gordo. In the 
latter battle he was severely wounded, a bullet striking him in 
the side. This was on April 18, 1847. He never was in the 
active service after that, and they wanted to send him home, 
but he refused to come, saying that he intended to stay with 
his company until the war ended. He and his company were 
discharged in June, 1847. Ben Sellers, of Mulberry Grove, 
was his captain, and his colonel was named Willy, and lived 
below Greenville. 

Mr. White related an incident that occurred while he 
was in Mexico, which we will allow him to tell in his o-\vn 
language : 

"One day. my company were drilling when I noticed a 
cornfield nearby full of roastin' ears. The sight made me 

Vol. XIV. Nos. 3-4 Stephen White, 1818-1921 435 

so hungry for a mess of roastin' ears that I slipped out of 
the ranks when the ofiScers were not looking and sneaked into 
the corn field and began filling my haversack with the corn. 
Suddenly five Mexicans appeared on the scene, all carrying 
what appeared to me to be the biggest and longest swords I 
ever saw! They advanced on me with their swords drawn, 
but before they got to me I shot and killed one of them, then 
rushed upon another and ran my bayonet through him. The 
other three fled, and it is needless to say that I turned and 
burned the wind in the direction of my company, but I took 
a big mess of roastin' ears with me." 

Mr. White had seven brothers and sisters, all of 
whom are dead. He was the fourth child of Ambrose White. 
He was married to Miss Nancy Ewing, June 27, 1847, soon 
after he returned from the Mexican War, and ten children 
were born to them, viz. : William Thomas, who has been dead 
many years ; Mary Jane, also dead ; Martha Ann, now the 
widow of Wm. Brown; Eliza Jane, wife of Joseph Jones; 
Sarah, the wife of John Jones; Ira J. White, Jacob White, 
Robert Wliite, who is a Baptist minister and Cynthia Ade- 
laide, who is dead. 

His wife died 14 years ago, and 13 years ago, when he 
was 90 years old, he married again, his ■w'ife being Mrs. Cath- 
erine Jones, the widow of Alex Jones, who is living with him 
and caring for him as best she can. Mr. White has had 50 
grandchildren, 40 of whom are living. He has 82 great- 
grandchildren, and six great-great-grandchildren. He is a 
member of the Christian church and lives up to his religious 
professions. His membersliip is at Mt. Moriah Church, lo- 
cated just north of the Bond county line. 

Mr. Wliite never wore shoes or a hat imtil he got able 
to buy them, and he thinks that both of these articles of 
clothing are unnecessary. "Fancy," he said, "their feet 
wouldn't need shoes, or other covering, any more than a 
goose needs shoes." 

As a young man, Mr. White was possessed of unusual 
strength. He is a tall man, with a large frame, and when 
he was in his prime there were few men who could cope with 

436 Stephen White, 1818-1921 J.i.s.h.s. 

him iu feats requiring strength and endurance. While we 
talked with him, the only centenarian in Montgomery county, 
and in fact the only one with whom the writer had ever con- 
versed, and as we looked into his eyes over which the rheum 
of old age had gathered, and as we gazed upon his once 
stalwart form, now shaken and weakened by the storms of 
more than a hundred winters, we called to mind the words of 
Oliver Wendell Holmes in his "The Last Leaf": 

"They say that in his prime. 
Ere the pruning knife of time 

Cut him dowai, 
Not a better man was found 
By the cryer on his round 

Through the town. 

" But now he walks the streets 
And he looks at all he meets 

So forlorn; 
And he shakes his feeble head 
That it seems as if he said, 

They are gone. 

"The mossy marbles rest 

On the lips that he has pressed 

In their bloom. 
And the names he loved to hear 
Have been carved for many a year 

On the tomb." 

List of Publications of the Illinois State Historical 
Library and Society. 

No. 1. 'A Bibliography of Newspapers published in Illinois prior to 
1860. Prepared by Edmund J. James. Ph D., and Milo J. Loveless. 94 pp. 
8 vo. Springfield. 1S99. 

No. 2. •Information relating to the Territorial Laws of Illinois passed 
from 1809 to 1S12. Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., 15 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1899. 

No. 3. *The Territorial Records of Illinois. Edited by Edmund J. 
James, Ph. D.. 170 pp. 8 vo. Springfield. 1901. 

No. 4. 'Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the 
year 1900. Edited by E. B. Greene, Ph. D., 55 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1900. 

No. 5. 'Alphabetical Catalog of the Books, Manuscripts. Pictures and 
Curios of the Illinois State Historical Library Authors, Titles and Subjects. 
Compiled by Jessie Palmer Weber. 363 pp. S vo. Springfield. 1900. 

Nos. 6 to 27. 'Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society 
for the years 1901-1920. (Nos. 6 to 22 out of print.) 

•Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. I. Edited by H. W. Beckwith, Presi- 
dent of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library. 642 
pp. 8. vo. Springfield. 1903. 

•Illinois Historical Collections. Vol U. Virginia Series, Vol. I. The 
Cahokia Records, 1778-1790. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. CLVI 
and 663 pp. 8 vo. Springfield. 1907. 

•niinois Historical Collections, Vol III. Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 
1858. Lincoln Series. Vol 1. Edited by Edwin Erie Sparks, Ph. D. 627 pp. 
8 vo. Springfield. 1908. 

•Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IV. Executive Series, Vol. I. The 
Governors' Letter Books, 1818-1834. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and 
Clarence Walworth Alvord. XXXII and 317 pp. 8 vo. Springfield. 1909. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. V. Virginia Series. Vol. II. Kas- 
kaskia Records, 1778-1790. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. L. and 
681 pp. S vo. Springfield. 1909. 

•Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VI. Bibliographical Series, Vol. L 
Newspapers and Periodicals of Illinois, 1814-1879. Revised and enlarged edi- 
tion. Edited by Franklin William Scott. CIV and 610 pp. 8 vo. Spring- 
field. 1910. 

•Illinois Historical Collections, Vol VII, Executive Series. Vol. II. Gover- 
nors' Letter Books. 1840-1853. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and Charles 
Manfred Thompson. CXVIII and 469 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1911. 

•Illinois Historical Collection, Vol. VIII. Virginia Series, Vol. III. George 
Rogers Clark Papers, 1771-1781. Edited with introduction and notes by 
James Alton James. CLXVII and 715 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1912. 

•Illinois Historical Collections, Vol IX. Bibliographical Series, Vol 
Travel and Description, 1765-1865. By Solon Justus Buck. 514 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1914. 

Illinois Historical Collections. Vol X. British Series. Vol. I The Critica! 
Period. 1763-1765. Edited with introduction and notes by Clarence Wal 
worth Alvord and Clarence Edwin Carter. LVII and 597 pp. 8 vo. Spring 
field, 1915. 

438 List of Publications j.i.s.h.s. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol XI. British Series, Vol II. The New 
Regime. 1765-1767. Edited with introduction and notes by Clarence Wal- 
worth Alvord and Clarence Edwin Carter. XXVIII and 700 pp. 8 vo. Spring- 
field, 1916. 

Illinois Historical Collections. Vol XII. Bibliographical Series, Vol III. 
The County Archives of the State of Illiuois. By Theodore Calvin Pease. 
CXLI and 730 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1915. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XIII. Constitutional Series, Vol. I. 
Illinois Constitutions. Edited by Emll Joseph Verlie. 231 pp. 8 vo. Spring- 
field, 1919. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol XIV. Constitutional Series, Vol II. 
The Constitutional Debates of 1847. Edited with introduction and notes by 
Arthur Charles Cole, XV and lOlS pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1919. 

Illinois Historical Collections. Vol. XV. Biographical Series No. I, Gov- 
ernor Edward Coles by Elihu B. Washburne. Reprint with introduction 
and notes by Clarence Walworth Alvord. 435 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1920. 

♦Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 1, Septem- 
ber, 1905. Illinois in the Eighteenth Century. By Clarence Walworth 
Alvord. 38 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1905. 

'Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library, Vol I, No. 2, June 1, 
1906. Laws of the Territory of Illinois, 1809-1811. Edited by Clarence Wal- 
worth Alvord. 34 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1906. 

♦Circular Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. 1, No. 1, November, 1905. 
An Outline for the Study of Illinois State History. Compiled by Jessie 
Palmer Weber and Georgia L. Osborne. 94 pp. S vo. Springfield. 1905. 

♦Publication No. 18. List of Genealogical Works in the Illinois State 
Historical Library. Compiled by Georgia L. Osborne. 8 vo. Spring- 
field, 1914. 

♦Publication No. 25. List of Genealogical Works in the Illinois State 
Historical Library. Supplement to Publication No. 18. Compiled by Georgia 
L. Osborne. 8 vo. Springfield. 1918. 

Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, Vol. I, No. 1, April, 1908, 
to Vol. XrV, Nos. 3-4. January. 1922. 

Journals out of print. Vols. I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII. VIII. No. 1 of Vol. 
IX, No. 2 of Vol. X.