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THE 



OORNAL OF MICROSCOPY 



AND 



NATURAL SCIEN 



UIj . 



THE JOURNAL OF 

THE POSTAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY. 



EDITED BY 

ALFRED ALLEN, 

Ho7iorary Secretary of the Postal Microscopical Society, 

ASSISTED BY 

SEVERAL MEMBERS OF THE COMMITTEE. 



VOL. VI. 



BAILLIERE, TINDALL, & COX, KING WILLIAM ST., 

STRAND, W.C. 

Batb : 

I CAMBRIDGE PLACE. 
IS87. 




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HE Sixth Volume closes the First Series of The 
^^ Journal of Microscopy and Natural Science, 
formerly called T/ie Jota-Jial of the Postal Micro- 
scopical Society. 

We sincerely hope that the place in your libra- 
nes whicn was at the first granted from a kind 
desire to help forward a work on microscopy just struggling 
into existence, will, after six years of its publication and literary 
life, be continued to it, not from mere favour, but because it 
has won its way and confirmed its position by real worth and 
solid value. 

It has been deemed advisable to begin a New Series with 
the Seventh Volume of this Journal. The first part of that 
series will be published in January, 1888, and several new 
departments of interest to the microscopist and to the student 
of natural science will be entered upon. 

We have received promises from many naturalists and 
scientists of undoubted ability to furnish papers for the new 



iv. Preface. 

series, and we are assured that the seventh volume of the 
Journal will be in no respects inferior to any of its predecessors, 
either in value or in interest. 

It remains for us only to thank our numerous contributors 
and subscribers for their much-valued support, and to beg that 
they will favour us with a further continuance of the same. 

"Mine eye unworthy seems to read 

One page of Nature's beauteous book ; 
It lies before nie, fair outspread — 
I only cast a wistful look." 

Keble. 



THE JOURNAL OF MICROSCOPY 

AND 

NATURAL SCIENCE: 

the journal of 
The Postal Microscopical Society. 



JANUARY, 1887. 



By J. W. Measures, M.R.C.S.Eng. 







^^ 






^^: 



VER since the receipt of Mr. Allen's letter informing 
me that your choice for the office of President- 
elect had fallen upon me, I have in vain been 
endeavouring to discover the reasons which led to 
that selection, and can assure you that my feelings 
of surprise have not been diminished by time ; but 
like the fly in amber, I still wonder " why I am 
here," and can only thank you, either for your 
discernment of qualities which you suppose me to 
possess, or for your great kindness in bestowing the highest honour 
in your power upon a member now of some years' standing. This 
honour I highly appreciate, and with a deep sense of my own 
inability to fill worthily the place heretofore occupied by more 
distinguished men, must beg your kindest indulgence and for- 
bearance. 

We meet here as members of a society, whose one bond of 
Vol. VI. B 



^0 



2 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

union is an interest in some one or more of the branches of 
science, in which the Microscope is an essential aid. These are 
so varied and extensive, that scarcely any branch of modern 
enquiry can be said to be independent of its assistance. Neither 
the botanist, biologist, chemist, geologist, nor the students of any 
department of natural history, can altogether dispense with its 
services. 

The attractions and uses of the Microscope being so multi- 
farious, it need be no matter of surprise that Microscopical 
Societies should have sprung up in so many different parts of the 
country, each with its special field of work. 

What, then, is the special mission of the Postal Microscopical 
Society ? Let us seek an answer in its history : What was the first 
conception of the society by Mr. Atkinson, its first President ? 
He says in his first letter to Science Gossip, in May, 1873, " Let a 
certain number of persons, living in different parts of the country, 
agree to form a Postal Cabinet Association," and in his letter he 
further developes a plan, which, after modification and assistance 
from Mr. Allen, our present secretary, resulted in the establish- 
ment of our society : the essence of the whole being the 
association of a number of workers separated from each other by 
long distances, and thus isolated in their work ; but now, by 
means of the post, linked together into a brotherhood, and 
enabled to communicate with each other, and to obtain en- 
couragement, sympathy, and instruction from intercommunication. 

Now, of all the departments of Microscopical work, there is, 
perhaps, no other in which mutual sympathy and help is more 
needed, and in which one is more likely to be discouraged by 
isolation than the department of mounting objects for the 
Microscope. This is an especial trouble to young students and 
to those who are only in the outset of their microscopical career. 
Suppose, having become the possessor of a much-coveted 
instrument, the student essays to mount the simplest object — 
probably he has never seen an object mounted — how is he to go to 
work ? He consults his books. But all persons of practical 
experience know how difficult it is to acquire any art from books, 
more particularly one so full of mimitice as that of mounting. 
This art, which consists in displaying and preserving the minute 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS, 3 

structures of any object, is not reached at one bound, and in 
many cases the isolated student is rather hindered than helped by 
books. He stumbles on without hints and without help. He has 
no one to give him any of those little tips, wrinkles, or dodges, 
which are so helpful. Books hinder by want of precision and 
attention to detail, and to their omission of all those little hints 
which are necessary in practice. No wonder, then, that after a 
few early attempts he desists, and his microscope is, as I have 
often seen it, laid upon the shelf to be almost forgotten. And 
on this point Beale (" How to Work with the Microscope ") 
expresses his belief that " many who possess microscopes are 
deterred from attempting any branch of original investigation 
solely by the great difficulty they experience in surmounting the 
details. 

How different is the position of the beginner in our large 
towns ! I well remember with what pleasure I perused the reports 
of a mounting class, held at the Manchester Microscopical 
Society's rooms, where the various stages of dissecting, mounting, 
and displaying objects were superintended and practically 
illustrated by experienced mounters. But, alas ! I knew of no one 
for miles round who took the slightest interest in the subject, and 
had I not heard of the Postal Microscopical Society, through the 
British Medical Jourtial, which thus said of our society : — " Such 
societies are extremely useful and agreeable institutions, and 
are, of course, particularly convenient to those who reside 
at a distance from great centres. They enable men to 
exchange specimens and ideas with other well-known workers, 
and to keep up their interest in practical histology, in a 
way often not otherwise easily attainable " — I, too, would 
probably have discontinued my attempts, but having joined 
its ranks my interest in microscopical pursuits has continued to 
this day. That this isolation is felt by the student to be an almost 
insuperable difficulty, and not a fanciful one, is proved by an 
instance related in the first address given by my illustrious pre- 
decessor in this chair, Mr. Tuffen West, and the whole passage is 
worth quoting, as many of our later members may not have seen 
it. He says : — 

" Workers in isolated spots should have our first consideration. 



« PRESIDENTIAL ADDllESS. 

It was for their benefit especially that the society was formed ; it 
is on such that the arrival of a box of our slides, with its accom- 
panying book of notes and drawings, confers the greatest boon. 
None but those who have experienced it can fully realise the state 
of stagnation into which even an active mind may sink, with no 
fellow-worker at hand ; none with whom to communicate on 
subjects enlightening and elevating such as these. Some years 
ago I was spending a few days with a nobleman of high culture, 
extensive knowledge, scientific tastes, and a worker too ; perhaps 
the most original-minded man I ever met. Our converse was 
upon the best mode of publishing results he had obtained of great 
novelty and value, on the development of the vegetable cell. It 
was he who discovered the varying affinities of cell-growths for 
colouring agents, the knowledge of which has already borne such 
good fruit, and is destined still further to clear up many life- 
processes which are at present obscure. As the time of our 
parting approached he remarked, 'There isn't any one within fifty 
miles of me who cares aught about these things, and I feel as if I 
couldn't go on for lack of sympathy. I'm too far from London to 
profit by the Microscopical Society there, and I must give it up, 
though it has such a charm for me I would gladly work on.' And 
he has 'given it up.' That valuable original thinker and worker 
felt so disheartened by his surroundings that he fairly gave in to 
them, and this, his first great contribution to microscopical science, 
seems likely to be his last. How glad would he have been to have 
joined a society like ours, and how greatly would science have 
been the gainer in such an event." 

The nobleman here referred to was, I believe, Lord S. G. 
Osborne, whose observations were made by allowing plants to grow 
in a solution of carmine, and then examining the growing parts. 
If such an observer, with all the advantages of time and leisure, and 
real genius, is thus discouraged by want of sympathy, I think we 
may fairly feel that we have here a real field of work, and that our 
mission is to assist the tyro, and encourage with our sympathy 
the isolated worker. For this our society was first established, 
and it now becomes us to enquire. Have we fulfilled our mission ? 

A little enquiry into the geographical distribution of our 
members, and a glance at the excellent and interesting little map, 



PEESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 5 

published in Vol. I. of our journal, will show that they are to be 
found in the most remote parts of England ; some in Scotland, 
some in Ireland, and some even in Portugal ; and will prove 
that our society is filling the field of work marked out for it by its 
founders. 

Of course, no society like ours can have existed for thir- 
teen years without having met with practical difficulties and 
hindrances. In the pages of the earlier note-books and presi- 
dential addresses, numerous complaints are to be found of 
breakages of slides; thus, one essential to progress, the safe 
transit of slides, had to be, if possible, secured. The ques- 
tion of boxes long vexed the members of the society, so im- 
portant was it deemed, and so truly important was it that a 
prize was offered for the best box. Twenty-one boxes were sent 
in to compete, and of these twelve were subjected to practical use, 
a test before the days of the parcel post, and much more severe 
than now, when a breakage is a comparative rarity, and the prize 
was duly adjudged to Mr. C. D. Holmes, but these boxes had in 
their turn to give way to others, the invention, I believe, of our 
worthy secretary. Then, too, there were many complaints with 
respect to the quality, and more particularly the repetition of 
slides ; complaints also of the circulation of slides of common- 
place objects, and of the want of relation of one slide to another. 
On this point there can be no question that great progress has 
been made, and much of this progress is unquestionably due to 
the alteration in the rules made at the annual meeting, held 
Oct. II, 1883. 

I am sure that all the members of our society will acknow- 
ledge that the plan of sending six or more slides in one box, 
instead of four slides in as many separate boxes, has been 
attended with the happiest results. Better slides have been 
circulated. Series of slides illustrating varying points of structure 
in allied species of animals and plants having become possible, 
the opportunity has been seized by many members, and our boxes 
of slides and their accompanying books of notes have alike gained 
in coherency and interest to an extent even greater than was 
anticipated. 

The question of the preservation and publication of our notes 



6 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

had long proved an insoluble difficulty, but " as all things come to 
him who waits," so also this problem has found its solution in the 
publication of our very excellent journal, edited by Mr. Allen. 
This journal has already attained a very wide circulation — a circu- 
lation due entirely to its own merits, and all members of the Postal 
Microscopical Society ought to give it their earnest support. The 
following is the testimony of a gentleman, a member of various 
learned societies, whom I invited to join us, but who is at present 
unable to do so. He says : — " I have a very good opinion of 
your society, derived from a perusal of its publications, which I 
have taken from their commencement." In this journal not only 
have we had many original papers far too long for our circulating 
manuscript note-books, but many interesting items have been 
drawn from our old note-books, wherein they were entombed. 

It is beyond question that the microscope may be used both 
as a means of affording amusement, and as an instrument for 
scientific research. It has occasionally been made a reproach to 
our association, that it is mainly used for the former purpose 
—amusement — and that the chief end of the society has been the 
circulation of *' Objects for the Microscope." Supposing this 
reproach to be true, which it is not, is it possible, I ask, to use the 
Microscope as a means of amusement — that is, to gratify the eye 
without occupying, stimulating, and enlarging the mind ? I 
unhesitatingly avow the contrary : it is not possible. Can any 
man or woman view without thought the beautiful revelations of 
the diaphanous and exquisitely-formed Daphnia, or Rotifer, or 
Floscule ? Is it possible, think you, that anyone can thus view the 
workings of the interior economy of these beautiful little crea- 
tures without some reflections on the perfection of the unseen. 
Is it nothing, then, that our friends should be able to combine for 
" intellectual amusement " ? We may not be able (and indeed all 
are not adapted by bent of mind) to adduce much original work 
as the result of the workings of our society, yet it has been 
helpful to many, and may even now be preparing some few of its 
members to such an end. For original workers are not born ; they 
must be trained. Especially is this true of microscopical workers. 
Dr. Bealesays : — "For however some may be inclined to disparage 
hand work as distinguished from head work, it is certain that no 



NOCTILUCA MILIARIS. 7 

one can become a good microscopical observer unless he is 
possessed of considerable manual dexterity, to be acquired only 
by long practice," and no work can be higher or more useful than 
that of assisting men to become original workers in any depart- 
ment of science. 

Even the wide range of subjects over which our slides are 
spread tends to prevent the specialist from becoming too narrow, 
and to show him that there is an interest in pursuits other than 
his own. It is not at all desirable that we should imitate the 
coleopterist of Oliver Wendell Holmes, In our society he may 
learn much that has been previously done ; the mission, though 
humble, should not be despised, for even as the known is the 
foundation of the unknown, so no original observer may or can 
safely disregard the studies of his predecessors. 

I would now appeal to the members of the society to do all 
they can in the coming session to advance its interests by contri- 
buting interesting slides, adding to the slides notes, giving freely all 
their knowledge, either original or acquired. By so doing we 
shall attain in the future an even greater degree of prosperity than 
in the present. 



IRoctiluca niMlians. 

By Alfred W. Griffin. 
Plate I. 

THERE is, perhaps, no one of the phosphorescent animals 
yet known to science which possesses such highly luminous 
properties as the Noctiluca. To its presence in countless myriads 
upon the upper stratum of the water on calm summer nights is 
especially due that diffused form of phosphorescence, which is 
so essentially characteristic of temperate latitudes. Under the 
most favourable of these conditions the waves falling upon the 
shore leave, as they retreat, a glittering carpet of scintillating 
points, the oars of the passing boats seem to dip, as it were, in 
molten silver, while on the high seas the waste of waters churned 



8 NOCTILUCA MILIAIIIS. 

into foam by the revolving screw or paddles of the steamboat, 
leaves in its wake a broad luminous track, as far as the eye can 
reach. A glassful of water, taken from the surface of the sea at 
such times, at once reveals the cause of this wonderful phe- 
nomenon ; for here and there will be seen floating minute bladder- 
like, transparent spheres. When irritated they at once respond by 
flashes of green silvery lights, and it is to this that the beautiful 
appearance already alluded to is due. 

This description is from the pen of Professor All man, who has 
studied the Noctiluca very closely in its various stages, and I 
venture to think he has under-rated rather than over-rated the 
brilliancy of the phosphorescence. It was my good fortune on a 
still moonlight night, last August, to be off the coast of North 
Devon, and for some time to witness the appearance of molten 
iron, which the paddles of the steamer caused as they churned up 
the water, illumined on its surface by myriads of these tiny lamps. 
The crests of the waves as they rippled against the shore were 
sparkling with light, defining their form in sharp outline, and all 
around the vessel the luminosity was most brilliant. The beauty 
of the scene led me to commence these investigations, which I 
have now the honour to place before the readers of this 
journal. 

According to Suriray, Noctiluca Millaris consists of a 
spherical, gelatinous mass, with a long filiform tentacle appendage, 
possessing an oesophagus, many stomachs, and ramifying ovaries. 
Huxley, however, describes the Noctiluca somewhat more 
explicitly, by first stating that it is about the sixtieth part of an 
inch in diameter, and next, that in appearance it closely resembles 
a peach- — that is, one surface is a little excavated, whilst a groove 
runs from one side of the excavation half way up to the other 
pole. Where the stalk of the peach might be is a filiform tentacle 
equal in length to about the diameter of the body, which exhibits 
slow wavy motions when the creature is in full activity. The use 
of this appears to be chiefly to push away obstacles and as a 
motive power, and I venture to hazard the opinion that it is a 
greater sympathetic nerve communicating with lesser nerves, and 
thence to the luminous points at the apex of the body. If the 
water is agitated in which the Noctiluca is confined, or an 



NOCTILIJCA MILIARIS. 9 

irritating substance like Ammonia be added, the tail, or tentacle 
is seen in rapid motion, and the light flashes out with great 
rapidity. This tentacle is extremely brittle, breaks with a short 
fracture, and is evidently composed of rings of spiral tissue. 
Dr. Webb states that he has never seen any restoration of this 
part should it be lost, and on the death of the creature it coils up ; 
but I should add that even after the partial rupture of the invest- 
ing membrane, and the discharge of its contents, he has seen it 
vibrating most vigorously. A very shallow cell in an ordinary 
glass slip is the most convenient method of examining the 
motions of this organ as it swims towards the under surface of the 
glass. The powerful uses for which this tail is employed require 
undoubtedly that it should be composed of strong muscular fibre. 
There is, however, a considerable measure of doubt as to whether 
or no there is any opening, or mouth, at its extremity. 

The body itself is composed of a dense external membrane, 
continued on to the tentacle, and underlying this is a gelatinous 
membrane, throughout which minute granules are indiscriminately 
scattered. From this membrane arises a network of very delicate 
fibrils, possibly not more than one three-thousandth part of an 
inch in diameter, and these passing internally, become more open 
till they are merged into coarser fibrils, which converge toward the 
stomach and nucleus. All these are covered with granules, which 
are generally larger toward the centre. Quatrefages thinks that 
these granules move with the contraction and expansion of the 
membrane in which they are embedded. Supposing that we are 
viewing the animal in front, the oral aperture will be found on 
the right side of the groove, a little distance below the tentacle, 
which is on the left. This mouth-like organ appears in the 
character of a short oval tube, consisting most probably of striated 
muscular fibre, leading into the granular mass of the alimentary 
canal, and from this latter the fibres and fibrils radiate. Near the 
point of insertion of this oral aperture there is always a mass of 
sand and other substances adhering with greats tenacity to a semi- 
granular material, with a hernia-like projection, and this substance 
is continued internally in much larger proportions. There appears 
to be an utter absence of anything like a digestive canal, but in 
the middle of this granular matter there are more frequently 



10 NOCTILUCA MILIARIS. 

vacuoles of more or less size, which have been considered by early 
writers, as Krohn and Suriray, to be veritable stomachs. These 
vacuoles are by no means synonymous with the shifting vacuoles 
of the Infusoria and Rhizopoda. Huxley's idea is that the oral 
cavity ends in a definite stomach capable of great dilation locally, 
and these dilations are connected by very narrow pedicles with the 
central cavity, such giving the appearance of " independent 
vacuoles." Brightwell's idea is that these " vacuoles," or vesicles, 
are temporary stomachs, or sacs, formed in the sarcode mass as they 
are required for the reception and digestion of food, and that they 
cease to exist after the food is digested. More recent investiga- 
tions have shown that the food drawn into the mouth is received 
into the protoplasmic mass at the bottom of the oesophagus ; 
extensions of this are formed which envelop the food with a filmy 
surrounding quite distinct from the protoplasmic mass. By this 
means we have " digestive vesicles " formed. These, however, 
soon pass into the arms of the central mass till they are sur- 
rounded completely by the protoplasm. The number of the 
vesicles vary from four to even twelve, and their place is subject 
to constant change through the movement of the substance in 
which they are embedded. The reticulations round the central 
mass are constantly changing, and thus the distribution of the 
nutrient material takes place as it finds its way into this network, 
through the walls of the digestive vesicles. Their contents are 
found to be principally Algje and Diatoms. That singular diatom, 
R/iizosole?iia styliforiiiis, was found first of all in the Noctiluca, 
though it has been since seen floating in large masses on the 
surface of the sea ; the chief form of Diatom, however, found in 
this Rhizopod is Adijiocyclus undulatus. As the Noctiluca is so 
transparent, the form of the Diatom may be seen at a glance. 
After it has been in the vescicle for a few days it disappears 
altogether; probably the endochrome has been digested, and the 
siliceous frustule subsequently rejected. 

The principal agent employed in conveying the food into the 
aperture, which does duty for a mouth, is a very delicate filament, 
or " flagellum," similar in character to a cilium, of the Rotifer 
type, which vibrates rapidly, and is as rapidly withdrawn inside. 
This band-like organ gradually narrows towards its extremity, and 



NOCTILUCA MILIARIS. 11 

its axis shows through its entire length transverse striae. It seems to 
have the power of elevating its edges, so as to render one of its 
surfaces concave, and thus to form a tube-like process. This 
flagellum must not be confounded with the whip-Uke tentacle 
to which I have already referred, though there are some points of 
resemblance between the two : their position and difference in 
size form the great distinction. 

As many, however, as fifty individuals may sometimes be 
examined without discovering this minute organ. The tail-like 
tentacle may be easily seen with a pocket-lens, whilst a quarter- 
inch objective will be required to discern the cilium, or flagellum. 
Springing from the base of this tail-like appendage to the edge of 
the oral aperture is a ridge-like prominence, something in the 
shape of the letter S, apparently of a horny nature, and crowning 
this ridge is a tooth-like process, with three cusps, or divisions of 
unequal character. This tooth is one seven thousandth part of 
an inch high. Professor Huxley states that he has seen no move- 
ment in this organ ; but another writer, Dr. Webb, throws some 
light on the subject by stating that he has seen the ridge contract, 
and that he has observed a backward and forward movement of 
the tooth as though working on an axis. It is easily broken, and 
becomes shrivelled up by the use of astringents. 

With regard to an excretory aperture, sound observers have 
come to the conclusion that egesta are voided from the mouth, but 
the opinion of the few writers that we have upon this subject 
appears to be much divided. Just below this mouth-Uke aperture, 
or tube, there is a depression corresponding in shape, as I have 
said before, with an ordinary peach, and the base of this depres- 
sion, which is funnel-shaped, appears to have some communica- 
tion with one of the gastric pouches. Krohn states that he saw 
excrementa voided from the groove of the body, but he is unable 
to define the exact point. Huxley, though he has no precise data 
to go upon, thinks that from the general structure of the organism, 
a distinct anus must exist, and that the funnel-shaped communica- 
tion must, therefore, serve that purpose. 

From the rapid apparent change of shape which the Noctiluca 
presents whilst swimming about, and its continual alteration of 
position, it is by no means easy to get a clear and uninterrupted 



12 NOCTILUCA MILIARIS. 

view of it, and it is an equally difficult task to mount it for obser- 
vation, as most media have hitherto failed. At my suggestion, a 
weak solution of mercuric bichloride has been tried but without 
success. The inner membrane, as usual, wrinkled up, and the outer 
distended itself, and finally burst. I believe, however, it has been 
preserved in a shallow cell, with sea-water as a medium, contain- 
ing just a trace of carbolic acid, but I have not heard whether this 
has been satisfactory during a lengthened period. 

If iodine is added to the water, it is rapidly absorbed into the 
system, the fibres and fibrils permeated by the brown colouring 
matter standing out with great distinctness. Indigo was placed in 
the water, but none of the colouring matter entered the body of 
the Noctiluca, and the animal died in about an hour. Irregular 
jerking movements took place, says Dr. Webb ; the mouth-like 
aperture and parts round it became distorted, the motion of the 
cilium and tentacle still continuing, general contraction took place, 
and then followed the disintegration to which I have already 
alluded. 

This process occupied about two hours, but let me add that 
the nucleus was not involved in the operation. The nucleus is a 
strongly refractive body of about one four hundred and sixtieth 
part of an inch, situated in front of and above the gastric cavity, 
and when treated with acetic acid assumes the appearance of a 
hollow vesicle. If the body of the Noctiluca has been ruptured, 
and nearly all the contents lost, the creature still lives in this 
deformed condition, provided the nucleus is entire, and the central 
parts are left together. And then, after a time, they acquire a new 
investment, the rags of the old garment being contemptuously cast 
off. Dr. Webb further states that he has found this nucleus en- 
closed in a second membraneous envelope, with a granular yelk- 
like fluid, which could be seen pouring out when the membrane 
was ruptured. 

The earlier writers on the subject before us came to the con- 
clusion that the mode of reproduction was most probably by sub- 
division ; it remained, however, for Colonel Baddeley to throw 
still further light on the subject by closer attention and more 
searching investigation. And the result of his observations are 
practically these : A division of the nucleus having taken place, it 



NOCTILUCA MILIARIS. 13 

is somewhat remarkable that the tail, or tentacle, is next formed . 
the secondary stage is that the divided nuclei remove far apart, 
and looking at the animal from the under side, we shall see that a 
division is commencing ; in the next stage the form assumes that 
of the dumb-bell, but with a decided thickening in the middle. 
In the further development the self-division becomes complete, 
and the two individuals are held together like the Siamese twins 
by a single cord. The process of division is then completed by 
the rupture of the connecting portion, and the final absorption of 
the abnormal part. The whole operation takes place within a few 
days, for in a gathering made by a writer on this subject, on 
March yth numerous double specimens were seen ; on the 13th 
only two double specimens could be found held together by a 
slight band, and after that date no double specimens could be 
seen. 

Cienkowski states that even a small portion of the protoplasm 
of a mutilated Noctiluca will reproduce an entire animal. Multi- 
plication by fission, beginning in the enlargement and ultimate 
separation of the two halves of the nucleus, has also been 
observed. Another form of non-sexual reproduction commences 
in an encysting process, not unlike the swarm spores of many 
Protophytes. The flagellum and tentacle disappear on the 
narrowing up of the mouth, which finally closes, the median 
groove is no longer seen, and the result is that the animal becomes 
simply a hollow sphere. Then follows the elongation of the 
nucleus, its transverse constriction, and the division of the halves, 
with the exception that each is connected to the other by a bridge 
of network. This is repeated over and over again till you have 
a mass of some five hundred gemmules. Sometimes there is a 
detaching of the mass as a whole, and sometimes, and perhaps I 
should add more commonly, the gemmules detach themselves 
one by one, commencing at the edge of these colonial habitations, 
and proceeding to the centre. In the early stage the gemmules 
are simply spheres of the monad type, and contain their nucleus, 
contractile vesicle, and tentacle ; then follows the mouth, and the 
formation of the permanent flagellum and tentacle. The true 
position in the animal kingdom of the Noctiluca is relegated to 
the flagellate infusoria. 



14 NOCTILUCA MILIARIS. 

From the month of July to December, there is but slight 
difficulty in procuring specimens for observation, and during these 
months the sea has shown incessant alternations of luminosity 
and darkness. These conditions, therefore, probably depend not 
merely upon the presence or absence of the animal itself, but on 
some peculiar conditions of its organism, or of the water acting 
upon the animals. The buoyancy of the Noctiluca is such that it 
rises to the surface of tranquil water without much effort, and 
may easily be procured. When kept in a test tube they will 
flourish for two or three weeks without the water being changed, 
and if at the end of that term they die, it will most probably be 
from some accidental cause rather than from the limitation of 
space. If specimens be sent through the medium of the post, 
the violent shaking thus occasioned is generally the cause of great 
mortality amongst them. 

It was stated by a speaker at a meeting of the British Associa- 
tion that the Noctiluca had occurred that year in such vast 
numbers that the sea had become a beautiful rose colour, and 
Captain Wilson Barber, commander of the T.S.S. Dacia, states 
the following in a recent number of Science Gossip : — 

" I have just been up the Persian Gulf laying a cable, and 
while we were proceeding from Jack up the Persian Gulf, we 
encountered immense numbers of the minute phosphorescent 
Noctiluca Afllla?-ls, the centre reddish speck of which caused the 
water to appear in places as if covered with clotted blood. It was 
of the most intensely red colour, appearing in streaks and blotches 
all around. I caught quantities of it for examination. The water 
in places, when fished up in a bucket, seemed one mass of them, 
though in a small quantity they lost a good deal of their colour. 
Mixed up with them were a few pieces of TrlchodesDilum 
Ehrenbergli, but very little. There were also quantites of sea- 
snakes and medusae. The sea was quite calm, and at night the 
steamer stirred up the most brilliant green waves I ever saw."* 

Of the nature of the phosphorescence, Professor Allman states 
the following : — " When transferred from the net to a jar of sea 
water, the Noctiluca soon rise to the surface, where they habitually 

* The red speck to which the writer referred was simply the mass of 
protoplasmic matter, clearly seen through the transparent body of the animal. 



NOCTILUCA MILIARIS. 15 

remain as a thick stratum, whilst the shghtest agitation of the jar 

in the dark will cause instant emission of their light. This is of 

a beautiful greenish tint, and is so vivid that absolute darkness is 

by no means necessary to render it visible, for even by ordinary 

lamp-light it is quite perceptible. The emission of the light is but 

of instantaneous duration, and rest is needed for a repetition of the 

display. A few moments, however, will suffice for this, and the 

light is then as brilliant as before. Any other animals confined in 

the glass coming in contact with the Noctiluca cause it to light up 

the jar with its beautiful phosphorescence. Even the towing net, 

which has been employed in their capture, will continue, when 

shaken in a dark room, to exhibit brilliant scintillations provided 

any of these organisms are adhering to it, Noctiluca differs from 

Beroe, another of the most brilliantly luminous animals of our 

shores, in the fact that a prolonged withdrawal from the sunlight 

is not necessary in order to render it capable of phosphorescence, 

whilst Beroe must be kept in the dark for some time before its 

luminosity can be excited by irritation. Noctiluca, on the other 

hand, will show no impairment of its powers, even at the moment 

of its being removed from broad sunlight into a darkened room. 

The special seat of phosphorescence is most probably in the 

peripheral layer of protoplasm, which lines the external 

membrane. An easy way of examining this protozoon is obtained 

by placing it in an excavated glass slip with some sea water, a few 

inches off place a strip of white blotting paper, at the end of this 

make a tiny pool of alcohol, this will gradually drain off into 

the miniature sea in which the Noctiluca is disporting itself. 

As soon as the alcohol becomes mixed with the sea water, the 

light flashes out from the whole surface of the body, and as the 

proportion of the irritating spirit increases in the cell, so will the 

brilliancy of the luminosity. After a few seconds this gradually 

diminishes till nothing is left but a luminous ring, which soon goes 

out, and the brief life of the Noctiluca is concluded. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE I. 



Fig. 1. — Noctiluca miliaris : a, the outer surface of the "tooth" ; h, 
oral aperture ; c, the position of the supposed anal aperture. 



16 VORACITY OF THE FEMALE MANTIS. 

Fig. 2. — Oral orifice, x 400:/, flagellum. 

,, 3.— Prehensile and trembling organ: /., flagellum; t., tooth; 
X 960. 

,, 4. — Early stage of self-division, division of the nucleus having 
taken place, with development of the tail. 

,, 5. — A further stage of development. 

,, 6. — A still further progress towards division. 

,, 7. — Self-division, nearly complete. 

Drawn by A. W. Griffin. 



Zl)c lEycceeive lDoracit\> of tbe female 

riDantie.* 

A FEW days since, I brought a male of Majitis Carolina to a 
friend who had been keeping a solitary female as a pet. 
Placing them in the same jar, the male, in alarm, endeavoured 
to escape. In a few minutes the female succeeded in grasping 
him. She first bit off his left front tarsus, and consumed the tibia 
and femur. Next she gnawed out his left eye. At this the male 
seemed to realise his proximity to one of the opposite sex, and 
began to make vain endeavours to mate. The female next ate up 
his right front leg, and then entirely decapitated him, devouring his 
head and gnawing into his thorax. Not until she had eaten all of 
his thorax except about three millimetres, did she stop to rest. 
All this while the male had continued his vain attempts to obtain 
entrance at the valvules, and he now succeeded, as she voluntarily 
spread the parts open, and union took place. She remained quiet 
for four hours, and the remnant ot the male gave occasional signs 
of life by a movement of one of his remaining tarsi for three hours. 
The next morning she had entirely rid herself of her spouse, and 
nothing but his wings remained. 

The female was apparently full-fed when the male was placed 
with her, and had always been plentifully supplied with food. 

The extraordinary vitality of the species which permits a frag- 
ment of the male to perform the act of impregnation is necessary on 

* From Science. 



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JouTnal of Microscopj Vol.6 Pl.I 






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LEPIDOPTERA AND HYMENOPTERA. 17 

account of the rapacity of the female, and it seems to be only by 
accident that a male ever escapes alive from the embraces of his 
partner, 

Westwood quotes from the Jouriial ae Physique, 1784, an 
instance in which the female of the European species — Mantis 
religiosa — decapitated the male before mating ; but I know of no 
record of a similar occurrence with M. caj-olina, nor of the further 
mutilation described above. 

Riley, in his " First Monthly Report," p. 151, says: " The female 
being the strongest and most voracious, the male, in making his 
advances, has to risk his life many times, and only succeeds in 
grasping her by slyly and suddenly surprising her ; and even then 
he frequently gets remorselessly devoured." 

In Packard's " Guide," p. 575, we find, ''Professor Sanborn 
Tenney tells me he has observed the female after sexual union 
devour the male." 

L. O. Howard. 
Washington D.C., Sept 27. 



^birt^^Biy Iboure' Ibunting antono tbc Xcpt* 

^optc^a anb Ib^tncnoptcra of fIDibMesey; 

Mitb IRotes on tbc /Dbetbobs abopte& tor 
tbelr Capture. 

By Sydney T. Klein, F.R.A.S., etc., Hon. Secretary and 

Treasurer to the County of Middlesex Natural 

History and Science Society. 



IT is only a few months ago that the Provisional Committee, 
the nucleus of the present Society, was formed, and the cri- 
tical remarks of certain scientists, together with the obstacles 
attendant on every new movement, which have to be overcome 
before good work can be done, are therefore fresh in the memories 
of many of those present. For my part, I think there were only 
two aspersions thrown at this movement, which, coming from 
competent sources, made me a little uneasy until I was able to 
Vol. VI. c 



18 HUNTING AMONG THE 

prove that they were groundless, and as this is the first evening 
meeting of the Society for practical work, it will not, 1 think, be 
out of place if, before entering on the subject of this paper, I say 
a few words concerning the reason why I took this work in hand. 
The time I was able to give to it was unfortunately very restricted, 
and I must therefore ask you to make allowance for any short- 
comings, both in the results and the way in which I place the 
matter before you to-night. As I said before, there were only 
two aspersions thrown at the young Society which gave me some 
uneasiness until I was able to prove them groundless. These were 
as follows : — 

First. — It was suggested " that the Flora and Fauna of Mid- 
dlesex had been so thrashed out that there was no need of any 
further Natural History Society." 

Second. — The question was asked, " What was there to catch 
in a county, a great part of which was covered by London and its 
suburbs ? " 

Now, with regard to the first objection : — Before the present 
Society was founded, I made very careful enquiries through pub- 
lishers and private sources to try and find some comprehensive 
list of the Fauna and Flora of Middlesex, but the search, on 
behalf of the Fauna especially, was quite unsuccessful, until in 
June I secured a list published this year by, probably, the most 
flourishing Natural History Society in Middlesex, and one that 
could boast of a special Fauna and Flora Committee. Now, 
though I am always an enthusiastic observer of insect life in all 
its stages, it was just sixteen years since I had taken and set any 
entomological specimen in England, and my hand might therefore 
be supposed to be somewhat out of practice ; but in running 
through the list I missed so many species which long ago I had 
seen abounding both in Surrey and Hertfordshire and several 
species, the larvae of which I had actually watched contentedly 
eating up the solid wood of my fruit-trees and the best of my 
flowering plants in the spring and summer of last year, the pupge 
of many of which had also fallen to the spade of my gardener 
when taking up the bedding-out plants for the winter, that I deter- 
mined to try some of the methods which I found so successful in 
years gone by : — I tried the experiment first with the Lepidoptera, 



LEPIDOPTERA AND HYMENOPTERA. 19 

and although I could only give an hour or two late at night, and that 
only once or twice a week, the result was so conclusive that I felt 
no more alarmed at the suggestion, " that the Fauna of Middlesex 
had been so thrashed out that there was no need of the present 
Society." In the first five hours of my hunting I found I had 
captured in the imago stage alone over thirty species not men- 
tioned in the list, and nearly sixty new species during the whole 
thirty-six hours. What made the result also still more striking 
was that I confined my hunting exclusively to my own garden. 

I now come to the second question, namely — "What is there 
to catch in a county, a great part of which is covered by London 
and its suburbs ? " It is with the object of opening up this subject 
that I ask your kind attention to what I wish to say to you to- 
night. 

Being engaged in the city all day till late, I had no daylight 
hunting ; my evenings also were, unfortunately, very much engaged, 
and during July, August, and September, I only succeeded in 
getting altogether twenty-one nights for this object, which were free 
from moonlight, east wind, ground-fog, and lime blossoms, and fit, 
therefore, for hunting. My operations began between nine o'clock 
and half-past nine and finished about eleven. I find by my notes 
that of the twenty-one nights, I had fifteen of over one and a-half 
hours, averaging nearly two hours each, and six nights of less than 
one and a-half hours, averaging about one hour each. This makes 
a total of about thirty-six hours, and in that time I reckon I 
examined between 8,000 and 12,000 specimens of Lepidoptera 
alone. 

Now with regard to the method of capturing these insects. 
The net is of little use for night-work. I rely entirely on a glass 
bottle, with cyanide of potassium, even for such large species as 
Mania maura, Catocala nnpta, or Calocavipa vetiista. This, if 
fairly fresh, renders the insect insensible in five to ten seconds. 
The specimen is then at once turned into a similar bottle con- 
taining bruised laurel leaves, which kill and keep the insects per- 
fectly relaxed for a month if necessary. My usual plan, however, 
when captures are heavy, is to pin them the same evening, placing 
them in a relaxing box lined with cork to wait time for setting. 
There are, however, some species which require the net, as they 



20 HUNTING AMONG THE 

seldom settle ; the Sphigida; and many of the Geometrce come 
under this heading. 

For attracting in numbers, there is no method more productive 
than what is called " sugaring," which comprises the painting of 
trees, flowers, leaves, palings, etc., with a concoction of the coarse 
brown sugar called Foots, treacle, and rum, and if a district is to 
be thoroughly worked this method must be systematically perse- 
vered with ; in fact, the moths should never go without their 
supper, even on those nights when it is impossible to spare the 
time to examine the guests which have seated themselves at the 
board. This is one of the first laws of attraction in Lepidoptera 
science, which I discovered for myself in my earliest days of col- 
lecting. It is also very important to spread the repast always on 
the same spot. If this method is carried out systematically, the 
result is simply wonderful. On the majority of the nights I have 
examined over five hundred specimens, and on two or three nights 
when it was drizzling and otherwise propitious, there must have 
been over a thousand of all kinds partaking of the supper spread 
for them from nine to eleven. There are, of course, a great many 
of one species ; at times, I have counted from twenty to thirty of 
X. polyodon, two or three deep, fighting over a small band of the 
nectar; but after removing them with the hand, I have often 
found a specimen or two of the beautiful little ,Noctua plccta, 
Cosmia affinis, C. diffiiiis, or, more rarely, Agrotis puta, quietly 
taking their supper, apparently quite unconscious of the surging 
mass of fighting giants around and above them, the relative sizes 
being about similar to thirty hippopotami fighting and struggling 
over a human being ; in fact, X. polyodon, T. pro?mba, and the like, 
become a regular nuisance, and many a good capture has been 
nipped in the bud by these clumsy fellows. 

Another method of capture is by light. This is, perhaps, the 
most exciting means by which Lepidoptera may be attracted. 
It, however, necessitates very late hours ; between eleven p.m. and 
half-past one in the morning, being, according to my experience, 
the best hours for prosecuting this style of hunting. All that is 
required is a room with as little furniture in it as possible, and a 
bright light ; a lamp or gas jet can be used, provided the latter 
has a close-fitting globe ; — The light is placed in an open window, 



LEPIDOPTERA AND HYMENOPTERA. 2l 

and, providing the evening is fairly propitious, it will not be many 
minutes before a dozen or so of moths are dashing madly about 
the ceiling ; others will be seen resting on the window-sashes or 
on the glass itself, and may be taken at leisure or turned out of 
doors again if not required. From eleven o'clock onwards they 
gradually come in ever-increasing numbers — sometimes singly, at 
other times in threes and fours — until the whole room seems alive 
with insects of all sorts, Lepidoptera predominating. This used 
to be my favourite method of capture during my Surrey cam- 
paign, when time was of less ob ject than at present ; many a 
night in June and July have I sat up with the sport fast and 
furious till the sun began to show itself in the north-east. I have 
not been able to give much time this season to this method, but 
have taken the following species.* 

The next method I have to speak of is one in which advan- 
tage is taken of the attractiveness of the ladies among the Lepi- 
doptera gentry, and to those who have not had experience or 
have not persevered in this art, the result is truly marvellous, and 
will sound very much like a fairy-tale. The " good taste " pos- 
sessed by the males of Lepidoptera is shown to the greatest perfec- 
tion among the Bonibycidce. On several occasions when on 
botanical excursions in Hertfordshire I have taken with me a 
female of Bombyx qucrcus or other Bombycidcc, fresh from the 
pupa, and, in a wooded country, provided the sun was hot and a 
gentle breeze blowing, I was certain of having within ten minutes 
a dozen of the opposite sex flying round me, and from time to 
time even settling on my shoulder or hand. On one occasion, 
after remaining, as an experiment, for some time on the same spot, 
we counted over forty of these large moths within fifty yards of 
us. By this method, if persevered with, it is possible to secure, 
in the finest condition, many specimens which, owing to their 
rapid flight, are otherwise difficult to capture, except when, 
towards the end of their career, they become battered and less 
vigorous in their flight. The Nociurni, as a rule, seem much 
more susceptible than any of the other groups. The Cuspidates 
come next, Dicranura vinnla especially falling an easy prey- 
wherever poplars and willows abound ; on the other hand, the 
* See list at the end of this paper. 



22 HUNTING AMONG THE 

Noctua and Geometrce seem to be very difficult to attract in this 
way, the only success I have had with them being among the 
EimoniidLC and BoarmidiE. In practising this method, it is abso- 
lutely necessary to procure the moth quite fresh from the pupa, as 
she loses her attractive powers after she has flown with her kin- 
dred. It is needless also to point out that only specimens of the 
opposite sex can be captured in this way. 

The next methods I wish to mention are, I believe, quite 
original, as, although I practised them twenty years ago, I have 
never heard of anyone else having done so. The first of these 
takes advantage of that marvellous instinct by which the female 
moth deposits her eggs with unerring certainty on those plants only, 
the leaves of which are the natural food of the young larvse. I 
well remember the first experiment I tried in that direction. It 
was, I think, in the month of June, on the southern slope of the 
Surrey hills, within a mile of the old town of Reigate. I had 
taken in the neighbourhood several specimens of Smerinthus 
ocdiatns, S. tilice, and S. populi; one specimen of Sphinx convolvuli, 
and of course S. ligustri in plenty ; but D. galii had always eluded 
my search. It was natural that I should hunt for its food-plant, 
Galium vcrum, and not finding it in the near neighbourhood, it 
was perhaps still more natural that I should plant a bed of this 
strong-scented yellow flower in a sunny corner, in the hope that 
somehow D. galii might make its home there. The time for this 
beautiful hawk-moth to fly had arrived, and for several days I 
watched anxiously for the hoped-for visitant. At last, one after- 
noon, as the sun was declining, a shadow glided swiftly past me 
and hovered over the bedstraw. I recognised it immediately, by 
its flight, as one of the Sphingidce, but, though it was the right 
size, its bright pink body showed it was not Galii. It was soon 
lodged in my field-box, a magnificent specimen of Chicrocampa 
elpeno7'^ a moth I had never seen before in that neighbourhood, 
and yet before the month was out I had taken on that spot a full 
set of six of these beautiful insects, together with several speci- 
mens of C. porcelhis and one of that magnificent flyer, Macro- 
glossa fuciformis; the last-mentioned Bee-hawk was also quite 
unknown to that neighbourhood up to that time. Although 1 did 
not capture D, galii, the result of my first experiment was so 



LEPIDOPTERA AND HYBIENOPTEKA. 23 

encouraging that I always made it, whenever possible, part of my 
season's campaign to try and extend my list of local species by 
this means. It is a most fascinating pursuit, and if I had more 
time I could give you some curious examples of surprises as well 
as successes experienced in that direction. It is, in my opinion, 
by far the best and surest method of capturing specialities, and if 
I could persuade half-a-dozen members who are resident in 
Middlesex to take it up energetically, the list of Lepidoptera cap- 
tured in this county would compare with any, and probably be 
ahead of many, of the southern counties. 

The next method is applicable only to the Sesidce and Zeuze- 
ridcE, the larvae of which live on the solid wood or in the twigs of 
certain trees and shrubs. The imagos of these emerge from 
about May to July, and if pieces of muslin are tied loosely round 
so as to form a sort of bag, over the notches, on young apple, 
pear, birch, or alder trees, about April, many of this family can be 
obtained in splendid condition, fresh from the pupae. I took 
three specimens of S. tnyojxpformis from one notch of a young 
apple-tree, and a great many of S. tipuliformis from dead currant- 
twigs. I have brought also a specimen of 6". tipuliforjiiis, which 
is interesting from having been captured in this room at our first 
general meeting, showing that even among the streets of London 
specimens of this sunny little creature can occasionally be found 
if properly looked for. 

Beside the foregoing methods, there are, to be acquired only 
by experience, the two great desiderata for a successful entomolo- 
gist — namely, the " habit of keeping one's eyes open " and " the 
knowledge of where to look for specimens." These habits 
become gradually so engrained in one's nature that they take the 
character almost of a second sight. I will try to explain what I 
mean : — I have repeatedly, when walking in the country or some- 
times even in town, and during conversation, come to a full stop 
for, apparently even to myself, no reason whatever ; in a few 
seconds, however, I generally found that some little excrescence- 
or patch on paling, tree, or wall had riveted the eye, which on 
closer examination generally turned out to be a specimen either in 
the imago, larva, or pupa state. At times, however, the cause was 
not so apparent, the eye having probably wandered from the 



24 HUNTING AMONG THE 

object itself, and it would take many minutes to discover what had 
been seen only a few seconds before. There were also cases in 
which the eye had seen the object, but had not communicated 
the fact to the reasoning power until I had passed a considerable 
distance beyond the spot. It then came as a vivid remembrance 
of having seen a very suspicious object a short time before. This 
was the most curious case to investigate, as the mind had only 
taken hold of the appearance of the object itself, and it was 
seldom I could recall whether it was on a tree, or a fence, or on 
the ground. On such occasions, after a fruitless search, I have 
walked and re-walked past the spot in the hope that it would 
catch my eye again, but without avail. After several experiments 
on this phenomenon, I have come to the curious conclusion that 
the sight is most sensitive when the mind is thinking strongly on 
some other subject, and it would be an interesting thing for a 
psychologist to determine whether the phenomenon should be put 
down to objective or subjective intuition, or that old waste-paper 
basket for all mysterious workings of the brain, " unconscious 
cerebrationr It would be also interesting to hear whether others 
have experienced similar phenomena. 

I have now mentioned the principal methods used for captur- 
ing insects in their perfect state. There are, however, many 
species which have seldom, if ever, been captured in the imago 
state, and until breeding cages came into vogue these were con- 
sidered great rareties. There are three other states besides the 
imago in which they can be captured — namely, ovum, larva, and 
pupa : — The searching for ova, except in special instances, is not 
worth the candle, it being preferable to allow the young larvre to 
hatch out and feed up to near maturity before taking them in 
hand. For the capture of larvae there are, however, several 
methods. Many feed only at night, hiding themselves under 
leaves, stones, or even burying themselves in the earth, during the 
day. A walk round a garden in the daytime will show signs of 
larvce on almost every plant ; the stalks, leaves, flowers, and 
seed-pods are all tell-tales of the workings of the mandibles of 
some species or other ; but the depredators are nowhere to be 
found, even with the most careful search. Take the same walk, 
however, at night with a lantern, and you will find hundreds of 



LEPIDOPTERA AND HYMENOPTERA. 25 

them at work. For anybody who takes a lively interest in natural 
history, there can scarcely be a more fascinating pursuit than 
watching from night to night the life-history of these insects. 
You increase your acquaintance every day by fresh discoveries. 
Old friends drop off and new ones take their place. You know 
at any time where you are sure to find specimens of a certain 
species ; you miss each of them regularly for a day or two each 
week or ten days when they are changing their heads and skins, 
and hardly recognise them at first when they return in their new 
attire. 

I have been speaking only of flowering plants, but every tree 
and shrub has hundreds of larvce if we will only have the patience 
and can spare the time to find them out, and each of them has a 
life-history of its own full of marvels. Much may be done in this 
way by a systematic investigation at night with a lantern, but if 
there are many trees and bushes to be examined, and that con- 
tinually— ■a.'?, larvfe of fresh species hatch out weekly, daily, or even 
hourly — it is very desirable to have some indicator by which, 
without even taking the trouble to find the larvse themselves, you 
may know they are there, and can watch their growth from day to 
day. My method for gaining this end is a simple and inexpen- 
sive one. Instead of throwing the newspaper away after being 
read, it is placed under a shrub or tree, wherever there is a chance 
of larv«. This is repeated every day until you have a newspaper 
spread out under all those plants, shrubs, and trees you care to in- 
vestigate. On going your rounds in the morning you find on most 
of these papers hundreds of small black pellets, the excrementa 
or frass of the larvs feeding on the shrub in question. It is not 
difficult to find many of the larvae at once, but there is no need 
of that, as they are very small. It is sufficient to watch the 
pellets as they increase in size day by day, and, with a little prac- 
tice, it is often easy, without ever having seen the larvse, to deter- 
mine their species from the time of year and the food-plant : — As 
soon as the pellets become large, or they have been observed for 
about a month, it is time to find the larvae and remove them to a 
breeding cage, in which a spray of the food-plant is kept fresh in 
a bottle of water, if you wish to continue your investigation to the 
pupa and imago stage. By this means many thousands of larvse 



26 HUNTING AMONG THE 

of all kinds may be collected and their life-history thoroughly 
investigated by one person with the expenditure of very little time 
and trouble. It is truly wonderful how much may be done with a 
single newspaper spread under a pollard oak or even a hedge. In 
the spring every few days bring signs of fresh larvae having been 
hatched. And when it is remembered that the life-history of 
many of these is very imperfectly known, an endless field for 
interesting and useful work is opened up to every one who has the 
true love of nature at heart, and is not satisfied to simply accu- 
mulate specimens for his cabinet. Another method of capturing 
larvae is to beat or shake hedges, bushes, etc., over an open 
umbrella. This method, however, if carried out to any great 
extent, tends to ruin a neighbourhood entomologically, as in the 
process many ova and minute larv?e are destroyed. 

I now come to the method for taking Lepidoptera in the 
pupa state, and as some of you may not have studied this branch 
of natural history to any extent, I thought it might be of interest 
if I brought specimens of the pup?e of each of the great divisions 
of Macro-lepidoptera. On the table you will find pupae of the 
following : — 

Svierinthus tilicB, the Lime Hawk-Moth, repre- 
senting the ... ... ... ... NocTURNi. 

Biston hirtaria, representing ... ... GEOMETRiE. 

Pyga^ra biicephala and Dicraniila vitiula, repre- 
senting ... ... ... ... CUSPIDATES. 

Hecatero Serena, xe]yxe?,Qr\i\x\g ... ... Noctu^. 

Fkris brasskcc, re^re?,tn\.mg ... ... Diurni. 

Pupae are to be found anywhere and everywhere. Some 
larvae, like the Plcridcc, suspend themselves by a single cord 
placed round their waist, and turn thus to the pupa state. Others, 
like the Vanessa family, suspend themselves head downwards. 
Others spin hammocks on their food-plants ; others spin leaves of 
trees together, taking care also, however, to fasten the leaves to 
the branch, so that when the leaves die in the autumn they do not 
fall to the ground, but remain securely fixed until the moth 
emerges in the spring ; others gnaw the bark of trees, and with 
the debris build themselves a strong house so like the trunk of the 



LEPIDOPTERA AND HYMENOPTERA. 27 

tree that it is very difficult to discover them unless the little 
mounds are tried with a penknife ; others, and by far the larger 
number, bury themselves in the ground, spinning the particles of 
earth together, and in that house or coffin pass the winter until the 
warm spring weather brings them to maturity and they come forth 
perfect insects. If a locality or a county is to be worked tho- 
roughly, digging for pupae must be pushed energetically ; it is a 
very fascinating pursuit, and would give subject enough for a paper 
by itself. You see, perhaps, a fine old oak tree situated in the 
centre of a field, well away from any hedge or underwood, and 
having several sheltered corners formed by the roots. It is a 
bright day at the commencement of September, and you prepare 
yourself for the attack ; a small trowel is inserted within 
a few inches of the trunk well into the angle, and a sod 
is turned up and examined. By tapping the sod gently, the 
chrysalides will fall out of their earthen retreats, and by 
careful examinations of the trunk as well, many of the follow- 
ing, all of which I have taken in more or less abundance by this 
method, may be found : — A. Aprilifia, in abundance, H. penna- 
ria, H. protea, C. ridens, D. dodoncva and chaonia, P. pilosaria, 
T. i?istabiiis, cruda, inunda, gotlnca, and miniosa, N. trepida, 
H. aura/itiaria, A. prodromaria and A. hctidaria. Other trees, 
such as elm, lime, alder, ash, poplar, willow, beech, etc., all have 
their special crysalides, and may be examined with success from 
September to April. I used to be very fond of this mode of 
capture, and seldom had less than 3,000 to 4,000 pupae in my 
breeding cages during the winter months. A. Aprilina will be 
the first to fall to the trowel if digging round an oak tree. I once 
took 25 pupce of this beautiful moth in a single crevice of an oak 
in Betchworth Park, and it was a rare occurrence for me after a 
day's pupa hunting to return home with less than a dozen or so of 
this species. 

I have now said all I have to say about the Lepidoptera. In 
the cases on the table you will find all those specimens which I 
captured during the thirty-six hours of my experimental hunting, 
and it will probably be more interesting to you to see them than 
to hear them read out. I have not yet touched on the Hymetiop- 
tera, but I find my remarks have considerably outrun the limit of 



28 HUNTING AMONG THE 

time usually allotted to such papers, and although the next subject 
is, if anything, still more interesting, you will perhaps think it 
is better to leave it for a future occasion. 

I will, however, with your permission, just touch briefly on 
three special exhibits which I have brought with me this evening, 
and which I think will be sufficient to show you how interesting is 
the subject, and what wonders there are around us of which many 
in their ordinary life have no conception. 

I will first take the case of Osmia rufa, the mason bee. I 
have between thirty and forty natural hives or dwellings of this 
pretty httle insect in the front of my house. It burrows a long 
tunnel into the mortar six to ten inches long, the diameter being 
so small that there is only just room for this little bee to squeeze 
itself in. It then commences to form a small cell at the end of 
this passage, which it fills with honey and pollen, and after deposit- 
ing an egg therein, it seals up the end, and begins another cell. 
This it repeats until the tunnel is nearly filled. It then fills up 
the aperture with mortar, sticks, small stones, wool, or even small 
pieces of string, and plasters over the entrance with a sort of 
cement, to keep its young safe until next spring; the young 
comes out in a few days, and at once commences eating the honey 
and pollen, but its life is not always secure. There is a beautiful 
little insect, named Chrysis ignita, which you will generally find 
watching outside these holes, and which, as soon as Oswia rufa 
has finished her cell and flown away to gather fresh honey and 
pollen for the next cell, enters the tunnel and deposits her egg also 
in the cell. The larva of the Chrysis hatches out in a few days, 
and feeds either on the honey and pollen or on the larva of Osmia 
rufa, in the same way as the larvse of the IchneiimonidcB live on 
the bodies of those of Lepidoptera. I have had some difficulty 
in getting any information on this head, but the general idea 
among authorities on Hymenoptera seems to be that the Chrysidce 
do not follow the Ic/me2imonidce, but feed on the honey instead of 
on the larva of Osmia rufa. I have, however, found the empty 
skin of a full-grown larva of Osmia rufa in its cell with the cell 
punctured evidently by a Chrysis, which would seem to prove that 
cither the larva of the Chrysis lived in the body of the bee, or had 
eaten it up after the honey and pollen had been finished ; the 



LEPIDOPTERA AND HYMENOPTERA. 29 

latter case is, I think, however, very improbable ; meanwhile, I 
have several now under investigation, and hope that by next 
summer I may be able to prove beyond doubt the true action of 
this parasite. I have found also that Shuckard, in his " British 
Bees," makes the assertion that the larva of Osmia rtifa lives in 
its cell during the winter, and only turns to a pupa in the spring. 
This is quite erroneous, as you can see for yourselves to-night. 
I have here two cells taken from a tunnel of this little insect, both 
of which contained perfect insects, proving a very curious fact, 
viz. — that the imago is actually developed in the autumn, but 
remains a prisoner enclosed in its cell until the spring. One of 
these cells I opened at the Entomological Society at the beginning 
of the month, and the little bee is at large ; but I will open 
the other to-night, and let out the little prisoner for your 
inspection. A curious fact connected also with this little insect is 
that it is furnished with long hairs on the abdomen, by which 
means it carries its pollen, instead of, as with many bees, on its 
hind legs — a beautiful example of the provision of Nature, as the 
pellets of pollen would surely be rubbed off whilst coming down 
the burrows if they were carried in the ordinary way. 

The next species I wish to mention is what is called the 
Leaf-cutter Bee — Megachile centimcularis. In the top bar of 
my front gate I have located three hives of this curious little bee, 
and at any time on a bright sunny afternoon, after standing by the 
gate for a few minutes, one at least of these little insects could be 
seen coming home with its burden ; the sight is a curious one, 
as you see nothing except a small leaf coming towards you, and 
sailing round in circles smaller and smaller until it settles on the 
top bar of the gate. By careful examination, you can then see 
that in the centre of the leaf is this litde bee holding the leaf by 
its legs. We will now go to the rose-tree from which it has taken 
this leaf; and here we find that almost every leaf on the tree, 
and many trees round, are cut up into most curious shapes by this 
little insect. If one is fortunate to see the bee at work, you will 
see it with its mandibles cutting out from the leaf a round piece 
about an inch in diameter. It then flies off to its nest, but his bur- 
row in the wood is much too small for the leaf to go in, and you then 
see it cleverly rolling up the leaf and pushing it before it into the 



30 HUNTING AMONG THE 

hole. As soon as the roll is taken into the burrow and placed in its 
right position, the little bee cuts a very much smaller circular piece 
from the tree, and flies back again with it to fill up one end of 
this curious cell. It then flies off to collect sufficient honey and 
pollen to fill the cell, and, in the same way as Osmia rufa, lays 
an egg in the middle of this heap of food. It then once more cuts 
another small circular piece of leaf to fill up and complete the 
cell. This work it continues until it has four or five cells in its 
burrow, each of which contains an egg, to develop in time into a 
perfect Megachile. There is, however, an enemy to this bee also, 
in the form of Trypoxylo?i figjihis, which lays its egg in the cell in 
the same way as Chrysis ignita does towards Ostnia rufa. 

I will now only mention one more subject connected with 
Hymenoptera which must end what I have to say to you to-night. 
In my garden I have several hives of Apis ligustica, an Italian 
bee, with a bright-coloured body. This is a domestic bee, and 1 
keep it for its honey as well as for investigating the wonderfully 
interesting facts connected with its life-history. Many of you 
know without being told that there are three different kinds of 
bees in a hive, viz. — the Queen Bee, of which there is only one in 
each hive ; the Drones, which are the males, and which are killed 
off as soon as the summer is over ; and the Working Bees, which 
are undeveloped females and which do the whole work of the 
hive. The Queen lays between 2,000 to 3,000 eggs per day. 
The larva, after hatching out, lives only three or four days before 
it is full fed. It is then sealed up by the bees and turns into a 
chrysalis, which comes out into a perfect bee in about seventeen 
days. This is the usual round of metamorphosis in the worker bee. 
But the development of a Queen is still more wonderful In 
view of having an exhibit for the Society, I took the Queen away 
from one of my hives, and within five minutes of my doing so the 
whole hive was in a terrible uproar ; they found they were a 
colony without a head, and for nearly half-an-hour they were 
nearly mad, flying in thousands round about the hive in search of 
her. Within a few hours, however, they had quieted down, and 
on opening the hive I found that they had selected nearly a dozen 
eggs in cells in different parts of the hive, and were breaking 
down the walls of the cells all round in order to make a larger 



LEPIDOPTERA AND HYMENOPTERA. 31 

cell. Within a few days the larvae hatched out of these selected 
cells, and the bees were feeding them on what is called royal jelly, 
a stronger solution of honey and pollen than is given to the ordi- 
nary worker bee. Under this treatment the larvae grew very 
quickly^ and the cell soon formed the appearance of an acorn, 
hanging down below the frame. After another week I opened the 
hive, and found that the bees had been scraping the tops of these 
Queen-cells preparatory to the young Queens coming out, and 
within twenty-four hours one of the Queens emerged. And now 
comes the tragedy, of which my exhibit is an example. As soon 
as this new Queen had been thoroughly groomed down and fed, 
she immediately rushed round the hive to see whether she had 
any rivals. On finding the other Queen-cells she at once set to 
work to tear them open, stinging to death the pupa inside, and 
within ten minutes of her doing this the dead white nymphs were 
cast out of the front of the hive by the bees. 

I have brought you two of these cells, showing the end where 
the bees had thinned the wax preparatory to the Queen coming 
forth, and also the large rent on the side of the cell through 
which the murder was committed. 

This must finish what I have to say to you to-night. Mean- 
while, I trust you will agree with me that the necessity for the 
present Society has to a certain extent been vindicated from, at all 
events, an entomological point of view ; and I can only add that, 
should my words have been powerful enough to show what may 
be done by any member, however much engaged during the day, 
and should they encourage those who have more time than myself 
to investigate and accumulate facts concerning this and other 
branches of Natural History, the object I had in view when I 
undertook to bring the subject forward will have been fully accom- 
plished. 



List of Lepidophra captured by Mr. Sidney T. Klein during thirty- 
six hours' experimental hunting in his garde?i at Clarence 
Lodge, Willesden. 

NOCTURNI. 

Smerijithus ocellatus, larvae ; S. populi, three imagos at light ; 
»S. tilice, larvse. 



32 HUNTING AMONG THE 

Sphinx iigustri, larvae. 

Sesia myopceformis, three images from apple-tree ; S. tipidifor- 

inis, very common from currant-twigs. 
Hepialiis lupulimis, came to light ; H, sylvifius, ditto. 
JVola aicullatella, to light. 
Cheloiiia caja, very common ; C. villica^ one specimen at rest, 

on lilac-tree. 
Arctia lubricepeda, very common, light ; A. ment/iastri, ditto. 
Liparis auriflua, common to light ; L. salicts, one imago to light. 
Orgyia pudibunda, larvae ; O. a/Uiqua, larvae. 
Odonestis potatoria, three imagos, to light. 

Geometry. 

Urapteryx sambiuaria, very common. 
Rumia cratcegata, very common. 
Metrocampa inargaritata, one imago to light. 
Selenia illunaria, common to light. 
Crocallis elinguaria, common to light. 
Ennomos tiliaria, not rare to light ; E. angiilaria, ditto. 
Hemerophila abruptaria^ two imagos to light. 
Boannia rhomboidaria, very common. 
Pseudopterpna cytisaria, two imagos to light. 
Hemithea thymiaria, common to light. 
Ypsipetes elutata, common. 
Pelurga comitata, common. 
Melanippe rivala, common ; M. viontanata, common ; M. 

fluctuata, common. 
Acidalia i/icanaria, one imago ; A. avcrsata, common. 
Eupithccia rcdangulata, common ; E. coiiaureata, common. 
Timandra amataria, common. 
Halia wavaria, very common to sugar. 
Panagra petraria, scarce. 
Aspilates gilvaria, scarce. 
Abraxas grosstilariata, very common. 
Caviptogninwia bili^ieata, very common. 
Phibalaptayx tersata, one specimen. 
Scotosia dubitata, one specimen. 
Cidaria doiata, common ; C. fulvata, ditto. 




LEPIDOPTERA AND HYMENOPTERA. 33 

Eiibolia mensuraria, common. 
Anaitis plagiata^ one imago. 

CUSPIDATES. 

Fygcera bucephala, common. 

Dicramira vinula, thirteen larvse on poplar. 

Cilix spinula, three imagos. 

Ptilodontis palpina^ one imago at sugar. 

NOCTU^. 

Bryophila perla, one specimen. 

Acronyda psi, A. aceris. 

Leucania conigera, L. Uthargyria, L. comma, Z. impura, L. 

pallens. 
Gortyna flavago. 
Hydrcecia ?iictitans, H. micacea, 
Axylia putris. 
Xylophasia litkoxylia, X. polyodon, X. hepatica, one specimen, 

sugar. 
Heliophobus papillaris, three specimens to h'ght. 
Cerigo cytherea, one specimen to hght. 
Lupernia testacea. 
Mamestra abjecta, one specimen at sugar ; M. aiiceps, M. 

brassiccB, M. persicarice. 
Miana fasciimada, M. faruncnla, M. strigilis (var. ^thiops), 

abundant. 
Grammesia trilinea. 
Caradrina morpheus, C. alsines. 

Agrotis puta, two specimens ; A. segetum, common ; A. nigri- 
cans, common ; A. suffusa, common ; A. exclamationis, A. 

01-bona, 
Tethea siibtiisa, four specimens. 
Apamea ociilea, several varieties. 
Noctua festiita, N. xanthograpJia, N. rubi, N. ambrosa, N. baja, 

N. augur, N. plecta, N. C. nigrwn, N. triajigidum. 
Triphcena Jaiithina, T. fimbria, three specimens ; T. orbona, 

T. proniiba. 
Atichocellis lunosa, three varieties ; A, pistacina. 
Vol. IV. D 



34 WHIRLIGIG BEETLES. 

Cosmia frapezina, abundant ; C. diffinis, common ; C. affitiis, 

common. 
Dianthecia cucubali, one specimen. 
Hecatera serejia, two specimens. 
Miselia oxyacanthcB. 
Phlogophora meticulosa. 
Eiiplexia lucipa}'a, six specimens. 
Epuiida nigra. 
Hadena protetis, If. denttna, H. chenopodii, H. oleracea, H. 

thalassina. 
Caloampa vetusia, one specimen. 
Abrostola hiplasta, very common. 
Flusia palchrina, one specimen; P. gamma, P. iota, P. 

chrysitis, three specimens. 
Gonoptera libatrix. 

Amphipyra pyramidea, two specimens ; A. tragopogonis. 
Mania jnama, six specimens; M. typica. 
Catocala ntipta, abundant. 



Mbirlicjio Bcctlce. 

By Robert Gillo. 



Plate II. 



EVERYBODY most probably know the WhirHgig Beetles, yet 
perhaps few have ever examined them. I will therefore 
endeavour to describe what I think to be some of the 
principal features of their external structure, together with a short 
notice of the various species that inhabit Britain and constitute 
the genus Gyrinus. Even the most casual observer cannot have 
failed to observe that they are quite unlike any other of the water 
beetles ; hence, in classification they stand alone and without any 
connecting links between them and the more usual forms of 
Aquatic Coleoptera, of which we may take the Dytiscus or Acilius 
as types. 



WHIRLIGIG BEETLES, S5 

In the first place, the eyes in the Dytiscidce are two in number 
and are placed at the sides of the head, and protected from 
injury by the anterior angles of the thorax, which for this purpose 
are produced forward. In the Gyrinidce. the eyes are four in 
number, two being distinctly on the upper side of the head and 
the other two on its underside. The use of this arrangement is 
evident, for as the Gyrinus passes most of its existence spinning 
about on the surface of the water, these two pairs of eyes enable 
it not only to keep a look-out for any enemy that may attack it 
from above, but at the same time to be on the watch for prey, 
such as small insects that may be in the water, and perhaps also to 
make its escape from a voracious fish. 

It is worthy of note, too, that the curvature or convexity of 
the upper and lower pairs of eyes are different ; also, that the foci 
of the lenses of their corneas are dissimilar. By this means the 
upper pair are suited for viewing objects in the air, whereas the 
lower pair are adapted for seeing objects through the denser 
medium of the water. If a portion of the cornea of the upper 
eyes be placed by the side of a similar portion from the lower 
ones and mounted as a slide for the microscope, it will be found, 
on viewing any object through them, that the images of the object 
produced by the difi^erent corneas will appear of different sizes. 

The antennae of the Dytiscidce are, as a rule, simple, although 
there are some modifications of a different but not very striking 
character. In the Gyrinidce, however, they are peculiar, being 
unusually short and of a singular construction. The first joint is 
very small and the next very large, and of an ear-like form, 
fringed with hairs ; the remaining joints are small and inserted at 
the side of this large joint, the arrangement somewhat resembling 
forms we find in the antennae of the Diptera. They are inserted 
in large circular hollows at the sides of the head between the 
upper and lower pairs of eyes. 

The legs also difter very widely from those of the normal type 
of water beetles. The front pair are essentially organs of prehen- 
sion, and are employed for seizing insects, etc., and, considering 
the size of the beetle, they are large and powerful. The posterior 
pair are, on the other hand, organs for swimming, but not like 
those of the Dytiscidce, which are constructed on the principle of 



36 WHIRLIGIG BEETLES. 

oars; these are rather in the form of paddles. The whole action of 
the insect in the water, as it performs its gyrations about in the 
sunshine, is not unlike that of a canoe dexterously propelled by 
the paddle. Perhaps, if we glance at the construction of the leg 
of the Dytiscus the difference will be more evident. It is long 
and narrow, the joints of the tarsus being elongated, the last 
being produced to a point and fringed with long hairs, so as to 
present, in the act of swimming, a large surface of resistance to 
the water ; but owing to these hairs lying close to the leg they pass 
easily through the water, when it is drawn up preparatory to 
another stroke, feathering in a very effective and perfect manner. 
The posterior leg of a Gyrinus (Plate II., Fig. 6) is very short, 
each part being much widened out, and each joint of the tarsus 
enormously so on the inner side ; and on the outer side both tibia 
and tarsus are fringed with long, strong bristles, so that when the 
leg is extended it presents a very large surface to the water, and 
yet, by the peculiarity of its construction, can be closed up in a 
fan-like manner into a very small compass. The intermediate 
legs are similar, but narrower. 

The Gyrijiida, unlike DytiscidcB, pass the greater portion 
of their existence on the surface of the water, but they can dive 
exceedingly well, which they nearly always do when alarmed. 
They, however, do not remain long under the water, but very soon 
come up and re-commence their gyrations on the surface. 

The sub-family, Gyrmidie^ contain only two genera : Gyriiius 
and OredocJiilus. The genus Gynjius contains ten British species; 
the genus Orectochilus only one, viz., O. villosus. It is smaller 
and rather different in shape to the true Gyrifii, and instead of 
being smooth and polished it is hairy. It has also another pecu- 
liarity, namely — that it hides under leaves, etc., during the day 
and performs its evolutions on the water by night. The ten 
species of British Gy7'ini are very difficult to determine : in fact, I 
think it is almost impossible to make them out by any description, 
the differences consisting of peculiarities of form such as cannot 
be expressed in words, although they are evident enough by com- 
parison when you are sufficiently familiar with the various species. 
Again : the males and females of some species differ, the 
females being duller and more punctured than the males. Others 



WHIRLIGIG BEETLES. S7 

of them have not this difference ; or if they have, it is scarcely 
perceptible. 

Students have of late derived an immense advantage from 
tabulating and stating only those characters which are necessary to 
determine and identify the insect under examination from all 
others. Let me try to explain. Suppose there are only two 
species in a genus, one of which is red and the other black. It is 
sufficient to state that fact only, and the species is determined as 
clearly as it could be by a whole page of description. Or, should 
there be many species, the red ones may be separated into one 
group and the black ones into another, and then some other 
characteristic selected for their further determination. In this way 
the genus Gyriniis is tabulated. By referring to the table at the 
end of this paper, it will be noticed that only two species have the 
under side of the body red — G. mimitus and G. urinator. The 
first is a Scotch insect, so that when I noticed a Gyrinus red 
underneath, I knew at once I had G. urinator, as I could not 
expect to find G. ininutus in Bath. At first I only found one 
specimen, but knowing it to be a rare insect I was determined to 
find more if possible, and for this purpose I made up my mind to 
try the canal* on both sides until I succeeded. I certainly felt very 
disappointed, after working for nearly two hours without any 
success. However, presently I came to a corner with a bank of 
Anacharis weed, and there they were in abundance, together with 
a still larger number of G. inarinus. There were a few G. natator 
and G. opacus, and one G. bicolor only. I obtained about eighty 
specimens of G. urinator, nearly all of which have since been 
distributed to coleopterists in various parts of the country. 

It is a very general idea that the commonest species is G. 
natator, but this certainly is not the case in Bath, G. rnarinus 
being far more common. I think G. natator occurs more freely in 
ponds than any of the other species. In the London district G. 
natator does not occur at all ; at least, I am informed so by a 
friend who has collected beetles round London for ten years. 
From the name Marinus, one would suppose this species to be 
peculiar to localities near the sea ; but such is not the case. It 

* The Kennet and Avon Canal. 



38 



WHIRLIGIG BEETLES. 



certainly does occur in such situations as ditches, in salt marshes, 
and I suppose was first found in a locality of this description and 
named accordingly, G. bicoloi\ however, is peculiar to marine 
situations, I have taken it in ditches near the sea at Weymouth, 
but I should never have expected to meet with it in the Bath 
canal. But there can be no doubt as to my specimen being G. 
bicolo}% from the elongated shape and nearly parallel sides of the 
elytra. Another species, G. distindus, I have taken from ditches 
at Bournemouth and there only. 

I do not notice any sexual difference other than the punctura- 
tion which I have already alluded to. I find no trace of the 
enlargement of the anterior tarsus of the male, which is very 
striking and interesting in the Dytiscidce. When touched or irri- 
tated, they emit a milky fluid of a disagreeable odour, which is 
discharged from the pores of different parts of the body, or, 
according to De Geer, from the minute retractile lobes at its 
extremity. It is stated that G. miniitus and G. villosus are scent- 
less. I do not know if this is so, as I have never taken either of 
these two insects. The membraneous wings are very large for the 
size of the insect, and, owing to the peculiar arrangement of the 
nervures, fold up in a remarkable manner. 

" The female, shortly after impregnation, deposits her eggs, 
which are small and of a cyUndrical form, and placed end to end 
in parallel rows on the leaves of aquatic plants, and from which, 
at the end of eight days, the larvas are produced. The larva is 
long, narrow, and depressed, and nearly resembles a small centi- 
pede, of a dirty white colour, composed of thirteen segments, 
including the head, separated from each other by lateral incisions. 
The head is large, oval, and depressed, armed with two strong 
jaws, two short, filiform, four-jointed antennae, several small tuber- 
cular eyes (the number of which De Geer could not discover), 
forming a group on each side of the head, and slender maxillary 
and labial palpi. The clypeus is deeply notched in front, without 
any distinctly articulated labrum. To each of the three anterior 
segments of the body is attached a pair of moderately long and 
slender legs \ and from each side of each of the eight following 
segments arises a long, slender, transparent, and membraneous 
filament, bent rather backwards, and terminating in a point. The 



Joupnal of Microscopy Vol 6. Pi 2. 



\ 






.V 






T 




Gyrhmcs. 



WHIRLIGIG BEETLES. 39 

terminal segment is furnished with two pairs of similar but much 
longer appendages. These filaments are employed as organs of 
respiration, each being internally provided with a delicate air- 
vessel, connected at the base with the ordinary lateral tracheae. 
The body is terminated by four minute conical points, bent down- 
wards, and which are used by the insect when in motion ; whereas 
the long filaments have no peculiar motion. When the larva has 
attained its full size at the beginning of August, it creeps out of 
the water up the stems of the rushes or other aquatic plants, 
where it encloses itself in an oval cocoon, pointed at each end, 
composed of a substance spun out of its own body, and somewhat 
resembling grey paper, within which it becomes a pupa. In this 
condition it remains about a month, when it makes its appearance 
in the perfect state, and immediately resorts to its native element, 
the neighbouring water." 

Such is the life-history and description of the larva given by 
Westwood, which appear not to be the result of his own observa- 
tions, but largely, if not entirely, taken from those of De Geer. 
I have never seen this larva, but expect it is an exceedingly 
interesting microscopic object, and one which cannot be rare or 
very difficult to obtain. Our entomological readers will do well 
to be on the look-out for it another season. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE IL 



Fig. 1. — Larva of Gyrinus. 
2.— Gyriiius natator. 
3. — Dytiscus marginalis. 

4, 5.— Upper and underside of antenna of Gyrinus. 
6.— Posterior leg of Gyrinus, with tarsus extended. 
7. — Ditto, only partially closed. 
8. — Tarsus of same, very much extended. 



40 



WHIRLIGIG BEETLES. 



CHART OF THE GENUS GYRINUS. 



Underside entirely rust red 



CO 

O 
<o 
H 



r 



Reflexed 



margin 
thorax 
elytra, 
dish 



Body ovate 
or oval. 



' Punctures on 
elytra scarcely 
feebler toward 
suture 

Punctures on 
elytra finer to- 
(^ ward suture .. 

' Punctures on 
elytra distinct- 
ly finer toward 
suture 



Punctures on 
elytra scarcely 
finer toward 
suture 



of 
and-: 
red- 



Underside, 
wholly or^ 
chiefly black. 
I legs reddish, 



Body elon 
gate oblong,^ 
with nearly 
parallel sides 



' Interstices on 
elytra impunc- 
tate 



Body oblong! 
ovate. 



l 



Reflexed 

margin of 
thorax and 
elytra, bras- 
sy black . . 



Interstices on ely- 
tra indistinctly 
punctured 

Interstices on 
elytra closely 
and distinctly 
punctured 

' Punctures on 
elytra scarcely 
finer toward 
suture 



i 



Punctures on 
elytra much 
finer toward 
suture 



minutus, Fab. 
urinator, HI. 

natator, Scop, 

Suffriani, Scrib. 

bicolor, Payte. 

distinctus, Hub. 

Caspius, M^n. 

Colymbus, Fr. 

marinus, Gyll. 

opacus, Sahib. 



[ 41] 

Zbc flDicro6cope an^ bow to use it 

By V. A. Latham, F.M.S. 



Part VIII. — Injecting. 

THE term injecting, in its micrological application signifies 
the filling of the arteries, veins, and other vessels of animals 
with coloured substances, for the purpose of showing their 
arrangement in relation to, and their course through, the tissues. 
Practice, patience, and perseverance are required to make good 
injections ; still more does the remark apply to injecting morbid 
tissues, which have been excised out of the living body, as in this 
case there are so many vessels, which have been severed, requiring 
to be ligatured to prevent the escape of the injection. In cases of 
morbid tissues it is best to use co/d injections^ as heating often 
causes considerable alterations in the tissues, especially where 
there is much epithelium, which has already become somewhat 
changed during the period that has elapsed since death. Injec- 
tions may be either opaque or transparent, each method having its 
special advantages. The former is most suitable where solid form 
and inequalities of surface are especially to be displayed ; the latter 
is preferable where the injected substance is so thin as to be 
transparent (as in the case of the retina, etc.), or where the distri- 
bution of its blood vessels and their relation to other parts may be 
displayed by sections thin enough to be made transparent by 
mounting in such medias as Balsam and Dammar. 

Let me beg of the amateur to note carefully the causes of each 
failure, and to take precautions to avoid these in his subsequent 
practice. If this is done, the art of injecting will be learned 
sooner and more easily than it otherwise could be. There are 
three well-known methods of making injections, which are as 
follows : — 

(i) Injections made with a syringe. 

(2) Mechanical injections, in which the function of the 
syringe is replaced by the pressure of a column of water, or 
mercury. 



•i2 THE MIGKOSCOPE 

(3) Natural injections ; or the introduction of pigments into 
the circulation of living animals. 

This latter method is usually resorted to in cases where the 
two preceding processes are either altogether impracticable, or very 
difficult to perform ; as, for example, the filling of the bile ducts 
throughout their course in the liver. 

The second method of injection is very convenient when time 
cannot be spared to do the work by hand ; but the first method 
(injection by hand with the syringe) is the one which should be 
mastered on account of its simplicity when once learned, less 
trouble, and the ease with which it can be performed. 

The substances used for making injections may be divided 
into two classes : the first includes all those which are fluid at the 
ordinary temperature ; while the other includes such as become 
fluid only when heated, and return again to the solid form on 
cooling; these are called "masses." 

Prussian Blue Fluid.— Glycerine, i ounce ; methylated spirit, 
I ounce ; ferrocyanide of potassium, 1 2 grains ; tine, perchloride 
of iron, i drachm ; water, 4 ounces. Mix together the glycerine, 
water, and spirit, and divide the mixture into two equal parts. In 
one part (a) dissolve the ferrocyanide, and to the other part {b) 
add the tine, perchloride ; b must now be added very gradually to 
a, the mixture being well shaken after each addition of the iron 
solution ; keep this fluid in a stoppered bottle, and shake it well 
before using it. This will form a transparent injection. (Beale.) 

TurnbuU's Blue. — 10 grains of pure sulphate of iron are to be 
dissolved in an ounce of glycerine, or better still, in a little 
distilled water, and then mixed with glycerine, and 32 grains of 
ferridcyanide of potassium in another small proportion of water, 
and the solution mixed with glycerine. These two solutions are 
then gradually mixed together in a bottle, the iron solution being 
added to that of the ferridcyanide, and the mixture ensured by 
frequent agitation. The deep blue fluid thus prepared must be 
added to i ounce of glycerine, i ounce of methylated spirit, and 
4 ounces of water, as in the Prussian blue fluid. Dr. Beale con- 
siders these proportions very large, and gives the following, which 
I have not myself found to answer well, the injection, especially 



AND HOW TO USE IT. 43 

under high powers, being too faint : — Ferridcyanide of potassium, 
lo grains ; sulphate of iron, 5 grains ; water, i ounce ; glycerine, 
2 ounces ; alcohol, i drachm. The advantage of this injection 
over Prussian blue is that the colour does not fade in course of 
time. (Beale.) 

Bruckle's Soluble Prussian Blue. — {a) Ferrocyanide of potas- 
sium, 217 grammes, dissolved in one litre of distilled water, {b) 
Perchloride of iron, 10 grammes, dissolved in 2 litres of distilled 
water, {c) A cold saturated solution of sulphate of soda. Mix 
one part of a with one part of c, and mix one part of b with one 
part of c, add the mixture a c to the mixture b c, and allow the 
mixture thus formed to stand about three hours (longer if 
necessary), collect the deposit on a filter. Wash the deposit three 
or four times a day for a week by pouring over it small quantities 
of distilled water. The washing must be discontinued as soon as 
the water which runs through is quite blue ; and the powder thus 
prepared must be dissolved in distilled water, and mixed with 
sufficient gelatine to form a firm jelly. 

Dr. Beale' s Acid Carmine Fluid.— Carmine, 5 grains ; gly- 
cerine, with eight or ten drops of acetic or hydrochloric acid, 
J ounce ] glycerine, i ounce ; alcohol, 2 drachms ; water, 
6 drachms ; ammonia, a few drops. Mix the carmine with a few 
drops of water, and when well incorporated, add about five drops 
of liquor ammonia. To this dark red solution, about | ounce of 
the glycerine is to be added, and the whole well shaken in a 
bottle. Next, very gradually pour in the acid glycerine, frequently 
shaking the bottle during admixture. Test the mixture with blue 
litmus paper, and if not of a very decidedly acid reaction, a few 
drops more acid must be added to the remainder of the glycerine, 
and mixed as before. Lastly, mix the alcohol and water very 
gradually, shaking the bottle thoroughly after each successive 
portion till the whole is mixed. This may be kept ready, and 
very rapid injections made with it. It is without doubt one of the 
very best fluids ever devised. It is most useful for injecting such 
lower forms of animal life as insects, shell-fish, snails, and small 
fishes. Acetic acid is to be preferred to hydrochloric for the pur- 
pose of acidifying the solution. The object in adding acid to 



44 THE MICROSCOPE 

carmine injections is to precipitate the carmine, and so prevent it 
from transuding through the walls of the vessels into which it is 
thrown. 

Asphalt and Chloroform.— Ludwig has recently employed a 
mass, consisting of asphalt dissolved in chloroform and filtered, 
for the injection of the bile ducts. The merit of this fluid is, 
that chloroform, being an extremely mobile fluid, flows readily 
along the vessels, and that it rapidly evaporates and leaves them 
filled with a solid black mass. 

Berlin Blue. — One or two per cent, solution is especially good 
for cold-blooded animals, and also for blood-vessels, and bile-ducts ; 
in using the two per cent, solution for the ducts warm it first, as it 
is then less likely to excite contraction of the biliary ducts. 

Alcannin and Turpentine. — A solution of alcannin, or alkanet 
in turpentine, or in chloroform, is used for injecting the lym- 
phatics. The solution is of a bright red colour. Both the 
turpentine and the chloroform solutions flow readily. When the 
latter is employed, the chloroform evaporates and leaves the 
alcannin in the vessels. (Ludwig.) 

Nitrate of Silver for blood-vessels. — If a frog be taken, kiU it 
by stunning it on the head ; expose the heart, strip off its apex, 
and allow it to bleed thoroughly. Push a glass or brass canula 
from the ventricle into one of the aortse, and inject a stream of 
distilled water to wash out the blood with its chlorides ; inject 
one-quarter per cent, silver nitrate solution, allow to remain for 
eight or ten minutes, and then wash it out with distilled water. 
The most convenient parts to take are the mesentery and bladder. 
If desirable to silver also the epithelium covering the mesentery ; 
this is done after injection. In the case of a warm-blooded 
animal, such as a guinea-pig, the water and the silver solution are 
both heated to 39*^ C. The fluids are injected into the aorta. A 
solution of nitrate of silver may also be injected into the 
lymphatic gland, areolar tissue, testis, lung, etc., for the fixing and 
staining of tissue elements. 

MuUer's Prussian Blue.— Cold flowing blue mixture, made by 
the precipitation of soluble Prussian blue from a concentrated 



i 



AND HOW TO USE IT. 45 

solution by means of 90 per cent, alcohol. The colouring matter 
is thus precipitated in a state of most extreme fineness, and a 
completely neutral fluid is obtained. 

White Fluid. — This is very finely granular, and is capable of 
being combined with a blue, if it be desired to inject the arteries 
and veins separately. The salt sulphate of baryta is re-precipi- 
tated from a cold saturated solution of 4 ounces of chloride of 
barium, by adding, dropwise, sulphuric acid. After standing for 
some time (twelve to twenty-four hours) in a tall cylindrical glass 
vessel, it is deposited at the bottom. About half the fluid, which 
has again become clear, is now to be poured off, and the 
remainder, well shaken up, is to be combined with a mixture of 
one ounce each of alcohol and glycerine. It is distinguished for 
its great permeability, and is very good for lymph passages and 
glandular canals. It may be kept for months without alteration, 
and should be instantly at hand. The requisite quantity for an 
injection is poured into a porcelain dish, and it is then ready for use. 

Brownisli-Red Cold Flowing Mass, which is obtained by pre- 
cipitation from a solution of the chromate of copper, with 
ferrocyanide of potassium. Chromate of copper is obtained by 
digesting equivalent portions of sulphate of copper with chromate 
of potash, and washing out the brown precipitate. The latter 
readily dissolves in chromic acid in excess, and may be precipi- 
tated from the diluted solution, by means of ferrocyanide of 
potassium, in the form of an extremely fine brownish-red sediment 
of ferrocyanide of copper. It may be at once injected, without 
further addition than the solution of bichromate of potash, which 
has been formed, and thus, at the same time, serve as a medium 
for hardening the same. It is very useful for spleen. 

Soluble Prussian Blue simply dissolved in water for injection 
of the ducts of glands, urinary canals, biliary plexuses, and also for 
lymphatic canals. Ten grains of sulphate of iron, dissolved in 
I ounce of water; 32 grains of red prussiate of potash in another 
ounce of water, and both carefully combined make a good fluid. 
If the canals to be filled are very fine, double the quantity of each 
salt is to be added to each ounce of water. Glycerine may be 
added if desirable. 



46 THE MICROSCOPE 

KoUmann's Red Mixture is very useful. One gramme of 
carmine, dissolved in a little water, with 15 to 20 drops of con- 
centrated ammonia, and diluted with 20 c.cm. of glycerine. An 
additional 20 c.cm. of glycerine is to be tempered with 18 to 20 
drops of strong muriatic acid, and carefully added to the carmine 
solution, at the same time shaking the latter strongly. It may be 
subsequently diluted by the addition of about 40 c.cm. of water. 

Dr. Carter's Carmine.— There are several ways of making this 
stain, but whichever way may be chosen the greatest care must be 
exercised in making it a neutral, or slightly acid mass ; because, if 
it be alkaline, it will diffuse through the vessels, and stain the 
adjacent tissues, and render the preparation completely worthless. 
The mass had better be slightly acid, but if too acid granulation 
of the carmine takes place, and the fluid will not be driven into 
the arterioles, much less the capillaries. Parts injected by a 
carmine and gelatine mass must be immersed in equal parts of 
water and methylated spirit, having i per cent, of acid in it. Take 
of carmine 120 minims ; glacial acetic acid, 86 minims ; solution 
of gelatine (gelatine, i part, water 6 parts), 2 ounces ; water, 
ih ounces. Dissolve the carmine in the ammonia and water, with 
the aid of a gentle heat, and filter ; add to this i J ounces of /lo^ 
gelatine solution, and mix thoroughly. Add the acid to the 
remaining | ounce of gelatine solution, and drop this into the 
heated carmine mixture, with constant stirring. 

Dr. Stirling's Mass.— Take of carmine 60 grains ; strong 
ammonia, 60 minims ; glacial acetic acid, 80 minims (about) ; 
gelatine (Cox, or Coignets), i ounce ; water, q.s. Soak the 
gelatine in water several hours ; pour off the water which is not 
absorbed after the gelatine is completely swollen up, and melt it 
in a water bath. Then strain while hot, through flannel, and make 
up the solution to 2 ounces. Place the carmine in a mortar, and 
add to it the ammonia and 2 ounces of water, and leave it for 
12 hours. Then filter, and add acetic acid drop by drop, stirring 
all the while, until the ammonia is completely neutralised. As the 
ammonia becomes faint, the acid must be added very cautiously. 
So long as there is free ammonia, the fluid is dull red, but 
becomes a florid, bright colour the moment the ammonia is 



AND HOW TO USE IT. 47 

neutralised. Now mix the two solutions at a temperature of 
40*^ C. (104 F.) 

Dr. G. Sims Woodhead's Mass.— Take of carmine (pure) 
4 parts, by weight ; Uq. ammonia, 8 parts, by measure ; gelatine 
(Cox and Coignet's), 10 parts, by weight ; distilled water, 100 parts, 
by measure. Put the carmine in a mortar, and pour on the 
ammonia, when an almost black paste will be formed, if the 
carmine is pure ; pour on the water, and set the solution aside to 
filter. Place the gelatine in a narrow glass jar, and add sufficient 
distilled water to cover it, and allow it to stand until the gelatine 
is thoroughly softened. Warm the carmine solution in a pan of 
water (kept nearly boiling on a gas jet, or near the fire), and add 
the gelatine ; stir thoroughly, and add a 10 per cent, solution of 
acetic acid, drop by drop, until the alkalinity of the ammonia is 
neutraUsed, and the fluid even slightly acid. The point at which 
this takes place will be recognised by the pungent odour of the 
ammonia becoming gradually lost, and that of the acid substi- 
tuted, and the fluid loses its bright carmine, transparent colour, 
and turns a dull brownish red. With the exception of the change 
of colour test, I prefer Stirling's method, which, however, is greatly 
improved by making a diluted acetic acid solution, by adding the 
acid to I or 2 drachms of water, when the pouring to or adding 
is more easily controlled. It will be noticed that Dr. Woodhead 
takes a I o per cent, solution. 

Blue Mass.— This is made by adding soluble Prussian blue in 
place of the carmine. Take of soluble Prussian blue 4 drachms ; 
gelatine, 4 ounces ; distilled water, 2 ounces. Treat the gelatine 
the same as in making the carmine mass, using half the water ; 
then add the Prussian blue dissolved in the other half of the 
water, keeping both solutions hot, and constantly stirring whilst 
cooling is going on. 

Thiersch's Transparent Yellow- — Requires a considerable 
amount of care to be exercised in its preparation. It is made as 
follows :— Take of (a) chromate of potash i part, water 1 1 parts, 
dissolve, (if) Nitrate of lead i part, water 1 1 parts, dissolve. Mix 
I part of a with 4 parts of a concentrated solution of gelatine 
(made by washing good gelatine for an hour in distilled water, and 



48 THE MICROSCOPE 

then soaking for 24 hours in enough distilled water to cover the 
gelatine ; heating this gently over a water-bath, and filter 
through clean white flannel ; this should be done each time the 
injection mass is prepared) in a porcelain jar. In a second jar 
mix 2 parts of b with 4 parts of the gelatine mixture. Carefully 
mix these two gelatine masses at a temperature of from 25''. — 
32^ C, stirring rapidly with a glass rod ; then heat in a water- 
bath to about from 70° to 100° C. for an hour, and filter through 
flannel. In order to prevent the formation of a sediment, a 
further heating and filtering may be necessary. (Frey.) 

Thiersch's Prussian Blue with Oxalic Acid.— Prepare a cold 
saturated solution of the sulphate of the protoxide of iron {a), a 
similar one of ferrocyanide of potassium — that is, prussiate of 
potash ip) ; and thirdly, a saturated solution of oxalic acid {c) ; 
finally, a warm concentrated solution (2 to i) of fine gelatine. 
About \ ounce of the gelatine solution is to be mixed in a 
porcelain dish, with 6 c.cm. of the solution a. In a second 
larger dish, i ounce of the gelatine solution is to be combined 
with 12 c.cm. of b, to which 12 c.cm. of the oxalic acid solution c 
is afterwards added. When the mixtures in both dishes have 
cooled to about 25° or 32° C, the contents of the first dish is to 
be added dropwise, and with constant stirring, to the mixture in 
the latter. After complete precipitation, the deep blue mixture 
which is formed is to be heated to 70^ or 100^ C. for a time, and 
constantly stirred ; finally, it is to be filtered through flannel. The 
injecting fluid thus obtained keeps well in Canada balsam. The 
depth of its colour niay be readily modified to any desired degree 
by adding a larger quantity of the gelatine solution. (Frey.) 

Seiler's Carmine Gelatine.— (a) Best carmine, 2 drachms; 
distilled water, 3 ounces ; strong liquor ammonia, 20 drops. 
Dissolve this and filter, covering the funnel with a piece of glass 
plate to prevent the evaporation of the ammonia. (b) Cox's 
gelatine, 2 drachms ; distilled water, 2 ounces. Soak the gelatine 
until soft, then dissolve it in a water-bath, and strain through fine 
flannel while hot. Heat the gelatine solution again, and add the 
carmine solution. Bring the temperature up to 100° F., and add 
dilute acetic acid, drop by drop, under constant stirring, until the 



HALF-AN-HOUR AT THE MICROSCOPE. 49 

ammonia is neutralised, or until the solution changes from a lilac 
to a scarlet colour.— N.B. Keep a good supply of injections 
ready in vessels convenient to heat, having wide mouths for the 
syringe to enter. Occasionally filter to remove any particles of 
matter which may get into them, see that they are labelled 
distinctly, and ever clean, and in good order. 



1balf^an*1bour at tbe flDicroscope 

Mitb /IDr. Zxxttcn Mest, jf.X.S., jf.lR./ID.S., etc. 



Longitudinal Section of Alder (PI. III., Figs, i— 6).— The 
section from which the drawing was made was taken from near the 
surface, and hence shows the numerous viedtiUary rays, which are 
lines of cells, wedge-shaped in transverse section, proceeding 
horizontally to the surface ; their purpose is to keep up vital con- 
nection between the inner and outer structure. On examining a 
section we see well the division of the bark into its three com- 
ponent parts— outer, middle, and inner. The outer bark, or 
corky layer, is protected, in young branches, by a single thickness 
of cells, which occasionally possess stomata — the " epidermis " ; 
the middle layer is composed of cells containing chlorophyll, to 
which the green colours of this part is due. The inner layer is 
called the " cambium region " ; it is here that in its ascent and 
descent, new structure is continually being formed. Between the 
middle and outer bark is the " fibrous layer " ; in the alder 
crystal-prisms occur here, and cells having a very close 
resemblance in their structure to bone, and scarcely to be 
distinguished therefrom, save by the presence of the surrounding 
cell-wall. "Bone-cells" of this kind are not common in wood; 
indeed, I do not, whilst writing, recall another instance of their 
recurrence in that part ; they form the structure of the stones of 
fruits, such as the cherry, which presents them in great perfection, 
and the shells of nuts ; the outer husk of hemp-seed, and the 
gritty substance of pears, furnish good examples of the structure. 

An interesting condition of the pitted ducts is present in the 
alder — that is, continuous bars across, forming an approach to 
scalariform tissue, which is so strikingly shown in an oblique 
section of Pteris aqtiilma. 

On examining fresh alder-wood, the interesting fact was found 
that sphffiraphides occasionally replaced the prisms in the bark of 

Vol. VI. E 



50 HALF-AN-HOUR AT 

this tree, as has been noticed in some other cases by Professor 
GulHver. 

It is important to remember that the two divisions of nature — 
the animal and the vegetable — form parts of one continuous 
whole, and that a good acquaintance with plant organisation is 
essential to the study of the problems involved in animal life. 

Red Earth-Mite (PI. IV., Figs. 1—9). — I have a slide of this, 
purchased under the name Trovibidium holosericeiim, and have not 
yet examined further to see if this name be correct. " The species 
are numerous and not well characterised." (" Micro. Diet.," sub. 
Trombidium.) It is very common in my garden in summer, and 
seeing this slide makes me ashamed not to know more about it. 
The antennse-like organs are called " palpi" ; their structure is 
peculiar, the penultimate joint having the form of a powerful 
claw, which denotes raptorial habits ; the last joint is pyriform and 
fleshy. " The cheliceres (mandibles of some authors) are cultrate" 
(Siebold and Stannius, Vol. I., p. 376). Look what formidable 
weapons they are ! Like a Malay " crease," that of the left side 
has the blade broad, and its edge jagged with saw-teeth ; its 
companion is narrower, more pointed, and apparently nearly 
smooth on the edge. There is a labium, plumose at the 
extremity. The hairs to which the velvety appearance is due are 
of two well-marked types — the one like tiny feathers, the other 
like little clubs. The clubbed hairs occur on the hinder part of 
the upper abdominal surface as six radiating bands. They clothe 
the whole of the under surface. They are seated on transparent 
cylindrical papillae, and by looking for some of the latter, where 
a sectional view is presented, are seen to have a dozen short hairs 
radiating from their bases. The cutting away (as it might be 
termed) of the ends of the limbs to accommodate the claws 
strikes me as a highly curious mechanical arrangement ; its 
purpose being to prevent the sharp tips needed for seizing and 
holding their prey from being worn. I have not specially looked, 
but have little doubt they walk, as it were, on the heel and wrist 
joints. A similar arrangement is met with in Ticks. Flies when 
walking over rough surfaces, where their pads are not required, 
draw them back, and then, like most beetles in similar circum- 
stances, hold by the claws alone. 

Skin of Small Spotted Dog-Fish, Scyllium Caniculum (PI 

III., Figs. 7 — 11). — This, in addition to its exquisite beauty, is a 
most instructive specimen. Have you read and pondered " Huxley 
on the Study of Natural History," a lecture on Zoology, delivered 
at the South Kensington Museum in i860, reported in Scic?ice Gossip 
for April, 1867, p. 73 ? If not, I would like you to do so before 
reading another word of these remarks, or you cannot properly 



THE MICROSCOPE. 61 

appreciate the present slide. You will see therein, set forth as it has 
never been before, how the thoughtful study of a single natural 
object opens up ever-widening views of the mystery we term "Life," 
with all its various and complicated relations. The subject chosen 
for the lecture is " But a Lobster " ! " The commoner the object 
the better" is the remark of the Professor. Passing the lobster 
briefly in review, the external tegumentary skeleton is first 
examined — ring by ring, limb by limb. To learn how these came 
to be as they are involves the consideration of development as 
well as the study of surrounding conditions. Then, after 
allusions to the modes of grouping necessary to evolve order out 
of what would otherwise be but a chaotic assemblage of detached 
facts, as to name, species, genera, orders, representative forms, etc., 
come considerations of the lobster as a living creature, with the 
adaptations found in the various parts, fitting one to the other. 
The motor powers come next under review, as muscles, nerves, 
and so on — the physiological lessons to be learnt — -the geological 
cousinships to be traced out, involving considerations of all 
bearing on the subject — until at last he feels compelled to exclaim, 
on viewing the widely ramified bearings even of so simple a 
subject : " Truly it has been said, that to a clear eye, the smallest 
fact is a window through which the Infinite may be seen," and 
concludes with the following peroration : — " There is not a frag- 
ment of the organism of this humble animal, whose study would 
not lead us into regions of thought as large as those which I have 
briefly opened up ; but what I have done, I trust, has not only 
enabled my readers to form a conception of the scope and purport 
of Zoology, but has given an imperfect example of the manner in 
which, in my opinion, that science, or indeed, any physical 
science, may be studied. The great matter is to make the study 
real and practical, by fixing the attention on particular facts ; but, 
at the same time, it should be rendered broad and comprehensive, 
by constant reference to the generalisations of which all particular 
facts are illustrations. The lobster has served as a type of the 
whole animal kingdom, and its anatomy and physiology have 
illustrated for us some of the greatest truths of biology. The 
student who has once seen for himself the facts which I have 
described, has had their relations explained to him, and has 
clearly comprehended them, has so far a knowledge of zoology, 
which is real and genuine, however limited it may be, and which 
is worth more than all the mere reading knowledge of the science 
he could ever acquire. His zoological information is so far know- 
ledge and not mere hearsay." 

In such a spirit alone can we properly attempt to read the 
choice preparation now before us. The small spots which give a 
name to the creature are best seen with the naked eye, as also the 



52 HALF-AN-HOUR AT THE MICROSCOPE. 

" glittering sheen " of the scale-armour. With the lowest power 
(the 4-in. glass) a good general idea is obtained ; the scales then 
have a general resemblance to those of some fossil fish. View it 
as an opaque, then as a transparent object, and see how very 
different it appears. Then put on the 2 in. glass — with a general 
resemblance see the individual difference between all the scales, 
no two are alike — so that after a little practice the eye can readily 
separate any one, and discriminate its special characters. With 
the Yi object-glass and "A" eye-piece, observe the surface of 
particular scales first, with their ridges increasing in number and 
elevation as the scale becomes larger and (we must suppose it) 
older. An arch of lighter colour, probably a canal, can be seen 
internally, stretching forwards between the first lateral ridges, with 
a branching canal on either side, passing from the arch to the 
cusps. Through these nutriment is conveyed ; life and continued 
growth are rendered possible. Turn the slide, so that right and 
left are reversed, and see how wonderfully like a tooth is each 
scale ! There are fossil-shark's teeth which, in their natural size, 
closely resemble these scales when magnified to fifty diameters. 
Now, by focussing down, a view is obtained of their mode of 
implantation into the skin, by processes resembling for each scale 
a star of four rays. And see how closely the scales are inter- 
locked ! each has six others to support it. The small scattered 
spines of the Thornback skate are supported by processes forming 
a i'zJv-rayed star. Placed at a distance over the surface 
of the skin, they would appear to require, each individually, 
the firmer hold gained by having six roots instead of four. Now, 
supposing what we have before us, after lying in water sufficiently 
long to decompose the skin and softer parts, and separate the 
scales — that the outer, harder portions of the latter become 
fossilised. What is there then to distinguish the so tooth-like 
scales from teeth proper ? Absolutely nothing ! The careful 
study of the context can alone prevent grave errors from being 
fallen into. T. P. Barkas, in his admirable monograph on coal- 
measure (Palreontology) has a figure (158, pi. 4), respecting which 
he says (page 44 of text) : " I have considerable doubt respecting 
their dental character ; they may be dermal spines rather than oral 
appendages." And on looking at a section of " Tooth of 
Ctenoptychius," in a set he has kindly allowed me to inspect, 
I am so struck by the absolute resemblance between the micro- 
scopic characters of this so-called " Tooth " and some specimens 
now well recognised as being dermal scales (though formerly 
described as teeth !) that I turn to Barkas for information, and there 
find under " Ctenoptychius" : — It is assumed that these fossils are 
teeth, or true oral appendages, but so far as my observation has 
gone, I have not found any in consecutive order. They may be 



SELECTED NOTES FROM SOCIETY'S NOTE-BOOKS, 53 

labial or dermal appendages rather than oral, but in the mean- 
time they are recognised as true teeth. 

Professor Owen described C. pectmatus as Ageleodus diadema. 
The author of an important paper on the subject, which was laid 
before the Odontological Society of London, appears to have 
fallen more than once into the error here pointed out, his know- 
ledge having been acquired simply by examining prepared 
sections. (See Hancock and Atthey on "Remains of Reptiles 
and Fishes in Northumbrian Coal Shales," in Nat. His. Trans. .^ 
Northumberland and Durham, Part I., Vol. III., pp. 85 — 118). 
Insight into development of the scales — pigment and its changes 
— which (when viewed in connection with inflammation, the 
changes involved therein, and their treatment) involve subjects 
which must not even be glanced at here. All this, and more, may 
be learnt from the study of the simple specimen before us. I want 
you all to learn to read a slide like a book. 

Parasite of Vulture.— The Bearded Vulture is named by 
Denny as being one of the habitats of the Louse common to the 
FalconidcB. He gives a very interesting account of the habits of 
the creature under Colpoccphalum flavescens. (M.A.B., p. 206; 
PI. XVIII., Fig. 2.) A young Harpy Eagle, in the menagerie 
of the Earl of Derby, at Knowsley, afforded him ample 
opportunities for the study. The bird was noticed not to be 
moulting kindly ; it eventually died. The hollows of the large 
quill-feathers were found tilled with specimens of the insect, in all 
its stages, both in the living stage, and an accumulation of 
hundreds of cast skins. They appear to have selected this 
retreat for performing the important operation of ecdysis, as we 
know do many Crustacea in the like circumstances. Two circular 
apertures, situated near the base of the quill (seat of its blood- 
supply) afforded the animals access to the interior. The strong 
stays for the jaws to work on, here flattened from their nearly 
vertical position (and which must not be mistaken for a second 
pair of jaws), the peculiar four-jointed antenna, the remarkable 
eye-lashes, the maxillae, the gizzard teeth, and the male organs of 
generation are the most noticeable features of this object. 

TuFFEN West. 



Selected 1Rotc6 from X\n Societ^'0 
1Rote^Book6, 

Tongue of Cricket— The professional mounts oi" this object 
are most beautiful, but certainly do not give one any idea of the 



54f SELECTED NOTES FROM 

natural appearance of that organ. I once dissected and mounted 
one, but certainly nobody would think that the two objects were 
from the same source. Will anyone explain how the thing is 
done? C. F. George. 

Trombidium Phalangii.— A bright scarlet mite taken from a 
Harvestman spider, which was infested with this parasite, its 
colour causing it to show very conspicuously, sticking about the 
body and long legs of the trombidium. The mite, having but 
six legs, is no doubt a young one, and would have acquired 
another pair had he lived to grow a little older. The curious 
feathery hairs are worthy of notice. Thos. Ball. 



Tongue of Cricket (PI. V., Figs. 1-4). — I should say that the 
lines on the tongue are minute channels, or gutters, kept open by 
half-rings. This is what occurs in a blow-fly's mouth. I have 
carefully examined this slide, but I cannot satisfy myself that such 
is the case in this tongue. 

Is this really the tongue ? Insects have a true tongue, but as 
often as not the lower lip is called the tongue. Unless one could 
see the organ in j-////, there is little to show whether it is the 
tongue or the lower lip, minus its base and its palpi. I think, 
however, it is the tongue, although very unlike the tongue of a 
grasshopper or field-cricket. 

It is a good plan to mount all the six parts of the mouth (dis- 
sected) on one slide. A good series of these is very interesting 
and instructive. H. M. J, Underhill. 

Parasite from Ostrich (PI. IV., Fig. 10) bears a very close 
resemblance to that from a finch, drawn by Mr. West (PI. XXIII., 
Vol. II.). The extraordinary forms which different parasites, 
apparently nearly allied to each other, assume, are very interesting. 
Great development of a pair of legs in the male (as in the present 
instance) is frequent, but usually the second and not the third 
pair are thus altered. H. M. J. Underhill. 

Tongues of Crickets. — I have attempted to mount these, and 
find that after squeezing out fatty matter (I keep them in gin), 
there is a bag^ or perhaps it is an upper and under skin, and I 
believe it is the upper skin which has all the capillary tubes in it. 
The lower skin seems to prevent the spreading flat of the upper 
one. I have tried to tear the tongue open and to clear away the 
under skin, but have not yet succeeded in that plan. I open the 
tongue by putting it on a piece of glass with methylated spirit, 
and place upon it a piece of thin cover-glass, which I move about, 
but the manipulation is not easy to describe. In dissecting a 



THE society's NOTE-BOOKS. 55 

cricket's mouth, it is interesting to observe the way the tongue is 
folded up and put away. I think the capillary tubes are like those 
of a fly's tongue. But in Wood's •' Common Objects of the Micro- 
scope," it is said that the triangular hues in the tube are formed 
by triangular plates instead of rings. My idea is that the liquid 
food of such insects as flies must be sucked up by the tongue, 
and probably tasted by means of these tubes. I do not think the 
fluid goes up the tubes. W. Locock. 

Cricket's Tongue.— This specimen shows its 430 springs (for 
such I take them to be) clearly ; at the same time it gives no idea 
of its natural appearance. A. Nicholson. 



Tongue of Cricket.— Replying to the above query of Mr. H. 
M. J. Underhill, I am able to say from my own observation that 
this is the true to?igue of the cricket, a fleshy organ which lies 
within the labium, and is, as Westwood remarks, p. 441, " quadri- 
lobed, the two middle lobes being very slender, and the two 
external ones broader and pilose, articulated both at and near the 
base." I give a drawing of his figure of the labium, together with 
one illustrating the details shown by the sUde. The organ cer- 
tainly calls to mind the membranous, channelled lobes which 
terminate the proboscis of the MuscidcB, and I think it must have 
' a similar function. If so, we may remark how correspondence of 
parts in different insects involves no necessary correspondence of 
function, for the ofiice which in the fly devolves upon the 
expanded extremity of the labium is in the cricket assumed by the 
tongue — an organ whose homologue in the former insect is a 
lancet-like, tubular organ of totally different appearance and use. 
I have given two small drawings of the channels as seen with a 
quarter-inch object-glass, one taken near their finer extremities and 
the other from one of their main trunks. A. Hammond. 



Leaflet of Aspidium (PI. VI., Fig. 5).— The organs of 
reproduction (sori) on the under surface of the fronds of ferns are 
either naked or covered with a delicate membrane (indusium). In 
Aspidium the indusium covers the sori like a cap, which splits 
round the edge when the sori are ripe. The sori are made up of 
numerous oval bodies (sporangia), composed of brownish cells, 
one of which has thick walls and forms a ring (annulus) round 
the edge of the sporangium. When ripe, the annulus splits, the 
spores in the sporangium shoot out, and begin to germinate, 
putting forth a tubular prolongation (hypha), develop a leafy 
expansion (prothallus), on the under surface of which the sexual 
organs — Antheridia (male), Archegonia (female) — make their 
appearance. H. M. Klaassen. 



50 SELECTED NOTES FROM 

Aspidium. —The indusium in Aspidium ('Ao-ttic, a shield) is 
peltate, attached by the centre ; in Nephrodium (Nttppoc, the 
kidney), kidney-shaped, attached by the notch. H. F. Parsons. 

Young of Anodon cyg-neus.— These have, I beHeve, been 
mistaken formerly for a parasite and described under the name of 
Glochidium. The young shells show the black cross with polar- 
ised light like those of the oyster-spat. This is due to the parti- 
cles of carbonate of lime, forming the first layer of the young 
shell, having their optic axes all in the same direction. When, as 
in the older shell, layer upon layer has been deposited, the parti- 
cles forming the thin section which we examine have their optic 
axes pointing different ways, so that instead of the light which 
passes through the axes of the two Nicol's prisms being totally 
shut off, rays rotated by particles lying at a different angle come in 
to take the place of those intercepted, and thus we have a more 
or less general brightness instead of a dark cross. 

H. F. Parsons. 



Burweed (PI. VI., Figs, i — 4). — When travelling through the 
wool-producing district of South Africa about two years ago, my 
attention was directed by some gentlemen engaged in that import- 
ant trade of the colony to a plant growing there called by the 
above name ; at the same time, they explained the great trouble 
caused by its seed-pods getting entangled with the wool, and 
causing much damage to the machinery used in the process of 
cleaning it. Hence, farmers and land-owners who allow the weed 
to grow on their land are subject to heavy fines. 

I brought home a few of the seed-pods, which are as hard as 
ebony, and contain two black seeds about the size and shape of 
grains of wheat. The seed-pods are covered with exceedingly 
hard, minute, hooked spines. These hooks are so formed as to 
give the greatest amount of resistance to withdrawal. 

On comparing these hooks with those of the common burdock, 
the latter are not so hard and of a weaker form compared with 
those of the burweed. 

Plate VI. shows the seed entire and in section ; also the two 
forms of hooks. H. N. Mavnard. 

Trichocolea tomentella (PI. VI., Figs. 6-9). — The cellular struc- 
ture of this lowly plant shows it to be an apt illustration of the 
law of association in the vegetable kingdom. Here we see the 
cells compacted together to form the stem, and branching out to 
form the leaves which foreshadow the leaves of the phaneroga- 
mous plants. It is among the lower orders of plants — such as 



THE society's NOTE-BOOKS, o7 

confervse and fungi — ^that we can more plainly trace the primitive 
forms of the results of this law. Taking the fungi, and com- 
mencing with the unicellular yeast-plant, we follow to Oidiiun and 
PenicilluDJ^ where the cells are joined at their ends, then to Peri- 
cofiia and ArtJirobotryum^ where they are compacted into a 
common stem, and so on to the Agarics, which are considered the 
highest form of fungi. 

There is a very interesting article in the Popular Science 
Revietv, April, 1880, showing the application of this law to 
the Animal Kingdom, especially as regards the Polypes. 

This law, which accounts for the cellular structure of plants, 
lends additional interest to the study of Botany. W. C. Tait. 



Trichooolea tomentella.— Liverworts are either stemless, with 
creeping fronds, or they have leafy stems. The Trichocolea tomen- 
tella (sub-order, Jungermanniece) belongs to the latter. It is found 
in moist places in the west and north of England, Scotland, and 
Ireland, and is remarkable for the character of its leaves, which 
are much divided, giving the plant the appearance of an Alga. 
The roots are simple elongated cells, tubular, white, transparent, 
scattered in small tufts, and springing from the lower surface of 
the leafy stems. H. M. Klaassen. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES IIL, IV., V., VI. 



Plate III. 

Upper Portion. 

Fig. 1 .■ —Longitudinal section of Alder, x 100 diam. , showing 0., 
outer; m., middle; i., inner, layer of the bark ; e, , single 
layer of cells, the " epiderm ; " c, corky layers ; f.L, fibrous 
layer, with its raphides and bone-cells ; m.r., medullary rays ; 
w.f., woody fibre ; ^J.d, pitted ducts. 

,, 2. — Portion of two pitted ducts more enlarged to show the mode 
of union, x 200. 

,, 3. — End of a pitted duct, showing scalariform-like structure. 

„ 4— "Bone-cells." 

,, 5. — " Crystal prisms " in the section under observation. 

,, 6. — " Spyeraphides," in a section of my own (T. West) preparing. 

Lower Portion. 

,, 7. — Portion of Skin of Dog-Fish magnified 2.5 diam., showing 
various forms of scales, two in process of development, and 
pigment in part. 



58 SELECTED NOTES FROM SOCIETY'S NOTE-BOOKS. 

Fig. 8. — A scale more highly magnified, showing the outline, the 
ridges, the arcuate internal canal, and the expanded base. 

,, 9. — A scale focussed down to the roots, with portions of six 
supporting scales. 

,, 10. — Longitudinal section, small spine-like scale of Thorn-back 
Skate, showing the structure like dentinal tubuli. 

,, 11. — Transverse section, part of same. (Figs. 10 and 11 are from 
Micro. Dictionary.) 

Drawn by TufFen West. 



Plate IV. 

Upper Portion. 

Illustrating Red Earth-Mite. 

Fig. 1.— Left Palpus, x 50. 

,, 2. — Mandibles, or Cultrate cheliceres. 

,, 3. — Penniform hair. 

,, 4. — Clubbed hair, 

,, 5. — One of the clubbed hairs focussed to the upper (outer) rim of 
the sujjporting papilla. 

,, 6. — End of the second limb of the left-side (L. 2), showing the 
sickle-shaped claws, and the excision of the joint to receive 
them when retracted. 

,, 7. — Extremity of L. 2 in the Dog-tick (Ixodes ricinus) from a 
specimen in my possession ; the mode in which the sucker 
folds together when not in use is well seen here. 

,, 8. — Argas reflexus, extremity of L. 2. 

,, 9. — Labium with palpi. 

,, 9a. — Plume of labium more magnified, after Duges. (From 
Micro. Dictionary.) 

Drawn by Tuffen West. 
Lower Portion. 

„ 10. — Parasite from an Ostrich, Tyroglyplms, $ viewed from 
beneath, as an opaque object, x 130. 

Drawn by H. M. J. Underhill. 

Plate V. 

Upj^er Portion. 

Fig. 1. — Tongue of Cricket. 

,, 2.— Labium of Cricket, from West wood, somewhat enlarged. 

>, 3. — Portion of the fine extremity of one of the channels, 
X 350 diam. 

,, 4. — Portion of one of the main trunks, x 350 diam. 

Lower Portion. 
Showing the Homologies of the Dorsal Plates of the Wood-Louse 

and of the Cockroach. 



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REPORTS OF SOCIETIES. 59 

Fig. 1. — Wood-Louse from mounted slide. 

,, 2. — Cockroach from same. 

,, 3. — The dorsal surfaces of the three thoracic segments of the 
same in a subsequent stage, the plates not entire, but the 
lateral portions which form the wings distinguishable upon 
them. 

„ 4. — The same in the perfect female insect, the tegmina fully 

formed and detached, the posterior wings still remaining an 

integral portion of the dorsal surface. 

In Figs. 2, 3, and 4, pr. represents the pro-thorax ; ms. the meso ; 

and mt. the meta-thorax. The light-coloured, central portions in 

these drawings are, I believe, homologous with one another, and the 

dark colour with the dark colour. 

Drawn by Arthur Hammond. 
We much regret that the exceedingly interesting article to which 
the lower jiart of this plate refers is unavoidably omitted for want of 
space ; it will appear in our next. — Ed. 



Plate VI. 
Fig. 1. — Seed of African Burweed, x 2^ diam. 
,, 2. — Section of the same through the centre. 
,, 3. — Hook from the same, enlarged. 
,, 4. — Hook from British Burdock. 

Drawn by H. L. Maynard. 

5. — Sorus of Aspidium. 



>) 



,, 6. — Leafy stem of Trlchocolea tomentella. 
,, 7. — Branching portion of Leaf. 
,, 8. — Cells of lower part of Leaf and Stem. 
,, 9. — Root Hair. 

Drawn by H. M. Klaassen. 



IRcporte of Societies, 

[ IVe shall be glad if Secretaries will send us fiotice of Meetings 
of their Societies. Short abstracts of papers read, and principal 
objects exhibited, will always be acceptable.'] 

COUNTY OF MIDDLESEX NATURAL HISTORY 
AND SCIENCE SOCIETY. 

THE first Evening Meeting of the " County of Middlesex 
Natural History and Science Society" for practical work 
was held on the i6th Nov., i886, at the Townhall, Kilburn, 
nearly 200 members being present. 



60 REVIEWS. 

In the unavoidable absence of the President, the Right Hon. 
the Earl of Strafford (late Viscount Enfield), Lord-Lieutenant of 
Middlesex, the chair was taken by one of the Vice-Presidents, 
Dr. Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., head of the Geological Survey. 
Mr. Sydney T. Klein, F.R.A.S., Hon. Secretary and Treasurer to 
the Society, read a paper entitled, " Thirty-six Hours' Hunting 
among the Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera of Middlesex ; with 
Notes on the Methods adopted for their Capture." 

A very enthusiastic discussion followed, in which Dr. Archibald 
Geikie, Dr. Francis A. Walker, Mr. W. Mathieu Williams, Mr. 
Basil Woodd Smith, Mr. James Smith, and many others, took 
part. Mr. Sydney T. Klein, after replying and thanking those 
present for the cordial way in which they had received his remarks, 
exhibited in illustration of his paper specimens of the insects 
referred to, and in addition two queen cells of Apis Ligustica, 
showing how the wax at the apex had been thinned preparatory to 
the exit of the queen, and the rent in the side of the cell through 
which the nymph had been stung and dragged forth by the new 
queen. He also exhibited cells of Osmia n/fa, the mason 
bee, from which were released living bees, together with specimens 
of its beautiful parasite, Chrysis ignita ; also, specimens of N. 
megachile, the leaf-cutter bee, with its tawny parasite. Triponylon 
figulus. Mr. Klein also exhibited numerous pupse and cocoons of 
the species mentioned. Mr. Lant Carpenter showed a portable 
electric lamp for mining and other purposes ; Mr. Rousselet a 
polyzoon under the microscope ; and Mr. Sherborne some artifi- 
cial " Perlitic " and " Schellerization in rock structures." 

A vote of thanks was then passed to Dr. Archibald Geikie, 
after replying to which he congratulated the Society on the 
thoroughly practical beginning they had made that night, and 
brought the meeting to a close. 



1Revicw0» 



Chemical Arithmetic, with Twelve Hundred Examples. By 

Sydney Lupton, M.A., F.C.S., F.I.C. Second edition, crown 8vo, pp. xii. — 
169. (London : Macmillan and Co. 1886.) 

A valuable work for students to use in connection with any of the better 
form of text-books treating of Chemistry and Chemical Physics. It contains 
questions on Mass, Fluid, Pressure, Heat, Diffusion, Molecular Weights, 
Solubilities, the Non-Metals and Metals, and at the end a few Logarithmic 
Tables. The examples are, for the most part, well chosen and of a practical 
nature, 

Dr. F. Beilstein's Lessons in Qualitative Chemical Analy- 
sis, arranged on the basis of the fifth German edition. By Charles O. Curt- 



REVIEWS. • 61 

man, M.D. gvo, pp. xii — 200. (St. Louis, Mo. : Druggist Publishing Co. 
1886. Price, ig 1. 50.) 

This is a translation of Dr. Beilstein's "Anleitung," to which the author 
has made copious additions, including chapters on Chemical Manipulations, 
Organic Analysis (including Alcohol, the Sugars, Starches, Alkaloids, Albu- 
men, and Urea), Volumetric Analysis, and Analysis of Drinking Water. 
Though by no means exhaustive, it will be found to contain a large amount of 
valuable information to the young student. 



The Chemistry of Wheat, Flour, and Bread, and Tech- 
nology of Bread-Making. By William Jago, F.C.S., F.I.C., Brighton. 8vo, 
pp. 474. (Published by the author, 138 Springfield Road, Brighton. 1886. 
Price, I2S. 6d.) 

A work containing a large amount of valuable information for the farmer, 
miller, baker, scientific chemist, and engineer. The author, who is an analy- 
tical and consulting chemist, and head master of the Science Schools at 
Brighton, gives us information on General Chemistry, Microscopy, Fermenta- 
tion, Bread-Making, Commercial and Analytical Testing, and Adulteration, 
all well written and thoroughly reliable. 

Lunar Science : Ancient and Modern. By Rev. Timothy 
Harley, F.R.A.S., author of "Moon-Lore," etc. Svo, pp. 89. (London: 
Swan Sonnenschein and Co. 1886. Price, 3s. 6d.) 

We have here a popular and very readable account of facts known about 
the moon, in which ancient and modern theories are placed side by side. 
Those who wish to know something about our satellite without dipping too 
deeply into science will do well to read this little work. 



The Ordnance Survey of the United Kingdom. By 

Lieut. -Col. T. Pilkington White, R.E. Crown Svo, pp. x.-— 174. (Edin- 
burgh and London : \V. Blackwood and Sons. 1886.) 

Gives in a popular and interesting manner a very intelligible idea of the 
great national survey : what it is, how and when it originated, what are its 
objects, by whom and in what manner it is executed, and who pays for it. 
The system of triangulation is carefully explained, and all the methods adopted 
are put before the reader in a very attractive manner. 

Solar Heat, Gravitation, and Sun-Spots. By J. H. 

Kidzie. Crown Svo, pp. xii. — -304. (Chicago: S. C. Griggs and Co. 18S6. 
Price, $1.50.) 

We have in this volume a new and striking theory with respect to the phe- 
nomena of Solar Heat, Gravitation, and Sun-Spots. The author's views are 
unquestionably his own. On the subject of Solar tleat he tells us that, as 
there are not less than five or six different theories already advanced by emi- 
nent scientists, a new theory cannot therefore be considered as conflicting with 
any settled doctrine on the subject, and that with regard to the cajise either of 
gravitation or sun-spots the field is still more completely unoccupied. The 
work contains upwards of 20 good illustrations. 

Rust, Smut, Mildew, and Mould : An Introduction to the 
Study of Microscopic Fungi. By M. C. Cooke, M.A., LL.D., A.L.S., etc. 
Fifth edition, revised and enlarged. Crown 8vo, pp. 262. (London : W. H. 
Allen and Co. 1886. Price, 6s.) 

It is with much pleasure that we welcome a new edition of this valuable 
little work, which gives in a popular manner a description of those minute 



62 REVIEWS, 

organisms which infest so many of our plants, whether wild or cultivated. 
Directions are given for collecting, examining, and preserving the various 
forms of fungi. The book is illustrated with 269 coloured pictures from 
Sowerby. 

Guide to the Recognition of the Principal Orders of Cryp- 
togams and the Commoner and More Easily Distinguished New England 
Genera, with a full Glossary by Frederick Leroy Sargent. Post 8vo, pp. 39. 
(Cambridge, U.S.A. : C. W. Sever. 1886.) 

A small book, which will be found useful to the student of Cryptogamic 
Botany, giving a list of the principal genera, with the distingnishing character- 
istic of each, so that they may be easily recognised. The book is interleaved 
with blank paper, so that the student may add notes. 

Pond Life : Insects. By Edward A. Butler, B.A., B.Sc. 
Crown 8vo, pp. 127. (London: Swan Sonnenschein and Co. 1886.) Price, is. 

We are always glad to meet with a new volume of the " Young Collector " 
series. The one before us is well written, and deals with the subject of pond- 
life from the surface, middle depths, above the surface, margins, and on water- 
plants. Hints are given for the collection, observation, and preservation of 
the insects, and for the breeding of aquatic insects. The engravings are good, 
and will prove of much interest to the young collector in naming his captures. 

Life Histories of Plants. By Professor D. McAlpine. 

Foolscap 4to, pp. 206. (London : Swan Sonnenschien and Co. Price, 6s.) 

A valuable book for the biological student, giving a clear view of the com- 
parative study of plants and animals on a physiological basis ; the living cell, 
its principal parts and properties, followed by the life-history of the principal 
plants in the various stages of cryptogams, from the bacteria to the mosses and 
ferns, etc. It is illustrated with a great number of very guod woodcuts, etc. 

Glaucus ; or, The Wonders of the Shore. By Charles King- 
sley. Crown 8vo, pp. xi. — 245. (London : Macmillan and Co. 1886. 
Price, 7s. 6d.) 

Perhaps no one is belter fitted to speak of the "Wonders of the Shore" 
than Charles Kingsley, who writes co)i a>nore of those creatures with whom he 
has been intimate from childhood. The volume before us is a new edition, 
beautifully illustrated and handsomely bound, of one which originally appeared 
some years ago. All who read it will do so with great interest. 

Our Island Continent : A Naturalist's Holiday in Aus- 
tralia. By Dr. J. E. Taylor, F.L.S., F.G.S., with maps. Crown 8vo, pp. 256. 
(London : The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 1886.) 

A delightful little book, giving an extremely pleasing account of a visit to 
Australia. In a bright and interesting manner the author speaks of the 
peculiarities of Animal and Vegetable Life, and the geological formation. He 
visited the museums of Melbourne and Adelaide, and the vineyards of South 
Australia, and predicts the future importance of the wine trade. 

LoG-BooK OF A Fisherman and Zoologist. By Frank 
Buckland, M.A. Fourth edition ; illustrated. Crown 8vo, pp. xv. — 339. 
(London: Chapman and Hall. 1883.) 

This fascinating book consists of a number of papers selected from Land 
and Water and other magazines. They embrace a variety of subjects con- 
nected with Natural History, written in the usual bright style of the author. 



REVIEWS. • 63 

Buckland was a universal observer, and it is delightful to read records showing 
such enthusiasm in whatever he undertook. 



The Horses of the Sun : Their Mystery and their Mission. 
By James Crowther. Crown 8vo, pp. 2S0. (London : Sunday School Union. 
Price, 3s. 6d.) 

A well written and charming book for young people. Beginning with the 
ancient myths respecting the sun, and giving an idea of fire and sun worship 
in ancient times, it carries us on to the real and actual work of the rays of 
light, or " Horses of the Sun," in vegetation, photography, etc., and without 
going very deeply into scientific questions, tlie author gives some starthng and 
interesting facts illustrating the marvellous power of sunlight. 

Lady Bird's Tea Party, and Other Stories. By James 
Crowther. Cr. 8vo, pp. 128. (London: Sunday School Union. Price, is. 6d.) 
A series of small allegories, drawn from animal, insect, and vegetable life, 
some of them giving a very clear idea of these lower forms, and evolving from 
them some amusing and instructive lessons ; but the author occasionally 
confuses himself and his readers by straining the facts to make good the 
metaphor, as when he mistakes between the neuters and the drones in 
speaking of a beehive, and representing a banyan of 3,000 years old to be 
growing in Kew Gardens. 

Primroses, Cowslips, Polyanthuses, Oxlips. By Philan- 

thus. Crown 8vo, pp. 16. Price, 6d. 

The Tomato, with Cultural Directions for Maintaining a Con- 
tinual Supply of the Fruit. By William Igguldeen. pp. 73. Price, is. 

Cactaceous Plants : Their History and Culture. By Lewis 
Castle, pp. 93. Price, is. 

Mushrooms for the Million, with a Supplement. By J. 
Wright, F.R.H.S. Fourth edition, pp. 126. 

Orchids : Their Structure, History, and Culture. By Lewis 
Castle, pp. 106. Price, is. 

In the notice of the above series of valuable little books we have dis- 
covered that by error, which we much regret, they were accredited to the 
Journal of Agriculture instead of The Journal of Horticulture, office, I7i, 
Fleet Street, E.C. 

Studies in Microscopical Science. Since our last issue 

we have received Nos. 3 and 4 of this important work. The subjects considered 
are: — Section i, Botanical Histology, Studies in Vegetable Physiology. Chap. 
3, a Bifacial Leaf, illustrated by vert, section Leaf of Ivy. Chap. 4, Absorbent 
Organs, illustrated by a fragment of one of the submerged leaves of Salvinia 
natans. Section 2, Animal Histology. Part 3, the Human Penis. Part 4, the same 
organ in the Lower Animals ; the slides illustrating these being trans, sec. 
Penis of an Infant at Term x 11 diam., and that of a Dog x 14 diam. 
Section 3, Pathological Histology treats of the Normal Kidney, and is 
illustrated by Acute congestion of the kidney. Section 4, Popular Micro- 
scopical Studies continues to treat of the Sea Fans, is illustrated by Spines, 
and plates of Palmipes membranaceiis and Marine Algee Ptilota elegans. The 
slides are fully up to the standard of Mr. A. C. Cole's preparations. The 
studies may be obtained of J. G. Hammond and Co., Edmund Street, 
Birmingham. 

The Student's Handbook of Historical Geology. By 
A. J. Jukes-Brown, B.A., F.G.S. i2mo, pp. xi. — 597. (London: Georee 
Bell and Sons. 18S6. Price, 6s.) . r j v t. 



64 REVIEWS. 

One of the series of Bohn's Scientific Library, being a companion volume 
to " Physical and vStructural Geology." The volume before us treats of 
Palaeontological and Historical Geology. In the first division we have 
chapters on the Geographical Distribution of Life, the Origin and Succession 
of Species, and the Correlation and Classification of Rocks on Palfeontological 
Principles ; in the second division we find twelve chapters which treat of the 
Azoic Era, Palaeozoic Time, and the various systems of Rocks. The book is 
closely printed and well illustrated, and affords a large amount of information. 

Geological Studies ; or, Elements of Geology for High 
Schools, Colleges, Normal, and other .Schools. By Alexander Winchell, LL.D. 
Crown 8vo, pp. xxv. — 513. (Chicago : S. C. Griggs and Co. 1886. 
Price, $3.) 

The work before us is divided into two parts ; — I. Geology inductively 
Presented ; 2. Geology treated Systematically. In the first part the author 
approaches the elementary facts and conceptions of geology in a pleasing 
manner from the inductive side. The student is first introduced to the most 
familiar facts, pebbles and boulders, kinds of minerals and rocks, and such 
things as may be seen in the fields ; then liy degrees over the inductive 
evidences of internal heat, metamorphism, upheaval and subsidence, and thus 
to the broader generalisations of the science. The second part is a compact 
systematic review of the subject, bringing into order the matter of the first 
part, and supplying further information in the several departments. The 
whole work is handsomely got up, printed on very heavy paper, and is 
illustrated with 367 engravings in the text. 



Chips from the Earth's Crust; or, Short Studies in 
Natural Science. By John Gibson. Crown 8vo, pp. 303. (London : 
T. Nelson and Sons. 1887.) 

We have here, written in very readable language, some interesting accounts 
of Landslips, Buried Forests, Coal-fields, Fossil Footprints, Diamond 
Diggings, Gold and Silver Mines, Oil Wells, British Earthquakes, Meteors 
and Meteor Showers, etc., etc., from which a very valuable knowledge may be 
gained. The book is nicely bound, and contains 39 plate illustrations. 

Fun Better than Physic; or, Everybody's Life Preserver. 
By W. W. Hall, M.D. Crown 8vo, pp. 333. (Chicago, U.S.A.: Rand, 
McNaley, and Co. 1884.) 

This is a collection of clever and witty sayings and wise maxims, written 
by Dr. Hall. Many of the maxims are very good. 

Six Lectures upon School Hygeine, delivered under the 
auspices of the Massachusetts Emergency and Hygeine Association to 
Teachers in the Public Schools. Crown 8vo, pp. 201. (Boston, U.S.A. : 
Ginn and Co. 1886. Price, $1.) 

Six Lectures on .School Hygeine, Heating, and Ventilation ; the Use and 
Care of the Eyes ; Epidemics and Disinfection ; Drainage ; and the Relation 
of our Public Schools to the Disorders of the Nervous System ; given by 
different Doctors in Medicine, who were thorough specialists, and adapted 
their lectures to the distinctive wants of School Teachers. We have read 
these lectures with much interest. 



Speeches on the Irish Question in 1886. By the Right 



EEVIEWS. 65 

Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P., with an Appendix containing the full text of the 
Government of Ireland, and the Sale and Purchase of Land Bills of i8S6. 
Revised edition. 8vo, pp. 358. (Edinburgh : Andrew Elliot. 1886. 
Price, 5s.) 

This volume is a continuation of the series containing the Midlothian 
speeches 1879, 1880, 1884, and 1885, and gives a verbatim report of four 
speeches on the Government of Ireland Bill — two in April, one in May, and 
one in June ; Speech on the Sale and Purchase of Land (Ireland) Bill; two 
Addresses to the Midlothian Electors ; and five Speeches during the General 
Election. 

Natural History : Its Rise and Progress in Britain as 
developed in the Life and Labours of Leading Naturalists. By Alleyne 
Nicholson, M.D., D.Sc. Crown 8vo, pp. vi. — 312. (London and Edinburgh : 
W. and R. Chambers. 1886.) 

We have here a general outline of the rise and progress of the Science 
of Natural History in Britain. This is given in a series of biographical 
sketches, but as some of the most important steps in the development of the 
Science of Zoology have been effected by foreign investigators, it was found 
necessary to some extent to pass beyond the limits of our own country. The 
work commences with the Aristotelian period ; then gives an account of Ray 
and Willoughby and their work, Linnreus and his classification, the great 
Museums of Britain, etc. etc., and concludes very naturally with Darwin and 
his famous works. It is beautifully illustrated with plate and other engravings. 

Eminent Doctors : Their Lives and their Work. By 
G. T. Bettany. M.A., B.Sc, F.L.S. Two vols. Crown 8vo, pp. viii.— 311 ; 
vi. — 318. (London: John Hogg. Price, 12s.) 

In these two volumes we find biographies of some of those men who have 
raised the professions of medicine and surgery to the high position which they 
occupy at the present time. We find accounts of Harvey and the Circulation 
of the Blood, Hunter and the application of Anatomy and Pathology to 
Surgery, Jenner and Vaccination, etc. The subjects are well chosen, and the 
books will be found instructive and entertaining, both to the medical professor 
and to the general reader. 



Master Minds in Art, Science, and Letters : A Book for 
Boys. By W. H. Davenport Adams. (London : John Hogg. Price, 4s.) 

The author has brought together in three groups men who have distin- 
guished themselves in the fields of Art, Science, and Letters — Reynolds, 
Constable, Turner, and Haydon ; Murchison, Faraday, and Darwin ; Sir 
Walter Scott, and Charles Kingsley ; and in telling their story has elucidated 
the principal features of their character, and the special distinction of their 
work. Tliis is one of the books that every boy should read. 



Post-Norman Britain : Foreign Influences upon the 
History of England from the Accession of Henry III. to the Revolution of 
1688. By Henry G. Hewlett. i2mo, pp. 323. (London : Society for Pro- 
moting Christian Knowledge. 1886. Price, 3s.) 

This is one of a series of volumes, published under the title of " Early 
Britain," andc ontains a sketch of the various influences derived from foreign 
sources, which contributed to modify and develop our national character down 
to the period when our modern History of England may be said to begin. 

Analysis of the Acts of the Apostles. By Lewis 
Vol. VI. F 



GQ REVIEWS. 

Hughes, B.A., Assistant-Master of Bath College. Parts I., II. Crown 
8vo, pp. 221 (Bath : Hallett. London : Hamilton, Adams, and Co. 1886. 
Price, 2s. 6d.) 

Chiefly intended for candidates preparing for the Oxford and Cambridge 
Local, and the College of Preceptors' Examinations. Mr. Hughes goes fully 
into the question of the Authorship of the Acts, the time and place of writing, 
the geography of the places mentioned. The book is divided into numbered 
sections, each section comprising a paragraph of the Acts, all difficult 
expressions being carefully explained. A coloured map shows the missionary 
journeys and last voyage of the Apostle Paul. We find no other map, 
although the title says " with maps." 



Four Thousand Germs of Thought. By Rev. W. White 

Andrew, M.A. Crown 8vo, pp. xxvii. — 286. Edited by Rev. Samuel Smith. 
(London : Nisbet and Co. 1886. Price, 3s. 6d.) 

The subjects of the Germs of Thought are arranged under various 
headings in alphabetical order — e.^., Acceptance, Adoption, Affliction, Alms- 
giving, etc., each being founded on certain texts of scripture. In addition, a 
list of the texts from which the Germs are extracted are given in the Index, 
and occupy no fewer than 20 pages of small type. 

Jack Hooper : His Adventures at Sea and in South Africa. 
By Verney Lovett Cameron, C.B., D.C. L., Commander in Royal Navy, etc. 
Crown 8vo, pp. 348. (London : Nelson and Sons. 1880. Price, 5s.) 

This is one of the most charming boy's books which we have read for a long 
time. Jack, who, with his fellow-apprentice, attempted a voyage in a leaky 
boat, was picked up when on the point of drowning by a gentleman going on 
a sporting expedition to South Africa. Here they hunted and shot Hons, 
tigers, hippopotami, etc. etc. He was taken prisoner in a battle with the 
Boers, but escaped and regained his friends, and on his voyage home was, with 
his friend and a young lion which he had tamed, deserted on a burning ship, 
from which he escaped on a raft. The story is of thrilling interest throughout. 
It is illustrated with 23 full-page plates. 

Changing Places ; or, Wilton Fairleigh in Animal Land. 
By Gertrude Jerdon. Crown 8vo, pp. 144. (London : S. W. Partridge 
and Co.) 

A most amusing tale, in which we are introduced to the Anthropological 
Gardens, kept by the animals in which men who have been cruel to animals 
are the exhibits. It is very nicely illustrated. 

Monsters of the Sea : Legendary and Authentic. By 
J. Gibson. Crown 8vo, pp. 138. (London : T. Nelson and Sons. 1887. 
Price, IS. 6d.) 

Gives a nice account of some of the strange sea animals, such as the 
Octopus, the Squid, Cuttle fishes, etc. ; in addition, such information as is 
known of Sea-Serpents, etc. It is well illustrated. 

Queer Little Folks. By Harriet Beecher Stowe. Crown 
8vo, pp. 122. 

A Dog's Mission ; or, the Story of the Old Audrey House. 
By Harriet Beecher Stowe. Crown 8vo, pp. 146. 



REVIEWS. 67 

Our Dogs and other Stories. By Harriet Beecher 
'Stowe. Crown 8vo, pp. 123. (London, Edinburgh, and New York : 
T. Nelson and Sons. 1S86 — 7. Price, is. each.) 

These are very excellent books for young people. The stories are well 
told, and cannot fail to afford both interest and instruction. The illustrations 
are good, and being in outline are well suited for colouring by the young artist 
after reading the books. 

Birdie and Her Dog. By E. C. Phillips. With other 
Stories of Canine Sagacity. Crown 8vo, pp. 96. (London : S. W. Part- 
ridge and Co. Price, is.) 

A story of much interest, showing the strong affection and sagacity of the 
dog. Our young friends will read this book with much pleasure. The 
illustrations are numerous and very pleasing. 



The Handy Dictionary of Cookery, containing about 
500 valuable Receipts. By Mary A. Everard. Crown Svo, pp. 195. (London : 
Jas. Nisbet and Co. Price, 2s. 6d.) 

Mrs. Everard endeavours here to show how cookery may be made easy. 
The recipes are given as simply, clearly, and in as few words as possible. The 
different dishes are arranged in alphabetical order for easy reference. 

Three Courses for Threepence : A Series of Lessons on 
Cottage Cookery, with Appendix on Self-supporting Cookery Classes. By 
J. R. Richmond. Preface by E. Crewys Sharland. i2mo, pp. 60. (London: 
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 1886. Price, 4d.) 

We feel that we can strongly commend this little book to the notice of our 
readers. The illustrations are simple and concise, and the dishes appear very 
palatable. 

The Boys' and Girls' Companion : An Illustrated Maga- 
zine for Boys and Girls. Crown 4to, pp. 192. (Price, is. 6d., 2s.) 

The Boys' and Girls' Picture Book. 4to, pp. 96. 

(London : Church of England Sunday School Institute. 1886. Price, is. 6d., 
2S.) 

The first is the annual volume of the Boys' and Girls' Companion, pub- 
lished monthly during 1886. The second is a very entertaining reading book 
for very little children. Both are bound in gaily coloured picture-boards, and 
both are splendid books for the little ones. 



Every Boy's Annual. Edited by Edmund Routledge, 
F.R.G.S. Crown 4to, pp. 570. (London: Geo. Routledge and Sons. 1887.) 

A book which cannot fail to please the boys, as it abounds in tales of 
exciting adventure, historical scenes, and a series of papers on the Electric 
Telegraph. There are a lot of good illustrations. 



Young England : An Illustrated Magazine for Recreation 
and Instruction. 4to, pp. 572. (London : 56, and 60, Old Bailey. Price, 5s.) 

"Young England" is one of those weekly magazines which we cannot 
recommend too strongly to our young friends ; the tales are of thrilling 
interest, in addition to which we notice a series of papers, " Out Among the 
-Flowers," by our friend, Mr. H. W. S. Worsley-Benison ; a series of science 



68 REVIEWS. 

chats ; a number of prize competitions, etc. etc. We heartily commend the 
book. 

The Boys' Own Treasury of Sports and Pastimes. By 
Rev. J. G. Wood, J. H. Pepper, C. H. Bennett, T. Miller, and others, with 
upwards of 400 illustrations. Foolscap 8vo, pp. 626. (London : Geo. 
Routledge and Sons. Price, 3s. 6d.) 

Boys of the present day appear to be well cared for. The book before us- 
abounds in games and fun of every description, including the keeping of pet 
animals, Pigeons, Domestic Fowls, British Song and Talking Birds, etc. ; and 
when sent out under the authorship of such names as we find on the title page, 
we feel that we can safely ofier it to all our young friends. 



Hand-Book of Mineralogy : Determination, Description, 
and Classification of Minerals found in the United States. By J. C. 
Foye, A.M., Ph.D. i8mo, pp. 180. (New York : D. Van Nostrand. 1886.) 

A useful little book for students commencing Mineralogy ; the working 
directions and descriptions are clear and concise. At the end will be found 
tables, in which the species are arranged according to their chemical com- 
position. 



Platinotype. By Captain Pizzighelli and Baron A. Hubl. 
Translated by the late J. F. Iselin, M.A., and edited by Captain W. 
da W. Abney, R.E., F.R.S. Crown 8vo, pp. 63. (London: Harrison and 
Sons. 1886. Price, 2s.) 

Owing to the growing popularity of the Platinotype process the work before 
us has been reprinted from the Photograpliic Jozirnal, where it appeared a 
year or two ago. Amongst other subjects it treats of the Theory of the 
process, the Production of the Platinum Image, Salts of Iron and Platinum, 
Development of the Platinum Image, Practical Details of the Process, etc. etc. 
In certain cases the Platinum process undoubtedly offers advantages which 
cannot be gained by the silver process, and we make no doubt many of our 
photographic friends will be glad of the opportunity of reading it up. 



The Cambridge Examiner. Vol. VI., No. 9. November^ 

1886. (London : Swan Sonnenschein and Co. Price, 6d. monthly.) 

Contains questions on Religious Knowledge, Geography, English, Roman, 
Greek, French, and Constitutional History ; English Language, Grammar, 
and Literature ; Latin, Greek, French, German ; Arithmetic, Geometry, 
Algebra, and Higher Mathematics; Science, Logic; Theory and Practice of 
Education, etc. Suitable for students preparing for the various Junior and 
Senior Examinations of Oxford, Cambridge, and London. 



Monographs on Education : The Study of Latin. By 

E. P. Morris. Post 8vo, pp. 27. Modern Petography. By Geo. Huntington 
Williams, pp. 35. (Boston, U.S.A. : D. C. Heath and Co. 1886.) 

These Monographs appear in a very convenient and compact form ; they 
are prepared by specialists, and will be found choice in matter, practical in 
treatment, and of great value to the teachers. These Monographs will shortly 
be followed by others on Mathematical Teaching, and How to Teach Reading,, 
the price being 25c. each. 




THE JOURNAL OF MICROSCOPY 

AND 

NATURAL SCIENCE : 

the journal of 
The Postal Microscopical Society. 



APRIL, 1887. 



CrietatcUa HDucebo. 

By Richard H. Moore. 



Plates 8, 9, 10. 



'^^vt^S^ 



B^ 


^' 


ran| 


B^ 


h 


f^L 


P 


1 


'Wi 


Wl 


^1 



N no department of microscopy is there so much 

that is interesting as in the multitudinous forms 

of marine and fresh-water life. In one of the 

basins of the canal which flows through Bath 

I have been fortunate enough lately to capture 

specimens of Phcmatella repens and CristateUa 

imicedo, either of which would furnish abundant 

materials for an interesting paper; and in the 

following pages I venture to invite my brother 

microscopists to a consideration of the latter. While angling last 

summer, I brought to shore a root of an aquatic weed, and 

noticing round its stem a gelatinous mass I carried it home for 

Vol. VI. F 




66 CRISTATELLA MUCEDO. 

future observation. Placing it in a zoophyte trough, I was 
rewarded by a magnificent sight of snowy crests and waving 
tentacles, which afforded me many a pleasant hour in watching its 
movements and learning its history. It was purely an accidental 
capture ; but I felt more convinced than before that, live where 
we may, we have lying all around us ample resources for 
microscopical study : — 

"Where the pool 

Stands mantled o'er with green — invisible 

Amid the floating verdure millions stray ; 

These concealed, 

By the kind art of forming Heaven, escape 

The grosser eyes of man." 

The poet, with his " grosser " allusions, has committed whole- 
sale slaughter among microscopists. Some unaided eyes, no 
doubt, see a great deal more in Nature's cryptic stores than even 
some microscopical observers ; but when, in addition to the 
trained organs of natural vision, we possess, and can skilfully use, 
a phalanx of delicately-formed glasses to reveal the beauties of 
an unseen world, full of Nature's artistic embellishment, which of 
us would not feel traduced by the " grosser " hints of the poet's 
muse? 

Cristatella mucedo belongs to the large sub-kingdom of the 
MoLLUSCA, of which there are two divisions : — the Mollusca 
proper, and the Molluscoida. In the former division the 
nervous system consists of three principal pairs of ganglia, with a 
well-developed heart of at least two chambers, as,/.^., in the class 
Gasteropoda, which includes the Snail and the Whelk. Crista- 
tella, however, belongs to the Molluscoida, in which the heart is 
either imperfect or absent, and in which the nervous system 
consists either of a single ganglion, or of one pair with accessory 
ganglia. The Molluscoida until lately were divided into three 
classes: — the Polyzoa or Bryozoa ; the Ttmicata or Ascidioida; 
and the Brachiopoda. The latter two are always marine, while 
the Polyzoa comprise both marine and fresh-water species ; and 
Cristatella mucedo, with which we are now concerned; is one of 
the latter. 



CRISTATELLA MUCEDO. 67 

Bearing in mind, then, that Cristatella is placed in the 
'^ Folyzoa" class of the "Molluscoida" division, it will be well 
perhaps to draw attention first to the points of difference between 
the Polyzoa and the other two classes. The true position of 
the Brachiopoda, which are inclosed in a bivalve shell, seems at 
present to be doubtful. In the later researches of Professor 
Allman, as embodied in his monograph of fresh-water Polyzoa, he 
does not agree with Huxley in considering that certain similarities 
of structure with the Polyzoa are of sufficient importance to 
include them in that group, as they have a much nearer relation- 
ship to the true Mollusca. But between the Twiicata and the 
Polyzoa there is considerable resemblance, for the Tufiicata 
(which includes the Ascidians and the Salpse), like the Polyzoa, 
inhabit a double-walled sac, yet there are two great distinctions 
between these classes, ist. — The Polyzoa are entirely destitute of 
heart and blood vessels, the fluid within the perivisceral cavity 
being clear and colourless, and being kept constantly in motion 
by internal cilia ; while the Tunicata, on the other hand, have a 
distinct though imperfect heart, and the sac-walls are lined with a 
complete system of blood-vessels. This heart, or circulatory 
apparatus, differs from that of all other animals in that it is 
entirely destitute of valves, being a simple tube, beating with 
measured pulsations that drive the blood first through one end 
and then through the other, so reversing the currents alternately. 
2nd. — The Polyzoa are distinguished from the Tunicata, inas- 
much as the alimentary canal can be protruded and withdrawn by 
the processes of evagination and invagination. The mouth, with 
its ciliated tentacula, rises from the body of the creature and unfolds 
itself in one of the most beautiful forms of animal inflorescence. 
Whether it be Plumatella or Cristatella, nothing can exceed the 
beauty of the long, waving, silver-like tentacles, with their rapidly 
vibrating, almost indistinguishable, cilia, especially when viewed 
under a spot-lens with good illuminating power. The Tunicata, 
on the contrary, have no means of protrusion, their movements 
being wholly carried on within the sac-walls. These two points of 
variation are well shown in the accompanying diagrams (PI. VIII., 
Figs. 3 — 5), which has been copied from a drawing in Professor 
AUman's well-known monograph on the Polyzoa. In Fig. 3, the 



68 CRISTATELLA MUCEDO. 

anatomy of an exserted Polyzoon is shown ; in Fig. 4 the same 
retracted ; while Fig. 5 is the typical form of Timicata, with its 
extraordinary respiratory apparatus, marked G. This consists of a 
membranous sac, with transverse and longitudinal bars, crossing 
each other and forming a series of quadrangular apertures, around 
the interior of which vibratile cilia are placed. At V., the 
imperfect, heart-like structure is found, and the respiratory organ 
is connected with it by a system of vessels which bring the blood 
to the sac for aeration. According to Allman, this respiratory sac 
is homologous with the tentacular crown of the Polyzoa (A., Fig. 3). 
He considers that the transverse, and not the longitudinal bars 
are homologous to the tentacles of the latter. The Polyzoa are 
destitute of blood, but its place is supplied by a fluid which fills 
the whole of the perigastric space, and which extends into the 
tentacula, having irregularly-shaped particles of matter floating 
within it. This fluid assumes a constant rotatory motion, pro- 
bably caused by the internal cilia which are supposed to clothe the 
sac-walls. No apertures for the absorption of the watery fluid 
have yet been discovered, and Allman states that he has kept 
Cristatella for many hours in carminated water without detecting 
any carmine particles within the perigastric space. He is never- 
theless of opinion that the interior fluid is purely aqueous, and 
that by some undetected orifices the water finds an entrance. 
When there, it serves the triple purpose of a chyliferous, a sangui- 
ferous, and a respiratory system. 

Having, thus briefly, endeavoured to show the important 
differences in the two classes of Molhiscoida, I shall now confine 
myself to the Polyzoa, or Bryozoa, which latter name originates 
from the Greek " Bryon " — moss, and " Zoon," an animal ; the 
habit of many of this class being to incrust foreign bodies like 
moss. According to Professor Allman, the Polyzoa are divided 
into two orders : ist, the ^^ Phylaciolcemata" or "throat-guarded," 
so called from a curious valve of a protective nature, which 
guards the mouth of the creature, and is situated in the crater of 
the tentacular crown ; and 2nd, the " Gymnola;mata" or "naked- 
throated," where no such appendage exists. The first order 
includes all the Fresh-water species excepting Paludkclla, but 
none of the marine except Pedicellifia. The 2nd order is made up 



CRISTATELLA MUCEDO. C9 

of species which are mostly marine. The first order, in which 
Cristatella is found, has also been named Hippocrepia^ by reason 
of the tentacular crown being, as the name implies, of a horse-shoe 
shape ; the second order is sometimes named Infimdibulata, be- 
cause the tentacular crown is " funnel-shaped." By much the largest 
share of attention has been given to the marine species of the 
second order. Books treat largely of them and prepared slides 
are abundant, but Professor AUman, by the pubhcation of his 
Monograph, in 1856, has given a stimulus to researches among 
our fresh-water species ; and by a careful study of this work, 
accompanied by exploration in suitable localities, anyone will now 
be able to add considerably to his own knowledge of the depart- 
ment now under consideration. Our esteemed ex-president, Mr. 
Morris, F.L.S., possesses some slides of great beauty illustrative of 
the marine class of Polyzoa, the organisms having been killed 
with tentacles fully expanded ; and such slides are of great value. 
It will be interesting to experiment in a similar way upon 
specimens of the order in which Phunaiella and Cristatella are 
placed, so that it may be seen whether the expansions of the 
lophophores, or tentacular crowns, are capable of preservation. 
It is possible that as the branch-like expansion in a Plumatella is of 
a somewhat dense, tough material, the open tentacles may be 
permanently secured ; but during last summer I failed entirely to 
preserve any expanded specimens of the Cristatella mucedo ; and I 
fear this is an impossible achievement owing to the gelatinous 
character of the sac-walls in which these lovely creatures exist. I 
have copied from Allman's Monograph (see Plate X.) a drawing 
of a colony of Cristatella as they appear in the height of summer, 
clasping with moss-like tenacity the stems of aquatic plants. I 
have always, myself, found them in the deeper water, although the 
writer of a paper in Vol. II. of the " Popular Science Review " 
advises that, in searching for adult specimens of Cristatella, you 
must lie down flat on the bank, carefully remove the floating algae, 
and with your eyes close to the surface of the water scan the 
submerged plants as they grow " in situ," and so secure the 
specimens. The study of natural history does undoubtedly 
compel an ardent student to practise all sorts of strange devices 
in capturing his prizes, and the writer of this paper evidently feels 



70 CMSTATELLA MUCEDO. 

for such of his readers as take his advice, since he quotes from 
the " Ingoldsby Legends " to try and comfort those who suffer 
annoyance in their pursuits from the vulgar stare of unconcerned 
onlookers. The hero is there described as one who 
" Would pore by the hour 
O'er a weed or a flower, 
Or the slugs that come crawling out after a shower ; 
Still poking his nose, into this thing or that, 
At a gnat, or a bat, or a cat, or a rat. 
Or ugly great things, 
All legs or wings, 
With nasty long tails arm'd with nasty long stings." 
But I can assure my readers that nothing of the kind need be 
indulged in, for I have made very successful hauls of Cristatdla 
by drawing the weeds from the water at the end of an ordinary 
fishing-line. The gelatinous colony is soon recognised, and you 
have only to bottle it and carry it home for quiet examination 
with the microscope. The drawing from Allman (Plate X.) is a 
very truthful representation of the colony as seen in the height of 
summer, attached to a spray of Ranunculus aquatilis. Drawn 
from the water, the weeds are anything but attractive : the debris 
of decaying vegetation often covers them^ and gives a rusty-brown 
appearance ; but microscopists know well that within the bosom 
of these unattractive, dirty-looking plants, marvellous life is 
hidden, and as we run our eyes over them here and there the 
colonies of Cristatella are manifested by the slimy, glutinous 
masses encircling the stems. Place one of these beneath the 
glass, adapt the spot-lens, and throw a strong light upon it. A 
world of beauty will soon unfold itself to view. These Cristatella; 
are the least shy of all their family. A Plumatella you must leave 
sometimes for hours before it will venture cautiously to unfold its 
• tentacula, and the slightest tap upon the stage Avill suffice to 
make it snatch them back into their mysterious home ; but 
Cristatella loves the light, and almost as soon as one can arrange 
the glass it floats across the field its snowy, pearl-like arms, and all 
the water is moved in gentle currents before their enchanting 
sway. It is life, curious and mysterious, fulfilling its proper 
destiny subject to Nature's laws. These wonderful creatures 



CRISTATELLA MUCEDO. 71 

" Enjoy and live like man, 

And the minutest throb 
That through their frame diffuses 

The slightest, faintest motion 

Is fixed and indispensable, 

As the majestic laws 

That rule yon rolling orbs." 
The colony, or " coencecium," (to use the proper term, 
signifying "common house,") is not stationary. Unlike some 
other species it can shift its locality. The whole mass is 
oval, with a convex upper surface studded with apertures, 
through which the beautiful zooids protrude. They inhabit the 
outer margin of the coenoecium in three regular concentric series 
of apertures, alternating one with another; the interior oval 
space is devoid of orifices. This description is according to 
Allman, and its features can be tolerably well seen in the drawing, 
copied from his splendid monograph. The under surface of the 
coenoecium is stated to be well adapted for the purpose of 
locomotion, resembling in its central portion the foot of a 
gasteropodous mollusc. From the longitudinal disc or foot, 
which is contractile, a large flattened margin extends beyond the 
external series of orifices ; and a regular arrangement of tubes 
can be seen within the outer membrane, but having no external 
openings. Towards the end of the season the central upper 
portion of the coenoecium is studded with dark circular bodies ; 
these are the " statoblasts," which are destined to form the 
colonies of the succeeding season, and which have been observed 
only in Cristatella and one other species. They are orbicular, 
the central portion being surrounded with an annulus of hexagonal 
cells. The interior and thicker orbicular part is of a rich reddish 
brown, decorated with dark spots, while the annulus is of a 
yellowish tinge. In its earlier stages it is surrounded with cilia, 
afterwards with a membrane; but between the junction of the 
annulus and the central disc there subsequently grows a number 
of barbed organs, which lengthen beyond the annulus, and 
eventually tear up and destroy the outer membrane. No orifice 
has been discovered in the parent animal by which these 
statoblasts are expelled, and it is presumed on very good evidence 



/2 CRISTATELLA MUCEDO. 

that they are closely confined within the coencecium until the end 
of the autumn, when the whole colony breaks up and perishes. 
The liberated statoblasts are then free either to float upon the 
surface of the water, or, by their extraordinary grappling-iron-like 
threads, to attach themselves to the water-weeds in their locality. 
These statoblasts are themselves beautiful microscopical objects, 
and I have copied their appearance in two positions from 
Professor Allman's monograjDh (Plate X., Figs. 3, 4). 

While none of the parent animals are ever found during the 
winter months, the statoblasts weather through the cold and icy 
days to welcome the spring sunshine — caskets of beauty, ready 
to open their valves for the discharge of the creature which grows 
into the colony of the succeeding summer. 

They come — 

" From every chink and secret corner. 
Where they slept away the wintry storms." 
On the 12th April, 1879, I found one of these embryo colonies of 
Cristatella and the empty valves of the statoblast beside it. It 
had an irregularly, pear-shaped cyst, with two orifices, through 
which two lophophores protruded, and for several days I had the 
pleasure of watching its beautiful movements. It soon died, 
however, in the zoophyte trough; but on May ist another 
appeared, although I had not the good fortune to observe the 
process of emission. This specimen was particularly active, 
adhering to the glass slide; it continually changed its shape, and 
protruded and withdrew its tentacles, now half unfolded, now in 
full expansion. In two of its stages I made drawings under the 
tinted reflector (PI. IX., Figs, i, 2); and although in the "Micro- 
graphic Dictionary " the youthful creature is portrayed in all the 
symmetry of artistic propriety, my interesting guest never once 
appeared in so proper an attitude. I expected to see the juvenile 
Cristatella as described in the " Dictionary," and in Rymer 
Jones's "General Structure of the Animal Kingdom," the one 
drawing being evidently copied from the other; but instead of this 
perfection of symmetry, my specimens assumed forms quite 
different. In the drawings referred to it will be noticed that the 
statoblast has divided from the apex to the base across the centre 
of the structure. This, I think, must be an error, as Professor 



CRISTATELLA MUCEDO. 73 

Allman distinctly states that the young Cristatella emerges from 
between the two discs, and that it may frequently be seen with 
the separated valves clinging to its sac. I have had several 
dozen statoblasts in the aquarium during the winter, and the 
valves in spring separated as described by Allman : I have 
detected but one that was fractured across the disc, and probably 
this had been the prey of some hungry larva. 

The ccenoecium of the Polyzoa has two distinct membranes : — 
the interior or " endocyst," and the exterior or '^' ectocyst." In 
Cristatella, however, the " ectocyst " is entirely absent, the whole 
ccenoecium consisting of an " endocyst " only, which presents 
below the curious foot-like appendage already referred to. Owing 
to the invaginating properties of the endocyst, this inner mem- 
brane is highly contractile at its upper extremity, but becomes 
thinner and less contractile towards the base. The ectocyst, 
when present, is composed of a tough, brown membrane, and in 
many of the genera it is additionally strengthened by the 
adhesion of siliceous and earthy deposits ; this naturally obscures 
the microscopical investigation of many of the Polyzoa. The 
anatomy of these investing sacs is fully described by Allman, and 
one of the most interesting portions of his monograph treats of 
his histological researches into these portions of Polyzoon life. 
In the genus Lophopiis the endocyst is composed of irregularly 
shaped cells, filled with a transparent fluid, and containing nuclei 
and nucleoli imbedded in the cell-walls : the whole of the interior 
of the endocyst he has found to be lined with a system of minute 
canals, and also by a network of fibres, which he has separated 
from the sac-wall in a continuous layer. 

The production and development of the statoblasts is, how- 
ever, but one method of reproduction, and is confined to the 
winter stages of this interesting creature. All the fresh-water 
Polyzoa, according to Allman, have a sexual and a non-sexual 
reproduction ; and he considers that three methods are distinctly 
observable. ist— The sexual, by means of testes and ova 
discerned by himself in the pericardial cavity. 2nd — The non- 
sexual, by gemmse ; and 3rd — The non-sexual, by statoblasts 
already described. As the statoblasts are destitute of germinal 
properties, he considers them to be only a variation of budding or 



74 CRISTATELLA MUCEDO. 

germination, — the bud being enclosed in the curious but beautiful 
cyst. We have an analogy to this in the pupa state of some 
insects, in both cases the animal remaining quiescent through the 
winter periods. The reproduction through sexual organs, already 
referred to in sketching the plan of the Polyzoa, has received a 
large share of attention from the Professor. He says that the testis 
and ovary are both found within the sac-walls during the months 
of July and August, and that on the rupture of the testis the 
spermatozoa float within the perigastric space. They are thread- 
like bodies in many of the species without any enlargement at 
either extremity ; and floating about with a sinuous motion, they 
■ thus are brought into contact with the ovary. Some of the 
species, however, have spermatozoa with a thickened extremity. 
The subsequent development is carried on within the perigastric 
cavity, and eventually it is perfected as a pyriform polypede, 
swimming merrily with rapidly vibrating cilia through the parent 
cavity. How it emerges from the sac is a matter difficult to 
determine, no orifice for its escape having been yet discovered. 
The second method of reproduction is by gemmse, or buds, which 
grow from the endocyst through the exterior surface of the 
coenoecium. These appear at first as small tubercles on the 
exterior surface, filled with granular matter. The tubercle 
lengthens and expands, and is in its next stage covered with a 
thick outer membrane continuous with the ectocyst of the parent 
cell, and having an internal fleshy lining continuous with the 
endocyst. This latter is full of large, nucleated cells, and the two 
sacs become the ectocyst and endocyst of the future polypede. 
The structure gradually developes ; the lophophore, retractor, and 
general muscles are presently formed ; the oesophagus, stomach, 
and intestine become soon distinguishable ; but all through this 
development the future polypede derives all its nutriment from 
the parent colony. In a little while, however, the process of 
evagination and invagination is completed, the tentacular crown is 
perfected, and the young animal then supports its own existence 
from the outer world. The Cristatellidcc produce their gemmae 
from points on the sides of the previously existing cells ; there is 
no branch formation, and the colony expands itself upon the 
surface of the disc, which has been already described, forming 



CRISTATELLA MUCEDO. 75 

three concentric rows studded with polypedes. 

We have to consider, thirdly, the non-sexual reproduction by 
statoblasts. Those of Cristatella I have already fully described. In 
the Polyzoa reproduction commences from a swelling first seen on 
the funiculus, or cord, by which the testis is united to the stomach, 
and to the endocyst at the bottom of the sac. This swelling 
increases, becomes oval, and is filled with granular matter, which 
soon developes into minute cells. An external covering is then 
apparent, also cellular ; and very soon the interior cell and the 
newly-formed ring, or annulus, around it becomes too opaque to 
observe the changes subsequently wrought. The interior cell 
becomes of a dark brown, and the annulus of a yellow colour ; 
while the latter is seen to be composed of large hexagonal cells, 
filled with air. After a time the perfected statoblast separates 
itself from the funiculus, and falls into the perigastric space, 
where it remains until the breaking-up of the coenoecium sets it 
free. The large cells of the annulus being filled with air, allow it 
then to float among the submerged plants, or to swim freely upon 
the surface of the water. 

Still another method of reproduction occurs, which Professor 
Allman treats of under the head of gemmation. \x\ this case 
masses of buds are developed, and a division at certain points 
occurs in the whole colony. A constriction may be observed in 
the coenoecium, which gradually extends until the colony is divided 
into two portions, and these move away in opposite directions. The 
sexual and non-sexual reproduction of the Polyzoa has brought 
this class within the law of "Alternation of generations," and as 
Professor Allman's excellent work on the " Fresh-water Polyzoa " 
is not easily accessible, and as his descriptions cannot well be 
condensed, I quote from it verbatim : — 

" We have, first, as the immediate result of the development 
of the ovum, a ciliated, sac-like embryo, resembUng in form and 
habit an infusorial animalcule. It is a non-sexual zooid. From 
this is produced subsequently, by a process of gemmation, ano- 
ther form of zooid, namely — the polypede, with a much more 
highly-differentiated structure, in which the organs of digestion 
especially hold a dominant position, and which we may regard as 
sexual or non-sexual, according to the view we take of the relation 



76 CRISTATELLA MUCEDO. 

between it and the testis, as will presently be seen. Now, if the 
formation of the ovary be attended to, it will be seen that this 
body is developed at a late period from the walls of the original, 
sac-like embryo, which have undergone slight changes, and have 
become the endocyst of the more mature Polyzoon, and it will at 
once be perceived that this development of the ovary takes place 
in a way which may obviously be compared with the formation of 
a bud ; that at least in Alcyonella it occupies exactly the position 
in certain cells that the buds destined to become polypedes do in 
others ; and that at an early stage of polypede and ovary it is 
scarcely possible to distinguish one from the other, so that the 
idea is immediately suggested that the body here called the ovary 
is itself a distinct zooid, in which the whole organisation becomes 
so completely subordinate to the reproductive function as to be 
entirely masked and apparently replaced by the generative organs. 
This would then constitute a third zooid, which would therefore 
be a sexual zooid ; it is, however, unisexual (female). 

" In the next place, we find that upon the funiculus (in Alcyo- 
nella), which probably belongs rather to the polypede than the 
endocyst, there is developed the mass here described as testis. 
Now, if we view this mass as a mere organ of the polypede, we 
must then regard the latter as the second sexual or male zooid, 
but the testis may perhaps be more correctly considered, hke the 
ovary, as a distinct sexual bud, having the generative system so 
enormously predominant as to overrule and replace all the rest of 
the organisation, this bud, like the ovary, being also uni-sexual, but 
with a male function. In confirmation of this view, it is to be 
remembered that the funiculus has the power of giving origin to a 
very remarkable form of undoubted bud — the statoblast — which 
until ulterior development is excited in it has no nearer resem- 
blance to an ordinary polypede bud than the testicular mass has ; 
and to this statoblast — in so far, at least, as position is concerned — 
the male bud or testis in Alcyonella would therefore be related 
just as the female bud or ovary is related to an ordinary polypede 
bud. In Paludicella the testis, though in immediate connection 
with the funiculus, is developed apparently from the endocyst. 

" If the above be the correct view, the complete comprehen- 
sion of the Polyzoon will involve the conception of a ciHated, 



CRISTATELLA MUCEDO. 77 

sac-like embryo as a starting-point, and a series of buds, of which 
the last term will consist of a pair of sexual buds, the others 
being non-sexual. From the sexual buds a true embryo, Uke the 
first, is again produced, which affords the point of departure for 
another similar cycle." 

For my own part, I must confess that this doctrine of "alter- 
nation of generations " appears to be very ingenious, but yet may 
not be true. It depends upon starting with a perfect^ unisexual 
zooid. Is it perfect ? Is it not rather an imperfect polypede, 
confined within the coenoecium until it has reached maturity, with 
digestive and generative organs all complete, and not till then 
liberated into the outer world ? True, the earlier zooid is an 
apparejitly perfect creature, vibrating its cilia and swimming with 
rapid movements through the perigastric space ; but then it does 
not leave the parent cell until it has reached the perfection of 
reproductive faculties. The whole of this interesting question 
resolves itself into the true conception of the so-called unisexual 
zooids. If in their extremely minute and consequently undis- 
covered anatomy they contain the elements of generative organs 
too minute to be discovered by the most powerful glasses, does 
not the whole of this system of alternation of generations fall to 
the ground ? 

In conclusion, while this paper has dwelt largely upon the one 
particular family of Cristatella, it has necessarily included also the 
chief features of the class Polyzoa. Anyone who studies the 
monograph of Professor AUman must be impressed with the very 
small portion of it which refers especially to the beautiful family 
of the Cristatellidce. With the exception oi Pedinatella, the stato- 
blast of this family is unique. The family is also unique in 
being devoid of ectocyst, or outer sac. It possesses a peculiar 
under surface, which distinguishes it in a remarkable degree from 
the other families, and which imparts to it the unique faculty of 
locomotion, and, so far as I can gather, the reproductive faculties 
of the family (which contains only one genus, Cristatella miicedo) 
are only to be conjectured from the development of other fami- 
lies. If it does produce polypedes by the resulting spermatozooids 
of testis and ovary, at what stage of the parent life are they pro- 
duced? None have been found in the winter months, and 



78 CRISTATELLA MUCEDO. 

Professor AUman states that the colony is strictly annual. These 
are enquiries which open up large fields of research in one of the 
most beautiful and attractive branches of microscopic study. 
Here alone is summer and autumn occupation for ardent micro- 
scopists. The snowy crests of the Cristatella, their sweeping 
tentacles, and vibrating cilia, will charm the eye of student or 
non-student alike for many an hour. Its beauty of form only will 
captivate the latter, but to the former belongs the additional plea- 
sure of histological research and of tracing its wonderful Hfe- 
history. 

" Here, to charm the curious eye, 
A host of hidden treasures lie ! 
A microscopic world that tells 
That not alone in trees and flowers 
The spirit bright of beauty dwells ; 
That not alone in lofty bowers 
The mighty hand of God is seen ; 
But, more triumphant still, in things men 
count as mean." 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES VIII., IX., X. 



Plate VIIL 

Fig. 1. — Paludicella Ehrenbergi. 

,, 2. — Alcyonella fimgosa. a, ovary; b, testis; c, funiculus; d, 
spermatozoa. 

,, 3 — 4. Plan of Polyzon, exserted in Fig. 3, retracted in 
Fig. 4. a, moutli and tentacles ; b, alimentary canal ; c, anus ; 
d, nervous ganglion ; e, membranous sac ; /, testis ; /', ovary ; g, 
retractor muscle. 

,, 5. — Plan of Ascidian Tunicate, a, external tunic ; b, middle 
tunic ; c, internal tunic ; e, respiratory orifice ; g, transverse 
respiratory bars ; /i, longitudinal respiratory bars; n, mouth; 
0, oesophagus ; p, stomach ; g, intestine ; r, anus ; t, tentacula ; 
u, ganglion ; v, heart. 

Plate IX. 

Fig. 1. — Young Cristatella, just hatched. 
,, 2. — Subsequent growth of same. 



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THE EVOLUTION OF THE EYE. 79 

Plate X. 
Fig, 1. — A Colony of Cristatella, highly magnified. 
,, 2. — The same, slightly magnified. 
,, 3.— Statoblast, front view. 
,, 4. — Ditto, side view. 

Plates VIII. and X. are after drawings by Prof. Allman. 
Plate IX. is drawn by R. H. Moore, from specimens in his aquarium. 



©n some Curioua facts conncctcb witb the 
jevolution of tbe iB^c. 

By Mrs. Bodington. 



* 



SINCE DARWIN first clearly laid down the great laws which 
govern evolution, hundreds of zealous disciples have worked 
at the problem of which the great master had found the key. 
I am old enough to remember that most of the facts in zoology 
which were considered special stumbling blocks in accepting the 
theory of evolution, proved special triumphs from the attention 
which they drew. Amongst other objections, it was said, that if 
horses had been evolved, a five-toed form must have existed, and 
the five-toed form has been found ; that marsupials must have 
been specially created for the regions where they are found — viz., 
Australia and South America — yet behold, marsupials were 
found amongst the earliest known fossil mammals in Europe. In 
the same way, many things, which the prophetic eye of the great 
master saw would be found out as to evolution, were specially 
ridiculed. That mammary glands would be found to be modifica- 
tions of sebaceous glands, and that eyes would be found to 
originate from modifications of epidermal cells, were among those 
prophetic utterances which all recent researches prove to have 
been true. 

I only propose to take a very small portion of the great subject 
of evolution to-night — viz., a few curious facts relating to the 
evolution of the eye. They will, I hope, illustrate the importance 
of both the great branches into which zoology tends to divide — 

* Paper read at a meeting of the County of Middlesex Natural History 
Society, December 2ist, i8S6. 



80 SOME CURIOUS FACTS CONNECTED WITH 

namely, phylogeny (or the tribal descent of animals), revealed by 
embryology aided by palseontology, and the discovery of archaic 
surviving forms. The other great branch of the science — also of 
surpassing interest — deals with the modifications of organs by use 
and disuse. 

I will first deal with the modifications of organs by use and 
disuse. These modifications are profound, and are, perhaps, 
more striking in animals of parasitical habits than in many others. 

Semper gives the following description of Sacadi?ia and other 
Cirripedes, degenerate crustaceans of parasitical habits : — 

"As a rule, almost without exception, the larvae of parasites 
move about freely in water. During this stage the larvae are 
usually high in the scale of structure. Those of the parasitical 
Cirripedia —iox instance, Sacculina — have, in what is known as 
their Nauplius form, external organs of locomotion of a compli- 
cated character, a muscular system of the Crustacean type, a well- 
developed intestinal canal, and usually have special organs of 
sense — eyes. Gradually, this Nauplius, after attaching itself to the 
tail of a crab, loses its organs of locomotion, the greater part of 
its muscular and nervous system, its organs of sense — including, 
of course, the eye— and often its mouth, stomach, and intestinal 
canal. The lively crab-like larva is transformed into a shapeless 
sac, exhibiting no trace by which its crab-like nature can be 
recognised. 

Animals adopting a sedentary mode of life tend also to lose 
their sense organs, and especially their eyes. The free-swimming 
Nauplius, of the sessile Cirripedia, developes six pairs of strong 
swimming feet and a pair of composite eyes. When the Cirri- 
pede has settled down for life, " fixing itself on its head and 
kicking its food into its mouth," as Miss Buckley described it, it 
has no further use for its eyes. It is glued head downwards in its 
shell, and only the modified ends of the feet appear. 

The Ascidian larva possesses a median eye. Some Ascidians, 
or their near relations, as we know, kept their larval tail, and, as 
further history will show, their median eye, and developed into 
the ancestors of vertebrate animals. Others preferred a life 
without vicissitudes and danger, quietly anchored themselves, 
gave up their eyes and tails, and became little else than shapeless 



i 



THE EVOLUTION OF THE EYE. 81 

sacs. Which Ascidian was the wiser in his generation, I for one 
can hardly tell : whether a life in the sea, where one was fixed 
beyond the power of storms to move, and daily food came with 
every ocean current ; or the fierce struggle for existence, and cruel 
sufferings of the weak, which higher reason brings. 

An interesting history of tribal descent is shown in the eye of 
the Dibranchiate Molluscs, as compared with the eye of Nautilus. 
The eye of Nautilus is among the most interesting structures of 
that remarkable animal — a sole survivor of a long extinct species. 
No other animal so high in organisation has so simple an eye as 
that of Nautilus. When looked at from the surface, no metallic 
lustre, no transparent coverings, are seen. It is simply a slightly 
projecting hemispherical box like a kettle-drum, half an inch in 
diameter, and in the middle of the drum membrane is a minute 
hole. It was very naturally thought some membrane had covered 
this hole during life, and had been ruptured in the specimen 
studied by Owen. But further researches showed that this hole is 
a natural opening into the globe of the eye, which is accordingly 
filled with sea water during life. In short, of all the parts which 
in common parlance are called the eye, none exists in this most 
primitive optical apparatus, which is arranged to form an image on 
the principle of the " pin-hole " camera. There is no cornea and 
no lens, and the naked retina is bathed by sea water on one side, 
and on the other receives the fibres of the optic nerve. 

The most interesting consideration connected with this eye of 
Nautilus is this — that the elaborate lens-bearing eyes of the 
Dibranchiate Molluscs, such as the well-known cuttle-fish, pass 
through an embryonic stage of development, in which they have 
exactly the structure of the eye of Nautilus — namely, of simple 
open sacs. Such, too, is the structure of the eye in the limpet. 

I come now to one of the most recent and curious discoveries 
in the history of descent. As every zoologist knows, a special 
interest attaches to all transitional forms ; the most apparently 
insignificant animal becomes invested with the highest value, 
where it can be said to form a link between the different branches 
of the animal kingdom. The Ascidian, the lancelet, the mud-fish 
of Australia, are all examples in point. 

A learned professor is even now in New Zealand investigating 

Vol. VI. G 



82 SOME CURIOUS FACTS CONNECTED WITH 

the habits of a most insignificant looking worm-Uke animal, 
Feripatus, and in the Cambridge lecture rooms, this creature is 
the observed of all observers. Why ? Because in Feripatus is 
found a link between worms and arthropods. Hatter-ia, a lizard 
of very ancient type, has long possessed a similar interest, now 
intensified through the recent discovery which shows the unques- 
tionably invertebrate descent of this vertebrate animal. I will 
quote an extract on the subject from the Contemporary Review for 
October, premising that fully equal honour is due to the German, 
as to the English discoverer. The Englishman was simply bolder 
in publishing his discovery. 

" One genus alone is extant of the lizard-like reptiles known 
as RhyncJwcephalia (from their beak-like, horny mouths). This 
genus comprises only the Hatteria of New Zealand. Mr. Spencer, 
of Oxford, whilst engaged in studying the anatomy and histology 
of this animal, found a curious sense organ buried in the 
substance occupying the parietal foramen [the suture at the top, 
across the middle of the skull]. This sense organ was placed on 
what is known as the pineal body, the function of which has been 
hitherto unknown. This pineal body arises from the roof of the 
third ventricle [or fore brai?i of embryologists], and in both 
Amphibia and Reptilia becomes divided into two parts, one 
retaining connection with the brain, and the other, a bladder- 
shaped structure, which is usually completely separated from the 
former. In Angus fragilis [a degenerate lizard commonly known 
as the blind worm] this bladder-shaped structure resembles a 
highly-organised invertebrate eye, hut without afiy nerve. In 
Hatteria this portion also becomes an eye, but an eye provided 
with a 7iiell-marked nerve. This eye is simple, lying exactly in the 
middle line, under the parietal foramen, an aperture at the 
anterior end of the median suture of the parietal bones. A 
depression of the skin of the head occurs immediately over this 
parietal foramen, but does not lead down into this, which is filled 
up with a plug of connective tissue, which is specially dense 
round the capsule that envelopes the eye. The capsule is also 
filled up behind with connective tissue, in which a blood vessel, 
entering with the nerve, divides and ramifies. The nerve is single. 
It is palpably a well-constructed invertebrate eye — the eye of an 



THE EVOLUTION OF THE EYE. 83 

invertebrate animal buried in the skull of a vertebrate animal. 
As it lies in its capsule, looking upwards, the lens is first seen ; it 
forms the front boundary of a vesicle, the walls of which, starting 
from within outwards, are made up of a layer of rods, embedded 
in dark brown pigment, which is specially developed in front ; and 
a double or triple row of nuclei, succeeded by a clear layer, and 
followed by an outer layer of nuclei, composed of two or three 
rows. These are practically the elements of the invertebrate eye, 
and in their normal order. The relation of these parts in the eye 
of the vertebrate animal is the exact opposite of this ; the rods 
and cones being furthest from the cornea and from the light. 
This is explicable by their different mode of origin embryologically, 
but it establishes a complete difference between them. In this 
lizard we have at the top of the pineal body a distinct molluscoid 
or invertebrate eye." 

Now, as the pineal body is found in all the higher vertebrates 
including man, we have a convincing proof of the descent of the 
higher vertebrates from a form as low as that of the existing 
Ascidian larva, as foretold by Darwin. The pineal body in all its 
stages shows an interesting case of loss of function from disuse. 
More highly organised eyes have been formed in the higher 
animals, and the median eye has therefore become useless. We 
need not go beyond our own county of Middlesex to find 
animals with eyes becoming atrophied through disuse. It was long 
a question with naturalists whether the common mole is or is not 
blind. I have not got Frank Buckland's book by me, but I think 
it was he who says, with an airy contempt for strict scientific 
investigation, that the mole is not blind, because if you part its 
fur you can see its eyes. Let me quote Semper again, and find 
out the real state of the case. 

He (Semper) says : — " This animal, whose peculiar habits are 
known to everyone, has true eyes, from which none of the 
essential parts of the eyes of Vertebrata are absent, although these 
parts are all of the simplest, almost of embryonic structure. The 
whole eye is very small, deeply imbedded in muscles, and quite 
covered by the skin, so that it is quite invisible, externally. The 
lens consists of a very small number of minute and little altered 
embryonic cells; the retina, in the same way, is much simpler 



84 SOME CURIOUS FACTS CONNECTED WITH 

than in the eyes of other Vertebrata. Degeneration, then, such as 
makes the eye incapable of seeing, has not taken place ; neverthe- 
less, the eye of the mole is reduced to total inefficiency. The 
blindness of the mole is the result of complete degetieratioji of the 
optic nerve, so that if images could be formed in the eye itself, 
they could never be transmitted to the animal's consciousness. 
I7i the embryo of the ffiole and without exception, both eyes are 
originally connected with the brain by well-developed optic nerves. 
This may indeed be regarded as a conclusive proof that the blind 
mole is descended from progenitors that could see, and that the 
total blindness of the animal has been caused by the directly 
injurious effects of darkness on the optic nerve." 

Another case of blindness arising from living in darkness, is 
that of a parasitic crab, Pinfwtheres, which, in its adult state, lives in 
the " water lungs" of Holothurians. The animal has well-developed 
eyes in its free-swimming zooea stage, and even when it enters its 
Holothurian host, preserves these eyes, but as they grow, they 
gradually become blind ; the brow grows forward over the eyes, 
and finally covers them so completely, that in the oldest individuals 
not the slightest trace of them is to be seen through the thick 
skin ; while at the same time, the eyes seem to undergo a more or 
less extensive retrogressive metamorphosis. 

There are numberless other instances of blindness in animals 
from disuse, which I have no time to mention. I will only allude 
to the curious fact that whilst some fishes living at great depths 
are totally blind, others have immensely developed eyes. Also in 
all the species of the cave beetle, Thachcerites, the females only 
are blind, while the males have well- developed eyes, yet both sexes 
live together in absolute darkness. 

These cases appear to present difficulties, yet they seem to me 
not very difficult to account for. Unless the beetles were specially 
created in the total darkness of the caves and the fishes speciaky 
created for the abysses of the ocean, they must each have had a 
tendency to greater development of the eyes, as they receded from 
the light. The female beetle would find her food at the bottom of 
the cave, and would soon lose the use of her eyes, but the males 
woulduse their eyes so long as there was any light at all to guide 
them, and the retrograde development in their case would probably 



THE EVOLUTION OF THE EYE. 85 

only begin countless generations after that in the eyes of the 
female. 

In the case of deep sea fishes Dr, Giinther says : " The organ 
of sight is the first to be affected by a sojourn in deep water. 
Even in fishes which habitually live at a depth of only 80 fathoms, 
we find the eye of a proportionately larger size than in their 
representives at the surface. In such fishes the eyes increase in 
size with the depth iiihabited by them down to the depth 0/200 
fathoms." 

Dr. Giinther had previously said that the rays of the sun 
probably do not penetrate to, and certainly do not extend beyond 
the depths of 200 fathoms. 

He continues : " Beyond that depth small as well as large-eyed 
fishes occur, the former having their want of vision compensated 
by tentacular organs of touch ; the latter, the large-eyed fish, can 
only see by the aid of phosphorescence. In the greatest depths blind 
fishes occur, with rudimentary eyes, and without special organs of 
touch. Many fishes of the deep sea are provided with more or 
less numerous round, shining, mother-of-pearl coloured bodies 
imbedded in the skin. These, when large, are placed on the 
head, in the vicinity of the eye ; the smaller ones are arranged in 
series along the side of the body and tail. The former kind of 
organs possess, in the interior, a body like the lens of an eye, and 
are considered by some naturalists to be true organs of vision, 
developed to catch the phosphorescent rays emitted by numerous 
deep sea organisms." The functions of the globular bodies 
arranged along the sides of the fish are at present unknown, but 
Dr. Giinther thinks there is no doubt that the functions of these 
organs have relation to the peculiar conditions of light — wholly 
phosphorescent — under which these fishes live. 

I now come to a case of extraordinary development of the visual 
organs. Upon many of the coasts of the Pacific Ocean, is found 
a mollusc of the genus Onchidinm. This mollusc has eyes of the 
ordinary invertebrate type placed upon its head. But the greater 
number of species of this genus have other eyes situated on the 
shell-less but rough back of the animal. These eyes, simple as 
they are in structure, are extremely interesting, for they are 
identical in type with those of the vertebrate. It is the only 



86 SOME CURIOUS FACTS CONNECTED WITH 

example hitherto known of an eye so constructed in an invertebrate 
animal. " During many years of travel," says Semper, " these eyes 
were totally unknown to me, but I had devoted much attention 
to the mode of life of the Onchidia. They live exclusively on 
the seashore or in brackish marshes ; they creep along close to 
the edge of the water, hiding in clefts of the rocks or under large 
stones. Together with them in small spots live the genera of 
fishes, Pcriophthalmus and the nearly allied Bokophthalmiis ; these 
skip along the strand with long leaps, seeking their food, which 
consists principally of this very genus of Mollusca. This, it seems 
to me (continues Semper), seems a way of accounting for the 
development of these dorsal eyes. 

" The Onchidia are terribly slow creatures, perfectly incapable 
of escaping or of withdrawing rapidly into a crevice for shelter. 
They eat nothing but sand, of which, of course, they digest 
nothing but the nutritious organic particles mixed with the sea- 
sand. Thus, in order to seek their food, they must often be 
exposed to the gaze of the swift fish that leap rapidly along the 
edge of the sea. Fly they cannot ; a house into which to creep, 
as many molluscs have, they have not ; they have neither spines 
nor jaws with which to defend themselves, and the eyes on their 
back can do no more than warn them of the approach of danger. 
It would be very strange if such eyes were developed in that par- 
ticular position, unless some weapons were provided, too, for 
rendering the eyes of service. Such weapons do exist, in point of 
fact, in every species that has dorsal eyes. The skin of the back 
is thickly set with minute glands, closely surrounded by circular 
muscles. Feeble contractions of the skin cannot force out the 
minute globules which are secreted by the glands. But, supposing a 
Periophthalmus approaches suddenly and with rapid leaps, it rises 
— as I have often seen — several inches into the air. The mollusc 
has all its eyes — and I have positively counted ninety-eight on one 
specimen — turned upwards in various directions. Suddenly 
becoming aware of the fish or its shadow, it instantly draws up its 
whole body, thus contracting the glands on the skin with its whole 
force. The minute globules of secretion will be thrown into the 
air, in hundreds and thousands, towards the pursuing fish. The 
fish, hit by the shower of minute shot, retires from the pursuit, 
and Onchidium is safe." 



THE EVOLUTION OF THE EYE. 87 

Semper gives this only as an hypothesis, because the globules, 
being microscopically small, could not be seen by him to fly in 
showers. But what is certain is that Onchidium has these dorsal 
eyes of vertebrate type on all coasts where its dreaded enemy is 
found ; but on the Atlantic shores of England and France, or the 
high northern coast of America, or the west coast of N. and S. 
America, and the Galapagos Islands, there is no Periophihal- 
mus, and Ofichidmm has neither dorsal eyes nor dorsal glands. 
Whether it is worth while to develop ninety-eight eyes on one's 
back in order to be ready to shoot perpetually at a terrible enemy 
is an open question. It would seem more peaceful and easy to 
be swallowed up at once than to live in such a perpetual state of 
apprehension. 

1 think all the instances I have given will show in what an 
extraordinarily interesting way the environment of an animal will 
act upon its visual organs. Gradually, in the course of ages, the 
highest animals of all the higher divisions of the animal kingdom 
have found the head the most useful position for eyes for all pur- 
poses. But Nature was quite prepared to develop eyes upon any 
part of the body, and has by no means forgotten how to do so 
still. The star-fish has an eye-spot at the end of each arm, as 
though a dog had an eye at the end of each paw. In the Chito- 
nidce (Gastropod Molluscs) Thoresby has detected more than 
10,000 eyes on the exposed surfaces of their shells. The scallop 
has eyes placed all along its mantle. An annelid, Polyophthalmus^ 
has a pair of eyes on every segment of its body, and some worms 
have eyes on the last segment of their bodies. Some have eyes 
on their tentacles, and others on their gills. 

People are sometimes fond of constructing romances, where in 
imagination they visit other planets. The people in these planets 
always turn out to be distressingly like ourselves. It appears to 
me that if planets were described as inhabited by invertebrate 
animals grown big and intelligent, we should have very novel and 
amusing conditions of society to describe. A planet inhabited 
permanently by a set of old maids, where gentlemen were grudged 
even a few days of life, and one matron presided over the whole 
community, where also there were no paupers and no starvation, 
and children were brought up as in the Republic of Plato, would 



88 THE EXTERNAL ANATOMY 

be very new. And so would a world be, where everyone had 
their mouths in the middle of their bodies (rivaUing the Anthropo- 
phagi)^ and their eyes at the ends of their fingers and toes. The 
conditions under which one would go to a dinner-party or look 
on at a play would be very different to anything to which we 
are accustomed. But I must leave the development of this idea 
to some inventive genius, and bring this too long paper to an end. 

Authorities Consulted. 
Darwin — Origin of Species. 
Semper — Animal Life. 

EncydopcEdia Britan7iica — Articles: Ichthyology — A. Giinther; 
MoUusca — E. Ray Lankester. 
Bell — Comparative Anatomy and Physiology. 
Nicholson — Manual of Zoology and Manual of Paleontology. 
Haeckel — Evolution of Man. 
Contemporary Revieiu, October, iS86 : — 
A. Buckley — Life and Her Children ; 
Huxley — Anatomy of Invertebrates. 



Z\K lEytcrnal anatomy of tbe Dor^Bcetle. 

By Robert Gillo. 
Plates XL, XII., XIII. 

IT is well known that beetles have a hard exterior covering or 
case of chitine, inside of which are securely lodged all the 
internal organs. When speaking of the limbs, it may be 
said that beetles have their muscles inside their bones, for the 
chitinous covering serves not only for an exterior skin, but it also 
forms a system of very strong and rigid levers, similar in their 
adaptation to the bones of the higher animals. There is, more- 
over, a distinct advantage gained by this arrangement, for it is a 
fact in mechanical construction, that where rigidity and strength 
are required, they are best attained by disposing the material in a 
tubular form. Hence the limbs of beetles are much stronger than 
they would be if they were made solid and contained only the 
same amount of strengthening material. Their bodies are not, 



OF THE DOR-BEETLE. 89 

however, entirely covered with this armour. A portion of the 
abdomen under the wing-cases or elytra, for instance, where the 
flexibility of the covering allows of the expansion and contraction 
necessary for the act of breathing, is constructed of a much softer 
material. Nevertheless, these softer parts are enclosed in a 
tolerably firm skin to protect them from injury. Beetles, like the 
warriors of old, are enclosed in plate armour, that of the beetle 
being much more skilfully designed and constructed ; and although 
these insects display an immense variety of form and structure, a 
certain unity of plan runs through them all. 

To get anything like an idea of the forms of these interesting 
insects, it will be best to take a few leading types, choosing, as far 
as possible, the larger species ; and on the present occasion I 
propose to take the Dor-Beetle as an example of a dung-feeding, 
fossorial beetle. 

Before commencing to describe the various parts of this 
insect, it may be well to say a few words as to its name, classifica- 
tion, etc. The beetle must be familiar to every one, being so 
frequently seen flying about in the dusk of evening, more particu- 
larly during the autumn season. In its heavy, lumbering flight, it 
is not unusual for it to strike individuals in the face. Hence, it 
has received the name of Dor, or Darer. It is undoubtedly the 
beetle Shakespeare alludes to when he says, " The shard-borne 
beetle, with its drowsy hums." I will not in the present paper go 
into the question as to whether it was shard-born or shard-borne 
which Shakespeare wrote, but it may be stated that if it was 
shard-borne — meaning that the beetle in its flight is borne on its 
shards, or elytra — he was wrong from a naturalist's point of view, 
as during flight the elytra are merely held up out of the way so as 
not to interfere with the action of the large membranous wings. 

The form of the antennae at once shows that it belongs to the 
great family, Lamellicornia — Lamella, a little plate, and cornu, a 
horn. In this case the club of the antenna consists of three 
leaves or plates, the middle one of which is partially enclosed by 
the other two, all three being densely pubescent. It belongs to 
the genus Geotrtipes, signifying earth-borers. The suitability of 
this term will be at once seen when the habits of the beetle are 
stated. 



90 THE EXTERNAL ANATOMY 

Having found some fresh dung of almost any animal — and it 
evidently does this by the sense of smell, which faculty it must 
possess in great perfection — the beetle sets to work and digs a 
hole under it into the ground, perpendicularly, to the depth of 
eight or nine inches, and at the bottom of it places a ball of the 
same, as food for the future larva. There are several species of 
Dor-Beetles, some of which are not so common as others, but the 
one chosen is that which abounds, I believe, everywhere, and most 
certainly in Somersetshire. It is Geotrupes spiniger (Marsham), 
synonymous with G. ?nesoleius (Thoms). It probably received the 
name spiniger — or prickly — from the fact of the male possessing a 
large tooth bent downwards on the under sides of each of the 
anterior tibiae (PI XL, Figs. 8 and 9) ; a large hooked tooth on 
each of the posterior femora ; and a hooked process at the tip of 
each of the posterior trochanters (Figs. 6 and 7). All these are 
evidently sexual developments, giving the male a better power of 
grasping. It varies very much in size, as in fact do all those 
beetles which in the larval state feed on a supply of food placed 
for them by the parent, or in any way have to get a precarious 
living ; whereas plant-feeders and those that subsist on substances 
of which there is an abundance, are very constant in size. Speci- 
mens of the Dor-Beetle may be met with nearly one inch in 
length, and small ones, scarcely more than half this length, may 
occasionally be found. 

I now propose to notice the principal external parts of this 
beetle, commencing with the head and mouth organs. The head 
is very hard and strong, and the clypeus has a ridge down the 
centre, so that both vertically and laterally it is of a wedge-like 
form. The situation of the eyes is peculiar, for a very hard band 
of chitine is continued from the sides of the clypeus, so as to 
encircle and divide each eye in such a way that a portion of the eye 
appears on the upper side of the head and a larger portion on the 
lower side (PI. XL, Figs, i and 2, b and c). Without this protection 
it is evident that as the beetle worked its way into the ground head 
downwards, the eyes would be damaged. The short antennae 
consist each of eleven joints, which in the Coleoptera is the 
normal number. The first joint is by far the longest, and the last 
three form a trilamellate club, as previously described. When the 



OF THE DOR-BEETLE. 91 

beetle is digging, the antennje lie down on the under-side of the 
head (Fig. 2, a), thus forming an additional protection to the eyes, 
whilst the clubs of the antennae are securely lodged in cavities on 
the under-side of the pro-thorax, or, more properly speaking, the 
pro-sternum. 

The mouth-organs, as may be expected, are not very powerful, 
seeing that the beetle feeds on material which has already gone 
through a very perfect process of trituration. The mandibles do 
not exhibit that peculiarity of form which may be seen in the 
species of Geodephaga and others, the right and left mandible 
being precisely alike. The various species of this genus have 
their mandibles formed rather differently externally. For instance, 
G. stercorarius (Lin.) has a hollow near the top, and then the out- 
line continued in one uniform curve, whereas, in the one under 
our notice, there are two hollows followed by a tolerably straight 
portion. The tips of the mandibles are of a chisel form, and act 
in the same way as the incisor teeth of the Rodents. The whole 
of the inside edge on the under side is set with hairs and bristles, 
and from about half way down to the root the mandible is of 
a peculiar structure (Figs. 4 — 5) ; it appears to be membranous, 
with about thirty longitudinal ridges, each of which is again ridged 
or striated transversely. The use of this is, no doubt, to assist in 
sweeping the food into the centre part of the mouth, and prevent 
its escaping, which must be very necessary, as the beetle feeds on 
such a soft semi-fluid pabulum. The labrum (Fig. 3) is of a some- 
what rectangular form with the corners rounded, but the most 
remarkable part about it, is the way the under side is set with 
hair and stiff bristles recurved inwards, evidently also to assist in 
retaining the food in the mouth. Referring to the under side of 
the head, the mentum is very elongate, and deeply emarginate in 
front. The labium is very short and fleshy, and its palpi with the 
usual number of four joints is moderately short. The maxillae are 
only peculiar inasmuch as the lacinige, or blades, are not very 
large, and are clothed with hair, and have not the well-developed 
hooks to their tips, which is so strikingly shown in the Geodep/iaga, 
their palpi are very short, and the inner lobes are in the form of 
a wide, flat brush. 

The thorax consists of three portions : the prothorax, meso- 



92 THE EXTERNAL ANATOMY 

thorax, and metathorax ; the upper side being respectively called 
the pronotum, mesonotum, and metanotum, and the underside, 
the prosternum, mesosternum, and metasternum. The pronotum 
is the portion which in general language is called the thorax, and 
in this species is large, rounded, and smooth, with a few punctures 
near its sides ; its underside, the prosternum, which really consists 
of three parts— the sternum, episterna,and the epimera— carries the 
anterior pair of legs, which in this beetle are remarkably powerful. 
In proof of the strength possessed by this beetle, I quote the 
following : — 

" Having repeatedly placed one of these Dor-beetles, weighing 
15 grains, under a weight equal to 4,796 grains, sufficient, it would 
be considered, to crush its body, being 319 times its own weight ! 
it heaved it up and withdrew, and the same pressure being placed 
on its leg, it was immediately disengaged by the powers of the 
other. A man to have accomplished a proportionate feat, must 
have raised his body from an incumbent pressure of about 20 
tons." — Knapfs Joimial of a Naturalist. From Science ■ Gossip, 
1865, page 41. 

The legs, as in all insects, consist each of three important parts : 
the femur or thigh, the tibia or shank, and the tarsus, which 
corresponds to the hand or foot of man. The tarsi of this beetle 
are small and weak, consisting of five joints, which is the normal 
number ; the last joint being terminated by two moderately long, 
curved, but very sharp claws. The tibise of the anterior legs are 
very strong and wide, their outside edges having large teeth, 
particularly towards their tips. These enable the beetle to loosen 
the earth in front of it, so that with its other legs it is able to push 
the material behind, and so work its way into the ground. They 
are, in fact, its digging implements, acting much in the same way 
as a gardener's fork, and everybody knows how much easier it is 
to dig with a fork than it is with a spade. When the Beetle is 
digging, the tarsi are folded back, and lie upon the tibia, and in 
this way are preserved from injury ; the same plan may be noticed 
carried out in all fossorial beetles. 

The femora are very large, as may be supposed, so as to 
contain the very strong muscles necessary to move the legs with 
the great power which the beetle has been shown to possess. It 



OF THE DOR-BEETLE. 93 

must be noticed, that the joints of the legs are on the hinge-Uke 
principle, so that they can move in one plane only ; and here it 
may be pointed out that in man the action of revolving the hand, 
or, as it is called, pronation and supination, is effected by the ulna 
and the radius moving round each other in the forearm, but no 
such arrangement is possible in the case of beetles, and would be 
a very weak one if it were ; nevertheless, a motion of this kind is 
necessary, and it is effected in a very perfect manner by the femur 
being attached to a moveable portion called the coxa, which lies 
in a hollow in the sternum, and is held there by very strong 
ligaments ; it rolls round in a plane at right angles to that of the 
joints of the legs, so that it is, in effect, like a ball-and-socket joint, 
and at the same time is possessed of great strength. As the 
femora are driven forcibly against the coxae when the beetle is exer- 
ting its strength in digging, and as sharp particles of sand and dirt 
would get between the parts, thus causing great friction, the under 
sides of the femora have a space covered with hairs, which act as 
cushions, and also as brushes, for sweeping the gritty particles 
away. There is also an additional portion which appears to be a 
protection to the joint between the femur and coxa, somewhat on 
the same principle as that of the patella or knee-cap in man. 
These portions are the trochanters, as may be seen more developed 
in the intermediate and posterior legs than in the anterior pair. 
It has been previously pointed out the posterior trochanters are 
elongated and hooked at their tips for a sexual purpose. The 
tibise of the posterior legs are more square in form than those of 
the anterior, and on the outside have three prominent ridges. 
These are useful to the beetle to push the earth behind it when it 
is digging, also to give it a hold so as to be able to force itself 
forward. The intermediate legs are very similar to the posterior, 
but less developed. In some of the other species of this genus, 
as G. sylvatiais (Panzer), and G. vernalis (Linnaeus), the posterior 
tibiae have only two tranverse ridges. 

The mesothorax carries on its under side, properly called the 
mesosternum, the intermediate legs, and on its upper side, or the 
mesonotum, the elytra or wing cases, and when the wings are not 
extended for flight, the mesonotum is concealed by the elytra with 
the exception of the scutellum, or little shield, which appears as a 



94 THE EXTERNAL ANATOMY 

small triangular portion between the elytra at their bases. The 
elytra are hard and sufficiently large to completely cover the 
entire upper surface of the abdomen ; they are somewhat irregu- 
larly and indistinctly striated longitudinally, there being seven 
striae between the suture and the humeral prominence. It may be 
noted, that this projection at the shoulders is a very common 
feature in all those beetles that have large membranous wings ; 
it appears to be a necessary consequence of the room taken up 
under the elytra, by the wings near their attachment to the 
metathorax when folded.* 

The metathorax — which is so far united to the mesothorax, 
that the line of separation can scarcely be distinguished — carries 
on its under side, or metasternum, the posterior pair of legs, and 
on its upper side, or metanotum, the pair of membranous wings. 
These are the organs of flight, and when extended are large and 
ample, and as they are obviously too large to lie under the elytra 
extended, they are constructed for folding, which is attained by 
the great costal nervure having a hinge-like joint about one-third 
of its length from the tip, so that the tip portion shuts up until it 
takes up a position at about right angles to the rest of the costa, 
and the membranous portion naturally falls into folds ; in this way 
they lie compactly under the elytra concealed and protected. 

The only portion now remaining to be described is the 
abdomen, consisting of nine rings, which fit one into the other 
like a telescope ; they are soft on the upper side, where they are 
protected by the wings and elytra, but are chitinous on the under 
side. The terminal rings, however, on the upper side, are harder 
than the rest, being more or less exposed, particularly the last one, 
which in some beetles is very important, and is called the 
pygidium. The rings are best seen on the upper side, as, owing to 
the great space taken up by the meso- and meta- sternum for the 
attachment of the coxae, the first rings are much contracted on the 
under side. They are joined together by an elastic membrane, 
particularly at the lateral margins, on the upper side, where there 
is a soft portion, in which are situated the abdominal spiracles. 

* Another species, G. nmtator (Marsham), has nine stria between the 
suture and this prominence. 






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OF THE DOR-BEETLE. 95 

In this short description of the Dor-beetle, I have not 
attempted in any way to exhaust the subject, or even to note all 
the various parts of its external anatomy, but merely to give a 
general idea of the plan on which it is constructed, and to direct 
attention to a few of its more peculiar features. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES XL, XIL, XIII. 



Plate XL 
Fig. 1.— Upper side of half the head;— «., antenna; 6., band of 
chitine protecting the eye ; c. , clypeus ; e. , the eye ; Ibr. , 
labrum ; m., mandible. 
,, 2. — Under-side: — a., antenna resting in cavity of prosternum ; 
b., band of chitine protecting the eye; e., the eye; m., 
mentum ; lb., labium; 2^., labial palpus; mx., maxilla; 
mx.p., maxillary palj^us. 
,, 3. — Half the under-side of the labrum. 
,, 4. — Mandible, under-side. 
,, 5.— An enlarged portion at 6., which consists of about 30 ridges 

of chitine, striated transversely. 
,, 6. — Posterior femur of female. 
7. — Ditto of male. 

8. — Anterior tibia and tarsus of male. 
9.— Ditto female. 



55 
55 
55 



Plate XIL 
The Dor-Beetle, Geotrupes spwiigrer— female— upper-side, dissected. 

Plate XIII. 
The same under-side, dissected. 
The following numbers refer to the same organs in both plates:— 
1.— Head. 11.— Labium. 

2.— Prothorax. 12.— Labrum. 

3.— Meso- and Meta thorax. 13.— Maxilla. 

4.— Abdomen. 14.— Mandible. 

5.— Anterior leg. 15.— Coxa. 

6. —Intermediate leg. 1 6. —Trochanter. 

7.— Posterior leg. 17.— Femur. 

8.— Elytron. 18.— Tibia. 

9.— Membranous Wing, extended. 19.— Tarsus. 
10.— Ditto ditto, folded. 20.— Scutellum. 



[96 ] 

1Rotc6 on flora met witb on tbe occasion of 

tbe Bscursion of tbe Socfet^^ to UDampstea^, 
witb Special IReference to tbat of Caen MooD.* 

By Dr. H. J. Wharton, M.A. 



AFTER a pleasant walk from Hampstead across the Heath, 
during which Mr. Clement Reid, of the Geological Survey, 
gave some interesting sketches of the geology of the 
locality, the excursion was, through the courtesy of Lord Mans- 
field, pleasantly and unexpectedly diversified by an interest- 
ing detour into Caen Wood, although the autumn day was 
too short for us to do anything like justice to the locality. Caen 
Wood is better known by name than it is in reality, but the spot 
has no equal, from the naturalist's point of view, within a similarly 
short distance of London. 

We are now taught, by those who should know best, that we 
ought to call Caen Wood " Ken Wood," and that Kentish Town 
is no other than Ken-ditch Town. Certain it is that the Avell- 
known series of Highgate Ponds have their source in Caen Wood, 
and that they empty themselves into the Thames by way of 
Kentish Town; only the brook, whose name still survives in that 
of Fleet Street, has long since been converted into a main sewer. 

The lake in Lord Mansfield's park had a great interest to 
those who had brought collecting-bottles with them ; and some 
examples of Nitella, one of the Characece, were readily found 
close to a little forest of bulrushes {Typha latifolia). I have no 
doubt that many lowly fresh-water Algce were obtained at the 
same time, of which we may hear more hereafter. But I was 
anxious to push on, and ascertain whether any plants of the rare 
May-lily {^Maianthemiim bifoliiim) were still to be discovered. My 
search, however, was vain, for I could not find the spot where it 
grows. 

This flower is the great speciality of Caen Wood. I may 
mention that it rarely produces fruit there, although in that 

* This paper was also read at the meeting of the " Middlesex Natural 
History Society," in Dec, 1886. 



FOUND AT HAMPSTEAD. 97 

year it was easy to find a sufficiency of berries. The plant at 
present grows only on one spot, but it covers almost the whole of 
the area of about twenty square yards, on an eminence under the 
shade of a very large beech-tree, near the south-east angle of the 
grounds. It is known to have existed there for nearly a century, 
and it has certainly come to have all the appearance of being a 
native. It is a species which is generally dispersed over Europe, 
Russian Asia, and North America. But its only recognised habi- 
tat as a truly indigenous British plant is on the west side of Forge 
Valley, near Hackness, in Yorkshire, six miles from Scarborough, 
where it occurs in abundance. It has also been reported from 
Lancashire and Bedfordshire, but on insufficient evidence. 

As the name of the plant is rather a puzzle, I should mention 
that it is also often called Smilacina bifolia ; and that it appears as 
Maianfhem7i??i Convallaria in the last edition of the standard 
" London Catalogue of British Plants." It has no true English 
name ; that of May-Lily is more often applied to the Lily-of-the- 
Valley. Maianthenmni means " May-flower." 

The only other botanical feature of our afternoon's walk which 
seems worth recording is the luxuriant growth of the Blue-leaved 
Spleenwort [Asplenium Ruta-muraria) on the kitchen-garden wall 
of Caen Wood. This wall extends for a furlong or so along the 
road-side, and along the upper rows of bricks this little fern seems 
to have found a more congenial house than it has anywhere else 
so near London. It is worth a walk of many miles to see its 
almost unparallelled fertility there. 

As the result of our excursion, Mr. Charles Emery, of Crouch 
End, an enthusiastic botanist, has sent me the following list of 
plants, representing eleven natural orders, collected on that 
occasion : — 

Upright and Creeping Buttercup {Rantinculus acris and R. 
repens). 

Shepherd's Purse {Capsella hirsapastoris). 

Greater Stitchwort {Stellaria Holostca), 

Dwarf Mallow {Malva rohmdifoUa). 

Ymxzq {Ulex Eiiropcea ). 

Dutch Clover (Trifolium repens). 

Bramble {Ruhus friiticosus ). 
Vol. VI. H 



98 HOMOLOGIES OF CERTAIN 

Tormentil {Potentilla Tormentilla). 

Devil's-bit Scabious {Scabiosa Succisa). 

Dandelion {Taraxacum officinale). 

Rough and Autumnal Hawkbit {Leontodon hispidus and L. 

autumnalis). 
Umbellate Hawkweed {Hieraciuni umbellatum). 
Golden Rod {Solidago Virgaurea). 
Long-rooted Cat's-ear {Hypochccris radicata). 
Milfoil or Yarrow {Achillea Millefolium). 
Black Knapweed (Centaurea nigra). 
Common Ragwort {Senecio Jacohcea). 
Harebell {Campanula rotundifolia). 
Common Ling {Calluna vulgaris). 
Fine-leaved and Cross-leaved Heath (Erica cinerea and E. 

Tetralix). 
Common Hemp-Nettle {Galeopsis Tetrahit). 
Wood Germander {Teucrium Scorodojiia). 
Wood Betony {Stachys Betonica). 



®n tbe Ibomologiee of (Tcrtaln parts of 

3n6ect0» 

By a. Hammond. 



I REGARD the microscope but as a means to an end, and if its 
use (as has been the case) has led me to form opinions on sub- 
jects extending beyond its range, I hope that the same extension 
of grasp may be found amongst those whose first love has com- 
menced in a manner so similar to my own, and that they, too, 
commencing with the infinitely litde, may find an interest in a 
subject which I cannot but feel, if my speculations are worth any- 
thing at all, embraces the structural relations of every member of 
the insect world. 

The discussion of theoretical questions by one whose opportu- 
nities of acquiring general information have been so limited, or 
perhaps so little used, as my own may savour somewhat of pre- 
sumption, and I know not certainly how far the same ideas may 
have occurred to others before me, and may consequently have 



PARTS OF INSECTS. 99 

already been fully discussed. As I have not, however, seen them 
before enunciated in the form they have presented themselves to 
me, I will, with the kind permission of my friends, risk their 
advancement in these pages. The repetition of similar parts in 
successive rings or segments, distinctive of the Arfiadata, has 
always appeared to me to form one of the most interesting points 
of inquiry in connection with the study of insects. 

How far is it possible to trace this repetition ? The recogni- 
tion of the fact by Savigny and others that the organs of mandu- 
cation are the proper articulated members of distinct segments, 
the homologues of the organs of locomotion on the succeeding 
ones, suggest at least the possibility that other relations of a like 
nature may be observed. Mr. B. T. Lowne, in his " Anatomy of 
the Blow-Fly," p. 3, says : — " Each segment in the lowest articulata 
is normally furnished with two pairs of lateral appendages or rudi- 
mentary limbs, one pair placed above the other, the superior being 
dorsal and the inferior ventral ; at least, such is their arrangement 
in annelides. Both pairs are much modified in the higher forms, 
and are often entirely suppressed. The segments themselves may 
be said to consist typically of four plates : a ventral, a dorsal, and 
a lateral plate on each slide; the superior appendages being placed 
between the lateral and dorsal, and the inferior between the lateral 
and ventral plates. In insects the wings, when they exist, repre- 
sent the dorsal appendages, being placed between the superior 
and lateral plates." From this we may gather that the wings of 
insects are the superior pair of the two with which each segment 
is normally furnished. Now, I have not as yet met with any sug- 
gestion that the organs which are thus admitted to be normal 
parts of the skeleton may be traced in other than the wing-bearing 
segments, and yet what are the alternatives? Either that the 
wings are not normal parts of the structure, but something super- 
added ; or that, being so, they are entirely suppressed in all the 
other segments. Either hypothesis appears more or less satisfac- 
tory, and the following considerations, derived originally from the 
study of the common cockroach, appear to me to offer at least a 
partial solution of the difficulty. But in order to show how the 
relations of the dorsal plates must necessarily be viewed when 
uncomplicated by the presence of wings, and at the same time to 



100 HOMOLOGIES OF CERTAIN 

suggest what appears to be a parallelism of type in this respect 
between the Crustacea and the Inseda. I have mounted a speci- 
men of the common wood-louse, together with the cockroach, on 
one slide, and have given drawings of the same. See lower 
portion of Plate V., given in the January part of this Journal. 

In the wood-louse will be observed a succession of dorsal 
plates projecting laterally beyond the body of the creature, the 
projecting portions being darkly shaded in the drawing. So 
also in the larval cockroach, by its side. The three thoracic 
segments are each covered by a continuous dorsal plate, in which 
as yet no indication of separation of parts is seen. These like- 
wise project laterally beyond the body, the projecting portions 
being likewise darkly shaded. 

Now, in the wood-louse, it is perfectly manifest that the whole 
breadth of each segment is the homologue of the whole breadth 
of every other. It would be absurd to regard the whole breadth 
of one as homologous with, say, the central grey portion only of 
the succeeding, and yet this very thing (*) appears to be done in the 
case of insects generally, and that of the cockroach in particular. 
In Figs. 3 and 4 on the plate will be found drawings of the 
dorsal surfaces of the thoracic segments of this insect in more 
advanced stages. In the first the dorsal surfaces are still continu- 
ous, but the markings now visible upon them distinctly foreshadow 
the approaching separation of the wings. In the male this sepa- 
ration is complete, but in the female the tegmina alone are com- 
pletely separated, the wings proper being still only indicated by 
the markings referred to. The fourth figure shows the dorsal 
surfaces of the female thoracic segments in this condition. 
Now, I have always been taught to regard the great shield-like 
plates of the pro-thorax of this and other orthopterous and coleop- 
terous insects as constituting in its entirety the dorsal plate proper 
of the segment, while at the same time I have been equally led to 
regard the dorsal plate of the next or meso-thoracic segment as 
that portion only of the upper surface which lies between the 
wings. Thus it comes to pass that the dorsal plate of the pro- 
thorax occupies its whole breadth, both the grey and red portions, 
in my drawing (Fig. 4, PI. V.), while the dorsal plate of the next 
fills only its central grey portion, and this brings me to my state- 



PARTS OF INSECTS. 101 

ment on the opposite page, where it is marked with an asterisk. 

I have already pointed out how absurd such a statement would 
appear in the case of the wood-louse ; but does it appear less so in 
that of the cockroach ? It appears to me to be only the circum- 
stance of the separation of the wings in the perfect insect which 
renders it tenable at all; for in the earlier, as shown in Figs. 2 and 
3, when the dorsal surfaces are as yet undivided, the difficulty of 
regarding the whole breadth of the pro-thorax, as corresponding 
with the central portion only of the next, would be as great as it 
was in the case of the crustacean. I cannot but think, therefore, 
that the pro-thoracic shield corresponds in its entirety, not to the 
dorsal plate only of the next, but to that plate plus the wings ; in 
other words, that the lateral projecting portions of this shield, 
darkly coloured in the plate, are the homologues of the tegmina and 
wings on the mesa- and vieta- thorax. 

I have italicised these words as containing the pith of my 
conclusions, but the matter does not end here. If this be 
accepted, we have a standpoint from which to view the relations 
of the dorsal surface of the pro-thorax in other insects, the bear- 
ing of which on the disputed question of the collar of the 
Hymenoptera appears to me important. Again, the same reason- 
ing will, I think, apply to the succeeding abdominal segments as 
was used in the case of the pro-thorax. If the lateral dark-coloured 
portions of the latter be homologous with the wings, just so will 
be the lateral portions, also coloured dark, of the former. To 
maintain the contrary would be as reasonable as to say that the 
lateral portions of the first three body-segments of the wood-louse 
were homologous with one another, and yet to refuse this charac- 
ter to the succeeding ones ! 

Finally, the subject suggests that the whole series of projecting 
edges of the dorsal surfaces in the crustacean are homologous 
with the similar portions of the insect, including, of course, those 
which on the meso- and meta- thorax are specially modified to 
form the wings. 

I hope that some one of our entomological friends will be 
sufficiently interested to follow out what I have said, and if my 
reasoning is fallacious to show me wherein the fallacy lies. I fear 
I must be open to the charge of thinking myself right and every- 



102 THE MICROSCOPE 

body else wrong, but I hope I would not do so against good evi- 
dence to the contrary. 



^be niMcroecopc anb bow to use it 

By V. A. Latham, F.M.S. 



Part X. — Injecting {continued). 
Plate XIV. 



The Dry Injection Emulsions are easily prepared and conven- 
ient in use. As they will keep for any length of time, they can 
be prepared in large quantities, and thus be ready for use at any 
moment. 

Carmine Injection Emulsion. — Soak i kilogram of gelatine 
(the softer kind used in photography) in water for a few hours until 
thoroughly softened ; drain off the water, heat the gelatine over a 
water bath until liquified ; then add, drop by drop, i litre of 
strong carmine in ammonia. The mixture, stiffened by cooling, 
is cut up, and pieces packed in a fine piece of netting. Vigorous 
pressure with the hand under water forces the emulsion through 
the net in the form of fine strings. These are placed in a sieve, 
and washed until free from acid or excess of ammonia ; collect 
and redissolve by heating. Pour the liquid then on large sheets 
of parchment which have been saturated with paraffin, and then 
hang these sheets up to dry in an airy place. The dried layers of 
the emulsion are easily separated from the parchment, when they 
should be cut into strips and placed where they are protected 
from dust and dampness. The carmine solution used in this 
emulsion is made as follows : — A strong solution of ammonia is 
diluted with from three to four volumes of water, and carmine 
added in excess. After filtering, the solution is mixed with the 
gelatine, and then enough acetic acid added to change the dark 
purple-red into blood colour. It is not necessary to completely 
neutralise the ammonia. The dry emulsion requires only to be 
placed in water for a few minutes and melted over a bath to be 
ready for use. 



J 



AND HOW TO USE IT. 103 

Blue Emulsion (modified from Thiersch's formula) : — 

I. — To 300 ccm. of melted gelatine add 120 ccm. of a cold 
saturated solution of green vitriol (ferro-sulphate). 

2. — To 600 ccm. of melted gelatine add, first, 240 ccm. of 
a saturated solution of oxalic acid ; then 240 ccm. of a cold satu- 
rated solution of red prussiate of potash (potassic ferryocyanide). 

3. — Pour No. I slowly into No. 2, stirring vigorously; the 
mixture to be heated for fifteen minutes. 

4. — After cooling, press the emulsion through netting, the 
strings washed, and spread on waxed paper for drying. In this 
case these strings must be dried directly, as they do not melt well 
without adding oxalic acid. 

The dry strings, or vermicelli, are prepared for use by first 
soaking in cold water, and then heating with the addition of 
oxaHc acid, enough to reduce them to a liquid. 

Black Emulsion.— (i) Soak 500 grms. gelatine in 2 litres of 
water, in which 140 grms. of common salt have previously been 
dissolved, and melt the mass on the water-bath. 

(2) Dissolve 300 grms. nitrate of silver in i litre distilled 
water. 

(3) No. 2 poured very slowly into No. i while stirring. 
An extremely fine-grained emulsion may be obtained by using 
three or four times as much water in Nos. i and 2. 

(4) No. 3 pressed into vermicelli, as above, and then mixed 
with No. 5 by clear daylight. 

(5) Mix li litres of cold saturated solution of potassic oxalate 
with 500 ccm. of a cold saturated solution of ferro-sulphate. 

(6) No. 4, mixed with No. 6, gives a thoroughly black emul- 
sion, which should be washed for several hours, again melted, 
and finally poured in a thin layer on waxed paper. A grey-black 
emulsion may be obtained by using 240 grms. potassic bromide in 
the place of common salt in No. i, the remaining operations 
being the same. 

A good mass for Ordinary Injections.— Dry starch ("laundry" 
is good), I vol. ; 2^ per cent, aqueous solution of chloral 
hydrate, i vol. ; 95 per cent, alcohol, \ vol. ; some colour, ^ vol. 
(The chloral and alcohol prevent fermentation when mass is kept, 



104 



THE MICROSCOPE 



alcohol increases fluidity, and hardening in the vessels, both act as 
a preservative.) Among the colours recommended are vermilion, 
red lead, etc. To prepare the Colour. — Take dry colour, i vol. ; 
glycerine, i vol. ; 95 per cent, alcohol, i vol. Grind thoroughly 
in a mortar, keep in a stoppered bottle, and it is prepared for use 
by simply shaking. 

Osborne's Method of Injecting the Arteries and Veins (PI. 
XIV., Fig. i). — Two injecting fluids are employed, the first having 
a density that will allow it to pass the capillaries easily, while the 
second is of such a density that it will be arrested at the capil- 
laries. The whole vascular system may be thus injected from the 
arterial bulb. 

(i) The animal to be injected is immersed in tepid water, 
and the heart laid bare. 

(2) The apex of the single ventricle, in the case of an 
amphibian, or of the left ventricle, in the case of higher animals, 
is then widely opened, and the blood allowed to flow from the 
auriculo-ventricular aperture. 

(3) The cannula is now inserted, so that it reaches into the 
arterial bulb, and two ligatures made at the points indicated by 
L I and L 2. 

(4) When the body is thoroughly warmed, an ordinary red 
or purple gelatine mass is slowly injected. The second ligature 
having been let loose, a quantity of blood, gradually flowed by 
the injecting mass, flows from the auriculo-ventricular opening. 

(5) When the gelatine mass runs quite clear, the second 
ligature is fastened, and the syringe replaced by another contain- 
ing red Plaster of Paris mass. The latter drives the gelatine mass 
before it as far as the capillaries. When the gelatine is well 
cooled, the animal is ready for dissection. This method can be 
applied with considerable ease to all the smaller animals, such as 
frogs, lizards, and pigeons, in preparation for class-work or investi- 
gation. It must be remembered that alcohol cannot well be used 
as a preservative, because it dehydrates the gelatine, causing it to 
shrink and break up the veins. This difficulty is entirely obviated, 
however, by using Wickersheimer's fluid, which keeps the injec- 
tion for an indefinite time. 



Journal of Microscopy Vol. 6 Pi, 14 










V, ^ j 










1 




Iryectving' Appa-ratu^. 



AND HOW TO USE IT. 105 

Goadby's Mass, which is modified from M. Doyer's recipe 
(Comptus Rendus, 1841). — Saturated solution of bichromate of 
potash, 8 fluid ozs. ; water, 8 ozs. ; gelatine, 2 ozs. ; saturated solu- 
tion of acetate of lead, 8 fluid ozs. ; water, 8 ozs. ; gelatine, 2 ozs. 
The majority of preparations thus injected require to be dried 
and mounted in Canada balsam. 

The Syringe. — In selecting, the following points should be 
attended to: — (i) The syringe should be of at least one-ounce 
capacity, and furnished with two rings at its upper end, one on 
each side, for the fingers to pass through; (2) it should have 
three pipes, or cannula, of about 1/16 in., 1/32 in., and 1/64 in. in 
diameter ; and in order that they may be secured firmly in the 
vessels whilst making an injection, they should be provided with 
a pair of arms to pass the ligature round ; (3) the piston should 
fit the cylinder so accurately, that if the nozzle of the syringe be 
closed with the finger, or the piston be drawn up, it wUl, on being 
released, instantly return to its former position ; (4) the syringe 
should be provided with a stopcock. The cost of such an instru- 
ment is about 15/-. If the beginner does not desire to go to so 
much expense, a glass syringe costing about i/- will do very well. 
The cannulse may be made out of glass tubing, by drawing it to 
a fine point in a Bunsen's flame, and then cutting off the part 
required. 

Injecting Apparatus. -^— Place some of the • injection in a 
wide-mouthed glass jar on a shelf, about five feet above your table ; 
cut two holes in the cork, which should fit the bottle accurately. 
In one hole place a small funnel, so that air may get to the inte- 
rior of the bottle, and should the injection threaten to become 
exhausted before the completion of the process, some more can 
be poured in. In the other hole insert a bent glass tube, one end 
of which should reach in the inside of the bottle to the bottom ; 
the other end may be left four inches long, and turned over in a 
good arch. On this end fit about six feet of india-rubber tubing 
of a size to tightly embrace the glass tube ; in the distal extremity 
of this tubing fasten a small stop-cock. If now suction be made 
at this, the injection wiU flow out of the bottle down the tube;- Y.^^""'-^*^ 

* Quekett Journal, March, 1882, p. 17. /rf'^V^l— — -»*w J^ 



k I* iM' V'k 
^ .-PS 



'^'LI.OR " " 



106 THE MICROSCOPE 

the stop-cock can be turned, and thus the tube will be charged 
without containing air. Choose now cannulse of a suitable size to 
the vessel you intend to inject into. Dr. White recommends the 
specimen, after being saturated with the glycerine from the inject- 
ing fluid, only requires a little weak glycerine and camphor water 
to put it up in. It preserves many features that otherwise would 
have been blotted out. 

A simple Injecting Apparatus is that shown in PI. XIV., Fig. 
2, the construction of which may easily be seen. The stop-cock {d) 
should fit into the aperture of the cannules of the ordinary injecting 
apparatus. The cannules should be tied into the vessel of the 
organ to be injected, and placed in a convenient position near the 
glass tube, having been previously filled to a certain height, and 
the stop-cock turned off. Insert the end of the tube securely into 
the aperture of the cannule and open the cock. The original 
pressure may be maintained or increased, as necessity may 
require. Its advantages are simplicity and that it may be left to 
itself for a number of hours or even days. 

The most usual way of injecting the blood-vessels is by means of 
the ordinary syringe. This requires a great amount of practice. 
The animal has to be kept in hot water ; the mass has to be kept 
hot usually in a separate vessel, and time has to be allowed 
between each syringeful for the fluid to penetrate. Then, again, 
if air gets in on introducing the point of the syringe into the 
socket of the pipe that is tied into the artery, the fluid will not 
run at all. 

Fearnley's Apparatus.* — With this method no practice is 
required beyond introducing and tying in the nozzle in the 
aorta. There is a bath which has a shallow part for the animal 
to lie in and a deeper part for the WoulfPs bottle, containing the 
injection mass, to stand in. A large (40 oz.) Woulft's bottle, with 
three necks, is fitted with three perforated india-rubber stoppers. 
The middle stopper is fitted with a glass tube, which goes to the 
bottom of the bottle. Each of the others is fitted with a glass 
tube the depth of the stopper only, and standing above the 

* The accompanying engraving is given through the courtesy of Messrs. 
Swift and Son. 



AND HOW TO USE IT. 



107 




Fearnley's Apparatus. 



108 THE MICROSCOPE 

Stopper sufificiently to admit of a piece of india-rubber tubing 
(such as is used with infants' feeding bottles) being fixed upon it. 
The Woulff's bottle containing the mass has two necks, fitted with 
india-rubber stoppers. One neck admits a piece of glass tube, 
which goes quite to the bottom of the bottle. The other admits 
a short piece of tube, the depth of the stopper only. The illus- 
tration shows all further detail. The apparatus is made by Messrs. 
Swift and Son. The mercurial manometer allows five inches 
rise of mercury in the ascending arm, therefore five inches fall in 
the descending arm, though four inches will do. To inject the 
animal, proceed as follows : — Fill the bath with water, and heat 
the water with a Bunsen burner to loo*^ Fah. or so. The Woulffs 
bottle containing the mass should be filled and thoroughly stop- 
pered. Then chloroform the animal and make an L-shaped inci- 
sion into the thorax, so as to expose the heart and aorta. This is 
done by passing the knife up the middle line of the sternum 
nearly as far as the root of the neck ; then make a second inci- 
sion at right angles to this to the left of the animal. A triangular 
flap is thus made, and the heart enclosed in the pericardium 
exposed. Cut through the pericardium, seize apex of heart with 
forceps, snip it off. Thus the right and left ventricles are opened, 
and the animal instantly bleeds to death. The opening in the 
right ventricle leading to the pulmonary artery has a crescent 
shape or slit-like appearance ; whilst the opening in the left 
ventricle, leading to the aorta, is round. Therefore, if desired to 
inject the etitire arterial system, we insert our nozzle into the 
round hole ; if the pubno7iary system, into the crescentic slit. 
The nozzles are to be inserted into one or other of the two holes 
(usually the round one" to inject the entire arterial system with 
carmine and gelatine mass). We can now tie either artery only 
or the whole heart substance. In either case, a ligature oi floss 
silk is to be used and tightly tied and secured. Now wash all the 
blood out of the cavity of the thorax to keep the bath-water 
clean ; lift the animal into the bath and let it remain ten minutes 
or so to get well warmed. It is useful to slit open the entire 
abdomen in the median line, so as to allow the warm water to 
get freely around the viscera. The mass thus gets into every 
organ and every part of an organ evenly. Now connect the pres- 



AND HOW TO USE IT. 109 

sure-bottle with the manometer and Higginson's syringe, as in the 
engraving ; also with the mass bottle. The tube of this bottle, 
which conveys mass mvay from the bottle, is now clamped, and 
must never for a second get out of the warm water. Having a 
small basinful of water, squeeze the Higginson's syringe, watching 
manometer, to raise the mercury half-an-inch. This done, remove 
the clamp from efflux tube, and the red fluid, after driving out a 
few air-bubbles, begins to flow out. We at once make the con- 
nection, and all dangers are passed if we have tied our nozzles 
properly into the artery and connecting part, and fastened our 
stoppers thoroughly into our Woulffs bottles. Hold the head of 
the animal, which should be to the left, with the left hand to 
watch the pale gums, tongue, eyelids, and vascular parts become 
suffused with a pale blush, which gradually deepens ; gently 
squeeze and relax the barrel of syringe, and glance at the mercury 
from time to time. When it has risen four or at most five inches, 
the animal will be completely injected. The visible mucous 
membrane and intestines will be dark red and much swollen. 
Remove the animal, place in ice-cold water or under the tap for 
an hour or two, and divide into parts as required. It is best to 
prepare the injection masses immediately before they are used ; 
but they can be kept for some time, I find, if chloral be added to 
the gelatine. Before being used, the mass should be always care- 
fully filtered through flannel. 

Haye's Method of Double Injections. — Fit a cannula into the 
aorta of a cat, and inject a gelatine mass coloured with carmine 
until it is seen flowing from the right side of the heart ; then 
detach the tube conveying the red mass ; slip one containing a 
blue gelatine mass over the same cannula, and apply the pressure 
again. Into this blue mass is mixed thoroughly a quantity of 
starch — preferably from wheat. This starch-mass pushes the 
carmine mass before it until the starch-grains enter the capillaries 
and effectually plug them up. The arteries are left blue and veins 
red. The first mass injected need not be unusually thin. The 
capacity of the capillaries is so great, compared with that of the 
arteries, that any commingling of the two colours is concealed in 
them. Carmine is used for the veins because of the ease with 
which it is prepared, its permanence, and the facility with which 



110 THE MICnOSCOPE AND HOW TO USE IT. 

it passes through the capillaries. Again ; the gelatine for the 
arteries may be coloured with coarser pigments, such as Prussian 
blue or ultramarine. The latter furnishes a beautiful blue. A 
plaster of Paris mass injected after a gelatine mass will drive it on 
until the plaster reaches the smallest vessels, thus producing a 
double injection. The usual method of double injections is to 
first inject a gelatine mass of one colour into the artery until 
increasing pressure gives notice that a mass is entering the capil- 
laries, and immediately after inject a different coloured mass into 
the vein. A better way is to fill both vessels at the same time and 
under exactly the same pressure. The pressure is kept low at the 
beginning, so that all the arteries and veins shall be thoroughly 
filled before either mass begins to enter the capillaries. As the 
pressure is increased, the different masses meet each other in the 
capillaries, and, if the pressure on each is equal, the vessels may 
be filled as full as compatible with safety, without danger of either 
colour being driven from one set of vessels into the other. This 
will be better understood by referring to the drawing (PI. XIV., Fig. 
3). The desired pressure is secured by letting a stream of water 
from a hydrant or elevated vessel flow into a tight vessel. As the 
water flows in, the air is forced out through the rubber tube. A, 
into the wide-mouthed bottle, F ; through the close-fitting cork are 
two other glass tubes. Those extend below just through the cork, 
and above connect respectively with the rubber-tubes, C or D. 
Into the side of F, near the bottom, is fitted another tube, E, 
reaching to a height of ten inches or more, open above, and gra- 
duated into inches. If preferred, this tube may also pass through 
the cork and extend down well into the mercury, with which F is 
partly filled. B contains a blue injection mass for filling veins, 
and R, a similar bottle, a red mass for arteries. The interiors of 
these bottles are connected with bottle F by tubes D and C. 
Each of the bottles B and R has a tube, which, starting from near 
the bottom, passes through the cork, and is, a little above this, 
bent at right angles. Connected with these are rubber tubes, H 
and I. When the water is allowed to flow into the reservoir, the 
air is forced out through A into F, thence along tubes D and C 
into B and R. As soon as the pressure in these bottles is suffi- 
ciently great, the liquid which they contain will be driven out 



HALF-AN-HOUR AT THE MICROSCOPE. Ill 

through the tubes H and I. If there is any obstacle to the 
escape of the fluids, the pressure in all the vessels will rise and be 
registered by the height of the mercury in E. To inject, for 
instance, the kidney of a pig, a cannula made of glass tubing must 
be fitted securely into the renal artery, and another (same size) 
into the renal vein. H and I tubes must fit the cannulae well. 
Heat the masses in B and R to a proper temperature, and keep 
them so heated until the injection is finished. Special care must 
be taken with tubes H and I to prevent gelatine passing through 
being frozen. Now clamp H, and let an assistant turn on a small 
stream of water until the gelatine begins to flow slowly from I. If 
the diameter of the cannula is not too small, it may be held with 
the free end up and filled with gelatine, allowed to drop from 
the mouth of I. Then slip I over the cannula and unclamp the 
tube H, and when the gelatine from B begins to flow, slip it over 
the cannula inserted into the vein. Increase the pressure gradually 
until as high as experience has taught to be safe for the organ. 
I have tried this method as recommended on the kidney, the 
arteries and glomerule being uniformly filled with the red mass, 
the veins and the system of capillaries surrounding the renal tubes 
being filled with blue. The lungs and liver are easily well 
injected. Triple injections of liver are made by first injecting the 
hepatic artery with a green mass until the whole liver assumes a 
green tint, and afterwards injecting the portal vein and the hepatic 
vein with red and blue, as above directed. The same apparatus 
may be employed for single injections or the double injection 
described on page io6, by simply clamping one of the tubes C or 
D. As a matter of course, care must be taken that all the corks 
fit tighdy in the bottles, otherwise internal pressure may force them 
out at the very moment when an accident will do most damage. 



1balf*'an*1bour at tbe flDicroscope 

Mftb /I1M% XTutren Mest, f .XS., 3f.1R./lD.S., etc. 



Parasite of Gull, Docophorus Platygaster.— The limbs of 
the insect require careful study, the head with the mouth 
organs, etc., and especially the wavy markings of the integument 



112 HALF-AN-HOUR AT 

like those on some ticks and arachnida. Two moveable appen- 
dages, one in front of either antenna, near its base, must be care- 
fully noted. They are called " trabeculse." I take them to be 
homologous with the " First pair of Antennge " in Crustacea, 
andfshown us as large moveable organs in Daphnia pulex, here but 
rudimentary. 

Gizzard of Flea. — The delicate membranous part, looking 
like a little bag without strings, is a portion of the crop, where- 
into the blood is pumped during one of the creatures' thoughtless 
drunken bouts. Thence the food passes into the bowl-shaped 
middle portion, the gizzard proper. This is lined with teeth, 
arranged in quincunx with beautiful regularity ; the bases of these 
teeth appear like fish-scales in the lower part of the bowl, tending 
more or less to a hexagonal outline as they approach its margin. 
The points of the teeth project forwards, the whole forming a 
powerful mill for grinding blood-corpuscles, some of which may be 
seen in a triturated state along with h^matin in the instructive 
specimen now before me. Endeavouring to compute the number 
of teeth, from three professionally-mounted specimens in my pos- 
session, there appear to be, as nearly as I can make out, just 500 ! 
It is probable important differences may present themselves in 
fleas taken from our beds, or from the cat or dog. The long 
tapering tube pendant from the gizzard is the first part of the 
intestine ; the dark patches I take to be biUary glands in a simple 
form. To complete our knowledge of this object we want a 
specimen mounted, so that we may look into the gizzard from 
above, and another laid open lengthwise to show the teeth. 

Hippobosca equina belongs to a small section of the Diptera, 
whose place in a natural arrangement is at the very end of the 
true insects, and leading directly to the ticks, amongst the acarine 
division of the arachnida. The section includes but two families 
— the Hippoboscidce and the NycteribiidcE. The latter family 
appears to contain but one British genus with a single 
species parasitic on bats, an anomalous, wingless, spider- 
like creature, of which specimens are in the collection of the 
British Museum. It may be considered certain that special 
search amongst bats of various kinds from different countries will 
be repaid by many more forms of these remarkable creatures. To 
the Hippoboscida^ belong the swallow-fly — Stenepteryx Hirundims 
(easily recognised by its long, narrow-pointed wings), the Sheep 
Tick, Mdophagus ovimis, and a few others, which are mostly 
parasitic on birds. Search should be made for them by our mem- 
bers whenever opportunity offers. The bare enumeration of the 
points of structure demanding careful study in this beautiful 
creature would be like a mere Catalogue raisomie, for nothing in 



THE MICROSCOPE. 113 

it can be passed over without loss of knowledge. Antennae ; eyes 
(having crustacean-like, square facets) ; ocelli ; trophi (most singu- 
lar and puzzling, yet yielding important information) ; spiracles 
(seven pairs) ; the powerful thorax ; the singular wings ; the 
balancers ; and the ovipositor. 

The thick tieshy organ on one side in front is the labium ; the 
part in the centre which lies uppermost is the labrum ; this fits 
over a cavity along the top of the li/igua. Into grooves in the 
sides of the lingua fit the maxilhx ; they are enclosed by long, 
narrow, somewhat spoon-shaped organs, the mandibles ; the whole 
being shut in and protected at the base by the pointed, fleshy, 
external organs, the labial palpi. The ocelli should also be noted. 
The metallic zonal colouring of the eyes is very splendid. 

In connection with the limbs, their massive character, the 
tripartite claws, the apodeme, for attachment of the long flexor 
tendon, looking like a pair of combs arranged back to back ; the 
series of tenent hairs on the pads ; the long, plumose, tactile hairs 
between the latter ; and the mode of articulation of the hairs on 
the abdomen, recalling the arrangement of the same parts in the 
Arachnida — all these points require critical attention. I never 
had to work over an object in which it was so difficult to grapple 
with and master the entire details. As opportunity offers allusion 
will be made to these on future occasions. 

Head of Horse-Fly. — Being mounted without pressure, I look 
on this slide as a type of the slides of the future ! The antennae, 
however, should have been removed, and placed on the slide in 
front of the head ; their form is very characteristic. Such should 
be fixed in their places with a little solution of gum tragacanth in 
weak acetic acid. " Go on and prosper " is the best advice that 
can be given. Study nature, and endeavour to preserve, as far as 
may be, the beauties present to the educated eye in all natural 
objects. 



Selected 1Rotc6 from tbc Society's 
1Rote^56ook6, 



Stenocephalus agilis. — Without having devoted much thought 
to the subject, I have always had a feeling that the function attri- 
buted to the saw-like organs of the so-called " Saw-flies " of sawing 
a hole for the deposition of their eggs could scarcely be correct, 
and the observation of this creature, in which these organs are so 
very beautifully developed and so admirably shown on the slide, 
goes far to confirm me in this view. The organs as seen do not 

Vol. VI. I 



114 SELECTED NOTES FROM 

appear to me adapted to the reputed function, and I would 
suggest if their peculiar form be not rather intended for the 
guiding and retarding the otherwise possibly too rapid extrusion 
of the eggs. Here the structure may be followed far beyond the 
possible extrusion of the organ from the body of the creature, 
though somewhat modified. W. Case. 

Gizzard of Flea.— In reference to Mr. West's remarks on the 
Flea's gizzard (see p. 112), I may say I have two prepared as he 
suggests : one was cusp-shaped, and fixed with the mouth upwards, 
so that I could see that the interior was lined with fibres appa- 
rently rooted near the bottom. On applying some pressure, it 
opened into a circle of fibres too numerous for counting. These, 
I suppose, are what Mr. West terms teeth — a name, I think, not 
applicable. Another gizzard is laid on its side, and here the fibres 
bear out my opinion that they are not teeth in the ordinary sense 
of the term. A. Nicholson. 

Trichocolea tomentella.— The fructification of T. tome7itella is 
small, black, and nearly spherical ; it was lately shown me by the 
President, who had found it in a damp wood. After a few 
minutes' exposure in a warm room, its valves expanded (whether 
3 or 4 I cannot say), and under the microscope a brown surface 
was seen— with the spores flying off in all directions — thrown off 
by the elasticity of the elaters. C. P Coombs. 



Negro Skin.— In 1870, when skin grafting was introduced from 
Paris, a piece of Negro-skin was grafted on to the body of a white 
man. The sore healed, and (I beheve) the neighbouring skin 
received the dusky colour. C. P. Coombs. 



Burweed.— Several species of plants possess hooked spines 
on the fruits, or seeds, by which they are carried about 
attached to the fur of animals. Mr. Maynard's specimen (see p. 56) 
is, perhaps, from Xanthium spinosum, a plant something like a 
C/ienopodiu/N, but with spinous leaves, occasionally found in 
waste places in the woollen districts of this country. 

H. F. Parsons. 



Head of Empis.— In a recent note (Joiirtial of Microscopy, 
Vol. V. p. 240J, Mrs. E. M. West speaks of the mandibles 
as attached to the extremity of the long snout, which serves as a 
case for the other parts of the mouth when not in use. Is this 
correct ? My belief is that the organs which she thus describes 
are a spinalised form of the extremity of the labrum ; and for -the 
following reasons : — 



THE society's NOTE-BOOKS. 115 

I. — The mandibles in the Hymenoptera and Neuroptera when 
they are highly developed are attached to the cheeks. In the 
Empis the organs in question are attached to a piece, which is 
jointed on to the clypeus, and beneath which is the lingua (a large 
dagger-like organ, the end of which is correctly indicated in 
Mr. West's figure by the letters /g.) This is the position occupied 
by the labrum in most insects. 

2. — The extremity of the labrum is frequently variously cut and 
notched in the diptera, and is frequently extremely prolonged in 
the Tabanus, or Horse-tiy. 

3. — The organs in question do not appear in the living insect 
as represented in Mr. West's figure^ in which they have been 
flattened out. In the living insect the bristles (not teeth) with 
which the outer edge of the organs in the figure is armed are 
beneath the organ, and parallel to each other — i.e., seen in profile, 
not from above, so that when closed they form a kind of net. 

In one instance (a neuropterous insect, the name of which I 
do not know) the head is prolonged into a snout, and the 
mandibles are at the extremity, but in this case the maxilte, and 
lingua, and labium, are all also at the extremity of the snout. If 
this, then, be an instance of the mandibles at the end of a snout, 
and the other parts attached to the base, it is the only instance I 
have met with in any order. Geo. Crewdson. 

Hybos grossipes belongs to the very large family of Euipidce. 
— The Empidae are common in the spring and early summer; 
towards autumn they become rarer. They are a very interesting 
family on account of the peculiarity of their mouths and antennce. 
Let alone the general build of the fly, an Empis can always be 
recognised by its antennas, which are invariably of the characteristic 
" steeple" shape, (^t^ Journal Micro., Vol. IV., Pis. V. and VI., 
Figs. 6 and 7.) H. M. J. Underhill. 



Slides of Crystals. — I do not agree with those members who 
think that these slides " teach little." In my opinion, the forma- 
tion of a crj'stal is a subject for deep thought. Let us suppose a 
Cubic Crystal to be under inspection. As time goes on it increases 
in size, but is still a cube ; how is it increased ? Is it by adding 
layer to layer as we plaster the walls of our houses, or is it by adding 
cube to cube as we build our chimneys by adding brick to brick ? 
and if so, what was the size of the original germ ? In fancy I can 
see it so very minute, that it may be fairly described as a square 
mathematical point having neither length, breadth, or thickness, 
and yet consisting of a solid, enclosing the water of crystallisation, 
and these are the bricks which form the slides of Asparagine, San- 
tonine, and Salicine. A. Nicholson. 



116 SELECTED NOTES FROM 

Algae. — I noticed a short time ago that boiling water changed 
a red algse to an olive-green colour. This seemed to me to be 
curious. I shall be glad to know the precise effect of heat on 
Chlorophyll. H. M. J. Underhill. 

Crystallisation. — What would a mathematician say of a "cubical 
point " capable of containing something within it ? I imagine that 

Mr. Nicholson does not hold that matter is formed of atoms. 
The Atomic Theory beautifully explains many of the phenomena 
of chemistry, but does not explain crystallisation. 7/^ a substance 
did consist of atoms, the " original germ " would not be cubical. 
We can understand that homogeneous substances, as water 
H.O.H.^ and common salt (Sodic chloride), Na. CI., might 
arrange themselves into symmetrical forms, but it is difficult to 
comprehend how some of the more heterogeneous compounds, as, 
for a familiar example. Citric acid, which is— 

( C H 2 (CO Ho) 

■j C H (CO Ho) 

( C H HO (Co Ho), can arrange themselves symmetrically unless 
we suppose that tlie force of cohesion acts, not equally in all 
directions, as gravitation does, but in certain directions only. 

F. J. Allen. 

Cupric Acid. — My method of making these crystal slides is — I 
am particularly careful to have the glass-slips pei-fcctly clean and 
free from grease, by wiping with Liq. Ammonia or Liq. Potash. 
I then make a solution in water of the sulphate, in an equally clean 
glass tube. I now hold the slip over my micro lamp until it is 
almost too hot to touch, and then, with a clean glass rod, spread a 
drop of the liquid (not too much) in the centre of the slip. When 
it begins to steam, I gradually raise the slip from the lamp, thus 
lessening the heat, and in a second or two the liquid will have 
become dry, and the spirals formed. As soon as the slip has 
cooled, I mount in Dammar, and have not yet (i8 months) noticed 
signs of deliquescence. I do not succeed with every slide, but 
think I get a fair average success. J. M. Williams. 

Sections of Mountain Limestone.— I must explain how it is 
that some sections are thick. In making cuttings, only about one 
specimen in three contains something interesting, and perhaps a 
third of the best ones break during the process of grinding, and 
the cracks come at the junction of shells, etc., with the crystalline 
limestone. I therefore generally cease to " thin " when the 
section is moderately transparent. If the rock is successfully 
ground to extreme thinness, the nature of many of the objects 
cannot be well seen, for the crystals of the carbonate of lime 
attract the eye everywhere. I will endeavour to explain the dif- 



THE society's NOTE-BOOKS. 117 

ference thus : — If you look at a room through the window, you 
can see a great deal of everything therein ; but if one were to see 
only a thin section of any part, all that would be noticed would 
be the walls, the profile of mantel-piece, of some part of a chair, 
a table, etc. In like manner one can recognise the shape of a 
glass tumbler when one sees it whole, but a section merely 

shows I I ; hence it is that a section of wood made longitudinally 

is better when thick than when made very thin. In one case one can 
well recognise the nature and size of the dotted ducts ; in the 

other one merely has a serrated outline, -^ ^~^-.^-_ Qf course, 

one must always seek to get sufficient transparency to permit 
light to pass. I have a beautiful section of jet, which shows lines 
radiating in all directions from a centre towards the eye — away 
from it and laterally ; but these can only be shown by a strong 
light condensed. If I were to thin the specimen, I should lose either 
the centre or the lines which radiate to or from the eye. 

J. Inman. 

Glycerine Jelly v. Canada Balsam for mounting Entomolo- 
gical slides. — I am glad to find that some agree with me that 
" clearness of specimens is not the perfection of mounting." Let 
anyone mount two specimens of the same object, one in C. Balsam 
and the other in G. jelly, and compare them. The Balsam one 
will be perhaps as clear as glass, of a very pretty colour, varying 
between amber, yellow, and sepia ; the Glycerine jelly mount will 
at first-sight look woolly, and not nearly so pretty in colour as the 
former ; but on closer inspection, the jelly mount will show far 
more detail than the other. The woolliness is 77ot in the jelly, for 
it is as clear as the balsam, nor is it dirt, for the effect is the same 
in the most perfectly cleaned specimens. It must, therefore, be in 
the objects themselves, and surely no one would willingly conceal 
the characteristics of his specimens for the sake of prettiness. 

r. J. Allen. 

Cement.— Brunswick Black and Gold Size in equal proportions 
I have found a worthy cement for fastening down covers on cells 
in dry mounts. It is far superior to Brunswick black alone, and 
is a cement requiring little or no trouble in preparation. I have 
tried it for glycerine jelly mounts, and in most cases it has answered 
well. It is best for this class of objects if the size is <?/^ when 
mixed, as it is not so fluid, and therefore less liable to run in. 

J. C. Hope. 

Cement— Kay's Coaguline is in my opinion the best for fixing 
cells and for dry mounts. I find it is often desirable to put a ring 
of it on slides other than dry mounts, thereby cementing together 
both cover and slide. The advantages of coaguline are — i. That, 



lis SELECTED NOTES FROM 

it is very easily worked by putting the bottle in hot water. 2. That 
it sticks well. 3. That it is almost transparent. For fluid mounts 
and glycerine jelly, I use Bell's cement, which answers very well, 
but I always finish off with a coat of coaguline. 

■ — AV. Sargent, Jun. 

Pitchstone, from Arran, is a very remarkable rock which forms 
veins and dykes intruding amongst the sandstones of the Island. 
It varies in colour, and also in its contents, but speaking generally, 
it may be described as a clear glassy base, which has been consid- 
ered to be a vitreous state of Felsite rock. 'I'his base is densely 
crowded with minute crystals (Belonites, or Trichites) of Pyroxene 
or Angite. These are sometimes straight needles, but are also 
frequently disposed in beautiful fern-like groups. Besides these 
Belonites, the base also sometimes encloses crystals or granules of 
Quartz, also crystals of Sanidine, and laminae of Mica, together 
with strange little balls of Felsite (?) J. M. Mello. 

Feet of Fly. — I believe it to be an established fact that flies' 
feet are not suckers, but merely what they seem to be — brushes, 
the hairs of which give out a liquid. However, neither the experi- 
ment with powder, nor the fact that if you breathe on glass, a fly 
cannot walk on it because of the moisture, appear to prove to me 
that the pads are not suckers. Supposing that they were suckers, 
I think that just the same effects would be produced. Mr. Black- 
wall's statement (if true, which cannot be doubted) proves the fact 
that the hairs exude moisture. He says, that if the " track " made 
by a fly on a piece of glass be examined with a high power, foot- 
prints (so to speak), formed by moisture, may be detected. Of 
course, if a fly leaves moisture behind it, it must have exuded it, 
and, as far as I see, there is no need for this fluid to be glutinous. 
If merely viscid like glycerine or oil, it would stick just as well. 
Let any observer try to remove one piece of wetted glass from 
another, by pulling it away in a direction perpendicular to the sur- 
face, it will require very considerable force to remove it ; but let 
him lift up one end first, and it can be done with ease. 

H. M. J. Underhill. 

Hind Leg of Ailantus Scrophulariae, one of the common 

green Sawflies. — This slide has been sjiecially prepared in further- 
ance of the discussion on the Feet of Flies. The foot has not 
been treated with Liq. Potass?e, therefore, it retains its natural appear- 
ance to a considerable degree, and has not even lost its original 
green colour. In order to get a correct idea of insects' feet, they 
should be examined dry ViXid fresh from t/ie insect, or mounted in 
fluid without treatment by alkali. Liq. Potassa^ dissolves out some 
of the essential parts, and balsam gives the pads the appearance of 



THE society's NOTE-BOOKS. 119 

amber spoons, thereby favouring the sucker theory. The present 
specimen was taken from an insect which had been killed by 
immersion in methylated spirit, and kept in the same for twenty-four 
hours. The spirit serves more purposes than one — e.g., it displaces 
the air from the cellular structures, and by its antiseptic properties 
prevents after-decomposition. After removal from the spirit, it 
was immediately washed in water and mounted in jelly. The 
claws and pads are unpacked to their full extent, and may, there- 
fore, be examined to advantage. The ^ad betiveen the clazus is not 
covered with long viscid hairs, and those who support the simple 
sucker theory will think this is in its favour ; but, nevertheless, it 
is covered with short hairs, which, even if they are not viscid, must 
interfere with the action of the suckers. 

The pads on the underside of the joints are of a different charac- 
ter, and are covered with long, viscid hairs, like the pads of 
Diptera's and other insects' feet. I should like to know how such 
pads as this can " suck," for even if each hair have a separate 
sucker, I do not think there would be surface enough on three 
feet of a blue-bottle or a gnat, to support it on a perpendicular 
glass window, whereas they seem to have no difficulty in walking 
up a window, though they must at times have three feet off the 
" ground " at once. F. J. Allen. 

Eozoon Canadense. — This is a Foraminifer, or rather the 
fossilised and partly metamorphosed remains of one, which is not 
only gigantic in size, but also represents all that is yet known of 
the earhest forms of animal life on the globe. The shape of the 
Foraminifer is not known, but it certainly attained upwards of a 
square foot in size, and was several inches thick ; its mode of 
growth was zoophytic, related in this respect to the Polycistina. 
The original shell is represented by the calcareous layers, while 
the sarcode is represented by the serpentine and other silicates 
which fill up the imperfectly separated chambers of the shell. This 
latter characteristic resembles that of Carpeiiteria. This remark- 
able fossil Avas first discovered by Dr. Wilson and others, and 
pronounced to be an organic form by Sir W. Logan. It was found 
in the Lower Laurentian Limestones of Canada, and is, therefore, 
as I have said, the oldest fossil in the world. J. M. Mello. 



Lepidolite. — The commonest form of this mineral is seen in 
those thin laminje, sometimes used as smoke-consumers for 
lamps. It contains lithia, as that substance is shown by the use 
of the spectroscope. J. M. Mello. 

Cement for Finishing Slides. — Take dry white-lead (flake- 
white) and crush fine with a spatula, or old table-knife, and as 
much turpentine as will make a thick paste, then grind fine. 



120 SELECTED NOTES FROM SOCIETY'S NOTE-BOOKS. 

Something is then wanted to bind the colour together when dry. 
Dammar or Canada balsam will do, but neither are so good as 
Copal varnish. Several kinds of this varnish can be had at the 
oil and colour shops, but for this purpose it must dry without heat, 
and be free from colour. That which is known in the trade as 
La)/ip-hcad vvccmsh. is the best, it dries in about two hours ; Cabinet 
varnish is good, but rather longer in drying. Spirit varnishes are 
worthless for this purpose, as they are brittle. About an equal 
bulk of varnish should be added to the colour ; if less is used the 
work will look dull, if more is used the colour will be wanting in 
body. 

Before proceeding to lay on the coloured ring, it is a safe plan 
to put on two or three coats of something which will prevent 
running in. I have used two coats of Copal varnish, each to be 
well dried before laying on another. I have also used a varnish 
made of shellac dissolved in methylated spirit, and, as this is brittle, 
I add about one-eighth gutta percha. This is a useful cement for 
gelatine and glycerine mounts. The rings should have one or two 
coats of pure varnish as a finish. Thos. Lisle. 

Saws of Saw-flies. — Saw-flies are of the order of Hymenoptera ; 
they are separated from the Bees and Wasps by the fact of having 
the abdomen united to the thorax by its whole breadth, instead of 
being merely connected to it by a short tube or a foot-stalk. 
Their mouths are not unlike the mouths of wasps,, but their'con- 
struction is simpler, the labium (lower lip) not being so highly 
developed, although considerably more complicated than the labia 
of beetles. The lamily of the Te/it/ircdiiiidie are true saw-flies ; 
but I believe that the corn saw-fly, Cc'p/inspygmce7is, is a connecting 
genus between the Tcnthredinidce and the Siricidcv, whose oviposi- 
tors are more like the ovipositors of the Ichneiimonidoi. The 
mouths of Siricidiz are very small ; the mouth of Sirex gigas, or 
Giant saw-fly, which is the largest of the Hymenoptera, and 
bigger than a hornet, is much smaller than the mouth of the com- 
mon wasp. Indeed, its parts are so rudimentary, that I doubt if 
the insect ever eats, or if it does it can eat but little. I have, 
however, no direct evidence on this point. I believe the saws of 
the genus Lyda are adapted for cutting very soft leaves, for the 
teeth are very large, and their form, which is not only that of teeth 
along the edge, but of projecting ribs from the blade of the saw, 
seems admirably adapted to prevent them from clogging. It was 
stated in Science Gossip, some years back, that the egg does 
not, as was formerly supposed, come down between the blades of 
the saws, but that it is laid by a proper ovipositor, which is like the 
ovipositors of the 1 )iptera. I regret that I have never dissected 
a saw-fly with sufficient care to prove this statement, but I have 
little doubt of its truth. H. M. J. Underhill. 



IRcports of Societies. 



[ JFe shall be glad if Secretaries 7a ill send 7is notices of Meetings 
of their Societies. Short abstracts of papers read, and priiicipal 
objects exhibited, will always be acceptable.^ 

COUNTY OF MIDDLESEX NATURAL HISTORY 
AND SCIENCE SOCIETY. 

AT a Meeting of the " County of Middlesex Natural History 
and Science Society " held at the Townhall, Kilburn, on 
December 2TSt, 1886, about 60 members being present, 
Mr. W. Mattieu Williams, F.R.A.S., F.C.S., was elected to the 
chair, and after the business of the Society had been transacted, 
the following papers were read : — • 

" Some Curious Facts connected with the Evolution of the Eye," 
by Mrs. Eodington ; and " Notes on Flora met with on the occasion 
of the Excursion of the Society to Hampstead, with Special 
Reference to that of Caen Wood," by Dr. H. J. Wharton, M.A. 

In the discussion which followed, Mr. Lant Carpenter spoke 
upon the depths to which light penetrated in the ocean, and 
referred to the size of the eyes in deep-sea fishes. 

Mr. Sydney T. Klein gave some interesting notes on the 
" eyeless " fish of the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky, which he had 
visited, and called attention to the Ocelli of Hymenoptera, some 
fine- examples being shown by him under the microscope. 

The Chairman, Mr. W. Mattieu Williams, made an ingenious 
and interesting suggestion that the Ocelli were for the appreciation 
of neither light nor sound waves, but for those vibrations which 
lie between these extremes, pointing out the enormous distance 
which lay between the highest sound and the lowest visible ray. 

Mr. James Smith exhibited a curious example of a compound 
eye of a fly, in which the facets in the lower half were of different 
size to those of the upper part. 

Mr. E. M. Nelson, a section of eye of rat and the eyes of a 
spider. The former was a marvellous example of successful 
injection, the finest ramification of veins remaining quite perfect. 

Mr. Charles Rousselet, a larva of Hydrocampa nymphcealis. 

Mr. Charles D. Sherborne, a large and very perfect trilobite ; 
also section of coal showing sporangia. 

Dr. F. A. Walker, a case of Neuroptera, etc. 

A vote of thanks to the Chairman terminated a very successful 
and pleasant evening. 

Some Fine Slides. — Mr. Anderson, of Ilkeston, has sent us 

six exceedingly well-mounted slides, viz. — Karwig, Garden Spider, Dung Fly, 
Mole Flea (Alale and Female on same Slide), Ground Beetle, and Larva of 
Drinker Moth, ^^'e are not sure that we have met with better specimens of 
whole-insect mounts. 



[122 ] 

1Revicw6. 



Handbook of Practical Botany, for the Botanical Labora- 
tory and Private Student. By E. Strasburger. Edited from the German by 
\V. Hillhouse, JNI.A., F.L.S. Revised by the Author, and with many 
additional Notes by the Author and Editor. With Ii6 original and iS addi- 
tional illustrations. 8vo., pp. xxiv.— 425. (London i Swan Sonnenschein & 
Co. 1S87.) Price 9s. 

This will prove a valuable book for the Botanical student. It is 
divided into 32 chapters, each of which will furnish practical work for several 
hours in the laboratory. Good and clear instructions are given for prepar- 
ing all the various parts of the plant for microscopical study. We find 
also some important chapters on the lower form of plant-life. The greater part 
of the illustrations have been drawn by the author from nature. 

American Medicinal Plants : An Illustrated Descriptive 
Guide, by Millspaugh. (New York : Boericke & Tafel.) 

We have much pleasure in acknowledging the 5th fascicle of this most 
valuable work. This volume contains illustrated descriptions of 30 plants 
used in medicine. Each plant is represented full-size and coloured to nature, 
the size of plates being 9 in. by 12 in., and are accompanied by generally four 
pages of letterpress, in which will be found— The Natural Order of the Plant, 
its Tribe, Genus, its place in the Linnxan System, Synonyms (if any), and 
Common Names. Then we have a general description of the plant under 
notice, and of the genus to which it belongs ; its history and habitat ; parts used 
in medicine, and method of preparation ; chemical constituents ; and physio- 
logical action. Only one fascicle now remains to complete this fine work ; it is 
promised very shortly. 

An Elementary Text-Book of British Fungi. By Wm. 
Delisle Hay, F.R.G.S. 8vo, pp. vii.— 238. (London: Swan Sonnenschein 
& Co. 1887.) Price 15s. . . , r 

This work deals exclusively with the larger kmds of Fungi, and alter 
describing the characteristics of Fungi generally, their Economic use, Structural 
Anatomy, and Classification, devotes a larger space to the edible kinds, of 
which 221 species are fully described. The author is most anxious that Mush- 
rooms should be more extensively eaten than they now are in England, and 
gives 133 recipes for preparing them for table. It is to be regretted that an 
article of food so nutritious and so easily obtainable should be so_ generally 
neglected, and Mr. Hay will have done good service if he excites an intelligent 
interest in the matter. At the end of the book are 64 well-executed plates, 
with descriptions opposite. 

The First Book of Botany : a Practical Guide in Self- 
Teaching ; Designed to cultivate the Observing and Reasoning Powers of 
Children. By Eliza A. Youmans. Crown 8vo, pp. 158. (New York : D. 
Appleton & Co. 1886.) 

A really valuable little book for teaching the first principles of Botany to 
Children. It lays the foundation for a study of botany in the only true way, by 
providing for the actual and ready study of the plants themselves. The pupils 
are taught to observe the different parts of plants, and to apply to them the 
correct scientific terms, which by constant use become easy to remember. The 
book contains 249 good engravings, in which the different parts of the plants 
are very clearly described. 



REVIEWS. 123 

Easy Lessons in Botany according to the requirements of 

the New Code. By Edward Step. With 120 Illustrations, pp. 48. (London : 
T. Fisher Unwin. 1886.) Price 7d. 

This little book appears to be very nicely adapted for the instruction of 
children. It treats the subject very thoroughly, and at the same time in a 
simple and understandable manner. The illustrations are good, and well 
explained. 

Our Woodland Trees. By Francis George Heath, Author 
of the Fern World, etc. New edition. Crown 8vo, pp. xx. — 572. (London : 
James Nisbet & Co. 1887.) Price 7s. 6d. 

A book beautifully got up, and most interestingly written. The author, 
whose aim is to enkindle a love of Nature in the hearts of his readers, has 
divided his book into four parts : Part I. treats of the Life of a Tree : its 
Germ, Early Growth, Structure, Development, Perfection, and Beauty; II., 
describes some Woodland Rambles ; III., treats of Trees at Home ; and IV., 
of British Woodland Trees. 

There are a number of uncoloured plates, eight coloured, and several 
smaller engravings. 

Sylvan Spring. By Francis George Heath. With twelve 
coloured plates. Crown 8vo. (London : James Nisbet & Co. 1S87.) Parts 
I. and II. 

Lovers of the country will find much to interest them in the work before us. 
It is arranged to be published in six monthly parts, at one shilling each. In 
addition to the twelve coloured plates there will be sixteen full-page wood 
engravings, and a great number of smaller illustrations interspersed amongst 
the text. 

Sputum : its Microscopy, and Diagnostic and Prognostic 

Significations. Illustrated with numerous Photo- Micrographic and Chromo- 
Lithographic Plates,. By Francis Troup, M.D. 8vo, pp. 268. (Edinburgh : 
Oliver & Boyd, 18S6.) Price 15s. 

This fine work goes very thoroughly into the "Subject of which it treats, 
commencing with the Microscope and Photo- Micrography, with instructions 
for its practice, and followed by the subject-matter of the book. It is splen- 
didly illustrated with six Chromo-Lithographic, and 36 Photogravure plates, 
all being of the highest class of excellence. 



Through a Microscope : Something of the Science, together 

with many curious observations indoor and out, and directions for a home-made 
Microscope. By Samuel Wells, Mary Treat, and Frederick Leroy Sargent. 
Post Svo, pp. 126. (Chicago : The Interstate Pub. Co.) 

This little book is intended for very young people, and contains much that 
is instructive, especially when it treats of P'resh-water Life ; but we can 
scarcely think the author (or authors) to be quite in earnest. When describing 
the microscope, the child is told "To understand this, take out one of your eyes 

and look at it with the other one, and if you hold a doll or anything 

else about ten inches in front of the eye you have taken out, and look at the 
inside of it (the eye, not the doll) you will see the doll upside down on the 
back of the eye." 

We learn from this book, also, that the citizens of Boston have only to turn 
on their domestic water-taps to obtain nearly every variety of fresh-water life ; 
and also that these animals are just as good eaten raw as when cooked. 



12-i REVIEWS. 

Catalogue of Microscopical Collection : arranged by 
R. H. Ward, A.M., M.D., F.R.M.S. (Troy, New York.) 

This is a handsomely bound 4to vol. of ruled papers, in which a full record 
of all the slides in one's private collection may be entered. 

Each double page, as the book lies open, is designed to record the following 
particulars of ten slides, viz. — Common and Scientific names ; Special Points 
shown ; Illumination ; Power required ; Reference to authorities ; Habitat ; 
How obtained ; How preserved and injected ; How cut, stained, cleaned, etc. : 
Mounting medium and Cement used ; Thickness of cover-glass ; Date ; Num- 
ber in Cabinet, etc. etc. 

At the end of the book will be found blank pages for ^lemoranda, Recipes, 
etc., and an Alphabetical Index. 

The Catalogue is certainly the most comprehensive and complete of the 
kind we have ever met with, and is evidently the outgrowth of the doctor's 
long experience and needs as a microscopist. We only wish we could have 
met with such a one ten years ago. 

It is handsomely half-bound in morocco, with cloth sides ; the price for one 
arranged of i,ooo slides is $4, for 2,000 slides $6. 

For larger collections the Appendix is found to be more convenient if 
bound in a separate volume. We have received for sale a few of the 1000 
edition. 



Studies in Microscopical Science. Since our last issue we 
have received Nos. 5; 6, and 7 of these important studies. Sec. I, Studies in 
"Vegetable Physiology ; No. 5, Treats of Storage Cells and Reserve Food 
Material, illustrated with slide and plate of section of Cotyledon of Pea {Pisuin 
sativum) ; 6, Protoplasmic Continuity, illustrated by a longitudinal section of 
sieve-tubes of Vegetable Ma.rrovi ( Cumilu'fa fepo) ; 7, Hausteria, illustrated 
by a section of Dodder in parasitic connection with stem of Common Clover. 
Sec. 2, Animal Histology, Treats of the Ovary and Mammary Glands in 
Mammalia, and the Ovary and Ova in Birds, illustrated by slides and drawings 
of Uterus of Rabbit, Mammary Glands of Cat, and Ovary of Bird. Sec. 3, 
Pathological Histology, treats of Congestion of Kidney and Fatty Degenera- 
tion of that organ, the slides and plates illustrating the same being Fatty 
Degeneration of Kidney, Parenchymatous nephritis, and Plbrosis of Kidney. 
Sec. 4, Popular Microscopical Studies, in which the chapter on Sea Fans is 
concluded. Red Seaweeds are described, and an article on Microbes. These are 
accompanied by slides and plates of tranverse section of Root of Dock ; 
transverse section Fibro-Vascular Bundle of Maize and Microbes. All the 
slides are of their usual excellence. 

The Handy Natural History. By J. G. Wood. With 226 
Illustrations. Foolscap 4to, xvi. — 367. (London : The Religious Tract 
Society. 18S6.) Price 8s. 

Like all the rest of the Rev. J. G. Wood's works, the book before us is exceed- 
ingly interesting. It treats of the (^)uadrumana, Cheiroptera, Carnivora of the 
Land and of the Water, Ungulata, and Non-Ruminant Hoofed Animals, 
Rodents, Edentates, Marsupials, Birds, and Reptiles. The whole work is 
beautifully got up, and the illustrations are excellent. 



An Elementary Course in Practical Zoology. By Buel 
P. Colton. Crown Svo, pp. xvi.— 185. (Boston, U.S.A. : D. C. Heath & Co. 
1886.) _• 

This is an admirable class-book, the general plan of study recommended being 
I. — The collecting and preserving the specimens, for whicli very plain direc- 
tions are given. 2. — The live animal is studied. 3.— The external features 



REVIEWS. 125 

are noted. 4. — The animal is dissected. 5. — The development of a few 
forms is traced. 6. — After studying each animal, its relations to other animals 
are considered. Thirty-two insects and other animals are studied, all of which, 
with perhaps one exception, may be obtained here. 



First Book of Zoology. By Edward S. Morse, Ph. D. 
Crown Svo, pp. xiv. — 190. (New York : D. Appleton & Co. 1S85.) 

Those who wish to gain a general knowledge of the structure, habits, 
modes of growth, and other leading features concerning the common animals 
by which we are surrounded, more especially the lower animals, will find great 
assistance in the study of this book. The outline illustrations of insects 
and parts of insects are very excellent. 



British Stalk-eyed Crustacea and Spiders, with an 

account of their Structure, Classification, and Habitats. By F. A. A. Skuse. 
Post Svo, pp. 128. (London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co. 18S7.) Price is. 

We are glad to welcome another admirable little book of the Young 
Collector series. The author first describes the Paraphernalia required by 
Collectors of both Crustacea and Spiders ; next M-e have a chapter on the 
Development of these two classes of Animals ; next their Habitats and Habits, 
Classification, Collecting, Uses ; and last the Cabinet. The illustrations are 
numerous and good. 

Entertainments in Chemistry: Easy Lessons and Direc- 
tions for Safe Experiments. By Harry W. Tyler, S.B. Post Svo, pp. 79. 
(Chicago : The Interstate Pub. Co.) 

This book is written for young people, its aim being to show them what 
Chemistry is, and how to study it. Amongst the subjects treated of are : — 
The Gases which form the Air, the Chemistry of a Candle, a Glass of Water, 
etc. A great deal of information may be gained by thoughtfully reading this 
book. ■ 

Electricity and Its Uses. By J. Munro. With numerous 
engravings. Second edition, revised and enlarged. Post Svo, pp. xv. — 200. 
(London : Religious Tract Society. 1887.) Price 3s. 6d.) 

We find here, in a readable and popular form, much information about 
Electricity, Batteries, the Telegraph, the Telephone, and the Microphone, and 
a great variety of other matters relating thereto. The edition before us has 
been enlarged so as to include an account of many recent improvements and 
new applications of electricity. 

Rules of Perspective : Explained, Illustrated, and adapted 
to Practical use. By M. M. Runciman. With letter of approval from John 
Ruskin, Esq., M.A., etc. Also remarks on Linear Drawing, adapted from 
the French of J. T. Trebault. 

A Manual of Flower Painting in Oils fron^ Nature, with 
instructions for Preliminary Practice. By W. J. Aluckley. Fifth edition. 

A Short Study in Gothic Architecture, with Illustrations. 
By S. T. H. Parkes. Second Edition. 

A Manual of Fruit and Still-Life Painting in Oil and 
Water-colours, from Nature. By W. J. Muckley. Second Edition. 

The Art of Pen-and-Ink Drawing, commonly called 
Etching. By H. R. Robertson. Second Edition. 

Trees and How to Draw them, with Illustrations. By Philip 
H. Delamotte. 



126 REVIEWS. 

The Rudiments of Decorative Painting (as applied to 

the Rooms of a Dwelling-house). By Owen W. Davis. (London : Winsor 
and Newton.) Price is. each. 

These form a valuable Series of little Hand-books for the Art Student, 
embracing almost every department of art. They are well illustrated, many 
of them with coloured plates. We notice that tlie series now consists of at 
least 42 Nos., all uniformly bound in stiff yellow paper covers. 

The Lelsure Hour Volume for 1886. pp. 860. (London 
Office, 56 Paternoster Row.) Price 7s. 

This well-known Magazine offers a large amount and a great variety of 
most interesting and instructive reading, comprising Tales and Sketches, 
Natural History Notes and Anecdotes, Notes on Current Science, etc. 

We know of no book containing so large a selection of reading more 
suitable for the leisure hour. 

Our Earth and its Story. Edited by Dr. Robert Brown. 

(London : Cassell & Co. 1887.) Price 7d. monthly. 

Parts L and H. of this new Magazine are to hand. In them is commenced 
an account of the Physical and Geological History of the Earth, Chapter I. 
dealing with Land and Water, their Proportions and Relations ; Chapter II., 
The Earth's Crust, its Composition and Formation. Each part contains a 
beautifully coloured plate, and a number of full-page and smaller engravings. 
A large Presentation Plate is given with Part I. 



Sonnets on Nature and Science. By S. Jefferson, F.R.A.S., 
etc. Square i6mo, pp. 96. (London : T. Fisher Unwin. 1886.) Price 2s. 6d. 

This little book contains on each page a sonnet on some subject relating to 
Nature or Science. Many of them are very readable and pretty. 

The Animal World, an Advocate of Humanity. Vol. XVH. 
pp. 188. 

Band of Mercy. Vol. VHL, pp. 96. 

(London : S. W. Partridge & Co. 1886.) 

Two very excellent magazines, issued by the Royal Society for the Preven- 
tion of Cruelty to Animals. The first, as its name implies, is devoted almost 
exclusively to Animals and Anecdotes, etc., respecting them. 

We might say pretty much the same of the Band of Me7ry, but should add 
that it is addressed to little children. Both are calculated to do a large amount 
of good in inculcating on young people habits of kindness to animals. 



The Patriarchal Times. By Rev. Thomas Whitelaw, D.D. 
Crown 8vo, pp. 309. (London : James Nisbet & Co. 1887.) Price 6s. 

This is a book worthy of careful study. It treats of the Creation of the 
World ; The Appearing of Man ; The Cradle of the Race ; The P'irst Age of 
History ; The Judgment of the Flood ; The Second Age of History ; The 
Table of Nations ; The Tower of Babel ; The Call and the Pilgrimage of 
Abraham. It treats all the sulyects very thoroughly, arguing both from the 
Inspired Writings and from Modern Science. 

The Temple of Solomon. By Thomas Newberry, Editor of 

the Englishman's Bible. Post Svo, pp. 60. (London : James Nisbet & Co. 
1887.) ' Price IS. 

This interesting little book contains Notes of Addresses delivered at the 
Victoria Hall, Weston-super-Mare, and describes in very understandable 



REVIEWS. 127 

language— I. — The Temple Courts. 2. — The Temple of Solomon. 3. — The 
Materials of the Temple. 4. — The Altar of Burnt-Offering. 

Young Plants and Polished Corners ; or, Nature in the 

Light of the Bible. By Charles Hewitson Nash, M.A. Post 8vo, pp. x. — 220. 
(London : James Nisbet & Co. 1887.) Price 3s. 6d. 

This little book is addressed to our boys and girls, and in an interesting 
manner the author first studies with them the beauties of Nature, and afterwards 
draws such lessons from the study as to carry their thoughts to higher things. 
All young people and those who have the care and instruction of the young 
would do well to read this book. • — 

Forbidden Fruit, for Young Men. By Major Seton Churchill. 
Pp. xii.— 269. (London: Nisbet & Co. 1887.) Price 2s. 6d. 

This excellent little work is intended chiefly for the use of young men as a 
warning against physical and social evils. It is written in such a robust, 
manly, and yet careful manner, that we heartily commend its perusal, feeling 
that it cannot but be helpful to all. 

Disease and Sin : a New Text-book for Medical and Divinity 
Students. By a Medical Muser. Crown 8vo, pp. xii. — 300. (London : 
Wyman & Sons. 1886.) 

The author, in his preface, states that this work is intended for the use of 
Medical and Divinity Students. 

With a vigorous pen he attacks the morl^id, unhealthy sentimentalism of 
some religious professors and socialists, and if his suggestions were adopted 211 
toto, we should certainly have a revolution in modern society. 



The Biblical Illustrator. By Rev. Joseph S. Exell, M.A. 
No. 3. Price yd. monthly. (London : James Nisbet & Co. 18S7.) 

Sunday School Teachers and others similarly engaged, will find the 
Biblical Instructor very helpful. It consists of Anecdotes, Similes, Emblems, 
Illustration, Expository, Scientific, Geographical, Historical, and Homiletic, 
gathered for a wide range of Foreign Literature, on the verses of the Bible. 

The part before us embraces from the 15th verse of 7th chapter of Matthew 
to the 37th verse of the loth chapter. 

The Man of Science the Man of God : Leaves from the 
Life of Sir James G. Simpson. By Rev. Charles Bullock, B.D. Crown 8vo, 
pp. 90. (London : " Home Words " Office.) 

We have derived much pleasure from reading this book. Sir James 
Simpson, the Inventor of Aucesthetics in Surgery, was undoubtedly all that he 
is said to be in the title of this book. 



Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation. With an 
Introduction, by Henry Morley. Post Svo, pp. 286. (London : George 
Routledge & Sons. i8S7.)_ 

A volume of Morley's Universal Library, and is a cheap edition, unabridged 
but without illustration, of this well-known and famous work, by the late 
Robert Chambers. 

Heroes OF Science : Physicists. By William Garnett, M.A., 
D.C.L. Post 8vo, pp. vii. — 332. (London : Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge.) Price 4s. 

Much important and interesting biographical information is given us in 
these pages of some of those men who have distinguished themselves in the 
world of physical science. 



128 REVIEWS. 

Those whose biographies are here given, are Robert Boyle, Benjamin 

Franklin, Henry Cavendish, Count Rumford, Thomas Young, Michael Fara- 
day, and James Clerk Maxwell. 

The Road to the North Pole. First and Second Series. 
Post 8vo, pp. 128—127. (London: The Religious Tract Society.) 2 Vols. 
Price IS. each. 

Two interesting books of True Adventures for young people. Vol. I. tells 
of the Expeditions of Captain Charles Francis Hall, on the George Henry and 
Polaris. Vol. H. narrates the American Expedition in the Arctic steamer, 
Jea)inette, 

Mathematical Teaching and its Modern Methods. By 
Truman Henry Safford, Ph. D. Post Svo, pp. 47. (Boston, U.S.A. : D. C. 
Heath & Co. 1887.) 

Another of the useful little Monographs on Education, and, hke its prede- 
cessors, will be found to be fully up to the mar k. 

The Journal of Education : a Monthly Record and Review. 
4to, pp. 524. (London : The Ofiice, 86 Fleet Street.) Price 6d. monthly. 

We have before us the Vol. for 18S6, and believe that it deals most 
thoroughly with the subject of Education in all its branches. Its contributors 
are chiefly gentlemen who are practically engaged in education in public and 
private schools ; the articles are carefully written, and to the point. We notice, 
also, that monthly prizes are given for translations from French, German, and 
Latin, and for a small fee unsuccessful competitors may have translations 
corrected and returned. ;- 

Household Health. By Benjamin Ward Richardson, M.D., 
F.R.S. Post 8vo, pp. 192. (London: Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge. 1886.) Price is. 

This is one of " The People's Library," and is a sequel to The Guild of 
Good Life, reviewed by us some time ago. It is written for the people, and is 
deserving of a place in every home, as it tells us how to keep them healthy. 

The Volcano under the City. By a Volunteer-Special. 
Post Svo, pp. 350. (New York : Fords, Howard, and Hulbert. 1SS7.) 
Price %i. 

Describes a great riot which occurred in New York, in 1863, and lasted for 
four days, and in which more than fourteen hundred men were killed. The 
author, being a Volunteer-special for the occasion, was an eye-witness of much 
of the sad work, and writes in a great measure from his own personal know- 
ledge. 

Humorous Gems from American Literature. Edited by G. 
Edward A. Mason. Post 8vo, pp. 384. (London : Geo. Routledge & Sons. 
1887.) Price 3s. 6d. 

A selection of some of the best of the humorous writings of American 
authors, amongst which we notice Irving, Longfellow, Holmes, Beecher Stowe, 
Ward Beecher, Shaw Lowell, Browne (Artemus Ward), and many others. 
The selections are well made. 

Heads and Faces, and How to Study them. By Nelson 

Si7.er and H. S. Drayton, A.M., M.D. Svo, pp. 199. (New York : Fowler, 
Wells, & Co. 1S86.) 

This is a Manual of Phrenology and Physiognomy for the People, Mr. 
Sizer being President of the American Institute of Phrenology ; Dr. Drayton, 
Editor of the P/irenological Joiirnal. It contains 245 illustrations. Those who 
would learn how to study the characters of their friends should read this 
book. 



THE JOURNAL OF MICROSCOPY 

AND 

NATURAL SCIENCE : 

the journal of 
The Postal Microscopical Society. 



JULY, 1887. 



2)imorpbi£ini in f uiiGi. 

By George Norman, M.R.C.S., F.R.M.S., etc. 
Plates 15, 16, 17. 

PROPOSE under this head to treat whatever may 
be further included under the terms Polyimor- 
PHiSM, Pleomorphism, and Hetercecism. The 
subject is one of very great interest owing to the 
effect that is being produced by this systematic 
study of the life histories of Fungi on the old lines 
of classification. Many genera and families are 
now seen to have no independent position, but to 
be simply stages in the growth of some other 
fungus, and a thoroughly fresh classification is thus needed — and is 
in fact being already attempted — amongst nearly all classes of Fungi 
except the Hyiimiomyceies. The subject is also one of very great 
difficulty owing to the minuteness and fragility of the parts to be 
observed, the great resemblances between certain parts of the 
Vol. VI. K 




130 DIMORPHISM IN FUNGI, 

Structure in different specimens, especially the mycelium, and the 
frequent sources of error that arise in the course of experiments 
from the universal dispersion of spores of all kinds in the atmo- 
sphere, and from the undoubted hereditary fungoid infection in 
many plants. 

For the sake of clearness, we can divide our subject into two 
groups : — 

I. — That in which two or more forms occur consecutively or 
simultaneously on the same individual. 

2. — That in which two or more forms appear on a different 
mycelium, on a different part of the same plant, or on a matrix 
wholly distinct and different. 

The examples to be brought forward are simply illustrative and 
suggestive. It would be impossible, within the limits of an ordi- 
nary paper, to deal exhaustively with the subject. 

Taking, then, the first and simplest division, we have a 
common example in the well-known mould, Aspergillus glancus, a 
specimen of which would be furnished from almost any house- 
keeper's jam-cupboard. 

From the superficial threads of the mycelium arises a straight 
tube, which swells at the end, and becomes covered with numer- 
ous protuberances. Each of these protuberances becomes con- 
stricted just below its termination, and gives rise to a small cell 
filled with protoplasm. After a time a second cell is produced in 
the same manner, which pushes the first before it, and so on until 
a chain of spores is formed, those at the end being the oldest. 
These are the conidia, which drop off as they become ripe, and 
are capable of reproducing their kind. 

But from this same mycelium, when it gets older, very small 
branches are thrown out, which terminate in a spiral manner. 
These small terminal spirals enlarge laterally, and a complicated 
change takes place, resulting in the formation of a globose recep- 
tacle of thin, delicate cells, containing a closely-entwined mass of 
cells. The whole mass enlarges in size. The outer wall becomes 
compact and of a yellow colour, and the contained mass of cells 
becomes converted into a mass of spore-cases or asci, each of 
which contains eight spores. When ripe, the walls of the concep- 
tacle become brittle and give way, and the spores are liberated. 



DIMORPHISM IN FUNGI. 131 

This fungus is called Eurothim herbarionwi, and was long con- 
sidered to be quite distinct, and indeed a very different species 
from Aspergillus glaiicus. Now, Aspergillus glaucus is considered 
to be simply the conidial form of Eurotium. 

Another very good example is to be found in the Grass 
Mildew. If rankly-growing grass in a damp position be examined 
during the summer, it will very frequently be found covered with 
white mildew. If this be examined under a power of 400 dia- 
meters, it will be seen to consist of the usual mycelium, from 
which spring large numbers of conidial chains, similar to those 
already described, and so delicate that the slightest breath des- 
troys their attachment. This was long known under the name of 
Oidium itiojiiloides, one of the Mucedines. 

But in the autumn this same mycelium produces a little brown 
conceptacle, just visible to the naked eye, which, when examined 
with a low power of 100 diameters, is found to be surrounded 
with radiating branches, and the interior is also found to contain 
asci full of spores. This is the fungus known as Erysiphe gratnifiis, 
and although formerly these two fungi were considered quite dis- 
tinct, they are now known to be simply the conidial and perfect 
stages of the same fungus. These brown receptacles do not set 
free their spores during the autumn in which they have been 
formed, but they fall to the ground with the decaying grasses and 
rest on the ground all the winter, the hard, outer coat effectually 
protecting the asci and spores. No sign of life can be detected 
till the early summer, when these bodies burst and the spores fly 
out into the air and are wafted in every direction, sometimes 
absolutely throwing out spawn-threads as they sail about in the 
air. Those that alight on Gramifia;, or grasses, attach themselves 
by their spawn-threads, and immediately produce the Oidiwn over 
again on their hosts. 

A third form of fructification has been described, viz. — pyc- 
nidia, which are simply small conceptacles, containing spores, 
after the nature of conidia. These are sometimes called stylo- 
spores. 

Another Oidium — which is only the conidial form of another 
fungus — is O. leucoconium, found' on rose-bushes. The whole of 
the leaves of the bush are sometimes grey and shrivelled, from the 



132 DIMORPHISM IN FUNGI. 

abundance of the mould. The perfect form, SphcBvotheca pan7iosa, 
has a very small conceptacle, containing only one spore-case, and 
is surrounded by simple threads. 

Two very destructive mildews — viz., that attacking the vine 
and that attacking the hop — also belong to this group. In the 
case of the vine disease, the conidial form alone is known, under 
the name of Oidium Tiickeri. The Erysiphe form has not yet 
been found. In the case of the hop disease, the perfect form is 
SphcerotJicca Castagnei. The conceptacle here is small, and 
contains only one sporangium, or spore-case, and is furnished with 
only simple appendages. It will be remembered that in my 
various papers on " Saprolegnia,"* " Peronospora,"t and " Cysto- 
pus,"J I described in each case a conidial form and a perfect form 
or oospore. 

Another interesting example is to be found in Hypomyces, a 

genus of the order Sphmiacei, generally parasitic on the larger 

fungi. The Hypoinyces^ in its conidial stages, first attacks the 

host-fungus— say, a Boletus. Its mycelium runs through the 

Boletus^ reducing the whole fungus to a mass of golden powder, 

which falls to pieces on the gentlest touch, thus preparing the 

pabulum necessary for the nourishment and perfection of the 

higher ascigerous form, which is found in a stroma developed in 

the ground. This generally consists of a bright-coloured perithe- 

cium, enclosing numerous octosporous asci of an elongated form. 

The conidia — or, as they are sometimes called, micro-conidia — 

have often been described as autonomous species of Mticedmes, 

such as Botrytis, Daciyltum, etc. Besides the micro-conidia, a 

further form of fructification is sometimes found called macro- 

conidia, which are large spores, having a thick echinulate coat, of a 

bright colour. These have also been reckoned as separate species, 

especially under the name of Lepidotmoii, allied to the Mticedines. 

Another well-known example is that of Tubcrcularia vulgaris 

and Ncdria Cinnabarina, described formerly as separate fungi, 

but now known to be the same, Tuberada^-ia being the conidial 

form, Nectria the perfect ascigerous form. The two forms may be 

* Sec this Journal, Vol. II., p. 1S5. 

t „ „ Vol. III., p. 1S6, 197. 

% „ „ Vol. IV., p. 135. 



DIMORPHISM IN FUNGI. 133 

frequently found growing together on the same stem, and the 
JSJedria may often be seen surrounding the Tubercularia and 
arising from the same mycehum, which runs in and under the 
bark. The Tubercularia is a httle pink body, and by removing 
the bark it will be seen to have a paler stem, which spreads above 
into a globose head, covered with a delicate mealy bloom. A 
section of this body shows that it consists of delicate parallel 
threads, compacted together to form the stem and head. Some of 
the threads are simple and others branched, and they bear here 
and there little cylindrical bodies, easily detached, and forming 
the mealy bloom before referred to. These are the conidia. 

The Nectria is of a darker red colour, and in section is found 
to consist of a capsule, granular externally, and containing a gela- 
tinous mass, in which are embedded the small masses of fructifi- 
cation, consisting of cylindrical asci or spore-cases, each enclosing 
eight elliptical spores, and slender threads called paraphyses, 
which may be abortive spore-cases, all packed tightly together. 
Examples might be multiplied amongst the Sphceriacei, it being a 
common thing for the conidia to possess the characteristics of a 
mould, whilst the perithecia, or perfect ascigerous forms, are 
developed amongst the conidial threads. This applies to species 
of Sporofrichum, Cladotrichum, and Hdminthosporium^ amongst 
the moulds ; in fact, it is possible that all of them may in time be 
found to be simply the conidial forms of some ascomycetous fungi. 
In one genus, Melanconis, three, and sometimes four, sorts of 
fruit are described. Thus, M. lancifonnis possesses Conidia for- 
merly known as Coryenum discifonne ; Stylospores, formerly 
known as Coniothecium betuUnwn; Pycnidia, formerly known as 
Hendersonia polycystis, and Ascophores, formerly known as 
SphcBria lanciforniis. 

Amongst the Discomycetes there is a good example of dimor- 
phism, in the case of the beautiful purple cups of Bulgaria sar- 
coidcs, the perfect form, and the small purple clavate bodies 
found much earlier in the same spot, and also occasionally at the 
same time as the other, Tremella sarcoides, which represents the 
conidial form of the same fungus. There is a similar sort of rela- 
tion in form and development between Dacryviyces and Peziza 
fusaroides. 



134 DIMORPHISM IN FUNGI. 

Amongst the Urojnyces, three forms of development are now 
recognised, showing that yEcidiiim^ Uredo, .and Uromyces are but 
conditions or stages of the same fungus, viz. : i — Hymenium, or 
yEcidiiim ; 2 — Stylospores, or Uredo ; 3 — Teleutos pores, or Uro- 
myces. This leads us to the consideration of a most important . 
subject, viz. — the Rusts and Mildews of Wheat. These are of two 
kinds, according to time of appearance, viz. — Spring Rust and 
Mildew, and Summer Rust and Mildew. The rust is termed 
Uredo and the mildew Fuccinia. 

Spring Rust and Mildew. 

The Spring Rust, Uredo rubigo-vera, appears on grasses and 
cereals in March and April in the form of very minute, livid, 
yellow pustules. When examined with a power of twenty-five 
diameters, it is evident that the fungus within the leaf of the 
wheat has, in reaching maturity, burst the epidermis, and appears 
as a fine orange-coloured powder carried away by the slightest 
breath of air. A section through one of these pustules, magni- 
fied 200 diameters, shows a mass of yellow ovoid spores filled 
with dense protoplasm and supported on short stalks springing 
from the mycelium. These spores escape in inconceivable num- 
bers and fall on to the leaves, where they germinate, protruding a 
spawn-thread from both sides, into which the vital material pours 
from the spore. As the spore gets empty, a septum appears and 
cuts off the connection ; the germ-tube now enters the stomata of 
the leaf, and there forms fresh mycelium, from which new Uredo 
pustules arise, and so on until the whole plant is permeated by 
the spawn. 

As the autumn approaches, the yellow Uredo spots vanish, and 
black spots, similar in shape, appear, which are pustules of the 
mature fungus, Puccinia mbigo-vera. The superficial resemblance 
seems complete except as to colour, but a section through a 
pustule, magnified 200 diameters, shows a great difference. The 
spores are blackish-brown in colour and are compound — i.e., they 
have a joint, or septum, across the narrowest diameter, and 
besides the spores there are numerous dark, elongated bodies, said 
to be paraphyses (perhaps undeveloped spores). These compound 
spores act as resting spores, for although developed in the autumn 



DIMORPHISM IN FUNGI. 135 

they do not germinate till the following spring, when they burst 
amongst old decaying grass or straw, and both segments will pro- 
bably throw out transparent threads of mycelium (sometimes 
called pro-mycelium). As these pro-mycelial threads increase in 
length, the protoplasm pours from the spore into the tubes, and a 
series of septa appear, enclosing the protoplasm in the growing 
end of the tube. From this end two or three minute, transparent 
yellow spores arise, termed pro-mycelium spores, which speedily 
fall from their slender supports and germinate readily on damp 
surfaces. 

Summer Rust and Mildew. 

This is still more destructive than the spring species, farmers 
sometimes losing 75 per cent, of their whole crop from its ravages. 
This Rust is called Uredo linearis, and makes its appearance in 
June and July. It is of a darker orange colour than the Spring 
Rust, and is larger and more robust in growth, and thus splits and 
lacerates the cuticle of the affected plant more completely, other- 
wise the general description is the same. A section through one 
of the pustules, magnified 200 diameters, shows the great differ- 
ence in the size of the pustules, and also that the Ui'edo spores 
themselves, besides differing in colour, differ also in shape from 
the Spring Rust. They resemble it, however, in the ease with 
which they are detached from their stems. The germinating 
process is much the same as in the Spring Uredo. The germ tube 
follows the minute depressions formed where the constituent cells 
of the epidermis meet, and by following these it ultimately arrives 
at one of the stomata, which it enters, and branches right and left, 
ramifying among the green constituent cells of the leaf. Fresh 
crops of Uredo spores are everywhere produced till the whole 
plant is permeated by the mycelium. As the summer advances, 
the rust mycelium gradually ceases to produce rust spores, and 
instead produces the blackish-brown Piiccinia, or resting spores. 

Piiccinia grajiiinis. — The pustules of F. graminis are much 
larger than those of P. riihigo-vera. A section magnified 200 
diameters shows a difference in the shape of the spores, which are 
mounted on larger stems, in the absence of paraphyses. These 
spores follow precisely the same course as those of P. nibigo-vcra. 
They may be found germinating upon straw as it rots on the 



136 DIMORPHISM IN FUNGI. 

ground in the spring. The pro-myceUum, as it is called, gives rise 
to the pro-mycelium spores, which are carried about the air in 
millions. We have thus again the three processes: — the Uredo, or 
rust-spores ; the Fuccinia, or black mildew spores ; and the spring, 
or pro-mycelium spores. Some botanists hold that the process is 
now completed, and that the pro-mycelium spores just reproduce 
the Uredo spore again. Others hold that the cycle of the corn- 
mildew is not complete with the production of these spores, but 
that these spores jDass on to another host — the barberry — and 
there produce an recidial form, which in turn gives rise to the 
Uredo spore. 

We now, therefore, pass from the first to the second division 
of our subject, where the various forms appear on a wholly dis- 
tinct and different matrix ; in fact, heteroecism, pure and simple. 
Heteroecism is accepted as a fact by, I believe, all continental 
botanists, and by many also in this country. It is still, however, 
rejected as unproven in this case by such mycologists as Dr. M. 
C. Cooke and Mr. Worthington Smith. As Mr. Plowright is the 
chief investigator on the subject in this country, I shall quote his 
observations first. Living in a district where the wheat-mildew 
was very fatal to the crops, and where the theory of the barberry 
blight being connected with it was very prevalent amongst agricul- 
turists, he determined to investigate the matter by experiment — 
viz., by infecting a number of wheat-plants with ripe spores of the 
barberry fungus. The result was that while 76 per cent, of the 
infected plants took the disease, no less than 70 per cent, of 
similar wheat-plants, kept as check plants, became spontaneously 
affected with mildew. In consequence, he wrote in Grevillea, 
December, 1881, that he telt bound to differ from the eminent 
botanists abroad, who accepted the heteroecism of F. graminis as 
an established fact. In the spring of 1882 he commenced a fresh 
series of experiments with a great deal more care than he had 
used the first time, but having, as he says, a mind biassed against 
the theory of heteroecism. This time, not only was barberry 
fungus sown upon wheat under circumstances which should, as far 
as possible, preclude the agency of accidental infection, but, con- 
versely, the wheat-mildew was sown uijon barberry plants. All the 
wheat plants were kept continuously covered by bell-glasses from 



DIMORPHISM IN FUNGI. 137 

the time they were sown until the experiment was concluded. All 
those infected with barberry fungus gave rise to the Undo, whilst 
none of the check plants developed the disease. Of half-a-dozen 
small barberry plants three were infected with the pro-mycelium 
spores of Puccinia graminis from wheat, the other three being 
kept as check plants. The three infected plants produced 
Vadium; the three control plants remained perfectly free from 
y£cidium. Besides the cluster cups there exists in company with 
the yEcidium another set of organs developed from the same 
mycelium, called spermogonia. They are small, flask-shaped 
bodies, sunk in the substance of the leaf, on the opposite side of 
the leaf to the yEcidiiun, and they are filled with delicate threads, 
which bear upon their ends chains of minute bodies called sper- 
matia. There is little doubt that they play the part of the male 
element, and are the small bodies constantly seen surrounding 
and adhering to the spores of yEcidium. 

According to this view, then, we have no less than five kinds 
of reproductive forms in connection with this fungus, viz. — 
yEcidium, Spermogonia, Uredo, Puccinia, and Pro-mycelium. It 
should also be said that while ^"Ecidium berberidis is supposed to 
be the y£cidium in connection with the summer mildew, P. 
graminis; Aicidium asperifolii, an ^'Eciditi/n belonging to the 
Borage family, is supposed to be the form connected with the 
spring mildew, F. rubigo-vera. Mr. Worthington Smith objects to 
these conclusions on the following grounds :— That corn is so 
seldom free from red rust, and barberry bushes so seldom free 
from barberry blight, that there is never any certainty that both 
corn and barberry bush do not possess traces of the disease before 
the experiments are commenced. And that as pro-mycelium, 
pro-myceUum spores, and sporidioles are potential, both in Puc- 
cinia and j^cidium alike, it is unlikely that there is any genetic 
connection between these fungi. He traverses an argument from 
analogy, advanced by some believers in heteroecism, viz. — the 
change of host in certain entozoa, which is too. long for us to 
enter into in these pages. He complains that Mr. Plowright has 
not given an illustration of his own of the germ-tube of the pro- 
mycelium spore piercing the epidermal cells of a barberry leaf, 
and as to the ^-Ecidiuiii of the Spring Rust, .-Ecidiiun asperifolii, he 



138 DIMORPHISM IN FUNGl. 

says it is so rare that he has never met with it. The advocates of 
hetercecism have, however, been claiming fresh discoveries since 
this controversy, and apparently very distinct fungi, growing on 
most opposite matrices, are now suggested to be related to one 
another. Thus, a Coleosporivm found on Senecio vulgaris is sup- 
posed to be one stage of Peridermium Pint, and so on with many 
others. 

In the Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science iox 1885, Mr. 
Plowright has a further series of observations on the " Life 
History of Certain British Heteroecismal Uredines," in which he 
details the results of three years' experiments. Many of these 
experiments are simply repetitions of what have already been tried 
on the continent, which he undertook for the purpose of verifica- 
tion, but some are quite new. The Ranunculus family are 
peculiarly liable to be affected with yEcidiu7n, no less than eleven 
species having yEcidia more or less frequently upon them, while 
only four have Uromyces, or Uredospores, affecting them. It is 
shown that in one case— viz., the Aicidiuni on Ranunculus ficaria — 
the connection is not with the Uromyces occurring in this same 
plant, but with one affecting the various Poa, especially P. tri- 
vialis and P. pratensis. This same yEcidium is also found affecting 
R. repens, and also produces its Uromyces in P. trivialis and P. 
pratensis. But in this same R. repens occurs another yEcidium, 
very much like the former, but which is connected with quite a 
different fungus — viz., Puccinia magnusiana — the Uredospores of 
which are found on the common reed, Phrag/nitis communis. In 
1S83, Mr. Plowright found a long, straight ditch, full of reeds, 
which for about twenty yards at both ends were completely black- 
ened by P. magnusiaria, those in the middle being quite free. In 
the spring of 1884, he, from time to time, carefully examined the 
Rumices and Raminculi growing on both banks, feeling quite sure 
he should find the ALcidium at both ends, but not in the central 
part, and eventually he proved right, for at both ends of the ditch 
he found R. repens abundantly affected with yEcidia, while in the 
centre they were quite free. The Rumices remained free altoge- 
ther. He had previously experimented with the spores of these 
fungi, and so been led to the surmise, which was thus proved 
correct. 



DIMOEPHISM IN FUNGI. 139 

Another Fuccinia, P. phragmitis, also abundant on the 
common reed, had its jecidiospores on various species of Rwnex. 
Several others are referred to in the same paper, which I need not 
enter into. Space prevents entering on any further examples, and 
one can only refer in passing to the interesting fungus, Isaria, 
growing on grass, etc., and its perfect form of Cordiceps and Torru- 
bia, one species of which is parasitic on the truffle and another on 
the pupte of moths and other insects. But I wish, in conclusion, 
to refer to the lowest form of fungi, viz. — the Schizophyta or Bac- 
teria. Professor Ray Lankester, in the April number of the 
Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science for 1886, has a paper 
on the Pleomorphism of the Schizophyta, the object of which is 
to show that he had, in a paper published twelve years ago, put 
forward the view of the subject that is now being generally 
accepted. 

He discovered a peach-coloured bacterium, which exhibited a 
wide range of forms, connected by intermediate forms, growing 
together in the same vessel, and linked together most unmistake- 
ably by the fact that they were all coloured by a special pigment. 
He observed this organism on many occasions, and from various 
localities he obtained some modifications of form by cultivation, 
but chiefly depended on the association of the different forms, the 
presence of completely transitional forms, and the common bond 
of pigment, for the views as to their nature which he put forward. ' 
Cohn had just then put forward the view that Micrococcus, Bacte- 
rium, Bacillus, Vibrio, Spirillum, and Leptothrix were different 
genera. Lankester regarded them as form phases, or variations of 
growth, of a number of Protean species, each of which might 
exhibit, according to undetermined conditions, all or some of 
these forms ; and that the existence of true species must be char- 
acterised, not by their simple form-features, but by the ensemble of 
their morphological and physiological properties, exhibited in their 
complete life -histories. He then says that this view, which he put 
forward in 1873, is precisely that which is espoused by Prof, de 
Bary in 1884, when he writes, in his work on the comparative 
morphology of fungi, " Strictly-made morphological and develop- 
mental researches are now to hand. They have demonstrated 
that the forms known as cocci, rods, threads, etc., are phases of 



140 DIMORPHISM IN FUNGI. 

growth."' Prof. Lankester concludes by saying, " Some of the 
recently published books dealing with the cultivation of patho- 
genic Bacteria contain also a general summary of what is known 
as to the natural history of the group, and an attempt to classify 
the non-pathogenic together with the pathogenic species. The 
importance of the doctrine of the pleomorphism of Bacteria in 
relation to pathological inquiries cannot be over-estimated." 

Bibliography. — Quart. Journ. Micro. Science, 1885 — 86 
Grevillea, various years ; " Fungi " (International Scientific Series) 
" Diseases of Field and Garden Crops " (Worthington Smith) 
"Rust, Smut, Mildew, and Blight" (Cooke); Gardener's 
Chronicle., etc. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES XV., XVI, XVII. 

Fig. 1. — fl, Aspergillus glaucus ; b, conidia ; c, germinating conidium ; 
d, Eurotium ; e, ascus of Eurotium. 

2. — Erysiphe gnvmUds, conidia. 

3. — Ditto, conceptacle. 

4. — Portions of Agarkus, with parasitic Hypomyces. 

5. — Conidia. 

G, 7. — Conceptacles of Hypomyces, slightly and highly magnified. 

8.— Asci. 

9. — Spores . 

10. — Stylospores. 

11. — Section of Tubercularia vulgaris. 

12. — Conidia. 

13. — Section of Nedria ciiinabarinis . 

14. — Asci. 

15. — Portion of twig, with Nedria and Tubercularia, in situ. 

16. — Wheat -leaf, with pustules of Uredo rubigo-vera. 

17. — Section of a pustule, showing the Uredo spores. 

18. — Germinating Uredo spore. 

19. — Section of pustule of Puccinia rubigo-vera. 

20. — Germinating telento spore. 

2L — Section of half a pustule of Uredo linearis. 

22. — Spores of Uredo linearis germinating on a wheat-leaf. 

23. — Section of half a pustule of Puccinia graminis. 

24. — Section of Barberry leaf, showing cups of ^cidium berberidis 
on lower surface, and spermogones on upper surface. 



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[141] 

^be rnMcroscope in the Xecture anb 
Classs'lRoom. 

By William Pumphrey, 



HOW to make the microscope available in the lecture and 
class-room must often have been the unavailing desire of 
him who has had to stand behind the lecture-table when 
some point of insect anatomy had to be elucidated, or when a 
class had to be instructed in the ultimate details of vegetable 
physiology. Who has not longed for the ability to place before 
his audience or his class exactly the point or points he desired to 
impress upon them, and who has not felt that to do so was almost 
an impossibility ? 

So far as the lecture -room is concerned, the microscope in its 
ordinary form is absolutely useless. There are no means whereby 
the occupants of the room can be made to see in the microscope, 
at one and the same time, the object, or the special part of an ob- 
ject, that the lecturer wishes to call their attention to. It is true that 
at the close of the lecture the audience may be invited to examine 
preparations illustrative of the lecture. But, then, to make this of 
much use, the lecturer must be prepared to repeat, to a great 
extent, what he has already explained, and this to each observer 
and with every specimen. 

With a class of, say, a dozen students, the thing is a Httle 
more practicable, but the business is a very onerous one, and its 
results at best very uncertain. Perhaps, in the course of his one 
hour's lesson, the teacher has to call special attention to, for 
example, six preparations. In order that the class may follow the 
lesson, and fully understand and appreciate the point intended to 
be enforced by these preparations, it will be needful that each 
student should have a microscope and be furnished with a prepara- 
tion, so that he may follow the points of the teacher's lesson. 
This, of course, involves a dozen microscopes and six dozen pre- 
parations. But this is not all. Probably, no two of the students 
are equal in their powers of observation, and the preparations are 
certain to be of unequal merit ; and supposing that these causes 
of uncertainty could be removed, the teacher has no proof that 



142 THE MICROSCOPE IN THE 

the point which he desires specially to impress on his class has 
been clearly seen and noted by each member of the class. 

But, how would all these difhculties vanish, if it were practic- 
able to throw on the screen enlarged images of the objects of such 
dimensions as would admit of all seeing them easily and suffi- 
ciently distinct to make evident the special point that the 
lecturer or teacher desired to explain. There would then be no 
question of the powers of observation of the student, and there 
would be no difference in the quality of the preparations. All 
would see the same object, and the teacher would be able to call 
special attention to the point under discussion, and he would be 
in no doubt whether or not attention had been directed to the 
actual or to some supposed detail. It cannot, therefore, be a matter 
of surprise that many attempts have been made to attain this 
desirable object, and we now have to consider these attempts, and 
how they have been successful or otherwise, and what are the 
difficulties to be overcome. 

As all objects, whether micro- or macro-scopic, are visible 
solely by virtue of the light that they emit, intercept, or reflect, 
we may in the first place consider what sources of light are avail- 
able for our purpose. First, in point of efficiency, stands solar 
light. The rays that issue from a source so distant are practically 
parallel, and as such easily converted into converging or diverging 
beams. Then, solar light is more intense than any other (I speak 
under correction on this point). I find Dr. Young, in his treatise 
on "The Sun," sets down the brightness of the sun's disc as 
190,000 times that of the brightness of a standard candle. This 
intense brightness of the solar light is a most important considera- 
tion, and were it available at all times would leave us little to 
desire so far as light is concerned. But in this country, at all 
events, sunlight cannot be calculated on, and is entirely wanting 
at those times when the lecturer and teacher are most likely to 
want its help ; therefore, for the purposes we are considering, sun- 
light may be set aside as not available. There is also this objec- 
tion to sunlight when used in any concentrated form. The heat- 
rays which accompany it are so numerous that I doubt whether it 
be possible so far to absorb them as to admit of bringing delicate 
preparations within their reach. 



LECTURE AND CLASS-ROOM. 143 

The next source of light is the electric arc, as formed between 
electrodes of carbon. This, under good conditions, approaches to 
a fourth of the brightness of the sun, or about 47,000 times the 
brightness of a standard candle. Here, then, we have a splendid 
source of light, and with this great advantage, that the heating 
rays which accompany it are comparatively few. It is mainly a 
question of cost and complexity of apparatus. In the present state 
of electric engineering we should require a gas- or steam- 
engine to drive a dynamo, and then either take the light direct 
from the machine, or make use of a secondary battery in which 
the electric energy can be stored and used as required. If we 
adopted the former plan, we should be almost sure to have a very 
variable light ; and if the latter, should run the risk of an entire 
collapse from the escape of the electric fluid. In either case, we 
must provide machines and apparatus that are necessarily not only 
very costly, but very cumbersome. The time may come when 
electric light shall be supplied as gas is now supplied, and then we 
may hope successfully to use it in our microscopic lanterns. But, 
at present in Bath, the electric light is not available, though a 
constant source of light might be secured by utilising the water 
which runs to waste over the weir at the old city mills. 

As a source of Hght, we next come to the Drummond, or 
lime-light, but its value is very small as compared with sunlight or 
electric light. In its most effective form it gives a light equal to 
about 450 candles, but in general it does not exceed 150 candles. 
We need hardly mention any of the forms of oil or gas lamps, 
as few, if any, of them would give us more than a 50-candle 
power. 

It appears, then, that for the present we are confined to 
the use of the Hme-light in its best form — that is, to the use of 
lime, magnesia, or some other earth rendered incandescent by a 
jet of oxygen and hydrogen gases, mixed before they issue from the 
blow-pipe. Next, how can this light be most usefully applied so 
as to produce on the screen a magnified image of the microscopic 
preparation? It is impossible to transmit to the screen a greater 
amount of light than falls on the area within which the object is 
placed. Let us suppose this to be a circle of half-an-inch in diameter, 
and the screen that we desire to fill nine feet in diameter. It is 



144 THE MICROSCOPE IN THE 

clear that the light which falls on the half-inch circle will be diluted 
on the screen to i — 46,656th part of the brightness of the light 
where it met the object, and if, as must be the case in most minute 
objects, the area of the enclosing circle does not exceed a quarter 
or a one-eighth of an inch, the light on the screen will not exceed 
the 1-186, 624th or the 1-746, 496th part of the original bright- 
ness. It is, therefore, needful that the original brightness of the 
light, as it meets the object, be increased as the magnifying power 
is increased. 

The rays of light that proceed from the incandescent lime are 
divergent, passing forward in straight lines in every direction, and 
only such portion of them as we can compel to change their direc- 
tion are of any use to us. The first thing, therefore, is to convert 
these diverging rays into a parallel beam of light. This may be 
effected by means of a concave mirror or a convex lens. For the 
purpose we have in hand, a lens will be the more convenient. 
The action of a second lens changes this parallel beam into a 
convergent beam, and in this convergent beam the object is 
placed, its position being dependent on its diameter. The final 
result on the screen will depend to a great extent on the accuracy 
with which this conversion of the rays is accomplished. The 
source of light must be concentric with the optical axis of the 
lenses, and the lenses must be of such a character, both as regards 
their transmitting and their refracting powers, as to arrest as little 
light as possible, and conduct it forward with the least possible 
dispersion. Theoretically, there ought to be no difficulty in 
bringing the light which issues from the lime into a cone with a 
very fine apex ; but in practice it is very difficult. There is a 
large amount of light reflected from the various surfaces of the 
lenses — the light itself is not a simple point — and several other 
causes contribute to make the cone of rays very imperfect. And 
yet the adequate illumination of the smaller objects depends 
almost entirely on the perfection of this cone. 

An arrangement should be made whereby the object to be 
illuminated can be placed in that part of the cone of light which 
will best cover it. Thus, the more minute the object, the nearer 
the apex, and vice-versa. If the cone were perfect, the screen 
ought to be equally well lighted under all conditions of ampUtude ; 



LECTURE AND CLASS-ROOM. 145 

but this is not found to be the case. The objects that require 
least amphfication are ahvays shown on the screen brighter than 
the more minute. 

While we are considering that part of the arrangement that 
concerns the condensation of the Hght, there is a point which 
requires attention. The amount of heat produced by the com- 
bustion of the hydrogen and emitted from the incandescent Hnie 
is so great that when collected by the lenses it would spoil any 
delicate preparation, unless some means were adopted to absorb 
these heating rays. This is best effected by interposing a cell 
with parallel glass sides containing a saturated solution of common 
alum (potassium and aluminium sulphate) ; but the use of this 
solution has been claimed as a special point in the patent of 
Messrs. Wright and Newton, and so not to infringe their patent 
right we can dispense with the alum and use the water only. This 
will intercept by far the greater part of the heating rays, and those 
which do pass will not produce any inconvenience. 

The remaining arrangements are those of the ordinary micro- 
scope, except that we dispense with the eye-piece, taking our 
image to the screen direct from the object-glass. We also dis- 
pense with the plane or concave mirror, usually placed beneath the 
stage of the compound microscope. In displaying objects on the 
screen, the effect is much more pleasing if the margin of the iield 
is well defined. There are considerable ditificulties in obtaining 
this with lenses of high powers. This is because the object to be 
shown is seldom or never in the same plane as the margin of the 
diaphragm, and it is this which limits the illumination on the 
screen. Even when the object is so placed that only the cover, 
glass interposes between the object and the stage, the thickness of 
this is sufficient to give a disc with blurred edges. This might, 
perhaps, be obviated by placing a stop between the object-glass 
and the screen. 

There is another point of great importance as affecting the 
result, and that is the suppression of all light except that which 
passes through the object-lens. The lantern should be so con- 
structed as not to allow any light to pass into the room, and all 
parts where reflectors or refractors are employed should be care- 
fully guarded, and when it is possible the walls and ceiling of the 

Vol. VI. L 



14G THE MICROSCOPE IN THE LECTURE AND CLASS-ROOM. 

room should be of a dark colour. Especially is the proximity of a 
white ceiling to be avoided. Light is reflected from the screen to 
such a ceiling, and from it again to the screen, and a great loss of 
effect is produced. 

The object should be projected on and not passed through 
the screen. A good, smooth, plastered wall forms the best screen : 
calico, faced with smooth, white paper, comes next. If the con- 
ditions are such as to make a translucent screen a necessity, 
tracing-cloth or tracing-paper will be found to act much more 
satisfactorily than a wetted sheet. In all cases where a trans- 
lucent screen is used, all spectators that are near the axial line 
of the light and lenses see a bright spot of light in the centre of 
this field of view that greatly detracts from the effect. 

But when we have done our best and obtained the greatest 
enlargement and definition at present practicable, what does it 
amount to? Will it enable the lecturer to place before his 
audience all that he requires to illustrate his subject? Will it 
place within the reach of the teacher the power to demonstrate to 
his whole class, at one and the same time, all the special points 
that call for particular notice ? I am inclined to think that for the 
lecture-room good photo-micrographs will be found more useful 
than real objects shown direct on the screen. The lecturer has 
not often occasion to enter into many of those details of ultimate 
structure that are so important to the teacher, and a good photo- 
micrograph, prepared beforehand, and specially arranged to illus- 
trate the precise point of the lecture, will be more effective when 
produced before a large audience than a real object when shown 
on the screen. At the same time, the manipulation of the ordinary 
lantern is much simpler. 

To the teacher, I think that the oxy-hydrogen microscope, in 
its best form, offers more advantages. In the first place, it will 
not be needful to employ so large a screen, and therefore the 
light will not be so greatly diffused, and the resulting picture will be 
brighter. Then the ordinary arrangements of a class admit of the 
more close examination of the image on the screen, and many 
details that could not have been seen by a large company would 
be readily seen by a few students, who could closely examine the 
image on the screen. Still, I have no doubt that there will be 



ON THE WATER IN THE CHALK. 14-7 

many points in the ultimate tissues, both of animals and vege- 
tables, that the oxy-hydrogen microscope will fail to display, and 
for which no substitute for the direct eye of the observer can be 
provided. 

POSTSCRIPT. 

At a subsequent meeting of the Society, held at his own house, 
Mr. Pumphrey conducted a series of experimental demonstrations, 
showing the advantages to be derived from the exhibition on the 
screen of magnified images of actual objects, and also pointing 
out the difficulties attending the process, and where it was most 
likely to fail. Carefully-prepared micro-photographs were dis- 
played on the screen, along with magnified images taken direct 
from the same objects ; and the opinions advanced in Mr. 
Pumphrey's paper were endorsed by all present — namely, that 
when the object was to demonstrate to a class, or to a small com- 
pany, who can critically examine the image as displayed on the 
screen, the image, as taken direct from the object, was much to be 
preferred ; but that for large companies, and where the close 
examination of the image would be impracticable, the micro-pho- 
tograph was better adapted to the purpose. The subject was also 
considered with reference to the attainment of the same end by 
means of carefully-prepared diagrams and black-board illustrations. 
It was felt that unless there was a probability of the former being 
frequently used, the requisite expenditure of time and labour was 
too great for most persons ; but as regards the latter the opinion 
was expressed that the free use of the blackboard, in illustration of 
the papers read to the Society, was a great advantage. 



®n tbe Mater in tbc Cbalk beneatb tbc 
Xonbon Cla^ in tbe Xonboii Basin/' 

By Robert B. Hayward, M.A., F.R.S. 



MY object in the present paper is not to bring forward any 
new facts or observations, but the collocation and juxta- 

* Read at a meeting of the County of Middlesex Natuial History Society. 



148 ON THE WATER IN THE CHALK 

position of ascertained and published data to suggest certain infer- 
ences, which it would seem to require more extended observations 
to confirm or refute, and still more to propound certain questions to 
which I, at least, have been unable to obtain satisfactory answers. 

The sinking of an Artesian well affords an opportunity of obtain- 
ing data of the highest importance at once to the geologist, to the 
chemist, and to the economist and engineer. Each naturally 
appropriates and tabulates the facts which have an especial 
relation to his own particular science or practical object, and 
ignores those with which he is not directly concerned. Hence we 
find excellent geological accounts of well-sections without a word 
as to the quality, composition, etc., of the water obtained from the 
well ; elaborate tables of analyses of water with the barest allusion 
to the geological structure of the locality of its source, or the 
copiousness of the supply ; or, again, full details of the size and 
depth of the well, the level at which water was obtained, the height 
to which it rises in the well, and its general character as to its 
fitness for domestic purposes, as shown by its greater or less free- 
dom from organic impurity and its greater or less hardness, with- 
out any further notice of its special chemical constitution, or any 
special characteristics of the strata whence it is derived. 

Now, I think there could be no more appropriate or useful 
work for a Committee of our Society, whose sphere of operation 
extends over a county in which there are probably more Artesian 
wells than in any other district of the same area on the face of the 
globe, than to collect together in one focus every possible detail, 
geological, chemical, economical, and structural, with respect to as 
many existing wells as possible, and still more to ensure that the 
same shall in future be obtained and recorded for every new well 
that is sunk in Middlesex or within the neighbouring parts of the 
Thames basin. I cannot doubt but that the mere bringing to- 
gether of the results of specialists in the several sciences working 
on .the same subject-matter and tabulating them in one standard 
form so as to admit of immediate and accurate comparison be- 
tween one instance and another, would lead to conclusions of 
great value, not only to the practical question of the water supply 
of an ever-growing community, but also to various sciences, and, 
it may be, to quite unsuspected generalizations. 



BENEATH THE LONDON CLAY. l49 

For it should always be remembered that, when the main broad 
outlines, and even what at any particular time appear to be minute 
details, in any subject of science have been worked out, there 
always remain some residual small quantities or minor facts (as 
they seem) to be accounted for, behind which possibly lurk some 
of the grandest secrets of nature. The history of Science is full 
of instances of this truth. 

I would urge therefore that the collection, and registration in 
convenient forms for comparison, of any facts or observations, 
however apparently trivial in themselves, is a worthy — perhaps I 
might say, the most important — service which a society such as 
our own can render to the progress of Science and the knowledge 
of Nature. 

But leaving these general observations, let me now proceed to 
my special subject. You will probably pardon me if, in order to 
make clearly intelligible the question which I have to propound, I 
summarise some facts as to the geological structure of our county 
which are doubtless quite well known to many, if not most, of those 
present at this meeting, only casting them in a mould which is suit- 
able for my purpose. Let us suppose that we are proceeding to 
sink a well from the spot where we are now assembled (Kilburn). 
I am not aware whether there are any special peculiarities in the 
surface soil and upper layers at Kilburn, but if not, I apprehend 
we shall find beneath a foot or two of surface soil, a stiff brown 
clay, in which, without much variation, except for an occasional 
stony layer of a concretionary character from 6in. to i8in. thick 
(known as Septaria), we should dig for some 220 to 250 feet, and 
then for a foot or two through a more or less sandy bed, possibly 
some more clay, and then a bed of well-rounded pebbles. This 
group of strata is known as the London clay with its basement bed. 
Throughout no water would enter our shaft, unless possibly a small 
quantity in the sand of the basement bed. Then for the next 60, 
or perhaps 80, feet we should pass through a much more variable 
series of beds, consisting of light-coloured clays, streaked and 
mottled with various brilliant colours like mottled soap, an 
occasional layer of lignite coated with iron pyrites, and one or 
more beds 2 to 4 feet thick of sand, with probably a thicker bed of 
sand and pebbles lying on the surface of the chalk, which we might 



150 ON THE WATER IN THE CHALK 

now reach. This series of strata is known as the ^^^oohvich and 
Reading beds, from the places where they appear close to the 
surface. From one, if not all of the beds of sand, we should almost 
certainly find a considerable quantity of water pouring into our 
shaft, but it is not the water of which we are in search, as, besides 
being probably deficient in (quantity, at any rate, after a short 
period of pumping, it is doubtful whether its quality would be 
satisfactory for domestic purposes. Our engineer would, there- 
fore, be careful to exclude it entirely from our well by iron 
cylinders or other suitable lining. He ought, however, in the 
interest of science, to take a kw good samples of this water to be 
handed over to a chemist for analysis. (I speak penitentially, 
having to reproach myself for not having done this when, a few 
years ago, a new well was sunk at the Harrow AV^aterworks, 
having lived to regret the neglected opportunity.) 

I said that we might now find that we had reached the chalk, 
but we might find a certain thickness of other sands to be ])assed 
through (as we certainly should farther south), known as " Thanet 
sands," or " grey sands." It is stated that where the Thanet sands 
exist below the Reading beds, water is usually found in the lower 
Thanet sand, and not in the sand of the Reading beds. Also, 
" that the grey (Thanet) sand contains a highly argillaceous mixture 
in its lowest part, which serves to isolate it as a water system from 
that of the chalk " (Lucas). I cannot find distinct evidence as to 
whether, where the Thanet sand is absent, there is, or is not, separ- 
ation of the water in the sand above from that in the chalk below 
by entirely, or almost entirely, impervious clayey beds. Probably 
there is free communication in some localities, and more or less 
separation in others. 

Our shaft having reached the chalk, we shall probably continue 
the well by a borehole from its centre, carried into the compact 
mass of the chalk, until we obtain a copious supply of water, 
probably from having tapped some fissure filled with water, which, 
at this depth, will be under considerable pressure. It may 
probably be found well to carry this borehole to a depth of loo, or 
even 200 or 250, feet into the chalk. We shall now have obtained 
a copious supply of excellent water — bright and sparkling, with a 
small degree of salinity sufficient to make it brisk and pleasant as 



BENEATH THE LONDON CLAY. 151 

a drinking water, absolutely free (unless our well has been badly 
constructed, so as not to exclude all other waters) from organic 
impurity, and, unless we are unfortunate in our locality, as I 
believe here we should not be, having so small an amount of 
hardness as to be properly classed as a soft water. We may, 
however, be unfortunate, and find that the water, while it 
possesses every other merit, is excessively and stubbornly hard, 
and then woe to the unfortunate water company which has sunk 
the well and its directors, if the clients whom they supply find 
their domestic boilers and hot-water services continually furred 
up, and there is a neighbouring company ready to invade their 
district with a water which, if not so good in some respects, has 
not this conspicuous demerit. I speak feelingly as a former 
director of the Harrow Water Company which is now extinct, 
having been thus unfortunate and therefore extinguished after the 
fashion at which I have hinted. It was from our efforts to deal 
with this stubborn water that I was led to turn my attention to 
the questions I am now attempting to discuss. 

When the well is finished, the water (when pumping is not 
going on) would probably, at this date, be found to stand in the 
well just about up to the Ordnance Datum Level, or level of the 
sea; that is, since the top of the chalk is here about i8o feet 
below the O.D., it would stand about i8o feet above the top of 
the chalk, and nearly at the same depth below the surface of the 
ground. This shows that the spring of water which we have 
tapped is under a pressure of considerably more than that of a 
column of water i8o feet high. The quantity of water which 
would be obtainable for distribution from the well would be rather 
limited by the power of the pumps than by the capacity of the 
well — at any rate, up to a million gallons per day, and probably 
considerably beyond. 

If we now enquire whence all this water comes originally, we 
shall find that, like all other sources of water supply, it is to be 
traced to the rain which has descended from the clouds, though it 
has had a long underground journey since it left the light of day. 
The geological structure of the Thames Basin, of which Middlesex 
forms a part, is (so far, at least, as we are concerned with it here) 
very simple. Every one who travels, with his eyes only half 



152 ON THE WATER IN THE CHALK 

open, must have observed that in journeying along any of the 
railways which radiate from the metropolis, except only those 
which go direct to the coast of Essex and Suffolk, he passes 
through a district of considerable width, in which the rock 
underlying the surface soil, or even the surface itself, is chalk. 
A more careful observer will see, by observing the chalk strata, 
where exposed in cuttings or pits, that they dip gently towards the 
central line of the valley of the Thames, disappearing beneath 
clays and sands in the strata immediately above, which, as we 
proceed from the chalk district towards the Thames, very soon 
give way to that huge sheet of London clay which forms the 
surface rock of almost the whole of Middlesex and much of the 
adjoining counties. This suggests that the chalk everywhere 
exists beneath this sheet of clay, and in fact forms a basin (or 
rather saucer, a very shallow one), in which the clay lies, a 
suggestion which is made a certainty by the wells which, like the 
ideal one we have been considering, have been sunk into the 
chalk in all parts of the district. 

These features are shown accurately to scale in the horizontal 
section published by the Ordnance Survey, extending for 36 miles 
from the downs of Beddington northwards through Mitcham, 
Clapham Common, Battersea Park, across the Thames to Hyde 
Park Corner, through Regent's Park by the Zoological Gardens 
to the London and North Western Railway, when it turns to 
the north-west and passes through Hampstead (showing a section 
of the hill), Hendon, Elstree, Aldenham, across the Colne, and 
on over the open chalk to Hemel Hempstead. 

Now, let us consider the bearing of these facts of geology on 
the question of the source of the water in our deep wells. 

Since compact clay, such as we find in the widespread sheet 
of the London clay, is impermeable by water, it is plain that the 
150 or 200 feet of thickness of this clay effectually ])revents any 
of the rain that falls on its surface from penetrating to deep wells. 
The breadth of the water-bearing sands between the London clay 
and the chalk is small at their outcrop, and consequently the 
water which enters into and saturates these beds represents only 
the rainfall and drainage of a comi)aratively small area. It is 
very different, however, when we come to the outcrop of the 



BENEATH THE LONDON CLAY, 153 

chalk. It has been estimated by the Rivers' Pollution Commis- 
sion (6th Report, p. 298), that there are, within 30 miles of 
London, areas covered by the chalk formations (including in this 
the upper green sand below the true chalk, which, however, covers 
a comparatively small area), extending over 635 square miles on 
the north, and 213 miles on the south of the London clay 
formation; and within 40 miles of London, 1,298 square miles on 
the north, and 301 on' the south of the same. Of the rain which 
falls on this very large extent of surface, such part as is not lost 
by evaporation, or taken up by vegetation, is absorbed by the 
chalk. Chalk is capable of absorbing about one-tenth to one- 
eighth of its weight of water, and when thus saturated, any 
additional water under pressure would slowly pass through it and 
fill the joints and fissures in the rock. It is a necessary conse- 
quence that below a certain level in the Thames basin, at any 
given time, the chalk is thus saturated, and its fissures filled with 
water. The height of this level varies with the seasons and the 
greater or less amount of rainfall, and is determined mainly by the 
level of the higher springs, which feed the rivers (like the Colne) 
which run through the chalk district. Below this the chalk must 
always be saturated, and the only effect of variable rainfall is to 
slightly increase or diminish the pressure in the water, which is 
slowly moving through it. Of course if the chalk were everywhere 
sealed up by clay above it except at its outcrop, the water in it 
could only escape at the outcrop, and below would remain motion- 
less in its reservoir ; but the Thames, in its course both west and 
east of London, crosses uncovered chalk, whence it receives large 
supplies of water, while there is probably considerable drainage 
from the chalk into the Thames estuary and the sea itself to the 
east. It is plain therefore that, from this natural cause, as well as from 
the artificial drafts upon it from Artesian wells, there must be a flow 
of water from the higher to the lower parts of the chalk formation. 
We have, then, I think, satisfactorily accounted for the quantity 
of water which is found in our county when a boring is made into 
the chalk from the surface. Whether or not we conclude with 
the Rivers' Pollution Commissioners, that we have here, within a 
circuit of 40 miles from the metropolis, a natural reservoir of pure 
water, amply sufficient for its present wants, as well as for a long 



154 ON THE WATER IN THE CHALK 

time to come for its ever-growing population ; there can be no 
doubt, that for the ^.r/r«-metropoHtan part of our county, we have 
directly under our feet a practically inexhaustible supply. Thus, 
our interest in the quality of that supply is direct, and anything 
bearing upon it of immediate practical interest. But before 
addressing myself to this question, I must say a few words more 
as to the flow or motion of the water through the chalk. 

I said just now that if a well were sunk at this place into the 
chalk, the water would rise up in it until it stood at about the 
level of the sea. Now, the water in a well in the open chalk 
country, say north of Watford, would stand at a level of some 250 
feet or upwards above the sea level, and we know that if a free 
and closed communication were opened (say by an iron water 
main) between such a well and our well here, the water would rise 
to the same level — or rather, the surface here, being only about 
180 feet above the sea, would overflow. If, however, the pipe 
were partially choked, and if it were also tapped to feed other 
places at lower levels, the level to which it would rise here would 
be certainly lowered. Now, this is what v/e must conceive really 
happens in the chalk beneath our feet : the passage of the water is 
obstructed by the solid chalk itself through which it can percolate 
but slowly, and large volumes of water are carried off to feed the 
lower springs which supply the Thames. Hence it is not surpris- 
ing that the water in our wells does not rise to anything like the 
level of the source whence it is derived. From a careful tabula- 
tion of the heights to which the water has been found to rise in 
numerous wells in the Thames Basin, Mr. Joseph Lucas, late of 
the Geological Survey, has been able to lay down on the maps, 
which I have here, and which he terms Hydrogeological maps,* 
a series of lines, along each of which it may be expected that 
water would rise, in wells sunk into the chalk, to the same level 
above or below the O.D. Along one line, for instance, which 
passes through Kensal Green, Kilburn (very near the site of this 
building), the south part of Hampstead, Highgate, and a little 
south of Hornsey and Tottenham, Mr. Lucas tells us the water 
w^ould rest exactly at the level of the O.D. Proceeding north- 

* Published by Stanford, May, 187S. 



BENEATH THE LONDON CLAY. loo 

wards or N.W. from tliis, we come to lines in succession in which 
it would rise lo, 20, 30 feet above the O.D., while to the S.E. 
we should come to lines along which it would rise to levels 10, 20, 
etc., feet below the O. D. There is much to be learnt from these 
maps, which the limitations of time and my proper subject 
prevent me from now entering on. I would merely remark 
further, that these lines, if correctly laid down, enable us to 
determine the general direction of the flow of the water in the 
chalk at any place, which, as the water must move from the higher 
to the lower level — that is, from the place of higher pressure to 
that of lower — cannot deviate much from the direction at right 
angles to the line of equal level through that place. 

As to the quality of the water in the chalk, considering the 
extent and position of the gathering ground on the chalk-hills 
which surround the Thames basin, there is obviously little chance 
of any organic impurity polluting it; and if there were such pollu- 
tion in certain localities, it would in its long course through the 
chalk beds clear itself, both by dilution with water from uncon- 
taminated sources and by becoming oxidised, and so rendered 
innocuous. Its organic purity is, therefore, unquestionable. We 
should expect, however, to find a considerable amount of inorganic 
and mineral matter dissolved in the water. For, though chalk is 
almost insoluble in pure water, water which contains (as rain water 
always does) a certain quantity of carbonic acid readily dissolves 
it. Chalk (chemists tell us) is carbonate of lime (calcium carbon- 
ate), with about 2 per cent, of clay and a little silica ; sometimes 
also containing small quantities of magnesia and calcium chloride. 
The carbonic acid of the water combines with the carbonate of 
lime to form bicarbonate of lime, which is soluble in water. Thus, 
in the chalk water a considerable amount of calcium may be 
expected to be held in solution, and very little else ; and we 
should probably expect a priori that, as the water remains in the 
chalk, very little variation would be found in its constitution in 
different localities. Such, however, as I shall proceed to show, is very 
far from being the case, even in wells in which the entry of all 
water from the surface or from strata above the chalk has been 
carefully and effectually guarded against. 

Let us first examine water from wells in the chalk, where it is 



156 ON THE WATER IN THE CHALK. 

not covered by overlying strata. I find from the Sixth Report of 
the Rivers' Pollution Commission (pp. loo-i) that out of 42 
instances of such wells, excluding 12 as exceptional, either from 
indications of more or less pollution, or as affected by the infiltra- 
tion of water from the Thames (as at Grays, Erith, Plumstead, 
etc.), there are 30 instances of apparently normal character, in 
Avhich the total solid matter held in solution varies between 233 
and 384 parts per million, the mean being 331 such parts ; and 
that in these the hardness varies between 19° and 32", the mean 
being 25 •8.'' The Watford water may be taken as typical. Its 
analysis in detail is given in the column headed A in the Table 
on p. 157. AVith respect to water from deep wells in the 
chalk beneath the London clay, I find (Rivers' Pollution Commis- 
sioners, 6th Report, p. 103) that out of 11 instances in the Thames 
basin, excluding 2 as exceptional (to be presently considered), 
there remain 9 instances which may be regarded as of normal 
character, and in these the total solid matter held in solution 
ranges between 330 and 840 parts per million, the mean being 672 
such parts J also, that the hardness ranges between 6^ and 172'', 
the mean being 10". 

A comparison of these two results at once forces on our atten- 
tion the remarkable fact that while the quantity of total solid 
matter dissolved is much larger on the average in the water from 
the chalk where it is covered by the London clay than in that from 
its outcrop, and also ranges between much wider limits, yet the 
hardness is on the average very much less, though this also ranges 
between somewhat wider limits. 

This want of relation between the amount of solid consti- 
tuents and the hardness of the water indicates a totally different 
mineral constitution in the two kinds of water. This, then, 
requires examination in detail, and for this purpose I have put 
together a number of analyses in the subjoined table (p. 157), 
derived mainly from tables in Watts's Dictionary of Chemistry. In 
this table the column headed A gives the normal composition of 
water from the open chalk ; those headed B the composition of 
various waters from the chalk beneath the London clay, regarded 
as fairly normal types ; while those headed C refer to certain 
exceptional waters from the same. 



t 






p 
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fD B' 
(JO p 

<H- 

l-l __, 

p CT 

ru 

p p 

a. ^ 

^ "^ 
5; 3- 

?;■ ft) 



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3 3 

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3 3 

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158 ON THE WATER IN THE CHALK 

AUTHORITY. 

A, Water from Chalk, not covered 

by overlying strata, at Watford Campbell (Watts, D.of Chemistry, p. 1016) 

B. Water from Chalk beneath the 



C 



London Clay : — 




I. Trafalgar Square ... 


Abel and Rowney do. 


2. Royal Mint 


Brande (Watts) 


3. Vauxhall 


Odling 


4. Longacre 


Graham ,, 


5. Guy's Hospital 


Odling 


6. Barclay's Brewery 


Riv. Poll. Comm. 


7. Russell Square 


Clark and Medlock (Watts). 


8. Westbourne Park... 


do. do. 


9. Hampstead 


Mitchell do. 


10. Ilanwell 


Clark and Medlock do. 


II. Southall, Norwood (Middle- 




sex), Waterworks 


Attfield. 


\ I. Harrow Waterworks 

(mean of) 


/Wanklyn, 1S81. 
) Liveing, 1882. 
(Bloxam, 1883. 


2. Sheepcote Farm, f farrow... 


Wanklyn. 


3. Kenton 


Davies. 


4. Sudbury Brewery 


Campbell. 



The following points are especially noteworthy : — 

I. — That in A, fully four-fifths of the solids are chalk, the 
remainder being made up of sulphates, chlorides, and nitrates of 
calcium or sodium. 

2. — That in B, as compared with A — 

a. The total solid contents are more than double those in A 
(in almost all cases), and in some more than treble. 

Ik — The amount of calcium is reduced to a fraction, between 
one-third and one-eighth, of that in A. 

c. — Magnesium appears to an inconsiderable amount. 

d. — Sodium is enormously increased, and considerable quanti- 
ties of potassium are found in several cases. 

e. — Carbonic acid is in general somewhat increased, but in 
some instances diminished. 

/ — Sulphuric acid and chlorine appear in considerable quanti- 
ties. 

This appears to indicate a substitution of soda for lime to a 
very large extent, and this substitution explains the loss of hard- 
ness in the water. Water which is hard owing to its containing 



BENEATH THE LONDON CLAY. 159 

chalk (calcium carbonate) or magnesium carbonate may be soft- 
ened in several ways. One of these is by adding carbonate of 
soda, which precipitates not only carbonate of lime and magnesia, 
but also sulphates, forming soluble bicarbonate and sulphate of soda. 

Now, this process seems to be that to which the softening 
in the passage through the chalk is due. But whence comes the 
carbonate of soda ? To this I can find no answer. From the fact 
that soda is found in considerable quantities in all cases of waters 
from the chalk under the London clay, it would seem to be due 
either to soda in the chalk itself — though I cannot find this 
mentioned as a constituent of chalk or as being found in the 
chalk — or to the influence of water from the overlying water- 
bearing sands, with respect to which I should be inclined to doubt 
whether the quantity -is sufficient to produce so widespread an 
effect, even if it was shown that this would be one consequence of 
the mingling of' these waters. It would be interesting to examine 
whether the softening is regularly progressive as the water passes 
inwards further and further away from the outcrop. Here, then, 
is a problem which, perhaps at some future day, our Society may 
assist in solving. 

Other questions of a similar character will suggest themselves 
with regard to the sulphates and chlorides and to the magnesium, 
which seems to be a constant, though not in general a large 
constituent of the solid contents of the waters in question. But 
leaving these I will pass to the consideration of the waters in 
Section C in the table. ■ 

These waters will at once be seen to be exceptional in their 
character, in that, while, like other waters under the London clay, 
they have a large quantity of soda, they have not thereby lost 
anything like the same proportion (barely one-third) of the chalk 
they originally contained, and they have acquired an exceptionally 
large amount of magnesia. They are all taken from wells in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Harrow,* and their anomalies are 
doubtless due to some local cause extending over a limited area. 
Somewhat similar anomalies appear to present themselves at 

* Measuring from the Harrow waterworks Sheepcote Farm is about | 
mile east on the opposite side of the hill, Kenton about 2 miles to the 
north-east, and Sudbury Brewery about \\ to the south-east. 



160 ON THE WATER IN THE CHALK 

Colney Hatch, where an analysis shows Ca. 57 and Mg. 69, but 
Na. only 70, and CO2, 126. 

The result is that the Harrow water is excessively hard, and 
that so large a part of its hardness is permanent, that after the 
application of Clark's process, it still remains hard. Its hardness 
is also of a peculiar character. As it comes from the well, it has 
1 4 "8° of hardness and is therefore not a very hard water, consider- 
ably softer in fact than any of the London companies' waters 
derived from the Thames. When heated however to about 160^ 
to 180° Fahrenheit a change takes place and its hardness increases 
to a maximum of 38 "8°. By actually boiling the water the chalk 
in solution is precipitated and its hardness then becomes reduced 
to about 27^ to i8|° If treated by Clark's process, its hardness 
becomes about 18*^ to 20*^, or about that of Thames water, and 
at this it remains under all conditions of temperature. 

The well at the Harrow Waterworks was sunk with such 
care to exclude the water from the sands in the beds above the 
chalk, that there can be no doubt that we are dealing in this case 
with water from the chalk alone. I have no information as to the 
well at Sheepcote Farm, which presents such a relatively large 
amount of magnesium and sodium sulphates as to render it quite 
unfit for domestic use. 

The remarkable difference in so limited an area in the waters 
derived from apparently the same source need explanation. I can 
offer none better than the supposition that, within this area, the 
water from the sands above the chalk intermingle more freely than 
elsewhere from the absence of impervious separating beds, with 
the chalk water proper below. 

It seems probable from the lines on Mr. Lucas's map that the 
sand-waters in the neighbourhood of Harrow are under a pressure, 
which would bring them in a well up to the level of 1 20 ft. above 
the O.D., while the chalk waters only rise to 102 ft., so that if 
there were free communication the sand-waters would penetrate 
into the chalk with a pressure due to a head of about 20 ft. 
Unfortunatel}', I have been able to get no analysis of these sand- 
waters so as to judge whether their constitution is such that their 
intermingling with the chalk waters would be likely to produce a 
water with such constituents as we actually find. 



BENEATH THE LONDON CLAY. 161 

There is one other fact which seems to point to a similar con- 
clusion. If the intermingling of sand and chalk waters is a very 
local phenomenon ; supposing the supply of the sand-water not to 
be practically unlimited, it might happen that by continued pump- 
ing the sand-water would show signs of exhaustion, and its effect 
on the chalk water be proportionately diminished, so that possibly 
after a time its effect might be inappreciable. Now, the Harrow 
water has been examined at different times, though, unfortunately, 
we have no fu// mmera/ analysis of it at the earlier dates, but this 
is the result : — 

In 1868, the total solid contents were 1044, and the hardness 
48"5. In 1870 these were reduced to 1009 and 44*4 respectively; 
in 1873 to 981 and 40*8 ; and in 1883 to 884 and 38-5.* 

This appears to show a progressive improvement in the water 
from the Harrow wells, and it would have been interesting, from a 
scientific point of view, to follow up these observations from year 
to year in order to see whether the change continued. Unfortu- 
nately for science, whatever the advantage to the inhabitants of 
Harrow from an economic point of view, this is no longer possible, 
for our pumps stand idle, and Harrow is now supplied with water 
by the Colne Valley Company, drawn from wells in the open 
chalk at Bushey. 

Here, then, as far as my information extends, is another 
unsolved problem, which I commend to any members of this 
society who may have been interested in the facts I have brought 
before you this evening. I venture to hope that by the gradual 
accumulation of suitable observations, a satisfactory explanation 
of the anomalies to which I have called your attention (I fear with 
too great demands on your patience) may be found. I would 
merely suggest that possibly the solution of the anomalous charac- 
ter of the Harrow water may be found to be connected with the 
fact that at Pinner, about two miles to the north-west, the Wool- 
wich beds rise up to the surface. 

I will only add that as, though water is naturally so/i, the influ- 
ence of Harrow Hills appears to be to make it excessively /lard, so 

* Or possibly to 34'3, if calculated in the same way as at the previous dates. 
Vol. VL m 



162 EYES OF MOLLUSCS 

you will kindly attribute it to a similar occult influence on the 
compiler of this paper, if he has therein proved to you that water 
can be made (at any rate as the subject of an address) very dry. 



'£;^C':> of nDollu5C6 anb Hvtbropo^^/' 

By Dr. William Patten, of Naples. 



Preparation of Young Peetens from 1-3 mm. long. I. — Mol- 
luscs. — I. — Specimens are placed in a mixture of equal parts of 
sublimate and picro-sulphuric acid. After ten or fifteen minutes 
they are washed in thirty-five per cent, and seventy per cent, of 
alcohol. 

2. — The shells are then opened and the mantle dissected out 
with needles. Thus treated, the shape of the mantle is well pre- 
served, whereas if removed before hardening it becomes much 
coiled and twisted. 

3. — Each mantle edge may be cut, according to its size and 
curvature, into three or four pieces, and these will then lie 
sufficiently straight for convenient sectioning. 

It is necessary to use a different reagent for nearly every part 
of the eye. 

The Rods.— (Zhxoxmc acid gives the most varied results accord- 
ing to the strength, time of action, and temperature of the 
solution, or by various combinations of these three. For instance, 
one-twentieth to one-fifth per cent, for thirty to forty hours failed 
to give any conception of the structure of the rods, while other 
parts of the retina, and of the eye itself, were well preserved ; but 
when allowed to act for half an hour at a temperature of from 50'' 
to 55° C, perfectly preserved rods with their nervous net-works 
are obtained; while, on the other hand, the remaining tissues 
become so granular and homogeneous as to be unfit for study. 
This treatment allows the rods to be removed in flakes and their 
ends examined without the aid of sections. // is only in this way 
that the axial nerve-loops can. be observed. 

* From 77ic A//icriia?i Naturalist. 



AND ARTHROPODS, 163 

The Lens. — The lens is best prepared for sections by either 
sulphuric or picro-sulphuric acid. By the first reagent its shape is 
best retained, and the lens itself is less liable to be drawn away 
from the surrounding tissue ; the latter reagent, however, brings 
out more sharply the configuration of the cells and allows a 
better stain of the nuclei to take place. 

The Retinophom. — The retinophorse are well preserved by 
nearly all the reagents ; but in sublimate, in picric acid, or in their 
combinations, they become slightly granular, and remain so closely 
packed that it is difficult to distinguish the cell boundaries. 
Chromic acid, one-fifth per cent, for three or four days, contracts 
the cells and gives preparations in which the boundaries and 
general arrangement of the retinophorse are easily studied. 

Sections of the Eye. — In order to obtain the best sections of 
the adult eye with all the parts in the most natural position, it is 
necessary to treat them first with one-tenth per cent, of chromic 
acid for half an hour, then in one-twentieth per cent, for twenty- 
four hours; one-tenth per cent, for twenty-four hours ; and finally 
one-fifth per cent, for forty-eight hours or more. Next to this 
method, it appears that solutions of sulphuric acid (twenty drops 
to fifty grammes of water) give the best preparations (for 
sectioning), of everything except the rods. 

The double layer of the sclerotica and the fibres penetrating it 
can be seen in sections of eyes treated twenty-four hours in one- 
fifth per cent, chromic acid. 

Maceratioii and Dissection. — -The pigmented epithelial cells of 
Pecten's eyes and the cells of the cornea are easily isolated by 
treatment with Miiller's fluid or bichromate of potash one-half per 
cent, for two or three days. For the maceration of all other 
elements weak chromic or sulphuric acid is used. For the outer 
ganglionic cells, which are very difficult to isolate, maceration in 
one-fiftieth per cent, chromic acid gives excellent results, after 
previously fi.xing the tissue in one-fifth per cent, for a few minutes. 

For the retijiophorce., one-twentieth per cent, for four or five 
days proves very useful. 

Sulphuric acid, five drops to thirty grammes of sea-water, gives 
the best results for the nerve-endings in the retinophora^ (not in 
the rods) and for the nervous inner prolongation of the outer 
ganglionic cells. 



164 EYES OF MOLLUSCS 

In order to isolate pieces of the cornea with the subjacent 
pseudo-cornea and the circular fibres on the outer surface of the 
lens, it is better to macerate the eyes in sulphuric acid as given 
above. The same treatment retains to perfection the natural 
shape of the lens, which may then be isolated and its surface 
studied to advantage. 

It is necessary for the study of the circular retinal membrane^ 
the septum, and the retina itself, to isolate the latter intact. 
Maceration in chromic acid either makes the retina too brittle or 
too soft, while the axial nerve-fibres remain so firmly attached to 
the retina that it is difificult to isolate it without injury. But this 
may be easily and successfully done by maceration for one or two 
days in the sulphuric acid solution. By this treatment the retina, 
together with the septum and circular retinal membrane, may be 
detached entire. 

Surface views of the retina show the peripheral outer ganglionic 
cells. The argentca may be very easily separated in large sheets 
by macerating for four or five days in bichromate of potash of one 
per cent. 

Sulphuric acid is a most valuable macerating as well as 

preservative reagent. In weak solutions (forty drops to fifty 

grammes) entire molluscs, without the shell, have been kept in a 

perfect state of preservation for more than six months. For cilia 

and nerve-endings it is exceptionally good. 

The eyes of Area and Pectunculus may be macerated either 
in Miiller's fluid or chromic acid. Undiluted Mliller's fluid in 
twenty- four hours gives more satisfactory preparations than a weak 
solution which is allowed to act for a longer period. Chromic 
acid, one-fifth per cent, for ten or twelve days, gave most of the 
preparations from which the drawings of the nerve-endings were 
made. A few drops of acetic and osmic acid added to distilled 
water give a very energetic macerating fluid for the epithelium of 
marine molluscs. Such preparations led to the discovery of the 
very delicate outward continuations of the pigmented cover-cells 
in the compound eyes of Area. 

II. — Arthropods. — In order to demonstrate the presence of 
the corneal hypodermis in the faceted Arthropod eye, and the 
connection of the so-called " rhabdom " with the crystalUne cone 



AND ARTHROPODS. 165 

cells, it is necessary to resort to maceration. In most cases it is 
hardly possible to determine these important points by means of 
sections alone. 

The ommateum of fresh eyes, treated for twenty-four hours or 
more with weak sulphuric or chromic acid, or in Muller's fluid, 
may be easily removed, leaving the corneal facets with the 
underlying hypodermis uninjured. Surface views of the cornea 
prepared in this way show the number and arrangement of the 
corneal cells on each facet. In macerating the cells of the 
ommateum it is not possible to give any definite directions, for 
the results vary gready with different eyes, and it is also necessary 
to modify the treatment according to the special point to be 
determined. It is as essential to isolate the individual cells as it 
is to study cross and longitudinal sections of the pigmented eyes. 
In determining the number and arrangement of the cells and the 
distribution of the pigment, the latter method is indispensable ; it 
should not be replaced by the study of depigmented sections, 
which should be resorted to in special cases only. 

In fixing the tissues of the eye, it is not sufficient to place the 
detached head in the hardening fluid ; the antennaj and mouth 
parts should be cut off as close to the eye as possible in order to 
allow free and immediate access of the fluids to the eye. When it 
is possible to do so with safety, the head should be cut open and 
all unnecessary tissue and hard parts removed. With abundant 
material, one often finds individuals in which it is possible to 
separate, uninjured, the hardened tissues of the eye from the 
cuticula. This is of course a great advantage in cutting sections. 
The presence of a hard cuticula is often a serious difficulty in 
sectioning the eyes of Arthropods. This difficulty can be dimin- 
ished somewhat by the use of the hardest paraffin, and by 
placing the broad surface of the cuticula at right angles to the 
edge of the knife when sectioning. Ribbon sections cannot be 
made with very hard paraffin, but it is often necessary to sacrifice 
this advantage in order to obtain very good sections. 



[166] 
By Samuel Lockwood, 



THE July number of the American Natiiralist for 1867 con- 
tains my article, "The Sea-Horse and its Young." Although 
the result of a long study of living specimens of this eccen- 
tric fish, yet some questions remain unanswered. At the time 
mentioned I was living at Keyport, on Raritan Bay. Early in 
1870 my residence was changed to Freehold, fourteen miles 
inland ; hence it has happened that specimens sent me have suc- 
cumbed before reaching my home. A happy exception occurred 
November i, 1884, in the arrival from Shark River of a fine large 
female. Hippocampus heptagonus, Rafin. As the subject of my 
article in 1867 was a male, I prized my new pet highly. 

With an aquarium devoted entirely to this specimen, I set 
about studying her peculiarities. She had the same habit of con- 
verting her tail into a prehensile organ, and so would coil the tip 
around a tuft of sea- lettuce, and, with the pretty dorsal fin in 
movement like an undulating ribbon, would sway to and fro, keep 
ing the body erect. The sight of the sea-horse alive in the water 
is always pretty, although quite grotesque, for its action differs so 
greatly from that of other fishes, which are prone, and usually 
move in a line parallel to the bed of the water, while, as a child 
would express it, the sea-horse swims standing up on its tail. The 
crested head is erect, the action, though stiff, is graceful, not unlike 
the knightly steeds on the chessboard, very quaint yet comely. 

I had through all those years desired to see the giving of the 
spawn by the female and the taking of it by the male ; for, as 
shown in that article of 1867, the male Hippo is not only father 
but nurse to the young. In his front, just a little higher than the 
vent, is a sac, into which he receives the eggs of the female, and 
in which he hatches them. My desire was to see the method of 
taking the eggs into this pouch. Did he put them in or did she ? 
Despairing now of ever seeing them in apposition, I must describe 
the act as I think it does take place. 

* From The Aincricaii Naturalist. 



THE SEA-HORSE. 167 

I cannot believe that the twain are without emotion, since it is 
true of some of the higher fishes that the love-season calls out 
their intelligence to its highest manifestation. Suppose in our 
latitude it is July. A pair of these Hippocampi meet. They curl 
their prehensile tails about each other and assume an erect position, 
face to face. The female emits her eggs in a slow stream imme- 
diately over the pouch, which opens and closes at the top. The 
motion of the mouth of this sac is that of suction ; thus, the 
eggs are actually drawn into it. There they are patiently hatched 
and also nourished, as shown in the paper referred to. This appo- 
sition of the sexes, to be sure, is hypothesis, yet I think it will 
prove to be true. At any rate, it is the outcome of long and 
patient thought, and is perfectly consistent with observation of 
habit. 

When the young are ready for eviction, the pouch, which on 
receiving the eggs was fat and thick, has become flaccid and thin. 
Its adipose lining has been absorbed by the young fishes. So 
badly wasted is the pouch that muscular action sufiicient to expel 
the brood is impossible. The father-fish evicts his charge in the 
following way. He gets himself in an erect position alongside of 
some object — a stick, stone, shell, or plant — either hooking the 
end of his tail under it, or in some way getting hold by its prehen- 
sile tip. Then stiffening the whole body and keeping it erect, he 
leans upon the object, and brings himself down against it with a 
jerky movement; this rubs up the pouch, pushing out some of its 
occupants. This is done repeatedly until the whole brood is 
forced into the water. 

Now, it is observable that an anal fin would be greatly in the 
way during such an operation. In fact, it would be a very bad 
obstruction. Hence the absence of this fin in the male Hippo- 
campus. But it is present in my female, for in her case it is not 
in the way. In fact, it may be that she utilizes it at the time of 
emitting her spawn, as she could produce a gentle eddy of the 
water in the direction of the male's pouch. 

I found by the microscope that diatoms were being generated 
in the tank, and I fancied that my pet was feeding on them, for in 
all my devices I did not succeed in feeding her myself. She would 
show a movement in her tubular snout which looked like sucking 



168 THE SEA-HORSE. 

something in. Sometimes she would stretch herself on the bottom 
of the tank, and apply the tip of her nozzle in a way that seemed 
to me like selecting by sight. And what a cunning look ! as with 
sacerdotal steadfastness of purpose one eye was turned towards 
heaven and the other kept upon the earth. Certainly her food was 
microscopic, and in the hunt her optical application was binocular 
or monocular at will. 

I noticed with some concern that the peculiar scales which 
covered its body, and looked not unlike plate armour, were becom- 
ing green. It proved that a growth of micrococci had set in, and 
was rapidly spreading over her. I was quite solicitous about it ; 
for it would hardly do for me to clean it, so tender is the little 
creature. Its tank had become badly infested with these unicelled 
algge. For the purpose of keeping up a supply of microscopic life 
for its food, besides the little two-gallon aquarium, I kept two 
specie jars going, and would transfer it to them, so that it could 
have freshness of food. Deciding to clean up the aquarium, I put 
it in one of the jars. It quite enjoyed the change, and to my 
surprise performed a series of movements on the clean sand which 
turned out to be successful efforts to scour off the green parasitical 
slime. It needed patience, but that, with perseverance, did the 
work. 

She was in a few days put back into her aquarium. The little 
handling necessary always begat a discernible clucking as of terror. 
It was really a species of snapping of the lips of the tubular 
snout. I heard it often, and under different circumstances, and 
thought I could detect three intonings — one which was excited by 
terror, one denoting a pleasurable emotion, as when in play, and a 
third when quite still, perhaps faintly, like the purring of another 
pet. But perhaps my intense sympathy with the little creature 
may give colour to these interpretations. 

Alas ! there was now too much ground for sympathy — a terrible 
malady had begun to take hold of the poor thing. The face took 
on a comical aspect. On each side rose a swelling as if she had 
the mumps. With a hand-lens I found that these were blisters, 
white vesicles, and so buoyant as to annoy her by producing 
eccentric movements. I contrived to pierce them with a needle, 
and so to let out the confined gas. This gave immediate relief. 



I 



THE MICROSCOPE AND HOW TO USE IT. 169 

But they came again, and by-and-bye my surgery did not avail. 
They increased, and the buoyancy would raise it to the surface, 
and the little sufferer, despite all help, would float. And so it was 
on the last day of February, at an early hour, 1 found poor Hippie 
afloat on her beam ends and dead. I had her alive just four 
months, and the above is but a tithe of what might be told of her 
pretty ways. 



Zbc riDicroocopc anb bow to U6C it. 

By V. A. Latham, F.M.S. 



Part XL — Injecting, etc. (continued). 



Sterling's Constant Pressure Apparatus (Plate XIV., Fig. 4). — 
Ciet a large, wide-mouthed bottle and a smaller one ; have these 
well fitted with corks. In the larger cork bore four holes,* and in 
the smaller one two. Into two of the four holes in the larger 
cork fit two straight tubes, one passing nearly to the bottom of 
the bottle, the other passing for a distance of half-an-inch only 
through the cork. On this latter tube should be a stop-cock, and 
fitted above it a mercurial manometer by which the pressure is 
measured. This is simply a flattened S-shaped tube, turned 
through a right angle, one bend of which is filled with mercury. 
Behind this tube is placed an index board marked off in \ inches. 
Into the other hole fit a couple of tubes bent at right angles, each 
tube passing through the cork and projecting into the bottle for 
about \ inch, one of them having a stop-cock on the horizontal 
part of the tube. Into the two holes in the cork of the smaller 
bottle are fitted bent tubes, one of which passes to the bottom of 
the bottle, the other passing in for only \ inch. A tin cylinder 
holding a couple of pints of water is hung over a pulley fixed to 
the ceiling of the room by means of a cord. It can be raised or 
lowered at pleasure. An India-rubber tube is carried from the 
bottom of the tin to the straight tube which passes to the bottom 
of the larger vessel. Pressure from a water-main may be used in 
place of this last piece of apparatus. From the open bent tube 

* The fuurth tube, with the stop-cock for allowing ingress and egress of air, 
is not represented in the diagram. 



170 THE MICROSCOPE 

of the larger bottle, a piece of flexible tubing is carried to the 
shorter bent tube in the smaller bottle, and attached to the longer 
bent tube in the smaller bottle is a flexible tube with a nozzle 
which will fit the stop-cock tube fitted into the cannula. The 
smaller bottle is filled with injection fluid, and both corks are 
fitted. The stop-cock in the short tube bent at right angles (in 
the larger bottle) is closed, and the tin vessel gradually raised ; the 
water runs out into the larger bottle by the tube passing to the 
bottom ; the air in this large bottle is gradually compressed, and 
is driven into the smaller bottle, and the increase of pressure 
drives the fluid out of the bottle and into the vessels which are to 
be injected. 

The pressure in the vessels is indicated by the mano- 
meter, and is very readily regulated by merely raising or 
lowering the tin from which the water gets its " head," or by 
regulating the amount of water flowing from the main. The 
pressure should commence at |- inch of mercury, and be very 
gradually raised to 3 or 4 inches, according to the nature of the 
organ or tissue which is to be injected. Where the gelatine 
injection is used, the organ and the bottle containing the fluid 
must both be placed in a vessel of water, which should be 
maintained at a constant temperature of about, but never above, 
104° F. (40° C.) for an hour before the injection, and during the 
time the injection is running. N.B. — Always fill the tubes with 
the injecting fluid before attaching to the cannula (the cannula 
having been already filled), in order that no air may get into the 
vessels. 

Before proceeding to inject arrange the following instruments : 
— the syringe, thoroughly clean and in working order, with pipes, 
stopcocks, and corks shaped to stop the pipes while refilling the 
syringe, a few scalpels, scissors, dissecting forceps, bull's nose 
forceps for stopping up any vessel through which the injection 
may escape accidentally, an aneurism needle for passing threads 
round vessels, wash-bottle, floss silk or oiled worsted, and injecting 
fluid. 

Killing the Animal to be Injected. — This is most easily done by 
opening it from anus to throat, and cutting deeply into the heart 
across the right auricle. It is, of course, done whilst under 



AND HOW TO USE IT. 171 

chloroform, or immediately after it has been suffocated by 
chloroform. To facilitate the bleeding, the animal should be 
suspended alternately by the hind and front legs, and as the blood 
coagulates in the wound in the heart it should be removed. The 
best plan to administer the chloroform is to place the animal in a 
box, drop in a piece of cotton wool saturated with chloroform, 
and close the lid. In from five to fifteen minutes the animal will 
be dead. 

To Inject a Whole Animal. — A rabbit is perhaps the best 
subject for a beginner. After killing it immerse the body in hot 
water for about fifteen minutes ; then take it out, pass a ligature 
round the aorta close to the heart, make a longitudinal incision in 
the aorta, and insert a cannula of most suitable size. Bind the 
cannula firmly in the artery, and attach the stop-cock. Floss silk 
or oiled worsted are the best substances which can be employed for 
tying pipes in the vessels ; it should not be drawn too tight or it 
will cut through them, and so permit the pipe to come out. All ves- 
sels must be opened longitudinally and under water: this prevents 
the entrance of air ; avoid making the slit too large. If the cut 
be transverse the vessel may be torn in two, or contract so much 
as to be difficult to get hold of and so exclude the possibility of 
making an injection. Have a good supply of hot carmine mass 
(Dr. Carter's). First fill the syringe with the injection and then the 
stop-cock and cannula ; then insert the nozzle of the syringe into 
the stop-cock, taking care that no air is admitted, or the passage of 
fluid will be impeded. The amount of pressure exerted on the 
piston should at first be very slight, but gradually increased as the 
injection proceeds. The filling of the spleen should be carefully 
watched, and as soon as fully distended, more injection mass 
should be prevented from flowing into it by tying a ligature round 
its artery. 

The splenic artery is easily found. It arises as a branch 
of the coeliac axis, and enters the substance of the spleen at 
the hilus on its concave surface. In order to obtain a perfect 
injection of the kidney, it should be drained of all blood by 
opening the renal vein. Blood and carmine mass will at first flow 
out together; but as soon as the carmine flows out freely and un- 
mixed with blood, the vein should be ligatured, and the vessels 



172 THE MICROSCOPE 

allowed to fill slowly. When the transparent parts about the upper 
and lower extremities show a reddened and slightly distended 
appearance, the injection may be considered complete. The inter- 
nal organs, when well injected, have a deep red colour, and appear 
as if inflated with air. In this operation, the lungs remain un- 
touched by the injection, and they must therefore be injected 
separately through the pulmonary artery either in situ, or after 
excision. In order to render the capillaries of the alveoli perfectly 
distinct in section, it is usual to distend the air-cells of the lungs 
by pouring melted cocoa-nut oil down the trachea. The oil soli- 
difies in cooling and makes the cutting of extremely thin sections 
after hardening an easy matter. When the injection is completed 
the open vessels should be tied, and the animal placed in 
cold water ; half-an-hour afterwards the different parts should be 
dissected out, and placed in methylated spirit. 

Injecting from Carotid Artery. — A much neater way to per- 
form the above operation,, though perhaps a little more difficult, is 
to inject from the carotid artery down towards the heart. First, 
cut down and expose the large artery and vein of the neck. 
Either dissect the vein out for a little distance, and then cut it, 
and hold the cut end over a beaker, or, better, introduce into the 
vein a small glass tube. Bleeding will freely occur through it. 
If a clot stops the flow, remove the tube and wash it out or 
introduce a wire and break it up ; then secure the filled nozzle in 
the carotid artery. A small portion of the vessel is included 
between two clamps — flattened, bent wire — and a longitudinal slit 
made through its walls. After the pipe is well secured, a small 
quantity of the carmine mass is slowly introduced. The beat of 
the heart itself will push the mixture on until this first small 
quantity is seen to colour the gums and eyelids. It is advisable 
to open the abdominal cavity toward the latter state of the 
operation, in order that the organs may protrude and become 
generally filled with the injection mass. 

Blood-vessels in Fish, as the Skate, etc.— I find the following a 
convenient way : — ^Have ready four of the movable cannulae 
usually provided with injecting syringe, or if these are not at hand 
four glass tubes, drawn to the form shown in PI. XIV., Fig. 5. 



AND HOW TO USE IT. 173 

The smaller end is for insertion in the vessel, the con- 
striction is for the purpose of preventing any slipping of 
the ligature, over the end of which a short piece of India- 
rubber tubing is pushed. Make an incision into the coims 
arteriosus (given off anteriorly and somewhat to the right 
side from the ventricle) ; place one cannula in it, directed 
forwards, and tie it firmly in its place. Tie the second, directed 
outwards, into the sinus venosus ; the third, directed forwards {i.e., 
towards the dorsal aorta) into the duodenal artery ; the fourth, 
also directed forwards into the duodenal vein. Fill an ordinary 
tumbler half-full of plaster of Paris, coloured with a little common 
"French blue" or ultramarine of the oil-shops. Fill up the 
tumbler with water, stir well, and immediately strain the liquid 
through coarse muslin into a second tumbler. Fill the syringe, 
and inject through all four cannulge successively. This must be 
done very rapidly, or the plaster will set. On removing the 
syringe from a cannula, the India-rubber tube should be plugged 
with a small piece of wood to prevent escape (keep a few pegs 
ready made which fit well). All the chief vessels are injected in 
this way : the ventral aorta and its branches from the conus arterio- 
sus, the systemic veins from the sinus venosus, the dorsal aorta and 
its branches from the duodenal artery, and the postal vein from 
the duodenal vein. The caudal and renal postal veins have to be 
done separately ; the femoral and ilio-hsemorrhoidal veins also 
often escape being filled. If a preparation for demonstrating 
purposes be desired, it is advisable to colour the plaster used for 
injecting the dorsal aorta with vermilion or carmine instead of 
French blue. 

A Fine Injection for very Small Vessels is made by straining 
through muslin a strong solution of gum arabic in water coloured 
with precipitated Prussian blue or carmine. After injection, the 
subject is placed in alcohol, which coagulates the gum. It has a 
double advantage over gelatine — that it is used cold and that it 
keeps better in alcohol. A common brass ear-syringe, holding 
about two ounces, answers for every purpose, using for cannulas 
glass tubes as above form, adapted to the nozzle of the syringe 
with short pieces of caoutchouc tubing. 



174 THE MICROSCOPE 

Injecting a Green Lizard.— Render the animal insensible with 
chloroform ; lay bare the heart, taking care not to injure the epi- 
gastric vein ; slit open the pericardium, and cut off the apex of 
the ventricle. When the bleeding has stopped, push a cannula 
through the wound into the cavity of the ventricle, and thence 
into the right aorta, and tie it in place by a ligature round the 
base of the ventricle. A warm solution of gelatine, covered with 
carmine, vermilion, or French blue (ultramarine), is the best 
injecting medium. It is firm enough to pass through capillaries, 
so that the whole vascular system, with the exception of the pul- 
monary vessels, can be injected at one operation. 

Injection of Pigeon.— As soon as the bird is dead (kill with 
chloroform or potassic cyanide), pluck the breast, expose the pec- 
toral vessels of one side, cut through these vessels as near as pos- 
sible to the reflected pectoralis major^ and allow to bleed. All 
this must be done very quickly, as birds' blood coagulates very 
fast, and it is essential to success to allow as much as possible to 
escape. Remove the corpus sterni on the same side so as to 
expose the heart, and see the origin of the pectoral vessels. Insert 
a cannula into the pectoral artery through the incision already 
made, tie securely, and inject towards the heart. In this way the 
whole of the arterial system is filled. The systemic veins may be 
filled from the pectoral vein, but better results are obtained by 
injecting from the coccygeo-mesenteric vein, the cannula being 
inserted backwards, or towards the renal postal veins. The 
severed pectoral vein should first be tied or clamped with bull-dog 
forceps. It will probably be found necessary to inject the pre- 
cavals {vena cava superior, anterior dextra, a large vessel, situated 
dorsal and external to the right innominate artery, formed by 
union of jugular, trachial, and pectoral) and their feeders sepa- 
rately. This is best done by making an incision in one of the 
jugulars (preferably that of the side on which the pectorals have 
already been cut), near its proximal end, and injecting forwards. 
The postal system is best injected from the coccygeo-mesenteric 
vein, the cannula being directed forwards. 

Injection of Rabbit.— Kill with chloroform or potassic cyanide. 
As soon as it is dead, oi)en the thorax by cutting through the 



1 



AND HOW TO USE IT. 175 

Sternal ribs of both sides sufficiently far from the middle line not 
to injure the mammary arteries, cutting across the posterior end of 
the sternum and turning it forwards. Slit open the pericardium, 
and make a large incision, by a single cut of the scissors, in each 
ventricle. All this should be done rapidly (if possible, before the 
heart has ceased to beat), as it is desirable to get rid of as much 
blood as possiblci Pass a ligature round the aorta close to its 
exit from the heart, and give it a single loose tie. When the 
bleeding has ceased, sponge the blood from the heart, and pick 
out any clots which may have formed in the left ventricle, pass a 
cannula through the incision in the left ventricle into the aorta, 
tighten the ligature, and knot it firmly. By this operation, the 
whole of the systemic arteries are injected. The pulmonary 
arteries may be filled by proceeding similarly on the right side. 
The postal vein is readily injected from its branch to the caudate 
lobe, the cannula being directed towards the main trunk. The 
injection of the systemic veins is more difficult. The precavals 
may be filled from the external jugular, the post-caval from exter- 
nal iliac, the cannula in both cases being directed towards the 
heart. For anatomical purposes, injection with plaster is the best. 

Injecting a Frog.— Kill with chloroform. Introduce one blade 
of the scissors carefully beneath the sternum, and cut it through 
the median line. Slit open the pericardium and the fleshy part of 
the heart, seized with forceps. Cut an opening into the ventricle. 
Do not wait long for the blood to escape, but wash it away with 
the wash-bottle as it appears. Introduce the filled pipe of the 
syringe, and secure firmly in place by passing the thread around 
the heart-substance and back over the pin on the nozzle. Just the 
end of the pipe should be included, for if it is thrust too far, 
there is great danger of the point passing through the delicate 
coats of the vessel. 

Injecting Eye of Ox. —The pipe is inserted in the artery close 
to the nerve. Two or three minutes will be time enough to make 
a complete injection. If the globe becomes very much distended 
by the fluid, an opening must be made in the cornea to allow the 
humours of the eye to escape. Thus space is left for the injection, 
and the vessels may be completely distended. 



176 THE MICROSCOPE 

Rat, Mouse, or Frog.— Inject from the aorta. 

Injecting Insects.— Insects may be injected by forcing the 
fluid into the general abdominal cavity, whence it passes into the 
dorsal vessel, and is afterwards distributed to the system. The 
superfluous injection is then washed away, and such parts of the 
body as may be required removed for examination. Insects 
should be injected very soon after they have emerged from the 
pupa. The water vascular apparatus, vessels, and the digestive 
tube may be injected. In some cases the best results are obtained 
with size coloured with transparent colouring matter; in others by 
injecting Prussian blue or carmine fluid made with glycerine. In 
injecting the digestive apparatus of some entozoa, as liver fluke 
{Distoma, or Fasciola /iepattcu?n), the pipe may be tied in ; but I 
only make an opening into the vessel and insert the pipe, which 
must be held steadily while the injection is carefully forced from 
the orifice. 

Injecting Mollusca (slug, oyster, snail, etc.). — The tenuity of 
the vessels of many mollusca renders it undesirable to tie the pipe 
in them. The capillaries are, however, very large, so the injection 
runs readily. In different parts of the bodies of these animals are 
numerous lacunae, which communicate directly with the vessels. 
If an opening be made through the integument of the muscular 
foot of the snail, a pipe inserted, and the lacunre filled easily, the 
large vessels of the branchiae may be readily injected with the aid 
of a pipe having an orifice at the point. 

Injecting Snails (Robertson's plan).— Kill the snails by drown- 
ing them in a jar quite filled with cold water, the mouth closed 
with a piece of plate glass. The vascular system is to be injected 
from the ventricle of the heart with size and carmine. The heart 
of a snail is easily found. It is enclosed in a sac, which is situated 
at the posterior extremity of the pulmonary chamber on the left 
side. The position of the organs of a snail has been fully des- 
cribed by Dr. Lawson in the Microscopical Joitrnal iox 1863. The 
injection, introduced into the heart, passes right round the body 
and returns to the pulmonary chamber. By this plan the arterial 



AND HOW TO USE IT. 177 

branches may be traced into the foot and to many other parts 
which were considered to be destitute of arteries.* 

Injecting Fishes. — It is difficult or quite impossible to tie the 
pipe in the vessel of a small fish. If we inject from the heart, the 
fluid passes through the gills. The best way is to cut off the tail 
of the fish, introduce the pipe into the divided vessel which lies 
immediately beneath the spinal column. In this manner beautiful 
preparations may be made. 

Double Injection of the Eye and Spleen.— It is well to drive 
the injection mixture intended for the venous system through the 
artery first, and then through the same vessel the second mass 
which is to serve for the arterial system. Not unfrequently the 
injection may be essentially regulated by keeping open or closing 
the terminal vein. The beginner often experiences a difficulty in 
finding the vessel from which to inject ; and to distinguish the 
arteries from the veins. This may be found by making a longitu- 
dinal incision in the vessel, and with a blunt, thick needle probing 
a little distance into the tube. The artery will be found thicker in 
the coating than the vein, and the difference is easily perceived by 
this mode of testing. The vein is also of a bluer colour than the 
artery. 

A sheep's foot injected forms a good object. The liquid 
should be forced into it until a slight paring of the hoof shows the 
colour in the fine channels there. The tongue of a cat is also a 
very beautiful injection. A solution of tannin, injected after 
washing with warm water, renders arteries impervious to the 
coloured fluid afterwards thrown in. A little practice will enable 
the beginner to overcome the difficulties of injection. A few 
failures may be expected at first, but after three or four trials per- 
fection will soon be gained. Careful dissection and attention to 
the directions here laid down will save much labour and loss of 
time. The injection of single organs— as liver, lung, etc. — will be 
treated of under the preparation of the same in a future part. 

Injecting Annelids. — For annelids with dark tissues, like 
Hintdo, a light-coloured (white or yellow) injection-mass should 

* On "The Orgnns of Circulation of Helix Poniatia," Aiinah aiid Maga- 
zine of Natural History, Jan., 1867. 

Vol. VI. N 



178 THE MICROSCOPE AND HOW TO USE IT. 

be employed, while for transparent animals dark colours are pre- 
ferable. Chrome yellow serves the purpose. It is easily obtained 
by mixing solutions of bichromate of potassium and acetate of 
lead. A copious yellow precipitate is formed, which must be 
washed on the filter, then exposed in the air until nearly dry. 
The pigment, after it is reduced to a pulpy state, is added to an 
ordinary aqueous solution of gelatine, and the mass then filtered 
warm through linen. If a blue mass, the gelatine may be dis- 
solved directly in liquid Prussian blue and filtered through paper. 
Chloroform and alcohol are the best means of killing annelids for 
this purpose ; fresh water may be also used for some marine 
species. A leech is placed in water in which is a small quantity 
of chloroform ; after a few moments, it sinks to the bottom and 
remains motionless. It is better if it remains in the solution for 
one or two days before beginning to inject it. A well-stoppered 
bottle must be used, as chloroform evaporates so quickly. The 
best form of syringe consists of a glass tube drawn to a fine point 
at one extremity and furnished at the other with a rubber tube. 
Preparatory to injecting, the glass should be plunged in warm 
water for a few minutes. Then expel the water and fill with the 
injection fluid by sucking the air from the rubber tube. If the 
mass is turned into the large end of the glass, granules are intro- 
duced which are large enough to obstruct the narrow opening at 
the small end. Insert the cannular end in the vessel, clasp both 
with forceps, then force the fluid, by aspiration, through the 
rubber tube, which is held in the mouth. When the injection is 
finished, place the animal in cold water, to stiffen the mass. — 
M. T., Zool. Stat. Neapd. 

Hardening Injected Tissues— Injected tissues must be hard- 
ened in spirit. After the first day's immersion, they should be 
transferred to fresh spirit for two more days, and then again into 
fresh spirit, and kept in this until ready for cutting into sections. 
It is never necessary to use absolute alcohol, and it is seldom 
needful to place the tissues first in weak spirit and gradually to 
increase the strength up to perfectly anhydrous alcohol. The 
length of time required for hardening depends upon the kind of 
tissue, its size, and, to a certain extent, upon the quantity of spirit 
used. The smaller the size of the tissue, the more rapidly will 



HALF-AN-HOUR AT THE MICROSCOPE, 179 

the hardening be done. Brain, spinal cord, and kidney are ren- 
dered sufficiently hard for cutting in three weeks ; lung, liver, 
spleen, pancreas, intestines, tongue, etc., take a longer time, 
usually from five to eight weeks. A saturated aqueous solution of 
picric acid is sometimes used as a hardening agent, but its action 
has a very persistent yellow dye, which is much against its 
employment for this purpose. 

Another method for Hardening the Tissues.— After injection I 
place the object at once in equal parts of alcohol and water ; 
allow to remain for some hours, so that the gelatine becomes 
solid. If carmine mass has been used, alcohol and water is the 
only suitable fluid for hardening, and a few drops of acetic acid 
should be added, to prevent diffusion of carmine. If Prussian 
blue, either alcohol, Miiller's fluid, or picric acid may be used. 
Some recommend a ^ per cent, solution of osmic acid. But it 
must only be used for small pieces, as it does not penetrate far. 
For those readers who wish for further information, I would recom- 
mend Robin's " Du Microscope et des Injections," Frey's " Das 
Mikroskop," etc., "Journal of Royal Micros. Soc," etc. 



Ibalf'^'an^^lbour at tbe flDicroecope, 

Mitb /I1M\ Uutfen Mest, f .X.S., jf.lR./ID.S., etc. 

Plates i8, 19, 20. 



.fficidium compositarium, var. C. Tussilaginis, being, as it 
should be, mounted to show both surfaces of the leaf, we are 
enabled to gain a view both of the " Cluster-cups " on the ufider 
surface, and of the " Spermogones " on the tipper. 

How the contents of the latter, representing male organs, 
situated on one side of a leaf, gain access to the former, on the 
opposite side, is a question deserving of careful thought and 
observation. I am inclined to think from what I have seen that 
it is through the agency of insects. The ^xidium of the lesser 
Crowfoot is very abundant here in its season, about April ; at such 
time " sun and showers " are proverbial, and I have often noticed 
flies about on the bright, shining leaves. Now, it is easy to 
suppose that the viscid substance containing the " spermatia " 
may adhere to their feet, and so be carried to the "Cluster-cups" 



J 



180 HALF-AN-HOUR AT 

as they pass from one leaf to another. Some Acari also are 
frequently found revelling amongst some of these leaf-fungi ; as 
well as the larvce of some " Thrips," and (speaking from memory) 
I think some other minute larvae also. 

From considerable experience, I feel persuaded that many of 
these leaf-fungi are very local. Mr. M. C. Cooke speaks of the 
present one as "common" (p. 193), but though often searching 
for it I never found it but once, and that was on Coltsfoot growing 
in a deep, narrow, dry ditch at Hunstanton on the Norfolk coast 
about 8 years ago. There it occurred in very fine condition. 

I believe myself that the Coleosporhwi Tussilagi/iis, so exces- 
sively common as bright orange . patches on the under surface of 
Coltsfoot leaves, is nothing but the same thing growing in a 
random sort of way under unfavourable conditions, but this is 
utterly heterodox, and I must seek to emulate the stoicism of a 
Red Indian under the merciless treatment I may expect to receive 
from one of our members for venturing to have an opinion of my 
own. 

Dolichopus simplex.— (PL XX., Figs. 1—2). I would draw 
attention to the antenna, as it furnishes one of the characters of 
the genus. "Third joint of antenna trigonate, with a pubescent 
dorsal seta." I have been much struck Avith the remarkable arrange- 
ment of the " eyelashes " in connection with the ocelli and the 
compound eyes. Two strong bristles arise from a little in front of 
the posterior pair of ocelli on lines which would form the sides of 
a triangle (Fig. 2), at each angle of which an ocellus is seated. 
Now continue in imagination these sides of the triangle for an 
equal distance behind, and at the lower angles of the projected 
triangle we find two more strong bristles. Can we help seeing 
design in all this ? Is it not as evident on consideration as that 
manifested in the various arrangements of our own eyes ? And 
then, again, we find an eyelash protecting each compound eye, with 
the number 4 again present. I cannot tell just the direction in 
the specimen before us, it having been disturbed, but in the blue- 
bottle and smaller house-fly it may be readily seen by putting one 
bodily on the stage of the microscope. The former, I think, has 
five or six setse on either side, arching over the ocelli ; the latter 
has ten on each side. They form beautiful objects. 

Cuticle of Darnel Grass is from the stem of " Lo/ijtm pcrauic,'' 
the common or perennial Darnel. It shows an interesting 
structure which was described by the late Rev. J. B. Reade and 
Prof. Quckett as " Little cui)s of Silica." The indulation of the 
walls in seven lines of stomata-bearing cells, the entire absence 
thereof in the intermediate lines of cells, are points well brought 



THE MICROSCOPE. 181 

out in the slide before us, and connected with essential and most 
important differences in the subjacent structures. 

Palate of Testacella Haliotidea (PI. XVIII.).— I do not 

know this creature, but think I remember to have seen that it is 
carnivorous ; certainly the teeth are most formidable weapons, and 
would be admirably calculated for cutting through tough substan- 
ces. The resemblance borne by each individual tooth to the 
" coulter " of a plough, as remarked by the owner of this slide, 
seems to me interesting and worthy of notice. 

Snipe-Fly, Empis tesselata.— The passing round of slides of 
typical specimens will, it appears to me, be one of the very best 
aids we can adopt towards our mutual improvement. Viewed 
from this point of view, I regard the present slide as a valuable 
one. Although objecting on principle to the crushing flat of 
insects, there is still much to be learnt by the careful study of 
such a specimen. I find that such are excessively popular with 
those to whom the microscope and its revelations are not familiar, 
but as students advance in knowledge they come to be regarded 
with proportionately less favour. 

Hemipteron? (PI. XX., Figs. 3 — 6).— I incline to think this 
is a mature insect, a female with the luings undeveloped ; we obtain 
a partial view of a very fine ovipositor-saw which seems to say so. 
On this it may be interesting to quote for those who have not the 
opportunity of referring, the following remarks by "Westwood : — 
" A peculiarity occurs in some of these insects whereof analagous 
instances have already been noticed among the Orthoptera, 
Hotnoptera^ Aphidiv, and even in a species of Chalcididce^ namely, 
the undeveloped state of some specimens in the imago state which 
are nevertheless as capable of reproduction as others of the same 
species which have acquired fully-developed wings. Thus the 
bed-bug has never been observed but with the minute rudimental 
upper wings, somewhat resembling the ordinary wing-case of 
jjupte; others, again, as the species of Gcrris, Hydrometra, and 
Veiia, are mosdy found perfectly apterous, whilst occasionally they 
are found with full-sized wings. The winged males of Capsus 
ambidans are stated by Fallen to be always found coupled with 
apterous females. Chorosoma inirifo?-»iis, Prostcmvia guttata, 
Pachymerus brevipennis, etc., are generally found with very short 
wing-covers, but occasionally with full-sized wings." — (Introduction, 
Vol. II., p. 454). 

This has a considerable general resemblance to the bed-bug; 
does the mounter remember exactly hoia and upon what he caught 
it ? Many are very local, as he will find by referring to Douglass 
and Scott's monograph of the order (Ray Society's Vol., Introduc- 
tion, p. 6). The best way on finding another specimen would be 



182 HALF-AN-HOUR AT 

to submit it at once to them for naming. Many structural details 
are shown more truthfully in this specimen than in the crushed 
mounts, the corneal facets are more finely brought out than in any 
mounted insect I have ever seen ; and there is this peculiarity, 
that they are as round as if made with a circular punch ! (see Figs. 
4, 5, PI. XX.) instead of being hexagonal, as is commonly the case, 
or passing from that into square, as we occasionally find them. 
And there is a noteworthy thing in the right eye — two corneal 
facets run together, a thing I have not before met with, and 
corresponding in its character to the occasional abnormal develop- 
ments in the eyes of spiders noted by Blackwall. 

Wing of Bombus terrestris.— In the Hymenoptcra the wings 
consist of a pair called " anterior" and "posterior" on each side. 
One of the "characters of this order consists in the connection 
during flight of the two wings on each side of the body, by means 
of a series of minute hooks along the anterior margin ot the 
posterior wings, which catch the hinder margins of the anterior 
wings, thus producing one continuous surlace on each side " 
(VVestwood, Introduction, Vol. II., p. 76). Analogous contrivan- 
ces for uniting the wings during flight are met with in some other 
insects. In the Lepidoptera, where present, these assume the form 
of a loop and bristles {^Loc. cit., \). 317, and Fig. 102, p. 365). It 
may be as well to mention that a paper was presented to the 
Linnsean Society by Miss Staveley, entitled, " Observations on the 
neuration of the hind wings of Hymenopterous insects, and on 
the hooks which join the fore and hind wings together in flight," 
containing much interesting information on the subject, and will 
be found in the 23rd vol. of their transactions, p. 125, with a plate. 

Spiral Fibres, Petiole of Garden Rhubarb. — This is a very 
interesting specimen, especially when examined in connection with 
Dr. Moore's notes upon it. I had no idea my old friend. Dr. 
Bristowe, had been turning his attention to the development of 
spiral and pitted tissues in plants, but will take an early opportu- 
nity of consulting his paper. The late Prof. Henfrey says : — 
"The mode of formation of the secondary deposits is not clearly 
known at present. Some imagine them to be precipitated from 
the cell-sap upon the walls ; others, and apparently with more 
reason, believe that they are attributable to the agency of the 
Primordial Utricle, continuing its action after the formation of 
the primary membrane. Criiyer goes so far as to consider the 
spiral markings, etc., as dependent on the Rotation currents of 
the protoplasm. These points recjuire further investigation" 
(Mic. Die, p. 617). And in special connection with spiral 
structures, he says : — " It has been stated that the various forms 
of the open spiral, annular and reticulated deposits are modifica- 



THE MICROSCOPE. 183 

tions of the simple close spiral ; but this must be understood only 
in a metaphorical sense, since there is no actual change of condi- 
tion ensuing with age, as has been assumed by some authors, the 
fibrous layers being always originally deposited on the primary 
wall in the form and pattern which they ultimately possess. 
There appears to be no real openings of the spirals or breaking 
up into rings, in consequence of the expansion of the primary 
wall to which they are attached " {Ibid., p. 638). It is probable the 
question will never be definitely settled till they have been 
actually witnessed as being laid down, under high powers of the 
microscope. 

Lord Godolphin Osborne paid special attention to the subject, 
attempting by growing wheat in shallow glass tanks to view the 
process. Some of these tanks were sufficiently shallow to allow 
of the use of the |- inch object-glass ; in them was placed a weak 
solution of ammoniacal carmine. He succeeded in viewing the 
formation of pitted tissues, but that of the spiral vessels com- 
pletely baffled him. He says : — " In the leaf of the wheat I find 
the true spiral — the annular, the scalariform ; in the roots I find 
only the latter, with an accompaniment of dotted tissue. At the 
very earliest stage at which, by dissection, a view can be obtained 
of leaf and root formation, the fibres proper to each are dis- 
covered — the spiral completely formed, the scalariform in active 
formation, the former turning upwards to the leaves, the latter 
separating into bundles and going downwards to the roots. The 
formation of the scalariform fibre can be with ease traced " (p. 11). 
There can be no doubt a thorough study of pitted and spiral 
structures, as a system, would yield most interesting material. 
And I hope to be excused for quoting one of the concluding 
remarks of the paper alluded to : — " In my opinion, no student of 
animal physiology can pursue this course of research without 
being struck with the very strong analogy existing between the 
development of vegetable and animal structure. I will not trust 
myself to enter into this subject further than to declare that every 
day's work on vegetable structure has given to me a new interest 
in every page which I read relating to the structure of animals. I 
cannot but think we are approaching a time when the microscope, 
in the hands of men of science, will prove in these two fields of 
God's wonder-working, the existence of a strictly analogous prin- 
ciple, developing and sustaining animal and vegetable life, with 
only that much of difference in the processes which the obvious 
purposes of the two existences would lead one to expect" (p. 120, 
Q.J. M.S. transactions, Vol. V., 1857). — "Vegetable cell structure 
and its formation, as seen in the early stages of the growth of the 
wheat plant," by the Hon. and Rev. Sydney Godolpin Osborne. 

Section of Yew. — This being a transverse section only tells 



184 HALF-AN-HOUR AT 

part of the story of the wood of the Yew. In examining wood, 
it is desirable to make a transverse section first ; this furnishes a 
key to what structures are to be looked for. Then, if the bark be 
present, take a thin piece of the outer layer of cells (epiderm, of 
authors) ; the form of the cells composing it, their contents, and 
the presence or absence of stomata are to be remarked. Then, if 
the bark contain liber-fibres (the tissue constituting hemp, flax, 
and the like), a longitudinal section to display them is requisite. 
Another longitudinal section, just a little within the outer ring of 
wood, follows; this is called a '^vertical taugeiital section" ; it 
yields important facts as to the medullary rays and the woody 
fibres in one aspect. Lastly, a thin longitudinal section is made 
right through the centre, parallel to the medullary rays ; this is 
called a '■'vertical radial" section. Building the facts obtained by 
these means into a whole, a complete idea of the structure of any 
wood is obtained. The rich red-brown resin, so commonly met 
with in Coniferous wood, is well shown in some of the cells, 
notably in those of the outer bark (ectophloeum). The stem from 
which this was cut had taken twelve years in its formation, and 
illustrates well the slow rate of growth in the Yew. It is 
interesting also to note the great eccentricity in the various rings — 
the narrow portion had a north aspect ; the wide parts of the 
rings, the south. Then look at the inner portion of each ring 
towards the pith. In the spring of the year, after the winter's 
sleep, vegetation makes a sudden bound. The first-formed cells 
are large, with their long diameter from within outwards, indicating 
rapid formation. As the year wanes, the vigour of growth 
diminishes. The relative diameters of the cells are reversed ; 
growth and sap-elaboration are more perfect ; the cells form more 
slowly ; have thicker walls ; and then comes the period of hyber- 
nation again, when growth absolutely ceases ; the record of that 
year's work is completed, and sharply marked out. Given the 
year in which the wood was cut, we might read off the meteoro- 
logical conditions of that and the preceding eleven years : — some 
favourable to vegetation, others so much the reverse, that scarcely 
has the history of any work been added to the record. 

It would have been specially desirable here to add the two 
vertical sections named, because in the Yew the wood has a very 
uncommon structure, viz., a beautiful spiral fibre in addition to 
the so-called " glandular " appearance, ordinarily, though not quite 
correctly, supposed to be specially characteristic of Coniferous 
wood. The real distinction of such wood is the absence of pitted 
ducts and spiral vessels. Fossil wood having the structure of 
Yew may occasionally be found in Coal ; the late Joseph Jackson 
Lister had a fine piece in his collection, from which he was good 
enough to allow me to take a drawing. 



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THE MICROSCOPE. 185 

Campanularia volubilis (on Cemmium ciliatum, Plate XIX). — 
This beautiful zoophyte must have been lovely indeed in life, 
relieved by the delicate pink of the graceful Alga it made its 
home upon. A summary account of Campanularia will be found 
in the Micrographic Dictionary ; Johnson's ^•British Zoophytes'" 
may also be consulted, and a recent work on the same subject by 
the Rev. Thomas Hinck, B.A., F.L.S. The creeping main-stem 
whence the polypes arise must be carefully looked for ; it is not 
readily seen, so closely does it adhere to that of the Alga. The 
animal has but one orifice, which serves alike for the reception of 
food and the voidance of effete portions. In life, a circulation of 
granular particles may be distinctly seen up and down the slender 
stems, and at times, though with more difficulty, along the main 
stem. The arms vary in number in different genera and species ; 
here there are from fourteen to sixteen. Their motion is very 
slow, their action not consentaneous, as in the Bryozoa. They 
are rough and modulated along their edges ; this arises from the 
presence of stinging organs, which consist of delicate filaments 
seated in capsules and ejected when required. In some of the 
larger Actiniae — e.g., A. crassicornis, the urticating effect of these 
organs may be sensibly felt when they are handled, and, under 
high powers of the microscope, seen when a small portion of the 
arm is examined. None shows them better than the common 
A. mesembryanthemum. At certain periods of the year ovicells 
are to be found ; these are ovate vesicles concentrically ringed. 
They are not in the specimen before us, but I have added a figure 
(a) to assist in directing attention thereto. 

Campanularia should be mounted in shallow cells ; the cups 
are so very tender as to be crushed by even a slight amount of 
pressure. T. West. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES XVIII., XIX., XX. 

Plate XVIII. 

Fig. 1.— Teeth of Testacdim, x 25. 

,, 2. — Tooth from right side on its side, x 100. 

,, 3. — Tooth from right side, ventral aspect, x 100. 

,, 4. — Coultei' of a plough for comparison, as suggested hy a member. 

Plate XIX. 

Campanularia volubilis. — Two of the polypes are drawn from the 
specimen, ahmg with a portion of the "weed," to which they are 
attached. The animal is from a figure taken from life at Looe in 
Cornwall, in 1857. The figure to the left (a) is of an ovicell. 

Plate XX. 

Fig. 1.— Parts of the head of Dolichopus simplex, illustrating the 
remarks on the antenn;e, the ocelli, and eyes, and thin 
"lashes" or " guard "-hairs (see p. 180). 



l86 REVIEWS. 

Fig. 2. — Diagram, showing position of ocelli. 
,, 3. — Ovipositor of Hemipteron (? sp.), x 150. 
,, 4.— Hinder part of right eye, showing partial fusion of two facets, 

X 200. 
,, 5. — Corneal facets, central portion, x 200. 
,, (3.— Left eye, x 75. Drawn by Tuffen West. 



The Cosmographic Atlas of Political, Historical, Classical, 

Physical, and Scriptural Geography and Astronomy, with Indices and descrip- 
tive Letterpress. Third edition. (Edinburgh and London : W. and A. K. 
Johnston. 1887.) Price ^i is. 

This large and valuable atlas consists of forty political maps, including a 
chart of the world on Mercator's projection ; nine historical maps, viz. :— 
England (Britannia) under the Romans, Scotland (Roman period), England 
(Saxon period), North Britain (Scotland, Saxon period), England (Tudor 
period), France, illustrating French and English wars, Europe from 1715 to 
1815, North 'America, conquest of Canada, British-Indian Empire, 1757 to 
1870; three classical maps : — the world as known to the ancients, Imperium 
Romanum, and Europe, showing barbarian inroads ; four physical maps, viz. : 
an ethnographic map of Great Britain, rain-map of Europe, pateontological 
map of the ]>ritish Islands, and the geological structure of the globe ; four 
scriptural maps, viz. :— The distribution of nations after the deluge, the Ifoly 
Land (as allotted by Joshua), Palestine in the time of Christ, and the prevail- 
ing religions of the world ; and six astronomical maps, viz. : — The celestial 
sphere, refraction, etc., the solar system, etc., comets, the seasons, day and 
night, and the tides, eclipses of the sun, etc., and eclipses of the moon, etc. 
Each series of maps is followed by an exhaustive index and descriptive letter- 
press. Size of the pages, 19 in. by 14J in., several of the maps occupying 

two pages. 

Letts's Popular County Atlas : Being a Complete Series 

of Maps delineating the whole surface of England and Wales, with special and 
original features and a copious index of 13,000 names. (London : Mason and 
Payne. 1887.) Price 17s. 6d. 

We have here a series of 47 maps, 17 in. by 14 in., alphabetically arranged, 
showing the railways and principal roads, and for the benefit of cyclists all 
dangerous roads are marked in red. The maps also show the Parliamentary 
boundaries (with number of members). Towns (with populations), Villages, 
llandets. Municipal Boroughs, Quarter Sessions, County Court, Cathedral and 
Post Towns, Market-Days, Distances from London and from Town to Town, 
and we notice also that a portion of the leading topography of the neighbour- 
ing counties is also given. At the end will be found an index of 13,000 names 
of places, occupying 35 pages, whereby every name mentioned may be readily 
found on the maps. 

The Colonial and Indian Atlas of the British Empire. 

(Edinburgh and London : W. and A. K. Johnston. 1887.) Price 7s. 6d. 

Comprises in convenient form some 56 maps of the British empire (size of 
atlas, iii in. by 7 in.), of which each map generally occupies two pages. The 
maps are plainly engraved and neatly coloured. At the end are some interest- 
ing descriptions of the different colonies, giving an account of their area, popu- 
lation, imports, exports, revenue, expenditure, etc. 



REVIEWS. 187 

Manual of Bacteriology. By Edgar M. Crookshank, 
M.B. (Lond.), P'.R.M.S., Demonstrator of Physiology, King's College, London. 
Second edition, revised and consideraiily enlarged. Illustrated with coloured 
plates and wood engravings. Demy 8vo, pp. xxiv — 439. (London : H. K. 
Lewis. 1887.) Price 21s. 

Photography of Bacteria. By Edgar M. Crookshank, 

J\I.B. (Lond.), F.R.M.S. Illustrated with 86 Photographs, reproduced in 
autotype. Royal 8vo, pp. xx. — 64. (London : II. K. Lewis. 1887.) Price 
I2s. 6d. 

Two very valuable works on this most important subject, which we 
unhesitatingly state are treated in a most thorough manner. Thus we find the 
Manual iirst describes the Histological apparatus required in Bacteriological 
research, the Microscope and its accessories, and the Microtome. The various 
reagents and materials employed in hardening, decalcifying, embedding, 
fixing, and cutting of tissues ; for examining and stainijig microscopical 
preparations, and for mounting and preserving preparations ; apparatus for 
drawing and photographing; for sterilisation; for preparing and storing gelatine, 
etc., and for employment of nutrient jelly in test tube anil plate cultivations ; 
fur the preparation of potato cultivations ; of solidified sterile blood serum ; 
for storing, and for cultivations in liquid media ; and for incubation, etc. ; 
followed by chapters on the microscopical examination of Bacteria in liquids, 
in cultivations on solid media, and in tissues ; on the preparation and staining 
of tissue sections ; the preparation of material ; media and methods of cultiva- 
tion ; and experiments upon the living animal, etc. Part II. treats of the 
General Biology of the Bacteria, and Part III. is systematic and descriptive. 
In this work there are 29 beautifully coloured plates, in addition to 137 engrav- 
ings in the text, many of which are coloured. 

The Photography of Bacteria treats mainly of the 
photography of the subject ; chapter I. opening with a short historical sketch of 
the a]Dplication of Photography, Micrography, the difficulties presented by 
stained specimens, and the reasons for resorting to Photography ; chapter II. 
describes the apparatus and material ; chapter III., the practical manipulation ; 
and chapter IV., reproduction from negatives, etc. In addition to the very fine 
autotype plates, there are 6 excellent wood engravings describing the various 
photographic ajjparatus. 

Year-Boo K of the Scientific and Learned Societies of Great 

Britain and Ireland. P^ourth annual issue. (London: C. Griflin 6c Co. 1887.) 
This volume comprises lists of the ]3apers read during the year 18S6 before 
societies engaged in fourteen departments of research, viz. : — General Science ; 
Astronomy, Mathematics, and Physics ; Chemistry and Photography ; Geo- 
graphy, Geology, and Mineralogy ; Biology, including Horticulture, Micro- 
scopy, and Anthropology ; Economic Science and Statistics ; Mechanical 
Science and Architecture ; Naval and Military Science ; Agriculture ; Law ; 
Literature and History ; Psychology ; Archajology ; and Medicine, with the 
names of their authors. The volume contains a large amount of information 
as to the officers, etc., of the various societies, and in what manner their trans- 
actions are preserved. • 

Ele.mentary Microscopical Technology : A Manual for 

Students of Microscopy. In three ]5arts. By Frank L. James, Ph.D., M.D. 
Svo., pp. 106. (St. Louis, Mo., U.S.A. : Medical and Siirs:kal loiirnal Co. 
1887.) 

The first part only of this work is at present published, and is entitled 
The Technical History of a Slide, from the crude material to the 



188 REVIEWS. 

finished mount. The writer here invites the student to witness the preparation 
of a typical mount, and in subsequent chapters each stage of the process is 
taken up in detail and in the order in which they occur in actual work. We 
have read this book with much interest, and find it contains much valuable 
information. 

The Fungus-Hunter's Guide and Field Memorandum Book. 

With analytical keys to the Orders and Genera, illustrated, and notes of 
important species. By W. Delisle Hay, F.R.G.S. Post 8vo, pp. 156. 
(London : Swan Sonnenschein and Co. rSSy.) Price 3s. 6d. 

The author tells us that when out fungus-hunting he has been in the habit 
of carrying with him a pocket-l)ook, in which he had noted various memoranda 
useful for the rapid identification of anything found, and it is from these notes 
that the present book has grown. It contains analytical tables of the orders 
and genera, and many illustrations of the various species. It is interleaved 
with ruled writing-paper, which will be found very convenient to the student. 

Studies in Microscopical Science. Edited by Arthur C. 
Cole, F.R.M.S. (Birmingham : J. G. Hammond and Co.) 

Since our last we have received No. 9 of these very excellent Studies. 
Section i continues the study of Vegetable Physiology and treats of the 
digestive glands of carnivorous or insectivorous plants, illustrated by a vertical 
section through a leaf of Butterwort ( Finguicula vulgaris). Section II. — 
Animal Histology — treats of Reproduction in Lamellibranch Mollusca, illustra- 
ted by plate showing single ovarian tubule, x 100 and Portion of the lacunar 
parenchyma, x 400. Section III. — Pathological Histology treats of Chronic 
and acute Interstitial Nephritis. The plate accompanying this part shows 
Kidney in Leucocythremia x 600. Part IV. — Popular studies — commences the 
study of Roots, Stems, Growing-points, and Leaves, and is illustrated by a 
double-stained vertical section of leaf of Eucalyptus globulus. The slides 
accompanying these studies are of Mr. Cole's well-known excellence. 

Through North Wales with My Wife : An Arcadian 
Tour. By J. Roderick O'FIanagan, B.L. Foolscap 8vo, pp. xv.— 175. Price 

2S. 

Here we have a very pleasant tour pleasantly described. The author tells 
us at the outset that he is a Roman Catholic, and as all the guide-books hitherto 
written have been written by Protestants, he has taken a special care to give 
his co-religionists accurate information, and to describe the Catholic chapels 
and convents in North Wales in terms which must prove interesting to them. 
The little book contains a good map of Carnarvonshire and Anglesea. 

Bird's-Eye View of the Thames from London to Oxford. 

Foolscap Svo, pp. 46, with map in 3 sections. 

We have first a general sketch and desci iption of the river Thames, its 
currents, locks, tide, etc., with table of distances, followed by a short descrip- 
tion of all the places passed in the journey by river from London to Oxford. 
The map, which is divided into 3 sections, each about 56 inches long by 6 
inches wide, is coloured, and shows not only the many serpentine bends in the 
river, but includes also a useful map of the country on either side of it. 

Tourist's Guide and Handbook to England and Wales. By 
G. H. Bacon, F.R.G.S. With Atlas of England and Wales appended. 
Foolscap Svo. (London: G. W. liacon and Co.) 

The counties of England are separately described on a uniform plan, as well 
as North and South Wales, the Lake district, the Isle of Wight, and the Isle of 



REVIEWS. 189 

Man. The descriptions of the counties are arranged alphabetically. At the end 
of the book is an atlas of 13 maps, and an alphabetical index containing the 
names of every town described in the book, etc. etc. 



Our Earth and Its Story. Five parts of this interesting 
work have now been received, in which we find much information respecting 
stratified and unstratified rocks, dykes, and mineral veins, etc., volcanoes and 
volcanic islands, etc. 

On reading again our April reviews, we notice that we described " Our 
Earth " as a magazine ; we intended to have said it was a work issued in 
monthly parts. Each part contains several good engravings and one coloured 
plate. 

The Signification and Principles of Art: A Critical 
Essay for General Readers. Being an attempt to determine the essential 
nature of the tine arts, and to distinguish them from other modes of human 
activity. By C. H. Waterhouse. Svo, pp. 154. (London : [. S. Virtue and 
Co. 1S86.) 

The author of the work before us, in discussing the nature of art, describes 
the essential principles involved in all those art productifins in which the term 
artistic is applicable, and forcibly shows that there is in the nature of man 
and in the world in which he dwells, that which may furnish a foundation 
for that broad and stately monument to human genius which we call art. The 
author's imagination is vivid and his arguments forcible and good. 



Through Masai Land : A Journey of Exploration among the 
Snow-clad Volcanic Mountains of Strange Tribes of Eastern Equatorial 
Africa. New and revised edition. By Joseph Thompson, F.R.G.S. Crown 
Svo, pp. xii. — 364. (London : Sampson, Low, and Co. 1887.) Price 7s. 6d. 

We have before us the narrative of the Royal Geographical Society's 
Expedition to Mount Keniaand Lake Victoria Nyanza m 1883 — 4, written in 
an exceedingly interesting manner. The book is nicely illustrated, and is 
accompanied by a good map of the route taken by the expedition. 

Fifty Years of National Progress: 1837 — 1887. By 
Michael G. Mulhall, F.S.S. Post Svo, pp. 126. (London: G. Routledge 
and Sons. 1887.) 

A comparison of statistics, showing a very satisfactory progress in eleven 
out of twelve principal points of national welfare, the one point only on which 
a decline is shown being agriculture. The frontispiece is a diagram in red and 
blue, comparing the progress in population, wealth, trade, manufacture, agri- 
culture, and instruction during the same period. 

The Anatomy of the Brain and Spinal Cord. By J. Ryland 

Whitaker. l2mo, pp. xii. — 135. (Edinburgh : E. and S. Livingstone. 18S7.) 
Price 4s. 6d. 

This little work embodies the series of demonstrations on the brain and 
spinal cord which the author has been in the habit of giving to the senior stu- 
dents of the Edinburgh School of Medicine, Minto House. It is nicely 
illustrated with 22 plates, several of which are differentially coloured. 

The Principles and Practice of School Hygiene. By 
Alfred Carpenter, M.D.Lond., etc. Post Svo, pp. 368. (London: Joseph 
Hughes. 1887.) Price 4s. 6d. ^ 

This will be found a most useful work, and should be studied by students 



190 REVIEWS. 

training for educational work. It treats of a great variety of subjects — e.g., in 
the first part, Drainage, Ventilation, Physical Exercise, Time allotted to Study, 
School Seats and Desks, etc. ; and in the second, School-Surgery, with general 
directions as to Infectious Diseases, Wounds, Drowning, Dislocations and 
Fractures, Care of the Eyes, Ears, Voice, etc. The work is nicely got up and 
the subjects of the different paragraphs are shown in black type in the margin. 

Taking Cold (the cause of half our diseases) : Its Nature, 
Causes, Prevention, and Cure. By John W. Hayward, M.D., M.R.C.S., 
L.S.A., etc. (London: E. Gould and Sons, 59 Moorgate St. 1S87.) Price 
is. 6d. 

This little book, which has now reached its 7th edition, was originally pub- 
lished under the conviction that, by attention to the directions it contains, 
persons may not only very frequently avoid taking cold, but may themselves 
frequently cure a cold at its onset, and thereby prevent the development of 
many of those serious diseases that would otherwise follow. It contains, in 
our opinion, a large amount of most useful informution. 



The Dog-Fancier's Friend : A Handy Guide to Everyone 

Possessing a Dog. By G. S. Heatley, M.R.C.V.S. Crown 8vo, pp. 106. 
(London : Simpkin, Marshall, and Co. 1887.) 

The object of the writer of this interesting little book is to inculcate 
humane and generous treatment towards our canine friends. The book is 
divided into three parts. The first consists of anecdotes, etc., of dogs ; the 
second describes the various breeds of dogs ; and the third gives directions for 
breeding, training, etc. 

How TO Study the English Bible. By R. B. Girdlestone, 
M.A. Crown 8vo, pp. 112. (London : The Religious Tract Society. 1887.) 
Price IS. 6d. 

Much useful information is here given respecting, the Bible — its language, '. 
translation, age, authority, etc., and rules for its study. I 

The a B C of Modern (Dry-Plate) Photography. (The I 
London Stereoscopic and Photographic Co.) Price is. 

This is the 22nd edition of the useful little A B C of Photography.^ Each 
edition has seen some improvements. In the first part we find general instruc- 
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Making Magic- Lantern Slides, Instantaneous Photography, Detective Cameras, 
and other very useful information. The Stereoscopic Company has also sent us 
their 144-page Catalogue of Photographic Apparatus. 

The Pupil-Teacher's Geographical Year-Book : First 

Vear. Crown 8vo. (Edinburgh : W. and A. K. Johnston.) 

An immense amount of information is contained in this little book. It 
describes the position, form, extent and area, political divisions, population, 
oasts, surface, river systems and lakes, climate, vegetation, animal life, 
government, etc. etc., of the British Isles, British North America, and Australia. 
There is a chapter on the physical geography of hills and rivers and a number 
of useful maps. 

Reformation Heroes. By the Rev. Richard Newton, D.D. 

Post 8vo, pp. 192. (Edinburgh : Oliphant, Anderson, and Ferrier. 1SS7.) 

A series of short chapters for young people, giving incitlents in the lives of 
Wycliffe, IIuss, Luther, ami many others. 



REVIEWS. 191 

Moses : His Life and Times. By George RawHnson, M.A. 

Fost Svo, pp. viii. — 205. (London : James Nisbet and Co.) Price 2s. 6d. 

This is one of the "Men of the Bible" series, and gives an interesting 
account of the birth, childhood, education, early manhood, and life of Moses, 
compiled in a great measure from the Scriptures. 

The Evolution Hypothesis : A Criticism of the New Cosmic 

Philosophy. By W. Todd Martin, M.A., D.Lit. Crown Svo, pp. xvi.— 301. 
(Edinburgh: James Gemmell. 1SS7.) 

The author deals with the whole question of evolution in a very thorough 
and forciljle manner. In chapter xv. he argues that " evolution, if true, is 
bound to show that all organisms must have sprung from the same original living 
matter, and to show how," and sums ap the whole argument by stating that 
"the evolution hypothesis is incompetent to interpret the most obvious facts in 
nature, and is wholly illegitimate and utterly indefensible as a philosophy 
embracing the fundamental principles of all departments of knowledge." 

Sylvan Spring. By Francis George Heath. — Since we 
noticed this interesting work in our last, parts 3, 4, and 5 have come to hand, 
continuing the subject to the Floral Splendour, the Ferns, and the Flowers of 
May. The next part will, we presume, complete the work. The engravings 
and coloured plates are beautifully executed. 

Schonberg's Chain-Rule : A Manual of Brief Commercial 

Arithmetic. (London : Effingham, Wilson, and Co.) 

The aim of this little book is to show that the "chain-rule" might be 
made in England, as it has been on the Continent, to supercede many of our 
more complicated rules. Many examples are given, some of which prove the 
rule to be very expeditious, whilst in a few instances we are inclined to prefer 
the rules to which we have been more accustomed. 

Taunt's One Shilling Map and Guide to the River Thames. 

(Oxford : II. W. Taunt and Co ; London : Simpkin, Marshal], and Co.) 

This map, which is divided into three sections, is on a scale of one inch to 
the mile, from actual surveys. The whole route is pleasantly described, a 
short description being given of all the towns and principal places passed. A 
chart is also given of distances, measured in miles, furlongs, and yards. 

Cooking for an Income of ^200 a Year. By Mrs. Warren. 
Post 8vo, pp. 175. (London: Bemrose and Sons.) Price is. 

Some very useful hints are given in this book. A week's dinners are 
arranged for every month in the year, full instructions being given for cooking, 
etc. 

Religion and Duty : Sunday Readings from Henry Ward 
Beecher. Selected and arranged by Rev. J. Reeves Brown. 

Henry Ward Beecher's Last Sermons preached in Ply- 
mouth Church, Brooklyn, since Mr. Beecher's return from England, October, 
1886. Crown 8vo, pp. 209 — 308. (London: James Clarke and Co. 1S87.) 
Price 3s. 6d. each. 

The first of these works, by the late celebrated preacher, consists of 52 
short chapters on a variety of religious subjects. 

The sermons are 17 in number, and are written in the very forcible style 
for which Mr. Beecher was so famous. 



192 REVIEWS, 

Clark's Guide to Essay Writing. By Geo. E. Clark, of 

H.M.'s Civil Service, and W. R. J. McLean, of II.M.'s Civil Service. Crown 
8vo, pp. 58. (London: Blackfriars Printing and Publishing Company.) 
Price Is. 6d. 

This little work is well suited for the requirements, both of Civil Service 
candidates and of students for school and university examinations. It explains 
in a clear and simple way the mode of constructing sentences and paragraphs, 
and how the sulijects for an essay should be classified. A number of sentences 
containing errors of every-day occurrence are given and the corrections 
appended. There is no doubt this book will prove useful to the student. 

Spirit Workers in the Home Circle : an Autobiographic 

Narrative of Psychic phenomena in family daily life, extending over a period of 
twenty years. By Morell Theobald, F.C.A. 8vo, pp. 310. (London: T. 
Fisher Unwin, 1887.) Price los. 6d. 

This is, we think, without excejstion, the most extraordinary work we have 
ever read. The author assures us that it is true. Perhaps we are sceptical ; 
certainly no such experiences as those related have ever Ijeen ours — e-i^'-, the 
author states that in 1SS4 it was a daily occurring event for the first member of 
the household on coming downstairs to find the kitchen fire " lit," the kettle 
boiling, and tea freshly made in the tea-pot on the table, although none of 
these things were left in the same room when retiring at night. After reading 
the entire book most carefully, we can only say such things are too wonderful 
for us, and we fear we are sceptics still. The book is very nicely got up. 

The following books have also been received : — 

Surpassing Fable ; or, Glimpses of our Future Home. By 
the Rev. R. Hardy Brenan, M.A. i2mo, pp. 149. (London: James Nisbet 
and Co. 1887.) 

How THE French Conquered Britain in 1888 and the 
Battles and Events which led to it. From the German of Spiridion Gopcevic 
(Der Grosse seekrieg im Jahre, 1886). Internationale Revue iiber die 
(jesammten Armeen und Flotten, July, August, September, 1886. Translated 
by Commander F. H. E. Crome, R.N. (Portsmouth : Griffin and Co. ; 
London: Simpkin, Marshall, and Co. 18S7.) Price is. 

The New Pilgrims' Progress. By Mark Twain ; with an 

introduction by the Rev. Hugh Reginald Haweis, M.A. (Routledge's World 
Library.) (London : Routledge and Son. 1887.) Price 3d. 

The Works of William Shakespeare. Edited by Charles 
Knight. (London : George Routledge and Sons. 1887.) Price is. 

The Life of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, compiled from 
all available sources. By G. Barnett-Smith. People's edition. (London : 
G. Routledge and Sons. 1887.) Price is. 

London in 1887 : Illustrated by i8 Birds'-Eye Views of the 

Principal Streets. By Herbert Fry. (London : W. H. Allen and Co. 1887.) 
Price 2s. 

The Two Crosses. By J. W. Nicholas. 

The Lovely Wang. By the Hon. Lewis AVingfield. 

Patty's Partner, By Jean Middlemas. 

V.R. : A Comedy of Errors. By Edward Rose. 

Four volumes of Arrowsniith's Bristol Library. Price is. each. 






THE JOURNAL OF MICROSCOPY 
NATURAL SCIENCE: 

TBJi: JOURNAL OF 

The Postal Microscopical Society, 



OCTOBER, 1887. 



Xinaria C^mbalaria, 

By R. H. Moore. 



Plates 21, 22, 23. 





HIS charming little wild plant is, in the botanical 
world, one of Nature's most prolific gifts. It is so 
small that busy men pass it by unheeded, although 
perhaps unconsciously their eyes are often soothed 
and pleased by its picturesque beauty. Many an 
ugly corner and staring wall is relieved by its dark- 
green leaves and trailing branches. It festoons the 
ruined arcK and wreathes the bare stones with its 
luxuriant tapestry of foliage, through which, at 
numerous points, its pale but pretty purple flowers struggle into 
sunshine. 

It is a native of Italy ; but having been introduced into Eng- 
land, it seems — in certain localities at least — to flourish anywhere 
Vol. VI. o 



194 LINARIA CYMBALARIA. 

and everywhere. Popular opinion endorses this statement, for it 
has given this plant the names of " Roving Sailor" and " Mother 
of Thousands." Nature, with her myriad forms of created things, 
woos us to her teaching. She daily unfolds her vast lesson-book 
to all who will observe. Nothing has been made in vain. It 
cannot, therefore, be a trivial occupation, for a little while at 
least, to study one of our simple wild flowers. 

Artists have delighted in our wild flowers, and so, accord- 
ing to Ruskin, Bellini, the great Italian painter, who, with his 
brother, is believed to have been the founder of the Venetian 
school of painting, filled the creviced walls of his pictures with 
large bunches of the Linaria cymbaiaria, known in Italy by the 
name of Erbadella Madontia. My task, however, just now, lies 
not in the realms of poetry or painting, but it is my duty to lay 
before you a monograph of tliis little plant. I have the misfor- 
tune to write upon a subject about which nothing of any import- 
ance has already been written, and I have searched in vain all the 
catalogues of microscopical slides for illustrations. In my 
researches, however, I continually met with this pretty Linaria 
" creeping over the grey wall of the ruin," as Anne Pratt writes, 
" and hanging down its threadlike branches from the ancient 
church-tower, where it fixes its roots in the smallest crevices, its 
rich, thick, green leaves and numerous blossoms forming a hand- 
some tapestry with which to hide the decay of the building." Its 
simple beauty charmed me. 

The Linaria cyjiibalaria, or "Ivy-Leaf Toad-Flax" (PI. XXL, 
Fig.i),belongs, in the natural system, to the large class of exogenous 
plants, sub-class Corolliflorce, its flowers containing both calyx and 
corolla, the latter being monopetalous and personate. It further 
belongs to the order Scrophularacece, its petals and calyx having 
five irregular divisions. Its carpels are united into a superior two- 
celled, many-seeded pistil. 

In the artificial system, its old generic name of Linaria was 
abandoned, and, in Withering's " Botany," it is to be found 
under the class Didynamia (two long and two short stamens), 
order Angiosperniia (having a closed seed-vessel), genus Antirrhi- 
num, species Cymbalaria, so that, in this system, it must be looked 
for in the family of the snapdragons, although, unlike them, its 
corolla possesses a spur. 



i 



LINARIA CYMBALARIA. 195 

Blossom and Fruit.— In considering the corolla, I am at a 
disadvantage. I have searched every locality known to me in Bath, 
but not a single flower can I find. The winter's frosts have inter- 
fered with their production, although in some seasons they bloom 
all the year through. I therefore must depend upon slides and 
drawings for the illustration of this part of my paper. To all 
superficial observers, the whole plant is insignificant. The vast 
majority, therefore, of " the people " pass by the old walls fes- 
tooned with its graceful foliage, and never notice the exceeding 
beauty of its floral structure. The blossom is almost identical in 
shape with the corolla of the Garden or Wild Snapdragon, gaping, 
bulging at the base and its throat, furnished with thickly-set hairs. 
It has, however, a distinct spur or nectary, which is wanting in the 
flowers of the ordinary Snapdragons (Fig. 2, a, l>, c). The lips of 
the corolla are closely set, and we must use needle and scalpel in 
order to lay bare the palate of the tiny flower, if we wish to enjoy 
its greatest charm. This consists in the beautiful orange-coloured 
and silvery hairs which lie thickly together within the lips. The 
yellow hairs lie closely together in rows, as seen in Fig. 3. Of 
course, they will be of much greater beauty if the palate of a 
fresh corolla be laid open, and then examined under the micro- 
scope. The hairs under a high power have a peculiarly marked 
surface ; the margins of them appear to have very fine inequalities 
or serratures, and these, I think, are due to exceedingly minute 
protuberances which are scattered over their surfaces. They are 
larger at the apex than at the base, and I append a drawing (Fig. 4) 
of the corolla hairs as they appear when magnified 300 dia- 
meters. 

Let me now proceed to describe the Organs of Fructifica- 
tion. These occupy a position within the corolla immediately oppo- 
site to the hairs just described. Since the researches of Mr. Darwin 
m relation to insects and plant fertilisation have been made 
known, and especially since the publication of Sir John Lubbock's 
interesting book, entitled " British Wild Flowers considered in 
relation to Insects," the most important question in relation to 
wild flowers is : — Are they fertilised by the agency of wind or 
insects, or are they capable of self-fertilisation ? To this particular 
plant, I cannot find that Sir John Lubbock makes any allu- 



196 LINARIA CYMBALARIA. 

sion. He does, however, refer to Linaria vulgaris^ the common 
yellow Toad-Flax, a larger and more showy plant than the one 
now under consideration. He writes : — " Its flowers form a closed 
box, terminating behind in a spur ten to thirteen millimetres in 
length, which contains the honey, and the orifice of which is pro- 
tected by hairs. Under these circumstances, the long-lipped bees 
are the only insects which can suck the honey." He further 
writes: — "The Snapdragon differs in the larger size of the flowers, 
the greater firmness with which they are closed, and in the posi- 
tion of the honey, which lies at the basis of the corolla, and does 
not penetrate into the short spur, which is hairy, and therefore not 
suited for such a purpose. They are almost always fertilised by 
humble bees, though smaller bees occasionally force their way into 
them." 

From Sir John Lubbock we learn that many of our wild 
flowers are proterandrous (the anthers shed their pollen before the 
stigmatic surfaces of the pistils have matured). Others are pro- 
terogynous, the pistils having matured before the anthers have 
ripened. Such flowers entirely depend upon the visits of insects 
to fertilise them. The ripe pollen of the one flower Diust be 
carried to the mature stigma of the other, and failing this the 
plants will become extinct. It frequently happens, however, that 
the flowers are hermaphrodite, a portion of the stamens ri]jening 
before the stigma, but the remainder ripening concurrently with it, 
so that such flowers are first exclusively male, then male and 
female. Or, the pistil may mature before the stamens,, when the 
flowers will at first be exclusively female, but as the stigmatic 
surface of the pistil retains its ripened character until the stamens 
shed their pollen, these flowers also become hermaphrodite. It 
may be, of course, that insect agency is at work even here, but 
were it otherwise, there is an abundant means for self-fertilisation. 
The general principle laid down by Sir John Lubbock with 
reference to the fertilisation of flowers is, that large, bright- 
coloured, sweetly-scented, honey-yielding blossoms are largely fer- 
tilised, and the species preserved by the visits of insects attracted 
to them ; while, on the other hand, small, scentless, honeyless 
flowers are less dependent upon bees and other insects because 
they possess ample means for self-fertilisation. Now, the Liuaria 



LINARIA CYMBALARIA. 197 

cymbalaria is exceedingly small as to its floral development, its 
petals are not highly coloured, its flowers are not fragrant, and 
although the corolla has certain lines upon it which may be taken 
as honey-guides, it is questionable if the flower contains any 
honey ; but on this latter point I cannot speak authoritatively. 
During the late summer and autumn, I frequently observed its 
habits and carried home specimens for study ; but while collecting 
these tiny flowers I have never disturbed any insects engaged upon 
them. I am pretty well satisfied, from frequent observation, that 
the blossom of this Linaria is homogamous — a term used to 
denote those flowers in which anthers and pistil ripen concurrently. 
I have spent a considerable amount of time in examining the 
parts of fructification beneath the microscope, and although, from 
the minute size of the pistil, it is difticult to cut sections of the 
necessary thinness to observe the growth of the pollen-tubes, I 
have frequently seen in tlic same flower the ripened pollen-grains 
adhering to the stigmatic surface of the pistil, and on one occasion 
I believe that a pollen-tube was detected. Again, when we con- 
sider the close contiguity of the small corolla lips, and remember 
how nearly every space within them must be occupied with hairs, 
pistil, and stamens, it is difficult to suppose that the proboscis of 
any insect could penetrate through such obstacles to the spur or 
even to the base of the corolla in search of honey, even if honey 
were to be found therein. I have also another reason to give 
against a system of cross-fertilisation. 

There is a variety of Linaria c'ymbala?-ia, with a purely white 
corolla, which possesses the same kind of throat-hairs. I found it 
in Bath in only one locality, and only two or three plants on the 
spot. I took the roots away three years ago, and I have never 
seen this white variety since, there or elsewhere, although the wall 
from which I gathered it is festooned with thousands of plants 
\j\ih purple blossoms. If insects visited these flowers, the pollen 
would be crossed, and in such case I presume the white variety 
would have rapidly increased. I may add that, while exhibiting 
this Linaria at the Bristol soiree, a visitor told me that the white 
variety was very common in the Bristol neighbourhood. For the 
reasons above stated,! conclude that Linaria cymbalaria is entirely 
self-fertilised. 



l98 LINAllIA CYMBALAIUA. 

Fig. 5 is a drawing of the reproductive organs, and I must 
remark upon the beautiful character of the unripened germen. In 
its fresh condition it is of a rich claret colour, sofdy fading to a 
bright pink tint towards the summit of the pistil. The latter has 
upon its surface small papill?e-like organs, which probably aid in 
receiving the pollen. The latter is very abundant, the anthers 
being laden with its silvery granules. From the drawing the stig- 
matic surface of the pistil appears to be button- or knob-shaped, 
but if the pollen which adheres to it in such quantity be brushed 
away, the summit of the pistil is found to be but slightly enlarged. 
The drawing also does not give the true shape of the anthers, for, 
although it was copied from a fresh flower-section, the anthers are 
drawn in their usual position face to face. I have, therefore, 
added another drawing (Fig. 6), to show the exact shape of the 
several reproductive organs and a highly-magnified view of the 
pollen-grains. There is no particular beauty in the latter — no 
valves or sculptured surfaces. The pollen is rather difficult to 
examine because of its minute character ; some of the grains 
appear as if a slit extended over their surfaces. When moistened, 
the shape becomes orbicular, and in what I suppose to be a side 
view there appears to be a belt surrounding each grain. 

In the drawing (Fig. 6, d) they are magnified 300 diameters ; 
the actual measurement of each grain is about the ^/5ooth part of 
an inch. I spent an evening in the treatment of the pollen with 
acids, etc., with the result shown in the drawing. The tubes 
appeared almost instantly on the application of spirit. In glyce- 
rine, .only two appeared in the space of about forty-eight hours. I 
was not able to detect any particular orifice from which the tube 
lengthened. It appeared to issue from any portion of the outer 
membrane, and the rupture w^as attended with a violent jerk of 
the pollen-grain. 

I now proceed to notice the seed-capsule and its contents. It 
has been already remarked that the natural habit of the plant is to 
grow in the crevices of old walls. It seems to flourish here in 
such positions, although it freely grows upon the summits of old 
walls. When springing from a perpendicular wall, it hangs in long 
festoons, and some provision is therefore necessary to secure the 
ripened seed from being scattered upon the ground at its base, to 



LINAllIA CYMBALAIUA. 199 

be trodden under foot. Nature has wonderfully provided against 
such a contingency. The Psalmist exclaimed, "O Lord, how 
manifold are Thy works ; in wisdom hast Thou made them all." 
In this tiny, unobserved plant, a proof of creative wisdoni is 
readily seen. A careful observer will notice that as the blossom 
of Liiiaria cyjiibalaria fades and the seed-capsule swells, its long 
green stalk gradually turns inward. When the capsule is ripe, its 
position is exactly the opposite to that formerly held by the flower. 
The latter stole out from the thick green leaves into sunshine, but 
the former retires to the rear of the pretty tapestry until the seed- 
vessel is close to the crevices of the w^all ready to discharge its 
precious freight. Some observers have gone so far as to credit 
this little plant with a kind of instinct to preserve its species. 
Miss Pratt, in her " Flowering Plants of Great Britain," writes : — 
" The capsules, before ripening, turn towards the wall on which 
the plant so often grows and place tJieinselves in a crevice or hole, so 
as to shed the seeds, when ripened, in a place where they may 
thrive, instead of scattering them on the ground where they would 
be wasted." 

A correspondent to Science Gossip, in the September number, 
1867, p. 211, writes : — " The seed-vessel faces the wall. But this 
is not sufficient. The office of the pedicle is not accomplished 
until its precious burden is placed in safety. For this purpose it 
draws close to the face of the wall or building, and then actually 
seems to search out a rough chink or hollow, into 7ahich it may 
thrust its capsule, in order that the seeds may find a secure resting- 
place when separated from the parent plant." 

This curious and wonderful habit was denied to the plant by a 
subsequent writer in Science Gossip, but observers may witness to 
the correctness of the statement, in greater part at least, in any of 
the localities where it thrives. No explanation of this peculiar 
but important function has been offered so far as I have gleaned ; 
but I shall presume to offer one, leaving my readers to judge of 
its probable correctness. In dissecting the flower-stalk, one is 
impressed with its tough and wiry nature. When the outer mem- 
brane, which is readily detached in a cylindrical form, is removed, 
the interior stem appears as a white, thread-like substance, very 
strong and slightly elastic. If this be macerated in water and 



200 LINARIA CYMBALARIA. 

roughly compressed, it is found to consist of bundles of spiral 
fibre. So closely are these fibres wound together, that from ordi- 
nary observation the bundles of tissue appear to be merely pitted, 
but closer observation will reveal that this fibre is truly spiral, and 
if sufficient pressure is used, it may be detected in an unwound 
condition. I think, therefore, that in the unripened seed-stem this 
spiral tissue is at its greatest elasticity. As the capsule ripens, the 
spiral fibre contracts and causes the stem of the capsule to curl 
and twist, owing to the non-contraction of the outer cuticles, and 
thus the object of seed-preservation is attained. 

The capsule has two divisions, each of which contains 15 
or 17 seeds. I have counted as many as 41 in some fine 
specimens of plants obtained in this locality. From the drawing, 
Fig. 7 (which is magnified 40 diameters), the size and shape of the 
seeds may be readily seen. The wrinkled nature of the seeds 
renders them easy for lodgment in the wall-crevices ; the irregu- 
larity of their surfaces prevents them from rolling out of their 
home in the upright walls. They are not at all unlike miniature 
walnut-kernels. When fully ripe, they are of a rich brown colour; 
if not quite ripe, of a reddish tinge. A section of these minute 
seeds reveals the true colour of the testa and its pretty cellular 
formation. Their small size renders dissection difficult, and I 
have been unable to detect the character of the substance which 
is interposed between the embryo and the seed-coat. I presume 
it is the usual albuminous matter, but the sections I have mounted 
show the walls of the testa and the interior cellular mass, 
and forms a beautiful object under polarised light (Fig. 8). On a 
blue selenite ground, the cell-walls are very distinct in red and 
green, and colourless granules occupy the minute spaces. The 
embryo is very large, and with careful focussing it is seen to 
possess two cotyledons, reclinate — i.e., folded from apex to base. 
I have spent some time in watching the germination of the seeds, 
having sown them in damp sand, but for several weeks they gave 
no appearance of life. Ultimately, however, I obtained a fine 
crop of young Linaria, and there are two reasons for especial 
remarks. First, the leaves and stems of the seedlings were studded 
with very minute capitate hairs, which are not found in the perfect 
plant ; second, the under-surfaces of the miniature leaves were 



LINAIUA CYMBALARIA. 201 

invariably of the purple colour which characterise so many of the 
leaves of the fuU-grovn plant. 

Passing on to the characters of leaves, roots, and plant-stems, 
I will shortly call attention to their several structures. 

The Leaves of the fully-grown plant are quinquangular in 
shape, seated on very long foot-stalks. The upper surface is of a 
dark, shining, green colour ; the under surface of a metallic grey. 
I have already remarked upon the purple tint of the under surface 
of many of the leaves. The cause of this peculiarity was sought 
for unsuccessfully by a correspondent to Science Gossip four or five 
years ago. He suggested that probably some change takes place 
in the chlorophyll of the cells. This is hardly satisfactory, as the 
purple tint is not, as it is in so many plants, the sign of approach- 
ing decay. The beautiful colour is very abundant in the leaves of 
the seedlings, so that the tint is due to colouring matter similar to 
that which imparts beauty to the petals of our garden and green- 
house flowers. The variety in colour of these leaves adds ele- 
gance -to the tiny Linaria. The blossom is small and not deeply 
tinted ; consequently, it would not attract very great attention. 
But when from among the bright green leaves many of them curl 
and exhibit their purple and almost crimson under surfaces, the 
attractive qualities of this little plant are considerably enhanced. 

The Cuticle of the leaves is well worthy of consideration. 
The upper cuticle is detached with very great difficulty, and I have 
not. been able to obtain good specimens, although the leaves have 
been boiled in diluted acid. It contains no stomata, and the cells 
are of an ordinary shape. The under cuticle is one of the most 
beautiful of its kind. It is a tough membrane, readily detached, 
with large cells of sinuose character ; they appear to contain but a 
small quantity of chlorophyll. This cuticle becomes too transpa- 
rent for observation when mounted in balsam, and therefore must 
be stained before mounting. 

The Stomata are confined to the under cuticle, and they vary 
in point of numbers in different plants and in different portions of 
the same leaf. I have paid a little attention to their frequency, 
and from one specimen I calculated that a square inch of surface 
would contain about 1079 stomata. They are exceedingly minute, 
and possess the usual kidney-cells around the fissures of the 



202 LINARIA CYMBALARIA. 

organs. The figures 9, 10, and 11, were drawn by the aid of 
the neutral-tint reflector. In sections of the leaves mounted in 
balsam, the interior cells are readily seen. The upper cuticle 
covers the usual perpendicular cells, filled with dense masses of 
chlorophyll ; the under cuticle encloses cells comparatively free 
from this deposit, and although the stomata are indistinct, the air- 
cells in connection with them are easily traced. I cannot detect 
starch-grains or crystals, but as these sections polarise well, they 
may probably contain both. 

I have already entered somewhat fully into particulars of the 
component parts of the flower-stem of this Linaria^ but I will 
dwell for a moment upon the Plant-Stem. It consists of an 
outer cuticle, highly coloured by the matter formed within its large 
transparent cells, and contains but little chlorophyll. The inner 
cuticle or membrane is composed of denser cells, with an abund- 
ance of green matter. The interior portion is composed of a 
central medulla or pith, a cellular formation of larger cells than in 
other parts of the stem, and giving in a transverse section the 
characteristic of a hollow stem. Immediately surrounding the 
pith comes the medullary sheath of spiral vessels ; then a zone of 
denser cells, surrounded by a mass of larger cellular tissue, while 
the cuticle encloses all. 

The Roots of this little plant are remarkable for their clinging 
powers. This is not to be wondered at when we consider the 
position which the whole plant occupies on perpendicular walls. 
It has the means, by its fibrous roots, to adhere to its otherwise 
precarious lodging. 

In conclusion, let me remark on the desirability of making 
common objects our study. Take any object you please, 
and endeavour to bring it into monographic description, and 
you will have an interesting subject of investigation. This 
little Li/iaria, as I gaze upon its festoons, reminds me of many 
happy hours spent in its cheerful company, and we shall ever be 
familiar friends. Sir John Lubbock, in closing one of his books, 
writes : — " Few, I believe, of those who are not specially devoted 
to zoology and botany have any idea how much still remains to be 
ascertained with reference to even the commonest and most 
abundant species."' 



LINAIUA CYMEALARIA. 203 

[The above paper and accompanying drawings were circulated 
with a box of sUdes round the Postal Microscopical Society during 
the years 1882 — 3; therefore, by way of addenda to the paper, we 
think it well to add some of the notes which were written by mem- 
bers in further description of this interesting little plant. — Editor?\ 

ADDENDA. 

I would suggest that the slide of hairs of the corolla should 
also have been mounted in balsam, so as to admit of polarisation. 

E. E. Jarrett. 

It is really vonderful how this plant adapts itself to its envi- 
ronment. I have grown a plant of Linaria cymbalaria in an 
enclosed glass porch, and have been surprised to find here and 
there a small plant springing into existence, showing into what 
minute and dry crevices the seeds find their way, and at consider- 
able distance from the parent plant, and where they are utterly 
devoid of water. J. H. Wilson. 

It is to be hoped that the confession made by Mr. Moore, 
p. 197, that he has never come across a specimen with the white 
corolla since taking away the whole of the plants with their roots, 
may lead some collector to be more merciful than they sometimes 
are when they come across a rare specimen. Let them, at least, 
leave the root. James C. Christie. 

We are told on ]). 201 that there are no stomata on the upper 
cuticle. I think another examination would show several large 
and well-defined stomata there. W. Swallow. 

There is one point respecting the presence of stomata on the 
upper side of the leaf, which appears to have been overlooked by 
Mr. Moore on p. 201. Although very much fewer in numbers than 
on the underside, they exist, as remarked by Mr. Swallow, and I 
also find that the outline of the cells of the upper cuticle is some- 
what like that of the cells of the under cuticle — viz., more or less 
sinuous or wavy, not so markedly so as on the under side, but 
much more so than is shown in Eig. 9. Geo. D. Brown. 

Not the least valuable of Mr. Moore's observations are those 
bearing on the structure of the stalk of the seed-vessels. I think 
there is little doubt that his explanation of the peculiar behaviour 



204 LINARIA CYMBALARIA. 

of the stalk during the ripening of the seed is correctly stated as 
being dependent on the contraction of the spiral tissue. I would 
suggest that the lodgment of the seed in the small crevices may be 
explained without crediting the plant with any discriminative 
power. To do this would, of course, be absurd ; but I think a 
rational explanation is easy. Suppose the mature seed-vessel to 
be, by the action of the contractile fibre, brought into contact 
with the w^ill at the same time that, by the continued contraction 
of the stem-fibre, producing a certain relation of the seed-pod, the 
latter was scraped against the surface of the wall. This would, 
no doubt, end by its travels being eventually stopped by a hole or 
crevice, in which the seed would in all probability germinate. 

W. Leicester Greville. 
I quite agree with Mr. Moore's closing remarks, and his quo- 
tation from Sir John Lubbock, as to the desirability of turning 
one's attention to the thorough study of one or two of the com- 
monest objects to be found in one's own immediate neighbour- 
hood. Such objects are sure to present points of interest, little or 
not at all elucidated, and much good work may be done. 

Arthur Hammond. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES XXL, XXII. , XXIIL 

Fig. L — Linaria cymbalaria, natural size, from a Nature-printed 
drawing. 

,, 2. — Corolla, a, side view, closed; h, side view, open ; c, front 

view, showing the tive clefts as numbered 1—5, all x 5 diam. 
,, 3. — Hairs //(- situ, within corolla, x 48 diam. 
,, 4.— Ditto, X 300 diam. 

,, 5. — Germeu, pistil, stamens, and pollen, x 11 diam. 
,, G. — a, Calyx and pistil, x 15 diam. 

/>, Long stamen, x 15 diam. 

c, Short stamen, x 15 diam. 

(/, Pollen, X 300 diam. 

c, Do., in glycerine. 

f, Do. , in acetic acid. 

y, Do., in spirit, showing pollen-tubes. 
,, 7. — Seeds, x 40 diam. 
,, 8.- Section of seed, x 05 diam. 

«, testa ; b, endosperm ; c, embryt). 
,, 0. — Cells of upper cuticle of leaf, x 40 diam. 
,, 10. — Cells of under cuticle, with stomata, x 70 diam. 
,, 11.— Under cuticle, with stomata, x 250 diam. 

Prawn by R. H. Moore. 



Journal of Microscopy A/ ol 6. rl 




Zinaricc cyTTzbalarKz^. 



Journal of Microscopy Vol' 6 PI 22 




Zznaria cymbaUirca/. 



Jo"arnal of Microscopy Vol. 6. Pi, 23. 




[205] 

^be ipboto^nDicroorapb\> of Ibistolootcal 

Subjects/'' 

By Y. May King, M.D,, Amov, China. 

THE idea of utilising photography as a means of recording 
scientific investigations with the microscope presents so 
many attractions that it undoubtedly has occurred to many 
microscopists. But as yet comparatively few appear to have 
availed themselves of this method of obtaining an indisputably 
exact reproduction of what is shown by the microscope. And 
even these few have given their chief attention to diatoms, of 
which they have made very beautiful micro-photographs. Practi- 
cal pathologists, as a rule, I think, have been deterred from 
attempting to use photography by the mistaken apprehension that 
the process was too long and wearisome for one with but little 
spare time, and also that the results to be obtained in the case of 
histological subjects would not sufficiently recompense for the 
labour bestowed. But in reality it is not any more tedious, nor 
does it require any more time, to make a photo-micrograph than 
it does to make a photograph of any other kind. There is no 
reason why an objective which will project a clear image upon the 
eye will not do the same upon a sensitive plate, nor why such 
impressions should not be treated like the impressions from other 
kinds of lines. The measure of success I have met with in the 
photo-micrography of histological subjects, while pursuing it for 
my own benefit as a welcome alternative to camera-lucida drawing, 
has induced some of my friends to suggest that I might, perhai)s, 
be able to give some practical hints which would be useful to 
others, toiling over camera-lucida reflections, who would like to 
experiment in this interesting branch of photography. 

It does not require a great amount of skill, nor is it nearly as 
laborious as drawing, and, I think, will be found far more satis- 
factory in the end. 

I would here acknowledge my great indebtedness to Professor 
T. W. Smillie, chief of the photographic department of the 

* From the New Yorh Medical Journal, 



206 THE PHOTO-MICROGRAPHY OF 

National Museum in Washington, D. C., for valuable advice and 
instruction, which his rare comprehension of the difficulties to be 
overcome enabled him to give me, and for the facilities afforded 
me in the laboratory under his charge. 

The limits of this paper will not permit of my describing 
minutely the details which belong to ordinary photography, and 
so many are already accustomed to the treatment of usual subjects 
that it would be needless to do so. I shall therefore only endea- 
vour to indicate the points of special interest and the necessary 
apparatus. 

For those practically unacquainted with photography, I would 
suggest that a few lessons from a professional photographer will be 
of immense value, saving much time and mental perturbation in 
ascertaining the best manner of working. 

The necessary parts of the apparatus are not numerous, and 
need be but very simple. They consist of a microscope, a light, 
a condensing lens, a photographic camera with a plate-holder, 
plates and a few chemicals, and a room to work in. The micro- 
scope should have good objectives, for they will be subjected to a 
very severe trial, and the most judicious treatment fails to get 
good results with poor objectives. The qualities specially desir- 
able are achromatism, good definition, penetration, and a flat 
field. The two latter have been the most difficult to obtain, in 
my experience. The penetration may be improved by inserting a 
diaphragm behind the posterior combination of the objective at 
the point of the greatest convergence of the rays. This point is 
most easily ascertained by sliding the diaphragm up and down 
until the proper spot is reached. The use of a diaphragm dimi- 
nishes the amount of light ; but, with low powers where the great- 
est penetration is necessary, the amount of light admitted into the 
objective is so large that this loss is of no consequence. It would, 
doubtless, be convenient to have apochromatic glass ; but the 
difference between the chemical and visual foci may be remedied 
by the use of a blue cell. In working without an eye-piece, the 
objective should be screwed to the end of a short, wide tube — say, 
about six inches long and two inches wide, well blackened in its 
interior. 

As to the relative merits of working with or without an eye- 



HISTOLOGICAL SUBJECTS. 207 

piece, I am not now prepared to speak ; most of my work has 
been done without one. The eye-piece has, or should have, the 
merit of rendering the field aplanatic. 

For light, kerosene lamps, such as are used with magic-lanterns, 
etc., furnish sufficient for low powers, if the object presents strong 
contrasts and sharp outlines, so that the definition is not taxed 
too much. The flat wicks are preferable, although a round one 
answers pretty well. With high powers, or where fine definition of 
delicate details is needed, the oil-lamp is not sufiicient, and a 
stronger light must be used — such as an arc electric light, or sun- 
light. The strong, clear, white light of these two gives the best 
definition, and also enables one to focus much more accurately. 
Sunlight I have found all that could be desired. It is the most 
available for general use, and in the United States National 
Museum, after many trials of various other kinds of light, it is 
considered the best for photo-micrographic purposes. The only 
apparatus necessary in using it is a heliostat to reflect the rays 
upon a condenser. The condensing lens should be about three 
inches in diameter, and should have a focal length of from six to 
eight inches. A slight variation in the size of the condenser makes 
no material difference, provided it is not too convex, as the rays 
entering the objective should be as nearly parallel as possible, in 
order to secure more accurate definition. 

A substage condenser is not necessary for tissue photography, 
except with very high powers. The size of the camera may be 
left to individual choice. In the National Museum the one which 
I used was suited for an eight-by-ten plate, and had a bellows 
arrangement five feet long. If the eye-piece is used, two feet of 
bellows will be sufficient. The plate-holder should be capable of 
carrying a collodion plate, and also be provided with mats for 
holding smaller sizes, if an eight-by-ten plate is generally used. 

If sunlight is used, the work-room should have one window 
facing the south, the lower sash replaced by wooden shutters and 
the upper one supplied with orange-coloured glass, and a thick 
roller shade, by means of which the room may be darkened while 
an exposure is being made, so that no actinic light will enter the 
objective except that which passes through the condenser. 

The different parts of the apparatus are conveniently arranged 



208 THE PHOTO-MICROGRAPHY OF 

and secured upon a stout, smooth board, resting on a firm table 
near the window. Fasten the camera-bed to one end of the 
board. In front of it ]3lace the microscope screwed upon a block 
of sufficient height to bring the tube opposite to the centre of the 
camera-lens aperture, leaving a few inches of space intervening, in 
order to permit of focussing the objective up and down, or rather 
backward and forward, as the microscope tube is now horizontal. 
The intervening space referred to may be bridged over by a sleeve 
of black velvet, or anything pliable, which is at the same time 
opaque and has a non-reflecting surface. The wrist end of a lady's 
black undressed kid wousgnetatre glove, turned wrong side out, 
will answer very well by tacking the larger end around the camera- 
lens aperture, and securing the other end around the tube by 
means of an elastic band. 

Next comes the condenser, which must be fastened to the end 
of a tube which slides smoothly in a collar fitted around a hole 
cut in the window shutter. By this arrangement the condenser 
may be moved back or forth as circumstances require without 
throwing it out of line. The position of the hole should be care- 
fully regulated, so that the optical axis of the condenser will be in 
the same line with the optical axis of the objective. 

The heliostat is placed outside of the window, either on a 
separate shelf or on the end of the same board which carries the 
rest of the apparatus, in which case the shutter with the condenser 
must be notched at the bottom to fit over the board, and lifted 
out while it is being pushed out of the window to a sufficient dis- 
tance. When once regulated for the latitude and the time of day, 
the heliostat moves by clockwork and requires no further attention. 

If artificial light is used, it should be enclosed in something to 
prevent the rays from being diffused in the room. [When using 
my kerosene lamp, I had a piece of stove-pipe in which a hole had 
been cut opposite the flame for inserting the tube of the conden- 
ser.] Having arranged all carefully in line, adjust the condenser 
so that its focus will pretty nearly coincide with the focus of the 
objective, or until tlie cone of light upon the object and the field 
of the objective are of about the same size, and test the apparatus 
with some slide re<|uiring fine definition and a low power. Focus 
down with the coarse adjustment until the usual working distance 



HISTOLOGICAL SUBJECTS. 209 

is reached. Slide the bellows back and forth until the image is 
vaguely seen upon the ground glass, and then use the fine adjust- 
ment until the image is perfect. It may be necessary to throw a 
focussing cloth over the head and camera, in order to see the fine 
details clearly. 

Sometimes one or more bright spots appear in the field, inter- 
fering greatly with the definition. These are due to reflections 
within the objective, or in some other part. By taking away the 
ground glass and looking in with eyes almost shut, so as not to be 
dazzled, one may generally detect where the reflections occur. 
Sometimes the sleeve is not light-proof, or has become detached 
and admits stray beams of light, which make confusion. When 
the eye-piece is used, the objective may be focussed as usual, and 
the stand bent horizontally. Then slip the sleeve over the end of 
the tube, being careful not to disturb the adjustment ; and focus 
the image upon the ground glass by moving the bellows. 

A more trying difficulty is curvature of the field. This 
increases with the higher powers, so that often, out of a field five 
inches in diameter upon the ground glass, not more than half-an- 
inch can be brought into focus at one time. 

The best general effect is obtained by selecting some point to 
focus upon, midway between the centre and the periphery. This 
gives a field with moderately good definition throughout, and no 
great contrasts between well-defined and blurred lines. 

If there is any special detail to be demonstrated, that of 
course must be jjlaced in the centre of the field and focussed 
without regard to the rest. As objectives are now constructed, the 
only remedy that I am aware of is to make use of an eye-piece or 
amplifier suited to the particular objective used. 

Lack of penetration may be somewhat obviated by a diaphragm, 
as I have said before. The difference between the chemical and 
visual foci is ascertained by interposing between the stage and the 
condenser a deep violet-coloured solution (about 8 per cent.) of 
pure cupric oxide in ammonia. If the cell is made of glass strips, 
this fluid, which is exceedingly corrosive, soon acts upon the 
cement and destroys it. When not in use, it is advisable to pour 
the solution out, unless it is contained in a brown glass cell, such 
as is used for holding fluid in spectrum analysis. 

Vol. VI. P 



210 THE PHOTO-MICROGRAPHY OF 

This blue medium practically stops all except the violet rays, 
and leaves only the chemical focus. If now the image is as well 
defined as before, the two foci are coincident ; if not, the distance 
which the objective must be moved, to restore the definition, is 
equal to the difference. In low powers this is apt to be marked. 
With good modern objectives, the higher powers do not generally 
present any difference. 

Often a dark edge appears, or the field is lighter in one part 
than another. This is due to the heliostat being out of proper 
relation to the condenser, so that it is not uniformly illuminated. 
Unless this is corrected, the negative will not be of uniform den- 
sity. When all is satisfactory upon the ground glass, a sensitive 
plate may be substituted and the exposure made by intercei)ting 
the light between the condenser and the stage with a bit of black- 
ened cardboard, while the slide is being drawn out ; then lifting 
the cardboard for the necessary time, then replacing it while the 
slide is being drawn back. If the exposure should occupy several 
minutes, the cardboard will not be necessary, since the time taken 
up in pulling out and returning the slide is comparatively so short 
as to be unimportant. 

The table upon which the apparatus stands should be very 
firm, as any disturbance during exposure shows by blurred lines. 

The photographic treatment is a little different from that of 
usual objects. The chief aim in photo-micrography is to get defi- 
nition. The negative must be sufificiently dense to give a strong 
print, in which the lights are high and the shadows deep, clear, 
and sharply outlined. To this end the exposure must be short^ 
barely long enough to get the details and yet to keep the shadows 
clear — and the development excessive. This does away with the 
soft middle tones and gradations between the lights and shadows 
so esstintial to the beauty of landscajjc or jiortrait photography, 
but so disastrous to micro-[)hotographs. 

Dry plates are useful with kerosene light ; the length of expo- 
sure varies greatly, and must be ascertained for each particular 
case. ^Vitli sunlight, low powers generally recjuire two blue cells 
a quarter of an inch thick, and an ex[)osure as short as it can be 
made by hand. If tlie specimen is of rather a deep-red colour 
and covers the field pretty thoroughly, one cell may be sufftcient, 
or none at all ma)' be necessary for tempering the light. 



HISTOLOGICAL SUBJECTS. 211 

Collodion plates with the same objectives require but one cell if 
the specimen is very thin and delicately coloured, and the same 
exposure — about one-third to three-quarters of a second. Powers 
from one-fifth of an inch and upward do not require any blue cell, 
unless there is a difference between the chemical and visual foci. 
For collodion plates one and a-half seconds are sufficient for the 
exposure with ordinary carmine-stained sections ; then the time 
lengthens rapidly as the powers increase. 

The advantages of the short exposure are, that the middle 
tones do not have time to be reproduced, only the marked lights 
and shadows are impressed, and there is much less danger of 
jarring the apparatus than when the exposure occupies several 
minutes. In a city where vehicles are constantly passing, it is 
impossible to get a perfectly quiet five minutes, as even what is 
not a very perceptible jar will mar the clearness of the outlines- 
Moreover, in the case of the short exposure, less time is allowed 
for the occurrence of unforeseen accidents. 

Dry plates must be handled, as usual, under ruby light alone- 
Ferrous oxalate is the best developer, giving perfectly clear, white 
shadows ; eight parts of a saturated solution of potassic oxalate, 
acidulated with oxalic acid, to one part of a saturated solution of 
ferrous sul]ihate, acidulated with sulphuric acid, is tlie usual for- 
mula. It is advantageous to add two or three drops of a saturated 
potassium-bromide solution. Or the develo]Mnent may be com- 
menced in a normal developer, and the.i transferred to one con- 
taining bromide. Should the image begin to appear in a normal 
developer under fifteen seconds, the plate has been more than 
fully exposed, and very decidedly too much so for microscopical 
purposes. It might, perhaps, be saved by promptly adding bro- 
mide ; probably, another plate must be taken. Develop until the 
back is quite grey in the shadows. With the ferrous oxalate deve- 
loper and a properly e\i)Osed plate, there is scarcely any danger of 
over-development. If, after fixing, the negative appears a little too 
lieavy in the fine details, returning it for an hour or more to a 
strong hyposulpliite solution may restore it. If that docs not 
bleach it sufficiently, wash and pour on and off the jjlate a very 
weak solution of ])otassium iodide, watching carefully all the while 
that the [jrocess of changing the reduced silver to an iodide does 



212 THE PHOTO-MICROGRAPHY OF 

not go too for. Then replace for a few moments in the hyposul- 
phite solution, to dissolve out the new iodide of silver, before 
giving the final washing. If under-developed, no intensifications per- 
mitted by the dry-plate film will make up for it in this class of work. 

Collodion plates are to be preferred, since, in addition to the 
possibility of making use of under-exposure and full development, 
certain intensifying processes may be used which take away the 
soft edge of the lines (caused by a slight halo around the edge of 
the object), and thus sharpening the outlines greatly. The dry- 
plate fihn does not permit of these processes being used ; hence, 
in these the definition is not so good. 

If the window-glass of the room in wliich the exposure is made 
is of a pretty deep orange colour, and the room long enough or so 
arranged that one may work where there is not too much light, the 
same room n.ay be used for developing collodion plates. In the 
dark room an orange shade over the gas-jet gives a perfectly safe 

light. 

Plates are prepared by thoroughly cleansing them in nitric acid, 
since with this former images are less likely to reappear than when 
caustic alkali is used for cleansing. Then flow upon the concave 
side the following solution of albumin : — Take the white of an egg 
beaten a little, and dissolve it in twenty ounces of water ; add a 
drop of strong ammonia. The plates are then set up in a rack to 
dry, care being taken to shield them from dust, after which they 
may be set away in the dark room on some convenient shelf to 
keep clean until needed. If they are put in regular order, albu- 
minised surfi^ce to the wall, it prevents confusion if one happens 
to be in a liurry. The albumin coat is too thin to be visible, yet 
it covers any little imperfection in the glass plate, and [n-events it 
from appearing in the picture. It also makes the collodion flow 
more smoothly. 

The usual medium negative collodion of the portrait photogra- 
l^her has given me quite satisfactory results. It should be filtered 
and then allowed to stand several hours, and decanted off the 
deposit before using it. Occasionally, collodion used for line work 
may be obtained. This works more slowly, but gives greater con- 
trasts. \\'here it is desirable to make one's own collodion, the 
following formula has been recommended to me : — 



HISTOLOGICAL SUBJECTS. 213 

Pure ether and strong alcohol, equal parts ; for each ounce of 
this mixture weigh out five grains of ammonium iodide, two 
grains of potassium bromide, and five grains of photographic 
pyroxylin. Dissolve the salts in the smallest possible amount of 
water, and add to the alcohol. Dissolve the pyroxylin in the ether. 
Put the two solutions together, and filter. The collodion is now 
ready for immediate use. It should be made in small quantities, 
since it cannot be relied on to keep longer than three weeks. The 
sensitising bath is, as usual, forty grains of silver nitrate to the 
ounce of water. Ferrous sulphate developer works well, and is 
easily prepared : — Saturated solution of ferrous sulphate (not aci- 
dulated with sulphuric acid), four ounces ; glacial acetic acid, one 
ounce and a half, to sixteen ounces of water. After fixing in 
potassium cyanide, the negatives may be set aside for a more con- 
venient time, or intensified at once. The plate must be either 
entirely wet or perfectly dry before commencing, otherwise the 
action will be uneven. There are several methods of intensifying 
negatives which are useful for photo-micrographs. 

I. — Pay the negative in a tray containing a watery solution of 
.iodine and iodide of potassium, or, what is more convenient, pour 
on and off a strong watery solution of a deep wine colour, until 
the negative assumes throughout a delicate straw colour. Then 
wash very thoroughly to eliminate the iodine. This process may 
be hastened by pouring on a very dilute solution of potassium 
iodide. The fixing agent (cyanide) should have been carefully 
washed out, otherwise as fast as the deposited silver is changed 
into an iodide it will be dissolved as a cyanide of silver, and the 
image is lost. If the iodine is not washed out, it reacts with the 
sulphur next used, and produces a disagreeable yellowish-green 
colour, which interferes with the printing qualities of the negative. 
Finally, treat the plate with a soluble sulphide; Schlippe's salt has 
been used, but ammonium sulphide is the most satisfactor)-. Pour 
this on and off until the film is grey to the back ; this insures that 
all the deposited silver is changed to a sulphide. When the nega- 
tive is dried and varnished, it is ready to be printed from. This 
process gives a good deal of density, and is adapted to negatives 
from objectives of one-fifth of an inch and upward, where the 
exposure, being so short in order to give good definition, neces- 



214 THE PHOTO-MICROGRAPHY OF 

sarily produces rather thin negatives. With lower powers there is 
apt to be so much very fine detail, and a longer exposure in pro- 
portion to the amount of light, that the deposit of silver is greater, 
and this process gives too much density, effacing some of the 
details. 

II. — Pour over the plate a saturated solution of the red iodide 
of mercury and potassium iodide, and then treat with potassium 
sulphide. This process is perhaps the best for very thin negatives. 
III. — Where the negative does not need very much more den- 
sity, treating the plate with potassium sulphide alone until the film 
is grey to the back will be sufficient.. 

The lower-power objectives I have found more useful in histo- 
logical demonstrations than the higher, on account of their possess- 
ing far more penetration and a flatter field. They also allow of a 
greater length of bellows, equivalent to deeper eye-piecing, which 
makes the details larger, and thus the field. To a certain extent 
the size of the field is a matter of choice. I like to have it as 
large as possible without straining the objective, so that the details 
are easily seen. Objectives, being made to work at a particular 
distance from the object, are more or less at a disadvantage when 
that distance is increased or lessened. The longer the bellows, 
the nearer the lens must approach the object, and there are limits 
to this procedure which are soon reached. Uut the low powers 
bear a long bellows without being at a great disadvantage much 
better than the higher. This is sometimes convenient to make 
use of. For example : by using a one-inch-and-a-half objective 
and three feet twenty-six inches of camera bellows, a field, includ- 
ing four times as much, and of the same degree of magnification, 
and as clear as that from a quarter-inch objective, was gained. 
The specimen was not one that tried the definition much — a 
carmine injection of the blood-vessels in a rabbit's tongue. 

High powers allow of very slight or no departure from their 
normal working distance, just as they do not bear deep eye-piecing. 
But the chief disadvantage is in the lack of penetration and in 
the great curvature of the field. 

For the above-mentioned reasons, I think it will be found best, 
mth tissues, to use the lowest power compatible with the resolu- 
tion of the necessary details, and to keep as near as possible to the 



HISTOLOGICAL SUBJECTS. 215 

normal working distance of the objective. A good negative may 
be enlarged, to bring the details of a convenient size, without 
losing definition. 

The high-power objectives are absolutely essential for bacteria, 
but in this case a large field is not especially necessary, nor is the 
same amount of })enetration required as in a section of tissue, 
with a variety of details to be clearly defined. The sections used 
in photo-micrography must be cut with a microtome, and must be 
thoroughly good in every respect if it is desired to obtain a good 
picture. 

My experience with the different stains is limited. Carmine 
seems to work well, from a very delicate pink to a deep-red colour. 
Hcematoxylin, glycerine, and nitrate of silver have all proved 
satisfactory. The only case that gave me any trouble was a rather 
thick section, deeply stained with a dark Bismarck-brown. The 
cell bodies vrere of a very brown-yellow, and obstructed the light 
effectually with botli collodion and dry plates, so that there was no 
differentiation of the nuclei or other details. 

Polarised light with crystals gives most brilliant photo-micro- 
gra])hs. The alkaloids are easily prepared, and, perhaps, present 
fewer difficulties for one to begin with than tissues. The polari- 
scope is put upon the substage as usual, and the analyser screwed 
into the tube just above the objective. The blue cell is not 
necessary. 

Positives or prints may be taken on albuminised paper or on 
the non-albuminised. The latter, if well done, gives very pretty 
effects in grey and white. The paper should be freshly sensitised 
as it is needed, and, when dried, put into a box over fumes of 
strong ammonia (to counteract any acidity wliich may be developed 
during the toning) for twenty minutes, and then laid away smoothly 
in a paper bag in a cool, dry, and i)erfectly dark place until 
required. 

The printing should be carried on until the details are well 
marked, and a little darker than they arc desired to be after the 
photograph is finished. The ordinary toning and fixing baths may 
be used. The prints on albuminised paper, when mounted, 
.should be burnished in order to secure the best results. Prints on 
non-albuminised paper do not need to be burnished, but afford an 



216 PUZZLES IN palJeontology. 

easy surface for the application of water-colours. Bromide paper 
of the finer qualities give excellent prints. It is also very conven- 
ient, since the same chemicals that are used for negatives are used 
in developing them, and the exposure can be made at any time in 
the dark room by gas-light. 

The toning processes require a little practice in order to be 
successful, and need to be practically learned. Perhaps it would 
be more convenient for those who have but little spare time to 
send the negatives to one accustomed to printing line work, and 
who has all the appliances and chemicals at hand. 



pU53lC0 ill paU^outoIoov'. 

By Mrs. Alice Bodington. 



EVERY branch of biological research, whether it deals with 
the animal or vegetable kingdom, leads more and more to 
the conviction that evolution is the leading law of organic 
nature. Were all fossil remains of animals destroyed, embryology 
and comparative anatomy would lead us to the same conclusion. 
Indeed, so formidable are the breaks in the geological record — 
so formidable it is likely they will ever be — that we should be 
utterly at a loss to conceive what were the first beginnings of 
animal life, unless embryology and comparative anatomy had 
come to our assistance. 

It was, until lately, generally believed that the rocks of the 
oldest, or Laurentian, series contained the remains of at least one 
organic being — the so-called Eozdoii Caiiadcnse. It was con- 
sidered to be a Foraminifer, belonging to the Protozoa, or lowest 
form of animal life. So exactly were the conditions mimicked 
which characterise the most complicated form of Foraminifers, 
that many of the wisest geologists were deceived. In fact, the 
question was considered as settled beyond the necessity for further 
discussion by Sir Charles Lyell, Dr. Carpenter, and others. Pro- 
fessor Moebius was destined, unwittingly, to " play the part of 
Balaam." In the coral reefs of Mauritius he had found a forami- 



PUZZLES IN PALEONTOLOGY. 2l7 

nifer, to which he gave the name of Carpenteria raphidodendron. 
He was struck by its resemblance to the description of Eozoon 
Cauadcuse, and he was animated with the desire to estabhsh, once 
and for ever, the ''aniniahtat" of Eozoon. As the greatest of 
h'ving authorities upon the Protozoa, the believers in Eozoon wel- 
comed Moebius as a Daniel come to judgment. The choicest 
specimens poured in u[)on him from every side. Carpenter sent 
treasures which had never before left his cabinet ; Leydig of Bonn, 
Dawson of Montreal, gave their eager help. But, alas ! he who 
had come to bless pronounced definitely against the animal nature 
of Eozoon. It sank from its proud position as the first animal — ■ 
and, moreover, as an animal which could flourish in seas presum- 
ably at nearly boiling point — into " bands of serpentine, inter- 
lamellated with calcite." For a most clear and interesting account 
of this controversy, I would refer my readers to the papers on 
Eozoon Canadensc in Science Gossip for April and May of the 
current year (1887). Heilprinn, Professor of Invertebrate Palaeon- 
tology at Philadelphia, says that he has himself "examined masses 
of Eozoon rock, in which the network of green mineral supposed 
to fill the chamber cavities of the giant foraminifer coalesce and 
merge info a broad band of serpentine. Now, either here we have a 
true Eozoon structure or we have not. If yes, then how can the 
gradual convergence of the infiltrating mineral and its final 
coalescence in a broad band of serpentine be explained? If the 
contrary, what is the necessity for evoking the aid of organic 
forms in the explanation of a structure, 7uhen one fully as intricate, 
and practically indistinguishable from it, can be shojvn to be of 
purely mineral formation ? " 

The puzzle is almost equally great whether we admit or deny 
the animal nature of Eozoon, since above and below the band of 
Eozoon serpentine lie thick masses of rock without a trace of 
animal life. The geological break would still be stupendous. A 
protozoon — a mass of undifferentiated protoplasm — appears in a 
thin band amongst rocks some forty miles thick. There is then 
no further trace of life for some millions of years, when suddenly, 
in the Cambrian rocks, we meet with abundant remains of organic 
life — not in its simpler forms alone, but replete with fossils belong- 
ing to all the great zoological sub-kingdoms, with the exception of 



218 rUZZLES IN rAL^ONTOLOGY. 

the Vertebrata ! In the words of Heilprinn, " Most of the greater 
divisions are already represented in the Cambrian, and, moreover, 
are to be found in the lowest or oldest deposit — protozoons, 
coelenterates, echinoderms, worms, articulates, and molluscs. 
Moreover, some of these groups are already represented by a full, 
or nearly full, complement of the orders assigned to them by 
naturalists. Thus, the Cambrian echinoderms are represented by 
forms belonging to three out of the six usually recognised orders, 
viz.- — the Cysiidea, Crinoidea (ocean-lilies), and Asteroidea (star- 
fishes). The last two have representatives living at the present 
day," and form the highest development of their order. The 
Crinoidea attained their highest development in the seas of the 
Paleozoic period — Silurian, Devonian, and Carboniferous, and 
have since then been pretty steadily declining. They are now 
represented by not more than half-a-dozen generic species. The 
Asteroidea, on the other hand, have just as steadily been increas- 
ing, and, indeed, attain their maximum development in modern 
seas. Heilprinn states that " A star-fish has lately been dredged 
up by the Travaillenr expedition from depths of 1,960 and 2,650 
metres, having on the dorsal surface a true peduncle, apparently 
absolutely homologous with the stalk of a crinoid." Also, in some 
fixed crinoids, tlie " tuft" separates from the column after a certain 
period of existence, and then leads an independent life {Coi/ia- 
tula). One might naturally suppose that the free was a later 
development than the fixed form, yet both Crinoidea and Asteroi- 
dea are found perfectly distinct in the oldest fossiliferous strata. 
'I'hc Cambrian MoUusca comprise representatives of no less than 
'iw^ of the six classes which now inliabit tlie seas, namely — the 
Brac/iiopoda, AcepJiala, Ftenpoda, Gasteropoda, and Cephalopoda. 
Here, again, we have api)arL'ntly a simultaneous appearance of 
lower and higher forms. 

A few types of Brachiopods have survived to the present day. 
Thus, the Lingnla, of the Cambrian rocks, is very little, if at all, 
different from the existing Liugula, though millions of years have 
elapsed since this mollusc first appeared, and higher types innu- 
merable have run tht-ir short race and vanished. 

In the Ui)per Cambrian, we find Molluscan forms belonging 
tu the highest order — the Cephalopoda — but not to the highest type 



PUZZLES IN TAL^ONTOLOGY. 219 

of that order. They belonged to the four-gilled order of Cepha- 
lopods, of which one representative — Nautilus — alone survives. 
In a former paper I have alluded to the extraordinarily simple 
structure of the eye in this ancient mollusc. The higher two- 
gilled form — Bclcinniies — did not appear until the Triassic period. 

The Cambrian crustaceans — the Trilobites — belong to an 
archaic type, which for ever disappeared in the Carboniferous 
period. Yet, unlike Nautilus, they possessed highly developed 
eyes. Two important features strike us in examining the Cam- 
brian fauna. One is, that the forms of life, notwithstanding their 
number and diversity, are all salt-water animals, there being a 
complete absence of land and fresh-water forms. And the other 
main fact is the absence of any vertebrated animal. It is hardly 
necessary to say that the lower forms of vertebrates may have been 
in existence even at this early period, but of this we can never 
hope to have any proof. The lowest vertebrates are destitute of 
any hard parts which could have been preserved as fossils. We 
may, however, hope that in some of the still unexplored regions of 
the globe there may yet be found strata intermediate between the 
Laurentian and the Cambrian, where the first beginnings of six of 
the great orders of organic beings may be found. 

An unaccountable break in the development of mammalian 
life occurs during the Cretaceous period, but it does not equal in 
mystery the profound break between the lifeless Laurentian rocks 
and the Cambrian, full of representatives of six of the great 
orders of the animal kingdom. 

With the Silurian fauna, we find the first indisputable represen- 
tatives of the great group of vertebrates, but not until the upper 
Silurian deposits are reached. We here meet with remains of two 
of the lower orders of fishes — the sharks or dog-fishes {Elasnio- 
branchii) and the bucklered Ganoids : the former still very 
abundant in modern seas ; the latter, which include the sturgeon 
and the alligator-gar, probably verging on extinction. 

It is a significant fact that prior to the introduction of these 
low vertebrata, all the larger divisions of the Invertebrata had 
come into existence. The earliest ///vertebrate air-breathers have 
been found in Silurian deposits, a true scorpioid {Faleoplioucus) in 
the U. Silurian de])osits of Sweden and Scotland, and an orthop- 



220 PUZZLES IN PALAEONTOLOGY. 

teroid {Pakoblattiua) in the nearly equivalent deposits of Calva- 
dos, France. 

In the next period — that of tlie Old Red Sandstone, or 
Devonian — five or six species of insects have been found belong- 
ing to the netted veins {Pseudoimi ropier a and Neuroptera), some- 
times, however, considered to have belonged to an extinct race of 
insects. Observe, that the classes of flowering plants are still 
absent, and with them the flower-loving insects — the butterflies 
and bees. Wing fragments have been found, probably belonging 
to the higher order of Orthoptera (grasshoppers, cockroaches, etc.). 
Coincidently, there are also the first traces of land vegetation, 
possibly conifers, but certainly multitudes of tree-ferns, club- 
mosses, and gigantic forms of horse-tails {Equisdacccc), fore-run- 
ners of the great forests of the Coal period. The salt-water 
moUusca remain much the same, but we now meet witli a fresh- 
water mollusc — a pulmonate snail. 

Simultaneously with the first appearance of vertebrates, there 
is a rapid decline in that ancient order of crustaceans, the Tri- 
lobites. 

They, as well as the largest of all known articulata, the 
Eiiryptcrids, attained their maximum development in the Silurian 
seas, and died out during the Carboniferous period. And this 
leads to the consideration of one of the most insoluble of 
problems in the present state of our knowledge of palaeontology, 
namely, the laws governing the appearance, progress, and extinc- 
tion of species. Whole orders of animals appear, sometimes 
with startling suddenness, reach apparently the highest point of 
which their organisation is capable, and then, for no ascertainable 
cause, decline and disappear. Various reasons, more or less 
plausible, are urged to account for the extinction of species, but 
all, I venture to think, are as yet empirical. Probably, the dura- 
tion of life of a species is as strictly limited as the duration of life 
of an individual animal. It may be shortened by various acci- 
dents, but will in time come to an end, even where all external 
conditions are favourable. 

The highest Crustaceans — the Dccapoda — make their first 
appearance in the Devonian period. They belong to the less 
liighly specialised division of the Decapods, related to the modern 



PUZZLES IN PALAEONTOLOGY. 221 

shrimps. The fish have not developed beyond the low orders of 
Elasmobranchs and Ganoids, but their remains are so abundant 
that the Devonian has been called the age of fish. The buck- 
lered Ganoids must ever be famous to all lovers of literature as 
well as of geology, through the eloquent descriptions of the poet- 
geologist, Hugh Miller. He makes us feel the thrill of passionate 
interest and wonder with which he beheld the strange, seemingly 
winged, black form which lay before him in the block of stone he 
had cleft. And there, in hundreds and thousands, did he after- 
wards find these strange shapes, their wing-like fins stiflened and 
distorted, as though they had died in an agony of pain — as if the 
waters of some boiling sea had surged over them, or so they 
seemed to the self-taught genius who first beheld them. 

Some of the Devonian fishes are remotely related to the 
sturgeon of modern seas, also to the fringe-finned Polypteri of 
Africa, and the alligator-gars of America. But many groups are 
totally extinct. In the Silurian seas the fish attained their largest 
size. The giant Dinkhthys and Titaniclithys were between twenty 
and thirty feet long. Their dentition is like that of the Lepido- 
siren (belonging to the lung-fishes, or Dipnoi), a group of fishes 
transitional between the true fishes and the amphibians. 

In the Carboniferous epoch the transition has been completed, 
and we find animals which have developed true lungs, tliough all 
breathe with gills during some portion of their existence. These 
early amphibians all belonged to the extinct order of Labyrintho- 
donts, frog-like in some ai^atomical characteristics, but in form 
most nearly resembling newts or salamanders. 

"A monstrous eft was of old the lonl and master of earth : 
For him did the high sun flame, j-nd his river hillo\vin<; ran ; 
And he felt himself, in his force, to be Nature's crowning race." 

And we know now that these same monstrous efts had pro- 
bably a large eye in the centre of their skulls, jjrojecting through 
the parietal suture and moved by powerful muscles. From our 
childhood we have, with our mind's eye, beheld these monstrous 
amphibians and saurians of primaeval ages, and now they loom 
before our imagination in still more monstrous semblance with 
three huge eyes ! 

There are no traces of the higher plants in the forests of the 



222 PUZZLES IN PALEONTOLOGY. 

Coal period, and, though the remains of insects are abundant, 
there were as yet none of the nectar-sucking, pollen-loving species. 
Neither Lepidoptera nor Hymcnoptera are found. 

In the next age— the Permian — the remains of reptiles are, for 
the first time, found. I^ut we can hardly suppose that they now 
made their first appearance in the world. They are highly 
specialised in many ways ; their teeth are distinctly differentiated 
into incisors and canines, and they show strong affinities to the 
lowest mammals in the structure of their pectoral and pelvic 
girdles. In one important ])articular they show an embryonic 
condition like that of the Ganoids— their vertebral column is only 
partially ossified. 

The Mesozoic period — from the Permian to the end of the 
Cretaceous — is the great age of reptiles. They attain dimensions 
unequalled by any other animal. Even the whale could not 
compete in size with Atlantosaurus, which measured forty feet in 
height and from eighty to a hundred feet in length, and whose 
thigh-bone exceeds in length the whole body of a power- 
ful man. It belonged to the wonderful order of Deinosaurs, for 
whose fate I always feel a sympathy. In their organisation they 
approached as nearly as any reptile has ever done to warm- 
blooded creatures. Some were of stupendous size ; others rivalled 
true birds in their fliglit ; others were furnished with rows of ter- 
rible, trenchant teeth, showing their carnivorous nature. Yet all 
these deinosaurs perished in the age that brought them forth. 
They would have left no testimony of their existence but their 
bones, had we not reason to sup]:)ose that some of the deinosaurs 
did become warm-blooded, and died out as deinosaurs, to spring 
into existence as birds. The small deinosaur found with the first 
l)ird in the lithographic slate of Solenhaufen is, like the first bird, 
of so mixed a character in its whole anatomy, that it is hard to 
say where the rejitile ends and where the bird begins. Perhaps 
we may venture to conjecture that the first bird of Solenhaufen, 
with its toothed beak and long reptilian tail furnished with 
feathers, and with its rei)tilian hand ending a bird-like wing, repre- 
sented a form in which the arterial had for the first time been 
(■()in])letelv cut off from the venous blood ; and that the bird-like 
reptile, Co/iipsognatlios, had still impure blood in its veins. 



PUZZLES IN PAL.EONTOLOGY. 223 

Other marvellous reptiles lived and died in the Mesozoic 
period. The Theriodoiitia were powerful and ferocious beasts of 
prey, with teeth of the carnivorous type. The Anoniodontia had 
beaks encased in horn, after the fashion of modern turtles. The 
Ichthyosaurus and Plesiosaurus are types of two orders, compris- 
ing great fish-like reptiles, or " sea-lizards." Both have but a short 
geological existence ; they appear in the lias and disappear in the 
succeeding chalk. There were also the Pterosaurs, which were, 
in relation to other reptiles, what the bat is compared to other 
mammals. 

Modern reptiles, like the insectivorous mammals of Europe, are 
poor and humble survivals of a numerous and powerful race. In 
England the great " dragons of the prime" are represented but by 
such small and harmless amphibia as the frogs and newts ; and the 
crocodiles of the Nile, and the alligators of Florida, are them- 
selves hardly more than newts compared to that greatest of earthly 
giants, Atlantosauriis. Amongst the most inexplicable problems 
of palaeontology are the laws, at present undiscovered, which led to 
the extinction of these huge reptiles. In the Ui)per Trias appeared 
some small and feeble mammals, of about the size of mice. Who 
could have guessed that these small, frail creatures were the ances- 
tors of the future lords and masters of the world ; that the gigantic 
and highly-organised Deinosaurs, the terrible '"Sea-Lizards, "and the 
fierce Theriodontia, would all die out, and that the descendants of 
these small creatures — these milk-givers with warm blood- -would 
survive them ? Vvhat but a law governing the duration of species 
could have destroyed these huge reptiles? Rivals, capable of 
harming them, did not exist. ^Vhat happened between the laying 
down of the Cretaceous rocks and the succeeding Eozoic period, 
during which the small mammals (of marsupial and insectivorous 
affinities), which first appeared in the Upper Triassic and Jurassic 
rocks, expanded into countless herds, representing every natural 
order of mammals of the present day ? And the giant reptiles 
are all things of the past ! 

In the beds of Upper Jurassic age, on the western slope of 
the Rocky Mountains, Professor Marsh has found the remains of 
several hundred mammals. Here, at the dawn of mammalian 
life, we already meet with three distinct orders, all so far special- 



224 PUZZLES IN PALiEONTOLOGY. 

ised that their origin must be sought for in paleozoic times. 
Unnumbered ages ago —before the Cretaceous and OoUtic strata 
were laid down — there were already placental and implacental 
mammals. The former, which Prof. Marsh proposes to call Pauto- 
t/ien'a, possessed, amongst others, the following characteristics : — 
their teeth equalled or exceeded the normal number, some types 
possessing sixty teeth. Their pre-molars and molars were 
imperfectly differentiated, without or with hardly any diastemas, 
and possessed numerous cusps of the insectivorous type ; the 
canines sometimes well marked and trenchant, sometimes differing 
little from the molars. The jaws were usually very long, as 
became animals which could boast of sixty teeth. But even then 
specialisation had had time to work effectually ; the genus Faitro- 
dontidcB had short and massive jaws, with but six pre-molars and 
molars on each side ; yet the character of the dentition is the same 
as in the many-toothed forms. The Pantotheria were probably all 
insectivorous, with such vegetable additions as the insectivora will 
still feed upon. 

The second order to which all the other American Jurassic 
mammals but one are referred by Professor Marsh, is called by 
him " AUotheria." Their characteristics are strikingly different to 
those of the Pantotheria ; their teeth are much heloio the normal 
number, and the compressed pre-molars are marsupial in type ; 
the canine teeth are wanting ; the pre-molars and molars are 
specialised. They were probably a sub-order of marsupials, 
somewhat resembling the kangaroo rats. Some were of minute 
size ; the largest was about the size of a rat. 

Of the third group of Jurassic mammals, but one lower jaw 
has been found, but this is so characteristic, and so different from 
other forms, that it has been ])laced in a distinct group by Profes- 
sor Marsh, under the name of Diplocy?iodo)itid(B. 

Surely, the puzzle of evolution, from the pala^ontological point 
of view, has been made more instead of less intricate by these 
last discoveries. We now know that the two great lines of 
l)lacental and implacental mammals have come down side by side 
for some millions of years, and when we first find their remains the 
si)ecics are so highly specialised, and so much differentiated, that 
we know their first beginnings must be put indefinitely further back. 



THE STRUCTURE OF FLOWERS. 225 

Imperfect as the geological record is, the direction of progress 
is always from the lower types to the higher, though the steps may 
be often obliterated. And, in some mysterious manner, the 
evolution of the higher types seems coincident with the fading 
away of types immediately lower. It is in the Aflanfosaurus beds, 
so called from that hugest of deinosaurs, that these earliest 
American mammals are found. The largest of these mammals 
was no larger than a weasel, yet the great reptiles gradually faded 
out of the world before these small, warm-blooded creatures. 

On the threshold of the Tertiary period I will bring this paper 
to a close. The puzzles of Palaeontology are equally insoluble in 
Kainozoic times, and more nearly affect ourselves. Their mere 
statement would require another paper, and I have already 
tresi)assed too fiir on the space of this journal. 

Authorities consulted : — 

Professor Marsh, " American Jurassic Mammals," Geological 
Magazifie, June and July. 

Heilprinn's " Geological and Geographical Distribution of 
Animals." 

Nicholson's " Palaeontology." 

" Eozoon Canadense," Science Gossip, April and May, 1887. 



^be Structure of jflowere witb reference to 
3n0ect ai^ in tbeir fertilisation. 

By Wx G. Wheatcroft. 

Plate 24. 

IN the year 1793 Christian Conrad Sprengel published his 
interesting treatise on the structure of flowers with special 
reference to insect aid in their fertilisation. This book was almost 
wholly neglected for more than half a century. Nevertheless, it 
contains, with some fanciful ideas, the germs of the doctrine now 
generally held, together with many excellent illustrations of it. 
Vol. VI. Q 



226 THE STRUCTURE OF FLOWERS 

That eminent naturalist, the late Charles Darwin, published in 
1862 his admirable treatise on the fertilisation of orchids by the 
aid of insects. Since that time a copious special literature has 
appeared on the subject. We may mention the names of Herman, 
Miiller, Delpino, Hugo von Mohl, and Hildebrand, amongst 
Continental writers ; Charles Uarwin and Sir John Lubbock, 
amongst our own countrymen ; and Dr. Asa Gray and Dr. Goodale 
amongst our brethren across the Atlantic. 

Linnaeus and his immediate successors taught that the adjust- 
ments in hermaphrodite flowers were such on the whole as to 
secure the application of the pollen of its stamens to the stigma of 
its pistil or pistils. " The present view," to quote the words of Dr. 
Asa Gray, " is that this is doubtless strictly secured in certain 
flowers of a moderate number of species, but never in all the 
flowers of any such species ; that in ordinary flowers where it may 
commonly take place, it is not universal ; that in the larger number 
of species there is something or other in the floral structure which 
impedes or prevents it." It will be gathered from this definition 
that some flowers are adapted for close fertilisation, some for cross- 
fertilisation, some for either. Before proceeding further, let me 
state for the information of those who have not given much 
attention to the construction of flowers that they consist of two 
kinds of organs, viz., what have been apparently called protecting 
organs or floral envelopes, which when of two sets are named calyx 
and corolla ; and the essential re])roductive organs which co-oper- 
ate in the production of seed — the stamens and pistils. 

" A complete flower," to quote from Sir John Lubbock, 
"consists of (i) an outer envelope or calyx, sometimes tubular, 
sometimes consisting of separate leaves called sepals ; (2) an inner 
envelope or corolla which is generally more or less coloured, and 
which like the calyx is sometimes tubular, sometimes composed 
of separate leaves called petals ; (3) of one or more stamens, 
consisting of a stalk or filament and a head or anther, in which the 
pollen is produced ; and (4) a pistil or an ovary, which is situated 
in the centre of the flower and contains one or more seeds or 
ovules. The pistil consists of a stalk or style and a stigma, to 
which the pollen must find its way in order to fertilise the flower, 
and which in many familiar instances forms a small head at the top 



A^D INSECT AID. 227 

of the style. In some cases the style is absent and the stigma is 
consequently sessile." For our present purpose the stamen may 
be regarded as the fertilising organ, and the pistil as the seed- 
bearing organ. In an ordinary flower the pistil is surrounded by 
a row of stamens, and at first sight it would appear that a more 
simple arrangement for the reproduction of the plant could not 
well be contrived. The pollen would seem to be arranged to fall 
upon and dust the stigma of the pistil, and effect what is known as 
close fertilisation. This does happen with some flowers, chiefly 
with the inconspicuous ones. In the largest number of flowers 
with a gay corolla, or which emit a sweet scent and possess honey- 
glands, cross-fertilisation is the rule and close fertilisation the 
exception. 

There are various contrivances in these flowers which effect- 
ually prevent self-fertilisation. In many species the stamens and 
pistils are situated in different flowers. Such species are named 
diclinous ; when the stamens and pistils are situated in different 
flowers on the same plant, the species is called monoecious ; when 
on different i)lants dioecious. Delpino has classified flowers into 
Anemophilous (literally wind-lovers) and Entomophilous (insect- 
lovers), denoting wind-fertilised and insect-fertilised. It is not my 
purpose in this paper to treat of the former, but will observe that 
wind-fertilised flowers are mostly neutral or dull in colour, destitute 
of odour and honeyless. Pines, firs, and other Conifene are 
examples of anemophilous plants. Dr. Asa Gray observes that 
" Insect fertilisable or entomophilous flowers are correlated with 
showy colouration (including white, which is most showy at dusk), 
odour or secretion of nectar, often by all three modes of attraction 
to insects combined. Some insects, moreover, visit flowers for 
their pollen, a highly nutritious article, and ordinarily produced in 
such abundance that much may be spared. The showiness of the 
corolla or other floral envelopes is an attractive adaptation to 
fertilisation, enabling blossoms to be discerned at a distance; nor 
do we know that fragrance or other scent, or that nectar, subserves 
any other uses to the flower than that of alluring insects." 

Adaptations in the pollen of such blossoms for transportation 
by insects are various. Commonly the grains are slightly moist or 
glutinous, or roughish, or studded with projection, or strung with 



228 THE STRUCTURE OF FLOWERS 

threads (as in CEnothera), so as not to be readily dispersed in the 
air, but to have some slight coherence as well as capability of 
adhering to the head, limbs, or bodies of insects, especially to their 
rough surfaces ; and in two families {OnhidacecB and Asdepiadaceci) 
the pollen is combined in masses and with special adaptations for 
being transported e7i masse. With this the stigma is usually 
correlated, by roughness, moisture^or glutinosity." Sprengel was the 
first to discover that in many species where the stamens and pistils 
are situated in the same flower they do not mature at the same 
time ; consequently the pollen cannot fertilise the stigma. Some- 
times, as in the Arum, the pistil matures before the anthers. Such 
plants are called proterogynous (or protogynous). In others the 
anthers mature before the pistil. These plants are named proter- 
androus (or protandrous). The familiar Arum moaelatum — (Plate 
XXIV., Fig. 2) — the common arum or lords and ladies — -of our 
woods and hedges is a good example of a proterogynous plant. 
The well-known green leaf encloses a central pillar which supports 
a number of stigmas near the base, and of anthers somewhat 
higher. Nothing would seem easier at first sight than that the 
pollen of the anthers should fall on and fertilise the pistils below 
them. But this does not take place. The stigmas mature before 
the anthers, and by the time the pollen has fallen have become 
incapable of fertihsation. It is consequently impossible for the 
plant to fertilise itself. Owing to the construction of the spathe 
the pollen cannot be carried away by the wind. What happens is 
as follows : The pollen when shed drops to the bottom of the tube, 
where it remains secure from disturbance by wind. Small insects 
attracted by the showy central spadix, or the prospect of honey or 
shelter, enter the tube while the stigmas are mature. Above the 
anthers and growing from the central pillar is a fringe of hairs point- 
ing downwards. This contrivance allows small insects to enter, but 
effectually prevents their exit until the stigmas have matured. After 
a while, the stigmas have ripened and each secretes a drop of honey, 
thereby rewarding the insects for their imprisonment. Then the 
anthers ripen and shed their pollen, which falls upon and dusts the 
insects. Shortly after the hairs referred to shrivel up and the insects 
are set free. They carry the pollen with them, and on their visit 
to another plant can hardly fail to deposit some of it on the stigmas. 



AfJD INSECT AID. 229 

In this manner cross-fertilisation is secured. I have often noticed 
a large number of small insects, especially flies, safely imprisoned 
in the Arum before the hairs have shrivelled up. 

Proterandrous plants, or those in which the anthers mature 
before the stigmas, are much more numerous. As examples 
amongst the wild flowers which are to be found in this locality,* I 
must mention Wild Thyme {Thymus serpyHum), Rose Bay, Willow 
Herb, Epilohium augustifoliiim, Blue Meadow Crane's ^\Vi{Geranium 
prate nse), Mountain Crane's Bill, {G.pyrenakum), with many of the 
Uinbelliferce and most of the Composihv. Sir John Lubbock states 
that most of the British wild flowers which contain both stamens 
and pistils are more or less proterandrous. These are almost 
dependent upon the visits of insects for fertilisation. Amongst 
foreign plants now common in conservatories, Clerodendron 
Thompsonii {^\. XXIV., Fig. i), a verbenaceous African climber, 
is a good example of a proterandrous plant. Its crimson corolla 
and bright white calyx in combination are very conspicuous and 
serve to attract insects. The long iiliform filaments and style, 
upwardly enrolled in the bud, straighten and project when the 
corolla opens, the stamens remain straight, but the style proceeds 
to curve downward and backward, as shown at a ; the anthers are 
represented discharging the pollen ; the stigmas are immature and 
closed ; b represents the flower on the second day, and anthers 
effete, and the filaments recurved and rolled up spirally ; while the 
style has taken the place of the filaments^ and the two stigmas, 
now separated and receptive, are in the very position occupied by 
the anthers the previous day. The entrance by which the proboscis 
of a butterfly may reach the nectar at the bottom is at the upper 
side of the orifice. It is impossible for the flower to self-fertilise. 
A good sized insect flying from flower to flower, and plant to plant, 
must carry pollen from one to the stigma of the other. 

I cannot help calling attention to the mode in which 
cross-fertilisation is secured in the Blue Meadow Crane's Bill 
{Geranium pratensc), Fig. 3, for several reasons. This beautiful 
Crane's BiU, with its lovely blue corolla and elegant leaves, must be 
well-known to all who stroll in the meadows adjoining the Avon 

* Bath. 



230 THE STRUCTURE OF FLOWERS 

or by the brooks in tlie neighbourhood of this fair city. It is 
especially interesting as the flower which first led Sprengel to his 
researches. " In the year 1787," writes Sir John Lubbock, " he 
(Sprengel) observed that in the corolla of this species there are a 
number of delicate hairs, and convinced, as he says, 'that the wise 
Author of Nature would not have created a single hair in vain,' 
he endeavoured to ascertain the use of these hairs and satisfied 
himself that they served to protect the honey from rain." Another 
point of interest in this flower is the spontaneous movement of 
the stamens and pistils. Kolreuter seems to have been the first to 
observe this motion in another dichogamous plant, Ruta graveolens. 
He supposed that the object was to bring the stamen in contact 
with the pistil and so insure close fertilisation. Nature, as 
Sprengel pointed out, had a very difl'erent purpose to fulfil. It was 
to bring the stamen and pistil successively in contact with the 
same part of the insect's body, and so insure cross-fertilisation. 
When the flower first opens, the stamens lie on the petals, at right 
angles with the upright pistils. As they come to maturity they 
raise themselves parallel, and close to the pistil, which is, however, 
not yet capable of fertilisation. After they have shed their pollen 
they return to their original position and the stigmas unfurl them- 
selves. As the stigmas do not become mature until all the stamens 
have shed their pollen, G.pratcnse is wholly dependent upon insect 
aid for fertilisation. The spontaneous movement thus ensures 
cross-fertilisation, and indicates another of Nature's plans for 
bringing about the end desired by making certain insects the 
carriers of the pollen. 

I will now direct attention to another very successful arrange- 
ment for promoting cross-fertilisation through the agency of insects. 
Probably many have noticed the Primroses {Primula vulgaris^ 
Fig. 4) i)resent different appearances with regard to the stamens 
and pistils. In some the pistil is ibund at the top of the tube, 
and the stamens half way down ; in others the stamens are at the 
top of the tube, and the pistil half way down. Corresponding 
differences may be seen in the Cowslip {T. veris), Polyanthus, 
and Auricula. This difference in the form of the flowers has 
long been known by the homely names of " thrum-eyed and pin- 
eyed." Plants which present these differences of form are known 



AND INSECT xVID. 231 

as heteromorphous ; those which have two forms of flower, hke 
the primrose, as dimorphous ; and those which have three forms, 
as in Lythriun salicaria (Purple Loosestrife), as trimorphous. 
Sprengel, as Darwin mentions, had noticed this difference in form 
\\\ Hotfonia before 1793. " Sprengel," writes Darwin, " with his 
usual sagacity, adds that he does not believe the existence of the 
two forms to be accidental, though we cannot explain their purpose." 
Trimorphism was noticed by A^aucher in 1841, and by \\ irtgen in 
1848. It was left to our great naturalist, Charles Darwin, to 
interpret, in the Journal of the Linnrean Society, 1862, this curious 
phenomenon. 

Referring to dimorphism in the case of the primrose. Sir John 
Lubbock observes, "An insect thrusting its proboscis down a 
primrose of the long-styled form, would dust its proboscis at a 
part which, when it visited a short-styled flower, would come just 
opposite the head of tlie pistil, and could not fail to deposit some 
of the pollen on the sligma. Conversely, an insect visiting a short- 
styled plant would dust its proboscis at a })art further from the top ; 
which when the insect consequently visited a long-styled flower 
would again just come opposite the head of the pistil. Hence we 
see that by this beautiful arrangement insects must carry the pollen 
of the long-styled form to the short-styled, and vice versa." Mr. 
Darwin has shown that much more seed is set, if pollen from the 
one form be placed on the pistil of the other, than if the flower 
be fertilised by pollen of the same form, even taken from a 
different plant. 

This eminent naturalist, in his interesting work on the forms 
of flowers, after giving a minute and graphic description of trimor- 
phism in the case of Ly thrum saiicaria (Purple Loosestrife), 
observes, " In a state of nature the flowers are incessantly visited 
for their nectar by hive or other bees, various Diptera, and Lepi- 
doptera. The nectar is secreted all round the base of the 
ovarium ; but a passage is formed along the upper and inner side 
of the flower by the lateral deflection of the basal portion of the 
filaments ; so that insects invariably alight on the projecting 
stamens and pistils, and insert the proboscis along the upper and 
inner margin of the corolla. \Yo can now see why the ends of 
the stamens with their anthers, and the end of the pistil with the 



232 THE STRUCTURE OF FLOWERS 

Stigma, are a little upturned ; so that they may be brushed by the 
lower hairy surfaces of the insects' bodies. The shortest stamens, 
which lie enclosed within the calyx of the long and mid-styled 
forms, can be touched only by the proboscis and narrow chin of 
a bee ; hence they have their ends more upturned, and they are 
graduated in length, so as to fall into a narrow file, sure to be 
raked by the thin, intruding proboscis. The anthers of the longer 
stamens stand laterally further apart, and are more nearly on the 
same level, for they have to brush against the whole length of the 
insect's body. 

" I have found no exception to the rule that when the 
stamens and pistil are bent, they bend on that side of the flower 
which secretes nectar. . . When nectar is secreted on all sides, 
they bend to that side where the structure of the flower allows the 
easiest access to it, as in Ly thrum. . . In each of the three 
forms, two sets of stamens correspond in length with the pistil in 
the other two forms. When bees suck the flowers, the anthers of 
the longest stamens, bearing the green poUen, are rubbed against 
the abdomen and inner sides of the hind legs, as is likewise the 
stigma of the long-styled form. The anthers of the mid-length 
stamens, and the stigma of the mid-styled form, are rubbed against 
the under side of the thorax and between the front pair of legs. 
And lastly, the anthers of the shortest stamens, and the stigma of 
the short-styled form, are rubbed against the proboscis and 
chin ; for the bees in sucking the flowers insert only the front 
part of their heads into the flower. On catching bees, I observed 
much green pollen on the inner si-de of the hind legs, and on the 
abdomen, and much yeUow poUen on the under side of the 
thorax. There was also pollen on the chin, and, it may be 
presumed, on the proboscis ; but this was difficult to observe. I 
had, however, independent proof that pollen is carried on the 
proboscis ; for a small branch of a protected short-styled plant 
(which produced spontaneously only two capsules) was accident- 
ally left during several days pressing against the net; and bees 
were seen inserting their proboscides through the meshes, and, in 
consequence, numerous capsules were formed on this one small 
branch. . . It must not, however, be supposed that the bees 
do not get more or less dusted aU over with the several kinds of 



i 



AND INSECT AID. 233 

pollen ; for this could be seen to occur with the green pollen 
from the longest stamens. . . Hence insects, and chiefly bees, 
act both as general carriers of pollen, and as special carriers of 
the right sort." 

A long series of experiments proved that both kinds of pollen 
are nearly or quite impotent upon the stigma of the same flower, 
and that no ovary is fully fertilisable in any other manner than by 
stamens of the corresponding length. Nescea vcrticil/ata, a 
common Lythraceous plant of the Atlantic United States, is, 
according to Dr. Asa Gray, similarly trimorphous. Several South 
African and American species of Oxalis are trimorphous, and 
have been investigated by Darwin and Hildebrand, with the same 
result as in Lyt/ini/n saliairia. Referring to trimorphism, Mr. 
Darwin observes in one of his valuable works, as follows : — 
" Fritz Miiller has seen in Brazil a large field, many acres in 
extent, covered with the red blossoms of one form (of an Oxalis) 
alone, and these did not produce a single seed. His own land is 
covered with the short-styled form of another species, and this is 
equally sterile ; but when the three forms were planted near 
together in his garden they seeded freely." " All known flowers," 
writes Dr. Asa Gray, " exhibiting reciprocal dimorphism, or tri- 
morphism, are entomophilous " (insect fertilisable). No such wind- 
fertilisable species is known. Few of them are irregular, and 
none very irregular ; they do not occur, for instance, in Legninin- 
oSiC, Labiata:, Scrophulariaccn, OrcJiidacece, etc. Nature is not 
prodigal, and does not endow with needless adaptations flowers 
which are otherwise provided for. 

The last, but not the least remarkable example of the adapta- 
tion of flowers to the visits of insects for the purpose of fertilisa- 
tion to which I will allude is that of the Orchidaceous family of 
plants. The flower of the Orchis is very abnormal. Its genera 
vary amazingly in the structure of the anther, the column, the lip^ 
and indeed of all parts, but in the consolidation of the style and 
stamen they are all agreed. " The flowers," to quote the words 
of an eminent modern botanist. Otto W. Thome, " are rarely 
solitary, usually in spikes, racemes, or panicles ; and the superior 
perianth consists of two whorls, each of three leaves. Of these, 
the inner whorl is always irregular, and often has a spurred lii) or 



234 THE STRUCTURE OF FLOWERS 

labellum, the remaining five leaves of the perianth forming 
together the galea or helmet. The stamens are united with the 
style into a fleshy column or gynostemium, upon which the anthers 
are so placed as to stand above the stigma, which is but little 
develoi)ed, and consists usually of a large viscid surface. Of the 
six stamens which are probably originally present, only one, less 
often two, attain perfect development. When only one is thus 
developed, it is always opposite the labellum ; but when two, 
then one is on each side of the gynostemium. Only a few Orchids 
have the pollen grains perfectly distinct ; usually they are united 
together in fours, and these again into granular masses ; or the 
grains are combined by a viscid fluid into a club-shaped mass 
or polhnium within each anther lobe. Ihe two poUinia termin- 
ate at their lower end in a pedicel consisting of the dried-up viscid 
substance, connected together by a viscid gland or rostellum, as 
in the Bee Orchis, or distinct, as in Orcliis aiorio." 

If we dissect a flower of the early puri)le orchis, we shall find 
that the stigma is bilobed, and consists of two almost confluent 
stigmas. It lies under the pouch-formed rostellum. The anther 
consists of two rather widely separated cells, which are longitudin- 
ally open in front : each cell includes a pollen mass or poUinium. 
I'he polhnium consists of a number of wedge-shaped packets of 
pollen grains united together by exceedingly elastic thin threads. 
Below the pollen mass is the elastic caudicle. The. end of the 
caudicle is firmly attached to a viscid button-shaped disc. Each 
pollinium has its separate disc, which has a ball of viscid matter 
at its under side. The rostellum lies immediately below, and the 
balls of viscid matter lie concealed within it. Let me now try 
to explain how this mechanism acts. Suppose an insect, say a 
bee in search of honey, to alight on the labellum, which forms a 
good landing stage, and to push its head into the chamber, at the 
back of which lies the stigma, in order to reach with its proboscis 
the end of the nectary, or what docs quite as well to show the 
action, push a sharply pointed lead pencil into the nectary. Owing 
to the projection of the pouch-formed rostellum, it is almost im- 
possible to j)ush an object into the gangway of the nectary 
without touching the rostellum. When this is effected one or both 
of the viscid balls will almost invariably touch the intruding body. 



AND INSECT AID. 235 

These balls are so viscid that they stick firmly to whatever they 
touch, and the viscid matter sets hard and dry like cement within 
a minute or so. As the anther cells are now open in front, when 
the insect witlidraws its head, or when the pencil is withdrawn, 
one or both polHnia will be withdrawn firmly attached to the 
object, sticking up like horns. The firmness of the cement is 
necessary, for if tlie pollinia were to fall sideways or backwards 
they would never fertilise the flower. Now let us suppose the 
insect to fly to another flower, or insert the pencil with the poUinium 
attached into another nectary. If this be done at once it is evident 
that the pollinium will be pushed into or against its old place, 
the anther cell. How then can the flower be fertilised ? This is 
effected by a very beautiful contrivance. ^\'ithin a minute the 
pollinia, by the contraction of the minute disc to which they are 
attached, move downwards to an angle of about 45 degrees from 
the first upright position. When the insect sucks the next flower 
the pollen masses come in direct contact with the stigmatic surface. 
The stigma is so very viscid tliat it is certain to pull off some of 
these pollen packets and rupture the threads. The whole pollinium 
is scarcely ever retained by the stigma, so that one pollinium serves 
to fertilise several flowers. So economical is Nature in her 
workings that even a few pollen masses are not unwortliy of her 
sedulous care. 

Of all the pollen-carriers, and consequently flower-fertilisers, 
bees are the most assiduous. Attracted by the gay colours of the 
corolla, sweet scent, or the prospect of honey, they visit most 
flowers that are incapable of self-fertilisation. That bees can 
distinguish between one colour and another, and that they exhibit 
a preference for certain colours, has been clearly proved by Sir 
John Lubbock and others. The bodies of some bees, and the 
legs of others, are so admirably adapted for the collection and 
carriage of pollen, that it is almost impossible for them to visit 
any flower in pursuit of honey without bearing away a large 
quantity of pollen grains. The body of the humble bee {Bo)nbiis 
tcrrestris) is the best adapted for pollen carrying. Lepidoptera 
stand next in order of importance to bees as pollen carriers. 
Their long proboscides enable them to drain nectaries which less 
favoured insects cannot reach. The despised wasp is not without 



236 THE STllUCTURE OF FLOWERS 

its use as a fertilising agent ; for, according to Mr. Darwin, " if 
wasps were to become extinct in any district, so would Epipactis 
latifolia. " 

Honey, I need scarcely say, is the principal object of attraction 
to bees, butterflies, moths, and many other insects which assist in 
the work of fertilisation. It is secreted by specialised organs 
known as nectar glands. " In the flower," according to Dr. 
Goodale, an eminent American botanist, " these glands consist 
usually of specialised parenchyma, not unlike the secreting 
surface of the stigma." " Nectar glands," continues the author, 
" may occur in any part of the flower, upon its bracts, or upon 
some part of the flower-stalk near it. From the nectar glands of 
])roper floral organs the secretion of nectar is generally copious, 
and is prone to collect in minute cavities, such as shallow pits, or 
in conspicuous special receptacles, the so-called nectaries. The 
period of most copious secretion of nectar usually coincides with 
the maturity of the anthers or of the stigma." Here we perceive 
another of Nature's beautiful contrivances for carrying out her 
purposes. Just at the time when the pollen is ready to do its 
work of fertilisation, or the stigma to receive it, a copious supply 
of honey both attracts and rewards the insect pollen-carriers. 

The odours of flowers must be classed amongst the most 
potent attractions of insects. White flowers are more generally 
fragrant than those of any other colour. As examples of the 
accuracy of this proposition, I would refer to those delicately- 
scented flowers, the Lily of the Valley, the Jasmine, and the Butter- 
fly orchis. I cannot do better tlian (|uote the words of Mr. 
Darwin in explanation of this : — " The fact of a large proportion 
of white flowers smelling sweetly may depend in part on those 
which are fertilised by moths requiring the double aid of conspicu- 
ousness in the dark, and of odour. So great is the economy of 
Nature that most flowers which are fertilised by crepuscular or 
nocturnal insects emit their odour chiefly or exclusively in the 
evening." 

I have ventured to call attention to a comparatively large 
number of important facts, and for the purpose of giving my 
authorities have quoted largely. If these quotations have the 
effect, as I trust they may, of directing attention to, and inducing 



Joiirnal of Micros copy Vol. 6 PI 24: 



1 



I 







I \\\\ ' 



-I ,' r 




FloWers With refen^Tice -f/) iTzsecls^. 



I 
1 



AND INSECT AID. 287 

a perusal of, the works referred to, this paper will not have been 
written in vain. It will naturally be asked, Why has Nature planned 
all these contrivances to bring about cross fertilisation ? Mr. Darwin 
has clearly proved that plants which are the product of cross- 
fertilisation are both stronger in constitution, and more prolific in 
seed-bearing, than those resulting from close-fertilisation. Another 
and more important result may have been designed, namely, the 
origin of new varieties and new species. If we consider how 
much the skilled nursery-man has effected, within living memory, 
in the direction of producing new varieties in such well-known 
plants as roses, strawberries, pelargoniums, primulas, and a host of 
other flowering and fruit-bearing plants, we may readily understand 
how pollen-carrying insects may, in the countless ages that have 
passed, have been instrumental in effecting changes of a similar 
character in plant development. That pollen-bearing insects, such 
as bees and moths, have been largely engaged in helping to clothe 
this earth of ours with some of its most beautiful forms, cannot, I 
think, in the present state of knowledge, be doubted. Devout 
minds, like that of Christian Conrad Sprengel, will perceive the 
wisdom and goodness of the great Creator, operating by means of 
natural agencies, in producing beautiful forms of plant life to 
delight the senses and supply the wants of His creature man. 
Even the atheist, on thoughtful consideration, must admit that the 
vegetable world, and especially the flower-bearing portion of it, 
affords ample evidence of design. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIV. 



Fig. 1. — Chrudendron Tliovipsonia. a, Flower on first day, anthers 
discharging pollen, pistils immature, h, Flower on second 
day, anthers effete, pistils matui-e and receptive. 

,, 2. — Arum maculat-iim, a, Hairs ; 6, Anthers ; c. Stigmas. 

,, 3. — Gercmium jjratense. a, Flower when first open, h, Flower, 
with anthers at maturity. c, Flower after anthers have 
become effete and pistil mature. 

,, 4. — Primnla vulgaris. a, Long-styled or Pin-eyed, b, Short- 
styled or Thrum-eyed. 



[ 238 ] 

Z\K riDicroscope an^ Ibow to 'ITlec it. 

By V. A. Latham, F.M.S. 



Part XII. — Section-Cutting. 

IT is of the utmost importance that the student should tho- 
rouglily master the details of cutting sections by hand and 
also with the aid of the microtome. For convenience we 
will divide section-cutting into two classes, viz. — (i) Methods of 
cutting by hand ; (2) with the microtome. 

TJnhardened Tissues. — If it be desirable to examine only a 
small piece, snip off a thin fragment with a pair of scissors curved 
on the flat, or cut off a slice with a Valentine's knife. 

Hardened Tissues.— If the piece of tissue be large enough, 
hold it between the index-finger and thumb of the left hand, take 
the razor firmly in the right, with the fingers closed above the 
handle, support the back of the razor on the index-finger of the 
former, and keep the handle in a line with the blade, cut from /(// 
fo r/g/i^ and from heel to tip through the tissue towards yourself . 
Be sure the razor is very sharp and keep the blade well wetted 
with spirit, into which also the cut specimens must be floated off 
with a camel's hair brush after each sweep of the razor, unless the 
specimen has been already stained and dehydrated, in which case 
clove-oil is to be used instead of the spirit for wetting the razor. 

The army razor is all that is required for ordinary use, and 
should always be stropped in one direction. If the tissue is too 
small or delicate to hold in the hand, it must either be clamped 
or embedded in some substance. 

{a) Place the tissue to be cut between two pieces of amyloid or 
waxy liver, or in the liver of a pig hardened in alcohol, hold 
tightly between the finger and thumb, and cut with a razor in the 
above manner. 

(/') Carrot, turni]~), potato, or elder pith may be used instead of 
liver. Make a slit in the carrot, and clamp the tissue in it. The 
usual way, however, is to embed the specimen in a wax mass or 
some other mixture. 



the microscope and iiow to use it. 239 

Embedding Mixtures. 

(^7) White wax or olive oil, equal parts ; melted and well 

mixed. This mass may be varied in consistency by diminishing 

the olive oil used. 

(/^) Spermaceti and Castor Oil.— Four parts of spermaceti and 
one part of castor oil. 

(c) Cocoa Butter may be used alone, or combined with paraffin 
wax, or spermaceti and paraffin. 

(d) Paraffin and Lard. — Take 5 parts (by weight) of solid 
paraffin and one of hog's lard and of paraffin oil ; melt at a gentle 
heat, and mix thoroughly. 

(f) Paraffin and Vaseline. — Two parts solid paraffin mixed 
with one of vaseline makes a transparent mass. 

(/J Glycerine and Tragacanth.— Take two drms. of glycerine 
and mix with i| drms. of powdered gum tragacanth. The tissue 
is cut and placed in a pill-box, and the mixture poured in. If the 
specimen is to be preserved for a longer time, the bottom of the 
box may be taken off and the side slit up. The specimen will be 
embedded in a solid elastic cake, and may be slipped into alcohol 
until required. When it is to be kept in spirits less than 24 hours, 
the mixture should be glycerine, 2 drms. ; tragacanth (powdered), 
9 drs. ; gum arable, 15 grs. Tissues that have lain in spirit should 
be steeped in cold water for a few hours before embedding. 

The embedding mixtures may be arranged as follows : — 

Solid paraffin, 3 parts ; Cocoa Butter, i part ; Hog's Lard, 
3 parts. Soft. 

Solid Paraffin, 3 parts ; Cocoa Butter, 2 parts ; Spermaceti, 
I part. Hard. 

Solid Paraffin, 3 parts ; Cocoa Butter, i part ; Spermaceti, 
I part. Harder. 

Paraffin, 2 parts ; Vaseline, i part. Transparent and easy to 
cut. 

These are very common mixtures for embedding, although 
Mr. Cole recommends them only to " those wlio are fond of 
messes, and the method is mentioned only to condemn it as 
unnecessary and dirty in every way." Notwithstanding this ter- 
rible denunciation, this method will continue to occupy its position 



240 THE MICROSCOPE 

as an easy way of holding a tissue firmly in place, and without 
injury to it or to the knife. 

Tolu instead of Chloroform for Embedding in Paraffin- 
Objects embedded in paraffin can be better and more easily cut 
when they have been previously treated with tolu instead of 
chloroform. After the object has been hardened in alcohol, it is 
placed directly into tolu for 24 hours (or less for small objects), 
and transferred from it to the parafifin-bath, in which it is also kept 
for 24 hours (Dr. M. Holt).^ 

Embedding Small Objects (Dr. L. Gerlach).— This is very 
useful for embryos or parts of embryos. Take 40 grammes gela- 
tine, added to 200 ccm. of a saturated solution of arsenious acid 
with 120 cc. of glycerine. This fluid must be clarified with white 
of egg and will remain perfectly clear for years in a well-stoppered 
botde. Objects hardened in alcohol are most suited for this 
method of embedding. Prior to embedding, place them for two 
or more hours, according to their size, in weak glycerine (glyce- 
rine I part, water 2 parts), to which some thymol has been added. 
In order to remove all traces of alcohol, the fluidis changed from 
hour to hour. 

Glycerine and Gelatine.— Alcohol or chromic acid preparations 
may be placed in a mixture of one volume of a very concentrated 
solution of isinglass and half a volume of pure glycerine. The 
whole, when cooled, is to be replaced in chromic acid or alcohol, 
where they will become sufficiently hard. 

Pure Glycerised Gelatine (Dr. E. Kaiser). — Take finest French 
gelatine, i part by weight. Steep for about two hours in 6 parts 
(by weight) of distilled water, and add 7 parts of pure glycerine. 
Then to every 100 grms. of the mixture, i grm. of a concentrated 
solution of carbolic acid is added. The whole must be warmed 
for ten or fifteen minutes, stirring all the while until the flakes 
produced by the carbolic acid have disappeared. Then filter 
while still warm through the finest glass, previously washed in dis- 
tilled water. When cold, the preparation can be used like Canada 
balsam. This medium is also an excellent embedding substance. 
For this purpose the objects must be placed in the glycerine-gela- 

* Zool. Anseig., viii., 1885. 



AND HOW TO USE IT. 241 

tine after again warming. When .sections of objects have to be 
made so delicate that there is danger of their falling to pieces 
after cutting, the object must be left in the warmed glycerine- 
gelatine until it is thoroughly penetrated by the latter. The 
gelatine may be removed from the tissues by a fine jet of warm 
water after the section is made and placed on the slide. For 
embedding hard tissues, it is an excellent medium. Any degree 
of hardness may be imparted to the tissues by treating with abso- 
lute alcohol, the time required for this being from ten to thirty 
minutes. It is so transparent that the precise position of the 
object can be seen. In my opinion, it is one of the very best 
medias for this work. 

Celloidin Method of Embedding Sections.— This is a pure 
pyroxiline, free from all organic constituents, and makes a clear 
solution free from all sediment when dissolved in equal parts of 
95 per cent, alcohol and sulphuric ether. It is. manufactured by 
Shering, of Berlin, and can be obtained from Zimmermann, 
Mincing Lane, London, E.G., either in a solid or fluid form. The 
fresh tissue, suitably divided, is hardened, as usual, in either 
Miiller's fluid or alcohol, but is allowed to remain forty-eight hours 
in absolute alcohol, from which it is taken and placed in sulphuric 
ether for two days. It is then placed in a thin solution of cel- 
loidin for the purpose of soaking it through thoroughly ; seven to 
ten days accomplishes this. If very thin sections are wanted, the 
pieces must be small. If large, the pieces should be of the 
required size and very thin, so as to allow the celloidin to pene- 
trate easily. Remove to paper boxes, which are filled with this 
solution and exposed to the air. When the ether and alcohol 
have evaporated, a crust forms on the surface. Immerse the 
boxes in a mixture of methylated alcohol and water. Leave them 
floating in this for about three days, then the celloidin becomes 
very solid, though elastic, and firmly embeds the specimens. 
They are now ready for cutting. Specimens prepared thus may 
be stained in the different fluids when cut. Care should be taken 
when clearing them not to use oil of cloves or absolute alcohol, 
for both dissolve the celloidin. Use alcohol of 95 per cent, and 
oil of bergamot, origanu;n, or sanders. Where origanum oil is 

Vol. VI. K 



242 



THE MICROSCOPE 



used, let the specimen remain in it from two to four days. Place 
it on a slide and mount in Canada balsam. This is very good for 
whole sections of eyes and morbid and normal tissues. When 
cutting flood the knife with alcohol. If further particulars are 
desired, a similar method is given \x\ Journal of Anatomy and Phy- 
siology (Oct., 1884). 

Embedding in Gum.— A paper box is filled with a very concen- 
trated solution of gum arable. In this is placed the object from 
which the water has been drawn by means of alcohol. The whole 
is then placed in alcohol for two or three days, and is then in a 
proper condition for cutting. The sections are to be washed with 
water. 



1 





\ 


s 


A/ 


G 






:b 










3' 








/ 




\ 


C 






^ 


S' A 


r 1 




To Embed tlie Wax Mass for Cutting.~A piece of stout paper 
is taken, 6 inches long and 3 inches broad. This is doubled into 
three longitudinal folds. After this from each end folds of two 
inches long are marked off. The paper is then opened out, and 
of the three longitudinal folds the middle one forms the bottom 
and the lateral ones the sides of the paper box. The ends are 
made from the middle part of the end folds. The ends of each 



AND HOW TO USE IT. 243 

flap are marked off into two equal squares, E C, E' C, C D'. 
The squares E B, A C, and E' B', A' C are doubled into two 
parts across the diameters A B, A' B', and these triangular folds 
thus made are pinched up and pressed against the end of the box 
to support it. They are retained in position by the remainder of 
the end fold, represented by A A' D D', being turned back over 
them (Figs, i and 2). If the student prefers to do so, he can buy 
a small box made of tin, price 3d., from Stanley, London. 

Melt the wax mass, take the specimen upon a needle, and 
having removed the superfluous absolute alcohol (in which the 
tissue ought to have been immersed for at least ten or fifteen 
minutes before the operation is commenced) with blotting paper, 
half fill the paper box with the melted wax, and dip the specimen 
in several times until it is thoroughly covered with thin layers of 
wax. Allow it to cool, and place the tissue on the wax in the 
box at one end, and fill the box with melted wax ; and after it has 
hardened mark on the outside the position of the tissue. When 
quite hard, turn out the wax and the tissue by opening the ends of 
the box, and place for a few minutes in methylated spirit. The 
tissue is now ready for cutting. It is as well to shave off" the 
corners of the wax, and also to cut off several thin slices from the 
end near which the specimen is with a sharp knife or scalpel. See 
that the razor may not be blunted by cutting too much wax. 

Cutting Sections with the Microtome.— At the present time 
there is such an immense number of these instruments, that it 
makes it rather difficult to advise students. I should recommend 
them to see the various kinds and learn the points in which they 
differ, to enable them to see which they prefer. The following are 
the chief which I shall only just mention, as further particulars 
can be obtained from looking at the various books on histology or 
makers' lists : — Ranvier's microtome, a modification of which is 
made by Beck ; Stirling's microtome, which is on the same prin- 
ciple as Ranvier's, but is larger and fixed to a table with a screw ; 
Rutherford's, which has a trough, which may be used to contain a 
freezing mixture of ice and salt (recently, however, an ether spray 
has been adapted to it; see Lancet, 1885). Rivet's is another 
form of a microtome, in which the razor is arranged to slide at a 



244 THE MICROSCOPE 

fixed level. Stirling's instrument is one of the earliest, a descrip- 
tion of which is found in Stirling's " Histology." Dr. Ray's, an 
account of which will be found in Foster's Journal of Physiology, 
Vol. II., p. 19. It is made by the Cambridge Scientific Instru- 
ment Company, as is Caldwell's ribbon section microtome. This 
latter is an excellent instrument, especially for class working. Its 
drawback is the expense, but lately a cheaper form has been made. 
Dr. Urban Pritchard's {Lancet, Dec. nth, 1875) ^"^ Williams' 
freezing microtomes. — The latter is most often in general use. It 
is known as Swift's " Tub," and has recently been adapted for use 
with ether as a freezing agent by Dr. Groves.* For those who do 
not mind the inhalation of atmospheric air charged with ether, 
the best and simplest ether-freezers for use \\\\.\\ Swift's knife is 
Fearnley's microtome. This is simply the top of the Grove- 
Williams's instrument, supported by three legs. The ether nozzle 
is immediately under the frame of the glass plate, and the bottle 
of ether stands beside the machine on the table. This is also 
made by Messrs. Swift and Son (Cole). Dr. Bevan Lewis's ether- 
freezer is specially valuable for rapid freezing. 

The latest microtome is Cathcart's ether-freezer, and I can 
strongly recommend it, from personal experience, for cheapness, 
simplicity, and efificacy. It cannot be approached by any ether 
or ice microtome I know. The total cost of microtome with plane- 
iron is only about 17s. 6d. The maker is Frazer, of Lowthian .St., 
Edinburgh, but it can be obtained from nearly all opticians. With 
the expenditure of two drams of ether, 60 or 70 sections can be 
cut in almost as many seconds. In using the microtome a little 
care is needed, as several have told me the tissue would ;/(?/ remain 
on the plate when frozen. The secret of this is that a little gum 
solution should h^ first placed on the plate and almost frozen. The 
tissue to be cut is placed upon it and surrounded with gum, and 
the whole frozen. The tissue is elevated to the knife by a revolu- 
tion of the screw with the left hand, whilst the right drives the 
plane-iron, which must be held with the edge far below the level 
of the rest of the iron, and the screw-movement and the push of 
the iron must take place alternately. When a mass of sections 

'' Jounml of Quek. Micros. Club, Oct., 1S81, Vol. VI., p. 293. 



AND HOW TO USE IT. 



246 



has accumulated on the iron, it must be floated off into a saucer 
of water, which may be cold or warm. From the bowl of water 
into which they are put first, they are transferred to a conical glass 
filled with water, in which they gradually subside. All the gum 
must be got rid of, which is accomplished by changing the water 
several times. When all the gum is dissolved, transfer the sections 
to one or other of the following fluids till they are required. The 
sections, when cut, should be kept in a glass-stoppered bottle. 

Preservative Fluids:— (i) Ordinary methylated spirit. (2) 
Glycerine, i ounce; water, t ounce; carbolic acid, 4 minims. (3) Dr. 
David J. Hamilton, of Edinburgh University, recommends glyce- 
rine and distilled water, of each 4 ounces ; carbolic acid, 3 drops. 
Boil and filter. The addition of 2 ounces of alcohol is advisable. 

Gum and Syrup Preserving Fluid (Cole). — Specimens may 
be kept the year round in gum and syrup, having a little carbolic 
acid in it ; if the operator chooses, he can then freeze and cut the 
tissue so placed at any moment he likes. 

To make the Gum and Syrup. — ^Take of gum mucilage (B.P.) 
5 parts. This is made by placing 4 ounces of picked gum acacia 
in 6 ounces of distilled water, and stirring occasionally until the gum 
is dissolved. This is to be strained through muslin. Syrup, 3 
parts, made by boiling i lb. of loaf sugar in i pint of distilled 
water, and boiling ; add 5 grs. of carbolic acid to each ounce of the 
above medium. Tissues may remain in this any length of time. 
For brain, spinal cord, retina, and all tissues liable to come in 
pieces, put 4 parts of syrup to 5 of gum. In cutting some 
materials, such as retina, it is advisable to strain it en iiuissc before 
freezing, otherwise the sections cannot be seen when placed in 
water. The operator will do well to make the gum mucilage and 
syrup separately, and keep them so till wanted. 

To cut Tissues soaked in Gum and Syrup Medium. — Take 
a piece of tissue and press it gently between a soft cloth to 
remove all the gum and syrup from the outside of the tissue. Set 
the spray going, and paint on the freezing plate a little gum, then 
put the tissue upon this and surround it with the mucilage, with a 
camel's hair brush. In this way the tissue is saturated with gum 



246 THE MICROSCOPE 

and syrup, but surrounded ^Yhen frozen with gum only. This 
combination prevents the sections curUng up, or spHntering, from 
being too hard frozen. Should the freezing have been carried too 
far, the operator must wait a few seconds. It should cut like 
cheese with the plane-iron. 

Embedding in Egg Mass (Prof. Calberla). — The whites of 
several eggs are carefully separated from the yolks, and then the 
fibrous portion known as the chalazeai is removed, and the rest 
cut up with scissors. Fifteen parts of the white are now vigorously 
shaken with one part of a lo per cent, solution of carbonate of 
sodium. The yolk is now added, and the shaking repeated, and 
the subsequent filtering removes the bubbles and fragments of 
chalazeoe, etc. A small paper tray is filled with the resulting 
fluid, and immersed in alcohol, which by abstraction of the water 
coagulates the albumen, forming a solid block for embedding. One 
of these blocks is taken and washed in water to remove the 
alcohol, and then dried slightly with blotting paper. Scoop out a 
small cavity, the surfaces of which are wet with the fluid egg. The 
object is likewise deprived of alcohol by water, and is then jjlaced 
in any desired position in the hollow. Now, a drojj of alcohol 
will fasten it firmly by coagulation of the fresh egg. The block 
is now washed again, and the fluid egg is poured over to cover 
the object. To confine this egg it is best to place the object and 
hardened mass in a box, and then pour in fluid egg. The box 
and contents are then placed in a vessel, and exposed to alcohol 
steam until the new portion of egg is coagulated. Various plans 
for thus steaming have been devised. The simplest method is to 
employ a fruit jar, in the bottom of which a little alcohol is poured. 
The box is placed in the jar, and the opening closed with a glass 
funnel. The whole is now heated in a water bath for from thirty 
to forty minutes, care being taken the alcohol does not boil. The 
mass is then removed and placed in alcohol, which should be 
changed once or twice in the first twenty-four hours. It may 
then be cut at any time, or the cutting may be suspended, and the 
object kept indefinitely by immersion in alcohol. The object to 
be cut should be stained before embedding, but the sections need 
not be freed from the mass before mounting, as the coagulated egg 



AND HOW TO USE IT. 247 

clears perfectly in oil of cloves. The mass holds together all parts 
of the section, and is therefore of much use for delicate structures. 

Freezing in Gelatine.* — Instead of freezing in gum, as is 
usual, we use glycerine jelly. This is prepared and clarified in the 
ordinary way. It should set into a stiff mass when cold ; how 
stiff will be best learned by experience. The tissue to be cut is 
transferred from water to the melted jelly, and should remain in it 
till well permeated. It is then placed on the piston of Rutherford's 
(or any other maker) microtome ; the " w^ell " should not be filled; 
but for adherence it is sufficient to roughen the surface of the 
portion with a file. Use no more jelly than is necessary to 
surround the specimen ; if too much has been added, it may 
be removed by carefully jDaring when well frozen. Slices may be 
cut in the ordinary way, and should be quickly transferred to the 
glass slide on which it is to be mounted. On touching the glass, 
the slice of jelly almost immediately thaws, and adheres as a 
consistent film to the surface. When enough slices have been 
placed on the slide, cover each with a drop of glycerine (the sooner 
this is added the better) ; a cover-glass is then superposed, zinc 
white, or some similar cement, is run round it, and the preparation 
is complete. In time the glycerine will permeate the gelatine, 
and convert it into glycerine jelly ; if this does not take place 
soon enough, it may be hastened in an oven kept at a temperature 
of about 20° to 30'-^ C. In this way a series of entire slices of 
great thinness may be obtained from the most disconnected 
structures ; even when they contain hard, siliceous spicule, as in 
the case of sponges, diatoms, as Pleurosigma^ etc., they may be 
cut without difficulty. 

Cutting Sections in Ribbons, t — The object of the process 
is to enable the observer to cut a series of extremely thin sections 
of any soft preparation, such as an embryo, and to mount the 
sections in a series in the order of succession, retaining all the 
parts of the specimen in their proper position. The specimen is 
first properly prepared, and embedded in paraffin. The parafiin 

* Quart. J. Micro. Science. 
t Am, M'onih. Journal of Micros, 



248 REPORTS OF SOCIETIES. 

is then placed in the section-cutter, which is made on the principle 
of the Rivet microtome, although much longer than the usual form 
of the latter instrument, and somewhat modified in the details of 
construction. Sections are then rapidly cut by moving the knife 
forward and backward within proper limits, and the successive 
sections of paraffin, which are square, adhere together by their 
edges into a ribbon, which may grow to an indefinite length. It 
is essential that the paraffin be of the proper consistency and at 
the right temperature. Glass slides are now^ prepared by spreading 
a thin layer of shellac dissolved in cresote on one surface, to 
which the ribbons are now transferred, two or three being placed 
parallel on each slide, so that the sections may be readily 
examined in succession. By heating for a short time in a warm 
oven, the sections become firmly attached to the slide, and may be 
mounted in balsam with very little trouble. As a result of this 
method of procedure a series of sections across the body of 
Lingula, in which the arms were shown in section ^jrecisely as in 
life, and in the stomach were remains of diatoms quite undisturbed 
by the operation and preparation. (For other methods ^tcjoiinial 
of Microscopy and Natural Science, Vol. II., p. 225.) 



I 



IRcporte ot ^ocictica. 

The Manchester Microscopical Society. 

From the Transactions and Annual Report of the Society for 
1886, we learn that the names of 206 members are now on the 
roll, that the books and slides in the reference library and cabinet 
are freely used by the members, that the mounting section num- 
bers 88 members, and that at the monthly meetings of this section 
an average of about half the members are present. 

The volume before us, consisting of about 136 pages, contains 
a portrait of the President, J. L. W. Miles, M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S., 
F.R.M.S., etc.; his Presidential Address; a j^aper by A. J. 
Doherty on the Staining of Animal and Vegetable Tissues, and 
26 other papers of varying length on subjects of much interest to 
the microscopist, together with a list of honorary, corresponding, 
and ordinary members. 



REPORTS OF SOCIETIES. 249 

The Croydon Microscopical and Natural History Club. 

We gather from the Proceedings of this Club, which appear to 
cover the two years 1884 and 1885, that there are 246 members, 
6 honorary members, and 2 associates on the roll, and the finances 
of the Club are in a very satisfactory state. Seventeen valuable 
papers appear in the Transactions. 



Chester Society of Natural Science. 

We have before us the Sixteenth Annual Report and State- 
ment of Accounts for 1886 — 87 and the List of Members for 
1887 — 88, and learn from it that the Society is now located in 
the Grosvenor Museum building, and that during the last year 78 
new members have been elected, making a total of 585 members. 
The work of the Society and the means by which it endeavours to 
keep alive the interest of the members is described under the fol- 
lowing heads : — Excursions ; General Lectures ; Evening Ram- 
bles ; Sectional Meetings ; Conversazione ; and Prizes. Six 
lectures on subjects of great interest were given during the six 
winter months, and on alternate dates at the same season several 
papers were read on subjects relating to Geology, Microscopy, 
Botany, and Zoology. 



Hackney Microscopical and Natural History Society. 

We learn from the loth Annual Report that this Society now 
consists of 74 members. It is pleasing to notice that the 
attendance at the meetings has reached a higher average than that 
of recent years, and that the meeting to which ladies and friends 
were invited was sutficiently successful to warrant an early repeti- 
tion. A short abstract only of the papers read is given in the 
report. 



The East Kent Natural History Society. 

We have received No. 2 of the new series of the Transactions 
of this Society, which contains copies and abstracts of 9 papers 
read before the Society. These were on The Water-Supply of 
East Kent ; Bos Longifro?is; Our Social Wasps ; A Sanitary Law 
Exemplified in Vegetable Life ; On the Dental Apparatus of the 
Higher MoUusca; Notes on the Intelligence of a Young Raven; 
Some Physical Conditions of Smut in Wheat ; Malformed Fruit of 
a Sloe Tree ; Trichinodina as an Endoparasite ] and a number of 
Short Notes. 



250 liEVIEWS. 

The vSouth London Entomological and Natural 
Hlstory Society. 

This Society consists of loi members, 52 of which were added 
last year. Tlie financial position of the Society is also highly 
satisfactory. The report before us contains the Presidential 
Address by Robert Adkin, Esq., F.E.S., and an abstract of pro- 
ceedings at the general meetings, from which we gather that 
objects exhibited were well described by their exhibitors and fully 
discussed, but that no papers were read, 



IRCViCWCn 



A Guide to Elementary Chemistry for Beginners. By Le 

Ray C. Cooley, Ph.D. Crown 8vo, pp. xv. — 300. (New Yurk : Ivison, 
Blakeman, Taylor, and Co. 1886.) 

In the work before us the author tells us he has made " a judicious selec- 
tion of the most fundamental facts and principles of chemistry, and to present 
these in such a way that the student must constantly use his senses to discover 
facts, his reason in drawing correct inferences from the data he collects, and 
good English in expressing accurately what he sees and thinks." In the 
course of experiments, the meclianical operations are described in minute 
detail. The book treats in a lucid manner on Chemical Changes ; the Che- 
mistry of Combustion, of Water, and of the Atmosphere ; Compounds of 
Is'itrogcn, Hydrogen, and Oxygen ; The Composition of Plants ; Elements, 
Molecules, and Atoms ; Acids, etc. ; Phosphorus ; Silicon and the Carbon 
Group ; The Metals, etc. The book is plainly written and well illustrated. 

Notes on Histological Methods, including a Brief Con- 
sideration of the Methods of Pathological and Vegetable His'I'ology 
and the Application of the Microscope to Jurisprudence. 8vo, pp. 56. 

Notes on Microscopical Methods. 8vo, pp. 32. Both by 

J^inion II. Gage, Assistant Professor of Physiology and Lecturer on Microsco- 
]-)ical Technology. (Ithaca, New York, U.S.A. : Andrus and Church. 1885 — 
6, 18S6— 7.) 

These notes were written for the use of the students engaged in the 
Laboratory of the Anatomical Department of the C^ornell University, and in 
their pages will be found ccmdensed a large amount of most valual;le informa- 
tion. ■ 

Elements of Botany, including Organography, Vegetable 

Histology, Vegetable Physiology, Vegetable Taxonomy, and a Glossary of 
Botanical Terms, illustrated by nearly 500 engravings from drawings by the 
Author. P.y Edson S. Pastin, A.M., F.R.^I.S. Royal Svo, pp. xv. — 2S2. 
(Chicago, U.S.A. : G. P. I'jigelhard and Co. 1SS7.) 

This will prove a valuable book in the hands of the student. The author 
has endeavoured to make it leach as much as possible by illustrations, the 



REVIEWS. 251 

whole of wliich have been drawn Ijy his own hand, and in order that the 
learner should not find it too technical, the common names of plants have been 
used as far as practicable, and tlie most familiar plants have l^een selected to 
illustrate structure. A very copious glossary has also been added. 

Comparative Morphology and Biology of the Fungi, 

Mycetozoa, and Bacteria. By A. de Bary, Professor in the University of 
Strasburg. The Authorised English Translation by Henry E. F. Garnsey, 
M.A. Revised by Isaac Bayley Balfour, M.A., M.D., F.R.S., etc. ^Vith 19S 
illustrations. Royal Svo, pp. xviii. — 425. (Oxford : Clarendon Press. 1887.) 
Half morocco, price 22s. 6d. 

In this fine work the author tells us that he has endeavoured to make his 
remarks intelligible even to those who are only beginning the study of the 
Fungi, but has assumed that his readers are masters of such a general know- 
ledge of botanical science as is to be obtained by a course of study in a uni- 
versity or by the use of good text-books. The first portion of the volume 
treats of the General Morphology, the Course of Development, and The Mode 
of Life of Fungi ; the second part. The Morphology and Course of Develop- 
ment and Mode of Life of the Mycetozoa ; the third, Morphology and Mode 
of Life of the Bacteria or Schizomycetes. Eleven pages at the end of the 
book are occupied by an Explanation of Terms. There is also an exhaustive 
index. The illustrations throughout are exceedingly clear and good. 

An Introduction to the Study of Lichens. By Henry 

Willey, with a supplement and ten plates. Svo, pp. 72. (The Author, New 
Bedford, U.S.A. 18S7.) Paper covers, price §1.00. 

We have much information here in a comparatively small compass on 
Collecting and Mounting Lichens ; The Lichen, its Structure and Organs ; 
The Distribution of North American Lichens ; The History of Lichens ; 
Helps to the Study of Lichen ; and the Arrangement of North-American 
Lichens. The plates show the Thallus, Gonidia, Apothecia, Spcrmogoncs, 
Pycnides, and the Spores ; in plates 5 — 10, the Spores of the Genera are com- 
pared. 

Zoological Photographs, being Short and Interesting Chap- 
ters on Natural History. By Joseph Hassell, A.K.C.Lond. Crown Svo, pp. 
166. (London: Sunday Scliool Union.) 

The subjects in this book are treated in a thoroughly interesting manner, 
and at the same time the scientific has not been sacrificed to the popular. 
Modern classification has been kept to throughout, and one or more of tlie 
leading creatures in each sub-kingdom have been taken as a type of the whole. 
For the assistance of teachers and the instruction of older scholars, a general 
view of the sub-kingdom is given at the end of each group. The book con- 
sists of 15 chapters, commencing with the History of a Sponge as told by 
itself up to the Story of the Cuttle Fish. The illustrations are numerous and 
good. ■ 

Handbook of the Fern-Allies : A Synopsis of the Genera 

and Species of the Natural Orders, Equisetacea;, Lycopodiaceoe, Selaginella- 
cex, and Rhizocarpece. By J. G. Baker, F.R.S., F.L.S., etc. Svo, pp. 159. 
(London : Geo. Bell and Sons. 1S87.) Price 5s. 

This useful work is planned upon the same lines as Hooker and Baker's 
" Synopsis Filicum," and the two taken in connection cover the whole series 
of the Vascular Cryptogamia. The synopsis proper occupies the first 150 
pages, and is followed by a valuable key to the (Orders and Genera, beyond 



2-52 KKVIEWS. 

which is an alphabetical index to all the species arranged under their various 
genera. ' 

The Propagation of Plants. By Andrew S. Fuller. Illus- 
trated with numerous engravings. Crown 8vo, pp. 349. (New York : O. 
Judd and Co. 1887.) 

This book gives (to copy the full title) the principles which govern the 
Development and Growth of Plants, their Botanical Affinities, and Peculiar 
Properties ; also. Descriptions of Processes by which Varieties and Species are 
Crossed or Hybridised, and the many different methods by which Cultivated 
Plants may be Propagated and Multiplied. It treats very fully of the Life-his- 
tory of Plants ; Movement and Reorganisation of Cells ; Origin and Kind of 
Buds ; Roots and their P\nictions ; Stems and their Appendages, etc. It is 
well illustrated and printed on good paper. 



Our Lanes and Meadow-Paths; or, Rambles in Rural Mid- 
dlesex, with illustrations and a map. By H. J. Foley. Crown Svo, pp. viii. 
— 113. (London: Hutchins and Crowley.) 

A number of country walks have been taken and pleasantly described in 
the 23 chapters into which this little book is divided, and in these the author 
shows how much of ])icturesque beauty and interest lies within the reach of 
those living in the north of London whose means and time are limited. 

Sunlight. By the author of "The Interior of the Earth." 

Second edition, with alterations and additions. Post Svo, pp. xii. — i8o. 
(London: Triibner and Co. 18S7.) Price 5s. 

The author of this little work suggests that light was the first cause of the 
creation of the earth, acting on a nebulous mass that held in it gases or mate- 
rial sensitive to, al)Sorptive, and retentive of that light. 

Our Bird Allies. By Theodore Wood. Foolscap Svo, pp. 

X.— 214. (London : Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 1887.) 
Price 2s. 6d. 

In this little book, which may be considered as a continuation of the series, 
Our Insect Allies and Our Jiisecl Enemies, the author shows that no British 
biril is utterly and wholly destructive, but that the misdeeds of even the most 
mischievous are atoned for in some degree by services rendered in other ways ; 
thus, two chapters are devoted to the sparrow, one in which its vices are 
unfokled, the other describing its virtues. The arguments for the defence are 
certainly powerful, but we leave the readers to act as jury. 



Bird-Life in England. By Edward Lester Arnold. Crown 

Svo, pp. x. — 325. (London: Chatto and Windus. 1887.) Price 6s. 

A series ot mteresting jjapers on many of our more common birds, written 
by an experienced sportsman. He tells of Hawks and Owls, Finches, Crows, 
Marsh Birds, Grouse, Partridges and Pheasants, Pigeons, Ducks, Sea- Fowl, 
Grouse-Moors, Deer-Forests, and of many other matters interesting to the 
sportsman and the agriculturist. 

PaTERSON's CiUIDE-BoOK TO ENGLAND AND WaLES, with 
Maps and Plans. l2mo, pp. 420. Price 4s. 

Paterson's Guide-Book to the United Kingdom, with 



heviews. 258 

Maps and Plans. i2mo, pp. 580. (Edinburgh and London : William Pater- 
son. 1 887.) Price 6s. ... 
Two most useful books for the tourist, giving him such information as will 
enable hiin intelligently to visit all places (jf importance in the United King- 
dom. Most of the routes are arranged on the main lines of railway, but many 
outlying places of interest are not omitted. Both books contain a number of 
small but very well executed maps, plans of towns and cathedrals. The plans 
of towns we consider exceedingly good. 

Oxford, Cambridge, and London Arithmetic Questions, 
with Answers from Stewart's Home and Class Book of Arithmetical Questions. 
By John Stewart. Post 8vo, pp. 440. Price is. 6d. 

This consists of Tables ; Oxford and Cambridge Worked-Out Examples ; 
London University and College of Preceptors' Papers ; and Oxford and Cam- 
bridge Local Examination Papers from 1S64 to 1884, with Answers. We 
recommend a youth to work out some of these problems before going up for 
his exam. 

The Ruling Principle of Method applied to Education. 

By Antonio Rosmini Serbati, translated by Mrs. William Grey. Crown 8vo, 
pp. XXV.— 363. (Boston, U.S.A. : D. C. Heath and Co. 18S7.) Price 
$1.50. 

This learned Italian writer, who died before the completion of his work, 
divided the life of a child into several stages or periods — the first from birth 
and extending about six weeks ; the second ending with the child's first articu- 
late word or about the end of the first year. The work of Rosmini reaches to 
the fifth period, which seems to extend to the time when, as is commonly said, 
the child accpiires the free use of reason. We have in this book first a sketch 
of the life of Rosmini ; the rest of the work is divided into two books : — L — 
On the Ruling Principle of Method ; H.— Its Application to Little Children. 

The American Sunday-School. By John H. Vincent. Post 
8vo, pp. 344. (London: Sunday School Union. 1887.) Price 3s. 6d. 

This book is based upon what is sometimes called " the American idea of 
Sunday-school work," and is to some extent a report of the American Sunday- 
school system in actual operation. The author has himself served as teacher, 
superintendent, pastor, and normal-class conductor, and for 35 years has been 
a close and careful observer of the Sunday-schools on both sides of the ocean. 
We can recommend the book to teachers of both sexes. 

The Unwritten Record : A Story of the "World We Live 

On. By James Crowther, with an Introductory Note by J. R. Macduff, D.D. 
Crown 8vo, pp. viii. — 176. (London : Sunday-School Union.) Price 2s. 6d. 
The very popular author of this little broclmre appears to have a happy 
way of harmonising the utterances of the two great volumes of Nature 
and Revelation, and making the one the exponent and interpreter of the 
other. He most certainly has done so in the present case. Amongst the 
many interesting chapters are the following : — The Pre-Adamite World ; The 
First Day ; The Earth's Surface ; Corals and Coral Reefs ; A Ramble in a 
Chalk Beil, and many others, which our young friends will do well to read. 

Ancient Nineveh : A Story for the Young, with numerous 

illustrations. Fourth edition, revised and enlarged. Crown Svo, pp. 115. 
(London : Sunday School Union.) Price is. 6d. 

Tells us the Bible history of Nineveh, her Classic History, and her History 

• 



254 REVIEWS. 

told l)y Herself, followed by a History of -the Discovery of Nineveh. It is 
nicely illustrated. 

The History of the Pacific States of North America. 

By Hubert Home Bancroft. Vol. I., ("entral America Vol. I., 1501 — 1530. 
8vo, pp. Ixxii. — 704. (San Francisco, U.S.A. : The History Co. 1882.) 

In 1875 the author published, under the title of The Native Races of the 
Pacific States, what he believes to be an exhaustive research into the character 
and customs of the aboriginal inhabitants of the western portion of North 
America at the time they were first seen by their subduers. The volume before 
us is the first volume of a history of the same territory from the coming of 
Europeans. Mr. Bancroft has undertaken a colossal work and is carrying it 
out in a most masterly manner. We are informed the entire series will cover 
39 volumes. 

Due North ; or, Glimpses of Scandinavia and Rtissia. By 

Maturin M. Ballon. Crown 8vo, pp. xii. — 372. (Boston, U.S.A. : Teckno'r 
and Co. 1887.) 

The author of this book has previously written two very popular works, 
one entitled " Due West, or Round the World in Ten Months," the other, 
" Due .South, or Cuba Past and Present." The volume before us describes the 
far north, from which the author has just returned, including Norway, Sweden, 
Kussia, and Russian-Poland. His travels are very pleasantly described, and 
the book will be read with much interest. 

By Northern Seas. By Mary Bell. Post 8vo, pp. 357. 

(London : Church Exten.sion Association.) 

An interesting story in 23 chapters, of a specially religious turn. 

A Misunderstood Miracle : An Essay in favour of a New 

Interpretation of "The Sun Standing Still " in Joshua x. 12 — 14. I!y Rev. A. 
.Smythe Palmer, B.A. Crown 8vo, pp. vii. — 119. (London : Swan Sonnens- 
chein and Co. 1887.) Price 3s. 6d. 

The author suggests that if the words given in the margin were substituted 
for the words "stand still," they would throw quite a different light on this 
passage. At the same time, he quotes numerous instances where the word 
"stood" is used in the Old Testament to express "stayed, desisted, or ceased 
to discharge its function." The question is exceedingly well argued and is 
worth careful perusal. 



<( ' 



We Donkeys" on the Coast of Devon. By M. S. 
Gibbons, F.S.Sc. (Lond.), author of "We Donkeys in Devon," "We 
Donkeys on Dartmoor," etc. i2mo, jip. 1 12. (London: Simpkin, Marshall, 
and Co. Exeter: T. Upward. 1SS7.) Price is. 

(lives principally a description of the various churches in the neighbour- 
hood of the Devonshire coast. As the book contains neither preface or intro- 
duction, and as we have not seen the earlier volumes of the series, we do not 
quite understand tht title, " We Donkeys," but conclude from pictures on the 
advertisement pages that the carriage of the fair authoress is drawn by a pair 
of donkeys. 

Electricity and Health. Crown 8vo, pp. 100. (Black- 
pool : G. Cohen.) Price 3s. 6d. 

This little book is described in the title as being an exposition of the most 
scientific and rational methods of applying Medical Electricity to the Cure of 



REVIEWS. 255 

Acute and Chronic Disease. There are several ilkistrations. Ilerr Cohen is 
well known as a popular lecturer on Phrenology, etc. 

Notable Workers in Humble Ijfe. Crown 8vo, pp. 219. 
By Rev. E. N. Hoare, M.A. (London: T. Nelson and Sons. 18S7.) 
Price 2s. 

An interesting account, written for young people, of those remarkal)Ie 
men, [ohn Pounds, John Duncan, Roliert Dick, Thomas Edward, John Asii- 
worth, Thomas Cooper, Robert Flockhart, and George Smith. A portrait of 
Robert Dick forms a frontispiece to this little volume, and a vignette of John 
Ashworth adorns the title-page. The biographies are pleasingly told. 



The Science of CoxMmon Things. By John A. Bower, F.C.S. 
Fscap 8vo, pp. V. — 165. (London : Sunday School Union.) 

A series of articles on things met with in every-day life, as, e.«:, Our 
Weather-Glass, The Kitchen-Pump, How a Thermometer is made, A Lumji f>f 
Ice, A Magnifying Glass, etc. The information is given plainly and simph-, 
and is likely to prove of much profit to the reader. 

Lectures delivered before the Sunday Lecture Society, New- 
castle-on-Tyne. Crown 8vo, pp. 173. (London : Walter Scott. 1S87.) 

A series of seven most interesting lectures, which we have read with much 
]ileasure. They embrace the following subjects : — The Natural History of 
Instinct, by G. J. Romanes, F.R.S. ; Animal Life on the Ocean Surface, by 
Professor H. N. Moseley, M.A., F.R.S. ; The Eye and its Work, by Litton 
Forbes, M.D., F.R.C.S.E. ; The Movement of Plants, by Ernest A. Parkyn, 
M.A. ; The Relations between Natural Science and Literature, by Professor 
II. Netlleship, M.A. ; Facts and Fictions in Zoology, by Andrew Wdson, 
F. R.S.E. ; The Animals that make Limestone, by Dr. P. Herbert Carpenter, 
F.R.S. The names of the authors will sufficiently guarantee the value of the 
lectures. ■ 

The Prior of Gyseburne (Gisborough) : A Chronicle of 
Olden Times, in the Days of Richard the Second, Henry the Fourth and 
Fifth. By the Rev. F. II. Morgan, M.A. Crown Svo, pp. 415. (Saltburn- 
by-the-Sea : W. Rapp and Sons. London : Simpkin, Marshall, and Co. 
1S87.) Price 5s. 

This interesting account of Gisborough Priory in the days of Richard II. 
and Henry lY. and V. is compiled in a great measure from a curious 
old MS. in the author's possession. A very pretty jihotograph of the ruins of 
the Priory and Grounds of Gisborough forms a frontispiece to the volume. 

A Boy's Adventures in the Wilds of Australia ; or, 

Herbert's Note-Book. By William Howitt. With illustrations by William 
Harvey. Post Svo, pp. 376. (London: George Routledge and Sons.) 
Price 3s. 6d. 

A book which every boy will delight in reading. It was written amid llie 
scenes and characters which it describes. The adventures are well told ai d 
the illustrations are good. 

Gleanings from the Book of Ruth ; or, the Book of Ruth 

opened out by comparison with other parts of Scripture. By Robert Brown, 
Crown 8vo, pp. vi. — 260. (LondiMi : S. W. Partridge ami Co.) 



256 REVIEWS. 

The subject-matter of this book forms a series of lectures or Bible-readings 
which were delivered by the author at different times. The author remarks 
that the im/nes, both of the persons and of the places mentioned in the Book 
of Ruth, are wonderfully suggestive, and that they furnish a clue to the meta- 
phorical understanding of the book itself. 

American Medicinal Plants, an Illustrated and Descriptive 

Guide to the American Plants used as Homoeopathic Remedies : their History, 
Preparation, Chemistry, and Physiological Effects. By Charles F. Mills- 
paugh, M.D. (New York and Philadelphia : Boericke and Tafel.) 

We have just received the sixth and concluding part of this grand work, 
which now consists of One Hundred and Eighty coloured plates, each 
plate being 12 inches by 8| inches, and the complete text of all the proven 
plants indigenous and naturalised in the United States arranged .§-^;;5r?Vrt//j, 
according to the numerical order of the plates. Every plant mentioned in this 
work is drawn and painted by the author, " by his own hand, from the speci- 
mens as they stood in the soil," he making malhematically accurate drawings 
and avoiding the misrepresentations of wilted individuals, or too highly 
coloured fancy jjictures. 

In describing the general plan of the work, we may observe that — first, 
the natural order under which the plant falls is given in prominent types, and 
should the order be a large one the tribe then follows to give a belter idea of 
its place ; then the genus is mentioned in black-face type, together with 
the name of the scientist who formed it ; to the genus is generally appended a 
footnote, showing the derivation of the name ; and lastly is given the old, or 
sexual, arrangement according to Linnoeus. 

A Course of Practical Instruction in Botany. By F. 
O. Bower, D.Sc, F.L.S., etc., and Sydney H. Vines, D.Sc, F.R.S., F.L.S., 
etc. Part II., Bryophyta — Thallophyta. Crown 8vo, pp. viii. — 144. 
(London: MacmiUan and Co. 1887.) Price 4s. 6d. 

On page 126 of the fifth volume of this journal we had the pleasure of 
writing a short notice of the first part of this useful work ; we are glad now to 
have the opportunity of directing the attention of our readers to the second 
and concluding part of the work. In this, as in the first parts, well-known 
plants are chosen to serve as typical representatives of the groups to which 
they belong. Thus, Polytrichuni coiniimiie and Sphagnn>ii are chosen to 
represent the Mosses and Mairhaiitia polymorplia the Hepaliiw ; of the plants, 
the general external characters are first described, and this is followed !)y its 
microscopical investigation. 

Mushrooms for the Million, illustrated with Supplement : 

A Practical Treatise on the Cultivation of the most profitable Outdoor Crop 
known. By J. Wright, F.R. U.S. Crown 8vo, pp. 12S. (London: Journal 
of Hortiatltiirc 0?kc&. 1887.) Price Is.. 

A fifth and enlarged edition of this useful work has just been published. 
It contains a large amount of valuable information. 

The Christian World Magazine, Midsummer Vol., 1887. 
8vo, jip. 552. (London : James Clarke and Co.) Price 4s. 

This is the first volume of a new series, and we congratulate the publish- 
ers on the im|)rovement in size. It is, however, the 23rd volume from its 
commencement, and comprises a number of papers and complete stories by 
well-known writers, together with a serial story, which does not appear to be 
completed in the present volunie. 



iiEvii<:ws. 2o7 

My Microscope, and Some Objects from My Cabinet : A 

vSimple Introduction to the study of the "Infinitely Little." By a Quekett 
Club Man. Post 8vo, pp. 7S. (London: Roper and Drowley. 1SS7.) 

In this little book the Microscope and a few attractive objects are described 
in very plain language. It will be a good book to give to those who are not 
acquainted with the use of the microscope, as it will most probably create a 
desire for the possession of such an instrument. 



Microscopy for Beginners ; or. Common Objects from our 

Ponds and Ditches. By Alfred C. .Stokes, M.D. Cr. 8vo, pp. xiii.— 308. 
(New York : Harper Bros. 1SS7.) 

This little book, as its title states, is intended for the beginner. It com- 
mences, of course, with a description of the microscope, and then gives a 
chapter descriptive of Some Aquatic Plants useful to the Microscopist, followed 
by others on Desmids, Diatoms, Rhizopods, Infusoria, Aquatic \Vorms, etc. 
etc. • There are 178 illustrations. 

The Icelandic Discoverers of America; or. Honour to 

whom Honour is Due. P.y Marie A. Brown. Post 8vo, pp. 213. (London : 
The Author, at the American Exhibition. 18S7.) Price 7s. 6d. 

Miss Brown, the authoress of this interesting book, uses very strong argu- 
ments to prove that America was discovered by the Norsemen in the tenth 
century, or five hundred years before the time of Columbus. The book is 
nicely illustrated, and will doubtless be read with much interest. 



Hills AND Valleys. (Birmingham : C. Caswell.) Price 2s. — 

A collection of short poems, illustrated by very pretty coloured pictures of 
Swiss mountain scer;ery. ■ 

The Statlstical Atlas of Commercial Geography. By 

E. J. Hastings. 4to, pp. 167. (Eilinburgh and London : \V. and A. K. 
Johnston. 1887.) I'rice 2s. 6d. 

In this work we have a series of diagrams, based on carefully collected 
facts, illustrating the princijial points in connection with the commerce of the 
United Kingdom and its Dependencies and of other leading countries. The 
diagrams consist of a series of squares, each square representing a certain 
value or quantity, the amount being stated on each sheet ; the statistics on 
which these diagrams are based being all taken from ]xarlianientary and official 
returns. The diagrams, which are neatly printed in toned ink, impress the 
information they are intended to convey at once on the eye, and thence to the 
mind, and will be found much more effectual for giving statistical inffirmation 
than a long array of figures. 

John Heywood's County Atlas of England and Wales. 

4to. (Manchester and London : John Heywood.) Price is. 

A series of forty-five very nicely engraved maps, showing all the Railways 
and Coach-roads, Cities, Towns, Parks, and Gentlemen's Estates, and the 
distances of all the principal towns from London by road. 



The Scholar's Geography, especially prepared for Ele- 
mentary Schools. By J. S. Horn. New edition, revised and corrected to 
Vol. VI. g 



258 REVIEWS. 

July, 1S87. Foolscap Svo, pp. 177. (Manchester and London : John Hey- 
wood. 18S7.) Price is. 

This is a very cheap .little book, and furnishes a large amount of useful 
information in a small space. It is well and clearly printed, all the important 
words being in bold, black type. 



The Pupil Teacher'.s Second Year Book, Atlas, and 
Geography. Post Svo. (Edinburgh and London : W. and A. K. Johnston.) 
Price 2s. 6d. 

We are pleased to notice a new edition of this important scries of Geo- 
graphical Year I'ooks. The one l)efore us contains eight maps, viz. — Europe, 
South-West Eurojje, Central Europe, .Southern Europe, India and Ceylon, 
British Empire, Parallels of Latitude, and Longitudes or Meridians. The 
letterpress part of the work is very good, the various countries being described 
under the following heads, viz. — Position and Form, Extent and Area, 
Political Divisions, Population, etc. etc. 



How TO Teach Arithmetic. Illustrated in a Series of 
Notes of Lessons. By T. J . Livesey. Sm. 4to, pp. viii. — 95. (London : 
Moffatt and Paige.) Price as. 6d. 

The author, who is Master of Method and Lecturer on School Manage- 
ment, and author of Moffatt's Scholarship Answers, gives some simple and 
useful hints on How to Teach Arithmetic, each rule being taken in its proper 
order and thoroughly explained. Scholars, who find arithmetic difficult, 
would do well to study this book, and so become their own teachers. 



Moffatt's Penny Atlas. 

Moffatt's Selected Inspector's Arithmetic Questions. 
(London : Moffatt and Paige.) Standards III., IV., V., and \T., Price id 
each ; Standard VII., 2d. 

The little atlas consists of fifty-five maps and plans, but are, of course, 
too small to be of much practical use. In the political map of England all 
the counties, with their chief towns, are distinctly marked. 

The Selected Inspector's Arithmetic Questions are carefully expressed and 
well arranged. 

Practical Lessons in Nursing. Outlines for the Manage- 
ment of Diet. By Edward Tunis Bruen. Cr. Svo, pp. 13S. (Philadelphia; 
J. B. Lippincott and Co. 1887.) Price $1. 

This forms one of a series of Practical Lessons on Nursing. The sub- 
stance of the present volume was delivered in the form of lectures to the 
nurses of the Training Schools of several hospitals in Philadelphia. The 
scientific aspect of the subject has been subordinated to the presentation of 
some practical suggestions to guide in the selection of suitable foods for differ- 
ent conditions of health and at different periods of life. 

The New Crisis. By Geo. W. Bell. Cr. Svo, pp. 351. 

(Des Moines, Iowa, U.S.A. : Moses Hull and Co. 1S87.) 

Mr. Bell reviews the political situation of America in a masterly manner. 
His book consists of eighteen chapters, not of dry statistics, but of arguments, 
in which he unquestionably believes that he is in the right. 



i 



llEVIEWS. 259 

Natural History of the Coast of Lancashire. By 

Thomas Alcock, M.D. (Manchester and LdikIoh : Jnhn Ileyvvood. 1S87.) 
Price 6d. 

A short but interesting description of that portion of the coast of Lan- 
cashire which extends from the mouth of the Wye to the estuary of the 
Mersey. 

Traced Through a Dream. By Cecil Courtenay. 

The Park Lane Mystery. By Joseph Hatton. 

The Irish Sphinx. By Thomas J. Passmore. 

Three volumes of Arrowsmith's well-known Bristol Library. Price is. 
each. 



Xist of plates. 



African Bur Weed 

Anatomy of Dor Beetle ... 

Aspidium 

Campanularia volubilis ... 

Cristatella Mucedo 

Dimorphism in Fungi 

Flowers with reference to Insects 

Gyrinus 

Head of Dolocopus, etc. 

Injecting Apparatus 

Linaria Cymbalaria 

Noctiluca 

Parasite from Ostrich 

Plan of Polyzoon 

Scarlet Earth Mite 

Section of Alder 

Skin of Dog Fish 

Teeth of Testacellus 

Tongue of Ciickct 

Tricholea tomentella 

Woodlouse and Cockroach 



. . . plate 


6, ] 


page 


56 


elates II, 12, 


i3> ; 


page 


88 


plate 


6, 


)) 


56 


,, 


19. 


>) 


T85 


plates 8, 9, 


10, 


)) 


65 


plates 15, 16, 


17, 


)' 


130 


... plate 


24, 


)) 


225 


,, 


2, 


)) 


34 


... ,, 


20, 


)) 


180 


... ,, 


14, 


5) 


104 


plates 21, 22, 


23, 


>) 


194 


plate I, 


)) 


7 


,, 


4> 


5) 


50 


,, 


8, 


)) 


65 


... ,, 


4, 


>) 


50 


,, 


3, 


>J 


49 


,, 


3. 


)) 


49 


... ,, 


18, 


M 


iSi 


... ,, 


5> 


)) 


53 


... ,, 


6, 


)) 


56 


,, 


5, 


)> 


53 



3nbc7 to DoL VL 



Acid, Cupric 
yEcidium Compositariuni 
Ailanthus Scrophularitie, Leg of . 
Alcannin and Turpentine 
Algre 

Alder, Section of ... 
Anatomy of the Dor Beetle 
Animals to kill for Injecting 
Animal.s, whole, to Inject 
Annelids, Injecting ... 
Anodon cygneus, Young of 
Arteries and Veins, Osborne's 

method of Injecting 
Asphalt and Chloroform 
Aspidium 
Aspidium, Leaflet of 

Beale's, Dr., Acid Carmine Fluid 

Beetles, Whirligig 

Berlin l]lue 

Black Emulsion 

Blood Vessels in Fish 

Blue, Berlin 

Blue, Bruckle's Soluble Prussian 

Blue Emulsion 

Blue, Fluid, Prussian 

Blue Mass 

Blue, Miiller's Prussian 

Blue, Soluble Prussian 

Blue, Thirsch's Prussian, with 
O.xalic Acid 

Blue, Turnbull's 

Bodington, Mrs. A., on the Evolu- 
tion of the Eye 

Bodington, Mrs. A., on Puzzles in 
Palaeontology 

Bonibus terrestris, Wing of 

Brownish-red Mass ... 

Brunswick Black and Gold -size ... 

Burweed ... 56, 114 



116 

179 
118 

44 
116 

49 

88 

170 

171 

177 
56 

104 

44 
56 

55 

43 

34 

44 

103 

172 

44 

43 
103 

42 

47 

44 

45 

48 
42 

79 

216 

1S2 

45 
117 



239 



Campanularia volubilis ... 1S5 

Canada Balsam v. Glycerine Jelly 1 17 

Carmine, Dr. Carter's ... 46 

Carmine Fluid, Dr. Beale's Acid 43 

Carmine Gelatine, Seller's ... 48 

Carmine Injection Emulsion ... 102 

Carotid Artery, Injecting from ... 172 



241 
117 
119 



Castor Oil and Spermaceti 
Celloidin, IMethod of Embedding 

Sections 
Cement ... 

Cement for Finishing Slides ... „_^ 
Chester Society of Natural Science 249 
Chloroform and Asphalt ... 44 

Cocoa Butter ... ... 239 

Constant Pressure Apparatus, 

Sterling's ... ... 169 

Cricket, Tongue of 53, 54, 55 

Cristatella Mucedo ... ... 65 

Croydon Microscopical Natural 

History Society... ... 249 

Crystallisation ... ... 1 16 

Crystals, Slides of ... ... 115 

Cupric Acid ... ... 116 

Cuticle of Darnel Grass ... 180 

Cutting Sections ... ... 238 

Cutting Sections in Ribbons ... 247 
Cutting .Sections with the Micro- 
tome ... ... 243 

Darnel (jrass. Cuticle of ... 180 

Dimorphism in Fungi ... 129 

Docophorus Platygaster ... iii 

Dog Fish, .Skin of small Spotted 50 

Dolichopus simplex ... ... 180 

Dor Beetle, Anatomy of ... 88 

r3ry Injection Emulsions ... 102 

East Kent Natural History Society 249 

246 
242 
242 

239 
240 
103 
103 
102 
102 
114 
181 
119 

177 

79 
162 



Embedding in Egg Mass 

Embedding in Gum ... 

Embedding in Wax Mass 

Embedding Mixtures 

Embedding .Small Objects 

Emulsion, Black 

Emulsion, Blue 

Emulsion, Carmine Injection 

Emulsion, Dry Injection 

Empis, Head of 

Empis tessalata 

Eozoon Canadense ... 

Eye and Spleen, Double Injection 

of ... 
Eye, The Evolution of the 
Eyes of Molluscs and Arthropods 



54991 



202 



INDEX. 



Fearnley's Injecting Apparatus 

Feet of Fly 

Fish, Blood Vessels in 

Fishes, Injecting 

Plea, (Jizzard ot 

Flora at Hampstead ... 

Flowers, the Structure of, w 

reference to Insects 
Fluid, White 
Fluids, Preservative 
Fly, Feet of 
Freezing in Gelatine 
Frog, Injecting a 
Fungi, Dimorphism in 



112, 



ith 



Page 
. io6 
. 118 
. 172 

• 177 
114 
96 

225 

45 
245 
118 

247 

175 
129 



Pare 



Gelatine, Freezing in 

Gelatine, Seller's Carmine 

Gillo, Robert, on the Anatomy of 

the Dor Beetle 
Gillo, Robert, on the Whirligig 

Beetle 
Gizzard of Flea ... 1 12, 

Glycerine and Gelatine 
(Jlycerine and Tragacanth 
(Hycerine z'. Canada Balsam 
Glycerised Gelatine, Pure 
Cjoadby's Mass 
Green Lizard, Injecting a 
Griftin, A. W., on Noctiluca 

miliaris 
Gull, Parasite of 
Ciuni, Embedding in 
Gum and Syrup, Preservative 

Fluid 
Gyrinus, Chart of the 

Hackney Microscopical and Natu- 
ral History Society 

Half-an-Hour at the Microscope 
with Mr. I'uffen West 

49. III. 

Hammond, A., on the Homologies 
of Certain Parts of In.sects ... 

Hardening Injected Tissues 17S, 

Hayes' Method of Double Injec- 
tions 

Hay ward, Robert li., on 
Waters in the Chalk 
London Basin ... 

Head of Empis 

Head of Horse-Fly .. 

Ilemipteron 

Hip])ol)()sca Equina ... 

Histological Subject.s, Phot( 
Micrographs of ... 



the 
in the 



247 
48 

88 

34 
114 

240 

239 
117 

240 

105 

174 

7 
III 

242 

245 
40 



249 



179 

98 
179 

109 



147 
114 

113 
181 
1 12 

205 



Homologies of Certain Parts of 

Insects 
Horse Fly, Head of 
Hybos grossipes 
Hymenoptera, 36 Hours' Hunting 

among the 



Injected Tis.sues, Hardening 
Injecting ... 41. 

Injecting Apparatus ... 
Injecting Apparatus, Fearnley's ... 
Injecting Apparatus, simple 
Injecting Annelids ... 
Injecting Eye of Ox ... 
Injecting Fishes 
Injecting Frog 

Injecting from Carotid Artery 
Injecting Green Lizard 
Injecting Insects 
Injecting Mollusca ... 
Injecting Pigeon 
Injecting Rabbit 
Injecting Rat, Mouse, etc. 
Injecting Snails 
Injecting Whole Animals 
Injection, Fine, for Small Vessels 
Injection, Double, of Eye and 

Spleen 
Injection Emulsion, Carmine 
Injection Emulsion, Dry 
Injections, Douljle, Hay's Method 

of ... 
Injections, Ordinary, A good mass 

{or ... 
Insects, Injecting 
Insects, the Homologies of Certain 

Parts of 

Kay's Coaguline 

Killing the Animal to be Injected 

King, Dr. V. May, on the Photo- 

Micrography of Histological 

Subjects 
Klein, S. T., 36 Hours' Hunting 

among the Lepiiloptera 
Kollman's Retl Mi.xture 



98 
113 
IIS 

17 

178 

169 

105 

106 
106 

177 
175 

177 
175 

172 

174 

176 
176 

174 

174 

176 

176 

171 
173 

177 

102 
102 

109 

103 

176 

98 

117 

170 



205 
17 

46 



Latham, V. A., on the Microscope 

and How to Use it 

41, 102, 169, 238 

Leaflet of Aspidium ... •••55 

Lepidolite ... ..119 

Lepidoptera, 36 Hours' Hunting 

among the ... ... 17 

Limestone, Section of .. 116 



INDEX. 



2G3 



Page 
Linaria Cymhalaria ... .. 193 

Lockwood, S., on the Sea- Horse 166 
London Basin, Water in the Chalk 

in the ... ... I47 

Manchester Microscopical Society 248 
Mantis, Voracity of the ... 16 

Mass, Blue ... •••47 

Mass, Brownish-red, cold flowing 45 
Mass, Dr. G. Woodhead's ... 47 

Mass, Dr. Stirling's ... .. 46 

Mass for Ordinary Injections ... 103 
Mass, (ioadby's ... ••■ 105 

Measures, J. W., Presidential Ad- 
dress ... ... 1 

Microscope, Half-an-Hour at the, 

with Mr. Tufien West 

49, III, 19 
Microscope, The, and How to Use 

it ... 41, 102, 169, 238 

Microscope in the Lecture and 

Class-room ... ... 14 1 

Microtome, Cutting Sections with 

the ... ... ... 243 

Middlese.\, County of. Natural 

History Society ... ••• 59 

Middlesex, County of, Natural 

History Society, Report of ... 121 
Mixtures, Embedding ... 239 

INIoUusca, Injecting ... ... 176 

Molluscs and Arthropods, Eyes of 162 
Moore, R. IL, on Crystatella Mu- 

cedo ... ... ... 65 

Moore, R. II., on Linaria Cymba- 

laria ... ... ... I93 

Miiller's Prussian Blue ... 44 

Negro Skin ... ... 114 

Nitrate of Silver for Elood-Vessels 44 

Noctiluca Miliaris ... ... 7 

Norman, G., on Dimorphism in 

Fungi ... ... 129 

Osborne's Method of Embedding 

the Arteries and Veins ... 104 

Ostrich, Parasite from ... 54 

0.x, Injecting the Eye of ... 175 

Palate of Testacella Ilaliotidea ... 181 

Paleontology, Puzzles in ... 216 

Parasite of Gull ... ... ill 

Parasite of Ostrich ... •••54 

Parasite of Vulture ... ... 53 

Paraffin and Lard ... ... 239 



Page 
Paraffin and Vaseline ... 239 

Paraffin, Tolu for Embedding in ... 240 
Patten, Dr. W., on the Eyes of 

Molluscs and Arthropods ... 162 
Photo-Micrography of Histologi- 
cal Subjects ... ... 205 

Pigeon, Injection of ... •••174 

Pitchstone from Arran ... Ii8 

Preservative Fluids ... ... 245 

Presidential Address .. ... I 

Prussian Blue Fluid ... ... 42 

Pumphrey, W., on the Microscope 

in the Class Room ... 14 1 

Puzzles in Palaeontology .. 216 

Rabbit, Injection of ... ... 174 

Rat, Mouse, and Frog Injecting ... 176 
Red Earth- Mite ... ..•So 

Red ^Mixture, Kollmann's ... 46 

Reports of Societies .. 59, 121, 248 

Rhubarb, Spiral Fibres of Petii:)lc 182 
Ribbons, Cutting Sections in ... 247 
Robertson's Plan of Injecting .Snails 176 



120 

50 
166 

238 



.Saws of Saw-FIies ... 
Scyllium caniculum ... 
Sea- Horse, The 
.Section-Cutting 

.Section-Cutting with the Micro- 
tome ... ... 243 

Section of Yew ... ... 183 

Sections, Celloidin, Method of 

Embedding ... ... 241 

Section-Cutting in Ribbons ... 247 

Sections of Mountain Limestone... 116 
.Seller's Carmine Gelatine ... 48 

Selected Notes from the Society's 

Note-Books ... 53, 113 

Silver, Nitrate of, for Blood ^"essels 44 
Skin of Dog- Fish ... ... 50 

.Slides, Cement for Finishing ... 119 
Slides of Crystals ... ... I15 

.Small Objects, Embedding ... 240 

.Small Vessels, Injection for ... 173 

Snails, Injecting ... ... 176 

Snipe-Fly ... ... 181 

Soluble Prussian I>lue ... 45 

.South London Entomological and 

Natural History Society ... 250 
Spermaceti and Castor Oil ... 239 

Spiral Fibres of RJiubarb ... 182 

Stenoccphalus agilis ... 113 

.Sterling's Constant^ Pressure Appa- 
ratus ... ... 169 



264 



INDEX. 



Stirling's Mass 
Syringe, The 



Pai::e 
. 46 
• 105 

iSi 



Testacella Ilaliotidea, Palate of 
Thiersch's Prussian Blue, with 

Oxalic Acid ... ... 48 

Thiersch's Transparent Yellow ... 47 
Thirty-Six Hours' Hunting among 

the Lepidoptera ... 17 

Tissues, Plardened ... ... 238 

Tissues, Method of Hardening ... 179 

Tissues, to Cut, in Gum and Syrup 245 

Tissues, Unhardened ... 238 

Tolu for Embedding in Paraffin ... 240 
Tongue of Cricket .. _ 53, 54, 55 

Tragacanth and Glycerine ... 239 

Tricholea tomentella... 56, 57, I14 

Trombidium phalangii ... 54 

Turpentine and Alcannin ... 44 



Pa£;e 

104 

16 

53 



Veins and Arteries, To Inject 
\'oracity of Mantis ... 
Vulture, Parasite of ... 

Water in the Chalk in London 
P>asin 

Wa.x Mass, To Embed in 

West, Tuffen, Half-an-Hour at the 

Microscope with ... 49, iii, 179 

Wharton, Dr., Notes on Flora at 
Hampstead 

Wheatcroft, W. G., on the Struc- 
ture of Flowers in relation to 
Insects 

Whirligig Beetles 

White "Fluid 

Wing of Bombus terrestris 

Wootihead's Mass 



Yellow, Thiersch's Transparent 
Yew, Section of 



147 
242 



96 



225 
34 

45 
182 

47 

47 
183 



REVIEWS 



American Medicinal Plants 122, 256 

American Sunday School, The ... 253 

Analysis of the Acts of the Apostles 65 
Anatomy of the Brain and Spinal 

Cord ... ... 189 

Ancient Nineveh ... ... 253 

Animal World, The ... ... 126 

Arithmetic, Chemical ... 60 

Arithmetic, How to Teach ... 258 

Arithmetic, Mofiatt's Questions ... 258 
Arithmetic Questions, O.^ford, 

Cambridge, and London ... 2';3 

Atlas, Colonial and Indian ... 186 

Atlas, Hey wood's County ... 257 

Atlas, Letts' Popular County ... 186 

Atlas, Moffatt's I'enny ... 25S 

Atlas, Statistical ... ... 257 

Atlas, The Cosmographic ... 186 

Bacteria, Photography of ... 187 

15acteriology, Manual of ... 187 

J5and of Mercy ... ... 126 

Beecher, Rev. H. W., Last Ser- 
mons ... ... 191 

Biblical Illustrator, The ... 127 

Bird-Life in England ... 252 

liirdie and Her Dog ... ... 67 

Botany, Course of Practical In- 
struction in ... ... 256 



Botany, Easy Lessons in ... 123 

liotany. Elements of ... 250 

Botany, First Book of ... 122 

Botany, ILandbook of Practical ... 122 
Boy's Adventures in the \Vilds of 

Australia ... ... 255 

Boys' and (iirls' Companion ... 67 

Ijoys' and Girls' Picture Book ... 67 
Bo)s' Own Treasuiy of Sports and 

Pastimes . . ... 68 
Brain and .Spinal Cord, Anatomy 

of ... ... ... 189 

l>y Northern Seas ... ... 254 

Cactaceous Plants ... ... 63 

Cambridge Examiner, The ... 68 

Chain Rule, .Schonberg's ... 191 

Changing Places ... ... 66 

Chemical Arithmetic ... 60 

Chemical Analysis, Qualitative ... 60 

Chemistry, Entertainments in ... 125 

Chemistry, Guide to Elementary 250 
Chemistry of Wheat, Flour, and 

Bread ... ... 61 

Chips from the Earth's Crust ... 64 

Christian World Magazine ... 256 

Cookery, Handy Dictionary of ... 67 
Cooking for an Income of ;^200 a 

Year ... .,, ... 191 



INDEX. 



2G5 



Page 
Crustacea and Spiders ... 125 

Cryptogams, Guide to ... 62 

Disease and Sin ... ... 127 

Doctors, Eminent ... ... 65 

Dog- Fancier's Friend ... 190 

Dog's Mission, A ... ... 66 

Due North ... ... 254 

Education, Monographs on ... 68 

Education, The Journal of .. 128 

Electricity and Health ... 254 

Electricity and its Uses ... 125 

Eminent Doctors ... ... 65 

England and Wales, Tourist's 

Guide to ... ... iSS 

English Bible, How to .Study ... 190 

Essay \\'riting, (juide to ... 191 

Every Boy's Annual ... 67 

Evolution Hypothesis, The ... 191 

Fern Allies, Handbook of ... 251 

Fifty Years of National Progress 189 
Forbidden Fruit ... . ... 127 

Four Thousand Germs of Thought 66 
Flower Painting, A Manual of ... 125 
Fruit Planting, Manual of ... 125 

Fun Better than I'hysic ... 64 

Fungi, British, Elementary Text- 
Book of ... ... 122 

Fungi, Comparative Morphology 

an<l Biology of ... ... 251 

Fungus Hunters' Guide ... 188 

Geography, The Scholar's ... 257 

Geological Studies ... ... 64 

Geology, Student's Handbook of 

Historical ... ... 63 

Glaucus ... ... ... 62 

Gleanings from the IJook of Ruth 2.55 

Gothic Architecture, Study in ... 125 

Heads and Faces ... ... 128 

Heroes of .Science ... .. 127 

Hills and "\'aJleys ... ... 257 

Histological Methods, Notes on .. 250 

Horses of ihe Sun ... ... 63 

Household Health ... ... 128 

How the French Conquered Britain 192 

Humorous Gems ... ... 128 

Flygeinc, Principles and Practice 

of ... ... ... 189 

Hygeine, .Six Lectures on ... 64 

Icelandic Discoveries of America 257 
Irish Question, .Speeches on ... 64 
Irish bphinx, The ,., ... 258 



Jack Hooper 

Lady Bird's Tea-Party 

Lancashire, Natural History of ... 

Latin, The Study of ... 

Lectures delivered before the Sun- 
day Lecture Society 

Leisure Hour, The ... 

Lichens, Introduction to the Study 
of .. 

Life Histories of Plants 

Log- Book of a Fisherman and 
Zoologist 

London in 1887 

Lovely Wang, The ... 

Lunar .Science 



Pa^e 
. 66 

• 63 

. 258 
. 68 

255 
126 

251 
62 

62 
192 
192 

61 



Man of Science, The Man of God, 
The... 

Master Minds 

Mathematical Teaching 

Medical 1 lants, American 

Microscope, Through a 

Microscopical Collection, Cata- 
logue 

Microscopical .Methods, Notes on 

Microscopical Science, Studies in 

63, 124, 

Microscopical Technology 

Microscopy for Beginners 

Mineralogy, Handbook of 

Miracle, A Misunderstood 

Monsters of the Sea 

Morphology and Biology of Fungi 

Moses : His Life and Times 

Mushrooms for the Million 63, 

Natural History, Its Rise and Pro- 
gress 
Natural History, The Handy 
New Crisis, The 
North Pole, The Road to the 
Notable Workers in Humble Life 
Nursing, Practical Lessons in 

Orchids ... 

Ordnance .Survey, The 

Our Bird Allies 

Our Dogs and other Stories 

Our Earth and Its Story 126, 

Our Island Continent 

Our Lanes and Meadow Paths ... 

Our Woodland Trees 

Pacific States of North America, 
The History of ... 



127 

65 
128 
122 
123 

124 
250 

188 
187 

257 
68 

254 
66 

251 
191 

256 

65 
124 

258 

128 

255 
258 

63 

61 

252 

67 
189 

62 
252 
123 

254 



2(j(i 



INDEX. 



Painting, Tiie Rudiments of Deco- 
rative 

Parlv Lane Mystery, Tlie 

Paterson's Giiide-Book to England 
and Wales 

Paterson's Guide Book to United 
Kingdom 

Patriarchal Times 

Patty's Partner ... ■■■ . 

Pen-and-ink Drawing, The Art of 125 



Page 

126 

258 

252 

252 
126 
I92 



Perspective, Rules of ... 125 

I'hotography, The A B C of ... 190 

Pilgrims' Progress, The New ... 192 

Plants, Life Histories of ... 62 

Plants, Propagation of ... 252 

Platinotype ... . , 68 

Pond Life, Insects ... ... 62 

Post Norman Britain ... 65 

Primroses, Cowslips, etc. ... 63 

Prior of Gyseburn, The ... 255 

Pupil Teacher's Second Vear-Book 258 

Queen Victoria, Life of ... 192 

Queer Little Folks ... ... 66 

Reformation Heroes ... ... 190 

Religion and Duty ... ... 191 

Ruling Principle of Method applied 

to Education ... ... 253 

Rust, Smut, Mildew, and Mould 61 

Science of Common Things ... 255 

Scientific .Societies, Year Book of 187 

Shakespeare, Works of ... 192 

Signification and Principles of Art 189 

Solar Heat, Gravitation, etc. ... 61 

Sonnets on Nature and Science ... 126 

Speeches on the Irish (Question ... 64 

Sjiirit Workers in the Home Circle 192 

.Sputum ... ... ... 123 

Studies in Microscopical Science 

63, 124, 188 
Student'.s Handbook of Plistorical 

Geology ... ... 63 



Sunlight 

Surpassing Fable 
Sylvan Spring 



«2" 



Page 

■ 252 

. 192 

191 

190 
126 
1S8 
191 
67 
189 



Taking Cold 

Temple of Solomon ... 

Thames, Bird's-Eye View of 

Thames, Taunt's Guide to 

Three Courses for Threepence 

Through Massai Land 

Through North Wales with my 

Wife ... ... 1S8 

Tomato, The ... ... 63 

Tourist's Guide and Handbook to 

England and Wales ... 1S8 

Traced through a Dream ... 258 

Trees and How to Draw Them ... 125 
Two Crosses, The ... ... 192 

Unwritten Record, The ... 253 

V. R., A Comedy of Errors ... 192 
Vestiges of the Natural History of 

Creation ... ... 127 

\'olcano under the City ... 128 

We Donkeys on the Coast of 

Devon ... ... 254 

Wheat, Flour, and Bread, Chemis- 
try of ... ... 61 

Woodland Trees, Our ... 123 

Writing, Clarke's Guide to Easy... 192 

Year Book of Scientific .Societies 187 
Year Book, Pupil Teachers' Geo- 
graphical ... ... 190 

Young England ... ... 67 

Young Plants and Polished Corners 127 

Zoological Photographs ... 251 

Zoology, Elementary Course in 

Practical ... ... 124 

Zoology, First Book in ... 125 



C. SEERS, PRINTER, I ARGYLE ST., BA'I'H. 



I] JANUARY, 1887. [Pan 

THE 

Journal of Microscopy 




AND 



Natural Science: 

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^5f JPosM JI2irFosro|iirHl[ ^oriptg. 

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Whirligig Beetles . . . . . . . . . 34 

Chart of the Genus Gyrinus . . . . . . . . 40 

The Microscojie and how to use it . . . . . . 41 

Half-an-Hour at the Microscope with Mr. Tuffen West . . 49 

Longitudinal Section of Alder . . . . . . 49 

Red Earth Mite .. .. .. .50 

Skin of Dog-Fish .. .. .. ..50 

Parasite of Vulture . . . . . . . . 53 

Selected Notes from the Society's Note-Books . . . . 53 

Tongue of Crjcket . . . . . . 53, 54, 55 



Trombidium Palangii 
Parasite from Ostrich 
Leaflet of Aspidium 
Young of Anodon 
Burweed 
Trichocolea tomentella 

Reports of Societies 

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.. 54 
.. 55 
. . 50 
.. 56 
56, 57 

.. 59 

.. 60' 



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APRIL, 1887. 



[Part 22. 



THE 



Journal of Microscopy 



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Natural Science: 

THE JOURNAL OF 

W^t JPosM PirFosropiral XoriFtg. 

Published C)uAR^Ei\Ly. 



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CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Cristatella mucetlo . . ... . . . . . . 65 

Some Curious Facts connected with the Evolution of the Eye . . 79 

The External Anatomy of the Dor-Beetle . . . . 88 

Notes on Flora met with at Hampsteacl . . . . . 96 

On the Homologies of Certain Parts of Insects . . . . 98 

The Microscope and how to use it . . . . . . 102 

Half-an-Hour at the Microscope with Mr. Tuffen West . . Ill 

Parasite of Gull . . . . . . . . Ill 

Gizzard of Flea . . . . . . . . 112 

Hippobosca equina . . . . . . . . Hf 

Head of Horse-Fly . . . . . . . . 11 ,1 

Selected Notes from the Society's Note-Books . . . . 11.'' 

Stenocephalus agilis . . . . . . . . 11'^ 

Gizzard of Flea . . . . . . . . 11 ' 

Trichocolea toinentella . . . . . , . . 114 

Negro Skin . . . . . . . . . . 1 ! = 

Burweed . . . . . . , . , 114 

Head of Empis . . . . . . . . 114 

Hybos grossipes . . . . . . . . 115 

Slides of Crystals . . . . . . . 115 

Algje .. .. .. .. ... 116 

Crystallisation .. .. .. .. 116 

Cupric Acid . . . . . . . . 116 

Sections of Mountain Limestone . . . . ' . ., 116 

Glycerine Jelly and Canada Balsam . . . . 117 

Cement — Brunswick Black, and Gold Size . . . . 117 

Ditto — ^Kay's Coaguline . . . . . . 117 

Pitch-Stone from Arran .. .. ..118 

Feet of Fly . . . . . , . . 118 

Hind Leg of Ailantus Scrophularias . . . . 118 

Eozoon Canadense . , . . . . . . J 19 

Lepidolite . . . . , . . . . . 119 

Cement for Finishing Slides . . . . . . 119 

Saws of Saw-Flies . . . . . . . . 120 

Reports of Societies . . . . . . . . 121 

Reviews . . . . . . . . . . 122 



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PRESIDENT- 
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Todmorden. 

PATRONS- 

HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF ARGYLE. 

Sir JOHN LUBBOCK, Bart., PRS., F.RMS., F.li.S., F.G.S. 

The Rev. W. H. DALL.INGER, LL.D., F.R.S., F R.M.S. F.L.S. 

Dr. "LIONEL S. BE ALE, F.R.S., F.R.MS., etc. 

Dr. JABEZ HOGG, F.R.M.S., etc 

J. W. GROVES, Esq., F.R.M.S., etc 

HON. SECRETARY- 
ALFRED ALLEN, 1 Cambridge Place, Bath. 



THE SOCIETY was formed in 1873 to aid in the study, 
discussion, and circulation of Microscopic objects, and 
to advance the puisuit of Natural Science amoiio- 
its members. 

It is divided into thirteen Circuits of about twelve 
members each, arranged geographically. A box of Slides 
accompanied by MS. book for the insertion of Notes and 
Memoranda, is sent by the Hon. Secretary, at fortnightly 
intervals, to the first member on one of the Circuits; who, 
after keeping it for three days, must send it on by post 
to the next on the list, and he to the following one. 
When it has gone round the Circuit, the last member re- 
turns it to the Hon. Secretary, who will then forward it 
to the first member of the next Circuit, and so on, until 
the slides have been seen by the whole of the Society. 
Each member is expected to contribute six STkIcs annu- 
ally, which are returned to him after they have been 
round the Circuits. Ladies, as well as gentlemen, may be 
elected members of the Society. 

A special section has been formed for Members 
of the Medical Profession. 

Entrance fee. Five Shillings ; Annual Subscription, 
Ten Shillings; dating from 1st October in each year. 

A copy of the Journal is posted free to each member on 
day of publication. 

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42 



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Microscopical Specimens by all the best preparers ; unmounted material of all kinds. 

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highly recommended by all who have used it. It is generally admitted to be the^best 
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THE QUARTERLY PARTS OF THE 

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May now be obtained of all Booksellers. 

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Vol. VI.] JULY, 1887. [Part 23. 

THE 

Journal of Microscopy 



AND 



Natural SciENCEfi/ifisty^ 



THE JOURNAL OF 



W\t JPosM PirposropirHl ^oriFtg. 

Published C)uartei\ly. 



'Knowledge is not given us to keep, but to impart: its worth is lost 

in concealment." 



EDITED BY 

ALFRED ALLEN, 

Honorary Secretary of the Postal Microscopical So^lw^i v . , ■ 

ASSISTED BY f^^/ti 

SEVERAL MEMBERS OF THE COMMITTEE, f^/^..^^- 

LONDON : 
BAILLIERE, TINDALL, & COX, KING WILLIAM ST., STRAND, W.C. 

BATH : 
1, CAMBRIDGE PLACE. 



C. SEERS, PRIXTER, I, ARGYLE STREET, BATH. 

Price One Shilling and Sixjjence. 

ENTERED AT STATIONERS* HALL. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Dimorphism in Fungi . . . . . . . , . , 129 

The Microscojje in Lecture and Chiss-room . . . . . . 141 

On the Water in the Chalk beneath the Clay in the London Basin 147 

Eyes of Molluscs and Arthropods . . . . . . . . 162 

The Sea-Horse . . . . . . . . . , . . 166 

The Microscope and how to use it . . . , . . . . 169 

Half-an-Hour at the Microscope . . . , . . - . . 179 

^cidium compositarium . . . , . . . . 179 

Dolichopus simplex . . . . . . . . . . 1 80 

Cuticle of Darnel Grass . . , . . . . . 180 

Palate of Testacella Haliotidea . . . . . . 181 

Snipe-Fly, Empis tesselata . . . . . . . . 181 

Hemipteron . . . . . . ... . . 181 

Wing of Bombus terrestris . . . . . . . . 182 

Spiral Fibres, Petiole of Garden Rhubarb . , , . 182 

Section of Yew . . . . . . . . . . 183 

Campanularia volubilis . . . . . . . . 185 

Reviews . . . . . . . , . . . . 186 



"Anderso n's '' Microscopica l Slides. 

FIRST CLASS SLIDES of "Whole Insects— Insect Parts— Rocks— Teeth— Jaws 
(with all teeth in situ) and other Hard Sections— selected and arranged Diatoms 
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SPECIAIiITIES-SIX WHOLE INSECTS. 

Earwig — Forficula auricularia ... ... ... ... ,^^ jg^ 

Garden Spider — Epeira diadema ... ... ... *'* ^g] 

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Mole Flea- (Male and Female on one slide) ... ... _ jg* 

Ground Beetle— Bembidium littorale ... ... ... __] ig| 

Larva of Drinker Moth (Good) 8 days old ... ... ... jg' 

The SLv I'ost Free in Box for 5s. 
Money returned m full fur all Slides not approved of. 

" AlSrDERSON"," ILKESTOTf, DERBY. **^ 



/ 



MICROSCOPICAL INSTITUTE. 

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SPECIALTY : 

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CATALOGUE FREE. 



THE POSTAL 

MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY 



PBESIDENT— 
J. W. MEASURES, M.R.C.S.E., Cobden House, Patmos, 

Todmorden. 

PATEOlSrS— 

HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF ARGYLE. 

Sir JOHN LUBBOCK, Bart., F.R S., F.R.M.S., P.Ii.S., F.G.S. 

The Rev. W. H. DALIilNGER, LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.M.S., F.L.S. 

Dr. "LIONEL S. BEALE, F.R.S., F.R.M.S., etc. 

Dr. JABEZ HOGG, F.R.M.S., etc. 

J. W. GROVES, Esq., F.R. M.S., etc. 

HON. SECRETARY- 
ALFRED ALLEN, 1 Cambridge Place, Bath. 



rnHE SOCIETY was fonnetl in 1873 to aid in the study, 
I discn.'^sion, nnd circulation of Microscopic objects, and 
to advance the pursuit of Natural Science among 
its members. 

It is divided into thirteen Circuits of about twelve 
members each, arranged geographically. A box of Slides 
accompanied by MS. book for the insertion of Notes and 
Memoranda, is sent by the Hon. Secretary, at fortnightly 
intervals, to the first member on one of the Circuits ; who, 
after keeping it for three (hiys, must send it on by post 
to the next on the list, and he to the following one. 
When it has gone round the Circuit, the last member re- 
turns it to tlie Hon. Secretary, who will then forward it 
to the first member of the next Circuit, and so on, until 
the slides have been seen by the whole of the Society. 
Each member is expected to contribute six Slides annu- 
ally, which are returned to him after they have been 
I'ound the Circuits. Ladtes, as well as gentlemen, may be 
elected members of the Society. 

A special section has been formed for Members 
of the Medical Profession. 

Entrance fee. Five Shillings; Annual SubsciiptioTi, 
Tt'ii Shillings; dating from- 1st October in each ye;ir. 

A copy of the Journal is posted free to each member on 
(L'W of publication. 

All communications on matters connected with the 
Society, or with this Journal, should be addressed to 
Mr. Alfukd AT-i.k\, as above, 



The Christian Leader: 

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PHILANTHROPIC MOVEMENTS AT HOME AND ABROAD. 

III.— It gives REPORTS of EVANGELISTIC and TEMPERANCE WORK. 

IV.— It gives SERMONS by Great Living Preachers. 

v.— It gives PEN-PORTRAITS of EMINENT DIVINES and CHRISTIAN LAYMEN- 

VI. —It gives ORIGINAL SERIAL .STORIES by Eminent Authors; ESSAYS, 
SKETCHES, and POEMS by many of the most Popular Authors of our time. 

VIL— It gives LITERARY TABLE TALK and REVIEWS of the NEW BOOKS. 

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Alcyonium digitatum (section), Aplysina acrophoba (section) Cliondrosea reniformis 
(section), Suberites domiuicula (section), Ascetta blanca (whole), Siponochahna conacea. 
No. 3 consists of Euglena viridis,Gyprisfusca,Gammarus pulex, Mixed Infusoria Brachionus 
amphiceros, Daphnfa pulex. No. 4 consists of Paramecium colpocla, AnguiUu a fluviatilis, 
Tubifex (species). Larva of Gnat, Larva of Chironomus plumosus Ova and Enibryo of Lim- 
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The Ainerican Antiparian & Oriental Journal 

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and Art, Prehistoric Relics and Races, and many other topics. 
Sustained by the best scholars in the country. Fvill of curious and 
interesting material. Valuable to all classes, but especially to 
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Edited by A. EAMSAY, F.G.S., etc., 

WELL PRINTED ON FIRST-CLASS PAPER. 



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32, WESTGATE STREET, BATH, 

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33 



(Regtsterea.) Anew self-centering Turn Table, acknowledged to lie the best vet introduced, designe 

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Dealer in Microscopes, Apparatus, and all kinds of Microscopical Material, 

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Aylward's Working Microscope. (For Review see the Northcr,i Microscopist, August, 
IbSl). ihe orignial form, which has been most highly praised, has recently been much 
improved by Mr. Ayhvard. 

Aylward's Mounting Case contains every requisite portably packed. 

Microscopical Specimens by all the best preparers ; unmounted material of all kinds. 

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highly recommended by all who have used it. It is generally admitted to be the best 
introduced. Designed and manufactured by H. P. Aylward 



Mt 



Aylward has devoted special attention to the production of thin cover glasses, and 
supplies them in squares, circles, and ovals. Microscopical slips with ground 
edges, etc. Sp ecial quotations to the Trade and Shippers. -^ ^ " 

NATURALIST REPRINTS, No. 1. 

List of Land & Freshwater liollusca of Lancashire, 

BY ROBERT STANDEN. 

This paper contains not only Mr. Standen's own observations, but also those 
of Messr.s R D. Darbishire, T. Rogers, W. H. Heathcoto, J. A. Hargreaves, F. 
C. Long, H. Stephenson, and other concliologists ; and the observations published^ 
m JJyson s list of 1850 and in Hardy's lists of 1864 and 18G5 are reproduced for^ 
comparison. 

Leeds, 1887. Price 9d. (by Post, 9id.) 

To be hud from the Publishers of The Natueallst, Park Row, Leep-. 




Vol. VI.] OCTOBER, 1887. [Part 24. 

THE 

Journal of Microscopy 

AND 

Natural SciENcgJ^f^^ 

THE JOURNAL OF ^^fif^ 

\f JPostal JKirposropirai ^oripfg?' 

Published Quarterly. 



"Knowledge is not given us to keep, but to impart: its worth is lost 

in concealment." 



EDITED BY 

ALFRED ALLEN, 

Honorary Secretary of the Postal Microscopical Society ; 

ASSISTED BY /^Vi' ' " 

SEVERAL MEMBERS OF THE COMMITTEE. /^iV^,<rv-, 



LONDON : 
BAILLIERE, TINDALL, ct COX, KING WILLIAM ST., STRAND, W.C. 




BATH : 
1, CAMBRIDGE PLACE. 



C. SEERS, PRIXTER, I, ARGYLE STREET, BATH. 

Price One Shilling and Sixpence. 



ENTERED AT STATIONERS HALL. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Linaria Cymbalaria . . . . . . . , . . 193 

The Pliotography uf Histological Subjects . . . . . . 205 

Puzzles in Palaeontology . . . . . . . . . . 216 

The Structure! of Flowers with reference to Insect Aid in their 

•Fertilisation . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 

The Microscope and how to use it . . . . . . . . 238 

Reports of Societies . . . . . . . . . 248 

Reviews . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 



Part 1 Now Ready, Price 6d. By Post, Id. 



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A JOURNAL FOR NATURE-LOVERS & NATURE-THINKERS 

Edited by Dr. J. W. WILLIAMS, M.A. 

Articles by well-known Scientists : — The Pathology of the Celandine, 
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Sadler, F.R.A.S. ; Chapters on the Centipedes and Millipedes, 
T. D. Gibson-Carmichael, M.A., F.L.S. ; and a series of Studies 
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THE POSTAL 

MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY 



PRESIDE]SrT— 
J. W. MEASURES, MR.C.S.E., Cobden Hovise, Patmos, 

Todniorden. 

PATROITS— 

HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF ARGYLE. 

Sir JOHN LUBBOCK, Bart., F.R S., P.R.MS., FX.S., F.G.S. 

The Rev. W. H. D ALIjINGER, LL D., F.R.S., P R.M.S., F.L.S. 

Dr. "LIONEL S. BSALE, F.R.S , F.R. M.S., etc. 

Dr. JABEZ HOGG, F.R. M.S., etc 

J. W^. GROVES, Esq., F.R.M.S., etc 

HON. SECRETARY- 
ALFRSD ALIiEiSr, 1 Cambridge Place, Bath. 



rnHE SOCIETY was formed in 1873 to aid in the study, 
I discussion, and circulation of Microscopic objects, and 
to advance the pursuit of Natural Science among 
its members. 

It is divided into thirteen Circuits of about twelve 
members eacfi, arranged geographically. A box of Slides 
accompanied by MS. boitk for the insertion of Notes and 
Memoranda, is sent by the Hon. Secretary, at fortnightly 
intervals, to the first member on one of the Circuits ; who, 
after keeping it for three d;iys, must send it on by post 
to the next on the list, and he to the following one. 
When it has gone round tlie Circuit, the last member re- 
turns it to the Hon. Secretary, who will then forward it 
to the first member of the next Circuit, and so on, until 
the slides have been seen by the whole of the Society. 
Each member is expected to contribute six Slides annu- 
ally, which are returned to him after they bave been 
round the Circuits. Ladies, as well as gentlemen, may be 
elected members of the Society. 

Entrance Fee, Five Shillings; Annual Subscription, 
Ten Shillings; dating from 1st October in each year. 

A copy of the Journal is posted free to each member on 
day of publication. 

All communications on matters connected with the 
Society, or with this Journal, should be addressed to 
Mr. Alfhed Allen, as above. 



The Christian Leader: 

A Record of Religious Thought and Work. 

Weeldy — One Penny. MontJdy Part — Sixpence. 



PROMINENT FEATURES OF "THE CHRISTIAN LEADER." 

I.— It is A HTGH-CLASS FAMILY NEWSPAPER and MIS 'ELLANY, uniting the 
vivacity and f;'eneral interest of the best Secular Journals with a distinctly re- 
ligions character. 

11. — It g-ives the earliest intelligence of all the most sicjnificant RELIGIOUS AND 
PHILANTHROPIC MOVEMENTS AT HOME AND ABROAD. 

III.— It gives REPORTS of EVANGELISTIC and TEMPERANCE WORK. 

IV.— It gives SERMONS by Great Living Preachers. 

v.— It gives PEN-PORTRAITS of EMINENT DIVINES and CHRISTIAN LAYMEN. 

VI. —It gives ORIGINAL SERIAL STORIES by Eminent Authoi-s ; ESSAYS, 
SKETCHES, and POEMS by many of the most Popular Authors of our time. 

Vlt.— It gives LITERARY TABLE TALK and REVIEWS of the NEW BOOKS. 

VIII.— It contains, in its OPEN COUNCIL, a .section specially set ap;irt for well- 
written Correspondence. 

IX.— It contains a Corner for the YOUNG FOLK. 

X.— It is BRIGHT and CHEERFUL, seeking to diffuse healthy, fraternal feeling, .-ind to 
2>romotc union among the Churches. 

"Certainly first-class. A sprightly, brilliant, nnd versatile paper. The richness of 
its variety is marvellous as well as elorpient. "—('/')■/.>•■//«;( at Wm-lc ( yen- York-). 

"Does for the religions world what C/mi/iln'r/ .TDiirmd did for the worM of general 
eaders fifty years ago. " — Freeman. 

"A model paper in every element of excellence." — Irixh Christian Advorafe. 

" Without exception the best publication of its class. As a record of religious 
thousht and work it has no rival." — li<Ii iJiiir<ih I)ail)i I'cview. 

" Contains more readable news to the sipiaro inch than any other paper that we know 
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List of Land & Freshwater liollusca of Lancashire, | 

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