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Full text of "Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry and the Arts"

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^LcfwlfOM Thiloa-.<Tniinial:'VoL.X[H.tv face Title. 




.\rulL<n o'e-Rji/iM CbP 



JOURNAL 



OF 



NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 
CHEMISTRY, 



AND 



THE ARTS, 



VOL. XIII. 



SlUustraten toitfj oBngraioingflf* 



BY WILLIAM NICHOLSON. 



LONDON: 

rxmt-EO SY w. stratford, crown court, te-mple bar, rtte, 

THE AUTHOR, 

■VND SOLD SV HIM AT NO, 10, SOHO-saUARE; 

AND BV 

H, i;>, SYMOXDS, PATERNOSTER-ROW. 

J me. 



'^.i. 



f 



PREFACE. 



X HE Authors of Original Papers are, J, Gougb, Esq 
Dr. Beddoes; H. B. K.; A Corespondent; J. S., Butt 
Esq.; Mr. Richard Winter; H. Davy, Esq. F. R. S 
W. N. ; Mr. Florian Jolly ; Mr. R. Harrup ; Mr. Alex 
Crombie; Mr. James Stodart ; A. F. ; K. H. D.; Mr. 
J. W. Boswell; G. C; W. Brande, Esq. ; M. Cowan, Esq 
Mr. T. Northmore; Mr. J. Martin; T. Young, M. D 
F.R.S.; Mr. J. Dalton; Dr. Okely; Mr. H. Steinhauer 
J. Bostock, M. D. ; A. T. ; Amicus ; A. B. C. 

Of Foreign Works, M M. Callias and Co. ; Colonel Ski- 
oeldebrand; M. Debue ; M. Favre ; Prof. PJayfair ; M. W. 
A. Cadell ; M. Rosseau and Genon; M. Riffant; Professor 
Heeven ; Lagrange ; Curaudeau ; Sorbie ; Humboldt ; Gay 
Lussac ; Drappier ; P. S. Girarey ; Messrs. Reynard and 
Facquer ; Bucholz ; Hermestadt ; Biemontier ; M. P. Dispan ; 
M. Poideyin ; Haufman. 

And of English Memoirs abridged or extracted, William 
Herschel, L. L. D. F. R. S. ; J. Horsburgh, Esq. ; Henry 
Cavendish, F.R.S.; C. Hatchett, Esq.; Dr. Balfour; M. 
Flinders, Esq. ; W. H. Wollaston, M. D. Sec. R.S. ; Rev. 
W. Gregor; Mr. W. Shirreff; Rev. Dr. W. Richardson; 
Benjamin 'Smith Barton, M. D.;Dr. Holme; Sir James 
Hall, Bart. F.R.S.; Mr. B. Gibson; T. A. Knight,* Esq. 
F.R.S.; Rt. Rev. Bishop Madison; Mr. B. Gibson; Mr. 
Thomas Earnshaw. 

Soho Square, London, May I, 1S06. 

TABLE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

TO THIS THIRTEENTH VOLUME. 

JANUARY, 1806. 

Engravings of the following Objefts : 1. Delineations of certain Phenomena of 
Ele£lric Light not hitherto delcribedj 2, Dr, Herfchers Reprelentation of 
the lingular Figure of the Planet Saturn ; 3. Diagrams to iiluftrate Dr. Her- 
fchel's Deduftions of the Motion of our Planetary Syftem through the Re- 
gions of Space, and the Dire6lions of that Motion. 

I. On the Caufe of Fairy Rings. By John Gough, Efq. - Page I 

II. Obfervations on the fingular Figure of the Planet Saturn. By William 
Herfchel, L. L. D. F. R. S. - - - - - 4 

III. Fafts and Obfervations on the medical Refpiration of gafeous Oxide of 
Azote. In aLetter from Dr. Beddoes. - - - - 11 

IV. Abftrafl of Obfervations on a diurnal Variation of the Barometer between 
the Tropics. By J. Horlburgh, Efq. In a Letter to Henry Cavendlfli, Efq. 
F.R. S. Read March 1 4-, 1805. - - - - IS 

V. Second Communication on Artificial Tan. By Charles Hatcliett, Efq. 
Abridged from the Philofophical Tranfaaions for 1805. - 23 

VI. On carbonifed Turf. From a Report made to the Prefefl of Police (at 
Paris) on the Methods employed for reducing it to this State. By MM, 
Callias and Co. - - - - - - - 36 

VIL Account of the Catarafts and Canal of Troellhoeta, in Sweden, (from 
a Work relative to thera by Colonel Skioekiebrand. Publifkcdin one Volume 
Quarto, at Stockholm.) - - - - - 39 

VIIL Letter from H. B. K. on the Produftion of Nitrous Acid, and other 
Fafts. - - - - - - , . 40 

IX. Report of M. Debuc's Memoir on Acetic Acid, made by M. M. Planche 
and Boullay, by Order of the Society of Pharmacy at Paris. - 42 

X. Account of the Imperial Botanic Garden of Schoenbrunn, in the Vicinity 
of Vienna. .„.-,, -47 

XI. Letter from a Correfpondcnt on the Means of increafing the Adion of 
Sound on the Organs of fuch as are partially de.jf. - - 52 

JCII. Eafy and correft Method of verifying the Portion of a Tranfit Inftru- . 
ment. By J. S. Butt, Efq, Communicated by the Autlior. - 53 

XIII. A Comparifon of fome Obfervations on the Diurnal Variations of the 
Barometer, made in Peyroufe's Voyage round the World, with tliofe made 
at Calcutta by Dr. Balfour. - - - - - 5(> 

XIV. A^ft>-aft of a Memoir on the Dlre£lion apd Velocity of the Motion of 
the Sun and Solar Syftem. By Dr. Herfchel. From the Philofophical Tranf- 
a6\ions, 1805. (A.) - . . . . - 59 

XV. New Experiments on the Solution of Sulphur in Alcohol, and the vari- 
ous Kinds of Ether. JBy M. Favre. c - . - oS 

XVI. On the Utility of fcientific periodical Publications. In aLetter from Mr. 
Richard Winter. To which are added, fome Experiments of Heat produced 
by a Blaft of Air from Bellows. - - - - - 72 

XVII. An Account of two interfering Rainbows, feen at Dunglafs in Eaft 
Lothian in July laft, was communicated by Profeilur Playfair. - 1'i 

XVIII. Notice of a Collection of Meniojrs Nvhich have lately appeared at Pans, 
being Partof a Work on which the celebrated Lavoilier was employed till the 
lamented Clol'e of his Life; with a Tranllation of that Meinoir, in which 
he claims the modern Theory of Chcmiltry as his ov^^n exckifive Difcuvery. 
Received from Mr. W. A. Cadeii, at Paris, - - - 77 

XIX. On a Method pf analyzing Stones containing fixed Alkali, by Means of 
the Boracic Acid. By Humphry Davy, Efq. F. K. S. Profelfor of Chtmiftry 
in the Royal Inftitution. : - - - - S'- 

XX. Some Facts and Speculations on the luminous Phenomena of Electricity. 
W.n: - - . - - . . - 87 

Scientific News, .01. — Anatomirn! Cabinet, ib. — Shower of Peas, ib.— Univei- 
t.ii Language, ib. — Turkifh Edict in Favour of Science, 92. — Coptic Man u- 
fciiptj, ib. 

FEBRUARY 



CONTENTS. T 

FEBRUARY 1806, 

Engravings of the following Objefls : 1. A new Secret Lock of Ten Thonfand 
Combinatiofis ; 2. A Statical Lamp which conftantly I'upplies Oil from a Re- 
fervoir which cafts no Shadow ; 3. Map of the River Dordcgnc, Ihewing the 
Courfe of Mafcaret, or violent Influx of Water, which occafionally rufhes 
into that River. 
1. On the Caufe oi Fairy Rings. In a Letter from Mr. Florian-Jolly. 93 

JI. Experiments on the Magnetifm of ilender Iron Wires. By John Goiigh, 
Elq. - - - - - "- 96 

III. Concerning the Differences in the magnetic Needle, on Board the Invef- 
tigator, arifing from an Alteration in the Dire6tion of the Ship's Head. By 
Matthew Flinders, Efq. Commander of his Majefty's Ship Inveftigator. 
From Philof. Tranf. 1805. - - - - 110 

IV. Letter from Mr. Robert Harrup, Aiewing that the Smut in Wheat exifts 
in the Seed, and is greatly remedied by lime fteeping. - - 113 

V. On the Difcovery of Palladium ; with Obfervations on other Subftances 
found with Platina. By William Hyde Wolialton, M.D. Sec. R. S. 117 

VI. Report made to the Athene des Arts of Paris, by MM. Rondelet, Beauval- 
let, and Duchefne ; on the founding the Statue of Joan cf Arc in Bronze, 
by a Way never before ufed for large Works, by MM. Roulfeau and Genon, 
under the Direftion of M. Gois, Statuary. - - - 128 

VII. Experiments made at the Galvanic Society of Paris, by M. RifFant, Di- 
re£lor of the Nitre and Gunpowder Works, tending to prove that Muriatic 
Acid is not compofed as announced by M. Pachiani. - - 137 

VI [I. Account of an Ancient Geographical Tablet in the Mufeum of Cardinal 
Porgia, from a Memoir prefented to the Academy of Gottingen, by ProfefTor 
Heeven. - - - - - - 111 

JX. Analyfis of Birdlime. By M. Bullion Lagrange. [- - 144 

X. Method of purifying Oil. By M. Curaudeau. - - - IjO 

XI. On a peculiar Fluctuation of the River Dordogne, called the Mafcnret, 
By M. Lagrave Sorbie. - - - - If)? 

XII. Defcription of a fecret Lock of ten thoulhnd Combinations, W. N. 138 

XIII. Letter from Mr. Alex. Crombie, concerning the Caledonian Literary 
Society at Aberdeen. - - - - - - 1(^3 

XIV. Letter from Mr. James Stodart, in Anfwer to a Qiieftion concerning the 
Effeft of the Nitrous Oxide, purpoied by Dr. Beddoes - - 165 

XV. Defcription of a Statical Lamp, which maintains a Supply of Oil to the 
Burner from a Refervoir, placed fo low as to occupy no Interception of 
Light. By A. F. - - - - - - 16^ 

XVI. Letter from a Correfpondent reftifying fome Particulars of Mifinformation 
refpcfling the Fifliery of the North of Scotland. - - - 1 68 

XVII. Obfervations and Enquiries concerning the Heat of Air Bellows. By 
K. H. D. ... . . 170 

XVIII. Account of the Performance of the patent Ship Economy at Sea, in 
a Voyage to the Weft India Iflands, and of Ibmc Improvement in the Tackle 
aboard proved of great Utility. By Mr. J. Whitley Bofwell. - 174 

XIX. Experiments on the Torpedo. By MefTrs. Humboldt and Gay Lufl'ac. 
Extrafted from a Letter of M. Humboldt to M. Berthollet, dated Rome, 
Sept;, 2, 1805. - - - - - 180 

Scientific News, 184.-— Prizes propofed by the Univerfity andAcademy of Wilna, 
in June, |,805, ib. — Revived Precipitates from alkaline Solutions of met.-illic 
.Oxides, 187. — Experiments on falling Bodies, by M. Benzenberg, ib. — 
(jeogrnphy, ib. — Effeft of Ht-at on Magnetifm. r - 188 

.MARCH 



vi CONTENTS. 

MARCH J 806. 

Engravings of the folloiviiig Objefts : I. The Apparatus for blafting Rocks j 
2. An improved PaiaHcl Line, by Mr. Bofwel! j 3. Captain Cowan's im- 
proved Sails for Shipping, wincli, by Reefing at the Foot are much more 
ipcedily and fafely managed than thofe of the ufual Conftru£lion. 

I. Experiments on the Temperature of Water furrounded by freezing Mix- 
tures. In a Letter from John Gough, Efq. - - Page 189 

II. Account of the Art and Inftruments uied for boring and blafting Rocks; 
with Improvements. In a Letter from G. C. > - 192 

III. Defcription of a new Parallel Rule, exempt from lateral Deviation; invented 
by Mr. j. W. Bofwell; with an Account of the Imperfe^ions of thofe 
already made for the fame Purpofe. - - - 196 

IV. Letter from an Enquirer, on the Wafte cf Filh aflerted to.be made on the 
Scottifli Conft. In Reply to A. L. - - - - 200 

V. A Chemical and Medical Examination of the Gizzards of white Fowls 
compared v\-ith Gelatine, together vtith an Expolition of the Charafterillics 
of the latter when oxigenated. By M- Bouillon Lagrange. - 203 

VI. On Pirite found in France by M. Cocq, Commifl'ary of Gun-powder and 
Saltpetre Works at Ciermont-Ferrant, with an Analyfis of this Subftance. 
By J. J. Draj)picr, Teacher cf Chemilby in the Polytechnic Scheoi. 212 

VII. Experiments, fhewing, contrary to the AlftrtioMS of Morichini, that the 
Enamel of Teeth dees not contain Fluoric Acid. In a Letter from W. 
Brande, Efq. ._.-.. 214 

VIII. A Mernoir on taking the Levels of the vv'hole Surface of France. By 
P. S. Girary, Chief Engineer of Bridges and Highways, &c. - 217 

IX. ObfervationS on the Conipofition of Water, and other Elementary Doc- 
trines. ByH. B.K. - - - _ 503 

X. On the Conftruftion of the Sails of Ships and VelTels. By Malcolm Cowan, 
El'q. Captain in the Royal Navy. - - - 'jog 

XI. Experiments on condenfed Gafes By T. Northmore. - 233 

XII. On'the Probability that Muriatic Acid is compofed of Oxigen and Hy- 
drogen. In a Letter from Mr. J. Martin. ... 237 

XIII. Subftance of a Mtmoir re<-id before the Society of Emulation at Amiens, 
by MefTrs. Reynard and Facquer, on the foul Air of Oil Cifterns. 23S 

XIV. Extraft from a Memoir, by MelTrs. Fouicroy avid Vauquelin, on the 
Phenomena obfervt:d in, and the Relulrs obtained from Animal Matter, when 
afted upon by NiuicAcid. Read at the National Inftitute, by A. Laugier. 240 

XV. Remarks relative tc Dr. Herlchel's Figure of Saturn. By an Oblerver. 246 

XVI. Experinx'ntsona Mineral Subftance formerly luppofed to be Zeolite; with 
fome Remarks on two Species of Uran-glimmer. By the Rev. W. Gregor. 217 

XVII. Exnmination of different Methods of fcparating Nickel from Cobalt By 
M. C. F. Bucholz. ------ 261 

XVIII. Sugar prepared from Beets. By M. Hermeftadt. - 267 

XIX. Method of Racking Turnips, to preferve them through the Winter. 
By Mr. J. Shirr«tf, of Captain Head, near Haddington, N. Britain. 268 

XX. Account of fomt Specimens (.f Bafaltes from the northern Coaft of 
Antrim. By the Rev. Dr. W. Richardfon. - . 273 

Scienliflc News, 274. — Almanack printed at Conftantinople, ib. — Obfervatory 
at Bavaria, ib. — Eftablifliment for natural Philufophy in the Ukraine, 275. — 
Obfervatory at Moflcow, ib.— Solar Tables, ib. — Bequcft of Erneft the Second 
relative to his Obfervatory, 276, 

APRIL 



CONTENTS. til 

APRIL, 1806. 

Engravings of the following Objects: 1, 2. Profile Views of Air in Water, by- 
Mr. Dalton ; 3. Horizontal View of Particles of Air in Water, by Mr. Dal- 
ton; 4, View of a Square Pile of Shot, &c. 5. Diagram to illuftrate the 
Theory of the Horizontal Moon. 

I. Letter from T.Young, M,D.F. R.S. &c. claiming the Lamp defcribed in 
our laft Number, and demanding an Explanation from the anonymous Com^ 
municator. - - - - - 277 

II. On the Tendency of Elaftic Fluids to DifFufion through each other. By 
John Dalton. - - - - - - 278 

in. On the Horizontal Moon. By Dr. Okely. In a Letter from Mr. H. 
Steinhauer. - - - - - - - 284> 

IV. Account of fome Specimens of Bafaltes from the northern Coaft of An- 
trim. By the Rev. Dr. William Richardibn. - - 287 

V. On the Abforption of Gafes by Water and other Liquids. By John 
Dalton. - . - . . 29i 

VI. On the fuppofed fafcinating Power of the Rattle-fnake. With a re- 
markable Indian Tjadition upon which it is probable the early European Set- 
tlers founded their popular Tales. From the Philadelphia Medical and 
Phyfical Journal, by Benjamin Smith Barton, M. D. - 300 

VII. A Defcription of a Property of Caoutchouc, or Indian Rubber : With 
fome Reflections on the Caufe of the Elaiticity of this Subllance. In a 
Letter to Dr. Holme. - - - - - '305 

VIII. Obfervations on the training up of Pugilifts, Wreftlers, Jockies, and 
others, who give themfelves up to Athletic Exercifes ; with fome Queries for 
difcovering the Principles thereof, and the Procefs of training Running Horfes, 
Sec. with a View of afcertaining whether the fame can furni/h any Hints fer- 
viceable to the Human Species. - - - - 30y 

IX. On the Dangers encountered in travelling over Downs, occafioned hj 
Quickfands, Vv/liich are frequently found on the Sea-Coall } with an Indica- 
tion of the Means of avoiding them. By M. Biemontier, Infpeftor-General 
of Bridges and Roads. - - - 319 

X. Extract from a Memoir by Meffrs. Fourcroy and Vauquelin, on the Guano, 
or Natural Manure, of the fmall Iflands of the South Sea, near the Coaft of 
Peru. Read at the French National Inftitule, by A. Laugier. - 322 

XI. Note on a Varnifli for glazing Cups. By M. Parmentier. - 327 

XII. Account of a Series of Experiments, fliewing the Effefts of Compref- 
fion in modifying the Aftion of Heat, By Sir James Hall, Bart. F. R. S. 
Edin. .-.-._ 328 

XIII. On the Ufe of the Sutures in the Skulls of Animals. By Mr. B. Gib- 
fon. - - - - - - 343 

XIV. On the Reproduaion of Buds. Bv Thomas Andrew Knight, Efq. 
F. R. S. - , - - '- - - 349 

XV. Experiments on the Gafeous Oxide of Azote, by a Society of Amateurs 
at Touloule. Publiil>ed by M. P. Dilpan, Profeffor of Chemiftry in the 
College of that City. - - - - 354 

XVI. Obfervations on the Mammoth, or American Elephant, by which it is 
proved to have been an herbivorous Animal. In a Letter from the Right 
Reverend Bilhop Madifon. - - - - - 358 

XVII. Obfervations on the Danger of Earthern-ware or Pottery of a bad 
Quality. By M. Poideyin of Rouen. - - - 361 

XVIII. Extraft of a Letter from M. John Michael Hauffmann, to M. Ber- 
thollet, on the Exiftence of intermediate Terms of Oxidation. - 363. 

Scientific News, 369. — Memoirs de TAcademie Imperiale des Sciences, &c. 
Memoirs of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, Literature, and fine Arts, of 
Turin, for the Years 12 and 13, 2 Vols. Quarto, 1805> Turin, ib. 

SUPPLEMENT 



Till CONTENTS. 

SUPPLEMENT. 

Engravings of the following Objefts ; I, 2, J. Three Qiiarto Engravings, con- 
taining the Apparatus and Subjefts of Sir James HalTs Experiments upon 
the Effefts of Heat modiiied by Comprefllon ; 4. The Efcapcment of Eain- 
fliaw's Time-Piece, for which the Conmiiflioners of Longitude voted a Re- 
ward of JOOO/. 

I. On the Saline Efflortfcences upon Walls; Salivary Concretions; Deflagration 
of Mercury by Galv;^Miiin; Biliary Calculi ; and the freezing Point of Sper- 
maceti, By John Bollock, M, D. - . _ Page 373 

II. Inveftigation of the Temperature at which Water is of greateft Denfity, 
from the Experiments of Dr. Hope on the Contraftion of Water by Heat at 
low Temperatures. In a Letter from Mr. John Dalton. - - 311 

III. Account of a Series of Experiments, fhewing the Effects of Comprefllon 
in modifying the A«tion of Heat. By Sir James Hail, Bart, F. R. S. Edin- 
burgh. - - - - - - 381 

IV. Obfervations on the Effeft of Madder Root on the Bones of Animals. By 
Mr. B. Gibfon. ^ - - - - - 40(i 

V. On Fairy Rings and the Wafte of Fifli in Scotland. By A. T- - 415 

VI. Letter from Amicus relpefting the fuppoled Wafte of Crab-Fifli in Scot- 
land. - - - - - - 417 

VII. Probability that the Hindoos were acquainted with Saturn's Ring. 418 
VIIL Explanation of Time-keepers conihii6ted by Mr. Thomas Earnfhaw; 

for which a Reward of Three Thouland Pounds was awarded by the Commif- 
fioners of Longitude. From the Communications made by him to the Com- 
milTioners. -~ - - - - 419 

IX. Experimental Enquiry into the Proportion of the feveral Gafes or Elaftic 
Fluids, conftituting the Atniofphere. By John Dalton. - 430 

X. Obfervation which indicates a fponianeous Decompofition of Nitrous Acid 
and Formation of Ammonia. By D. A. - - - 433 

Scientific News, 410.- Note on the Porcelain of Reaumur. Communicated by 
Veau de Launij ib. — 



TO THE BINDER. 
The three Targe folding Plates numbered Plate 1, PI. 2, and PL 3, «i- 
grazed from Tranf. R. S, are to be placed along with Plate 13. There 
are no Plates numbered 9, 10, II, 12, thefe three Quartos fupplying 
their Place. 



A 

JOURNAL 

OF 

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, CHEMISTRY, 

AND 

THE ARTS. 



JANUARY, 1806. 



ARTICLE I. 

On the Caufe of Fairy Rings. %John Gough, E/q. 

To Mr. NICHOLSON, 
SIR, Middlejhaiv, Decauher 1 , 1805. 

X OU publiftied in the firft page of your ninth volume in Introduftojy 
odavo, a letter to me from the Rev. Jonathan Wilfon, vicar '^'"^^'^ ^* 
of Biddulph, in which the appearance of a patch of grouod 
recently blafled and torn up by hghtning was defcribed. 
The obfervations of this ingenious and accurate gentleman 
promifed to throw light on the natural hiflory of fairy-rings, 
provided they were continued, and in this expedlalion, I took 
the liberty in a note fubjoined to the copy of his letter printed 
by you, to requeft his future remarks on the fubje6t, drawn 
from repeated infpeftion of the place afFe6ted by the light- 
ning. The following is an extra6l of a letter from Mr. Wilfon, 
containing his obfervations relative to the fubfequent ap- 
pearances of the patch, with fome thoughts which are cer- 
tainly an improvement in one theory of fairy-rings, that has 
received the patronage of fome writers. This letter is dated 
November 1, 1805, and after fome prefatory matter, pro- 
ceeds thus, 
Vol,. XIII.—Januaky, ISOo. B '« la 



Mr. Wilfon's " In tonfequence of your elleemed favour of the Itlh ^f 

remarks begin. A^guft^ j goi-, I vvenl on the 2nd of September following, 
to view the place which the lightning had flriick, being ac- 
Thc place not companied by the farmer of the grounds. The aflcfted fpot 
eafy to be found, ^-aj, not then vejy ea(y to be diftinguiflicd, as the injured 
Ihifiles were generally overtopped at the time, but we had 
no doubt of its true fituation, upon finding the place where 
Slight veAlgcs we formerly dug in purfuit of the imaginary (tone. Some 
of the lightning, ^g^j gp^f^ appeared, but it was confined to the fpace within 
which the roots had been plowed up by the electric 'fluid. 
The verdure was undoubtedly brighter about the hole, and 
Ihe farmer was willing to attribute the flouriihing flate of 
this circle of herbitage to the lightning j but for my part, 
I afcribed it to what had dropped from his cows, rather than 
any thing that had fallen from the clouds. 
Thefe veftigcs " I have not been able to perceive the leaft difference be- 
not permanent. ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^-^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^j^^ ^^,,j^ j^^ing the 

courfe of the prefent year j my obfervations muft therefore 
be acknowledged not to liavour the hypolhefis, which luppofes 
fairy-rings to be formed at firft by lightning. 
The explanation • " I never faw a fairy-ring, and therefore may feem badly 
''fovel''^ ''"" qualified to write on the fubjeft ; but from what I have read, 
it appears to me, that the circle of decayed grafs is caufed 
by the innumerable grubs, wliich are faid to lay concealed 
under the ring among the roots of the herbifage ; I alfo 
fuppole, that the fungufes commonly feen on lairy-rings, 
give a preference to thefe circles on account of the abundance 
of dead vegetable matter to be found in them ; amofngft 
which various ipecies of fangi are known to grow. To this 
I may add, that the interior circle of dark green grats is 
owing to the dung, and ploughing of Ihofe animals in Ihe 
preceding year ; and the reafon which compels thefe grubs 
or their oHspring to pufh forward from the cenlre, feems to be 
this ; every creature we know of has an averfion to working 
in its own excrement, or that of its own fpecies." 
Tlcfleaiont on The obfervations of Mr. Wilfon, flaled above, feem (o 
tiftjjs. ^^^" demonQrale, that a patch of herbage is not invariably con- 
verted into a faury-ring by a powerful flroke of lightning; 
confcquently if ele6iric dilcharges from the atmofphere be ilw: 
primary caufes of thefe circles, they require the afii fiance of 
fome peculiarity in the foil to give permanency to the appear- 
ance. 



PAIUY RINGS. «-» 

ance. Moreover the circular figure of thefe Phenomena Djffi'^^a^'^^.s^'jf 
embarrailes llie eledrical hypothelis with a fecond difficulty ; theory, 
for the (racls of difcoloui-ed grafs, actually produced by light- 
ning, are but feldoni bent inlo rings as they more frequently 
afTunie a zigzag, or elfe a ramified form, and are, I believe, 
of but fliort duration ; which (hews, tbe roots of' the herbage 
are not deftroyed, unlefs where the earth is torn up. The FuBgi not the 
theory which attributes thefe circles of withered grafs ^o "„"j^/^^^"^ 
the running of a fungus, has little or no foundation ; becaiife 
thefe imperfeft plants, generally fpeaking, attach themfelves 
to dead vegetables, confequently their prefence in fairy-rings 
is nothing more than an appearance which is fubfequent to 
khe deftruction of the herbage upon them. As for the lively Superior verdure 
verdure of the grafs on the interior edges of thefe circles, ^^^.J^^'^J]"'^ 
I believe it may be explained upon general principles, with- 
out the agency of lightning or fungi. For if the herbage df 
a patch of ground be deftroyed root and branch by a caufe 
which does not remove the remains of it, the place will be 
covered, in procefs of time, with a frefti crop of plants^ po(- 
feding fuperior luxuriancy and verdure. The caufes of this Dead plants, &'c. 
vigorous vegetation appear to be the following; the 'i^ad"^^^^^^ '^ 
roots and ftems rot and manure the foil which produced ' 

them : this fource of fertility receives an additional fupply 
fiom a fucceffion of fungi', which grow and decay on the 
furface of the ground, as well as from the excrement and 
exuvia of the grubs, which take up their abode among the 
withered roots; laftly, the foil is rendered more porous by Tbe air in- 

the decay of the vegetable remains, and thereby becomes ^'■^" vegeta- 
■' ° , , ■' tion by acting 

more permeable to the air, which increafes its fertility not a on the roots. 

little. The laft polition feems to be confirmed by the cir- 

cumftance of plants thriving better in unglazed, than in 

glazed flower pots. Tbe followiJig fa&s rnay be adduced pmofs of the 

in Gorroboration of what has been here advanced. A fmall piece preceding 

of ground was covered,, in June, with common fait, which had 

been rubbed upon the corps of a drowned man ; the herbage 

of this place died in a tfcort time ; but was fucceeded tha 

next furamer by a new crop, the verdivre of which diftinguiihed 

it for fome years from the fttrrounding grafs. As common 

fait is efieemed a manure, perhaps the following inftance 

will be called preferable to. the former. Many woods in 

'his country, efpecially thofe- about Windermere, are en; 

B^ d(ivv?i 



FIGURE or THl PLANtT SATURN. 



:;',r-?Ftia(ieiw';n about once in fourteen years, and converted into 
■'' J^^Ij^lTarcoal, for the u(e oi the iron works. Tliis is done by 
Ihiv^wing th« branches into large heaps; which are theu 
covered with green tur^^ and (et on lire. Thcfe piles of 
yvood continue burning for feveral days, in confequence of 
which, the roots in the ground beneath them are completely 
.,-j, Ijp, vf bajred ; and the pit-ftead, as the place is called, has no, 
'. ;. :, -verdure left upon it. The lofs however is repaired in the 
' '' ' courfe of a few years by nature herfelf, where art does not 
interfere, and the fpot is clothed with a fre(h coat of herbage, 
coniitting of herbs remarkable for their lize and flourifliing 
appearance. This inftance of vigorous vegetation on ground 
that has been completely burned, in all probability, is occa- 
fioned by the texture of the foil ; which is adapted to retain 
moifture, and admit the air; unlefs we luppofe the incorrup- 
tible fubftance of charcoal to afford a fpecies of manure. 
. The preceding hints may perhaps incite fome of your readers 
toftudy the natural hifiory of fairy-rings with greater diligence, 
efpecially to fearch after the true caule which blafts tbefe cir- 
cles; for when this is difcovered, we (hall be able to re-clothe 
them with fuperior verdure, on rational principles. 

I remain, &c. 

JOHN GOUGH, 



... 11. 

.ri; T:s Sli 

jBifis yd I Ohfervations on the fmgular Figure of the Vianet Saturn, By 
.i.vvio.; WiLLi.^M Herschel, il.Z). i^.iJ. 5.* 

ExamiDation of HERE is not perhaps another obje6t in the heavens that 
the (hit^ngphe- prefents us with fuch a variety of extraordinary phenomena 
pran« SatJn! as the planet Saturn : a magnificent globe, encompaffed by a 
fiupendoas double ring : attended by feven falellites : orna- 
mented with equatorial belts : comprelTed at the poles : turn- 
ing upon its axis: mutually eclipfing its ring and fatellites, and 
eclipfed by them: the mod diflant of the rings alfo turning 
upon its axis, and the fame taking place with the farlheft of 
Uie fatellites: all the parts of the (yftem of Saturn occafionally 



* PhilofophlcalTranfaaionsjl 805. 

refle(5lir? 



FIGURE OF THE PLAKET SATUttN. G 

a-efle6llng light to each other : the rings and moons illuminating 
the nights of the Saturnian : the globe and fatellites enlighl^- 
ening the dark parts of khe rings : and the planet and rings 
throwing back the fun's beams upon the moons, when they 
are deprived of them at the time of their conjundions. ', 

It muft be conFefled that a detail of circumftances liketbefe, ^^^ 

appears to leave hardly any room far addition,, and yet the . :2 

following obfervations will prove tliat .there is a fingular[fcy " v 

lei'l, which diftinguiflies tiie iigure cf Saturn from that of. all .br. tr 

the other planets. 

It has already been mentioned on a former occafion, that fo its body oblate* 
far back as the year 1776 I perceived that the body of Saturn 
was not exa6lly round; and when I found in the year 1781 ^ 

that it was flaltened.at the poles at leaft as much as Jupiter, I 
was infenfibly diverted from a more critical attention to the 
reft of the figure. Prepolfelfed with its being fpheroidical, I 
.nieafured (he tqualoria! and polar diameters in the year 1789, 
and fuppofed there could be no other particularity to remark 
in the figure of the planet. Wiien I perceived a certain irre- Reafons why the 
gularity in other parts of the body, it was generally afcribed greater pecuiiari- 
lo the interference of the ring, which prevents a complete view wereoverlookedl 
of its whole contour; and in this error I might ftill have re- 
Hiained, had not a late examination of the powers of my ten- 
feet telelcope convinced me that I ought to rely with the 
greateil confidence upon the truth of its reprefentations of the 
moft minute objeSs I infpe^ed. 

The following obfervations, in which the fingular figure of 
5aturn is fully inveftigated, contain niany remarks on the reft 
of the appearances that may befeen when this beautiful planet 
is examined with attention ; and though they are not imme- 
diately neceflary to ray prefent fubjedt, I thought it right to 
retain them, as they (how the degree of diftindinefs and pre- 
cifion of iheadion of the telefcope, and the clearnefs of the 
atmofphere at the time of obfervalion. 



April 1 2, 1 805. With a new 7-feet mirror of extraordinary very perfeft ob- 
diftindtnefs, I examined the planet Saturn. The ring refleds fervation, in 
vmore light than the body, and with a power of 570 the colour cumference was 
of the body becomes yellowifh, while that of the ring remains feen to be flat- 
more white, Thi fgives us an opportunity to diftinguifii the J^"^^^J" ^''^ 
5 ■ ring 



^i FIOUUK OF THE FLANET SATURN, 

ring from the body, in that part where it crofres the difli, by 
means of the difference in the colour of the refle6led light. I 
f^w the quintuple bell, and the flattening of the body at the 
polar regions; I could alfo perceive the vacant fpace between 
the two rings. 
Obfervations on The flattening of the polar regions is not in that gradual 
Saturn bv which ij^jjj^Pg^ jjl jupjier, it feems not to begin till at a high 

its fingular , . , , , ^ r . , i • • it 

figure is afcir- 'latitude, and there to be more ludden than it is towards the 
tained. poles of Jupiter. I have often made the fame obfervation 

before, but do not remember to have recorded it any where* 
April 1 S ; ten-feet refledtor, power 300. The air is very 
favourable, and I fee llie planet extremely well defined. The 
Ihadow of the ring is very black in its extent over the difk 
fonth of the ring, where I fee it all tl?e way with great dif- 
tinftnefs. 

The ufual belts are on the body of Saturn ; they cover a 
much larger zone than the belts on Jupiter generally take up, 
as may be feen in the figure I have given in Plate I. ; and alfo 
in a former reprefentation of the fame belts in ITOi.* 

The figure of the body of Saturn, as 1 fee it at prefent, is 
certainly difl'erent from the fpheroidical figure of Jupiter. The 
curvature is greateft in a high latitude. 

I took a meafure of the fituation of the four points of the 
greateft curvature, with my angular micrometer, and power 
527, When the crofs of the micrometer palfed through all 
the four points, the angle which gives the double latitude of 
two of the points, one being north the other foulh of the ring, 
or equator, was 93° 16'. The latitude therefore of the four 
points is 'Ka*-' 38' ; it is there the greateft curvature takes place. 
As neither of the crofs wires can be in the parallel, it makes 
the meafure fo difficult to take, that very great accuracy can- 
not be expected. 

Tiie moti northern belt comes up to the place where the 
ring of Saturn patfes behind the body, but the belt is bent in a 
contrary direQion being concave to the north, on account of 
its croflTing the body on the fide turned towards us, and the 
nortii pole being in view. 

There is a vary dark, but narrow thadow of the body upon 
the following part of the ring, which as it were cuts oflT the 
ring from the body. 



* See Phil. Tranf. iot 1794, Table VI. page 32. 



The 



FIGURE OF XHE PLANET SATURV, 7 

The (liadow of the ring on the body, which I fee fouUi ofobfervations on 

the ring, grows a litLle broader on both fides near the margin Snturn, by 

,- , ^'.° ° which its fingu- 

Ot Ihedilk. lar figure is af- 

The diviiion between the two rings is dark, lilce the vacant ccrtained. 
fpace, between the anfiE, but not black like the fhadow I have 
<Iefcribed. 

There are four fyteJIiles on the preceding fide near the ring; 
^he largeil and anotber are north-preceding; the other two 
are nearly preceding. 

April J 9. I viewed the planet Saturn with a new 7 -feet 
telefcope, bolh mirrors of which aie very perfeiS. I faw all 
the phenomena as defcribed lait night, except the fatellites, 
which had changed their Situation ; tour of them being on the 
following fide. This telefcope however is not equal to the 
lO-feel one. 

The remarkable figure of Saturn admits of no doubt : when 
our particular attention is once drawn to an objed, we fee 
things at firft fight that would otherwife have clcaped our 
notice. 

10-feet refleftor, power 4'00. The night is beautifully , 
clear, and the i)!anet near the meridian. The figure of Saturn 
is fomewhat like a fquare or rather parellelogram, with the 
<our corners rounded off deeply, but not fo much as to bring 
it to a fpheroid. I fee it in pcifc'6tion. 

The four falellites that were lall night on the preceding, 
are now on the Ibllowing fide, and are very bright. 

I took a meal'ure of the poiition of the four points of the 
greateft curvature, and found it yf 29'. l^his gives their 
latitude ^b" W,5. I believe this meafure to be pretty ac- 
curate. I fet firft the fixed thread to one of the lines, by keep- 
iiig the north-preceding and fouth-tbllowing two points in the 
thread ; then adjufted the other thread in the fame manner to 
the fouth-preceding and north-following points. 

May 5, 1805. I directed my 2()-feet telefcope to Saturn, 
and, with a power of about 300, faw the planet perfedly well 
defined, the evening being remarkably clear. The Ihadow of 
the ring on the body is quite black. All the other phenomena 
are very diftinfl. 

The figure of the planet is certainly not fpheroidical, like^ 
that of Mars and Jupiter. The curvature is lefs on the equator 

and 



g . FIGURE OF THE PLANET SATURN, 

Obfervations onandon the poles than at the latitude of about 45 degrees, 
whkh'its°fin<'u- '^^^ equatorial diameter is however confiderably greater than 
Ur figure is af- tiie polar. 

curtained. jp, order to have the teftimony of all my inftruments, on the 

fubjedt of the ftrudure of the planet Saturn, I had prepared 
the 40-feet refledior for obferving it in the meridian. I ufed a 
magnifying power of 360, and faw its form exactly as I had 
feen it in the 10 and 20-feet inftruments. The planet is flat- 
tened at the poles, but the fpheroid that would arife from this 
flattening is modified by fome other caufe, which I fuppofe to 
be the attraftion of the ring. It refembles a parallelogram, 
. one fide whereof is the equatorial, the other the polar dia- 
meter, with the four corners rounded off fo as to leave both 
the equatorial and polar regions flatter than they would be in 
the regular fpheroidical figure. 

The planet Jupiter being by this time got up to a confi- 
derable altitude, I viewed it alternately with Saturn in the 10- 
feet refle6ior, with a power of 500. The outlines of the figure 
.■ of Saturn are as defcribed in the obfervation of the 40-feet 

' . telefcope ; but ihofe of Jupiter are fuch as to give a greater 

curvature both to the polar and equatorial rt-gions than takes 
place at the poles or equator of Saturn which are compara. 
lively much flatter. 

May 12. I viewed Saturn and Jupiter alternately with 
my large 10-feet telefcope of 24 inches aperture; and faw 
plainly that the former planet differs much in figure from the 
latter. 

The temperature of the air is fo changeable that no large 
mirror can a6t well. 

May 13. lO-feet refledor, power 300. The Ibadow of the 
ring upon the body, and of the body upon the ring, are very 
black, and not of the dufky colour of the heavens about the 
planet, or of the fpace betwen the ring and planet, and be- 
tween the two rings. The north-following part of the ring 
clofe to the planet, is as it were cut ofl^ by the fliadow of the 
body ; and the ihadow of the ring lies fouth of it, but clofe to 
the projedion of the ring. 

The planet is of the form defcribed in the obfervation of 
the 40-feet telefcope; I fee it fo diftinftly that there can 
be no doubt of it. By the appearance, I fliould think the 

points 



FIGURE OF THE PLANET SATVRN. Q 

points of the greateft curvature not to be fo far north as 45 Obfervatlons on 

^ ° Saturn, by 

degrees. which its fingu- 

The evening being very calm and clear, I look a meafure br figure 13 af- 
of their fKuation, which gives the latitude of the greatefl cur- "^'^'"'^'^' 
vature 45® 21'. A fecond meafure gives 45'=' 41'' 

Jupiter being now at a confiderable altitude, I have viewed 
it alternately with Saturn. The figure of the two planets is 
decidedly different. The flattening at the poles and on the 
equator of Saturn is much greater than it is on Jupiter, but the 
curvature at the latitude of from 40 to 48^ on Jupiter is lefs 
than on Saturn. ' 

I repeated thefe alternate obfervations many times, and the 
oftener I compared the two planets together, liie more flriking 
was their different firu(51ure. 

May 26. 10-leet refleclor. With a parallel thread micro- 
meter and a magnifying power of 400, I took two meafures 
of the diameter of the points of greatefl curvature, A mean 
of them gave 6^4,3 divifions = 1 1'',98. After this, I took alfo 
two meafures of the equatorial diameter, and a mean of them 
gave 60,5 divifions = 11^',27; but the eciuatcuiai meafures 
are probably too fmall. 

To judge by a view of the planet, I fliould fiippofe the 
latitude of the greatefl curvature to be lefs than 45 degrees. 
The eye will alfo diflinguifli the difference in the three dia- 
meters of Saturn. That which paffes through the points of the 
greatefl curvature is the largeft ; the equatorial the next, and 
the polar diameter is the fmallefl. 

May 27. The evening being very favourable, I took again 
kvo meafures of the diameter between the points of grealeft 
curvature, a mean of which was 63,8 divifions = ll",88. 
Two meafures of the equatorial diameter gave 61,3 divifions 
= 11^44. 

June 1 . It occurred to me that a more accurate meafure 
might be had of the latitude in which the greatefl curvature 
takes place, by fetting the fixed thread of the micrometer to 
the direction of the ring of Saturn, which may be done with 
great accuracy. The two following meafures were taken in 
this manner, and are more fatisfactory than I had taken before. 
The firft gave the latitude of the fouth-precediug point of 
greatefl curvature 43° 26'; and the fecond 43* 13'. A mean 
of the two will be 43? 20'. 

June 



JQ FIGUKE OF THE TLANET SATUJIN. 

OWervaiions on June 2. I viewed Jupiter and Saturn alternately with a 

Saturn, l.y maorni tVinrr power of only 500, that the convexity of tl>e 
which Its lingu- o ,' b I . ' j r j i r 

lar lisuie is ai- C) e-glafs might occafion no deception, and tound tlie torni 
certalncd. „j- t|,e i^^q planets to difler in the manner that has been de- 

fcribed. 

Wid) 200 I faw the difference very plainly ; and even with 
160 it vvas fufficieiidy vilibie to admit of no doubt. Thefe low 
powers fliow the figure of the planets perfecliy well, for as 
the field of view is enlarged, and the motion of the objefils in 
pairing is lelFened, we are more at liberty to fix our attention 
upon them. 

I compared the telefcopic appearance of Saturn with a figure 
drawn by the meafures I have taken, combined with the pro- 
portion between the equatorial and polar diameters determined 
in the year 1 7 89 ; * and found that, in order to be a perfect 
refemblance. my figure required fome fmall reduction of the 
longeft diameter, fo as to bring it nearly to agree with the 
meafures taken the 27th of May. When I had made tlie ne- 
ccfiary alteration, my artificial Saturn was again compared 
with the telefcopic repreientation of the planet, and I was then 
fati^fied that it had all the correc^nefs of whicli a judgment of 
the eye is capable. An exa6l copy of it is given in Plate IX. 
The dimenfions of it in proportional parts are, 

The diameter of the greateft curvature - 36 
The equatorial diameter - - - - 35 
'J'he polar diameter - - - • - 32 

Latitude of the longed diameter - 43** 20.' 

iiw 

The foregoing obfervations of the figure of the body of 
Saturn will lead to fome intricate refearches, by which the 
quantity of matter in the ring, and its folidity, may be in fome 
meafure afcerlained. They alfo afford a new inftance of the 
effect of gravitation on the figure of planets; for in the cafe 
of Saturn, we fnall have to confider the oppofite influence of 
two centripetal and two centrifugal forces: the rotation of both 
the ring and planet having been afcertained in fome of my 
former Papers. 

* See Phil. Tr:mf. for 1700, page. IT. 

fads 



RESPIRATION OP GASEOUS OXIDE OF AZOTE. |J 

III. 

lads and Objhrvations on the medical liefpirntion of gazcous 
Oxide of Azote, in a Letter from Z)r. Beddoes. 

To Mr. NICHOLSOX. 
SIR, 

aJ'R. Pfaff's paper on refplratlon* will probably draw the I^r. Pfaff's ex- 
atlention of the (cientific towards the gafeoiis oxide ot azote, feibiratlon."'* 
which has been too much negleded in a medical point of 
view* I was only foriy to fee that he propofes to ule it in Pr<ipofes gafcons 
melancholia. No combination of ideas can Ije m^r^ o^'vious ^^1^''^°^^^^ °''' "* 
than the application of an agent which has lb frequently proved madnds.. 
exhilarating, and never yet been obferved to be followed by 
exhauHion where it did exhilarate, to a complaint, in Wiicli 
dcpredion of fpints is a ftriking circumfiance. But I am ap- 
prehenfive that the firft thoughts of inexperience here (as fo 
often happens) will prove illufory, and that this project will 
not be followed by the expcdied advantage in many cafes of 
melancholia. For if it be true that there is' no real diflindion 
between mania and melancholia, as far as the fenlorium is 
concerned, and (hat the vivacity of ideas in melancholia an- 
fwers to the violence of mufcular actions in mania, as I have 
endeavoured to fliew in my Ejfays on Health ; is there not 
ground to apprehend that the actions of the brain, already 
too ftrong, will be increafed by this gas, or the difeafed con- 
templations rendered more intenfc ? 

If there be any flale of melancholia in which it may be of Cautions again* 
fervice, this will probably happen when the nervous Ivftem is"^ unguarded 
talling nito debility, in conlequence or having been kept too ory j 
much on the ftretch. 

But I do not here warn againft gafeous oxide from mere from expeii- 
theory. The manager of a lunatic alylum near Briftol, re-^""* 
fpeflabiy known to the public, concurred with me Tome years 
ago in the opinion which I exprelfed to him concerning its 
probable advantage in melancholia ; and a patient that had 
been under his care inhaled it fairly without benefit. The ad- Cafes, 
©inifiration was tried in two other cafes as fruitlefsly : Indeed 

♦ PhlJof. Journal, XII. 2^d. 

I dif. 



12 RESPIRATION OF GASEOUS OXIDE OF AZOTK, 

I difcontinued it in one, from fome indications of an aggrava* 
tion of (he fymptoms. I was by this time alive to fuf. 
picion, having thought much on the fubject, and reafoned 
mvfelf into the idea (hat it would ollen do injury upon the 
above-mentioned principle. It has long been my opinion, 
and there are ftriking obfervations on record to prove that 
hidrogen, hidro-carbonate, azotic, or carbonic acid gafes, 
would be n)ore likely (o anfwer in aclive infanity under what- 
ever form, Thefe obfervations I lliall take occafion to quote 
hereafter. 
Ufe in palfy of The very firft time I witnefled the efFecis of gafeous oxide 
one kind. ^^ ^ perfon in health, I concluded that it would be a remedy 

in certain cafes of palfy. A patient who had emerged from 
apoplexy with the lofs of the power of one fide of his body, 
was accordingly put under a courfe of the gas. The refult 
completely anfvvered expeftation. The cafe was moil care- 
fully watched; and on withholding (he gas. the fymptoms 
repeatedly grew worfe, and vice verja. After the patient's 
recovery, he was kept under infpeclion for a confiderable 
lime, and did not relapfe. Tliis has been confirmed by 
other refults; and in palfy, where the brain is primarily af- 
ieded, I cxpe<5i that Dr. PlafF will find either a cure or great 
relief (o iollcvv the ufe of this gas in a refpedable proportion 
of cafe>K 
In another kind I have very fairly tried it in palfy apparently from cold, 
oi paKv. beginning at the extremities and creeping from mufcle to 

-mufcle, without good or bad efTccl. There is a cafe of this 
kind, related by Dr. Kentifli, with the patient's name, and 
corroborated by teftimony fuperior to all exception in Confi- 
derations on fa&ilious Airs (Joitnfon) in which a perfe6t cure 
Of oxigcn, was obtained from oxigen gas ; and I have fince learned 
by experiments carefully repeated before various philofophical 
obfervers, ihal in efential refpeds, oxigen gas and gafeous oxide 
act in a very different, nay cppojite manner upon the living fibre. 
Thefe experiments I hope to publifli before midfumraer. 
From pally, analogy led me to other cafes of debility. I 
fully tried gafeous oxide in dropfy of the cheft (anafarca of 
InUropiios; ^'^^ lungs), but without good or bad effect. I was much dif- 
. appointed, conceiving that in dropfy (at lead in one fpecies) 
we have a paralytic fiate of the lymphatics. But I have been 
fince aFuied by a phyfician, that for fome dropfies he has 

Iflund. 



RESPIRATION OF GASEOUS OXIDE OF AZOTE. JJ 

found a remedy in this gas. There are dropfies which doubt- 
lefs depend on excefs oF exhalant adion. Thefe are eafily 
diftinguiftted ; and Ihey require bleeding as much as pleurify. 

In debility, arifing from refidence in hot climates and from in other ftatcs 
inlenfe application to bufinefs, I have known gafeous oxide *^ ''''^^'* 
completely fuccefsful after an infinity of remedies, Balh and 
other waters, had been tried in vain. 

The particulars of thefe cafes are alfo deftined for publica- 
tion : But I refolved to wait for fome years after the ufe of 
iliegas; for I have found that a fingle circumftance vitiates 
a large proportion of our medical records. Patients after an 
apparent recovery fall again into the fame complaint; and 
there are other confiderations, which I (hall for the prefent 
pafs over. , 

If Mr. Pfaff ufes gafeous oxide in palfy, he will probably Gafeous oxide 
fooner or later fee a phenomenon as extraordinary as any in taTy%''ovfzr°over 
galvanifm, and which after it has been defcribed by a philo-paified pans, ' 
fopher of high repulation, will become equally celebrated. '^^'^^ '"^'^'^'■*' 
This is the inftanlaneous reftoralion of voluntary power over a 
limb deprived both of motion and feeling by palfv fucceeding 
to apoplexy, while the patient is rel'piring gafeous oxide. 
This was witneffed in common with myfelf, by feveral re- 
fpe6iable perfons ; and among others by fome of your philo- 
fophical acquaintance, if I do not miftake. It was in the cafe 
of Mr. G. a member of the laft parliament, who completely 
recovered : But as other means were afterwards adopted, I 
do not impute the refult to the gas, which however, when 
ufed alorie, was vifibly of great fervice: for I have no idea of 
claiming for a remedy under fcruliny any cure, if other 
powers have been called in at the fame time. 

• I tranfmit thefe obfervations to you. Sir, in preference to Firft wlfhed for 
the Editor of any Medical Journal, becaufe I think them likely ^^^^ of this 
to meet the eye of Dr. Pfafi' fooner in your Journal. I ftiould 
be extremely forry that he (hould fet out wrong in his trials, 
becaufe the fault will be imputed to the p'Aver itfelf, and not 
to its mifapplication ; and the difabled will flill be left to lan- 
guilh and be cut off', notvvilhltanding we have a remedy at 
hand. 

I have another reafon. I moft fincerely wifli any thing I A fecon<3, 
could fay would haften the period, which 7>itiji arrive, when 
medical fciencc Qiall not be merely what the Germans call a 

Brad. 



Men of liberal 
curiofitf ex- 
horted to ftudy 
medicine. 



J^ llSaPIRATION OF GASEOUS OXIDE Of AZOTE. 

Erod'-Jiiffenjcltitft, or purfued only for a livelihood. If phifo- 
fophital men without a profeflion would take it up, it is I 
think certain, that it muft foon become both more efficient and 
more liberal. Any ftiidy is capable of interefting the feelings; 
and moll furely that of the laws of the organic world is as 
muGi) fo as any other. Opportunities of anatomical, chemical, 
and clinical information are at hand. A perfon fo prepared 
wilt, lieaven knows, with ardour and induftry foon acquire all 
that is ufefnl in medical practice. Let him then, animated 
with no other motive than the pure defire of fcenetiting his 
fellow men, apply himielf to the improvement of medicine. 
It is impolTible that he thould not fucceed as fully as our 
Tennants, our Ilatchetls, and Clienevix's have done in che- 
mifiry ; tor it is not its inherent difliculty, but collateral cir- 
cumftances, that retard the progrefs of this art. Many apo- 
thecaries, for example, and old women in general, who are 
the great controulers of the deftiny of phyficians, would by 
no means allow the ufe of gafeous oxirde in palfy, though the 
patient in the courfe both of nature and of ordinary medication 
be fure to die, and perhaps in a very miferable manner. But 
the philofophicat cultivator of medicine, without troubling 
hinilelf about the good opinion of the one or the other, would 
proceed on his career under the guidance of the eolledive 
light of fcience and of humanity, 
^neciotc. N. N. advanced in years, of a thickfet ftature, and with 

a (hort neck, thewed llgns of palfy many years ago. The 
tvriler of tliefe lines warned his friends of the danger. Con- 
curring in this apprehenfjon. Dr. Ingenhoufz propofed to him 
to inhale oxigen gas, a praclice familiar to that accurate phi- 
Jofopher, and by which he hoped the couftitution might be re- 
cruited. The execution of the idea was deferred. Mean- 
while the gafeous oxide was difcovered to be refpirable, and 
its power in palfy was to a degree afcertained. The writer 
now prelTed the ufe of IhLs gas with the utmoft earneftnefs. 
The patient faw it taken by others t He himfelf confented 
to inhale it, when, behold I the diftrefs of a lady prefent, as 
excited by lome apprehended imaginary bad conlequences, 
put ofT the inhalation. The predided paralytic feizure ar- 
rived :: but there was ample time ftill for the ufe of the oxide. 
I propofed that another patient,, filuated as iimilarly as pof- 
iible, ihoukl be fought; and. that if he confented upon the 

credit. 



RKSP/RATION OF CASEOUS' OXI0B OP AZOTE. 15 

credit of the fuccefsful exhibition, and upon my refponfibility, 
to ufe (he gas, tlie refall (hould determine as to its employ- 
ment in the cafe firft in queftion. At the fame time, I ftated 
from the average courfe-of paralytic attacks in general not 
immediately fatal, (hat a little apparent amendment would 
take place, and the firoke return with additional violence. 
My propofal was acknowledged to be highly reafonable ; but 
that plan of routine trealment was followed which is fo much 
more advantageous lo the idle and unfcientific of our pro- 
feflion than il is lo tiie fick, and the patient died of a return 
^f his complaint. Such is probably the condition of thoufands 
of the difeafed at this moment ! Rather than ufe a recently 
propofed plan not in the Pharmacopa'ia, or feek a new one 
in analogy, we perfevere in painful or difgufting means, from 
which, on the faith of long experrence, no good of any fort 
can be expected for the fufferer. May the rifing generation 
of natural philofophers exercife their talents and their bene- 
volence in putting an end to fo crying an evil I 
I am. Dear Sir, 

Refpedfuily your's, 

THOMAS BEDDOKS. 
Clifton, Dec. 13, 1605. 

. P. S. A cafe in your Journal, where a gentleman accuftomed On efFefts of 

to breathe gafeous oxide for amufement, experienced very dif- S^f. o;?-. as ftate4 
., ..'',. . , ' V / , in this Journal. 

agreeable jeehngs on one particular occalion, leeras to me clearly 

leferable to hyfteria. Now the trials at the Pneumatic Infti- 
lution, as related in Mr. Davy's Jiefearches, had clearly (hewn 
that in the predifpofed, gafeous oxide is a fpecific for exciting 
an hyfieric paroxyfm. Perhaps in the individual whole cafe 
is related by himfelf in (he Journal, no obvious predifpofition, 
cither temporary or permanent, exifted : Nothing to this pur- 
port is flated. But that the at!e6tion was fimply by fterical Their real na- 
cannot I think be doubted by any one converfant both with ^^^^' 
hyfteria and the adminiHration of gafeous oxide. It feems to 
be firongly marked by that idea of immediate danger, which 
is fo common in hyfteria. Dr. Garnet very unneceflTarily, 
and, I believe, very miftakenly, called up the whole Bruno- 
nian theory on the emergency. It led him, however, (ogive 
cordials; and they were proper. A tca-lpoonj'ul of fa! volatile, 

from 



10 BAROMETRICAL VARXATIOW. 

from time lo time, would probably have anfwered without 
Caution regard- llie Brunoiiian theory. But it is certainly the bufinefs of the 
i.ig particular p|,yfician to avoid gaCeous oxide in the hyfterical, as it is wine 
Quzre.* '" thofe who labour under acute inflammation. If your cor- 

refpondcnt who related his own feelings could fpecify any caufe 
which niiglit have rendered him nervous, or ftate the fa6l 
whether he was fo or not, it would give fatisfadion to the 
prefent writer, and perhaps alio lo future inquirers. 
Remark on dan- To interdict a remedy becaufe its ula requires difcrimination, 
_^erousdJforders. vvouid, in many diforders, be leaving the fick to certain de- 
ftrudion. I imagine that the outcry againfl fuch means as ga- 
feous oxide, will arile from thofe who daily ufe the moft hazard- 
ous remedies, and who are enabled to do it without reproach, 
becaufe they are put into a phial, and the patient and his friends 
never trouble themfelves about the nature of the articles which 
ihey are receiving into thefiomach. 



IV. 

AhJiraB of Obfervut'ions on a dhtrnal Variation of the Barometer 
between the Tropics. By i. Horsburgh, Efq. In a Letter' 
/o Henrv Cavendisu, Efq. F.R.S* Read March 14, 
1805. 

SIR, Bombay, April, 20, 1 804., 

Tropical varia- VV HEN I was in London at the conclufion of the year 1 80 1 , 
tion of the ba. j j^^^j ^i,g pleafure of being introduced to you by ray friend 
Mr. Dalrymple, at which time he prefented you with fome 
flieets of meteorological obfervations, with barometer and 
thermometer, made by me in India, and during a paflage 
from India to England. 

Being of opinion that few regifters of the barometer are 
kept at fea, elpecially in low latitudes, I have been induced to 
continue my obfervations fince 1 left England, judging that, 
even if they were found to be of no utility, they might at lead 
be entertaining to you or other gentlemen, who have been 
making obfervations of a fimilar nature. 

During my laft voyage 1 have employed two marine ba- 
rometer?, one made by Troughton, the other by Ramfden, 

* Philofophical TranfeftioBS, 1805. 

and 



BAROMETRICAL VARIATION. 



r 



and a Ihermometer by Frazer. Thefe were placed expofed Tropical varia- 
to a free current of air in a cabin, where the batons ot the rometer- 
barometers were 13 feet above the level of the fea. 

The hours at which the heights of the barometers, and ther- 
mometers were taken, xiz. noon, 4 hours, 10 hours, 12 hours, 
14. hours, and 19 hours, were chofen, becaufe at thefe times 
the mercury in the barometer had been perceived to be regu- 
larly ftationary between the tropics, by former obfervations 
made in India in 1800 and 1801. It was found that in fettled 
weather in the Indian feas, from 8 A M to noon, the mercury 
in the barometer was generally ftationary, and at the point df 
greateft elevation ; after noon it began to fall, and continued 
falling till 4 afternoon, at which time it arrived at the lowed 
point of depreffion. From 4 or 5 P M the mercury rofe again, 
and continued rifing till about 9 or 10 P M, at which time it 
had again acquired its greateft point of elevation, and con- 
tinued ftationary nearly till midnight; after which it began to 
fall, till at 4 A M it was again as low as it had been at 4 after- 
noon preceding ; but from this time it rofe till 7 or 8 o'clock, 
when it reached the higheft point of elevation, and continued 
ftationary till noon. 

Thus was the mercury obferved to be fubjeft to a - regular 
elevation and depreffion twice in every 24 hours in fettled 
weather ; and the loweft ftation was obferved to be at about 4 
o'clock in the morning and evening. I remarked that the 
mercury never remained long fixed at this low ftation, but 
had a regular tendency to rife from thence till towards 8 in the 
morning and about 9 in the evening, and from thofe times 
continued ftationary till noon and midnight. 

In unfettled blowing weather, efpeciallyat Bombay during 
the rains, thefe regular ebbings and flowings of the mercury 
could not be perceived; but a tendency to them was at forae 
times obfervable when the weather was more fettled. 

In the ftieets, which I formerly prefented to you, were 
evinced thefe elevations and depreffions twice every 24 hours 
within the tropics, in fteady weather, as had been obferved 
by MefiT. Caftan and Peyroufe, by Dr. Balfour of Calcutta, 
and others. But fince my laft arrival in India, I have obferved 
that the atmofphere appears to produce a different effed on the 
barometer atym from what it does on Jhore^ 

Vol. XIII.— January, 1S06, C As 



18 

Tropical varia- 
tion of the ba- 
rometer. 



KAROMETRrCAL VARIATION, 

As I am ignorant whether this phenomenon lias been noticed 
by any perlon before, I will here give you an abftraft of my 
journal, (hewing how the barometer has been influenced 
during the whole time fince I left England, which will enable 
you to form an idea whether I am right in concluding that the 
barometer is really differently afFe6ted at fea from what it is 
on fliore, at thole places in India where the obfervations have 
been made. 

The lirft flieet begins with the obfervations made on board 
ihip» in my voyage from London towards Bombay, in the 
months of April and May, 1802. 

from the time of leaving the Land's End, April 19th, the 
motion of ibe mercury in barometers was flu6tuating and irre- 
gular until we were in latitude 26^ N, longitude 20o W, on 
April 29th ; the mercury in barometers then became uniform in 
performing two elevations and two depreffions every 24 hours, 
(which for brevity in mentioning hereafter I will call equatro- 
pical motions.) From latitude 26° N to latitude 10* N, the 
ditference of the high and low ftations of the mercury in the 
barometers was not (6 great, as it was from latitude 10* N 
acrofs the equator, and from thence to latitude 25** S. Within 
thefe laft-mentioned limits, the difference of high and low 
Nations of the mercury in the barometers was very confi- 
derable, generally from five to nine hundred parts of an inch, 
both in the daily and nightly motions. 

When we reached the latitude of 28" S, longitude 27° W, 
June 7th, the mercury in barometers no longer adhered to 
the equatropical motions ; but then, as in high north latitudes, 
its rifmg and falling became irregular and flu£luating during our 
run from latitude 28° S, longitude 27 «. W, (moftly between 
the parallels of 35^ and 36° S,) until we were in latitude 27° S, 
and longitude 51® E, on the ] 1th of July. The mercury then 
began to perform the equatropical motions, and continued 
them uniformly, during our run from the laft-mentioned po- 
lition, up the Madagafcar Archipelago, acrofs the Equator, 
until our arrival at Bombay July 31(1. 1802. 

Augaft 6th, 1 802. When the barometers were placed on 
fliore in Bombay, the mercury, for (he firft fix days,, appeared 
to have a fmall tendency towards performing the equatropical 
motions, but not equally perceptible as when at fea, the dif- 
ference between the high and low flations of the mercury in 

the 



BAROMETRICAL VARIATION. l9 

ifie barometers being great to the day we entered the harbour Tropical varia- 
of Bonibay. From the 12th of Aiiguft to the 22d the mercury Jj^^";^"^ '''^ ''*^*'' 
could not in general be obferved to have any inclination to 
perform the equatropical motions, although at times a very 
fmal! tendency towards performing them might be per- 
ceived. 

On the 23d of Auguft the barometers were taken from the 
fliore to the {hip. Immediately on leaving Bombay harbour, 
Auguft 26th, 1802, the mercury in the barometers performed 
the equatropical motions, and continued them with great uni- 
formity, during our paflage down the Malabar coaft, acrofs 
the bay of Bengal, in the Strait of Malacca, and through the 
China Sea, until our arrival in Canton river on the 4th of 
October. When in the river, the mercury became nearly fta- 
tionary during the 24 hours, except a fmall inclination at times 
towards the equatropical motions, but they were not near fo 
perceptible as at fea ; this change taking place the day we got 
into the river. 

During our fiay in China, the barometer on fiiore, at Canton, 
had very little tendency towards the equatropical motions, 
throughout the months of 06lober and November that we 
remained there. At times, while in China, a fraall inclination 
towards performing the equatropical motions appeared : but, 
as in Bombay, the difference of rife and fall was of fo fraall a 
quantity, as to be frequently imperceptible. 

December 2d, 1802. On our departure from Canton river, 
the equatropical motions were inftantly performed by the 
mercury, and with great regularity continued during the whole 
of the pafTage to Bombay, until our arrival in that harbour on 
the nth of January, 1803. 

On January 18th, the barometers were placed on (liore, and 
did not appear in the fmallell degree fubjed to the equatro- 
pical motions ; although, with great regularity, they had been 
performed while at fea, even to the day we entered the harbour. 
One of the barometers was left on board for a few days, and, 
like that on fhore, feemed to have no tendency towards the 
equatropical motions. During the months of February and 
March, in Bombay, the mercury was nearly ftationary 
throughout the 24 hours. But about the latter part of March 
the jnejTCury feemed to incline towards the equatropical mc 
C 2 tions 



SiQ BAROMETUICAL VARIATION* 

Tropical varia- tioiis in a very fraall degree ; and, during the month of Apri^^ 
tion of the boro- and iq i\^q 20th of May, this fmall tendency of the mercury 
to perform the motions appeared at times, but was hardly 
difcernible, the rife and fall being of fo fmall a quantity. 
From the ISth of January to the 20th ©f May, the mercury 
in the barometers was in general ftationary, except a very 
fmall tendency towards the equatropical motions at times, 
ill t other times fome change in the atroofphere difturbed the 
mercury from its ftationary pofxtion ; but this was feldom the 
cafe, as it was then the fair weather feafan, or norlh-eaft 
nionfoon. 

We failed from Bombay on the 23d of May, 1803. The 
inflant we got out of the harbour, the mercury in the baro- 
meters conformed to the equatropical motions with great re- 
gularity, and the difference between the high and low ftations 
was very confiderable during the whole of the paflTage to 
China, excepting a few days in the eaftern parts of Malacca 
Strait, where the land lay contiguous on each fide of us ; the 
difference between the high and low ftations of the mercury 
was not then fo great as in the open fea. On clearing the 
Strait, and entering the China Sea, the equatropical motions 
were performed in greater quantity, and continued regular 
during our paffage up the China Sea, until July 2, 1803. We 
then entered Canton river, and the equatropical motions of 
the mercury in barometers entirely ceafed. 

From July Sth to September 7th, the barometers were 
placed on fhore in Canton, during which time the mercury 
appeared to have no tendency towards performing the equa- 
tropical motions; but it inclined to a ftationary pofiiion, ex- 
cept when influenced by changes of weather. After the ba- 
rometers were taken from Canton to the (hip, we were four 
days in getting clear of the river, in which time the mercury 
inclined to be ftationary, excepting that a fmall inclination 
towards the equatropical motions feemed to evince itfelf at 
times. But no fooner had we cleared Canton river, Sep- 
tember 13, 1803, than the mercury in the barometers began 
to conform to the equatropical motions, of two elevations and 
two depreffions every 2i hours, at equal intervals of time, 
(although we were near the land until the 15th September.) 
And the mercury, with great regularity, continued to per- 

forni 



BAROMETRICAL VARIATIOW, 21 

*brm the equatropical motions, from September 13, 1803, Tropical varia. 
'the day we cleared the river of Canton, until Oclober i^, „^^t„, 
■when we entered Sincapore Strait, excepting a fmall degree 
of irregularity, which affecled the mercury on the 22d Sep- 
tember, wiien it blew a gale on tlie coaft of Mompa. 

06lober 13, 1803. On entering the Strait of Sincapore, 
which is about Sf leagues wide, the mercury in the barome- 
ters was then a little -obftrufled, and did not perform the 
equatropical motions, in the fame quantity of rife and fall, as 
when we were in the China Sea. But on the following day, 
O6lober 14, when we had patfed the narrow part of the Strait, 
the mercury conformed to thofe motions with regularity until 
O6lober 21, when we arrived in the harbour of Prince of 
Wales's Ifland; then a great retardation took place in the 
equatropical motions; for, during the time the (hip remained 
in the harbour, from 06tober 20 to November .5, 1 803, the 
mercury in barometers teemed only in a fmall degree fubjedl 
to them, the difference between the high and low ftations of 
the mercury, being in general not more than half the quantity, 
that takes place in the open fea, or at a confiderable diftance 
from land. Where the fhip lay at this time in the harbour, 
the land, on one fide, was a full quarter of a mile diHant, and 
on the other fide about l| mile. 

On November 5, being cleaf of the harbour of Prince of 
Wales's Ifland, the equatropical motions were inftantly per- 
formed by the mercury, in the ufual quantity experienced at 
fea, which continued with uniformity until December 3, On 
this and the following day, the mercury fell confiderably 
during our pafTage over the tails of the fands at the entrance 
of floogly river, in latitude 21* 06' N ; and on December 5, 
the day of the moon's lafl quarter, a gale of wind commenced 
from N N E, with much lightning and rain in the night. 
During the latter part of this day, the mercury began to rife, 
and there foon followed a change of fettled weather. When 
we were in the lower part of the river, the mercury appeared 
to conform in a fmall degree to the equatropical motions ; but 
when well up the river, at Diamond Harbour, the mercury 
inclined to be nearly flationary during the 24 hours, as has 
formerly been obferved to happen in Canton river, Bombay 
ferbour, &c. 

On 



22 BAROMETRICAL VARIATION. 

Tropical varia- On January 1 3, } 80 1, after we had cleared the river 
^^^°J^^^^"°'tloog]y, the mercury in the barometers began to perform 
its motions with uniformity, which continued during the 
pafTage to Bombay, until our arrival there on February 12. 
The barometers being then placed on fhore, the mercury 
inclined to a ftationary pofition, without evincing any pro- 
penfity towards the equatropical motions from the 12th to 
the 18th February, 1804-, as has been noticed in the fore- 
going defcription, to happen frequently, on entering a har- 
bour from fea. 

On February 18, 1804, the meteorological journal ceafes, 
at which time it comprifes the obfervations of 22 months, 
having commenced April 6, 1802, in Margate Road. 

I have taken the liberty of fending you this ablirad from 
the journal, to exhibit the apparent difference of the mercury 
in the barometer at fea, from what has been obferved on 
ftiore, at thofe places mentioned in the precedmg defcription. 
As I have not feen any account indicating the phenomenon, 
I thought it might be interefling to you, or other gentlemen 
of the Royal Society to forward this imperfect abftrad, the 
journal itfelf beihg too cumberfome to fend home at prefent. 
But as I am in expedlation of returning to England by the 
Ihips from China next feafon, I hope I (hall be enabled to 
prefent you with the meteorological fheets alluded to. 

I am, &c. 

J. HORSBURGH. 

P. S. Since I wrote the foregoing ahUra^, I have received 
a letter from my friend Mr. Dalrymple, intimating that a 
copy of the meteorological journal itfelf would be acceptable, 
which has induced rae to tranfmit to him the original theets, 
with a requeft to deliver them to you. I regret that I could 
not find leifure time to make out a fair copy, to have fent 
to you, in place of the original flieets in their rough ftate. 

Bombay, June 1, 1804. 



Second 



AKTIFICIAL TAN. 23 



V. 

Second Communication on Artificial Tan. By Charles 
Hatchett, Efq. Abridged from the Philofophical Tranf- 
adtionsfor 1805. 

§1. 

1 HE artificial tan *, procured as defcribed in the firft com- Name of thear- 
inunication (fee our Vol. XI I. p. ?/21), had been named tan- Jlf^ftancg"^."^ 
nin by Mr. Hatchett ; but the ohjeclion having being made to terid, 
this, that tannin was deftroyed by the nitric acid, while the 
artificial tanning fubftance was aQually formed by it, induced 
Mr. Hatchett to expunge the word tannin wherever it had 
been applied to the latter. It alfo induced the author to 
ftiake the following experiments on the comparative effeSs 
produced by nitric acid on thofe fubftances which contain 
moft tannin, and alfo feme others in which a tanning fub- 
(lance has been produced, under circumftances in fome re- 
ipedis different from thofe defcribed. 

Although it is not abfolutely aflerted ihat the tanning fub- 
flance is indeftrudible by nitric acid, yet the following expe- 
riments prove, that to produce this efFe6l muft at leaft be the 
work of much time and difficulty. 

1. Twenty grains of the artificial tan were diflTolved in half Experiments to 
an ounce of ftrong nitric acid, of the degree of 1.40 ; the fo- P''°^^!''^^ '^^^ 
lution diftilled till (he whole of the acid came over, which nearly indeftnicj 
acid was returned back on the retiduum, and the diftillation *''?'^ ^y ^^^'^'^ 
repeated three times in this manner. Care was taken not to 
overheat the refuluum ; and then, when examined, did not 
appear to have fufFered any alteration in its properties, 

* In feveral parts of the abridgement of Mr. Hatchett's papers, 
the artificial tanning fubftance has been called the new tan and arti~ 
ficial tatty and tanning matter tan., for the fake of brevity. It was 
thought neceflary to mention this, as the name tan is ufually ap- 
propriated to oak bark in a certain ftate ; which, with fnigular im- 
propriety, is that in which it contrains lealt tanning matter, after 
having been ufed in the tanners' pits, — Abr. 

2. Ten 



24 ARTIFICIAL TAN. 

Expeiiments o. Ten grains of the new tan, mixed with ten grains of 

continued. white fugar, difTolved in half an ounce of nitric acid, was 

diftilled to drynefs. The refiduum was not changed by the 

gelatinous or other re-agents. 

3. This experiment was the fame as the former, only that 
gum arable was employed in place of fugar. The refult was 
the fame. 

4. The precipitate from a folution of ifinglafs, with which 
the artificial tan had been mixed, was well waflied with dif- 
tilled water and then dried. In this ftale it was digefted in 
flrong nitric acid, by which a dark-brown folution was 
formed ; which was evaporated to drynefs, and the fubftance, 
diflblved in boiling diftilled water, was examined by nitrate 
of iron, acetite of lead, muriate of tin, and folution of ifin- 
glafs, with all of which it threw down copious precipitates, 
lihiilar in all refpefts to the artificial tan, which had not been 
fubje6ted to the procefs defcribed. 

5. Some of the precipitate of ifinglafs by the new tan wa« 
difTolved in muriatic acid, and evaporated to drynefs: of this 
boiling diftilled water diftblved only a part ; and the folution, 
of a dark beer colour, did not precipitate gelatine, though it 
afted on muriate of tin and fulphate of iron ; for with the for- 
mer it gave an afli-coloured precipitate, and with the latter a 
flight depofit of a reddifh-brown. 

6. As boiling water difTolved only a part of the ifinglafs 
precipitate in the former experiment, the remainder was 
treated with nitric acid ; after which, on being evaporated 
to drynefs, it was found to be completely foluble in water, 
and precipitated gelatine as copioufly as at firft. 

7. Twenty grains of the new tan was difTolved in half an 
ounce of muriatic acid : The refiduum, after evaporation to 
drynefs, appeared in every refped unchanged. 

The author here makes the obfervation, mentioned at the 
conclufion of the former paper, relative to the foUuions of the 
new (an not becoming mouldy like thofe of galls, fumach, and 
catechu, and feeming to be completely imputrefcible. 

And having thus afcertained the unchangeable nature of 
this fubftance, he made the following comparative experi- 
pients on galls, fumach, Pegu cutch, kafcatti, common culch, 
^ud oak bark, 

8, Twenty 



ARTIFICIAL XAN. gj 

8. Twenty grains of powdered galls were difToIved in half Experiments on 
an ounce of ftrong nitric acid : The refiduum from this foiu-^^^'^^l^ kTfcmi 
tion evaporated todrynefs, and then dilToIved in boiling water, Pegu cutch, aa4 
did not produce the fmallefl effeQ on diflblved gelatine. °^^ ^^^^' 

The experiments on to No. 13. did not produce any tannin. 

9. The refiduum of a ftrong infufion of galls, treated as 
No. 8. 

10. Ifinglafs precipitated by infufion of galls, dinblved in 
firong nitric acid, and examined as No. 4. 

1 1. Twenty grains of fumach diiTolved in half an ounce of 
ftrong nitric acid, and treated as No. 8. 

12. Twenty grains of Pegu cutch (which contains much 
mucilage) fubjedled to a firailar procef<, by which much oxalic 
acid was obtained. 

13. Twenty grains of catechu, called kafcatli, treated fimi- 
larly, had, together willi the four foregoing experiments, 
all the fame refults as No. 8, not any of ihem fliewing any 
tannin. 

14". Twenty grains of common catechu, difiolved in firong 
nitric acid, evaporated to drynefs, diffolved in water, and 
examined by ifinglafs, depofited a tenacious film infoluble 
in boiling water, evidently compofed of gelatine and tannin. 

15. Twenty grains of oak bark treated in the fame way, 
depofited alfo an infoluble film on the fides and bottom of the 
vefiel. 

16. Infufions of galls, fumach, and oak wood, of equal 
ftrength, were mixed with nitric acid, in the proportion of 
half an ounce meafure of each to one drachm of the acid, and, 
did not then render ifinglafs folution turbid. 

But infufions prepared from oak bark and the artificial tan, 
and managed in the fame way, continued to precipitate the 
gelatine, until four drachms of the nitric acid had been added 
to each half ounce of the infufion. 

Thefe refults ihew that artificial tan is the moft indeftruc- 
tible, but that the other tanning fubflances have confiderable 
varieties in this refped. The tannin of oak bark refifts nitric 
acid longer than that of galls, fumach, kafcutti, or Pegu 
cutch. , This laft is replete with mucilage, and yields much 
oxalic acid, as before defcribed : it feems alfo to be the moft 
deftru6iible of all the kinds of catechu : from thefe fads the 
SBthor was induced to gdd the fggftr and gum to the artificial 

tan. 



SiS ARTIFICIAL TAN. 

(an, to promote Its deftrudibility ; and exprefTes his belief 
that mucilage or gum renders the fubftances that contain It 
» more deftruftible in the nitric acid, and in fome cafes alfo 

prevents or impedes the formation of the tanning fubftance; 
which difference he thinks to be caufed by the mucilage 
being in a Hate of chemical combination in thofe bodies. 

§ III. 

Experiments on A and B. When fulphuric or muriatic acid was added to 
thcaitificialtan. ^ folution of the new tan, it became turbid and depofited a 
brown precipitate, which was foluble in boiling water, and 
was then capable of precipitating gelatine; in which particu* 
lars it refembles ihe tannin of galls and other vegetable fub- 
ftances. 

C. Carbonate of potafli, added to a folution of the new 
tan, deepened the colour ; the liquor became turbid, and de» 
pofited a brown magma. 

D. Five grains of dried artificial tan were dilTolved in half 
an ounce of ftrong ammonia : the whole was then evaporated 
to drynefs ; and being diflblved in water was found not to 
precipitate gelaten, unlefs a fmall portion of muriatic acid was 
previoufly added. 

E. Another portion diflolved in ammonia was diflilled : At 
firft ammonia came over, and afterwards a yellow liquor, that 
had the odour of burned horn. The refiduum was infoluble 
hi water, to which it only gave a flight yellow tinge. 

On diftillation it F. The objeft of this experiment is to (hew the ftrange pro- 
has an odour of -, ^^- ^j^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^f giving produfts analogous to animal 

turccd horn, '^ ■' . . . 

and yields aai- matter (of which it yielded the odour in combuftion on former 
mouia. trials), though prepared itfelf from vegetable fubflances. 

Some prepared from dry vegetable charcoal was diftilled : 
Firfi: a liule water came over, then a little nitric acid, then 
a very fmall portion of a yellowifii liquor: The fire being 
then raifed, the velfels fuddenly became filled with a white 
cloud, and fo great a torrent of gas was almoft explofively 
produced as to overfet the jar : This gas, by its fmell, ap- 
peared fo be ammonia, and was formed into the cloud by the 
nitric acid vapour in the vefiels. The next jar of gas, which 
came flowly over, was carbonic acid, except a very fmall 
part which feemed nitrogen gas. A bulky coal remained, 
ihat on incineration gave if grains alhes, which confided 
\ rincipally of lime. 

G. Fifty 



ARTIFICIAL TAN, 27 

G. Fifty grains of this fubftance were dilTolved in four 
ounces of water and precipitated by ifinglal's folution ; eighty- 
one grains of which became thus combined with forty-fix of 
the new tan. The remaining portion was not precipitated, 
and was therefore feparated on a filter and evaporated to dry- 
nefs. It was a light brittle fubftance of a pale cinnamon 
colour, which, though com pofed of inodorous fubflances, had 
however a firong fmell itfelf of oak bark ; which is remarked 
as a fingular circiimftance ; and this fmell became ftronger 
when the fubftance was put into water, in which it infiantJ^' 
diirolved. 

The folution was very bitter ; a£led but flightly on ditfolved 
ifinglafs ; produced a brown precipitate with fuiphate of iron, 
and with muriate of tin a black one; had no effett with ni- 
trate of Jime ; but with acetite of lime gave a copious preci- 
pitate, of a pale brown colour. This fubftance appeared to 
be the tanning mailer in the flate of extradi. 

§ IV. 

Several unfuccefsful attempts were made to form the tan- Attempts to 
Ti'ws matter by oxi-muriatic acid. It therefore appeared, that ^"'"'^ banning 

II ■ /■ • 111 1 II 1 ^-v- r r 1 JTialter hv oxi- 

though a variety of it could be pronuced by the action or lul- muriatic" acid 

phuric acid on refinous fubflances, yet nitric acid was the mofl unfuccefsful. 

effective agent. 

The author fufpefling that the new tan might be formed Artificial tan. It 

from bodies not abfolulely converted into coal, and not being '^*^"/P^'^^'^' . 

, . n n I , r ' might be formed 

able to get any touch-wood, which he nrft thought or trying from fubflances 

for this purpofe, made the following experiment with indigo, "°' '^^2"^<^* 

which he knew to contain much carbon. 

One hundred grains of indigo, with one ounce of nitric Experiments on 
acid diluted with a double quantity of water, was (when the j|J^i|^° ^'^^ ^^'' 
efFervefcence had fubfided), placed in a fand-balh for feveral 
days till evaporated to drynefs. 

The refiduura, of an orange colour, was In great part dif- 
folved by three ounces of ditiilled water poured on it, and 
gave a folution of a deep yellow, and intenfely bitter ; which, 
with the fuiphate of iron, depofited a flight pale-yellow pre- 
cipitate, and with nitrate of lime, a fmall white precipitate, 
having the chara6ler of oxalate of lime : With muriate of tin 
a copious white precipitate, that changed to a yellowifli- 
• • brown ; 



2S 



Jt produces tan- 
ning matter. 



Almoft all vege- 
t.tble bodies yield 
tanning matter, 
when (ubjedled 
to repeated ditiil- 
lations ^^itll 
yjitrit acid. 



Refin yields it 
by this ticaC- 
inent. 



As do llkewife 
ftick lac, 



"—and balfam of 



ARTIFICIAL TAN. 

brown ; and with acetlte of lead a beautiful deep leraon^ 
coloured precipitate, which may probably prove ufeful as ^ 
pigiiicnt. 

Ammonia rendered the colour much deeper, and with it 
(lepofited a large quantity of fine yellow fpiculated cryftals, 
which did not precipitate lime from its folutions. Their 
flavour was very bitter. 

Lallly, when this folution was added to diflblved ifinglafs, 
it became turbid, and depofited a tough elaftic infoluble film, 
and poflelfed the charaders of gelaten combined with tanning 
matter. 

By this experiment the poflibility of producing tanning mat* 
ler from bodies not converted into coal was fully afcertained; 
and the author has fince difcovered that though indigo yields 
■ this matter more readily than mofi: other vegetable bodies, yet 
almoft all produce it when fubjeded to repeated difiillations 
will) nitric acid. 

A. The common refin did not produce the tanning fubfl.ance 
with nitric aeid, but by the aid of fulphuric acid, as before 
related ; yet upon this nitric acid being repeatedly abftradied 
from it, its folution in water formed a lough yellow infoluble 
precipitate with diffolved gelaten, fimilar to that by folution of 
indigo, and with other re-agents produce4 the following ef- 
fects. 

With fulphate of iron, after J 2 hours, it produced a (light 
yellow precipitate. With nitrate of lime no effedl. With 
muriate of tin, after 12 hours, a pale brown precipitate. An4 
with acetite of lead a very abundant precipitate of ayeliowifl) 
while colour. 

On repeating this experiment, the author remarked that 
during each diftillalion nitrous gas was produced, while th^ 
acid which came over was weakened, which made the caufe 
of the change in the properties of the refin evident. The fol- 
lowing are the refalts of experiments tried with other refinous 
fubftances. 

B. Stick lac, treated as defcribed, copioufly precipitate4 
gelaten. 

C. Balfam of Peru during the procefs afl"orded fome ben- 
zoic acicli and gelaten was precipitated by the aquep^s folur 



ARTIFICIAL TAN. il9 

Benzoin, after the fublimation of ferae benzoic acid, yielded -*and benzoin, 
a refiduum, which yielded with water a pale yellow folution, 
of a very bitter flavour. 

This folution with fulphate of iron produced a flight pale 
yellow precipitate. With nitrate of lime, no effedl. WitK 
muriate of tin in folution, a fmall quantity of brownifti white 
precipitate. With acetite of lead, a copious pale yellow pre- 
cipitate. And with folution of ifinglaO, a denfe pale yellow 
infoiuble precipitate. 

E. Balfam of Tolu afforded benzoic acid, and the folution 
of the reiiduum precipitated that of gelaten. 

F. One hundred grains of dragon's blood in powder mixed —^'^^ dragoR's 
with one ounce of nitric acid, evolved much gas ; an ounce 

of water was then added ; and the digeftion in a fand bath 
being continued, after it produced chaficcation on the dry yel- 
low mafs that remained, a brilliant feather-like fublimate arofe, 
which weighed rather more than fix grains and had the afpeft, 
odour, and properties of benzoic acid. 

The refiduum, of a brown colour, formed with water a 
gold coloured folution, which was not affected by nitrate of 
lime: But with fulphate of iron, and with muriate of tin it 
formed brownifli yellow precipitates j and with acetite of lead 
one of a lemon colour. 

Gold was precipitated by it in the metallic flate, and the 
containing glafs coloured purple; and with diffolved ifinglafi 
it produced a deep yellow infoiuble depofit. 

As dragon's blood (imply expofed to heat did not produce 
any benzoic acid, the author is inclined to believe, that in the 
firft experiment this acid was obtained as a product, and not as 
an eduft. 

G. Gum ammonia gave a brownifh yellow, bitter aftrin and gum sm- 

gent folution ; which with fulphate of iron became of a darker "^°"'^» 
colour, but produced no precipitate. 

With nitrate of lime, a flight precipitate. With muriate of 
tin and acetite of lead, copious yellow precipitates ; and with 
gelaten a bright yellow infuluble depofit. 

H. Alfa tostida yielded a folution vvliich precipitated gelaten — and affa fa- 
in a fimilar manner to that defcrlbed. ^"*^* 

I. Solutions of clemi, tacamahac, olibarum, fandarach. Solutions of 
copaiba, mafiich, myrrh, gambauge, and cacutchonc, al-f'^'"'' tacaira- 

hac, &c. did noC 
though aifsft gelaten^ 



30 ARTIFICIAL TAN. 

though they precipitated the metallic folutions, did not affeci 
gelaten ; but poffibly might have done fo, if the procefs had 
been more frequently repeated, 
—nor that of K. Sarcocol alfo produced limilar refults. 

farcocol, L. Gum Arabic afforded oxalic acid but no tan. 

Jj"bic, ^^« Tragacanth yielded much of faclatic acid, of oxalic, 

—nor of traga- ai^d of malic acid, but not the leafl; tan. 

—no/of manna. ^' ^^anna gave oxalic acid, part of which fublimed in 
the neck of the veflTel. 

Its reliduiim formed a brown folution, which produced pre- 
eipilates of the following colours : With fulphate of iron, a 
pale yellow ; with muriate of tin, a pale brown ; with acetite 
of lead, a brovvnidi white. From nitrate of lirae, oxalate of 
lime was copioufly precipilated by it; but with ifinglafs fo- 
lution no effec"t was produced. 
Liquorice folu- O. Nitric folution of liquorice yielded precipitates with Tui- 
tion precipitates pi^atg of iron and muriate of tin, after twelve hours, flight 
brown. With acelite of lead, a brownifli red. With nitrate 
of lead, a brown. And with gelaten, one of a yellowifii 
brown, infoluble, and limilar to other precipitates from it by 
tan. 
Guiacum folu- ?• On guiacum nitric acid a6ted with great vehemence and 
tion gave a (light fpeedily dilfolvcd it: The refiduum was almoft totally foluble 
gdaten ^whTch in water; and this folution produced effe6ls on the metallic falts 
wasfolublcin fimilar to ihofe recited; but with gelaten formed a flight pre- 
wjter. cipitate, which was fpeedily dilTolved by boiling water. The 

remainder of the folution evaporated gave a large quantity oi 
crylialized oxalic acid; fo that in this refpe6l guiacum was 
fimilar to the gums, and anlike the refins. 

§Y. 
Experiments on As many vegetable fubftances when roafled yield a liquor by 

feveral roafted decoaion, refembling folution of artificial tan, the author 

vegetable fub- ' " 

ftances, which tried thofe fimilarly prepared, of dried peas, horf« beans, bar- 
donotaffeft j^^^ ^^^^ wheat flour, none of which gave any precipitate 

with gelaten. 
Coffee gives a The decoftion of cotFee alfo gave no precipitate till after 
precipitate with fcveral hours, and then one foluble in boiling water; but this 
foirb'e''l'n wTe'r" '"'g'^^ ^- occafioned, the author thinks, from want of fome 

particular nicely which may be required in roafting fuch bodies 
5 fo 



ARTIFICIAL TAN* '31 

fo as to make them yield tan ; which opinion was corroborated 
by experiments made by decoftion of chicoree (probably en- 
dive) root, prepared in the fame manner, which produced a 
precipitate with gelaten after feme time, though not at firfl, 
which was apparently diflblved in boiling water, but depofited' 
again in its original ftate, on cooling. The author therefore 
is inclined to believe that the tanning fubftance is really de- 
veloped in many vegetable matters by heat alone; but that a 
certain degree of heat, not eafy to determine is abfolutely ne- 
cellliry for this efFeft. 

A ("mail quantity of nitric acid added to any of the decoc- Nitric acid added 
tions juft mentioned, and evanorated to drynefs, produced a ^? ^'^^'^ ^^'^"*=- 

■' * . tions gives tan- 

refiduum, having all the properties of the tan produced from ning properties 
QQ2i\^ to their refidu^. 

§ VI. 
The produ6tion of a variety of the tanning fubftance before 
mentioned, by the a6tion of fulphuric acid on the refms, am- 
ber, &c. fuggefted the following experiments on camphor; 
the refults of which tend to increafe the knowledge of its pro- 
perties. 

Experiments on Camphor zdih Sulphuric Acid. 

The only fafts hitherto related relative to the efFefts of i\xU 
phuric acid on camphor, arc that a brown or reddifli brown 
foiution is formed, from which water precipitates the camphor 
unchanged ; but this only happens at a certain period of the 
operation ; for if it be longer continued, the following efFeds 
will be produced. 

A. One ounce of concentrated fulphuric acid was added Experiments 
to one hundred grains of camphor, which diflblved gradually, ^^^\ "^ "'?^ 
after firft becoming yellow ; in about an hour, the liquor having 
progreflively changed to reddifti brown, brown, and at lad 
biackifh brown, much fulphureous acid gas was produced, 
and continued to encreafe during four hours, when the whole 
appeared a thick black liquid, having no other odour but that 
of fulphureous acid ; alter two days the produ(^ion of the gas 
was much diminifhed ; the containing alembic was then put in 
a fand bath, moderately hot, by which more fulphureous gas 
was obtained ; but (his foon abated ; at the end of two da)s 
more, fix ounces cf water was gradually added, by which the 

liquor 



S2 ARTIFICIAL TAN". 

Hquor changed to a reddifli-brown, a coagulum of the faniij 
colour fubtided, the odour of fulphureous acid gas was imme- 
vAn odour diately annulled, and was fucceeded by one which much re- 

fike^oils oHa- fumbled a mixture of oils of lavender and pepperraint, 
vender and pep- The whole was then diftilled gradually, when the water 
pernaint. (>ame over impregnated with the odour laft mentioned, accom- 

panied by a yellowith oil, which floated oi) the top, and was 
computed to amount to three grains. 

B. When the whole of the water had come over, there was 
again a (light production of the fulphureous acid gas; two 
ounces of water were then added, and the diftillation conti- 
nued (without the recurrence of the former odour) till a dry 
blackifti brown mafs remained ; this mafs was well waflied 
with warm diftilled water, by which nothing was extracted; 
but two ounces of alcohol digefted on it for 2 1 hours formed a 
very dark, brown tinflu re. 

The refiduum was digefted with two ounces more alcohol, 
and the procefs repeated till the alcohol ceafed to a61. 

The refiduum had now the appearance of a compaft fort of 
coal in fmall fragments, which were well dried, and after 
being expofed to a low heat in a clofe velTel, weighed fifty- 
three grains. 

C. From different portions of the alcohol folulion, added 
together and diflilled in a water bath, a blackifli brown fub- 
ftance was obtained, which had the appearance of a refin oc 
gum with a flight odour of caromel, and weighed 49 grains. 

The produdls obtained from the 100 grains of camphor 
treated with fulphuric acid, were, — 

Grains. 

_ . -. - A. An effentlal oil, having fomewhat of an odour 

Products fiom r / 

wmphorandful- of a mixture of lavender and peppermint, about 3 

yhuric acid. ^ ^ compad and very hard fort of coal, in fmall 

fragments, - - - - '■ 53 

C. A blackifli-brown fubftance, of a refinous ap- 
pearance, - - - - - 49 

105 
The increafe of weight of five grains is attributed partly to 
water retained by the laft fubflance, and partly to oxigen 
united to the carbon. 

The fubllance C had the following properties : 

l.It 



ARTIFICIAL TAN. 433 

i. tl was bitter and aflringenf, had the odour of carorael, 
and tormed with water a dark-brown foiution. 

'2, This foiution produced very dark-brown precipitates 
wiih fulphate of iron, acetite of lead, muriate of tin, and 
iiitrate of lime. 

3. Gold was precipitated by it in the metallic ftate from 
its foiution. 

4. By foiution of ifinglafs the whole was precipitated ; foSubftanceC 

that after four hours a colourlefs water only remained. 1!T.•^^'"^^1''^ 

■' _ _ precipitates gela- 

This precipitate was nearly black, and was infoluble in ten. , 
boiling water : from whence, and its effeds on Ikin, it was 
evidently a variety of tanning matter much refembling that 
obtained from refinous bodies by fulphuric acid. 

But this fort of tan had lefs efFed on flun than that pro- ' 

cured from carbonaceous fubftances by nitric acid, and its 
precipitate from gelaten was more flocculent and lefs te- 
nacious. 

However, when a fmall quantity of nitric acid was added 
to the foiution of the fubftance obtained from camphor, and 
when the refiduum, after evaporation to drynefs, was dif. 
folved in water, a reddifti-brown liquor was formed, which 
a6led in every refpe<5t iimilar to the tanning fubftance ob- 
tained from the varieties of coal by the nitric acid, 

• § VII. 

From the experiments related, it appears that three va- The three varl- 
rielies of the tanning fubftance may be formed. edes of artificial 

1ft. That produced by nitric acid with any carbonaceous 
fubftance, whether vegetable, animal, or mineral, 

2d. That formed by diftilling nitric acid from common 
lefin, indigo, dragon's blood, and various other fubftances, 

3d. That which common refin, elemi, aftafuetida, cam- 
phor, &c. yield to alcohol, after they have, been previoufly 
<iligefled with fulphuric acid. 

On thefe produds the author makes the following remarks : Remarks oa 

The firft variety is the moft eatily formed. From fome ex-*^^°^* 
perimenls made purpofely it appears, that, after making al- 
lowance for a fmall quantity of moifture and of nitric acid re- 
maining, 100 grains of vegetable charcoal yield 116 of the loo grains char- 
dry tanning fubftance. • coal yield H 6 

Vol.XUL^Ja^vary, isoe, , D from '*""'"* "'*''''' 



gij^ ARTrrrcrAL taw. 

Carbon th: btfe From the manner in wliicli it is produced, carbon is evl-* 

of the tanning dently the bafe and predominating eflfential ingredient in this 
matter. c \ n 

rubftance. 

It alfo contains From § III. experiment F^ it alfo appears that the other 
oxigen, hidro- component parts are oxigen, hidrogen, and nitrojren; for 
gen, andnuro- , ,, -^ . , ,.„,, , . , , • 

•en. when (he artincial tan was dirrilled, ammonia and carbonic 

aeid were obtained,, excIufiA^e of a fmall portion of a yellow 

li^quor that appeared to be of arr oily iwture, from being in- 

foluble in water and alcohol. 

Many of the properties of the tanning fubftance prepared 

from coal by nitric acid are very remarkable, particularly 
It Bss an odour thofe noticed in §111. experiment F ; of its having the odour 
likeamma mat- ^p^^^j^^^^l fubftances when burned, though prepared from ve- 
ed, and one of getable matter ; and in experiment G, of the precipitate 

oakbarkwhea havine; the odour of oak bark, though the component mate- 
precipitated as ° . ' o t 

in G, § III. fials were inodorous. 

It refembles ve- Bat its moft extraordinary properties are thofe in which ifc 

g«:table tannin f^ nearly approaches the vegetable tannin, which it perfeflly 

tics. refembles in its folubility in water and in alcohol, in its aflion 

on gelaten and on ik'm, in its efFedls on the metallic iblutions^ 

on the alkalis, and on the earths. 

The fulphuric and muriatic acids alfo afTefl: its folutions, a» 
Difference be- they do thofe of tannin ;, and the only marked difference be- 
tween It and tween artificial tan and tannin is, that the former is produced 
by nitric acid, while the varieties of the latter are more or lef* 
deflroyed by it ; but here it muft be remembered, that even 
tlie varieties of tannin do not accord in the degree of de- 
ftruaibiiitj. 
Second variety The fecond fpecies of the tanning fuBfiance is obtained 
of artificial tan. frorn a variety of vegetable bodies before recited, by digefi.* 
ing and diftilling them with nitric acid. It is therefore notfo 
rtadily prepared, and the quantity of it produced is lefs in 
proportion to the fubftance from which it is prepared. 

As relin and fome other bodies do not afford it until they 

have been repeatedly treated with nitric acid, and as, during. 

each operation, nitrous gas is produced, while the ftrength 

Tlieory of Its of the aeid which comes over is diminithed, the author thinks- 

farmition, it almoft certain that the tanning fubftance is formed in confe- 

quence of part of the oxigen of the nitric acid becoming com- 

bitwd with the bidrogen of the original body, fo as to form 

5 water ; 



water ; and the carbon being thus in fome meafure denuded, 
is rendered capable of being acted on gradually by the nitric 
acid, in a manner nearly (imilar to what takes place when it 
has been previoufly converted into coal. 

The precipilales of this tanning fubflance from gelaten are 
always pale or deep yellow, while thofe formed by the firft 
fpecies are conftantly brown ; which induces the author to be- 
lieve that the different colours of the precipitates depend on 
the ftate of tiie carbon of the tannin. 

The quantity of artificial tan obtained from refin and other Quantity of ar- 
bodies, was always lefs than that from coal, or even from the fro^^[efins'lhan 
fame bodies previoufly converted to coal in the humid way by from coal, ac- 
fulphuric acid. The caufe of this feems to be, that a number counted for. 
of other produds are fimultaneoufly formed with the tanning 
fubftance, all of which require more or lefs carbon as an in- 
gredient; fo that, according to the affinities which prevail, 
(bme bodies afford but little, and others none of it. 

The greatefl proportion of this fubftance was yielded by Its proportions 
indigo, common ref.n, and flick lac. fSanSr' 

The quantity obtained from affafoetida and gum ammoniac 
was lefs. 

Benzoin, balfam of Tolu, balfam of Peru, and dragon's 

blood, were inferior to the former in this refpeft ; fo that the Benzoic acid 

produdtion of benzoic acid feemed to counterafl the formation ^ nterafts^he 

•of the tanning fubftance. But oxalic acid, when formed in formation of the 

any confiderable quantity, feemed abfolutely to prevent the*^"' ,. ., 
r ' r r.u- r V/i c l- . and oxalic acid, 

lormation of ttiis fubitance : tor gum arahic, tragacanih, man- when produced, 

na, and guiacum, which prx3(iuced oxalic acid in abundance, P/S^*"" *' *°* 

yielded no tanning matter. 

Common liquorice feems to be an exception ; but the author 
fuppofes that the fmall quantity of tan produced by it, was 
formed by the adion of the nitric acid on a portion of uncom- 
bined carbon, which being in a ftate approaching to coal, ia 
probably the caufe of the blacknefs of the common liquorice. 

The third variety of the tanning fubftance appears to be Third variety of 
uniformly produced during a certain period of the procefs ; artificial tan. 
but by a long continuance of the digeftion there is reafon to 
think it is deftroycd, 

Subftances, fuch as gums, which yield my..ch oxalic acid, 
io not apparenlljf afford any of this tanning matter. 

'C.{2 The 



JJg- CAHBONISEb TtJRI?. 

The energy of its aftion on gelaten and fltln Is Cerfainfy 
inferior to that of the fird variety, into which however it may 
eafily be converted by nitric acid. 

From the mode of its formation, there does not appear to 

be any evidence of its containing nitrogen like the firft and 

fecond varieties, and perhaps the abfence of nitrogen may be 

the caufe of its lefs powerful adlion. 

Experiments of In the courfe of the communications on this fubjed, Mr. 

Meflrs. Biggin, fJatchett notices the experiments on tannin by Mr. Biggin j 

Davy on unnln, the great contributions of M. Prouft to the elucidation of its 

noticed. nature and properties, and the very great extenfion of, and 

valuable additions to the fame, from the ingenious labours 

of Mr. Davy, particularly his difcox^ery of the fingular fa6t 

that terra japonica, or catechu, confifts principally of tannin. 

Medicine, arts, Tlie author alfo greatly recommends the farther invefliga- 

Scc. may derive tjon of the nature of the gums, refins, balfams, and gum- 

fxom farther in- ''^^"5, by every poffible method ; and is of opinion, that me- 

vcftigations of dicine, arts, and manufactures may derive many advantages 

^nis, re ns, ^^^^ j^^ ^^^ ^^^^ myfterrous procetfes of vegetation probabfy 

receive confiderable elucidation. 



VI. 

On carbonifed Turf. From a Report made to the PrefeSi of 
Police (at Parh) &)i the Methods emploj/ed for reducmg it 
to this Slate. By MM. C a l 1 1 a s and Co *. 

The ufcof turf ^ ^^ "^^ o^ ^^"^^ ^"'" donieftic fuel' is of a very ancient date : 

»6ry ancient. Some of the moll eminent men of fcience have pronounced that 

^letcrIou"cf- '^ ^°^^ "°'- pro'^'^ce any deleterious effects. Without citing the 

fcfti. examples of England (Ireland), Scotland, and Holland, where 

great quantities of it are confumed, we will confine ourfelves 

to the ufe made of it in France, in the (ci-devant) provinces of 

Flanders, Artois, and Picardy. 

Its ufe is now tolerated in Paris to relieve the fcarcity of 
wood : the lime-burners, plaTler-balcers, • brick-makers, and 
walhers, make great ufe of it both in the "city and its vicinity ; 
and it has never been perceived that thofe who lived within 

* Sonini's Journal, JTom, II, p. 324» 

the 



CARBONISED TURF. 3^ 

tfee influence of its fmoke, have experienced any bad efiefils 
i'rom if. The commiflioners (employed to make this report) '^* |]™<>''2 is 
obferve, that the great volume of fmoke which is difengaged tained water-* 
on the commencement of its comhuft ion, is only caufed by a 
great portion of water contained by the turf, which is ex- 
,f)anded into fleam by the heat ; faon afterwards this fmoke is 
combined wiih an acid analogous to that of vegetable fub- with an acid 
•fiances, which, far from making the air deleterious, tends on removes infec- 
Ihe. contrary to neutralize the vapours of infedion which ittion. 
may contain. It is true that fometimcs, for an inftant, the 
turf in combuilion exhaled an odour of einpyreumatic oil, in 
..the form of gafeous vapours, but this odour is by no means in- 
jurious to the animal organifation, but, on the contrary, is be- 
neficial in nervous affediions. 

But if this odour is difagreeable when the turf is barned in Charing pre- 
lowns, villages, and private houfes, this complaint cannot take ^^^"^^^^1 ^'^^^^ 
place when it is buriied in the open air at a diftance from allof its odour» 
habitations, which will be effedied by its previous carbonifa- 
-tion, as managed by MM. Calliasand Co. therefore the com- 
pany merit the public protedion. 

In 1785 th-e French Government took a great intereft in 
what related to the carbonifation of turf, and granted 80,000 Company at 
francs to a company to ered a furnace for this purpofe on the ^"f^^'^l'^j"!!* 
ground of the .Capuchins. The method of this company w.as the government, 
that of extinguifhing, but their plan did not fucceed, and the^''^ notfucceed. 
works were abandoned. 

Anew company tried, fome time after, the fame enter- Another com- 
prize, at its own expense ; the method of operating in clofed P^ny— pron"^ 
veflels was propofed ; the experiments made were on a great revolution 
fcale, and were attended with a fuccefs that was certified by "ofed iti fai- 
ihe commlffioners of government : a memoir printed in 1790, 
by M. Morclot, contained thefe faQs, with a ftatement of the 
fuperiority of turf-charc«al over that of wood. But the dif- 
aflrous events of the revolution put an unhappy end to lliis en- 
terprize which promifed fo well. 

At prefent MM. Callias and Co. offer to the public an ad- CallJas and Co, 
ditional fpecies of fuel to that hitherto in ufe, a charcoal of a*=harr tur/ by a 
new procefs, the materials of which are fpread with profufion 
over the territory of France, and the confumption of which, 
being fubftituted for that of wood, will at the fame time be The ufe o^ turf 
#1) objefi of economy lo individuals, and of incalculable ad- charcoal. It 
' •' , will be cheap, 

vantage 



S$ CARBONISED TURF. 

and prevent the vantage to the management of the forefts. Timber for the 
^cforefts! conftruftion of houfes and furniture, and limber for fhipbuilcf- 
ing, daily increafe in price, becaufe they bec'ome more fcaice. 
Some of the forefts have become reduced, as the frefti growths 
in them do not keep pace with the deftruflive inftrument that 
overturns them ; feme of ihem are entirely deflroyed, and the 
ground converted into ornamental gardens ; and thus each 
year, each monthi each day, conducts us inlenfibly to a moft 
alarming dearth of timber. Already the price of fire-wood 
is tripled, and Paris is on the eve of being deprived of a com- 
buftible which, as yet, has not been replaced to advaniage. 

The commifiioners compliment MM. Calliasand Co. whofe 
method of carbonifation is peculiar to themfelves, and calcu- 
lated conformably to the laws of combuftion in its two firft 
■ ftages ; that is to fay, before the arrival of its third degree, or 

7;he carboniza- that of abfolute combuftion. MM. Callias and Co. by their 
Caliias is very "lethod, direiS the carbonifation at their pleafure and in an 
perfeft. invariable manner; they are always fuie of obtaining a per- 

fect charcoal, without fmoking-pieces, and without any rilk 
of forming it intoapyrophorus, which foraetimes happens in the 
carbonifation performed in clofed veflfels. Their manner of 
proceeding is alfo very economical ; and what proves fhat ihey 
: work with intelligence is, that they daily improve, and already 

are able to fave ten hours out of 48 in each carbonifation. 

Experiments made xviih Charcoal of Turf. 

IJi. The charcoal of turf kindles a little flower than that of 
Turf. charcoal wood, but when it is once in compleat ignition, it throws out 

ihln^oZ ^^^^ "^"^^ "^^""^ ^^^' ' '^^ ^^'"^ '^ ^'^" '"^^^ elevated, and it yields 
charcoal, no odour, except a very flight one of fulphur, which ceafes 

when It is fully lighted. 
Caufcs water to 2. Charcoal of turf, in equal quantify with charcoal of wood, 
as'fpwdily!!"" caufed a given quantity of water to boil four times ; while that 

of wood caufed it only to boil once. The firft is then fuperior 

to the fecond in a quadruple proportion. 

3. To prove that turf charcoal emits more heat than wood 

_^ , charcoal, the following experiment was made. 

Itfufcduoa. With turf charcoal, in a goldlmith's furnace, eleven ounces 

of goM in eight of gold Were fufed in eight minutes, which with wood char, 

minutes ; wood- y • • i /• 

charcoal did the c^al was not performed in lets than fixteen minutes. The gold 

rame mfixzein IbR nothing of its malleability in the fufion with the turf; but, 

on 



> 



CATARACTS AWD CANAL OF TROELLH^ETTA. jg^ 

VI the contrary, it was necelTary to add fome redu6live flux> m'nutss. The 
to that fufed by the wood charcoal, in order to rcftore the ^ g^y 'J^^ ° 
walleabilily which it had loft. prefcmd. 

4-. Iron made red-hot by charcoal of turf in a forge, became Iron heated by 
•more malleable ; which proved thai it gave none of its carbon nialieable. It 
to the metals with which it came in contact. lafts longer than 

5. Finally, Turf charcoal lafts longer in a ftate of ignition *'""'-*''««»^ 
"than charcoal of wood, and its heat is conEantly equ^l. 

ConclufiOK. 

1. The odo^r of turf in conjbuftion is noway* deleterrous. Sts odour not at 
This truth has beencon'firn>edby the moftdiftinguiniedchemifts;^^,^^^^ 

and is be-fides iproved by the conftant ufe made of this fuel in 
the ci-dcvant provinces of JFlanders, Artois, and Picardy. 

2. It is defirable that the carbonifation of turf may i?e en- Its ufe ought ta 
couraged, oji account of the great advantages which may re- ^ "ic^^raged, 
fult from the ufe of this^new fpecies of charcoal, both for 

private confumption and for large works. . • 

But the greateft matter in its favour is, that its ufe tends to andwill preftrvt 
<liminifk the felling of the forcfts, whole extenSon ought to be * ^'^'^ 
promoted by every means poffible, and which nothing tends fo 
much to deftroy as the ufe of wood charcoal. 



VII. 

Jcconnt (f the Cataracts and Canal of Troellhectia, in Sweden, 
(from a Work relative to them by Colonel Skioeldebrand. 
PubliJIitd in, one Volume Quarto, at Stockholm.) 

JL HE cataraSs of Troellhsetta produce one of the fineft eP^ ; - 

fedls which nature affords in Europe. The river of Gothie is The ca^aSs 
Ihe only outlet of the vaft lake of Wener, navigable through the H vT/GoUife 
its whole extents This river, which fails in the North fea near foon after its dc- 
Gothemberg, as foo« as it departs from the lake, which is much pj'''^"Tu.^''"'" 
more elevated than the fea, rolis iis waters with impetuofity, 
and dafhes thena againfl fteep rock^, whofe refiftance forms a 
lucceftion of catarads, wliich without being individually very 
,^iigh, form aJtogetiier amoft ftriking obje<5i. The imagination They form a very 
is the more affeQed by this ftght, as the furrounding fcenes are ^''"^'"S '^''■^ 
©f a dark aiad laelancholy cbaraftsr, confil^ing of grey rocks 

t?rovvned 



^.Q ACIDS BY GALVANISM. 

crowned wifh ancient firs, and of frightful precipices formed 
by the burfting of the locks and banks, which the fury of the 
Ru'ins of locks water has overturned. Thefe laft were conftrufted in the bed 
which had been ^f (i,g cafarads, in order to render the river navigable through 
ftniaed in the >'« whole length ; but this daring work of man could not refift 
bed of the cata- the reiterated CiTorts of nature, and therefore it was necellary to 

have recourfe to another plan. 
The canal paffes The canal newly conlirofled patTes by the fide of the cata- 
by the fide of radls, and its bed is partly formed in the natural rock, and 
Is'pardy^utin partly in amarfliy foil. It was began in 1794, and finifhed at 
the rock. the end of fix years, in 1800. Its breadth is 22 feet, and its 

dcptCnumber depth fix feet and an half. Its locks are eight in number, and 
of locks, time its coft amoun(ed to the fum of 598^3 pounds fterling, which 
of excavation, ^^^ colleaed by fubfcription. By means of this canal there 
and coft. j f j • <• i 

The extent of is a continued navigation, without any interruption, from tlie 

'ndT'?'"of province of Wermeland to Gothemberg. In 1802 the number 
•veflels which of vetTels which had pafied this canal amounted to 138Q, which 
haw paffed, is at the rate of 1 1 90 each year. 



- vrii. . 

Letter from H. B. K. on the ProduBion of Nitrons Acid,, awi 
oilier FaSis*', 

To Mr. NICHOLSON, 
SIR, 

Ixperlments /\s Mr. Accum has not anfwered. my paper, he therefore 
Carbonate of knows of no experiments which (hew the formation of the 
potafhin water nitrous acid ; but anxioufly imprefiied with the fubjed, Ihave 
smdemkud^^ ' ^^^^ performing fome experiments, which I think will throw 
carbonic gas. great light upon the caule of the nitrous acid appearing in 

eledrical experiments. 
The potath be- I pafTed the galvanic fluid through a watery folution of the 
came capable of carbonate of polafii, made by diftiUed water, confined in a 

ocfiigiation like . ■' 

nitre; and folu- glafs tube where no atmofpherica! air could have accefs to 

«°" '^^ ^''^^'^ •'» and I found a great produ6lion of air come from the folu-- 
ftcwed the pre- . , . , ^ . . 

fence of muria- '^'on, which upon exammation was pure carbonated air ; and 
tic acid. 

* See our Journal, X. 106, 214, and XI. 105. 

then 



ACIDS BY GALVANISM. ^ 

then examining the fohition by dipping a piece of paper into 
it ; upon its being dipped the paper (hewed evident figns of 
nitre upon it, and when burned it detonated the fame as nitre 
would have done ; and alfo with the folution of (ilver the al- 
"kaline folution gave fome faint indications of the marine acid 
being prefent in it. That the folution fliould give indications Remark. Thefe 
of poflefling both the nitrous and marine acids is not fo fur- J.^°^*^'='^'j^^ ^^^^ 
prizing; as we have the fame products in firing oxigen and common detona- 
Iiidrpgen gafes, according to the foreign experiments, princi- tion of oxigen 
pally the nitrous acid, but with it a fmall quantity of the ma- 
rine acid. 

I then filled the tube (after wafliing it clean) with pure Pure water gal- 
diftilled water, and fent through it the galvanic fluid ; and I l^^'^'lllJ'J^ 
©bferved a generation of airs, which, upon examination, ap- 
peared to be the airs ufually formed in thefe experiments, as 
fhey exploded. 

After this I filled the tube with a folution of pure potafli in Pure potaft and 
diflilled water, and no air came from it upon galvanifing it; water gave no 
, , . T, ■ ■ , r , gasbygalvan- 

it any, it was carbonated air : But upon exammmg the lolu- ii\ng, but indi- 

tion, it gave clearly the fame indications of poflefline: the ni- "'^^'^ ^^« t^'o 
* J -J ,. , . I r I .• r . n acids of the firft 

trous and marme acids, as the carbonated lolution of potaQi experiment. 

did in the firft experiment. 

Now exempt from all hypolhefes, let us examine thefe in- Remarks. The 

lereftins: fads ; The carbonated polafli had its carbonic acid <^arboinc acid 
,,,.,„ , .', ., , , was expelled 

air expelled, clearly from the acid or acids; as we know that from potafh by a 

it could not part with its carbonic acid air, but from the action ft'ongeracid 
of a ftronger acid. Alfo another more efTential fa6i it proves whence it is in- 
to us, that the generation of the peculiar airs, what are called ferred that the 
oxigen and hidrogen gafes, are owing to the acids ; for when °^'q^^ a^Qj-g " 
the potalh was in the water as to arreft or attra£l them, there from theXe aci<Js. 
were neither of thefe airs produced ; and upon examining the 
diftilled water (in the experiment in which they were pro- 
duced) after their produftion, there was no acid in the water, 
but it was pure diflilled water. Therefore, beyond a doubt, 
the nitrous acid is efientially^oncerned in the production of 
thefe peculiar oxigen and^fdrogen gafes : indeed Mr. Cruick- 
(hanks fays, that upon fufing thefe airs, he found in the refi- 
duum the nitrous acid. 

Thefe experiments were performed by two fhort gold wires The conducing 
attached to each end of thp galvanic pile. But upon placing ^"^" ^^""^ S^'d. 
^ pretty long iron wire to the fjiver end of the pile inftead of 

the 



^ 



AC«TIC ACJD, 

the gold one, a little hydrogen gas was produced} evec when 
the potafli was mixed with the diftilled water, though there 
was none when it was a gold wire. 

I hope Mr. Nicholfon you will not refufe the hifertion. of 
thefe intereftlng faSs in your journal, for I have made the 
relation of them as brief as poffible that they might not Qccu|>y 
too much room *. 

H. B. K, 
London, Auguji 15. 



IX. 

Jleport nf M. Debuc's Menioir on Acetic Acid, made byM. M. 
Plan CHE and Boullav, It^ Order of the Societj/ of Phar^^ 
macrf at Paris f . 

M. Debuc r«- iVl, Debuc faw in the Amahs de Ckimie, No. 1 09, a method of 

d^ikr's proceik ^^' Badollier, apothecary atChartres, for obtaining acetic licid 

to obtain acetic very readily from a mixture of equal parts of fulphate of capper 

4cW from ace. ^^^ ^^.^j^^^ ^^ j^^^ , ^ moderate heat. 

tate or iead by •' 

fuiphateof cop- Relying on this procels M. Debuc made an exact mixture 

P^""* of two pounds of fulphate of copper and an equal quantity of 

acetate of lead, which he expofed m adiftilling apparatus on a 

fand bath to a moderate {ue, which he increafed by degrees 

The produa during the operation, which lafted for fix hours : the produS 

ufed in manu- obtained was 26 ounces. It was given to a manufa€ltirer, 

an cffeft con- without examination, and being ufed in his bufinefs produced 

trary to the _ an effed entirely contrary to the acid extraQed from cryftals of 

common acetic 

^cid. copper. 

The procefs This circumflance determined M. Debuc to repeat the pro- 

again repeated, cefs as before, and examine its refults carefully : In which he 

carefully exa- obferved the mixture of the two falts to become paftey, which 

mined* is eafily explained by the difference of the concentration of 

the acid in the fulphate of copper, from that in the fulphate of 

fead. The produdls of this experiment wete, 

* I am extremely forry that this communication was by naiftake- 
placed among papers already printed ; which alone has caufed the 
delay in its appearance. — W. N. 

f Annalcs de Chimie, Tom. LIV. p. 145, 

l.Four 



ACEtiC ACIO. 43 

1. Four ounces of water flightly acidulated, Pi-odufts of thi* 

2. Four ounces of a liquor more acid than the firft, and which P''o«fs. 
M. Debuc compares to good vinegar of Saumur. 

3. Eighteen ounces of a very limpid liquor, with a lively 
and penetrating odour of acetic acid mixed with fulphurous 
acid. 

The refidue, weighing 38 ounces, appeared toM. Debuc in Therefidue i»^ 
different layers more or lefs red, according to their diftance J^^^^^y^'^j^J^^^'*'' 
from the bottom of the retort ; and he found the upper part 
covered with a whiteilh powder, (lightly inclined to a citron 
colour, in which he recognifed the prefence of fulphur. 

Barytes, the muriate of lime, and the acetate of lead formed Precipitates 
immediately confiderable precipitates with the third produa. th'^^pr^dua by 

M. Debuc obferves that the decompofition of the acetate different falts. 
of lead by the fulphate of copper may be eafily explained ; 
but that here there is a production of fulphurous acid, and a Sulphurou^s arid 
decompofition of the fulphuric acid from the abforplion of its 5^^"^ M.^'oe^ 
oxigen by the vinegar; which is a fingular phenomenon, that buc to fuppofe 
has no agreement with the affinities of the acidifying Principle J^^J^p'^^^^'j;;^?^^*^ 
for the acid'ifiubte aud falifiable bafes; he leaves the explanation ated vinegar. 
of this mat!er to more "experienced chemifts, and only notices 
that the tranfportation of the oxigen of the fulphuric acid to 
another bafe, fuggefts the idea, tkat acetic acid isfuperoxigenatcd 
vinegar. 

M. Debuc fucceeded In freeing his third product frofti the M. Debuc's 
fulphurous and fulphuric acids, by letting it remain for about PJ^g'^he tl!i/d"* 
24 hours, on twelve grains of fait of tartar, and about two produft from 
ounces of black oxide of manganefe pounded fine, and after {ijIPh^r^a'di* 
thatdifiilling it flowly; by this redification he obtained a pound Acetic acid pro- 
of pure acetic acid of aiively and agreeable odour, and ofd'<eed, o/>e de- 
about 10 degrees fpecific gravity; which is one degree lefs than the com- 
than that of radical vinegar well redified, obtained from acetate mon kind, 
of copper. 

The author concludes from this, 

1. That the produ6l of two pounds of acetate of lead, treated 
with an equal quantify of fujphate of copper, is tvirenty-fix 
ounces; of which four ounces is acidulated water, an equal 
portion ftrong vinegar, and eighteen ounces acetic acid altered 
by the fulphurous and fulphuric acids. 

2. That the eightet;n ounces, forming the third product, M. Debuc con- 
rea'ified as recited, does not differ from that drawn from cryf- '^^^^^'^^I'^l 
ials of acetate of copper, but by its lefs denfity, ^uced only dif- 

S.Th&t 



with M.Debuc's 
ipodifications* 



44' AlCETic acid. 

fas m ftrcngth ' 3. That in many cafes this acid may be fubftituted for ox?< 
mon kl'ndr'"" '""'"'^t'C acid, as an obje6t of falubriety without poffeffing its 
Slid may be fub- inconveniencics. 
ftitutcd for oxi- xhe reporters repeated the procefs of M. Badollier with the 

muriatic acid, • i r . 

ill fome cafes to modihcations adviled by M, Debuc as folJows. 
advantage. They introduced a mixture of two pounds of fulphate of 

The reporters ^ j^ir • ,- ,.,.. .,. 

repeat M.Ba- c^PP^^ ana "le (ame quantity of acetate of lead into a glafs 

doiiier's procefs, retort, placed it on a fand bath, and adiufled to it a tubulated 
receiver, which communicated with two bottles of a Wolf's 
apparatus ; the firft of which contained diftilled water, and 
the fecond many pounds of lime water ; from this laft a lube 
was pafled underneath a jar in an hydro-pneumatic apparatus : 
the retort was heated gradually to tiie end of the operation, 
which lafted more than 10 hours j and the following produfts 
were drawn from the receiver. 

1. Eight ounces of a liquor fjmilar to diftjlled vinegar, but 
with a lefs agreeable- odour, 

2. Ten ounces of a liquor with an unpleafing odour of acetic 
acid, more penetrating than the firft, and not containing any 
trace of fulphuroiis or fulphuric acids. 

3. Finally kven ounces of a liquor of great limpidity, with 
a very pungent odour of fu'phurous acetic acid, and which di4 
rot precipitate muriate of barytes. 

A confiderable difengagement of an elaftic fluid was oh. 
ferved, which became perceptible as foon as the retort began 
to run, and which lafted during the whole operation. 

This gafeous fluid was abforbed almoft totally by the lime 
water, forming with it a very abundant white precipitate, 
which, gathered on a tilter, and dried, proved to be carbonate 
of lime : It weighed two hundred and fifty grains, which made 
the carbonic acid equal, according to the known proportions 
of this fubfiance, to eighly-fn-e grains; atmofpheric acid alone 
palTed under the jar mixed with fome carbonic acid gas : no 
trace was perceived of hydrogen gas. 

Many layers of different colours were found in the retort. 
. The firfl was of a beautiful green, furrouuded with a circle 
of yellowifli white towards the fides. 

The fecond, much more thick, was of a red colour, greatly 
like copper in very fmall particles. 

The third was a mixture of fulphate of lead and of copper 
apparently in the metallic flate. 

The 



ACEtlC ACIDi 4^* 

The laft larger, which occupied the bottom, of a blaick The loweft 

colour, and fliinine, was a mixture of fuiphate of lead and of 'fy^'" of '^e re- 

° * fidue IS a mix- 

Charccal. tureof fulphate 

The fame experiment with the fame quantities of the falts, of lead and char- 
was repeated a fecond time, with the precaution of reducing -pj^J f.^^^ 
the fulpliale of copper by dificcalion to -fi of its weight, Thecefs again re- 
produ6t from this was preferable to the other. thrfulphate'of 

The fecond and third produ(fts were mixed and refiified on copper, the 
carbonate of potafh and oxide of manganefe, with the pre- P''P<^"« is bet- 
cautions indicated by M. Debuc : This rectification produced Second and third 
an acetic acid of nearly the fame fpecific gravity as that afforded ^rodudts reiti- 
by fimpie difiiliation from cryftals of copper, but of a lefs ^^ ^g^j^g^. ^^^^ 

Itrong odour, lefs agreeable, and beftdes mingled with fulphu- lefs agreeable 

. J acetic acid pro* 

fOUSaCld. ^ duced, mingled 

The reporters think that M. Debuc is deceived in his the- with fuiphurooj 
ory, ** that acetic acid is vinegar fuper'Oxigenated by the oxigcn^^^ ' 
of the Julphuric acid pojing to the vegetable acid," for he has 
not confidered, 

1. Ttiat the acetic acid is almoft all obtained, before thCReafonswhy M, 
fulphurous acid becomes perceptible. Debuc's theory 

2. That tlie metallic oxides, winch are the bafis of the 
falts employed, have lefs altradion than fulphur to oxigen. 

3. That the difengagement of the carbonic acid is much more 
likely to explain the matter. 

The confiderable produdion of carbonic acid, and the pre_T},g_yQ^,j£^jgjj^' 
fence of charcoal in the refidue, furprifed the reporters the of carbonic acid 
more ; as MM. Boddolier and Darac (the firft in his notice of the f^om'^thrro- 
preparation of acetic acid ; the other in a memoir, in other cefs, is contrary 
refpeds very interefting, on the difference of acetous and acelic^^ lA?^^","'!* 

r J r^' ^ of MM. Bodoi- 

acids,) poiiiively aflert that \n the operation relatedj'^/ierclier and Darac. 
was no other gafcous proda^ion but that of part of the air con- 
tained in (he vnjjeU, cfpeaally no carbonic acid, and not an atom of 
charcoal in the nfidiie. 

The refult found by the reporters fo different from that of 
M. Darac, in an experiment on which he fupports his theory 
of the identity of the acetous and acetic acids, was fo favour- 
able to the theory of M. Chaptnl, that they would have been 
induced to decide in favour of the opinion of (he latter, if the 
following coirparative experiments had not confirmed thern 
in a contrary notion, and appeared to them one of Ihofc, of 
which M. Darac might moff avail himfelf. 

T» 



4^. ACEtic Acre. 

Arj experlmeat To ibar oonces of pure concentrated radical vinegar (ex« 
made, favour- traded from cryftals of copper by heat alone) were added by 
mVopinionf' ^^gi'^ss four ounces of femi-vitreous oxide of lead (litharge) 
in powder J which compieatly diflblved in it by heat, there 
€ven remained an excefs of acid, perceptible in the ftrong 
odour of the foiution. Being laid by to cool, it produced a 
very irregular cryllalline raafs. 

Four ounces of this mafs of acetic lead, mixed with an equal 
quantity of fulphate of copper dried, were treated in a con- 
venient apparatus. The acetic acid produced had an odour 
more penetrating and agreeable : but all the other phenort)ena 
were the fame as with the acetate of lead ; that is to fay, there 
was an equal developement of carbonic and fulphurous acids, 
and charcoal was found in the refidue. 

Which determined the reporters to conclude, 
The reporters 1. That acetic acid formed by the diftillation of a mixture of 

conclude that fulphate of copper and acetate of lead, is always mixed with 
this aceuc ac.d ' /^ m i mi j 

is always mixed fulphurous acid, which does not become perceptible Imtpwards 
with fulphurous tiie end of the diftillation. 

of which it can- 2. That it cannot be compleatly deprived of this fulphurous 
not be freed ea- acid by the rectification propofed by M. Debuc. 
tuc'sprccefs-^' 3. That (he acid itfelf, totally deprived of the fulphurous 
and never has fo acid, is never of fo lively and agreeable an odour, as that drawn 
IdouTVSie ^^^^ ^''^ cryllals of the acetate of copper, 
common kind. 4. That it is preferable to dry the fulphate of copper before It 
is ufed. 

5. That MM. Boddolier and Darac, were mtftaken in 
fuppofing, that i)o carbonic acid was obtained in this ope- 
ration. 

6. Finally that the produ6lion of carbonic acid does not any 
more prove the decarbonifation of the acetous acid in becoming 
the acetic, than the fulphurous acid proves the fuperoxige- 

The difference nation of the vineg^ ; but on the contrary that it is allowable 
of acetous and j^, conclude, that the diflference of thefe tvvo fubftances is not 
Sy d^ocs nJt** caufed by their fiate of acidification, 

depend on the 
flate of their 
acidification* 



Account 



*C?TAinC GARDEN CP SCTHCENrR'trN'W, 47 



X. 

i4ccount of the Imperial Botanic Garden of Schanhrunn, in the 
Vicinity of Vienna.* 

In 1753 the emperor, Francis the firfl:, caufed a portion of The garden efta- 
ground behind the garden of the caftle of Schcenbrunn to be by^^ancisY."* 
prepared for the cultivation of exotics, and of plants remark- 
able tor iheir rarity or beauty. By the advice of the cele- Put under the 

brated Van Swieten, the famous florid Adrien Steekhoven was care of Adrien 

Steckhoven, 
iHvited to SclitKitbrunn from Leyden, who caufed many green- — VanderSchot 
houfes to be conrtrucied there, with a very larc:;e and beautiful ^^^ ^^^ gardenes 

, , r 1 • 1 I M 1. Ayr • —brings to It 

hot-houle, and various other buildings. At th'-r lame time ^j^^y exotics 
JRichard Vander Schot, of Delft, was named firft gardener, ffom I^oll^"'^ 
and employed to convey to Vienna a great number of rare and 
exotic plants, brought up in different parts of Holland, and 
thus at the end of one year the garden was already rich in 
valuable plants. 

M. Jacquin, who was then at Vienna, went to vifit the M, Jacquin fent 
garden of Sclwenbrunn, toclafs thofe plants which had not >et ^°j|^^^p]j,^^ 
leceived a fpecific denomination j on which occafion he be- 
came knowi> to th€ emperor, who propofed to him to travel 
at his expence on the continent of South America, and in the 
;American illands, to enrich the garden with plants from the 
moft diftant countries. Accompanied by the gardener Van 
der Schot, he departed from Vienna in 1754; and in pading 
through Italy was joined by Jesm Buonamici and Ferdinand Account of his 
Barculli, who were entrufted with the zoological part of the proceedings in. 
.. . ... - r . • . .theV/eftlndia 

Expedition, by which it was propoled to improve the royal iflands. 

"menagerie, and the cabinet of natural hiftory at the fame time. 
After having vifited the, ifiands of Martinico, of Grenada, St. 
Vinqent, St. Euftatia, St. Chriaopher, St. Martin, St. Bar- 
tholomew, Aruba, Cuba, Caracca^ and Jamaica, he returned 
to Vienna in 1759. From Auguft 1757 to the middle- of 
VJS9j M. Jacquin could do little for the advancement of Sci- 
.ence, having been ill of a liealery for four months, of which 
He was at laft cured at Jamaica. The war which then com- 
*»eiic«d between England. and Francei.alfo deranged his tra- 

"y'Magafm'EncjcIopedlque, T.6, p. 552. 

vels,_ 



4S lOTANtC dARDEN OF SCHCENBRUNHv 

'^ ^ vels. The veffal in which he made his voyage was takeiJ, 

and he was thus obliged to pafs a conftderable time, againft 
his will, at Montferrat and the defert ifland of Gonave. 
The firft targo ^'^ ^^e month of Auguft 1 7,57 the firft cargo of plants for the 
of plants fliip- garden of Schoebrunn was Qiipped from Martinico, which ai*- 
— thefecond ^'^^"^ atMarfeiiles. In the month of February, 1757, Van- 
cafgo brought by der Schot returned alfofrom Martinico, and brought with him 
Vander Schot. f^^^^^ jj^^ ^^^^ -^^^^ ^ g^.^^^ quantity of trees and fhrubs. All 
this cargo arrived fafe, except fome fpecimens of Aieliconia, 
which were attacked on the voyage by mice. The trees were 
of the height of a man, and of the thicknefs of an arm, and 
Ibmetimes more. The mod of them had born fruit in their 
native foil ; their tops had been cut off, and only fome of the 
principal branches were permitted to remain about two feet in 
Method of pre- length; the llirubs remained in their natural ftate. To remove 
paring the trees thofe trees from their native earth, a circular trench was dug 
for ""'^S^' _ round eacii, at a convenient diftance, in fucb manner that there 
ing them. might remain attached to their roots as great a mafs of the 

earth in which they grew as was pofTible, This mafs, whidi - 
formed a fort of ball, was entirely wrapped up in leaves of 
the Mufu, fecured with cords made of the bark of the hibifcus 
tiliaceus, in fuch a manner that the earth could not falPout. 
Weight of a tree A fingle tree packed in this manner, weighed commonly an 
^^M^^'^''"'^ hundred and odd pounds. The balls of earth were moifiened 
a little, with the neceflary care, and fufpended in the air^ 
where the vegetation foon became apparent. 
Method of tranf- To prevent the earth from being detached from the roots on 
porting the the way, all the packages were tranfported in barks to the 
port of St. Pierre, in Martinico; from hence they were Ihip- 
ped to Marfeillcs, and from thence brought by fea alfo to Leg- 
horn, and from this port were carried by mules to Schcenbrunn. 
This was wilhout exception the richeft cargo of living plants 
which had ever been brought from the hot countries to Eu¥ 
rope. 
The third cargo In the month of Auguft, 1756, BuonaraicI fet off with the 
l£"fo.Sr°' third cargo from St. Euftatia to Leghorn. The fourth cargo 
and the fifth. ' departed towards the end of the fame year. The fifth was 
fliipped from Curacao for Amflerdam, and was accompanied 
by J. A. Vefuntin, who died in Germany of the dyfentery. 
This cargo was extremely rich in corals and other produdioris . 
of the fea, which ftill fprm fome of the moft precious ornaments 

of 



BOTANIC GARDfeN Of SCH&N«RUNif, ' 4^^ 

t)T'the Impefial Cabinet. In the fame year, M. Jacquin fent'The fisth carg* 
ofF the fixth cargo, from the fame ifland to Arafterdam. And ^^^ ibventh 
finally, in January 1759, MM. Jacquin and Barculli departed brought ^y 
with the Seventh cargo from the Havanrvah, for Ferrol in Spain, ^J^g Jcuiii»^ 
and arrived at Vienna in the month of July. This laft cargo 1759, 

was particularly rich in animals of every ipecies. ..3; 

Thus in the fpace of a few years the number of plants in 
the garden of Scheenbrunn was confiderably encreafed ; for, 
befides thofe which had arrived from America, means were The garden tc- 
found to make many important acquifitions in different other ^''^" plants ^ 
countries. In 1763, after the death of Francis the firft, Maria countries. ' •» 
Therefa ordered the garden to be condu6led on the fame foot- Maria Thrrefa 

I . 1 ,• T 1- 1 . -1 I /• 1 patronifes the 

mg that it was before. In 1780, a little while berore the inftitution, ' 

death of this princefs, it fuffered a fmall but irreparable lofs ; 
the gardener, Van der Schot, then very aged, had been con- 
fined to his chamber for many weeks by an attack of the gout. 
Thofe to whom the management of the plants was entrufted 
in that period acquitted themfelves with great negligence ; in. : .: -.y , T^ 
one of the coldeft nights of that winter, the perfon whofliould Many valuable 
have taken care of the great hot-houfe forgot to keep up «he j''°f,'/„f JfJ^* 
fire. In the morning he thought to repair this negle6l by gence of the at- 
•lieating it to an unufual degree ; but the fudden tranfition from ^^""^^"^^ ^'**^ 
cold to heat killed a great number of fine plants, and among hot houfc. 
others all the cinnamon trees from Martinico, of which the 
trunks were as thick as a man's arm, the heads very large, and 
of the greateft beauty ; and alfo deftroyed the plants Crefcen- 
I'tu, Achras, Annona, Portlandia, and a Coccobba Grand if alia, 
ivfaich was 20 feet high, and whofe leaves were of the tize 
of two feet. f 

This garden alfo fuffered another lofs. A confiderable col- A cargo of j^J^nts 

leaion fent from the ifle of France by M. Gere, arrived at {f"'" ^*V^ ^H^^'f 
,_ . o • 1 /• -1 1 1 II . , 1 1 r , . Fiance fpoiied. 

frielte entirely fpoiled, the trees ah dead, and the feeds im- 

prolific. 

At this time the emperor, Jofeph the fecond, directed M. 

Jacquin and M. Born to propofe to forae men of abilities to 

undertake a voyage Into remote countries. Profeflbr Marter Prof. Marter mS. 

was appointed the condudor of this expedition, and Do6lor "^^"^ (^"^ '" 

• ~ . , . , , . , . , , , colIe<5t in, Aiitf- 

Stupiez was alTociated with him, together with the gardeners jicay^iyjS?.' 

Boor and Brederaeyer, and the painter Moll. This, company ' ,;o4 

of travellers quitted Vienna in th,e month of April, 1783, and 

arrived in September at Philadelphia. They travelled over 

Vol, XUI.'-Januaky, 1806. E Pennfylvariia, 



50 BOTANIC GARDIN OF SCllClNBRUNW. 

Pennfylvania, Virginia and Carolina. M. Boor along wilh M. 

Schopf^ made a journey inlo Florida, and from thenee pafled 
Sewfalfinc to the ifiand of Providence. M. Bredemeyer returned from 
plants arrive at Carolina, and pafling through England, arrived at Vienna itt 
Vienna from _^ , ^ ., r , , .,- • i . r> 

thence, with M, J^ovember, 1784, with teveral very beaulitul plants. Boor, 

Bredemeyer. who during his flay at the Bahama iflands had collefted many 

rare plants, returned to Vienna in the month of September, 

1785. But the painter Moll and Doftor Stupiez were fepa- 

rated from their fellow travellers. 

Bredecueycr fent By the orders of the emperor, M. Bredemeyer, and the 

out again, gardener Schucht, went towards the end of the year 1784- to 

iflands and con- rejoin the dire6lor of this expedition, M. Marter, who re- 

tinent to the mained all this time in America ; they pafled over many of 

* the great iflands and a part of the continent as far as the mouth 

of the river Oronoco, 

Masy rare plants In 1788 they retarned by way of Amfterdam to Vienna, 

hlmindM.^''^^"^ brought back many rare and new plants. M. Marter 

Marter in 1788. alfo arrived the fame year, by the way of London and Brufleb 

wilh a new colleciion of plants, 

M. Boor and The emperor had not forgotten the lofs of the plants from 

Me of France. ^ ^^® '^^ °^ France, and commiflloned M. Boor and the gardener 

Scboll to go there, and touch on their way at the Cape of 

Good Hope. In the month of May 1786, they arrived at the 

Cape with the Dutch veffels ; M. Boor remained there till 

1787, and then departed by himfelf for the ifle of France and 

M. Boor returns that of Bourbon. In the month of January, 1788, he returned 

''lantsr*^ ^"^ ^^ *^® ^^P^ ^'^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^"'' °^ ^^^^ P'^"^^ > ^"^ ^^ *^® 

— leaves fomc 20th of July in the fame year arrived at Vienna with a great 

behind at the number of magnificent vegetables; but as all the cafes could 

Seh«ll. not be brought in the veflel, the gardener remained at the 

^'^j|!L',"j.' Cape with the remainder. There has not fince been any pof- 

fibility of getting them to Vienna, as well as many other 

plants ; and the gardener Scholl remains at the Cape from that 

time, from whence he has feiit from time to time feeds and 

rootii. Befides this ihcreafe to the garden, the number of 

■ The plants of plants was augmented in diirerent manners. Thus, at the fale 

Schwenk ^f ^\^^ garden of Schwenk at the Hague, the emperor caufed 

M. Jatquin, the *'! the rare plants to be bought j and likewife M. Jacquin, the 

Ion, fends many foij, when he was on his travels over a great part of Europe, 

travels. ^"^ ' ^^^^ ^*-* Schqshbrunn many exotic plants which he found ia 

other gardens. ' i^ 

~ ''■' ■■■■ - . - . The 



BOTANIC GARDEN OF SCHCEN3RUNM. 51 

The eraperor Jofej:^ alfo enlarged the hot-houfes, and Emp"0'- Joseph 

caufed others to be built. Jn order to bring back Schol.I the houfes and builds 

gardener to Vienna, with the plants which remained in his others. 

care at the Cape, the emperor Leopold, in 1791, ordered the Emperor Leop5ld 

gardener Bredenjeyer and young Van der Schot, (the Con of ^^^"^ ^^^^^^' 

hira who had been with M. Jacquin in the Eaft Indies) to fail Cape for Schoil, 

to the Ifl« of Fraitce, wher-e Cere had colleaed many plant^s — .^^^ 'f difap- 
,• ,, . . , , , , . , . , pointed 01 ms 

tor the imperial garden, and during their return they were to pafftgc. 

touch at the Cape to take up all thofe which remained with 
Sqholl. The captain of the veflTel, in which the two garden- 
ers bad taken their paflage put into Malaga ; where they dil- 
covered in time that he had bad intentions with refpeft to 
them; which obliged them to return to Vienna without per- 
forming their commiffion. After the death of the emperor Francis II. 

Leopold, his fucceffor Francis the fecond had an hot-houfe J"'''? ^" ^f 

' houfe 255 feet 

conftruaed, 235 feet long, for the plants of the Cape. A new long for Cape '^ 

garden was alfo ellabliflied, of which Doaor Hoft was ap- ^^"^'^ '' 

pointed irifpedlor, and in which were carefully cultivated all added for plants 

the plants which grew in the fiates belonging to the houfe of*'^ ^^^ Auftrian 

Audria. ^*'"* 

By thefe details may be feen with what care this juftly ce- Valuable Bota- 

lebrated garden was augmented from the reign of Francis the "'*= publications 

fuii, and all aaonifliment will ceafe at the riches it contains, onchcnb'unn! 

and wliich have furnidied materials for different magmficent 

works on Botany, fuch as the Icones plantarum rariorum, pub- 

liflied by M. Jacquin, and above all, that which appeared a 

few years ago, under the title of Plantarum rariorum Horti 

Cctfarei Schosubrunnenfis defcriptiones et Icones, in two volumes 

folio, containing 150 coloured engravings. 



XL 

Litter from a Correfpondent on the Means of increafing the A£lion. 
of Sound 9n the Organs of fuck as are partially deaf 

To Mr. NICHOLSON. 
SIR 

/iXTHOUGH lam fo deaf as not to be able to hear the Sounds Iniperf 
beating of a watch, unlefs it be put clofe to the ear. vet. if I fe^'y hqard . 

] if/Ti . * J * rendered audibjc 

place one end ot a Itick, or ot a metal rod between my teeth* through a foUd 

^ E 2 and ^P^'"^*^ ^° ^^* 

teeth. 



£^2 ^^ INCREASING tKE ACTION 01^ SOU«X>. 

and the other end upon the watch, at the diftance of feVeral. 

feet, I can hear it very dillindly. 

The hearing I know only two methods of alleviating the difficulty ot" 

affifted'bv pref- ^^'^'''^K articulated founds; one is by furrounding the ear, 

fing the external with the hand open, and preffing it forward, the fingers and 

ear forward} thUmb being fixed behind it ; this expedient does more than 

Or by a trum- tnight be fuppofed. Another method is, that of the application 

P">'^*'"fi^"'*' of a trumpet; which however, is of but little ufe, conftru6ied 

ufeful. *^ ^* '^ ^^ prefent. The difcovery of any infirument to facilitate 

hearing, by being placed in the mouth (probably after the 

ttianner of a tobacco-pipe) would be of great importance to a 

numerous clafs of our fellow creatures, whofe faculty of hearing 

ProbablUty that is nearly fufficient for common converfation. If an inftrument 

mi'hfbehTvInt '^^"'^ ^^ invented, which will do any thing at all in this way, 

ed to aft on the our experience in regard to other inventions, encourages an 

teeth or bones eJcpe^lation, that improvements will follow : means of affifling 

of the head fo , * ^ , , , , j -/-,,»• i . , . i 

as to magnify human fight have long been deviled; little indeed has been done 

Icundt. to affitl defedive hearing ; it is however an object deferving ©f 

more attention than has been befiowed upon it. If you flioukl 
be fo good as to infert this in your Journal, I indulge a hope, 
that {ome of your ingenious cojrefpondents, compafiionating 
the unfortunate fitaation of thole whofe hearing is imperfe6t» 
may be led to attempt difcoveries, the refult of which may be 
of extenfive utility. It is defirable to afcertain the beft form and 
fize of an ear trumpet, and what metal is to be preferred, 
I am, Sir, 

Your moft obedient Servant, 
A.B. 

Reference to ^« 3' On referring to my qaarto edition of the Journal, vol. 

fome difqulft- JV. page 383, 1 find fomelhing correfponding to my own 'ob- 
tions on founds . ^ .^ , ' ,, , , ^ , ,. /.- ^^ \ „ ,^ 

in the quarto tervaiion. I lliali be extremely obliged if your humanity fiiould 

feriesof this determine you to infert the above, as it may be a means of 

jou na. exciting inveftigation on a fubjed which is certainly of great 

confequence. 



ANNOTATION— W. N,. ' > . 
Defultory re- A CONSIDERABLE mafs of fpeculation concerning found, 

modification of ^^^ *^^ nleans of encreafing its a6iion on the organs of fenfe' 
round by means is to be found in my annotations on the experiments of Perrole^ 
of foliJ bodies, ^j ^ ^^g ^f y^j,_ j^ Q^- jf^g q^^^j.^^ 3^^.^^ ^^ jj^.g Journal The 

' • €xcelle;i 



T84NSIT ADJUSTMENT, 5S 

excellent papers of Mr. Gough, at page 66 and ] 60 of vol. X. 
of the prefent Oiftavo Series, concerning the augmentation of 
founds, and the fpeaking trumpet have added coniiderably to 
our knowledge of this fubjeQ. The memoir of Haflenfratz on 
the fame inftrument in our Ninth Volume, p. 283, and ano-' 
ther, by the fame author, on the Propagation of Sound, at 
Vol. XI. p. 127, alfo deferve to be confulted. from the 
whole confideration of the f'aQs it feems as if the fonorous 
vibration of the inflrument were of much more confequence 
than has hitherto been fufpecied ; and it feems not impro- 
bable, that a large furface expofed to the aerial pulfes of 
iound, and having a tail of communication to be applied to 
the teeth, or inferted in the ear, might have considerable 
effeft. The ufe of the external ear, which has excited fo 
much difcuffion, may, perhaps, be of this kind. The expe- 
riment of Dr. Moyes (Philos. Journal, III. 57) of conveying 
found to great diftance through a firing may be added to the 
other faQsi and tends to fliew that the fonorous undulation 
4oes not require to be tranfmitted through fuch bodies as are 
the moft denfe, uniform, and elaftic. Leather, or felt, or 
pafteboard, or various other fimilar materials, are more fre, y-j^ 

qdiently obferved to tremble in the hand at certain particular 
founds than many other denfe bodies. 



XII, 

Bajy and CorreSt Method of verifying the Portion of a Tranfit 
Jnjirument, Bj/ J, S, Bcxx, ^fq. Communicated by the 
Author, 

To Mr. NICHOLSON. 
SIR, Paragon, J>ecemher 8, 1805. 

jfjL SHORT note having appeared in Mr. Kelly's new edition introduftory 
of Spherics, defcribing my method of verifying thepoiition of note, 
a tranfit inflrument, and thinking an account more in detail 
may not be unacceptable to your agronomical readers, I am 
induced to trouble you with it, that you may, if you pleafe 
infer it ip your valuable Journal- 

Your's refpefilfuily, 

JAMES STRODE BUTT. 

TO 



54.' TRANSIT ADJUSTMENT. 

The ufual me- TO make the line of collimation move in the plane pf the 
thod of adjufting j^p^j jl^j^ we are defired to obferve the tranfits of circura- 

atranfit inftru- ' . ^ , , 

mentbyacir* polar flars, and U the intervals between the times of their 

cumpolar ftar. (ranfits are equal, the traiifit inftrument moves in the place of 

tl>e meridian : for the axis and line of collimation being pre- 

vioufly adjufted, it mutt pafs through the zeniih j and if it 

divides the circle defcribed by any circumpolar ftar, into two 

equal parts, it muft pafs through the pole. 

— requires the But here a difficulty arifes which is a probable alteration, or 

clock to keep a want of uniformity in the rates of the clock or watch for 

time for at leaft ■' , , - , 

ad hours. 'o «o"g a period as twenty.rour hours, or durmg that portion 

of time which the obferver may require to repeat his obferva- 
tions, fo as to be fatisfied. 
Method inde- A method independant of the rate of a clock or watch for 
pendant of this fg jQ^g a time, and alfo entirely of any other previous obfer- 
Yious^ right vations of right afcenfion, is a defideratura to pra6iical aftro- 
afcenfion, &c, nomers, and alfa to thofe wlio occaiionally amufe themfeives 
by obferving time, and the rates ©f their chronometers, in 
their prefent improved ftate ; but who may be unacquainted 
with afironomical equations, of precefflon, nutation, &c. 
Hulc, obferve Rule, Obferve the difference of tranfits of any two circum- 
the tranfits of polar ftars, that are fituated nearly in the fame azimuth, or 
two different . , . , , , , , ■ i i . i 

itars, one above vertical Circle, the one above and the other below the pole : 

and the other and whofe difference of right afcenfion is nearly 180"; 
below the pole; , . 

which differ only (namely J 

a fhort time, for Obferve, The tranfit of a caffiop. above the pole, and 
fiw'^inutes"' at* ""'"^^'^^^'y after it the tranfit of f urfae majoris below the 
any time after- pole, whofe difference of tranfit is not more than 15 minutes, 
wards repeat ^^^ jr^j. f^ {^^^j.^ ^ ^jj^^g jj^g j,|q^.|^ ^j. ^^t^h may be fafely de- 
the oblervation _ , ^ -' 

upon the ftars pended on. Then invert the operation, and obferve the tranfit 
when their ^f^ caffiop. below, and s urfas above the pole. If their difference 
Jituations as to _ . , „ • i i i ,- • , r ■ n 

the pole are ot Iranuts IS the lame in both obfervations, the tranfit initru- 

revcrfed. If the nient is accurately in the meridian; if not the error maybe 
time be the fami ^^'"''^'^^^ by altering the pofition of the inftrument tii! their 
the tranfit is difference of tranfit is the fame in both obfervations. 
not^it^muVbe Should the error be great it may be corrected nearly by any 
altered, &c. of the theorems now in ufe; {vide Wales on Time-Keepers) 
or half the difference may be fubftituted for the error, and by 
repeated approximation the tranfit inftrument may be accu- 
rately adjufted. 

The 



TRANSIT ADJUSTMENT. ^5 

The advantage of this melliod is, that you rely upon the Advantages. 
Hars keeping ^%% of the time, which would otherwife be kept jf ^tpf by 11!^' 
by the clock or watch ; and it is of no confequence whether ftars, and not 
the obfervations follow one another on the fame day or week, ''y ^^^ cl''*!^. 
provided the inftrument is adjufted to the fame point of the 
horizon, previous to obfervation, for there is little or no s 

difference in their preceffion, &c. during an interval of a 
<nonth, r.vjiio 

Another advantage is, that the obfervations follow each The flioitln*. ♦ 
other fo foon, that you are not likely to be difappointed by ^f^nlTc^nie 
change of weather ; for each pair of obfervations is complete of weathcrj &c, 
as far as it goes, which is not /the cafe in the other method, 
which requiring an interval of twelve hours between each 
obfervation, a change of weather is more likely to take 
place, 

A tranfit inftrument is the bafis of aftronomy, and whoever Other ufeful 
has the fixing of it Ihould confider himfelf independant of "">"'''• 
every previous obfervation, and aSing entirely upon prin- 
ciple, which is not the cafe where the adjuftment is by previ- 
OLifly obferved right afceniion, and which require reducing to 
(he day of obfervation; indeed nicely reduced right afcen- 
fions are not always in the liands of thofe who may be with to 
be in poflelfion of a fimpie and accurate method of placing a 
tranfit inftrument precifely in the meridian. 

This method was devifed and ufed by me fince 1794-, but 
I have never read or heard of any one ufing the fame. 

J. S. B. 
N, B. Proper ftars in this Lat. are, 

a Cafs. and £ Urfas Majoris. 
i3 Cafs. and ^ Urfae. 
y Cafs. and t Urfa;. 
Alfo the ftars of Draco and Auriga; 
Cepheus and Urfa, 
Perfeus and Draco. 
A large comet was difcovered at the Royal Obfervatory A large wmet. 
Bee. 8, which pafled the meridian at 6.* si." 7. mean time. 
Obferved right afcenfion was - 353** 6' 41" 
Declination fouth - - ... 23° 41' 8" 
*^* I have fince heard that this comet was not again feen, 
but is fuppofed to have proceeded fouthward. — ^N. 

A Com* 



56 BAROMETRICAL CHAKGESa 

XIII, 

.;hj/'.- "(' ^ Compar/fon of fome Objervalions on the Diurnal Variations of 
the Barometer^ made in Peyroufc's Voyage round the Worlc^t 
xvi(h thofe made at Calcutta by Dr. Balfour *, 

Barometrical JL HE firft of the obfervalions here referred to were made by 

two»n*the"* '* ^^' Lamanon, an ingenious naturalift who accompanied Pey- 

Tropicsby roufe, and who has given an account of them, (fee fourth 

^™^'jj^^^°'^''y volume of the Voyage, o6tavo edit.), in a letter to M. de 

Condorcet, dated St. Catharine, 5th November 1785. Dr^ 

Balfour's Obfervations are in the Afiatic Rtfearches for ITQ*, 

and a fliort account of them is alfo infcrted in the fourth 

volume of the TranfaSiions, R. S. Edin. Hift. p. 2.3. 

M. Lamanon's obfervations were made in confequencc of 
inftrudtions from the Academy of Sciences, direcling him to 
keep an e^^aft account of the heights of the barometer in the 
vicinity of the equator at different hours of the day, with a 
view to difcover, ifpoflible, the quantity of the variation of 
that inf?rament, due to the a^ion of the fun' and moon, that 
quantity being there probably as its maxivmin, while the varia^* 
tions ariHng from other caufes are at their minijuum. 
Lamanonufed a M. Lamanon was provided with one of Nairne's marine 

marine Baro- barometers, which, he fays, was fo little affecled by the 
oicwr u* Nairne. • -^ ' J 

motion of the ftiip, that it might be depended on to the -j-©^ 
of an inch. In this barometer, he tells us, that from about the 
1 1th uegree of north latitude, he began to perceive a certain 
regular motion, fo that the meixrury flood higheft about the 
Regular diurnal middle of the day, from vvhich time it defcended till the 
S^lhTn'""^" evening, and rofe again during the night. As they ap- 
u«. N. proached the equator, this became more diftinflly perceptive; 

and on the 28lh of September, the Ihip being then 1« 17' 
north latitude, a feries of obfervations was begun, and con- 
tinued for every hour till the 1ft of Odlober, at 6 A. M. 
The following abftrad (hews the refultof the obferva^tioais oq 
the 28th and 29lh. 

T'werUy eighth of September. 
From 4 to 10 A. M. Barometer rofe U. -^^ 

From 10 A. M. to 4 P. M, fell \ ^\ 

From 4. to 10 p. M. yofe -,% 

"^ from the Hiftory of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1805, 



BAROMSTRlAt CHANGES." ^^J 

Twenty ninth of September. 

From 10 (28th) to 4 A. M. fell \l -^ 

From 4 to 10 A. M. rofe I ^V 

From 10 A. M. to 4 P. M fell 1 ^V 

From 4 to 10 P. M. rofe 1 

The obfervation on the 30th were to the fame effefl ; and 

hence it is concluded that at the equator the flux and reflux 

of the atmofphere produces in the barometer a variation ofThe effeil Is _,,^ 

about 1 line -j^- Englilh, correfponding, as M. Lamanon re- ^';"J^''j|j?"^^^ 

marks, to a height in the atmofphere of nearly 100 feet, the computed 

According to Bernouilli, the aftion of the fun and moon ^.^^'J°^^P*'^"*= 

fliould produce a tide of feven feet, and according to Mr. 

de la Place, a tide not nearly fo great. 

It ftiould beobferved, that when thefe obfervations were Situation of the 

made, the moon was in her laft quarter, and the fun a few ^"" '""^ "^°p"» 
J , /• 1 r , rw^i I • 1 .and place of the 

degrees to tlie louth or the equator. The latitude on the /hip. 

$8th was 50' north, and 1 1' north on the 29th; in the night Shewas/ir oar 

between that and the 30th, the fliip crofl^ed the line; and on^'/'*' 

%he 30th at noon, the latitude was 42' fouth; the longitude 

t\\ this while between 17** 3l' and 18° 33' weft of Paris, by 

the time-keeper; fo that the coaft of Africa, which was the; 

Oieareft land, was difrant about 8** of a great circle, and the 

American continent about \9°. 

The agreement between thefe, and Dr. Balfour's obferva- Argreement be- 

tlons at Calcutta is very remarkable. Dr. Balfour found that q^^^,^^^^^ 

during the whole lunalion, in which he obferved the baro-and thofeof Dr, 

meter from half-hour to half-hour, the mercurv conftantl y fell ^a'/o""" "f 
n . , . . • /- ■' . . Calcutta. 

jrom 10 at night to 6 m the morning ; from 6 to 10 in the 

morning it rofe ; from 10 in the morning to 6 at night it fell 

again ; and laftly rofe from 6 to ] at night. The 7naxifnufn 

height is therefore at 10 at night and 10 in the morning, and 

the minimum at 6 at night and 6 in the mornings The only 

difference is, that in Mr. Lamanon's obfervations, the 

minimum is Hated to have happened about 4 inftead of 6. 

This, however, will not feem a very material diflTerence, 

when it is remembered, that the inflant when any quantity 

attains either its greateft or its leaf! ftate is not eafily afcer- 

tained with precifion. From thi obfervations as detailed by 

M. Lamanon, the time of the minimuvt feems to anfwer fully 

3s well to 5 as to 4 ; fo that the difference of the refults is in 

; every 



5$ - BAROMETRICtJ, CHANGES. 

ever/ view inconfidqrable, and their coincidence on the 
whole, not a liitle fingular. The variations in Dr. Bal- 
four's barometer between the neareft maximum and maximum 
is fometimes about ^^ of an inch, though in general coniider- 
ably lefs. 
Whether the 1" ^^i^ abftraft of Dr. Balfour's obfervations referred to 

caafe which pro- above, it is remarked, that it feems not improbable that thefe 
fta'^wiii" could variations of the barometer are conne6led with the recipro- 
produce the re- cations of the fea and land winds during the day and night. 
gu ar change, g^^. ^,|-,afgygj. ^^y ^^^^ h^Qw formerly the probability of this 
fuppofition, it is entirely deflroyed by the obfervations of the 
— moft probably French navigators. Thefe obfervations were made too far 
'*°^* out at fea to leave room for fuppofing that the land winds had 

—neither is it a^y influence on the phenomena to which they refer. It is 
likely that it at the fame time doubtful, whether thofe phenomena can be 
tides in the air, afcribed to the atmofpherical tides produced by the fun and 
as it does not moon, as the ebbing and flowing of the mercury in the baro- 
foUow the moon. ^ ^, jj xLi-i.- c 

meter appears to have no dependence on the pontion or 

thofe luminaries relatively to one another, but happens, it 
would feem, conftantly at the fame hour, in all afpeds of 
the moon and all feafons of the year. The fubje6t is well 
deferving of a fuller inveftigation. We fliould probably 
before now have had farther information refpeding it, if 
happily the able navigator above-named, and his brave aflb- 
ciates, had been declined to revifit their nativ,e (bores. The 
cruel fate of an expedition fo well planned, and fo well ap- 
pointed for the purpofes of fcience, will never ceafe to be 
matter of fincere regret. 



Jnnotation. — W, N. 



Probability-that I have inferted the foregoing with a view, in fome meafurei- 

the equi-tro- j^ afford a comparilon with Mr. Horlburgh's paper on the fame 

pical change iS- ^ . oir 

caufed byafcend- 'ubjed, at page 1 6. It is not without diffidence that I venture 

ing ar.ddefcend- 1^ propofe a coniedure on this fubieCl, which in fa6l requires 

ihe aimofpherc. '"^''^ conhderatjon than I can, at prefent, beftow on it. Its 

change feems to me to be governed by the afcent of the air 

which would take place immediately beneath the fun, if the 

earth were ftationary, and the furrounding defcent of theTame 

fluid, of which the circuraftances and modifications are fo w^ll 

^ explained 



MOTION %r THE SUN* S9 

explained by Prieur in his memoir on the morning and even- 
ing dew (at p. 86, vol. IV. of our quarto feries.) The confider- 
ations there detailed may be eafily extended to (hew alfo that 
the effedsmuft be greatly altered, and, in moft inftances, ob- 
literated by the vicinity of land ; which even changes the re-, 
gular trade winds into land and fea breezes. 



XIV. 

Abjlrad, of a Memoir on the DireSiion and Velocity of the Motion 
of the Sun and Solar St/ift€?n. By Dr. Hekhchkl, From 
thePhilofophicalTranfaaions, 1805. (A.) 

JL HE learned author begins his paper by noticing Dr. Maf- Proper motions 
kelyne's table of the proper motions of 3G thrs of the firft ^ Jj^!^ ^'^^^ 
magnitude, and conceives that if this table affords proof of 
motion in ftars in our immediate neighbourhood, the changes 
of petition in minute double flars, many of which are only to 
be feen by means of the beft telefcopes, likewife prove that 
motions are equally carried on in the remoteft regions of fpace. 

In 1783, the Do6lor deduced from the proper motions of Dedu£lion of a 
the flars, a motion of the fun and folar fyftem towards X her- ['^"P^J^^^j'JJ^ 
cules ; and the opinion he then conceived ha& been much dircftion. 
■flrengthened by the confiderations ftated in the following pages. 
Should this dodrine be eftabliflied, many phenomena may be 
accounted for, which without itmuft remain inexplicable. 

Though it was propofed, by theadmiffion of a folar motion, Confideradoiis 
to take away many of the proper motions of ftars, by inverting ["chY^'otion. 
the fun with a contrary one; our author admits that it will re- 
veal a vaftly greater number of concealed real motions than 
would be neceffary to admit, were the fun at reft; and that 
the neceffity for admitting its motion ought therefore to be 
well eflabliftied. 

The motion of fatellites round their primary planets, and Reafons from 
of thefe round the fun, fuggefts the idea of a revolution of the ^,"^'^'^sy o^jhc 
latter round Tome other unknown centre ; nor are we without 
hypothefes built upon this conjedure,* 

The poffibility of a folar motion has been fhown by the late 



* See Syileme du Monde de Lambert, p, 152, 158. Alfo Phil. 
Tranf for the year 1783, p. 283. 

Dr. 



GO Mt)TtON OF rut SUM. 

Dr. Wilfon, of Glafgow, upon theoretical principles; and its 
probability, from reafons of the fame nature, by M. de Lalande. 
Probability that The rotatory motion of the fun, from which the latter con- 
the fun has pro- eludes a difplacing of the folar centre, indicates a motion of 
asrotatory rao- tfanfialion in fpace ; for it is not very probable that the tne- 
^oiif chanical impreffion which gave the former, fliould not alfooc- 

cafion the latter. This however can be admitted only as a 
plaufiblehypothefis, until we attain a knowledge of the caufe 
of the rotatory motion, 
—and the vari- "^ '^'''' argument might be ftrengthened by clofely obferving 
able itar« alfo. the flars which change their magnitudes periodically; for if 
thefe changes arife from a rotatory motion,* a real motion in 
fpace may be expeded to attend it ; and the multitude of thefe 
ftars is fo great, that their concurrent teftimony is defirable. 
Three forts of But fetting afide theoretical arguments, the Do^or notices 
motions of ftarsi that as all parallactic motions indicate the obferver not to be 
at reft, it may be neceiTary to explain three forts of motionSj^ 
which will frequently be alluded to in the following difcuflion. 
Fata'.haic, real, ijuppofe the folar fyflem to move towards a certain part of 
and apparent. the heavens, the ftars, to an inhabitant of the earth, will ap- 
pear to move in an oppofite direftion. Let s p (PI. II. Fig. 1.) 
rcprefent the parallactic motion of a ftar; which, if the ftar 
have no real motion^ will alfo belts apparent motion; but if 
it (hould have a real motion, which in the fame lime that it 
could have gone from s to p, would havecarried it from s to r, 
it will be feen to move along the diagonal s a; and p a, being 
para[l«l and equal to s r will reprefent its real motion. The 
triangle s p a }s fuppofed to be formed in the concave of the 
heavens by three arches of great circles, the obferver being in 
the centre, and *p repreCents the parallaClic, pa the real, and 
5 a the apparent motion of the flar. The Uluation and lepgth 
of thefe arches in feconds of a degree will reprefent thedirec^ 
tion and quantity of each motion; and calling the folar motion 
S, the diflance of the ftar from the fun d, and the fine of the 
ftar's diftance from the point towards which the fun is moving 

(p ; the parallactic motion will be exprelTed thqs : -^zzs p^ 

v.d 
The largcft ftars A motion of (he fun will occafion parallaCiic motions of the 
{hert'hlfan''s ^^''^' ^"^ vice verfa ; but to afcertain if parallaaic motions 
motion, exift, fuch ftafs ftiould be examined as are moft vifibly affeCied 

* See Phil, Tra«f. for the year 1795, p. 68, and our Journal, 
XI. 271. 

by 



MOttON OF THE SUlf(,' 

by folar motion ; which points out the brighteft ftars as moft 
proper for the purpofe ; for any ftar may have great real mo- 
tion, but to have great parallaftic motion it muft be in the 
neighbourhood of the fun. 

Parallaclic may be diftingui{hed from real motions by their 
directions: for, if a folar motion exift, all paralla6tic ones 
will tend to a point in oppofition to the dirediion of that mo- 
tion ; but real motions will be indifcriminateiy difperfed. 

Under thefe difiindions, the proper motions of the fiars, if 
the fun be not at reft, will be parallactic, or compofed of real 
and parallaftic; the latter cafe conftituting the apparent mo- 
tion of the ftar. 

Dr. H. next defcribes the meeting of the arches arifing from 
a calculation of the proper motions ot the 36 ftars in Dr. Maf- 
kelyne's catalogue on a celeftial globe, of which ten were 
made by ftars of the firft magnitude, about the conftellation 
Hercules.; beyond thefe there was no appearance of any other 
than a promifcuous filualion of interfedions. — Of the inter- 
fefting points, that towards which the fun moves is denomi- 
nated the apex of its motion ; and as the ftars will then have a 
paralladtic motion towards the oppofite point, it has received 
the appellation of a paralla6lic centre. 



m 



The parallaaic 
motions are di- 
rededtoapoint. 



and will com- 
bine with the 
real (angular}. 



Dedufllon of 
the paraliaGk- 
centre from ohf, 
on many ilar<i. 



InterfeCling points. 


Right Afcen (ion. 


Polar diftance 
North. 


Taba 
lated 
re- 

fuifs. 


I. Sirius and Arflurus, in the mouth of ? 
the Dragon - - - jf 


o 

255 


/ // 
39 50 


o 
3d 


41 Si 


2. Sirius and Capella, near the follow- 1 
iiig hand of Hercules - - / 


275 


9 


32 


64 


21 48 




3. Sirius and Lyra, between the hand"! 
and knee of Hercules - - J 


272 


23 


58 


58 


23 24 




4. Sirius and Aldebaran, in the follow- 7 
ing leg of Hercules - - j 


263 


25 


38 


44 


39 47 
















5. Arclurus and Capella, N. of. the pre- ) 
ceding wing of the Swan ■.■ j 


290 





58 


32 


7 23^ 
















6. Arflurus and Aldebaran, in the neck! 
of the Dragon * - - J 


267 


2 


19 


33 


57 20 




7. Ardurus and Procyon, in the pre- 7 
ceding foot of Hercules - j 


235 


3 


13 


46 


21 34 




8. Capella and Procyon, S. of the fol- 1 
lowing hand of Hercules - j 


272 


51 


49 


73 


7 56 




9. Lyra and Ptocyon, preceding the fol- 1 

lowing llioulder of Hercuies y 

10. Aldebaran and Procyon,' in fhe | 
breaft; of Hercules - - C 


266 


46 


49 


66 


48 11 




.'260 


1. 


29 


60 


59 34 





As 



^2 MOTION OF THE SUN» 

Confirmation by As a fuftber Confirmation that the paralladic motion tnay 
other ftars, be perceived in the motion of the brighteft ftars. Dr. H. ex- 
amined the interfe61ions made by the proper motions of fomc 
large flars of the next order, with the arches in which the ftars 
of the fir ft magnitude move, and found 15 which gave iimilar 
rcfults with (he former 10, in pointing out th? fame part of the 
heavens as a parallaflic centre. 
This rcfuU co«. Changes in the pofition of double ftars indicate the fame re- 
firmed by doufcis f^^l^^ 3„^ ,^,^^, therefore be more ehgibly afcribed to the effe6l 
of paraUax, than to admit of feparate motions in different 
ftars ; for, if the aUerations of the angle of pofilion were 
owing to a motion of the largeft ftar in each fet, fuch motions 
muit, HI contradiction to probability, tend nearly to one par- 
ticular part of the heavens. This argument derives its vali- 
dity from the fame fource with the former, viz. the parallactic 
motions ot at leaft 28 more ftars pointing out the fame apex ot 
9 folar motion, by their direction to its oppofite parallactic 
centre, 
and by the bar- The Incongruous mixture of great velocity and extreme 

mony of the fio^wnefs in the proper motions of the ftars of the fame magni- 
propcr motions . "^ ' " 

deduced from it. tude> is removed by the confideration of parallax from the 

folar motion ; and it will be feen that there is a general con- 
ftdency in their motions. The fame obfervation is alfo appli- 
cable with refped to the fidereal occultation of a fmall ftar 
in the Swan. 
Jnveftlgation of Dr. H. concludes from the foregoing premifes, that the ex- 
the direaion ot pediencv of admitting a folar motion will not be queftioned, 
the fun's pioper f^ J . „■ . .. «. rr , - • 

motion. and proceeds to inveftigate its direction. He begms by 

proving, that when the proper motions of two ftars are given, 

an apex may be found, towards which if the fun be fuppofed 

to move with a certain velocity, the two given motions may 

. be refolved into apparent changes arifing from ftdereal pa- 

An apex or pa- rallax, tlie ftars remaining perfectly at reft. For we rauft 

raiiaftic center j^^^j admit more motions than are fufficient to account for the 

IS deduced from 

the apparent obferved changes in the fituation of the ftars ; and itvvoiild be 

-notions of two wrong to have recourfe to the motions of two ftars, when 

nars, fuppofed ,,.,,. , i /- «• • r t ^ 

to have no real *"^t Ot the lun alone maybe lumctent to account tor both i 

motion. which confideration would be a fufficient inducement for fix- 

ing at once on the calculated apex as well as on the relative 
diflances afligned to the two ftars, could other proper motions 
be, with equal facility, refolved into fimilar parallactic ap- 
pearances : but, when a third ftar does not direct towards tijp 
5 fame 



MOTION OF THE St7T!», 0^. 

famfe apex as the former two, its apparent motion cannot be 
pefolved by the eWe& of parallax alone ; and this difficulty is 
further enhanced by th« number of apices required to folve all 
proper motions into paralla6tic ones, InGreafing, not as the 
number of ftars admitted to have proper motions, but, when 
their fituation is favourable, as the fum of an arithmetical 
leries of numbers, beginning at 0, continued to as many terms 
as there are ftars admitted. 

The author here propofes an illuftration of his fubjefl by 
confidering the three apices, or interfering points. No. 1, 
2, 5, in the foregoing table. 

The diftance of Ar6lurus from the apex of the folar motion Namely Ar^u- 
is found to be 47 » 7' &', and its paraliaaic motion, which is "■"* ^"'^ ^''''^s- 
as the fine of that diftance 2.08718'', which is the apparent 
motion of Ar(5turus, as eftablifbed by obfervation. 

Admitting Sirius to be a very large ftar, at the diftance of 

1.6809 from us, and computing its elongation from the apex 

of the /folar motion at ISS'=> 50' 14.5'', its parallafiic motion 

<p . S 
will be = s p =. 1.11528", which aifo agrees with the 

apparent rnotion already afcertained by obfervation as the pro- 
per motion of Sirius. 

The diftance of Capella from the apex of the folar motion is Hence the pa- 
80*^54'' 4-6", and admitting the velocity of the fun towards 'al'^ftic motion 
the betbre given point, it will occafinn a paralla6tic motion of Capelu is /e^' 
<^apella, in a direction 89*' 54' 48" fouth-following its pa-diiceJ: 
rallel, amounting to 2.8125'''. Capella is here taken for a 
ftar of the firfl magnitude, fuppofmg its diftance from us to 
ibe equal to that of Ar6turus. 

By conftru6ting a triangle, the fides of which reprefent the and by refolvin'g 
iihr«e motions of every ftar, not at reft ; one of the fides, re- '*^'^ '"'^° theap- 
! ,- • , • •!. . . ^ .^^-// ^1 P«'ent motion 

Iprelentjng the apparent motion, will be equal to 0.463 r' ; the and another, 

other fide, being the paral!a6iic motion, 2.8125''; and the this hft will be 
included angle IS'' 19' 27"', from which will be obtained the Jg^y^Qf}^"^^" 
third fide, or the real motion of the ftar, 2.3757". By the (fuppofmg the 
given fituation of this triangle with refpeCl to the parallel <if jfy^n'^^jj" J** 
declinati6n of Capella, the angle of the real motion will be 
had, which is SS" 34' 1 i" north-following the parallel of this 
ftar. A "campoftttoTJ of the paralta^ic and r^l motions in 
the directions, will produce the .annuaL apparent motion) as 

eftabliftied by obfervation^.^ _ ^^ ..^',., .......„/ 

It is here obferved, that although the proper motion of a 

third 



^4. 



But it 13 not ftt 
that all che real 
motion fhouid 
be afcribed to 

Capella j 



but the apex 
mull be taken 
io as to leave the 
real motions as 
ioiall as poffible. 



apparent mo- 
tions of fix 
blight ftars 



MOTION OF THE SV!fk 

ihitd ftar is accounted for by retaining the fame apex o^ th^ 
folar motion which explained the apparent motions of the 
other two, yet a great degree of real motion has been affigned 
to Capella, of which Arflurus and Sirius have been altogether 
deprived ; which fliews that the apex of folar motion muft be 
fo fixed as lo be equally favourable to every ftar proper for 
direfting our choice. Hence a problem arifes, for difcovering 
a point whofe fituation among three given apices (hall be 
fuch as if the fun's motion be directed towards it, there may 
be taken away the greateft poflible quantity of proper motion 
from the three given ftars. The intricacy of this problem is, 
that by a change of the diftance of the apex from any one of 
the ftars, its parallaftic motion, which is^s the fine of that 
diftance, will be affeded ; fo that it is not merely the altera* 
tion of the angle of diredlion which is concerned. From the 
folution of this problem, a much more complex one would 
arife, as three ftars would certaialy not be fufficient to dire6l 
the prefent endeavour to find the beft fituation of an vape^ fij»C 
the folar motion. 

It was before fhewn that the brighteft flarsare the moft pro- 
per for demenftrating the effeft of parallax, and that in fearcbing 
after the direflion of the folar motion, the aim ihould be to 
reduce the proper motions of the ftars to their loweft quantities. 
The fix principal ftars, whofe interfering arches have been 
given, when their proper motions in right afcenfion and polar 
diftance are brought into one direflion, will have the following 
apparent motions : 



«at>ul3tej. 





Names of the 
Stars. 


bireftlon of the apparent Motions. 


Quantities of 
the apparent 
Motions, per 
Year 




SirfUs, , 

Arfturus, 

Capeila, 

Lyra, 

Aldebaran, 

Procyon, 


68° 49' 40.7" South-preceding. 

55 29 42.0 Ditto. 

71 35 22.4 South-following. 

56 20 57.3 North-following. 
76 29 37.3 South-following. 
50 2 24.5 South-preceding. 


I. 11528" 

2.08718 

0.46374 

0.32435 

0.12341 

1.23941 




Sum of the apparent Motions, 


5.35337 



In 



MOTION OP THE SUN* Q^ 

tn feeking a folar motion^ which requires the leaft motion Oedudlion of a 
in the above fix ftars, let ihe line pa, Fig. 1. which reprefents Jj'^^[,'^°J^°';j^'2'^* 
the real motion, be brought into the fituation ma, and the real real mdtions of 
motion required will then be at a minim^im. If by the choice *^^"l[^^ '^^^^ 
of an apex for the folar motion the angle at 5, made by 
the lines s p and s a, can be letTened, the quantity of real 
motion required to bring the flar from the paralladic line 
sp7n to the obferved pofition a, will alfobe diminitbed. 

It has already been fliewn that when two (lars only are given, A fingle line 
the line sp may be made to coincide with the line sa of both ^^J^^i^^^ of 
flars, whereby their real motions are reduced to nothing; and rallaftic effeft 
that when three fiars are concerned fome real motion muft be '" ^^^° ' ^' 
admitted in one of them. Now, fi nee all parallactic motions are 
direded towards the fame center, a fingle line may reprefent 
the direction of the effeft of the parallax. Therefore, letsP 
orsS, Fig. 2, ftand for the direction of the paralladic motion 
of the ftars ; and as in the foregoing table we have the angles 
of the apparent motion of fix ftars, with the parallel of each, 
the dire^ion of the line s P or sS mufi be computed with the 
parallels of the fame flars, which may be done as foon as an apex 
for the folar motion is fixed upon. The difference between 
thefe angles and the former will give the feveral paralla6)ic 
angles P sn or Ss a, required for an invefiigation of the leaft 
quantity, ma, belonging to every ftar. 

The author exemplifies what he here lays down, by fuppofing Computation, 
the fun to move towards \ Herculis; and calculating the re- ["PP®'^"S tl^s 
quired angles of the diredion in which the effe6^ of parallax towards ^ Hjt- 
vvill be exerted with the fix fiars already feledted, he obtains <^'*^*' 
■the angles of the parallactic motion with the parallel, the dif- 
ference between which and the former apparent angles with. 
the parallel of each ftar gives the angles of the apparent with 
the paralladlic motion, as reprefented in Fig. 2. The lines s a 
reprefent the annual quantity of the apparent motions. 

When the fituation of thelaft mentioned angles is regulated 
as in the figure alluded to, the feveral lines 7/1 a may be drawn 
perpendicular to S P, and by computation their quantity will 
be found to be — 



Vol, XIII.*-Januaby, 1805. F Siriu 



6G 



Motion of 


THE 


SUN'i 


Sirius 


• 


0.65437^' 


Ar6lurus 


. 


1.28784. 


Capella 


- 


0.10887 


Lyra - 


•i 


0.11281 


Aldebaran - 


. 


0.0110 1 


Procyon 


- 


0.0-1-998 



Sum - - 2.221-91 
The reftill of this invelligation is, that by admitting a molioni 
of the fun towards x Herculis, the annual proper motions of 
the fix ftars alluded to, of which the fura is 5.3537", may be 
reduced to real motions of no more than 2,2249''. 
A more favour- The author here obferves, that although the precife place 
able apex. j,f ^^^ j^gf^ ^^^^ jg difficult to afcertain, a more favourable one 

than that above propofed may be obtained : for, by infpeclion 
of the figure which reprefents the quantities of real motion 
required, when x Herculis is fixed upon, it will appear that 
fey a regular method of approximation, the line S P may be 
turned into a fituation, wherein all the angles of the appare^^ 
motion of the fix flars will be much reduced; and it is evi- 
dent that the parallactic line S P lliould be turned more towards 
the line sa, reprefenting the apparent motion of Sirius. He 
accordingly fries a point near the following knee of Her- 
Its fituation. cules, whofe right afcenfion in 270''. 15'. and north polar 
diflance 51-°. 43', fee Fiq.3, the quantities required for con^ 
flruSing which are found by the fame method as already de- 
fcribed in Fig. 2. By a calculation of the angles and the leafl 
quantities of real motion, according to this apex, it appeared 
that the annual motion of the fix ftars was reduced to 1.4594", 
whicli (^0.7G55" lels than when the apex was x Herculis. 
Suppofition that I" ^^^ appiOvimation to this point, it appeared, that when 
Sirius may be the line of the paralla6lic motion of Sirius was made to coincide 

m .ft affeaed by . • ' ... - . , , n 

paraKax, as ^'^" '^^ apparent motion, a certam minimum might be eaGIy 

brightcftj obtained of the other parallactic motions. But as Sirius has 

not the greatefl proper motion, the author conceived that 

another minimum, obtained from the line wherein Ardlurus 

appears to move might be more accurate ; as this ffar from 

its great proper motion may be more afTedled by the parallax 

or Arfturuj, as arifing from the motion of the fun. He therefore chofe a point 

having the ^^j y„]y |j^ ^j^g jjj^g pf ^^^Q apparent motion of Arcturus, but 

greateft apparent ' _,. . "^ , _, 

motion. * equally favourable to Sinus and Procyon, the remaining two 

flars which have the greatefl motions. 

«'If 



MOTION OF THE SUN. 0'7 

** tf the principle of determining the direflion of the folat- 
ttiotion by the ftars which have the greateft proper motion, be 
admitted", obferves the author, '* the following apex muft Apex on this laft 
be extremely near the truth ; for, an alteration of a few mi- '^PP"""<>"* 
mites in right afcenfion or polar diftance either vVaj, will im- 
mediately increafe the required real motions of our ftars. Its 
place is, right afcenfion 245° 52' SQ'\ and ilorth polar diftance 
40° 22"'. The calculation is delineated iti Fig. 4. The furrt 
of the leaft quantities of real motion in this experiment is 
0.95595", lefs than the former by 0.5034.3". 

In thefe calculations the author has proceeded upon the 
principle of obtaining the leaft poflible quantity of real motion 
to afcertain the moft favourable fituation for a folar apex, and 
lias proved that the fum of the obferved proper motions of the 
fix principal ftars may be the refult of a compofition of two 
Other motions; and that if the real motions were reduced to 
their fmalleft poflible quantities, they vvould not exceed 0.9559. 

The Do6tor, however, feems to think that thefe real motions If the neareft 
may not be brought down to the low quantities mentioned ; and feited^b^'^Lf" 
proceeds to (hew that this circumftance will not affe6l the ar- lax, their pro- 
guments he has ufedfor eftablinjing the method he has adopted; P^^ Tf^°."* 
for, although the great proper motions of Arcturus, Procyoni more evident. 
and Sirius, are ftrong indications of their being aff'edled by 
parallax, it is not probable that the apparent changes of 
their fitualions fliould be entirely owing to folar motion ; but 
that their own real motions would have a great Ihare in 
them; and it is evident that in paralladic motions the diftance 
of a ftar from the fun is of material confequence ; and as this 
cannot be afTumed at pleafure, we are not at liberty to make 
the paralla£lic motion sp, Fig. I, equal to the lines7;i; hence 
it follows that the real motion of the ftar cannot be from m to a, 
but will be from p to a. If, however, //* a be a minimum, pa 
when sp is given, will alfo be a minimum, and if all ihe ma's 
in Fig. 4 be minima, the sp's will give the p c's as fmall as 
poflible; which is the point defired to be eftabliflied. 

In concluding Dr. H. obferves, that as it is known that Conclufion. 

proper motions do exift, and as no folar motion can refolve Y^^ "J^C^ '*"^* 
* ' , . . tioQor tne apex. 

them entirely into paralla6lic ones, we ought to prefer that di-. 
reflion of the motion of the fun which will take away moft 
real motion, and this, as has been fliewn, will be done when 
the right afcenfion of the Apex is 215** 52' 30'', and its north 
polar didance 40^^ 22'. 

F 2 AVw 



^^ SOLUTION OF SOLPHUR IN ALCOHOl, 

XV. 

i\>iu Experiments 07i the Solution oj Sulphur in Alcohol, and lite 
various Minds of Ether. % M. F a v r b *, 

^u'"'''"'L'5v In my firft note on the folution of fulphur in alcohol. I an- 

ether would dif- -'. . . , \. , 

folve more ful- nounced an i-ntention of examining the folvent power or the 

phurthanal- feveral ethers upon this combuftible: which I had at that 
coho!-. . . 

iltne been prevented from, by being obliged to leave Paris 

for Brunblls, to take the office of apothecary to the military 
hofpital. In the paper alluded to, I hinted that it was prob- 
able ethers would diflblve fulphur in greater quantity than 
alcohol ; I had been led into this opinion by the refults ob- 
tained from mixing this mineral with alcohol^ at various de- 
grees. I obferved, as already ftated, that the more alcohol 
was re6!ified, the more readily it diflolved fulphur ; and vice- 
Terfa, which differenGe I imagined to proceed from the 
greater quantum of hydrogen contained in highly redified! 
alcohol. Knowing ethers to contain lefs carbon and more 
hydrogen than alcohol, I had no doubt that they would dif- 
folve a greater quantity of fulphur. The refult of the fe- 
veral experiments, which 1 made under this rmpreffion, I 
am now about to detail : from which it will be perceived 
that I was not miftaken in my conjecture. I Ihall alfo fub- 
join the new experiments, which I made with alcohol, ta 
afcertain the precife quanity of fulphur it is capable of dif- 
folving, in order to compare the refults with th©fe obtained 
from ethers. 
Pireparationj &c. 'pjjg ethers I employed were prepared with much exafi- 
nt'fs, and according to the methods recommended by pro- 
feifor TfturGroy. 1 took care, in each experiment, to afcer- 
tain the fpecific gravity of the ether made ufe of, the quan- 
tity of fulphur difiblved by it, the various refults obtained 
with or without the contad of the fun's rays, and the pro- 
perties of fulphuraled ether. 

Firji and fecund Experiments. 
Sulpliuiic ether Jn each of two fix-ounce matrades I put two drachms c'\ 
wkhout heat '^" ^^^^ flowers of fiilphur, prepared in the fame manner ar, for 
took up nearly ^ y^^^ p^^^^,^ ^^^^^^ ^^ C\nmx':, Vol. VI, 

the 



SOt^'TION OFSVLPHUR IN ALCOHOt. ]^9 

■^te experiments mentioned In my firfl note, viz. nicely one-thirteenth 
vvafhed, and one ounce of rectified -fLilphuric ether, whofe fn "he lieht'-^and 
weight was 0.7396. Having fecur^ the mouths of the mat- only onc-feven- 
traifes with luting, I put one in a very ligiu place, and the ^^^J^^*^"^ ^^'' 
other in a dark place. I fliook them every day, and at the 
end of a month, filtered their contents. On examination the 
^iwo fulpiiurated ethers obtained by theTe operations^ prelented 
the following characleriftics : 

The colour of the ether expofed to the light was Scarcely 
■changed; it had a powerful hydro- fuii-hurous fmell, and its 
tafle was difagreeable, arid likewife hydro-fulphurous. 
Mixed with diftilled water, it precipitated nothing ; but I 
j-emarked that the water difTolved a much lefs quantity of it 
than when pure. In proportion as (lie ether became volati- 
jifed, the fuiphur formed a whitifli fcum on the-furfaceof the 
liquid, which at length was precipitated to the bottom of the 
glafs In which theex.periment was made. (I (liall hereafter 
mention the quantity of this precipitate.) Put iji conta<gt 
with white metals, it deeply blackened them. (Care muft 
be taken in this latter experiment to cloTe exadliy the mouth 
■of die velfel in which the metals are placed in contad with 
fulphurlc etlver, on account of the great tendency of ether 
to be converted into gas by its attraftion of caloric from fur- 
founding bodies.) When mixed with a folutlon of acetite 
of lead, it gave a pretty -conliderable black precipitate. 

The fulphurated ether prepared without light, pofleflecj 
all the properties ©f the other, but in a lefs degree. It alfo 
was lefs impregnated wilh fuiphur ; for, on a repetition of 
ihe experiment, and carefully weighing the products, I 
found that each ouace of the ether prepared in the light coi)- 
tained .38 grains of fuiphur j whilft Jth?itprepa;-ed in the dark 
lield only 29. 

Third and fourth Experimertts, 
Having proceeded as above defcribed, with nitric ether Nitric ether by 
weighing 0.9088, I obtained. an ether whofe colour was in '^^ '"^'"^^'■'=^^- 
?io degree changed ; Its fmell and tafie, though hydro-ful- nearly one 
phurous, were not fo powerful as thofe of fulphurated ful- ^wenty-fecond' 
phuric ether; mixed with diftilled water, it prefeiited the jn'the light%n4 
fame phenomena, but depofited a lefs quantity of fuiphur. ""'X tvyenty- 
It difcoloured whij.e metals jefs forcibly than the preceding j^k. 

ether; ^"~ 



70' SOLUTION OF SULPHUR IN ALCOHOL, 

ether ; and, in a word, it had ali the qualities of fulphuratect 
lulphuric ether, but in a lower degree. It likewife con- 
tained a lefs quantity of fulphur ; the refult of the experi- 
ment made in the light being but 22 grains of pfecipitated 
fulphur ; and 20 for that conducted in darknefs. 

fifth andfixlh Experiments. 
Muriatic ether With muriatic ether, weiging 0.7 196, proceeding as aU 
thhty'-feventh ^^^^J defcribed, and at the fame proportions, I obtained a 
in the light; and fulphurated muriatic ether, pofTeffing all the peculiarities 
thirVin^thV^' ^^<^^'^ mentioned, but weaker. It contained only 13 grains 
dark. of fulphur, when conduced in the light, and 9| grains wher 

managed in the dark. 

Seventh and eighth/ Experin^ciUs. 

-Acetic fther Acetic ethcf weighing 0.8664, diflblved but a very fmat-' 

little "ulpliur. Portion of fulphur, and its qualities weie but (lightly marked, 

It contained but three grains of fulphur in an ounce of ether^ 

in the experiment made in the light, and about Ingrains in 

that made in the dark. 



Solution «f fut- 



Ninth Experhnent. 
Having made the foregoing experiments, I widied tQ 
Was Id's char-^-d ^.fcertain the difference exlfting between the feveral ethers 
than that of ful- and alcohol, in refpedto their capacity for diflblving fulphur: 
p unc et er. j tj^gj.^fQj.g retraced the experiments I had fornierly made 
•wilh alcohol. To avoid the repetition of what has been al- 
xeatly communicated in my firft effay, I (liall here merely 
/late the quantity pf fulphur I have been able to diflblve, ei- 
ther by fubmitting the mixture to a heat lefs than fufficient tq 
caufe the alcohol to bojl, or by expofing it to the light, or by 
placing it in a dark place. For thpfe experiments I ufed al? 
Coliol of 43 degrees. 

-After digelling for 12 hours over a gentle fire an ounce of 
alcohol with two drachms of the flowers of fulphur, I ob- 
tained 23 grains of precipitate, 

Tenth and eleventh Experimentjx, 
On leaving limilar mixtures,, one expofed to the rays of 
■ ■ (lie fun, and the other in a place impervious to (he light, 

during a month, opd proceeding as already defcribed, I ob* 

tarned^ 



SOLUTION OP SULPHUR IN ALCOHOL, ni 

fained 16 grains from the firft mixture, and 13 from the ie- 
cond. 

After what has here been laid down, it is evident that ful- Recapitulation. 
phuric ether diHolved the greateft quantity of fulphur ; for, 
after frequently repeating the experiment, I found the avc- 
rage to be 25 grains in an ounce. Nitric ether and alcohol 
at -1-3 degrees, diflblved nearly in the fame proportions ; and 
acetic ether the lead of any. 

It has been long a defideratum in medicine to difcover a Sulphurated 
method o( adminiftering fulphur in a ftate of extreme divi- ^^^^5 .'^^ 2°"'* 
lion, efpecially in complaints of the lungs and difeafes of the 
fkin. With this intent, ph}'licians hax'e recommended it to 
be dinbived in eflential oils, and to form what is known in 
pharmacy under the title of balfams of fulphur, terebinthinated, 
anifiited, S^c. Thefe medicaments have the difadvantage of 
giving to the mixtures into which tliey enter an almoltin- 
fupportable tafte and fmell of fulphurated hydrogen. Sul- 
phurated etlier is free from this inconvenience ; it may be 
eafily mixed with other potions, to which it gives very little 
fmell ; and as the feparation of the fulphur is only occa- 
fioned by the evaporation of the ether, it may be eafily pre- 
vented by keeping the mixture to which it is added clofely 
corked. I have already adopted its ufe with fuccefs, ad- - 

jniniflered either upon fugar, or with any appropriate ve- 
hicle : feveral phylicLans of my acquaintance, for whom I 
have prepared it, have likewlfe employed it with advan- 
tage ; and I hope, ere long, to be able to flatter myfelf 
as having added an efficacious medicament to the art of 
healing. 

The fulphyrated ether may be alfo fuccefsfully employed It may be ufed 

to deted the adulteration of wine wiih preparations of lead : ?^ ^ ^.^^ ^"'^ '""^ 

, ,. . /. r I , in Wine, 

in addition to the facility with which this ether precipitates 

the lead, jn the form of a black fulphur, it polfelTes the ad- 
vantage of introducing nothing into the wine that can de- 
ceive as to its quality, which fometimes happens even to 
thofe who are accuftomed to ufe the folution of fulphur of 
potafii. 

I am now occupied in the cryftallization of fulphur dif- 
folved in ether, the refult of which I ihall lofe no time jn 
laying before the public, 

4o , 

On 



72 



SCJE.HXIFIC PUBLICATIONS, 



xvr. 



modern inven- 
tion 



entiftc Jaurnals. 



On the Utility of fcientif.c periodical Publications. In u Letter 
from Mr. R r c h a r d W i n t e R . To which are added, fame 
Experiments of Heat produced by a Blajl of Air frqm ReU 

Ions. 

To Mr. NICHOLSON. 

Dear Sir, 

periodica! -i- HE advantages derived from fcientific periodic publics* 

works are of^ tions, are an acquifition whicli former philofophers were not 
polTefled of; and it was not until the laft century (hey were 
firft inftituted. The rapid progrefs of fcience and information 
fince that period, would be a fufficient argument in favour of 
-their decided utility, without any reference to fyftematic Irea- 
tifes pubhfhed, of undoubted merit, and fanclioned by uni^ 
•verfal approbation. 
Advantages de- To the af^ive and ingenious mind in early life this mode of 
^'^^ZH'^i^.Jfl'^ information is invaluable. Befides furniftiing new ideas to 
the young ftudent, they point out the precife fiale of the dif^ 
ferent branches of buman knowledge ; they teach him the 
necefiary caution for condudting experiments with vigour an<\ 
accuracy, icftead of drawing conclufions from a few infulated 
analyfes, or imagining that his data are fufficienliy perfe(Sl for 
eftablilhing new fyflems. By reading thefe publications it is 
that he will enlarge his general conceptions, and will learn 
to emulate the various illullrious chara<^ers of all the enlight^ 
ened countries of the world. In thefe treatifes his views will 
not be confined to one obje<5l, but he will contemplate a fcerte 
continually varying. The phyfiology and phenomena of the 
animal and vegetable kingdoms ; the actions and re-aftions of , 
the diflFerent elemenlary fubflances in nature, and their com- 
binations with each other, will pafs in fucceffion under his 
obfervation. 

The great phyfical laws which conftitute and maintain (he 
equilibrium of the world, are infcrted in refpeftable works of 
this nature as they are difcovered and demonflraled, while 
the errors of former philofophers are detected and expofed ; 
■by which means he has an opportunity of afcertaining the va- 
lue and coire61nefs of thofe works he may be already in pof^ 
l&0ion of, 
'V To 



HEAT BY A BLAST FROM BELLOWSi '^[^ 

To thofe who confult an Encyclopaedia for fcientific matter, 
Ihefe publications are of indifpenfable utility, by continually 
pointing out the numerous improvements as they become pub-- 
lie, and by that means the general fyftem of philofopliical 
knowledge is kept to the level of the exifting fta'e of dif- 
eovery. 

To the mechanic a repofilory of this kind muft be highly 
ufeful, as the receptacle in which he may record his labours 
and improvements, and fecure to himfelf the well-earned fame 
of nis difcoveries, at the fame time that he derives advantage 
from others following his example in their contributions to the 
general fund of fcience. 

In fiiort, there is no clafs of individuals but may profit 
from this method of extending ufeful knowledge. The fmall 
fum of feven-pence or eight-pence a week to any economical 
perfon is trifling, and there is no doubt but every enquirer 
will find fomething of which he may abridge himfelf, in order 
to become poflefled of fuch an afiemblage of fafts and opinions. 
He is as it were making himfelf intimate with a clafs of men 
whofe names will be read with admiration by a grateful polte- 
rity. It is only by familiarizing the mind with the fublime 
objefis of fcience, and diffufing them over the face of the 
earth, that we can expelS^ to eftablith that fpirit of philan» 
thropy and focial order, which is fo neceflary to the happinefs 
of the human race. 

I will leave it to your judgment to abridge, or cancel the 
whole of this paper, as it would perhaps exclude more va^ 
luable fubjeds. 

I am. Sir, 

With the greateft refpeft. 

Your very humble fervant, 

RICHARD WINTER. 

21, Bolfover Sireei, 
DecU, 1805. 



The following experiments were made in order to afcertaln The thermonje- 
whether a current of air proje6ted upon a thermometer would ^,'^l^f^^ ^l ? 
increafe or diminifli the temperature. I made ufe of a pair lows, 
of common bellows, the contents of which, when opened, 
were 95 cubip inches j the di^ipeter of the end of the pipe 

was 



•J^^t TWO INTERSECTrNG RAINBOWS. 

yns -y^yths of an inch. The thermometer was adapted to Fab^ 
jeniieii's fcale, and the refults of three experiments are exhi- 
bited in tiie following table : 



Number of i Time of Tlierrn, 

Blatts. I blowing* 

Ejp. I. - 425 j 6 minutes. 



2. - 222 3 

3» - 217 3 



rofc. 

3.75 
3.7 



The current of air was direded againft the bulb of the 
thermometer. The diflance of the pipe out of which the air 
iilued, was half an inch from the bulb. The experiments 
were repeated with every caution poflible for twelve times, 
and always with the fame refults. 

Mr. Dalton obferved (Philof. Journal, III. 160), that the 
thermometer fell on exhaufting the vefTel in which it was 
placed, and rofe again on re-admitting the air. It is probable 
that the rifing of the thermometer in my experiments may be 
referred to tlie fame caufe, viz. the greater capacity of a va» 
cuum for caloric than atmofpheric air. 



XVII, 

^n Account of two interft'ftbv^ Rainbows, feen at Dimglafs 
in Eafi Lothian in July luji, was communicated by Frofejfor 
Plavfair *. 

Large rainbow 1 JlT Dunglafs, where I happened to be in the beginning 
■where ^the fu:j of July laft, 1799, our attention was called one evening, a 
"" little before funfet, to a very large and beautiful rainbow, 
formed on a cloud which hung over the fea, and from which a 
lliower was falling at a confiderable diftance to the S. E. The 
fufl was about 2° high, fo that (he arch was not much lefs than 
Anoi her inter- ^ femicircle, with its highefi point elevated about 40''. At 
i'e<3ins bow, {\)q point where the northern extremity of this arch touched the 
horizon, another arch feemed alfo to fpring from the fea, di- 
verging from the former al an angle of 3^ or 4"^, on the fide 
tov\ard the fun. 

* Edin. Tra«r. 1805. Hiftory, p. S. 

This 



over the fea. 



TWO INTERSECTING EAINBOWS. Tj> 

This arch did not exceed 7** or 8° in length ; it was of the't W;^s a inort 
fame breadth with the principal bow ; it had the colours in the ^° '°"* 
fame order, and nearly of the Hime brightnefs; or if any differ- 
ence was difcernible, it was, that the tranfition from one co- 
lour to another was not made with fo much delicacy in the laft- 
mentioned rainbow as in the former. 

We recollcfled that a phenomenon fimilar to this is defcrl- a""! was appa- 
bed in the Philofophical Tranfudlions, as having been feen at j,,, ^.j^jg^l^^^ ^|. 
Spithead, and that it is afcribed by the gentleman who obferved the fua'srays 
It to the reflection of the fun's rays from the furface of the fea, 
fo as to fall on the cloud where the rainbow was formed. This 
hypothefis feemed to agree exad^ly with the phenomenon now 
before us. 

The accidental rainbow, for fo it may be called, was feen from the fmooth 
only at the extremity where the principal arch rofe from the 
fea, and where of confequence, the fun^s rays, reflected from 
the furface of the water, at that moment very fmooth, might 
fell on the drops of rain. The other parts of the cloud could 
not receive rays fo refle6led, as the land intervened, and 
there, accordingly, no veftige of the accidental rainbow was 
obferved. 

The accidental rainbow lay, as was already faid, on the Its center was 
fide toward the fun, and this Is agreeable to the hypothefis ; f°^^ ^^^ ^''"- 
for the rays that after reflexion from the furface of the water 
fell on the drops of rain, muft have come as from a point 
as much deprelTed below the horizon, as the fun was at that 
inftant elevated above it. The axis of the accidental rain- 
bow mud therefore have made with the axis of the prin- 
cipal, an angle equal to twice the fun's elevation, and Its 
cei^ter muft have jjeen elevated by that fame quantity above 
the centre of the other, fo that if it had beeii complete, it 
would have been wholly between the principal rainbow and 
the fun. 

The only cirumfianpe in which the appearances did not per- tut the interfec- 
feftly correfpond with this hypothefis, was, that the two rain- ^uiVls'low as 
bows did not interfecl one another in the horizon, but rather a the horuon. 
Jittle above It. This however, ought to have no great weight, 
?is the refle6led image of the fun cannot have prefented to the 
floqd a di(k fo regyl^r and well defnied as the fun itfclf and 

the 



computed, 



iOJinaXt, 



»7^ TWO INTEUSECTING RAINBOWS. 

the accidental rainbow muft have fomewhat participated- of 
this indiftindnefs ♦. ■ 

The Inclination When phenomena of this kind occur, it would afford a Aire 
^<!mn^,fT^'" means of trying the juftnefs of the explanation, if the in- 
clination of the two bows were obferved, and alfo the fun's 
altitude at the fame time. Thefe two things are neceffarily 
conneded ; for if we call I the angle of their interfe^tion, E 
the elevation of the fun, and S the angle fubtended at the ey^ 
by the femidiameter of the rainbow, if complete, an angle 
which is conftantly the fame, and nearly equal to 42°, it is 

eafy to infer from fpherical trigonomelry,- that iln f I = ^' 

3*1 d was a little Computing from this formula, the inclination of the two 
inore than the bows in the prefent inftance coines out nearly 5° ; fomewhat 
greater than I was incimed to eftimate it by the eye. 

Phenomena of this kind can but rarely occur, as the necef- 
fary conditions will not often come together. The principal 
rainbow muft be over the fea ; the fea itfelf muft extend fome- 
what on the fide toward the fun ; it muft be fmooth and 
tranquil, and the fun fo low that the light retlefted from the 
water may be confiderable. Were it ever to happen that the 
accidental bow was completely formed ; the effed could not 
fail to be very ftriking. 

* As th€ place of interjfeSion will lie in a plane palling througk 
the eye of the obferver and parallel to the plane of refleftion ; does 
not this faft afford ground for a fufpicion that the refleciion, at this 
low altitude, was made, not from the furface of the fea, but from 
that of the ttratum of vapour which occafions looming, and ha$ 
been Co well treated of byDr. Wollafton and others, (fee our Jour- 
nal, VJ. 46, and elfewhere), and that this ftratum was hrgher 
farther out at fea than near the coaft ? — N. 



Nffikt 



COLLECTION OF MSMOIRS. »y'7 

XVIII. 

-Notice of a ColleBion of Memoirs which have lalefj/ appeared at 
Paris, being Part of a Work on ivhich the celebrated Lavoifur 
vas employed till the lamented Clofe of his Life ; -juith a 
Traiijlation of that Memoir^ in which he claims the modern 
Theory of Cliemifiry as his own exclufive Difcoverj/. Received 
from Mr. W. A. Cadell, at Paris. 

To Mr. NICHOLSON, 
SIR, Paris, Oa. 27, 1805. 

1 HAVE iranflated t!ie two following paflages (pages 4 and 5) See introduifl?/ry 

from a work which has lately appeared in two volumes oflavo, 

entitled Memoires de Chlmie. They will prove interefting to 

the readers of your Journal. The firft is the notice prefixed 

to the work by Madame Lavoifier, (now countefsof Rumford) 

it is written with the eloquence of real feeling, and I refer to 

it for an account of tlie nature of the work ; the fecon.d proves 

completely that the new theory of chemiftry is due to M. La- 

vofier alone. I alfo fend you the titles of the papers of which 

the work iscorapofed. I am. 

Your very liumble fervant, 

W. A. CADELL. 

CONTENTS OF THE TWO VOLUMES. 

Paut. I. — General Views on Caloric: its EffeBs ; the Manner of 
meafuring it, and the Formation of Liquids and Fluids. 

1ft mem. on caloric, by Lavoifer. Mem. Ac. des Sci.1777. Contents of the 

2. On caloric, and the means of meafuring its effeas. j6.1780. "j"^" Lavoifie-, 
Lavois. et Laplace, 

3. Supplement to the preceding. Lavois. and Laplace. 

4. On fome of the principal phenomena of chemiftry. — 
Seguin. Soc, Philom. 1790. 

5. On the natural zero. Seguin. Annal, de Chim. 1790, 

6. On the effects of heat in dilating metals and glafs, &c. 
Laplace and Lavoifier. 

7. On the paflage of folids to a ftate of liquidity by means 
of heat. Lavoifier. 

8. On the action of heat on liquids from their freezing point 
to that of their vaporization, Lavoifier. 

On 



ng <?OLtEeTroN or memoirs. 

Contents of the 9'. Oil the combination of heat with different evaporable 
memoirs anan. fubftances and the formation of feveral fluids. Lavoifier. Mem. 
*" ' Ac. Sci. 1777. 

10. On the eledriclly that is abforbed by bodies that pafs (o 
the ftate of Vapour. Luvoijier and LuplaCe. M. A. S. 1781. 

11. On the a6tion of heat on feme aerial fluids from the 
freezing to the boiling point. GUyton and Duveriiois. 

12. On fome fubftances which are conltantly in the ftate of 
aerial fluid at the ordinary temperature and preflure of the 
atmofphere. Lavoifier, 

\'i. Memoir on fome liqnids which can be obtained in an 
aerial form at a degree of heat a little above the mean tempe- 
rature of the earth. M. A. S. 1777. 

14. General views concerning the formation and conftitu- 
tion of the atmofphere. 

15. On the caufe of fome of the principal phenomena of 
meteorology. 

Part II. On the Decompofition of adnofpheric Air, its Analyfis 
and the Conterfion of its Principles into the fo lid or liquid 
Slate. 

Section I. On the Decompofition of Air hy metalic Suhfiances 
and the Formation of Oxids, 

1. Memoir on the adion of mercury upon atmofpheric air. 
Lavoifier. In pars, in M. A. S. 1777, p. 186. 

2. On the decompofition of atmofpheric air by the oxida- 
tion of lead and tin performed by means of a burning glafs 
under a glafs receiver. Lavuifier, Opufc. Chim. chap. 6. pub. 
in 1773. 

3. On the oxidation of tin in clofe veflels, &c. Lavoifien 
Read in 177 4-. 

4. On the decompofition of atmorpheric air by iron. Lavois, 

5. Hiftorical details on the caufe of the augmentation of 
weight that metals acquire when heated with contact of air. 
Lavoifier. ]t is the paper of which I fend you the tranflatlon. 

Seciton II. on the Decompofition of Air by fimpk inflammable 
Subjlarices uhichfonn Acids by their Combuftion. 
1. Memoir on the decom petition of air by phofphorus, and 
the formation of phofphoric acid. Lu-coifur. Opufc. Chim. 

2. Sup- 



COLLECttOl* OF lizudlRi, 79 

-2. Supplement to the preceding paper. Lavojler M. A. S. ^-^"^^y^^^ "^ '^^ 
177 7 . g,?d by Lavolficr* 

3. Proving that caloric difengaged froni vital air during 
combuftion is not pofieffed of weight fufceptible of being eCd- 
mated. 

4. Procefs ufually employed for obtaining pliofphorus, phof- 
plioric acid, and phofphoreous acid. Sci^uiit. 

5. Memoir on the combuftion of phofphoriis employed a? 
an eudiometer. Seguiit. 

9. On the deconipofition of air by fulpliur, the formation 
of fulphureous and fulphuric acid, and the ufe of fulphurets 
in eudiometry, Lavoijier. 

7. On the procefs employed in commerce to obtain the ful- 
phureous and fiilphuric acids. Seguiu. 

8. On the decompofition of air by charcoal and the forma- 
tion of carbonic acid. Lavoifier. M. A. S. 1781. 

2. On the formation of nitric acid by the immediate com- 
bination of azotic gas and vital air. Seguin. 

10. On the eudiometer compofed of nitrous gas. Seguin. 

Section III. On the DecompnfUion nf Air bi/ ihofc fimpie iU' 
JiammabkSubfianctsxvhich donotfortn Acids by tkeirCombuJiion. 

1. Mem. Account of the lalS ex,periraents on the decorapo- 
filion and recompofition of water. Lavoifier Journal Polytip. 
February, 1786". 

2, Shewing that water is not a fimple fubftance, but a binary 
"combination of hydrogen and oxigen. Lavoifier, read in 1785, 

'"' 3. Shewing by the decompofition of water (hat It is not a 
fimple fubftance, and lliat there are feveral means of obtaining 
in abundance, the hydrogen gas, which is one of its elements. 
Lavofier M. A. S. 17 81. 

4-. Report on the paper of Seguin, which treats of the com- 
buftion of hydrogen gas with vital air. Lavoifier, Laplace, 6;c. 

5. On the combuftion of hydrogen gas in clofe velleis. Four- 
croy, Vauquclin, and Seguin, read in 1790. 

Pakt IV. On the principal rhcnomena of the Animal 

CEcnnowj/. 
1. Mem. Experiments on the refpiration of animals, and \\)t 
change which lakes place in air in the lungs, M, A. S. 
1777. p. 185. 

2 2, The 



80 COLLECiTION OP MEMOlRSt. 

5. The alterations that the air undergoes during refpiration^ 

Lavoifia', read in 1785. 

3. Memoir, report on a paper of Seguin's concerning refpira- 
tion and animal heat. Muquei- and Fourcroy. 

4. On refpiration and anunal heat. S'e;^uin. 

5. On the refpiration of animals. Scguiii and Lavofier, read 
in 1790. 

Notice prefixed to the Work (bj/ (Mad. Lavoifier) countefs of 
RuwJ'ord. 
Intention of In the year 1792 M. Lavofier had formed the defign of 

^ubUih^hf ^^'' "^^''■'"'g ^ coileftion of all his memoirs which had been read at 
memoirs, the academy during the twenty years preceding. This would 

have formed in fome degree the hiflory of modern chemiftry. 
In order to render this hitlory more interefting, and more 
complete he had propofed to infert the memoirs of tliofe, who 
having adopted his theory, liad publifhed experiments in fup- 
port of it. 
iii eight This col!e<^ion was to have been coraprifed in about eight 

volumes. 

All Europe is acquainted with the caufe which prevented 
their completion. 
Parts recovered. The portion that have been recovered are, the firft volume 
almoft entire, the whole of the fecond, and fome flieeis of the 
fourth. 

Several men of fcience expreffed a defire for their publica- 
tion: this was received with hefitation — it is difficult not to be 
under apprehenfions when we are intruded with the power of 
publidiing the unfiniQied work of a man juftly celebrated. 
When we have loft the objed of our afFedions and veneration, 
we Ihould employ an impartial crilicifm, in order to offer to 
the public thofe of his works only which may augment his 
fame. 
Madame Lavoifier We fiiould have perfifted, and thefe fragments would not 
has printed them, i^ayg appeared, had they not contained a memoir o^ M. 
Lavoifier (inferted below page 5) in which he reclaims the 
modern theory of chemiilry as belonging to himfeif, and ftates 
the fa6ts in fupport of his claim. 

It is confequently a duty towards him to fix the opinion of 
men of fcience concerning this point. 
Lavoifier was em- Their indulgence is requelted for the errors thai may exrft 
plowed on this ^^ f^^^ ^^j^^r parts of the colle^ion. It will be granted when 

5 they 



COLLKCTtON OF MEMOIRS, 



81 



they are informed that the greateft part of the proof fheets work In the lad 
were revifed in the laft days of the author's life; and thatjjj^^ 
whilft he knew that his alfaffins were premeditating his death, 
M. Lavofier, calm and intrepid, employed his laft moments in 
a work which he confidered as ufeful to fcience, and gave a 
great example of that ferenity which a virtuous and enlighten- 
ed man can preferve in the midft of the moft fevere calamities. 

Part II.— Sect. I. Fifth Memoir, (Tom. II. p. 78.) 

Hifiorical Details concerning the Augmentation of Weight which 

the Metals ucijvire iihen heated tailh Contad of Air. (By 

Lavoifier.) 

IT is not my obiefl in this paper lo give a compleat hiftory Limit of this 
r .t- j-rr ^ . , , , r ;y- i I , j hiftorical me- 

ot the dillerent opinions that have been luccetnvely adopted ^^jj.^ 

by the chemifts and natural philufophers on the caufe of the 

augmentation of weight in metals expofed to the a£lion of 

heat; fuch a hiftory would only ferve to fliew how much the 

rainds of men are fufceptible of being led aftray when they 

give themfelves up to the fpirit of theory, and how eafily we 

are deceived by reafoning, if it is not perpetually redlified by 

experiment, John Rey, a phyfician (medecin) little known John Rey an 

is one of the firft authors who has written on this fubje6l ; he "mbuJJon *""* 

lived in the beginning of the 17th century at Bugue in Peri- 

gord, and kept a correfpondence with the fmall number of 

perfons who cultivated the fciences at that time. 

Neither Defcartes nor Pafcal had yet appeared ; the va. His phiiofuphy 

cuum of Boyle, and that of Toricelli, the caufe of the afcent f" ejccecded that 

,.,..,., ..... , . , of his coterapo- 

ot hquids in tubes void or air, were unknown ; experimental raries. » 

philofophy did not exift; a profound darknefs reigned in che- 

miftry. Neverthelefs, J. Rey, in a work publithed in 1630, 

ifrith a view of determining the Caufe of the augmentation of 

weight which lakes place in lead and tin during their oxidation, 

difplayed views fo profound, fo analogous to the iafls which 

have been'fince confirmed by experiment, fo conformable to 

the do6lrines of faturation and affinity, that for along lime J 

could' not help fufpefting that tb.e eflays of J. Rey had been 

compofed at a much later period than that announced on the 

title page of the book. 

J. Rey, after having refuted fuccefsfally, not by fa6?s (for He contends that 
at that time the art of making experiments was in its infancy) "^!^^'^ 8^'" 
but by conclufive reafoning, (he different caufes to which thejirin oxidation. 

Vot. XIII.~-JANUARy, I80e, G aug^ 



%^ COLLECTION Oy MEMOIRS, 

augmentation of weight of metallic oxides might be attribute??; 
exprefles himfeU as follows in his I6lh eflay : " (o this qu«f- 
tion then, fupported on the grounds ah-eady mentioned, I an- 
fwerand maintain with confidence, that the increafeof weight 
arifes from the air of the veflel, which is condenfed, rendered 
heavy, and adhefive, by the violent and long continued heat 
of the furnace; this air mixes itfelf witli the calx (frequent 
agitation conducing) and attaches itfelf to the minuteft mole- 
cules, in the fame manner as wa-ter renders beavy fand which 
is. agitated with it, and moifteus and adheres to the fmalleft 
grains. 
He oppofej other J' -^^y combats in this work the opinion of Cardan (lib. 5 
curicatopinions, defubtilitate) on the augmentation of weight of metallic ox- 
ides ; that of Scaliger, that of Ccefalpinus, who afcribed this 
augraentalion to a foot condenfed and reffecled by the furnace, 
which foot, according to their opinion, fell down upon the 
metal. He fiiews likewife that the augmentation of weight 
proceeds neither from the veflel, nor from any emanation of 
the charcoal, nor from the humidity of the air. It is difficHit 
to conceive how J. Rey could attain to thefe conclufions by the 
force of reafoning alone, without experiment, and ignorant 
as he was of many of the preliminary date. 
His doftrlhes I' appears that towards the end of the laft century, wliea 

were not re«eiv. Boyle and fome of his cotemporaries created the new fcience 
y °ye, of natural phifofophy, of which the ancients had not the 
flighteft notion, the work, of J.. Rey was entirely forgotten.-— 
Boyle, in his treatife on the weight of flame and of fire, pub- 
Hftied in 1670, that is 4(7 years after the publication of Key's 
work, makes no mention of it j proceeding upon forae illufory 
experiments, he flill maintained at that time that the augmen- 
tation of weight which the metals acquire by their oxidatioa 
arifes from the fixation of fire. 
— BorbyLe- Lemery, who was an exa6l and fcrupulous obferver, em- 

"i"y. braced the fame opioion :. he attributes the oxidation of metals 

and their augmentation in weight which accompanies that 
operation, to the combination of igneous particles with the 
metal. 
Opinion of Charras, colem'porary of Lemery, afrribed that augmen- 

eharr^s, ialion to the acids of the wood and charcoal, which as he fup- 

pofed penetrated the vcflels and entered into couibination with 
*- ■ - the metals. Since that lime the fame acid of wood and char- 

coal' 



COLLECTION OF MEMOIRS. OOf 

Toail has re-appeared under I he name of acidum pingue, igneous 
Bcid, and under feveral other denominations which it would 
'be fuperfluous to enumerate. 

Staahl could not be ignorant of the fadl that metals expofed — and of Staahl» 
k> heat acquire an increafe of weight ; and yet he not only did 
not attempt to explain it, but alfo the fyftem under which he 
clafled the whole of the chemical pfhenomena, and which after 
liim has been fo much exiended, is ahfdlutely in .contraclidtiou 
with this capital fa<5l. 

Staahl fuppofed that the metals are compofed ©f a inetanie 
-earth, and an inflammable principle, which he named phlogi- 
ilon; he pretended that they loft this principle by their oxida- 
lion, and that they could not return to the metallic ftate unlefs 
the phlogifton they had loft was reftored to them. 

It was difficult to imagine how the metals acquired weight, Blfficukles af 
whim, according to Staahl's doarine, they loft a part of their f ^^'°**'*^' 
"Tubftance; and on the other hand, how they diminidied in 
weight, when they recovered one of the principles which 
they had loft ; it was one of the chief difficulties that could be 
■propofed againft the theory of Staahl, this difficulty however, 
has not ifcindered the theory from having a fuccefe of limited 
duration. 

Guyton Morveau has made fame unfuccefrful efForis to pal- Morvcau's en- 
^iate thiscontradiaion, in his difTertation on this fubjea, under J^^^'JJ^^^ "* 
the title of Degreffiom Acadeniiques ; hefuppofes that phlogi- 
ilon is lighter than atmoipheric air ; and he concludes that all 
bodies -that acquire phlogi-fton ftmuld lofea part of their weight; 
that, on the -contrary, thofe which lofe phlogifton fliould aug- 
ment in v»reight. This CKpIanation would have been tenable^ 
liad the augmerrtation of weight acquired by the metallic ox- 
ides been equal only to the weight of the air dilplaced ; or, 
which is the fame things if it had difapp.eared on weighing ia 
-vacuo ; but the augmentation is much too confiderable to ad- 
mit of being attributed to that caufe, fince in fome metals it 
exceeds one third of their weight. It is ncceffary then, either 
■to give up the explanation of Guyton Morveau, or to fuppofe 
that phlogifton has a negative gravity, a tendency to recede 
^firom the centre of the earth, a fuppofition incompeiLxble with 
all the faas admitted by the difciples of Staahl. 

Such was the ftate of the I'cience when a fct of experinvents Hlftory of the 
tindertaken in 1772, upon the different kinds of air or gas ^°" '*^"*'' 
Ga which 



S4/ COLLSCXroN OF MEM.OIRS. 

wliich are difengaged in effervefcence, and a great number of 
Other chemical operations, difcovered to me demonftratively 
the caufe of the augmentation of weight that the metals ac- 
quire when expolcd to heat. At that time I was not ac 
Cjuainted with J. Key's work upon the fubjed, pubhQicd in 
1630 J and had I known it, I fliouid have confidered his opi- 
nion in the h'ght of a vague conjecture, which did honour to 
(he genius of the author, but required the attention of chemifts 
in order to afcertain the truth of the opinion by experiment, 
I was young, I had newly entered the lifts of fcience, I was 
defirous of fame, and I thought it necelTary to take foroe fleps 
to fecure to myfelf the property of my difcovery. At that 
lime there exifled an habitual correfpondence between the 
men of fcience of France atui thofe of England ; there was a 
> kind of rivality between the two nations, which gave import- 
ance to new experiments, and which fometimes was the caufe 
that the writers of the one or the other of the nations difputed 
the difcovery with the real author ; confequently I thought it 
proper todepofit on the ift of November 1772, the following 
note in the hands of the fecrelary of the Academy. This note 
was opened at the meeting of the 5th of May following, and 
mention of (hefc circum fiances marked at the (op of the note. 
It was in the following terms : 
He finds that " About eight days ago I difcovered that fulphur in burning, 

fulphur and f^^ f^^^^ lofing, augments in weisrht; that is lo fay, that from 
phofphorus gam . r ri . r .i i r •. • r 

weight by com- o«e pound ot (ulphur much more than one pound ot vitriolic 
buftion, and that acjf^ is obtained, without reckoning the humidity of the air ; 
air abforbed. He phofphorus prefents the fame phenomenon ; this augmentation 
infers that the of weight arifes from a great quantity of air, which becomes 
ec^'^raT^anTdH'-^''^'^ during the combuftion, and which combines with the va- 
engages air from pours.'* 
litharge on re- ,, j,^-^^ difcoverv, which I confirmed by experiments which 

ducing itin ■' ' . /• 

«lofed veffels. I regard as decifive, led me to think that what is obferved in 
the combuflion of fulphur and phofphorus might likewife take 
place with refpeft to all ll)e bodies which augment in weight 
by combuftion and by calcination, and I was perfuaded that 
the augmentation of weight in the calces of metals proceeded 
from the fame caufe. The experiment fully confirmed my 
conje6lures ; I operated the redu<5lion of litharge rn dole vef- 
fels with Hales's apparatus, and I obferved that at the moment 
qf the palTage of the calx iuto the metallic flate, there was a 

difengage- 



COLLECTION OF MEMOIRS, 84h 

difengagement of air in confiderable quantity, and that this 
air formed a volume at lealt lOOvO timis greater than that of 
the litharge employed. As this difcovery appears to me one 
of the moft Interefting which has been made fince Slaahl, I 
thought it expedient to fecure to myfelf the property, by de- 
poliling llie prefent note in the bands of the fecr.etary of ihe 
academy, to remain fecret till the period when I iliall publifti 
n)y experiments." 

(Signed) LAVOISIER. 
Parif, ]fi November, 1772. 

Comparing this firit note with that which I had depofited whence he vln- 

at Ihe academy the 20th of Oaober preceding on the com-<^'"^" ^'= "s^^' 

■ r r • 1 T J 1 ^'-^ ^^^ modern 

budicn of phofphorus, with the paper which I read at the theory of com- 

acaUumy of the public meeting of Eafler, 1773, and Jaftly tuftign inijjz. 
Wiiij thofe that I have publidied fucceflively, it is eafy to 
perceive that I had conceived fo early as the year 1772 the 
general idea of the theory of combuftion which I have fince 
publilhed. 

This theory which I have confiderably developed in 1777,— which was 
and which almoft at that period I brought to the degree of ^JJ^'^'^^P^^.Jj 
perfedion in which it is at prefent, was not begun to be till many years 
taught by Fourcroy till the winter 1786-1787 ; it was not**^^'^^^^''"^*- 
adopted by Giiyton Morveau till a later period i and Ber- 
thollet wrote flili in the language of the phlogiftic dodrine in 
1785. This theory then is not, as I hear it called, the theory 
of the French chemifts ; it is mine, and it is a property which 
I reclaim before the tribunal of my cotemporapes and of pof- 
terity. Others undoubtedly have contributed to its perfection, 
but I hope that no one will difpute with me, all the theory of The claim fpe- 
oxidation and combutiion; the analyfis and decompofition ''^"''X ^*^^*** 
of air by metals and inflammable bodies ; the theory of aci- 
dification ; more accurate knowledge on the nature of a great 
roany acids, and particularly the vegetable acids ; the firft 
notions on the compolilion of vegetable and animal fub- 
flances ; the theory of refpiration, in which Seguin co-ope- 
rated with me ; the prefent collection will prefent all the 
papers on which I found my claims ; the reader will judge. 



ANNOTATION.— W. N. 



It wai my intention to have pointed out how far the earlier Notice of the 
tiiemifts, as well as fome of the contemporaries of this defer v- early invcnc«*s 

edl/ 



g(> ANALYSIS BY BORACIC AClt>. 

of the flieoi^ of edly celebrated philofopher, are intitled to rights whtcli will 
combuftion. prreatly modify the iinqflalified claim he has made. 1 cannot 
now fay, vvhellier Rey did, or did not make experiments, but 
whether he did or not, he certainly inuft have founded his 
nilr»)dticlions upon fa6ts ; and between llie nbfervation of well 
eftabliflied faiSs, and the making of direct experiments there 
feems lo be no eflenfial dilTerence. How it has happened that 
t!ic great Robert Hooke, who had invelHgated the modern 
tbeory of combuftion in IS64 and pjbliflied it in an ample de- 
fail on his micrographia in 1673*, and John Mayow, who 
foon afierwards, or about the fame time edabliflied the fame 
do^^rine, and extended it to phyfiological refults, are over- 
looked by our author, appears to require fuir.e difciiffion. I 
(liall take an early opportunity of leluming this fubject. 



XIX. 

On a Method of analyzing Stmies containing fixed Alkali, hy 
j\Ieamoft1i€ Borncic Acid.' By Huinphri/ Daiy, Efq. /^, R. S. 
Profeffbr of Cheviifiry in the Uoycil Injlitutidnf. 



Ai-id cf borax 
»pry iifefal in 

it combines 
with earths by 
ignitiop and 
quits them to 
mineral acids. 



Procefl'es. 
Pulverize the 
Rone and faft 
with two parts 
feoracic acid. 
Dijcft with 
weak nitric acid, 



Evaporate* 



1 HAVE found the boracic acid a very iifeful fubftance for 
bringing the conftituent parts of ftones containing a fixed alkali 
into iblution. 

Its attraction for the different fimple earths is confiderable at 
the heat of ignition, but the compounds that it forms with 
them are eafily decompofed by the mineral acids diflblved in 
water, and it is on this circumnance that the method of analyfis 
is founded. 

The procefies are very fimple. 

100 grains of thcftone to be examined h very fine powder, 
mufl be fufed for about half an hour, at a firong red heat, in 
a crucible of platina or filver, with 200 grains of boracic acid. 

An ounce and half of nitric acid, diluted with feven or eight 
times its quantity of water, mufl be digefied upon the fufed 
mafs till the whole is decompofed. 

The fl.uid muft be evaporated till its quantity is reduced to 
an ounce and half or two ounces. 



Copied In our Journal quarto feries III. 479. 
t Phil. Tranf. Part II. for 1805. 



If 



tUMINOUS ELECTRICITY. §7 

If the ftone contain filex, this earth will be feparated in the Silcx if pre&nt 
procefs of folutiou and evaporation; and it muft be colleded ^* eparatc. 
upon a filter, and wallied with diftilled water till the boracic 
acid and all the fahne matter is feparated from it. 

The fluid, mixed with the water that has pafled through the Precipitate the 
iiUer, muft be evaporated, till it is reduced to a convenient ^^^^^'^j*^^.'^" 
quantity, fuch as that of half a pint; when it muft be faturated ammonia. 
vvilh carbonate of ammonia, and boiled with an excefs of this 
lalt, till all the materials that it contains, capable of being pre- 
cipitated, have fallen to the bottom of the veflTel, 

The folution muft then be feparated by the filter, and the 
earths and metallic oxides retained. 

It muft be mixed with nitric acid till it taftes ftrongly four, Add nitric acid 
and evaporated till the boracic acid appears free. liquid. 

The fluid muft be patTed. through the filter, and fubje6ted Separate the 

to evaporation till it becomes dry; when, by expofure to a ^"^p^'^.^^^'^^'^^ ^ 

heat equal to 45.0'^ Farenheit, the nitrate of ammonia will be Decompofe the 

decompofed, and the nitrate of potafli or foda will remain in "'-''ate of am^ 
'^ *^ moHia by neat, 

the velTei. 

It will be unneceifary for me to defcribe minutely the 

method of obtaining the remaining earths and metallic oxides 

free from each other, as I have ui'ed the common procelfes. 

I have feparated the al amine by folution of potafti, the lime by 

fulphuric acid^ the oxide of ir&n by fuccinate of ammonia, the 

manganefe by hydrofulphucet of potafti, and t:ie magnefta by 

pure foda. 



XX. 

SomeFaQis and Speculations on the htminom Phenomena of- Elec- 
tricity. W. N. 



Al 



.BOUT eighteen yeaTs ago, I was coofiderably occupied Communicatloa 
in experiments upon eledricity, many of which were comma- ^'^ '^'^ Royal 
uicated in tl789>, to the Ro-yal Society, and were publiftiedekanclty. 
in ihe tranfaftions. In the twenty-third feftion of that com- 
munication, fome account is given of certain changes which 
lake place in the luminous appearance of metallic balls when 
eleftrified; but the phenomena were not delineated, becaufe I 
leferved thera for another oppxjrtnnity. After fo long an in- 



Jg8 ttJMlNOTJS BLECTtaCITV, 

tervaloF lime, I now prefent them to the reader from my notes, 

and the Iketcii then ruarie. 
Three appear- Sept. 1 9, 1 7 87 . A frnall ball in the ftate of eledlriqity called 
'*"r"j°L ^? *'^'^" poi'iiive, threw out flaAies or ramified fparks; and when the in- 

trihed ball. It ^ ' . , , . 

gives flaibcs; is tenfity was encrcafecl, the ball illeU became luminous, at the 
then luminous, j-^^^e tj^jg emitting the flaftics. When the eleclricity was 

jnd tlien gives „,, . , ■ > , n n r j i -ii- 

fld/he^ofano- itiH more (trongly excile<l the flalnes cealed, and a circle ct 
iher kind. light, extending about 43 degrees round the point fartheft from 

the ftem, was feen on the ball, and a lirong wind proceeded 
from it. 
Experiment with ^ ball of one inch and a half diameter was ufcd ; and elec- 
diametcr. tricity communicated by n>eans of a cylinder nine inches dia- 

meter, having its cuftiion eight inches long. The excitation 
was firong enough, by flow turning with a fingle wincb, to 
throw out large t>ru{lies of light. When the rotation was 
quicker, the flaflies difappeared, and the circle of light was 
teen, having a bright (peck moving irregularly round in its 
Drfrfipiion. periphery. Quicker turning threw out brufhes of light very 
different from the others : Thefe were lefs luminous in the 
branches; many ftarted out at once with a hoarfe foungJ. They 
were greeniQi at the point or fur face of the ball, reddilh in 
tlie ftem, and ramified fooner. Haifa dozen were fometimes 
feen flalhing out at once. 
Experiment with A ball of four tenths of an inch in diameter was ufed. Mo- 
Ln"^ It'^b'ecame '^^^^^^ excitation produced a denfe brufh of light about two 
luminous, and inches in length. Wiih flronger eleftricity tlie brulh difap- 
aftedlikea peared, and the upper half of the ball became luminous. 
When the excitation was Hill ftronger, more than half of the 
ball was luminous, as reprefented fig. 3, Plate I. and fome- 
times a ramified flafli llruck out from the top. Other flaflies 
were fometimes feenfldevvays when theele6lricily wasftrongeft 
of all ; but this happened feldom. 

The light was faint, and feemed to be about twice the dia- 
meter of the ball. It extended more than half way down, and 
fpread moft fideways. 
A large ball 2^ When a larger ball of two and a half inch diameter was 
inch. diam. ^j-gj^ ^^^^ brufhes of light flew out from three or four ftems 
together to the length of about fix or feven inches, making 
a hoarfe nolle; but they could not be made to difappear, 
tliough they feemed now and then to ceafe for a moment when 
Uie turning was moft vigorous, 

5 The 



LUMINOUS ELECTRICITY. g^ 

*l'he next day, when the excitation was very nearly, but Modification of 
hot quite, as ftrong, it was obferved that the order- of thefe ^^"^ P^^"°""'*"2» 
appearances could be efFe6led by the affiftance of a metallic 
point. Plentiful bruflies were thrown out from a three inch 
ball, but they could not be made to difappear. When a 
pointed wire or a fmail metallic ball was prefented, the ef- ' 
feels were as follow : 

The point being at a great diflance, the root of the brufh by the vicinity 

had a luminous circle of lambent light round it on the furface ^'^^P^'lf °^ 

° fmall ball. 

of the ball. When the point was nearer, the brulh difap- 

peared, and nothing was feen but an exceedingly bright fpeck 

on the furface of tl>e ball, which was fometimes ftatrnary and 

fometimes moved about. When the point was ftill nenrer, 

the fpeck (hrew out ramified fparks of the fecond kind, at. the 

lame time that a lambent luminous circle appeared. The fpeck 

tvas never in the center of the circle, but moved at a diftance 

round the circle, irregularly, fometimes the one way and 

fomelimes (he contrary, and was fometimes ftationary. 

Thefe two orders of bruflies were entirely the fame as thofe More particulii* 

of the day before. The luminous brufh which firft appeared jlefcriptiouofth* 
, , - . , ^ , II 1 r 1 • 1 luminous ap» 

had a Uraight flem, then a broken or lets lummous part, be- pearances. 

yond which loofe cotton-looking fibres flew off in radial dt- 

re6lions, as at Fig. 1, PL I. The latter ramified fparks had 

a ftraight central flem, out of which well defined branches 

ifTued nearly at right angles. They much more clofely re- 

fembleda tree bare of leaves. 

The fecond brufh was not larger, but rather lefs in its di- 
menfions than the firft. 

When the ball of four-tenths of an inch was held at a cer- All the phenc 
tain diftance from the two and a half inch ball, when eleari- ^^'^"^^ ^'''''*''^ '* 
fied, the firft kind of brufh was feen on the fide fartheft from 
the fmall ball, at the fame time that the fecond kind of fpark 
or brulh flew out towards the fmall ball, and the lambent lu- 
niinous appearance was feen on the furface. 

Thefe are the general fafts ; but I have no doubt but they 
would prefent many modifications upon being repeated;. 

Thefe fads may ferve to affift our meditatiom with regard Remarks on the 
lo the nature of the eledric fpark. In a late paper by Mr. eleftric fpark, 
Biot, given at page 21 4 of our Vol. XII. the author makes an 
ingenious conje6lure, that the light and heat in this pheno- 
menon may have been produced by mechanical compreffion 

Vol. Xill.— January, I SCO. K of 



QQ i-UMINOUS ELECTRICITV. 

Whether Biofs of the atmofpherlc air. Whether this fuppofilion can be re^ 
theory of 1"^'- conciled to the appearance of the fpark in oil, and to fome 

nous condenfed r ■ i i r i • 

air can be fup- almofpheric phenomena, in which we are told of luminous 

ported. i^j^ii^ moving apparently with little velocity through the air, 

and particularly that flowly-moving artificial fire-ball, pro- 
Warkire's fire- duced once, and only once, by Warltire, as narrated in 
^^"* Prieftley's work on air, may admit of queftion. When we 

Combuf^IoB of confider that a particle of iron, cut off and fet on fire in the 
flinf and ileel, common aciion of ftriking a light, appears, from the vivacity 

of its combuftion, to be a body of confiderable magnitude, 
requires a very though the ufual quantity of metal wouM not form a ball of 
of'metah°' '°" One thoufaudth of an inch in diameter ; when we confider the 
Elcftric temper- prodigious elevation of temperature indicated by the explofion 
ature^is cx-^^^^^^^ ^vires of all metals b)* the ele61ric (liock, particularly in 

thofe beautiful and ftriking experiments which Van Marum 
All metals lofe has publifiied ; and laftly, when we call to mind that a me- 
an/ the fp'rk ^^"''^ chain lofes part of its weight every time a thock is pafled 
paiTes only be- through it, and that the fpark is never feen to pafs between 
SleloTet''^' '"combuftible bodies— confiderable reafons will prefent them- 
Hence probably felves in favour of a modified fuppofition, that the eleClriq 

K was part of fpark may confift of, or be accompanied by, a portion of the 
the body ret on , , . ^ , . , ./ , ^ ^ ^ V 

fire. body rrom winch it proceeds. 

Fire-Balls, &c. Are not the atmofpheric fire-balls or luminous meteors, 
may be eleftnc ^j^g fliooting fliars and the ftones which have fallen from the 
' atmofphere, electric fparks upon a fcale of imraenfp mag- 

nitude ? 
and the fpark a If any luminous ball were to pafs with a fvvift gngular 
6re-balU motion over the field of view, it would have the appearancp 

of a line or ftreak of light. If it vyere to bieak in pieces many 
divergent llreaks wpyld be feen. May not the electric brut^ 
be a phenomenon of this defcription on a fmall fcale ? 
Fafls are more It would not be difficult to apply this fpeculation to thp 
win;ed than figures } and 2 before us ; but as yye are more jn want of 
fads than of conjedtures, and as it may be hoped that fome 
pf my readers who have the means and the time will purfue 
this inveftigalipn, I ftiall for the prelent conclude. 



SCIENTmC 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS, 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS, 



Anatomical Cabinet. 



n 



' THERE hss appeared at Berlin, a complete defcrlption of Anatomical ca- 
tlje anatomical cabinet of M. Waller, which the king has pur- ^'"^^' 
jchafed, almoft a year ago, for the fum of 400,000 francs. 
This catalogue is compofed of fixty-two printed (heets. 



Shoiver of Peas. 

Dr. Hiem, of Berlin, has publiftied a note, in which he ex~ Shower of peaj^ 
plains that the peas, vyhich were faid to have fallen from the 
atmofphere in a fliower at ]Landfchut,' in Silefia, were merely 
tubercles which are feparated from the roots of fevera! plants. 
Thofe in queftion, according to the Doctor, were afforded by 
Jhe roots of the aquatic plant Ranunculus Ficaria. He pre- 
tends that an enormous mafs of thefe tubercules may have been 
formed in certain cavities, whence they might be carried to ^ 
diftance by the whirl or eddy of ftrong wind. He fupports 
"his opinion by the accounts of fliowers of this nature giveri 
by the celebrated Klaproth in his Journal of Chemiftry. — - 
The Do<51or concludes by remarking, (hat thefe tubercles 
pontain a farinaceous fubftance equal in goodnefs to that of 
potatoes, and recommends an at tention to the ficaria for thi? 
purpofe. 

— *^-- 

Univerfal Language. 

THE Celtic academy, in a fitting of laft April, made Unlvarfal laij- 
proof of a nevy difcovery by oneof its members; which gives ^"*^** 
the power of correfponding, and difcourfing, with men, 
whofe language is unknown, with expedition, without pre- 
vious ftudy, any expence, the leaft trouble, or the fmaileft 
labour of the mind. The proof made at that fitting by 
twenty-five academicians, on the languages of Europe, afcer- 
lained, that by the aid of this invention, a man may travel 
any where without an interpreter, demand what he wants, 
difcourfe on whatever fubjedls can interefi; any fort of travellers, 
and even exprefs metaphyfical thoughts. It is intended to 
rna^e this difcovery public at the return of the Emperor. 

' ^2 The 



9Z 



.3GT«ST,IFIC NEW9» 



fhe abovft account lias appeared in feveral publications of 
credit, bat it is probable the account is exaggerated in feveral 
fefpe^s. 



Turkijh Edii^ in Favour of Science. 

Turkifli edia in THE Grand Seignor has conftituted Prince Moroufi, by 
favour of fci- ^ diploma written with his own hand, diredor general of the 
hofpitals of his empire, and infpe^or of the fchools of medi- 
cine, mathematics, "and i»e^/« lettres, which his highnefs is en^ 
gaged in founding with all poffible difpatch* This diploma is 
remarkable for the great praiTes of the fciences made in it by 
the Grand Seignor; as they hitherto have been in no great 
favour with the Mahometans. In rendering juftice to the 
(kill of the Chriflian phyficians^ who have ftudied at the uni- 
verfities of Halle, of Padua, and of Montpelier, the Grand 
Seignour remarks with much truth, thatthefe phyficians, when 
brought into foreign countries^ often commit great errors on 
'account of the difference of the temperature of the climates; 
from whence he concludes that> in order to praflife medicine 
well, it IS neceflary to ftudy in the country where the profef.* 
fion is to be exercifed. 



'^ 



Coptic manu- 
fciipt. 



Coptic ManufcrlptSi. 
! THE. celebrated Dan ifti antiqiiarian, M. 2oeg.aj,>^'«4&^ij^." 
occupied at Rome in completing bis catalogue of GSphtit: 
manufcripts in tlie Borghefe rnufeumi He intends afterwards 
to pubiifli a new topography of ancient Rome. It is probable 
this work willbe printed in Germany, becaufe. it will requira. 
numbrous engravings, which no Italian bookltiller would 
choofe to goto (ho expenceof. It'is, however, lidl-believed 
that M, Zoega will occupy the pioieffor's chair, 'which bas 
been granted him at the Un'iverlity oV Kiel/as he is, too 
niudi arcurtomed to (he fine dimale of italv to leave it wll^ 
<inG;1v .. 4 ■ • >. 



JOURNAL 



GF 



NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, CHEMISTRY, 



THE ARTS. 



FEBRUARYy 1806. 



ARTICLE L 

On the Caufe of Fairy Rings. In a Letter from 
Mr. Florian-Jolly. 

To Mr. NICHOLSON. 

Ajfemhly-houfe, Laytonftone, Ejfex, 
SIR, January 13. 

OEEING by the letter of Mr. Gough inferted in the laft The phenome- 

Number of your Journal, that the caufe of fairy-rings is not ^1^"° ^"^' 

yet agreed upon among naturalills, I beg leave to fubmit to 

their conflderation a few fafts which I had occafion to re- 

isark fome years ago, during a fummer refidence in Hamp- 

Jhire. 

The park of Broadlands, Lord Palmerfton*s feat, nearRum»Ff°d"ccdIn 
fey, was divided into three principal inclofures, formed by fn^one"di'vifio« 
hurdles only. One of thefe had been lately mowed; there of Broadlands 
were cattle grazing in the next ; and the other, which had [^ o^ti^"/p"°ts^ 
afforded winter and fpring fodder to fome horfes kept at grafs, 
was then left to grow for an autumn crop. This lafl; exhibited 
an immenfe number of fairy rings, fome perfedly circular, 
fome forming irregular curves, and others nothing but fmall 

Vol. XIII.— February, 1805, I round 



^.^ FAlRV-RrNGS. 

round patches : In all of thefe the grafs grew more luxuriant 
and of a deeper hue : No other fungus was to be found in 
any of them but the efculent rauthroom. In the part lately 
mowed, and in that where the cattle were grazing, there was 
not the leaft appearance of fairy-ringS. 
Another field In the courfe of fubfequent perambulations, I obferved in 
ajou^ndiBg with ^ grafs field fituated on the top of the firft high ground upon 
the road from Rumfey to Salilbury, appearances nearly fimilar 
to thofe exhibited in the growing grafs of the park. There 
had been all fummer, and there were ftill horfes grazing in 
this field : The fairy-rings were numerous, but the grafs in the 
rings and patches, inftead of being mare luxuriant, was com- 
pletely dry and blafted, and there grew two or three different 
fungi, all of them of thofe forts which are reckoned noxious. 
"they were not That the falcv-rlngs at Broadlands were not the effedl of 
-iedK"'^ ^ eleftricity, appears to me beyond all doubt, fince one part 
only of the park exhibited them, while the reft of the conti- 
guous grounds, divided from that part by nothing more than 
a row of hurdles, did not fliew any fuch appearance : other- 
wife it muft be contended, Jhat the electrical phenomena might 
take place on one fide of the hurdles and never on the other, 
a prediledion truly fingular, and, I (hould think, difficult to 
be accounted for. 
iat by the ex- Another fa£l which I have repeatedly obferved fince that 
korTcs"^ "'^ '^' *''"*^' ^^^ ^^^ "*® ^^ fufpea that the fairy-rings, their different 
appearances, and the various fpecles of fungi found in them, 
might be produced by no more uncommon caufe than the ex- 
crements of the horfes. 
Argumftit from The hot-beds made of horfe-dung, which I have had feveral 
":nVo^t-bc"?" times in my garden, have generally produced in fucceflion the 
fame fungi which are to be found in the different ftates of the 
fairy-rings. Whilft the beds are yet new, the fungi are of 
the fame noxious fpecles as 1 faw in the dry blafled fairy-rings, 
but when they grow cooler and more matured, efculent mufli- 
rooras begin to grow naturally, and although no fpawn was 
ever put in the bed. 

I have alfo remarked, that horfe-dung produced in fome 
leafons an immenfe quantity of muflirooms, and hardly any in 
others : This might perhaps be attributed to the different 
quality of the hay ou whicii the liorfes had fed; and this migh-t 
explain why fairy-rings are to be found in forae paflures rather 
than in others. 

That 



PAIRY-RINGS. ^ 

That falry-rlogs fliould be produced by the excrements of Experiment 
horfes, may be illuftrated by a very fimple faft, which It is in TuSate'the L 
the power of every perfon to obferve. If you let fall fome duftions. 
oil upon a marble (lab, or fome other liquid upon fome fub- 
ftance that will imbibe it, you will fee it gradually fpread 
round in a more or lefs regular form ; fometimes afiuming the 
appearance of a patch, and frequently continuing to flow from 
the center to the circumference, where it accumulates in a 
much greater proportion than in the inner part of the circle, 
taking thus the form of a ring. 

This accumulation of the fluid at the circumference may bo 
eafily explained. As the fluid expands, the preflTure from the 
center becomes gradually lefs, till at laft there is no fufficient 
force t© overcome the reliftance oppofed by the dry parts of 
the folid fubftance which has imbibed it : yet, in confequence 
of the firft impulfe, the fluid will continue to flow from the 
center through the fmall channels already opened, and will 
thus accumulate in greater quantities at the boundaries where 
its expanfive motion is flopped. 

The excrements of horfes, diluted by the rains and imbibed ApplIcatJon^ 
in the foil, rauft have an effect fmiilar to that jufl defcribed. 
This efFed mufl, befides, greatly depend upon the nature 
of the foil and the facility with which it is pervaded by 
the fluid ; hence the constant appearance of fairy-rings in 
fome pafture-grounds, while none are ever to be found in 
others. 

Should yon, Sir, confider thefe remarks, and the deduc- 
tions which they have fuggefled to me, as likely to throw 
fame light upon the caufe of fairy-ring?, you ara weleome to 
make any ufe of them you may think proper, 

I am. Sir, 

Your obedient humble fervant, 

J. FLO R IAN- JOLLY. 



^ 2 Experiments 



^O MAGNETISM. 

II. 

Experiments on the Magneiifni of jlender Iron Wires. 

Bj/ JOHH GOUGH, Efq, 

To Mr. NICHOLSON. 

SIR, Middkjhaiv, January 9, 1805. 

A general maxim JL HE general phenomena of magnetifm have given rife to a 
ftatedf"^ ' "^ maxim which fliall be here flated in the words of a judicious 
writer on the fubjed. *' The magnetifm acquired by being 
placed within the influence or the fphere of activity of a 
magnet in foft iron, lafts only while the iron continues in that 
filuation ; and when removed from the vicinity of the magnet, 
its magnetifm vaniflies immediately ; but with hard iron, and 
efpeciah'y with fleel, the cafe is quite different ; for the harder 
the iron or fteel is, the more permanent is the magnetifm, 
wliich it acquires from the influence of a magnet." Cavallo on 
Magnetifm, London, 1787, p. 30. 
llem^jrkson this ; This propofition is of great utility in the fcience, for it explains 
"""""■ a variety ofrelations betwixt the magnet and ferruginous bodies, 

but I have obferved one phenomenon that appears inexplica- 
ble on the principle, and confequently may be faid to offer 
one exception to the general propofition. As my experiments 
on the fubjefl are very eafy, it feems advifeable to deliver 
the leading circumftances in the form of fo many precepts 
becaufe this method will affift any one defirous of purfuing 
the enquiry, to repeat them with eafe. 
An experiment Experiment 1. Apply either pole of a flrong magnet to one 
he maxim. ^"^ ^^ ^ "^^^^ horizontal bar ot clean loft iron, and a particle 
of iron equally foft to the other end. This particle will 
remain fufpended at the extremity of the bar until the magnet 
is withdrawn ; but the removal of this power will diffolve the 
oonneclion fubfifling betwixt the two pieces of iron, and the 
particle will drop off immediately. 
An experiment Exp. 2. The preceding experiment confirms the maxim 
the m'axim"^ ftated above, when conduced according to the foregoing 
diredions ; but let it be repeated with the following alteration, 
and it will contradidl the general propofition. In place of the 
particle of foft iron, fubftitute a piece of iron wire of number 
32 in the wire drawers fcale, the weight of which may 
amount to two or three grains. The removal of the magnet 

will 



^Vii-fwh-crtu yhiloj-. Jawriul . VolXULTl . Ji p. 96- 




ArctUTU^- 






MAGNETISM. Q*^ 

^vlll not break the conne6tion formed by Its prefence between 
the bar of foft iron and the wire; for the latter will remain 
attached to the end of the former, by the extremity which 
was firft brought into conta(51 with the iron ; if the piece of 
wire be removed from the end of the bar, the magnetic 
connexion may be revived by replacing it immediately. The 
fame thing will happen if the wire be expeditioufly transferred 
from the firft bar to another rod of foft iron ; but it lofes its 
magnetifm in the fpace of two or three feconds when kept 
at a diftance from all ferruginous bodies which are capable of 
attrading it, and of being attraQed by it. Thefe fafts prove 
wire of number 32 to be a magnet, the virtue of which is 
conditional, becaufe its permanency depends on the prefence 
of foft iron, and perhaps on no other circumftance ; for the 
experiment may be repeated with fuccefs upon rufty wire of 
the fame fize, or on pieces which have been made red hot in 
the flame of a candle, or furrounded by fand in a crucible, 
in which lituation they will cool much more gradually tfcan 
when drawn fingly through a flame. 

Exp, 3. This capacity of iron wire to preferve the magr ^'"^ot cq^. 
nctifm imparted to it, as long as it remains in contaft with a ditional magnet. 
bar of the fame metal, is a property confined to certain fizes ; 
for let the firft experiment be repeated with a fmall piece of 
numbers 18 or 17, not equal to half a grain in weight, and 
juft as it comes from the hand of the workman, this piece will 
perform the part of a particle of foft hammered iron, that is 
it will drop from the end of the bar, to which it has been 
attached by the application of a magnet, to the oppofite 
extremity, as foon as the magnetic influence ceafes to aft 
upon it : confequently the mere operation of drawing foft 
iron into wire, by forcing it through a conical holje too narrow 
for its prefent diameter, will not convert it into a conditional 
magnet. 

Amongft other experiments relating to the fubjed, I took Theloweft fize 
the trouble to examine the quality of every fize from 32 to 2 1 , ^i^^ong, ^ag^ne". 
both inclufive; the 11 fmalleft wires, the extrearas of which tifm afcertainefl. 
were 32 and 22, were all conditional magnets; that is, they 
all adhered to the bar of foft iron, to which tJiey had been 
previoufly attached, after the removal of the magnet. 
Number 23 fupported feven grains of lead including its own 
weight, without .the affiftance of the magnet; No. 2>i, 6f 
aearJy j No. 32, 4.| j No. 22, no moye tha» two grains. 

As' 



I'! ^* 



MAGNETISM. 



As for number 21, it pofleOed the fimple properties of Toft 
iron : for the (borteft cylinder which could be taken from a 
rod of this fize by means of a cutting file, dropped from the 
end of the horizontal bar as foon as the magnet was with- 
drawn. 
Remuks on It is difficult to fay, which of the 11 wires mentioned 

^^?- 5<^' above, had the magnetic virtue in the mod perfediion, be- 

caufe each piece differed in diameter from the reft ; befides 
which, it is very well known, that a mafs of iron, of a 
weight and figure determinable by experiment only, is at- 
tradied by any particular noagnet, more powerfully than any- 
other mafs of the fame metal. But the preceding trials have 
difcovered one circum fiance apparently of fome importance, 
for they fliew that wire is converted into a conditional magnet 
by its paflage through the 22 wordle, or wire drawers in- 
ftrument ; and that the 23d operation brings this quality in 
it to perfeflion as far as we can judge from experiment, 

I here only fpeak of wire drawn in Kendal, for I have been 
told, that the fame article manufactured in fome parts of 
Yorkfliire, has a much greater propenfity to become magneti- 
cal. This information was communicated to me by Mr. 
Morrice, a very intelligent fuperintendant of a manufaflure 
of cards in this town ; who moreover obferved, that wire of 
this defcription acquires a degree of raagnetifm under the 
fiiears, which induced him, when employed in working if, 
to fubfiilule a brafs gauge for the common inftrument made 
of iron. 
Conjectures re- The magnetic property which commences with number 22, 
lative to the feems to be common to all the finer fizes, for I found it in 
the fmalleft wire I could procure, and which apparently did 
not exceed a ftrong human hair in thicknefs. 

The foregoing experiments, befides proving that flender 
wires acquire a magnetifm which is permanent as long as 
they remain in contaft with iron, alfo affords an exception to 
a fecond general maxim of the fcience, which afTerts, that the 
permanency of communicated magnetifm depends on the 
hardnefs of the ferruginous body that receives it. This does 
not appear to be the cafe in experiment 2, in which wire of 
No. 32 did not lofe the faculty of being convertible into a 
conditional magnet after undergoing a red heat, a procefs 
that is well known to render wire very foft. 1 even repeated 
the expeiiment with the fame refult on all fizes betwixt 22 

and 



caufc. 



•pd 35, exce|jt 26; pieces of each fort were heated both in 
the flame of a candle, and in fand; all of which retained 
the facalty under confideration after being treated in both 
ways. In reality, wires that had been thus foftened, feemed 
to be in the fame condition with fmall nails of caft iron, con- 
iidered as retainers of magnetifra, though the latter are of a 
much harder quality ; for a nail of the fort called fparrow- 
bills by (hoe-makers CKhibited the appearances defcribed in 
the fccond experiment, after being filed down to the thicknefs 
of a fraall wire. 

If then that kind of magnetifm which I have ventured to 
call conditional do not depend on comparative hardnefs, to 
what caufe is the phenomenon to be defcribed? little can be 
offered on my part, befides probable conjecture, in anfwer 
to this quellion. The temperature of wire is confiderably 
raifed during its paflage through the wordle ; and may not we 
inwgine with fome ftiew of reafon, that this encreafe of tem- 
perj^tiire, joined to the fubfequent contadl of cold air, pro- 
duces ^ new arrangement of the molecules conflituting the 
wire which enables it to retain a portion of magnetifm as long 
as it remains in conta6l with a ferruginous body ? if this 
fuppofition be true, experiment proves the new "arrangement 
to take place in the 22 wordle ; when the flendernefs of the 
wire will occafion it to cool fuddenly after paffing through the 
inftrument. The reality of fuch changes in the texture of 
bodies which are not in a ftate of fufion, is admitted at 
prefent by experimental philofophers. I may alfo quote in 
favour of this hypolhetis fome valuable obfervations made by 
Gregory Watt, Efq, on the various degrees of magnetifm 
exhibited by the fame bazaltic ftone under different forms of 
eryftallization ; which obfervations may be feen in your 
Journal for February, 1805. 

Any attempt to explain the permanent magnetifm of fmall 
wires during their connedion with foft iron, and the lofs of 
this properly which enlues when the connection is broken, 
appears to be fuperfluous, becaufe the fadl is evidently / 

analogous to the well known method of adding flrength to a 
magnet by a gradual encreafe of its load j for this operation, 
when judicioufly conduded, gives a magnetic charge to a 
bar of fteel already touched, which it cannot retain after the 
^veight is removed. "'; . 

I remain, &c. ^'Ji 

JOHN GOUGH. 
P. S. I neg. 



JQO DJTFBRENCES IN THl MAGNETIC NEEDLE. 

P. S. I negle6led to mention the following circumftance in 
the body of the letter. The drawing inftrument, or wordle, 
is made of flee! ; and is it not probable that this tool, polTef- 
fing a flight degree of magnetifm given to it by fri6lion or 
otherwife, affifts in producing the neceflary arrangement, by 
acting upon healed and flender wires, while their molecules 
are in a violent motion from the preffure of the inftrument it- 
felf? This fuppofition has fome claim to plauiibility ; becaufe 
a weak magnet will impart a portion of the fame virtue to a 
bar of tempered fteel, the particles of which are in a ftate of 
vibration ; for a rod of this metal will acquire a degree of po- 
larity, provided it be firuck on the end with a hammer when ' 
its axis lies parallel to the dipping-needle. 



III. 

Concerning the Differences in the magnetic Needle, on Board 
the Invefiigator, arifing from an Alteration in ihe DireBion of 
the Ship's Head. By Matthew Flinders, Efq. Com- 
niandtr of his Majefiy's Ship Invefiigator. From the Philofo" 
phical Tranfudions, 1805. 

The magnetic W HILST furveylng along the fouth coaft of New Holland, 
needle is af. j,^ ,3^3^ ^,jj ^^^^ I.obferved a confiderable difference in the 

fectcd at lea . ' 

by the pofition diredtion of the magnetic needle, when there was no other 
of the fliip's apparent caufe for it than that of the (liip's head being in a 
different diredion. This occafioned much perplexity in laying 
down the bearings, and in allowing a proper variation upon 
them, and put me under the neceffity of endeavouring to find 
out fome method of corre6ling or allowing for thefe diffe- 
rences; for unlefs this could be done, many errors mufl una- 
voidably gel admiffion into the chart, . I firft removed two 
guns into the hold, which had flood near the compaffes, and 
afterward* fixed the furveying compafs exa6tly a-midfhips 
fcarcely from Upon the binnacle, for at firfl it was occafionally fliifted to the 
5«k[°" °" weather fide as the ftiip went about ; but neither of thefe two 
arrangements produced any material effed in remedying the 
difagreements. 

The following table contains the obfervations for the varia^ 
tion of the compafs in which the differences are mofi remark- 
able, and from which I fliall beg to point put fuch inferences 
as I think may be drawn fronxthem. 

TABLE^ 



DIFFERtNCES IN THE MAGNETIC NEEDLI. 



101 



> 

o 


s 

s 

o 
O 






IJ. Flinders 
Commander 

Lt. Flinders 
Pommander 


-o 

15 




CO > 


W 


tj ^ ^ a ^ M ^> -n w j^ ^ ^ 


Obferved 
variation. 


? 

05 C^ CO 
«^ ^ 

o 

»o <-o 'O 


0^ ^ 

C5 O 


CO 




Sits 




o c 


1 




0^ 8 


§1 1 

J3 O 




1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 M 1 


ill 


-5 

II 1 

'e- CO - 


1 1 


I 


1 1 1 ifll 1 111 It 

CNc^^(NCl-cMcoo^cN'-coo^'-' 


U. at 

ill 




O 4) 
§§ 


1 


1 II 1 1 i|| 1 l||i 


Longitude. 






1 


0»oooi>=oiOioa5 4>»ocoO^ 

c 

CNCNCNO-lCNCNtNco-^coc^ooco 


Latitude. 




C 


I 


1- 

t^coOO--iO«^co .,CTi^«iO 


i 


1 

o 
Q 




< 

d 















TABLE 



102 



DltFERENCES IN THE MAGNETIC NEEDLE. 



-c c: 
c a 

~ c 



H-IU 



• -^' k] ^ > -° y 



00 ^ .<H 






^ < ~ fcJ 



"S - ° 
g-E-5 



a. S 







o 



I § I 



I I I I 1 I 






3 ° ^ 






"n-S 



N S 'n 



I n-B 
I PS 



04 CN iM — CM CN CN 



gl?^| ! I I I ! Mil 



O w Jl o c 



'"'' xTl ^ ^ <^ ~ - '-- ^ '-'^ '^ r^ 00 'o CO 
^ ;^ t2 -^ '■'^ ""^ Ky- '--i -^ 'O t- t- a 00 00 






'O t^ CO — 



e^ 'O r^ CO O 



'^ — CM oj CN CM 









It 



DIFFERENCES IN THE MAGNETIC NEEDLE. 103 

It is apparent that fome of the obferved variations in the The errors weie 
above table are 4» lefs and others 4° greater than the truth ; ^"^""^ 4° each 

" _ _ way, and the 

and it maybe remarked, that when this error is weft ward, north end of the 
the fliip's head was eaft, or nearly fo, and when it was eaft- "'^^^t's deviated 

3S it rcDcllcu bv 

ward the head was in the oppofite diredion. When the the fhig's head, 

obrervatioiis agree neareft with what was taken on Qiore, or ^'^• 

with what may be deemed the true variations the fliip's head 

was nearly north or fouth ; and a minute infpe6lion of th^ 

(able will favour the opinion, that the excefs or diminution of 

the variation was generally in proportion as the (hip's head 

inclined on either fide from the magnetic meridian. 

After I had well afcertained the cerlainty of a difference in 
the compaffes, arifing from an alteration in the point (leered, 
I judged it neceflary, when I wanted a fet of bearings from a 
point where we tacked the fliip, to take one fetjuft before and 
another immediately after that operation ; fome fpecimens of 
thefe here follow. 

1 802. Head ESE, Head SW b. W. Other obfcrva- 

April 13th, rLeGeographe *'""*• 

I Rocks - N55°to7I«E 
11*'32'AM I H point - N 4 W after tacking N 9^ W 

— In point - S 32 E - S 40 E. 

HeadSEKY.. IleadW. 

April 14th, I* n point rocky, 

J inner part N 39® E. after tacking N 30' E 
9^ 29' AM 1 pro- 

L jeding part N 67 E - N 59 E 

— Furtheft vifible 

extreme from 

deck - S 51 E - S 55 E. 

Head ENE. Head SW b. S. 

April 15th, rn, the wefterri 

J part - Nl5<>W. after tacking N 21 oW 
11'' 50' AM I A peaked hum- 

L mock - Nl9 E - Nl5 E 

— Furtheft extreme 

from deck S 53 E - S 61 E 

— Centre of a naked 

fandy patch - E - E 5 N. 

Variation per amplitude April") 

15, AM, taken with the fur- > 4» S' E, fliip's head being S# 
veying conopafs 3 

April 



104f 



Limits of error 
in obferving 
bearings on 
£bip-bJ3id. 



DIFFEREVCES IN THE MAGNETIC NEEDLE, 

Head E. Head SW b. S. 



April 15th, ' 
5^ PM 



Tbcy may 
amount to two 
or even three 
degrees. 

Refults (imilar 
to thofe firft 
fiated. 



The peaked 

hummock N 12" W. after tacking N 18» W 

Former ex- 
treme, a 

projedion S 59 E - S 64- E 

— Naked fandy 

patch, dif- 

tant3| - N33 E - N 31 E. 

From fome little change of place after tacking the fliip, and 
from the part whole bearing was fet not being perhaps the 
individual fpot in both inftances, the difference between the 
feparate bearings in any fet will not be always the fame: to 
thefe caufes for error alfo may be added inacurracies in taking 
the angles arifing from the motion of the (hip and compafs, 
from the view of the objefl being obftru6ted by the rigging, 
mafts, or ftiip's upper works, and from too much hafte to get 
the bearings before the (hip's place was materially altered. 
Even in the Table of azimuths and amplitudes greater accuracy 
than one degree muft not be looked for; and in fliip-bearings 
two or even three degrees is not, I believe, too great an 
allowance for error, unlefs in very favourable circumftances. 

Without attending to fmall differences, it is evident that the 
bearings correfpond with the obfervation in requiring a lefs 
eaft variation to be applied when the fhip's head was eafterly, 
aJid a greater when it was to (he weftward, in order to get at 
the true direction of the objed *. When examining the north 

and 



* As afpecimen of the plan I followed in protrafting fuch bear- 
ings as the above, take the fet of April 15, AM, when the true 
variation appears to have been 4'> £. On the firll bearing the fliip's 
head was fix points on one fide of the meridian, and on the fecond 
it was three points on the other fide, the mean is one point and an 
half on the eatt fide ; now for this one point and an half I allow 
l" of error, which, as it is on the eaft fide of the meridian, and 
the variation is catlerly, muft be fubtiafted : the variation then to 
be allowed upon the mean between the bearings before and after 
♦acking will be 3" E, from which the true bearings will itand as 
follows : 

April 



DIFFERENCES IN THE MAGNETIC NEEDLEi JQ5 

and eaft coafts of New Holland, I always endeavoured (o take 
the angles on fliore with a Troughton's portable theodolite, 
and to obferve for the variation in the fame places, that all the 
errors might be done awaj or correded ; and as I was fre- 
quently fortunate enough to carry on my furveys in this manner 
for weeks together, inftances that might corroborate or contra- 
didtheprecedingremarksareneither very numerous'or pointed; 
the following are the moft remarkable : 



April 1 5th, AM? IT weftern part - - N 15" fc 

11" 50' i A peaked hummock - - N 20 E 

— Furthcft extreme from deck - S 54 E 

— Centre of a naked fandy patch - E 0^ S. 

In the fame manner upon fingle fets of bearings I was obliged to 
allow a variation different from what I fuppofed the true to be, unlefs 
the fliip's head was nearly north or fouth : but, that I might pro- 
ceed as little upon conjefture as poffible, I always endeavoured to 
get obfervations for the variation when the fhip's head was in the 
fame direftion as when I had taken or wiflied to take a particular 
fet of bearings, and I then allowed that variation exactly, what- 
ever it was. The perplexity arifingfrom difagreements in bearings 
wasbythefe means much alleviated, and happy agreements were 
frequently produced, when, without fuch corre6|ions, there was 
nothing but difcord. 



TABLE 



106 



DIFFERENCKS IN THE MAONEtlC NEEDLE, 





W y, t, M *- 






^ 




jj »2jJ J!5»^a>2(y 






V 




-5 (u^ o-cjJ-ou-a 







TS 




£ "^^ T;c"acT3c 




13 


SZ 




S c;i CwGrtCrt 




_C 


a 


> 


i =1 £i=isi 




(^ 


e 
e 


o 


o -JO ^- o _• O *J o 




^ 







o hJ;j ^-^0^:10^0 




^ 









w^ 




^ ^ ^ 


IB 
to 


^^=0- i« ^ 








"2 c 


W 










SB 


l"-- 'O CM CT> 01 05 0» CN •* '* 


00 Ci 


r* 


— !0 CO «0 


^ « 


'-"-i'O^ ttCO'^CO <N 


iO 


rj« 


»0 CN CN «^ 


J3 ^ 

o ? 


c) 'O t~ •* CO to lo '-1 <n •* in 


'- 


CO 


*C CO CS S<l '-< 


"S c 


W 








o 5J-2 


b 'o 1 , , 








. .0.0 


^2 « 


^ -* CO 


CO 




M^ 


= "'E 


0, 1 1 ' 1 i 


1 




1 1 i 


«rt 5 


cc- r- t- OB r^ ^0 ■# 


C-) 


C^ 


«N -» 




(u <u 4» 






<u _a> 0) jj 


"o ^ 


"^ 0'^ 






w y 


a, 8 


Silll^SMIIi 


I 1 


i 


jl Sa s 


qIIII ^iiiii 






c.£ c.S 




15 15 






-0 J3 


£ S 


V 0) t) 








v>- •£; 








•£ 


o t? 


.ti ^ — — — ' 






3 


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-D, 1 E ( i 1 -H. i .S 1 1 "S. 


f I 


1 


1 .e 1 1 


1^ 5 


S -N S N g 






N 


1^^ 


C8 TO n rt c3 






C9 


^^ i2 


— . CC (M •* — — — 'O C-l <N — 


— ■ 


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^ 









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*o ,3 










u =^ 


(U "o <u 






"o "o 


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I-^^-ss 


^5^ 


1 1 


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u 








u 


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"S 


C^O — ^TO OlOWMOtN 


r- 





cc-^ ^ 


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^•^ — r-cn ^^c^co 


-. g.^ 


CN 


^^ 1 " 


K 


-0 






^ 1 


J 


— — — — "OcocoCNCNiM 


^ CO 


r^ 


CO - -^ 




'O 'O <o *n 'O 1^ -rj -r -}>-+-> Tj' 


CO CO 


CO 


CO ^ CO 








■— ' 












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rt 00 


■S 


"^ — ^ -^^ -=• M i-O ~ t^ 





00 




3 
1 


1. 
c^ c^ - to C^I JE-O C5 CO CM CN 
CS 01 01 C-l 0) --) Ol , — _ ^ 




CO 
CO 




^:h^j= s^s^^s::^ 


SJ^^S^!SI<SIS 


c 


. a. <,:; pi, CL, ^ eu a, ^ Oh <; Ph 


P-,PhP1h<;<;pl,<^<;<j 


E 


^■^v^ 




H 


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In 



I. The 



I3IPFERENCES IN THE MAGSETXC NEED Lfi. 107 

' In the latter of thefe obfervations, the differences arifing 

from a change In the diredlion of the fliip's head is lefs confi- 

derable than in the higher latitudes ; indeed, on approaching 

the line of no variation upon the fouth coaft, the differences in 

the variation were fiBaller than before and afterwards; but 

that thefe differences fliall be greater in a large variation and 

fmaller In a lefs, both places being equally diftant from the 

magnetic pole, I will not venture to alferf. The inferences Generallnfe 

that I think may be fafely drawn from the above obfervations compa'fs wa 

are as follows : ift. That there was a difference in the diredion found to deviate 

of the magnetic needle on board the Inveftigator when the *"°!^.'",^'y ^^^ 
n . , , , . ^"C (hip s head 

inip s head pointed to theeafl, and when it was direfted weft- waseafterly or 
ward. 2d. That this difference was eafterly when the fhip's ^efterly; the 

.,, •.. n inii- n north end being 

head was pointed to the wefr, and welterly when it was eaft. farther from the 
'3d. That when the (hip's head was north or fouth the needle '^'P'* l^""^ «^i*" 
took the fame diredion or nearly fo that it would on (bore; and deviation was 
fhewed a variation from the true meridian, which was nearly proportional to 
the medium between what it fliowed when eaft and when weft, [jj^ hearfrom 
4th. That the error in variation was nearly proportionate to the N. or S. 
the number of points which the fliip's head was from the north 
or fouth. Conftant employment upon prafilce has not allowed 
me to become much acquainted with theories, but the little 
information I have upon the fubjeft of magnetifm has led me 
to form fome notion concerning the caufe of thefe differences, 
and although moft probably vague and unfcientific, I truft for 
the candour of the learned in fubmitting it^ as well as the 
inferences above drawn, to their judgment, 

Jft. I fuppofe the attradive power of the different bodies in Theory pro. 
a fliip, which are capable of affefling the compafs, to be col- ^j] \^^ 
lefled into fomething like a focal point or center of gravity, the fliip afts 
and that this point is nearly in the center of the fliip where the ''•'« »"« «> ^gH«» 
Ihot are depofited, for here the greateft quantity of iron is col- 
lected together. 

2d. I fuppofe this point to be endued with the fame having a diffe- 
kind of attradion as the pole of the hemifphere where ^^"jin°'r 'as 'the 
the fliip is; confequently, in New Holland the fouth end Ihip is near the 
of the needle would be at traced by it and the north end ^- *"■ S- P"'e «f 

^ the terreftrid) 
repelled. • masaetifm, 

3d. That the attra<5tive power of this point is fufiiciently 

fiiong in a fhip of war to interfere with the action of the 

3 magnetic 



That 
iron in 



1Q5 KirKERKNCES IN THE MAGNETIC NEEDLE, 

magnetic poles upon a coinpafs placed upon or in ihe bin- 
nacle. 

If Ihel'e fuppofitions are confiftent with the laws of mag- 
netifm, eflablitlied by experiments, I judge that they will 
account for all the differences above noticed ; for the interfe- 
rence will neceflarily be moft perceptible upon a contpafs 
when the attradive point is at right angles to the magnetic 
meridian, that is, when the (hip's head is eaft or weft, and will 
altogether vanifli or become imperceptible when the attradive 
point and meridian coincide, or when the fliip's head is north 
Infiwencpi from or foutb. That the power of this point Qiould become lefs as 
the laft fuppafi- ^j^g ^^jp ;,i(^ft;afes her diftance from the magnetic pole has not 
indeed entered into my fuppofitions ; but it may probably be 
true, and is indeed almoft a neceflary confequence of the 
that the »S&&s fecond fuppofttion. If the above hypothefis, fo to call it, be 
ihould have a ^^^^ -^ ^^^^^ follow, that the difFerences in the variation of the 

contrary direc- , /• 

tjon in north magnetic needle, aiifing from a change in the ftiip's head, 
latitude. ought to be diredly contrary to thofe before recited, when the 

fliip is on tlie north fide of the magnetic equator, for the 
north point of the needle (hould then be attraded, and 
the fouth end repelled. I have no obfervatlons which are very 
decifive upon this head, but thofe that were taken on board 
the Inveftigator feem to befpeak that as it is fo; they are as 
follow. 



TABLE 



DIFFERENCES IH THE MAGNETIC JfEEDLE. 



i09 







■^ ^ u: .. 




(U 


4, 0) (u u 0) 


V 


^ I 


li ^-Si 


> 


-= 


«3 -3 rt .5 — 


1 ' 


^. 1 


2H e^H 

3 • C 


"" 


S 


cjs (3:3^ 


1 

to 


^ ll-^ 






^^^ 




^ 








^ 




T^ >=! 






>.9 


^ O Ol Oi t- 


■^ ir> — 'Ti !X> ■^ 


^.2 


CO r> '^ ■* 'O 


c<^ r,. irj -^ ^ io 


SI 


OS 05 ■* ^ O 


<n CN 05 (N CN -^ 




W CM CN CN CM 


<N CM — — 


-a 






*S <« • 






o > e 




1 1 1 1 1 1 


Q- O 


1 1 1 1 


III 


S" -5 


1 1 1 1 1 


1 > 1 1 1 1 


3 3 cj 






CO £-5 








V u cu 1> <U 1 


0. 8 






'X M 


,. (LI U 






3 .t; 3 .■:: 3 




^ > 


E a-EQ.S 


1 1 1 1 i [ 


Ivl 


N £ 'n S "n 




a a a a a 




^ - Tj. - o 


— '* '^ <N ^ CO 


"*- 






O w 






£i^ 


O dj O u f 


■ O , oj o , 


1h 


^ G S C > 


5 '= 5 


-i o — o y= 


' Zi ' c :_ ' 


^ S^ 






4 


^ 




2 


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1^ t2^8 


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bt) 


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^Cs; «^ ^ ^ 


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■E'Z 


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.p2 


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ra ^ 


3 


p., o 2 ^ -' 


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rt 






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C/5 -i" -t n 


Ph ~ 




S SSS 


S ^SS 




^pu P, < fx, 


Oh <;<<< 


J 


o _r 1 cT f co" 


1 - 1 •^-oT.o' 


H 


«3 Ol 1 0< 1 04 


1 CO 1 CN CM 




3 


¥ S. 


1 


■— > 


< w 



V«L. XIII.— Fkbkuarv, 1S06. 



Ther« 



JJQ DIFFERENCES IN THE MAGNETIC NEEDLE. 

Thefe obfervations, particularly thofe of July 28, feem to 
be decifive in fhowing that the variation is more weflerly 
when taken upon the binnacle of a fliip whofe head is weft- 
ward in north latitude, than when obferved in the center of 
the (hip, which is a ftrong confirmation of the fuppofitions 
before given ; but the obfervations on the change of the fhip's 
head are too few to be fatisfaftory. Almoft every fea officer 
can tell whether he has obferved the variation of the compafs 
to be greater when going down the EngliQi Channel thaa 
when coming up it: and indeed it would be very eafy for a 
fliip lying in harbour to afcertain the point beyond controverfy. 
Remarks and Should this point be well eftabli(hed, f think it would follow, 
SSeTaw? "^^^ ^'■^"^ ^ ^'S'^ ^°"''^ latitude where the differences are great 
on one fide, they are moft likely to decreafe gradually to the 
equator, and to increafe in the fame way to a bigii north lati- 
tude, where they are great on the other fide; thus the fmaller 
differences on the north coaft of New Holland will be accounted 
for. I ftiall leave it to the learned on the fubjedof magnetifm 
to compare the obfervations here given with thofe made by 
others in different parts of the earth, and to form from them 
an hypothefis that may embrace the whole of the phenomena : 
the opinion I have ventured to offer is merely the vague con- 
jecture of one who does not profefs to umlerfiand the fubject. 
Inftances of the Some account of the magnetifm of Pier Head, upon the eaft 
aSed bylLal^^^^ ^^ ^^^'^ Holland, may not perhaps be thought an unap- 
magnetifm. propriate conclufion to this Paper. I was induced to attend to 
this from the following palTage in Hawkesworth, Vol, III. 
p. 126. •' At fun-rife I went afliore," fays Captain Cook, 
Pier Head. '* and climbing a confiderabie hill," Pier Head, '* I took a 
view of the coaft and the ifiands that lie off it, with their 
bearings having an azimuth compafs with me for (hat purpofe; 
but I oblerved that ihe needle differed very confiderably in 
its pofition, even to thirty degrees, in fome places more, in 
others lefs ; and once I found it differ from itfelf no lefs 
than two poin(s in the diftance of fourteen feet*. I took up 

fome 



as far as 50' 



Local deviation '" In a (at of angles taken near the head of Arnhem north baj-, 
''S^^yj'^lt^^ on the vireft fide of the gulph of Carpentaria, I found the needle 
of the theodolite had been drawn 50° from its proper direction. 
The fliore confifted of grains of iron ore caked ir,to a fcony mafs j 
and a piece of it, when cipplitd to the needle, ch-evv it fix or eight 

decrees 



DIFFERENCES IN THE MAGNETIC NEEDLE. 1 ] J 

fome of Ihe loofe ftones that lay upon the ground, and 
applied (hem to the needle, but they produced no efFeft ; 
and I iherel'ore concluded that there was iron ore in the hills, 
of which I had remarked other indications, both here and in 
tlie neighbouring parts, " 

On landing at Pier Head 1 found the ilones lying on the The author's 
furface to be porphyry, of a dark bluifli colour; but although ^^^^^^^ '^"^ 
I undcrftand this fpecies is ufually found to poflefs fome 
magnetic po^^'er, a piece did not produce any fenfible effe&. 
upon the needle of the tlieodolite when applied to it. In the 
following obfervations the theodolite always Hood about four 
feet from the ground, that being nearly the length of its legs. 
I firfl; took an extenfive fet of healings from the top of the 
hill, amongfl: which were two flalions whence Pier Head had 
been before fet. The firfl, called Extentive Mount, diftant 34 
miles, differed from its back bearing 4* S5^ to the right, and 
the fecond, illand a, diflant 29| miles, differed 4** 45'' the fame 
way. I now moved the theodolite three yards to the wetlward, 
and the fame two obje£ts bore 2° 10' to the right of their back 
bearing ; on moving it three yards lo the fouth-eaftward from 
the firfl place, they differed 2* to the left ; and on moving the 
theodolite four yards to (he northward, the fame two objefls 
bore I*' 10' lo ihc right of their back bearings. On the fol- 
lowing morning I determined to try the magnetifm more par- 
ticularly. Taking the thedolite and dipping-needle, I landed 
upon the fliore of the Head, whence the top of the hill bore 
N 50° W, about one-third of a mile. The variation of the 

degrees from its direftion, but it then fwung back to its error of* 
bO° where it was ftationary. In Arnhem Ibiith bay a fmall piece 
of llmilar ftone diew the needle of the theodolite entirely round, 
yet the bearings taken in this place did not fhow any difagreement 
from the variation and bearings taken in the neighbouring places, 
where the ftone did not produce any fuch efFecSt. In moft place* 
on fl)ore, where I had occafion to take angles, it was my ptaftice 
to try the efFeft of a piece of the ftune upon the theodolite, in order 
to detc6t the prefence of iron ore, as well as on account of my 
furvey. It commonly happened that no efFL<5t was apparent, but 
yet I could not truft implicitly to the angles, (particularly on the 
main land,) unlefs obfervations f.»rthe vaii-.ttion were taken before 
the inftrumentwas moved, or I had a back bearing of fome ftaticn 
where uich oblervationi had been mad',', 

K 2 theodolite 



JI2 DIFFERENCES IN THE MAGNETIC NEEDLE. 

The author's theodolite in this place I obferved to be S'' 2' E, and the 
obi. at Pier inclination of the foiith end of the dipping needle 50" 50', the 
needle flood vertical when the face of the inftrument was 
S 2° E. I then took the following bearings : Extenfive Mount 
108** 30', the fame exa6tly as by back bearing. Double Peak 
11-3° 30'; from hence I rowed round the Head, and landed 
on a rock, whence the top of the hill bore SSW one-fixth of 
a mile; Extenfive Mount bore 110° W, the inclination of the 
dipping-needle 50° 29', and the needle flood vertical when - 
the inftrument faced S 3° E. Thus the difference was 1|° in 
the horizontal, and -f" in the vertical direftion of the needle, 
Afcending the hill, I. made the following obfervations on the 
top: Extenfive Mount 113° 50', a ifland 133^52', Double 
Peak 148° 32'; the inclination of the needle was 53'' 20', and 
is flood vertical at S 3° E. The differences here are 5** 10' in 
the horizontal, and 2° 30' in the vertical direftion, from what 
the needle flood at in the firft morning's place. On moving 
ten yards SSE, the bearings were, Extenfive Mount 108° 44-', 
Double Peak 143** 25'; the inclination was 52° IS', and the 
needle was vertical when the inftrument faced S 5° W. In this 
4th fet of obfervations, the horizontal diredion of the needle 
is only a few minutes different from the firfl place, but the 
vertical direction is 1° 28'. From the top of the hill I now 
moved twenty yards (o the north-eaflward, when Extenfive 
Mount bore llO**, Double Peak 144** 42'; the inclination of 
the dipping needle was now 50** 35\ and it flood vertical at 
S 3® W. Thus it appears that the polarity of the magnetic 
needle is moft interrupted at the top of the hill, both ac- 
cording to ihc theodolite and dipping-needle. Whether this 
may arife from fome particular magnetic fubftance lodged in 
the heart of the hill, or from the attradive powers of all the 
fabftances which compofe Pier Head being centered in a 
fir.iilar point to what I have fuppofed to take place vvilh all the 
ferruginous bodies lodged within a ftiip, I fiiall not attempt 
to decide. The greater differences in the horizontal direction, 
of the needle obferved by Captaia Cook, might have ariieu 
from his ufing a ommon azimuth c;;T)pa("s, which was pro- 
bably not further elevated from the ground than to be placed 
(Jn a ftone. 

'■ ■• - MATTHEW FLINDERS. 

fjlc of France, 

' Manii5l\\, 1804. 

Letter 



SMUT IN WHEAT. 113 



IV. 



Letter f 10711 Mr. Robert Hark up, Jheiving that the Smut in 
Wheat exijis in the Seed, and is greatly remedied by Lime 

To. Mr. NICHOLSON, 
SIR, Chobham, January 7 , 180C. 

1-iITTLE converfant in agricultural affair^, I am yet to 
learn wiiat enquiries have been made into tiie nature and 
caufes of the dileafes oi grain. 

If Ihe following communication on the difeafe of wheat, 
known by the name o\' fmut, contains any thing new, or may 
leafl to tariher invefligation ; an early infertion of it will 
greatly oblige. 

Sir, 

Your obedient humble Servant, 
R. HARRUP. 

Different caufes have been affigned for the production of Caufes ufually 
fmut ; fome fuppofing it to arife from too great an abundance ^^^^^"^^ 
of water flioots, others from intemperate feafons. 

A writer in a refpeclable publication ftrenuoufly contends 
it! favour of the latter opinion. 

He informs u", that brine, pickling, liming, change of Intemperate 
feed, and feed of one year old, and upwards, avail nothing. T^^ !5'.? . 

' . J ' ^ . that attention to 

In cold wet fummers, fays he, the fmut jMevails notwithfland- the feed avails 

ing the uie of every means which invention hath urged or 'lo'l^'^S* 

ingenuity pradiced. After a number of obfervatlons, he 

continues, " to fum up the whole of tliis matter, it feqms as 

certain as demonftration can render it, that the ftnut is not 

owing to any defect or imperfection in the feed, but entirely 

to fome corrupt-creating principle in the atmofphere, in the 

blowing feafon, which blights and deftroys the grain in fome 

(hape or other, according to the time it has been blowing, 

when it is ftruck with the blight." 

On the contrary, it would appear from the accounts of thofe Prailicalmen 

who have the moft frequent opportunities of making ob- "fually afcrib« 

fervations, that the primary caufe of fmut is in the feed. " ' 

All the farmers I have converfed with on the fubjed, are 

decidedly 



•I 14, SMUT IK WHEAT. 

decidedly of opinion, that fmut in the feed will produce fmut 
and ufe prepara- >" ^he crop, unlefs certain means are ufed to prevent it. With 
tions. this intention I have fome where feen a variety of preparations 

recommended, in fome of wliich arfenic was one of the in- 
gredients. The farmers in this neighbourhood prepare their 
feed wheat in one or other of the following methods. 
Steeping in Formerly the wheat was immerfed about twelve hours in 

^'''"'' a flrong folution of common fait in water, and afterwards 

dried by mixing it with a fufficient quantity of lime newly 
flaked, 
vetting, Of late years, in place of Immerfing it, they pour a quantity 

of the faline folution over it on the floor, and after mixing the 
whole well together, dry it with lime as before. 

Br treatment Another method which is now pretty generally adopted, is 

with lime water [ ; ^,^^.^ j- , -^ ^^ 

only. 

A quantity of boiling water is poured upon quick lime, 

and kept conftantly fiirred till the lime is reduced to powder, 
when it is immediately mixed with the grain. No great ac- 
curacy is ufed in afcertaining the proportions ; five or fix 
pounds of lime, and three gallons of boiling water fre about 
fufficient to prepare five bulhels of wheat. In reafoning 
a priori, one would be apt to fuppofe, that the vegetative 
powers of the grain would be materially injured by this 
boiling compofition, but experience proves the contrary. 
Expeiiment. Amidft this diverfity of opinion oti the caufe of fmut, I 

of^ibund^nT" wiQied to afcertain the truth,, if poffible, by experiment. 
fmutty wheat Accordingly, fo early as December 1798, I mixed intimately 
hViF of'ttiiswas ^"^^^^''^"^ equal meafures of found wheat and grains conlifting 
fteeped in brine entirely of fmut. The heap was then divided into two equal 

*'°'',*T'^|J^*'.°""» parts; one of them was put into a faturated folution of fait 
and halt lettun- . ^ , • . i- 

prepared. '" water for twelve hours, and then mixed with quick lime. 

The other part was fubjeded to no preparation whatever. 
Five or fix days afterwards they were both planted in drills on 
Both parcels ^ fouth border, about nine or ten yards apart. Both parcels 
were planted, came up about the fame time, and while in blade, no differ- 
ence could be perceived. While the ear was yet inveloped 
by the blade, I cautioufly opened feveral of both crops, and 
in fome of that whicii bad undergone no preparation, a con- 
fiderable difference was obfervable. Some of the embrio 
grains were opened, and in place of a milky juice, they con- 
tained only a fmall quantity of a whitiih fuhfiance, in which, 

by 



SMWT IN WHEAT. 1 15 

by the help of a common magnifier, I could readily d if- The unprepared 
tinguiQi trom one, to three or four black fpecks in each, u,jheait^hy^pro- 
When rul)bed between the fingers, a faint fmell of fmiit was duft. 
emitled. The ears which were examined, and had this ap- 
pearance were marked, and afterwards proved to be Imut. 
When the crops came out in ear, it was eafy to diflinguifli Smut eafily 
t'.e fniut from the wheat. At the time of blowing no bloflTom '^'^^'"S^i e • 
whatever appeared on the fmut ears, and tlie weather proving 
tempeftuous at that time, the blotfom wd^ frequently waflied 
off the wheat ears by heavy (bowers, and as often renewed. 

Both pieces were cut at the ufual time, and upon a careful The prepared 

examination, that zihitli had been fuhjecltd to no prcparationf"^ P/'^"'^'^ , 

. , , . jound grain, ana, 
amfijied of nearli/ tivo-ihirds of fmut ears, the nrinainder being fir,e ur:preparcd 

tolerably good ivheat. Jn that which had been prepared, not «/«rf/««'0'j:''«'»» 

fingle fmut' bail could be found. 

An accidental occurrence may be mentioned in corrobora- An accidental 
tion of this experiment. Happening to pals through a hn^ll ^^^lj^j^yjj.g„. 
field of wheat juft before the commencement of the harveft, fined to a part of 
I was f.ruck with the unufual quantity of fmut in one P^""^ u j k'.^r 'w 
of it.^|j^n clofe examination, I found that this extraordinary with unprepared 
crop of fmut ended abrupiiy in a line along one of the furrows, ^^'^'^' 
The other p^ts of ihe ficid had much the fame appearance of 
others in the neighbuurhood ; a few fmut ears fcattered 
through it. Upon enquiry I found, that the feed with which 
this field had been (own, running (liort, the piece fo abundant 
in (mut had b<^en fown in ("eed which contained a confiderable 
quantity of Imut, and had undergone no preparation, only 
fprinkling it with a little fiaked lime immediately before 
fowing. 

The difeafe of fmut is entirely confined to the grain. The Smut affedls 
flraw and every oiher part of the plant is found, and arrives ^'^*'" ^^ 
at the natural fize. Smut ears are Jlaring, and of a dirty Defcription of 
whitidi colour, inclining to blue, at the time when healthy - """ * 
ears are of a bright yellow. Their odour is tioetid, and not 
inaptly compared to that of fiale lobfiers. Part of an ear is 
not unfrequently found to contain fmut, while the other parts 
are filled with (bund wheat. 

Difeafed grains have more the globular form than thole of 
found wheat, which is perhaps the reafon why they are called 
fmut-balls. The Ikin is flirivelled and of a dirty brownifli 

hue 



116 SMUT IN WHEAT. 

hue, without any perforations which can be difcovered by 

a high magnifying power. The whole of Ih^ir contents, in 

a recent ftate, are a blackifli foft fubftance with a few (l)ining 

fpecks, which difappear when dried. 

The duft of When kept fome time in a dry place, this foft fubflance is 

globules" ' ^° in the form of a fine duft or powder, of a dark brown colour 

when fpread oat on glafs or talc. The microfcope {hews 

each of ihefe minute particles to be well formed globules, 

fomewhat larger than the fanguineous. 

heavier than They are fpecifically heavier than water with which they 

^^'"° readily mix but foon fubfides, fufferirg no change by being 

kept in that fluid. In the beginning of September laft, I in- 

fufed fome of the powder in water in a watch-giafs. A few 

hours after I difcovered by the microfcope, in a drop of the 

in which they fj^jj ^ few animalculas. Upon examination next day every 

produce animalr , #■ . , i- • i ■ i ■ • i . 

^ulj5 drop of the liquor contauied innumerable animalculse, 

generally very minute but fome a fize larger. After flanding 
expofed fome days, tlie water evaporated, and an hour or 
two after the addition of fretli water every part fwarmed with 
animaku'as, moving nimbly in all directions. While viewing 
them in the microfcope ihey fuddenly became motionlefs 
owing to the evaporation of the drop of liquid ; on adding 
a drop of freQi water, they inftantly revived and began the 
which are not fame lively motion. A quantity of fait fufficient to faturate 
killed by fail: ^j^^ ^^{^.^ was then added to the mixture. Upon examination 
about twenty hours afterwards, I was much furprized to find 
the animalculae as numerous and lively as before the addition 
of the fait. 

The watch glafs with its contents, afier ftanding neglcded, 
on a Hielf expofed to the effluvia of a variety of drugs, till 
the latter end of November, was again filled with water, 
and placed near a fire, placing at the fame time by it a 
fimilar glafs, containing fmut powder and freth water. They 
were both fre(«}uently examined for fome days, but without 
difcovering any animalcula;. My attention being called off 
by other avocations they remained unnoticed about eight 
days. The glafs which contained the infufion with fimple 
waller was quite dry, and only a fmall quantity of fluid re- 
mained in the other. A drop being examined in the micro- 
fcope by a fingle lens of a high magnifying power, was found 

te> 



SMUT IN WHEAT. 117 

to fwarm wilh animalculas. Both glafles were now filled 

wicli ffffti water, and placed under invc^rled jars. Being 

examined two days after, each of them (warmed with lively 

animaiculae. Wliile viewing them, a fmall particle of lime i-'jfT^^ v^ttr ^ 

uater zcas added to ike drop, ■which proved infta/ttlj/ falal, m:\\z\x\<is hoai 

at lead all motion cealed inftantaneoufiy, and was not re- fmu:. 

newed. 

Among other inferences which mav be drawn from (he ^"^'^'■^"ce. 

,. , „ , , /• • % n .1 . 1 r , Smut is caufed 

precednig laas and oblervations, are hrlt, that the caule of ^ ^ad feed, 

hnut is in (he feedj and that finut produces fniut in (he crop, and lime water 

At (he fame time it is readdy admitted, that certain fea(bns ^'^^"* 

are more favourable to fmut than others, which can only be 

confidered as a fecondary caufe. 2. That lime ufed in the 

manner above luentioiied, prevents fmut, if not entirely, at 

leafi; fo far as not to prove injurious. 

Is fmut occalioned by animaiculae? Some of the foregoing 

facts leem llrongiy to favour the idea*. 



V. 

On the Difcovery nf PaUudinm, ; xvith Ohftrvations on other Stib- 
Jlaitces found ivith Platina. Bj/ William Hyde Wol- 
LASTON, M. D. Sec. R.S\. 

XlAVING fome time fince purified a large quantity of platina Tlie principal 
by precipitation, I have had an opportunity ol obferving various prefgnt memoit- 
circum fiances in the folution of this lingular mineral, that have is palladium. 
not been noticed Ijy others, and which, I tlunk, cannot fail to 
be interefling to this Society. 

** Mr. Nicholfon will readily perceive that the fubjeft is not 
near exhauiled. If future inveftigation Ihould prefent any thing 
worthy of communication on the fubjeft, Ihould Mr. N. deem 
fuch deferving a place in the Philofophical Journal, he has only 
to mention it in a marginal line. 

Anfiver. The difeafes of corn form a fuhjeft of fuch h'gh im- 
portance, whether conlidered in an economical or fcientific point 
of view, that I muft confider it a duty to pay the moft marked 
attention to whatever may tend to elucidate it. — N. 

t Philof. Tranf. 1805, p. 316. 

As 



XJ,S <^N PALLADIUM. 

As 1 have already given an account * of one product ob- 
tained from tliat ore, which I confidered as a new metallic 
Aibftance, and denominated Rhodium, I fhall on the prefent 
occalion conhne myfelF principally to thofe proccffes by which 
^ I originally detedled, and fiiblequently obtained another metal, 

to which I gave the name of PaUadium, from the planet 
that had been dilcovered nearly at the fame time by Dr. 
Olbers. 

In the courfe of my inquiries I have alfo exanuned the 
many impurities that are ufually mixed with the grains of 
plalina, but 1 (liall not think it neceffary to defcribe minutely 
fubflances which have already been fully examined by others. 

§ I. Ore nf Iridium. 

Ore of iruiium, I muft however notice one ore, that I find accompanies (he 
refcmblesihitof Qj-e ,)f platina, but has paired unobfcrved from its great re- 
piatina, but »s ' ... 

infoluble in lemblance to the grains of platina, and on that account is 

nitro-muriatic fcarcely to be diftinguiQied or feparated from them, excepting 

.' by folulion of the platina; for the grains of which I fpeak 

are wholly infoluble in niiiro-muriatic acid. When tried by 

to't''ma*llelble^'''' ^^^ ^^^' '''^>' "^^^ ^^^^^^^ '^^" ^'^^ Stains of platina ; under the 
and peculiar in hammer they are not in the leaft degree malleable; and in the 
their frafture : fraclute they appear to confift of lamincc poffelTing a peculiar 
luflre; fo that although the greater number of them cannot, 
as I have before obferved, be dillinguidied from the grains 
of platina, the laminated ftrudure fometimes occafions an ex- 
ternal form by which they may be detefled. With a view 
to be abfoluteiy certain that there exift grains in a natural 
liate, which have not been detached by folution from the 
iubltance of the grains of platina, I have feparated from the 
mixed ore as many as enabled me to afcertain their general 
compofition. 

much heavier Their mofi: remarkable quality is their great fpecific gravity, 

than the grains ^j^j^j^ j ^^^^.^ ^^^^^^ j^ ^^ ^^ ^^^,^ ^^ j^ ^.[^j,^ ^j^^^ ^f ^^^ 
01 platinaj 

crude grains of plalina has not, in any experiment that I have 

made, exceeded 17,7. From thiscircuuiflanceit might naturally 

be conjedured that they contain a greater quantity of platina 

of which metal than the grains in general ; by analyfis, however, they do not 

nonU"""^^^'" appear to meto contain the fmalleft quantity of that metal, but 

* See our Journal, IV. lOT, 

to 



ON PALLADIUM. UQ 

to be an ore coiififting entirely of the metals that were found 
by Mr. Tennant in the black powder which is extricated by 
Iblulion from the grains of platina, and which he has called 
Iridium and Ofniium. But, fince the fpecific gravity of thete 
grains lb much exceeds that of the powder, which by my ex- 
periments has appeared to be, at the utmoft, ]4,2. I have 
iftoiight it might deferve inquiry whether their chemical 
compofi'-ion is in any refpe6l different. For this purpofe I 
have feltcled a portion of them, and have requefted Mr. 
Tennant >o imrier'akea comparative examination, from whofe 
well known (kili in chemical inquiries, as well as peculiar 
knowledge of the fubjetl, we have every reafon to expert 
a complete anal^ fis of this ore. 

§ II. Hyacinths, 

Among thofe bodies which may be leparafed from the ore Very fmall liya- 
of plalina, in confequence of their lefs fpecific gravity, by a *^'"^^ ^°""^, . 

. r r ■ ■, ,.•/-,,- ,, among the plati- 

turrent or water or ot air, there may be dilcerned a fmall t^a grains 3 

proportion of red ciyflals fo minute, that 100 of the largeft I 

could c()lle«5l weighed {Scarcely /^ of a grain. The quantity 

which I po(ie(s is confequently too fmall for chemical analyfis ; 

but their phyficai properties are fuch as correfpond in every 

re(pe6l with thole of the hyacinth. I was firft led to compare 

them With that ftone by their fpecific gravity, which I con- 

jeflured to be confiderable from their accompanying other 

Aibftances, that appear lo have been coileded together folely 

by reafon of their (uperior weight. 

Like the hyacinth, thefe cryftals lofe their colour imme- 
diately and entirely when healed ; they alio agree with it in 
their hardnels, which is barely futficient to fcratch quartz, but 
is decidedly inferior to that of the topaz. 

The principal varieties of their form may be very well un- 
derftood by defcription. 

]ft. In its moft (impie ftate the cryflal may be confidered VarlcMsof 
as a rectangular prifm terminated by a quadrilateral obtufc '^^"" ^°'''"^» 
pyramid, the fides of which fometiroes arife direct from the 
fides of the prifm ; but, 

2dly. The pofition of the pyramid is generally fuch that its 
fides arife from the angles of the prifm. In this cafe the tides 
of the prifm are hexagons, 

3dly. It 



120 ON PALLADIUM. 

3dly. It IS more ufual for the prifm to have eight fides' 
by truncation of each of its angles, and at eaeh extremity 
eight additional furfaces occupying the place of the eight 
hnear angles between the prifm and terminating pyramid of 
Uie fecond variety. The complete cryftal has then thirty-two 
fides. 

4.lhlv, The eight furfaces lafl mentioned, as interpofed 
between the prifm and pyramid, are fometimes elongated into 
a complete acute pyramid having eiglu fides arifing from the 
angles of an odahedral prifm. 
which prove the The third form above defcribed, correfponds fo entirely with 
r.acurc oi the ^j^^j given by the Abbe Haiiy * as one of the forms of the 
hyacinlh or jargon, that I have iiltle reafon to regret my inabi- 
lity to obtain chemical evidence of the compofition of thele 
cryftals. 

Thofe, and other impurities, I ufually feparated, as far as 
was praflicabie, by mechanical means, previoufly to forming 
the foluiion of piatina, which has been the principal object 
of my attention. 

§ III. Preclpitalion of Piatina. 

Account of the When a confiderable quantity of the ore has been dif- 
treatmentofpla- folved, and I had obtained, in the form of a yellow triple 
iirftrrecipitdtion ^^'^ ^^ much of the piatina as could be precipitated by fal 
of it by fal am- ammoniac, clean bars of iron were next imnierfed in the fo- 
ther'poltion*was '"^•'^" ''^^ ^^^ purpofe of precipitating the remainder of the 

thrown down by piatina. 

II""* . „ , For difiindion it will be convenient to call this, which 

This 13 called _ . _ • ' ^ ^ 

the firft metallic in fad confifts of various metals, the firft metallic precipitate. 
v'a"'''''-n dif^"'^ The treatment of this precipitate differed in no refped from 
folved as the firft ^^I^^t of the original ore. It was dilTolved as before, and a 
ore had been, portion of piatina precipitated by fal ammoniac; but it was 
jiid again preci- iriii,i ... r r ^ 

pitatcd by fal ODlervable that the precipitate now obtained was not ot lo palo 

an.moaiac, a yellow as the preceding. Neverthelefs the impurity was in 

fo fmall quantity, that the piatina reduced from it by heat did 
not diOer difcernibly from that obtained from the pureft yellow 
precipitate. 

* Traite de Mineralogie, Pl. XLI. fig. 17. ^ourn. des Mines, 
No. 26, fig. 9. 

At 



ON PALLADIUM. 1 cj J 

At (his lime I found it advantageous to neutralize the folution The folutionwa^j 
with foda, atul to employa folution of green fulphate of iron neutralized with 
for the precipitation of the gold, of which, I believe, a portion plefenr ^reci'i- 
may always be obtained from the mixed ore; but I have ob- t.ued by folution 
ferved in experiments upon any quantities of mere grains of °^^/^^" *"'r"^*^ 
crude platina carefully fe!e6led, that (he fmallefl: portion of 
gold could not be detefled as a conftituent part of the ore 
iifdi; 

Bars of iron were fubfequenlly employed as before for A fecond me- 

recovering the platina that remained diflblved, togetlier ^''"'\F''"'P"^^^ 
' , . ^^'is thrown 

with (h<;re fubfiances which I have fmce found to accom- down by iron, 
pany it. 

The precipitate thus obtained, which I di^inguifn by the 
name of the fecond metallic precipitate, was- to appearance of 
a blacker colour than the former, and was a finer powder. 

As I was not at firft prepared to exped^ any new bodies, I 
proceeded (o treat tlie fecond precipitate, as the former, by fo- 
lution and precipitation. But I foon obferved appearances 
whitit I could not explain by fuppofilion of the prefence of any 
known bodies, and was led (o form conjeiSlures of future difco- 
verie?, which fubfequent inquiry has fully confirmed. 

Wl)en I atlemoted to diflolve this fecond metallic precipitate "^^'^ was not S 
in nitro-muriatic acid, I was furprifed to find that a part of it mu"riatic"acid^°' 
refilled the a^ion of that folvent, notwithflanding any vaji^ 
tions in the relative proportions or flrength of the acrd^ 
employed to form the compound, and although the whole of this 
powder had certainly been twice completely diffolved. 

The folution formed in this cafe was of a peculiarly dark This folution 

colour, and when I endeavoured to precipitate the platina ^^^^^'^^ '^^. 

. . * . '^ and its precipi- 

from it by fal ammoniac, the precipitate obtained was fmall tation byfalam- 

in quantity, and, inftead of being yellow, was of a deep "^""'^'^ ^^^ <^^^? 

' , " .^ ,. . ■ 1 • , T 1- 1 . '■^'^' occafioned 

red colour, anhng from an impurity which 1 did not at that jjy iridium. 

time underdand, but which we fince know, from the experi- 
ments of Mr. Defcotiis, is occafioned by the metal now called 
iridium. 

The folution, inflead of being rendered pale by the preci- Precipitation of 
nitalion of the platina, retained its dark colour in confequence ,,? '^"■«i."?^- 
of the other metals that remained in folution ; but, as I had by iron, 
not then learned the means of feparating them from each 
other, and as the quantity of fluid which accumulated ccca* 
lioned n-.e fume inconvenience, I decompofed it by iron, as 

in 



122 ON PALLADIUM. 

in the former inftances and formed a tliird melalllc precipitate, 
which could more coinmodioufly be referved for fubfequent 
examination. 
Much of this In this iail liep I committed an error which afterwards occa- 
«i"fnlbl'ubuT* ^'""^^ ™^ confiderable difficulty, for I found that a great part 
of this precipitate confifling of rhodium was unexpededly ren- 
dered infoluble by ihis treatment, and refembled the refiduum 
of the fecond metallic precipitate abovementioned. 

As I have already communicated to this fociety, in my Paper 
upon rhodium, the procefs by which I fubfequenlly avoided 
this difficulty, I fhall at prefent return to a previous liage 
of my progrefs, and relate the means by which I firft ob- 
tained palladium in my attempts to analyze the fecond me- 
tallic precipitate. 

§ IV. Separalion of Palladium. 

Separation of There was no difficulty in afcertaining the prefence of lead 

palladium. as one of the ingredients of this precipitate, by means of mu- 

,tallic precipitate riatic acid, which dilfolved lead and iron and a fmall quantity 

contained lead, qJ' copper. It was equally eafy to obtain a larger portion of 

copper, and aiio- ^' ,., . ^ •, ., ,.,.,-. /- i 

ther metal pie- copper by dilute nitrous acid, with which it formed as ulual a 
<ipiuble by cop- blue folution. But when I endeavoured to extract the whole 
of the copper by a ftronger acid, it was evident, from the dark 
brown colour of the folution, that fome other metallic ingre- 
dient had alfo been diflblved. I at firft afcribed this colour 
to iron ; but, when I confidered that this fubtiance had been 
more flowly acted upon than copper, I relinquiQied that hy- 
pothtfi<, and endeavouring to precipitate a portion of it by a 
clean plate of copper, I obtained a black powder adhering to a 
furface of platina on which I had placed the folution. As 
this precipitate was foluble in nitric acid, it evidently conlifted 
neither of gold nor platina ; as the folution in that acid was of 
a red colour, the metal could not be either filver or mercury ; 
and as the precipitation of it by copper excluded the fuppofi- 
tion of a'l other known metals, I had reafon to fufped the 
prelence of fome new body, but was not fully fatisfied 
of its exiftence until I attempted the precipitation of it by 
mercury. 
It was feparated For this purpofe I agitated a fmall quantity of mercury in 
meKurTwIth ^'^*"" "'^''"^'^ fululion previoufly warmed, and obfervtd the mer- 
thc folution with cur\ to acquire the confidence of an amaig-im. After this 

') amalgam 



ON PALLADIUM. 123 

amalgam had been expofed to a red heat, there remained a which it formed 
white melal, which could not be fufed before (he blowpipe. It an/[he mercury 
gave a red folulion as before in nitrous acid; it was not was driven of by 
precipitated by fa! ammoniac, or by nitre; but by pruffiate p^j^^j.^^'^ ^^^ 
of polafti it gave a yellow or orange precipitate; and in the 
order of its affinities it was precipitated, by mercury but not 

The'e are the properties by which I originally difiinguiflied 
palladium; and by the affiftance of thefe properties I obtained 
a fuflk-ient quantify for inveftigating its nature more fully. 

There were, however, various reafons which induced me to The proccfs 

relinquifli the original procefs of fohilion in nitrous acid and ^ mercury 

/ . . =• * was abandoriedj 

precipiiation by m.ercury ; for although I found the metal thus 

obtained to he nearly pure, the necetlily of agitating the folu- 
lion with the mercury was very tedious, and the wafte wasalfo 
confiderabie ; for in the firfi place it feemed that nitrous acid 
would not extra6t all the palladium from any quantity of the 
fecond metallic precipitate, neither would mercury reduce the 
whole of wliat was (b diffolved^ 1 therefore (ubftituted a 
procefs dependent on another of it^ properties I had obferved 
that this metal differed from platina in not being precipitated 
from nitro-muriatic acid by nitre or by other fiilts containing 
potafii ; for although a triple fait is thus formed, this fait is 
extremely foluble, while that of platina on the contrary re- 
quires a large quantity of water for its folution. On that 
account a compound luetijiruum confifling of nitrate of'potafli 
dilpjlved in muriatic acid Is unfit for the folution of platina, 
but dilfolves palladium nearly as well as common nitro-mu- 
riatic acid in which there is no polafh prefent *. 

In five ounces of muriatic acid diluted with an equal quantity and a folvent 

of water, I ditrolved one ounce of nitrp, and formed a folvent '^on^'ting "f 
/• ,1 1 , rr n- 1- 1 /• o • i • munatic acid, 

tor palladium that polleijes little power of acting on platma, vvith nitre was 

fo that by digefling any quantity of the fecond metallic preci- "''^'^ '" the fe- 

pitate till there appeared to be no farther a(51ion, I procured tio"nfro^'^'j,kli 

a folulion from which by due evaporation were formed cryfials it takes palla- 

of a triple fait, confifling of palladium combined with muriatic \^^ ^^ "°^ 

acid and polafii. Tiiele are the cryftals which I have on ^ jhe Mut'ion 

* I have found that gold may alfo be dilTolved with equal facility j^'ipie f/it of pal- 
by the fame folvent, and nearly in the fame proportion. Ten grains paJladium potafli 
of nitre added to a proper quantity of muriatic acid are fufficieat ^"'^ "^"fat'c 
fJv Cx-teen grains of either gold c palladium. 
;. • former 



124 ON PALLADIUM. 

former occafion * mentioned as exhibiting a very fmgulaf 
contratl of colours, being bright green when feen tranverfely, 
but red in the dire(5tion of their axis ; the general afped, 
however, of large cr)ftals is dark, brown. 

From the fait (bus formed and purified by a fecond cryf- 
tailization, the metal may be precipitated nearly pure by iron 
or by zinc, or it may be rendered fo by fubfequent digeftion 
in muriatic acid. 

§ V". Rtafonsfor thinking Puiladiiim a funple Metal. 
That palladium From the coniideration of this fait alone I thought it highly 

*/i'l ^^^l^lL probable that the lubflance ctmibincd in it with muriate of 
ral appears iromj • _ 

pota'd) was a fimple metal, fori know o^ no inftance inchemijiry 
its forming a of a dijiind}lj/ cryjiallized fait covtaining more than two bafes 
t-»ili'zed iaic whh '^^''"^'*"^'^ ^'^^' ^nt acid. 1 neverlhelefs endeavoured by a fuit- 
bafesandan able courfe of experiments to obviate all probable objections, 
''^' ' After examining by what acids it might be diflTolved and by 

its combinations ^,^1,3^ reagents it nrj^ht be precipitated, I combined it with 

with metals and . ° , • , , , , , n • ■ 

feparation wich- various metals, with platina, with gold, with filver, with 

out change. copper, and with lead; and when I had recovered it from its 
alloys fo formed, I afcertained that, after every mode of tria! 
it ftdl retained its chara6leriftic properties, being foluble in 
nitrous acid, and precipitable from thence by mercury, by green 
fulphale of iron, by muriate of tin, by prulliate of potafh, by 
each ttf the pure alkalis, and hydrofulphurets, 

and its precipi- The precipitate obtained in each cafe was alfo found to be 

tation Is reduci- 1 -i i i 1 1 • 11 

bic by mere reducible by mere heat to a white metal, that, except m very 
heal. fmall quantities, could not be fufed alone by the blowpipe, but 

could very readily be fufed with fulphur, with arfenic, or 
with ph(;fj)horus, and in all other refpefts refembled the 
original metal. 
Qa. Whether it The only hypoihefis, on which I thought it poflible that I 
^'4^* ^^^*//_ could be deceived, arofe from the recoUeaion of the error, 
«4»cid? which fubftlted for a few years, refpc61ing tlie compound 

formerly called fiderite. It was poflible that fome metallic or 
other fixed acid might unite too intimately with either a known 
or an unknown metal to be feparated by the more common 
fimple a(Iinitie>. I confequently made fuch attempts as ap- 
peared beli calculated to difunile a compound lo conllituled. 

* Phil. Trans. ISOI, p. 428. 

Having 



ON PALLADlt-M. 125 

Having botfed the oxide with pure alkalis, and found it to be The oxide is not 

iniakered, I thoaght the affinities of lime or lead might be ^^^-^.';'? ^^ '^;>''- 
' '^ r • /• ^"8 ^^"^ alkalis } 

more likely to deted the prefence of the phofphoric or of any 

known metallic acid j and accordingly I made various attemp'.s 
by muriate and nitrate of lime, as well as by nitrate of !t;aa, to 
eifaSt a decompohtion of the fuppofed compound. In the ex- 
periment on which I placed the greatefl reliance, I poured 
Jiquid muriate of lime into a folution of palladium in nitro- 
muriatic acid, and evaporated the mixture to drynefs, intending 
thereby to expel any excefs of acid that might have been left nor by pouring 

in the folution, and to render either phofphate of lime, or any J"""*'^^/^/ '."^^ 
in- I II- -1 • /I Li • . „„•' into Its folution. 

compound ot lime with a melallic acid, mloluble m water. 1 he 

refiduum however was very readily ditToIved by water, and 

confifted merely of muriate of lime aad muriate of palladium> 

without any appearance of decom portion. 

When I found all my endeavours direfted to that end wholly Hence the difco- 

unfuccefiful, I no longer entertained any doubt of this fub- ^^'^^^ *^^ '^^'^' 

n t - /-I .1-1 1 i-rt , ranted in nub- 

Itance being a new fimple metal, and accordingly publilhed a iifhing it as a 
concife delineation of its charader ; but by not direding the "£* na-tal. 
attention of chemifts to the fubftance from which it had beeri 
extradled, I referved to myfelf an opportunity of examining 
more at leifure many anomalous phenomena, that had occurred 
tome in the analyfis of platina, which I was at a lofs to explain, 
until I bad learned to diftinguifli thofe peculiarities, that I 
afterwards found to arife from the prefence of rhodium. 

§ VI. Additional Properties of Palladium. 

In my former Paper on that fubjed I alfo added fome obfer* Method of eafily 
vations upon the properties and origin of palladium, defcribing (^P^'^^'''"^ P 
only fuch.a mode of obtaining it from platina as (hould avoid 
the introduction of any unneceflary ingredient which might 
poffibly be mifinterpreted, and omitted one of the moft dif- 
tinguiQiing properties of palladium, by means of which it may 
be obtained with the utmoft facility by any one who pofletTes 
a fufficient quantity of the ore of platina. 

To a folution of crude platina, whether rendered neutral by Pruffiateofmh-' 
evaporation of redundant acid, or faturated by addition o^c^ry added to the 

n r r ■, -i.- ^i folution of crudi 

potaln, or loda, or ammonia, by lime or magnena, by mercury, ^/^ji^a, thro-wt 
by copper, or by iron, and alfo whether the platina has or Jias^^""^'^^' /'«''* 
not been precipitated from the folution by fal ammoniac, it isu'^utiT' * 
merely neceffary to add a folution of pruffiate of merrury, for 
Vol.XUI.'-'Februarv, 1805. L the 



jog ON PALLAITfUM. 

the precipitation of the palladium. Generally for a few feconoN, 
and fometiines for a few minutes, there will be no appearance 
of any precipitate ; but in a (hort time the whole folution be- 
comes flightly lurbid, and a flocculent p»ecipilaie is gradually 
Heat difengages formed, of a pale yellowith-white colour. This precipitate 
the pure metal confifts wholly of pruffiate of palladium, and when heated 
which IS not ,,,/.•..., . • n • x' 

more than one will be found to yield that metal ni a pure Itate, amountmg to 

t>vohund. part of about four or five tenths per cent, upon the quantity of ore 
the origintl ore, ..„ , , 
diflblved. 

The pruffiate of mercury is peculiarly adapted to the pre- 
cipitation of palladium, exclulive of all other roetaU, on account 
of the great affinity of mercury for the pruffic acid, which in 
More mercury this cafe prevents the precipitation of iron or copper ; but the 
does not aug- proportion of mercury does not by any means influence the 
iuQ. quantity of palladium, for I have in vain endeavoured, in 

the above experiment on crude platina, to obtain a larger 
quantity of palladium that I have ftated by uling more of the 
pruffiate of mercury, or to procure any precipitate by the fame 
means from a folution of pure platina. 
The decompo- The decompofition of muriate of palladium by pruffiate of 
fi^on is by double mercury is not effeaed folely by the fuperior affinity of mer- 
cury for the muriatic acid, but is affifted alfo by the greater 
affinity of pruffic acid for palladium ; for I have found that 
pruffiateof palladium may be formed by boiling a precipitated 
oscide of palladium in a folution of pruffiate of mercury. 
Pruffiate of The pruffiate of mercury is confequenjly a teft by which 

mercury is the the prefence of palladium may be dete6led in any of its folu- 
diur^. tions; but It may be worth obferving, that the precipitate 

obtained has not in all cafes the fame properties. In general, 
this compound is afJedled by heat fimilarly to other priffiates, 
but when the palladium has been diffijived in nitrqus acid and 
precipitated from a neutral folution by pruffiate of mercury, 
the precipitate thus formed has the properly of detonating 
The precipita- "''^^" heated. The noife is fimilar to that occafioned by firing 
tion trora a ni- an equal quantity of gunpowder, and accordingly the explo- 
dmnaS by'low ^'°" '' attended with no marks of violence unlefs occafioned 
heat. by clofe confinement. The heat requifite for this purpofe is 

barely fufficient to melt bifmuth, confequently is about 500* of 
Fahrenlieit. The light produced is proportionally feeble, and 
can only be feen in the abfence of all other h'ght. 

In 



ON PALLADIUM. J27 

Jn endeavouring to diflblve a piece of palladium, in flrong Palladlu* is 

Colourlefs nitric acid for the purpofe of formins^ the detonatinj^ very flowly ^ 

• f^ & r> adied on by ni- 

pruffiate, I found that, although the acid fliortJy acquired a red trie acid and «- 
colour furrounding the metal, the a6lion of the acid was ex- tncatano gas. 
tremely ilow, and I was furprifed to obferve a fa6l that appears 
to me wholly fingular: the metal was taken up without any 
extrication of nitrous gas ; and thi.« feemed to be the caufe of 
the flow folution of this metal, as there was not that circula- 
tion of this fluid, which takes place in the folution of other 
metals until the acid is nearly faturated. 

As the want of production of gas appeared to retard the folu- Nitrous acid a£ls 
tion of palladium, I tried the GffeS. of impregnating a quantity °'^ ' ^^ 
of the fame acid previoufly with nitrous gas, and obferved its 
a6tion to be very confiderably augmented, although the expe- 
riment was neceflarily tried in the cold, becaufe the gas would 
have been expelled by the application of heat. 

Befide thofe properties which are peculiar to palladium there 
are others, not lefs remarkable, which it pofl!efles in common 
with platina. I have on a former occalion mentioned that thefe 
metals refemble each other in deftroying the colour of a large . , 

quantity of gold. Their refemblance, however, in other pro- 
perties is not lefs remarkable, more efpecially in the little 
power they pofTefs of conducting heat, and in the fmall degree 
of expanfion to which they are liable when heated. 

For the purpofe of making a comparifon of the conducing Conducing 
power of difFerent metals, I endeavoured to employ them in P?*'"" °/ P^'j^* 

*. 1 r 1 duim and platina 

fach a manner, that the fame weight of each metal might ex- as t» hear, tried 
pofe the fame extent of furface. With that view I feledted **>■ ^"^ "■ it'"S 
pieces of filver, of copper, of palladium, and platina, which had them. The 
beeii laminated fo thin as to weigh each 10 grains to the fquare meafure is not 
inch. Of thefe I cut flips ,'^ of an inch in breadth, and four fjyer andcop- 
inches long ; and having covered their furfaces with wax, Ipe^* 
heated one extremity fo as to be vifibly red, and, obferving 
the diftance to which the wax was melted, I found that upon 
the filver it had melted as far as 3^ inches: upon the copper 2| 
inches : but upon the palladium and upon the platina only one 
inch each': a difl'erence fufficient to eflablifli the peculiarity of 
thefe metals, although the condudling power cannot be faid to 
be limply in proportion to thofe diftances. 

In order to form fome eftimate of the comparative rale of Rate of expan. 
expanfion of thefe metals, I rivette^ together two thin plates of ^^.j"^^*' ^"gttjng 
L 2 platina bars tog«thtr. 



^2S STATUE OP JOAN OK ARC 

Uhilc ft;el ex- plalina and of palladium ; and obferving that the compound 
p»nds throut'li piaie^ vvlien healed, became concave on the fide of the platina, 
lxp?tU^g"\nd I afcertained that the expanfion of palladium is in fome degree 
palijiiium 10. fl^e greater of the two. By a (imilar mode of comparifon I 
found that palladium expands confiderably lefs than fteel by 
heat; fo that if the expanfion of platina between the tem- 
peratures of freezing and boiling water be eftimated at 9 parts 
in 10,000, while that of ftee! is known to be about 12, the 
expanfion of palladium will probably not be much more or 
lefs than 10, or one part in 1000 by the fame difference of 
temperature. 

It muft, however, be acknowledged, that the method I 
have purfued is by no means fufficient for determining the 
precife quantity of expanfion of any fubftance ; but I have 
not been induced to beftow much time on fuch an inquiry, 
fince the extreme fcarcity of palladium precludes all chance 
of any praftical utility to be derived from a more accurate in- 
veftigation. 



VI. 

Report tnade to the AthenSe des Arts of Paris, hy MM. RoN- 
DELET, Brauvallet, and Duchesne; on the founding 
the Statue of Joan of Aac in Bronze , br/ a Way never he- 
fore vfcdfor large Works, by MM, Rousseau and Genon, 
vnder the Diredtion of M. Gois, Statuary * 

Caftlng In fand -"- HE method of cafting in fand hitherto has only been ufed 
enh^ir^r% ^^^ '"igures from 65 to 70 centimetres (about 2^ feet) in 
figures. heighth ; while the ftatue, which was to be formed, being of 

much larger dimenfions, fliould of courfe be managed accord- 
ing to the method called the great foundery, on account of its 
being ufed for colotTal ftatues. 
The great foua- This method of cafting was known to the ancients, who 
th^andcrt" '° ^'^"^^ ^^^" fuperior to us in it ; but this art was loft with many 
but was loft. Others, and in the time of the Medicis large ilatues were not 
At its rcvivil formed at a fingle cafting. The figures of Henry the Fourth 
wSSlTn fc ^"^ °^ ^^^^^ ^^® Thirteenth, which are feen at Paris, were 



pirate parts. 



Magazin Encyclopedique, T. I. p. 350, 

phced 



STATUE OF JOAN OF ARC. 1£9 

placed on borfes made previoufly, one for the fiatue of Ferdi- . , 

nand, Grand Duke of Tufcany, and the other for that of 
Henry the Second, King of France. 

The liatue of Lewis the Fourteenth, in the Place de Ven- That of 
dome, is the firfi: that was formed at a fingle cafting fince the {^^^'^^^^ ^{^[^ * 
revival of the art. It was fuitable to fo great a prince to per- this in a fingle 
mit his image to be made folely by a grand method ; but Gi-P'"^* 
rarden and Keller, to whom the work was entrufted, then 
made their firft attempts, which occafioned many faults, fuch 
as the cafting it too thick, which in ufelefsly employing more 
metal, increafed the difficulty of fupporting the coIofTal figure; 
and fuch alfo as ufing unnecefTary labour; but notwithftand- 
ing all their precautions, the cafting did not fucceed per- 
fectly, and conflderable repairs were obliged to be made 
in it. 

About the fame time were erefled the equeftrian ftatues of Various other 

this prince, at Boufflers and at Lyons, by the fame Girarden, ^'*^"" "'^'^^ '" 

. . ^ic lame way, 

at Rennes by Coizevox, at Monlpelier by Mazeline and 

Utrels, and at Dijon by Le Hongre. 

After this, Le Moine bad to found a ftatue of Lewis the 

Fifteenth at Bourdeaux, which met with great accidents; 

but he had more fuccefs with one at Rennes, which was a 

pedeftrian ftatue : Guibal alfo made one for Nancy. But this 

art did not attain to a great perfe£tion till Boucharden was The art not veryi 

employed to conftruft an equeftrian ftatue of Lewis the ^^f- l"J^^^^f°f^ 

teenth at Paris: The great care of M. Goor prevented any Lewis XV. wa^ 

accident from happening to it, or to that alfo which was caft ^^^* 

at Reims by the fame artift, from the model of Pigale. This 

founder had not the fame fuccefs when he formed the ftatue 

of Frederic the Fifth at Copenhagen, from the model of Saly, 

which required great repairs. Finally, great improvements Great improve- 

had been made in the art when the ftatue of Peter the Great !?''"^' "'^/^^ '" 

the art when the 
was founded at Peterfburg by Falconet, and neverthelefs he ftatue of Peter 
was obliged to refound a fecond time the upper half of the ^'^^ ^"^^^^ ^^s 
flatue. 

The great difadvantage of the method hitherto ufed, is its Difadvantages 
enormous expence and the great time it requires. It is true, °^'*\^ ^^^^^ 
that for works which are intended for duration economy is not 
the chief objed ; but if they can be performed equally well M. Gois's me- 
by M. Gois's method, at one-half the expence and in a fourth '^?'^ fuperiorto 

It jn various rc- 
OUpefts. 



130 STATUE OP JOAN OF AUC. 

Reafons for be- of the time, it certainly ought to be preferred. There is good 

wo^dcfanfwelVor ''^3^"" ^^^o to decide, that this method will do equally well 

the largeft for the largeft works ; for, according to calculation, the largeft 

wwks. fiatue of this kind in France exceeds that of Joan of Arc by 

a much fraaller proportion than the latter exceeds that of the 

largeft ftatues ever before caft in the fame manner, which 

never weighed more than from 8 to 10 kilogrammes (from 

about 17 to 22 lb.) The ftatue of Joan of Arc weighed 60Q 

Jtilogrammes, which is -60 times more; but that of Lewis the 

Fifteenth, which weighed 17,000 kilogrammes, was only 

twenty-eight times heavier than that of Joan of Arc. 

But in order to judge belter of the advantages of M. Gois's 
method, it fliall be defcribed at large, and an account given 
alfo of the method of molding by wax, or of the grand foun. 
dery, in order to compare them together. 
M. Gois's fta- M. Gois having made a ftatue of Joan of Arc for a prizse, 
Arc°e7h^b"et exhibited it in public in the year 10. (1802.) The preled of 
and admired. the department of the Loire faw it, and propofed to the city 
of Orleans to re-ered that monument to the glory of this he- 
roine, which had been deftroyed in thfe anarchy of the revo-r 
lution. It was accordingly ordered to be done. M. Gois 
being informed of this, went to Orleans and ofTered to make 
a caft in bronze from his ftatue, without precifely knowing 
whether it was that which the city required. 
He is employed An agreement was then made with M. Gois to complete 
tn make a caft ^j^g ftatue at a fixed price, in the courfe of about one year from 

in bronze fiom . • , ■' 

it for the city of the 5lh Germinal, An XL or before May 4, 180i. 
Orleans. ^^ Goh began to be alarmed at the enormous expence 

Is induced to of the ulual method of cafling fuch ftatues, and ai the great 
(iVin fand to ''"^^ ^' required, which he feared would prevent bis per- 
f2|ve time and forming the agreement. He knew that M. Roufleau had 
expence. rnade a c^ft from the groupe of Graces by Germain Pilon, 

M. RoufTeau with great fuccefs, by a different method; and though thefe 
work"for"irn^ figures were but 1,38 metres high, and his ftatue was more 
wlio had before than two metres, (6| feet) he went notwithftanding to coi>fuIt 
made a fine caft ^j^j^ fouxidiix, who engaged for the fuccefs of the method, and 

of the Graces } . . ° 

and employs the promifed to employ in the bufiiiefs the fame workman who 
f?me workman had caft the above groupe without having met with any ac- 
cident : This laft confideration determined M, Gois to entruft 
the worJI^ to ihe fouAdtvs in/and^ 

Th9 



STATUE. OF JQAN OF AUe. 131 

The firft of Fruftldor, An Xf. the bufinefs was began ; 
but as they commenced with the bas-reliefs, it was not till 
three months after that they undertook the work of the ftatue. 

They made ufe of the common fand of the founders, which The procefi Je- 
i^ argillaceous, and always kept a little moift. Afier having ."' \^ of Arc 
well raked it, feparated all the ftones, and broken all the in fund. 
Jumps that could be met with, they filled with it a cafe of 
2,20 metres long, and one metre broad at the infide, and 16 
centimetres high ; the thicknefs of the wood of the cafe was 
eight centimetres. The fand was ftrongly beaten with a rammer 
JO centimetres broad and 60 long, and by this operation ac- 
quired fufficient confiftence to be raifed along with the cafe 
without any danger of running out. 

After this the ftatue was placed upon the firft cafe, which 
is called the falfe mold, becaufe it was to be afterwards re- 
placed by another: the fand was ftirred up a little, to j^ermit 
the nioft prominent parts to enter it ; another cafe of the fame 
fize was then put over the firft, and attached to it by four 
points of iron. 

The true concare mold was then began, by modelling each Method of form- 
part of the figure with the fame kind of fand. A workman'"- ^''^ '^''^^' 
of much addrefs and intelligence is requifite for the divifion 
and diftribution of the different pieces which form the 
mold: he fliould explain the motives which induced him 
to prefer one diftribution to another : each piece ftiould have 
different fedions : care fhould be taken to mold the parts 
which have a large and uniform furface in a fingle piece, 
while the pieces muft be multiplied for thofe portions of the 
ftatue which have many finuofities and deep indentations. . 

This part of the operation requires the moft care ; for if it 
be performed with negligence, the extraction of the model 
would be attended with great difficulties; and if the workman 
employed is aukward, numerous faults will need reparation 
after the cafting, and probably great accidents may happen. 
It is but juftice to fay, that Genon, the workman on this 
Hatue, fliewed in his performance equal dexterity and know- , 
ledge. 

To prevent the pieces of the mold from adhering to each 
other, care is taken to powder the parts of each which is 
finifbed, with charcoal duft inclofed in a bag, before a new 
piece is began. The workman having finiflied "the mold- 
ings. 



J3^ STATUE OF JOAN OF AKC, 

ings of the contours of the figure, filled up the empty fpaces 
between them and the cafe with fand, which he ftrft prefTed 
^nd forced together with his hands, afterwards beat it with' 
the bat, and finally with a mallet; this conipreffion give^ it 
fuch a folidity that it appears like ftone, or at leaft like baked 
earth. 

The fame care was taken with each cafe as they were fuc- 
ceffiveiy added, to the number of feyen ; which complealing 
the top of the ftatue, the whole was then reverfed in order 
to replace (he loweft cafe, which, as mentioned, was only a 
falfe mold ; and then each part at the lower extremity was 
alfo modelled in fame manner as the preceding. 

The hollow mold being finiftied, the cafes were taken afun-» 
der, and each piece removed feparately to take out the ftatue; 
then they were all placed in their proper order in the exterior 
jDold, which may be compared to the cover ufed by thofe who 
Thf pieces of make plafter-of- Paris cafts. Each piece would be well ra- 
the mold ce (ained in its place by its irregular form ; but it was ftill farther 

men ted together . . 

v-ith pafte, and faftened by a little thin pafle made of flour, which was ap- 
fecund by wires pijgj { ^ ^^^^^^ j^^^f^ to ^j^g pjeces them felves and the parts 
pafTing into the , ,: , r t , , m i 

cjes. that adlicred to the caies. It was thought neccifary to take a 

precaution more than what was ufual, through the apprehen- 
fion that the pafle would not hold together thofe large pieces 
as well as it did the fmall pieces in lefier works ; they were 
therefore traverfed by long wires of iron, which entered into 
the cover or exterior mold. 

This mold being thus entirely compleated, had only to be 
Methodof form- dried till the time of the cafting, A new mold was neceflary 
ingthpcore. to be made to caft the core : the fame pains were not taken 
with this as with the firft, as it would be ufelefs to do fo. 
When this fecond mold was finiftied, a coat of modelling-clay 
was applied to its infide, of the fame fhicknefs which was in- 
tended to be given to the bronze ; and without waiting for its 
drying, it was clofed and the core caft in it, which was com- 
pofed, as is ufual, of equal parts of plafter of Paris and ol 
brick duft. 
Eight "iron rods E'ghl rods of iron having been placed at the infide of the 
)*'.• fo as to pro- mold, afterwards projefled from the core about 10 or 12 cen-r 
^uom thl Qott^' limetrcs, which fcrved to place it with precifion in the hollow 

in order to place mold* ' ' 

it in the Ciold, o R.w 



STATUE or JOAN OF ARC, If]^ 

But In tlie mean time the cafes had been placed one over Uie 
other, and the iron pins which connc6^ed ihcra fitted lo their 
places, taking care to divide them into two portions, which 
anfwered to the two cafes ufually employed by the founders; 
and which, inftead of the ufual thicknefs of five centimetres 
at raolf, were, the one 48 and the other 6i centimetres 
thick* 

In this ftate they were dried, by placing them round a bra- The pieces of 
fier of kindled charcoal, the fire of which had the more power ^^^ '"°''' ^''^^' 
from the mold being divided into two portions, and empty. 

The core was likewife dried by placing it over a brafier ofThe coreal/o 
charcoal; the fame was aifo placed round it; and in eight "^ ' 
hours the moifiure was entirely evaporate/i. It was left to 
cool, and it was placed in one half of the mold ; the fecond ThemQlJ and 
half of the mold was afterwards fitted on, and the whole com- ^f"^ puttjge- 

' tner ready for 

prefied together by iron prefles in the ufual manner. cafting, and i"e- 

After this there only remained lo conllrud the bafon, <=""'^>y P^effes, 
(Veckino), to fufe the metal, and make the caft. Thefe ope- 
rations being the fame for both methods of founding, (liall be 
related, after firft as briefly as poflible defcribing the method 
of cafting by the great foundery in which wax is ufed. 

The firft operation for the great foundery is to dig a trench Dercription of 
proportionate to the fize of the figure to be caft, and to fur- <^afting by the 
I ■ • I 11 ' 1 I r 11 • great foundery. 

4^una it With a wall to prevent the earth trom tumblmg m. 

After the model is fini filed it is oiled, and a mold formed from a mold formed 
it with plafter of Paris in the ufual way, and with the pre- ^''*^'" '^^ ^^^"c 

in iCDHr^cc 

cautions before direded for molding in fand : In each piece pieces. 
of this mold rods of iron are inferted, by which they may be 
eafily lifted when the mold is taken afundpr or put up; each 
of thefe pieces is numbered, that its proper place may be 
known. 

After this feveral layers are applied with a brufli to (he in- A compofidon 

fide of the pieces, of a compofition made of 7-lenths of yellow ^^ '"^^. '^''! °" 
f^ ' • ■' to the infideof 

wax, 1-tenth of turpentine, Itenth of white pitch, and the mold, of th« 
I-tenth of hog's-lard, wjiich is melted flowly to prevent if^ '""^''"*'^^ '"- 

r . , , , , ^ ^ tended for the 

tormmg bubbles. bronze. 

When the different layers form a thicknefs cf three or four 
millimetres, (0. 15 inch) cakes of wax are placed infide in (h(Me 
parts where the bronze fliould be of a greater thicknefs, and faf- 
tenings of (heet-brafs are inferted, which may take hold of the 
core and prevent the wax from falling cfT, 

T he 



134* STATUE OF JOAN OV ARC. 

The core cal 'fhe mold h (hen fitted together, and the core ca ft with 

in this mold, " t r i. • o * 

and the model- quicknels, that It may form an entire mafs, and not He in 

finffhcdt^ thT ^^^^" ' ^^"'' '^"'^ ^^ '^ '* ^"''^ ^'^^ "^'^^^' '^ ^^^^" afunder, and 
ft!!uary afer it *^^ ^atuary repairs the wax, takes ofF all the futures of the 
is taken out. molds, realties the errors which may have occurred, and 

gives to the work all the perfeflion of which it is fuf- 

ceptible. 

WieTovSlhe ^^^^'^ ^'^'^ *^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ '* formed of materials capable of 
w™,^ itTcom-^ fupporting the heat and the imputfe of the metal ; to compofe 
pofition. which three-fixlhs of earth are mixed with one-fixth of horfe- 

dung, and left to rot in a ditch for one winter : when this 
mixture is taken out, two-fixlhs of broken crucibles, well 
pounded and palfed through a fieve, are added : the whole 
is tempered with urine and beat up on a ftone : it is then what 
is called potee. 
Formation of When it is to be ufed, a fufficient quantity is taken and 

^inued? "^^^^^ ^"°"g'' ^'^^^^ ^o ''' to make it capable of being laid 
on with a bruQi ; forty coats of it are then laid over the wax 
fucceffively, (care being taken that one coat is dry before an- 
other is Jaid on), which altogether form a thicknefs of five 
centimetres (2 inches.) The mold is then furrounded with flat 
bands of iron, which crofs each other like net-work ; then, after 
rendering ihe potee thicker, by adding earth to it, and hair that 
has been well beaten, it is laid on over the former work with 
the fingers, until the mold has attained the thicknefs of twenty 
centimetres below and fixteen above (6 and 8 inches) ; after 
which it is furrounded a fecond time with bands of flat iron. 
Preparations for, After this a wall is built round it, the paflages neceflary for 
meltrnfoutthe ^^^ ^'^ conftruded, and the intervening fpaces are filled up 
Vax. with broken bricks: Then the fire is kindled in the paflages 

moft diftant from the figure, and is gradually increafed for 
nme days, and again diminifhed for the fame fpace of time. 
On the fecond day the wax begins to flow, and continues to 
do fo for ten or twelve days; about half of it is loft. 

When the fire is extinguiflied, the work is left fome days 
to cool ; then the broken bricks are removed, and before the 
mold is buried, a coat of plafler, about half an inch thick, is 
The moldbu- put over it, which is called the dianife. Then they proceed 
I>5pt; and lents ^"^ ^""'y ^^^ "^^I^' <>' '"^lofe it with earth, firft taking care to 
placed ready for ftop all the ways through which the wax flowed, and to raile 
tafting. ' ■ , 

the 



STATUE OP JOAN OF ARC. | ^5 

the pfpes for the vents and for the entrance of the fiifed metal. 
The earth ufed forenclofing the mold ihould be firll fkreened, 
and then laid on equally in the excavation. After eacli courfe 
is raifed to a thicknefs of t-liirty centimetres, ( l toot) it is beaten 
down till it is reduced to ten. 

After this there on]y remains to build the bafon for the re- 
ception of the melal, called the echiiio. 

In enumerating the operations neceffary for the method of Enumeration of 
calling in fand firfl mentioned, the authors of the report ftate^^'^ various ad- 

I 1 -I 1 r /• 1 r A • 1 vantages of caft- 

them to amount to ten ; while thole uled tor catting in tlie jng ;„ fand, and 
large way laft recited, in which wax is ufed, amount to no <^^*advantages of 
1 r I • I 1 /• 1 • I I • I • 1 thegieat foun- 

leis than twenty-eight, each or which they particularize; but ^igcy. 

as thefe operations may readily be counted from the relation 
already given, this catalogue is not inferted here. They alfb 
remark, that the laying on the wax on the pieces of the mold 
takes up much time, as does likewife the preparation of the 
potee: that in the firft method the circling with bands of iron 
is entirely avoided, and the building of the pallages for the 
lire, which are very expenfive: liiat likewife the molding 
and fetting up of the vaft number of pipes and vents is faved 
in it ; and in the drying of the work the economifing of fuel 
is greatly in favour of the firft method, for in it thefe operations 
are performed in a (hort time with a very (mail fire, which in 
the other method require at leaft three weeks and a powerful 
Iieat : that in the repairing of the wax the ftaluary nuift work 
with his own hands : and that in taking out the ilatue when 
cafl, there is vaftly lefs trouble in the ilrft method. 

The authors here defcribe the metliod of ercfting the fur- 
nace for fufing the metal for the ftatue of Joan of Arc ; but 
as it was conftru6led to burn wood, which fuel is not ufed in 
our founderies, and as the defcription would be on other ac- 
counts of but little benefit to our arlifts, it is omitte-d, 

It is only neceflary to flate, that the place wliich contained 
(■he fufed metal was at fuch an elevation, that, when (he Hop- 
per which retained it was driven in, it might fl' vv' f.eely into 
the €chino throogh the paflage prepared for it. 

The mold for the ftatue was partly buried in the earth, fo as The mold of the 
to allow a fall for the metal of eight centimetres (3 in.) from .he Arc7aid^iX°^ 
hearth tq the entrance of the pipes ; and the au'hors obferve, earth ready fof 
that the trouble of burying the mold might be avoided by lay- "fti^S" 



13(5 STATUE OF JOAN OF ARC, 

ing it on Its fide, for which pofition they think.it was fuffi- 
ciently well prepared. 
Parts of the fta- The fJatue was all formed in one mold, except the (kirls, 
trom Uie rdt7 ^ CP^^^^^^^Jf one arm, and the plumes of the helmet, which were 
placed in a feparate cafe: This might have been difpenfed 
with, I>ut it was apprehended that, if they remained with the 
ilatue, they would have much encreafed the difficulty of 'the 
work, by adding to the elevation of the figure. 
3 ooo kilograms Every thing being prepared for the cafling, about 1000 
of metal fufcd. j^Hograms (about 32 C.) of the metal was placed in the fur- 
nace, one half of which metal confifted of old cannon, a 
third of copper, and the reft of brafs; and on the 8th 
of Germinal, An XIL (29th March, 180t), at eight o'clock 
In the afternoon, the metal, after five hours heating, being in 
compleat fufion, and the echino and the Hoppers which clofed 
the two pafiages for the metal being previoufly heated. 
The caft made M. Roufleau forced in the plug that retained the metal in the 
byM. Rouu furnace; it flowed immediately into the ec/ii«o ; the fioppers 
ceeded com- were removed from the paiTages tor the metal from thence, 
pleatly. gj^j j„ jgC^ ^\^^^ ^^,q minutes a little of the metal appeared at 

the vents, and fiiewed that the caft was completed. 
The ftatue re- On removing the fand it was found that no accident had 
w 'additbnT'^^^^PP^"^^ but a fiight flaw on the flomach of the figure; that 
the head was quite perfed ; and that there had been no par- 
tial cafiing, or any part of the figure necefiary to replace, 
which often happens in the other method. 
The reporters The reporters conclude with high encomiums on the ad-r 
recommend the vantages of this method of cafting, and recommend that me- 
to give medals dals be given to MM. Rouffeau and Genon by the Ath(in^e 
to MM. Rouf. j|g5 ^^jg^ j^ teftimony of their merit ; and that as the rules of 
feau and Genon, , f, . ... r ■ • . 

and to make ho- ^"0 bociety prevented this recompence from bemg granted to 

pourablemen- any of its members, honourable mention ftiould be made of 
M. Gois. 



Experiments 



^lUKIATIC ACID. 13^ 



vir. 



Experiments made at the Galvanic Society of Paris, by M. RiF- 
FANT, Diredor of the Nitre and Gunpoivder Works, tending 
to prove that Muriatic Acid is not compofcd as announced 
by M. Pachiani *. 

l\S Toon as the Galvanic Society knew that M. Pachiani, The galvanic 
of Pifa, had announced, that he had obtained muriatic acid in^experimen^ 
by depriving water of a portion of its oxigen, their firft care to determine the 
was to engage in a courfe of experiments both by galvanifm chiani°s oofi'tion 
and eleftricity, to obtain, if it was poffibie, a confirmation 
of a difcbvery fo important to the progrefs of fcience. The 
fociety had a letter communicated to them, which was ad- 
dreiTed on the 9th of May, 1805, by M. Pachiani, to M. 
Pignotti ; in which he recited the refults which he had ob- 
tained, but without entering into any detail relative to the 
nature or order of his experiments ; they only knew that he 
ufed the galvanic pile. They therefore determined to make 
their experiments with the fame apparatus, in the manner 
which appeared to them the leaft likely to produce refults 
liable to obje6lions. Two of thefe experiments, which ap- 
peared principally worthy of attention, were conduced as 
follows : 

Experiment I. 
A portion of a new glafs tube was taken, three inches Defcription of 
long, and 0.35 inch in diameter infide, one of the ends ,^,'j.f^7_P^''fJ*^, 
of this tube was clofed at the lamp; to the other end was 
united a capillary tube bent in fuch a manner as to pafs under 
ajar, and at equal diftances from the junction of the capil- 
lary tube, two points were drawn out at the lamp in the 
thicknefs of the glafs, by means of which two bits of gold 
wire of about 0.02 inch in diameter, and of the ftandard 
0.976 of purity, were inferted in the tube, at a fmall diftance 
from its lower extremity, and difpofed fo as not to touch each 
other, or bear againft the fides of the tube; thefe points 
of the glafs were then clofed at the lamp. The tube and its 
capillary prolongation were filled with diftilled water, whofe 

* Journal (te Phyfique^ Tom, IXI. p. 2S1, 

purity 



ufed in Exp. ifl^ 



1:^8 



MURIATIC ACiD. 



purify had been proved by nitrate of filver; (be whole Was 
faflejud by wax on a fmall piece of glafs, placed in the 
niidft of an horizontal galvanic pile of fifty-two double fquare 
p'ates of 4.25 inches at each fide. Thefe plates were fepa- 
raicd by pieces of leather, which formed between each 
other divifions, which were filled with very pure fand, moift- 
The fin;", of the ened by a folution of muriate of fuda. The capillary tube was 

pile mojftened ^^^^ beneath the water of a ciftern, with its extremity 

with folution ot ' ' J 

muriate of foda: under the moiith of a jar filled with water. The two wires 
ga? immedi.uely of ijo]{| being made to communicate with the two poles of the 

dUcngaged on " . .". . . . -r 

its completion, pil^> its a6livity was immediately exhibited by the difengag^- 

ment of gas in chains of bubbles very apparent, parting from 

the extremiiy of each of the gold wires, but in a more con- 

fiderable quantity from that correfponding with the copper 

pole. This adiivity of difengagement ©f gas continued 

without interruption from the eighth of Thermidor, to the 23d 

of the fame month, on which day, after ihe pile being moiften- 

ed with folulion of muriate of foda, it flopped for lome time : 

it foon however recommenced, and always didfo after any fuf- 

penfion. Its a6livity was immediately renewed by agitating 

the wires which communicated with the poles of the pile. 



the a£llvlty of 
the difengage- 
ment of gas re 



newed by agitat- The adiivify of the pile was conftantly greateft at four o'clock, 
in the afternoon; and immediately afterwards it began l() 
diminifli On the 1 1th of Frucfidor the apparatus was taken 
afunder, after continuing for thirty-four lucceflive days in 
continual aciion. The water was then diminiflied to half its 
original voUime, but had not lolf any of its limpidity. 

The extremities of the gold wires, from whence the gas 
had procteded, were oxided, but that mofl perceptibly 
which communicated with the zinc pole of the pile. The 
whole gas obtained and collected during the experiment, was 
793 cubic centimetres { 1 200 inches). The liquor remaining in 
the tube was carefully examined ; it produced no fenfation of 
cubic^entime- ^^^^ "" ^^^^ tongue, had no adlion whalfoever on the tinfture 
ters of gss col- of turnfol and of fernambuc, and did not produce the lead 

lefted. cloudinefs in the folution of nitrate of filver. 

The remaining 

liquor in the The gas produced by the aflion of the pile was then ex- 

tube has no amined. After having introduced one meafure of it info the 
tafte, nas no . _ ° , . ,. . 

adiononturn- eudiometer of Fonlana, an equal meafure ot nitrous gas, 

ioic, and is not made purpofely for the proof, was added : an abforption of 

affefled by folu- r r ^ l » f r 

lio« of nitrate of ICVCBty- 

fjlvtr. 



ing the wires 
This aftivity 
always greateft 
at four in the 
aft«rnoon. 
The apparatus 
fcparated after 
continuing in 
action thirty- 
four days- 
The water in 
the tubs di- 
jiiiniftied one 
half, the gcid 
wires oxided, 
that next the 



MURIATIC ACir>. I3P 

fevenly-feven two hundredth parts took place in the volume The gas pro- 

c . r duced IS tried by 

©t the two meatures. Foncanas's eu- 

In order to afcertain whether all the oxigen which the gas drometer, aa 

contained had entered into combination in (his abforption, a ^eventy°fbven 

fecond meafiire of nitrous gas wa» introduced into the two-hundiedtha 

eudiometer; but ihe gas did not experience an) diminution ^*'^" ^ ^*^'^* 

of its volume. The quantity of oxigen which the abforption 

produced by ihe introdu6tion of the firtt meafure of nitrous 

gas might indicate, was attempted to be valued by a com- 

parifon with atmofpheric air elTayed in the fame manner ; for 

which purpofe one meafure of atmofpheric air was introduced, 

and an equal quantity of nitrous gas added ; an abforption of 

fifty-five two hundredth parts took place in the volume of 

the two meafures. In contidering thi> abforption as the effeft 

of the combination of nitrous gas with the volume of oxigen 

gas, correfponding to the 0,22 parts, which atmofpheric air 

contains, it may be concluded, that the abforption of feventy- 

feven two hundredth parts, produced with the gas of the 

pile, reprefented proportionally the combination of the fame 

quantity of nitrous g»s with a little lefs than 0,31 parts of The quantity of 

the oxigen. It was then obferved that the meafures of gas ejfnthggas' 

having been introduced feparately and fucceffively info the valued at 0,3s 

eudiometer, it might happen that they were not fufficientl)^^"^* 

well mixed, and that confequently the abforption was not as 

compleal as it might be. It was thought that it might be belter 

to pafs the gafes in feparale meafures under a jar, and then 

to introduce the whole volume together in'o the eudiometer. 

The former experiments having been repealed in this manner, 

an abforption took place between the gas of the pile and the 

nitrous gas, of ninety-two two hundredth parts in the volume 

of the two gafes, in place of fevenly-feven refulting from 

the fame proof, by the firil method ; and with the atmofpheric 

air and the nitrous gas the abforption was (ixly-eight two 

hundredth parts inftead of fifty-five. There refults (hen from 

this, according to the liime ratio of the 0,22 parts of oxigen 

contained in the atmofpheric air, a proportional indication of 

about 0,30 parts of this gas contained in that of the pile. The proportion 

It was again proved with the eudiometer of Volla, by in- **|^ '^^ ^'^'S'^'" ^ 
, . - , - . , ^ after more exatr 

troducmg a fingle meafure mto it, through which the eledric tria!s is more 

fpark was made to pafs ; the proof was afterwards repeated accurately va- 
* ' * c (T \ luedato,3oof 

lucceilively. the gas. 



St 

140 MURIATIC .\CID, 

f he gas farther fucceflively, on two, three, and four meafiires, and always the 
eu'dioraeur^i^v"''^'^''P''"" refulling tVom the inflammation by tbe eleflric 
the f4ini refult i'park, gave the fame indication of about 0,30 parts of 
oto,30oxi£cn. ^^.^^^^ 

Experiment 11, 

Apparatus ufed Two grammes (31 gr.) of diftilled water were put into a glafs 
mfecondex- j^j^^ j^^j^^ ji^^^ j|j,_^ f-^j.^ q^- ^ fyphon : two wires of gold of 
pcnment def- J i ' o 

cribed. Commerce of about 0,003 inch in diameter, pading into the 

The fand is water at about 0,024 inch diftance from each other, were 

inoiften;;d with . ^ 

river water con- inclolea in this tube ; the tube was then placed upon an 
taining i fix- horizontal pile of fifty double plates, of about S\ inches 
The gold w^re is '" ^^'^^ ^^^^^' ^'^^ intervals between them were filled up 
rfi(T.)lved and with dry fand, and then moi/tened with river water acidulat- 
precipitaa t ^^^ ^^^^ about -^^ of nitric acid. The wires of gold having 
been placed in communication with the two poles of the 
pile, the water in the lube afl"umed in the firfl: day a reddifli 
brown tint at the fide of the copper pole, and the wire 
which paffed to that part was covered with a coat of oxide 
of gold of a deep brown colour. The wire which com- 
municated with the zinc pole did not afTume the fame tint ; 
the gold of the wire was diffolved by degrees, and was 
very little gas precipitated togeiher with a part of the filver. This pre- 

produced, the cipitate exhibited with a magnifying lens, over almoft the 
water in the o j r> • 

tube is not whole length of the tube, cryftals in needles. The wire 
diminithed I- coriefpondiug to tlie zinc pole was entirely deprived of the 
gold which covered it, and then only contifled of a thread 
of filver of extreme tenuity. But very little gas was dif- 
charged from either extremities of tlie wires. The water was 
not diminiflied a fiftieth part of its volume. 
The pile con- The pile continued in a6livity 40 days from the 28th of Mef- 
forty davs. ' fidor to ilie Sth of Fru6lidor. It indicated then on the lafi day 
Indicutes by the by the ele61roraeter (fimplified by one of the Members of the 
intfnfit^'^o" ""^ Galvanic Society, from thatconfiruded in Germany, defcribed - 
l4o*. in {he Journal de Phyfique for the month MefTidor, an. 13,) 

J^ifor'inthc"^ an intenfity of 840 degrees. The liquor remaining did not 
tube (hews no afford, by any of the different reagents, the leaft trace of 
trace of acidity oxidity ; a metallic tafle was alone perceptible in it. 
reagents, and The galvanic fociety, in examining chiefly the refults of 

kai a metallic the firft experiment, as correfponding more particularly with 
the hGi announced by M, Pachiani, have confidered, that iu 

allowing 



GEOGRAPHICAL TABLET. J^2 

albwlng for the fmall quantity of oxigen which had caufed 
the oxidation of the extremities of the gold wires, the whole 
quantify of the oxigen contained by the gas of the pile may 
be valued in a very near approximation, at 0,31 of its volume; 
and it is very nearly in this fame proportion that oxigen gas The Society 
enters into the formation of water; it was thought that '^ of'"h^ei?^lk'^"'" 
might thence be concluded, that the whole effed of the only decompofed 
galvanic pile, during the entire continuation of the ex- '"? ^^'^^'' J"/^** 
periment, had been the decompofition of a part of the water drogengafes,' 
employed, and the feparation, in their ftate of purity, of ^"^^ '^'i^f ^'a- 
the oxigen and hidrogen gafes which compofed it. The t^^en and that 
Society then are of opinion, that M. Pachiani was deceived th? acid found 
as to the nature of the acid which he announced that he men'c*w'^i'p"o- 
obtained, and that this acid* might have been produced by duced bv jthcr 
fome animal or vegetable fubflance employed in the appara- []^^-^"l^"^" 
tiis. The Society does not hetitate to declare, that with the nounced, 
apparatus which they ufed in preference, (as beinar the moil ^"'^ ^''^^"^ '^ 

/ I I.I n I- .. r • n r ., not pofllblc tO 

litnple, and the lealt hable to the innuence ot other matters,) tffcti anytfii 
they do not think it poffible to effect any thing by the a<5lion ^y t^^ g?.ivanic 
of the galvanic pile, but a decompofition more or lefs great, •'jg^j'JJ^Q'l-j,"^ 
of the water ufed in the experiment, lion. 



VIII. 

Account of an Ancient Geographical Tablet in the Mufeum of 
Cardinal Borgia, from fa Memoir prefented to the Academj/ 
. of GoUingen, by Professor Heeven. 

In the Mufeum of Cardinal Borgia there is depofited an The tablet was 

ancient geographical tablet, from which an engraving has ^°""'* '" 'll^ 
° ** ^ o & mufeum of 

* M. Giobert, in Van Mon's Journal, pretends, that the acids Cardlaul Borgia. 
and falts ufed in the pile circulate along the nvires, and pafs into 
any liquor into which they are conduced j which does not ap- 
pear probable. — B. 

The galvanic apparatus ufed in thefe experiments is called a 
pile through the whole of the French paper, though from its 
horizontal pofition the appellation does not feem very proper. 
Trans* 

f This memoir is entitled, " explicatio planiglobii orbis ter- 
raruni faciem exhibens, ante medium fee. xv. fumma arte con- 
fefti ; agitaotur fimul de hiftoria raapparum geographicarura refte 
inftruendaconfilia. 

Vol. XIII.— February, 1806. M been 



iMtf GEOGKAPHICAL TABLET. 

been made, one of the Impreffions of which Is in the poflefr 

The dcfign is fion of the author of the Memoir. This remarkable monu- 

dTametcr"and ^^"^ '* "^^ ^ '■'^^'^^ drawn by the pen, bat a round tablet, of 

done in coloured which the deiign occupies a fpaoe about two feet in diameter, 

enamel, jj„ which the hemifphere, known at that time, is reprefented 

limits of the in coloiifcd ena.nel, h'ke a round fiirlace. The countries and 

countries not j|^g places are marked by their proper names, but the limits 

marked, „ f . -^ , , ■ , ■ 

accounts inferted Of the countries are not traced; the mountam^, the rivers, 

in it of various {he people, and all the things remarkable (as the animals, the 

things. battles, the caravans, the bazars, the camps, the wandering 

tribes, &c.) are reprefented and explained on it by infcrip* 

tlons in the latin tongue, but written in German charaders. 

It may be conceived from this firfl: view how interefting this 

monument is, and alfo with what art it is executed, fo that 

it is impoffible to fuppofe, that it was made for the ule qf a 

private perfon. Its date is not mentioned, but it may b.Q 

determined with certainty that it was conftrucled in the firft- 

Why fuppofed to half of the fifteenth century. In reality, the moft recent 

iiTthe firft ha^f ^^^"* marked on it is the victory of jTamerlane over Bajazet 

»f the fifteenth in 1402 ; there is no mention of the taking of Conftanlinople, 

century. ^^ j[^^ j^^^ trace of any of the difcoveries of the Portuguefe. 

It is theoldeft Of the geographical charts known at prefent, that of Marino 

jKographicai Sanudcf at the commencement of the fourteenth century is 
•eiign, except . . •' 

the chart of ^''^ only one certainly more ancient ; but that of Andre Bianco 
Sanado. j,f 143^^ which Fqnnaleoni has made known, is very nearly 

of tl)e fame; time as this monument. No general fource of 
imformation can be difcovered by which the author of the 
tablet has been aflifted. It is not made according to docu- 
ments from Ptolemy; it more follows thofe of the Arabians, 
efpecially with regard to Africa ; of the names which are 
ibund in the works of Marco Paolo, and the other more 
ancient travellers in Afia, only fome are feen on that part of 
Uie world. The extent of Europe is reprefented as much 
greater than that of Africa, and at lead as large as that of 
Sweden ci!IcJ Atla. Tiie following are forae of the mofl remarkable par- 
MagnaGothu ticulars of it: Sweden is fet down under the name of Magna 
Denmark omit:- Got/iia, and Penmark is wanting. In PrutTia, the feat of the 
ed, Lithuanians wars of the Teutonic order with the Lithuanians, reprefent- 
^'"'* ed with this infcnptlon : Hicfunt conjiina pagaiwrum ct Chrif- 
tiuiiorum, qui in Prufia adinvicem continuo bdlant. It may bo 
perceived by this, that the Lithuanians were therein con- 

fidered 



GEOGRAPHICAL TABLKT. } ^f^ 

fidered as Pacrans, although chriftianity wa? introduced 
among them before this period. Ruflia appears under ihe RufTia called 
denomination of Tartary, and near the Calpian Sea and the p-^J^^^^l"l^l' 
fea of Afof, are reprefenled the famous Bazars of thofe limes. Bazors re- 
England and Scotland appear at the border, but there is no pf-'e-i'ed. 
more room for Ireland. Africa exhibits none of the dif- 
coveries of the Portuguefe, but the northern half of it was 
known to the author as far as Soudan. He names not only It contains none 
the villages along the coaft, but he moreover knows that the o^ the difcoveries 
•..• r » , , . TTiL of the Portuguefe 

inhabitants or mount Atlas, the people or Barbary are at jn Africa. 

war with the Saracens. Near thefe mountains is infcribed. 

In illis mnntanis habitant plures principes et reges, et habitant 

continuo in tentoriis, et prxliantur continuo contra Saracenos, 

et contra juxta cajira et civitates *. In Egypt the junflion of The junft'on 

the grand caravan of Mecca is marked, and not only ihe °^^^ ^^'■'^'^"* 

names of the deferts of fand are inferted, but thofe alfo ot ;„ Egypc. 

the places moft important to commerce, as Tagaza, Ganu- 

fia, &c. 

The kingdom of Prefter John extends in Nubia ah o/?/o Extent of Prefter 
gandis (Cape Gardefan) usque ad fluvium auri. Bianco 1'1<-p- fit'down.'"^'^'"" 
wife fels down the kingdom of Prefter Jolin in Africa in 
the fame manner, fo that the Portuguefe are not the firft 
who have thus defcribed it. Afia does not prefent fewer Camps of the 
fingularitie*. In Afia Minor the camps of the Tartars are T.f '^^ '" ^^** 
reprefented ; Tartaria reges maxima, qua Tartari cum fuis 
jnmentis et bobus excurrunt, civitatem ex multin tentoriis (t 
carutes fituant. India is divided into India Juperior, where the divifions of 
the body of St. Thomas is found, and many chriflian king-l"'^'"'/"'^ P°''»- 
doms, and India interior, in qua Cathai civitas et magnificanis inferted, 
Imperatoris Tartarorum fedes. China is likewife inferted in it, and China with 
and its capital Cambalck (Cambalu Pekin) is alfo named. j^^'j^^P^^'^j^^^j^ ' 
Oa tha frontiers of little Bucharia at Organti, (Urgang) 

* The Latin of the infcriptions in this paper is not very corre(5V, 
Continuo is ufed in them for femper, and juxta for njicina, the 
v.'ord JituMt h alfo improper, and fome others, but thefe circum- 
ftances perhaps only mark more ftrongly the authenticity of the 
account. In the infcripiion relative to India interior, a fmall 
alteration has been made from the memoir in this tranflation. 
The word magnificanii has been formed from magni canis in the 
memoir, which being fo printed, evidently was an error, — B. 

M2 de 



J44' BIKDLIME. 

The rotjte of de Oi'gnnU ad Cu) thagium vadunt caincli in quatuor menfibus, 
Cadiai'^^^'he ^ ^^^ Caravans going and returning to Cathai are represented, 
country of Gog On the caftem border the countr)' of Gog and Magog is fet 
the£n>r."'^'*^'''"' ^""^ ^^"^"^ '''^"* ddiciarum or paradife. 
ladife. ^ 

IX. 

Jiialj/Jls of Birdlime. Bi/ M. BviLLOii Lagrange.* 

SECt. I. 

The Origin and Preparation of Birdlime. 

Various opinions JL HE fubftance known by the name and appellation of bird- 
®" ^'^^„."^'^"''° lime, has been clalfed among the immediate productions of ve- 

of birdhmej ' » • 

gelables. 

M, Fourcroy, M. Foui'jroy was the firfl perfon who confidered this mat- 
ter to be glutinous : he has defcribed it as a fpecies in his 
" Syfteme des Connoiffances Chimiques," Vol. VIII. p. 306. 

Birdlime, according to this chemifl^, may be made of the 
berries of miflletoe, or of the tender bark of the holly, and 
feveral other kinds of trees, macerated in water. Although 
this fubrtance appears to have been hitherto not examined with 
fufficient accuracy, many qualilies have been difcovered in it 
analogous to thofe of gluten, 

Excepting a few chemical properties, mentioned in my 
*' Manuel d^un 6ours de Chimie," third edition, I have never 
found in any work the leaft elucidation of the nature of this 
fingular fubftance. 

M. Chaptaf, M. Chaptal, in his " Elemens de CJmniey" fpeaks only of 

its preparation. As the method prefcribed by this chemift is 
nothing different from that in the " Materia Medica" of 

Ceoffroy, GeolTroy, and in the " DiBionary" of Valmont de Bomare, 

^^1^;"'' "^^ ^°- 1 fhall quote the article itfelf. 

Ancient mode " The ancients made ufe of the berries of the miftletoe of 

h Kin'"Li*- "^^ *" '^^ preparation of birdlime. The berries being firft 

lounding^'tfi: toilcd in water, were pounded, and the hot water was then 
T""!'^ poured off, in order to carry away the feeds and rhind. At 

prefent birdlime made of the bark of holly is preferred. The 
middle bark is made choice of, as being the moft tender and 

* Annales da Chimie, Vol. LVI. 

green : 



• iiAIstoe . 



BiRDLIME. 14'5.i 

green : this Is placed in a pit to rot, after which it is pounded at prefentit'Js 
in mortars until it becomes a pafte, and is then wafhed and birk rotted^/ 
cleanfed with water. This fubftance has been conlidered as pounded. 
difcuffive and emollient, when applied outwardly." 

It is already known that the miftletoe of oak is employed in Miftletoe of oik 
feveral pharmaceutical preparations ; as, the univerfal water, )^^ "^ ^^^' 
the antifpafmodic powder, Guttet's powder, &c. 

In England, according to Geoffroy, birdlime is made of the EngUfh mode of 
bark of" holly. He fays, the bark is boiled in water (even or y^^^ . " 
eight hours, lill it becomes foft and tender. This is laid in Bark of holly Is 
malTes in the earth, and covered with fiones, placing one °'^,' f°"^^ 

. ° . pounded, walh- 

Jayer over another — the water having been previoufly drained ed, and kneaded. 
from the bark. In this flate it is left to ferment and rot, du- 
ring a fortnight or three weeks, in which time it changes to a 
kind- of mucilage. It is then taken from the pit, pounded in 
mortars till reduced to a pafte, waflied in river water, and 
kneaded till freed from all extraneous matters. The pafte is 
left in earthen veflTels during four or five days, to ferment and 
purify itfelf. It is afterwards put into proper veflels, and thus 
becomes an article of commerce. 

This mode of preparation is not univerfally followed, as 
every county has its peculiar way : there are even thofe who 
make a fecret of the procefs. 

At Nogenf-le-Rotrou birdlime is manufaclured by cutting Method purfuei 
in fmall pieces the fecond bark of the holly, fermenting them ^ Nogent-le- 
in a cool place during a fortnight, and then boiling Ihem in firft rotting and 
water, which is afterwards evaporated. ^^^" boihug : 

At Commerci and its environs birdlime is obtained from At Commerci. 

feveral (lirubs, as the holly, the wild vine (viburnum lantana, 

Lin.) and the miftletoe of every fpecies. 

; The beft is that made from the prickly holly, which is green- Beft fort from 

ifti: that obtained from the viburnum lantana is of a yellowifli t^e pnckly 

holly. 
tint. In ufing this latter, the epidermus is rejefted, and only 

the fecond bark employed. 

- The birdlime which I ufed in my experiments was made . 
from the fecond bark of holly ; and on comparing it carefully 
with fome which had been fent me from Commerci, I found 
there was no apparent difference between them. I thought 
this precaution elTential to obtaining greater precifion in my 
analyfis. It is well known that the birdlime of commerce is 
never in a pure ftate ; it is frequently a compofition of vege- 
table 



14-^ BIRDLIMK. 

Birdlime of f able and animal matter ; fnmetimes it is even adulterated 
ouenTy aduu' ^'''' turpentine, oil, vinegar, &c. It was therefore necef- 
tcrated. fary that I (hould be certain as to its purity ; and by the fol- 

lowiiir mode, which I adopted, I obtained birdlime of the 

very bed quality. 
Th-- author's Having procured a fufHcient quantity of the fecond bark of 

hours : tfie water being poured oiF, I depofited the bark in 
pits, in earthen pans, where it remained till rotten, or at leaft 
till it became vifcous, moiftenlng it from time to time with a 
little water. When i( had obtained a proper degree of fer- 
mentation, it was cleanfed, by wafhing, from all heteroge- 
neous matters. 

Sect. II. 

Chemical and phyfical CharaBcriJiics of Birdlime. 

Charadleriftlcs. Birdlime is of a greenith colour, and of a four flavour : it is 
gluey, ftringy, and tenacious. Its fmell refembles that of 
linfeed oil. 
It becomes dry Spread on a glafs plate, and expofed for fome time to the 
expof "re toth ^^'"" of air and light, it dries, and becomes brown in colour, 
airj being no longer vifcous. When quite dry, it may be re- 

duced to powder, in which ftate it is totally diverted of its 

but vifcid again adhefive qualities, and only recovers them on the addition of 
v,hen wetted. ^^^^^^ 

Birdlime reddens tindure of turnfole. 
By moderate When gently heated in a porcelain veflel it melts, but does 

beatitfues, ^^^ become rery liquid; it fwells in bubbles, which float 
upon the furface. This kind of fufion produces fmall black 
grains, which render the birdlime grumous : it produces a 
fmell very fimilar to that obtained from animal oils, on raiting 
their temperature. 

If this fiition be continued for fome time, the birdlime 
aflumes a brownifh colour ; but recovers its proper charac- 
teriftics on cooling. 
Strong beat in- Placed on red-hot coals, it burns with a brilk flame, an4 
iiVMt iti creates a great deal of fmoke. 

Heated in a crucible of platina, it takes fire when the cru- 
cible is red-hot ; produces a lively flame, which rifes to about 
two decimetres, accompanied with a confiderable quantity of 

fmok«. 



fiuoke, which eafily alJaches to ihe ehimney : this combufllon 
always takes place, although the crucible be taken out of the 

A whitlQi refidue is left, which is very alkaline and partly leaving an alka- 
fbluble in water. Re-agents demonftrate the prefenee ©f ''"^ "^'^"'* 
fulphate and muriate of poladi. 

That part which water could not take up, on being put Experiments oft 
into muriatic acid was diffolved with fome efTervefcence. refidue. 

This liquid is copioufly precipitated by the oxalate of am- 
monia j pruffiate of potafli gives a blue precipitate. That 
produced by ammonia is of a party confidence, partly foluble 
in cauftic potafh : whence maybe inferred that the refidue. It contains fo* 
independent of the falts foluble by water, is compofed of the [^ll^^l^^f 
carbojiates of lime and of alumine, with a fmall portion of lime, and alu- 
l|.0lj^ mine and iron. 

Water has very little influence on birdlime. On boiling. Water has little 
the matter does not completely difTolve, but acquires merely ^|^°" °" ^"'^' 
a fmall increafe of fluidity, which it lofes in cooling, and 
fefumes its primitive confiftency. 

This water obtains no colour; its flavour Is at firfl infipld, 
afterwards four, and it reddens tindure of turnfole. 

Evaporated to the confiftency of a fyrup, it becomes co,. 
loured, with a mucilaginous appearance, which may be fepa- 
r^ted by alcohol. 

The action of water, therefore, is confined to Ijie folution It takesupfanae 
of a mucilaginous fubftance, with a fmall portion of the ex- ">*<^^^^6^» 
tra6live matter. 

It is not thus with cauftic potafh. Its concentrated folu- Cauftic potaflj 
tion forms at once with birdlime a whitifii magma, which ^j'r'di^'"^^ "'^ ^ 
turns thrown on evaporation, with a feparation of ammonia, gives out ammo. 

This eompofition is lefs vifcid ; it acquires a great degree"'** 
of bardnefs by expofure to the air j and its fraell and tafte are 
iimilar to thofe of foap. 

It is. chiefly foluble in water aiid alcohol, there remaining The compound 
but a few- vegetable dregs. Thefe folutions are affeded by ^'^3*"^^^^^^"* 
flrong acids; but thefe kinds of decompofitions prefent no 
pew phenomena to thofe obtained with a folution of foap. 

Themoft feeble acids foften birdlime, and partly diflblve it; Weakacid« 

when concentrated, they ad in a different manner. i?!i^" ^"l P^'^^Y 

'J ' diflblve bird- 

Sulphuric acid renders it black and charry : by adding pow- lime. 

^ered lime, fo as to form a thick maema, a reparation of ace- s^'iphuric acid 

° ' . chafis It. 

tic 



Hot nitric acid 
decoH,pofesit, li^j^^ 
aiici forms a kiijd 
of wax : 



which forms 
fbap with pot- 
a/h. 



148 BIRDLIME. 

tic acid and ammonia is procured. There can be no doubt 
but mat in addition to the acetic acid naturally prefent in 
birdlime, more is produced by the aftion of the lulphuric 
acid. 

Nitric acid, whiift cold, has very little power over bird- 
but on increafing its temperature, the mixture turns 
yellow, difTolves, and as evaporation advances fwells confi- 
derably, leaving at laft a hard brittle mafs. This mafs, when 
a I'econd time fubmitted to the action of nitric acid, is dif- 
folved, a part being converted into malic and oxalic acids. 
By continuing the evaporation a yellow matter is obtained, 
eafily friable, yielding to the preflTure of the fingers like wax, 
with a kind of elafticity, and melting by means of a gentle 
heat. 

Potafli combines with this mader, changes its colour from 
yellow to brown, and forms perfe6i foap. 
/:ic. hoi partially Alcohnl partially dilTolves it, and becomes yellowifti ; its 
diffoives It. tranfparency is diminidied by the addition of water. 

On evaporating the alcohol to drynefs, there remains a yel- 
low matter divefted of the greafy appearance, which yields a 
fweet odour in burning. 

Cold muriatic acid has no action upon birdlime: when 
heated it tuins it black. 

Oxigenated muriatic acid operates differently. Either by 
mixmg the gas with the water containing the liquid birdlime, 
or by fliaking it in a bottle with the acid in a very concentrated 
ftate, the following phenomena were equally obferved : 

The birdlime quickly loft its colour, and became white; 
it was no longer vifcid, but divided into hard compa£l por- 
tions, containing in their centre a quantity of birdlime, which 
the oxigenating principle had not reached. This non-oxige- 
nation may be attributed to the difficulty there is of preferving 
this fubftance in its liquefied ftate in hot water, whereby the 
operation of the acid is confined to its exterior furface. 

The charafleriflics of oxigenated birdlime are — 

1. It is capable of being reduced to powder. 

2. It is infoluble in water, even when heated, 

3. It does not become liquefied at a high temperature, 

4. It will not turn yellow, nof will it form a refin with 
nitric acid, 

Acetous 



Cold muriatic 
acid ;-.as little 
aO-i'. - on bird- 
lime. 

OxigMiatpci m. 
acii) aiicrs bird- 
lin.e confider- 
ably. 



Charafteriftics 
of oxigenated 
birdlime. 



BIRDLIME. 14^^ 

x^cetous acid foflens birdlime and dilTolvcs a certain qiian- Acetous acid 
. , xi I- • It I -x 1 n • • r -J f^i^ens birdlime, 

♦ itv; the liquor acquires a yellow colour ; its (alie is inlipid. ^^^ 

Carbonate oF potafh produces no precipitate; evaporation 
gives a refinous refiduum, which cannot, however, be brought 
to a fiate of perfect drjnefs. 

Certain metallic oxides are eafily reduced on being heated Birdlime re- 
with birdlime. ''"'f ™=^^'^''= 

oxides. 

Semi-vitreous oxide of lead affumes a grey colour, diflblves. Semi vitreous 
and forms with the birdlime an emplaftic mafs, f"'"^'^ of lead 

incorporates 

Alcohol at 40 degrees, and boiling, dilfolves birdlime fo with birdlime, 
long as it is kept hot ; it is clear, and of a tranfparent yellow Boilmg alcohol 

, . . • ' ■ r , •. . diffolves bird. 

colour; but m proportion as the liquor cools, it becomes j,;jj£^ 

turbid. 

A yellow matter may be feparated by filtering, which is and lots fall a 
much fofter than the original mafs; melts in a moderate heat, ^q",*! pg^."^" **' 
difFufing a froell analogous to that of wax, of which it feems 
to poflefs all the quaiilies. 

The filtered liquor is bitter, naufeous, and acid; precipi- retainingarefin^ 
tating in water, and leaving on evaporation a fubftance fimilar 
to refin. 

Sulphuric ether may be confidered as the true folvent of Sulphuric ether 
birdlime: its adion on this fubflance is rapid, firft dividing it» ot biidhme.^**' 
and then dilTolving it nearly in toio, there remaining only a 
few vegetable dregs. The liquor acquires a greeniOi yellow 
colour, and ftrongly reddens turnfole. On adding a liulc Water feparates 
water the mixture thickens, and the ether fwims on the top; lotion. 
but if a fufficient quantity of water be poured, in to di.Tolve 
the ether, a body of oil is formed on the furfac)^, bearii:ig a 
confiderable analogy to that of linlfeed : this iriay be con- 
verted, by the affifiance of the femi-vitreous oxide of lead, 
into an emplaftic mafs. 

By evaporating the folution of birdlime in ether, a greafy Ether by evapo- 
fubftance is obtained, of a yellow colour, and of ^^^^ ^"^t^efs "g"^" ^^^^^^^^^p 
of vva^. 

Conclufion, 

From the foregoing obfervations it will be perceived how 

little analogy exitls between birdlime and gluten. 

A fimple comparilbn will be fufficient to defignate the place General proper- 
., ,,, ,,, jT ties of biidlim". 

it ought to occupy ^mong vegetable productions. 

Birdlime 



f^^O PURIFICATION OF Oil. 

Birdlime Is vlfcid, elaftic, dries a little in the air, by ex- 
pofure to which it becomes brown ; but is not rendered brittle 
and irrecoverable like gluten. 

It melts in the fire, fwells, and burns with a vivid Maze ; 
but does not difFufe that animal odour which is to be obferved 
in gluten. 

Water will not diflolve birdlime; it merely imbibes the 
raucilage, the extra6tive matter, and the acetic acid. 

Alcalies diflolve it; when concentrated, they convert it 
into foap. 

Dilute acids foften and partially diflolve birdlime. 

Concentrated fulphuric acid renders it black and charry. 

Nitric acid turns its colour to yellow, converting the fub- 
ftance partly to malic and oxalic acids, and partly to refin and 
wax. 

Oxigenated muriatic acid renders it white and folid, con- 
flituting oxigenated birdlime. 

Alcohol exerts but little aflion upon birdlime; it diflfolves 
the refin and deftroys the acid, 

Laftly, fulphuric ether difl'olves it entirely. 
Recapitulation Birdlime, therefore, differs from gluten, 
of the points jft^ jn ^hg acetous acid which exifts in it, 

wherein it dir- ^iti- n-ii i- i 

fo£ from gluten, 2d, In being very flightly animahzed. 

3d. In the mucilage and extra6live matter which may be 
oblained from it. 

4th. In the great quantity of refin which may be obtained 
from it by means of nitric acid. 

5th. In its folubility in ether. 



Method of purifying Oil. By M, Curaudeau.* 

The purificatioa -^ HE purification of oils for combuflion confids folely In 
of oil confifts in tiiejr clarification : It is only fince Argand's lamps have come 
Its clarificatJOJj. . ^ r i . i- y i ■ o . ■ i i .. ^■ 

mto common ule that this lubject has received much attention. 

There are many procefles for the purification of oils, but 
all are not equally good ; and thofe who fell purified oil make 
a fecret of the method of purification. 

* From Cours complet d'Agiiciilture, Tome XII. 

However, 



PURIUCATION OF OIL. 151 

However, as the art of purifying oils ought to be known 
hy Jhofe who manufacture them, the pfoceffes, which are 
confidered the moft economical and fimplc, Oiall be here 
mentioned ; by which information they will be able to obtahi 
that profit which thofe now make who tbllow this fpecies of 
induftry after them. 

The procefs for the purification of oil by fulphuric acid, Procefs by fuj- 
which follows, is little different from ihat publithed by ^^^^"^'jj''''* ''*'■ 
Thenard. 

To one hundred parts of rape oil one part of fulphuric acid Sulphuric acid 

IS to be added, diluted with fix times ils weight of water; ^ the olT- ''uS* 

the mixture lliould be ftrongly agitated, and as foon as this is mixture I'trongly 

completely finiQied, it is left ftill till the oil becomes clear ; ^'J'^^'^ f^ 
, . . ^ , 'etc to fettle. 

when It js perfeftly clear the purification is effeded. 

There remains at the bottom of the vefi'el an acid liquor 

foraewhat coloured : the oil is to be feparated from the fedi- ^^^ «'• f^pa- 
, . , , . , ... • J 1 '^^'^^^ f'oi" the 

ment; and in order to be certain that no acid is retained by fedi«ieni- pow- 

the oil, fome ounces of powdered chalk is to be added ; the '^^red chalk 

mixture fhould then be fliaken, and the oil again left ^uie.t^ j^„^'jfj^j"^^^|^j. 

to fettle. to fettle. 

The a<5lIon of the fulphuric acid in this procefs confifts in 

deprivirrg the oil of all its humidity, although it is ilfelf mixed 

with water, and in feparating from it a mucofo-exlradive The acid in this 

fubftance, the prefence of which diminilhes the energy of the fhe'^iucXex! 

combuftion of the oil, covers the wick with charcoal, and tiaflive matter 

produces much fmoke : It is then on the abftradion of thefe "°|" the "il, 
. . . ..... . which injures it9 

principles foreign to the oil, that its quality ol giving a good combuftioR, 

light depends. 

Another Method, 

The next procefs to be defcribed has been followed by fome Procefs by flour 
manufacturers, who have had good fuccefs with it. ^"*^ water. 

To one hundred parts of rape-feed oil ten parts of water Flour and water 
are to be put, to which one part of wheaten flour has been ^J^^^j^'^^'j^'^J^jJ''' 
added J the mixture is to be well agitated, and (hen to be agitated, and 

heated until all the water added has been evaporated, or, ^^^^'^.'^ *'^'/ J^- 
1 -1 , •. 1 /• I 1 parationof the 

more properly, until the oil has cealed to have any union contained mat- 
wiih the fttbftances which it held in fufpenfion : In this fiate^ers ^nfues ; in 
it becomes purified; and at the end of twenty-four hours it^jjij j^is ^lear, 
is very clear, and does not differ at all in quality from that 
prepared by fulphuric acid. 

In 



152 SUDDEN INFLEX OF 

The heat fhou!d I" the pra^^ice of this lad procefs, care (hould be taken to 
be applied l^at the oil gradually, and not to raife its temperature above 

fiiould not ^0 degrees oi" Reaumurs thermometer. (212 Fahrenheit) 

exceed So" This heat is Sufficient to effe6l the codion of the flour, and of 
eaumur. ^^^^ mucofo-extradiive matter contained by the oil ; a greater 

degree of heat would colour the oil, and deprive it of the ap- 
pearance moft favourable to its fale. 
M. Curaudeau M. Curaudeau was led to this procefs by an obfervation, 

led to this pro- vvhlch every one may likewife make. It is well known that 

cefs by obierving 

%he reparation ^be fauce called melted butter, when too much boiled is fepa- 

of white fauce rated into two parts, one which is thick and occupies the bot- 

ftances when ^^"^ ^^ ^^^^ veffel, while the other part is clear and floats above 

too much done, (he firft : The lower fubftance is the cafeous part of the butter 

united to the flour that has been added to the fauce, and which 

the a6lion of the fire has Separated from the oil j The upper 

fubflance is the butter deprived of all foreign matter j and in 

this Hate it may be called purified butter. 



XI. 

On a peculiar FhBiiation of the River Dordogve, called the 
Mafcaret. j?y yl/. Lagrave Sorbie *, 

JL HE peculiarmovementofthe waters of the River Dordogne, 
The mafcaret which is called the Mafcaret^ takes place twice each day in the 
when the waters ^""^'^^'" lime, zihcn the xvalers are low, which is an effential 
are low. condition. A fimilar motion alfo takes place on the river Ama- 

zons according to the report of M. de la Condamine, when it is 
The Pororoca of named the Poioroca; the fame is alfo perceived at the Orcades, 
fimih!"to °r °^ ^^"^ ""'■''' "^^ Scotland, according this author : and M. 
a like occurrence Sorbie has leen accounts in the publications of fome voyagers 

at the Orcades, of j^g likewife occuring in fome of the rivers of Hudfon's 
4nd in the rivers , , ,,. . . ,.°^ . 

of Hudfonsbay, bay, and alio in theMiirifiipi. 

»!ifn;?r'^^ It is not furprifing (hat this phenomenon does not happen 

in all rivers ; it is not always feen even in the Dordogne. 
From the moft exaft obfervation, if the fummer is not dry, 
and that the waters are not low to a certain degree the Maf- 
caret docs not appear, It rarely occurs in winter; it however 



RJiffiiripi. 



* Journal de Phyfique, LXI. 286. 

fonietlm^js 



THE RIVER DORDOGJfE. 



T53 



fomeljmes takes place during very hard frod?, when the cold 
has diminilhed the waters by the formation of much ice; 
but this happens very feldom, and has never been more than 
three times, in feverai ages. 

There is a maximum of depreffion in the waters neceflTary The manners- 
to its appearance ; Wherefore the mariners in the neighbour- ^^^^^f^^^ ^j^^ ' 
hood of Bourdeaux are in the habit of talking of it fome- bwnels of the 
what in this manner, ** The waters have fallen fo much, the '■'^^''» 
tide will encreafe to day to fuch a height, we ftiall have a 
Mafcaret", and they load their barks accordingly, and take 
precautions to avoid it. The mancEuvres of thefe mariner'? 
have caufed fome naluralifts in the vicinity of Bourdeaux to 
obferve long fince, that this phenomenon mud depend on a 
natural caufe, conne6ted with the bed of the river, fince thefe 
men can foretel, without being fcarcely ever miftaken, by the 
depreffion of the water, whether the Mafcaret (liall appear 
or not, although fometimes it has not appeared before for fome 
years, becaufe the rains have prevented the waters from di- 
min idling to the necefTary degree. 

No one has yet tried to explain the caufe of this fingular no account of 
faa, not even M. Condamine, or if there be any works on the jjj^f""^^ °[^^ 
fubje6t, they are unknovvn to the author though his ftudies have publjlhed. 
been particularly direfled in the line where fuch information 
might occur, and he has read much. In order to enable others 
to account for the fa6ts, he mentions thofe which relate to it fuch 
as he has himfelf feen, and fuch as he has been told have been 
witneflTed for feverai ages. 

In the furaraer, or, more properly fpeaking, when the waters 
are low, there appears at a little diftance from the jun6ilon of 
the Dordogne with the Garonne, or at Bee d'Ambes, an ac-Itconfifts of an 
cumulation of water, like a promontory, on the Hiore, which accumulation of 

• r I • 1 i- r 1 r r II Water, which 

IS from the thicknefs of a ton to that of a fmall houfe, and appears firft at 
which rolls along with fuch velocity that no horfe, whatever ^^ d'Ambes, 
might be his fpeed, could keep up with it. It follows the «"<! ruftes up 
direftion of the fiiore, and makes a moft frightful noife. The gjeatvelo^ity^, 
h®rfes and oxen, which feed in the meadows near the river, and a frightful 
run away with their utmoft fpeed exhibiting the greateft ter- ""''f^ .^ 
ror ; fo much fo that they remain trembling a long time after, cattle, 
and cannot be driven back but with much difficulty. The ^"^ ^'^^ "*^*^' 
ducks and geefe have alfo been feen to precipitate themfelves * 
into the reeds at its approach, with the grealeft fpeed and af- 
fright 



154 



nverturns the 
piers aloAj^ the 
river, and drives 
the large ftones 
which compofe 
them, more 
than fifty paces 
off, 

tears up targe 
trees by the 
roots, and finks 
and breaks vef- 
fels in pieces. 
Above St.Andre 
it appears in 
waves, above 
Asque is feen in 
its original form; 
in waves again 
above Lile, at 
Terfac it re- 
gains its firft 
appearance ; 
at Fronfac it 
occupies the 
•whole breadth 
of the river, 
pafles before 
Lifbourne with 
a terrible noife, 
and ceafes at 
Peyrefite. 
Account of the 
Pororoca on the 
Amazons : 



Its noifi he2id 
at a league 
di (lance. 
It advances in 
feveral waves, 
each twelve or 
Afteenfcet high, 



SUDDEN INFLKX OP 

frighf, and lie flat there, without being able to come out. 
Hard bodie«, which He in the way oFthe Mafcaret are ftruck 
by it with Cuth force, that the piers, built for the ufe of the 
veHels, along the flioreare demoliflied, and fome of the ftones 
which compofe thetn, although very large, are driven away 
more than fifty j)aces; the ftrongeft trees are torn up by the 
roots, the tjarks which it meets are not only fank, but broken 
afunder, efpecially if they are near the (hore, or have any 
hard body lying beneith (hem. From the place called St. 
Andre (Sec the l<jwer part of Plate IV.) on the river, the 
Mafcaret forms itfelf into waves which half its breadth as far 
up as Caverne; there it difappears for a (hort time, to appear 
again between Afque and Lile like a promontory, and then 
returns info the form of waves as far on as Terfac ; at Terfac 
itregains its firft appearance, which it only quits at Vayne; from 
Vayne it proceeds along the bank as far as Fronfac, thehoufe of 
M. de Jlichelieu ; from Fronfac it occupies the whole breadth of 
the river, pafles with a terrifying noife before the village of 
Libourne, throws the road for velTels belonging to this village 
into confufion, and afterwards appears at Genifac-les Reaux 
and at Peyrefite with but very little force. The whole paffes 
in the courfe of feven or eight leagues. 

The following is the account, which M. la Condamine gi\'es 
of the Pororoca of the river Amazons, the comparifon of the 
effefts of which with thofe of the Mafcaret will lend lo efta- 
biifh the theory of thefe phenomena. 

In his voyage to the river Amazons, page 193, he relates^ that 
** between Macapa and Cape-Port, where the channel of the 
river is moft confined by the iflands, and efpecially oppofite 
(he mouth of ihe Arawary, which joins the Amazons on the 
north fide, the flowing of the fea exhibits a fingular pheno- 
menon. During the three days next the full of the new moons, 
the times of the higheft tides, the fea, inftead of taking almoft 
fix hours to rife arrives at itsgrealeft heighth in one or two mif 
nutes ; it may be conceived that this does not happen qufetly; 
there is heard at a league diftance a terrible noife, which an- 
nounces ihe Pororoca, which is the name that the Indians of thefe 
parts give to this frightful flood. In proportion as it approaches 
thenoife encreafes,andfoQnanaccumulation of water, like aprOr 
montory, appears from 12 to 15 feet high ; after that another 
is fiaen, then a third, and fo/netimes a fourth, which fojlow 
2 each 



THE RIVER DORDOGNE, JSf^ 

each other clofely, and which occupy the whole breadth of 

the channel. Thefe waves advance with a prodigious rapidity, >\hich ruft 

break and overturn every thing which oppofes them. I have ^"''"'af'l ^uh 
/• • /■ I 1 <• 1 , • . B"^^^^ rapidity, 

leen m lome places a. large exjent or Jandcarrted away, great and overtura 

trees torn up by the roots, and ravages of all kinds committed; everything 

every where that they pafs the banks are fwept clean ; the them, carry 

canoes, the pirogues, and even the barks can only efcape their a^^ay large por- 

fury, by anchoring in deep water. After having examined j^" j^ °^^^ ^^^^ 

this phenomenon with attention in different places, I have aU up trees by the 

ways remarked that it only takes place, when the rifing flood ]|°°q^*i ^ 

is engaged in a narrow channel, or meets in its way with a in narrow chan- 

bank of fand, or a (hallow place, which occafious an obftacle "^'V °^^^ !f "*^ 
1 • . /• • . 1 . - • , banks, or /hal- 

to it ; that it was in thole places alone that this impetuous and low places. 

irregular movement of the waters commenced, and that it 

"ceafed a little beyond the bank, when the channel became 

deeper, or grew confiderably wider. It is faid that fomelhing it ceafed where 

fimilar to this happens at the ifles of the Orcades, at the north ^^^ channel 

of Scotland, and at the entrance of the Garonne, (it fiiould be or wider* 

the Dordogne), in the vicinity of Bourdeaux, where the ef- 

fe<5ls of thefe tides, is called a Mafcard." 

It appears from what has been cited from M. Condamine, 
that the effefts of the^Pororoca are almoft the fame as thofe of 
the Mafcaret. Neverthelefs there is a marked difference be- Difference be- 
tween them in this refpefi, that on the Dordogne, two l^hids ^^"^"^^^^^'^^ 
of floods take place, one which extends over the whole river, Pororoca. 
and is fimilar to that which M. Condamine has obferved, 
and the other which ranges along the (liore, rolling more over 
the depofits which the waters have left, than in the water itfelf. 
He fays pofitively in page 19 i, that " at one or two leagues 
a frightful noife is heard, which announces the Pororoca ; ^s 
it approaches the noife encreafes ; and fooa an accumulation 
of water appears from 12 to 15 feet high, and then another 
that follows, which occupies the whole breadth of the chan- 
nel". On the Dordogne the Mafcaret rifes with great noife, further partlca- 
fometimes along the coaft in an elongated accumulation, and l^rs of she Maf- 
fometimes in the form of frightful waves, which extend over 
tlte whole river; when it follows the (hore it only appears in 
the re-entring angles, and on the fand banks, as is defcribed 
in the (ketch of the plan of the river, which aGCompanies this 
account, and which lakes in. the whole extent where the ef- 
fefls of the Mafcaret are perceive J,. The parts covered with Defcrlptlou of 

^n,^I]thetketchof 
the courfeorthe 



j§§i -Sudden iKFLEX of 

Mafcatet in the fmaUpoints, u)Jicate (he (and banks where the Mafcaret always 
"*'^* commences; tl^t* parts occupied by fmall lines, are .the places 

where fhe waves occupy the whole breadth of the river. The 
dotted parts* indicate the re-entring angles, wliere the fand 
banks are found which are depofited by the counter-current. 
It is here principally that the Mafcaret rolls with all its fury 
over' tliG mud of the river. On the banks the falient angles^ 
are the places where the Mafcaret quits the fliore, occupies 
the" whole river, and runs> upwards, accompanied by many 
confiilerable waves, which facceed each other, till another 
re-entring angle occurs, whtire it again refumes its firft form. 
It is thus that ihefe who dwell in the vicinity of Bourdeaux 
wilnefs without emotion twice each day, when the waters arc 
low, fo extraordinary a phenomenon, without any one thinking 
of examining into the caufe of it, or evefl of communicating 
the particulars to naturalifts. 
The tide is the The pfimary caufe of this riling of the water is the fame as 
primary caufe (hg^ of the tide in all rivcTs; and if the Mafcaret occurs on vety 
' few rivers, it i-s bfecaufe their beds are not formed in a manner 
necelTary to proddCe it, and have not the fame difpofition as the 
Gifondeand Dordogne: they have either too little or too great' 
a cufrent; their vi^aters are not fufficiently low, or when they 
are, the tld^'does not continue long enough ; finally the re- 
enlring and falient angles are not fuch as they ought to be. M. 
Sorbie thinks he could tell before hand whether any river would 
be liable to fi^ch effefliJ, from the form of its plan and the difpofi- 
tion of its bottom ; and is of opinion that the caufe why more 
rivers are not fubjecl to the Mafcaret, depends entirely on the 
Ihape of their beds, and not on any particularity in their tides. 
The phyfical caufe of that on the Dordogne appears very fimple, 
M. de la Condamine fays, that on the Amazons it is always at 
Th.r courfe of the Tiarrovv parts where it is obferved. The caufe is not the fame 
the Dordogne on the Dordogne, for there is no narrow parts in almo/l its 

dikrib'd, ro , , r •. • • i i • . ^ r 

3 count for the ^^"O'e courle : It IS nearly every where very rapid, and of 
Mifi-rct, fmall depth, as all thofe rivers are wh'ch have much current. 

It forms, as may be feen in the plan, many turns and windings; 
and has few ifles : but at each angle a bank of fand is depo- 
fUed : It defcends, notwithflanding tliefe windings, almoft 
fiom the eaft to the north- weft. As far as Bee d'Ambes, where 
it unites with thfe Garonne which is much more powerful than 
it, and they form together that beautiful arm of the fea, called 

the 



THE RIVER DORDOCNE. J^-^ 

the Gironde. The two rivers then defcend together from 

Bee d'Ainbcs to the fea in a diredlion from the eaft to the 

north-weft. All the waters which arrive from the arm of the 

Tea or from the river, advance in a ftraight line with abundance 

into the mouth of the Dordogne, inftead of mounting up the 

Garonne, which runs almoft north and (outh as far up as Bour- 

deaux. The greateft part of the waters which are advancing 

to the Garonne, ought then, when the current has taken its fuppofed to be 

courfe^ to run up the Dordogne at the beginning of the flood, ""J^!^ ^^^ '^^^ 

fince its velocity does not allo'v them time to turn up the Ga- way to the 

ronne : and thus the water which ought to eo to the Garonne, Garonne, taking 

• ,- ..11 . • /f rf ^^ ftraighter 

runnnigup the Dordogne, form by their abundance, this eitect courfc up the 

which Condamine recites : He fays that «' the tides, which Dordogne. 
ufually take fix hours to rife, arrive at their full height in one 
or two minutes". But on the Dordogne, the tides never come 
to their higheft level in near fo ftiort a time, even when the 
waters are loweft ; but in one or two minutes they encreafe 
confiderably ; which encreafe is probably caufed by the waves^ 
which arrive almofl inftantly ; and the flood raiting their maffes 
of water above their natural level, leaves them there to aug- 
ment the water in the bed of the river in proportion to tlieir 
bulk. I After the Mafcaret has pafled, the waters of both rivers 
encreafe in the fame gradual manner as thofe Qf aU other 
rivers. 
M. Sorbie Hkewife thinks, after all, that the tideof the Gironde It may a!fo kc 

may be the caufe of the Mafcaret on the Dordogne, for it pours '^.^"^^t ^y ^jj* 
• • ■ , r , ^ , ■ • , o ■ . ''<ie of the Gi- 

lts waters into the mouth of the Dordogne in almoft a right ronde rufhing ia 

line; this arm of the fea being at lead fix times larger and * '^'g^c line int* 

deeper than the Dordogne, ought at the flood to carry up fuch the Dordogne, 

an abundance of water, as could not enter into the bed of this »"<! '>y the 

river without occafioning the accumulation of waters defcribed. t^L river * ° 

The phyfical caufe then of the Mafcaret is the confiderable 

mafs of water which arrives from (he Gironde into the mouth 

of the Dordogne, and the fmall depth of this river ; fince it 

is known that in rainy feafons, and when the river is a little 

encreafed in fize, this circumftance never takes place; 

M. Sorbie remarks in conclufion that the fia^ls related (hew remarks on the 

evidently that the flowing and ebbing of the tides of rivers J*^" ''//'""J* 

■' o " fuppofed to be 

are diiferent from thofe of the fea; that the ebbing and flowing caufed by the 

of rivers, are only fecondary eflFeas of the iidei of the fea ; "'^^ °f ^^^ ^^* 
. . . ^ , ■' - ■•'.., e IV forming a daA 

that IS to lay, that the waters ot the lea only form a dam to acrois theif 

Vol. XIII.— FEaRCA&Y. iSOfl. N thofe courfc 



Iq^ s^ceet lock. 

^lofe of il)^ rivers, and that the rivers form by the abundance 
fjf their i^valers, thofe rapid tlood-tides which are obferved on 
^he great rivers, fuch as thofe of the river Amazons, which 
afcend from 5 tp 100 leagues, thofe of the Senegal, which 
advance almoft as far up, and thofe of other rivers almofl 
eq^ually confiderable. M. Sorbie thinks that the Mafcaret, or 
the Pororoca, have altogether the fame caufe as the flood-tide 
of rivers, and though fome flight fecondary efledls occi:r, 
fuch ja$ thofe related, that all arife from the fame phy'fical 
taufe. . 



■KtiTi 



jiifquifitioa 
upon locks* 
The common 
lock. 



Bolt, key, 
wards, pick- 
locks, flceleton- 
keys. 



: Defarifiion of a fecret Lock of ten thouf and Combinations, 

JL HE comnion lock ufually confifls of a bolt, which requires 
a particular inftrument, called the key, to pufti it backward 
and forward ; and in order that this bolt may be inacceffible to, 
violation, certain impediments or pbftacles, ufually called 
w^rd?,, ^re int^rppfed between the key-hole and the bolt, 
\H'hich jnal^ i.t difficult to open the lock by any general or 
common procefs. The general procefs for picking a lock, qf 
• . -wljichthe key has not been feen, confifts in operating upon 
thg.bpU byj a fmall bended inftru-raent or wire ; or elfe by en-. 
.d^avp^ir'^ng^A discover the.pofition of the wards by an unper- 
%,,..i -j.r., : . , .^Cfite;d,key,, ^;n the lace of wbiclVjfome foFt or plaftic matter is 

" ■ 'lodged. i4,ndJy^)^9n this fUualjlon is. once difqovered, it is not 

diJiicuU iff f}}e ayy^y (o much of the key as thall allow it i,Q 

p^fs,,,pr eUe._tQ >ip!f^C^, out of a number of Ikeleton keys, one, 

o^, whivh Ah.e;forn)i^i»^ll a^rajt of i|s pafRng through the lock. 

There are ijaf^nyJQpks fo fituated, as for exaqaple in the vef- 

t,rles of cljyr^lie.s.^nd other little frequeiited places, as to adr 

cpiit p/ thi|», fl9w operation ; but it niuft at Ihp faine time be 

allowed,. Uiat th^J.E'^g'ifli "market prefep^ locki; .of a nun^ber, 

»dj notjJffrr:-.iQl jdifii;reinit/-cpnflru.6tion';, »'.hich can . neither be picked nor 

,?T.»ii 10 i-jLij^jjj^ly^e^^ by ,tjhe prqcefs h^^e .roiqnti,o.^edj^ Nothing is, ropre 

9jij vd\"ii.'»9)fP.wqn»;,hpj(vfiyer, than jpr ,^ey5 19 l?e entrufled out of the 

«a 5di*i .4;-haft4s Qf, the pfliT^flferi w ^hP.hwSAd^ o^ cafually laid down 

"'^.i.^K'.iWW^'^i-iiifol tbftfe (jijJpUdwPanftcgp, l^ir figur,? n|^y iie,taj;en 



SEC^jET I,,OCK. ^§g 

with wax, like the impreffion of a feal, or more fpeedily by 
indentation upon a piece of moiflened paper, or by various 
other means ; and it muft be admitted, that very little Ikill is 
required to enlarge the openings of a common key, fo as to 
make it pafs the wards of a fuperior lock. 

fhefe neceflfary and unavoidable iraperfe6iions of common Secret locks; 
locks, have long ago led to the introdudion of fecret locks, ^^"^j'. ^'■"^"'« 
which are fo conftrudted as to require fome particular mani- tion. 
pulation in opening them ; (iich as that the key ftioijl^ be 
turned twice round, or that it fliouid be turned through a cer- 
tain (pace in one dire<5lion, and then back again ; or that it 
fliouId zB. upon fome delicately refilling piece, very likely to 
be dirregarded by an uninfirufted poflefibr of the key j or that 
a number of viable parts fliould be placed in fome determined 
order, before the common procefs of opening, either with or 
without a key, can take place. Upon all tliefe contrivances 
one general remark may be made, namely, that the pofl"eflbr 
muft always in perfon open his own lock ; for if this be toiae 
done by the mere pradice of a fecret without a key, his cabi- 
net becomes forever open to him who, by communication or 
otherwife, thai! poflefs that fecret; and if a key be ufed, his 
lock, as to that perfon, becomes as fubje^t to violation as a 
common lock. 

In the mechanical confideration of ^ fecret lock, we may Methods of »!«• 
fuppofe the conftrudiion to be entirely unknown to him who ^^''"S them, 
is defirous of opening it. In this, according to the experience 
and fagacity of the operator, the difficulties will be greater 
or lefs, and a very fliallow contrivance may occafionally pre- 
fent a greater obftacle than a much more elaborate ftructure. 
But if we fuppofe the fyfiem of the lock to be known, but 
the particular conditions of opening it to be fecret, the ex- 
aminer will then take for his guide the probable circumftance 
that the re-adtion of the parts may feel conliderably different, 
when they are duly placed for opening, than when their litu- 
ation is fuch as to prevent that effect. By this clue, and by 
careful examination, moft of thefe locks may be opened ; and 
it is remarkable, that the belter the workmanfliip the more 
eafy it is in general to make the intended difcovery. 

The following are the conditions which appear to me to be Conditions of ?. 
ncceffarv in a lock of the moft perfeft kind : P^rfeft lock 

• ~ ■ ■ '^ enumerated. 

^2 l.That 



l^ 



SECRET tOCk^ 



"ti'Thif Certain parts of the lock flioutd be variable in por- 
tion thVoagh a great number of combinations, one only of 
which fliall allow the lock to be opened or (hut. 

2. That this iaft mentioned combination (hould be variable 
at the pleafure of the pofleflbr. 

3. That it fliall not be poflible, after the lock ?s clofed and 
the combination difturbed, for any one, not even the maker 
of the lock, to difcover by any examination what may be the 
proper fituations of the parts required to open the lock. 

4. That trials of this nature fliall not be capable of injuring 
the work, 

" 3. Tliat it fliall require no key ; 
** t5. And be as eafiiy opened in the dark as in the light. 

Thefe conditions are in fome refpefls liable to the inconve- 
niences already mentioned. I would therefore add the foU 
lowing conditions : 

7. That the opening and fliutting fliould be done by a pro- 
cefs as (imple as that of a common lock. 

8. That it fliould open without a key, of with one, at 
pleafure. 

9. That the key-hole be concealed, defended, or inac- 
ceflible. 

10. That the key tnay be ufed by a ftranger without his 
knowing or being able to difcpver the adopted combination. 

1 1. That the key be capable of adjuftment to all the varia- 
tions of the lock, afid yet be limple. " 

12. That the lock fliould not be liable to be taken off and 
examined, whether the receptacle be open or fliut, except by 
one who knows the adopted combination. 

pefcription of a ^^ meditating upon this mechanical problem, I have thought 
new lock of of various conftruclions, but have not yet matured one in 
which all the above conditions are complied with. The lock 
delineated in Plate HI. pofleifes the firlt fix requifites. Fig. 1, 
reprefents the plate of the lock, of which the other fide is feen 
at Fig. 4. In this laft figure the middle piece Is a handle or 
knob, reprefcnted Fig, 6, which, when turned, ferves to 
Ihoot the double bolt ik, Fig. 1, by any common connexion. 
In the aclual lock this bolt is carried backward and forward by 
a pin ftanding out of Fig. 2, foon to be Jefcribed. The other 
lot.T circles in Fig. 4, are handles, reprefenled in Fig. 5, whieh 
' •»»*'*-s*- '"^^■' ^-"^^- ' (erve 



combination. 



SgCRET LOCK. 161 

fwve to move the four wheels feen in Fig. I. Thefe wheels Defcription of a 
have twelve teeth each, and are fattened by center-fcrews, "o^j,°njt;on, 
each upon a flat wheel of the f^me tooth ; but having only ten 
notches aflually cut, as is feen in the right hand upper corner, 
where one of the upper wheels is taken off, and is fhewn at 
fig. 3. Thefe upper wheels have their toothed part confi- 
derably higher than the interior or flat part ; fo that they 
would be contrate wheels if the teeth were cut quite through. 
But this is not the cafe, except with two of the notches, as 
may be feen in the two lower wheels more particularly, and 
alfo in the others. The upper wheels have alfo two of the 
notches between the teeth flopped up, as is Qiewn in Fig. 3; 
by which contrivance there are but ten fituations for fcrewing 
each wheel upon its correfpondent under wheel ; and thefe 
fituations are rendered precife, and all relative motion between 
the two correfpondent wheels prevented by a fmall ftud feeri 
in the uncovered wheel, Fig. 1, which fits into one of the 
notches of the upper wheel when put in its place. The upper 
wheel has a number on each tooth from I to 9 and 0, which 
are of ufe for placing this ftud. The four under wheels are 
held in their fituations by four fpring-catches, which allow 
them to be turned, in one diredion only, by means of their 
knobs or handles 9 and when any wheej is thus turned round, 
the finger and thumb will feel the flroke of the lever, as it 
fucceflively falls into each notch, until the lever comes to refl 
upon the fmooth part. This very palpable indication then 
fliews when to begin to count, calling the firfl hold or flroke 
of the catch 1 ; the fecond 2 ; the third 3, &c.; and the lock 
is fo conftruded, that when the top wheel of any of the four 
couple is, put on with any number oppofite the flud, the 
fame number counted by the catch will place the upper wheel 
in fucb a fituation, as that its notches, which pafs clear 
through, will lie in a circle defcribed from the center or axis 
upon which the great handle turns. And therefore, when 
each of thefe wheels is put in its place, and the numbers known 
{and regiftered, or put in the memory by fome artificial afTo- 
ciation, fuch as of the date of the year taken either backwards 
or forwards, &c.) it is only needful to move each of the four 
knobs till its catch has palTed the fmooth part, with a number 
of flrokes anfwering to its adjuftment, and the circle indicated 
by broken fhaded lines in Fig. 1, will be capable of paffing 

through 



Jg2 frECREi jlock; 

Detcrrptujh of ithrftugh the openTpac^s of evfery one of the wheels. Pig. 2. 

new I6ck of reprefenls a contrate wheel, having its irregular porlions 
A, fi, C, D, &c. flanding up above its plane. Thefe por- 
lions are parts of a circle equal to that denoted by the broken 
ftiaded parts in Fig. J. The contrate wheel is to be placed 
in Fig. I. with its face turned down ; and being there fcrewed 
with its center to the central handle, it ferves to open and 
flnit the bolt, which it can only do when the four wheels are 
in fuch a filuation as to allow the circular edge-parts of Fig. 2. 
io pafs clear through their notches. If any one or more of 
thofe wheels be turned fo as not to correfpond with its num- 
ber, it wil! be impoffible to turn the handle, becaufe every 
attempt to do fo will caufe one of the parts of Fig. 2. to ftop 
in one of the notches of the wheels through which it cannot 
]pafs. The method of opening the lock will therefore confift 
ill fetting each wheel to its known number. 

As the proper fitualion of each wheel is only one out often, 
ft is nine to one again ft any operator upon this lock, that he 
ii)all not' fet th^ firft wheel right, fuppofing all the others in 
their due pofitions ; but it is true that he may try all round, 
and will coihe to the right place at laft. If two only of the 
wheels were deranged, it would be eighty-one to one that he 
fliouW not fet them both right ; and he wouSd be deprived of 
any trial round a tingle wheel, becaufe the other wheel would 
always hold againft him, and prevent his knowing when the 
6pert rtotch of the wheel under trial prefenled itfelf. Three 
wheels deranged would make the odds 729 to one, and the 
four would make the odds 6561. In the plate the combina- 
tions are faid to be ten thoufand, from an overfight in taking 
the ratio of ten to one infiead of nine to one. But this is a 
matter of no confequence as to the principles of the lock, be- 
caufe the number of teeth or number of wheels are capable of 
variation. If a fifth wheel were added to this lock, the odds 
would amount to 590^9. 

As the quantity cut from Fi^. 2. is not more than was ne- 
cefFary for the clear rotation of the wheels when the lock is 
ihut, this piece, when in every other pofition, prevents the 
other wheels from beinx turned at all. 



Leiter 



ilTEKARY SOCIETY, X$S 



XIII. 



Letter from Mr, Alex. Ckombie, concerning the Culedoniun 
Lilerury Society at Aberdeen. 



To Mr. NICHOLSON. 
SIR, 



T, 



HE want of focleties for fcientific and literary improve- 
ment, has been long felt in many confiderable towns in Scot- 
land, and I believe In none more than in Aberdeen. 

The utility of fuch inftitutions being fo generally acknow- Great utility o( 
ledged, it is truly a matter of furprize to find fo few of them ^^f^fUl^Y^H 
in (his kingdom, efpecially when the facility of forming them rary improve- 
is confidered. Any attempt, however fraall, to promote the ™c"'' 
interefts of literature, and to difFufe moral, political, or philo- 
fcjphrcal knowledge among men of all ranks, will ever meet 
with the marked appr(;bation of the fincere vvellwiflier to his 
country ; and I am perfuaded you will receive peculiar fatis- 
fa6lion in being able to communicate to the public the feebleft 
eflforts which may be at any lime dire6ted to fo important and 
defirable an objeft. 

In your Journal for December laft, a traveller has exprefled Reference to a 
his furprize to find no antiquarian or literary fociety, or fub- ^"^Vournar* 
fcription library, at Aberdeen; and I agree with his remark, 
that thole who know the refpedability of the place, cannot 
fail to be aftonidied at it. To account for fo Angular a fa6l 
would perhaps be deemed prefumpluous. I have too much 
"rel'ped for my fellow-citizens to attribute it to a want of tafie, 
but I cannot help blaming thofe amongft us who are qualified 
for fupporting fuch inftitulions, for their want of attention in 
this refpe6l. 

The Profeflbrs of both Univerfities certainly unite talents 
with influence and refpe6tability, — It were to be wiflied that 
they and other literary characters in town, had more concern 
for the improvement of the community at large, and would 
make fuitable efforts to promote it. 

It would be doing injuflice to the liberality of the proprie- The Athenaeoni 

tors of the Athenaeum and circulating library, to aeny thefe f"*^ ^'■'^'''"^*"S 

. tr> J y J library. 

inftitutions their refpedive merits and advantages. But I 

apprehend that neither of them is fufficient to fupply the de- 

fidcratum 



1^4* tlTERARY SOCIETY, 

fideratum mentioned by your correfpondent. The firft is prifl- 
cipally calculated for the commercial part of the inhabitants, 
and thofe who have time to lounge; the fecond, although 
comprifing much ufeful reading, is fometimes defe6live in the 
feledion of the books, and affords little opportunity for (he 
union of literary exertions. 
Confidcratlon in A fociety whofe books are the property of the individual 
rietory afToda'-' fu^fcribers, is far better adapted, not only for advancing knovv- 
tion. ledge and bringing ufeful talents into notice, but alfo for giving 

a favourable bias to the purfuits of ingenious young men of all 
defcriptions, to whom fuch a fociety is at all limes acceflible, 
from the fmall expence attending it. People become more 
folidly concerned in promoting the fuccefs of any fcheme, in 
proportion as their perfonal interefts are interwoven with it ; 
and we may therefore conclude, that a man will take more 
pleafure, and perhaps derive more profit, from reading a book 
which he confiders as his own property, than one only lent 
him for a time. 
Subfciiption- Imprefled with thefe confiderations, a iew perfons in Aber- 

ed7«b.''i8o5^' ^^*^" inftituted a fubfcription-library upon the 22d February. 
1805, under the title of the Caledonian Literary Society. Be- 
fides embracing all the periodical publications of merit in Great 
Britain, our ftock is enriched with a feledlion of the moft ap- 
proved books, eit=her prefented by the members or purchafed 
from the Society^ funds : Which Society has already increafed 
to upwards of 100 members, and the lift is daily augmenting 
in number and refpectability. 
at a very mode- It is Worthy of remark, that the trifling fum of fix fliillings 
y»te expence. per annum is only required from each fubfcriber to The CalC' 
donian Literary Society. So inconfiderable an expence, con- 
trafted with the great variety of ufeful and entertaining^ know- 
ledge to be derived from it, muft form a very powerful re- 
tommendation in its favour. 

We have been informed with pleafure, that many perfons 
in'Glafgow, who are not members of the Society eftabliflied 
there, have contributed liberally to its fupport by giving books 
■i — an example worthy of the imitation ot others. 
A Fbllofop^ieal It 's a'fo in contemplation to inftitute a Philofopbical Society, 
Ifofitty in con- ^n a plan fimilar to tliofe of London, Edinburgh, &c. for the 
purpofe of receiving occafional diflertations on a variety of 

literary 



m 



EPFfiCT OF THK NITROUS OXIDE. 

1il«rary and other fubjefls, lo be depofited as the property, 
or, entered into the books of the fociety ; and afterwards 
publifljed in fach manner as the fociety may diredl. 

Should any of the friends of fcience in Invernefs, Banff, 
Peterhead, or other places, be defirous of eftabliftiing fimilaf 
inftitutions, we will moft chearfully furnifii them with a copy 
of our plan and regulations. 

We have a fincere wilh to fee every encouragement given 
to undertakings fo laudable and beneficial, and have with this 
view made the prefent communication, to give publicity to 
ours through the medium of your excellent Journal. The in- 
fertion of the above will oblige, Sir, 
With refpea. 

Your humble fervant, 

ALEX. CROMBIE, Pre*. 
Aberdeen, Januarj/ 2, 1 80G. 



XIV. 

Letter from Mr. James Stodart, in Anfvser to a ^uefiion 
concerning the Effect of the Nitrous Oxide, propojed by Dr. 
Btddoes, 

To Mr. NICHOLSON, 
Dear Sib, 

A-JR. Beddoe*:, in a paper on the medical effecl of refpiring Qiir y^^^l^??' 

the nitrous oxide, publiflied in the lall number of your Jour-j^g^^Q^ji jj-^.^. 

nal, refers to an account I formerly gave of fome unpleafanted previous to 

and rather alarming fenfalions experienced after inhaling that ^" f'^^wJ"" 
" • " convenience 

gas. He attributes the whole to hyfteria or nervous afieclion; from rtitrous 
at the fame time fignifying a wilh that I would fiate whether °*"^^* 
or not that was really the cafe. In anfwer to this I have only Reply- ttiat 
to obferve, that if any fuch predifpofition tohyfteria did exift, 
it was wholly unknown to me. My general ftale of health 
was as ufual ; nor had any thing occurred particularly to affeft ^ ' 
the mind. I had often inhaled the nitrous oxide under cir- -oi n.-sjai^c^ 
cumftances in every refpeft fimilar (at lead as far a? I can ar^J*K«i»-. 
judge) and till thai time, fo far from experiencing any thing 

like 



16!^ STATICAL LAMP. 

like debility, the very contrary effeft was produced; namely, 
found and undifturbed fleep in the night, followed by ftrengtli 
and increafed chearFulnefs on the following morning. 
Expcaation that I very Cncerely hope the medical application of this ex- 
5de ma^prov e' *'"^"'"^'"3ry agent, direcled as it is by the very able hand of 
eminently ufe- Dr. Beddoes, may prove as important and ufeful in medicine 
lul, &c. ^5 jf |g interefting and curious in philofophy. 

I have not yet heard of its being tried in cafes of fufpended 
animation ; it appears to be an experiment well worth making. 
The fubject is periiaps worthy of the attention of the Humane 
Society. I am with refpe6t. 

Dear Sir, 

Your's fincerely, 

JAMES STODART. 
Strand, January Ql, 1S06 



XV. 

Defcription of a Slalical Lamp, which maintains a Supply qf 
Oil to the Burner from a Reftrvoir, placed Jo Ion; as to occa~ 
Jion no Interception of Light. % A. F. 

To Mr, NICHOLSON. 
SIR. 

Dcfcrption of a A SEND you a flvctch of an overflowing lamp, of which 
new (udcal the conllni6tion will be eafily deduced from the figure. Its 
'^""''' advantages are, that the flame is fopplied from below, and 

the light is not intercepted, but falls on all furrounding ob- 
jeds as dire6tly as that of a candle. The upper part of A 
(fee Plate IV.) contains the ufual apparatus of a lamp, either 
according to Argand's conflrudion or any oilier; and (he 
column or tube which fupplies the oil may be no longer than 
that fupply and the conditions of the ftrudure may demand. 
The vafe below contains the oil, which is poured in, when 
needful, at the top of the column, by a funnel or otherwife. 
The circle round B, C, reprefents a globulaf (or cylindrical) 
veflel, having no communication with the vafe except through 

a neck; 



STATICAL LAMP. 1(>7 

a neck or pipe D, proceeding downwards nearly to Its bottom ; Dcfcriptlon of a 

but there is a communication with the External iii', through ^i^^ip, 

perforation (reprefented by afmall fliadcd circle near B) which 

prevents the almofphere from interrupting the intended aflion. 

The lightly fliaded femicircle B reprefents an hemifpherical 

fblid capable of revolving on an horizontal axis, fo as to hang 

downwards and fill the lower half of the globe, when no 

fluid is prefent; or it can be rai fed up by floatage into any 

other pofition, according to the quantity and denfity of any 

fluid that may be poured in. 

Let us now fuppofe the velfel C to contain any fluid not 
more than half its capacity, and that the revolving piece B 
is of fuch a weight as to be of half the fpecific gravity of 
that fluid : it may then be eafily underflood that the piece B 
will fettle into fuch a fituation as that part of it fhall be im- 
merfed in the fluid ^nd fupport it in the veHel, exa6t!y to the 
height of its axis. For the part of the folid, immerfed on one 
fide, is exadly equal to the fpace above llie fluid in that fitu- 
ation, on the other fide ; and the greater part of B which is 
on one fide of the perpendicular will exceed the Imaller part 
on the other fide, by fxadly double ihat quantity. Confe- 
quently the immerfed part of the folid will be prefied down 
by twice its own weight ; and tliis is exadly equal to the 
weight of fluid which it difplaces; whence the body and the 
fluid will be in equilibrio. Let us now fuppofe the fluid to be 
brine, at the fpecific gravity of 12, which may be poured in 
either at the top or at the fide hole, and that oil of the fpeci- 
fic gravity of 9 be then poured upon it; and it ■is manifeft 
that the oil will prefs the denfe fluid upwards into C, as re- 
prefented in the figure, and that when C is half filled, the oil 
will ftand at an elevation above the axis equal to one half more 
than the height of the denfe fluid, meafured from its liirface 
where the oil prelTes upon it. And, when this afijufiment is 
once made, by putting in the proper quantity of denfe fluid, 
if any of the oil be taken out, or conluined by burning, the 
preflTure will be lefs, and the denfe fluid will rife within the 
vafe. But this rife will not be attended with any depreflion 
in the veflel C, becaufe the level will be kept up by the re- 
volving piece B, and confequently the oil iifelf will be pre- 
vented from falling as much as it would have done if this con- 
trivance had not been applied. 

I do 



158 $C(VTCH nsHBRIES, 

.!Defcriptkm of I do not djfguife the con fi deration, that as the oil dijninifliej^ 
a nt-vv ftdtical (|,g djftances between the upper and lowet furfaces of the 
denfie fluid mufl; diminilh, and a proportional difference or 
fubftdence in the furface of the oil muft take place. The 
proper remedy for this appears to be that the lower furface 
diould be made as large as convenience will allow ; that its 
rife and fall may be lefs. 

With regard to the difpofition and form of the fpaces which 
are fo contain the oil, it is only needful to obferve that they 
may ail be made fmall or narrow, except that which is alter- 
nately to be occupied by the oil, and the denfe fluid. If the 
height of the denfe fluid be 12 inches, the lamp may fland 
18 or 20 inches high, uling fait water as above mentioned. 
There are various pradiical objeftions to mercury ; but if 
this fluid were to be ufed, the oil might be raifed ten times as 
high, or the apparatus, if required, might be conftrufted with 
a lefs diftance between the furfaces.* 

I am. Sir, 

Your confiant Reader, 
■''''■■ ■ A. F. 



XVI. 

Litter from a Conejpondent re8ifi/ing fome Particulars of Mifi. 
information refpeBing the Fijlicry of the North of Scotland. 

To Mr. NICHOLSON. 
SIR, 

W HEN any in^portant information is communicated ta 
the public, we have a right to expedl that it fliould be given 
with extreme accuracy; or at leaft where any doubt^ exift, 
with fuch a degree of diffidence and noodefty, as may leave 
room for avoiding mifreprcfentation or falftiood. 

* The contrivance for keeping a fluid at its level by a feml-cir- 
cular revolving folic! was invented by Robert Hooke. See Birch's 
Hiftoiy of the Royal Society. A. F. has ingenioufly adopted it t6 
a lamp which cafts no fhadow. Hooke's lamp is nearly as faulty 
as the common fountain laitip in this refpeft. N, 



SCOtCH FISIIK&IES. <^t<^ 

"* 'I wiftl on Enquirer, in your Journal for December !a ft', had Erroneoas'iri- " 
attended to this, before making what I conceive to be a hafty, fpeStngdiT 
ill-tbunded ftatement, refpecting certain injlances of ivajleful ii{hztisi on tht 
negligence infome of ourjijhries in the north of Scotland, which ^^^^^^ °^ ^*^^- 
it is my duty at prefent to controvert. — He ftates : 

1ft, " That the fifhermen of Aberdeen, Banff, Peterhead, 
&c. never think of carrying their fi(b along the coali fouth- 
ward, which they might do to Leith in twenty-four hours; 
dr with a good brilk wind to Berwick-upon-Tweed, or evet^ 
Newcaftle-upon-Tyne ; but when their refpeflive towns are 
fupplied, tliey throw the remainder upon the dunghill for ma- 
nure ! !" 

A fa6l fo improbable as the above, would indeed, require From various 
no ordinary Ihare of proof to gain credit to it, and I have the ^^^^^^ ofwealdj 
falisfaftioii to alTure you that it is entirely without foundation. \% negleaei. 
The truth is, the number of hands employed in the fifheries 
in the north of Scotland are fo few, and the encouragement 
given to enterprize and fpeculation in this important fource of 
national wealth fo fmall, that no more fifli is caught than what 
fupplies the neighbouring towns. But even admitting that 
more were caught, and that we could vend at Leith, Berwick- 
upon-Tweed, or Newcaftle-upon-Tyne, is it not to be fup- 
pofed that hibers of places neareJi to thefe towns could afford 
to greally underfoll us? 

When the dog-fidi (fqualus catulus, L.) appear on the coaft, Thf dog.fifli 

our filhers catch a great number of them and dry them for their ^^"6|^t tor tooi, 

» ' tor oil, for Its 

own private ufe (for none but themfelves and the lower claffes fkin, and for 

of people would ufe them) and likewife for the benefit of the™*"""' 
oil, which they yield in great abundance, and the ikin, which 
is ufed for fmoothing ihe furface of wood. After theyare 
drained of the oil which they contain, befides keeping a fuffi- 
cient number for ufe, they throw the remainder on their dung- 
hills, which produces a valuable manure. And no doubt your 
correfpoodent may have roillaken thefe for any other kind of 

m^ 

He next obferves; "That at Arbroath, another cuftpm, 
equally as extravagant in its kind prevails, and of which I have 
been a wilnefs; liie crab fiftiery is fo produdive, that after 
boiling them, the bodies of the crabs are thrown away, and 
iliQ large claims onlj/ hio\igUt 10 lable." 

It is 



170 AIR J8L0WN FROM BELLOWS. 

The claws of It is indeed, gcneially the cafe here, and in every othet' 

crabs only are fiQiing town, that the fifners for the moft part retain the bo- 

bttt the bodies * ^'^s of (he crabs, and only difpofe of the claws in the public 

are not thrown markets : but that (he former are thrown away, is by no means 

^^^'^y* true in ahnoft any iuilance; for the filhermen find them of far 

more value in baiting their hooks, than what tiiey could get 

for them otherwife. Indeed, if it were not for this purpofe, 

it is believed, few or no crabs would be caught at all. 

_- , r- Having thus endeavoured to vindicate our filliers from the 

Much profit , r r t 

might be derived charge of waneiul negligence, which none who know them 

?*7 V??^r"/ will think them guiltv of: I cannot conclude without exprefl^ 

Aberdeen for '"g f"y 'urprize iliat no company has yet been eltablmied at 

exporting white Aberdeen for exporting white-fifli. It is obvious from its ex- 

celieot iiiuation, and advantages, that very handfome profits 

could be cleared, if fuch an undertaking were once fet on 

foot, and well conduced; equal, if not fuperior to the falmon 

/idling, which it is well known has been greatly the means of 

enriching this place. 

If you deem the above ohfervations worthy a place in your 

ufeful Journal you will oblige, 

SIR, 

Yours refpeftfully, 

A. L. 

Aberdeen, January 3, 1806. 



XVIL 

Ohfervations and Enquiries concerning the Heat of Air blown 
■ fram Belloivs. By K. H. D. 

To Mr. NICHOLSON, 
SIR, 

1 BEG leave to meriion a pafiage in Dr. Black^s Le61ureg 
Black's lee- ~ on (he Elements of Chemiftry, publiQied by Profefibr Robifon, 
tuies. which occurs at page 8S, Vol. I. 

The author is fpeaking of the communication of heat, and 
has, ao (lie former part of the- page accounted for the ap- 
parent coldnefs of a ftream of air, by its preventing the accu» 
*' 5 mulation 



PaflagefromDr. 



I7lr 

njulatlon of heat around our bodies, by its impulfe and rapid 

fucceffion, both cooling our clothes fafter, and carrying away 

the warm air that was Intangled in them. The Doctor (ays, that agitation of 

"the fenfationcf coldnefs, therefore, produced by wind, o"" J^^ ^eatS* 

agitated air, is fo much ftronger than that produced by equally, bodies, does 

cold air in a Hagnaling ftate, that we are often perfiiaded the not render the 

" " ' air colder, 

agitated air is adlually colder, until we examine it by the 

Iher.iTiometer ; and Dr. Boerhaave thought the deception fo 
i^rong, that he conliived an experiment to remove it com- 
pletely (Boerhaave Elementa Cheraire.) He fufpended a 
thermometer in the air of a large room for fome time, and 
noting the degree to which it pointed, he then directed againft 
the bulb of it a ftream of air impelled by a large bellows in 
the lame room;— that ftream of air wogld certainly feel to a 
perfon who oppofed any part of his body to it, conGderably 
colder than the reft; of the air in the fame room ; but the ther~ 
mometer is not in the leufi uffeRcd by it. And it would be eafy nor hotter, 
to exhibit another experiment to fliew, that agitated air is ^^""^h it mekq 
not made colder by agitation. A piece of ice, for example, 
being fufpended in the air of a warm room, and blown upon 
by bellows, inflead of being thereby kept the more cool, as 
our hand would be, and preferved the longer from being 
totally melted, would certainly be melted fo much the fafter, 
than when the air is allowed to ftagnate in fome meafure 
siround it." 

I take the liberty of troubling you with this In confequence M. Wintfr 
of a communication from vour ingenious correfpondent, J^""" , ^ ,,^ *"" 

•' . ' trom beUows 

Mr. Richard Winter, publiPied in the lati Number of your gave outheat. 
excellent Journal, where liis experiment on the elTed pro- 
duced on a thermometer by a blaft of air from a pair of 
bellows, direftlv contradids Dr. Black's aflertion, that " th^ 
tlierniometer is not in the leaft affected by it." 

That there is great truth in Dr. Black's general ftafement Queftions re- 
of the fedi. cf a blaft of air cooling a body warmer than it- JP^'"S t^efe 
felf, by atrording a continued fcries of frefti furfaces to carry 
90" the caloric, 1 have no doubt, and that it ftiould have an 
equal effect in warming a body colder than itfelf, feeijis 
equally evident, or by fupplying the colder body with caloric. 
B.ut in the cafe of the thermometer being raifed four degrees, 
(3s ftated in, Mr. Winter's experiments) we arc not told that 
it was oi^ a temperature lower than that of the air of the 

roora 



l72r AIK BLOWN >ROM BEtLOWS. 

room. How then, Sir, are we to reconcile the refuU of 
jour correfpondent's experiment with Dr. Black's alTerlion, 
mentioned above? — Are we to fuppofe the blaft of air to have 
adually acquired an increale of temperature, and if fo, how 
has it acquired it? I hope your correfpondent (fliould this 
ever reach his ears) will not imagine I doubt the accuracy of 
his experiment ; my only objed is, the clearing up a cir- 
cumftance, which at prefent is to me at leaft, not by any 
means fatisfa61orily accounted for. To whom then can I 
better apply, than to you, if indeed I may venture to hope 
you may think the obje<5l worthy of your confideration ? 
Whether tl)at fliall prove the cafe or not, I muft always fee! 
(in common with thoufands of others) the benefit you confer 
on the fcientilic world, by the eafy means of communicatioB 
of knowledge to the public, which your Journal atfords, 
I have the honour to be. 
Sir, 
Your obedient Servant, 

K. H. D. 

Tunbridge, 
January 19, 1806. 

P, S, I do not underHand how the fuppofed greater capa- 
city of a vacuum for caloric explains the fadls, whether of 
the rife of the mercury in tl>e thermometer, or the melting o£ 
the ice. 



Objervations on the preceding Letter, by W, N. 
Itis deiirable WHEN a queflion arifes concerning the difagreement of 
mentt ftould be ^^^^' ^^^ procefs obvioufly indicated is- to repeat the ex- 
repeated, periments ; in order that it may be i^en what circumftances 
may have tended to produce miflake, or what may have beenf 
the real difference between operations fuppofed to be the 
fame. Though 1 have not had an opportunity of doing this, 
I have neverthelefs tliought it proper to make a few remarks. 
Agitation When a body is immerfed in the air, or in any other fluid 
tT^in the'^com. ^'^^•"'"g f'^""^ '^^^'^ '" temperature, the body will acquire 
mon temperature the common temperature more fpeedily (that is to fay, it will be 
morcfpcedily. heated or cooled more quickly) by agitating the fluid, than if it 
were left undifturbed j — and this for the plain reafon, that 
more of the particles at the original temperature will come 

into 



i 



i 



a!r blown from bellows. ij?^. 

iiit contact with it in the latter than in the former cafe. 

Thefe remarks fupport and explain the fa£ls noticed by 

Dr. Black and Boeiliaave. Agitation of the air is merely 

fuppofed, and not that it (hall be either condenfed or rarified. 

Many fafts concur to (hew, 'that the capacities of elaflic ^Ir is heated 

fluids for heat are encreafed by rarefa<Slion, and diminifhed 

by condenfation ; proofs of which we have by experiments 

in the air-pump and condenfer, and in (he late experiments 

of explofions produced in the chamber of the condenfing 

fyringe. If we attend to this law, we muft infer that the 

air in a pair of bellows, being fuddenly compretTed by a force 

perhaps equal to one twentieth of an atraofphere or more^ 

will acquire an increafe of temperature ; and if in this dif- 

pofilion to give out heat, it be made to rufli againft the ball 

of a thermometer, it will heat the mercury, and caufe it to 

rife in (he tube. Now, in order to reconcile both the Whence the 

refuUs of Mr. Winter, and of Boerhaave to truth, we mu(l [^^5 ^-,11 ^ejiot^ 

recollefl that bellows, like the unfortunate traveller in Efop's and the remoter 

Fables, can blow hot and cold at the fame time. If the ther- >? '2:1"'^ ^^ 

_ Its motion. 

mometer be held very near tl)e aperture, the warm air will 
heat the mercury; but if it be held at a greater diflatice, 
where the warm air has become plentifully mixed with cold, 
the eifecl of its temperature may be altogether inconfiderable, 
while that of the agitation continues to be efFe£lIve: that is. 
to fay, the thermometer if already at the common temperature,. 
will neither rife nor fall; if it be already hot the fleam will 
cool it ; or if cool the fteam will heat it, 7'hus it is, to return 
to our Iravelier, that we breathe upon our fingers held clofe 
to our mouth when we mean to warm them ; but when we 
widi to produce cold, we hold the fubjcd at a diftance, and 
blow at it. 

As the^hermometer falls in tlie pneumatic vacuum, I fup" 
pofe thftre may be fome miflake in the poft^cT;p^ 



Vol. XIIL— FtBKUAKTi;, ISOt^, O Jteoa^rt 



17-4 ECONOA^Y AT SEA. 



XVIII. 

Account of the Vcrformance of the patent Ship Economy at Sea, 
in a J'oyage to the JVrfi India Jjland'i, and of fame Improve- 
ment in the Tackle aboard, proved of great Utility* By Mr» 
J. Whitley Boswell. 

To Mr. NICHOLSON. 

Dear Sir, 
Defcviptloii of /\s In a former number of your Tournal *, you favoured me 

the fliip s con. ,./•. . ^ • ■ r , n ^- r t n - t- 

ftruftion has ^y inlerting a delcription ot the conltruclion ot the Ihip li.co- 
becn publifhed nomy, built according to ray patent, I hope you will alfo admit 
number of this ^'^^ following account of her performance at fea, and of fome 
work, other matters ; of confiderable utility to naval concerns. 

Your Journal is principally devoted to the furtherance of 
the moft ufeful of all knowledge, that of experiments in Philo- 
The fubjea: fophy and the Arts. And to a nation which like this depends on 
proper for the its ftiipping for moft of (he many advantages it enjoys over 
tain[ngan\T"" ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ world, what experiments can be more iropot* 
count of an ex- tant, or ought to be more interefting, than thofe which con- 

to the nation. The experiment which has been made on this occafion is 
and on a great entitled fo a farther fuperiority over other ufual experiments, 
an account of the large fum of money required for condu6ling 
it, which altogether rather exceeded 5000/. and on this oc- 
cafion it is but juflice to mention the fpirit with which Wm. 
Gentlemen who Lufhington, Efq. of this City, and Richard Griffith, Efq. of 
this experiment. J-'i^^^''^ ^^^e came forward to aflift in making this experiment, 
whofe property the fliip principally is, (my (hare of it being 
comparatively fmall to theirs); to thofe gentlemen this country 
is chiefly indebted for proving a matter of great utility to its 
The plan muft naval concerns, and which fooner or later rauft be of the 

lie of great ufe grgateft advantage to it, when the plan comes into ufe, though 

lo the nation ° ^ . . 

when adopted, the fpirit of the times may defer this period until it (hall ceafe 

to be of any benefit to us, and others may reap the profit of 

Ihefe gentlemens public fpirit and my labour and ftudy ; but 

as I waited till I fhould have the proof of actual experiment 

to add, to that of a theory (which though founded on on- 

* Vol, IX. p. I66t 
2 erring 



ECONOMV AT SEA, 



17: 



CYiing principle?, and of which each part had been often 
proved in delail before, it could not be expefted to convince 
tfiofe whofe prelTure of bufinefs, or want of tafte for fuch 
ftudies, deprived of time, or inclination, or made it too great 
i labour to attend to its demohftratioh in any other way) I hopes that the 

... , • 1 • 1 • > r n • fuccels of the 

fliall hope now, (ihat my exertions to brmg this plan or Ihip- experimer.t wili 
building into the notice it deferves, when its fufficiency, accelerate this • 
flrength and fecurity is,) fupported by aftual and fevere proof, P"'° ' 
will meet with a fait and candid confideration^ from the di- 
redlion of our navy, and thofe vvhofe commercial purfuits lead 
to employ veflels of great burden. 

The chief advantage of this method of (liip-building is, that Econbmlcal ad- 
it enables the builder to ufe timber of much lef^ coft, and vaftly ^"^f^f f^''' 

■' method of Ihip- 

more eafy to procure, with ftrength and liability fuperior to building, 

the old method, in proportion to the quantity of timber, and cheaper timber, 

• ' . ' ^ more eatily pro- 

to difpenfe with knee timber entirely. cured, may be 

In a national point of view this method is ftill df greater "f^** "^"•, , 
, ^ r ' , • r ■ I r ,-r . Its national ad - 

benefit; for as it admits ot timber ot nfty years growth to ^j^tages, the 

fupply the place of that of one hundred, not only the foreft forefts could 

lands may be made to produce timber for double the number ^j^^^.^gj^^^^j^Qf 

of fliips for our navy in a given time, but private gentlemen the timber 

would be alfo induced to plant more timber for this purpofe, "J^"^f '"•'^ '1 
' _ J r > plan m a given 

from the fuperior proifit they could in this cafe make of their time, more 

plantations, and the hope it would give them of being able ^'""''^'^'r""''^ ^= 
*^ .-._,,, planted if it was 

to receive the fruits of their labour during their own lives, adopted ; oaks 

which at prefent can only be expefted to be reaped by their P^ ^^^'i y^^"> 

J .' •' * ■' have more fer- 

grand children. viceable timber 

An oak of fifty years growth has alfo a much greater quan- '" proportion 
.-, c c • u\ .• u ■ •. • .• . •. .y than thofe of 

tUy of lerviceable timber in it, m proportion to its age, than ,qq g^j occu- 

one of an hundred years, and four times the number of them py only one 
at lead can ftand and flourifti at one time at the fame extent ^^^'j^j ^ 
of ground ; fo that the public would be benefited by the adop- 
tion of the plan every way ; for while timber would thus be 
rendered more plenty, thofe who prepared it for market would 
alfo obtain a greater profit. 

Hitherto the price of timber for the navy has been attempted The 'carcity of 
to be kept down by arbitrary regulations, which tended toj^'f *""^„^f. 
encreafe its fcarcity ; at lafi, notwithflanding every effort, this country ta 
the price and fcarcity have encreafed fo much that our govern- ''^'''1 '^P^ °^ 
went have been forced to the expedient ot partly relying on danger of this 
a foreign country for the continuation of the navy ; and to eipc<li9nt. 
O 2 depend 



176 



ECONOMY AT SEA. 



Should induce 
the trial of the 
patent plan, 
in doing which 
there is no riflt] 
as its fuf' 
ficiency has 
been proved. 



No public 
money required 
to make ex- 
periments, 
they have been 
already made 
at the expence 
of the owners 
of the ihip. 



The perform- 
ance of the /hip 
at fea cannot 
be miftated on 
account of its 
publicity. 



The Captain's 
letter relative 
to the voyage 
eut. 



depend on the dock yards of Ruffia for the bulwark of the 
Britifli nation, for the defence of its liberties, and of its politica} 
exiftence, and this at a time when our crafty and implacable fo^e 
has got pofleffion of nearly all the forefts of the reft of Europe, 
and is making the moft prodigious exertions to out-numbec 
our navy. 

If my plan of (hip-building tends in fo great a degree to 
diminifti ihofe difficulties, and even dangers, as is ftated above, 
is it not worthy of a trial at leaft, even if fome rifle was run 
in that trial? but when no rillc is run, when the plan has 
been proved, the moft fcrupulous economift of the public 
wealth can flart no ohj'^clion to that trial of it in the navy, 
that the public neceffiiy for fonae expedient to fupply timber 
for its ufe fo loudly calls for. 

We a(k no drafts on the public fource to try experiments 
on the fubject, thefe have been already cempleatly made at 
our own expence, and all we demand is our country to con- 
defcend to reap the fruit of our exertions ; if flie does, we 
fliall rely on her generofity to recompence us, convinced that 
flie will have ample proof that we have deferved it; but 
fliould this not be the cafe, we will not reft contented with 
having difcharged our duty, in doing the moft we could to 
ferve her ; which if we fiiould be fo happy as to effect, we 
will never regret our trouble or coft. 

Having thus ftated the claims which the fubje6l has to pub- 
lic attention, 1 (hall proceed to relate the performance of 
the fliip at fea, which, as flie failed ii> company with a large 
convoy both out and home, is a matter of too public a nature 
to admit any miftatement I might with to make, which God 
knows is far from my defire. 

On the 22d of Auguft, 1804, The patent fliip Economy 
weighed anchor ofFGravelend, with but a fmall cargo aboard, 
as is ufual for fliips outward bound to her deftination, and fet 
fail on her voyage to Trinidad and Grenada; and on the 14th 
Odtober following arrived at Grenada ; her performance on 
this voyage is bed ftated in her Captain's own words, in the 
following extrad from a letter to Wm. Lufhingtop, Efcj* 
London. 

SIR, Grtnada, Oa. 15th, 1804.. 

I have the plcafure to inform you of the fiiip Economy's 
falc arrival here yefterday evening. We had a fine paftage, 

and 



BCON6MY AT SEA*.. 177 

and had but one gale of wind : The {hip performs as well as Ship fteersand 

it is poffible for a ftiip ; is remarkable eafy at fea, fteers and remarkably \afy 

fails well, and is perfedly tight. In the gale of wind the at fea, perfeftly 

Epervier man of war fprung her foremad ; the Robert Aylward ^'^ht in a. heavy 

ditto; a trig, Mafler or brig named Swinger, loft both top- other fhips 

marts and parted convoy in lat. 14. 30 N. Oar (hip behaved J^^^much, 
r J *^ Ihe meets no 

eKtremely well and never ftrained a rope yarn. accident; 

(Signed) ALEXANDER SMITH. 

From the period of this letter ftie remained at the Weft de'ayeJ at the 
India iflands until the 23d of July 1805 ; being detained there iy\^^ Fiench 
the greaieft part of that time by the arrival of the French fleet, fleet, 
which was afterwards chafed back to Europe by the gallant 
and ever to be regretted Lord Nelfon; from the 23d. of July, "'""""^ ^°"^*» 

'^ J J ' experiences 

when the failed for England, to the 29th of Oft. when Hie violent gales, 
caft anchorott" Porlfmouthon theMoi.her-bank, ftie experienced ^"^^ tedious 

r ■ r r , . 1 ■ 1 1 r J - i ■ i pa!"gc '^t three 

a leries or levere weather^and violentlgaies or wind, in which nioii»s, fome 

fome of the fleet With which (he returned foundered, and ^hips of the 
others were obliged to bear away for America for Aielter. j^^o^gh feveriry 
The remarkable bad pafTage home of the Leeward ifland fleet, of weather. 
of which (he was one, is too well known to need much de- ^^.^^^j^^ 'I ^J^'^* 
fcriplion; all feamen muft be (entible that three months lofTing ficient proof of 
on the Atlantic ocean in fuch hard weather, beating upaeamft ^?' ^^|"^''y> 

r> r !n when deeply 

contrary winds, tea velTel as deeply laden with fugar as the laden, 

Ikrews could comprels it into her, rnuft have been a moft fe- 

vere trial, and that if (he had a fingle weak part, or defective. 

principle in her confttu6iicn, it muft have given out in that 

time: but while moft of the other (hips of the fleet met with 

more or lefs damage both to themfelves and their cargoes, flie 

bore through all without the fmalleft accident, and brought 

home her fugar perfedly dry and fafe ; which was not com- 

pleally difcharged until Jan, 1805 (on account of her deten- 

tion at Portfmouth, through contrary winds from whence (he 

ftie did not get to London before the 27th. of Nov. on which 

day flie hauled into the Weft India dock,) or this account 

would have been made public before. A further proof of took the 

the ftability of her frame work, is her taking the ground with 2^^""^'^''^°^' 

. .. . . injury at 

a (uh cargo on board without any accident, as may be (een Trinadad. 
more particularly in the following account of her performance 
home which I received from her Captain. 

DE.\a 



ji7.8 .JBCONpWy At SEA. 

t)EAR Sir, January 17, 18,05. . 

" IT Is with pleafure that. [Ihaveleifure to inform you of the 

performance of the patent Ihip Economy, during the voyage 

under my command. 

Captains ac- " On (he fifth and fixlh of September laft, latitude 37, 34 N. 

count of the ^.g experienced a very heavy gale of wind, with an heavy 

In a viojent gale crofs fea, occafioned by the wind fliifting to different points 

the /hip per- of" (1,^ compafs fuddenlv, and blowing with extreme violence : 

forms extremely , - , , , c , j , ^ . . , •■ 

well, and is a ourjng the wliole ot the gale, the Lconomy behaved as well 
good fea boat: gs I ever experienced a (liip to do, and mucb better than 
founder in this *-'ouId have been expected for fo fmall a ftiip ; in fine, (he is 
Horm, one as good a fea boat as ever put keel in fc^lt water. During the 
otteHrrgt'fliip' g'^^^' ^'^"^ ^^^'P'' '^ '^ Tuppofed, foundered; after the gale 
rendered un- one was abandoned as not tenable, fliould another gale of 
n^anagcable, and ^^.j^^j ^^^^ . ^j^g Prh\ce of Wales, a (liip of 300 tons, 

taken m tow, _ j r ^ » 

and feveral had every thing waflied from her deck : The Princefs of 
others much Wales, a (liip of the fame fize, broke her rudder, and was 
left in tow of the Hyxna (loop of war. Several other {hips 
met with confiderable damage, which proved undeniably the 
The Economy violence of the wind. Notwithftanding the lumbered flate 
dderr"and^L °^ ^^^ Economy, we loft nothing ofF deck, and I don't think 
very vveatherly: there was a fhip, large or fmall in the fleet, that made belter. 

h'as'a'^foul'blr' "'^^*^^'' '• ^'^ ^'<^ "°^ ^^'^ ^° ^^^ coming home as going out, 
tom which im- but that is eafjiy accounted fpr, when we confider flie was 
pedes her failing, j^qj coppered, and was out fifteen months on a wooden 

ihe works and „,..,, , , r , ■, 

iUerswell. fnealhmg, with barnacles as long as your nnger on her, and 
the bottom refembling a rock ; and was betides laden as 
deep as flie could flow. She works and fleers amaz"ngly well. 
I would not with to change her if flie had been larger, 
but being only 200 tons, flie is too fmall both for my interefl; 
and the Weft India trade. 

She remains <. Xhe fliip has been perfedly tight all the voyage, although 

perfcaiy tight . , ^ .' "L ^ ,,.,•/-, 

after the fevere ^'^ had a vcry tempcltuous paUage, and likewile ran her on 
pairage, though Qiore, fugar loaded, under the batteries at Trinadad, to. 
Trinadad with a P''^^'e"t her falling into the hands of the French, as we fup- 
lull cargo of pofed, where we lay for twenty-four hours, until we dif- 
^^'^'^' , covered that it was Nelfon's fleet. In my opinion fl^ie is one 

of the ftrongeft fliips in the river Thames of her fize. 
is a very re- " Tlie new iron flings and other ironwork on the yarda 

mar able ftrong gj^j.ggj jj^^ ^^q^ fangyin.e expeflaiion, I have feeo the fljip 

cjovere.cl with fluflics of lightning when at Trinadad, and never 

experienced 



ECONOMY AT SEA. 1*3^. 

experienced (lie leafl injury from fo much Iron being about 
the yards, owing to the precaution which I took of ferving 
the iron worl; aud paying it with pilch, which I think ferved 
as a non-conduflor. I have a higher opinion of iron work ^f the iron 
than ever I had, and think the iron rigging in the plan we yards, and cap- 
ufed to talk about while the (hip was building, would anfwer tain's high 
to admiration, and might be the means of preferving the ufe'of"iron 
ipafts of men of war, when in adion, as being lefs liable work In rigging. 
to be cut with fliot. When I can manage it, I mean to rig State of ex- 
the rnizen raaft of a Qiip wholly with iron, to give it a trial. Pfimentonpart 
TiTi T T ,, • . -of the flieathing 

When I examme the bottom, I will give you my opmion of will be attended 

the pieces of fheathing fteeped in your preparation to prevent ^°' 

*u c J 1 • .u u ., T-i I II great ufe of the 

the worms from deitroymg the bottom. 1 he large rollers j^rge rollers for. 

which you had let in beneath the hawfe holes for the cables to the cables. 
work on, were of very great benefit, and I think faved us 
the labour of two men in weighing anchor, they alfo prevent- 
ed the wear of the cables very much, and were greatly liked 
by the failors, as making the purchafe more lively, 
Your's very (incerely, 

ALEX. SMITH.'' 

The iron flings which Captain Smith mentions, were on a Further account 
plan of his own, and difFcirent from thofe ufed in men of war, jj| j 
in not requiring above three or four feet of chain for each 
yard, and ferved merely to fufpend the yards from the point ^ 

of the tops ; which method greatly faved the wear of the 
mafts, and permitted the yards to work more freely. Iron 
flraps were alfo ufed to moft of the blocks inftead of hemp. 

The rollers for the cables were about fourteen inches long «»d of the 
and eleven in diameter, and worked on iron gudgeons about " ^ " ""* 
two inches in diameter, in brafs fockets. The rollers which 
have been hitherto ufed for this purpofe, were generally much 
too fmall, feldom exceeding the diameter of the cable; which 
dirainifiied fize both increafes the fridlion and injures the cable, 
from the fmallnefs of the nip which they occafion ; or, in other 
words, from the acutenefs of the angle at which the cable is 
forced to bend in paffing over them. 

In concluding this account I beg leave to mention, that I ?''°" «ranfverfe 
could, in building another fliip, greatly diminifli the fpace ufg^ in future 
neceflary for the tranfverfe forms ufed in ray plan, by fetting in this place, 
them farther afunder, and forming them of iron, which ^^ ''"'* '°°'"* 

niQthod 



130 

—and the fore 
»nd aft ribs 
fcarped in a more 
econnmical 
method. 



Tke Economy 
will rerriain a 
few weeks at 
the London 

Docks for in- 
fpeftion. 



ON THE TORPEOO. 

method is fpjecified in my patent, and that I could alfo make a 
great faving in the timber ufed in the fore and aft ribs, by a 
method of fcarping them, alfo within the limits of my fpeci- 
fication. Experience has fince convinced me of the fuperi- 
orily of both thcfe methods, of which I had fome doubt when 
1 built the Economy, or they ftiould have been ufed in her. 

It may feem paradoxical to aflert that iron is oftentimes 
cheaper than wood in (hip building, when it can be ufed : but 
a plain proof of this e^iifts in the bow of the Economy, of 
which the three lower breafi-hooks are iron of confiderable 
fubftance, and yetcoft lefs individually than any of tlie woode^^ 
ones above them, though thefe are of no extraordinary girth, 
or of much curvature. 

The Economy will be a few weeks in the London Docks, 
where flie has now moved, for the infpection of the public, 
and where all gentlemen who are interefled in (hipping con- 
cerns may fee her conftru61ion ; and thofe who examined her 
previous to her failing, may convince (hemfelves that I have 
exaggerated nothing, as to the found fiafe in which (he has 
returned from her tempeftuous voyage. 
Dear Sir, 

Your very humble fervant, 

J. WHITLEY BOSWELL. 



Atir/'\ 



XIX. 

Experiments on the Torpedo. By Aleffrs. Humboldt and Gay 
LussAC, ExtraSied from a Letter of M. Humboldt to M. 
BerthoUet; dated Rome, 15 Ffudidor* Year 13 {Sept, 2, 
, 1805.) 

Jl HE curious theory with which Volla has enriched the 
fcience of natural philofophy, on the fubjtdl of eledlric fi(h 
having betn received as aullienlic by many naturalifis, renders 
the phenomenon of the Torpedo worii)y of farther invefiiga- 
tion. You know, my dear friend, wliat was our impatience 
to procure thefe fifh, and will perhaps be furprifed that fo 
piuch time fliould elapfe without having heard from us on the 



* Annales de Chimie, Vol. LVI. 



fwbjea, 



ON THE TORPEDO, 181 

fubjecl. At Genoa, we perceived fome ; but we were then The torpedo 
without our inftrunients. At Civita Vecchia we fought thera and^NaJlesrbut 
in vain. But during our ftay at Naples we frequently pro« notatCiviu 
cured foaie very large and lively ones. In this letter you will "^ "' 
find detailed the experiments made by M. Ga y-Luflac and 
myfeif on the powers of this fifli (Raja-tnrpeda of Linneus). 
M. de Buch, a German mineralogift, well acquainted with all 
the branches of phyfical fcience, was witnefs to our proceed- 
ings. I fend you the refults, giving fimple fafts, unmixed 
with theoretical fpeculations. Our experiniCnts were chiefly 
dirc6led towards the difcovcry of that ftale of the torpedo 
when it was lead capiible of exerting its power upon the hu- 
man frame. This power has been generally defcribed as The fliock of 

elearical ; but the fenfation produced by it is materially differ- ^^e torpedo feeb 

. , ,./- , r -T A \ ■ I different from 

ent from thai caufed by the difcharge or a Leyden phial. — that of cleQri- 

Having no other book by us befides the work wherein Aldini* "'X* 

combines the refearches of Geoffroy with thofe of Spallanzani 

and Galvani, it is not to be expedted that we fliould compare 

our experiments with thole which may have been previoufly 

made by other philofophers. 

1. Though the f^rength of the torpedo is far inferior to that Powers of tlic 

of the gymnotus, it is equally capable of caufing painful fen- toThofe'of"he 

fations. A perfon much accuftomed to eleftric fliocks, can gymnotus of 

hardly fiiflain that of a lively torpedo of four decimeters (16 shod^of"h«s 

inches) in length. The animal ac^s under w:iter, and it is torpedo more 

only when it iofes ftrengih that the fluid impedes its a^ion. '^!?^^"lf^'"^''^* 
■' . * 'of eleftncity. 

In this ca(e, M. Gay LufTac obferved that the fliock is not It afts under 

perceptible till the hfli is raifed above the furface. • '^« water, 

2. I oblerved, when in South America, that the gymnotus — and feems to 
gives the niofl violent (hocks without any exterior movement "^'^ ™"^^ ^^o^t 
of the eyes, the head, or the fins : it appeared as tranquil as notus. 

a perfon when pafling from one idea to another, or from one 

fenfation to another. Not fo the torpedo : We obferved a 

convulfive movement of the peftoral fins, each time it gavie a 

fliock, which was more or lefs violent according as the furface 

was larger or (mailer wherein the conta6t took place, 

S. The powers of the torpedo and g>mnotus cannot be ex- Shocks frotn the 

cited at pleafure, as we {hould difcharge a Leyden phial or a ^"'P^*^** ^""^ 

' a J I gymnotus can- 

not ba obtained 

* Memoires fqr la Torpille, dans rEflai fur le Galvanjfm, but by irritating 
Vol. II. p. 61. the animal. 

<:ondu£lor. 



liiti 



OSJ THE TORPEDO. 



con{Iu6lor. A Ihock is not always felt on touching aneleclrjc 
iiih; it muft be irritafed before it will give the fliock. This 
aflion depends on the will of the animal, whofe eledlric powers 
perhaps, are not kept conftanlly charged; yet it can recover 
them with wonderful celerity, as it is capable of giving a long 
fuccefTion of fliocks. 
The /hock ob- 4. The fliock is felt (the animal being difpofed to give it) 
tained by a mere as well on touching with one finger a fingle furface of the 
^„g^. eledlric organs, as on applying the two hands to the two fur^ 

faces, the upper and under, at once. In both cafes it is im- 
material whether the perfon applying his finger or his two 
hands, be infulated or not. 
—but the con- ^' When an ifolated perfon touches the torpedo with a fingle 
taft muft be finger, it is indifpenfible that thecontad be immediate, as no 
Metals feem to ^^^^ ^''^ ^'^ ^^^^ '^ ^ conducling body (of metal for example) 
be non-con^uc- be interpofed between the finger and the organ of the fifli,— ^j- 
Acck of the ^'^^ *^'^ reafon, the animal may be touched with impunity by 
torpedo, means of a key, or any other inftrument of metal. 

6. M. Gay-Lufiac having made this important obfervation, 

we placed a torpedo on a metal difli, with which the inferior 

furface of its organs were in conlad. The hand which fup- 

ported this difli experienced no fliock, wiiilft another ifolated 

perfon irritated the animal, whofe convulfive movement of the 

pedoral fins indicated a moft violent emifilon of the electric 

fluid. 

Erpcr'ments '' • When on the contrary, ?i perfon held the torpedo in a 

winch fliew thatjnetal difli in his left hand (as in the preceding experiment), 

'''*■" " ' and with his right touched the fuperior furface of the eledric 

organ, he experienced a fmart fliock in both arms at the fame 

moment. 

8. The fame was felt, on placing the fifli between two metal 
plates, whofe edges were not in contact with each other, and 
applying the two hands at once above and below them, 

9. But if the edges of the metal plates be fufl"ered to (ouch 
each other, no fliock will be felt in either arm. The commur 
nication between the two furfaces of the organs is, in this cafe, 
formed by the plates ; and the new connection arifing from 
the confaft of the two hands with the plates is without efFe6t, 

The organ? of 10. The moft fenfible electrometer manifefled no electrical 
the torpedo have (enfion in the organs of the torpedo; in whatever way it was 

no influence on ,. , - ■ , ^ n rr , ■ ■ i- 

theelc^lrome- applied, it was not m the lealt affected; neither^ ongirecting 
»er. it 



9N THE TOZIPEDQ. j.X^S 

}t towards the organs, nor in infulating the fiQi, covering it 
with a metallic plate, and malying a communication between 
this plate, by means of a conducing thread, and thecondenfer 
f)f Volta, was there gny indication (as with the gymnotus) 
t|iat the j^nloial affeded the electric intenfity of furrounding 
todies. 

1 1. As eleftric fifh, when healthy, e^^ercife their powers as Examination o£ 
forcibly beneath the water as in the open air, \ve were led to powers of watf? 
examine the conducting properties of this fluid. Several per- 

ions formed a chain of hands between the faperior and inferior 
furfaces of the organs of the torpedo : the fliock was not felt 
until they had wetted their hands. The aClion was not interr 
pepted when two perfons fqpported the torpedo with their 
right hands ; and inftead of holding each other's left hand, 
they each plunged a metallic rod into water placed upon aa 
ifolated body. 

12. By fubftituting f^ame in lieu of water, the communica- Flame (Joes not 
tion was deftroyed, until the rodj touched each other m the ^^^j^' "■ ^ 
^ame. 

13. It muft, however, be obferved, th^t in water, as in No ftock can be 

,, „ , , ., , . , . ,. , obtained without 

air, the Inock was not perceptible without an nnmeqiate con- immediate con. 
tadl with the body of the eleftric fifli : the leaft poffible interr ^^^ with the 
vention of the water prevented it. This fact is the more re- ' 
nmrkable, as it is known that in galvanic experiments, wheye 
the frog is immerfed in water, it is fufficient todire<5l the filver 
forceps towards the mufcles to caufe a contradlion, though a 
body of water be interpofed, equal to one or iwo millimetres 
in thicknefs, or about one-twentieth of an inch. 

Thefe, my dear friend, are the principal obfervations which Organs of the 
we have made on the torpedo. The experiments, No. 4 and ce'^tible o?an''^' 
10, prove thai the eleflric organs of thefe animals are not fuf-excefs of charge, 
ceptible of any intenfiity or excefs of charge. Their a6tion 
may rather be compared to that of a combination of Leyden 
phials, than to the condu6tor of Volta. Without communica- 
tion no fliock could be felt : and having experienced tbe power Doubt whether 
of the gymnotus through very dry cords, I imagine, that where „ mnotus can be 
I have been affected by this powerful animal without diredl felt without ac- 
conlatl, it had been occafioned by fome deficiency in my Jn. '^^aUon'*" 
fulated fiate. If the torpedo a6l by poles, that is by an elec- Torpedo fup- 

tric equilibrium which poflefles a tendency to repleni(l\ itfelf, P^^^f '^^.^''^ . 
. , r , , / < -r, an eledric equi- 

^Jtperimenls 5 and u leem to prove that thele poles exift nearnbrium, the op- 
each po'i'^s ft^ts b':ing 
very neatt 



rW? 



Obicftions to 
th:s ijoiion. 



Corlidcrations 
of- theory. 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 

each other, on the fame furface of the organ. The flioc'k ia 
felt on merely touching the furface with the finger. A plate 
interpofcd belween the hand and the organ, [Exp. 6.) re-efta- 
blifbes the equilibrium, and the hand which fuftains the plate 
is not afF€<?^ed, becaufe it is placed beyond the current. But 
if we fuppofe an heterogeneous number of poles upon each 
furface of the organ, whence does it arife, that, in covering 
thefc furfaceswith two raetal plates, whofe edges donottouch 
each other, and placing the hands on thefe plates, the equili- 
brium (hould be found in the arms? Why, it may be aiked, 
does not the pofitive eledricity of the inferior furface feek 
at the moment of explofion the negative ele6tricity of the next 
orneareft pole, but rather feek it in the fuperior furface of the 
electric organ ? Perhaps thefe difficulties may not be infur- 
mountabie ; yet the theory of thefe vital aSdont well deferves 
attentive refearch. Geoffioy has proved that thornbacks, who 
give no figns of eledricity, are furnifhed with organs analo- 
gous to thofe of the torpedo. The leaft injury on the brain of 
the torpedo dellroys its eledric powers. The nerves are no 
doubt concerned chiefly in thefe phenomena ; and the phylio- 
logift who Qiould admit the power of vital actions, might with 
iuccefs oppofe the theory of the naturalift, who would endea- 
vour to explain all by the cental of the albumino-gelatinous 
pulp of the nervous laminae wherewith nature has endowed 
tlie organs of the torpedo. 



SCIEWT2FIC NEWS. 

Prizes prnpnfed by the Univerjitj/ and Acadnny of William m 
June, 1805. 

CLASS OF SCIENCE AND MEDICINE. 



To determine 
whether faccha- 
rinc Icrrcrions 
take place in 
other organs be- 
fidcs thofe af- 
fefled in diafce- 
teB meiiitus. 



Firjl Prizes 

jOESIDPJS the diabetes mellitus of the authors on medicine, 
are there any other diforders peculiar to man, which, ac- 
cording to experiments well afcertained, produce in different 
organs a fecrelion fimilar to fugar, fufficiently abundant to 
finally occafion confuroption ? And what are thefe diforders? 
5 I« 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 



l^ 



In a note on this fubjefl It is recommended to examine for 
faccharine matter, the fluid fubftance of coHiqiiative fweats; 
that produced in the jiuxus cailacus, and in the pituitous con- 
luraption from lungs, which after death arc not ulcerated; and 
the milk of women afflidled with the gallaairhcea. 

Second Prize. 

What are the true charaders and the caufes of the malady. To jfceitain the 
wliich although not exclufively appertaining to Poland, is f''^^ ^aufc and 
however called the Plica Polonica P Are there any means ofp^jo^i^-^, 
curing this difeafe more fuccelsful than Ihofe hitherto em^ 
ployed? and what are thefe m»ans ? 

Third Prize. 
What are the principal maladies of vegetables ? And what Rtlative to the 
h i\^ true analogy between them and thole of animals ? '^'^f^^iH^ °^^'" 

CLASS OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY AND MATHEMATICS. 

Prize. 
Suppofe a canal, through which a certain quantity of water 
m, flows in a given number of feconds, through a tranfverfe 
fe£lion of a given depth and breadth, terminated by the two 
banks : If on this fedion a dam is conflrucied, at the top of 
which an opening is made for the water to pnfs, of given di- 
menfionsj it is demanded according to what law the water. The lawlsde* 

elevated by the obftacle which the dam prefents, will be™^"l=''' ^y 
/. • ' which water 

forced to rife not only at the dam, but backwards along therifes in a canal 
canal. behind a dam, 

— , , ■ 1 r /T- • 1 I 1 1-1 at the top of 

Formulae are required lufticiently general, to be applied not «hich a given 

only to the quantity of water m, but to any other m -f- jr. <>P°°^"S '^ '"^'^s* 

Experience not exattly agreeing with the theory, the necef- 

lary corredions rouft be made to the formulae, and proofs 

given from facl'^ and obfervations, fliewirig how nearly they . ; 

approach the truth. 

CLASS OF MORAL AND POLlTfCAL SCIENCES, 

Prize. 
As the fciences of natural philofophy and mathematics make 
daily advances, and are enriched with new difcoveries, it is 
dc/naaded — 



jgig SClfeNTIFie NE^VS. 

'^. why moral ift. Why the fame does not take place in the moral fci- 

fciences do not ^^^^^^^ p 

make the lame r i r r • 

progrefs as the 2a. VVhcthier dmong the diflerertt branches of theie Iciences, 

phyfipal? t],e,.e {)g ahy caiiable of a fjtrther degree of perfe6lion ? And 

—If they can be , , ,. 1 

ftrthei- im- what the(e are ? 

proved? 2d. To what degree are they of this nature? And what ar^ 

—What are the ,i ,••,,.,• r ,1 1 , 

bounds to their '"^ limits to their tartlier improvement ? 

perfcftibility ? 4(h. What are (hfe moR proper methods [6 advance the 

beft methodVto^ moral fcieilces (o t!iis boundary of perfe61ton ? 

attain this point? It Is defired that (he difcujjtori of llth fahjeB vkit^ he condUSied 

J() as to prefent refiMs, xihicfi may contribute to the perfection of 

that theory of LegiJIation, ivhich is mOji corformable to the nature 

of vian. 

Second Prize. 
Tenets of Adam To determine (by making an analyfis of political economy) 
Q^efna^"? ^^' ^^^* ^""^ ^^'^ points in which the leading notions of Adam 
Smith and Dodlor Quefnay agree, and in what they differ, or 
are oppotite ? 

This examination miift neceffarily produce rcfults vfefid to the 
progrefs of political economy. 
Amount of The prize for each of thefe queftions is 100 golden ducats of 

prizes, and laft Holland U6l. 5s.) ; and the laft day for the reception of me- 

days for re* ./ i 

ceiving me- moirs OH medical fubje6ls, the 31ft Auguft, 1807 ; and for the 
moifs. Others, the fame day and month in 1S06. 

Conditions to be ohfrved by the Candidates. 

' To each memoir fent in muft be attached a feparate and 

fealed note, containing the title of the work, and the name 

and addrel's of the author: This note will only be opened by 

the Univerfity if the work (hall obtain the prize. 

Memoirs to be The memoirs muft be written legibly, in Latin, French, or 

FreS,'"r^Po"' ^"''^ languages. The packet Qiould be addrcffed to the Redor 

liflj. of the Univerfity of Wilna, and addrelTed to one of the bankers 

of that city, MM. Keyfer or Karner, that it may go free. The 

Reflor will give a receipt to thefe bankers. 

The Univerfity Ihall not. be obliged to return either the me- 
moirs or the drawings fenl ; but the authors will j^lways be 
permitted to take copies of them. 
Conditions rela- The Univerfity engages not (o print any of the works fent 
cop'y right*,^^&c.' ihem, without permiffion of the authors ; but the authors may, 
0/ the memoirs, at any time, print th?ra if they think proper. 

The 



SCIENTIFIC KEW?, 1871 

The diflribution of prizes fliould take piacr before the ter- Time of diftrl- 
nn'nalion of the years in which they are (o be determined. The ""'"^S pr:a«» 
priaes adjudged fliall be publilbed in the gazetlo. 

The author fliall receive his priae irum ihe admliiiflrative 
committee of the Imperial Univerfity of Wihia, either in per- 
fon or by deputy. The prize will be at his option, either a 
gold medal or 100 golden ducats of Holland. 

The ProfelTors and honorary members of the Univerfity of Profeflbrs of 
Wilna, cannot be candidates for the prizes. candida^esV" ^^ 

Revived Precipitates from alkaline Solutions of metallic Oxides. 

• M. Klaproth, a little before his deceafe, difcovered that Alkaline folu- 
the folution of the metallic oxides in the alkalis, are as eafily oxTdes°prTcTpl"''' 
precipitated in their metallic ftate, by the other melals foluble tated, in the 

in the fame alkalis, as are the acid folutions of thefe metals by 1"^^^'''^ ^^^* 

. . ,. . - . oy other m&tais. 

phofphorus : He has made a very ingenious application of this 

procefs to the analyfis of tin ores, according to the method 

which is defcribed in his Beiirae^e : In tliis operation tungftein 

is feparated from tungftate of ammonia, by the addition of zinc, 

in the form of black flakes. 



Experiments on falling Bodies, by M. Benzene tRc. 

M. Benzenberg, profefTor of phyfic and afironomy at Duf- A falling body 
feldorp, publiQied, forae months ago, twenty-eight experi- 1!^'^'^'" ^^"^^ 
ments made with balls well turned and pohflied, which were eaft, after paf- 
made to fall from a height of 262 French {eQ{ : At a medium ^*"S through 
they produced five lines of deviation towards the eaft, ac- 
cording to the determination of the plumb-line, and the theory 
gives four lines fix tenths. Thefe experiments were made in 
the coal-mines of Schebufch ; they are an additional proof, 
if it were neceflary, of the rotatory movement of the earth, 
of which no one now doubts. The laft experiments, made at 
Bologna by M. Guglielmini, gave nearly the fame refulls. 



Geography. 
Great pains are taking in the condrufiion of an accurate Map of Hellaad. 
map of Holland: The fame precautions have been u fed in 
this bufinefs as in the meafurement of the degree of llie meri- 
dian. M. de Zach has publifhed in his Journal the chart of 
the triangles which have been completed : They are joined to 

thofe 



Jg5_ SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 

thore which M, Delambre made for the great raeridian ; an(I 
thediftance from Dunkirk to Montreal has been taken for the ' 
firft bafe. When the triangles are finifiied, a bafe wiil be 
meafured towards the north, to ferve for the verification of 
the work. The Batavian republic have entrufted the direc- 
tion of this map to Colonel KrayenhofF. 

Chart of the Some months ago there appeared at Peter fburgh a very fine 

White Sea, by hydrographical cl)art of the White Sea, of which General 
tauzoff Kautouzoff is the author: Many naval officers have worked 

under his dire6tion for four years, in collecting the materials 
nece.Tary to compofe this chart. The eoafts of the White Sea, 
of its gulphs, and of a part of the Northern Ocean, have been 
laid down trigonometrically. The deplhs have been carefully 
founded ; and fix of the principal points of the coaft have beers 
•determined by afi:ronomical obfervalions. 



ia relief. 



M. Lartigue*s ^^' Lartigue having been engaged for thirty years in con- 
map of America Jtruding, at the marine depot (of Paris), a larre and beautiful 
map of America in relief, has at length completed it. It is 
faid that the mountains, and the iflands, and the tints of the 
fea, are all exhibited in a manner moft capable of interefting 
thofe who make geography their ftudj. 



Exptdltion of Several months ago. Captain Lewis, in j^merica, under- 
Capt. Lewis up took to afccnd the river MilFouri, in fearch of a paflage to the 
South Sea. Very interefting intelligence may be foon ex- 
pected from this expedition. 



the Miffouri. 



Sttfvev of ^^^ work of the government furvey, or cadajire, of France, 

France. has proceeded with adivity ; 2000 perfons are employed in it 

in the 108 departments. 



Effe6l of Heat on Magnetifm. 



Ma n t f a - ^^' C^"^^'^^ ^^^^ piiblifhed an inlerefiing memoir on the 
ftroyedatyoo* eftedf of heat on raagnfetifm. At 200 degrees of heat, two- 
of heat. fifihs of It are dcllroyed, and the whole at 700 degr^qs. 



MdwlfoiuFliOos. JoumalYol3M.ri.3.p.. 







^^ichoUims IhJlo-s-.JoicTTial.T'ol.TnL.Tl ■4^V'L88 . 



^2:&^^a/ \ 



! liillll" 




> o. 



""^\. "4^^ 



'^■0^ 



^ 



^oiJS, 









\ ' '-Si o 



A 

JOURNAL 

OF 

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, CHEMISTRY, 

AND 

THE ARTS. 



MARCH, 1806-. 



ARTICLE I. 



ExperimeMs on the Temperature of Water furrounded by freezing 
Mixtures, In a Letter from Joim Gough, Efq, 

To Mr. NICHOLSON. 
SIR, Middle fhaw, Jan. 29, 1806. 

IVAANY philofophers have turned their attention to the di-Expanfmnof 

latation obfervable in water when cooled below 4-0 or 41 de-^^f'^'"'" c oling 

below ^i de^, 
grees of Fahrenheit's fcale, and alfo to the no lefs fingular fad 

of water retaining its fluidity for a confiderable time when 
expofed to a freezing mixture, without 'being agitated. But 
one circumftance, relating to the latter phenomenon, appears 
to have efcaped the notice of them all ; which in all probabi- 
lity will prove of fome importance to both enquiries. 

We know from common experience, that when a hotter and Explained by a 
colder body come into conta6i, the former will lofe and llie ^J^he^c^j^c- 
latter acquire heat, until they arrive at an equality of tem- ture that ice 
perature. The frequent opportunities every one has of mak- ^^^ . "'^""•^'^ 
ing this obfervation have aulhorifed it to pa fs for a general ftals at that t«ai- 
rule; hence it has been concluded, that water in a ftate of P"'*"""^' 
refl may be cooled many degrees below the freezing point. 

Vol. XIII.— March, 180(?. P and 



l\)0 AriNIMUM TEMPERATURE OF WATER. 

and llill remain fluid. For my part, I adopted the maxim 
without hefitation, until the perufal of Dr. Hope's paper, 
given in the fupplement to your iafi volume, led me to reafon 
in the following manner on the fubjefl. , 

When water is expofed to a freezing mixture, thofe parti- 
cles of it which are in contaft with the fides of the veffel, are 
loon reduced to a temperalure lower than the point of con- 
gelation; in confequence of" this, they are probably converted 
Tnto minute icicles, which impart a quantity of caloric at the 
moment of their formation to the furrounding water, thereby 
preventing its temperature from finking below 32°. Thefe 
invifible bodies afterwards begin to afcend flowly on account 
of the diminution in their fpecific gravity; and while they rife 
towards the furface of the water, other particles will approach 
tlie fides of the veffel in fuccetfion, and undergo a fimilar - 
transformation. Thjs procefs would evidently increafe the 
volume of the water without reducing its temperature, fup- 
pofing it to be ice-cold at the commencement of the experi- 
ment; for the hypothefis refts on the fuppofition that water 
freezes as foon as it is cooled below the 32nd degree of Fah- 
renheit's fcale. This gradual increafe of bulk will explain 
the appearances defcribed by my friend Mr, Dalton, who 
found that thermometers filled with water continued to rife 
when expofed to freezing mixtures, until the enclofed wafer 
congealed fuddenly, and fiequenlly burft his inftruments. The 
reafon why agitation accelerated the congelation of water 
thus circumftanced appears to be this: When the invifible 
icicles become very numerous, the leaft motion carries thern 
in crowds againft the fides of the vefTels ; where the fmall 
quantity of water contained amongfl them cryfiallizes imme. 
diately, and cements the whole into a film^adhering to the in- 
fide of the cup. This theory, or hypothefis, call it what- 
ever you think proper, evidently requires water to be what it 
really is, namely, a bad condudor of heat ; and after forming 
it, I proceeded to examine the merits of it experimentally, in 
the following manner, 
i^penment. ^ Experiment \fi. A fmall thermometer was fufpended at 
was cooled bya the lower end of a wire, which could be moved in a vertical 
furrounding direction, through a hole in a horizontal bar of wood, fixed 
\i^camtcon. Over a (able for thepurpofe; a veffel, containing a freezing 
gcaied at the mixture, of the tempjerature of 21®, was next placed with 

fides by ftirring, . ■. 

having never 
f'jnlt below 3Z*. 



MINIMUM TEMPERATURE OF V.'ATER, Jpl 

its centre under the wire ; and the bowl of a wine glafs, filled 
with two ounces of ice-cold water, being then properly placed 
in the mixture, the thermometer wiiich ftood at 32°, was im- 
mediately let down into the water, where it remained ftation- 
ary for the fpace of {even minutes. A wire, cooled to the 
freezing point was now introduced into the glafs, and the 
water agitated with it; upon which a thick, coating of ice 
formed on the intide of the vefiel; but no marks of congelai 
tion were obfervable on the wire or thermometer. 

EjcJ). 2. The fame apparatus being ufed, with a mixture, Exp. 3. 

having the low temperature of 6^, the glafs was filled with ^^'^^'' ^"^ SS* 
,, _ . ' /• „ r> - » was cooled by 

water of 58**, m which the thermometer fell to 32° in Tfanintenfe 

minutes, by a flop watch; at which point it remained ftation- freezing mix- 

/• ■ 1 r^, 1 /- , I r t tuie. It was 

ajy five minutes longer. The glafs was then taken out of the brought to fta- 

mixture, and the water being agitated, lined the upper part tionary 32' and 

of it for about two-thirds of its depth from the brim, witii ^^-^^^111^1^' 

porous covering of ice, but the remaining part of it was free out and fhaken 

from all incruftation. '^' ^"P ^''"' 

1 will ventnre to infer from the two preceding paragraphs. Hence water 

that we have all been under a miftake in concluding that water cannot be cooled 

, 111 n 1 11 «^r.r-oi ''"d remain fluid 

may be cooled when at reft many degrees below 32" 01 l*ah- ^^ temperatures 
renheit, without congealing ; at the fame time we are certain, below 32'', as 
that it will preferve its fluidity, when judicioufly expofed tOp^"g^J_^ ^ "^" 
great degrees of cold, and dilate at the fame tiipe, as Mr. The water thsr- 
Dalton has proved. Now as the heat never falls below 32° ^°^„7;n"^i 
in thefe experiments, the expanfion of the water in Mr. Dal- ing by fome 
ton's thermometers, placed in a freezing mixture, cannot be<^^^"""^*' 
afcribed to a lofs of temperature, but mutl be owing to forae 
other caufe, probably to that which has been adigned above. 
As for agitation, the firft experiment feems to fliew its office 
to confift in bringing ihe water, crowded with minute icicles, 
intocontadi with parts of the veflel much colder than itfelf, 
wh?re it is concreted into ice. 

Exp. 3. To examine this part of the fubjed with more Exp, 3. 
care, I formed a cup of caoutchouc, the capacity of which Repetition of 
for caloric greatly exceeds that of glafs ; or, I belieye, that ftriitingiy in a 
of mod other fubftances. Two ounces of water,' a little cup of caout- 
warmer than melting fnow being poured into this cup, it was 
placed in a mixture of the temperature of 15°^ where it re- 
mained eight minutes without giving the leaft indication of a 
tendency to freeze. The cup was now removed from the 
P 2 mixture, 



19^2 MINIMUM TEMPERATURE OF WATER. 

mixture, and gently (haken; upon which long icicles formed 
in an inftant, projeding into the water in all diredions, irom 
the caoutchouc to which they adhered. This experiment, I 
have no doubt, might be made a very beautiful one by a dex- 
terous operator, who is in the habit of exhibiting natural ap- 
pearances to public alTemblies. 

After difcovering that water will dilate without any change 
of temperature from warm to colder, at 32', I began to ima- 
gine that the whole variation of expanfion under 41*', might 
be explained on the fame principle, becaiife I believe all the 
experiments relating to the fubjed, have been made in a cooU 
ing medium, not warmer than melting fnow. 
Water expands In order to try the merits of this opinion, with an inftru- 
ky cooling be- ment larger fhan a common thermometer, I filled a four-ounce 
^z'degTorbe- p'^'^' ^''*^'^ water, and fixed an open tube into it, by means of 
gins to cryftalizc a perforated cork and cement ; but this apparatus proved my 
term.^ "^^" I'ufpicion to be falfe. For the place of the water being marked 
on the tube when the temperature was 41^, my bulky ther- 
mometer rofe immediately upon being plunged into water ot 
34*^. This fad proves, that water expands by a lofs of tem- 
perature between 41° and 32°; or elfe, that this fluid begins 
to cryltalize at the upper term; in confequence of which the 
lower term, or SS'^, is not, properly fpeaking, the commence- 
ment of congelation, but the point at vthich the cryftals of 
^vater begin to concrete into malfesby aggregation. 
I remain, &c. 

JOHN GOUGH. 



II. 

Account of the Art and Injlruments ufed for horiiig and blaftin^ 
Rocks; Kith Improvements. In a Letter from G , C. 

To Mr. NICHOLSON. 

SIR, Brijiol, Jan. 21, 1S06. 

ImproTements ijY way of appendix to Mr. Clofe's remarks on the ufe of 
tiI)Bed*'"* ""'""'^"'^ '" liemming mines in hard rocks, and his ufeful improve- 
ment of the pricker, by making it of copper inflead of iron, 
allyvs- mc to add two other improvements in the art of blading 

ftone, 



BLASTING KOCKS. 1S3 

ftone, which my own experience has proved to diminifh con- 
fiderably the expence of gunpowder, while one of them, at 
the fame time, removes all danger from imperfe6l priming. 

I (hall alfo, with your permitfion, as many of your corref- Defcriptlon of 
pondents muft necelTarily be ignorant of the conftrudion of jjfgj^[^*j^j^g""jj^g 
the tools, give you a defcription of thofe now in ufe at the ftone rocks in 
village of Shipham, in Somerfetniire, a village wholly com- Somerfctihire. 
pofed of men, women and children, who mine after lead ore, 
calamine, and ochre, chiefly in a lime-ftone rock ; a numerous 
band of fome of the ftouteft beings in England. 

Thefe men iiHl ufe the iron pricker, becaule an accident The iron pricker 
feldom or ever happens to them ; owing, I believe, in a great "ffg^T^^ith^f , 
meafure to their flemming with fpar, and their habit of turn- for ftemming. 
ing and loofening the inftrument at every half inch they fill. 

The tools they ufe are thefe, Plate V. 

A. A round bar of iron, bevilled oft' at one end, of 1 8 Tools and im- 

incheslong, and of the diameter of half an inch. ?'^Tl"^' ^^^'u , 

o'. . . . fcribed. A hole 

B. A ditto, of 24 inches, to follow when the hole In eighteen or 

the flone is about 1 2 inches deep. ^'^^"^y '"f*^" 

r-, « 1 n I r , r- ,^ - 1 , deep and half an 

C A rod, with a loop tor the nnger, 2i> mches long; at inch in diameter 

the bottom of which is a round flat plate of iron to draw out ^^ ^^^ by repeat- 
the pounded ftone occafionally. ^^i^™, tL°edge 

D. A pricker, 24- inches long, with a loop alfo, ufed to of which lies in 
preferve a paflage to infert the priming ftraw, while the hole [j^^ holTand is 
is rammed or ftemmed with E, the iron rammer, 20 inches fliifted round be- 
long, and which, fix inches or more from the end, is formed ^^j^" ^/"''^ 
. , 'and ftroke, 

into a conical groove, very open at bottom, in order to enable 

the miner to ram round the pricker, and alfo that by its fliarp- 
nei's at the end it may the eafier break to duft the pieces of 
fpar dropped in as faft as wanted. 

F. A hammer with a handle and ftrap, about five inches 
long; the iron head weighing about four or five pounds, ac- 
cording to the ftrength of the operator ; for fame have them 
of fix or feven. 

They alfo have by them a bottle of water, to pour occa- The work is 
iionally into the hole, for the wetter it is the fafter the work an'/^hTcbT'^ed 
goes on. ftone fcooped out 

At every ftroke of the hammer, the miner turns his chiffel, ^^'''^ ^ inftru- 
by which means he works the bottom of the mine in a regu- 
lar circle, and is enabled to keep his perforation true. 

When arrived at the depth of i S or 19 inches, be cleans, 

and, 



lg^ BLASTING ROCKS. 

The charge of and, a.* well as he can, dries his mine; then inferts his charge 
ounc"fv\Vch °^ gunpowder, often amounting to the unnecefTary quantity 
>s too much), of an ounce, and dropping (he pricker to the bottom, with 
^H !l'th ^'■\ '*'' fiJ'^ touching the fide of the mine, he begins by dropping 
is put down in into it feme lumps of fpar ; and after he has filled up about 
the hole clcfe to a,^ inch begins poundinsr it round the pricker with his ram- 
the fiJe, and '*' ^ .*=- r ^ t r . • ■ 

fmall pieces of met and hammer; tapping gently at firft, but loon beginning 
fpar arc dropped (q ^3^^, y^^y jjard, all the while frequently turning and loofe- 

jn, which are -,,■,•, 

nightly rammed n.ng the Circular pricker. 

and afterwards When the hole is quite filled, he draws it, by giving fome 

ThcTwhde^beingS^'''^'^ ftrokes on the chide! that he has now pafled through the 

full, the pricker loop tO draw it with. 

wheTLl""* "^ ^^ ^''^" ^^^^^ ^^"^ upper joint of a wheat ftraw, the fmalleft 

filled with gun- he can get, and having Hopped the fine end with clay, if it 

powder is put has no knot ; he afterwards places the other end, cut off very 
down in place or . . . , -^ 

tlie pricken • bevel and fliarp, between his fecond and third finger of the left 

hand, ciofe to where the fingers join the palm, forming 
his hand into a kind of hafon, to keep oflf the wind, and draw- 
ing the open end of the flraw fo low betweeh the fingers that 
he can but jufi prevent it from dropping on the ground ; when 
pouring, a Imail quantity of gunpowder on (he orifice, and 
tapping with his other hand on the firaw below, to fliake it, 
it fpeedily is filled. 

Thisfiraw mufl: be 19 inches long for a hole of 18 at leaft, 
and a little (l)aved away at the bottom, but not cut open of 
courfe. 
Fire is given fay When thruft down to the powder the train is compleat, 
a piece of touch- an(j ^uf operator iafily lights a piece of touch-wood, and 
* places it fo that when all on fire, it fiiall communicate to the 

train; after which he witfidraws to a place out of the line of 
explofion, and waits its elTe&. 
—which occa- And here in blowing a well, I found that much time was 
r.ons lofsof time ,^ ^ ^^^ , ^^^^ ^j^^ ^^,;^ occafionally blow away the 
by Its failure and ' "' . . . . . 

danger, when touch-wood before. It is all inflamed, but frequently the damp 
too rapid. exlinguiflies it. I alfo found (here was danger to the work- 

man if it went off too foon, which the wind fometimes oeca- 
rion«, or his companion is too How inhaling him up; and 
. "welikewife found that when (hey worked by the day, and zve 
found powder, they u(ed an immoderate quantity* 
Improvements. To remedy thcfe two great evils, I purfued the following 
thruft^down^ the P'^" * ^^^ ^^'^ ^'^ which was fuggefted to me by an ingenious 
hole or well pre- neighbour and both liad the dcfired effeft. 

The 



BLASTIKG ROCKS, 195' 

The firfi experiment I tried was upon a fing ie block of lime- *ifus to ftem- 
ftone, of about two ton weight. I charged the n^J^e with 1^^"!'^^^°^^^^^ 
only the common charge of a mufl<et, as at K, over which I of windage, left 
drove a cork, as at H, leaving one inch, or thereabout, as at P°^V|'^'^' ^^ 
I, over which I rammed fpar, as at G, up to the furface of 
the rock. 

I then made a flit in my draw train, as at L, and pafTed The German 
through it, as through a loop, a cut of the German afli-tree d^u^^s^ Ac^T^' 
fungus; but not liking that, as endangering the lofs of the and more certain 
priming powder, I cut the fill in the fungus, as at N, paflT- jj'^y°"i!j" 
ing the ftraw through the flit, and cutting a fmall notch on ftraw may be 
one fide of the flraw, as at O. When it was Aid down to^'^''"^ ^^'o^sh 
il, being elaftic, it clofed there, and filled the notch. fungus, 

This match burns flow but fure, and no wind can extin- —which bums 
guifli jt. A great advantage, as 1 have frequently witnefled, ceminty" and'is 
in making the new and beautiful towing path on both fides not blown out 
■ the Avon, from Briftol. One iiundred men lofe from ten mi- ^^ ^^^ '''"^' 
nutes to twenty and more while getting out of the way during 
the blowing of a mine near the fpot they were levelling, and 
all owing to the flovy burning ot the touch-wood match, or 
the wind blowing it afide. 

This German match is^ I fancy, pretty well known; it is Account of the 
merely the fungus of the ath-tre'-, macerated and hanuiiered ^""^"*' 
tmtil it becomes as flexible as a piece of buff lealher, and has 
been called the German match, 1 believe, from its general 
ufe on the upper Rhine, where, by its mean«, habitual fmokers 
of tobacco can light their pipes in the open air, whatever may 
be the vveather; and as a piece which fcarcely weighs faur 
grains is fuflicient to light without danger, the largell mines, 
while the article is by no means dear, and always fafe, inex- 
tingurfliable, and regular in its burning, nothing can be more 
ufetu! to the practical miner. 

With refpeci to fand (which I fee recommended in a Dublin Stcmrr.ingwith 

,• 1 1 o 1 I-/- ■ /x - \ •. loofe fand will not 

paper Ot only ialt week, as a new diicovery in Itemming), it (jtisthought) 
will not always fucceed, efpecially in thole great mines of Succeed in mines 
the Clifton blafters-, where, often 15 or J6lb. of powder are JJ^J"/ '^''^^ 
uled at a time; but I fliould think if flopped with a fliff clay, 
it would greatly encreafe the refiftance, efpecially if fufficient 
windage was left over the powder. 

The experiment I firft tried, as defcribed above, on that The author's 
plan, tore to pieces, and threw four pieces of my rock to a were fdly fuc- 

great ceisful. 



\QQ PARALLEL RULES, 

great height, fhaking and leaving fit for loading, a good cart 
load in all; while, but for a wail at hand, my Shipham miner, 
as ulual, defpifing novelties, would probably have been 
wounded, having been with difficulty perl'uaded to take that 
cover at four yards diftance. 

Thus, Sir, I have ftated what I take to be improvements in 
this valuable art, and if they afford you or your readers any 
gratification, I fliall not regret the trouble of putting them on 
paper, being always, Sir, 

Your grateful reader, 
G. C. 



III. 

Defcription of a nexv Parallel Rule, exempt from lateral Devi- 
ation', inve/iled by Air. J. W. Boswell; zvith an Account 
of the Imperfections of thofe alreadj/ made for the fame Pur» 
pofe. 

To Mr. NICHOLSON. 
Dear Sir, 

Inconveniencies X HE common parallel rule of four pieces has been long 
deviation of"thc ^^"""^ inconvenient, on account of the lateral deviation of the 
common parallel moving piece, which caufes a necellity of fliifling the pofilion 
^'^■^* of the whole rule frequently, when many parallel lines are to 

be drawn; that, befides the lofs of time which it occafions, 
tends alfo to produce error in the parallelifm of thcfe lines. 
It is notfuperior For this reafon it is in no refpecl fuperior to the more iimple 

p°anc\ndTu1e ^'^^PP^'^^*'^^ ^^^ '''^ ^^'^^ purpofe, formed by a triangular plane 

of wood or metal, moved along a common rule; and as this 

latter is more fteady, and ferves for other purpofes in draw. 

ing, it is preferred by feveral. 

Parallel rules as Many inftrumeats have been contrived to draw parallel lines 

opmtfwkhoit without being fubjea to the imperfe6tions here ftated; but all, 

I'lde deviation that I know of, are more or lets deficient in corre6tnefs, from 

are fubjcft to requiring an exadnefs in their formation hardly attainable, or 
inaccuraey. r 

from extreme tendency to have this perfedion deranged when 

attained. 

The parallel rule 'The parallel rule with eroding conneftors, and two Aiding 

with niding joints, is fubjeft to both the above inconveniences. The leaft 

joints difficult to 

inakc exait, and P'^Y 



PARALLEL EULE3. 197 

play in the Aides, or deviation in the grooves in which ihey becomes inaccu- 
are to move, muft alter the parallelifm of the lines drawn by "^^ from wear. 
it; and however exadt it may be at firft, the natural wear at- 
tendant on its ufe muft demonftrably produce thefe imperfec- 
tions; to which may be added, (hat the nicely of workman- 
fliip which it requires, and its complicated form, muft of courfe 
render it expenfive. 

The inflrument formed by a rule fupported by two Imall That rriovlng 

wheels fixed to the fame axis, which axis is placed fo as lo^^"?.'^*'/^ ^' ^ 
' 1 fixed to one axis, 

be parallel to the edge of the rule, is liable to be imperfedt, has the fame 
from any difference in the diameters of the two wheels, or f.'^f^'^*' ^"'^ '^ 

•' liable to inaccii- 

flight inaccuracy in the pofilion of the axis. racy from the 

This rule is alfo very liable to flip on the paper, and js ""^^'^""'=*s of 
rendered incorrect in its effects by any unevennefs in the fur- 
face over which it is moved. 

The parallel rule, mentioned in your ninth volume, page That formed by 
'212, requires an exact proportion in the length of each of its ^ob^diffiJulTto 
parts; and as thefe are all of ditlerent meafures, would be make exad, and 
liable to error in the firft formation, on this account ; and how- ''^ble to become 

^i , 11- II r 1 • '^^'■y 'ncorreft 

ever exactl\ made, would, aher a hllie wear, foon deviate, in wear from its 
on account of the play which this would produce in the joints; '""« projeaions 
the connedors alfo between the two rules, palling from differ- ^f fupport. 
cnt extremities, and leaving long fpaces beyond the points of 
fupport, would thereby occafion any play in the joints to pro- 
duce a greater deviation Irom parallelifm in the lines drawn. 

The apparatus for producing parallel lines formed by the The drawbg 
drawing board and normal fquare, can hardly with propriety ,^^[(-^^"^.2"°'^' 
be clafTed among the initrumenls here treated of; w hatever its cumbrous, and 
accuracy may be, its cumbrous form, and the time required ^^ --s time. 
for fattening tlie paper to it, render it lor many purpofes very 
inconvenient. 

Thefe confiderations induced me, about the time when the 
account of the parallel rule, given in your ninth volume was 
publiflied, to conlider how a parallel rule might be conftru6fed 
not liable to fide deviation, and as free as poffible from the de- 
feds of the others above ftated. The inflrument which then 
occurred to me as the beft calculated for this purpofe, I fliall 
now defcribe; and as I have often examined it fince, if it pof- 
feflTed any material defed, it is probable it would have become 
manifeft before this ; in which cale 1 Hiould not have brought 
it forward to public notice. 

My 



]<)S NEW PAR ALLEL RUI E. 

Dcfci-iption of My infiiument for drawing parallel lines without fide devi- 
Mr. Bofweil's ^[\qj^ jg formed of three rulers, laid parallel to each otlier, 

p.irallel rule to ' ' 

picverit lateral connected by two pair of moveable pieces, all of equal length, 
Jevution, a;,(j parallel to each oilier; Uiefe pieces, where they meet on 

the middle rule, have their extremities formed into portions 
of toothed wheeh, which Iqck into each other, as maybelecn 
in the figure: the efFecl of thefe fegments of wiieels thus act- 
ing in each other, is, thai all the lateral motion is transferred 
to the middle rule, while the external rules move only in ao 
oppnfiieand parallel diredion. 
The contrivance This indrument will not be liable to the incorreflnefs ot 
to prevent lateial^j^^Cg ^^^^^^ defcribed, for the following rcafons : 1ft. The 

dcvijcion cannot , , ■> t • i 

AiYtci Hti accu- tOothed fegments bemg in no way concerned in producing the 
racy. Its fup- parallelifm of the infirument, its accuracy of parallelifm can- 
niakes it fteady. "<^^ beat all affecled by any trifling incorreiftnefs of forma- 
It is eafily made (ion in their parts. 2nd. All the co.nnccting pieces being 
^'^^ ' of equal length, can "be formed with more certain accuracy. 

3d. The conneding pieces palling from the fame extremities of 
the external rules, give them a Heady fupport. For thefe 
reafons, in my opinion, it potfelTes all the fieadinefs aind faci- 
lity of formation of the common parallel rule, while it effec- 
tually prevents the fide deviation, to which the latter is liable. 
It mi"ht be It is not ablolutely necelFary to have more than one pair of 

made with but (he connetling pieces made with toothed fegments ; but as 
toothed fe''- thefe fegments are eafily formed in the clock makers engine 
ments, but two for cutting teeth in wheels, it can add little to ihe expence 
Pole more un - ^^ ^'^^^ 'he two pair in this manner, as (bewu in the ligure, 
form. and will make the inftrumcnt look more uniform. 

The middle rule ^he middle rule fliould alfo be made a little thinner than 
ftmld be made the others, to prevent friction on the paper in its lateral move- 
thinner than the . t • r 
otherstoprcvent™'-''^*^''^^^"'" "l'^- 

triaion. In the defcriplion of this inftrumcnt, it will be obferved. 

Novelty of the j|^^j ,|^g novelty of it confifts in the application of the toothed 

jiiftrumcnt con- -' rr 

lifts in its tooth- fegments of the wheels to the ufe mentioned ; which I cannot 
ed fegments. (inrl has ever been before ufed for this purpofe; and I think it 
Reafons for flip- '''ghly probable it has not, as, befides its not being known to 
pofing this in- gentlemen, whom I have confulted on this liead, moft likely 
vcmion to be j^^ ^^ ac(|i]ainled wilh fuch matters, ihe fimplicity of the con- 
trivance would probably have brought it into extenfive ufe, 
if it had been ever known at any former period. 

I mention this only to fliew that,, before I claim the priority 
of invention, I have taken forae pains to inveftigate my pre. 

tenfvons j 



NEW PARALLEL RULE. 



199 



tenfions; which I think is incumbent on every man to do on 
fucb occafions: for, however fair the claim may be of inven- 
tion, if a thing is well known to have been beiure done, it 
^tlead produces an aukward fenfation to the claimer; for 
which reafon, thofe who accufe others of doing ihis, (liould 
be the more cautious, that their accufation is fair in all its 
parts; for oftentimes an external refemblance may fubfift be- 
tween two contrivances, as between my inftrument and the 
triple parallel ruler, and yet a fmail addition render their ef- a fmall addition 
feds elTentially different; thus the triple parallel ruler admits Jo ^n inftrument 
i of fide deviation, while my parallel ruler effeiStually pre- ^ers its effedls 
i vents it. effenljally difFer- 

I My motive for publifliing the account of this inftrument is 
j principally becaafe I think it a duty incumbent on every man, 
' who has contrived any thing that may be of ufe to the world, 
! to make it known as extenfilvely as poffible, which it certainly 
will be by appearing in your Journal. 

Theinflrument from which tlie figure was drawn was made This inflrumeni 

according to my directions, by Mr. Banks, inftrument maker, ^^'^^ ^V ^^' 
•».T • . o , , /- . r /• -.1 BiKks, 441, 

No. 4H m the Strand, and aniwers the purpoie perleciiy strand. 

well; of courfe any gentlemen who defire to ufe parallel 

rulers of this kind, may have them accurately made at the fame 

j place. 

I requeft the favour of your permitting the infertion, at the Typographical 

1 end of this communication, of the indication of feme (ypo- ^'"'O's '" Mi- 
... , . , . /^ Bofweil's lad 

I graphical errors, made in my paper relative to the perlonn- paper relative to 
i ance at Tea of the fliip Economy, in your laft number; and the fliip Econo- 
] which I am the more anxious to have refiified, as fome of 
I them entirely alter the fenfe of the paiTages where they occur. 
1 Page 175, line 2, erafeit before could; line 6, transfer the 
i bracket to het'oTezvhen in the next line; line 8, for is read are; 
1 erafe the comma after is; and transfer the bracket to after 
^ proof ; line 9, 10, for dire6lioii read diredors ; page 176, line 
i 15, i'oT/ource reaj^ purje; line 21, erafe nof before reji; page 
1179, line 22, for point read front; line 37, for fmns lead 
: frames; page l.SO, line 3, for fcurping read fcarfing. 

Some errors of the piefs are alfo apparent in the fide notes, 
but I fliall not trouble you by pointing thera out, as they can 
be rec^ififd by the meaning of the paifages to which they are 
S added. I am. Dear Sir, 

Your very refpedlful humble fervant, 

J, W. EOSWELL. 
Reference 



200 WASTE OF fISH, &C. 

Rtfcrence to the Figure, Plate V. Fig. 2. 

A A, A A. The cxfernal parallel rules, BB the central rule, 

C D,C D the connecting pieces, D D the fegments of tootl^i^d 

wheels in which the conncding pieces terminate, which by 

their aftion on each other prevent tide deviation in A A,A A. 



IV. 

I 
Letter from an Enquikek, on the TVaJle of Fifk ajferted io be 
made on the Scottijh Couji. In Replt/ to A. L, 

To Mr. NICHOLSON, 
SIK, London, Feb. 7, 1806. 

Proper (pint of 1 AGREE mofi cordially with your Correfpondent A. L. of 
puUicatioa'I -Aberdeen, in page 168, with regard to the accuracy of im- 
portant information when communicated (o the public, and 
that when doubts exifl, it (hould be given with fo much 
modetly and diffidence, as to fliew that the communicator is 
not certain of his fubjea. Of the ftatement I made refpeaing 
thofe inftances of wafteful negligence in fome fidieries of the 
north of Scotland, I am not the firft ; the refpedable author 
of the ftatiftical account of the parifi; of Peterhead, the Rev. 
Scotch fifheries. Dr. Moir, has atferted the fame, limited to that parifli that I 
did. In the 16th Vol. p. 5.50 of that work, he fays, " turbot 
(I believe the holybut of the London market) is now caught 
frequently, and in great perfeftion. Thirty years ago they 
were feldom ufed liere, frequentlj/ cajl into the dunghill, or 
left to ivafie on the fea beach, they at prefent fell from four 
pence to one (hilling eacli, and are rifing everv day in price;'* 
in the preceding page of that volume we are informed, that 
'^ the greateft part of tiie coda' founds, in this pariQi, are 
permitted to remain and rot on the fea beach, or, are cafi into the 
dunghill, though the ufe and value of them as an article of 
food and delicacy at tabic have been known here for many 
years," and yet in the following paragraph the Dodor tells 
iiis readers, " tliat the crews of the fliips have been fent from 
this town to Barryhead, to preferve the founds, tongues, and. 
palate.< of the cod caught there, and the owners have always 

fou nJ 



WASTE OF riSH, &C. OQ I 

ft)unJ a read) market for them !" for myfelf. Sir, before I 
even hinted tlirough your Journal, at thefe ftrong affirmations, 
I made it my biifinefs to enquire of fome friends at 7\berdeen, 
of the truth or falfehood of fuch afierlions; deeminjy it then, 
as that gentleman does at prefent, an improbable ftalement ; 
under thefe circumftances I cannot confider the communica- 
tion you did me the favour to infert, as miHfating either againft 
your cofrefpondents rule of examination, or my own habitual 
fcepticifm : — that gentleman, in recommending accuracy of 
ftatement, ought not to have forgotten it himfelf; he will eafiiy 
fee that Aberdeen is not mentioned by me as being at all 
concerned in this wafte of fuftenance. My little note to you 
has rouzed the attention of A, L. — Is it wandering too much 
into 

" the fairy regions of romance,'^ 
to hope that the fubjeft may obtain llill farther notice ? and 
continue to do fo until it be made produ6live of all tlie advan- 
tages it is capable ? in that cafe, fuppofing defedive informa- 
tion in my fir ft notice of it (and I prefumeA.L. will allow 1 had 
fome authority for my opinion, and that he himftlf has not 
been completely accurate) my errors will be eventually at- Good effe^as of 
tended with good. Your correfpondent well knows, that *nq""l ^'^^ 

" ' public remark, 

(he aflertion of Dr. Johnfon about the fcarcity ol trees in 
Scotland, has had the happieft eflfecls. How far that gentle- 
man's queftion about the vend at the towns I mentioned, may 
be anfwered in the affirmative or otherwife, I have not yet 
fufficiently informed myfelf; but certainly under the circum- 
ftances I conceive to be true, thofe markets would be pre- 
ferable to fuch wafte. The men employed may look vvlih con- 
fidence for a fpeedy falej and, if I am not very much mif- 
taken, thefe towns are fupplied from the Yorkfliire boats, the 
wind therefore which brings the one fet of boats, would im- 
pede, if not totallv hinder the other. Far am I from wilhing 
to throw any obftacles in the way of fo excellent a plan, as 
that for a fociety for exporting white fi(h from Aberdeen, but 
where would your correfpondent fend them to? *' is it not to 
be fuppofed, that fijliers of the places nearejl to fuch tonus could 
greatly underfell t/iem?" this queftion is not a greater difficulty 
in the fcheme fuggefted by me of bringing the fiih to Leifh, 
Berwick, or Newcaftle, than it is to that of A. L. The tact 
i?, that by giving that queftion weight, competition, in every 

bufuiefs 



202 \'f'A3TE OF FISH, &C. 

bufinefs would be undone; for my own part, I do not think it 
any objedion to either of our fcliemes; nay, our plans confider* 
cd ierioufly, are nearly alike. I fuggefted, rather I believe in the 
form of a query than otherwife, the propriety of bringing fi(h 
where I klPiow a demand exifts; but that gentleman oppofes 
my fuggeftion with the above queftion, and then propofes a 
plan on a fimiiar, but more comprehenfive fcale ! Allow me 
merely to correct at prelent one more error A. L. has, unin- 
tentionallj/, 1 am certain, committed in the laft paragraph of 
his vindication of the Arbroath fiftiers (of whofe methods, and 
"probable wade, I hope foon to obtain a correSt account,) 
It is not the cafe even for the moft part in every large fiftiing 
town, that the fiQiermen " retain the bodies of the crabs, 
and fell the large claws only. A lift of fome of the towns in 
whici) that cuftom prevails, would, doubtlefs oblige many of 
your readers. If I am correal in my opinion of A. L. all his 
attempts are i'or the fpread of ufeful knowledge; his candouc 
will fuggeft the propriety of viewing mine alfo in a favour- 
able light. 

I am. Sir, 

Your's and A. L's, 

Friend and Servant, 
AN ENQOIRER. 

Notice of a Publication of Importance intended by the Literary 
and Antiquarian Society of Perth. 
SIR, 
IT is with great pleafure I' inform you that the very re- 
fpedable Literary and Antiquarian Society of Perth, intend 
giving a feledion of their valuable papers to the public ; it is 
much to be lamented that they have delayed doing this fo 
long, as many of their manufcripts throw a very extenfive 
light on the antiquities of that part of the ifland. 

I am. Sir, 

Your's truly, 

K. I.. 

To Mr. Nicholfon, 

Neivcaftle-?ipo7i~Tynei Jan,28, I80S. 

letter 



OIZZAKD OF FOWLS, (Jq;^ 

Letter concerning a Library ejlahlijhed at Aberdeen. From a 

TuAVELLER. 

IR, York Hotel, Bridge Street, Blackfriars. 

I AM extremely glad to find, that there is a (ubrcription 
library ertabliftied in Aberdeen,' lam aftoniflied, however, 
to be informed from IVIr. Crombie's paper, that none of the 
very learned FrofeiTors in that part of the country are engaged 
in the undertaking! perhaps if the fubfcriplion was raifed to 
one guinea per annum, much more good might be effeded, 
and thofe gentlemen would not then fcruple to join them- 
felves; their freedom as to pecuniary motives is well known. 
I hope for the fake of tiie genera! difiufion of knowledge, to 
find myfelf equally miftaken with regard to Banff, Peterhead, 
and Invernefs. Thefociefyat Aberdeen, though young, feemsto 
be conducted with great liberahty, as appears evident from their 
offer of affjftance to the places above mentioned, or any olh^r 
that may be now forming rules ; is it too much for a friend 
to the fpread of ufeful knowledge to fugged to them an ex- 
tenfion of the benefits of their alfociation, to thofe gentiemeii 
who are members of funilar focieties, whilft in Aberdeen, on 
condition of a return of fuch civilities, fliould any of their 
members be where fuch libraries are? a rule of this kind you 
Sir, have mentioned with applaufe in a former number, 

Your's, &c. 



February 7, 1 SOG. 



A TRAVELLER. 



V. 

A Chemical and Medical Examination of the Gizzards of White 
Fo-jols compared with Gelatine, together with an Expofition of 
the Chara&ierifiics of the latter ivhen oxigenaled, By. M. 
Bouillon Lagrange*. 

It has long been underftood, that the gizzards of white Gizzards of 
poultry poffeffes certain medicinal qualities. The ufe made of fowls mediGa'.ljr 
it by many phyficians may juflify fome reliance upon the " ^ * 

• Annates de Chimie, Vol. LV. 

virtues 



'214? GXJS^ARD iO FOWLS. 

virtues attributed to it ; but no one, I believe, has hitherkX 
thought of anal}'nng this fubftance. 

It occurred to me, that it would be ufeful to the art of 
healing, were a few chemical fa6ls added to the knowledge 
already poirelFed of the medical ufes of gizzard, particularly- 
after reading in the " Journal d'Econonue Rurate and Domcjlique, 
ou Bihliolhequc des Propriclaires ruraux, Pluvoife, an 12;'* 
a letter, wherein is announced the fuccefs obtained by its 
ufe in agues. As this letter contains the details of the pre- 
paration, and adminiftralion of this remedy, I (lull tranfcribe 
it at length. 

'• Amiens, 25 Fmnaire. 

Letter refiiei^- *' YOU mention animal gelatine as a febrifuge, I will 

Jng it' inform you of a more fimple and lefs expenlive remedy. I 

as ""febrifuge know not by what fatality this great fpecific has been negled- 

by the French ed, notwithftanding it was publiflied by government full forty 

^overnmen . years ago, and in fpite of its efficacy, of which I have had 

long experience; for, of about a thoufand cafes. In which 

during that period, I have adopted its ufe. I can atteft the 

cure of eight-tenths. 

" I have refided at Montpelller during fifly-fix years; the 
climate of the place and its environs is mild and falubrious; 
but the inhabilants along the coaft are fubje6l to agues, on 
account of the vicinity of the Mediterranean, and of flagnant 
pools, M. de St. Prieft, intendant of this province, pub- 
lirtied the order of government relative to the remedy above 
alluded to. 
Prefciipuon. tt j^einddi/. — This remedy confifts of the gizzard of fowls, 

dried and pulverized. 
Thegirzards are " Preparation.— -T^ike. tlie gizzard of white poultry, as 
wafted, dried, f^^^,] tyrkies, 8ie. (I never made ufe of thofe of black fowls, 
and pulverized. , , « 

as pigeons, ducks, &c.) open them, and clear away the 

gravel they contain ; having (lightly waflied them, let them 
be put on a (tring and hanged in the fun, or up a chirai>ey to 
dry, after which they muft be reduced to powder, Cfted, and 
kept in a bottle clofely corked. 

" Dofc, — The dofe is about a drachm for adults, and from 
half a dram to a feruple for children. 
The dofc is one " Mode of taking. — Mix the proper quantity of the powder 
i "wLk.^ ^^ '" ^ ?)^^^ ^^ half-glal^ of good old white ^yine, and let the 

patient 



GIZZARD OF FOWLS. QQS 

patient fv^'allow it about half an hour before the fit comes on, 
or on tiie appearance oF the precurfory fvinptoms of the 
fever. This being thrice repeated, it rarely happens that the 
diforder returns. 

" Regiinen.'—A wholefome regimen is all that is neceltary 
during the adminiflralion of this medicine, but the patient 
fhould carefully avoid expofure to moifture or cold, particular- 
ly in the feet/* 

The foregoing details lead us naturally to the following 
obfervation ; 

Should this fubftance be confidered as gelatine, and pof- Quefllons whe- 
fefling the fame property of being a febrifuge, as ftated by *^" '^ ^^ S^la- 
M. Seguin ; or {hould we rather acknowledge it to be pof- 
feffed of thofe particular virtues which have been attributed to 
it by feveral emient phyficians ? M. Pia, an old apothecary 
of Paris, affured me, that full thirty or forty years ago, the 
powdered gizzard of poultry was recommended in all obftruc- 
tions of the urinary paffage, in complaints of the bladder 
occafioned by (limy matter, as well as in all nephritic pains, 

'* The efficacy of this remedy has long ago eftablifhed its Its efficacy, 
ufe ;" and the writer adds, " that during my practice in 
pharmacy, I have prepared large quantities of it ; fo much 
were phyficians and their patients fatisfied with its opera- 
tion." 

His method of preparing the gizzards was to choofe thofe they fhould not 
of young fowls, and particularly of pullets: after cleanfing, f^jj"^** '" ^^° 
rubbing, wafhing, and wiping them carefully, he ftrung 
them, and left them to dry on hurdles between (heets of 
paper, affifted by the gentle heat of a ftove, and not in the 
fun, which, according to M. Pia, would have fpoiled them. 

When the gizzards were properly dried, they became Vitreous appear- 
friable, almoft tranfparent, and exhibited on being broken a '"*^^' 
vitreous appearance. 

The powder obtained was of a whitifti grey a3i-colour. Powder aft. 
yielding in the mouth a kind of mucilage, and pofleffing a i^^i^r^Jug* i!i"'^'' 
flightly fait and bitter tafte. faitiA. 

This powder was adminiftered twice a day, (morning and Dofe. 
evening) in dofes of twenty-four to thirty-fix grains, in a glafs 
Vthe infufion of pellitory of the wall ; of bearberries (uva urfi) 
or of linffeed fweetened with fyrup. 
Vci, XIII.—March, 1806. Q The 



^Qg * GIZZARD OF FOWLS. 

tSc&u The efficacy of this remedy as a diuretic and aperient, was 

fo much relied on, that the afflided even omilted the infufion 
and took it in pure water with a little fugar. 
Arguments in The long experience which has been had of the falutary 
its favour. effeds of gizzard as a febrifuge, diuretic, aperient, &c. 
and the publicity which the government, doubtlefs not upon 
light grounds, has given to this remedy, are authorities in its 
favour; and it mufl therefore be an acceptable labour to 
the phyfician, to furnifli him with new lights upon an 
obje6t fo efientially interefting to humanity. This is the 
motive by which I have b;en induced to fubmit the following 
experiments to the fociety of medicine. 
Inqu'iriei as to As gizzard has a great analogy to gelatine, I endeavoured 
IndT^'*'"" *^ difcover their fimilitude. If gelatine be really a febrifuge, 
gizzard fliould be fo likewife, particularly as it contains, 
when frefti, a large portion of that fubftance ; but whence 
does it derive its power as a diuretic, aperient, &c.? does it 
poflefs it in common with gelatine? I cannot tell. Or, have 
the faline parts of its compofition this double property ? of 
this alfo I am ignorant ; for practice has not yet afcertained 
whether the anti-febrile quality fhould be afcribed to the 
acidulous falts rather than to the fubfiances with which they 
are combined. 
Ixperimcnts on A frelh gizzard prefented the following phenomena, 
recent guMrd. ^ 'pj^g water wherein this fubftance had been boiled ac- 
quired a yellow ith white colour, and flakes were depofiled in 
cooling ; it had a tafte rather infipid than fweet. 
It reddened the tinfture of turnfol. 

B. Lime water, and water of barytes produced in this 
liquor an abundant precipitate, partially foluble by nitric and 
muriatic acids. 

C. Ammonia caufed a lefs degree of precipitation. 

D. Oxigenated muriatic acid fepar.iled with flakes from the 
liquor. 

E. Cauftic potadi, either folid or liquid, acted upon gizzard 
in the fame manner as upon mufcular flefh. 

When ground together, ammonia was difengaged from 
(he gizzard ; it became foft, of a reddilh colour, and foluble 
in water. If this liquor be evaporated, it will depofit fibres. 
in cooling. Alcohol, by deflroying the potafb, feparaled a 
flaky fubftance, lolubie in water. 

This 



GIZZARD OF FOWLS. 207 

This aqueous folution gave a precipitate on the addition of 
iime-water, or muriate of lime or of barytes, as well as of 
iome acids. The precipitate obtained by lime-water may be 
rediffolved by the addition of more water, which proves that 
tlie mixture had not become truly faponaceous, but that the 
potath had merely dilfolved the animal matter. 

F. The aftion of certain metallic folutions on the liquor of 
frefti gizzard was more or lefs perceptible, according to the 
facility with which the metal communicated its oxigen to the 
animal matter. 

Nitrates of mercury and of filver, for example, were de~ 
compofed, but the precipitates obtained by the a6tion ot 
thefe falts upon gelatine and the extra6l, quickly turned black, 
particularly that of mercury, and they were no longer ioluble 
in nitric acid. The oxides had, therefore communicated a 
part of their oxigen to the gelatine and the extradive 
matter, which were thus united to the mercury, now ap- 
proaching a metalline ftate, 

Oxigenated muriate of mercury was not decoirjpofed in this 
wanner. Thecircumftances, in faft, were no longer alike : the 
excefs of oxigen which it contains fufficing to Oxigenate the 
two fubftances. Here the precipitate was very little coloared, 
and the metallic fait was only reftored to the ftate of mild 
mercurial muriate. 

Some Other metallic folutions produced in the liquor of 
frelh gizzard only gelatinous flakes ; fuch are the acetate ot 
lead, and the fulphate of copper and iron. 

G. Aqueous tincture of nutgall changed the liquor into a 
kind of jelly. 

I have thought thefe experiments fufficient for demonftrating Experiments on 
the nature of thofe fubflances which were capable of folution **"^S'««*r<^' 
in water; yet as gizzard is not adminiftered in its frefti ftate, 
but undergoes a procefs which might caufe a variation in the 
foregoing refults, I again examined it in this latter point of 
view. 

In dryiiig the gizzard, I followed the prefcription already 
cited of M. Pia, and obtained a fubftance exaftly anfwering 
his defcription, 

A. Reduced to powder, its tafte was infipid, yet partaking 
ftrongly of an animal flavour ; its colour was a whitifti grey. 
Q 2 B. The 



'20S GIZZARD OF fowls: 

Experiments on B. The aqueous decodlion took a light yellow tint, aed 
gizzar . fpjgiig^ Ijj^g chicken broth. 

It reddened the tindure of turnfol. 

C. Lime-water and water of baryte? caufed tlie fame kind 
of precipitate as in the deco<5iion of IVeth gizzard. 

D. Oxalate of ammonia proved the prefence of lime. 

E. Oxigenated muriatic acid feparated white flakes. 

F. Nitric acid had a violent cfFeft upon the dry gizzard; 
at a mild temperature it diffolved it completely. 

Nitric acid at eighteen degrees excited a flight effer- 
vefcence, and by gradually increafing its temperature, a fepa-% 
r'ation was perceived of azotic gas, then of nitrous gas, and of 
carbonic acid gas. 

The liquor left in the retort was evaporated, in the ex- 
pedation of obtaining cryftals; but on cooling, none ap- 
peared. The evaporation was then continued, the refult of 
which was a yellowifli glutinous matter, tenacious, and of an 
exceffively bitter and acrid tafle. 

Water imbibed the acid, and prefented all the characters 
of the decoction of apples, 

G. Metallic folutions prefented nothing particular, as In thcc- 
cxperiments upon frefli gizzard, except that antiraonial tartrite 
of potatli wa^ decompofed, forming in the decoftion a white 
precipitate, 

H. Aqueous infufion of nut-gall produced a lefs copious 
precipitate in this experiment, than it had with that upon 
frefti gizzard. 

I. Dry and friable gizzard was digeSed in alcohol ; but the 
liquor was fcarcely coloured, even with the affiftance of 
caloric. 

This alcoholic tinfture reddened that of turnfol, and gave 
precipitates with lime-water and water of barytes, as alfo 
with nitrate of filvcr; a proof that the alcohol has diflblved 
only die faline particles. 

L. The incineration of gizzard left a reGdue of a faline and 
alcaline tafte. Paper tinged by curcuma became of a deep 
brown. 

This refidue was partly foluble in water. The liquor con- 
tained fulphate, muriate, and carbonate of potafli. 

The part not foluble, on being fubmitted to the aflion of 
muriatic acid, difcovered carbonate of liaie, phofphate of 
lime, and a fmall portion of Iron. 

2. Hence 



G17ZARD OF FOWLS. HOP 

Hence it refults, that the greater part of the falts contained 
in gizzard, is the acid phofphate of lime ; the prel'ence of 
muriate and fulphate of potafli is alfo obfervable. 

Thefe falts are not only united with gelatine, but alfo with 
a fmall quantity of extra6tive matter. It (liould feem that the 
latter fubftance, and perhaps the gelatine, is oxigenated by 
the deficcation of the gizzard ; for in this Rate lliey are lefs 
foluble in water, 

Wifliing to afcertain the difference between pure gela- 
tine, and that which had been oxigenaled, I made ex- 
periments upon the former, of which the following is the 
refult. 

Pure gelatine acquires different properties, according to the Experiments on 
means employed in its oxigenation. gelatin. 

Of the metallic oxides, fome freely communicate their with metallle 
oxiged to gelatine, as the oxide of red-lead, and the red oxide °^"^"* 
of mercury ; but the gelatine was combined with a part of 
the oxide, and could not again be feparated completely from 
it. In treating gelatine with the red oxide of mercury, a 
part of the oxide was reftored to its metallic Hale, and the 
remainder affumed a reddifli brown colour. 

Superoxigenated muriate of potafli heated witli gelatine. And other 

caufed no alteration in its nature. '"'f ' °^ "'^se* 

nation. 
Oxigen gas combined with it but flowly, and in fmall 

quantity. After being for a confiderable time fubmitted to 

the a6tion of this gas, the gelatine only luffered a change of 

colour; it became whitifti, but its charaiSterifiics are flill the 

Tame. 

Oxigenated muriatic acid prefented the following pheno- 
mena. 

On pouring oxigenated muriatic acid gas into diffolved ge- 
latine, a whitith thick fcum appeared on the furface, of a / 
moderate thicknefs, the under fide of which gradually changed 
colour, and became milky. The white filaments which fwam 
in the liquor, together with the fcum which floated on the 
furface, were feparated by filtering, and waflied In cold and 
warm water till the water ceafed to redden tincture of turnfol. 
The fubftance thus prepared prefented the following cha- 
ra6leriftics : 

1, It was capable ofextenfion equally with gluten, and was Properties of 

Qf a white colour. oxigenated 

2. It^=^^^'"- 



210 



Jvperlments on 
gelatine* 



<S;iZZAB.D Of FOWLS. 

^, It was very light, and (wam upon water, 

S. When well wafhed, it retained little or no flavour, 

4. Left expofed to the air, it dried, and fell to duft. 

5. It did not redden the tindture of turnfol. 

6. It was fcarcely at all foluble in warm water. On boiling 
it a length of time, in a fufficient quantity of water, it was 
reduced to an infinite number of particles, fo minute as to be 
hardly perceptible ; but as the heat was lowered, they re- 
united in a mafs as before the boiling. 

7. Heated nitric and acetic acids diflfolved this fubflaoce j 
but it was precipitated in its original form, by reirigeration. 

8. Trituration with cauftic polafli produced a feparalion of 
ammoniac. 

This matter, it will be perceived, is neither gelatine nor 
-ijlbumen, fince its properties are wholly different. 

It appears probable, (hat the gelatine in gizzard acquires 
by drying, properties analogous to thofe above defcribed ; 
which, with the changes obferved in the exlradive matter 
already mentioned, would certainly render dried gizzard lefs 
foluble in water. 

We have no means of afcertaining, for want of a proper 
objefi of comparifon, whether this difference be effential to 
the efficacy of gizzard ; and I know not if frefli gizzard has 
ever been adopted in medicul pradice. I could only wifli to 
afcertain if its febrifuge quality exift in the oxigenated gela- 
tine, in the extraflive matter, or in the acid fait. Indeed, on 
comparing the quantity of gelatine adminiftercd to patients, 
according to M. Seguin, with the dofe of powdered gizzard, 
above-defcribed, a great difference will be obferved ; and yet 
according to Ihofe who have made ufe of it, a faiall dofe of 
powdered gizzard is Jufficient to check the fever. 

The comparifon which I have made of gelatine with giz- 
zard is fufficient to etlablifli a material dillinflion between 
them. 

Pure gelatine poffeffes a weak infipid flavour; does not 
redden tindure of turnfol; is mucous and gluey between the 
fingers; affumes in the fire a concrete, folid, and tranfparemt 
appearance ; and is foluble in boiling water. 

Solution of barytes or of lime mixed with that of gelatine, 
caufes a precipitation of phofphate of lime. 

Sulphates 



GIZZARD OF FOWLS. gUl 

Sulphates of copper or tin, and acetate of lead, experienct 'E^PW'njcnts on 
jr.- gelatine, 

no decompolition. 

Nitrates of mercury and filver are decompofed, but the 
precipitates are much lefs copious than thofe produced with 
the decoftion of gizzards 

Solution of tarlrite of antimony only thickened the liquor. 
Alcohol hkewife has but little power over gelatine. The 
precipitates obtained by means of the water of lime or of 
barytes, as well as that by nitrate of filver, are fcarcely per- 
ceptible. 

The deco6tion of frefti gizzard when fuitably evaporated, 
leaves a coloured gelatinous matter, foluble in water, which 
reddens tindure of turnfol ; gives copious precipitates with 
lime-water and water of barytes ; decompofes fulphates of 
iron and copper, acetate of lead, muriate of tin, tartrite of 
antiraonial polafti, and nitrates of mercury and lilver; the 
precipitates refulting from thefe decompofilions are generally 
too confiderable to be attributed folely to the gelatine. 

Dried and powdered giizard poflefles charadteriftics flill 
more diflinft from thofe of pure gelatine, whence I conclude 
that the latter fubftance has a different operation, 

I leave pra6lilioners to decide on the advantages which the 
medical art may derive from gizzard ; it is for them to decide 
whether much confidence is to be placed in the notice in» 
farted in the Journal d'Economique. And if it (hall appear 
that the medieal ule of this material has been attended with 
iuccefs ; it will perhaps be proper to attend particularly to 
other fubflances which have not hitherto been fuppofed to 
polfefs any febrifuge virtue; fuch as the falts vcith excefs of 
acid, the oxigenated extradive and even oxigenated gela- 
tine. 



0» 



212 ON THE PIRITE OF FRANCE. 



VI. 

On Piritc found in France by M. Cocq, CommiJJary of Gun- 
powder and Saltpetre Works at Clermont- Fer rant, 'cviih an 
Analyfisof this Subjiance. By J. J. Drappier, Teacher of 
Chemijiry at the Polytechnic School,* 

Cryftalsofpi- -M.. COCQ foiind the cryftals of plrlte, in a porous grey 

rite found in the porphyry, with a bafe of feldfpath, and containing cryftals of 

de Dome "^ quartz, forming a part of that chain of primitive mountains 

which fupport the volcanoes of the diftridt of Puy-de-Dome, 

Thefe cryftals of pirite feparate from the rock, and leave in 

the porphyry an impreflion perfe6tly fmooth. 

He alfo found at the village of St. Avit, and in the vicinity 
of Pont-Gibaud, a fubftance which appeared to be pirite ; in 
both fitiiations it was fo indeterminate as to render it impoffible 
—and on the *o pronounce exa6lly on its nature. But in returning to 
yf/iy to Menat. Menat, at twelve leagues to the north of Clermont, he per- 
ceived the granites refuming the fame appearance of thofe 
which he had obferved near Saint Avit and Pont-Gibaud, 
fometimes the colour of the feldfpath inclined to purple, and 
oftentimes this fubftance appearing alone in the mafs of the 
granite, exhibited a beautiful purple. 

The grey porous granite appeared again at intervals, with 
the appearance of the cryftals obferved in the fame rock near 
St. Avit and Pont-Gibaud; at laft, after a great many fearches, 
he found the pirite well defined, and aflliming a chara(5ler 
much more determinate than that of Scheenberg. 

Its Phyfical CharaSteriJiics. 

Each cryftal is ^^^ colour is a greenifli or blackifli brown. Its form is a re- 
aprifm of twelve gular hexhedral prifm, of which all the lateral edges are trun- 
stackiflior cated, which conftitutes it a prifm of twelve faces. Some- 
greenirh browi^, times the prifm has alfo a fmall face at each of the angles of 
with a fmooth jf, j^gj-g^ which has not hitherto been remarked in the pirite 
of Saxony. 

Thefurface of the cryftals is fmooth, and a llttje brilliant: 
in its interior, the pirite is dull, containing at times forae par- 
ticles of mica. 

* Journal des Mines, Vol- XVil. p.^OT. 



ON THE PIUIT2 OF FRANCE. 2|3 

lis fra6lure is unequal, with a fine grain, approaching to a Its frafture is 
fplintery fraaure. finX']* ""''^ ' 

It admits of being fcraped by a knife, and yields a diift of Yields to the 
a bright grey colour : ik is tender, and does not adhere to the knife, does not 

. . •. • 1- , o , . , adhere to the 

tongue, (hough it is a little unctuous to the touch. tongue, and is 

Befides the ilze of its crylials, their faces, the fubftances a little unftuous 
to which they are found attached, added to the charaders de- '°^ ^ *°"*^ * 
fcribed, eilablifti the identity of this mineral with the pirite 
of Saxony. 

The cryftals found in Auvergne are more perfc6l than thofe The external 

of Scheenberg; they exhibit no alteration, and the purity of ^Jj"^^^JJ°^ 

their form removes ail doubt of there being any necefliiy to leave no doubt 

clafs this fubflance as a new fpecies. ' °( ^^i' ''^.^n 

^ with the pirite ot 

Saxony. 
AnaJyfis by M. Drappier. 

The pirite of France, feparated carefully from its bed, and Analyfis of the 
reduced to a fine powder, is attacked and difcoloured by mu- ^"""^^ ^ '"'■^ 
riatic acid. This acid diHblves the oxide of Iron, the colour- 
ing principle, and a portion of the alumine: but as it leaves a 
confiderable refidue, on whicli it appears to have no a61ion, 
M. Drappier thought the method of analyfis Qiould be changed : 
he then took 100 parts of this fubftance, and kept it at a red One hundre<j 
heat in a crucible of platina for half an hour; after it was P^*^*? '°'^ 7 ''y 
cooled, there was a lofs of feven parts. The remaining 93 The remainder 
parts were heated in (he crucible ior three quarters of an hour, fu fed with pot- 
with three times their weight of cauftic potadi, pi^'''ned by ^^j^^^° ^"J"^ 
alcohol. The fufed mafs, detached from the crucibje by dif- 
tiijed water, dilTolved entirely in muriatic acid. The fululion The folution 
evaporated almoft to drynefs, and then diluted with a frefti ^'^^P""^^.^ and 
quantity of water, let fall a white precipitate, having all the ^ater depofits 
charaflers of filex. This precipitate waflied carefully and 46 parts preci- 
well dried, formed 0,46 of the fubftance fubmitted to expe-^"^^^' 
riment. 

The remainder of the muriatic folution was dccompofed by The refidue 
cauftic potatb. It immediately formed a precipitate, which ^''"'^^'^ ""^"l 

r f,T- 1 I • • . ^ r 1. 1- • , I ?auftic potaflx 

loon dillolved agam in the excels ot alkali, with the excep- leaves i-i parts 
tion of 2|- parts of oxide of iron. '"°^ oxide. 

The alkaline folution fatuiated by an acid, depofited 42 The alkaline fo- 
parts of an earth, which had all the properties of alumine. All '"^'"'^ ^^^"'■^^^'* 

1 /• • • t f 1 -11 /, 1 "y ^" ^'^'^ ^^■ 

thele precipitates, before they were weighed, were wallied pofits 4s parts 
parefuHy, and heated to redncls in a crucible of platina. alumine. 

Anali/fis 



g|^ OV THE PIRITE OF FRANCE. 

Analyfis of the Pirites of France compared with that of Saxony 

Pirke of Saxony 
Firite of France, analyfed by Klaproth. 



Analyfii tabu- 
lated. 


Silex - - - - 46,00 - - 
Alumine - - - 42,00 - - 


■ - 29,50 
. - 63,75 




Oiiide of iron - 2,50 - ■ 
Lofs b) calcination 7,00 
Lofs - - - - 2,50 


• , 6,75 



pirite of France 
from that of 



Saxony. 



J 00,00 100.00 

ftpmarks on the M, Drappier thinks, on comparing his analyfis with that 
difference of the made bv M. Klaprolh, that it may be concluded, fuppofing 
there was no error in either analyfis, that either the pirite of 
France is not the fame fubftance as that of Saxony, or that 
minerals having the fame external charadiers, and efpecially 
the fame form, may vary both in their chemical properties, 
and in the proportions of their conflituent principles. M. 
Klaproth fays that acids have no aft ion on the pirite of Sax- 
ony, that, he found much difficulty in operating on it by pot- 
afli, and that, in order to feparate its parts, he was obliged 
to treat it twice with this alkali. The fame cheraift appears 
rot to have found any water in this fubftance. This differ- 
ence, it is true, may be explained, if it is confidered that the 
pirite of Saxony contains more alumine, and that it adheres to 
tlie tongue, while that of France has not this property, pro- 
bably on account of the water which it contains. 



vir. 



Gay LuHac on 

fluoric acid in 
inimal fub- 
ftances. 



Experiments, Jheunng, contrary to the Ajfertions of Morichini, 
that the Enamel of Teeth does not contain Fluoric Acid, In a 
JLelter froinWyi. Br AH DE, Efq. 



To Mr. NICHOLSON. 



SIR, 



ITIaVING leen in one of the laft numbers of the Annales de 
Chimie, an article entitled, " Lettre de Monfieur Gay-LufTac 
a Monfieur Bertliollet, fur le prefence de Pacide fluorique dans 
les fubftances animales," &c. I was furprifed to find that a 
chemift at Rome, of the name of Morichini, had difcovered 

fluoric 



£XAMIL OF TEETH. 215 

tluoric acid united to lime in the enamel of human teelh. The ~^n«5 '^aid by 
extraordinary refults of thefe relearches, induced me to repeal cxiftin the en- 
them; but before I mention the experiments from which I amel of teeth. 
have drawn conclufions different from Ihofe of the above- 
mentioned chemift, it may perhaps be proper to quote that 
part of Gay-Luflac's letter which relates to the prefent fub- 
jecl: 

*' M. Morichini having detached fome of the enamel from Quotation to 
human teeth, (uppofed that it might bear fome refemblance in '''^^ e^t^l. 
its compolilion to the enamel of (he foflil teeth of an elephant, 
in which, on a former occafion, he had detached fluoric acid; 
he therefore fubjected it lo analyfis, and perceived, to his 
great fatisfadlion, that it contained a large proportion of fluo- 
ric acid. 

To render thefe experiments more conclufive, he fubmif- Morichini fays 
ted portions of the two fpecies of enamel, viz. that of the ^^'^^ ^*^^ ^"^"'^' 
fofllil, and human teeth, and likewife fiuat of lime, to the aftbrdcd fluonc 
adion of fulphuric acid, and found that the laQ of thefe three ^'"^ as well a» 
fubftances yielded fluoric acid in the greateft abundance, and ^^^^^ . 
(hat the enamel of foflil teelh yielded fomewhat more than 
that of human teelh; but Morichini remarks, that thi> dif- 
ference is merely owing tolhe prefence of animal matter in the 
two kinds of enamel, and that the difengagemeni of the acid 
from the fiuat may be retarded, by adding a htt!e gelatine to 
that fubftance, after it has been calcined, and then drying the 
compound. He moreover obferves that the vapours which and that tlic 
fulphuric acid difengaged from any of thefe three fubftances, '^"'P''"''''^ "'"* 
had the property of acting on glafs, of dcpotliing a liliceous pours that cor- 
film on water, and other properties, which it is fcarcely ne- '^'•''^^ S'*'=*> &*^« 
ceflary to mention. 

According to Morichini's experiments, one hundred parts Component parts 
of the enamel of human teeth contain 30 parts of animal fub- °* c"^"!^' of" 

, ^ teeth according 

ftance, and 22 parts of fluat and pholphate of lime, with fbme to Morichini. 
magnefia, alumine, and carbonic acid. He has not yet been 
able to feparate the fluoric and phofporic acids from each other, 
but thinks that the proportion of tlie latter muft be extremely 
minute. M. Morichini has alio obferved that the enamel of 
the foflTd teelh of the elephant differs from that of human teeth, 
in containing a fmaller proportion of animal fubftance and 
phofphoric acid ; but he thinks that the phofphoric acid which 
he found in the enamel of human teeth tnay have been derived 

from 



^IQ ENAMEJL OF TEETH. 

from a portion of Uie bony part from which the enamel is fe- 
parated with great difficulty. But (he nioft interefting and 
unexpefted refult is, that fluoric acid exifts in animal fub- 
flances : a difcovery of the greateft importance. Thefe ex- 
periments oppoCe theprefent opinion concerning the compofi- 
lion of enamel, for Mr. Hatchett in his analyfis of this fub- 
fiance has only deteded phofphate of lime. 
Morichini pro- The refult of Mr. Hatchett's experiments, together with 
feffcs to have thofe which were fubfequently publiQied by Mr. Jofle, in the 
by repeated Annales de Chimie, Tom XLIII. rendered it neceflary for 
experiments. M, Morichini to fubmit his opinion to accurate inveftigation, 
and after having made a numerous feries of experiments on the 
fubjeft, he obferves, that he cannot entertain a doubt, that 
the enamel of human teeth confjfts chiefly of fluat of lime. 
General remarks After fome obfervations on the compofition of ivory, M. 
py Gay-Luflac. Gay-Luflac concludes tliis part of his letter, by obferving that 
there is an immenfe field laid open in that part of chemiftry 
which relates to animal fubftances, if it were merely to fearch 
for fluoric acid. Morichini has undertaken an inveftigation 
of the fubjed : but fo much remains to be done, that the ex- 
ertions of many chemifts will be requilite." 
The iuthor's ^ '^^'^ ""^ relate fome experiments, which will fliew that 

experiments fluoric acid does not exift in the enamel of human teeth, but 
ftewthecon. ^j^^^ ^j^j^ fubflance conlifls chiefly of phofphate of lime, as 

originally ftated by Mr. Hatchett.* 
Enamel of his- 0"6 hundred grains of the enamel of human teeth, detached 
man teeth was from vvhat is ufually termed the bony part, but which appears 
Ized ^and^fiib-' ^° confift of a fubflance of the nature of ivory, were kept for 
jefted to fui- a few minutes in a red heat, and then pulverifed. The en^ 
The"fumes*did ^'"^^'j *^'^"* reduced to powder, was put into a platina crucible, 
not corrode in wiiicha piece of a glafs rod was placed horizontally in fuch 
9'*^' a manner as to be about an inch and a half above the enamel. 

Half an ounce of fuiphuric acid was then added, and the 
crucible being covered with a clean plafe of glafs, the heat of 
a lamp was applied, and diflillation carried on for half an 
hour. During theprocefs, white fufFucating fumes were ex- 
tricated; but on removing the glafs which clofed the top of 
tlie crucible, neither this, nor the rod below it were in the 
lead aded upon ; which certainly would have happened, had 

* Vide Phil. Tranf. 1799, p. 358. 

any 



LEVELS OF FRANCS. ^I'J. 

any fluoric acid been prefent. Finding this, therefore, to be ndcher wa> 
(he cafe, I proceeded as follows: — Fifty grains of the ^^me ^'^^^'^^^J].-^'^^^^'"^ 
enamel were introduced into a fmall glafs retort, and a little acid by adoir.s 
fulphuric acid being added, dittillation was carried on "^^''b' en'!m»Und dif- 
to drynefs, but in tuch a manner, that the gafeous produds tilling over mej* 
might be received over mercury. A fmall quantity of fulphuric '^^^'^' 
acid gas was difengaged, and what remained in the retort, 
confided, as far as I could afcertain, of a mixture of fulphate 
of lime, phofphoric acid, and a fmall portion of fulphur, 
arifing from a decompofition of a fmall part of the fulphuric 
acid by the animal matter, exifting in the enamel. 
I have the honour to be. 
Sir, 

Your moft obedient fervanf, 

WILLIAM ERANDE. 
Arlington Street, 
Feb. 15, 180G. 



VIIL 

A Memoir on taking the Levels of the whole Surface of France. 
By P. S. GiUARD, Chief Engineer of Bridges and High- 
ways, S^c* 

IF the furface of the earth were formed by the revolution of 
a curve round its axis, it would be fufficient, in order to de- 
termine the refpedive pofilions of different points upon it, to 
meafure their diftances from the interfedion of that furface 
made by the plane of the equator and any particular or af- 
furaed meridian. 

Thus geographers, confidering the earth as perfe6ily fphe- The method by 
rical, have determined the pofition of any given place by the ^^j|^"'^^'^^S""_ 
Conjun6lion of two co-ordinates, one of which is the arc of the pofuioji 9j^ » 
the meridian, comprlfed between the place and the equator, P'^<^^» 
and the other an arc of the circle parallel to the equator, com- 
prlfed between the place and any afligned meridian, 

* Journal des Mines, Vol. XVII. p. 257. 

As 



218 LEVELS OP FRANCE. 

As thefe two co-ordina(es inlerfisfl each other at right angles,, 
it is apparent that the method of geographers, for determining 
the pofition of any place on the earth, is the fame as that by 
which the poiition of a point on a plane is commonly deter- 
mined. 
jsnotexa<a, nft But this procefs, which would completely anfwer the views 
account of the of geographers, if the terreftrial fphere were regular, ceafes 
earth's furface. to be exacl when the irregularities and protuberances are con- 

fidered, with which the furface of this fpheroid is covered. 
This true pofi- The poruif)n of any place depends in reality, according to 
tionofaplaceiS([jjj| i^^jj on a third co-ordinate, which is fuppofed to 

»n a line pcrpen- .' i ' - rr 

dicularto that be drawn perpendicular to the point of interfeclion of the two 

aff.gned by gco- others. 

giaphers» 

This third co-ordinate ought to be taken vertically over the- 

place of which the pofition is to be rfcterrained, and its mea- 
fure reckoned Irom the place ilfelf to its arrival at an imagi- 
nary furface, produced by the revolution of a known curve 
round tlie axis of the earth. 
The level of the But it is Jinown, that if our globe were furrounded by a fluid 
?heSfu* mafs, all otiier force being fuppofed to be abfent but that of 
fac?, from terreftrial gravity, the furface of this fluid mafs would be that 

whence to mea- ^f ^ fpherical folid, of which the mean furface of the fea, in 
lure thole per- . _ , „ i- • r i 

pendiculars. its aclual Hate, reprelents a part : It appears then convenient 

to clioofe, for the third co-ordinaic here mentioned, that por- 
tion of a vertical line palling through any place, which is 
comprifed between that place and tiie mean furface of the 
(ea, (uppofed to penetrate the globe and to be extended be- 
neath the continent. 
This h thcbeft, We have faid that the choice of this line would be conveni- 

thoughnotthe gj^j becaufe, in reality, the politiim of a point on the ter- 
only method : _ •' ' ' 

reftrial furface oiay be determined by adopting any other fyf- 

tem of co-ordinaies ; for exauiple^ by fixing the pofition of 

this point, by three planes mutually interfecling at right angles ; 

But it is the but, befides the advantage of greater fimplicity in the expref- 

moftfimplc, and q^^ ^f {^g circular co-ordinales, they have moreover, that of 

IS Deiide3 gene- , ^ ^ . _ 

rally adopted. being generally adopted ; for the geographical charts, hither- 
to pre[)ared, may be confidered as the proje6lion of the con- 
The true pofi- tinents and iflands on the mean furface of the tea ; fo that there 
tion of a place ^^^ remains, in order to render jjeoijraphy perfeft, to add to 

determined by - . ,• t. i 

annexing its the latitude and longitude ot all the places on the earth, the 

vertical 



LEVELS OF FRANCE. 219 

vertical lieJglit which they are elevated above the furface ofv«ticale)evat;ori 
,, above the fea ca 

the ocean. ^ jts ,3^,^^^^ ^^^ 

The obje6i of this memoir Is to indicate the means of deter- longitude. 

mining this vertical heighth, by their particular application to Management 
,, , .. CT? proper for afcer- 

Ihe territory of France. taining d^efe po- 

It is evident, that all the operations neceH^ary for this deter- fitions /hewn in 
mination, may be reduced to a feries of levels made in deter, p^.^jj"^^^"''^ °*^ 
minate dire6iions. 

Nature itfelf has pointed out thefe dlretSlions, by the lines 
of grealefi declivity, which the large rivers, and ihofe which 
flf)w into them, form on the furface of the earth. 

Thus, France being divided into five principal bafons, by The levels of 
the Rhine, the Seine, the Loire, the Gironde, and the Rhone, ^j^g^j of^Francc 
— the levels of the courfe of thefe rivers, from their fources, would form the 
or from their entrance into France, to their terminations >" ratbn'for thT" 
the ocean, would form the firft bafis of the work propofed to country. 
be undertaken. 

After having afcertained this firft bafis of the general ope- The levels of 
ration, the levels of the ftreams by which the great rivers are which fuppjy 
fupplied, (hould be next taken, and thefe ftreams (hould be thofe great rivers 
confidered without any regard to thofe of the third order, by ^^^^^ ''* "**^ 
which they are themfelves maintained. 

At the fame time, the levels of the rivers of the fecond The levels of 
rank, which fall into the two feas, fliould be taken ; fuch as fg^ond rank 
the Efcaut, the Somme, the Orne, the Vilaine, the Cliarente, taken at the fame 
the Adour, the Herault, &c. ihTfirft!^"^' '' 

The declivities of the beds of the fecondary rivers being The levels of 

known, thofe of the rivers of the third, fourth, and fifth or- '!*'.^" "/ ^^""^ 

third, fourth, 
ders, &c. ftiould be determined lucceffively, according to and fifth order, 
fpecial inftru61ions which ftiouid be given for this purpofe. taken. 

By thus clalfing the operations relative to the general levels 
of France, and by arranging their refulls in order, as they 
were obtained, all the data would be foon collefled, which 
were neceflfary for tracing the elevation of its territory on a 
geographical chart already prepared. 

This tracing of the elevations would be effefled, by joining ^''^Y^^'O" °^ ^^^ 
... , , , , r ,. fiiffa" of 

all the points on one level by the lame Ime. France to be ex- 

Thefe lines of kvda might be fuppofed to be elevated per- prefled in the 
pendlcularly, one above the other, by a determinate fpace, [ng all'the poir"s 
conformable to the fcale of the chart on which they were on one level by 

, the fame line. 

traced. 



'320 t^YELS- OF fsa:^ce.' 

tt Is evident, that thefe lines would reprefent the borders 

of the coafls of the Tea, if it was fuppofed that its mean level 

fliould be elevated fuccefliv^ely to the fame heightbs wjiicli 

they reprefented. 

M. Trie! pre- jt vvas according to this idea that M. Diipain Triel pre- 

of a map on this P^""^^ ^ ph)fical chart, mentioned by M. Lacroix, member 

pl2"« of Liie National Inftitute, in his introdudion to Pinkerton's 

Geography ; a chart which, from the defe(5t of materials ne- 

cefTary for its conftruclion, prefented only the (ketch of a 

work, the extent of which would require for its perfedion an 

union of means, which could not be at the difpofal of any 

particular individual.* 

The order has been pointed out in which this work oii£:ht to 

be executed, and we fliall now examine how it thould be 

performed. 

The couifes of The bed of each of the great rivers mud be divided into a 

the great rivers certain number of portions, and each portion Qiould be le- 

ftnuld be di- f > * . 

■vided into por- veiled by obfervers, who (liould operate at the fame time. 
tions, and the Thefe obfervers fliould place accounts of their operations 
kvels of each . ' . r i i r • i i ■ i i 

tal<en byobfer- at each extremity or the portions oi the batons with which they 

yers at the fame yvere charged ; and as the levels of the fecondary rivers (hould 
^^' be conneded with thofe of the principal rivers, it would be 

neceflary alfo to place accounts of the operations at the mouth 
of each of the influent ftreams. 

The levels fliould be taken on the bankj of the rivers, with- 
out any regard to the furface of the water. U it were thought 
ufeful to determine the declivity ot this furface, it would be 
eafy to afcertain it, by levels taken at the fame lime with the 
others, at certain diftances from each other. 
The refults to When the different obfervers have completed their refpec- 
^« '^o'"^^^/;"^" live obfervations, the refults muft be coUeded, to form the 
tem. feries of levels of one of the beds. And in the fame manner 

the levels of all the reft (hould be obtained. 

After this, a general fyftem fliould be formed from thofe 
particular levels, by conneding together the different beds, 
by operations direded from one to the other, according to 
thofe lines which would afford the greatefl facility. 

* Compare this with Mr, Churchill's plan, at p. 224 of our 
Xlth. Vol.—T. 

There 



LEVKLS OF FRANCE. <22 1 

There only remains to determine to what agents Govern- 
• ttient fliould entruft the performance of the general levelling 
of France, in order to have it executed with the gieateft ex- 
af^nefs, fpeed, and economy. 

The engineers of bridges and highways, already placed in The engineers of 
the different deparlments, wliere this operation fhould be per- J'^^" ^"^^yj^ 
formed, are evidently the only perfons to whom it could be be the moft pro- 
confided, fo as to fulfil thofe three conditions. ?=•■ P"^^"^ to 
' . , ^ employ in ;hi9 

In fa6t, the execution of all projeds relative to the eita-work, 

blifhment oi communications by land or by water, require, 
that the elevation in relief of the country, through which the 
works fliouId be carried, thould be known. The theory and 
pra£lice of levelling form an eflfential part of the inftruflion 
given to the engineers of bridges and highways ; and greater 
reliance may be placed on the exaflnefs of the refults which 
ihey might furniih, becaufe the ufe of the inftruments necef- 
fary to this operation^ is more familiar to them. 

On the other hand, there are none of thofe engineers who 
could not dedicate fome days of the fummer to taking the. 
levels of that portion of fuch great rivers, or ftreams, as (hall- 
traverfe his diftrid ; and as it is eafy to take the levels of four 
or five kilometres (about three EngliOi miles) each day, efpe- 
cially when the line to be levelled is previoufly determined by 
the diredion of the river or current of water, it is certain, that 
the engineers of the bridges and highways might collect, in a 
very ftiort period, very minutely detailed materials for a phy- 
fical chart of France. 

Laftly, thefe materials would be colle6led by them with the They could per- 

leaft poflible expence, becaufe Government would neither ^""""^ '^ ^'^^°"- 
, r n • expence to th; 

have to fupport the coft of extraordinary JQurnies, nor the nation. 

purchafe of inftruments, as the engineers are already, by the 
very nature of their employments, dilperfed over the feveral 
diftrifts where it would be necelfary to operate, and are, at 
the fame time, provided witli the different inftruments re- 
quired for this Jiurpofe. 

It may alfo be added, that the taking the general levels of It would tend 

France appears to be, with the more propriety, a work that '""^^i. '^^ ^'l"'^ 
n , , , r r. own benefit CO 

inould be performed by the engineers of bridges and high- have it cff^ftei* 

ways, as they would be the firft to prolit by this operation in 

putting their projefls into execution. 

V«JL. XIII.— March, 1 806. R Suppofe 



222 LEVELS OF tKANCE. 

Suppole tlien that the engineers of bridges and highways 
were charged with the performance of this work, let us con- 
lider how, after fome years, the exadlnefs of the refults, 
which they had coIIe(5led, could be fufficienlly afcertained. 

Let us lake, for example, the bed of the Loire, whofe 
courfe is of great extent. 

The chief engineers of the departments of the Upper Loire, 
of the Loire, of the Saone and Loire, of the Nievre, of the 
Loiret, of the Loire and Cher, of the f ndre and Loire, of the 
Mayenne and Loire, and of the Lower Loire, would be or- 
dered to furnifh, during the year, the levels of that part of 
the courfe of the Loire which traverfed their refpeCtive de- 
partments. 

According to the new organization of the fervice of bridge* 
and highways, thefe nine departments require twenty-two en- 
gineers, in the diflrid of each of whom would be found a 
portion of the work to be performed. 

The total extent of the Loire is about ninety rauriamelers 
(about 550 miles), which being divided among twenty-two 
obfervers, would give to each of them little more than fortj 
kilon.efers (about twenty-five miles) of levels to execute. 
Leveis of the There is reafon to believe, from experience, that the twenty- 

Loire might be ^^^ engineers employed on the courfe of the river, would 
engineers in thatfinift), in lefs than one featon, the levels of the whole river. 
<di(iria, in one 'pjjg faj^g thing may be affirmed of the engineers placed in 
the departments traverfed by the Rhine, the Seine, the Gi- 
ronde, and the Rhone. It appears then beyond a doubt, that, 
at the end of the firft year, the chief part of this phyfical chart 
could be completed, to which the farther details might be af- 
terwards added. 

Whatever care may be beftowed in taking levels, their ve- 
rification is always an ufeful operation. That of the general 
levels of France might be made as often, and in whatever cir- 
Leveis of cumflances it (hould be judged neceffary. It would be fuffi- 

France, w"^" cient for this purpofe, to dire6t the newly appointed engineers 
afterwards veri- to repeat, in the departments to which they might be fei^t, 
fiedt>y the newly j|^g obfervations of their predeceflbrs ; which, betides the ad- 
itecrs. vantage of confirming or correcting the reluHs already ob- 

tained, would give an opportunity to the new engineers of 
acquiring, in perfon, a knowledge of the elevation of their 
refpeftive diflri^s in relief. 

The 



COMPOSITION OF WATER, &C; 223 

The facility and promptitude with which the engineers of Facility of this 
bridges and highways might execute this work, will be ap-**"^ * 
parent, if it be recolleded that, at the time when the major 
part of the great roads in France were formed, and when a 
general fyftem of infernal communications was defired to be 
eftablifhed, M. de Trudaine, affifted by M. Perronnet, caufed 
plans to be taker! of all the principal roads, from their com- 
mencement to the frontiers. There was joined to the plan 
of the road properly fo called, that of the country bordering 
on it, to the difiance of three or four hundred yards at each 
fide; a work which evidently required more time than limply 
taking the levels of a determined line, fuch as we propofe ; 
and yet the engineers of bridges and highways, or their pu- 
pils, employed in taking thofe itinerary plans, completed from 
five to fix leagues of them each month. 

The general utility of the operation, of which a fketch is Geological ope- 
here given, will fooner or later determine fome of the nations ''^'^'on^ already 

^ performed m 

of Europe to undertake it. France, on whole territory has France, urged 
been lately executed fome of the fineft geological operations ^s a motive to 
... •' . , , , r r? /- /^ .• commence tlu» 

which were ever performed, and where, for the nrft time, ^wq^u.- 

^'ftem of univerfal meafure has been eftablifhed on an inva- 
riable balis, feems to be particularly called on, to give, on 
Ihis occafion, the firfl example of a work, which, by com- which would 
pleting the natural geography of countries, will furnilh new tul^i* geography" 
fa^s to geology, and to thofe different parts of natural hiftory of countries, 
which depend on it. 



IX. 

Obfcftations and Experiments on the Compnfiiiou of Water, and 
other Elementcuy.Doctriaes. By H. B. K. 

To Mr. NICHOLSON. 
SIR, 

l\.S two papers have appeared in your Journal, both of 
which militate againft the refuit of my experiment, and as Mr. 
Accum has been concerned in one of them, I iherefore think 
it incumbent on me Co anfwer iliem. 

K 2 I wa» 



224. 

Th« gafes ob- 
tained from 
water by galvan. 
ifm, fmellcd of 
nitrous gas after 
explofion, and 
gave nitre with 
pota/h. 



On Pacchlonl 
and Riffaat's 

experiments. 



Agaifift the 
doftrine of the 
compofition of 
water : it is 
urged that the 
gafes obtained in 
galvanifm vary 
from different 
caufest 



COMPOSITION OF WATER, &C. 

I was glad to fee my experiments in your Journal, as it has 
fo extenfive a circulation. I fliall now give you the analyti- 
cal part to confirm my former experiments; as by them I had, 
I hope, given ftrong eridence, that acids are neceflary in 
forming gafes. Having collected a great quantity of the gafes 
produced by the galvanic pile, I introduced them into a ftrong 
glafs tube, doled at one end, the other end I afterwards 
ciofed, having previoufly introduced to the gafes a fmall quan- 
tity of a folution of potafli : through this tube the eledric fpark 
was made to pafs, it having fmall openings to admit the wires 
of communication. Upon their corabuftion, the fmell of the 
nitrous acid vapour appeared, both from its colour and fmell; 
and the tube being moved up and down, fo as to allow the 
vapour and tlie folution of potafti to come in contadl ; the fo- 
lution being examined forae fhort time after, it gave evident 
and unequivocal /igns of the nitrate of potafh. 

I fee in your Journal, Mr. Riffant's experiments, in anfwer 
to Mr. Pacchiani's paper. Indeed, in reading Mr, P.'s ex- 
perinienls, nothing could appear more vague and wild than 
that water, by having oxigen, the fuppofed acidifying princi- 
ple, taken from it, (hould become a ftrong mineral acid. Mr. 
RifFant's fecond experiment diredly contradicts my experi- 
ment, on the fuppofition that water is a compound body; but 
if examined upon my fuppofilion, that the acids are neceflary 
in forming the gafes, and that the water is only neceflary in 
forming the water of compofiiion, I hope I (iiall be able to 
prove tliat his experim(int confirms my opinion. There were 
very little of gales formed by this experiment, and the wires 
were very much calcined; now this calcination v\as from the 
acid, or acids, I proved by repeating the very fame experi- 
ments; but only inftead of diftilled water, I ufed a folution 
of potafh, and inftead of the wires being calcined, they were 
not fenfibly afled upon, and the potafli became nitrated. — 
Now, Mr. Nicholfon, I (ferioufly and ardently) call upon 
your numerous readers to perform this experiment, which 
I think muft be decifive. 

I can but fmile at the French chemifts, in making the pro- 
portion of the gafes fo exactly to tally witli their opinion of 
the compofition of water ; but I have in my experiments found 
very difterent refiilts; the kind of gcu'es depending a good deal 
ppon the wires ufed, the different metals, their length, and 

(he 



COMPOSITION OF WATER, &C. 2^5 

tfie different liquors between the plates of the pile; all of 
whicli bad a feniible effect upon the gafes, both upon the 
quantity produced, and their kind; the calcinable wires when 
long producing the moft inflammable kinds, and the lefs calci- 
nable metals the more of the oxigen kind, and the longer the 
wires the more in volume were the gafes. 

Mr. Northmore, in your Journal, endeavours to prove the Remarks on 
formation of the nitric acid from the compreffion of gafes. — Mr. North- _ 
Upon inveftigalion, his experiments will, I think, be found ments. 
very vague and inconclufive : that gafes from adtive compref- 
fion will produce both heat and water, has been long known. 
The firft experiment was in condenfing hidrogen, oxigen and 
nitrogen gafes, two pints of each. He fays they produced 
" white floating vapours, probably (he gafeous oxide;" but 
in experiment the feventh, he obferves, •• the hydrogen pro- 
duced white clouds at firft, qucere ammonia," So without any 
chemical examination ol' (hefe white clouds, they are at firft 
fuppofed to be the gafeous oxide, and afterwards auimonia, 
juft according as his theory didates to him. In the fifth ex- 
periment, he fays, " and the refult was only a fmell of ga- 
feous oxide of nitrogen, a few yellowith fumes." Here then 
the gafeous oxide produces a yellowifli colour, though in the 
firft experiment it was a white colour. 

The acid produced was, from the fame vague opinion, fup- 
pofed to be the nitric; but this he endeavours to examine in 
the next experiment ; firft by a good teft, in expofing it to 
lime water; and he fays, " Some yellow particles were feen 
floating upon the lime water; thefe particles probably arofe 
from the reftnous fubftance ufed in faftening on the cap of the 
receiver being diflblved by the nitrous gas formed during con- 
denfation. Here then was the lime water affeded. , I fay 
with confidence, thefe floccuH in the lime water were from 
the carbonic acid produced, and why they appeared yellow 
was from their being feen through the gafes, being clouded 
with an orange colour, which, as he obferves, they put on 
when they were condenfed. 

That acids are neceflary in forming oxigen gas, I hope ap- 
pears very clear from my experiments; therefore when it forms 
combuftion with inflammable bodies, it is rational to fuppole 
that an acid will appear upon its decompofition. If the com- 
l^uftion is aflive, as in the French experiments in condenfing 

oxigeft 



22a COMPOSITION OF WATER, &C* 

oxigen and hidrogen gafes, the heat produced Is fo a6iiv6 
as to make an explofion of the gafes; but if a flow combuC- 
tion, it will leave the oxigenized acid in a gafeous ftale, as 
carbonic acid gas, which, I fuppole, was the cafe in Mr. 
Northmore's experiments. His next experiment of examin- 
ing the acid : He comprefied the gafes upon two fcruples of 
the folution of potafli ; he fays, " there was fcarce enough 
acidity to tinge the edge of the ted paper ; of courfe, I could 
not effe6l the formation of the nitrate of polafli." But always 
to afljgn fome reafon for the failure, he fays-, "This quantity 
(of gafes) was hardly fufficient for the receiver's capacity;" 
but there was the fame quantity in this experiment as in the 
others; nay, in the next experiment (the fixth) there was 
identically the fcniie quantity and in the fame proportions ; and 
in this fifth experiment, he found fo liitle acid, as he fays, 
•^ Scarce enough acidity to tinge the edge of the teft paper ; 
of courfe I could not effedl the formation of the nitrate of 
potafli." Now upon the fuppofilion that the carbonic acid 
was formed, it would unite with the po!a(h, and therefore 
the mixture would be lefs falurated with it: But if the acid 
was fa ftrong as he fpeaks of n\ the fixth experiment, from the 
very fame procef^, as he fays, •« VVIiich moifhire was ftrongly 
acid to the tafte, coloured litmus, and when very much di^ 
]uted with water, a6ted upon filver." Now if Mr. Northmore 
will confult the writings of chemifts, (Dr. Black's lectures, for 
inftance) ; in Vol. II. the do61or fays, *• that the nitric acid 
lequires a litlie water to reduce it to the flrength of aqua for-. 
tis; in order to aft upon fiiver, tiierefore, in this experiment, 
the acid niuft have been in the concentrated ftate of (he nitric 
acid, as it required water to be diluted to make it act upon 
filver; but probably Mr. N. does i.«>t know that water im- 
pregnated with hidrogen gas will colour filver; which I fup- 
pofe to have been the cafe here. 

This reafoning mud: appear to be moft extraordinary: this 
vad quantity of nitric acid produced was even to penetrate 
into the cap of the receiver ; but very unfortunately for this 
fuppofition, chemirts are of opinion that acids will not dif- 
folve refms. Mr. Halchett has promoted their operation upoh 
each other by ufing the firong nitric acid ; but this was a diflS-, 
eult and tedious procefs, not during the tranfitory a6lion of a 
little lime, by compreffion ; and where toe refin was io con-» 

cealed j 



COMPOSITION OF WATER, &C. 227 

cealed ; fo that the acid could not get to aO. upon it, being Remarks on 
placed within the cap of the receiver ; therefore the fmall ^^- }^otth- 

1 •; r 1 ■ ,, Tv-r . • , , . more's cxpeyt- 

quantity ot weak acid formed in Mr. N.'s experiment could ments, 

not rationally be fappofed to have penetrated to it, even if it 
was in a high concentrated flate; but it muft have been much 
diluted with water, as there was water alfo produced in this 
experiment : Alfo, if it was in this high concentrated flate, 
and in that abundance as to enter into all the crevices, it 
would eafiiy have been deteded, and his fifth experiment was 
for this purpofe, but it failed ; he could find no nitrous acid. 

In experiment the feventh, he fuppofed he had formed am- 
monia, and he fays in this very experiment, " Some vapour 
was generated, which was, as ufual, ftrongly acid." How 
conjes it that this acid, which was fuppofed to find out the 
retin, fo perfedly concealed, could not find out the ammonia, 
which was formed along with it in theprocefs, and fo univer- 
fally difperfed as to form white clouds. 

The third experiment : " Two pints of carbonic acid and 
two of hydrogen was fubje<5ted to condenfation. The refult 
was a watery vapour, and a gas of rather ofTenfive fmell.'* 
This comprelTed gas I found to be iimilar to Mr. Cruikftianks's 
gafeous oxide of carbon from the acid air and the phlogiftic 
air faturating each otiier. 

Mr. Northmore apologlfes for giving thefe experiments 
" until he had brought them to a greater degree of perfection," 
but at (he conclufion he alfo fays, " Befides the above, I have 
made various other experiments with difl^erent gafes, &c." 
But as he fays nothing more of thefe imperfedt experimoits, there 
are no hopes of his corre6ting them ; he appears to have ex- 
haufted his refearch, and we have feen with what fuccefs. 
There appears fuch an ardent defi re to fupport the Lavoifierian 
theory: but if it has always failed from the experiments of 
Lavoifier himfelf, Mr. Cavendifli and others, I am afraid we 
have little to exped; from thefe new fupporters. I might make 
many other obfervations, but thefe will, I prefume, be 
thought enough. 

It will be expected in contradidling Mr. N.'s experiments Experiments of 
I fliould make fome of my own ; I muft own my apparatus 5°'"P''!^'°" "^ 
was not fo good as his ; yet I hope fufficient to prove my 
opinions, I had the barrel of a large blunderbufs, and flop- 
ped its priming hole, and having filled it either with fand or 

diftilled 



228f COMPOSITION OF WATER, &C. 

diftllled water, I then tied to its mouth a bladder filled with 
the different gafes I wanted to comprefs. Upon pouring out 
the fand or water into the bladder, the gales entered the bar- 
rel, and then having a ftrong iron ram-rod made perfedly 
AsA'S*^ air-tight, it was forced down upon the gafes by a long 
%:iu iron lever, by which means I was capable of making a ftronger 

conden(alion than reducing them to one fifth of the volume. 
They gave out The refults of thefe experiments were, that all the different 
heat and moift. g^fg,^ by being compreffed, gave out heat and raoifture : The 
hydrogen gas, the greateft proportion of moifture to its fpe- 
Oxigen and hy- cific gravity. That when oxigen and hydrogen gafes were 
drogcn gave comprefled, there was an acid which produced flocculi in 
lime water J and that nitrogen gas was not necefiary to the 
produdion of the acid, but rather retarded its produ6tion. 
The nitrogen gas obtained by the nitric acid and animal fub- 
/lances ought not to be ufed in thefe experiments, as it rs 
partly acid of itfelf ; but the nitrogen of the atraofphere ought 
to be made ufe of, being previoully paflTed through lime 
water. 

Mr. Nicholfon, I have condenfed this communication as 
much as pofiible, in order that it might not occupy too much 
room in your Journal. I am 



London, February, 15, 1S06. 



Your's, Szc. 

H. JB. K. 



X. 

On the Confinifilon nf the Sails of Ships and Vejftli. Bj Mal- 
colm Cow yiN, }'jq. Cdptainw the Boycil Nary.* 

The fails of IT appears from the conftru6iion of the fails of (hips and 

Clips Lave been velTels, belonging to every nation, that it is a fubjedt no one 

long wjthout ^^^ hitherto taken much pains to invefiigate; but the maritime 
joiprovement. •^ , 

world have been content to ufe them, as they tound them, 

every one following the beaten track of his predeceflurs, 

without examination. 

* Extrafled from an effay, by the author, who has letters pa- 
tent for the fails. 

That 



SAILS OF SHIfS. $29 

That the fails of fliips have been hitherto fo conftru£led by 
all European nations, fo as to be only managed with great 
labour and danger; and that when managed with the greateft 
l]<iil, they are very far from being of that utility which they 
ought to poflTefs, and are capable of having, is inconteftible. 

Ships are driven on fliore every winter, which might, with They ar^pirkel 
proper fails, have efcaped every danger. The lofs of one ^'^^ danae'r" ' 
fail, in many iituations, is followed by the inevitable lofs of 
the fliip and crew. Sails are often fplit in hauling up to 
reef, and it may be neceffary to reef a fail that is worn, to 
preferve it from fplitting ; hence the neceflityof the fails being 
conftru6ted to reef without ftarting lack or (heet. 

Many fliips have been lofl by not having time, or drift, to 
baul their courfes up, to reef them on the yard, by which 
they ritk their fplitting ; a ci ream fiance which alone muft con- 
vince the feamen of the utility of having faiU that can be 
reefed without taking their efTed off the ftiip. 

Many dangers may be avoided, by carrying fail with fafety 
to the mafts and yards. A (liip can carry top gallant fails 
that reef at (he foot, with fafety, when other fiiips mull furl 
theirs ; an evident advantage in many fituations. 

The top fails of (hips, with one or two reefs at the foot, can Advantages of 
be reefed in a minute by one feaman at each lower yard arm, reded a^thr^ 
while they remain fet with the top gallant fails over them, by foot infteadof 
only fettling the hallyards; by which a fliip in fqually *^ ^^^'^^ 
weather, on many occafions, would have a great advantage," 
particularly in chace, &c. or when caught by a fudden fliift 
of wind on a lee (bore, or obliged to haul fuddenly to the 
wind from failing large. 

The facility with which fails that reef at the foot, can at all 
tiroes be managed, would enable (liips to make quicker voy- 
ages, and prevent them often, when weakly manned, from 
detaining fleet's; by the difficulty and danger of carrying 
fail, being entirely removed, mutf enable merchant fliips to 
be navigated with fewer hands, which would be a confider- 
able faving of expence, and a great advantage in time of war 
in particular, when men are (9 fcarce. 

If the fails were made with horiaontal cloths and feams. The feams ought 
the fails would ftand belter, particularly in a gale of wind ; "^ ^^ horizontal. 
as the ftrongeft dire6lion of the cloths and feams would be 
oppofi^d to the greateft force of the wind, which ads horizon- 
tally i 



tdgcs frc 
provements m 
tails, &c. 



^^(^ 8AILS OF SHfPS. 

tally ; and ftiould the fail fplit in that diredioh, it would ftill 
remain full, and be leCs liable to blow away altogether, which 
is generally the cafe when a fail fplits in a vertical direftion. 
Storm flay fails fet purpofely with the cloths horizontal, have 
proved this beyond a doubt. 
i-ti^ Many fearaen are loft every winter, by falling overboard 

^ ' from the yards while reefing the fails, as it is more dangerous 

and requires longer time to perform in a gale of wind, than 
furling the fails, which is not fo often neceflary as reefing. 
Other advan- Ships may fometimes avoid a lee fliore, by carrying a timely 

.m im- prefsof fail, and when in thai perilous fituation, in a gale of 
wind, the fafely of the flirp may folely depend on the fails 
being kept fet; though it may be neceflasy to reduce them ,- 
eilher to fave them, or eafe the ftiip. The common fails 
require to be. hauled up, to be reefed, at the rilk of fplitting 
4hem, at a lime perhaps, when the (liip is in imminent danger^ 
from the want of fea room ; and the beft feamen of the crew 
mod be fent on the yards vviien they poffibly may be much 
wanted on deck. 

Whole fleets are often caught by a fudden fiiift of wind, of 
a lee fliore, thrown into confufion, and obliged immediately 
to reef their fails, at the fame time the ftiips may require the 
whole of their crews on deck, to attend the working of the 
Ihip, to keep clear of each other ; particularly when it 
happens in the night time, with the wind fqually and vari- 
able. 

When fliips from foreign voyages, enter the Englifli or 
Irifli channels, in the winter time, when the days are ftiort, 
and the nights long, with weak or difabled crews, or men 
not accuftomed to cold or froft, fuch as Lafcars, Negroes, &c. 
it is with the greateft difficulty they can be prevailed on to 
go aloft ; but fliould they get -on a lee fliore, which all fl)ips 
are liable to, and with a helplefs crew, nothing can exceed 
the horror of their fituation, fliould they not be able to pro- 
portion their fail to the wind in time to fave the (hip. 
Naval improTc- To facilitate the working of fliips, by the moll approved 
losnts are of means, is an obied of greater confequence to a maritime 

great import- . ■' " ^ .' • i • . 

mice to the ftate. "at»on than many are aware or, even in a commercial pomt 
of view. The little alteration that has been made in (hipping 
for many years paft, (hews with what indifference attempts 
-at improveooenis have been regarded^ many of which have 

been 



SAHS OF SHIFS. 231 

been (rjed^ proved, and neglefted, while others bave failed 
from the unavoidable expence, neceflarily attending all ex- 
periments on a large fcale, which require repetitions to bring 
to perfe^iion; or from partial interefts or prejudices, being 
oppofed with fuccefs (which not unfrequently happens) to 
improvements of general advantage. And many are apt to 
iuppofe that particular arts and fciences are brought to the 
higheft degree of perfeftion they are capable of, though ex- 
perience every day convinces us to the contrary. 

The largeft (hips might be much more eafily navigated, if 
the improvements on capfterns, windlafles, blocks, hawfe- 
hules, &c. were univerfaiiy adopted from the great redudion 
of the fri<5lion. 

The following explanation will be eafily underftood by 
thofe who are acquainted with the conftrudion of a (hip. See 
I'lateVI. 

The courfes and top gallant fails are to be reefed from the 
deck, and the top fails by one man at each lower yard arm. 

A. The after-part of the fails. Defcrlption of 

B. A ftrong band on the after-part of tire fails, fewed on at ^^.^ '^proved 
the upper part only, and roped at the lower part. 

C. The long clews of the courfe, formed by the bight of 
the leech rope and rope of the reef band with thimbles, ieized 
in above the tack blocks, for lafliing the lower clews to. 

D. The tacks and flieets fitted to the upper clews of the 
courfes with thimbles above the tack blocks. 

E. The buntlines, brought up through the thimbles H, on 
the foot ropes of the fails, and bent to the cringles I, on the 
ropes of the reef bands. 

F. A fmall rope or gaflcet, rove, occafionally as a reef line, 
through eyelet holes, under the reef bands, and made faft to 
the middle fail, for confining the fail when reefed, in the 
wake of the reef bands. 

G. Thimbles in theclevvs and earlngs. 

K. Thimbles on the foot rope with the earlngs rove through 
Ihem. 

L. The reef tackle pendants, paffing through thimbles in 
the clews and leech of the top-fail, and brought up and bent 
to the cringles above the upper reef band. 

M. A boom tackle or burton hooked to the reef pendants. 

JST. Jhe crow'foot legs to the top gallant buntline. 

5 N.B» 



<;32 SAILS OF SHIPS. 

N, B. The reef bands are fewed by the upper parf, to the 
after part of (he fails, to prevent the rope from girting the 
fails, when the whole fail is fet. 

The rope of (he reef band of the courfe, is (he fame fize 
as the common foot rope, and the foot rope muft be in pro- 
portion to the rate of (he (bip : for the firft rates, 3|, or 
4 inch; fecond rates 2>\; third rates, 3 inch rope : as the 
quantity of fail below the reef band does not require fo ftrong 
a foot rope, as when the whole fail depended on it. 

The rope of the reef bands of the lop fails, fliould be 
fmaller than the leech ropes, as the foot of the fail will be 
tonfiderably ftrengtiiened, when reefed. 

Thefe fails are not fo heavy as the common ones; 3 74- 
gun fliip's courfe is reduced in weight about 200lbs. as the 
points, bands, and eyelet holes of the old reefs are not re- 
quired, nor any additional goer. 

Men of war will find one reef at the foot of the top fails, 
very ufeful in chace in fqually weather, or when obliged to 
haul fuddenly on a wind, &c. 

Merchant fliips will only require two reefs in the top fails, 

as the fquareft part of the fail is (aken off, by reefing at the 

. foot inftead of the head, but more reefs may be added if 

necefTary. 

When the courfes are to be reefed, caft off the lower clews, 

icohTgan? ""^ ffO"^ the thimbles in the upper clews, haul up the flack fail 

fettmg the by the buntlines. and haul tori the reef line, one part at a* 

'^''^* time, from the middle of the fail, towards the clews, and 

make it faft round the upper clews, fo as to confine the lower 

clews. 

To fet the fail, reeve a few turns of the lafifing for the 
clews, and haul (hem down, overhauling the reef Jine, and 
buntlines. 

To reef (he top fails, fend a man up to each lower yard 
arm, fettle the hallyards, and haul the fail down by the reef"! 
tackles, and pafs the turns of the earings, through the 
thimbles in the earing cringles, and on the foot of the rope, 
and make them faft. Hoift the fail tort up, haul through the 
flack of the buntlines, and haul tort the reef lines on each 
fide towards the clews, and make faft. 

The top gallant fails are reefed from the deck, by Che clew 
lines, and a fingle buntlin? with a crow-foot. 

Tht 



CONDENSED CASES, 233 

The buTitlines and reef line will confine the fiack fail, 
when reefed, ciofe up ihe wake of the reef bands; and the 
buntlines will only require to be kept hand tort, as is ufua!, 
to prevent them from chafing the fail. 

The flack fail of the roof of the top fail, will be kept, 
extended tort acrofs the foot, by the reef pendants palling 
through cringles in the leech. 

The ends of the clewlines may likewife pafs through cringles, 
jn the leech of the top gallant fails if neceffary. 

The reef lines, if neceffary, may be in fepafate pieces, 
made faft in the middle and quarters of the fail. 



XI. 

Experiments on condenfcd Gafcs. Bj/ T. Nokthmore. 

To Mr. NICHOLSON, 
SIR, 

I NOW take the liberty of prefentlng you with a con- Experiments on 

,jf- c iU conacnfed gai-s, 

Imuation of rnv experiments upon the condenlation ot tne 

gafes, but firft beg leave to make one obfervation, viz. that 
the quantity of gas faid to be injeded in each experiment, 
cannot (particularly in the preceding article) always be 
depended upon ; for its tendency to efcape is fo conftant and 
powerful, as frequently to elude every effort of mine to 
prevent it, and if it can find no other exit, it will fometimes 
efcape by the fide of the pifton of the forcing pump. In the 
preceding experiments I have endeavoured as much as pofllble 
to obviate this evil, but not always with the fuccefs that I 
could wiQi. 

Repeating the eighth experiment mentioned in my former Nitrogen con- 
lelter, (fee Vol. XII. p. 372-3 ) viz. the condenfation of jj^^/^y^^Ld 
nitrogen upon lime*, iu order to difcover the caufe of the nitrate. 
lofs of colour in the nitrogen, I perceived that this arofe from 
its fixation, and a nitrate of lime was the refult. This ex- 
periment, on account of the elallicity of nitrogen previous 
to its change of habitude, requires fonie caution ; for one 
of my beft receivers, three-eigblhs of an inch thick, was 

* Your marginal note fays erronoeufly Uvie-'water. 

Ihivered 



^^4f CONDENSED GASES. 

niivered h pieces with a violent explofion, after I had fk it 
afide to fee the effedl of time upon the comprefled gas. 
Nitrogf-n and Experiment 9. U^jwards of a pint of nitrogen was con- 

farboncon?°^ ^'cnfcd, and upon this I pumped one pint of gafeous oxide 
denfed, gave ^f Carbon, Thc colour of Ihe nitrogen was deftroyed ; 
mtrousacid,&c. nitrous acid was formed; and upon colleaing the liberated 
gafeous o.ade, it biirjU not unlike alcohol. The two gafes 
togedier were at firft highly ejaftic. 
Explofions «t- From (he facility with which nitrogen becomes united 
nitrogen.'*^ ^"^ ^'^^'^ '" various bodies, and from its expanfive force 
when liberated from that ftate, I know not whether I am 
lufhciently warranted in fuggefting an opinion, that the 
expiofive force of various compounds may in a great meafure 
be attributed to the fudden liberation of this fixed gas. To 
this caufe I partly attribute the fulminating filver of Berthollet; 
the fulminating gold, and various nitrates,- and the deto- 
nation which accompanies the decompofition of ammoniac 
by oxigenated muriatic acid gas. 
Attempt to fire Exp. 10. Having been unfuccefsful in my endeavours to 
condenitraS '"^a^"^ phofphorus by the compreffion of atmofpheric air, 
{iee Exp. 4.) I now tried oxigen, but with little better effefi. 
The phofphorus appeared to be foraewhat difcoloured, and 
I thought had a tendency to liquify, as it does when put 
upon a heated plate of iron. Indeed I have no doubt that 
lome heat is generated by the condenfation of air, fince thc 
thermometer rifes upon external application to the receiver. 
Oxigenated Exp. U. Upon the compreffion of nearly two pints of 

*^s"avl'^a^^*'^ ®>i»g<^naled muriatic acid gas in a receiver two and a quarter 
yellow and cubic inches capacity, it fpeedily became converted into a 

highly volatile yellow fuid, of fuch extreme volatility under the common 

fluid by conden- ^ ^ . ^ , , . -' . 

Cation. prelJure of the atmolphere, that it mftantly evaporates upon 

opening the fcrew of the receiver. I need not add, that this 
fluid, fo highly concentrated, is of a mod infupportable 
pungency. When atmofpheric air was pumped into the 
empty receiver, it was fpeedily filled with denfe white fumes. 
There was a trifling refidue of a yellowiQi fub fiance left after 
the evaporation, which probably arole from a fmall portion of 
the oil and greafe ufed in the machine, mixed with fome 
of the concentrated gas ; it yielded to fulphurjc ether, and 
deftroyed vegetable colours. 

This 



CONDENSED GAtE», S55" 

This gas is very injurious to the machine, and on that ac-- 
count difficult to w<ork. 

Exp. 12. Upon half a pint of oxigcn was injected one Oxigenated rra. 
pint of oxigenated muriatic acid gas.- The refult was « "^.^igen^^affbrdt J 
thicker fubftance which did not fo foon evaporate, and a a thicker fluid, 
yeFIowifh mafs was left behind. 

Exp. J 3. Upon half a pint of nitrogen was injefled-one' Oxigenated mu- 

pint of oxy-murialic gas. The refult was a ftill thicker' fub- ".^'"^ ^^^ '""* 
r J b nitrogen^ 

Uance, and the yellow colour deeper, nor did it appear to 
aft fo powerfully upon vegetable colours. Mucii of the 
greafe of the machine was carried down in both thefe laft 
experiments, which formed part of the yellow refidue, and 
yielded only to ether. 

Exp. 14. Having condenfed about a pint of carbonic acid. Receiver bure* 
the receiver very unexpectedly burft with violence. This ^^^^^'o^* 
circumftance I attribute to the vicinity of the furnace, and 
i mention it to guard others againfi ftanding too near a fire in 
thefe experiments ; nor perhaps may it be ofelefs to add 
another precaution, that of ufing goggles, or at leaft a thick 
plate of glafs when examining the refults. 

I now took a new receiver of three cubic inches of capa- Carbonic aci(f, 

city, and pumped in one pint of carbonic acid, and upon *"*^ °^'S^"*^f'^ 
, / , ... . '^ muriatic aci4. 

this rather more than a pint of oxigenated muriatic acid gas. 

The union produced a light fap-green colour, but no fluid, 
though as ufual the oil of the machine had retained chough 
efficacy to deftroy vegetable colours. 

Exp. 15. Upon rather more than a pint of hidrogen, which Oxigenated mu- 
avas highly elaflic, were comprefied two pints of the oxige- ^^^ j^jA' ^^^ 
fiated muriatic gas. The refult was a light yellow-green 
colour, and no fluid. Some fmoke or vapour feemed to iffue 
out of the receiver upon turning the fcrew, and the gas was 
highly deflructive of c:oIouring matter. 

Exp. 16. I now proceeded to the muriatic acid gas, and Muriatic acid 
Upon the condenfation of a fmal! quantity of it, a beautiful S^s eafily madq 
green coloured fubftance adhered to the fuie of the receiver, denfation. 
which had all the qualities of muriatic acid ; but upon a large 
quantity, four pints, being condenfed, the refult was a 
yellowifh-green glutinous fubflance, which does not evapo- 
rate, but is inflantly abforbed by a few drops of water ; it is 
of a highly pungent quality, being the efience of muriatic 
acid. As this gas eafiiy becomes fluid, there is little or no 

elafticity 



236 CONDENSED GASES. 

clafliclty, fo that any quantity may be condenfed without 
danger. My method of coUefting this, and other gafes 
which are abforbable by water, is by means of an exhaufted 
fiorence fla(k (and in fome cafes an empty bladder) connefted 
by a ftop-cock with the extremity of the retort. 

An idea here occurs to me, that the facility of fixation 
which is the property of the comprefled muriatic, oxy-muriatic, 
and fome other gafes, may be made of fome utility to the 
arts, fince by previoufly pouring in a little water, or other 
fluid into the receiver, an acid may be obtained of aknoft any 
degree of concentration. 
Sulphureous Exp. 17. Having collected about a pint and a half of 

4e'(Ifed'b^°"ef- ^"^P'^^^'^O'is acid gas, I proceeded to condenfe it in the three 
turc. cubic inch receiver, but after a very few pumps the forcing 

pifton became immoveable, being completely choked by the 
operation of the gas. A fufticient quantity however had 
been comprefled to form vapour, and a thick flimy fluid of a 
dark yellow colour began to trickle down the fides of the 
receiver, which immediately evaporated with the moft fufc 
focating odour upon the removal of the pretfure. This ex- 
periment corroborates the affirmation of Monge and Clouet, 
mentioned in Acciim's chemifiry, vol. I. p. 319. viz, that 
" by extreme artificial cold, and a ftrong prefTure exerted at 
the fame time, they rendered fulphureoas acid gas fluid. 
From the injury which this gas does to the machine, it will 
be very difficult to perform any experiments upon its eledive 
attradions with the other gafes. 

I remain. Sir, 

Your obedient humble Servant, 

T. NORTHMORE. 

J)evonJhire Street, Portland Place, 
Feb. 15, 1806. 



On 



MUICIATIC ACID, 



xu. 



m 



41a the Probabiliiy that Muriatic Acid is coinpojid of Oxigm <i^id- 
Hidrogen. In a Letter from Mr. J. M a k r i n . - ^ : 



SIR, ^"^ 



To Mr. NlCHOLSOxV, 



AjATE experiments in galvanifm have furnillied ftiffiei«nt Fafts indo«diJ5 

grounds to fufpe^l, that the muriatic acid is an oxide of ^^];°."''°^**'^ 

fudrogen, and I have been fomewhat flrengthened in this muriatic acid 

fuppofition by the well known hGt, that hidrogen gas is "»ay lie an oxide 

always liberated upon effe6ling a folution of tin in muriatic ° ' ^^^^^' 

acid ; this phenomenon has been accounted fur, by fuppofing 

the water which held the muriatic acid In folution to be 

<Jecompofed ; its oxigen feizing the metal which thereby 

became difpofed to be taken up by the acid and the hidro^ 

gen, the other conftituent part of the water being liberatedf 

under the form of gas : however plaufible this hypothefis 

might feem, I did not think it perfe6lly fatisfadory, for if 

the acid confifled of oxigen and hidrogen, part of the oxigen 

might unite to the metal to render it fit to be difToived by the 

remaining acid, and its hidrogen of courfe given out under 

the gafeous form, in this cafe no decompofition of the water 

Would take place, or at leaft thefe plienomena might hajl^en 

without that decompofition. To clear up thefe doubts I Experiment. 

procured an earthern tube into which was introduced fome ^"•'•atic acid 

• • , I ^ , , r c , gas difengaged 

iron wire; the tube was made to traverle a furnace; to the from decripcu- 

one end was luted a bent tube, brought under the ftielf of a ^^^ feafalt by 
pneumatic trough, and to the other was adapted a tubulated was paffeVover 
retort, cotUaining fome muriate of foda carefully freed from 'gnited iron. 
its water of cryftallization When I fuppofed the iron wire J|,g'^fg^" ''"^ 
was fufficiently ignited, I affufed fome denfe fulphuric acid 
over the muriate of foda; as foon as the atmofpheric air 
which the veflel contained was nearly expelled, hidrogen gas 
was liberated from the other extremity of the tube in con- 
fiderable quantities, mixed however wiih a fmall portion of 
muriatic acid gas; after i^he operation had been fuffered to go 
on fome time, the apparatus was taken to pieces, and 
cryftals of muriate of iron were found in the tube. May 
Voi. XIII,— Marcu, 1806. S we 



23S ON THE FOUL AIR OF OIL CISTERNS. 

It is inferred we not from this experiment be fufficiently authorized to 

frorathcw'id! conclude, that muriatic acid is compofed of oxigen and 

hidrogen, and that hidrogen gas is liberated in confequence 

of part of the oxigen of the acid uniting to the metal to 

predifpofe it to unite to the remaining acid ? 

It is to be remarked, that tlie hidrogen gas was liberated 
in fuch abundance as to do away every idea, tiiat it might 
proceed from any water which the gas accidenlly held in 
folution. 

Sliouid you deem thefe obfervalions of fufficient value, 
an infertion of them in your valuable journal will greatly 
oblige. 

Sir, 

Your moft obedient, 

and niofl humble Servant, 

J. MARTIN. 
Croivn-Court, Old £r. ad Sired, 
February 20, 1806. 



Xllf. 

Subjlance of a Memoir read before the Society of Emulahion, 
at Aiuiensy by Mcjfrs. Reynard and Facqokr, on the 
foul Air of Oil Cifierns *. 

Faaieffcasof M. ACHILLE POULAIN, foap-maker at Amiens, 

an^Udftcrn. ^"^ °"^ °^ ^'® workmen having been killed by the foul air 

of an oil ciftern, into which the latter had fallen in an attempt 

to cleanfe it, and the former in endeavouring to fave the 

man's life, MetTrs. Reynard and Facquer were induced to 

make an analyfts of the deleterious vapour which had caufed 

this melancholy accident. 

Dimenfions of The ciftern meafured about twelve feet in every direftion. 

the ciftern. jj,, mouth is fecured with a fmall cover which completely 

excludes the external air. 
Appearance of The vegetable oil, of which only a fmall quantity at a time 
the oil. had been depofited in this ciftern, was thick, vifcid, and even 

in forae places gelatinous, yielding a ftrong rancid effluvium. 

J * Annales de Chiraie, Vol, LVI. 

A lighted 



ON THE FOUL AIR OF OIL CISTERNS, gOQ 

A lighted candle on being let down into the ciftern, wa^ .'/| 'V,'^.^[ , 
inftantly extinguifiied. 

The furface of lime-water, when included for a few 
minutes in a broad vefTel, was flightly tinged with prifmatic 
colours. 

To obtain the gas for experiments, bottles filled with water 
were lowered into the cifierns, and emptied at various 
depths. 

On the gas obtained from about two feet below the mouth Obfervations on 
of the ciftern, the following experiments were tried t ^^^' 

J. A c^^lindrical veflel being filled with the gas, kept in 
conta£l with lime-water, during fifteen days, with frequent 
iliaking, caufed a fmall diminution in the bulk of the gas. 

2. The fame experiment repeated with ammoniac offered 
a fimilar refuit. 

Thefe two experiments denote the prefence of carbonic 
acid gas. 

3. The gas remaining from the two former experiments, 
when put in contad with liquid hydrogenated fulphuret of 

- poiafb, underwent an abforption of eight centimes j which 
muft have been oxigen. 

The gas taken within a foot of the bottom of the ciftern It contained 
aflforded fimilar refults, only the proportion of carbonic acid "'"'"'""^ ^^"^* 
gas was greater. That which remained after the efTeft of 
reagents was azote, as the following phenomena prove. 

1. A lighted candle was extinguifhed by immerfion in the 
gas at the upper part of the cylindric veflel ; but it remain- 
ed burning if the veflel was previoufly opened Tor a few 
feconds. 

2. The veflfel when reverfed lofl none of the gas contained 
in it ; and the light was extlnguiflied when introduced. 

3. The luminous combuflion of phofphorus in oxigen gas 
(the formation of nitric acid with this gas and oxigen gas not 
having been tried) was confidered a pofitive proof of its 

nature. f ' 

This noxious gas was found to contain, 

Upper Part, Lower Part, Analyfi*. ^ 

Azotic gas - - 86 Azotic gas - - 80 

Oxigenated gas - - 8 Oxigenated gas - - 6 

Carbonic acid gas • 6 Carbonic acid gas - 14> 

100 100 

S 2 The 



240 ANIMAL MATTER. 

Chemical The nature of this gas does not admit, of purification by 

agency infuffi- jj^g qj. ammonia. Thefe indeed deftroy the carbonic acid, 

cient to deftroy , , . „ , 

the foul air. Dut have no mfiuence on the azote. 

Mechanical Mechanical means are the only methods by which any con- 

means more ef- (iderable quantity of this air can be fpeedily removed ; fuch 

as the firing of gun-powder, the ufe of ventilators, &c. 
Deftruftive ef- The refult of this analyfis is rather furprifing, as, infiead of 
fefts of confined g^ {-ypgpgl^y^jgj^^g ^f j,^j.jjQ^jj, acid gas, which was fuppofed 

the prefence of to be the caufe of the denrii6tiive effefls of this confined air, 
azotic gas. azotic gas has been found — a gas lighter than atmofpheric air. 

Theory. The theory of (his refult feems to be, that the oil having 

deprived the enclofed air of its oxigen, leaves only the azotic 

gas at liberty. 



XIV. 

Ertra(9from a Memoir, hj/ Meffrs. Fourcroy and Vauque- 
LiN, on the Phenomena obferved in, and the Refults obtained 
frojn Animal Matter, zvhen a6ted upon by Nitric Acid. Bead 
at the National Jnjlitute, by A. Laugxer.* 

Bmhollet's 1. HE exiftence of azote in animal fubftances has been de- 

experiments on termined by the experiments of M. Bertholiet, and thedifer- 
gagement of this principle, when treated with mine acid, is 
among (he most ufeful of modern difcoveries in cheraiftry. 
•"^repeated. Melirs. Fourcroy and Vauquelin, on repeating thefe expe- 

riments on mufcular fibre, have added fome interefting refuils 
to this valuable fa6l. 

The following is a fummary of their experiments, and of 
the refults which they obtained. 
Nitrous acid with Sect. 1. A mixture of 150 grammes of mufcular flefli, 
mufcular flefh vvith an equal quantity of nitric acid, at 32 degrees, and water, 
lomeTarbonrc P^^^ '"'^ ^ mattrafs, and heated till it boiled gently, gave 96 
acid. cubic inches of gas, containing nine-tenths of azote, and one- 

tenth of carbonic acid. 
The refiduum The refiduum confided of, 1, Matter which had pot loft its 
"atu'"'^'' fjj'o""* original fibrous formation; 2, a yellowifli liquor; 3, a greafy 
liquo;,'and a fubftance, of a yellow coIoik, which floated oa the furiace.of 
greafy fubftance. the liquor. 

* Amaks d: Chimit, Vol. LYL p. 37. 

After 



ANIMAL MATTEK. g^J. 

• After feparating the greafe, and filtring the liquor, the re* 
fidue was fubmitted to the following experiments. 

To boiling water it gave a yellow colour, and the property 
oF reddening vegetable blues: After wafhing in feveral wa- 
ters, it continued to turn the colour, though it ceafed to give 
acidity. VVafliing rendered its colour deeper than at firft; 
aiid when ditTufed in a little water, it ftill reddened paper of 
turnfol. 

Its folution in alcalis was of a deep blood colour. It was 
precipitated by acids in yellow flakes. 

This matter feels fat and pitchy; has a rancid fmell, and The fibrous 
%ery bitter tafte. matter refembles 

The fufion and fweliing which it undergoes when placed on 
hot coals, the greafy vapour, and fetid colour, produced by 
this operation; the fmall quantity of coal which it leaves, 
fliews its refemblance to fat fubftances, notwilhftanding its 
acidity. 

. Sect. 2. On a clofer inveftigation of the yellow matter^ 
the following charafteriftics and properties were obferved : 

It fo faturated alcalis as nearly to ma(k their properties, — Itfaturatsi 
Its combinations with potafli and ammonia lathered like foap alkalis, 
and water, and are not decompofad by carbonic acid, but 
precipitated the foiutioiis of mercury and lead in yellowiih 
white flakes. 

The yellow matter decompofed alcaline carbonates, in the Decompofes car- 
cold, with efFervefcence, and likewife the acetate of potafli, ''O"*^*' 
with the afliftance of water, and a gentle heal. 

The authors of the memoir next made ufe of alcohol, and It is a yellow 

found that the yellow matter was compoled of a fmall quan- .. ^"^ 
f r T matter, 

lity of fat, which was taken up by the alcohol; and of an 
3cid, which, on account of its colour, they denominated 
** yelloxv acid." This acid, when deprived of its fat, which 
occafions an alteration in its properties, was of a deeper co- 
lour, more readily reddened the paper of turnfol, did not 
melt in the fame manner as before, nor exhale the fame rancid 
fmell, but fetid and ammoniacal vapours. • 

The yellow acid is diflblved in the fat, to which it com- The yellow !i. 
municated acidity and rancidnefs. It combined with ammo- ^"°'' ". ?" ^"'* 
nia, and deprived it of its fmell ; and by diflillation it yielded fifting of a2ote, 
all the products of animal fubftances. Its conftituent princi- hydrogen, car- 
pies, therefore, are azote, hydrogen, carbon, and oxigen; and 
it muft be placed among animal acids* 

, Sect. 3. 



2M 



ANIMAL MAtTER. 



Experiments on 
the nitiic acid 
wherein the 
Inufcular flefh 
had been de- 
compofed. 



Sect. 3. The combination of yellow acid and fat, on being 
again fubmitled to the aftion of nitric acid, at a temperature 
of about 50 degrees, underwent no remarkable alteration. — 
Its colour changed from yellow to white ; its fpecific gravity- 
was diminilhed, as was likewife its bulk ; but without any 
motion or effervefcence in the acid. Blue coloufs were 
deeply reddened by it ; it dilTolved, as before, in the ley of 
potaih., to which it communicated an orange-red colour, and 
had an extremely acrid tafte. The a6lion of nitric acid upon 
tliis yellow matter feems confined to giving it properties which 
make it approximate to an oily ftate, without deftroying its 
original acid charadler. 

Sect. 4. It was of importance that the nitric acid with 
which the mufcular flefli had been decompofed, (hould be ex- 
amined. Its yellow colour refembled that of the folution of 
fchromate of potaih. When faturated with carbonate of pot- 
a(li, the liquor at firft acquired an orange colour, afterwards 
it became turbid, and depofited a fmall quantity of orange- 
red powder. On diftillation, this mixture afforded a clear 
liquid, void of colour, of a rancid fmell, containing a little 
ammonia, probably formed by the nitric acid. What remained 
in the retort, was of a blackifh brown colour, but it was not 
farther examined. 

A colourlefs liquor, having the fame tafte and fmell, was 
afterwards obtained by diftillation of another portion of the 
nitric acid ufed in the decompofilion of the mufcular flefln. 
The liquor remaining in the retort became yellow by concen- 
tration, and its re-a£tion upon nitric acid was quickly per- 
ceived in a copious emiffion pf red vapours. When reduced 
to 40 grammes, flattifli cryftals were formed in a thick mother- 
water, whofe tenacity was fimilar to that of the folution of 
gum. 

This mother-water poflefled an acid bitter tafte, and on 
the addition of a little cauftic potafti, became of a blood-red 
colour: mixed with alcohol, it depofited a white flaky fedi- 
ment, which afterwards formed ilfelf into fine fern i-tranfparent 
grains, of a pleafant acid flavour. 

Five decigrammes of this fait, on being calcined, left 21 
centigrammes of yellowifli very light refiduum, which effer- 
vefced and were diflTolved in nitric acid, and on being evapo- 
rated produced cryftals of fulphate of lime and nitrate of 
polfilli. 

Tiiis 



ANIMAL MATTER. SKfeSfe. 

-' This faline precipitate, obtained by means of alcohol, 
was afcertaitied to be a mixture of fulphate of lime and acid- 
ulous t)xal3te ot' potalli. 

The mother-water, after precipitation with alcohol, gave a 
fccond precipitate with lime-water, confifting of oxalate of 
lime. After this double operation with alcohol and lime- 
water, the mother-water, on being graduail)' evaporated, be- 
came converted into the brown vifcid fyrup, of a bitter tafte, 
like that of walnut (liells. This being mixed with a good 
quantity of alcohol, coagulated, and threw down a plentiful 
precipitate of white matter. This matter was very pure ma- 
late of lime, the alcohol havhng retained tlie yellow acrid fub- 
ilance. 

The learned authors of the njemoir, of which we have Conclufions. 
given this detailed extrad, conclude from the faels above 
dated, 

1. That the mufcles contain potafli, lime, and fulphuric 
acid, or perhaps fulphur burned by nitric acid. 

'2. That a portion of the mufcular fibre, or rather the cel- 
lular membrane with which it is enveloped, was converted by 
the aclion of the nitric acid into oxalic acid and malic acid. 
. The alcohol employed in the feparation of the malate of 
lime, held* in folution, ], A fmall portion of nitrate of lime; 
2, A very bitter red-brown matter, pofleffing the flavour of 
walnut ihinds, of which more will befaid hereafter; 3. A fmall 
quantity of that detonating matter already found in indigo: it 
was in this cafe obtained by concentrating the alcoholic folu- 
tion, and feparating it by the addition of carbonate of potafli, 
in the form of granulated cryftals, very inflammable, and very 
detonating. 

Sect. 5. The importance of the refults obtained from the importance of 
foregoing analyfis will be readily underftood; particularly if the foregoing j 
a comparifon be made of the knowledge hitherto poflefled, 
with the extenfive notions here opened to the view, of an 
objedl fo interefting in the confequences which may be drawn 
from it, in the applications which may be made to the animal 
economy, and which, as will be (hewn, leaves fcarcely any 
thing more to be defired. 

The difengagement of azotic gas, the formation of carbonic ijifcoveries 
acid, of fat, of oxalic acid, and of a bitter fubftancc, confti-^'^*''^'* ^° ^'^2*= 
tate the whole that was known refpediing the treatment ofjcnown on this 

animaU'i'ye^* 



244 ANIMAL MATTER. 

animal fubHances b_y nitric acid ; to this is now added the dif- 
covery, 1, Of a yellow infipid matter, of little folubility, 
though acid, and which immediately fucceeds the flefhy fibre; 
2, Of another yellow matter, bitter, more foluble, and equally 
acid, wiiich remains difTolved in the nitric liquor; 3, Of an 
inflammable, detonating fubftance, which is alfo retained in 
ffjlution; 4, and laftly, of the formation of malic acid. 

It appears, and is the opinion of Mefirs. Fourcroy and 
Vauqtielin, that the yellow and nearly infoluble matter is the 
firft degree of change produced upon the mufcular fibre; it 
pafTes quickly to the fecond degree of alteration and of acidity, 
whofe produd is the more foluble yellow matter: this, by a 
third degree of alteration is fucceeded by the inflammable de- 
tonating fubftance, being the third and iaft term of the de- 
compofing aftion of nitric acid. The authors of this memoir 
attribute the fucceflive formation of thefe three compounds 
to the fubtradion of part of the azote, and of a more conli- 
derabie portion of the hydrogen: by this means the proportions 
of their elements are changed, and there remains an excefs of 
carbon and o# oxigen, wliich produces the ftate of fat and 
acidity already noticed. As to the proportion of the confti- 
tuent principles of thefe three compounds, it is a problem 
of too remote a nature for its folution to be readily dilcovered. 
Acidity of the Meffrs. F. and V. examined if the acidity of the yellow 
•yellow fubftance fubftances might in any meafure a rife from nitric acid; but, 
nkric^add. ^ ^'^^^^ ^ careful invefligatfon, they were falisfied that it was in 

no degree prefent. 

Formation of '^'^^ formation of oxalic and malic acids belongs to the 

oxalic and malic white raucous fcales of the cellular membrane. Comparative 

' *' experiments of the efiects of nitric acid on the while mem» 

branaceous organs, which furniflied plenty of ihefe acids, and 

very little of the fat yellow matter, led the authors to this 

conclufion. 

Skct. 6. A few infulated la<5ts, which hitherto have 
fcarcely appeared to be fufceptible of any ufeful application, 
fcem to unite with thofe prelented by this analyfis ; and the 
learned chemifts, to. whom we are indebted for it, have not 
nmiiied to conne6i them with the other fa<5is. Such are thofe 
which are obtained by examining the bilious concretions in 
certain animals ; fhofe in the gall-bladder of the ox and ele- 
phant; and the analogy which appears to exift between bile, 

the 



ANIMAL MATTER* 245 

the colour of the fkin in perfons afflided with the jaundice^ Analogy of the 
and alfo their urine, and the yellow fubftance treated of in ^'"^eJ^unSce, 
this memoir. &e. 

New experiments made with a view to confirm thefe fuf- Bilious concre- 
picions obtained the moft happy refults. The red matter of 
bilious concretions, when feparated from the bilter green 
matter with which it is combined, difplayed fimilar properties 
with the firtt yellow niatter obtained from mufcles aSed upon 
by nitric acid. 

From the urine of a young man troubled with a flight jaun- It was fo^'m 
dice, they obtained a red fubflance. whofe identity with the J^^^ic "fu^ca! 
matter formed by mufcles and nitric acid was remarkable. To 
obtain this, they evaporated the urine to the coniifiency of 
honey, and treated the reflduum with alcohol : this contained, 
befides much of uree, fal-ammoniac, and acetate oF foda, 
of which the patient made ufe, the red fubftance they fought 
for. 

From thefe experiments, made with (kill and ability, may Jaundice occa- 
we not conclude with the authors, that the jaundice 's occa- '"'^und ^ ^""f 
fioned by a fuperabundance of this matter introduced to the the yellow acidj 
cutaneous abforbent fyftem ; that this is what gives a yellow ^^'^^ a'^ "ufes 

■' ' o < the yellow colour 

colour to bile and bilicus calculi, which difplay, on analyfis, of bile, &c. 
the fame properties; and that the yellow acid is difperfed 
throughout the animal economy, either by the oxigenation of 
themufcular fibre, or of the fanguineous fibrine, from which 
it is formed ? 

Neither can we avoid admitting a ftriking analogy between Refemtlance of 
this yellow acid matter, and the acid foand in fat after long ^^^ yellow acid 
expofure to the air, or that has contrafted a yellow hue through (gj. of "fat. "^*' 
difeafe, and fat treatad with nitric acid to form oxigenated 
pomatum. 

it muft be confeffed that thefe conje6tures afiume much pro- Other fa€ls. 
bability, when we Confider that the acetate of foda, alcaline 
carbonates, and yolks of eggs, are the remedies beft adapted 
for the cure of the jaundice, and form alfo the beft chemical 
folvents of the yellow acid, or of the acid and fat matter, 
which fo evidently charaflerife the jaundice. 

After what has been faid, if mufl no longer be imagined that Chemical re.- 
the hope of (racing the caufe of morbific afieftions, is altogether fearchesnot to 
11 ?L . IT • • u -n J • ^"^ negleded by 

chjmerjcal : nor that qilcovenes in chemiUry, and attentive ph^ficians, 

refearches 



246 FIGURE OF SATURN". 

refearches refpeding animal matter, will not enllghtfen ttite 
phyfician on the nature of difeafes, and the means of curing 
them. 



XV. 

liemarh relative to Dr. Herschel's Figure of Saturn. 
By An Observer. 



Oi 



To Mr. NICHOLSON. 
SIR, 



Singular circura-\\^N reading in your Journal, Obfervations on the lingular 
Herfchel's figure ^'S"'^^ of the Planet Saturn, by Dr. Herfchel, from the Phi- 
of Saturn had iofophical Tranfadions ; when I faw (he engraving of the 
dbfervecT. '""^^ ^gu'^. a* defcribed by the Doctor, refembling a parallelo- 
gram, one fide whereof is the equatorial and the other the 
polar diameter, with the four corners rounded otf, fo as to 
leave both the equatorial and polar regions flatter than they 
would be in a regular fpheroidical figure ; I was furprifed to 
find, on enquiry, that fo remarkable a figure had not been no- 
ticed before by other aftronomers, whofe jLelefcopes were fup- 
pofed to define objects very correflly, with powers confider- 
ably exceeding 160 times, by which power the Do6tor could 
difiinguifii Saturn from the fpheroidical figure of Jupiter. 
Former obf.of In the year 1776, the Do6lor relates he perceived the body 

the Doftor did of Saturn was not exadly round, and in 1781, thai it was flat- 
Bot Ihcw It, , , , , -^ ^ , , . , 

tened at the poles, at leaft as much as Jupiter. In J 7 89, the 

Do6lor being then prepolTefled with its being fpheroidical, he 
meafured the equatorial and polar diameters, and fuppofed 
there could be no other particularity to remark in the figure of 
the planet. 

It is evident, from the Dolor's former obfervations of Sa* 

turn and Jupiter, that the vifible difference in their figures 

was not, before laft year, obferved fo difiin<5tiy, owing to the 

fuperior excellence of his 10-feet telefcope of two feet aperr 

ture, but that, when obferved, he afterwards found the other 

telefcopes gave a fimilar difparity. 

Q^ whether As the figures given by former aftronomers, and even by 

cfptTonTn"the'*' ^^^ ^^"^^ himfelf, of both Jupiter and Saturn, were fpheroi- 

itlcfcopes. dalj 



analysis; 247 

dal, it may be requifile, before any intricate refearches are 

attempted (as mentioned by the Dodof at the end of the 

communication), to be well aflured that his telefcopes have 

defined ihe figures of the planets accurately, which at prefent 

admits of a doubt, and which may be cleared up about the 

time of the next oppofition of the Sun and Saturn, in April . 

next. 

The following may prove the neceffity of fuch an enquiry : 

Place a circular or fpherical figure before a concave mirror. Experiment. 

which mirror muft be fo inclined, that when the objedt '^^ kYolhqiien^ 

above the head of the obferver, it may be feen, by refledlion, flcftion ftom a 

in the center of the mirror*: If feen within the focus, thefP^^'T'f'f » 

' IS rendered «>- 

object will be reprefenfed oval in a vertical direftion, and long, 

when beyond the focus, in a horizontal; which figure will be 

more and more oval as the angle is enlarged. 

Your's, 

An observer. 



XVI. 

Experiments on a Mineral Subftance formerly fuppofed to be 
. 'Zeolite ; with fame Remarks on two Species of Uran-glitnmer, 
By the Rev. William GuEcoR.f 

Ji- HIS mineral is raifed in a mine called Stenna Gwyn, in Defciiption and 
the parilh of St. Stephen's, in Branwell, in the county of Jl^j^J^J^froA 
Cornwall ; the principal produ6tion of which is the compound Cornwall. 
fulphuret of tin, copper, and iron, 

Defcription. 

Two fpecies of this mineral are found, afluming a marked 
difference in external charader. 

The firft and moft common one confifts of an affemblage of 
Aiinute cryftals, which are attached to quartz cryftals, in tufts, 
which diverge from the point of adherence, as from a centre, 
Thefe tufts vary, as to the number of cryftals, of which they 

* If the objeft is fmall, it may be enlarged by a concave eye- 
glafs. 

t Phil. Tranf. 1805, 

are 



048 ANALYSIS. 

Defcrlption and are ctmpofed, and are light and delicate In the forms which 
analyfis of a jj^g^ affumc, or they are grouped together according to a 
Covijwall. variety of degrees of proximity and compadnefs. Sometimes 

they fill the v»'hoie cavify of a ftone, with little or no interrup- 
tion; in other fpecimens they are feen partially fpreading over 
the fides and pointed pyramids of quartz cryftals. 

In feme cafes thefe grouped (ufts adhere very pertinaceoufly 
to the Hone which bears them; in others, they are eafily fe- 
parable, in comparatively large pieces, from the quartz, the 
imprelTed form of wliich the pieces thus feparated retain. The 
furface of thefe, which was in immediate contact with the; 
quartz, exhibits the feveral minute cryftals of which the mafs 
confifls, matted together in various direftions, 

Thefe cryftalline afleftiblagcs are, in general, white; a 
nearer infpeflion of tlie individual cryftals proves that they 
are tranlparent. Sometimes they are ftained of a yellovvilh 
hue by ochry water. 

The fize ot thefe cryftals varies confiderably in different 
fpecimens. Sometimes (hey aflume the appearance of a white 
powder raifed up in fmall heaps, upon the furface of the flone, 
to which they adhere. In other fpecimens they refemble a 
tender- down. And the larger tort varies, in relative fize, in 
the proportion, perhaps, in which a human hair, horfe-hair, 
9nd a hog's briftle, feverally differ from each other in magni- 
tude. They feldom exceed a quarter of an inch in length. 
The figure of thefe cryftals is not eafily afcertainable, on ac- 
count of their minutenefs. By the help of a very powerful 
microfcope, they appear to confitl of four-fided prifmS ; where 
ibefe are broken off, the feflion exhibits a rhomboidal, ap- 
proaching indeed to an elliptical figure, from the circumftance 
of the angles of the prifm being worn away ; but that the 
prifm itfelf is rhomboidal, cannot be inferred from hence, unlefs 
we could be certified, that the fef^ion were at right angles 
with the axis of it. 

Imbedded amongft thefe cryftals two fpecies of cryftalline 
laminae are frequently difcoverable ; the one confifting of pa- 
rallelopipedon plates with truncated angles, applied to each 
other, of a green colour of various tints, from the emerald to 
the apple-green : the other fpecies, confiding of an affemblage 
of fquare plates, which vary in thicknefs. The angles of the 
feveral fquare lamin??, which are applied to each othefi are 

not 



ANAtysis. 249 

not always coincident. They are of a bright wax. yellow. Dsfciiption.and- 
The (ides ot' the largeft of thefe fquare laminae is about a quar- ^fncra^i "fiom 
icr of an inch. This laft fpecies is frequently found adhering Comwili, 
to (he fides of quartz cry fiah, jn the cavities of granite. 

The other fpecies of this mineral confifts of an afPemblage 
of crjilals clofely compacted together in the form of mam- 
millary protuberances, in general, of the fize of fmall peas, 
intimately connefled with each other. A (Iratum of thefe 
about -J- of an inch thick, is fpread upon a layer of quartz, in 
the cavities or filTures of a fpecies of compad granite. The 
ftrise of which thete mamillae confift, diverge from a centre, 
like zeolite. Some of the individual flriae, in forae cafes, over* ' ^ 

top their fellows, in thefe globular affemblages, and evidently 
affume, on their pfojedling points, a cryftallized form. 

A, 

(1.) The detached cryflals of the former fpecies are eafily 
reduced to powder, of a brilliant whitenefs. At the tem- 
perature 56° of Fahrenheit, its fpecific gravity was found to 
be 2,22. 

(2.) The hardnefs of the more corapaft fpecies is fufficient 
to fcratch calcareous fpar. At the temperature 55°, its fpe-** 
cific gravity was 2,253. It does not imbibe water. 

(3.) Some of the cryftals expofed, on charcoal, to the flame 
of th^ blowpipe fuddenly and ftrongly driven upon them, 
decrepitate : if they are gradually expofed to the flame thej 
grow opaque, and become more light and tender ; but they 
ihow no figns of fufion under the ftrongefl heat, 

(4.) The phofphate of foda and ammonia takes up a piece 
of this mineral without effervefcence, but it fwims about the 
fufed globule, unaltered. Borax diflblves a fragment of a 
-Cryftal, and the globule remains tranfparent. 

(5.) Some of this mineral, reduced to a fine powder, was 
mixed with about half its weight of pounded quartz, and 
kneaded with water into a ball : but as foon as the mafs be- 
came dry, all cohefion was deflroyed, and it fell into powder. 

(6.) Sulphuric acid, poured upon fome of it, caufed no 
efiervefcence, nor was there any perceptible vapour extri- 
cated. 

, .^.(7.) Some of the pulverized cryftals were put into a crucible 
.^.platina, and fuiphuric acid was poured upon them. The 

. 5 crucible 



250 ANALYtrS. 

Defcriptbn and criiclblc wa<;covcred with a piece of glafs, and placed in warm 

analyfisot a ^^^^ q,^ fexaminalion of the crucible and its contents, after 

mineral from .... , . , r . • i 

CoviwalL •♦^o'e t»me. it appeared that the greater part ot the mineral 

had been difTolved, but the furface of the glafs cover was not 
in the leaft atTected. 

(8.) Some of the cryOals were introduced into a fmall glafs 
retort, to which a receiver was adapted. The retort was ex- 
pofed to the beat of a charcoal fire. A fluid diftilled over into 
the receiver, which had a peculiar empyrcumalic fmell. It 
changed Htmus- paper to a faint red. It produced no change 
in a folutioB of nitrate of filverj but it caufed a white preci- 
pitate in a folution of nitrate of mercury. I attributed thefe 
pbaenomena, at the time, to a fmall bit of the feather with 
which I had fwept the powder into the retort, and which, I 
thought, had fallen into it. A flight ^Xhilifli cruft was alfo 
produced in the neck of tl>c retort, but the fmallnefs of the 
quantity did not admit of examination. 

(9.) Some of this mineral, expofcd to a red heat for about 
(en minutes, loft in weight at the rate of 25| per cent. Another 
portion, expofed to a ftronger heat for naore than an hour^ 
loft 30| per cent. This operation was performed in a crucible 
of platina ; the cover of which gave fome indications as if a 
flight portion of the finer parts had boen volatilized. 

Some of the compaft fpecies, after expofure to a red heat 
for one hour, experienced a diminution in weight of 30 per 
cent, 

(10.) The fulphuric, muriatic, and nitric acids, aided by 
a long digefting heat, effeO. nearly a complete folution of 
this fubftance. The quantity of the undiflblved refiduum is 
diminiftied in proportion U> the purity of the mineral em- 
ployed. 

(11.) The nitrate of filver, as well as the muriate of ba- 
rytes, produce no change in the folution of this fubftance in 
nitric acid. 

(12.) The folutions of tins fubftance in muriatic and nitric 
acids, cannot be brought to cryftallize. 

B. 

(1.) I felefted fome of the cryftals of this fubftance, as free 
as it was poffible from extraneous matter. 50 grains grofsly 
pounded were expofed, in a platina crucible, to a red heat for 



ANALYSIS. 251 

one hour. They weighed, xi-hilfifiUl ivarm, 35| graio"?, which Defcnption and 
is a lofs of 2St per cent. 25 grains of the fame parcel, from =*".^'y'»s of a 
1 • 1 T 1 . t . r r , , ,- , mineral from 

Which 1 had taken the fonner, expoled to a heat ot longer Cornwall. 

continuance and greater intenfity, were diminiflied in weight, 
at the rate of .^0| per cent. 

(2.) The powder (liil preferved Its pure whitcncfs. It 
was transferred into a matrafs, and nitric acid poured upon 
it, which foon began to a<5t upon it. The matrafs was 
placed, for many hours, in a digefting heat» A folution of 
the whole of the fubftance, except a fmall portion, was ef- 
fedted. I added a few drops of muriatic acid, and continued 
the digeftion. 

(3.) The acid was now diluted with diflilled water, and 
poured off from the refiduum, which confided partly of a fine 
fpongy earth, and partly of fragments of quartz. It was 
eaught on a filter and fuffici^ntly edulcorated. The laft por- 
tion of edulcorating water dropped through the filter of" an 
epalifti hue. 

The refiduum, dried and expofed to a red heat, for ten 
minutes, = ^^ of a grain, -^ of which confifted of fragments 
of quartz, -j— was found to be filica, and -^ alumina. 



(1.) The clear folution and edulcorating water were poured 
into a large matrafs and boiled, and whilfl boiling, the con- 
tents were precipitated, in white flakes, by ammonia 

(2.) When the ammonia had ceafed to produce any further 
precipitate, the clear fluid was decanted, and affayed with 
carbonate of ammonia. But its tranfparency was not in the 
leafl dlHurbed. 

(3.) This clear fluid, together with the edulcorating water, 
with which the fubfided precipitate had been wafiied, was 
gradually evaporated. When its volume was confiderably di- 
miniflied, a reparation of a fpongy earth took place, more 
Qopioufly than I had reafon to expeft, and the quantity of it 
was flill further increafed by a few drops of ammonia. This 
earth, thus feparated, was fufficiently edulcorated, and added 
to the former precipitate. 

(4.) The fluid was again evaporated, and at laft transferred 

to a crucible of platina, and the fait reduced to a dry ftate : on 

rediflblving this fait in diftilled water, a minute portion of 

2 eerihy 



2^2 ANALYSIS. 

Opfcriptlon and: earthy matter was feparated, which, after edulcorati'on, was 
analyfisofa added to the reft. The fluid from which it had been fepa- 
Hiineralfrom i . , i , • . 

Cornwall. rated, and the edulcorating water, were again evaporated to 

drynefs, and the ammoniacal fait expelled by heat, in a pla« 
tina crucible, 

(5.) After the crucible had been made red hot,, it was ex- 
amined. I difcovered on the bottom of it, feme traces of 
earthy matter, and fome fpots, which had a glafly appear- 
ance. Water boiled upon it, dilTolved nothing ; from which 
tircumftance, the abfence of both of the fixed alkaline falts 
may be inferred. Neither did nitric acid produce any alte- 
ration. A few drops of fulphuric acid efFeded a folution of 
the fubftance, which adhered to the bottom of the crucible. 
Ammonia precipitated from it a fmall quantity of earth> 
which was transferred to the reft, and the fulphate of am- 
monia and edulcorating water were again evaporated and 
excelled by heat. A few fpots of thb fame glazing ftill 
appeared. I had obferved the fame phenomenon in a former 
experiment : but in that, as well as in the prefent infiance, 
the fubftance was in too fmall a quantity to become the 
fubjed of experiment. 

D. 

(1.) Upon the precipitate (C 1), and the earths collected at 
different times, whilft they were in a raoift flate, I poured a 
folation of potafli in alcohol mixed with diflilled water j in 
a ftjort time, the greater part of it was diflblved. 

The clear folution was decanted, and the undiflblved fedi- 
ment \^as transferred to a bafon of pure filver, and boiled with 
a folution of potafli. 

(2.) When the potafli ceafed to aO. upon it, it was diluted 
with diflilled water and decanted from a brown powder, 
which had fubfided. This powder edulcorated, dried, and 
ignited weighed -/^ of a grain ; | of a grain was alumina, 
■3?2 filita, and -^^ oxide of iron. 



(1.) The folution efFedled by potafli vcas decompofed and 
rediflTolved by muriatic acid, and the contents of the folution 
were precipitated by ammonia. The fubfided precipitate was 
edulcorated. 

(2.) 



ANALYSIS. 255 

(2.) The fluid and the edulcorating water were evaporated Defcription and 

to drynefs, and rediflblved in diailled water. Here again, to ^".^'^^'^ «/ * 
■' ' „ , . mineral from 

my furprife, a reparation took place of a white earth, more Cornwall. 

abundant than is uiual in cafes where ammonia is employed as 

a precipitant. 

(3.) This earth and the precipitate were edulcorated with 

diftilled water, until it ceafed to afFeft a folution of nitrite 

of mercury. Collefted, dried, and ignited, for one hour 

it weighed zvhiljlji ill warm 32 •^%. 

F. 

(1.) This earth was placed in a crucible of platina, and 
repeatedly moiftened with fulphuric acid, which was abftrafled 
from it in the fand bath; diftilled water afFeded the folution 
pf the whole, except a white powder which weighed, after 
ignition, 2/^ grains. It was proved to be filica. 

(2.) This folution was now mixed with fome acelat of 
potafh and gradually evaporated; large and regular cryftals 
of alum were from time to time formed. A fmall portion 
of filica which weighed after ignition -j^ of grain was de- 
pofiled; fome fulphate of lime alfo made its appearance, 
which walhed with diluted alcohol and dried in a low heat 
= -f? of a grain. 

(3.) A portion of the fluid remained which neither the addi- 
tion of potafli nor the lapfe of many weeks could induce to 
cryftallize. Sufpefting that it might contain glucine, I preci- 
pitated the contents by carbonate of ammonia, added to excefs, 
and ftiook the mixture repeatedly and ftrongly. The precipi- 
tated earth was colleded and the fluid boiled, but it was found 
to contain nothing but a minute portion of alumina. 

(4.) The edulcorated earth was rediflblvedin fulphuric acid, 
except -|- of a grain of ignited filica. 

The folution was mixed with a little potafli, and gradually 
evaporated. Sulphate of lime was feparated at feveral times 
and after long intervals, which fufficiently waflied and dried in 
a low heat = ^^ .Some filica alfo feparated, but too minute in 
quantity to be afcertained by weight. The remaining fluid at 
length cryftallized into regulaWy formed alum. 

(5-) The whole, therefore of the 32 ^V (E- 3.) confifted 
of alumina except 2|. of filica, and the lime contained in j| of 
fulphate of lime, which may be eftimated about -^ of a grain ; 
the alumina, therefore, = 29; the alumina in B. and D; = j% 
Vol. XIII.— March, 1806. T the 



'^54' ANALYSIS. 

refcrlptJai and ^^^ ^^^'^a In B, D, and F, = 3^; the oxfde of iron (D.) 

anaiyfisof a =y\;, and lime F, -j2j; the volatile parts of this fubftance 
mineral from . r •? • ^l j-^ • i j 

Cornwall. = 15| m the 50 grains employed. 

The fum total of thefe is . - « - 47 ^^ 
Lofs 2H 

50 
I have fubje6led thefe cryftals, as well as the harder fpeices 
of this mineral, to analyfis by means of direct folution in 
fulphuric acid, and have found in each cafe the fame fixed ingre- 
dients, viz. alumina, a fmall portion of (ihca, and a very minute 
quantity of lime. Both thefe latter ingredients are, I think, 
eflfential to thecompofition of this foflil, as I have always dif- 
covered them in the pureft fpecimens. In this mode of analyfis 
I experienced the fame difficulty and tedioufnefs of delay in 
bringing the laft portions of the folution to cryftallize into 
alum. This anomalous^circumftance I hav« reafon to attribute 
to a particular combination, which takes place between the 
fulphate of alumina and lime, filica, and potalh. In my ex- 
anoination of the compa6l fpecies there was no appearance of 
the fulphate of lime until the lail ; and in every experiment, 
previoufly to the fredi appearance of cryftals of alum that 
had been long delayed, filica and fulphate of lime were dc- 
pofited. 

I forbear entering into any further details concerning ray 
former experiments on this curious foffil, as I have reafon to 
think that it will ftill require a more particular and minute ex- 
amination, on account of another ingredient which eluded my 
notice, and which may polTibly imparl to its peculiar character, 
'X[he fcarcity of it has been hitherto a great bar to my experi- 
rtents; I ftiall record, hocvever, a few fafts which I have 
lately obferved, in the hope that at a futare time I may be able 
to refume my examination of it. 

I was induced to pay more aUention to the volatile ingre- 
dients of this fubHance *. With this view, I Introduced fome 

* Mr. Humphry Davy, whofe well known ikiH and fagacity 
have probably rendered the refearches of another perfon fuperflu- 
ous, had, I found, been engaged in the analyfis of a mineral which 
is thought to be identical with the fubjeft of thefe obfervations. 
He informed me that he had obferved a peculiar fmell, and acid 
properties in the water diftilled from the fubftance which he cxa- 
ssSncd, 

2 of 



ANALYSIS, Q55 

of (he cryfials into a fmall retort, ada|>ted a receiver unto it,D«fcript'ion?ix4 

and expofed the retort to a charcoal fire. The neck of the ^"^yfis of a 
f 1 • n 1 • 1 ^ I mineral trora 

retort was foon covered with moifture, which pafled into the Cornwall* 

receiver J and I obferved a white cruft gradually forming in 

the arch and neck of the retort. 

On examination of the fluid in the receiver, it was found to 
have the fame empyrenmatic fmell that I had obferved before. 
It refembles very much the fmell which that fluid is found to 
have which is diftilled from the white cruft that furrounds 
flint as a nucleus. 

It changed litmus paper to a faint reddifh hue. It produced 
no change on a folution of nitrate of filver, and fcarcely a per- 
ceptible one, on that of nitrate of mercury. 

The crufl formed in the neck of the retort confifted of thia 
fcales, which after the vefTel had been dried, were difpofed 
to feparate from the glafs in fome places, but in others they 
lirmly adhered unto it. Thoy were opaque, like white ena- 
mel, and refle6led the colours of the rainbow. A portion 
of this fubflance expofed to the flame of the blow-pipe upon 
charcoal turned at firft black, and then melted into a globule, 
that exhibited fomewhat of a metallic fplendor which foon 
grew dull. This fubflance is foluble in water ; on evapora- 
tion of it, it afTumes, at the edges of the fluid, a faline appear- 
ance, which, as the moifture evaporates, becomes earthy, 
opake, and white. Some of the folution changed litmus 
paper to a faint red. Lime and ftrontian waters produce in 
it white clouds, which a drop of nitric acid removes. Mu- 
riats of lime and barytes produce no change in it. Nitrate 
and acetate of barytes difturb its tranfparency, the effect 
produced by the latter is more evident. Nitrate of filver 
produces no effed, but nitrates of mercury and lead caufe 
^ropious precipitates, which are white and foluble in nitric 
acid. Phofphate of ammonia and foda produced a white 
precipitate. Oxalate, tartrite, and prufliate of potafli did 
not affect it, nor did fulphate of foda. Ammonia was 
dropped into it, but the fluid preferved its tranfparency. But 
carbonate of ammonia inflantly caufed a white precipitate, 
which was not rediflTolved by an excefs of the precipitant ; 
upon fome of this fabfided precipitate a concentrated folution 
of polaHi was poured and fliaken with it, fcut it was not 
T 2 fenfibl/ 



2j6' analysis, 

Defcnptlon and fenfiblv diminlftied. But if after edulcoratlon it be diflblvfet! 
aiialyfisof a . . . . , , „ , , , , . . 

mtneral from '" "'^""^c acid, and potafh be added, no precipitate is pro 
Coniwall, duced. 

Carbonate of potafh caufes a white precipitate when 
dropped into the aqueous folution of the fcaly fublimate. 

The fupernalant fluid was poured off and gradually evapo- 
rated, but it became repeatedly turbid, nor could I by means 
either of the filter or alcohol prevent a recurrence of the fame 
effed. Nearly the fame refult takes place when carbonate of 
ammonia is ufed as the precipitant. 

Some of the white fcales were moiflened with futphuric acid. 
Nb vapour arofe. 

Some of the precipitate obtained by means of carbonate of 
potalli from the watery folution of this fubftance, was, after 
fufficient edulcoration, diffolved in fulphuric acid ; the folution, 
on due evaporation, produced permanent cryftals, feme of 
which refembled alum, but others feemed to differ from it in 
external chara6ler. Ammonia decompofed the folution of 
them in water, and a few drops of liquid potaQi diffolved the 
precipitated earth. The quantity was too fmall for farther 
experiment. 

If diftilled water be poured into the retort and bailed in it, 
fo as to diOblve what adheres to the neck and cavity of it, a 
further folution is effefted, but differing in fome raeafure from 
the folution of the fublimate colle6ted from the neck of the 
veffel. This latter folution is found to contain lead. If nitric 
or muriatic acid be poured into the retort, fo as to diffolve 
what Jlill remains adhering to it, the prefence of lead becomes 
more evident. Whence does this metal arife? I have reafon 
to believe that it arifes from the glafs retort, which is corroded 
by the acid of the foffil extricated by heat. But what acid is 
it? It does not feem to be either the phofphoric or fluoric 
acids, the latter of which became the firft objeft of my fuf- 
picion. 

The opinion which Mr. Davy fuggefled to me feems more 
probable, that it is of vegetable origin. Oxalic acid, on the 
authority of Bergman, may be volatilized ; yet fome of its 
properties are very extraordinary and do not accord with this 
idea. 

I decompofed the watery folution of the fcales by nitrate of 
'Jead, and after a fuflicient edalcoration of the fubfided precipi- 

Ute 



ANALYSIS. 257 

tate, I dropped upon it fotne fulpburic acid. No fumes were Defciiptiouand 
perceptible. The fulphate of lead was feparaled by the filler, ^{Jjf"j f^^Jn 
and the clear fluid, which palTed through it, was gradually Cornwall, 
evaporated; fmall cryftallizations were formed, the figure of 
which I could not afcertain ; fome of them were expofed to 
the flame of the blowpipe in a gold fpoon ; they did not burn 
to coal, nor give out any empyreumatic fmelj por fufe, but 
tbey afllumed an earthy appearance *, 

Uran-glimmer. 

I ftiall add a (ew defultory remarks upon the yellow and 
green cryftais, which frequently accompany the foffil. 

I confidered them to be the two fpecies of uran -glimmer 
which had been examined by the celebrated Klaprolb. 

The yellow cubic cryftais are light. Their fpecific gravity, 
taken at temperature 45" Fahrenheit, was 2,19. 

Expofed to the flame of the blowpipe on charcoal, they 
decrepitate violently, A piece of this fubftance is taken up by 
phofphate of ammonia and foda, without effervefcence, and 
communicates a light emerald. green colour to the fufed 
globule. 

By expofure to a red heat, this fubflance lofes nearly a 
third p^ of its weight. It then becomes of a brafly 
colour 

It is foluble in the nitric and muriatic acids ; but I coulcj 
procure no cryftallized fait from the folution of either of 
them. 

By evaporation to drynefs, and rediflTolving the mafs, fome 
iilica is feparated. 

A 

(1.) A certain quantity of the yellow cryftais were dif^- 
folved in nitric acid. Muriatic and fulphuric acids fuccef- 
fively dropped into the folution produced no fenfible change. 
The contents of the folution were precipitated by ammonia, 

• I fubjefted fome of the Barnftaple mineral, with which Mr, 
Raflileigh kindly furnithed me out of his cabinet, to experiment^ 
with a view of afcertaining whether it would produce x,he fame 
volatilized falijie criift, as the ftenna gwyn fclfil, and I foupd thai 
it (}id. 

in 



258 ANALYSIS. 

Defeription and in while clots, mixed with fome of a yellowtfli hue. Am- 
minera^l from "lon'a. added in excefs, betrayed no fign of ihe prefence of 
Cornwall, copper. 

(2.) The ammonia, on evaporation, was found to have held 
a portion of the mineral in folution. A frefli portion of am- 
monia diflblved more, but in a lefs quantity, at each fucceed- 
ing affufion of it. 

(3.) The precipitate, which had refilled the ammonia, was 
boiled in a lilver crucible, with a folution of potafti in alcohol, 
diluted with diftilled water, and a confiderable portion of the 
fubftance was diflblved by it : the potalh and the ammonia 
had dilfolved rather more than half of the fixed ingredients 
of it. 

(4'.) The edulcorated refiduum, which was of a dirty yellow 
colour, was transferred to a crucible of platina, and moiftened 
with fulphuricacid, which was abftra6ted from it, in ihefand, 
bath. The brownith-gray mats was elixated with diflilled 
water, which diflblved nearly the whole of it. The refiduum 
confided of a white heavy powder, which, tried in diflfereHt 
ways, was found to hejhlphate of lead, 

(5.) The folution efl^'eded by fulphuric acid was greenifli. 
On evaporation, a fait was produced, of uncommon brilliancy, 
refembling fcales of mica, or filver leaf. Thefe diminithed in 
quantity at every frefti folution and evaporation, and at laft 
they could not be reproduced; but aconfufed cryftallized mafs 
remained. How far the platina crucible may have contributed 
to this phenomenon I cannot afcertain. 

(6.) The folution of the faline mafs was precipitated by 
potafli, of a dark brown colour. The potafli held nothing in 
folution, I rediflTolved the precipitate in nitric acid, and preci. 
pitated the folution by ammonia, of a bright yellow colour, 
peculiar to the oxide of uranium, with which it agreed in other 
properties. 

(7.) What was diflblved by ammonia (2.) amounted to 
nearly ^ part of the fixed ingredients. It was white, inclining 
to afh-colour. It tinged phofphate of foda and ammonia of a 
light green. It was foluble in (ulphuric acid, except a few ge- 
latinous flakes. The folution was greenifli ; gradually eva- 
porated, it (hot into a number of minute fitllaled cryflalliza- 
tions, which were circular, and confified of rays diverging 
from a centre. They were, in general, colouiiefs: a few of 

them 



ANALYSMr 259] 

them were tinged of a fmoke-colour. They foon became Defcription an4 

deliquefcent. Upon evaporation, the fame crvftallizations ^".^'>^? °^* 
1 1 AT • r 1 , . . , mineral from 

were produced. Altera time, lome detached, regular, and Cornwall. 

permanent cry (la's were formed, which were colourlefs. 
Their figure I could not accurately afcertain. They were 
expofed to a red heat in a platina crucible. No ammoniacal 
vapour was perceptible. The cryftals melted into opaque 
globules : fome of thefe were transferred to a fmall glafs, and 
diftilled water was poured upon them. No folution took 
place apparently ; on fliaking the glafs, the globules fell to 
pieces into gelatinous flakes, which were white. Some of 
the fupernatant fluid was tried with muriate of barytes, which 
produced a cloud. But neither ammonia nor prufllate of 
potafli cauled any change in it. It is foluble alfo in nitric 
acid: the folution formed a confufed cry'ftallized mafs, which 
foon became deliquefcent. Zinc, iramerfed in it, caufed the 
feparation of white gelatinous flakes. Iron caufed no change. 
Ammonia and potath threw down white precipitates, a por- 
tion of which were redilTolved. The carbonates of foda, 
potafli, and ammonia produced white precipitates. Prufliate 
of potafli tlirew down the contents of the folution in diftin€t 
flakes, of the colour of mahogany ; and the folution of galls 
in alcohol caufed a light yellow powder to fubfide. It is 
foluble alfo in muriatic acid; the folution is a very dilute 
green. It requires an excefs of acid to hold the fubftance in 
folution : which, after a time, depofits cryftalline grains of 
a yellowifli colour, which require a large quantity of waV* 
to diflTolve them. 

Acetic acid does not diflTolve this powder. 

(8.) What was diflx)lved by potafli (3.) was of an ifabella 
colour : it was tried with nitric, muriatic, and fulphuric acids, 
neither of which could difiblve the whole of it. What re- 
fifted the two former acids was found to be lilica. That 
which remained undiflToIved by the latter, was fiHca and 
fulphate of lead. Evaporation of the latter folution, be- 
trayed alfo the prefence of lime, in the ftate of fulphate. 
The nitric and muriatic folutions, on evaporation, depofited 
nitrate and muriate of lead ; and fulphuric acid dropped into 
thera produced a tmall quantity of fulphate of lime. 

The nitrate and muriate of lead were decompofed by ful- 
phuric acidj and the lead reduced on charconl. 

Ammonia 



2^0 AKALYSXS. 

Defcriptlon and Ammonia precipitated what remained in thefe folations, 
minefa*l"/rom ^"^ redifTolvcd a part of the precipitates, which agreed in 
CoruwalU properties with that fubftance before mentioned (2.) ; the 

remainder was of a brighter yellow. But I could not bring 

the fokition of it in nitric acid to cr) flallize. 

B. 

(1.) Some of the yellow cryftals, which had not the flighteft 
appearance of beJDg contaminated with extraneous matter, were 
difl'olwd in fulphuric acid. Silica was feparated ; and the pre- 
fence of lime and lead proved by the appearance of their 
xe^^e&ive, fulphatcs. 

(2.) If fulphate of ammonia is dropped into a folution of 
this mineral in nitric or muriatic acids, no change takes 
place, immediately. But on evaporation, a yellowilh cruft 
is depofited, which is infoluble in water. A folution of car-, 
bonate of foda in water, boiled on it, becomes yellowifli- 
brown, and the greater part of it is diflblved. The re- 
iiduum, which is white, is reduced on charcoal to a globule 
of lead. What the carbonate of foda had diflblved was 
found to be oxide of uranium. Sulphuric acid alone, does not 
produce this depofited crufl. 

(3.) Some perfedly pure cryftals were diflblved in mu- 
riatic acid. Some filica was feparated. A few drops of 
fulphuric acid were dropped into the folution, which pro., 
dticed no immediate change: on evaporation a white powder-, 
feparated, which confified in part of fulpliate of lime. The 
remainder, expofed to the flame of the blowpipe, was re- 
duced to globules of lead. 

The folution was decompofed by ammonia, which redif- 
folved a part of the precipitate; and, after edulcoration, the 
precipitate was diflblved by nitric acid, and precipitated 
again by ammonia, which held a lefs quantity in folution. 
The edulcorated precipitate was now boiled with a folution 
©f carbonate of foda, which difTolved a large portion of it. 
The folution was yellowifli-brown, and contained oxide of 
uranium. What was undiflblved by the carbonate of foda 
was diflblved in fulphuric acid, and feemed to be the fame 
fubftance as that which the ammonia held in folution, 

A. (?.) 

Tho 



KTCKEL AND COBALT, HCX 

The fcarcUf of this beautiful mineral has precluded me Dcfcr'ption ani 
from operating on fuch a Cufficient quantity, as a regular and ^in^ral from 
rigid analyfis required. ComwalJ. 

The, fubfiance, wliich is held in folulion by ammonia, has 
feme peculiar properties that feem to diftingoifh it from 
uranium. And if this mineral be the uran-glimmer, I have 
certainly dete6ied the oxide of lead, lime, and filica in it, 
which have not hitherto been confidered as ingredients of 
that foflil. The green cryttals riiti'er in no refpefl from 
tlie yellow, except in containing a little of the oxide of 
copper. 



XVIL 

Examination of dijftrevt Methods nf feparativg Nickel from Co' 
bait. %M. C. F. BucHOLz.* 

A HE want of nickel and cobalt in a (late of purity indiyced 
M. Bucholz, to make experiments himfelf on the means of 
procuring them, and to repeat thofe of others. 

A. The able chemift Hermftadt propofed to feparate oxide M. Bucbolx re- 
ef cobalt and oxide of nickel, by dlfTolving the nitrate or ful- ^"cit's mcihod, 
phate of cobalt, impregnated with nickel. In ammonia; and 
expofing the folution to a fingle evaporation. This M. Bu- 
cholz tried in the following manner, for the reverfed pur- 
pofe. 

1, An ounce of cobalt ore (cobalt Jpeife) was diflblved with One oz. eotalt 
heat in four ounces of nitric acid of the Ipecific gravity 1,220. rJtric' acid!^** "* 
and mixed with an equal quantity of water; which produced Depofus 3 drains 
a refidue of three drams of oxide of arfenic, In the form of "^^ arfemc. 
fmall cryftals. When the folution mixed with half the quan- The folution^ 
tity of water, coloured of a dull green, had been filtered and j^jt^j depofits'I 
diluted with a great quantity of water, it depofited a little of little bifmuth 
the oxide of bifmuth, Cauftic ammonia was then mized with^''^^^';^ ammo- 
it to excefs, until no farther apparent folution took place of nia added. 
the precipitate obtained. That which was not diflblved, of ^J^^^"f^^°|.^_'* 
a dull reddifti white, was a compofiiion of arleniate of cobalt niate of cobalt, 

with a little of the oxide of bifmuth, and the oxide of iron. ^^'5^ oxides of 

' bifmuth and 

Iron. 
• Bucholz, &c. Journal cffChera. III. p. 2. 

The 



2()2f NICKEL AND COBALT. 

By evaporation The folution being filterjid, appeared of a beautiful blue, 

and nickeUre "^ '^ ^'^^ ^'^^" evaporated at a gentle heat, by .which about two 

precipiutcd. drams of a bright green precipitate were obtained ; which 

proved to be oxide of nickel, united to oxide of cobalt. The 

fihered liquor being then afterwards evaporated at the heat of 

a ftove, depofited fiill an oxide of the fame quality. 

The faline mafs The faline mafs of ammoniacal nitrate of nickel, of a deep 

fofved^'^filtered'" S""^^" colour, which had been obtained by the evaporation, 

and boikd with was re-difToIved, filtered, and kept in ebullition with an ex- 

eaufticpotaih ^efs of cauftic polath, until the evaporation of the ammonia 

produces pure ' • 

uxide of nickel, was complealed, by means of which a dram and half of ox- 
ide of nickel was feparated, which did not appear to contain 
any more oxide of cobalt. 
Sulphuric acid 2. As the feparation was not effeded very well nor with 
*^'^ ' much facility by the former method, the effeft of fulphuric . 

acid was tried. For this purpofe, an equal quantity of water 
was poured on the oxide obtained as before, and fulphuric 
Gives an odour acid added till all was diflolved by the aid of heat. It then 
acid*'"^'"^^ evidently gave out an odour fimilar to that of oximuriatic 
acid, although there was not any muriatic acid ufed, A like 
phenomenon, on a fimilar occafion, was before obferved by 
the author (which is mentioned in the firfl fe6lion, page 18, 
Treated with o£ Deitrage zur erweiterung, for 1799.) The folution was 
ammonia dcpo. ^y^^^ treated with ammonia as before, until the whole was al- 
^ts oxide or ' ^ i i • i 

cobalt. nioft diflolved. The refidue, which was oxide of cobalt with. 

a little oxide of nickel, had the colour of verdigris. Wheq^. 

the folution was evaporated at a gradual fire, and feparated 

by filtration from the precipitate, of which the greateft part 

was oxide of cobalt, it was fubmitted to fpontaneous evapo- 

The folution ration : It then cryftalized without any farther feparation, 

eryftalifcd. partly into prifmatic cryrtals in groups, and of a green colour^ 

and partly into crufls united together, and blue at the edgqsj 

TheCTyftrfscon- the eflay of the oxides procured by potafli from the folution 

^fcker'"'^' ^""^ of the cry flals, as well as from the mother water, (hewed that 

they contained cobalt almoft in equal proportions. 
The laft cxpc- 3. Mr. Bucholz repeated the former experiments on a larger 
riment repeated f^-aje^ i„ hope to obtain a better cry ftallization, and operated 
"on eight ounces of cobalt ore, from which the firft cryftals, of 
a blueifli green, obtained by a procefs fimilar to that lafl re- 
cited, and which weighed about five ounces, were again difr 
fulved in 32 ounces of boiling water : This folutiqn was eva- 
porated 



KICKEL AND COBALT. HG^ 

porated till a pellicle was formed, and, after being filtered, 
was left near a ftove, that it might cool flowly and cryfbllize. 
At the end of 4-8 hours, the greateft pari of the fult was cry- Pioduces fine 
fiaUized in beautiful tetrahedral rhomboidal pyramids, (liort, hidiahhoniboill 
and of a yellow green, of which tlie lateral faces formed an al pyramids. 
gles of 1 15 and of 65 degrees, often with one extremity 
truncated, and always with an angle of 132 degrees towards 
its terminating face. This refult proves that this fait forms 
more readily into regular cryfials by cooling than by flow eva- 
poration. All the cryfials were then coilefled, watlied with 
water, and again difTolved, and the nickel feparated by boiU The cryMs d;f- 
ing the folution with potafh till the ammonia was difen-^ ^kpl lepaiatci 
gaged. as before. 

4. As well to free this oxide from carbonic acid as to judge The oxide ob- 
if it had been purified from cobalt, it was difTolved in "ilf't^ innLic'acid'and 
acid and treated with pure ammonia in the fame manner as treated with am- 
has been defcribed. The liquor of a fine blue colour, (and .'^'^ j '/^'/'f Jj^, 
from which a refidue of five grain*;, which feemed to be an folved depofits a 
oxide of cobalt, had been feparated by filtration), was eva- S'"" o^'Qe. 
porated to drynefs. After another folution then made, it de- 
pofited an oxide of a beautiful brij^^ht green, which, after 
being waflied and dried, weighed half an ounce. The liquor, The filtered li, 
which pafTed the filter, was analyfed by pure carbonate o^pou/h 170 "L 
potaQi at the heat of boiling water, which then produced 1 70 oxide of nkkd. 
grains of oxide of nickel, of a pale green, united to carbo- 
nic acid ; a little of it was ditfolved in muriatic acid, and fome 
of the folution fpread upon paper. On heating it afterwards, 
the tint became yellow, and inclined but very little to a green. 
But the oxide of nickel, which feparated fpontaneoufly during 
the evaporation, was dilTolved in difengaging much oximuri- 
atic acid; fpread on paper, it exhibited tlie colour, when 
heated, of a fympatheficink of cobalt highly faturated ; from 
whence it follows that it was more rich in cobalt than that pro- Which contains 

J ^ , ... Jefs cobalt than 

cured from the precipitation. tlie fpontaneous 

The oxides colleded in thofe two ways, difTolved in nitric precipitate. 
and fulphuric acids, after becoming grey, (which the author ^^1^^^°^'^^"^.;^"" 
fuppofed to be occafioned by the nickel diffolving firft, and and fulphuiic 
at leaft the greateft part of the cobalt remaining to the lafl,^'^' *' 
but which opinion was not confirmed by other experiments 
made on this fuhjed.) Thefe oxides made lightly red in the Give out mtrmt 
ifire, changed their colour to a dark grey, and then, as well as J^ fuiphurlc '" 

on acid. 



il€4c KiCItEL AKD COBALT. 

on (he addition of fulpliuric acid, a difengagement of nitrous 

acid look place from the refidue obtained by evaporation, which 

wa«i alfo caufed by the addition of an alkaline h'xivium : Willi 

ammonia the fame effecls were produced which have been 

before mentioned. 

Sul|>hites and The refuits of tlie foregoing experiments aret — The ful- 

mo'nlacal'nkkel P^*''^^'' ^"^ nitrates of ammoniacal nickel feparaled from co- 

aJways contain bait ore, retain always fome cobalt in their compofition, and 

• it is impoiTible from the method of Hermftadt modified in the 

preceding manner, to obtain an oxide of nickel without a 

mixture of cobalt. 

The oxide of b. By partially decompofing the ammoniacal nitrate of co. 

Tn^tV fau aftir^ ^^'' ^^ evaporation, an oxide of nickel is obtained, very rich 

evaporatifjn con- in cobalt» which contains nitric acid; and the oxide of nickel 

urns very little vvhich remains undecompofed in this fait, retains a very fmall 

quantity of cobalt. 
Br. Schnaubert's B- Do£tor Schnaubert has publiflied (in Tromfdorf's 
method of ob- Journal of Pharmacy, vol. II. p. 66) a method of obtaining 
ide of nickel, ^^^ oxide of nickel pure: Which confifts in dilTolving the 
metal of nickel mixed with cobalt, or its oxide feparated from 
other fubftances, in nitric acid, in precipitating it by the car- 
bonate of polafli, and in heating it to a white heat, after walh- 
ing and drying it. In this manner he always procured a yellow 
oxide, on which he caufed very ftrong fulphuric acid to boil ; 
which gave him a folulion of oxide of nickel of a grafs green, 
while the oxide of cobalt appeared in the form of a yeHow 
refidue. He proves the purity of the fulphate of nickel pre- 
pared in this manner, by the property which ammonia has of 
precipitating it of a bright green, and when added to excefs. 
His tefl: or Its of re-diflblving it with a beautiful deep blue colour: but this 

puaty deftftivc. ** . ^ „ . , r , ^ . • i r 

argument appears niluthcient to thole who know that oxide or 
nickel, although mixed with many hundredth parts of cobalt, 
does not, however, experience any perceptible change in the 
colour of its precipitates, nor in its ammoniacal folulions* 
He has not men- Belidcs the omiffion of indicating the means by which he was 
tioned his proof convinced that the oxide, which was the refidue of the fulr 

that the other ..... 

oxide obtained phuric acid folution, was really an oxide of cobalt, with the 
was cobalt, vague prccept of iieating the oxide acquired, without the 
gree of heat to '^^^ direction relative to the degree of the fire, and the un*- 
be ufeJ, , certainty which he leaves of the degree of ftrength of the 

—nor the . /• i i • 

ftrength of the . fulpbur<«: 

fulphuric acid 
en:plo)cd. 



NICKEL AND COBALT. 265 

fiilphuric acid which he ufed, altogether throw doubts on the 
cxaftnefs of the procefs indicated, which the following expe- 
riments may elucidate. 

1. A portion of the carbonic oxide of nickel, A 4, was Experhnents on 
expoled daring an hour in a ftrong fire to a red heat approach- pro^fj^'^*" '" 
ing while heat. The oxide while hot was of a brownifli 

yellow; after cooling it alTumed a grey colour inclining to 

yellow, but not yellow. The oxide obtained by the evapo- _,. 

ration A 4, having been treated in the fame manner was dill ;ii: 

a little more grey than the preceding. The carbonic oxide of 

nickel was placed again for half an hour in a white heat ; 

while hot it was yellow inclining to brown, but when cool, it 

was grey inrclining to browni(h yellow. 

2. Thirty grains of this oxide made red (hot), were put 
for fome hours to digeft, with ninety grains of pure fulphuric 
acid of the fpecific gravity 1,360. Being then heated, the 
mafs immediately fwelled up with an explofive noife, and ex- 
hibited a yellow fubftance inclining to a green ; by means of 
ebullition with half an ounce of water it was diflblved, ex- 
cept about a grain of a yellowiQi-grey powder, which proved 
to be an oxide of nickel mixed with cobalt and a little dirt. 
Thirty-five , grains of oxide of nickel, (obtained by heating 
brilkly to rednefs 60 grain* of ammonical nitrate of nickel 
prepared by evapora(ion), afforded the fame refult, and the 
fame phenomena, on being treated in the fame manner : The 
fame oxide being healed for half an hour to whitenefs, ufing 
the bellows at the fame time, did not afford a yellow mafs, 
but one of a yellowifli grey inclining to a green, which had 
the fame e/fed with fulphuric acid that has been already re- 
fated. 

3. The experiment was again repeated with diluted ful- The experimf«t 
phuric acid ; 160 grains of ammonical oxide of nickel, which dXTeffJph^. 
had been precipitated from many folulions were expofed for nc acid. 

half an hour to the moft violent white heat, under the ope- 
ration of the bellows, after which they weighed 75 grains. 
This fubftance was of a greenilli yellow here and there, and 
of a blueifh grey where it touched the crucible ; being broken 
it produced a black grey powder. It was mixed with a dram 
of fulphuric acid dilated with five drams of water? at that 
inftant there was a rapid difengagement of gas, find on beating 
thsmixture it evidently gave out hydrogen gas. After a fuffi- 

cient 



ilQQ KrCREL AW0 COBALT. 

cfent ebullition, water was added, and the folution decanted 
The refidue oxide off clear. Tli^e relMiie was treated again with weak fulphu- 
with'ox'^de"o'f '^'^ ^^'^' *"^ ^^^^ S^^^ ^ refidue of ten grains which vvas by 
•obalt. no means oxide ot cobalt, but oxide of nickel mixed with 

cobalt, as its folufions in the acids and in ammonia proved. 

The two preceeding foltitions were each feparately analyfed 

by pure potaHi, and the precipitate was befides heated with 
Each of the pre- an excefs of potalli, and then waflied and dried. At the 
•ipitates of the proof each of ll)e precipitates afforded cobalt, which was al- 

toregoine lolu- ' ^ . - , . r , r t ■ ■ 

tions afford ways molt pure in that oi the firft folulion ; for the lolution m 
cobalt. muriatic acid, laid on paper, and heated, inclined perceptibly 

to a yellow, while the precipitate of the fecond folution pro- 
duced a ftain of a clear and pure green. It is flrange that 
the firfl folution afforded more oxi-muriatic acid than the 
fecond. 

Theftf experiments, and others made by the author, but not 
related, prove, 

^ . A. That the oxide of nickel heated either flightly or vio- 

The expen- o f 

mentsprovethat lenlly does not alfume a yellow colour; and if this colour 
nickel oxide ^^g obferved by M. Schnaubert, it muft have been caufed 
does not become f,n i-i i- i ,-• ri 

yellow; caufe of by 'ome lubitances which entered into the compolition oi the 

themftakeof oxide, or perhaps by the mixture of a little arfenic, 
on this point. B. That it is impoflible by M. Schnaubert's method, to obtain 
It is not poflible 3" oxide of nickel exempt from cobalt; fince it does not even 
to obtain pure effefl a feparation of the two oxides fo far as to be perceptible 

nickel m his ^ ^, 

way. to t'l^ eye- 

C. M. Bucholz hints here at feveral experiments he made 

with a view to find an acid which would form an infoluble 

fait with one of the oxides, and one eafy of folution with the 

other, but which, as they did not fucceed, he does not men- 

M. Lehman's tion ; and as the method propofed by Mr. Lehman (in the 

^oabiefome :,r^d Cadmiologia, part II, page 1 10) of fufing fifteen or twenty 

expcnfive, »nd times, to a commencement of vitrification, a mixture of nickel 

alio ^'^'"^" ' and cobalt, in order to fcorify all the cobalt, would be too 

troublefome and expenfive, as would that alfo indicated by 

Bergman {Opvfcul, Phyfic, et chem, Vol. II. p. 24-6—249) of 

repeating the iuiion three or four times with from 8 to 12 times 

the quantity of pure nitre. The procefs indicated A 4, (con- 

fifting of a partial decompofition of the aramonical nitrate of 

the procefs A 4 nickel), aloDc remained to be repeated. For this purpofe 

repeated. ^,3^;^^ 



WICKEL AND COBALT. 2^7 

cxide of nickel, (which was ('eparated from the triple fait, 

not diflblred at the firll evaporation, by carbonate of potafh, 

was treated repeatedly, (in fuch a manner) Ihat after diflblving 

it in nitric acid, recourfe, was had to the iifeof ammonia and 

evaporation as before defcribed. In (his method was obtained, 

entirely free from cobalt, an oxide feparated by potafb from 

the triple fait, which had been reditfolved after evaporation, 

and which oxide had the properties mentioned in the memoir 

printed in the fecorid volume of the Annales de Chi«iie. 

The oxide which was feparated by evaporation from the The oxide en- 

ammoniacal nitrate of nickel, was in the laft operation en- ^"".^'y ^f^^'! ^™'" 
• I f jr .1-1 • . /in I I cobalt m the laft 

tirely treed trom cobalt ; it only contained a Itill, as has been operation. 

obferved, a little nitric acid. The oxide of nickel, which, 
after having been laid bare by evaporation, ftill contains co- 
balt, may naturally undergo the fame operation over again. 

This method may be made ufe of untill one more expedi- This method rew 
tious is difcovered by farther experiments, fince it does not '°''"'"^"'^^** ^o»" 
Gccafion any confiderable expence, for by potafli, the evapo- the ammonia 
ration of the ammonical nitrate of nickel may be etfefted in a '"^y ^^ '^''ed 
retort, and alfo the fubfequent decompofition of the triple prgcefs. 
fait, and thus the ammonia may be feparated for other ufes ; 
in like manner, in works on a great fcale, a part of the nitre and the nitre 
may be recovered from the laft operation, by the evaporation ""^"^'^* 
^^i the water i n which the iubftance has been waftied. 



XV III 

Suga r prepared from Beet y . Bi^ M. H e r m b s t a d t . * 

A HE method of M. Achard for ex(ra6ling fugar from beets, 
was fo expenfive, that it was of no advantage for common 
ufe. M. Hermbftadt, of Berlin, has pra6lifed another me- 
thod, which is eafily performed, and affords hopes of ren- 
dering this fugar cheaper than that from the fugar-cane; 
which is as follows : 

After having bruifed the beets in a mortar, M. Hermbftadt 
fubmits them to the operation of a prefs, to exfraft the juice The expreffed 
from them ; which is then placed in veffels, and cla sifted with J"'".°^ J^?- ^ 
lime in the fame manner as cane-fugar. by Jime, 

• Somiini'9 Journal, Tom. II. p.^1. 

When 



268 TtrBVirs. 

and then evac»- When this Operation is fintftiecl, tiie liquor is evaporated to 
A^lti^kiagarls ^^^^ conlillence of a fyrup : It is then left to cool, and a courfe 
produced on lagar is obtained, of a dark-brow'n colour : At the bottom of 
cooling. tjjy veflel a fyrup remains, which may be ufed for domeftic 

purpofes. 
From roo lb. of From 100 pounds of the coarfe fugar, eighty pounds of 
this coarfcfuear, ^^ji cryftalli^ed fugar are obtained by the firft refining, which 
So lb. of refined .^ „ ^ ,• ■ - .- .• r . c 

fuear ma> be oh- 'Ugaf 's not at ail inferior m quality or whitenels to that oi 

tained. the cane. The whole operation may be completed in two 

days. 
It is probable The particular fpecles of beet which M. Hermbftadt ufed 

M Hermbftadt i,^ hjg experiments, is not mentioned ; but it is moft probable 
ufed the com- •-, ■-, ^ ^iii i 

mon field beet, "lat this chemilt made ule ot the common field beet, kftown 

or root of fear- in Germany by the name of mangel wortzel, the culture of 
which is fpread jhrough many cantons of Germany. This 
variety, however, contains lefs fugar than all tlie other fpecies 
of beets ; and, for this reafon, M. Sonnini is of opinion, that 
if fugar can be obtained from beets with profit and economy, 

A better pro- more fuccefs would be obtained by fubmitting to the operations 

rfuce might be defcribed, the fmall red beet, called io Franqe that of Cajile* 

obtained from ,.,•,/• o <• « 

the fmall red beet naarterj/, which IS the iweeteft of all. 

of Caftlenau- 

*ery. ■ . ■ .. ■,.,. ( . . .,., „ ■ , . . , 

XIX. 

Method offtacking Turnips, to preferve them through the Winter, 
By Mr. John Shirreff, q/" Captain Head, near Had' 
dinglonj N, Britain.* 

. Rapa fulo moUi et 4ere humidulo Isetantur. 

Prcfervation of i^ATISFIED, from obfervatlon and experience, thai turnips 
rhrwimcr°"^'' are the foundation of the beft hufbandry on almoft all foils and 
fituatlons in the arable difiridls of Great Britain j and that 
this crop fhoald always be drawn, except from blowing fands, 
or light moorifli foil, on both of which it fliould always be in 
part confumed on the ground with (heep ; convinced alfo,^ 
tkat turnips, rf poffible, fliould be off all foils, and the land 

* S<ic. Arts, 1805, The premium of 30 guineas was awarded 
for this method. 

ploughed 



TURNIPS. 2^9 

ploughed up before the middle of December, at the laleft, Prefcrvation of 

to fecure the fucceedlng corn crop, and graces, or clovers, ^"^"'ps through 

the wintsr. 
with either of which every field that carried a turnip crop 

the preceding feafon, (lioald, in almoft every cafe, be fown 
down ; and imprefled with the many high advantages at- 
tending this praclice, as foon as my pea and bean ftubbles 
arc ploughed up, and fown with wheat, my turnips are be- 
gun to be drawn, and flacked up for ufe during the following 
winter and fpring. If the diftahce of the turnip-field from 
the homeftead does not exceed a quarter of a mile, two double 
horfe carts only are employed, and more in proportion to the 
diftance of the turnip field, or number of hands you may be 
able to command to carry on the work. One clever driver 
is fufficient for two carts, and two for three carts, &c. one 
cart being always in the field loading or loaded. On being 
brought home, the turnips are inftantly tumbled out at the 
fiack ; which is done with great facility, from the conftruc- 
tion of the carts in this diftridt, which to convenience and 
ftrength likewife add lightnefs, to enable horfes to move at 
a fraart pace with them when empty. The turnips tumbled 
©ut of the cart, are trimmed of their leaves, and cleaned 
of any earth that may adhere to them, by women, &c. be- 
fore being put into the ftack. Old table-knives do very well 
for the purpofe, and the leaves fliould be cut off clofe to (he 
root ; the back of the knife being ufed for removing any pieces 
of foil that may ftick on the turnip. 

Women, &c. trim the turnips, and put them into ftrong 
coarfe wicker bafkets, to be carried forward by a man, who 
hands them to another, who lays them into or on the Rack. 
The ground on which the turnips are placed ought to be dry 
bottomed. If that is not the fort of foil where you find it 
moft convenient to make your flack, a quantity of boulders 
may be put on, regularly fpread over the fpace, to the thick- 
refs of at leaft eighteen inches. My corn-rick yard, being 
dry ground, has been ufed as the place for keeping my tur- 
nips in. The ftacks have been made about ten feet wide, 
by driving a row of flakes into the ground parallel to the 
wall of the yard, which ferves inftead of another row. The 
wall is only about five feet and a half high, and the flakes 
are driven to the fame height. The infide ©f the wall and 
(lakes are lined with compa6l buDches, or (heaves of wheat- 

Vol. XIII.— March, 1806. U flraw, 



270 TtJRNIPS. 

Prefervation of ftraw, about ten inclies in diameter, placed horizontally on 
thrwnter""^ ^^^ ground or boulders, and introduced, as wanted, during 
the operatiori of ftacking. A tire of the largeft turnips are 
placed one above another, on the infide of the bundles of 
flraw, more particularly on tl^e fide guarded by the flakes, 
till the pile reaches the height of five feet from the ground, 
or from the boulders, if it has been found neceflary to fpread 
any over the ground. The inner part of the flack is at the 
fame time gradually made up with turnips put in promif- 
cuoufly; along wlijch a plank is laid, and occafionally fhifted 
as the pile rifes, for the man who builds the (lack to fland 
on without bruiting the turnips with his (hoes. When the 
pile of turnips is reared, in the manner defcribed, to the 
height of above five feet, it is gradually contraded inwards, 
on both fides, at an angle of about forty-five degrees, like 
the roof of a barn ; the largeft turnips being llill piled on 
the outfide, till the roof is fo far completed. The flack is 
every day fo far finiflied in height as it is extended in length, 
and is covered vvith wheat draw thatch, roped down with 
twifted bands of oat- ftraw before evening, to fecure the 
ftacked turnips from rain that may fall during the night. The 
thatch is laid on a foot thick, and fecured in the fame fimple, 
effeflual manner, that corn-ricks are covered in Northumber- 
land, Berwickfhire, and the Lothians ; with this difference 
only, that the ftraw is four times as thick laid on the turnip 
as on the corn, to exclude cold as well as wet ; and that 
there Is a rail Of wood ftretched, hanging horizontally at the 
tops of the wall and ftakes, to fix the ftraw ropes to, which 
fecure the thatch on the ftack. The end of the ftack is every 
night covered with bundles of wheat-ftraw, which are removed 
next day, or when building recommences. 

Three men are employed in the field to load and difpatch 
the carts, occafionally affifting four women who draw the 
turnips, ftriking off* the top root with a ftrong heavy knife, 
leaving the turnips on the tops of the drills as drawn and 
chopped, with the leaves all in one direftion, to be readily 
laid hold of by the men who lift them up to the cart. The 
horfes pafs along in the fpace between the two rows or drills 
of the turnips, which may be drawn : and, being at thirty 
inches apart, and the extremities of the wheels about five 
''teet from each other, it is evident a wheel runs in ihe middle 

of 



£. 


s. 


d. 





16 








8 


4. 





4 


1 


6 


1 








1 


8 





3 


6 



TURNIPS, 27i' 

pf each fpace between the contiguous drills, wilbout Injuring Prefervation of 
the turnip, whether drawn or not. When the cart is about ^"'"'P.^ through 

r 1 • I I 1 ! - ^^ Winter. 

to turn, after benig loaded, the men move the turnips to 

make room for the horles, putting then} into the cart as part 
•f the load, 

Expencesof drazving, carting, trimming, Jlacking, covering, 4'C. 
a fiatute acre of good turnip,— at the dijlance of not more 
tJian a quarter of a ndlefr-omihejiack. 

Two double-horfe carts, and one man 
Two men loading, drawing, building, Src. 
Seven women drawing and trimming 
Two girls trimming - i - - - 
Four ditto and boys ditto - - - - - 
Twifting ropes, drawing thatch, thatching, wafte 
of thatch, flakes, &c. fay - . - 

1 14. 7 

The above Is a fair average of the expence of fecurlng 
fomewhat more than twelve and a quarter ftatute acres lafi: 
feafon, which was all I drew ; and one field of two acres, 
one rood, thirty-three perches, was fo far diftant as to re- 
quire three carts, and two drivers. That field, however, 
was firft drawn, and the weather being fine and moderate, 
more work was done in proportion to the length of the day, 
which was alfo longer. Women and children cannot, in- 
deed, exert themfelves with fpirit, in raw cold weather. 
06lober is perhaps the beft month to draw In. It Is a quef- 
tion with me, whether the average of the acres that are 
under turnip in the ifland, if the weight exceeds twenty- 
four tons, does not cofi more, merely for drawing and carting 
only. When it is confidered that this operation is performed 
often In cold, frofiy, and ftormy weather, and that frequently 
much fnow may be to be removed before the turnip can be 
feen. If no fnow has fallen before the froft fets in, the 
turnips muft be hoed up with infiruments for the purpofe. 
Many are cut, and much left in the ground of the lower 
part of the root. After all this labour, what is obtained is 
frequently no better tlian a lump of ice, environed with earth, 
frozen fo firmly to its furface, that nothing but thawing in 
U 2 cold 



972 TURNIPS. 

Prefervaticn of ^oU Water can ever render it fit to be touched by the mouth 

Turnips through /• . , , 

the winter. ot any animal whatever. 

Admitting, however, the expence of drawing and carting 
to be the fame, all that can be ftated as extraordinary ex- 
pence is the coft of trimming and facking, which amounts to 
J Is. 3d, an acre. On the other hand, we have the advantage 
of having fine frefh clean turnips, always fecu re and at com- 
mand, to carry on feeding and breeding flock; at the fame 
time that all lofs by rotting in the fpring months is prevented, 
which is frequently thirty and even fifty per cent, on all the 
crop that remains in the field, after the firft of February. 
Above all, the pradice of drawing and flacking before 
winter, by admitting of early ploughing to mellow the foil, 
fecures a valuable corn, and fucceeding clover crops. When 
all ihefe circuroftances are maturely weighed, the expence of 
eleven fliillings and three-pence will, to every enlightened 
agriculturift, appear but trifling to obtain fuch very valuable 
advantages. The writer of this little eflfay has had the fatis- 
faflion of having excellent crops after his turnips, this feafon; 
while almoft every other crop in the neighbourhood was in- 
different; and fome on rich dry loams, high rented, by being 
fown in the months of April and May, on the fpring plough- 
ing, after turnips eaten off with fheep, were fo miferable, as 
evidently to pay nothing after expences of labour, feed, and 
reaping. The young clovers too, fown with thefe crops, 
have almofl entirely perifhed from want of moiflure. The 
lofs of the crop and clover feed is not all : the fyflem fufFers a 
derangement, the confequences of which none but praftical 
men can calculate. 

One thing remains to be noticed, which is, that twenty-fix 
young cattle, cows, and yearling calves, were kept nearly 
three weeks on the turnip trimmings, with oat-flraw along 
with them, to their improvement; and that many more might 
have been kept, had they been provided in time. A quantity 
of good manure was made : and, eflimating all advantages 
ariling from the confumption of the leaves in this way, at no 
more than 3d. a head per night, for the keep of each bcafl, 
the amount will exceed the expence of trimming and flacking 
the whole crop of turnips on twelve acres and a quarter. — 
The leaves that remain on turnips after Chriflmas, are either 
ynfit to be eaten, or wafted by the frofis. 

T. SHIRREFF, 



XX. 

Account of Jbme Specimens of Bafaltes from the northern Coaft 
of Antrim. JSj/ the Rev. Dr. William Richaudson.* 

1 HE Reverend Dr. William Richardfon, late F. T. C. D. Remarks on the 
having fent to Dr. Hope a colledion of (pecimens from the ^^^^'^'^^^^J)* 
northern coaft of Antrim, with a catalogue and obfervations, trim, 
the fpecimens were exhibited, and the obfervations vs'ere 
read in the Royal Society, March 1803. 

Siliceous Bafalt, 

Dr. Richardfon dlfcovered the foffil to which he gives this 
name, in the peninfiila of Portrufli, four or five years ago. 
Ijt abounds alfo in the Skerry iflands, a reef of rocky iflots 
extending from the northern point of Portrufli-head for about 
a nrile eaftward. A fraall part of every one of thofe iflots 
is formed of this ftone, while the remainder confifts of coarfe 
bafalt, fimilar in all refpedls to that on the eaft fide of the 
above-mentioned peninfula. it is met with in one or two 
other places. 

This fione is arranged in flrata, from ten to twenty Inches 
thick, ,all fleadily parallel to one another, and every ftratum, 
as fiar as can be obftrved, preferving an uniform thicknefs 
through its whole extent. When tbefe ftrata are quarried 
into, they appear to be conftru6ied of large prifms, generally 
pentagonal, which when broken divide into fmaller prifms. 
This internal prifmatic conftrudion frequently gives an irre- 
gular or (hivery appearance to the fraflure, which however 
is often conchoidal, and the grain as uniform as in the Giant's 
Caufeway bafaltes. 

The beds of this foflil are remarkable for containing marine 
exuviae in great abundance, particularly impreffions of cornua 
ammonis. The flat (hells and impreffions contained in thefe 
Hones, are fteadily parallel to each other, and perpendicular 
to the axis of the prifms. It mufl be obferved, that the prif- 
matic conftrudion is never interrupted by the ftiells difperfed 
tjirough it ; the planes which feparate (he prifms palling 
equally through the (hells and the ftone itfelf. 

♦ Edinburgh Tranf. Vol. V. 

Th« 



2Y4; SCIEXTIFIC NEWS, 

Remarks on the The grain of this ftone pafles by infenfible fiiades from a 
''^^ft "^f An-^ high degree of fineneCs, until it become undiftinguiftiable from 
tiiai. that of the common columnar bafaltes. 

The name of Siliceous Bafah, which Dr. Richardfon em- 
ploys, was firft given to this foffil by Mr. Piflet of Geneva, 
when he vifited Porirufh, in a tour through Ireland two years 
ago. He confidered it as a variety of bafalt, containing a 
greater proportion of yj/zca than ufual. 

The ftrata of filiccous bafalt, both at Portrufli and iht 
Skerry iflands, generally alternate with ftrata of equal thick- 
nefs of a coarfe-grained bafalt of a grey colour. The ma- 
terials of the ftrata grow into each other, fo as to form one 
folid ma(s, from which it is eafy to quarry pieces in the con- 
fine of the two ftrata, with a part of each adhering; but the 
coarfe bafalt, as it approaches very near to the fine, always 
abates fomewhat of its coarfenefs ; yet the line of demarcation 
ts left completely diftind. 

(The conclufion in our next. J 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS, 

Almanack printed at Conjiantinople, 

Almanack ^ OR the fifft time an almanack has been printed at Conftan- 

printed at Con- tinople, under the diredion of Abdorahman. The printing- 
office was eftablilhed in 1716, by Said (who had been at Paris 
with his father, the ambalTador), and by Ibrahim, an Hunga- 
rian : Achmet the Third patronized them, and tbey printed 
many books ; but an almanack was never before printed. 



^ntiaople. 



Ohfervatory at Bavaria, 

F»'^siian obftr- The Eledor of Bavaria, a few months before the arrival of 
vatoty. j}jg prench armies, caufed an obfervatory to be ere6led in the 

neighbourhood of Munich. The filuation chofen for its con- 
firuflion, lakes in an exlenfive horizon. Profeflbr Seyfer, a 
celebrated aftronomer of Gottingen, was nominated direflor 
Oi this eftablilhraent. 

FJlahliJImcRts 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS. O'J^ 

Ejlablijhnients for Natural Philofophi/ in the Ukraine, 

The rich land-owners in the Ukraine and Volhinia, have Eftabllfljment 
eontributed largely for the eftablifhment of Lyceums for f°[^"p'^'y"'.*j P^^J' 
teaching natural philofophy, at Krzeminico, and at Winnica. Ukraine. 
The library and philofophical apparatus of the King of Poland, 
have been piirchafed for this purpofe. M. Sniadccki has re- 
ceived a fum equal to 500/. to purchafe telefcopes and clocks ; 
and no expence is to be fpared in properly furnifliing the ob- 
fervatories with Indruments. 

Ohfervaiory at Mojkoxv. 

M. Goldbach, an able aftronomer of Leipfic, has been no- Obfervatory at 
minated profeflbr of the univerfity of Moflcow, with a falary ^°^''^* 
equal to 250/. He is to have the direftion of the conftruftion 
of a new obfervatory, to furnifh it with inftruments, to make 
regular obfervations, and to inftrud fome young men in prac- 
tical aftronomy who have been previoufly inftru6led in the 
preparatory fciences, and to give a courfe of ledlures in theo- 
retical aftronomy in one of the halls of the Univerfity. 

They pofTefs many of Gary's telefcopes, of different powers ; 
an excellent allronomical clock ; a chronometer, made by 
Arnold ; a portable circle, of one foot diameter ; and, it was 
reported, had ordered one of three feet diameter from the 
fuccelfor of Mr. Ramfden : Thus M. Goldbach will be pro- 
vided with every inftrument neceflary and ufeful to aftronomy, 
at the obfervatory of Moflcow, 

M. Goldbach has taken the opportunity of his journey, to 
determine the pofition of fome towns; among others that of 
Riga, l*" 27'.0, and 56'' 57'.8. 

At the fame time that M. Goldbach is engaged with the 
aftronomical eflablifhrnent at Moflvow, MM. Schubert and 
Wifniewflci are employed at the obfervatory of Peterfburgh; 
and there is reafon to expe6t a feries of obfervations from that 
part of the world. 



Solar Tables, 

A fet of tables of the fun, compofed by M. Delambre, have Solar Tables. 
been printed at Paris, in which there are many new equa- 
tions. 



2*76 SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 

tions, and of which all the elementary parts have been verified 
by new obfervations. A fet of tables of the moon's motion 
are alfo to be printed, and when they are completed, thofe ot" 
the planets will follow. 



Bequeji of Erneji the Second relative to his Obfervatory. 
ErnefttheSe- Ernefl the Second, late Duke of Saxe-Gotha, was remark- 
tohts^obfer"va- ^^^^ attached to agronomical ftudies. He made obfervations 
tory. and calculations himfeif, affifted in compofing books on the 

fubjed, and furnifbed the funds for their publication. He en- 
abled M. Zach to meafure a degree of the meridian in Ger* 
many, and defrayed the expences from his private purfej fo 
that he united to the merit of a connoifleur in the fcience, 
that of an author, a patron, a man of fcience, and of a gene- 
rous prince. 

He left in his will a fum equal to about 1 330/. to form a fund 
for the maintenance of the obfervatory of Seeberg, near Go- 
tha, which was built out of his own private eftate ; and or- 
dered his fucceifor to ered no other monument to his fame, 
but the careful fupport of this eftablithment. 
. Baron de Zach,, who has given a copy of the will in his 
Journal, adds, '• That he can aflure the lovers of fcience, 
that the will of the father will not only be fulfilled, but fur- 
palfed by his fucceifor, the prefent Duke Emilius Leopold 
Augufius, who has already ftiewn the moft marked proofs of 
his attachment to the fciences. 

" In a codicil to the will the Duke repeated, ' I forbid ex- 
y '. prefsly the elevation of any monument to my memory, or 
« even an epitaph, or any monument at or near my tomb.'* 



A 

JOURNAL 

OF 

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, CHEMISTRY, 

AND 

THE ART S. 



APRILy 1806. 



ARTICLE I. 



Later from T. Young, M. D. F. R. S. Sfc. claiming the La?np 
defcribed in our lafi Number, and deinanding an Explanation 
frotn the anonpnous Communicator. 

To Mr. NICHOLSON. 
SIR. 

JL WAS much fur prized on feeing, a few days ago, the figure Concerning the 
of a lamp contained in the fourth plate of your Number for i^^*^"'^'°" °^* 
February laft. I truft you will be convinced, upon inrpedion 
of the figure which I now fend you, and which was engraved 
before Chriftmas, that your correfpondent A. F. muft have 
copied his lamp from that which is here reprefented ; and I 
Sim Aire you will think I have a right to demand a public ex- 
planation of the manner in which he procured a fight of a 
plate not yet publiflied, and of the motives which induced 
him to make fo unjuftifiable a ufe of it, I fhall referve the 
complete explanation of this lamp for the work to which the 
plate belongs, which has been long in the prefs, and which 
will foon be ready for publication j I (hall only obferve that 
Vol. XflL—ApRii., ISOa. X it 



278 ELASTIC i'LUJDS, 

It is in a great meafure free from the inconvenience which 
A. F. has attributed to it, (p. 168) and that the " fmall 
fliaded circle" is not a " perforation," but a weight attached 
to the counterpoife, 

I an), Sir, 

Your very obedient Servant, 

THOMAS YOUNG. 
Welhec Street, 
March 15, 180C. 



II. 



Mixed elaftic 
fluids of dif- 
ferent denfities 
do not feparate 



but will they 
mix without 
agitation. 



Dr. Frieftley 
thinks not. 



On the Tendtncij of Elaftic Fluids to Diffufion through each 
other. By John Dalton *. 

In an early period of pneumatic chemiftry it was difcovered 
that elaftic fluids of different fpecific gravities being ojice dif- 
, fufed through each other, do not of themfelves feparate, by 
long ftanding, in fuch manner as that the heavieft is found 
in the lowefl place; but on the contrary, remain in a ftate of 
uniform and equal diffufion. 

I)r. Frieftley has given us a feflion on this fubje6l (vid. 
Experiments and Obfervations, &c. abridged. Vol. II. p. 441) 
in which he has proved the facl above-mentioned in a fatis- 
fadory manner; and everyone's experience fince, as far as 
I know% has coincided with his conclufions. He has not 
offered any conjedure concerning the caufe of this deviation 
from the law obferved by inelaftic fluids ; but he fuggefls that 
" if two kinds of air of very dififerent fpecific gravities, were 
put into the fame veffel, with very great care, without the 
leaft agitation that might mix or blend them together, they 
might continue feparate, as with the fame care tuine and walet 
may be made to do," 

The determination of (his point, which feems at firft view 
but a trivial one, is of confiderable importance; as from it 
we may obtain a flriking trait, either of the agreement or 
difagreement of elaftic and jnelafiie fluids in their mutual 
a6lion on each other. ' 



* Manchefter Memoirs, Vol. I. New Series-, 



It 



ELASTIC FLUIES; ^2,79 

It h, therefore, the fubje6l of the following experiments Inquiry by ex- 
to afcertain whether two elaftic fluids brought Into contaa, Siel^^he'^ctn? 
could intermix wilh each other, independently of agitation, trary. 
The refult feems to give it in the affirmative beyond a doubt, 
contrary to the fuggeftion of Dr. Prieftley; and eftabliihes 
this remarkable fa6i, that a lighter daftic Jiuid cannot reft 
upon a heavier, as is (he cafe with liquids ; but, they are con- 
Itantly adlive in dt(i"u(ing themfelves through each other till an 
equilibrium is efFeded, and that without any regard to their 
fpeci/ic gravity, except fo far as it accelerates or retards the 
elfe6t, according to circumftances. 

The only apparatus found neceffary was a few phials, and Apparatus. 
tubes with perforated corks ; the tube moftly ufed was one 
ten inches long, and of ~ inch bore ; in fome cafes a tube 
of 30 inches in length and \ inch bore was ufed ; the phials 
held the gafes that were fabje6ts of experiment and the tube 
formed the conne6lion. In all cafes, the heavier gas was in 
the under phial, and the two were placed In a perpendicular 
pofition, and fuffered to remain fo during the experiment in a 
ftate of reft; thus circumftanced it is evident that the effedl of 
agitation was fufficicntly guarded againfi ; for,- a tube al- 
inoft capillary and ten inches long, could not be inftrumental 
in progagating an intermixture from a momentary commotion 
at the commencement of each experiment, 

FIRST CLASS. 

Carbonic Acid Gas, xoith Atmofpheric Air^ H7/drogenous, 
Azotic and Nitrous Gafes. 

1. A pint phial filled with carbonic acid gas, the 30 inch Carbonic add 
tube and an ounce phial, the tube and fmall vial being filled t^j^,. ' '^ 
with common air, were ufed at fin'L In one hour the fmall 
phial was removed, and had acquired no fenfible quantity of 
acid gas, as appeared from agitating lime water in it. In 
three hours it had the acid gas in great plenty, infiantly making 
lime water milky. After this it was repeatedly removed in 
the fpace of half an hour, and never failed to exhibit figns of 
the acid gas. Things remaining juft the fani'e, the upper 
phial was filled with the di^*rent gafes mentioned above re- 
peatedly, and in half an hour there was always found acid 
fufficient to make the phial | filled with lime water quite 
X 2 milky. 



230 liLASTIC FLUIDS. 

milky. There was not any perceptible diflerence vvhalever 
gas was in the upper phial *". 

SECOND CLASS. 

Hydrogenous Gas with Aimofphaic Air and Oxigenous Gas. 
Hydrogen, with ]. Two fix ounce phials were conneded by the tube of a 
ar!d oxi^em '"^ tobacco pipe, three inches long, the upper containing hy- 
drogenous gas, the lower atmoCpheric air : after flanding two 
hours, the lower phial was examined ; the mixed gafes it 
contained made iix explofions in a fmall phial. The gas in 
the upper alfo exploded, 

2. Two four ounce phials conneded with the ten inch fraall 
tube flood two days, having common air and hydrogen gas. 
Upon examination the upper was found to be y common air 
by the teft of nitrous gas. The gas in the under exploded 
fmartly; that in the upper moderately with a lambent 
Dame. 

3. Two one ounce phials were conneded by the ten inch 
tube, containing common air and hydrogenous gas ; in three 
hours and a half the upper was about - common air and the 
under -J ; the former exploded faintly; the latter fmartly. 

4. Two oh^ ounce phials were connected as above; the 
under containing gas about | oxygenous, the upper hydroge- 
nous : In three hours the latter was ^ oxygenous, and the 
former about |; the upper exploded violently, the under, 
moderately. 

5. Two one ounce phials were again conne6led, the lower 
having almofpheric air, the upper hydrogenous gas; they 
Hood fifteen hours, and were then examined ; the upper gave 
1.67 viiih nitrous gas, the under 1.66. — Hence it is evident 
that an equilibrium had taken place, or the two gafes were 
uniformly diffufed through each other in both phials, 

THIKD CLASS. 

Nitrous Gas, xvith Oxigenous Gas, Almojphcric Air, Hydra- 

genous and Azotic Gafts. 

Nitrous gas The refuUs of the preceding experiments upon gafes that 

with oxigenous, j^^^^ ^^ known affinity for each oiher, were conformable to 
atmolphenc hy- •^ 

Motcr"^* "*^ * The fmall tube of ten inches was then ufed and a phi:il of 
common air ; in one hour much acid gas had come through, as 
appeared by lime water. 

what 



ELASTIC FLUIDS. 281 

what a priori, I had conceived ; for, according to my hy- Nitrous gas 
polhefis, every gas diifufes ilfelf equably through any given ^J^^^^'^ys^eno^^^^^^ 
ipace that may be alligned to it, and no other gas being in drogenoui, an'd 
its w^ ay can prevent, though it may confiderably regard this"'^'^^' 
difiufion. But in fome of the following experiments, in which 
the two gafes are known to have a chemical affinity for each 
other, I expeded different refults from what are found ; per- 
haps without fufficient r^afon. For, chemical union cannot 
take place till the particles are brought into contiguity ; and 
the elaftic force which fets them in motion appears, from the 
above experiments, to be a principle diametrically oppofife 
to affinity. That circulation of elaflic fluids, therefore, 
which we have now before us, cannot be accslerated by their 
having a chemical affinity for each other. Another circum- 
flance deferves explanation; — when nitrous and oxygenous 
gas are in the two phials, the reliduary gafes after the ex- 
periment are nearly as pure as before; becaufe thofe portions 
of them that meet in the tube, form nitrous acid vapour, 
wfiich is abforbed by the moitiure in the phials, and therefore 
does not contaminate either gas. 

]. Two one ounce phials were connected with the fmall 
tube, the under containing nitrous gas, the upper atmofpheric 
air ; afier three hours, the upper phial was taken off when 
a quantity of air was perceived to enter, as was expefled ; 
the air in the upper phial was fcarcely diftinguifliable from 
what it was at firft; that in the under phial was ftill fo much 
nitrous as to require its own bulk of common air to fatu- 
ra(G it. 

2. The above experiment was repeated, and the upper 
pHial drawn off when the whole was under water, in order 
to prevent communication with the atmofphere : about -J of 
an ounce of water entered the phials, to compenfate the 
diminution. Remaining air in the upper phial was a very 
little worfe than common air, it being of the ftandard 1,47 
when the former was 1,44. The gas in the under phial was 
ftill nitrous and nearly of the fame purity as at firft ; for three 
parts of it required four of atmofpheric air to fatura,te 
ihem. 

3. Nitrous gas and one y oxygenous were tried in the fame 
way : after four hours, the apparatus was taken down under 
water. The upper phial was f- filled with water, and the 

gas 



^g<^ ELASTIC FLUIDS. 

gas in it was partly driven down the lube mto the other 
phial, by which, and the previous procefs, the nitrous gas 
was completely falurated and nothing but azotic with a frnail 
portion of oxigenous were found in the under phial : the 
remaining gas in the upper phial was ftill i oxygenous. 

4. Nitrous gas and hydrogenous : in three hours the upper 
phial was -^ nitrous, and of courfe the under mufi have a like 
part of hydrogen, 

5. Nitrous gas and azotic : after three hours the upper phial 
was ^ nitrous. 

In the two laft experiments, the quantity of nitrous gas in 
the upper phial was lefs than might be expelled ; but tlie (ube 
was at firft filled with common air, and ibme muft enter on 
conneding the apparatus, which is fufficient to account for the 
refults. 

FOURTH CLASS. 

Azotic Gas, xinth Mixtures containing Oxigenous Gas, 
Ajote With 1 . Azotic gas and one y oxygenous : after ftanding three 

pounds.°"^ "'"' ^^"""^ ^^^ upper phial was of the ftandard 1.78, or about 
^ oxygenous. 

2. Azotic gas with atmofpheric air; after ftanding three 
hours : the upper phial was not lenfibly dimjniftied by nitrous 
gas ; the under phial, however, had loft two per cent, or -^ 
of its oxigen. The reafon of this was, that the azotic gas in 
this experiment having been juft made for it from nitrous gas, 
this laft had not been completely faturaled with atmofpheric 
air, and hence had feized upon all the oxygen afcending into 
the upper phial. 

Having now related all the experiments I made of any 
importance to the fubjed, it will be proper to add, for the 
fake of thofe that may wifli to repeat fome of them, that great 
care muft be taken to keep the infide of the tube dry ; for if a 
drop of water interpofe between the two gafes, I have found 
that it effedually prevents the intercourfe : glafs tubes Ihould 
therefore be ufed, that one may be fatisfied on this head;, as 
the obftruftion will then be vifible. 

J fliall make no further comments on Ihe above experimentSj, 
by way of explanation ; becaufe to ihofe who underftand ray 
bypothefis of eiaftic Ihiids, they need none ; and I think it 
Vi'ould be in vain to attempt an explanation u^iy other way. 

lean 



ELASTIC FLUIDS. 283 

J caiinot however, on this occafion, avoid adverting to fome The remarkable 

experiments of Dr. Piieftiey, which few modern philofophers pSir^of^air 

can be unacquainted with : I mean ihofe relating to the Teem- entering earthen 

ing converfion of water into air. (Vid. Phiiof. Tranfadt. "'^'^^ ^^''« 

'z ^ water paffed out 

vol. 73, page 414, — or his Expls. abridged, vol.2, page in a vaper. 

407.) He found (hat unglazed earlhern retorts containing a 
little moifiure, when heated, luiniilted the external air to pafs 
through their pores at the fame time that aqueous vapour 
paiTed through the pores the contrary way or outward ; and 
that this lafi: circuniftance was necejfary to the air's entrance. 
The retorts are air-light, fo far as that blowing into them 
difcovers no pores ; but when fubjecled to a greater preflure, 
as that of the atmofphere, or even one much fliort of it, they 
are not able to prevent the paflage of elaftic fluids. The fadl 
of air paffing into the retort through its pores, and vapour 
out of them at the fame time, are elegantly and moft con- 
vincingly (hewn by Dr. Prieftley's experiments, in which 
he ufed the apparatus reprefented in plate 7, fig. 1, of the 
edition above referred to. The Dodor confeifes his explana- 
tion of thefe remarkable fads is very inadequate; and no 
wonder, for it is impoflible for him or any other to explain 
them on the commonly received principles of elaflic fluids. 
But we will hear what he fays on the lubjed :—" At prefent Dr.Prleftley's 
it is my opinion, that the agent in this cafe is that principle cynu^ures." 
which we call aUraRlon of co/tejion, or that power by which 
water is raifed in capillary tubes. But in what manner it 
acls in this cafe I am far from being able to explain. Much 
lefs can I imagine how air (hould pals one way and vapour 
the other, in the fame pores, and how the tranfmiffion of the 
one fliould be necefTary to the tranfmiffion of the other.— 
1 am fatisfied, however, that it is by means of fuch pores as 
air may be forced through, that this curious procefs is per- 
formed ; becaufe the experiment never fucceeds but in fuch 
vefTels as, by the air-pump at leafl, appear to be porous, 
though in all fuch.^' 

The truth is, thefe fads fo difncult to explain are exaaiy The faft is, that 
fimilar to thofe which are the fubjecl of this memoir ; only in- ^j^ ^j^^ {,„ 
fiead of a great numhtr of pores we have one of fenfible mag. means of the 
nitude, (the bore of the tube.) Let the porous retort have f°"** 
the fame eiaflic fluid within and without, in the one cafe; 
and the two phials contain the fame elaftic fluid in the other, 

then 



two gafcs. 



<2|84 ON THE HORIZONTAL MOON. 

llien no tranfmiflion is obiervable in either; bat if (he retort 
have comraon air, or any other gas, without, and aqueous 
vapour, or any other elaftic fluid, except the ontfide one, 
within; then the motion in and out commences, juft as with 
the phials in (imilar circumftances. In fa£l this laft obfervation 
has fince been verified by Dr. Prieftley himfelf, of which an 
account is given in No. 2, of the American Philofophical 
Tranfafllons, vol. 5. After alluding to his experiments above- 
— and the fame mentioned, he obferves, *' Since that time I have extended 
happenj in any and diverfified the experiments, and have obferved, that what 
was done by air and xvater, will be done by any two kinds of 
air, and whether they have affinity to one another or not, tl-iat 
(his takes place in circumftances of which I was not af all ap- 
prized before, and fuch as experimenters ought to be ac- 
quainted with, in order to prevent niiftakes of confiderable 
confequence/' 

The fafls ftated above, taken altogether, appear to me to 
form as decifive evidence for that of elaftic fluids which T 
maintain, and againfi the one commonly received, as any phy- 
fical principle which has ever been deemed a fubje6l of dif* 
pute, can adduce. 



III. 

On the Horizontal Moon. By Dr. Ok el v. In a Letter from 
Mr. H. Steinhauer. 

To Mr. NICHOLSON. 
SIR, Fulnuk, March 1, 180(J. 

-tl-BOUT the beginning of laft year, I had the pleafure, in 
compliance with your obliging letter to fend you impreffions 
of the Egyptian Scarabacus, which I hope camefafe to hand. 
Your kindnefsin inferting my trivial remarks upon the fame in 
•\our valuable Journal, encourage me to fubmit the following 
lliort efl'ay, upon a fubjeft which has employed the ingenuity 
of feveral of your correfpondents, which I received from my 
friend Dr. Okely, of Wyke, near Hallifax, in confeqiience of 
fome converfaticns occafioned by the perulal of your work. 

If 



ON THE HORIZONTAL MOON. 235 

If you think it worthy a place in your coiledion, it will 
be confidered as an additional obligation conferred on, 
SIR, 

Your obedient fervant, 

H. STEINHAUER. 

Obfervations on the feemingly enlarged apparent Diameters of the 
Sun and Aloon, xvhen viewed in or near the Horizon. 

Every one who views the fun or moon, when they are in General faft 
,, , . I • I 1 I 1 1 II ftated th?c the 

trie horizon, thinks that they appear larger than when they are hcaveniv bodies 

feen in any more elevated part of the heavens. And aftro- feem larger at 
nomers know, that the diRance of the fame fixed fiars is ap- °^^'""*^^ 
parently greater when feen near the horizon, than when they 
are more elevated. But it is likewife well known to afirono- 
mers, that the apparent magnitudes of the fun and moon, as 
well as the apparent diflancesof any given fixed f^ars, as inea- 
fured by the micrometer, are the fame in that part of the hea- 
vens which is near the horizon, as, in the fame circumftances, 
they are found to be in any other part, except that tlie moon, 
being really perceptibly farther from an obferver, placed on 
the earth's furface, when flie appears in the horizon, than 
■when (he appears in the zenith, is found to have a fmaller 
apparent magnitude, agreeing with the caufes to which it is 
known to be owing. The firfl mentioned phenomena muft 
therefore belong to the head of optical deceptions. Let us 
enquire from what fourcethis deception arifcs. 

I am not the firft by wiiom the fource was fought for In the 
apparent flatnefs of the Iky ; but I differ as far as I know, 
from all others in my manner of connecting one appearance 
with the other. 

In order to explain my idea of the matter, I fliall firfl at- Explanation dff 
tempt to fhew that the flattened appearance of the vifible hea- appe-,ranc" of 
vens is not an illulion, but a reality; or in other words, that the heavens. 
an obferver placed on the earth is really at a greater d'fiance 
from a point of the fky, fituate in the horizon, than from a 
point fituate in the zenith. 

This will appear in the cleareft manner if we endeavour to T>e Iky i.- a real 
give an anfwer to the two following queflions: What is he Jky ? "M"» '^ , 
and Where is thcjky ? coacivity. 

By the f!<y, I mean that blue concave fuperficles, within 
which every obferver on the furface of the earth finds himfelf 

placed 



f2So ^^ THE nORIZOS'X.'SL MOON', 

placed. Wliat is this ? It is certainly fomethlng real and ffia- 
terial, or elfe it would not appear coloured. For bodies, to 
appear coloured, muft have parts of fome determinate mag- 
nitude. 

Where doth it exift ? Not in thofe immenfely diftant parts 
of fpace, where the heavenly bodies revolve. For if thole 
fpaces contained any bodies of a determinate magnitude, and 
confequently of a determinate deniily, the heavenly bodies 
could not continue through ages to revolve in the fame peri- 
odic times J iheir momentum would be diminithed by refift- 
ance, and the periodic times of their revolution would change. 
The blue flcy therefore canr.ot be placed beyond the atmofphere 
of our earth. The fmalleft parts of bodies, that are coloured 
are blue, and the blue f]<y is therefore either the atmofphere 
itfelf or the fmallefl and mofl: elevated vapours afcending in 
it, or both together. The heavenly bodies Qiine through it, 
and therefore it cannot be opaque; it is itfelf of a blue colour, 
and therefore is not perfectly tranfparent. 

Though we are ignorant of the exad height of the atmof- 
phere, yet we may take it for granted, that it does not extend 
as far as the moon, and therefore that the diftance of its far- 
ihefl points from the centre of the earth has a finite ratio to the 
femi-diameter of the earth. That the ratio is probably lefs 
than 2: 1. 

If therefore the blue heavens which furround the earth, and 
are concentric with it, have a femidiameter not double that of 
the earth, their horizontal points as viewed from the earth, 
iHuftbe farther from us than any that are nearer the zenith. 

For let A C F (PlateVU. Fig, ].) reprefent a great circle 
of the earth, and A C be its radius, and let the circle D BE G 
reprefent a great circle of the atmofphere drawn with a radius 
AB not =2. AC, the line C D yB C; HCy BC. 
—which is not ^ ^'^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^'^ folution of the flattened appearance of the 
always alike. heavens, by obferving that, when the fky is uniformly over- 
caft with clouds, the concave fuperficies appears coniiderably 
flatter than when the (ky is ferene. In the former cafe, the 
two concentric circles in the figure approach nearer to each 
other, the clouds being nearer to the earth than the fky is, and 
the ratio of D E to C B muft of courfe increafe. 
Explanation ^^^ lo proceed. When any bodies fituated behind a feml- 

tranfparent fcreen are feen through it, they will appear to be 

fi>ved 



fiom a diagram 
ot the Iky, that 



BASAITES. 287 

fixed in the fcreen at the points of interfedionj which lines the heavenly 
drawn from every point of the bodies to the eye of the ob- '"^'^'" '""ft a?- 

■' ^ pear largeft la 

ferver, make witii the fcreen. Now fuch a femi-tranfparent ^hehgriaan. 
fcreen, the blue tkies inferpofe between the heavenly bodies 
and our eyes. Tliey will therefore appear to be fixed in the 
iky, at the above-mentioned points of interfedion. 

But if lines DC, H C, IC, BC, be drawn fo that the 
angles at C are equal, they may be confidered as coming from 
the extreme points of bodies which fubtend equal angles of 
viilon, or which have the fame apparent magnitude. The angle 
DC H may be confidered as reprefenting the angle of vifion 
which the fun fubtends at the horizon. The equal angle 
H C I, the angle fubtended by the fame body in a more ele- 
vated fituation, ButDHyHI. Thus the heavenly bodies 
muft appear enlarged in their vertical diameters, when in the 
horizon ; and the fame may be (hewn of any other diameter 
They will therefore appear uniformly enlarged; which was 
the thing to be explained, 

W. OKELY. 



IV. 

Account of fome Specimens of Bafaltes froin the northern Cnufi 
of Anlrim. By the Rev. Dr. Will jam Righakdson, 

(Concluded from Page 273.) 

1 HE peninfula of Porlrulh lies about fix miles to the well Remarks on tl 
of the Giant's Caufeway, and on its eaftern furface alone pre- ^^^^ of Amiin 
fentsthefe ftrata. 

In the fpace of about 700 yards, it exhibits in miniature thofe 
changes and interruptions of the ftrata, which occur on the large 
fcale along the northern bafaltic coalt of Ireland. At the place 
where it emerges from the ftrand, there firfl occurs a raafscom- 
pofed of ftrata of the coarfe and filiceous bafalt, placed over 
each other alternately ; this is fucceeded by an accumulation 
of regular ftrata of the coarfe bafalt alone. A fecond alterna- 
tion, and a fecond accumulation of the coarfe-grained ftrata, 
come in order, and extend to the well called Tubber Wherry, 
Here commences ^n accumulation of many ftrata of the lih'- 

ceous 



'J88 BA5ALTES. 

Rpm.irkson the ceous baCalt alone, which ftrelches along the flTore for about 
cift'of Antrkn '^ >'^''^'^' ^"^ ^'^^" changes into a third alternation, which 
conlinues to the liitle boat-harbour, caWed Port-in-too, near 
which the (iliceous bafalt difappear!?. Over this flretch, not- 
withflanding the frequent change in (he arrangement of the 
firata, the thicknefs of each ftratura, of both fpecies, remains 
pretty nearly the fame, and (he pofition of them all fleadily fo, 
viz. with a confiderable dip to E. N. E. • ^ 

The weft fide of the peninfula, though only about 400 
yards diftant, confifts entirely of coarfe bafalt. It fliows a 
bolder face, and is formed of rude maflive pillars, from 60 to 
SO feet long, 

" I am aware," fays Dr. Richardfon, " (hat feveral mine- 
ralogifts deny (he (hell-bearing ftone to be bafalt, while others 
contend ftrenuoufly that i( is. I will not venture (o decide on 
the queftion, bat muft remark, that I have never met with it 
hut contiguous to bafalt, and fo folidly united to this laft, that 
the continuity of the whole niafs was uninterrupted. The 
grain of the ftone graduates, as has been already remarked, 
into (hat of (he common bafaltes ; and the arrangement of it 
and that of the bafalt, wilh ivhich it is fo much mixed at 
Portrufh and (he Skerry ifland, is exactly the fame; the firata 
of each fcarcely differing in thicknels, and not at all in incli- 
nation. The ftrata of both kinds break into prifi;is, and (he 
furfaces, where acceiTible, exhibit (he appearance of caufe- 
ways, differing only in this, that in the liliceous bafalt, the 
pentagon is the prevalent figure, and in the coarfe bafalt, the 
quadrangle. The fufibility of both ftones is alfo nearly (he 
fame; the fliells in (he (llireous bafalt are calcined in the fire, 
and many more are then difcovered which had before efcaped 
(he eye *." 

Whinjione 

• Dr. Richardfon obferves, that feme mineralogifts deny that 
this fotni is bafalt. Several of the members prefent when this pa- 
per was read, Come of whom had examined the (tone in its native 
place, were of that number. It was remarked, that though cer- 
tain portions of the ftrata of this foffil bore much irefemblance to 
fome fpecies of bafalt, by far the greater part of the mafs bore no 
refemblance whatever to any. 

It was alfo ftated, that the fubftance of the coarfe-grained, un- 
tlifpiited hafalt, which lies between the ftrata of this ftone, does not 
contain any veftiges of marine animals ; That veins often ifTue 

from 



1J'A5A.1,TE6. ^S9 

Whinftone Dikes on the Coajl of Antrim. Rirmaiks on the 

v\ i>- 1 1/- 1 /• -1 , -1 • I -I bafaltes of tht; 

ur. Kidiardloii delcnbes lome particulars in the conltruc- ^.^^^^ ^f^^^^^^jj,,^ 

Uon of the whinftone dikes on tlie coaft of Antrim, which ap- 
pear fingular, and deferving of attention. Thefe dikes, he 
tays, are uniformly formed oF larj^e maffive prifms laid hori- 
!/on(ally, which afe always divifible into fmaller prifms that are 
likewife horizontal. To prevent confiifion, he calls the (irft of 
thefe component prifms, and the fecond, or fmaller ones into 
which the others break, confiituent prifms. 

The component prifms are fometimes of enormous iize, and^ 
HI (he fame dike are nearly equal ; the conftituent prifms are 
Imali, (the fides about an inch long), and neatly formed. 

The dike which traverfes the Giant's Caufeway, differs from 
thofe on other parts of the coafl, by having no component 
prifms. It refembles a plain wall, of which the parts fhiver 
under the hammer into very neat confiituent prifms. In the 
dike at Seaport the fame thing is obierved ; the prilmatic Itruc- 
Jure doss not penetrate two inches from its edge; the whole 
interior feemsan amorphous mafs. 

The fpecimens of this latter dike, fent to Dr. Hope, exhibit 
its continuity with the adjacent bafattic rock which it traverfes, 
and alfo the continuity of the fine bafalt of its edge with the 
granular done which compofes the middle of the dike. 

The dike of Port-coan is a very folid mafs, compofed of 
floncs apparently round, and imbedded in a bafaltic parte, or 
indurated mortar. The round ftones are formed of concentric 
fpheres, like the coats of an onion ; they exceed a foot in di- 
ameter, aod, together with the mortar by which they are united,, 
they form a very corapafi and highly indurated rock. 

Beiides thefe large dikes. Dr. Ricllardlon remarks, that 
veins from half an inch to an inch and a half thick, often cut 
the bafaltic ftrata on that coaft in all diredions. The materials 
of thefe veins are never the fame with the contiguous bai'alt, 

fioin the beds of tliis real bafalt, and pervaae thefuppofcd iiliceous 
fpecies j feme of them connefting together the feparate beds of die 
real bafalt; others dying away in Iknder ramifications; as they rife 
through the inteiuofcd Ifratum. In no inftance is this reverfed s 
The veins never pioeeed from what is called the Siliceous Bafalt. 
It was farther obferved, that both the frafture and external furface 
of this ftone exhibit a ftratified ftrufturc, in many inttances, which 
nayer happens in the true bafaltes. 

but 



290 BASALTES. 

Rcmavkson thfebut are generally finer. At Portrufli is a large vein, and neaf 

biifakes of the jj ^ fmalier vein, not an inch thick, which, proceeding from 
ttwU or Anrnm. ' » ' r o 

below, terminates in the (olid rock before it reaches the fur- 
face. 

MifceUaneons Obfervaiions. 

Some of the fpecimens in Dr. Richardfon's catalogue are 
from a quarry in a mafs of bafaitat Ballylugan, two miles fouth 
of Porlrufli. This bafalt contains fmall cavities in its interior; 
many of them full of frelh water, which guflies out when the 
ftone is broken by the hammer, as if it had been in a ftate of 
compreffion. The ftone is fo hard, and flies fo in pieces, that 
Dr. Richardfon has not been able to colled any of the Water 
ior the purpofe of analyfis. 

The face of the quarry in which this variety of the bafalt is 
found is aboiit 15 feet high, and is cut into a ftralum, the 
thicknefs of which is not yet afcerrained. The rock is entirely 
columnar, the pillars fomewhat fmaller than thofe of the 
Giant^s Caufeway, lefs perfect, not articulated, fometimes 
bent, and varioufly inclined. The fides and the interior of 
the pillars are full of cavities. In confequence of the obfer- 
vaiions of Dr. Hamilton and Mr. Whilehurft refpecting the 
porous texture of the air or bladder holes of the bafalles of the 
Caufeway and its vicinity. Dr. Richardfon has examined a 
great variety; but in no inftance, except this of Ballylugan, 
has he found cavities, in the interior of the bafaltic rocks on 
this coaft, though they are frequent on the furface expofed to 
the air. 

The iaft variety of whinftone enumerated by Dr. Richard- 
fon is the Ochrous, which makes, as he (ays, a confpicuous 
figure in the ftupenduous precipices along the coaft of Antrim. 
It is difpofed in extenfive ftrata of every thicknefs, from an 
inch to twenty-four (net, and varies in colour, from a bright 
minium to a dull ferruginous brown. 

Three remarks are made by Dr. Richardfon, that are un- 
doubtedly of importance, and ftiow that this ftone is merely 
bafalt in a certain Hate of decompofition. 

1 . The ochrous (Irala are extenfive ; ihey remain always pa- 
rallel to the bafalt (Irata which they feparale ; they unite to the 
bafalt without interrupting its folidity ; the change from the 



ABSORPTION OF THE CASKS, 291 

one to the olher is fudtlen, and (he lines of demaskation are 
diftaicl. The ochrous ftone is never found but contiguous to 
other bafalt. 

2. The fubftances imbedded in the ochrous rock, and in ba- 
lalls, are exadly the fame; calcareous fpar, zeolite, chalce- 
dony, &c. 

3. Among the varieties which this rock prefents, there may 
be found every intermediate flage between found bafalt and 
perfect ochre. The change is often partial, beginning with 
veins and flender ramifications. 



V. 

On the Abforption of Gafes bj/ Water and other Liquids. By 
John Dalton,* 

1. IF a quantity of pure water be boiled rapidly for a (hort Air or gas is 
time in a veflel with a narrow aperture, or if it be fubjefled to wate"by bdni^- 
the air-pump, the air exhaufted from the receiver containing and agitation ia 
the water, and then be brifkly agitated for fome lime, very ^^^^°' 
nearly the whole of any gas the water may contain, will be 
extricated from it. 

2. If a quantity of water thus freed from air be agitated in The volume of 
any kind of gas, not chemically uniting with water, it will fj^^^^/^y"^^'^^^ 
abforb its bulk of the gas, or otherwife a part of it equal to is conftant, and 
fome one of the following fraaions, namely, |, ^, ^V» t1 s' Jhe'btikTto '"' 
&c. thefe being the cubes of the reciprocals of the natural the cube of a 
numbers 1, 2, 3, &c. or j,, J^, x^, x^, &e. the fame gas [-^-^^^^^ 

always being abforbed in the fame proportion, as exibited in 
the following table : — It muft be underftood that the quantity —equal prer- 
gf gas is to be meafured at the preffure and temperature with peratuies bei'ng 
"jjUich the impregnation is effected, fuppofed, 

* Manchester Mem. N. S. Vol.1, 



Bulk 



Table of quan- 
tities. 



ABSORrTlON OF THE CASES. 



Bulk abforbed, the bulk of 
water being unity. 


Carbonic acid gas, ful- 
phiiretted hydrogen, nitrous 
oxide.* 


h = i 


defiant gas, of the Dutch 
chemifts. 


h=^ 


Oxygenous gas, nitrous 
gas,+ carbur retted hydrogen 
gas, from ftagnant water. 


T I 

43 —-oT 


Azotic gas, hydrogenous 
gas, carbonic oxide. 


J,=t}t 


None difcovered. 



3. The gas thus abforbed may be recovered from the water 
the fame in quantity and quality as it entered, by the means 
pointed out in the firft article. 

4. If a quantity of water free from air be agitated with a 
mixture of two or more gafes (fuch as atmofpheaic air) the 
water will abforb portions of each gas the fame as if they were 

toin another gas prefented to it feparalely in their proper denfity. 
or not. jr^ g^^ Almofpheric air, confifting of 79 parts azotic gas, 

and 21 parts oxygenous gas, per cent. 



Water abforbs 
any gas in the 
fame quantity, 
■whether it con 



Water abforbs -g'^ of j-y^, azotic 
' -ZT of tVo. oxyger 



gas= 1.231. 
gas = .778 

2.012 



Sum, percent. 

* According to Mr. William Henry's experiments, water does 
not imbibe quite its bulk of nitrous oxide; in one or two inftances 
with me it has come very near it: The apparent deviation of this 
gas, may be owing to the difficulty of afcertaining the exaft de- 
gree of its impurity. 

t About --% of nitrous gas is ufually abforbed; and J^- is re- 
coverable : This difference is owing to the refiduum cf oxygen in 
the water, each meafure of which takes 3^ of nitrous gas to fatu- 
xate it, when in water. Perhaps it may be found that nitrous gas 
ufually contains a fmall portion of nitrous oxide. 



ABSORfTION OF THE GASES. 2^ 

5i If water impregnated with any one gas (as hydrogenous) If water and ■: 

be agitated with another gas e(/?<a^/j/ ablbrbable (as azotic) there f^ confinement 

wiU apparentli^ be no abfarption ot" the latter gas; just as much a mixture will . 

eas being found after agitation as was introduced to the water; ^^^^ place of the 
% "^ ft » ' gafes in and out 

but upon examination the refiduary gas will be found a mixture of the water, 
of the two, and the parts of each, in the water, will be ^'^* 
exadly proportional to thofe out of the water. 

6. If wal.er impregnated with any one gas be agitated with 
another gas lefs or more abforbabie ; there will apparently be 
an inereafe or diminution of the latter ; but upon examination 
the refiduary gas will be found a mixhire of the two, and the 
proportions agreeable to article 4. ■ 

7. If a quantity of water in a phial having a -ground ftop- Temperature 
per very accurately adapted, be agitated with any gas, or^°""°^^,Y^ 
mixture of gafes, till the due fliare has entered the water ; fluids, 
then, if the Itopper be fecured, the phial may be expofed to 

any variation of tanpcrature, without difturbing the equilibri- 
um : That is, tiie quantity of gas in the water will remain 
the fame whether it be expofed to heat or cold, if the ftopper 
be air-tight. 

N. B. The phial ought not to be near full of water, and the 
temperature (liould be between 32*^ and 212", 

b. If water be impregnated with one gas (as oxygenous), Gafes which are 
and another gas, having an affinity for the former (as nitrot^s), ^1 ^ ^® ""*' 
be agitated along with it ; the abforption of the latter gas will 
be greater, by the quantity neceflary to faturate the former, 
thau it would hav« been if the water had been free from gas.* 

9. Moll liquids free from vifcidity, fuch as acids, alcohol. The abforption 

liquid fulphurets.and faline folutions in water, abforb the fame ^^ other liquids 

^ ^ IS the fame as 

quantity of gafes as pure water; except they have an affinity by water. ''' 

for the gas, luch as fulphurets for oxygen, &c. 

The preceding articles contain the principal fads neceflary 

l-o eftabiifti the theory of abforption : Thofe that follow are of 

a fubordinate nature, and partly deducible as.corrollaries to 

iliero. 

^ One pait of oxygenous gas requires 3.4 of nitrous gas to fa- 
turate it in water. It is agreeable to this that the rapid mixture of 
oxygeiious and nitrous gas over a broad furface of water,- ecca- 
fions a greater diminution than otherwiie. In faft, the nitrous 
acid is formed this way ; whereas., when water is not prefent, the 
nitric acid is formed, which requires juft half the quantity of ni- 
trous gas, as I have lately afcertained. 

Vol. XIII.—April, 1806. " Y ]0. P..!re 



2P4 ABSORPTION OP THE GASES. 

Natural waters 10. Pare diftilled water, rain and fpring water ufually con- 
th/dlTcftareof *^"^ "^^""'y ^'^^'"^ ^"^ ^'^re of atmofpheric air: if not, they 
atmof.airj but quickiy acquire that ihare by agitation in it, and lofe any other 
SsTftTr^^o ^^^ ^^^^ "^^^ ^® impregnated with. It is remarkable, how- 
oxjjen. ever, that water by ftagnation, in certain circumftances, lofes 

part or all of its oxygen, notwithftanding its conftant expo- 
fition to the atmofphere. This I have uniformly found to be 
the cafe in ray large wooden pneumatic trough, containing 
about eight gallons, or 14- cubic foot of water. Whenever this 
is replenifhed with tolerably pure rain water, it contains its 
ihare of atmofpheric air; but in procefs of time it becomes 
deficient of oxygen : In three months the whole furface has 
been covered with a pellicle, and no oxygenous gas what- 
ever was found in the water. It was grown offenfive, but 
not extremely fo; it had not been contaminated with any ma- 
teria! portion of metallic or fulphureous mixtures, or any other 
article to which the effefl could be afcribed.* The quantity 
of azotic gas is not materially diminidied by ftagnation, if at 
all. — Thefc circumftances, not being duly noticed, have been 
the fource of great diverfity in the refults of different philofo- 
phers upon the quantity and quality of atmofpheric air in water. 
By article 4-, it appears that atmofpheric air expelled from 
water ought to have 38 percent, oxygen ; whereas by this ar- 
ticle air may be expelled from water that (ball contain from 38 
to per cent, of oxygen. The difappearance of oxygenous 
gas in water, I prefume, muft be owing to fome impurities 
in the water which combine with the oxygen. Pure rain 
water that had flood more than a year in an earthenware bot- 
tle had loft none of its oxygen. 
Why water by 11. If water free from air be agitated with a fmall portioa 
Sft i!xygtn°'''' °'' atmofpheric air (as ^\ of its bulk) the refiduum of fuch 
from air. air will have proportionally lefs oxygen that the original : If 

we take ^, as above, then the refiduum will have only 17 
per cent, oxygen ; agreeably to the principle eftablifhed in 
article 4. This circumftance accounts for the obfervations 
made by Dr. Prieftley, and Mr. William Henry, that water 
abforbs oxygen in preference to azote. 
Difappearance of 12. If a tall glafs vcflel, containing a fmall portion of gas 
under^abT.'^'°" ^^ inverted into a deep trough of water, and the gas thus con- 
fiued by the glafs and the water be brifkly agitated, it will 
gradually difappear. 

* It was dra^un from a leaden ciftem. 

It 



:xrt:c/wiso7u(^haos. JowndiybL.xnLnm.p. zm- 




ABSORPTION OF THE GASES. 2^,5 

It is a wonder that Dr. Prieftiey, who feems to have been 
the firft to notice tfiis fad, (houkl have made any difficulty of 
U; — the lofs of gas has evidently a mechanical caufe ; the 
agitation divides the air into an infinite number of minute 
bubbles, which may be feen pervading the whole water ; thefe 
are fucceffively driven out from under the margin of the glafs 
into the trough, and fo efcape. 

13. If old ftagnanf water be in the trough, in the laft ex- Old ftagnant 
periment, and almofpheric air be the fubjeft, the oxygenous ^^*'^'^* 

gas will very foon be almoft wholly extra6led, and leave a re- 
■fiduum of azotic gas; but if the water be fully impregnatod 
with atmofpheric air at the beginning, the refiduary gas ex- 
amined at any time will be pure atmofpheric air. 

14. If any gas not containing either azotic or oxygenous Agitation of gas 

gas, be agitated over water containing atmofpheric air, the °''^'" "™™°" 
o » o . . water gives out 

refiduum will be found to contain both azotic and oxygenous oxygen and azote 

15. Let a quantity of water contain equal portions of any The efcape of 
two or more unequally abforbabla gafes : For inftance, azotic ^y gas from 
gas, oxygenous gas, and carbonic acid gas ; then, let the water j^g the oreffure' 
be boiled or fubje£|ed to the air-pump, and it will be found will be greater 
that unequal portions of the gafes will be expelled. The ^y^]*^^* *''^°^^'' 
azotic will be the greateft part, the oxygenous next, and the 

crarbonic acid will be the leaft. For, the previous impregna- 
tion being fnch as is due to atmofpheres of the following rela- 
tive forces nearly : 

Azotic - - - 21 inch, of mercury. 

Oxygenous - - 9 

Carbonic agid - i 
confequently, when thofe forces are removed, the refilietjcy 
of the azotic gas will be the greatefl, and that of the carbonic 
acid the leaft; the last will even be fo fmall as not to over- 
come thecohefion of the water without violent agitation. 

Remarks on the Authority of the preceding Fads. 

In order to give the chain of fads as diftinfl as poflible, I Remarks on 

have not hitherto mentioned by whonj or in what manner they ^^^ .^ °/ ,* 
^ ■' lorption of gafej 

were afcertained. by denfe flvids. 

The fact mentioned in the firft article has been long known ; *'^* 
a doubt, however, remained refpeding the quantity of air frill 
y 2 left 



2St6 ABSORPTION or THE GASES. 

Remarks on left I'jr water after ebullition and the operation of the alr-pirmp» 
for^pdon of cafes '^'^^ ^''^'^'^^''^"'^ articles will, I apprehend, have placed this 
by denfe fluids, in a clearer point of view. 

^'^' In determining the quantity of gafes abforbed, I had the re- 

fult of Mr. William Henry's experience on the fubjeft before 
me, an accountof which has been publiQied in the Vhilofophi- 
cal Tranfaclions for 1803. By the reciprocal communications 
fince, we have been enabled to bring the refults of our ex- 
periments to a near agreement ; as the quantities he has given 
in his appendix to that paper nearly accord with thofe I have 
liated in the fecond article. In my experiments with the lefs 
abforbable gafes, or thofe of the 2d, 3d, and 4th claffes, I 
ufed a phial holding 2700 grains of water, having a very ac- 
curately ground ftopper; in thofe with the more abforbable of 
the llrfl clafs, I ufed an eudiometer tube, properly graduated, 
and of aperture fo as to be covered with the end of a finger. 
This vvas filled with the gas and a fmall portion expelled by 
. ^ .,_ introducing a folid body under water; the quantity being no- 

fn":'l. .,:' ,.. ticed by the quantity of water that entered on withdrawing 
the folid body, the finger was applied to the end and the water 
within agitated; then removing (he finger for a moment under 
water, an additional quantity of water entered, and the agi- 
tation was repeated till no more water would enter, when the 
quantity and quality of the refiduary gas was examined. In 
Ja6l, water could never be made to lake its bulk of any gas by 
this procedure; but if it took -j^, or any other part, and the 
refiduary gas was -^^ pure, then it was inferred that water 
would take its bulk of that gas. The principle was the fame 
in ufing the phial; only a fmall quantity of the gas was ad- 
mitted, and the agitation was longer. 

There are two very important fafts contained in the fecond 
article. The firll is, that the quantity of gas abforbed is as 
the denflty or preflure. This was difcovered by Mr. William 
Henry, before either he or I had formed any theory on the 
fubjea. 

The other is, that the denfity of the gas in the W-aler has a 
fpecial relation to that out of the water, the diftance of the 
particles within being always fome multiple of that without : 
' -• Thus, in the cafe of carbonic acid, &c. the diftance within 

and without is thcfame, or the gas within the water is of the 
fame dei;ility as without ; in defiant gas the diftance of the 

particles 



ABSORPTION OP THE GASES. - 2^7 

particles in the water is twice that without; in oxygenous gas, Remdrks on'" • 
&c. the diftance is juft three times as great within as without; forlffoTo^f gafes 
and in azotic, &c. it is four times. This fa6l was the refult by dcnfe fluids, 
of my own enquiry. The former of thefe, I think, decides ^'^^ 
the effe6i to be mechanical ; and the latter feems to point to 
the principle on whicii the equilibrium is adjufted. 

The fa6ls noticed in the 4-th, 5lh and 6th articles, were in- 
veftigated a priori from the mechanical hypothefis, and the 
notion of the diftindl agency of elaftic fluids when mixed to- 
gether. The refults were found entirely to agree with both, 
or as nearly as could be expefled from experiments of fuch 
nature. 

The fa6^s mentioned in the 7th article are of great im- 
portance in a theoretic view ; for, if the quantity of gas ab- 
iorbed depend upon mechanical principles, it cannot be af- 
fefled by temperature in confined air, as the mechanical effedl 
of the- external and internal air are alike increafed uy heat, 
and the denfity not at all afFeded in thofe circumftances. I 
have tried the experiments in a confiderable variety of tem- 
perature without perceiving any deviation from the principle. 
It deferves further attention. 

If water be, as pointed out by this eflay, a mere receptacle 
of gafes, it cannot affect their atSnities: hence what is ob- 
ferved in the 8th article is too obvious to need explanation. — 
And if we find the abforption of gafes to arife not from a che- 
mical but a mechanical caufe, it may be expefled that all li- 
quids having an equal fluidity with water, will abforb like por- 
tions of gas. In feveral liquids I have tried, no perceptible 
difference has been found; but this deferves further invefti- 
gation. 

After what has been obferved, it feems unnecefiary to add 
any explanation of the iOlh and following articles. 

Theory of the Abjm-pt.on of Gafes by Watsr, ^c. 
From the fa6ls developed in the preceding articles, the fol- 
lowing theory of the abforption of gafes by water feems de- 
ducible. 

1. AIL gafes that enter into water and other liquids by means 
of prefigure, and are wholly difengaged again by the removal 
of that prelfure, are mechanically mixed with the liquid, and 
ncyt chemically combined with it, 

2. Gafes 



298 ABSORPTION OF THE GAS£S. 

Remarks on 2. Gafes fo mixed with water, &c. retain their elafliciljr 

furpdon of gafes *^^^ repiilfive power amongft Iheir own particles, juft the fame 
ky denfc fluids, in the water as out of it, the intervening water having no 
other influence in this refpedl than a mere vacuum. 

3. Each gas is retained in water by the prefifure of gas of 
its own kind incumbent on its furface abftradedly confidered, 
DO other gas with which it may be mixed having any perma- 
nent influence in this refpeft. 

4. When water has abforbed its bulk of carbonic acid gas, 
&;c. the gas does not prefs on the water at all, but prelTes on 
the containing ved'el jufl as if no water were in. When 
water has abforbed its proper quantity of oxygenous gas, &c. 
that is, ^y of its bulk, the exterior gas pretfes on the furface 
of the water with ||^ of its force, and on the internal gas with 
■j-^y of its force, which force prelTes upon the containing veflel, 
^nd not on the water. With azotic and hydrogenous gas the 
proportions are ^^ and -^ refpeflively. When water con- 
tains no gas, its lurface njuft fupport the whole preffureof any 
gas admitted to if, till the gas has, in part, forced its way into 
the water. 

5. A particle of gas pretTing on the furface of water is ana- 
logous to a fingle (liot prefling upon the fummit of a fquare 
pile of them. As the fliot diftributes its preifure equally 
amongft all the individuals forming the loweft ftratum of the 
pile, fo the particle of gas diftributes its preiTure equally amongft 
every fucceffive horizontal ftratum of particles of water down- 
wards till it reaches the fphere of influence of another particle 
of gas. For inftance ; let any gas prefs with a given force on 
the furface of water, and let the diftance of the particles of 
gas from each other be to Ihofe of water as 10 to 1 ; then each 
particle of gas muft divide its force equally amongft 100 parti- 
cles of water, as follows: — It exerts its immediate force upon 
4 particles of water; thofe 4 prefs upon 9, the 9 upon J 6, 
and fo on according to the order of fquare numbers, till 100 
particles of water have the force diftributed amongft them ; 
and in the fame ftratum each fquare of 100, having its incum- 
bent particle of gas, the water below this ftratum is uniformly 
prefled by the gas, and confequently has not its equilibrium 
difturbed by that prejure. 

6. Wh,ep water has abforbe4,^X "^^ ^'^ ^^^^ ^^ ^"y g^^' *^^ 
firatum of gas on the furface of the water prefles with 14 of 

its 



ABSORPTION OF THE GASES. 299 

its force on the water, in the manner pointed out in the laft Remarks on 

article, and with J-jo{ its force on the uppermoft ftratum oi^^^^^^f^^^^ 

gas in the water ; The difiance of the two.ftrata of gas mufl by denfe fluids, 

be nearly 27 times the diftance of the particles in the incum- **^* 

bent atmofphere, and 9 times the diftance of the particles in 

the water. This comparatively great diftance of the inner 

and outer atmofphere arifes from the great repulfive power of 

the latter, on account of its fuperior denfity, or its prefenting 

9 particles of Airface to the other 1. When -5*-^ is abforbed, 

the diftance of the atmofpheres becomes 64 times the diftance 

of two particles in the outer, or 16 times that of the inner. 

The annexed views of perpendicular and horizontal ftrata of 

gas in and out of water, will fufficiently iiluftrate thefe po- 

litions. 

7. An equilibrium between the outer and inner atmofpheres 
can be eftabliflied in no other circuraftance than that of the dif- 
tance of the particles of one atmofphere being the fame or 
forae multiple of that of the other; and it is probable the mul- 
tiple cannot be more than 4-. For in this cafe the diftance" of 
the inner and outer atmofpheres is fuch as to make ihe per- 
pendicular force of each particle of the former on ihofe parti- 
cles of the latter that are immediatel)' fubjeft to its influence, 
ph^fically fpeaking, equal; and the fame may be obferved of 
the fmall lateral force, 

8. The greateft difficulty attending the mechanical hypo- 
thefis, arifes from different gafes obferving different laws. — 
Why does water not admit its bulk of every kind of gas alike? 
This queftion I have duly confidered, and though I am not 
yet able to fatisfy myfelf completely, I am nearly perfuadedi 
that the circumftance depends upon the weight and number of 
the ultimate particles of the feveral gafes : thofe whofe par- 
ticles are lighteft and fingle being leaft abforbable, and the 
others more, according as they increafe in weight and com*, 
plexily.* An enquiry into the relative weights of the ulti- 
mate particles of bodies, is a fubjefl, as far as I know, en- 
tirely new : I have lately been profecuting this enquiry with 
remarkable fuccefs. The principle cannot be entered upon in 
this paper; but I (hall juft fubjoin the refults, as far as they 
appear to be afcertained by my experiments, 

* Subfequ«nt experience renders this conjefture lefs probable. 



300 



RATTLE-SNAKE. 



Weights of the Table of the relative zveisjus of the ultimate particles of aafeous 

particles of ^ j .1 i r 

\,oi\iQS, (^"■d' other bodies. 

Hydrogen - .----- 1 

Azote ..._..- 4.2 

Carbon 4.3 

Ammonia --.-.-•. 5.2 

Oxygen _______ 5,5 

Water 6.3 

Pliolphorus 7.2 

Phofpliuretted hydrogen _ _ - - S.2 

Nitrous gas - - - - - - 9.3 

Ether 9.6 

Gafeous oxide of carbon _ . _ - 9,8 

Nitrous oxide - - - - - 13.7 

Sulphur - - - - - - - 14.4 

Nitric acid - - 15.2 

Sulphuretted hydrogen - - - - 15.4 

Carbonic acid ---_-_ 15.3 

Alcohol - 15.1 

Sulphureous acid ------ 19,9 

Sulphuric acid ------ 25.4 

Carburelted hydrogen from fiagnated water 6.3 

defiant sas ------- 5,3 



VT. 



On the fiippofed fafcinating Power of the Rattlc-fnake. With a 
remarkable Indian Tradition upon xihich it is probable tlhe 
early European Settlers founded their popular Tales. From 
the Philadelphia Medical and Phr/fical Journal, by Benj amin 

• Smith Barton, M. D. 



Fafcinating 
power of the 
rattle -fnake 
defer) bed by 
Fabricius. 



jT^LMOST all amphibious animals (fays ProfelTbr Fabricius,) 
the tortoife excepted, live by preying upon other animals. 
Bat being deftitute of llrength and fwiftnefs, nature has 
given, at leaft to fome of them (according to the teftimony of 
many and creditable writers,) the peculiar faculty of forcing 
other animals to throw themfelves into their open jaws. Kalm, 
the Swede, and the American Smith Barton, affert of the 

American 



RATTLE-SNAKE. Oa\| 

American ferpents, that if they fix their fiery, glaring eyes 
upon any animal, fuch as a fquinel, or a bird, within a certain 
diflance, they entirely lofe the power of efcaping, but throw 
Ihemfelves, flowly, irrefiftibly, into the extended jaws of 
the fnake. And if any thigg difturbs the fnake, fo that it 
withdraws its eyes but for one moment, they efcape with the 
utmoft precipitation. 

We obferve (continues this learned na(uralift) fomething 
fimiiar to this in our common, tardy, thick, and fat toads, 
which frequently fit under little ftones and bulhes, having 
their mouths wide open, into which flies, bees, and other 
infeds, are drawn in the fame manner. All the theories 
that have hitherto been offered to explain thefe appearances 
appear to me both unnatural and improbable. Indeed, I can- 
not but doubt the reality of the fadl itfelf, until we fhall re- 
ceive further obfervations and difcoveries relative to it. 

J. C. Fabkicii, ^'c, 
Befultate Natur-Hiftorifcher Vorkjungen, 
p. 267, 268. Kid: 1804. 

It will be evident to any one, who has perufed, with at- Annotation by 
lention, my two publications * on the fuppofed fafcinating '^' ^"^ *"''' 
faculty of the rattle-fnake, and other American ferpents, that 
Mr. Fabricius has by no means fully comprehended my pecu- 
liar theory. I have not adopted the hypolhefis of the very 
refpe6tabie Kalm, with whofe name mine is mentioned by 
the Danifli ProfefTor. On the contrary, I have endeavoured 
to fhow, and I flatter myfelf that I have very fatisfa6toriIy 
Ihown, that there is no folid foundation for the vulgar, and 
very generally-received opinion, that ferpents are endued 
■vvilh the faculty of fafcinating, or charming, other animals. 

B. S. B. 

The following very curious tradition of fomesf our Indians, Narrative 
relative to ferpents, is worthy of publication in this place. 
A part of the tradition has already been publLHied in my 

* A Memoir concerning the Fafcinating Faculty which has been 
afcribed to the. Rattle-fnake, and other American Serpents. Phi- 
ladelphia : 1796. — Supplement to a Memoir, Sec. Philadelphia, 
J 8G0.-Or fee Philof. Journal, Vols. VII. and VIII. 

Supplement 



^0I3[' RATTLE-SNAKE. 

Supplement to a Memoir concerning the Fafcinating Faculty 
zvhich has been afcribcd to the Rattk-Jhake, and other American 
Serpents. 

' Having queftioned Indians, a number of times, with 
refped to fnakes having the power of charming, and. always 
being anfwered in the negative, I was at length defired (fays 
my friend, Mr. John Heckewelder) to give the reafon the 
white people had for believing fuch a thing, which not 
The rattle-fnake being fatisfa6tory, Pemaholend * declared; " The rattle-fnake 
by craft' a^nd obtains its food merely by flynefs, and a perfevering patience, 
addrefs. It knoweth as well where to watch for its prey as a cat does, 

and fucceeds as well. It has, and retains its hunting grounds. 
In fpring, when the warm weather fets in, and the woods 
feem alive with the fmaller animals, it leaves its den. It will 
crofs a river, and go a mile and further from its den, to the 
place it intends to fpend the fummer; and in fall, when all 
the young animals bred this feafon are become ilrong and 
adive, fo that they are no more fo eafily overtaken or caught, 
it direds its courfe back again, to its den, the fame as a 
hunter does to his camp. 
Indi«n tradition. " The white-people," continued Pemaholend, *' probably 
have taken the idea of this fnake having the power of charm- 
ing from a tradition of ours (the Indians) which our fore- 
fathers have handed down to us, from many hundred years 
back, and long before ever the white people came into this 
country. Then (ibey tell us) there xuas fuch a fnake, and a 
rattle-fnake too, but then there was only this one fnake which 
had this power, and he was afterwards deflroyed ; and fince 
that time it hath never been faid that any other ©f the kind 
had made its appearance." 
American native * At my requeft, Pemaholend related the tradition, and in 
tradition about a jhe foUoWlng words. "Our forefathers have told us, that 
rattle-jnake. <• ,»i i i , ,-n r , 

at a Imall lake, or large pond, not a great diftance from where, 

as is believed, now the great city Quequendku (Philadelphia) 
is built, there dwelt a rattle-fnake, whofe length and thick- 
nefs exceeded that of the thickeft and longeft tree in the 
woods. This fnake was very deftruflive, not only in deftroy- 
ing fo much game, but in devouring fo many Indians ; for 
when he was hungry, he only looked round, and whatever he 

* An aged and much refpe£ied Delaware -Indian, 

5 faw. 



RATTLE-SNAKE. . 303 

faw, whether Indian, deer, turkey, or even geefe flying, he Amerkan native 
only held his head that way, opening his mouth wide, an^l a raicje.fi^te, 
drawing breath in the manner we do, and nothing could pre- 
vent fuch living creature entering his jaws. It is even faid, 
that a whole flock of geefe, flying at a great diftance, have 
been drawn into his mouth, at one time; * and it was well 
known among the Indians, that of all the hunters or travel- 
lers, who pafled that way, very few efcaped him. 

*♦ The Indians well knew when he was hungry, for then he 

grew angry, and blew with his mouth, which founded like 

thunder : for his breath was fo powerful, that all the trees, 

however large, would bend, and even fometimes break down 

before him. There being no profped of ever killing him with 

arrows^ on account of the barrennefs of the land far round 

the lake, into which he would always retire, after fatisfying 

his hunger, a great council of the nation was called together, 

and the queftion put, Where are the Mannittoes of the nation ? 

^re they no more ? Shall the whole of the nation be dejlroyed by a 

MannittO'Snake ? At length, two young men, endowed with • 

Mannittoie poicers, offered their fervices, and declared, that 

unlefs the Mannittoie power of the fnake exceeded theirs, 

they fliould fucceed'; but they would, at all events, make an 

attempt. They then bid farewell to the aflfembly and their 

friends, dived into the river, from whence they proceeded 

under the water to a place oppohte the Mennuppeek (lake, 

or large pond) where this fnake dwelt. They made an opening 

under ground, from the river to the centre of the pond, by 

which the pond was drained, and became perfectly dry. 

After returning again, the fame way they had come, they 

found the fnake in great uneafinefs, and on dry ground. 

Taking then the advantage of the dry weather, and the grafs 

far around the fnake being dry, they fet fire to the grafs, at a 

diftance, and around the fnake, by which means he was burnt 

* It is curJou3, at leaft, to compare this part of the Indian tra- 
dition with what Metrodorus, as cited by Pliny, relates of certain 
Afiatic ferpents. Thefe, he fays, by means of their breath, at- 
tta^fted birds, however high they were, or however quick their 
flight. <' Metrodorus, circa Rhyndacum amjiem in Ponto, ut 
fupervolantes quamvis alte perniciterque, alites hauftu raptas ab- 
forbeant." Plin. Hift, Nat. lib. viii. cap. U. 

to 



304? RATTLE-SNAKE. 

iAmerican native lo death. * Thus (continued Pemaholend) was the monfter 
rattie-'fnake!"'^ ^ ^'"^'^ by two mannitto men of the nation: for, you muft 
know, in thofe days, we had fuch men among us, who could 
Jive as well in the water as on land." 

* Convening one day with a Monfy (advanced in years) 
on ancient times, on the migration of the Indians, &c. he, in 
-order to convince me (fays Mr. Heckewelder) what the 
Indians once were, mentioned the killing of the big fnake, 
the hiftory of which, according to his relation, differing only 
in the following points : 

" a: He did not think it had been arattle-fnake, but under- 
flood the old men, from whom he had heard it fo often re- 
lated (when he vvas young), that it was a fnake of a peculiar 
kind, and had feet ; and that never fince had a fnake of this 
kind appeared : 

: " b. That he was not fure as lo the place where this fnake 
kept; believed it had been higher up the country, and kept 
in a wide and deep place of the river, and in the country 
of the Munfees (or Minfy) and was killed by a Mannitto 
Munfee; 

" c. That after the nation had met in council, and the above 
queftions put, a Munfee man of no character, nor feemingly 
of any confequence to the nation, faid and declared, that he 
had Mannittoie Fowtrs ; could and would deftroy the monfter, 
prefcribing the ceremonies the aflembly were to obferve during 
the expedition. That he then made a very ftrong arrow, or 
fpear, fharp at both ends j and being equipped, took leave 
of the atTembly — plunged into the river, and dived under 
water, until he arrived within a fmall diftance of the place 
where the fnake lay, or floated, balking in the fun. Here 
he afcended to the furface, and calling out to the fnake to 
receive him, he opened his mouth wide, and drew him in, 
when, however, in an inftant, the fnake was ftabbed by him 
through both his tides, with the fpear, which wounded him 
-fo deadly, that he gave a whirl, and being under great pain, 
difcharged his excrements, and with the fame this hero, who 

* Even this part of the Indian tradition feems to be borrowed 
from the old viforld. See a curious relation of the capture of an 
enormous ferpent in The Life of Set hos, as taken from firi-vate me- 
moirs of the Egypians. Vol. i. p. 125—147. London^ 1737, 

then 



{ 



PROPERTY OF INDIAN RUBBEft. 

ihen fwam again to fliore, announcing his viflory, and con- 
gratulating the alTembly on the deliverance of the nation. 

" Thus (condiiued the old M'unfee) were the Indians of thofe 
days Alanniltoes. Nothing could refift them. They knew 
nothing of drowning. Oar firft Parents have fprung from the 
bottom of a lake." 



305 



VII. 

A Defcription of a Property of Caoutchouc, or Indian Rubber ; 
With fojue RcjkSiions on the Caufs of the ElajHdty of this 
Subfiance. In a Letter to Dr, Holme.* 

SIR, Middlefhaiv, near Kendal, Nov. 26, 1802, 

A HE fubflance called Caoutchouc, or Indian Rubber, pof- 
fefles a fingular property ; which, I believe, has never been 
taken notice of in print, at leaft by any Englifli writer; the 
prefent letter contains my experiments and reflections oh the 
lubjedt; and (hould they appear to deferve the attention of 
your philofophical friends, I ara certain you will take the 
trouble of communicating the paper to the Literary and Phi- 
lofophical Society of Manchefter. 

The property I am about to defcrlbe depends on the tempe- Caoutchouc 
ralure of the Caoutchouc, which is ufed in the experiment ; '"^'^^ P'i^nt by 
ibr heat increafes the pliancy of the fubftance, and cold, on * 
tiie contrary, renders it more rigid : fo that when a flip of this 
refin has b*^ tn lufticiently warmed, it may be extended to more 
than twice its natural length, by a moderate force applied to 
its extremities, after which it will recover its original dimen- 
fions in a moment, provided one of the ends of it be let go 
as foon as it has been flretched. This difpofition of the fub- 
ilance may be produced by a degree of temperature lefs than 
the heat of the blood ; it is therefore necelfary to prepare a 
ilip of it, by fteeping it for a few minutes in warm water, 
or by holding it fomewhat longer in the fift; either of thefe 
precautions makes the refin pliant, and fits it for the ex- 
rimentj which is performed in the following manner. 

* Manchester Mem. N.S. Vol.1, 

I made 



QQ^ PROPEETV OP INDIAN RUBBER. 

and lefo denfe. I made a piece of Caoutchouc a little heavier than an equal 
bulk of water, the temperature of which was 45 degrees: 
the veflel containing the refin and water was then placed on 
the (ire; and when the contents of it were healed to 130 
degrees, the Caoutchouc floated on the furface. 
It becomes cold Exp. 1. Hold one end of the flip, thus prepared, between 
i^g^outlnd hTt ^^'^ ^^""^^ ^"'* fore-finger of each hand ; bring the middle of 
.1^ contiaftion. the piece into flight contafl with the edges of the lips ; * taking 
care to keep it ftraight at the time, but not to ftretch it much 
beyond its natural length: aftfer taking thefe preparatory fteps, 
extend the flip fuddenly ; and you will immediately perceive 
a fenfation of warmth in that part of the mouth which touches 
it, arifing from an augmentation of temperature in the Caout- 
chouc : for this refin evidently grows warmer the further it is 
extended ; and the edges of the lips poflefs a high degree of 
fenfibility, which enables them todifcover thefe changes with 
greater facility than other parts of the body. The increafe of 
temperature, which is perceived upon extending a piece of 
Caoutchouc, may be defl:royed in an inflant, by permitting 
the flip to contraQ again ; which it will do quickly by virtue 
of its own fpring, as oft as the ftretching forth ceafes to a6t as 
foon as it has been fully exerted. Perhaps it will be faid, 
that the preceding experiment is conduced in a negligent 
manner; that a perfon, who wiflies for accuracy, vvill not 
truft his own fenle of feeling in inquiries of this defcription, 
but will contrive to employ a thermometer in the bufinefs. 
Should the objedion be flarted, the anfwer to it is obvious ; for 
the experiment in its prefent ftate demonftrates the reality of 
3 fingular fa6l ; by convincing that fenfe, which is the only 
dire^ judge in the cafe, that the temperature of a piece of 
Caoutchouc may be changed, by compelling it to change its 
dimenfions. The ufe of a thermometer determines the rela- 
tive magnitudes of thefe variations, by referring the quefiioa 
of temperature to the eye ; experiments of this fort are there- 
fore of a mathematical nature, and afFord a kind of know- 
ledge with which we have, nothmg to do at prefent ; for we 
are not inquiring after proportions, but endeavouring to efta- 

* This efFe£l was firft noticed in 17S4', at Mr. Kirwap's meetings 
' in Newman ftreet, and Dr. Crawford afcribed it to change of 

capacity fimilar to what he fiippofed to take place in a nail by 
hammering.— N. ' 

Lliaj 



PROPERTY OF INDIAN RVBBER. <^Q'1 

blifli the certainty of a fa6t, which may affift in difcovering 
the reafon of the uncommon elafticity obfervable in Caout- 
chouc. My elTay or letter appears to be running into a long 
digreffion; the fubjedl mud therefore be refumed, and it will 
not be improper to premife the following fimple experiment, 
in the prefent ftate of the inquiry ; becaufe it feems capable 
of affording no inconfiderable degree of infight into the 
plan which nature purfues in producing the phenomenon in 
queftion. 

Fxp. 2. If one end of a (lip of Caoutchouc be fattened to CMutchouc 
a rod of metal or wood, and a weight be fixed to the other when ftretched 
extremity, in order to keep it in a vertical pofition; the ^J^^"^']^^^^^.^'^^^ 
thong will be found to become fliorfer wilh heat and longer Ly cold. 
with cold. The procetTes of heating, cooling, and meafuring 
bodies are fo well known, that I need not enter into the mi- 
nuter parts of the experiment ; it will be proper, however, 
to add, that an increafe of temperature diminifhes the fpe- 
cific gravity of the Indian Rubber, and a lofs of heat occa- 
Hons a contrary effeft in it ; as 1 have proved experimentally. 
The knowledge of the latter fa6t leads me to conclude, ap- 
parently on rcafonable grounds, that the pores or intcrftices 
of Caoutchouc are enlarged by heat, and dimlniflied by cold; 
confequently when a flip of this fubflance which remains ex- 
tended by a weight, or the application of force, happens to 
contrail from an acceffion of temperature, the capacity of 
its pores, taken feparately or colle6lively, is augmented by 
the change that fakes place^in the figure of the thong. Now ^, _, ,. 

if the exigence of caloric be admitted, it will follow from this fubHance : 

the preceding arguraenls, that the phenomenon under con- '* ," . ^^"^ ^y 
/-J • ■ ^ • • t 1 T /• • I -rr- caloric, as ropes 

lideration is occahoned by the alternate ablorption and emiilion are by water • 

of the calorific fluid, iiPthe fame manner that ropes, the 
blades of Fuci, as well as many more bodies, are obliged to 
contrafl and extend themfelves, by the alternate abforption 
and emiffion of water. — You will perceive by the tenour of 
i the foregoing obfervalions, that my theory of this cafe of 
elafticity is perfectly mechanical j in fa£t, the explanation of 
it depends upon the mutual attraftion of Caloric and Caout- 
chouc; the former of which penetrates the latter, and pervades 
j every part of it with the greateft eafe and expedition ; by 
\ which the refin is compelled to accommodate its pores to that 
I portion of the Calorific fluid which is due to its whole mafs, 

at 



308 



that Its capacity 
may be mecha- 
nically altered 
and riie caloiic 
extruded} &c. 



Overftretched 
Caoutchouc 
does not com- 
pletely recover 
itfelf in the 
cold ; but heat 
reftores its elaf- 
ticity : 



whence the 
nature of its 
' eUiticity is de- 
duced, ££C. 



i»R r E R TY V i> fv -i 5f D J A N . R U: B B E R ^ ' 

af any particular degree of temperafure. In order to apply 
the laft remark to the phenomenon under confideration I may 
obferve, that if a force be exerted on a piece of Caoutchoue 
to alter the dimcnfions of its pores, *ihe mutual attradion 
mentioned above will refjll the effort. But the eafe with 
which this fubllance may be m^ide to change its figure, and 
the retratlile power which it poflTefles on thefe occafions, 
fliew that its conftituent particles move freely amongft them- 
ielves : but where there is motion, there is void fpace ; con- 
fequently Caoutchouc abounds with innumerable pores or in- 
terftices, the magnitudes of which are variable, becaufe the 
fpecific gravity of the relin becomes lefs with heat, and greater 
with cold. Now if the dimenfions of the pores in a piece 
of Gaoutchouc can be lefiened, without taking away part of 
the matter of heat, which it contains at the time; this new 
arrangement in the internal ftru6ture of the flip will lefTen 
its ca[)acity for the matter of heat, and confequently augment 
its temperature. But the warmth of fuch a flip is increafed 
by ftretciiing it, according to the firft experiment; the pores 
of it are therefore diminiflied : and the effort, which it exerts 
at the time, arifes from the mutual attraciion of the Caout- 
chouc and Caloric ; which attradlion caules an endeavour to 
enlarge the inlerfticcs of the former for the reception of the 
latter ; hence it happens that the thong conlrafls longitu- 
dinally, according to the fecond experiment, and the re- 
dundant caloric is abforbed in the courfe of this operation, 
which again reduces the temperature. The preceding ex- 
planation agrees very well with the phenomenon, as it is fiated 
in the beginning of this letter ; and the theory receives ad- 
ditional confirmation from the following fa6ls. 

Exp. 3. If a thong of Caoutchouc be ftretched in water 
warmer than itfelf, it retains its elaflicity unimpaired ; on the 
contrary, if the experiment be made in water colder than it- 
felf, it lofes part of its retradlile power, being unable to 
. recover its former ligure ; but let the thong be placed in hot 
water, while it remains extended for want of fpring, and 
the heat will immediately make it contrail briftLly. The 
foregoing circumftances maybe confidered as proving, that 
the elafticity of Caoutchouc is not a conftilulional quality of 
the lubflance, but a contingent effecl, arifing from the lofs 
of equilibrium between the portion of caloric, which the 

re(iu 



TRAINING OF ANIMALS^ &C. 309 

rijlin happens to contain at any moment, and Its capacity to 
receive that fluid at the fame inftant. The objed of the 
jirefent letter is to demonftrate, that the faculty of this body 
to abforb the calorific principle, may be leflened, by forcibly 
diminifhing the magnitudes of its pores; and this eflentlal 
point of the theory may be confirmed by experiment : for 
the fpecific gravity of a flip of Caoutchouc is increafed, by 
keeping it e^ctended, while it is weighed in water. 

JOHN GOUGH. 



VIII. 

Ohfervations on the training of Pugillfis, Wrejilers, Jockies, and 
others, who give themj'elves up to Athletic Exercifes; zuithfome 
Queries for difcovering the Principles thereof and the Procejs 
of training Running HorfeHi S^-c. loith a View of afcertaining 
whether the fame canfurnijh any Hints ferviceable to the Human 
Species. * 

JrROFESSIONAL men are ready to acknowledge, that pre- General con- 
vention is better than cure; and the beft informed ingenuoufly ^derations on 
admit, that organic difeafes, once confirmed, are beyond the 
reach of their art. As organic difeafes generally proceed from 
flow and gradual changes, ihey may certainly be prevented 
by temperance and labour; by a6livity of body, and content- 
ment of mind. In regard to the common metaphyfical ex- 
preffions, " of the exliaufting of the excitability; of the 
wearing of the parts; of tlie attrition of our fluids, in circu- 
lation, againfl the folidsj of tiie abrafion of the folids by fric- 

• The fubfequent queries and obfervations have been circulated 
by Sir John Sinclair, with a view to obtain information concern- 
ing the efFedls of diet and exercife on the human frame, from a 
clafs of praftical experimentalifts, whom the pride cf fcience has 
hitherto overlookeit. The philofophical manner in which this bi-anch 
of diftatic medicine is here confidered, appears to render it a fit 
objeft for infertion in a Journal conduced on the plan of the pre- 
fent. In promoting the circulation of this paper, we have no 
doubt that we are coinciding with the plan of the author, by ex- 
tending his means of information ; Any communications tending 
to throw further light on the i'ubje^, will be acceptable. W. N, 

Vol. XIII.— Apuil, 18U6, Z tion j 



QIQ TRAINING OF AKIMALS, &C. 

tion; of the debility produced by the moft natural powers 
fupporting life, namely, the wafte of fubftance created by 
that exercife and labour, for which we feem peculiarly def- 
tined," — all thefe expreffions are extremely fufpicious. The 
fpeciilator is always to be fufpedted, when, forfaking plain di- 
redl fads, he involves his want of meaning, and confcious ig- 
norance, in learned words, or metaphor. 
It is ufually fup. Thefe metaphorical expreffions have originated in a per- 
an/other foliT ' ^"afion, that the bones, cartilages, mufcles, and other folid 
parts are perma- parts, being once formed, are permanent, becaufe the identity 
are" fucceffiveiy °^ *'^^ individual is permanent ; and that being once formed, 
replaced, like and always retaining one (liape, their a6iual component parts 
the fluids. jj^^j^ continue the fame. Nothing in philolbphy is farther 

from the truth. There are experiments to demonftrate, that 
every part and particle of the firmed bones, is fucceflively 
abforbed and depofited again *. The folids of the body, 
whatever their form or texture, are incefiantly renewed. The 
whole body is a perpetual fecretion, and the bones and their 
ligaments, the mufcles and their tendons, all the finer and all 
the more flexible parts of the body, are as continually renewed, 
and as properly a fecretion, as the faliva that flows from the 
mouth, or the moifture that bedews the furface. The health 
of all the parts, and their foundnefs of ftrudure, depends on 
this perpetual abforption, and perpetual renovation ; and ex- 
ercife, by promoting at once abforption and fecretion, pro- 
motes life, without hurrying it; renovates all the parts and 
organs, and preferves tliem apt and fit for every office. 
"Nutrition is a Nutrition belongs not to the flomach alone, which but pre- 
general procefs. pg^es the food, and converts it into chyle, but to the velTels 
by which it is circulated, and appropriated to the nutrition of 
parts, which of courfe is performed by every petty artery of 
the body. 
Many general In nothing fiiould we be more anxioufly careful, than, in 
laying down rules, which muft afTecl the health of ihoufands ; 
and whenever we proceed on do6lrines, unfupported by fa£l, 

* This has been afcertained by giving madder to growing animals, 
efpecially pigs and fowls, among their food. It is found that the 
madder tinges the bones, layer after layer, with a red colour; and 
by the Jecpnefs of the tinge, demonftrates the fuccelfion in which 
the particles of the bone are abforbed and depofited. This is, I 
believe, the concliifion which pbyfiologifts have formed. 

wherever 



lules are rafli 
and d.mgerous< 



TRAINING OF ANIMALS, &C. 3U 

wherever we divert mankind from thofe amufements and la- 
bours to which nature excites us, we fliould proceed with 
particular caution. We read in books, that life and the body 
are but as a given quantity of living energy and living ma- 
terials, to be expended and ufed with difcretionand economy; 
and that the fum of excitability, which is born with the child, 
is expended towards the clofe of life. The do6lrine of abrat 
fion alfo intimates, that our folids are perpetually wafting, and 
that it is by the diminution of moifture, — the aridity of folids, 
the fcantinefs of fluids, and the flow induration of the folid 
parts; that the body becomes fluunk, emaciated, flifF, and 
motionlefs, before it finks into the grave. And, rafli as the The doftrlne of 

dodrine feems, it has been boldly aflerted, that " to live with ^''"'?°'' °'' ^ 

. •' . wearing out hu 

as little food, and as little exercife as poflSble, is the fureft been abfurdly 

means to preferve the body, and to live long.'* To live with 'PP''*'^*i 
as little food, and as little exercife as poflible, would make 
a man little better than a mere grafshopper. A man living 
thus, would be a voluntary prifoner, wan, colourlefs, flefli- 
lefs, bloodlefs, having no fpeculation in his eyes, no marrow 
in his bones; his complexion would declare him what he was. 
This fyftem pradifed, either in infancy, in the prime of man- 
hood, or in the decline of life, would abridge it. Afcetics 
are a proof, not of the length of life, which temperance in- 
fures, but of the premature old age which abftinence brings 
upon us. The fqualid look, the hollow cheek, the matted 
hair, the emaciated body, only prove how much, by fuch cri- 
minal felf-denial, the body fufl^ers, with but little profit to the 
powers of the mind. Let us then take care that our philo- 
Ibphy be not too fevere; for men may run into real danger, 
if we take from them every fair indulgence, or divert them 
from following the dictates of nature. The faireft livers, who 
have not abufed, but have enjoyed their ftrength and health, 
have in general enjoyed them longefl. 

There are habits which feem to be natural to, and congenial Natural habits of 
with, the feveral periods of life. The child fliouId merely ^g^"2*,^°" *' 
fuck, fleep, and vegetate. The boy fliould ramble wild and 
unconftrained, little opprefled with talks or fludies, and nou- 
riflied with abundance of fimple food. The youth fliould be 
temperate, fober, a6tive. The old man quiet, fedate, felf- 
indulgent; fliould have long fleep, delicate food, rich wines, 
and agreeable temperature J little labour, and a cheerful mind. 
Z 2 Nature 



3V1 TRAINING OF ANIMALS, &C. 

Nature affigns us vigour, fpirit, enterprife, and forefighl in 
the early part of life, to treafure up the needful indulgences 
for age. Parents are careful of our firft infancy ; we ourfelves 
ought to provide for our latter childhood. 
Confiderations The moft intelligent profefiional men have an opinion con- 
refpeaing the cerning the fundions of the (kin, confonant with that of the 
fltin •— vulgar ; and more refined, only from their afligning a general 

caufe for thofe efFe6ls, of which all of us are confcious. The 
fkin is not regarded merely as an organ of fecretion, deftined. 
for draining ofF fuperfluous moifture, or faline particles, from 
the general mafs of fluids, but as a furface of more adive cir- 
culation, which folicits the blood to the very extremities of the 
veffels, and thus contributes to fupport and complete the cir- 
culation of the blood, and to nourifli the parts within. The 
fkin is regarded as connected, in a peculiar manner, with all 
the parts of the cellular fubftance, interpofed betwixt the 
mufcles, and involving the blood veflels. The ftate of the fkin 
indicates the condition of that cellular fubftance, whofe office 
it is to conduct the blood-velTels to all parts, efpecially to the 
mufcular flefli, and to nourifh the parts; and while the circu- 
lation of the fkin is lively and adive, that of the involved 
parts can never flag. The condition of the bowels, and of 
the {kin, are the firfl: and moft natural points for the phyiician 
to attend to. It is by regulating thefe, that he regulates the 
pulfe; by simulating or foothing them, that he ralfes or de- 
prefTes the vital adions; and it is matter of common obferva- 
tion, that in animals, a good fkin is the criterion of health, and 
the drynefs of the fliin, the forming of fcabs or eruptions upon 
it, and the clapping of the hair, (as it is called by thofe who 
have the care of flock), are the firfl and furefl figns of ap* 
proaching difeafe. 

Next to the free circulation of the blood through all the 
body, terminating in the furface, that of the free tranfit of 
the blood through the lungs, is effential to health. 

The oxydation or chemical change produced by air upon 
the blood, is etfentlal to its vital properties, A free and pow- 
erful refpiration is mofl effential to a frefli colour of the face, 
to lively fpirits, and cheerful feelings, and to the healthy and 
vigorous actions of the body. " It is my breathing hour of 
the day," fay's Hamlet to Ofric. It is a princely thing to let 
apart hours for exercifesj and there is little doubt, that if all 

thofe 



TRAINING OF ANIMALS, &C. 3J3 

thofe, who linger away their hours In luxurious and Indolent 
relaxations, were to affign a regular portion of their time to 
the hardy and manly exercifes of walking, riding, fencing, 
S:c, and would take tlteir breathing hour, they would breathe 
long and well. 

Thefe refie6tions naturally arife upon confidering thealmofl The art of train. 
incredible perfedion, to which thofe, whofe profeffion it is to'"^ m/n to 

^ ,- athletic exercifes 

tram men to athletic exercifes, have brought their refpedive is wonderfully 
arts. By certain proceffes, they improve the breath, the '^^'=^'^^* 
flrength, and the courage of thofe they take in hand, fo as to 
enable them to run thirty, or walk a hundred miles, in a given 
fpace of time; to excel in wreftling; or to challenge a pro- 
fefled boxer. Would it not then be a mofi: important addition 
to the fa6is we already know concerning the means of im- 
proving ftrength, and enfuring long life, if authentic infor- 
mation could be procured from thofe diflricts where athletic 
exercifes prevail, what are efteemed the befi: and furefl pro- 
cetTes for training men for foot-races, trials of ftrength in 
wreftling or boxing matches, or for raifing the ftrength and 
courage of game-cocks, or improving the wind, ftrength, and 
fpeed of running horfes to their higheft pitch.* 

Thofe who give themfeives out as (kilful in this art, attend Some account 
to the ftate of the bowels, the flcin, and the lungs. They ufe °*' ^^^ '"^^hod?, 
fuch means as reduce the cellular or fatty fubftance, and in- 
vigorate the mufcular fibres. When they take a man in train- 
ing for any feat of this kind, he is not oiled and fuppled as 
the ancient athletics were; for as their common modes of life 
were hardy and active, they needed no other preparation : 
but he is fweated, purged, and dieted, and then put upon trial. 
He is purged with very draftic purges, to reduce his grolfnefs. 
He is made to walk out under a load of clothes ; his walks are 
regularly increafed, and a certain number of times a-week ; 
he is laid between two feather-beds ; fweat promoted by 
drinks ; his limbs taken from between the feather-beds, fuc- 
ceffively, and rubbed very roughly. After enduring for many 

* Though not immediately connefted with the objeft of thi? 
paper, it may not be improper to fuggeft, that it virould be of great 
importance, if medical gentlemen, whether in the army or navy, 
who have been on fervice, were nlfo to point out the varioiis cir- 
cumflances which tended to fupport, or to abate, the Ibengthand 
courage of the foldier or the faiior, 

hour.<; 



^l^? TRAINING OF ANIMALS, &C, 

hours this ftate of fuflfocation, he is comforted with a draught 
of ale or wine. The purges and fvveatings are repeated, ac- 
cording to the groflTnefs of his habit, and from time to time 
his trainer, (regarding him no otherwife than he would a 
running horfe, under the like difcipline,) takes him out, and 
makes trial of his wind and ftrengili, and does not ceafe till 
he has made him as lank as a greyhound, and almoft as fleet, 
andthegreat in- A man, even in the beft of ordinary health, becomes giddy 
""ute'd b°"the ^"^ breathlefs when he ftrikes ; and fick and pale on receiving 
human frame, a few blows. He is thence unable to bear any unufual exer- 
tion, and by inference prone to difeafe. If, by extenuating 
the fat, emptying in the cellular fubftance, hardening the 
niufcular fibres, and improving the breath, a man of the 
ordinary frame may be made to fight for one hour, with the 
utmoft exertion of ftrength and courage ; the inquiry which 
I have already fuggefied muft be of the higheft ufe. For 
were this new train of fads regularly laid before profeffional 
men, and were they enabled thus to judge of the influence 
which the methods of thefe pra6lical philofophers have on 
regulating the fundtions of breathing, perfpiration and 

Thek f»&s a.rt digeftion : it would be drawing into the province of fcience, 
probably of great ^ ^, ^ .,, ., , r 

value to the ^^ ^"^i Connected moil particularly with the means or pro- 
fcierice of pro- longing life, and hitherto known and praflifed only by a few 
ngi^fa ' • infulated individuals, of courfe imperfedlly known, and of 
too limited ufe. 
The art feems to J queflion whether the athletics of old ufed fimilar means ; 
whether they were equally fuccefsful ; whether there ever 
were, in any climate, age, or country, more hardy oi power- 
ful frames than thofe of our Englifli pugilifts. In Cooke's 
voyage, we are told of the marked inferiority of the Englifli 
faiiors, in wrefiling or boxing, to the naked fun-burnt heroes 
of the South Sea Iflands, But an Englifli failor, though full 
of fpirit and vigour, is as clumfy as a clown, and could not 
even row againft an inhabitant of the Sandwich Iflands. An 
Englifli bricklayer, blackfmith, or drayman, however, who 
liked the fport, and was pradifed in balancing and ftriking, 
might have challenged the whole of the tawny nation. 
Qujiles. With a view of colleding fuch important information, I am 

very anxious that the following queries fliould be propofed to 
thofe who profefs the art of training pugilifts, wreftlers, and 
* runners of foot-races, by fuch intelligent men as have the 

cpporluiiily of converfing with them. 

l.By 



TRAINING OK ANIMALS, &C. 315 

i. By what criterions or tefts, they judge of the rnufcular Teftsofftrength 
firength, or wind, or other qaaUties of thofe who feek 1o put 
themfelves under training. What is the earlieft, and what is 
the lateftage they would attenipt to train? 

2. How they judge of the length of time that may be re- Time required 
quired for bringing a man into good plight, vigorous health, ^° tram? 
and free breathing; and what period of preparation is ufualiy 

required for running a match ? 

3. What purges they ufe ; and in what fucceflion ; and by Purges, treat- 
what rules do they adminifter them ; and how do they judge "J^?^j» ^j'^"'^ 
of their eftedls ? Is the purging only preparatory, or is it 
regularly continued ? Is it meant, by this procefs to reduce 

the plethoric ftate of the fyftem, (on the idea that there is too 
great a quantity of blood,) or is it fimply defigned to put the 
bowels in the raoft favourable condition, for eafy and good 
digeftion ? Is the reducing the actual fize of the belly, necef- 
fary to more free and perfe6l breathing * ? 

4. Is the diet rich or fiinple ; of animal food, or of vegeta- Diet? 
ble; in great quantity, or fparing; is it increafed gradually, 

or diminiflied gradually ? What meals have they in the day; 
and at what hours; one or more; frequent feeding, in fmall 
and fixed portions, or full and fubftantial meals ? What kinds 
of fiefli or meat is reckoned the beft ; whether beef, mutton, 
veal, pork, lamb, or fowl ? Are any kinds of fifti allowed ? 
What quality of food is moll conducive to ftrength ? What 
quantity is necelTary for maintaining the fyftem in its mod 
perfect Hate of vigour ? Do they feed much in the inter- 
mediate days of the purges ? Is abflinence required when 
they take their phytic? 

5. What kinds of liquors are reckoned bed? Whether ^'1'^°"- 
wine, ale, water, fpirits, &c. ? Whether given hot or cold ; 

in what quantities ; and when ought they to be given ? 

* The effects of taking up a running horfe from idlenefs and foft 
pafture, to hard food and regular exercife, is attended with this 
peculiar effeft, that v/hile the animal becomes lank, fleek, andglofly, 
while he gets fire in his eye, and a new vigour in his limbs, and 
wind and fpeed, his beliy, (fwollen with coarfe indigeftible food, 
eaten in great profulion,) is drawn into half its fize. May we 
not then prefume from this analogy, that the ftate of the belly hn« 
a remarkable effe6\ upon the wind. 

3 Q. Are 



Exercife and 
treatment ? 



315 TRAINING OF ANIMALS, &C. 

Intention of the ^' Are the very violent perfpirations into which they throw 
pevfpuations, their patients, defigned to reduce the fyftein, to extenuate 
^wexci e , ^j^^ j.^j^ j^ lefTen that quantity of blood, the excefs of which 
makes us giddy or fliort breathed ; or is it merely defigned to 
produce a new condition of the fkin, more favourable to 
health and mufcular vigour ; to produce a fliarper appetite; 
a greater demand for food; and a quicker nouridjraent, or a 
greater nutrition from a more flender diet ? Is the fweat at 
firft produced by exercife, ^:id only continued by the perfon, 
when trained, being put between feather beds, and encouraged 
by drinks ; or is it produced by force of fweating drugs, or 
violent heats, or by continued fridion ? At what hours are 
the perfpirations brought on ? How is the pupil treated when 
the fweat is over? What becomes of the fkin of a fat man, 
when, by the procefs, he is reduced in fize, and rendered 
lean? Does it hang loofe, or is it tight? Has it any effefl 
upon the bones ? 

7, What hours of exercife do they require of their pupils 
during the day ? At what hours do they fond them out in the 
morning? How long do they continue abroad? Are they 
loaded with clothes after the body is reduced, and becomes 
limber, and thin and muicular; or only while the fweafing 
procefs continues? Are they fed before they go abroad, or 
when they return ? What trials are made of their ftrength ? 
When is a man known to be up to his full firength and breath 
in training? At what hours do they go to bed? What fleep 
are they allowed ? What indifpofitions are they fubjeft to 
during training ? Are there any circumiiances by which the 
procefs may be interrupted; or any circumflances, in con- 
fequence of which, it mufl fometimes be abandoned ? 

8. What Js the ftate of the health, after they give up train- 
ing ? Are they fubjecl to any complaints ; and what are they ? 
How long does the acquired excefs of firength continue? 

9. It is moft interefling to learn, on which part of this 
procefs, the purging, the fweating, the exercife, or the 
feeding, they moft depend ; and whether it procures a per- 

perrianent, tern- manent increafc of vigour, eafily maintained by fuitable diet 

porary, curative, g^^j exercifes, or only a temporary excitement, calculated 

for the particular occafion ? AHo, whether perfons have ever 

thought of undergoing this procefs, not for the purpofe of 

running matches, but to recover heallb ; with what fuccefs 

this 



Subfcq'.ient 
effefts of train 



What part of 
training rrioft 
effedual ? 
Whether it be 



*c 



TRAINING OF ANIMALS, &C. 3(7 

this has been done, and whether it is to be recommended for 
gout, corpulency, afthma, nervous diforder, or other maladies, 
as likely to be of fervice ? 

Thefe are queflions, of the importance of which, thofe who The art muft be 
are bell able to anfwer, may not be fully aware. But nothing °^ '""po"*"". 
which fo fuddenly changes the powers, and the very form and 
charader of the body, from grofs to lean, from weaknefs to 
vigorous health, from a breathlefs and bloated carcafe, to one 
active and untiring, can ever be unimportant, either to the 
art of phyfic in general, or to that branch of it more ini- 
mediately connefled with inquiries regarding health and 
longevity. 

The queries to be put regarding jockies, running-horfes, qr 
game-cocks, may be to the following effecl : 

1, Jockies, 

1. What is the procefs ufed in training them, and reducing ^^"j",''^'"?'^- 
their weight ? ^ j 

2. What efre6l has It upon their health and ftrength ? 

3. What effed has it upon their mind, in regard to courage, 
quicknefs, &c. 

4. How long do thefe efFefls continue ? 

5. After being reduced, do they quickly get fat again, 
or do they continue long in the flate to which they were 
brought ? 

6. Are jockies, accuftomed to be thus treated, healthy and 
long lived ? 

2. Running Horfcs, 

1. What are the principal objefls to be attended to in re- Running horfei? 
gard to running-horfes? Do their perfections depend upon 
parentage, and whether moft upon the male or the female? 

Is it neceflary that the mare {houid have gone her full time, 
to bring a perfed foal ? Is the gradual growth of the foal 
eflential? Is there a great difference, in regard to natural 
conftilulion, between horfes of the fame parentage ? What 
kind of form is in general preferred ? Do you prefer great or 
iraall bones ? Which fex is preferable for fpeed, and which 
for llrength ? 

2. What is the befl age for beginning to train horfes for 
the turf? Are they fufl put upon grafs r What is the effeci of 

loft 



gjg TRAINING OP ANIMALS, &C. 

"foft meat ? When fhould they be put on hard meat ? What are 
the effedls thereof? Is it neceflary to purge them frequently > 
Have the purges any tendency to weaken them ? What food 
is reckoned the moft nourifliing? How often are they fed ? 
What drinks are given them, and how often ? Whether hot 
or cold ? Is it neceffary to keep their (kin perfeftly clean, 
and how ? Is it neceffary to make them perfpire much ? What 
exercife is given them ? How is the (raining complieted? 

3. After the training is completed, can the perfedions 
thereby obtained be eafily kept up? Does the procefs effect 
merely a temporary change, or does it laft during life ? Are 
running horfes as long lived as others, or do they foon wear 
out? 

' 3. Game-Cocks. 

Game-eocks. ^- Does the fuperiorily of game-cocks depend upon pa- 

rentage ? Which is of moft importance, the male or the 
female? Is it of any confequence that the cock Aiould arrive 
rather gradually at maturity ? Is there a great difference, in 
point of ftrength and confiitution, in game cocks of the fame 
parentage ? Do you prefer great or fmall bones ? 

2. When do you begin to feed the young cocks? What 
diet and drink do you give them, and what is the procefs by 
which they are brought to the greateft poflible height of 
Hrenglh and fpirit ? 

3. When the game-cocks are thus trained, how long do 
the effeds thereof laft? Are they temporary or permanent? 
Do game-cocks thus trained live fliorter or longer than others 
of the fame fpecies ? 

4. What drugs are given to fighting-cocks immediately 
before the main begins? Is it not ufual, by giving them 
fafFron, (or fome drug which has the fame effect with opium, 
as ufed among the Janifaries, or brandy among liie French 
foldiery,) to excite an unnatural and fliort-lived courage ? 

'What are the effeds of fuch drugs ? and how do they manage 
the feeding up to this point, (o as to take advantage of this 
momentary excitement ? 



IX. On 



ON QUICKSAKDS. 



IX. 



319 



On the Dangers encountered in travelling over Downs, occufianed 
by Quickfands, xvhich are frequentlj/ fouiid on the ScaCoaJi', 
'with an Indication of the Means of avoiding them. By 
M. BiEMONTiER, Infpeaor-General of Bridges and Roads.* 

X^FTER heavy and continued rains, there are formed at Quickfands 
the edge of the fea-downs, fmall pools, or coileaions of ^"/J.^^^ J^/^Jjf'" 
water, frequently of feveral feet in depth. Strong winds ported by the 
diflodge portions of fand from the general mafs, and tranfport ^j"*^ '"^^ P°°'s 

iU . in 1 - 1 /• 11- • n I 1 of water, where 

them to a diltance; which tailing m mowers on the clayey they form vault- 
and flieltered furface of thefc pools, defcend gradually, and ^^ cavities till 

.,., . . , -.or, the hollow of 

remain as it were m equilibrium in the midlt or the water, the pool is filled 
fo as to form an infinity of little vaulted cavities. Thefe "?• 
arches fuftain others, which are again furmounted in a fimilar 
manner, till at length the mafs rifes, fometimes to feveral feet 
above the level of the water; the furface becomes white and 
dry, and the fnare lies perfe61Iy concealed. Whoever walks The furface is 
over this flruflure deftroys the whole, the arches give way, and differ" in"p" ^ 
the intruder is'immerfed fometimes to his waift j but his alarm pearance from 
is ufually greater than the real danger ; for if he were buried LoumT'lfuTv 
even up to the neck, he might eafily extricate himfelf, only by gives way when- 
retaining fufficient prefence of mind not to ftruggle, but to ^'"°'^ "P°"' 
move flowly and deliberately ; want of aUention to this might 
hazard his deftruftion. 

When the equilibrium of the mafTes of fand Is deflroyed. Management to 
they naturally fall into heaps, and it is only neceflary that ^^'° ^"Ser* 
time fliould be allowed for this to take place. When this has 
happened, the perfon immerfed fliould gently lift up one leg, 
and remain in that pofition till the fand has formed a fufficient 
bottom to fupport his raifed foot; the other leg ftiould tliea 
be lifted up with the fame precautions ; and thus fucceffi vely, 
til! he rifes to the furface. In the mean time, the water 
which had been confined in the hollows of the fand will have 
alfo rifen, forming a pond (three or four inches deep) through 
which the adventurer may pafs in perfect (afety. 

* Bibliotheque Phyfico-Economiciue, &c, de Soniui, November, 
1805, page 186. 

Cows. 



320 

Animals when 
immerfed ufe 
the fame method: 



tut they are 
feldom caught 
in quickfands. 

Inflance* 



Another kind of 
qyickfand;, 



formed by the 
waters drained 
through the 
earth. 



OK aUICKSANDS. 

Cows, dogs, and other animals who frequent downs, and 
chance to fall into thefe quickfands, either through inftin6t or 
experience, make ufe of this method to regain their freedom ; 
provided, however, they be not too deeply immerfed to retain 
the free ufe of their flioulder joints, otherwife they cannot be 
extricated without affiftance. I experienced this twice in 
one day ; my horfe fank to above the breaft-leather, and 
although he was very flrong, his efforts to extricate himfelf 
were unavailing, till we had removed fo much of the fand 
as impeded the aftion of thofe joints. 

It rarely happens that animals accuftomed to live on downs 
are caught in thefe fnares, which they are aware of, and 
know how to avoid. 

I attempted, but in vain, to force another horfe with the 
whip and fpur into a qiiickfand ; his owner, who afted as 
guide, affured me, that I Qiould not fucceed, although there 
was no other indication of the fpot than a fiat furface, (lightly 
wrinkled. By thefe marks the traveller may generally deled 
the concealed pitfall; but he may always avoid them by 
tracing the footfieps of the cattle, when vifible, or by walking 
a few fathoms above the bottom of the declivity, or on the 
fummit of the down. 

Another kind of quickfand is fometiraes met with on the 
fea-fl^ore, between high and low water mark, which it is 
proper fhould be here taken notice of. This is fometimes 
the efFed of rain, but more commonly of the fea, when forced 
by wind and tempeft beyond its ufual limits, which being 
generally more elevated than the dii^ant land, the waters 
thus impelled forward are prevented from returning to their 
ancient bed ; they therefore alter forming in a body, drain 
away through the earth they have inundated, or brought 
with them, and form excavations beneath, large or fmall, 
deep or fliallow, according to circumftances. 

I ought not to omit a fingular fa6l which pafled under my 
own obfervation, and which feems to prove, (as I have 
already ftated) that animals frequenting thefe plains, and 
living near the borders of the fea, employ combined means, 
acquired undoubtedly by experience, lo extricate themfelves 
from thefe cavities, wherein they rauft inevitably peiidi, did 
they, as it appears natural they (lioukl, attempt to efcape by 
repoilipg or by flight. 

2 Traverfing 



ON QUICKSANDS. 321 

Traverfing the plain of Arcachon, after a violent tempeft, Singular inci* 
which had been accompanied with heavy rains, we thought '*^"^* 
it prudent to get off our horfes and lead them by the bridle. 
One of the horfes who was left to himfelf, immediately 
quitted the company; and was retiring from the (liore, but 
being compelled to return by the application of the whip, 
he went upon the quickfand, which probably he had attempt- 
ed to avoid bydefertion; but the moment he felt the earth 
giving way, he crouched down, or rather threw himfelf pre- 
cipitately on his fide. The ground quickly fank beneath and 
round about him ; the water furmounted the fand ; the horfe 
was only wetted to the crupper, and we efcaped with no 
other damage than the lofs of our flock of bread, which being 
foaked in the fait water was rendered unfit to be eaten. 

It may be received as matter of fa6l, that a man who Travellers when 
fliould experience a fimilar misfortune, could not do belter ""^^^ ^'"^[^'^ 
than to extend himfelf in the like manner, nearly in the throw them- 
attitude of a fwimmer, when he throws himfelf into the ^^^"^^ '^°"'"* 
water. It is fcarcely neceflary to explain the fuperior ad- 
vantage of this method ; a plate of lead, of forae thoufands 
of weight, and feveral feet in breadth, if caft flat into any 
liquid body, would reach the bottom no quicker than the 
fluid could efcape to make way for it ; if a fimilar body were 
to fall upon a quickfand, it would fliake every part of it, 
but would prevent the fand or earth from rifing, while the 
firm furrounding earth would confine it laterally : the ruins of 
the arched vaults would replace the waters which had been 
liberated from their fubierraneous confinement ; folid heaps 
would then neceffarily be formed towards the centre, and the 
incumbent body would remain at the furface, or at leaft it 
would not be (wallowed up. 

Thefe quickfands are generally denoted by fmall dreams, Quickfands art 
below which, when pradicable, there is no danger i" of wlter!*^ ''"^ 
pafiing. 



X. Extnt£l 



322" CN THE GUANO, 



X. 

Extrad fro?}t a Memoir by Mejfrs. FouRCROY and Vauque- 
LiN, on the Guano, or Natural Manure, of the fmall Jjlands 
of (he South Sea, near the Coafi of Peru, Read at the French 
National I nfiUute, bi/ A. Laugier.* 

M. Humboldt Among the multitude of fubjeas worthy the attention of 

thefirftwho the naturalift, which the philorophical Humboldt obferved 
gave an account r r 

of the Guano, and colleded during his travels, the Guano is not the lead 
confiderable, from the intereft which it excites. This cele- 
brated naturalift, by making us acquainted with this fingular 
matter, one of the principal refources of agriculture in the 
countries he vifited, has given confirmation to a difcovery 
made by the authors of this memoir, about the time of his re- 
Memoir by turn. Reading their memoir on the exiftence of uric acid in 
2We«V9#Four- ^^^ excrements of birds, it occurred to him that the Guano of 

croy and Vau- 

queiin on the the iflets on tiie coaft of Peru, which are frequented by great 
excrements of numbers of birds, might poffibly be of the fame nature. It 

birds, fuggefted /-i-.n- -i 

the notion that remained for chemical inveftigation to examine how far this 

the Guano was conje6lure was well founded ; and Meflrs. Fourcroy and Vau- 

fame origin. queh'n undertook the analyfisof this matter. The following 

is the refult of their labours, with this view, extracted from 

the Memoirs of the National Inftitute. 

Before I enter upon a detail of the experiments made 
upon Guano, in order to afcertain its nature, it may not be 
irrelevant to the fubjefl to tranfcribe what M. Humboldt him- 
fe!f fajs of this fiibftance in a note fent to the authors of this 
memoir. 
■Extraftfrom " '^^'^^ Guano is found in abundance in the South Sea, in 

M, Humboldt's the Chinche iflands, near Pifco ; and alfo on the more foulh- 

Gua'no found on ^""^ ^^^^^ ^'^^ '^^^-^ ^^ ^^^' ^'^^> ^""^ Arica. The inhabitants 

certain fmall of Chancay, who make Guano an objeft o^ their commerce, 

iflands, ^^ j^ ^^^ return from the Chinche iflands once in 20 days. — 

Each veflei contains from 1500 to 2000 cubic feet. A vanega 

fells at Chancay for H livres, and at Arica for 15 livres, 

Tournois. 

—in beds 50 or " Guano is dug from beds 50 or 60 feet thick; where it is 

60/eet thick, worked like the bog-ore of iron. The iflets where it is found 

* Annales de Chimie, Vol. LVI. p. 258; 

are 



ON THE euANo, 323 

are frequented by a multitude of birds, particularly of the The place fre- 

fpecies of Ardea and Phoenicopterus, who roofl: there every numbers'^o/^'* 

right: but the excrements of thefe birds have hardly formed, birds. 

in three centuries, a layer of four or five lines in depth. Is 

then the Guano the efFe6l of fome convultion of the globe, 

like pit-coal and fofiil wood ? The fertiUty of the naturally Sterile foil of 

fteriie foil of Peru is derived from the Guano, which has be-^"" '"^'^'^'^"'*- 

ful by the 

come a material article of commerce. Fifty little vefTels, Guano. 
called Guuneras, are conftantly employed in fetching this^°^^'^^'"P'°y«<i 

c i/-,ri/iT m ■ 1 to colled it. 

manure, tor the iupply ot the coalt. Its effluvmm may beit has a ftrong 

fmelled at the diflance of a quarter of a league. The failors o«i«"/ of am- 

accuftomed to this fmell of ammonia, feel no inconvenience 

from it; but we could not approach it without being affeded 

with continued fits of fneezing, 

" Maize is the particular vegetable for which Guano forms Maize particu- 

an excellent manure. The Spaniards learned its ufe of the J^"" ^ ^^"^^^^'^ 
T 1- Tr > 1 , 1 -I • by Guano as a 

Indians: It too much be thrown upon the maize, the root iSmanurct 

burned and defiroyed. Guano is tooacidifiable, and is there- 
fore a manure containing hydruret of azote; whilfl all other 
manures are rather hydrurets of carbon. '* 

Guano is of a dirty yellow colour, rather Infipid to the its appearance* 
tafte, but pofleffing a powerful odour, partaking of caftor and 
of valerian. It turns black in the fire, and exhales a white 
fmoke of an ammoniacal fmell. 

Its folubilily in water, particularly with potafli, determined Partly folublc in 
the operators as to the method they fhould purfue in ilsanalyfis.^*^^* 
They treated it fucceffively with water, with potafb, and with 
muriatic acid; each of which methods prefented many phe- 
nomena, as related in the following part of this paper, di- 
vefted of the particular details of procefs, which are too ex- 
tenfive for an exlradt. 

Ten grammes of this matter, after being repeatedly wathed The folution 
with large quantities of boiling water, were reduced to 5yB '* ^'^'^* 
grammes. The water had obtained a red colour, which it 
communicated to paper ftained with turnfole. 

In diftillation, the water yielded ammonia during the whole The water 
operation. Twenty-four hours afterwards, it had depofited a yielded ammonia 
dirty yellow powder, pofleiling very little flavour, but with and depofited'a 
an odour of calior : On the furface was a cryllalline pellicle, yel'ow powder 
,. , r 1 ■ I 1 1 rf • With a fmclJ of 

ot the fame colour with the depohtion. caftor. 

The 



324 O^ THE GUANO, 

The liquor, filtered and again evaporated, till reduced (d 
3 grammes, on cooling again, depofited a fawn'-coloured 
powder, fimiiar to the former, but in lefs quantity. 

The powder, and the mother- water,, which had held it in 
folulion, were feparately examined, 
Ixaminaticn of ^^^ powder offered the following properties : — It is a con- 
tbepowder, Crete and pulverulent fubUance, of a brilliant cryftalline af- 
pe6i, and of a dull yellow colour. Before the blow-pipe it is 
coalumed entirely away, yielding a flight empyreumatic odour 
o^ ammonia and pruflic acid. It is very little foluble in 
cold water; but abundantly fo in warm water, to which it 
communicates its yellowifh colour. This folution, though 
lafJelefs, ftrongly reddens the tincture of turnfole, precipitates 
Solutions of acetate of lead, and of nitrate of filver and mer- 
cury, in coloured flakes, which are readily and completely 
rediflblved by nitric acid. 

This matter inftantaneoudy diflToIves in an alkaline ley, 
which it tinges of a deep brown colour, exhaling a pungent 
Cmell of ammonia. Sulphuric acid poured into the concen- 
trated alkaline folution, throws down a very thick whitilh pre- 
cipitate, and difengages a briflc odour, refembling that of 
weak acetic acid. 
it Is an acidu- ^^^ learned authors of this memoir conclude from their ex- 
lous fair, com- periments, that this powder is an acidulous falf, compofed of 

pafcd of animai animal acid, ammonia, and a little lirne. In fad, very weak 

acw, ammonia, ' ' , . ■' 

and lime. nitric acid, wherein this fait had been macerated in order to 

difengage the acid it contained, from its bafes, yielded, on 

evaporation, copious ammoniacal vapours, by the addition 

of potafli, and unequivocal figns of the prefence of lime, by 

the addition of oxalic acid. 

AnaTyfis of the When thus deprived of its ammonia and lime, this matter 

powder when j^ ]q[^ coloured and Itfs foluble than before. Its folution in 

ammonia and boiling water depofits pretty hard and brilliant cryfials, and 

time, more deeply reddens turnfole paper. It combines readily, 

and without any ammoniacal vapour, with pofafli, from which 

all the acids again leparate it. Heat turns it black ; and it 

burns, without leaving any refiduum, with an odour of am- 

ir.onia and of pruflic acid. A neutral combinatiou of it with 

ammonia will not: precipitate the folution of fulpbate of alu- 

mine, as is done by iiouiltic acid. 

From 



ON THE CWANO. 32g 

From thefe fads it appears evident, 1, that the matter taken The acid of 

up by the boilinff water from Guano is an acid, partly fatu- ^i*f"° '^ "."*^ 

■ - . . It,- I t • • 1 • ^'^"^» forming 

rated with ammonia and a httie imie ; 2, that this acid is an about i of the 

annual produd, becaufe it yields ammonia and prudic acid, wiiole* 

when decern pofed by fire; 3, that the fame acid, according 

to all the known properties, muft be uric acid, fimilar to that 

contained in the excrements of aquatic birds; 4, that it forms 

about one fourth part of the Guano. 

The mother^waier which depolited the powder, whofe qua- Analyfisof th« 
lilies bave been juft examined, is very acid ; potaih caufes a '"o^her-v.ater 
copious difengagement oF ammonia: It contains, therefore, jjjg'^^,^^"^' ^ 
an ammoniacal fait. Nitrate of barytas and of liiver an- It contains an 
nounce the prefence of muriatic and fulphuric falls; which^"^""" - ' 
are precipitated in white flakes by lime-water, and are rcrdif- 
folved, though with difficulty, in muriatic acid. 

This f recif)itate caufed by lime water, is evidently formed 
of two falls, both foluble in acids without effervefcence ; one 
eafiiy, and witliout the affiftance of heat, the other with diffi- 
culty, even with the aid of heat; the former refifts calcination, 
the latter is decompofed by fire, and afterwards diflblves in 
acids with effervefcence. The firft is phofphate of lime, the —and phofphatie 
fecond cjialate of Jime. ^.'"^ o^al»t« ^^ 

Meifrs. Fourcroy and Vauquelin wifliied to feparate thefe 
two falls, without iheir undergoing any alteration ; and witli 
this view they made ufe of weak nitric acid, which diffblved 
the phofplvate of lime, and left the oxalate untouched. The 
latter fait, on being treated with a folution of carbonate of 
putafli, yielded a precipitate that diflblved wilh effervefcence 
in nitric acid : Tiiis folution djfplayed all the properties of ni- 
trate of lime. The acid feparated from the lime was taken 
up by the potaQi ; in fy&, the liquor pofieffed the charaders 
of oxalate of potafti; it precipitated with lime-water, a very 
divided powder, with fulphate of lime, in flajces, which would 
not readily unite ; and with all the metallic folutions capable 
of precipitation by oxalic acid. Sulphate of alymine cauf&d 
no precipitate, as it would have done with honiftate of potafh. 

The potafti found in the mother-water, after its precipitar The mother- 

tion by lime-water, and the difengagement of ammonia, caufed ^^'f ""*^in$ 
. , , , r oxalates, phoi- 

by the addition of potafh to the mother-water, prior to its de- phates, ful- 

compofuion by lin^e-water, fufiiciently fliew that thefe two I'.'^^'"'/"'^'"'*" 

IV 1- , ' , -1 ■ 1 • I , .nates of potafh, 

a!*alis latiirale the aciqs contaaied in the mother-water or and of 101^9- 
V'OL. XflJ.— ApRit, ISOG. 4 ?i Guano: "'»• 



326 



The Guano left 
from the firft 
wafliing, 
—contains uric 
acid. 



Phofphate of 
limC) iron, and 
carbonate of 



—and left 
^artzofe and 
ferruginous 
fandi 



Recapitulation 
of component 
parts. 



Remarks. 



ON THE GUANO, 

Guano; and that themother-water certainly contains oxalates 
phofphates, fulphates, and muriates of potafli, and of am- 
monia. 

The five grammes and feven-lenlhs, left after the wadilng 
of the ten grammes originally taken for analyfis, were treated 
with cauftic polafh, which took up eight-tenths. This alka-. 
line folution contained only uric acid, and a fmall portion of 
fat matter. 

The 4.9 grammes left by the cauftic potafli, were treated 
with muriatic acid : the producl was phofphate of lime, iron, 
and an atom of carbonate of lime. 

After thefe applications of water, of cauftic potafli, and of 
muriatic acid, there remained of the 10 grammes of Guano, 
only 3.1 grammes of matter, compofed of quartzofe and fer- 
ruginous fands. 

From the foregoing interefting analyfis, it appears that the 
manure of the iflels of the South Sea is formed of, — 

1. Uric acid to the amount of | of the whole compound; 
partly faturated with ammonia and lime : 

2. Oxalic acid, partly faturated v/ith ammonia and potafli : 

3. Phofphoric acid, combined with the fame bafes and with 
lime : 

4. Small quantities of fulphate and muriates of polafh and 
ammonia: 

5. A fmall portion of fat matter: 

6. Sand, partly quartzofe and partly ferruginous. 

The exiftence of Guano in places frequented by vaft num- 
bers of bird;;, and the identity of its nature with that of the 
excrements of aquatic birds, nec^fliarily throw confiderable 
light on the origin of this matter. 

The analyfis proves how well founded was the ingenious 
eomparifon of the learned naturalift, to whom we are indebted 
for our knowledge of this fubftance, no lefs interefting to us 
than ufel'ul to the inhabitants of Peru. It confirms (he im- 
portant difcovery made by the refearches of Mefl^rs. Fourcroy 
and Vauquelin. In a word, this analyfis pofl^effes the advan- 
tage of proving a well-known maxim, that the fciences mu- 
tually enrich and enlighten each other with the light they pof- 
fefs; and it affords a new occalion to remark that among the 
fciences, there are perhaps none which have fo immediate 
and fo neceflary a connexion as Chemiftry and Natural 

Hiftory. 

XI. No^ 



CLAZING VESSELS. 327 



xr. 

Koie on a Varnijh for glazing Cups, By M. 
Parmentier*. 

iVl. BOMPOIX, chief apothecary to the French Military Account of very 

Hofpital at Genoa, having: fent me fome coffee-cups of a re- ''S"*^ "" , ' 

' '8 v cups finely vir- 

inarkable iightnef<j and glazed with a varnith which is held in ni(hed. 

great repute, perhaps on!)' becaufe its preparation is icepta (e- 
cret in that coantr\ ; I requeued him to u(e his utmott endea- 
vours to procure me the receipt. He obtained it through the 
medium of one of his pupils, who learned the fecret from the 
artificer at the manufactory, and had made from his prefcrip- 
tion a varnifli in every refped equal to that in queftion : 

It confifted of lintfeed oil I | lbs. ; amber lib.; litharge Receipt for the. 
in powder, minium in powder, cerufe in powder, each, 5 oz.^*""^* 

Boil the lintfeed oil in an unglazed earthen veflel, and tie 
the litharge, minium, and cerufe in a linen bag, which is to 
be fufpended in the oil whilft boiling, fo that it may not touch 
the bottom of the veflTel. When the oil begins to turn brown, 
take out the bag, and put in a clove of garlic, cleared of 
the fkin ; continue the boiling ; and when the garlic is dried 
away, put in another and another, to the amount of fix or 
/even. In the mean time, the amber is to be melted in 
another unglazed velTel, according to the method hereafter 
prefcribed ; and when the oil has been fufficiently boiled, the 
fufed amber is to be poured into it. 

To melt the Amber. 

Take two ounces of lintfeed oil, to foften the amber and g^J^j^g" " 
to alfifl: its fufion by a very britk fire, and when the amber is 
melted, add the lintfeed oil, and boil the whole about two 
minutes. The fluid muft then be ftrained through a coarfe 
cloth, and when cold put into a bottle well corked, to prevent 
it from drying. 

Method of ufmg the Varnijh. 

Let the piece intended to be varniflied be firft well polifiied, ^^PPjJ^Sft."^ 
•id then apply the varnilh in the following manner : 

* Annates de Chimie, Vol. LVI. p. 254. 

A a 2 Mix 



528 



Manner of 
making the 
wooden cups. 



"Rti varniiht 



ACTION OF HEAT MODIFIED 

Mix lamp black wilh varnifli and a little lurpentine, with 
a hair pencil, and lay one coat on the piece ; when this is 
dry, lay on another, and repeat the procefs till four coats 
have been laid on, taking care to let each dry before the ap- 
plication of the next. When the laft is dry, put the piece 
into a ftove or oven to complete the drying, aad then polill) 
it with pumice and Tripoli powder. 

Method of preparing the Fiece intended to be vamijhed. 

Make the cups of hazel, alder, or cherry-tree, which are 
preferable to other woods for this ufe, becaufe they are pofous 
when perfedly dry, and do not warp. Form them according to 
fancy, and dry them in an oven. The work muft be poliftied as 
if it were complete; and afterwards lay on the varnifti as 
already prefcribed. 

If it fhould be wiflied to give a red ground to the article, 
mix a little minium, or rather cinabar, with the varnilh. Any 
other colour may in like manner be mixed with it, as may bell; 
pleafe the fancy of the operator. 



Vioient revo- 
lutions of the 
furface of the 
Slobe. 



XII. 

Account of a Series of Experiments, ^(hewing the EffeSis of Coni' 
jprejfton in modifj/ing the ABion of Heat*. By Sir James 
Halx., Eurt. F.R.S. Edinburgh. 
Section I. 

Ancient Revolutions of the Mineral Kingdom, — Vain Attempts 
to explain them. — Dependance of Geology on Chemifiry. — Im- 
portance of the Carbonate of Lime. — Dr Black's Difcovery 
of Carbonic Acid fuhverted the former theoi'ies depending on 
Firey but 'gave Birth to that of Dr. Hutton. — Progrefs of 
the Author's Ideas xvith Regard to that Theory. — Experiments. 
with Heat and Comprejffion, fuggejled to Dr. Hutton in 
1790. — Undertaken by the Author in 1798. — Speculations on 
ivhick his Hopes of Succejs were founded. 

W HOEVER has attended to the firufture of rocks and 
mountains, muft be convinced, that our globe has not always 

exifled 

* The highly interefting experiments of Sir James Hail upon 

. the eftefts of hej^t modified by cgmpieflloii, were communicated ta 

the 



BY COMPRESSION. 329 

exified In its prefent ftate ; but that every part of its mafs, fo 
far at lead as our obfervations reach, has been agitated and fub- 
verted by the moft violent revolutions. 

FaCii leading to luch firiking conclufions, however imper- Geological fyf- 
fedtly obferved, could not fail to awaken curiofity, and give *^"* ''"P"^*^* 
rife to a defire of tracing the hittory, and of inveftigating the 
caufes, of fuch ftupend&us events ; and various attempts were 
made in this way, but with .little fuccefs; for while difcoveries 
of the utmoft importance and accuracy were made in aftro- 
nomy and natural philofophy, the fyftems produced by the 
Geologifts were fo fanciful ^nd puerile, as fcarcely to delerve 
a ferious refutation. 

One principal caufe of this failure feems to have lain in the becaufe chemi- 

very imperfed ftaie of chemiftry, which has only of late years"' knowledge 

-'J W21S in its iJX^ 

begun to deferve the name of a fcience. While chemitiry was fancy. 

in its infancy, it was impoflible that geology (hould make any 

progrefs ; (ince feveral of the moft important tircumftances to 

be accounted for by this latter fcience, are admitted on all 

hands to depend upon principles of the former. The confoli- 

dation of loofe fand into ftrata of foHd rock ; the cryftalline 

arrangement of lubtiances accompanying tiiofe tirata, and 

blended with them in various modes, are circumftances of a 

the Royal Society of Edinburgh in Auguft 1804, and were tranf- 
initted to our Journal by the Author in the following month. They 
appear in Vol. IX. page 98. Thatconcife narrative could not but 
ftrongly excite the curiofity of pbilofophers and geologifts, and di- 
reft their earneft expeftations to a fuller detail. In the laft feflion, 
June 3, 1805, a very ample communication was made, whicb has 
been printed with five quarto plates, very beautifully engraved by 
Lizars, fromdefigns by Sir James. I cannot but confider it as one 
of thofe high marks of approbation, with which the Philofophical 
Journal has been honoured from time to time, that thje author has 
again dire£t:ed his attention to this periodical work, as the vehicle 
through which his difcoveries Hiould be more extenfively cir- 
culated. With this view he has not only favoured me with the 
memoir as foOn as completed, but lias liberally taken upon 
himfelf the expence of engraving the plates for the Journal in the 
fame fupeiior flyle. By this means the numbers containing his 
memoir will be enriched v/nh ten additional plates befides thofe 
ufually given : — for I fhall with great fatisfaftion follow the tl^eps 
of the worthy baronet by prefenting the additional expences of 
paper and print to the reader without charge. W. N. 

chemical 



330 



ACTION OF HEAT MODIFIED 



chemical nature, which all thofewho have attempted to frame 
theories of the earth have endeavoured by chemical reafon- 
ings to reconcile to their hypothefes. 
Fire and water Fire and iiattr, the only agents in nature by which ftony 
f en"tn"wo^ fubftances are produced, under our obfervation, were employ- 
theories, ed by contending fefls of geologifts, to explain all the phe- 
nomena of the mineral kingdom. 

But the known properties of water are quite repugnant to 
the belief of its univerfal influence, fince a very great propor- 
tion of the fubtlances under confideralion are infoluble, or near- 
ly fo, in that fluid; and tince, if they were all extremely fo- 
luble, the (Quantity of water which is known to exift, or that 
could poflibly exift in our planet, would be far too fmall to ac- 
compliih the ofiice adigned to it in the Neptunian theory*. On 
the other hand, the known properties of fire are no lefs inade- 
quate to the purpofe ; for, various fubftances which frequently 
occur in the mineral kingdom, feem, by their prefence, 
to preclude its fuppofed agency; fince experiment fliews, 
that, in our fires, they are totally changed or deftroyed. 

Under fuch circumftances, the advocates of either element 
were enabled, very fuccefsfully, to refute the opinions of 
their adverfaries, though they could but feebly defend their 
own: and, owing, perhaps to this mutual power of attack, 
and. for want of any alternative to which the opinions of men 
could lean, both fyftems maintained a certain degree of cre- 
dit; and writers on geology indulged themfelves, with a fort 
of impunity, in a flyle of unphilofophical reafoning, which 
would not have been tolerated in other fciences. 

Of all mineral fubftances, the carbonate of lime is unquef- 
tionably the moft important in a general view. As limeftone 
or marble, it conftitutes a very confiderable part of the folid 
mafs of many countries ; and^ in the form of veins and no- 
dules of fpar, pervades every fpecies of ftone. Its hiftory is 
thus interwoven in fuch a manner with that of the mineral 
kingdom at large, that the fate of any geological theory mufi: 
very much depend upon its fuccefsful application to the va- 
rious conditions of this fubftance. But, till Dr. Black, by bis 

., * llh-Jirations of the Huttcnian Theory, by Mr. Profcffor Playfair, 
§ 430, 

2 difcoverj 



Water has little 
agency on mi- 
nerals. 



.Common fire 
does not explain 
the fadts. 



Hence both 
theories were 
doubtful. 



Carbonate of 
lime is of ex- 
tenfive impor- 



Bi' COMPRESSTOH. ggj 

difcovery of carbonic acid, explained the chemical nature of 
the carbonate, no rational theory could be formed, of the che- 
mical revolutions which it has unvioubtedly undergone. 

This difcovery was, in the firft inftance, hoftile to the fup- feems not pro- 
pofed action of fire ; for tlie decompofilion of limeftone by fire "^' ^ y *" ' 
in every common ki!n being thus proved, it feemed abfurd to 
afcribe to that fame agent the formation of limeftone, or of 
any mafs containing it. 

The contemplation of this difficulty led Dr. HuKon to view Dr. Hutton'i 
the action of Mre in a manner peculiar to himfelf, and thus to ''^J'* 
form a geological theory, by which, in my opinion, he has fur- 
nifhed the world with the true folution of one of the moft inte- 
refting prpblems that has ever engaged the attention of men of 
fcience. 

He fuppofed, 

I. That heat has afted, at fome remote period, on all That rocks have 
j-Qcks undergone heat 

under ftrong 

II. That during the a6lion of heat, all (hefe rocks (even preflure. 

fuch as now appear at the furface) lay covered by a fuperin- 
cumbent tnafs, of great weight and ftrength. 

III. That in confequence of the combined aflion of heat 
and preflTure, effects were produced different from thofeof heal 
on common occafions ; in particular, that the carbonate of 
lime was reduced to a ftate of fufion, more or lefs complete, 
without any calcinalion. 

Theelfential and charadterifiic principle of his theory is thus 
comprifed in the word comprefion; and by one bold hypothefis, 
founded on this principle, he undertook to meet all the objec- 
tions to the a6tion of fire, and to account for thofe circum- 
flances in which minerals are found to differ from the ufual 
products of our furnaces. 

This fyftem, however, involves fomany fuppofitions, appa- singular con^ 
rently in contradiction to common experience, which meet us trail of the per- 
on the very threOioId, that moft men have hitherto been de- ^'^JJ.'^^y,°^^^^_* 
terred from the inveftigalion of its principles, and only a few verfation, and 
individuals have juftly appredated its merits, Jf was long |J?^ ^'^^f ""^^ 
before I belonged to the latter clafs; for I muft own, that, on 
reading Dr. Hutton's firft geological publication, I was in- 
duced to rejeft his fyfteni entirely, and fliould probably have 
continued ftill to do lb, with the great majority of the world, 
but for my habits of iHtimacy v^ilh the author; the vivacity 

and 



tm 



ACTION OP HEAT MODIFIED 



and perfpicuity of whofe converfation formed a ftriking 
contraft to the obfcurity of his writings. I was induced by 
that charm, and by the numerous original fa£ls which his 
fyftem had led him to obferve, to liften to his arguments, in 
favour of opinions which 1 then looked upon as vifionary. I 
thus derived from his converfation the fame advantage which 
the world has lately done from the publication of Mr. Playfair's 
llluftrations ; and, experienced the fame influence which is 
now exerted by that work, on the minds of our moft eminent 
men of fcience. 
The author's After three years of alraoft daily warfare with Dr. Kutton, 

progrefs m^the ^ on the fubjed of his theory, I began to view his fundamental 
principles with lefs and lefs repugnance. There is a period, 
I believe, in all fcientific inveftigations, when the conjectures 
of genius ceafe to appear extravagant; and when we balance 
the fertility of a principle, in explaining the phenomena of 
nature, againft its improbability as an hypothefis : The partial 
view which we then obtain of truth, is perhaps the moft a(- 
traflive of any, and moft powerfully ftimulales the exertions 
of an adiive mind. The mift which obfcured fome obje6ls 
diffipates by degrees, and allows ihem to appear in their 
true colours; at the fame time, a difiant profptct opens to our 
view, of fcenes unfafpe6ied before. 
He propofes ex- Entering now ferioufly into the train of reafoning followed 
perimental con- by D^, Hutton, I conceived that the chemical effects afcribed 
* by him to compreffion, ought, in the firft place, to be invefti- 

^ated ; for, unlefs fome good reafon were given us for be- 
lieving that heat would be modified by preflTure, in the manner 
alledged, it would avail us little to know that they had a6led 
together. He refted his belief of this influence on analogy ; 
and on the fatisfadory folution of all the phenomena furniflied 
by this fuppofition. It occurred to me, however, that this 
principle was fufceptible of being eftabliflied in a direft man- 
ner by experiment, and I urged him to make the attempt ; 
but he always rejedied this propofal, on account of the im- 
menCty of the natural agents, whofe operations he fuppofed 
rejeftedby the ^^ ^'^ ^^^ beyond the reach of our imitation; and he feemed 
l>oitor. to imagine, that any fuch attempt muft undoubtedly fail, and 

thus throw difcredit on opinions already fufficiently eftabliflied, 
as he conceived, on other principles. I was far, however, 

from 



J 



BV COMPRESSION. ^33 

ftbm being convinced by thefe arguments ; for, without beihjr 
able to prove that any artificial compreffion to which we could 
expofe the carbonate, would, efiediially prevent its calcina- 
tion in our fires, I maintained, that we had as little proof of 
the contrary, and that the application of a moderate force 
might poffibly perform all that was hypothetically afliimed in 
the Huttonian theory. On the other hand, I confidered 
myfelf as bound, in practice, to pay deference to his opinion, 
in a field which he had already fo nobly occupied ; and ab» 
flained, during the remainder of his life, from the profe- 
cution of fome experiments with compreffion, which I had 
begun in 1790. 

In 1798, I refumed the fubjed with eagerncfs, being ftill of Experiments! 

opinion that the chemical law which forms the bafis of the '"**^'2^''"'* 
TT -I . . 1 - /- I in- « undertaken. 

Huttonian theory, ought, in the hrft place, to be inveltigated 

experimentally j all my fubfequent reflections and obferva- 
tions having tended to confirm my idea of the importance 
of this purfuit, without in any degree rendering me more ap- 
prehenfive as to the refult. 

- In the arrangement of the following paper, I (liall firfi con- Order of tie 
fine myfelf to the inveftigation of the chemical efTefts of heat preient trcatifc, 
and compreffion, referving to the concluding part the appli- 
cation of my refults to Geology. 1 ffiall then appeal to the 
volcanoes, and ftiall endeavour to vindicate the laws of a<5iion 
affiiraed in the Huttonian theory, by fliewing, (hat lavas, 
previous to their eruptions, are (libjeft to fimilarlaws; and 
that the volcanoes, by their fubterranean and fubmarine exer- 
tions, mud produce, in our times, refults fimilar to thofeafcri- 
bed, in that theory, to the former action of fire. 

In comparing the Huttonian operations with thofe of the 
volcanoes, I (hall avail myfelf of fome fads, brought to light 
in ihe courfeof the following inveftigations, by which a precife 
limit is affigned to the intenfity of the heat, and to the force 
of compreffion, required to fulfil the conditions of Dr. Hutton's 
hypolbefis : For, according to him, the power of thofe agents 
was very great, but quite indefinite; it was therefore im» 
poffible to compare their fuppofed eftefis in any precife mapner 
with the phenomena of nature. 

My attention was almoft exclufively confined to the carbo- Argument re- 
nate of lime, about which 1 reafoned as follows : The carbonic t^o^naf" ofTimc. 
*cid, when uncombined with any other fubftance, exifis natu- 
6 rally 



Oo4i ACTION OF HEAT MODIFIEO 

ralljjn agafeousform, atthecomraon temperature orourairno. 
fphere; but t\'hen in union with lime, its volatility is repreired, 
in that fame temperature, by the chemical force of the earthy 
fubftance, which retains it in a folid form. When the tem- 
perature is raifed to a full red-heaf, the acid acquires a vola- 
tility by which that force is overcome, it efcapes from the 
lime, and aflTumes its gafeous form. It is evident, that were 
the attradive force of the lime increaled, or the volatility of 
the acid diminithed by any means, the compound would be en- 
abled to bear a higher heat without decompofition, than it can 
Preffbre muft in the prefent flate of things. Now, prefiure muft produce an 
panfion and effect of this kind; for when a mechanical force oppofes the 
efcape of the expanfion of the acid, its volatility muft, to a certain degree, 
^f^'f^"pj^^^;^^^^^bedimininied. Under prefTure, then, the carbonate maybe 
Wronger heat, expefted to remain unchanged in a heat, by which, in the open 
air, it would have been calcined. But experiment alone can 
teach us whatcompreffing force is requifite to enable it to refift 
any given elevation of temperature ; and what is to be the relult 
of fuel) an operation. Some of the compounds of lime with 
acids are fuiible, others refradorj ; the carbonate, when con- 
firained by prefTure to endure a proper heal, may be as fufible 
as the muriate. 
Probability that One circumftance, derived from the Huttonian Theory, 

the carbonate induced me to hope, that the carbonate was eafily fufible, 
might not be of . ' , , ■' 

difficult fufion. and indicated a precife point, under which that fufion ought 

to be expeded. Nothing is more common than to meet with 
nodules of calcareous fpar inclofed in whinftone; and we fup- 
pofe, according to the Huttonian theory, that the whin and 
the fpar had been liquid together ; the two fluids keeping fepa- 
rate, like oil and water. It is natural, at thejunftion of thefe 
two, to look for indications of their relative fufibililies; and we 
F & \h' h ^"^' accordingly, that the termination of the fpar is generally 
jndic.teits globular and fmooth ; which feems to prove, that, when the 
nielting heat, vvhin became folid, the fpar was ftill in a liquid ftale; for had 
the fpar congealed firft, the tendency which it fliews, on all oc- 
cafions of freedom, to flioot out into prominent cryftals, would 
have made it dart into the liquid whin, according to the pecu- 
liar forms of its cryftallization; as has happened with the 
various fubftances contained in whin, much more refractory 
than iilelf, namely, augite, felfpar, &c.; all of which having 
congealed in the liquid whin, have alTumed their peculiar 

forms 



forms with perfea regularity. From this I concluded, that 
when the whin congealed, which mufi have happened about 
28'^ or 30" of Wedgwood, the fpar was ftill liquid. I therefore 
expefted, if I could compel the carbonate to bear a heat of 28" 
without decompofition, that it would enter into fufion. The 
fequel will fiiew that this conjedure was not without foun- 
dation, 

I fhall now enter upon the defcription of thofe experimentsj ^he ex- 
the refult of which I had the honour to lay before this Society perimentsfn- 
on the 30fh of Auguft laft (1804); fully aware how difficult ,V°'^""''* 
is, in giving an account of above five hundred experiments, all 
tending to one point, but dit!ering much from each otiier in 
various particulars, to fteer between the oppofite faults of 
prolixity and barrennefs. My objea Hiall be to defcribe, as 
fliortly as pofTible, all the methods followed, fo as to enable 
any chemift to repeat the experiments ; and to dwell particu- 
larly on fuch circumftances only as feem to lead to Conclufions 
pf importance. 

The refult being already known, I confider the account I 
am about to give ot the execution of thefe experiments, as 
addrefied to thofe who take a particular interefl in the progrefs 
of chemical operations: in the eyes of fuch gentlemen, I iruft, 
that none of the details into which I mul^ enter, will appear 
fupert^uous. 

SECTrON II. 

Principle of Execution upon which the Jblloiving Experiments were 
conduced. — Experi7nents with Gun. Barrels filled ivith baked 
Clay, and welded at the Muzzle. — Method zvith the fufible 
Metal. — Remarkable Effeds of its Expanfion. — Necejiij/ of in- 
iroducing Air. — Befidts obtained. 

When I firft undertook to make experiments with heat 
afting under compreffion, I employed n^yfelf in contriving "^^^ ^"'^^°'"'* 
various devices of fcrews, of bolts, and of lids, fo adjufted, I t^vance" for 
hoped, as to confine all elaftic fubfiances ; and perhaps (ome confining claftlc 
of them might have anfwered. But I laid atSde all fuch de- highTempe- 
vices, in favour of one which occurred to me in January 1798; tatures. 
which, by its fimplicity, was of eafy application in all cafes, 
and accompliflied all that could be done by any device, fince 
h fecured perfei^ ftrength and tightnefs to the utmoft that the 
veflels employed could bear, whether formed of metallic^or 
earthy fuffiance. The device depends upon the following 
general view ; If we take a hpllpw tube or barrel (AD PL ix. 

fig. 



33^ ACTION or HEAT MODIFIER 

The method %• ^')* dofed at one end, and open at the other, of one foot 

adopted uiti- or more in length j it is evident, that by introducing one end 

mately was to . ^. -^ "* 

include the '"'** ^ turnace, we can apply to it as great lieat as art can 

fubjea in an produce, while the other end is kept cool, or, if necelfary, 

clofe theVpe^r- ^^po^ed to extreme cold. If, then, the fubftance which we 

ture by fufioni mean to fubjecl to the combined aftion of heat and prcflTure be 

introduced into the breech or clofed end of the barrel (CD), 

and if the middle part be filled with forae refradtory fubftance, 

leaving a fmall empty fpace at the muzzle (AB), we can apply 

heat to the muzzle, while the breech containing the fubjeft of 

experiment, is kept cool, and thus clofe the bar/el by any of 

the numerous modes which heat affords, from the welding of 

iron to the melting of fealing-wax. Things being then reverfed, 

and the breech put into the furnace, a heat of any required 

intenfily may be applied to the fubjedi of experiment, now in 

/ a ftate of conflraint. 

My firft application of this fcheme was carried on with a 
lirft experiment common gun-barrel, cut off at the touch-hole, and welded 
pttge^d'a'^d"^'' ^^^y. ft^ongly at the breech by means of a plug of iron. Into 
welded, it 1 introduced' the carbonate, previoufly rammed into a car- 

tridge of paper or pafleboard, in order to proted it from the 
iron, by which, in fome former trials, the fubjeft of experiment 
J)ad been contaminated throughout during the adion of heat. 
, I then rammed the reft of the barrel full of pounded clay 
previoufly baked in a ftrong beat, and I had the muzzle clofed 
like the breech, by a plug of iron welded upon it in a common 
forge; the reft of the barrel being kept cold during .this 
operation, by means of wet cloths. The breech of the barrel 
-was then put horizontally into a common muffle, healed to about 
25** of Wedgwood. To the muzzle a rope" was fixed, in fuch 
a manner, that the barrel could be withdrawn without danger 
inftance folder- f'oni aneKplofion*. Ilikewife, about this time clofed the muzzle 
ed. of 

* This plate will be given in No. 54, being the fupplement to the 
prefent volume. 
■ f On one occafion, the importance of this precaution was 
ftrongly felt. Having inadvertently introduced a confiderable 
quantity of moifture into a welded barrel, an explofion took place, 
bet'ore the heat had rifen to rednefs, by which, part of the barrel was 
fpread out to a flat plate, and the furnace was blown to pieces. 
Dr. Kennedy, who happened to be prefent on this occafion, ob- 
feived, that notwithftanding this accident, the time might come 
when we ihould employ water in thefe experiments to aflTift the 

force 



hV COMPRESSION, 337 

of the barrel, by means of a plug, fixed by folder only; which me- 
thod bad this peculiar advantage, that I could (hut and open the 
barrel without having recourfe to a workman. In thefe trials, 
though many barrels yielded to the expanfivetbrce, others refifted 
it, and afforded fome refults that were in the highert degree en- 
couraging, and even falisfa^ory, could they have been ob- 
tained with certainty on repetition of the procefs. In many 
of them, chalk, or common limeftone previoufly pulverifed, Satisfaflory ' 
was agglutinated into a ftony mafs, which required a fmart '^^'^"'"* 
blow of a hammer to break it, and felt under the knife like a 
common limeftone; at the fame time, the fubftance, when 
thrown into nitric acid, difiblved entirely with violent efFer- 
vefcence. 

In one of thefe experiments, owing to the adion of heat on Volatile matte- 
the cartridge of paper, the baked clay, wliich had been ufed '"ay be drivea 
to fill the barrel, was ftained black throughout, to the dillance anoTher part of 
iOf two-thirds of the length of the barrel from its breech. This a clofed barrel. 
•circumfiance is of importance, by lliewing, that though all is 
tight at the muzzle, a protrufion may take place along the 
barrel, greatly to the detriment of complete compreffion : and, 
at the fame time, it illuftrates what has happened occaftonally 
in nature, where the bituminous matter leems to have been 
driven by fuperior local heat, from one part of a coaly bed, 
though retained in others, under the fame compreffion. The 
bitumen fo driven off being found, in other cafes, to pervade 
and tinge beds of flate and of fandftone. 

I was employed in this purfuit in fpring 1800, when an 
event of importance interrupted my experiments for about a 
year. But I refumed them in March 1801, with many new 
plans of execution, and with confiderable addition to my ap- 
paratus. 

In the courfe of my firft (rials, the following mode of execu- ^Jfpenments in 

1 . I IT 1 • -,- which the 

tion had occurred to me, which I now began to put in practice, fufibie metal 

It is well known to chemifts, that a certain compofilion of ^^^ "^^^ " th« 

plug. 

force of comprefTion. I have fyice made great ufe of this valuable 
fuggeftion : but he fcarcely li^ed, alas ! to fee its application ; for 
my firft faccefs in this way took place dyring his laft illnei's.— I 
have been expol'ed to no rifk in any other experiment with iron 
liarrels} matters being fo arranged, that the ftrain againft them has- 
only commenced in a red heat, in which the metal has beeo fo far 
foftened, as to yield by laceration like a piece of leather. > - 

different 



<338 ACTION OF HEAT MODIFIED 

different metals*, produces a fubftance fo fufibiei as to melt 
in tl)e heat of boiling-water. I conceived that great advantage, 
both in point of accuracy and difpatch, might be gained in 
theie experiments, by fubftituting this metal for the baked 
clay above mentioned : That after introducing the carbonate 
into the breech of the barrel, the fufible metal, in a liquid 
ilate, might be poured in, fs as to fill the barrel to its brim : 
Advantages of That when the metal had cooled and become folid, the breech 
this method. might, as before, be introduced into a muffle, and expofed 
to any required heat, while the muzzle was carefully kept cold. 
In this manner, no part of the fufible metal being melted but 
what lay at the breech, the reft, continuing in a folid ftate, 
would effedually confine the carbonic acid : That after the ac- 
tion of llrong heat had ceafed, and after all had been allowed 
to cool completely, the fufible metal might be removed entire- 
ly from the barrel, by means of a heat little above that of boil- 
ing water, and far too low to occafion any decompofition of 
the carbonate by calcination, though adling upon it in free- 
dom ; and then, that the fubjed of experiment might, as be- 
fore, be taken out of the barrel. 

This fcheme, with various modifications and additions, 
Avhich pradice has fuggelled, forms the bafis of moft of the 
following methods. 
A ftrlkine phe- •'•" ^^^ ^'^^^ trial, a firlking phenomenon occurred, which 
nomenon. When gave rife to the moft important of thefe modifications. Ha- 
tha barrel was -^ ^„^^ ^ gun-barrel with the fufible metal, without any 
completely filled & fe ' J 

■with fufible carbonate ; and having placed the bceech in a muffle, I was 
metal only, a»d f^jrprifed to fee, as the heat approachecl to rednefs, the liquid 

theclofedend ^ ..... , , . , 

o» the iron ex- metal exudmg through the iron in mnumerable mmute drops, 
pofed to heat in difperfed all round the barrel. As the heat advanced, this 
greater expan- exudation increafed, till at laft the metal flowed out in 
lionof the fluid continued ftreams, and the barrel was quite deftroyed. On 
thrtexturlTf^^ feveral occafions of the fame kind, the fufible metal, being 
the iron in very forced through , fome very minute aperture in Ihe barrel, 
f "\T"^^ "^^"j fpouted from it to the diftance of feveral yards, depofiting 
upon any fubftance oppofed to the ftream, a beautiful af- 
femblage of fine wire, exadly in the form of wool. I imme- 
diately underflood that the phenomenon was produced by the 
fuperrcjr expanfion of the liquid over the folid mefal, in con- 

*■ Eight parts of bifmuth, five of lead, and three of tin. 

fequ€Hce 



. BY COMPRESSION. 339 

tequ«nce of which, the fufible metal was driven through the 
iron as water was driven through filver * b)- mechanical per- 
cuflion in the Florentine CKperiment. It occurred to me, that Remedy. A 
this might be prevented by confining along with the fufible ^-^^ waTleft'in° 
meial a fraall quantity of air, which, by yielding a little to the barrel, 
the expanfion of the liquid, would fave the barrel. This re- 
medy was found to anfwer completely, and was applied, in 
all the experiments made at this time f. 

1 now propofed, in order to keep the carbonate clean, to The carbonate 
inclofe it in a fmallvelTel; and to obviate the difficulty of ^ (^nall feparie 
removing the refult at the conclufion of the experiment, I vefTel. 
further propofed to connect that velfel with an iron ramrod, 
longer than the barrel, by which it could be introduced or 
withdrawn at pleafure. 

* EJays of Natural Exjieriments made in the Academic del Cimento^ 
tranflated by Waller, London, 1684, page 117. The fame in 
Muffchenbroek's Latin Tranflation, Ludg. Bat. 1731, p. QiZ. 

f I found it a matter of much difficulty to afcertain the proper 
quantity of air which ought to be thus inciofed. When the quantity 
was too great, the refult was injured by diminution of elafticity, as 
I (hall have occafion fully to (h€w hereafter. When too fmall, oi* 
when, by any accident, the whole of this included air was allowed 
toefcape, the barrel was deftroyed. 

I hoped to afcertain the bulk of air neceffary to give liberty to 
the expanfion of the liquid metal, by meafuring the aftual quantity 
expelled by known heats from an open barrel filled with it. But 
I was furprifed to find, that the quantity thus difcharged, exceeded 
in bulk that of the aif which, in the fame heats, I had confined 
along with the carbonate and fufible metal in many fuccefsful ex- 
periments. As the expanfion of the liquid does not feem capable 
of fenfible diminution by an oppofing force, this fa6l can only be 
accounted for by a diftenfion of the barrel. In thefe experiments, 
then, the expanfive force of the carbonic acid, of the included air, 
and of the fufible metal, afted in combination againll the barrel, 
and were yielded to in part by the diileiifion of the barrel, and by 
the sondenfation of the included air. My objefl was to increafc 
the force of this mutual ailion, by dirainifning the quantity of air, 
and by other devices to be mentioned hereafter. Where fo many 
foices^were concerned, the laws of whofe variations were unknown, 
much precifion could not be expected, nor is it wonderful, that in 
attempting to carry the compreHlng force to the utmoft, I fliould 
have dettroyed barrels innumerable. 

A finaii 



SiO ACTION OF HEAT UODIVIEO 

Dcfcrlption of A fmall tube of glafs, • or of Reaumur's porcelain, about 
liappara as. ^ quarter of an inch in diameter, and one or two inches in 
length, (fig. 2, A) was half filled with pounded carbonate of 
lime, rammed as hard as poilible ; the other half of the tube 
being filled with pounded filex, or with whatever occurred 
as moft likely to prevent the inlrufion of the fufible metal 
in its liquid and penetrating ftate. This tube fo filled, was 
placed in a frame or cradle of iron {dfk It, figs. 3, 4-, 5, and 
6), fixed to the end (ni) of a ram-rod {m «). The cradle 
was from fix to three inches in length, and as much in diame- 
ter as a gun-barrel would admit with eafe. It was compofed 
Of two circular plates of iron, [defg and h i k I, feen edge- 
wife in the figures), placed at right-angles fo the ram-rod, one 
of thefe plates {d e f ^) being fixed to it by the centre (to). 
Thefe plates were connected together by four ribs or flattened 
wires of iron {dk, ei,fk, and g Z,) which formed the cradle 
into whicii the tube (A), containing the carbonate, was intro- 
duced by thrufting the adiactnt ribs afunder. Along with the 
lube jutl mentioned, was introduced another tube (B), of iron 
or porcelain, filled only with air. Likewife, in the cradle, a 
pyronieter •{• piece (C) was placed in contaft with (A) the tube 

con- 

* I have fmce conftanlly ufed tubes of common porcelain, find- 
ing glais much too fufible for this purpofe. 
\ T The pyrometei'-pieces ufed in thefe experiments were made 

/ under my own eye. Necellity compelled me to undertake this 
laborious and difficult work, in which I have already fo far fuc- 
ceeded as to obtain a fet of pieces, which, though far from com- 
plete, anfwer my purpofe tolerably well. I had lately an oppoi'- 
tunity of comparing my fet with that of Mr. Wedgwood, at various 
temperatures, in furnaces of great fize and (teadinefs. The refult 
has proved, that my pieces agree as well with each other as his, 
though with my fet each temperature is indicated by a different 
degree of the fcale. I have thus been enabled to conftruft a 
table, by which my obfervations have been correfted, fo that the 
temperatures mentioned in this paper are fuch as would have beew 
indicated by Mr. Wedgwood's pieces. By Mr. Wedgwood's 
pieces, I mean thofe of the only fet which has been fold to the 
public, and by which the melting heat of pure filver is indicated 
at the 22d degree. I am well aware, that the late Mr. Wedg- 
wood, in his Table of Fufibditics, has ftated that fufion as taking 

place 



BY COMPRESSION. 341 

ct)litatning tlie carbonate, Thefe articles generally occupied 
ihe whole cradle; when any fpace remained, it was filled up 
by a piece of chalk dreffed for the purpofe. (Fig. 4, repre- 
fents the cradle filled, as juft defcribed). 

Things being thus prepared, the gun-barrel, placed ere(5t ^^tliod of ufing 
with its muzzle upwards, was half filled with the liquid fufible ' 

rnelal. The cratlle was then introduced into the barrel, a«d 
plunged to the bottom of the liquid, fo that the carbonate was 
placed very near the breech, (as reprefented in fig. 5, the fu- 
fible metal ftanding at o). , The air-tube (B) being placed fo 
as to enter the liquid with its muzzle downwards, retained 
great part of the air it originally contained, though fome of it 
might be driven off by the heal, fo as to efcape through the 
Jfquid. The metal being now allowed to cool, and to fix round 
(he cradle and ramrod, the air remaining in the air-tube was 
effeflually confined, and all was held faft. The barrel being 
then filled to the brim with fufible metal, the apparatus was 
ready for the application of heat to the breech, (as fliewn in 
%. 6.) Plate X. 

. In the experiments made at this time, I ufed a fquare brick the furnace and 
r 11- /Yi X !- • 1 muffle arrange- 

Jurnace, (figs. 7 and 8, havmg a muffle (r s) traverfing it ho- ment, &c. 

rizontally and open at both ends. This muffle being fupported 

i-n the middle by a very flender prop, was expofed to fire from 

below, as well as all round. The barrel was placed in the 

Riuffle, with its breech in the hotteft part, and the end next 

the muzzle proje6ling beyond the furnace, and Turrounded 

with cloths which were drenched with water from time to time, 

(This arrangement is fliewn in fig. 7.) In this fituation, the 

IJafible metal furrounding the cradle being melted, the air 

contained in the air^tube would of courfe feek the highefl po- 

iition, and its firft place in the air-tube would be occupied 

by fufible metal. (In fig. 6, the new pofition of the air is 

Ihewn at;) q)* 

At the conclufion of the experiment, the metal was generally Method of dlC- 

removed by placing the barrel in the tranfverfe muffle, vvith^"^j^g^^'"^^3Pjgj. 

its muzzle pointing a little downwards, and fo that the heat expsriment. 

was applied firfl: to the muzzle, and then to the reft of the 

barrel in fuccenfion. (This operation is fliewn in fig. 8.) In 

place at the 28th degree; but I am convinced that his obfervations 
muft have been made with fome fct different from that which was 
afterwards fold. 

Vol. XIII. — April, 180S. Bb fome 



34.3 ACTION OF HEAT. 

i'ome of ihe firft of ihefe experiments, I loofened the cradle, by 
plunging the barrel into iiealed brine, or a ftrong folution ot 
muriate of lime; which lafl: bears a temperature of 250^ of 
Fahrenheit before it boils. For this purpofe, I ufed a pan 
three inches in diameter, and three feet deep, having a Hat 
bafon at top to receive the liquid when it boiled over. The 
metliod anfvvered, but was troublefome, and I laid it afide. 
I have had occafion, lately, however, to refume it in fome 
experiments in which it was of confequence to open the 
barrel with the lead poffible heat*. 

By Ihefe methods I made a great number of experiments, 

with refults that were highly interefting in that ftage of the 

bufmefs, though their importance is fomucb diminithed by the 

fubfequent progrefs of the inveftigalion, that I think it proper 

to mention but very few of them. 

Calcareous fpar On the 31ft of March, ISOl, I rammed forty grains of 

ha'rTdenfe'"^" P^un^'ed chalk into a tube of green bottle-glafs, and placed it 

marble by heat in the cradle as above defcribed. A pyrometer in the mufHe 

of 2^" Wedg- jjfQ, ^i^^ jj,g barrel indicated 53°. The barrel was expoled 

wocj. . . . . 

to heat during feventeen or eighteen minutes. On withdraw- 
ing the cradle, the carbonate was found in one folid mafs, 
which had vifibty flirunk in bulk, the fpace thus left within 
the tube being accurately filled with metal, which plated the 
carbonate all over without penetrating it in the leaft, fo that 
l!:e metal was ealily removed. The weight was reduced 
from forty to thirty-fix grains. The fubftance was very hard, 
and relifted the knife better than any refult of the kind pre- 
vioufly obtained ; its frailure was cryftaliine, bearing a re- 
femblance to white faline marble; and its thin edges had a 
decided femitranfparency, a circumftance firft obferved in this 
refult. 
Calcareous fpar On the 3d of March of the fame year, I made a {imilar 
jenderedciyftal. gj^pg^jjjjgjj{^ j,^ which a pyromeler-piecc was placed within 

boidal fraifture . _ -,-,,. . , , /• i • i 

I }jg ,j 23«'. * In many of the followmg experiments, lead was ufed in place 

of the fufible metal, and often with fucceis ; but I loft many good 
jefults in this way : for the heat required to liquefy the lead ap- 
proaches fo near to rednefs, that it is difficult to difengage the 
cradle without applying a temperature by which the carbonate is 
injured. 1 have found it anifwer well, to furround the cradle and a 
few inches of the rod with fufible metal, and to fill the reft of the 
barrel with lead. 

the 



USE OF THE SUTURES. 54'5 

the barrel, and another in the muffle ; they agreed in indi-~" 
eating 23^. The inner tube, which was of Reaumur's porce- 
lain, contained eighty grains of pounded chalk. The carbo- 
nate was found, after the experiment, to have loft 3f grain-;. 
A thin rim, lefs than the 20Lh of an inch in thiclcnefs, of 
whitidi matter, appeared on the otUfide of the mafs. In other 
refpedts, the carbonate was in a very perfe6t ftate ; it was of a 
yeI!owi(h colour, and had a decided femitranfparency and 
faline fradure. But what renders this refult of the greateft 
value, is, that on breaking the mafs, a fpace of mi^re than the 
tenth of an inch fqnare, was found to be completely cryftal- 
lized, having acquired the rhoraboidal frafture of calcareous 
fpar. It was white and opaque, and prefented to the view- 
three fets of parallel plates which are feen under three different 
angles. This fubflance, owing to partial calcination and fub- 
fequent abforption of moifture, had loft all appearance of its 
remarkable properties in forae weeks after its produdlion ; but 
this appearance has fince been reftored, by a frePn frafture, 
and the fpecimen is now well preferved by being hermetically 
inclofed, 

(To be continued.) 



XIIL 

On the Ufe of the Sutures in the Skulls of Animals. By 
Mr. B. Gibson *. 

JL HE full ufe of the fingular jun6lion of the bones of the Conj^fturesoa 
Ikull, which is called future, has, from the earlieft periods "' futures b [he 
anatomy and forgery, attraded the attention and eluded the ikulls of aninuls. 
refearches of the phyfiologift. To this remarkable feature in 
ofteogny, in a great meafure peculiar to a certain period of 
life, many ufes have been attributed. Some of thefe are 
totally erroneous ; fuch as that for allowing the tranfpiration 
of moifture, to keep the brain cool and fit for thinking ; for 
giving a more ftridt adhefion of the dura mater to the inner 
furface of the flcuU ; for admitting a more free communication 
by blood-veflels between the external and internal parts of the 
head; or for affording interftices, that the bones may be 

« Manchefter Memoirs, N. S. Vol. I. 39. 

B b 2 puOved 



344 



USE OF THE SUTURES. 



purtied afunder by the growtii of the brain, left that orgsm 
fliould be cramped in its growth, in confequence of the com- 
paratively flow growth of the bones of the Ikull. 
Other fuppofed Other ufes attributed to the futures are merely flight ad- 
vantages derived from their flruclure, which are enjoyed \n 
early infancy, or till adult life, but gradually ceafe after that 
period. Thus at the time of birth the loofe union of the 
bones of the fliull accommodates the fliape of the head to the 
figure of the different parts of the cavity through which il 
pafles. At adult age, when the futures are fully formed, they, 
may occafionally check the progrefs (if I may be allowed the 
expreflion) of a fracture nearly fpent ; — or vibrations, com- 
municated to the bones of the fltull, will be propagated with 
lefs force (o the brain, in confequence of the bones being 
leparated at the futures. It is, however, abundantly evident,^ 
that thefe are not the main purpofes for which the futures are 
formed j otherwife they w^ould not begin to be obliterated at 
a period of life when they would perform thefe ofKces more 
ufefully than ever. Confiflent with this remark we fliall find, 
that the true purpofe for which they are formed, and the par- 
ticular procefs with which they are conne6led, is fully com- 
pleted before their obliteration takes place. 
The cartilage When we take a view of the mode of jun61ion between 

deftlned to° b" ^^^^y bones, and parts of bones in the human body, which do 
united, difap- not admit of motion, we find that with little exception they 
pears at laft. ^jj ^g^gg jjj jj^jg particular ; that fooner or later the cartilage 
or periofleum which once was interpofed is obliterated, and 
thefe different portions, or entire bones, coalefce. 
Intlances in the ^^j^g feparate portions, which originally compofe the 
ribs and other "^ , • , . . ,- i r , /• i r 

bones. vertebrse, are early in thus uniting : after thefe the fides ot 

the lower jaw ; at a later period the epiphyfis of a cylindrical 

bone is united to its body : and flill later the bones of the 

fkuil ufually coalefce, and the futures are obliterated. Other 

bones, as thofe of the face, which have no motion and 

fuftain little weight, are irregular in this refpefl ; fometimes 

uniting, but generally remaining difiind, to the end of a long 

life. 

Manner in The original formation of the ofTeous fyfiem in feveral 

which the diflin6l pieces, refpeds principally its fpeedy ofllfication at 

offeous fyftem , ^ . , ,,.„ , ., r - . . r 

is completed, an early period or lite, and its future convenient extenhon, 

*«• till it has arrived at its full growth ; and we may coiifider it as 

5 a general 



USE OF THE SUTURES. ^^^ 

a general principle, tliat where two parts of owe bone are fepa- 
rated from each other by an intervening cartilage, or tzvo 
dirtindl bones merely by periofteum, at that part ofleous ma- 
terials are added to increaie their length or extend their fuper- 
fices. This we fiiall find takes place, whether the junftion 
be effe6led by comparatively fmooih furfaces, as between the 
body of" a bone and its epiphyfis ; or between the bones of 
the fkull by jagged futures. Hence it appears that the bones 
of the body generally are increafed in length or extent, not by 
a uniform extenfion of the whole fubfiance, but by an ad- 
tlition of bony matter in fome particular part. 

Thus the body of a cylindrical bone is lengthened by ad- Cylindrical 
dilioiv to ,each end. This we might conclude would be the '^""ssarelergth;- 
•cafe, from confidering the part in which its oflification com- ditions at^e«h 
mences : as this commences in a middle point and proceeds end. 
to each extremity, it is natural to fuppofe that its growth fiill 
goes on in the fame dire61ion, or continues at the extremities. 
■That this is the cafe we know, not by reafoning alone, but 
■by a direCi experiment. Mr. Hunter funk two fmall pieces of 
lead in the middle of the tibia, or fliin bone of a pig, and 
tneafured accurately the difiance between them : on examining 
the animal fome time afterwards, it appeared * that though the 
bone had increafed coniiderably in lenglh, the pieces of lead 
{\\\l remained at the fame diftance from each other that they 
were before. From this experiment we learn, that a cylin- 
drical bone is not extended in its middle, but is lengthened 
by addition to its extremities, where the body of the bone is 
joined to its epiphyfis; the chief intention of the epiphyfis 
being to allow the intervention of a vafcular organ, which 
may conveniently depofit bony materials, without interfering 
with the joint itielf. 

As cylindrical bones are lengthened at their extreme parts, ^j^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ 
we are led by analogy to conclude, that the fame general plan cefs appears to 
is purfued in the extenfion of the flat bones of the body : and '/^ges^if flf/''" 
although we have no dirc6t experiment by which this has been bones. 
proved, there are circumflances which leave little doubt but 
they are extended by addition to their edges. Thus to take 
the parietal bone as an example ; as oflification begins in a 
central point and extends towards the circumference, it, is 
probable that to the completion of the procefs, it continues to ' 

go on in the fanrie direaion; and the fame circumflance taking 

place 



54:6 ^SE OF THE SUTUUKS. 

place in every bone of the cranium, it is probable that even 
after the whole of the brain is incafed in bone, the addition 
is flill made at the edge of each, and that the general enlarge- 
ment originates where they are all mutually joined by the 
futures. Of this procefs I had a very ftriking iliuftration fome 
years ago. In a young fubjeft, from what caufe I know not, 
the depofition of ofleous matter had been fuddenly increafed 
a fl)ort time before death. It was in different ftages of pro- 
grefs, but had taken place in all the bones of the body which 
Inffance in the I preferved ; in fome partially, in others generally. In all, 
the new ofieous matter was elevated above the level of the 
bone upon which it was placed. In fome parts of the pa- 
rietal bones it was only in its commencement, and put on the 
appearance of a net-work, fimilar to that which may be ob- 
ferved in the fame bones at an early period of their formation. 
In other parts the methes of the net- work were more or lefs 
filled up ; in others again completely, fo as to put on the uni- 
form appearance of folid bone. The fame reticulated appear- 
ance was evident on the edges of all the bones of the fkull, 
where they form the futures, and at the extremities of the cy- 
lindrical bones, between the body and epiphyfis. The fame 
appearance of increafed depofition was feen on the furface of 
the cylindrical bones, with this difference, that the methes 
were not circular, but oblong fquares ; fo as to put on more 
of the ftriated appearance. In fome parts, the newly fe- 
creled bone was eafily feparable from the general mafs, and 
formed a thin layer externally, affording one of the beft proofs 
I have met with, of the increafe of cylindrical bones in thick- 
nefs by depofition externally, whilft a correfponding internal 
abforption goes on. From the flriking fimilarity of appear* 
ance on the furfaces and edges of the bones, we may fafely 
conclude, that the fame procefs of depofition was going on in 
both, and may thence infer, that the bones of the flcuU are 
increafed in extent bythe depofition of offeous matter at their 
edges, or where they are joined to each other by future. This 
fa6l points out to us, in a great meafure, the real ufe of this 
peculiar mode of jun6lion. 

In order that the bones of the fkull may be increafed in ex- 
The ferrated tent, it is necellary that they fliould be retained at a certain 

nlr &r ^""' ^'^^"P^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^' ^^^^ ^^^ periofleum with its veffels 
2 may 



USE OF THE SUTURES, 0^^'J 

may pais down between them, free from compreffion and 
lecrele the ofleous matter. At the fame Inwe, the thin, bones 
compofing the upper part of the (kali, refting as an arch upon 
its bafis, raiifl: be united together Co firmly, as not to be (epa- 
rated by common degrees of violence. For this purpofe, 
proje6liiig points from the external furface of each bone, are 
reciprocally received into correfponding nitches ; which only 
penetrate through one half of t!ie thicknefs of the (Icull, and 
form an irregular kind of dovetailing. 

Two advanages arife from this ftrudlure, being fuperficial, 
and confined to the external (able of the Ikiill. The projedting 
points from each fide, refting upon the folid furface of the 
internal table of theoppofite bone, can refift more effedually 
any violence, which might tend to force the bones inwards;, 
and the internal part of the fkull prefents, by this means, a 
fmooth furface to the coverings of the brain ; for internally 
sio appearance of a jagged future is feen. 

From this view of the fubjeft we fee, that the futures of x^us the fu- 
the human (kull, by iheir peculiar formation, at once unite tures unite the 
the bones together, and fo far feparate them, as to allow the ^^jtihe vafcular 
interpofition of a vafcular organ by which their fuperficies is organ requilice 
gradually increafed to its greateil extent *. This explanation ^^^ ^heirgrowth. 

of 

* Since this paper was written in the year 1800, I have found, 
that a fimilar opinion was publifhed by ProfeflTor Soemmerring in 
1794, in his valuable work, " De corporis humani fabrica." To 
him, therefore, any credit which may belong to the primary 
fuggeftion of this ufeof the futures is due. As his opinion, how- 
ever, has been little noticed by anatomiits generally, and is placed 
in a clearer point of viev/ by the fa6ls which <uggefted this further 
explanation of it to me, it has not been thought improper to give 
this effay a place in thefe Memoirs. But whilft the reader will fee, 
by the following quotation, the near refemblance between the opi-' 
nion of Profeflbr Soemmerring and that which I have brought for- 
ward, I hope the charafler of plagiarift or compiler will not be at- 
tributed to me. 

** Ufushorum ficfefe habentium terminorum olTacranii inter bene 
liquet. 

" Incrementum ambitus calvariae levant, ni enim inter olTa capi- 
tis mox poft partum futurae interponerentur, haec crefcere non 
poflenr, nifi alia ratione natura rem iiiftitueret. Tali igitur 
modo incrementum calvarise cum incremento reliquorum offium 
convenit ; initio enim luturis vel potius lineis cartilaginolis ofla 

lis- 



sm 



USE OF THE SUTURES. 



Why the fj- 
tares are obli- 
terated, &c. 



of the ufe of futures comprehends and accounts for thofe 
concomitant circumflances, wliich were confulered by older 
anatomifts as their real ufe ; and, as far as I can fee, h not con» 
tradicled by any fad connecl^'d willj them. 
Other remarks I^ 't be afkcd, for infiance, why at the futures there is a 
aad inferences. Wronger adliefi on of the dura mater internally and periojieum 
externally than in other parts of the (kull ? the anfwer is, that 
Ihefe membranes with their vefTels are coi>tinued into the 
futures, to form conjointly the fecretory organ, by which the 
bones are extended. 

If it be afked, why ^there is a greater vafcularify or an 
appearance of blood-velTels pafling through the futures? it is 
perfed^ly conliflent with this opinion to anfwer, that the increafe 
of blood goes to this fecretory organ, for the purpofe of the 
cxtenfion of- the bones. 

The explanation here offered accounts alfo for the general 
obliteration of the futures after a certain period of life ; for 
the bones having then arrived at their full tize, the organ for 
the fecretion of ofleous matter is no longer needed ; it fnrinks 
and is abforbed, and the bones gradually coalefcs ; by which 
a further advantage is derived, that of an acceffion of ftrengih 
to the cranium at large. 

lis locis conglutinantur, verum tamen non nifi in embrionibus 
ad fonticuJos, ut aiunt, haec linea notabili latitudiiie, obiervatur. 
Oflibus enim capitis hie locorum ceiebro crefcente, placide quafi 
deduftus, cartilage augetur, latior evafura, nifi prittina pars fimul 
in OS mutaretur, inde offa calvarix, eodem modo, quo ofia longa 
deduftisepiphyfibus, vel quod unum idemque eft, marginibus cref- 
cere, liquet, etfi in ofTibus, longis futura epiphyfes inter et diapky- 
lin non crif'petur. 

" Quo junior igitur infans, eo minus crifpa et implexa futura, 
vel ut reftius loquar, linea cartilaginofa augufta, ofla jungeus, 
obfervatur. Quum vero aufta aetate ofla, crei'ente cerebro, dedu- 
cuntur, eorumque, craflitudo adpofita cum interna3, turn externa: 
potiffimum tabulje, (intern?e enim increnientum citius abfolutum 
videtur) mafia olTea, augctur, non poteft non efle, quin haec crifpa 
futurae forma, quum quidem nafci coepit, externa in fuperiicie tam- 
diu, augeatur, donee tandem ipfa ea quam maxime impediat, quo 
minus cerebrum calvariam ulterius deducere poffit, quod pubertatis 
tempore accidit. Rarilfime haec olTificatio ad aetatem viriiein ufque 
detiuetur.'" — Soemmerring de corporis Humani Fabrics, page 212. 

if 



i 



ON THE REPRODUCTION OP BUDS. 349 

If any additional argument be neceflary in fupport of t!iis 
opinion, I may alfo notice the ftriking analogy which fubfifts 
between the feparation of one bone of the Ikull from another 
by a future ; and that feparation which exifts between the 
body of a cylindrical bone and its epiphyfis. They each 
remain only for a certain length of time ; each allows the 
Interpol! tion of a fecretory organ ; and both begin fo be ob- 
literated when the bones with which they areconnefted have 
completed their growth, and their continuance is no longer 
neceflary. 



XIV. 

OntheReproduSlionof Buds. 5j/Thomas Andrew Knight^ 
Efq. F.R.S* 

My DEAR Sir, 

HjVERY tree in the ordinary courfe of ils growth generates. If t'le genc- 
in each feafon, thofe buds which expand in the fucceeding f^^Co^ ^^ ,jg. 
fpring; and the buds thus generated, contain, in many inftances, ftroyed, others 
the whole of the leaves vviiich appear in the following fummer. *"^^ ^'^° ^^^ 
But if thefe buds be deftroyed during the winter or early part 
of the fpring, other buds, in many fpecies of trees, are gene- 
rated, which in every refpeft perform Iheoifice of thofe wljich 
previoufly exifted, except tfiat they never afford fruit or blof- 
foms. Tliis reprodudion of buds has not etcaped the notice 
of naturalifts; but it does not appear to have been afcertained 
by them from which, amongft the various fubflances of the 
tree, the buds derive their origin. 

Du Hamel conceived that reproduced buds fprang from pre- I^" Hamel'sopi- 
1 L . ,1 -n c r I . • "'on diat thefe 

organized germs ; but the exutence or lucn germs has not, m ^^^ ^^.^ ^Yom 
any inllance, been proved, and it is well known that the roots, pre-orgaaized 
and trunk, and branches of many fpecies of trees will, under ^^'^"^^* 
proper management, afford buds from every part of their 
furfaces; and therefore, if this hypothefis be well founded, Obje(aion. 
many millions of fuch germs muft be annually generated in 
every Iar;^e tree; not one of which in the ordinary courfe of 
nature Wiil come into adion : and as nature, amidfl all its exu- 

* Phil.Tranf. 1805; 

berance. 



i550 ON THE REPRODUCTION OP BUDS. 

berance, does not abound in ufelefs produdions, the opinlens 
of this illuftrious ph)iiologift are, in this cafe, probably erro- 
neous. 
Suppofnion that Other naturalifts have fuppofed the buds, when reprodiTced, 
they are .iftbrdsd (q fpring from the plfxiis of vefTels which conftitutes the in- 
by the bark. i . • • 

ternal bark ; and this opinion is, I believe, much entertained 

by modern botaiiifts ; it neverthelefs appears to be unfounded, 
as the fadts I (liall proceed to (late will evince. 
Inftancc to the ^^ ^'''^ friiii-ftalks of the fea cale (cramhe maritima) be cut 
contrary in fea off near the ground in the fpring, the medullary fubftance, 
buds. williin that part of the ftalk which remains attached to the 

root, decays ; and a cup is thus formed in which water colleds 
in the fucceeding winter. The fides of this cup confift of a 
woody fubltance, which in its texture and office, and mode of 
generation, agrees perfeftly with the alburnum of trees; and 
I conceive it to be as perfed alburnum, as the white wood of 
the oak or elm: and from the interior part of this fubftance, 
within the cup, I have frequently obferved new buds to be 
generated in the enfuing fpring. It is fufficiently obvious that 
the buds in this cafe do not fpring from the bark ; but it is not 
equally evident that they might not have fprung from fonae 
remains of ihe medulla. 
Potatoes afford I" ^^^ autumn of 1802, I difcovered that the potatoe pof- 
budsatthecut fefled a fimilur power of reproducing its buds. Some plants 
"' ^ '^* of this fpecieshad been {ei, rather late in (he preceding fpring, 

in very dry ground, where, through want of moifiure, they 
vegetated very feebly ; and the portions of the old roots re- 
mained found and entire till the fucceeding autumn. Being 
then moiftened by rain, many fmall tubers were generated on 
the furfaces made by the knife in dividing the roots into cut- 
tings ; and the buds of thefe, in many inflances, elongated 
into runners, which gave exHtence to other tubers, fome of 
which I had the pleafure to fend to you. 
»— and therefore ^ have in a former paper remarked, that the potatoe confifts 
not from the of four diftind fubftances, the epidermis, the true (kin, the 
bark, and its internal fubftance, which, from its mode of forma- 
tion, and fubfequent otfice, I have (uppofed to be alburnous: 
there is alfo in tiie young tubes a tranfparent line through the 
centre, which is probably its medulla. The buds and runners 
fprang from the fubftance which I conceive to be the alburnum 
of the root^ and neither from the central part of it, nor from 

the 



OTx.TlIE REPROiJUCTION OF BUDS. 55\ 

the furface in cou(a(5t with (he bark. It muft, however, be 

admitted, that i\\e inten)a! fubllance of the potatoe correfponds 

more nearly with our ideas oi' a medullary -than of an albiir- 

nous fubftance, and therefore this, with the preceding fa£ls, is 

adduced to prove only that the reproduced buds of thefe 

pUntsare not generated by the cortical fubftance of the root: 

and I tiial! proceed to relate fome experiments on the apple, 

and pear, and plumb-tree, which 1 conceive to prove that the 

reproduced buds oi thofe plants do not fpring from the rae- 

duIJa, 

Having raifed from feeds a very confiderable number of Other Inftances 

plants of each of thefe fpecies in 1802, I partly difengaged ^^j^fjjj'j/p'^^j;^ 

them from the ioil in the autumn, by digging round each ced bads ap- 

piant, which was then raifed about two inches, above its former 1"''^'*/° ^f''"^ 
! from the alb ur- 

level. A part of the mould was then removed, and the plants num. 

were cut off about an inch below the points where the feed- 
leaves formerly grew ; and a portion of the root, about an inch 
long, without any bud upon it, remained expofed to the air 
and light. In the beginning of April, I obferved many fmall 
elevated points on tlie bark of fhele roots, and, removing the 
whole of the cortical fubtlance, I found that the elevations 
were occafioned by fmall protuberances on the furface of the 
alburnum. As the fpring advanced, many minute red points 
appeared to perforate the bark: thefe foon afTumed the cha- 
rader of buds, and produced fhoots, in every refpc6l fimilar 
to thofe which would have fprung from the organized buds of 
the preceding year. Whether the buds thus reproduced derived 
any portion of their component parts from the baik or not, I 
fliall not venture to decide; but I am much difpoled to believe 
that, like thofe of the potatoe, they fprang from the alburnous 
fubftance folely. 

The fpace, however, in the annual root, between the medulla They do not 
and the bark is very fmall ; and therefore it may be contended ^^g^^^j^^j^^^^^"* 
that the buds in thefe inflances may have originated from the 
raeduila. I therefore thought it necelfary to repeat fimilar 
experiments on the roots and trupks of old trees, and by 
thefe the buds were reproduced precifely in the fame manner 
^s the annual roots: and therefore, conceiving myfelf to have 
proved in a former Memoir,* that the fubitance which has 

* Phil, Tranf. of 1803. 

beei» 



35'Z ®^ THE REPRODUCTIOK OF BUDS, 

been called the medullary procefs does not originate from th<s 
medulla, I muft conclude that reproduced buds do not fpring 
from tliat fubflance. 
Remarks on the I have remarked, in a paper which you did me the honour 
^!s procefrof'^ ^^ ^^^ before the Royal Society in the commencement of the 
nature is proba- prefent year, that the aiburnous tubes at their termination 
tly efFeded. upwards invariably join the central veflels, and that thefe 
veflels, which appear to derive their origin from the aiburnous 
tubes, convey nutriment, and probably give exiftence to new- 
buds and leaves. It is aifo evident, from the facility with 
which the riling fap is transferred from one fide of a wounded 
tree to the other, that the aiburnous tubes poflefs lateral as 
well as terminal orifices : and it does not appear improbable 
that the lateral as well as the terminal orifices of the aiburnous 
tubes may polTefs the power to generate central velfelsi 
which velFeis evidently feed, if they do not give exiftence to, 
the reproduced buds and leaves. And therefore, as the pre- 
ceding experiments appear to prove that the buds neither 
fpring from the niedulla nor the bark, I am much inclined to 
believe that they are generated by central vefiels which fpring 
from the lateral orifices of the aiburnous tubes. The pra61ica- 
bility of propagating forae plants from their leaves may feem 
to ftand in oppofition to this hypothefis ; but the central vefiel 
is always a component part of the leaf, and from it the bud 
and young plant probably originate. 
Attempt to dif- 1 expedled to difcover in feeds a fimilar power to regenerate 
their buds; for the cotyledons of thefe, though diffimilar in 
organization, execute the office of the alburnum, and contain a 
fimilar refervoir of nutriment, and at once fupply the place of 
the alburnum and the leaf. But no experiments, which I have 
yet been able to make, have been decifive, owing to the diffi- 
culty of alcertaining the number of buds previoufly exifting 
within the feed. Few, if any, feeds, I have reafon to believe, 
contain lefs than three buds, one only of which, except in 
cafes of accident, germinates; and fome feeds appear to con- 
tain a much greater number. The feed of the peach appears 
to be provided with (en or twelve leaves, each of which pro- 
bably covers the rudiment of a bud, and the feeds, like the 
buds of the horfe-cheftnut, contain all the leaves and apparently 
all the buds of the fucceeding year : and I have never beeo 
able to fatisfy myfelf that all the buds were eradicated without 

having 



cover the fame 
power in feeds 



ON THE REFRODCCTION OF BUDS. 353 

having deftroyed the bafe of the plumule, in which the power 
of reproducing buds probably refides, if fuch power exifts. 

Nature appears to have denied to annual and biennial plants Annwal and bi- 
(at leafl: (o thofe which have been the fubjeds of my ^^P^"- have^nL^thJs 
ments) the power which it has given to perennial plants to power. 
reproduce their buds; but neverthelefs fome biennials poflefs, 
under peculiar circumtiances, a very.fingular refource, when 
all their buds have been deftroyed. A turnip,, bred between 
the Englifli and Swedifn variety, from which I bad cut oft' the 
greater part of its fruit-ftalks, and of which all the buds had 
been defiroyed, remained fome weeks iu an apparently dor- 
mant (iate; after which the firfi feed in each pod germinated, 
and biirliing the feed-veftel, feemed to execute the office of a 
bud and leaves to the parent plant, during (he fiiort remaining 
term of its exi(ience, when its preternalual foliage periflied 
with it. Whether this property be poiTefled by other biennial 
plants in common with the turnip, or not, I am not at prefent 
in poireflTion of lacts to decide, not having made precifely the 
lame experiment on any other plant. 

I will take this opportunity (o correft an inference that I Correflion of a 
have drawn in a former paper,* which the facts (though quite "^^"^ '"'*'^' 
correftly ftated) do not, on fabfequent repetition of the ex- 
periment, appear to juftify. I have lUted, that when a per- 
pendicular ftioot of the vine was inverted to a depending pc- 
fition, and a portion of its bark between two circular incifions 
round the ftem removed, much more new wood was generated 
on the lower lip of the wound become uppermoft by the 
inverted pofition of the branch, than on theoppofite lip, which 
would not have happened had the branch continued to grow 
ere6l; and I have inferred that this effect was produced by fap 
which had defcended by gravitation from the leaves above. 
But the branch was, as I have there flated, employed as a 
layer, and the matter which would have accumulated on the 
oppofile lip of the wound had been employed in the formation 
of roots, a circumftance which at that time efcaped my atten- 
tion. The effedts of gravitation on the motion of the delcending 
fap, and confequent growth of plants, are, I am well fatisfied, 
from a great variety of experiments, very great ; but it will 
be very difficult to difcover any method by which the extent 

* Phil. Tranf. of 1803, 



^554r ^'^ ''^"^- GAstous oxrpfe of azote. 

of its operation can be accurately aCcerlained. For (he vefTets 
which coiitey and impel* the Irue lap, or fluid from which 
the new wood appears to begeneiated, pafs immediately from 
the leaf-ftaik towards the root ; and though the motion of this 
fluid may be' impeded by gravitation, and it be even again 
returned into the leaf, no portion of it, unlefsil had been es:- 
travafaled, could have defcended to the part from which the 
bark was taken off in tlie experiment I have defcribed. I am 
not fenfible that in the different papers which I have had the 
I honour to addrefs to you, I have drawn any other inference 

which the fadts, on rt-petilion of the experiments, do not ap- 
pear capable of fupporting, 

I am, 8cc. 

THO'. ANDREW KNIGHT. 

.Eltont May 12, 180.). 



■ XV. 

Expcrmcnts na the Gaftous Oxide of Azote, by a Society of /Itfia- 
teurs at Touloufe. Fublijhed by M. P. Dispan, Profejfor of 
Cherniftry in the College of that City.* 

Difagreemeni of ■'*■ HE motive for the following experiments was the very 

former experi- different, and even contradidory refults, which have been 

©xide of azote, pu^'iflied of fornjer effefts. The experiments were tried 

upon more than a dozen perfons, and in feme cafes repealed 

two or three times; the fenfatlons which each experienced 

were written down at the moment, by the reporter, from 

whofe memorandums the fubfequent obfervalions are drawn. 

Preparation of The nitrate of ammonia ufed for the experiment was indif- 

the nitrate of tincilv crvftallized, but was quite neutral. Its tafte was very 
ammonia. -'-'., ,,. , , , , , , r , , , ,- 

pungent, wrlh a llight odour. It had been formed by the ia- 

turating very pure nitric acid with ammoniacal gas obtained by 

difiilling fal ammoniac with the common potafh of commerce. 

Procefs for ob- About one he6^ogramme (1545 grains) of this fait was put 

taining the ga_- j^j^ a fmall retort, and placed on a fand-balh, where the fait 
feous oxide ol 

azDte. 



*PhiI. Tranf. of )804. 

f Annales d'^ Chimie, Vol. LVI. p. 243. 



melted 



ON THE GASEOVS OXIDE OF AZOTE. Qj^ 

welted and boiled for a fhort time without yielding any gas; 

at ienglh, the retort became filled with a while vapour, wtiich 

quickly difappeared ; the gas was then rapidly difengaged, 

and was caught in bladders. By degrees the difengagement 

became more and more flow, and when the operation was 

ended, fcarcely any thing remained in the retort. 

Another experiment was made with a larger retort, and "^^^ ^^'"^ P™" 
• , ^ , , ,• ■ r , r t • . cefs on a larger 

three hectogrammes (10 oz. troy) ot the lalt, from which was fcaie, 

obtained gas fufficient to fill eight bladders. This operation 

proceeded in a fimilar manner with the former; except that 

as the retort cooled, a red vapour arof* within it, which it was 

afcertained by experiment, contained no nitrous gas. 

EffeSts of Gafeous Oxide of Azote xvhen breathed into the Lungs. 

All who have tafted or inhaled this gas, agree in defcribing The gas has a 
its flavour as ftrongly faccharine, and remaining upon the or- *" *""* ^^ ^* 
gans of fome perfons during the whole day after receiving it. 
M. Difpan obferved in it an afler-tafteof nitre; but acknow- 
ledges that it was the laft colle6led gas which he tafted. — 
M. de M * * *, perhaps under a fimilar impreffion, fays he 
perceived in it a ftyptic quality. 

The method of refpiring this gas was by means of a biad- The gas was tt- 
der with a fiop-cock in It, applied to the mouth; the noftrils P'" * 
being clofed, and (he lungs as much as poflible emptied. 

No. 1. The firft perfon upon whom the experiment was 
jjried, fwooned at the third infpiration, and remained fenfelefs 
about five minutes, when he recovered, but with a fenfation 
of great fatigue. He recollefled to have experienced only a 
fudden faintnefs, attended with a tingling at the temples. 

No. 2. AI. de M * * * obferved a faccharine and flyptic 
tafl:e, and experienced a fenfe of great dilatation, accompanied 
with heat in the breaft ; his veins fwelled, and his pulfe was 
quickened : furrounding objeAs feemed to revolve round him. 
But he thought he could have borne a ftronger dofe; the blad- 
der not being large enough for his lungs. 

No. 3 experienced a faccharine tafie on the firft infpiration ; 
but became Infenfible to thofe which fucceeded. His lungi; 
were forcibly dilated with great heat. When the bladder was 
removed, he appeared very comfortable, but could not refrain 
from violent burfts of involuntary laughter. 

No. 



356 Ot^ THE GASfeOUS OXIDE OF AZOTfe. 

No. 4 had the fame faccharine tafte with the precedin^j 
and retained the impreffion from ten o'clock in the morning 
till after midnight. He experienced vertigoe?, and his legs 
trembled under hi^ during the remainder oF the day. 

No. 5, the fame faccharine tafte. On quitting the bladder^ 
he had a dizzinefs of fight, which was fucceeded by a fenfa^ 
tion of great pleafure throughout the body. His legs were 
weakened. 

No. 6. Saccharine flavour throughout the day ; tingling in 
the ears; legs tottering, and the flomach opprefled. All that 
he experienced was rather painful than agreeable. 
Receiving the ^" order to afcertain wliat influence the mode of breathing 
gas from a blad- from a blarkl^r might have on the foregoing refults, the parties 
fiuence on^thc' ^'^""^ requePced to infpire common air in the fame manner.-^ 
lefult of the ex- They were all mechanically fatigued by i(, and nothing more. 
o'"™^"^ d'f '^''^ bladders were next filled with oxygen gas, and applied 
fered from com- as before lo the fame perfons, who found only a flight differ- 
mon air only by ^^^^ between it and common air, confifUne in an augmentation 

a fmall incieale ,• , , r 

of the heat of o« the heat of the lungs. 

the lungs. The fjngular effeds above defcribed, can, therefore, and 

ought only to be afcribed to the gafeous oxide of azote. 
Other experi- Another meeting of the fociety was held for repeating the 
Kients. experiments more at large, on the refpiration of gafeous oxide 

of azote, 
jy^f . . ^ Eight he6togrammes (27 y oz. troy) of nitrale of ammonia, 
the apparatus prepared as before, were pat into a retort, with its neck fitted 
wth upwards of j^ ^ double-bodied receiver, from whence, by means of a 
2lbs. of the fait. ,^, , J... .,^, 

tube of welter, the gas pafled into an mverted veflel over 

water. The retort was placed on a fand-bath. 
Particulars of "^^ ^^^^ ^^ *'^^ ^'^^'- a^cfted the retort, the fait melted; and 

the procefs. nearly at the fame moment, fparkling vapours arofe in the re- 
tort, but in very fmall quantity. The air which the heat ex* 
pelled from the veflels had a nitrous odour ; but this as well as 
the vapours gradually diminifhed, and as tiie procefs continued 
they dilappeared altogether; they were fucceeded by a lively 
finell of pruffic acid. At length the retort became filled with 
while vapours^ and the gafeous oxide of azote began to pafs 
over. The difengagement foon became fo abundant that it 
was judged proper to draw out the fire; but afterwards, on 
replacing the coals, the gas, which in the interval had dimi- 
nifhed^ 



J^uhcls<ms Jmimal TolJXIIL.Ti.'VIL.p.iSo. 



FrofbLo View of^ir zn Wate^f 
ly I^C. JDalton . 




jix^tic and Sydro^erwviS gas 
^4. Density . 



Ojcygcrwus Nitrous Sc Carhtrdted, 
Sydro^oh^as rjDensify. 



Xiclwlums Journal Tol.jmjPL.VM.p.Sdo. 



Yi^w of oy squoj'c ^ile of Shot Sec. 



The lower globes are to rcpesent j)ca-ticles ofwcaber; 
-the top^lx)hc represents a. particle of air resting 
on 4. particles of i 




Horizontal Yiew of pai'txxfle^ of^ir in Water, 
ly JSdT. Bolton. 
iTiamibent particles are marhe^j • 

^isoT-bcd particles .. . x 

Fiq . 3 . 




..Azotic &: Sydro^enoiLs <^as 
Distance of Particles J^toi. 



Oxyqenous l^iircus Sc CaiVwetted Sydro^erv 
Gas Distancs of ^articles 3toz. 



ON THE GASiOUS OXI&E OF AZOTE. 357 

ftifiicd, was again fo rapidly developed (hat the luting of the 
Veflels began to give way. But notwithftaiviing the lofs which 
this occafioned, the difengagement continued extremely rapid 
in the receiver for at leaft a quarter of an hour. 

M. Difpan fuppofes, that if the luting had not given way, Danger of ex» 
an explolion would have taken place, as has happened to pJ-^^it)!!- 
others in this procefs. 

He next proceeds to ftate the efFefls of the refpiration of 
this gas. 

Twelve perfons underwent the experiment, and on many The effefts pro- 
it was repeated. He obferves that moft of them had inhaled ''"^"^'^ ''y ^^^^^^ 
^, r I r -1 c r g3s Were more 

the gas or the former operation, where two out of leven ex-powerfuJ,than 
perienced pleafing fenfations; but on this fecond occasion, not the former. 
one felt pleafure ; on the contrary, they all felt pain, and 
many TufFered extremely. 

One perfon ftamped with his foot the whole time of the 
breathing : when the bladder was removed, he recovered 
from the profound ftupor into which he had been plunged, and 
complained of a pain in the back part of his head, as if he 
had received a violent blow from a dagger : he could not be 
prevailed on to make another trial. The other perfons in ge- 
neral were affeded with vertigoes and dizzinefs of fight, fuc- 
ceeded in fome by involuntary convulfive fits of laughter. 

M. Difpan tried the effeds of this gas on himfeUj which hew. Difpan's de- 
thus defcribes : — • fcription of the 

" At the firft infpiralion, I emptied the bladder, and my gas^upon hiin- 
mouth was inftantaneoufly filled with a faccharine flavour, felf. 
which extended into my lungs and inflated them. I emptied 
and filled them again ; but on the third attempt, my ears were 
filled with a tingling noife, and I dropped the bladder. I did 
not, however, become altogether infenfible, but remained in 
a kind of benumbed aftooiftiment, rolling my eyes about with- 
out fixing them on any particular objefl : I was then fuddenly 
feized with convulfive laughing fits, fuch as I never in ray life 
before experienced. In a few feconds this propenfi ty to laugh 
Hopped fuddenly, and I no longer felt any unpleafant fymp- 
tom.'' 

Two others on whom the gas was tried, experienced only a Effedls on two 
convulfive movement of fome of the mufcles of the face ; but "^" perlins. 
were in the courfe of the day attacked with violent diarrha?». 

Vol. XIII.— April, 1505- Cc M. jgi'pan 



35,8 OBSERVATIONS ON THE MAMMOTI?. 

Difficulty of M. Difpan thinks it will be very difficult to reduce the ei- 

efFefts of this ^^^^ ^^ gafeoiis oxide of azote to any general fyftem, as thev 

gas to anygene- vary to confiderably in their operations upon different indivi- 

ra y em. duals, and, what is more fingular, even upon the fameperlon. 

M..D. concludes his paper with an account of an experi- 

. ment to alcertain the effeft of gafeous oxide of azote upon 

animals. 

Experiments on He placed a greenfinch in a veffel of fufficient dimenfions, 

a bird immerfed a,-,^^ f^jigfj it wilh gafeous oxide of azote. At firft, the bird 

of azote. feemcd to fuflfer no inconvenience ; but he foon gradually 

clofed his eyes, and dropped gently on his fide^ as if afteep. 

On being reftored to the pure air, he refumed his feet, with-^ 

out attempting to fly away. About an hour afterwards he was 

fubjected to a fecond trial, and having been fuftered to remain 

longer in the veffel, he was taken out quite dead. 

M.. Difpan thinks it very remarkable that the bird (hould 
make no effort to efeape, and that he ftiould manifeft no con- 
vulfive fymptoms, fuch as take place in experiments with 
other gales. 



XVI. 

ObftTvatlom on the Maumoth, or American Elephant, by zchich 
it is proved to have been an herbivorous Animal, In a Letter 
from the Right Reverend BiJIiop Madison.* 

Difcoveiyof a vJ'NE of thofe fads has lately occurred, which the nalu- 
mammoth hav- ^ahft knows befl how to appreciate, and which I therefore 

ing vegetable _ . . 

remains in its take a pleafure in communicating to you. It is now no longer 
ftomach. aquefiion, whether the Mammoth was a herbivorous or car-, 

nivorous animal. Human induftry has revealed a fecret, whicb 
the bofom of the earth had, in vain, attempted to conceal.— 
In digging a well, near a Salt-Lick, in Wythe-county, Vir- 
ginia, after penetrating about five feet and a half from the fur- 
face, the labourers ftruck upon the fiomach of a mammoth. 
The contents were in a flate of perfefl prelervation^ confifting- 

* To Benjamin Smith Barton, M. D. editor of the Philadel- 
phia Medical and Phyfical Journal, from which (vol. II.) it is 

tak«n. 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE MAMMOTH^ 359 

of half mafticated reeds, twigs, and grafs, or leaves. There 
could be DO deception ; the fubftances were defignated by ob- 
vious cbara6lers which could not be miflaken, and of w4iich 
every one could judge; befides, the bones of the animal lay 
around, and added a filent, but fure confirmation. The whole 
refted upon a lime-ftone rock. I have not feen, as yet, any 
part of thofe contents ; for, ihough I was within two (Jays* 
journey of the place where they were found, I was fo well 
fatisfied with the narration of gentlemen who had feen 
them, and upon whofe veracity, as well as accuracy, I could 
rely, that I thought the journey unnecelTary; efpecially as I 
took meafures to enfure the tranfmiffion of a fufficient quantity 
of the contents, together with ail the bones, to Williamfburgh. 
When the contents arrive^ a part (hall be forwarded to you. 
I hope to form a complete flceleton of this vaft animal, having 
given dire6lions to fpare no labour, in digging up every 
bone. 

We (liould not be furprifed, that thefe fubftances fliould be Remarks on the 

thus preferved, when we> recollea the ftate of the rhinoceros, prejervation of 

\ , thofe bodies, 

mentioned by Pallas. Blumenbach, in his Manuel d'Hifioirc 

Naturelle, vol. II. p. 398, (traduit par Artaud), has a note, 

which is very applicable to the prefent fubjecl. He fays, 

^' Quelquefols on trouve encore des pieces animales qui ont 

conferve, fans alteration, leurs parties rnoUes; mais, cepen- 

dant, comme elles se trouvent auffi enfouies dans la terre par la 

iuite de ces grandes cataftrophes des temps anl^rieurs, on doit 

les ranger parmi les corps petrifies, dans le fens le plus etendu, 

Je citerai, par exemple, le rhinoceros deterr^ pres de Wiloi, 

en Siberie, qui offroit encore des reftes tres-reconnoiflables, 

meme ayant encore Todeur animal de mufcles, de chair, de 

peau, & de poils. Pallas I'a d^crit tres-exa6lement dans les 

Nov. Comment. Petropolit., tome 13. p. 58.5." 

Whether this firfl: kind of petrifa(5tion, of which Blumen- —probably from 

bach fpeaks, and which he ca\h /implement calcines, has been """''"^ ^*'^ 

thecaufe of the prefervation of thefe fubftances, or whether 

it be the effc£l of the marine fait, with which the earth, where 

they were buried, has been conftantly charged, muft be left 

to future inveftigation. I pretend not to decide. Had they 

been buried deep in the eaflli, that circum (lance alone might 

have prevented a decompofition ; but the depth of fiveor fix 

feet feems infufficicnt to'arreft that chemical adion, which 

C c 2 changes 



360 OBSERVATIONS ON THE MAMMOTH. 

changes the appearances of organized bodies. The fe6r, 
however, is decifive, as to the principal queftion. It has 
fummoned the difcordant opinions of philofophers before a Ipi- 
hijnal, from which there is no appeal. 
William/burgh, OBober 6th, 1805. 



Fafts by Mr. 
Nevil on long 
preferved vege- 
table bodies. 



Note on the preceding Paper. By the Editor, 

Mr. Francis Nevil, in his account of the elephantine teeth 
that were difcovered in the north of Ireland, early in the 
eighteenth century, has mentioned feme facts relative to the 
Jong prefervation of vegetable matters, which feem worthy 
of our notice in this place : and the more fo, as this gentle- 
man's paper feems not to have excited any attention among 
the modern writers on the exuviae of animals found in coun- 
tries in which the living animals themfelves are no longer 
feen. Some extravagant conjectures are mixed with Mr. 
NeviPs account : but thefe do not, in the lead, invalidate tho 
truth of what he fays, relative to the bed upon which the 
Irifii elephant was laid. 

" The place (fays he) where this monfter lay, was thus 
prepared, which makes me believe it had been buried, or that 
it had Iain there fmce the deluge. It was about four feet un- 
der ground, with a little rifing above the (uperficies of the 
earth, which was a plain under the foot of a hill, and about 
thirty yards from the brook * or thereabout. The bed whereon 
it lay had been laid with fern, with that fort of ruflies here 
called fprits, and with buflies intermixed. Under this was a 
flifF blue clay on which the teeth and bones were found ; 
above this was firft a mixture of yellow clay and fand much of 
the fame colour; under that a fine white fandy clay, which 
was next to the bed ; the bed was for the mod part a foot 
thick, and in fome places thicker, with a moifture clear 
through it; it lay fad and clofe, and cut much like turf, and 
would divide into flakes, thicker or thinner as you would ; 
and in every layer the feed of the ruthes was as frefh as if 
new pulled, fo that it was .in the height of feed-time that thofe 
bones were laid there. The branches of the fern, in every 

■ hu A fmall brook that parts the couiuies of Cavan and Mo- 
fcagfiah." 
'■-■:' la/ 



IAD QUALITY OF E ARTHEKWAR K, ^^1 

fey as we opened them, were very diftinguifliable, as were 
ibe feeds of the ruflies and the tops of the boughs. The whole 
matter fmelt very four as it was dug, and tracing it I found it 
34 feet long and about 20 or 22 feet broad." — *' I forgot td 
mention that there was a great many nut-fliells found abou t 
the bed, perhaps thofe might have been on the bulhes which 
compofed part of the bed *.'* 



XVII. 

Obfervations on the Danger of tifing Earthen-ware or Pottery of 
a bad Quality. By M. Poidevxn of Rouen \. 

AURE white argil forms the body of the fineft pottery Dlfferetit kinds 
which bears the name of porcelain ; clays lefs pure, and °*^ ^^^' 
coloured more or lefs with iron, ferve to form the (lone ware, 
or hard earthen-ware, ai>d the common or foft fort, which 
differs from the other, in not experiencing a commencement of 
fufion at their furface in baking, like porcelain or ftone ware. 
This badly prepared common earthen-ware is the kind 
which Is occafionally attended with danger in its ufe, and is 
the fubjeS of this paper, 

Eurthen-uare. 
. , /. r Common brown 

Thebifcuit of brown earlhen-ware is prepared from a ferru- ware. 

ginous clay; that of white earthen-ware is compofed of a mix- 
ture of ferruginous clay, of another clay containing much 
fjlicious fand, a little lime, and finally of a porous clay, which 
renders it lefs compa6t, and gives it whitenefs after baking. 

Nature not always affording Ihefe earths in the fame ftate differences la 
I ■ ' • - 1 • rr- • 1 1 • r • .the ware inm 

of combmatjon, occadons differences m the bilcuif, when it the quality 

becomes fubjefted to the heat : other differences alfo arife in ^^ materia 
the aflion of the enamel on the bifcuit. If the earth be too 
ferruginous, or too much mixed with filicious particles, the 
enamel, during the baking, a6ls as a flux on the bifcuit, foflens 
it, and occafions the pieces to lofe their fbape. 

If the earti) is too porous it abforbs the enamel and remains 

* A Natural Hiftory of Ireland, in three parts, by Dr. Gcrrard 
Boate, Thomas Molineux, M. D. F. ?.. S. and others. Pages 128 
^130. Dublin: 1755. 

f Annales de Chemie, T. 55, 

rough. 



362 



Compofition of 
the enamel or 



Caufes which 
occaiion varia- 
tions in the 
Slaee. 



Brown pottery. 



Yellow pottery. 



Glaze for brown 
ware. 



Glaze for 
yellow ware. 



Mottled ftreaks 
in foreign ware. 



Cloudy tinges 
In ihe glaze. 



BAD QUALITY OF K A RTH I! N' U'A K E. 

rough, and as it were dried. If it contains too much "lime, H 
throws ofF the enamel, which falls fron) it in fcales inflead of 
adhering to it. 

On the other hand, tiie white enamel is compofed of filicious 
fand, a little lime, lead and tin oxides, and fome flux, ground 
together with water in mills. The brown fort is compofed of 
the fame materials, with the addition of manganefe and 
perigord ftone *. 

The greater or lefs fufibilit)' of the fand ; the greater or 
iefs purity of the lead, of the tin, and of the faline fubftances 
employed as fluxes; the different degrees of heat which the 
mixture receives in (he glazing; the variations of the finenefs 
given to the glazing materials by the action of the mill, are fo 
many circumftances which ,caufe changes in the enamel in its 
fiate of fufion on the pieces, relative to the fiate in which h 
finds the bifcuit and to the fulible layer, with which this laft 
is covered. 

Potteri/. 

The body of the brown pottery is a red clay, more or lefs 
ferruginous and compact according to the places where it is 
procured. 

The common or yellow pottery is made of a white clay, 
which contains a little lime and n.agnefia, and a confiderable 
quantity of lilicious fand, which may be generally efteemed 
a fourth of the mafs. , 

The glazing of the brown pottery is formed with a mixture 
of filicious fand, yellow or red oxide of lead, and manganefe 
pulveriled together. 

That of the yellow earthen- ware is compofed of a mixture 
of filicious (and, and red oxide of lead, which, during its 
baking vitrifies at its furface, and forms a yellow glazing more 
or lefs tranfparent. To this mixture is commonly added, in 
France, a little oxide ot magnanele in powder, more or lefs 
fin«, without grinding ihem together. This is called Ihe graitif 
becaufe it fufes more difticuhly than the other materials, without 
mixing with them, and by thai means forms llreaics, fpols, 
or brown fpecks, according to the coarlenefs of the powder 
itfelf. 

In fome manufadories they mix oxide of copper with the 
common glazing, to give it a green colour, and in others they 
form defigns on the pieces, with oxide of copper, which pro- 



* A black ftone or compaft manganefe, T. 



duces 



BAD QUALITY OF EARTHENWARE $Q^ 

diices a green, with oxide of iron, which caufes a red, or with 
oxide of manganefe, which gives a brown. 

Great im perfections are produced in pottery, from the in- pg^fe^ion in' 
judicious ufe of glazing over earlhs of an unfuilable nature, pottery. 
and (his is more remarkable when the earths are not fo well 
prepared for their glazings as ihey are for thofe of the finer 
vs'ares. Tiie articles of common pottery are lefs carefully pie- 
pared both in their rijalerials and baking. This la(t is ufually 
performed at a fingle operation, and with lefs fire. 

The means of producing good pottery and earthen- ware^ Cautions 
confifl: in carefully chufing the earths for forming the body : j^fy^e its good* 
in producing an exad coincidence of expanlion by heat be- nefs. 
tween ihem, and the vitrifiable glaze with which they are to 
Jbe covered, and in baking Ihem by a proper degree of fire, 
produced from combuftibles not capable of changing the nature 
of the glazing. 

The neglect of thefe attentions occafion defe<5ts in the manu- 
'ijctured articles, which are either unfighlly and nothing more, 
or both unfighlly and dangerous. 

The unfighlly defefls which a^re found in ill condilioned Defedls o< 
pottery or earthen- ware, are, fcalin^; ihe dropping or ^''^P'^i ^n^mtr^t\ 
finoke; drying of the ware, -dnd jiaxvs or crach. 

The fcaling is the appellation u(ed when the glaziiig of a Scaling of the 
piece detaches ilfelf in fcales, by the adion of moift air, or on S^^^^* 
the leafl touch, and leaves the bifcuit uncovered. 

The dropping or drops t»ke place when the moifiure of the Dropping or 
fuel having ftruck the pieces during the baking, the enamel is "''°ps« 
coilefled in drops on the furlace, and remains vitrified in 
thai form, inftead of being equally fpread. 

The fmoky appearance happens when a piece has not been Smoky tinge= 
purified by a clear flame, but remains blackened or ftained- 

The drying happens when the pieces are, as it were, roafte'd Drying, 
in the firing, and come out rough Irom ihe abforplion of the en- 
amel into their .^ubfiance. 

The flaws happen, when the earth or the bifcuit, having pja^j, 
a different pyroraelncal expanfibility from that of the enamel; 
the body contrads in cooling more if.an the glaze which is 
therefore fplit, or which is divided into an infinite nua)ber of 
fmail parts, fonielimes nol perceptible to the eye when the 
pieces are new, but which become very vifihie, when the 
goods have imbibed any greafy fubltance in uling. 

All thefe defects, though difagreeable to ihe eye, have The coarfe pofc- 

reaiiv ^^^X 'S moft 



354* *^'' JOITAXITY or EARTHENWARt, 

really, with regard to the ware itfelf, only the inconvenience 
of a dirty appearance, provided the bifcuit is always compa6i, 
and well baked. But it is different in the common pottery iq 
■which the dropping, the fcaling, and the flaws produce more in-^ 
jurious defeds. As the earth is more porous and left; baked in 
thore,the liquids preferred in them enter into the pores where 
they become altered and decompofed, and produce fulphur* 
ated hydrogen, which injures -every thing kept in them. 
Cavities or pits jj^^ ^^q^ noxious defeds in pottery are the cavities or 
from bad firing. ... , , , • _,, . , rr in 

pits, and the underbaking. The pits are roughnelTes or hollow 

bubbles which are found on thofe pieces, whofe enamel being 
injured by rubbing, or being too little aded on by the fire, 
has not been fufed into a vitreous fubftance. In thefe the 
metallic oxides are in a ftate capable of doing injury, being 
Underbaking or ^'" ^o^uhle in fat or acid fubftances, 

impertcft t'ufion The underbaking occaiions one of the moft dangerous de- 
o tie glaze. f^fts in potteryj the pieces thus aflfe6led have not had fuf- 
ficient heat to caufe the enamel to do more than agglutinate 
together, and in fome cafes it even ftill remains in powder, 
It is therefore capable of being divided, and taken up by all 
the liquids with which it may come in contad. 

It is eafy to fliew the danger to which the public muft be 
expofed in buying thofe articles at a low price which are 
called wafte or refufe and which ought to be carefully thrown 
away. In vain may it be faid that they are ufed daily without 
any immediate mifchief happening; from the injury being 
more concealed, it is no lefs deftru6live. It is known that 
lead and its oxides ad infenfibly on the organs of digefiion, 
efpepially when taken in fmall quantities : They do not, how- 
ever, lefs certainly caufe, at length, ern?ciation, cholics, 
convulfions, fometimes of all parts of the body, with obftinate 
diarrhoeas; and the wretched people who ufe fuch velfels 
become the vidims of their own ignorance, and of thq im- 
prudent avarice of the manufadurer. 

It would be to the honour of enlightened manufadurers^ 
not tp offer to the public pieces which have imperfedions 
beyond a certain degree, and to make thisfacrifice to the good 
pf national commerce, efpecially as they can avoid the lofs by 
a greater attention to their materials. 



XVIII. Extraa 



OXIDATION, 



xviir. 



265 



Extras of a Letter from M. John Michael Haussmann, 
to M. Berthollet, on the Exijience of intermediate Terms 
of Oxidation. * 

1 THINK there are fufficient grounds for admitting, with ^^'^fn" of ir 
you, that there exift, in the oxidation of many metallic bodies, degrees of^jjii^j^ 
intermediate degrees between the minimum and the maximum. t'°n of metals. 

The firft example I (hall cite, is, that of a mm.mum oxide Oxide of tin. 
of tin, precipitated from the muriatic folution, and diflfolved 
in an excefs of cauftic potafh ; a metallic alkaline folution 
M'hich I have before noticed in my Obfervations on the Red 
Dye of Adrianople, inferted in the " Annates dc Chimie," and 
alfo in a Memoir on the coloured Oxides of Tin, inferted in the 
" Journal de Phi/fique." 

By avoiding any dilution of the muriate of tin, and ufing Expetlmcnt. 
a very concentrated folution of cauftic potafti, the mixture /^.""^''^°^ '^'" 

• r ... 's in part prc- 

difengages much caloric, part of the tin is precipitated in thecipitated metallic 
metalline ftate, whilft the remainder is held in folution in^n ^'^^ ^^^ '^^^ , 
intermediate ftate of oxidation. This alkaline folution is fo intermediate' 
difoxidant, that it changes the yellow oxide of gold, fixed on oxidation, 
icotton, by means of ammonia, to a grey ; whilft a firailar 
yellow pattern underwent no change of colour on 'being 
Jlleeped in the iimple liquor of cauftic potafli. A like altera- 
tion took place on dipping a cotton clolh, which had been 
previoufly liained with the folution of gold, and well dried 
in the alkaline folution of tin, which alfo produced the fame 
effefl on pouring into it the pure folution of gold diluted 
with water. 

This change of the yellow colour of oxide of gold by the Other proofs of 
alkaline folution of tin, is not the only proof of an interrae- ^j." j^'"J^"^ '* 
diate ftate of oxidation ; this liquor poflefTes befules, a pro- 
perty of deftroying the blackifti-brown colour of the oxide of 
raanganefe ftained upon cotton by an alkaline precipitant. 

All thefe changes are more rapidly produced, if, prior to the 
precipitation and folution in the cauftic potafti liquor, the 
muriatic folution of tin be diluted with (ix or eight parts of 
jyater, in which cafe there i« no fenftble difengagement of 

* Annales de Chimie, Vol. LVI. 5. 

caloric 



SQQ OXIDATION^. 

caloric, and no tin is precipitated in the metalline Ttate. Tins 
folution, vvhofe oxidation approaches the degree of minimum, 
for the mofl part retains an aqueous tranfparency, without 
any precipitation of oxide; even when long expofed to the 
atmofpheric air, it does not lofe the property of changing the 
yellow oxide of gold to a grey colour, or of dellroying the 
blackidi brown tint of oxide of raanganel'e, when fixed upon 
cotton. 
Oxide of man* The oxide of manganefe is capable of various degrees of 
ganefe. oxidation ; if a piece of cotton cloth be dipped in the tranf- 

parent folution of fulphate of raanganefe, it will, when dry, 
retain its original whitenefs; but on their dipping the fame 
"cloth in the liquor of carbonated or cauftic potafh, it will, 
after wadiing and expofure to the atmofpheric air, be coloured 
brown ; which colour will acquire a deeper fliade, ap- 
proximating to black, on being fieeped for a time in an 
oxigenated alkaline, muriatic liquor. The oxigenaled alka- 
line liquor, on being for any length of time iubiuitted to the 
action of the brown precipitate of manganeie, inftead of the 
rag fieeped therein (which is to difTolve by means of an in- 
creafed oxidation) will all'ume a purple colour, of greater or 
lefs tranfparency as the time of their union has bfcn longer 
or (horter. 
Other oxides. There feems reafon, generally, to expe6l particular refults 

from fubmitting any of the metallic oxides to (he adion of 
4hts oxigenated muriatic alkaline liquor; which might, per- 
haps, be a means of giving them acid properties, and at the 
fame time of proving the gradual oxidation of many metals; 
this is the more obfervable in while oxide of lead, which be- 
comes gradually coloured by long expofure to the oxigenated 
liquor, and being frequently flirred. 
Muriatic and Muriatic and nitro-muriatic folutions of tin, well diluted 

with water, have an aqueous tranfparency, when properly 
made;, but if the two be mixed together, they acquire a fiuo 
lefs in them- vinous colour, fimilar to that of Malaga ; this can only arile 
lelves, acquire ^^^^ ^^^ oxigen of the nitro-muriatic being in part coin- 
vinous t'lnc. nmnicated to the muriatic folution of tin. 
The addition of ^^ ^ folution of gold with great excels of acid, and diluted 
folution of gold with from 130 to 160 parts of water, be gradually poured 
pie dvT- ^ ^^"^^ into the above mixture, flirring it all the time, the inlenlily 
of the col.uur will be increafed, till at length the liquor be- 



njtro-muriatic 
folutions of tin 
though colour 



OXIDATION, 3G7 

comes of a beautiful purple hue, in which all kinds of goods capable of being 
may be dyed {Jthh may be changed to the (int of peach or lilac bjoomVpeaches 
bloiroms, by increafing the proporiions of the nifro muriatic or lilac j 
folution; or, on" the other hand, by caufing ihe muriatic fo- or even to grey, 
lutions of tin to preponderate ; fliades of grey wij! be obtained, the^quantity"o"/ 
deeper or paler in colour, according to the quantity of the the twoiblutians 
folution added. Caremuft, however, betaken, in the latter* 
experiment, that too great a proportion of the muriatic liquor 
of tin be not ufed ; for by depriving the oxide of gold of too 
much of its oxigen, it might be loo much difoxided and pre- 
cipitated. The precipitate caufed by fuch an accident is not The precipltaa 
li ■ -1 r ■ L- I . •* -ir ,, of the oxide of 

altogether void of oxigen, which prevents its gilding cold „o)j ^yjj, j^^^ 
fiiver, as do the adies of burned cloth impregnated with the si:dfilver,with- 
Iblution of gold. The degree to which the prefervation ^^Inleofhe^u' 
the tin6ture of gold may be carried, muft depend on the pro- 
portions of the two folutions of tin, their being more or lefs 
furcharged with acids, and the quality of the folution of gold, 
wherein alio there (liould be a very great excels of acid. 

The purple tindure of gold, though of tlie mofi perfeft ,^/[?;'^'!°sf "^ 
tranfparency, is decompofed by expofure to a ftrong heat, and 
throws down what is known by the name of " Purple of Coffins," 
vvhofe beauty depends on the quantity of niiro-raurtatic folu~ 
tion of tin made ufe of. The latter, however, if mixed 
alone with the folution of gold, without the prefence of mu- 
riate of tin, produces no alteration of colour, and, if the 
mixture be not too ratich weakened with water, is a very long 
lime before it gives a precipitate. 

The purple tincture of gold, is, properly fpeaking, nothing 
more than the powder of catlius, held in foiution by means of 
the oxigen of the nitro-muriaiic liquor of tin; and there is 
every reafon to believe, that in the powder of caffius, the 
oxide of gold is in fome way coniliined with the oxide of tin, 
which, by tranfmitting to it its own origin, during its fixation 
upon porcelain, prevents it, I think, from returning to its 
metallic Hate. I find a difficulty in (ubfcribing to the opinion 
of Dr. Richter, of Berlin, who, in a memoir (which I have Di. Rkhtci's 
not read) attempts to prove, by matht^matical demon Rralion, T^'""^"^^^^^^^^^ 
that tlie crimfon-coloured gold on porcelain is in the metallic ed gold upon 
ftale. P°^'''^"; 

The purple tinflure of gold might be advantageoufly ^m- ^^"P]^ ^^^'^^'^^JjJ^ 
ployed in dying fjlks, without greatly enhancing the price, ^n others for 

The (^ying <»iks« 



368 . OXIDATION. 

The colour oblained from It furpafles all others iii duratioili 
fince nothing le(s than combuftion can deftroy it. It is necef- 
fary, however, to leave the fi!k a long time in this dye; and 
the depth of the fhade will be in proportion to the number of 
times the article is dipped ; it muft be well wrung, rinced, 
and dried, between each immerfion. 
The g^aaano^ The gradation of colours produced by mixture of the nilro- 
offhades already muriatic, and muriatic folutions of tin, being much weakened 

noticed are in- rj .-,. /-,.- ,.^.. 

dications of a "V dropping loliition of gold m a great excefs of acid, con- 
gradual oxida- fiderably diluted with water, into the mixture, feems to me 
"^"* to indicate a gradual oxidation. The acetic folution of iron 

proves the fame truth ; for on being expofed to the atmof- 
pheric air, or to the contad of oxigen gas, it gradually 
Sulphate of iron ^^^"g^s ^om a fea green to a reddiQi yellow colour. I have 
lofes its excefs of fliewn, in a memoir on the alkaline Tin<aure of Mars of Stahl, 
*'ofure tothe' ^''*^ Sulphate of iron may be fuper-oxigenated, and alfo lofe 
Jight. J's excefs of oxigen by the adion of light. On mixing con- 

centrated fulphuricacid with nitric folution of iron, I oblained, 
after the nitric acid was evaporated, by leaving the refiduum 
to imbibe the moitiure of tlie air for feveral months ; cryftals 
of fuper-oxigenated fulphate of iron, which were at firft 
diftinguilliable by their whilenefs from fulphate of alumine ; 
but the adion of the light gradually tinged their furface with 
a yellow colour; their original whitenefs, however, might, 
by a gentle waftiing, bereftoredat plealure. Super-oxigenateui 
fulphate of iron, of nearly an equal degree of whitenefs, 
may in like manner, be obtained by precipitating nitrate of 
iron, and diflblving the precipitate, edulcorated and freed 
from water, gradually in fulphuric acid, which, if well con- 
centrated, will produce cryftals of fuper-oxigenated fulphate of 
iron without evaporation. This fait ponTefles an incomparable 
degree of aftringency. 
The faft that The progrefs of the tranhniflion of oxigen is more manifeft 

lintns printed on linen fimply printed with. acetate of iron and madder. 

With acetate of , . , n i " i • /- . . 

iron are liable to which mult be a long time expofed in the air to bleach, un- 
become rotten, jefs the arliticial means of bleaching be adopted. The prinf- 
gralTudLnf! ^^ P^""' ^^ ^^*^ ''"^^ frequently periflies, bearing the appear- 
miffion of ance of having been cut with 3 fliarp inftrument, or burned 

axigen. ^j^j^ concentrated acid ; this, it ftiould feem, muft proceed 

from the adion of the oxigen contained in the coloured oxide 
of iron, continually repleniflied from the atmofpheric air. 

It 



S.CIENTIfIC NEWS. ^^Oil 

It is not among minerals alone that fufafiances are found 
which are graduall)' oxided, and by intermediate degrees. 

Indigo affords an inftance that vegetabie and animal bodies Vegetable and- 
offer fimilar proofs ; for any folution of indigo (excepting the f^||^^ f°mWar 
fulphate of indigo) will, on difoxidation, or on having its oxi- eafes with mine- 
gen reftored, pafs through all the degrees of (hade, from oxilttn!''^"^' 
blueifh green to very yellow olive, preferving in the mean 
time the fame quantity of indigo in folution. The beauty and 
lability of the colours, either for dying or painting, will 
chiefly depend on the degree of oxidation. On fome other 
occafion, Sir, I fliall write to you more amply on this fubjecl. 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 

Memoires de V Academic imperudt des Sciences, &fc. Memoirs of 
the imperial Academy of Sciences, Literature, and fine Arts^, of 
Turin, for the Years 12 and 13, 2 Vols, Quarto. 1805. 
Turin, 

W HEN the Royal Academy of Turin afluraed the name Memoirs of tJ^ 
of Imperial, in confequence of Piedmont being annexed to J^^'^^i g 'i^' 
France, the number of academicians was increafed, to form a ences, &c. of 
new clafs, that of literature and the fine arts. Of the two Tunn. 
volumes publiftied, one is appropriated to the labours of this 
clafs, the other to that of the phyfical and mathematical 
fciences. 

The latter is compiled by the fecretary, Mr. Vaflali Eandi", 
whofirfl mentions the changes ihathave taken place in the lift 
of academicians, next the various papers that have been read at: 
their meetings, and then the books and other articles preiented 
to the fociety. Thefe lifts are followed by a well written ac- 
count of the labours of the academy up to the year 1805, 
which occupies 250 pages.. After this follow the different 
memoirs. 

1. Defcription and ufe of a new portable barometer, for 
meafuring heights and depths, with obfervations made with 
this inftrument in the circles of Turin and Saluzzo. This 
inftrument, of which a figure is given, was invented by the 
fecretary ; who has fubjoined to his paper fome very cuxious 
hiftorical notes on the places where his oWervaiions wer* 
made. 

^ 2, Account 



370 SCIENTIFIC NEU-3. 



Memoirs of th4 
Imperial Aca- 



2. Account of a waterfpout, that occurred in the territory 
dcmyof Sci- ^f Revel, in (he circle of Saluzzo, March 27, 1798, with 
onces, &c, of remarks on the caule of the phenomenon, by the fame. 

■ 3. On the diftereiit capacities for concluding heat afcer- 
tained by experiment in different arlicles ufed for clothing, by 
J. Sennebier. 

4'. Of a new fpecies of hawkweed, crepis, to which are 
added fome cryptogamiae of Piedmont, by J. Baptift Balbis. 

A figure of this phut, which Mr. B. calls crepis ambigua, 
is given. Among the cryptogamias are the following new 
fpecies, jnucor flofculentuSy peziza aiiitnlacea, lidcn nivalis. 
Thefe likewife are figured. 

5. Experiments on the efFecls of the nitric and oxigenated 
muriatic acid, employed topically in llie treatment of various 
riifcafes, by Mr. Roili. Mr, R. gives an account of the cure 
of feveral gangrenous ulcers, venereal buboes, and even 
conlagious carbuncles, cured by the application of thefe 
acids. 

6. Meteorological obfervations made during the folar eclipfe 
on the 30th of Jan. 1805, at the obfervatory of Turin, with 
refledions on them, by Ant. Mar. Vatfali Eandi. 

7. On a fpecies of cadi a, that maybe fubftiluted for the 
fenna of the Qiops, by Mr. Bellardi. This is the cajjia 7iiari- 
Iwidica, which Mr. B. would call fucccdansa, becaufe, ac- 
cording to him, it may fupply the place of the caffia lan- 
ceolata. 

8. Inquiries into (he nature of the galvanic fluid, by A. M, 
Vaffali Eandi. 

9. On the mines of plumbago in the departments of the Sture 
and the Po, by Mr. Bonvoifin. 

10. Attempts to improve nut oil,by the fame. Mr. B. points 
out a method of purifying this oil, and rendering it as Ht for 
lamps as other fine oils. 

11. Examination of the a6lion of the galvanic fluid on dif- 
ferent gafes, l)y J. A. Giobert. 

12. An anatomical and phyfiological eflay on the lymphatic 
glands, by profeffor Roffi. 

13. Solution of a problem depending on the theory of per- 
mutations and combinations, by profellor Balbo. 

14. Explanation of the circumflance of a filh being occa- 
fionally found with pric-kles in the river of the 27th military 

5 divifiQn# 



SCIENXIHC NEWS. O/l 

divifiot), by iXl.r Gionia, Tliis fifli is ihe ajprinus idus ;Mimo'ns of th^ 
the male only has prickles, and lofes them after ^pa^^"'"g dTm^'of Sd-" 

time, ences, &c, of 

1 .5, A chemico-medica! efTay on the pulmonary confumption, Turin. 
by Jof, Hypc. Rizzetti. The principal fubjed of this eflay is 
the nature of the matter expectorated. 

The following papers are by foreign members. 

1. JNTemoir on the ufe of varying the conflant quantity-in 
fumming up equations with variable coefficients, by Dr. 
Brunacci. 

2. A f\{lematiral enumeration of the coleoplera found in tiie 
territory of Saluzzo, with oblervations, by Law.- Ponza. To 
this catalogue are annexed two plates, containing the follow- 
ing new (pecies, Cvccinellanumeralis, — c.objblela, — curculio 
fpinofus, — c. dubius, — c. rugofus, — cerambj/x prccujius, — c. nie- 
lanocephalus, — chryfomela mdunncephala, — ch. variegata, — ch. 
pretiofa, — ch, hiduofa, — -fcarabaus rufcffcens% — cnntharis imprej'- 
jlf'rons, — atidabus funercuSf — dj/tijaisJilphoidt's,—'tenehno rufus, 
— birrliusroffli, — carabus attcnuatus, — c. metallicus, — c. roffii, — 

forficula bipuntUita, — fdpha finuata, — f. fcabra. 

3. On the motion of the hairs of the fij/pnmnadiantoides, by, 
Palaraedas de SufFren. Parts endued with irritability had al- 
jeady been obferved in the hairs of fome modes. Mr. De S. 
has found it in thofe of the /*. a. and defcribes all the fingulart- 
ties of the phenomenon. This paper is accompanied with a 
plate. 

4. Of a refin employed by the bee in conftruding its comb?. 
By Fr. Mouxy Deloche. 

5. Entomological obfervations ; by Mr. Difderi. Mr. D. 
firft (ketches ihe hi/lory of the filkworm ; and then proceeds 
to certain hymenoptera, chiefly of the genera tenthredo, ich' 
vewnon, fphex, et vejpa. 

6. Specimen of the fungi of the %'ale of Pifa, by Hugh 
Camino. The new fpecies are figured on three plates. They 
are Agaricus elatior : a. miniatus : a. pezizoides : a. aftro-, 
fanguineus: a. tricolor: Boletus (cobinaceus : Helvellagrandis:. 
h. reflexa ; b. inflata : Peziza achracea : p. pyriforrais : Re-' 
ticularia rofea : Mucor fruticulofus. 

7. Obfervations on the native gold found among fand, by 
Lew. Boffi, of Milan, 

To 



372 to CORRESPONDENTS* 

Baropieter. MY correfpondent from Edinburgh is reminded, wi4b re^ 

gard to liis projed for a barometer, that no enlargement or 
diminution of the bore will make the leaft difference in the fcale 
of the common barometer, confining of a tube or veffel, 
clofed above, and having its lower end open, and communi- 
cating with a bafon of mercury of confiderable diameter. 

Subdivifion of The contrivance, received fome time ago from T. I. for 
an/chain.^ ^^ making an aftronomical infirumenf, in which the angular 
quantities fliall be meafured by the communication of a chain, 
ftrapi or firing, poireflTes fo much ingenuity and promife, that 
it has exercifed the heads and hands of a number of eminent 
men. Among thefe are Rebert Hooke, for a quadrant ; 
Mufchenbroeck, for a pyrometer, and many operative men, 
fuch as SifTon and others, for theodolites and quadrants. — 
Where the intention of the inftrument is limply to magnify 
the motion, without any particular attention to precifion, the 
contrivance has a happy etfe6l ; particularly in public leflures, 
where a number of fpeclalors may obferve the fame effed at 
the fame time. It is likewife cheap, and may be carried into 
efFeft in fituations where the ufe and application of more ac- 
curate apparatus cannot be referred to. 
Itcannotbe A flight attention to the fubjeft, will (hew that all contri- 

made very ex- vances of the kind here alluded to muft be confiderably inac- 
curate. For they demand, 1 , that the wheels flioold be very 
truly circular : 2, and free from all dirt and impurity : 3. that 
they be well centered : 4. that the chain or firing (liould be 
every where of the fame thicknefs : 5, and its tenfion in all 
pofitions alike, &c. &c. If the quantity of error, taken at 
a minimum, which mufl arife from thefe and other caufes, be 
attended to, it will be 4"ound that a fimple divifion of an arc 
(fubdivided by a fcrew or a nonius) and examined or read ofT 
by a fmall magnifier, will afford greater precifion ; even when 
the work is performed by a careful defigner, who is no ma- 
thematical inftrument maker. It is certain that much greater 
delicacy and precifion may be had in the divifion of mathema- 
tical inflruments by the patient diligence of a cultivator of 
pradical mechanics than is generally fuppofed. 



ail. 



JOURNAL 



OF 



NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, CHEMISTRY, 



THE ART S. 



SUPPLEMENT to VOL. XllL 



ARTICLE L 

Oa the Saline Effiorefcences upon Walls; Salirarj/ Concretions ; 
Deflagration of Mercury by Gulvanifm ; Biliary Calculi; and 
the freezing Point of Spermaceti. 5j/ John Bostock, M. D. 

To Mr. NICHOLSON. 
SIR. 

J.N the third and fixth volumes of your Journal you have Jn- Examinaeion of 
ierted an account of fome experiments that I performed on the '^p'*' ^^<^™«"s 
faline efflorefcences found upon walls. I have lately had an found upon j 
opportunity of examining two other fpecimens, of which I^^^'^* 
now fend you the particulars. The firft was obtained in con- 
fiderable quantity from the inner w^alls of a warehoufe that 
had been ereded about twenty years. By a feries of fimple The firft was 
experiments, which it is unnecefTary to detail at full length/'^f ^^'^ ''^ ^"^'* 
I found it to be a fulphale of foda, which, as in the former 
cafes, feemed to exift in a ftale of almoft perfe6l purity. The 
circuraftances attending the fecond of tbefe efflorefcences 
were more lingular. It was given me by a friend who had 
fcraped it from off the ftones which are fituated on the infide The fecond was 
of the weft aifle of York Minfter* My friend, on whofe ac- f"3pe=i from the 
Vol. XIII. — Supplement, Dd curacy 



3^4 



SALINE EFFLORESCENCE UPON WALLS, &C. 



It was fulphate 
of magne/ia, 
very pure. 



face of the ftone'c'tlracy I place the fulleft confidence, exprefsly ftated, that 
Minder, and not ^^^ taken from the furface of the ftone itfelf, and not fronft 
from the mortar, the joints, or any part that had been covered with mortar. It 
exifted there in large quantity, and was difpofed in the form 
of projefling fpiculse. Upon fubjecling ft to the ufual trials, 
I found it to be a very pure fulphate of magnefia. In order 
to afcertain with precifionthe degree of its purity, I prepared 
a quantity of the fulphate of magnefia, by uniting together its 
eor>ftitaent parts. This artificial fait, ar>d the lait from York, 
after being cryftallized, were expofed for fome time to the 
fame degree of heat, and when all the water of cryftallization 
appeared to be expelled, equal weights of them were diflblved 
in equal weights of water: 100 grains of thefe folutions had 
the muriate of barytes refpeftively added, until no farther 
precipitation was produced, when it appeared that exaftly 
the fame weight of barytes was necefiary to faturate each fo» 
lulion. The portions of precipitated fulphate of barytes were 
colleded and dried, and when examined by a nice balance, 
exhibited fcarcely any perceptible difference in weight; they 
each amounted to 7.9 grains. A firailar procefs being adopted 
with refpefl to the common Epfora fait of the fliops, the pre- 
cipitate was found to be 7.35 grains only. Before I quit this 
uibjecl, Imay remark that another friend, in vifiting the ca- 
thedral at Tewkefbury, noticed a faline efflorefcence on the 
infide of fome part of that building ; he collefled a portion of 
it, intending to give it me for examination; but it was acci- 
dentally loft. Perhaps fome of your readers, who reiide in 
that neighbourhood, may be induced to examine it, and tranf- 
mit the refult to your Journal. I confefs myfelf totally unable 
to explain the produdion of the fulphate of magnefia on tlie 
furface of a freeftone, fuch as, I believe, forms the body of 
York Minfter. 
Account of a Among the folid concretions which are formed in different 

concretion in the parts of the human body, thofe from the falivary du6ls are og- 
^ " ^* cafionally met with. I lately procured one of thefe fub- 
llances, of which I will give you a brief account. It was a 
cylinder, pointed at one end, of l>alf an inch in length, and 
fomewhat more than •— of an inch in diameter j it weighed 
Jfgr. It was white and fmcolh on the outfide, and its in- 
ternal fra^fture did not exhibit any marks of regular organiza- 
tion. To half a grain of the concretion a few dropS'of diluted 

Hittfialic- 



^»i. Wlience 
came t'he mag- 
.nefia ? 



SALINE EFFLORESCENCE UPON WALLS, &C. 375 

muriatic acid were added ; no effervefcence was excited. By 
the application of a gentle heat the vfhole was ditTolved, ex- 
cept a few films that fwain in the fluid. A copious precipi- 
tation was produced in this folution by pure ammonia, but 
none by the carbonate of ammonia. A part of the muriatic 
folution was evaporated; the refidue was not foluble in water, 
but was fpeedily re-difloived by the muriatic acid. The mu- 
riatic folution, faturaled with the carbonate of ammoniac, had 
a precipitation produced by the oxalate of ammoniac. It ap- It wasphofphate 
pears therefore that the concretion confifted of the phofphate °^ ""^^ '^^^^y* 
of lime, mixed with a little animal matter, probably coagu- 
lated albumen; it did not contain any carbonate of lime, and 
its component parts appeared not to pofTefs any regularly or- 
ganized ftru6lure. M. Fourcroy * and Dr. Thomfont have 
examined fimilar bodies, and agree in confidering the earthy 
matter to be the phofphate of lime ; we may therefore reafon- 
ably conclude that this fubftance always compofes the earthy 
part of the falivary concretions. I am difpofed, however, to 
differ from ihefe diftinguiflied chemifts in my idea refpedling 
the nature of the animal matter which enters into their com- 
potition ; M. Fourcroy confiders it as confifting of a fpecies of 
mucilage, while Dr. Thomlon defcribes it as " a membranous 
fubftance, which retains the (liape of the concretion after the 
folution of the phofphate." This was certainly not tiie cafe -—with co3g«- 
wiilh tl}e one which I examined. I am difpofed to confider '^"^^^^ *'''"'^*'^'- 
the animal matter as coagulated albumen, rather than mucus, 
in confequence of its infoluble nature, and the greater facility 
with which it would on this account be detained by the phof- 
phate of lime. 

The power which the eleSric fluid poffeHet;, when generated Mercury has not 

by the galvanic apparatus, of burning metallic plate^;, afibrds l^eretofore been 
r , n 1 T I . . deflagrated by 

one ot the moft beautiful expenmenls oi which the fcience of galvanUm. 
cheraiftry can boaft. All the metals have "by this means been 
fubjeded to combultion, except mercury, which, owing to 
iis fluidity, is incapable of being formed into thin laminze, + 
I have, however, been fortunate enough to accomplifti this 
«bjeft, and that by the moft iimple method- 

«■ Syfteme, IX.3C8, f Chemiftry, TV. 658, 

J Thomfltrs Chemiflry, I, 125. 

5) d' 2 I was 



57d SALINE, EFFLORESCENCE UPON WAILS, &C. 

I was performing fome experiments with Mr, Richard Da?- 
ton, an ingenious leflurer in natural philoJTopby of this place, 
with a pile compofed of GO pair of fix-inch plates of zinc and 
Experiment rn copper, when it occurred to me to place a minute globule of 
rffeOed?'^ "^^ mercury in an iron fpoon, refting on the top of the pile, and 
to approach to it a thick iron wire conneded with the other 
end of the apparatus; the etfeft was, that a brilliant ftar of 
light was produced from the, mercury, attended with a crack- 
ling noife and a copious emitSon of fparks ; the mercury was 
found converted into the black oxide. , 

Tht dark co- The moft common fpecies of biliary calculus is that com- 
'"."■"^n P"^'"^'" pofed of the peculiar cryftalline matter, which in fome of its 

*f gall ftones do '^ . r i i /- •,,.-, 

not app.-ar to he properties retembles ipermaceti, through which are inter- 
Infpifated rcfin fperfed a number of dark coloured particles, that are fuppofed 
to confi ft of hardened bile. This is the idea entertained by 
M. Fourcroy,* and the one which I adopted, when I made 
the experiments on this fubje6l which are related in the fourth 
volume of your Journal. I have, however, fince that time 
been difpofed to alter my opinion ; in two fpecimens of the 
, biliary calculi, which I examined, after feparating the cryftal- 
line matter by alcohol, I was unable to dilTolve the dark co- 
loured particles by any menftruum which I applied to them; 
they imparled a yellowifli tinge to water and other fluids, but 
the great bulk of their fubftance remained unchanged. It is, 
I conceive, not probable that the mere infpilTation of the retia 
of the bile could fo far alter its properties. I mention this cir- 
cumfiance principally with a view of attrafting the attention 
of any of your readers who may be in polTeiEon of a number 
of gall-ftones, fo as to afcerfain whether the untraftable nature 
of thefe particles is a general property of the cyftic-adipo- 
bilious concretions, or foraething peculiar to the fpecimens 
upon which I experimented. 
Meltjng pomt of ^ ^^'^ conclude this mifcellaneous letter with fome remarks 
fpermaceti. upon the melting point of fpermaceti. In the paper to which 
exoe'riment'con.^ have already referred, I mentioned the diverfity of opinion 
films that ic is a that had been entertained on this fubje6l, and afterwards ftated 
little above 112". ^j^^^ ^^ ^^^,^ experience induced me fo fix it at the 1 I2th de- 
gree. Dr. Thomfon, in the firft volume of his Chemiftry, 
fixes the melting point at I33°,t while in the fourth he llates 

* Syfteme, X, 59i f ^^ge 358, 



377 



DENSITY OF WATER. 

it to be 112", upon the authority of my paper.* Yet in his 
anfwer to the Edinburgh reviewers, he has mentioned tiiis 
eftimate of the melting point of fperraaceti as one of his ac- 
knowledged errors, and upon the authority of Dr. Gibbes, 
fixes it at 1 1 j^. This circumftance determined me to repeat 
the experiment ; I employed a very delicate thermometer, and 
ufed every requifite precaution ; the refult was that the inflru- 
ment defcended to a little above the \ \'2th degree, and remained 
ftationary until the fubftance was become folid. I may add 
that Dr. Irvine, in fome experiments related in the ninth vol. 
of your Journal, fixes the point at 113°, which agrees fo 
nearly with my obfervations, as to afford rae an additional con- 
fidence in their accuracy. 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient fervant, 

JOHN BOSTOCK. 

Liverpool, April 9, 1 806. 



ir. 

Jnvefiigation of the Temperature at ivkich Water is of greateji 
Den/ity, from the Experiments of Dr. Hope on the Contra^lion 
of Water by Heat at low Temperatures. In a Letter from Mr. 
JoiiN Dalton. 

To Mr. NICHOLSON. 
' SIR, 

1.N your Journal for February 1805 was inferted a letter of Reference tfl a 

mine containing certain facts relative lo the fubje6t of "^J P'C" s^cTtionTn'"^" 

fent communication, which led me to diibelieve the common which the max- 

opinion that water is denfeft at 40^, and inclined me to think ''"""' denfity o 
, "^ , ' . watrr was taken 

it is at 32^. Since that time my attention has again been at 32°. 

turned to the fubjed; fome fmall but immaterial corredions 

of the fads have been made and additional ones obtained, by 

which I have been enabled to demonstrate, at leaft to my own 

fatisfadion, that the temperature at which water is of great- Prefent infer- 

efl dentity is at or near 36« of Fahrenheit. The refulls have ^"^/ ^^^ '^ '^ * 

lately been communicated to the Manchefter Society, and may 

* P.ige512, 

perhaps 



378 BENSITV OF WATE^l,' 

perhaps appear in a future volume. My prefent obje«!il is to 
fliew that the refults oF Dr. Hope's experiments are explicable 
on the fuppofition of water being denfeft at 36^, but on no 
other. 
Obfervations on ' Dr. Hope and myfelF concur in the opinion that water is 
the expanfions (Jepfeft at fome one point of temperature, and that above and 

of water on each ' ^ 

fide of its point below that point it expands alike by heat and cold in a gradu- 
of greateftden- ^\\y increafmg manner. De Luc vi'as the firft to obferve that 
the expanfion is the fame quantity for the fame number of de- 
grees, whether of increafe or diminution of temperature; the 
remarkable fa6l was extended by my former experience from 
^ range of 8° to 25" or more, above and below the ftationary 
point. I have lately examined (his fa6t with greater attention 
to precifion than formerly, and find that it is accurate, except 
that the expanfion for degrees below the ftationary point is al- 
\vays fomewhat more than for a correfponding number of de- 
grees above the faid point. Thus, water is flationary in a 
glafs thermometer at 42°; if heated to 75*' by the mercurial 
fcale, it expands very confiderably ; if plunged into a frigori- 
fic mixture of IS'', it falls to 42°, and then expands again 
to the fame point of 75°, at which it remains flationary as 
long as continued in the mixture. It may be remarked too, 
that congelation rarely if ever takes place in the bulb, when 
the mixture is not below 15", which may eatily be procured 
by putting fnow into water faturated with common fait. Hence 
we fee that 29° below, afford the fame expanfion as 33° above 
the flationary point. This, I imagine, is occafioned by the 
error attached to the equal divifion of the mercurial fcate. 
For a fmall number of degrees, however, we may admit that 
the expanfions for correfponding intervals above and below 
are equal; hence we obtain the following tableof correfpond- 
ing temperatures at which water is of the fame denfity. 

at 36^ 



Siippofing 


greateft denfity at 
(•39° and 41" 
I 38 • 42 


40? 




Correfpond- 


\ 37 43 


C 


orrefpond- 


ing denfi- 


J 36 44 




ing denfi. 


ties will 


135 45 




ties will 


hit at 


/ 34 46 

1 33 47 

1 32 48 




beat 



(35° and 
34 
32 

]31 

J 30 

I 29 

(^28 



ST** 

38 

39 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

Dr. 



DENSITY OF WATER,' 37^ 

• Dr. Hope alfo admits with me the fa<5l that water fubjed^ed The author and 
t-obe cooled without agitation in a frigorific mixture, uluaily j.Jr jhafwater' 
defcends feveral degrees below the freezing point, and ftiil may continue 
retains its liquidity. Though it is eafy to obtain water in a fr^'j-ing^p^i!," 
glafs bulb 20 or 2^" below freezing, I could neyer cool water 
in an open jar more than 10 or 11** below freezing, agreeable 
to the experience of Sir Charles Blagden. But I find water' 
in fuch circumflances will admit of being cooled to 25^, and 
the bulb of a thermometer to be immerfed and withdrawn fe* 
v>eral times, without freezing.- 

We come now to the experiments of Dr. Hope. 

Experiment /. 

A jar eight Inches deep and 4| in diameter, filled with Dr. Hope'* ex- 
water of 32^, and placed on a table, &c. Air 60— 62».P^'''™«'"1"°f*^» 
Two thermometers inferted, one at the top, another at the 
bottom. 

2^op Thennofueter. Bottbm Thermometet. 

Differences. Differences. 

32° - - ^ - - - . 32» 

1+ 2+ 

In 10 min. 3^-{- ------- 34-f 

2.5— 3 — 

30 35.5 --.-■--- 37 

1.5 1-h 

50 37 -------- 38-1- 

1 
Ihour— — 38 -------- 38-^7 

'■ 4 .25-^ 

'■'1 ^0 42 ----- y - - 38.25 

2 1.75 

1 30 44 --..,.-. 40 &c: 

. In the firft- interval of 10 minutes we obferve the bottom inference that 
thermometer to have gained 2°+, and the top only iO-|- ; the water de- 
the former has the heat which enters dire6lly, together with "^J heat/^' 
the heat which defcends by the fide of the veflel ; the latter 
has only the heat which enters directly, and as thefe aire nearly 
as one to two, we may infer that the acquifUion of diredl heat, 
and heat by defcent, are nearly equal in the bottom tberrao-; 
pieter during that interval. 

In the next interval of 20 miautes we obferve the bottom 
thermometer gains 3S— , a.nd the top 2°,5 — . Here we fee 
W:' X ' 'i? the 



380 DENSITY OF WATER. 

the afcending current ftill continues, but has produced liltie 
effe(5t, having not added more than half a degree to the tem- 
perature. 
^untilthe tem- During the next 20 minutes the top gains l°.5, the bottom 
cxcxed? S.^^' °"'^ ^°~^' ^" ^'^'* interval we may oWerve the current has 
turned, but not yet acquired much force. The point of great- 
ell denfity muft therefore have exifted at the laft obfervation or 
near it : the mean of 35^,5 and 37® is 361" for the required 
point, as deduced from this experiment. 
After which the ^^ ^^ minutes more the top gains 1°, and the bottom little 
heated water af- or nothing; here we find the afcending current has become 
cends. ^^j^.^^ ^^ ^^ manifeft its influence very fenfibly. 

In the next 10 minutes, the top gains 4**, and the bottom 

only ,25; here the afcending current has become quadruple 

what it was 2° below ; becaufe the farther the temperature is 

raifed above the ftationary point, the more powerful is the 

force of afcent arifing from the fame interval of temperature. 

Thefe fa<Ss do It would be in vain to attempt to reconcile the above ex- 

not agree with periment with the opinion that water is denfeft at 39° or 40°. 

maximum den- At the very moment when the mean temperature of the water 

fity at 39° or is 39<?, we obferve the afcending current the moft a^ive, when 

^ ' it ought to have been defcending or imperceptible. 

The eff"e£lisnot I once imagined that the experiment might be explained 

modified by the ^^ ^j^g fuppofition of 32^ being the point of greateft denfily; 

table or fupport. , ^ , / ' . r r . \ x . . . r 

that the ludden mcreale ot temperature at the bottom arofe 

from ihe heat of tha table, and that the cohefion of the par- 
ticles of water prevented their afcent under the propulfion of 
fo fmall a force; but having procured a large glafs jar which 
could be fufpended, I found the fame order of differences 
nearly :as when placed on a table, and was therefore obliged 
to al>andon that explanation. 

Intending to fend the remainder of this inveftigation foi^ 
a future number, I remain 

Your friend, 

JOHN DALTON. 
Manchefier, .^jpri;7l4, 1 80.(5. 



III. Account 



ACTION OF HEAT, &C# ,3SJ 

III. 

Account of a Series of Experiments, Jhezving the Effects of Com- 
prejjion in viodifying the ASiion of Heat, £j/ Sik. Jamss 
Hall, Bart. F. R. S. Edinburgh. 

(Concluded from Page 328.) 

Section III. 
Experiments made in Tubes of Porcelain. — Tubes of Wedgwood's 
Ware. — Methods ufed to confine the carbonic Acid, and to 
clofe the Pores of the Porcelain in a horizontal Apparatus. — 
Tubes made vjith a View to thefe Experiments, — The vertical 
Apparatus adopted. — View of Refults obtained^ both in Iron 
and Porcelain. — The Formation of Lime-jlone and Marble. — 
Inquiry into the Caufe of the partkd Calcinations. — Tubes of 
Porcelain weighed previous to breaking—^ Experiments xdtk 
Porcelain Tubes proved to be limited. 



Wj 



HILE I was carrying on the above-mentioned experi- Set of experi- 
ments, I was occafionally occupied with another fef, in tubes "^^"''^.^.'^^5^^^* 
of porcelain. So much, indeed, was I prepoITeflTed in favour 
of this laft mode, that I laid gun-barrels afide, and adhered tq 
it during more than a year. The methods followed with this 
fubftance differ widely from thofe already defcribed, though 
founded on the fame general principles, 

I procured from Mr. Wedgwood's manufadory at Elruria, 
in Stafford (hire, a let of tubes for this purpofe, formed of the 
fame fubftance with the white morlars, in common ufe, made 
there. Thefe tubes were fourteen inches long, with a bore 
of half an inch diameter, and thicknefs of 0.2; being clofed 
at one end (figs. 9, 10, 11, 12, 13.) F/. XI. 

I propofed to ram the carbonate of lime into the breech They were clofed 
{Fig, 9. A) ; then filling the lube to within a fmall difiance of ^j^^ ^^^^^ ^ _ 
its muzzle with pounded flint (B), to fill that remainder (C) tuie was ftopped 
with com-mon borax of the fhops (borat of foda) previoufly fe- "^^^^^^ ^ 
duced to glafs, and then pounded; to apply heat to the muzzle 
alone, fo as to convert that borax into folid glafs ; then, re- 
verfing the operation, to keep the muzzle cold, and apply the 
lequifite heat to the carbonate lodged in the breech. 

I thus expected to confine the carbonic acid; but the at- Difficulties of 
tempt was attended with confiderable difficulty, and has led "^^'^ proccfs. 
2 to 



ACTION OF HEAT MDDIII£» 

to the employment of various devices, which I fliall now fijort» 
ly enumerate, as they occurred in the courfe of pra^ice. The 
iimple application of the principle was found infufficicnt, froqi 
twocaufes: Firft, The carbonic acid being driven from the 
breech of the Tube, towards the muzzle, among the' pores of 
the ])ounded filex, efcaped from the comprelling force, by 
lodging itfelf in cavities which were comparatively cold: 
Secondly, The glafs of borax, on cooling, was always found to 
crack very much, fo that its tightnefs could not be de- 
pended on. 
And the method To obviate both thefe inconveniences ^t once, it occurred to 
of part% nbvi- -ine, in addition to the firft arrangeriienl', to place fome borax 
{Fig. 10. C) fo near the breech of the tube, as to undergo heat 
along with the carbonate (A); but interpoling between this 
borax and the carbonate, a ftralum of filex (B), in ofder to 
prevent contamination. I trufted that the borax in a liquid 
or vifcid ftate, being thruft outwards by t'ne expanfion of tlie 
carbonic acid, would prefs againft the iilex beyond it (D), 
and totally prevent the elallic fabftances from efcaping out of 
' the tube, or even from wandering into its cold parts. 

In fome refpedls, this plan anfwered to expectation. Tiie 
glafs of borax, which can never be obtained when cold, with- 
out innumerable cracks, unites into one continued vifcid mafs 
in the loweft red-heat; and as the ftrefs in thefe experiments 
begins only with rednefs, the borax being heated at the fame 
time with the carbonate, becomes united and impervious, as 
foon as its afliqn is neceffary. Many good refults were accord- 
ingly obtained in this way. But I found, in pra6lice, that as 
the heat rofe, the borax began to enter into too thin fufion, and 
was often loft among the pores qf thefilex, the fpace in which 
it had lain being found empty on breaking the tube. It was 
therefore found necelTary to oppofe fomething more fubftan- 
tial and compadi, to the thin and penetrating quality of pure 
borax.. 
Bottle glafs was In fearching for fome fuch fubftance, a curious property of 
found much pre- {jQ,(|g|gCj. occurred accidentally. Some of this glafs, it> 
terablc to pure ^ , , • m , 

borax for the povvder, havmg been nilroduced ?nto a mu^ie ai the tempe-. 
purpofeofre- rature of about 20"^ of Wedgwood ; the powder, in the fpace 
carbonic acid, of about a minute, entered into a ftale of vifcid agglutination^ 
like that of lipncy, and in about a minute more, (the heat al- 
ways continuing unchanged), .con.fplidat,Qd into a (i/maod comr 



fiY COMPRESSION. 383 

]^a^ ma(sof Renwnur's porcelain*. It now appeared, that by 
placing this fubftance immediately behind the borax, the 
penetrating quality of this laft might be efFedlually reftrained ; 
lor, Reaumur's porcelain has the double advantage of being 
refractory, and of not cracking by change of temperature. I 
found, however, that in the ad of confolidation, the pounded 
bottle-glafs flirunk, fo as to leave an opening between its mat's 
and the tube, through which the borax, and, along with it, the 
carbonic acid, was found to efcape. But the objed in view was Improvement 
obtained by means of a mixture of pounded bottle-glafs, and °" '*^'* "^"^'''** 
pounded flint, in equal parts. This compound ftill agglutinates, 
not indeed into a mafs fo hard as Reaumur's porcelain^ but luf- 
ficiently fo for the purpofe; and this being done without any 
fenfible conlradion, an efie6lual barrier was oppofed to the bo- 
rax; (this arrangement is fhewnin Fig. II.); and thus the me- 
thod of clofing the tubes was rendered fo complete, as feldom 
to fail in practice +. A ftill further refinemeot upon this me- 
thod was found to be of advantage. A fecond feries of powders, 
like that already delcribed, was introduced iowards the muzzle, 
(as fliewn in Fig. 12). During the firft period of the experi- 
ment, this lafi-mentioned feries was cxpoled to heat, with all 
the outward half of the tube fa b) ; and by this means, a folid 
mafs was produced, which remained cold and firm during the 
fubfequent a<5lion of heal upon the carbonate. 

I foon found, that noiwithftanding all the above-mentioned Remedy for po- 

, .... , . - , , . lofity in the 

precautions, the carbonic acid made its elcape, and that it earthen tubes, 
pervaded the fubflance of the Wedgwood tubes, where no flaw 
could be traced. It occurred to me, that this dei\it\ might be 
remedied, were borax, in its thin and penetrating fiate of fu- 
fion, applied to the inlideof the tube; and that i-ie pores of the 
porcelain might thus be clofed, as thofe of leather are clofed 
by oil, in an air-pump. In this view, I rammed the carbonate 
into a fmall tube, and furrounded it with pounded glafs of boi. 
rax, which, as foon as the heat was applied, fpread on the in*- 

f In the fame temperature, a mafs of the glafs of equal bulk 
would undergo the fame change ; but it would occupy an hour. 

■j- A fubftance tqually efficacious in reftraining the penetrating 

quality cfbornx, was difcovered by another accident. It confifts 

of a mixture of borax and common fand, by which a fubftance is 

formed, which, in heat, aflumesthe ftate of a very tough palle, and 

■ becomes hard and compact on cooling, ■ ' . . ; 

fide 



,3S4^ ACTION OF HEAT MODIFIED 

fide of (he large tube, and efTeftually clofed its pores. In this 
manner, many good experiments were made with barrels lying 
horizontally in common muffles, (the arrangement juft de- 
fcribed being reprefented in Fig. 13.) 
Beft material for I was thus enabled to carry on experiments with this 
''^'^'" porcelain, to the utmoft that its ftrength would bear. But I 

was not fatisfied with the force fo exerted ; and hoping to 
obtain lubes of a fuperior quality, I fpent much time in expe- 
riments with various porcelain compofitions. In this, I fo 
far fucceeded, as to produce tubes by which the carbonic 
acid was in a great meafure retained without any internal 
glaze. The beft material I found for this purpofe, was the 
pure porcelain-clay of Cornwall, or a compofition in the 
proportion of two of this clay to one of what the potters cali 
Cornijh-ftone, which I believe to be a granite in a Rate of de- 
compofition. Thefe tubes were {qvqw or eight inches long, 
with a bore tapering from 1 inch to 0.6, Their thicknefs 
was about O.'d at the breech, and tapered towards the muzzle 
to the thinnefs of a wafer. 
Improvement by • I now adopted a new mode of operation, placing the tube 
^^rticaV'^^ ^"''^ vertically, and not horizontally, as before. By obferving the 
thin ftate of borax whilfl: in fulion, I was convinced, that it 
ought to be treated as a complete liquid, which being fupport= 
ed in the courfe of the experiment from below, would fecure 
perfe£l tightnefs, and obviate the failure which often happen- 
ed in the horizontal pofition^ from the falling of the borax to 
the lower fide. 
Particular de- In this view, (fig. 16.) I filled the breech in the manner 

defcribed above, and introduced into the muzzle forae borax 
(C) fupported at the middle of the tube by a quantity of 
filex mixed with the bottle glafs (B). I placed the tube, fo 
prepared, with its breech plunged into a crucible filled with 
land (E), and its muzzle pointing upwards. It was now my 
objed to apply heat to the muzzle-half, whilft the other re- 
mained cold. In that view, I conftrufled a furnace (figs. 14 
and 15.) having a muffle placed vertically (c d,) furround- 
ed" on all fides with fire (e e), and open both above (at c), 
and below (at d). The crucible juft mentioned, with its 
tube, being then placed on a fupport diredly below the ver- 
tical muffle, (as reprefented in fig. J 4. al F) it was raifed, fo 
^lat the half of the tube ne:j^t the muzzle was introduced into 

the 



fcription of the 
procei's, 



BY COMPRESSION, 385' 

tlie fire. In confequence of this, the borax was feen from 
above lo melt, and run clown in the tube, the air contained in 
the powder efcaping in the forni of babbles, till at laft the 
borax llood with a clear and Ready furfacc like that of water. 
Some of this fait being thrown in from above, by means of 
a tube of glafs, the liquid furface was raifed nearly to the muz- 
zle, and, after all had been allowed to become cold, the po- 
lition of the tube was reverfed ; the muzzle being now plun- 
ged into the fand, (as in fig. 17.) and the breech introduced 
into the muffle. In feveral experiments, I found it anfwer 
well, to occupy great part of the fpace next the muzzle, with 
a rod of fand and clay previoufly baked, (fig. 19. KK), which 
was either introduced at firft, along with the pounded borax, 
or, being made red hot, was plunged into it when in a liquid 
fiate. In many cafes I aflifted the compadnefs of the tube by 
means of an internal glaze of borax ; the carbonate being pla- 
ced in a fmall tube, (as fliewn in fig. 18.) 

Thefe devices anfwered the end propofed. Three-fourths Effect of ex- 
of the tube next the muzzle was found completely filled with 5^"^*°" '" ^^^ 
a mals, having a concave termmation at both ends,,-{/ and g upon the tubes, 
figs. 17, IS, 19.) ftiewing that it had flood as a liquid in the 
(wo oppofite pofitions in which heat had been applied to it. 
So great a degree of tightnefs indeed was obtained in this 
way, that I found myfelf fubjefled to an unforefeen fource of 
failure. A number of the tubes failed, not by explofion, but 
by the formation of a minute longitudinal fiffiire at the breech, 
through which the borax and carbonic acid efcaped. I favsr 
that this arofe from the expanfion of the borax when in a li- 
quid ftate, as happened with the fufible metal in the experi- 
ments with iron-barrels; for, the crevice here formed, indi- 
cated the exertion of fome force acting very powerfully, and 
to a very fmall diftance. Accordingly, this fource of failure 
was remedied by the introduiftion of a very fmall air-tube. 
This, however, was ufed only in a few experiments. 

In the courfe of the years 1 801 , 1 802, and 1S03, I made a Thefe experi- 
number of experiments, by the various methods above defcrib- fn<^nt* were 
ed, amountmg, together with thole made in gun barrels, to fuccefsful. 
one hundred and fifiy-fix. In an operation fo new, and in 
which the apparatus w-as firained to the utmofl of its power, 
confiant fuccefs could not be expelled, and in fact many expe- 
riments failed, wholly er pariially. The refults, however, 
2 upon 



,*{8S ACTION OF HEAT MODIFIED 

Upon (he whole, were falisfadory, fincfe Ihey feemed t» 
eftabli{h forae of the eiTenlia! points of this Inquiry. 

Thefe experiments prove, that, by mechanical conftraint, 
the carbonate of lime can be made to undergo flrong heat, 
without calcination, and to retain almoll the whole of its car- 
bonic acid, which, in an open fire, at the fame temperature, 
would have been entirely driven off: and that, in thefe cir- 
cumftances, heat produces fome of the identical effefls afcrib- 
ed to it in the Hattonian Theory. 
Pounded car- By this joint aftion of heat and preflure, the carbonate of 

^n>Tff\T J'ine which had been introduced in the flate of the finefl 

in ICS ICVcl at 

varieties became powder, is agglutinated into a firm mafs, pofTeffing a degree 
ftoil^^raaSS' '"^° "^ hardnefs, coinpa(5lnefs, and fpecific gravity * nearly ap- 
proaching to thefe qualities in a found limeftone; and forae 
of the refults, by their faline fra6lure, by their femitranf- 
parency, and their fufceptibility of poliQi, deferve the name 
of marble. 

The fame trials have been made with all calcareous fub- 
fiances ; with chalk, common limeftone, marble, fpar, and 
;, the fhells of fifli. All have Ihevvn the fame general property, 

with fome varieties as ia temperature. Thus, I found, that, 
in tbe fame circumftances, chalk was more fufceptible of ag- 
glutination than fpar ; the latter requiring a heat two degrees 
higher than the former, to bring it to the fame pitch of ag- 
glutination. 

The chalk ufed in my firft experiments, always afTumed the 
character of a yellow marble, owing probably to fome flight 
contamination of iron. When a folid piece of chalk, whofe 
bulk had been previoufiy meafured in the gauge of Wedgwood's 
pyrometer was fiibmitted to heat under compreffion^ its con- 
tra61ion was remarkable, proving the approach of the particles 
during their confolidation ; on thefe occafions, it was found 
to ft^rink three times more than the pyrometer-pieces in the 
fame temperature. It loft, too, almoft entirely, its power of 
imbibing water, and acquired a great additional fpecific 
jrravitv. On feveral occafions, I obferved, (hat mafTes of 
clialk, which, before the experiment, had fliewn one uniform 
character of whitenefs, afTumed a ftratified appearance, in- 
dicated by a feries of parallel layers of a brown colour. This 

* See Appendix. 

6 circumftanca 



■'■ • »V ■■c<3MPRE^-^iO'*r. SB7 

rircumihnce may hereafter throw h'ght on the geological 
hiftory of this extraordinary fubftance, 

. I have faid, that, by mechanical conftraint, almofl the And moft of tU« 

^ 1 • I carbonic acid 

whole of the carbonic acid was retained. And, in truth, at ^as retained. 

this period, fome lofs of weight had been experienced in all 

the experiments, both with iron and porcelain. But even this 

pircumftance is valuable, by exhibiting the influence of the 

carbonic acid, as varied by its quantity. 

When the lofs exceeded JO or 15 per cent. * of the weight Qualities of the 
«f the carbonate, the refult was always of a friable texture, f^°ccordingt(» 
and without any ftony chara6ler ; when lefs than two or three the lofs of cat-, 
percent, it wasconfidered as good, and poflelFed the properties ^^^ ^* 
of a natural carbonate. In the intermediate cafes, when the 
lots amounted, for inftance, to fix or eight per cent, the re- 
fult was foraetimes excellent at firfl, the fubfiance bearing 
every appearance of foundnefs, and often pofl'elTing a high cha- 
rafter of cryfiallization ; but it was unable to refift the ac- 
tion of the air; and, by attrafting carbonic acid or moifiure, 
or both, crumbled to diifl more or lefs rapidly, according to 
circumflances. This feems to prove, that the carbonate of 
lime, though not fully faturated with carbonic acid, may pof- 
fefs the properties of limefione; and perhaps a difference of 
this kind may exift among natural carbonates, and give fife ta 
their different degrees of durability. 

, I have obferved, in many cafes, that the calcination has 
reached only to a certain depth into t!ie mafs : the internal 
part remaining in a ftate of complete carbonate, and, in ge- / 

neral, of a very fine quality. The partial calcination feems 
thus to take place in two different modes. By one, a frnall 
proportion of carbonic acid is taken from each particle of 
carbonate ; by the other, a portion of the carbonate is quite 
calcined, while the reft is left entire. Perhaps one refult i^ 
the effect of a feeble calcining caufe, acting during a long 
time, and the other of a firor.g cuute, afting for a fhort 
time. 

Some of the refuUs whicli' feemed the moft perfe6l when Some refufe 
firft produced, have been fubiect to decav, owing to partial ^'^""^ ^".^j^'^ " 

' . " or decay trota 

calcination. It happened, in fome degree, to. the beautiful partial calcina- 

tion. 
* I have found, that. In open fire, the cutiie lofs fuftained by the 

carbonate varies in difFei ent kir,d<. from 4i? t« M.'o per cent. ■■: 

fpecimen 



Very many 
Were durable 
garble. 



Remarkable 
faft. 



381^ ACTION OF HEAT MODIflEB 

fpeclmen produced on the 3d of March, 1801, though a frefh 
fradure has reftored it. 

A fpecimen, too, of marble, formed from pounded fpar, on the 
I5th of May, 1 801 , was fo complete as to deceive the workman 
employed to pohai it, who declared, that, were the fubftance 
a little whiter, the quarry from which it was taken would be 
of great value, if it lay within reach of a market. Yet, in a 
few weeks after its formation, it fell to duft. 

Numberlefs fpecimens, however, have been obtained, which 
reiift the air, and retain their polifti as well as any marble. 
Some of them continue in a perfed flate, though they have 
beffa kept without any precaution during four or five years. 
That fet, in particular, remain perfectly entire, which were 
fliewn laft year in this Society, though fome of them were 
made in 1799, fome in 1801 and 1802, and though the firfl 
eleven were long foaked in water, in the trials made of their 
fpecific gravity. 

A curious circumftance occurred in one of thefe experi- 
ments, which may hereafter lead to important confequences. 
Some ruft of iron had accidentally found its way into the 
tube : 10 grains of carbonate were ufed, and a heat of 28*^ was 
applied. The tube had no flaw ; but there was a certainty 
iliat the carbonic acid had efcaped through its pores. When 
broken, the place of the carbonate was found occupied, partly 
by a black flaggy matter, and partly by fphericles of various 
fizes, from that of a fmall pea downwards, of a white fub- 
fiance, which proved to be quicklime; the fphericles being 
interfperfed through the flag, as fpar and agates appear in 
whinflone. The flag had certainly been produced by a mix- 
ture of the iron with the fubftance of the tube ; and the fphe- 
rical form of the quicklime fecms to fliew, that the carbonate 
had been in fuflon along with the flag, and that they had 
feparated on the efcape of the carbonic acid. 

The fubject was carried thus far in 1803, when I fliould 
probably have publiflied my experiments, had I not been in- 
duced to profecute the inquiry by certain indications, and 
« accidental refults, of a nature too irregular and uncertain to 

meet the public eye, but which convinced me, that it was 
poflible to eftablifli by experiment the truth of all that was 
bypothetically aflumed in the Huttonian theory. 
Endeavour to The principal objed was now to accomplifli the entire fu- 

mprove Che ex- f^^jj q[ jj^g gftrbonate, and to obtain f^^ar as the refuU of that 



peiiments by 



fufion 



BY COMPRESSION. S89 

fufion, in imitaition of what we conceive to have taken place preventing all 
•„,«„_„ calcination, and 

'" "^^"'^«- . . perfeaiy fufing 

It was likewife important to acquire the power of retaining the carbonate, 

all the carbonic acid of -the carbonate, both on account of the 
fa6t itfelf, and on account of its confequences ; the refult be- 
ing vifibly improved by every approach towards complete fa- 
turation. I therefore became anxious to inveftigate the caufe 
of the partial calcinations which had always taken place, to 
a 'greater or lefs degree, in all thefe experiments. Thequef- 
ti'on naturally fuggefts itfelf. What has become of the car- 
bonic acid, feparated in thefe partial calcinations from the 
earthy bafis ? Has it penetrated the veflTel, and efcaped en- 
' tirefy, or has it been retained within it in a gafeous, but 
highly comprefled ftate ? It occurred to me, that this quef- 
tion might be eafily refolved, by weighing the velTel before 
and after the action of heat upon the carbonate. 

With iron, a conftant and inappreciable fource of irregula- By experiment it 
rity exifted in the oxidation of the barrel. But with porce- .^'n Wis ^''^ 
Iain the thing was eafy; and I put it in practice in all my ex- vitiated the re- 
periments with this material, which were made after the quef- ' 
tion had occurred to me. The tube was weighed as foon as its 
muzzle was clofed, and again, after the breech had been ex- 
pofed to the fire; taking care, in both cafes, to allow all to 
cool. In every cafe, I found fome lofs of weight, proving, 
that even in the beft experiments, the tubes were penetrated 
to a certain degree. 1 next wiflied to try if any of the 
carbonic acid feparated, remained within the tube in a gafeous 
form; and in that view, I wrapt the tube, which had juft 
been weighed, in a flieet of paper, and placed it, fo furround- 
ed, on the fcale of the balance. As foon as its weight was 
afcertained, I broke the tube by a fmart blow, and then re- 
placed upon the fcale the paper containing all the fragments. 
In thofe experiments, in which entire caicinaiion had taken 
place, the weight was found not to be changed, for all the 
carbonic acid had already efcaped during the adion of heat. 
But in the good refults, I always found that a lofs of weight 
was the confequence of breaking the tube. 

Thefe facls prove, that both caufes of calcination had ope- With porcelain 

rated in the porcelain tubes ; that, in the cafes of fmall lofs, ^^^,'^ '*^'s c'ufe 

part of the carbonic acid had efcaped through the veflel, and exi'ited^abng^ 

that part had been retained within it. I had in view methods with the efca|)e 

Vol. Xlil.—SuppLEMENT. Ee j^^ of the acid. 



390 



ACTION OF HEAT MODIFIED 



by which fhelaft could be counlera6led ; bnt I faw no remedy 
for the firfl. I began, Iherefure, to defpair of ultimate fuccefs 
with tubes of porcelain *. 
Thefe laft could Another circumfiance confirmed me in this opinion. I 
not bearekvated ^^^^^ j^ impraclicable to apply a heat above 2T^ to thele tubes, 
when charged as above with carbonate, without dellroying 
them, either by explofion, by the formation of a minute 
rent, or by the afiual fvvelling of the tube. Sometimes this 
fwelling took place to tiie amount of doubling the internal 
diameter, and yet the porcelain held tight, the carbonate fuf- 
taining but a very fraall lofs. This dudility of the porcelairv 
in a low heat is a curious fa£t, and fiaews what a range of 
temperature is embraced by tiie gradual tranfition of fome 
fubllances from a (olid to a liquid ftale : For the fame porce- 
lain, which is thus fufceptible of being Wretched out without 
breaking in a heat of 27**, ftands the heat of 152^, without 
injury, when expofed to no violence, the angles of its frad^ure 
remaining (liarp and entire. 



Ixpfrlmcnts 
with gun bar. 
rels refumed, 



IV. 

Experiments in Gun- Barrels refumed. — The Vertical Apparatus 
applied to them. — Barrels bored in folid Bars. — Old Sable 
Iron. — Fufion of the Carbonate of Lime. — Its Adiion on 
Porcelain. — Additional Apparatus required in Confequence of 
that A&ion. — Good Refidts; in particular ^ four Experiments^ 
illufirating the Theory of Internal Calcination, andfhewing 
the Efficacy of the Carbonic Acid as a Flux. 

SINCE I found that, with porcelain tubes, I could neither 
confine the carbonic acid entirely, nor expofe the carbonate 
in them to firong heats; I at laft determined to lay them afide, 
and return to barrels of iron, with which I had formerly ob- 
tained fome good refults, favoured,, perhaps, by fome ac- 
cidental circumfiances. 



* T am neverthelefs of opinion, that, in fome fituations, experi- 
ments with compretfion may be carried on with great eafe and ad- 
vantnge in fuch tubes. I allude to the fituation of the geologifh 
of France and Germany, who may eafdy procure, from their own 
rnanufaftories, tubes of a quality far fupcrior to any thing made 
for fale in this ccuntry. 

On 



BY COMPRESSION. 391 

On the 12th of February, 1803, I began a feries of ex- In a vertical 
periments with gun-barrels, refuming my former method o^ j^f b^r/ch'u^- 
working with the fufible metal, and with lead ; but ahering wards, and 
the pofition of the barrel from horizontal to veriical j the breech j^'^PP^'^ ^''^ 
being placed upwards during the a6tion of heat on the car- 
bonate. This very fimple improvement has been productive 
of advantages no lefs remarkable, than in the cafe of the 
tubes of porcelain. In this new polition, the included air, 
quitting ilie air-tube on the fufion of the metal, and riling to 
the breech, is expofed to the greateft heat of the furnace, and 
mull therefore readl with its greateft force ; whereas, in the 
horizontal polition, that air might go as far back as the fufion 
of the metal reached, where its elafticity would be much 
feebler. The fame difpofition enabled me to keep the muzzle 
of the barrel plunged, during the action of heat, in a veflel 
filled with water; which contributed very much both to the 
convenience and fafety of thefe experiments. 

In this view, making ufe of the brick-furnace with the Defcription and 
vertical muffle, already defcribed in page 384, I ordered ^'^^^^"f^°^ *^® 
a pit (a a a Jig. 20.) to be excavated under it, for the purpofe 
of receiving a water-vetTel. This velfel (reprefenled feparate- 
ly, ^g. 21.) was made of caft iron; it was three inches in 
diameter, and three feet deep ; and had a pipe ((i e) ftriking 
off from it at right angles, four or five inches below its rim, 
communicating with a cup (e/) at the diftance of about two 
feet. The main veflTel being placed in the pit (a a) direflly 
below the vertical muffle, and the cup fianding clear of the 
furnace, water poured into the cup flowed into the velTel, 
and could thus conveniently be made to (land at any level. 
(The whole arrangement is reprefented in fig. 20.) The 
muzzle of the barrel (g) being plunged into the water, and 
its breech {b) reaching up into the muffle, as far as was found 
convenient, its pofition was fecured by an iron chain [gf). 
The heat communicated downwards generally kept the furface 
of the water (at c) in a Hale of ebullition ; the wafte thus 
occafioned being fupplied by means of the cup, into which, 
if necefiary, aconUant ftream could be made to flow. 

As formerly, I rammed the carbonate into a tube of porce- 
lain, and placed it in a cradle of iron, along with arrair-tube 
and a pyrometer; the cradle being fixed to a rod of iron, 
which rod I now judged proper to make as large as the barrel 
E e 2 would 



2P2 ACTION OF HEAT M015IF1ED 

would admit. In order to exclude as much of the fufible me- 
tal as poffible; for the expanfion of the liquid metal being in 
proportion to the quantity heated, the more that quantity 
could be reduced, the lefs rifk there was of deftroying the 
barrels. 
Simple mnde of In the courfe of pra6lice, a fimple mode occurred of remov- 

wUhdravvlng the J the metal and withdrawing the cradle: it confifted in 

contents iiom = => 

the tube. placing the barrel with its muzzle downwards, fo as to keep 

the breech above the furnace and cold, while its muzzle was 
expofed to ftrong heat in the muffle. In this manner, the 
metal was difcharged from the muzzle, and the pofition of 
the barrel being lowered by degrees, the whole metal was 
removed in fiicceffion, till at laft the cradle and its contents 
became entirely loofe. As the metal was delivered, it was 
received in a crucible, filled with water, (landing on a plate 
of iron placed over the pit, which had been ufed, during 
the firft Hage of the experiment, to contain the water-velTel. 
' It was found to be of fervice, efpecially where lead was ufed, 
to give much more heat to the muzzle than fimply what was 
required to liquefy the metal it contained ; for when this was 
not done, the muzzle growing cold as the breech was heating, 
fome of the metal delivered from the breech was congealed 
at the muzzle, fo as to flop the paflage. 

According to this method, many experiments were made 
in gun-barrel*', by which fome very material fieps were gain- 
ed in the invefligation. 
Experiment In On the 2-Uh of February, I made an experiment with fpar 
the new method, and chalk ; the fpar being placed nearefl to the breech of the 
barrel, and expofed to the greateft heat, fome baked clay in- 
tervening between the carbonates. On opening the barrel, a 
long-continued hiding noife was heard. The fpar was in a 
ftate of entire calcination ; the chalk, though crumbling at 
the outfide, was uncommonly hard and lirm in the heart. The 
temperatur.e had rifen to 32®, 
Internal calcl- In this experiment, we have the firft clear example, in iron 
"h '^'''"'b'^^^'^^ barrels, of what I call Internal Calcination ; that is to fay, where 
acid did not the carbonic acid feparated from the earthy bafis, has been 
cfcapeoutof accumulated in cavities within the barrel. For, fubfequently 
'^ ^PP ' to the a6lion of ftrong heat, the barrel had been completely 
cooled ; the air therefore introduced by means of the air- 
tube, muft have refumed its original bulk, and by itfelf could 

have 



BY COMPKESSION. 'J^)^ 

have no tendency to rulh out j the heat employed to open the 
barrel being barely fiifficient to foften the metal. Since, then, 
the opening of the barrel was accompanied by the difchargeof 
elaftic matter in great abundance, it is evident, that this mqft 
have proceeded from fomething fuperadded to the air originally 
included, which could be nothing but the carbonic acid of 
the carbonate. It follows, that the calcination had been, in 
part at ieaft, internal; the feparation of the acid from the 
earthy matter being complete where the heat was flrongefl, 
ard only partial where the intenfity was lefs. 

The chemical principles ftated in a former part of this Part of the in- 
paper, authorffed us to expecl a refult of this kind. As eluded carbonate 

, ' . . was calcined, 

heat, by increafing the volatility of the acid, tended to another part re- 
feparate it from the earth, we had reafon to exped, that, !f'"''"S.'ts acid. 

11/- -^ 1 ■ i-/y Real.ining on 

under the lame comprelhon, but m different temperatures, this fad, 
one portion of the carbonale might be calcined, and another 
not : And that the leaft heated of the two, would be the leaft 
^xpofed to a change not only from want of heat, but like- 
wife in confequence of the calcination of the other mafs ; 
for the carl)onic acid difengaged by the calcination of the 
hottefl: of the two, muft have added to the elaflicity of the 
confined elaftic fluid, fo as to produce an increafe of com- 
prefiion. By this means, the calcination of the coldeft of the 
two might be altogether prevented, and that of the hotteft 
might be hindered from making any further advancement. 
This reafoning feemed to explain the partial calcinations 
which had frequently occurred where there was no proof of 
leakage ; and it opened fome new pra6iical views in thefe 
experiments, of which I availed myfelf without lofs of time. 
If tlie internal calcination of one part of an inclofed mafs, 
promotes the compreflion of other raafies included along with 
it, I conceived that we might forward our views very much by 
placing a fmall quantity of carbonate, carefully weighed, in 
the fame barrel with a large quantity of that fubftance ; and 
by arranging matters fo that the fmall fiducial part fliould 
undergo a moderate heat, while a ftronger heat, capable of 
producing internal calcination, fliould be applied to the reft 
of the carbonate. In this manner, I made many experiments, 
and obtained refults which feemed to confirm this reafoning, 
and which were often very fatisfaftory, though the heat did 
not always exert its greateft force where I intended it to 
do fo. 

On 



394f ACTION OF HEAT MODIFIED 

Bxpcnment. On the 2Sth of February, I introduced feme carbonate, ac^ 

Carbonate partly curately weighed, into a fmal! porcelain tube, placed within a 
part deprived of '^''g^'" One, the reft of the large tube being filled with pounded 
carbonic acid, chalk ; thefe carbonates, together with Ibme pieces of chalk, 
placed along with the large tube in the cradle, weighing in 
all 195.7 grains. On opening the barrel, air ruflied out with 
a long-continued biffing noife. The contents of the little tube 
w-ere loft by the intrufion of fome borax which had been in- 
troduced over the filex, in order to exclude the fufible metal. 
But the reft of the carbonate, contained in the large tube, came 
out in a fine flate, being porous and frothy throughout ; fpark.» 
ling every where with facetts, (he angular form of which 
was diftinguifhable in fome of the cavities by help of a 
lens : in fome parts the fubftance exhibited the rounding of 
fufion ; in many it was in a high degree tranfparent. It was 
yellow towards the lower end, and at the other almoft colour- 
lefs. At the upper end, the carbonate feemed to have utiiled 
with the tube, and at the plates of contrad to have fpread up- 
on it; the union having the appearance of a mutual a<5tion. 
The general mafs of carbonate efFervefced rn acid violently, 
but the thin ftratum immediately contiguous to the tube, 
feebly, if at all. 
Similar cxperi- On the 3d of March, I introduced into a very clean tube of 
rnenr, in which porcelain 36.8 of chalk. The tube was placed in the upper 
exhibited more P^""*^ ^^ ^'^^ cradle, the remaining fpace being filled vyith two 
remarkable pieces of clialk, cut for the purpofe ; the uppermoft of thefe 
^" *^' being excavated, fo as to anfwer the purpofe of an air-tube. 

The pieces thus added, were computed to weigh about 300 
grains. There was no pyrometer ufed ; but the heat was guefied 
to be about 30**. After the barrel had ftood duringa few minutes 
in its delivering pofition, the whole lead with the rod and 
cradle, were thrown out with a fmart report, and with con- 
fiderable force. The lowermoft piece of chalk had fcarcely 
been a6!ed upon by heat. The upper part of the other piece was 
in a ftale of marble, with fome remarkable facettes. The car- 
bonate, in the little tube, bad fiirunk very much during the 
firft a6tion of heat, and had begun to fink upon itfelf, by a fur- 
ther advancement towards liquefaction. The mafs was di- 
vided into feveral cylinders, lying confufedly upon each other; 
this divifion arifing from the manner in which the pounded 
chalk was rammed into the tube in fuccefTive portions. In 

feveral 



BY COMPRES^rO"N. 395 

feveral places, particularly at the top, the carbonate was very 
porous, and full of decided air-holes, which could not have 
been formed but in a foft fubftance ; the globular form and 
ftiining furface of all thefe cavities, clearly indicating fuOon. 
The fubftance was femitranfparent ; in fome places yellow, 
and in fome colourlefs. When broken, the folid parts (hewed 
a faline fra6ture, compofed of innumerable faceltes. The 
carbonate adhered, from end to end, to tlie tube, and in- 
corporated with it, fo as to render it impoffible to afcertain 
what lofs had been fuftained. In general, the lineofconlaa was 
of a brown colour; yet there was no room for ("ufpeding the 
prefence of any foreign matter, except, perhaps, from the iron- 
fod which was ufed in ramming down the chalk. But, in fub- 
fequent experiments, I haveobferved the fame brown or black 
cdouf at the union of the carbonate with the porcelain tubes, 
where the powder had been purpofely rammed with a piece of 
wood ; fo that this colour, wliich has occurred in almoft every 
fimilar cafe, remains to be accounted for. The carbonate ef- 
fervefced violently with acid ; the fubftance in contad with the 
tube, doing fo, however, more feebly than in the heart, leav- 
ing a copious depcfit of while fandy matter, which is doubtlefs 
a part of the tube, taken up by the carbonate in fufion. 

On the 2-'tih of March. I made a fimilar experiment, in a Another ck- 
ftout gun-barrel, and took fome care, after the application f^^H'^^^^y^'^^ 
heat, 10 coo! the barrel flowly, with a view to cryflallization. Saline ftruSure 
The whole mafs was found in a fine ftate, and untouched by ^^^^^^'^^^^^'J'^^^^T^ 
the lead; having a feraitranfpareiU and faline flru6lure, with chalk previoufly 
various facettes. In one part, I found the moft decided cry- P''""'^^^' 
flallization I had obtained, though of a fmall fize: owing to 
its tranfparency it was not eafily vifible, till the light was made 
to reflect from the cryftalHne furface, which then produced 
a dazzle, very obfervable by the naked eye ; when examined 
by means of a lens, it was feen to be compofed of feveral 
plates, broken irregularly in the fra6lure of the fpecimen, all 
of which are parallel to each other, and refled under the fame 
angle, fo as to unite in producing the dazzle. This flrudure 
was obfervable equally well in both parts of the broken fpeci- 
men. In a former experiment, as large a facette was obtain- 
ed in a piece of folid chalk; but this refult was of morecon- 
fequence, as having been produced from chalk previoudy 
pounded. 

' The 



39Q ACTION OF HEAT MODIFIED 

The gun-bar- The foregoing experiiMents proved the fu per ior efficacy of 
fuperior^to'' ^^^" ^'^^^'^ ^""^^ ^"°^"^ "^ pc^rcelain, even where the Ihicknefs 
porcelain were was not great ; and I perfevered in making a great many ex- 
ftill too weak, periments with gun-barrels, hy which I occafionally obtained 
very fine refults : but I was at la(i convinced, that their 
thickaefs was not fufficient to enfure regular and fteady fuccefs. 
For this purpofe, it appeared proper to employ velTels of fuch 
firength, as to bear a greater expanfive force than was juft ne- 
celTary; fince, occafionally, (owing to our ignorance of the 
relation between the various forces of expanfion, affinity, tena- 
city, &c.) much more ftrain has been given to the veffels than 
was requifite. In fuch cafes, barrels have been deftroyed, 
which, astherelults have proved, had aded with fufficient 
/Irenglh during the firfi ftages of the experiments, though they 
had been unable to refifl the fubfequent overftrain. Thus, my 
fuccefs with gun-barrels, depended on the good fortune of 
having ufed a force no more than fufficient, to con ftrain the 
carbonic acid, and enable it to a61 as a flux on the lime. 
I therefore determineil to have recourfe to iron barrels 
of much greater firength, and tried various modes of con- 
flrudion. 
Sarrdsformed i had lOme barrels executed by wrapping a thick plate of 

byboringinfolidiron round a mandrel, as is nraaifed in the formation of gun- 
bars or iron u r j i i / 

which proved barrels ; .and likewile by bringing the two flat fides together, 
excellent. fo as to unite them by welding. Thefe attempts, however, 

failed. I next thought of procuring bars of iron, and of 
having a cavity bored out of the folid, fo as to form a barrel. 
In this manner I iucceeded well. The firft barrel 1 tried in 
this way was of (mall feore, only half an inch : Its perform- 
ance was highly fatisladory, and fuch as to convince me, that 
the mode now adopted was (he beft of any that I had tried. 
Owing fo the fmallnefs of the bore, a pyrometer could not be 
ufed internally, but was placed upon the breech of the barrel, 
as it flood in the vertical muffle. In this pofition, it was 
evidently expofed to a much lefs heat than the fiducial part 
of the apparatus, which was always placed, as nearly as 
could be guefied, at the point ot greateft heat. 
Finely levigated Gn the 4th of April, an experiment was made in this way 
IS-'JinatTdby )^.'^^ ^""^^ ^\'''' ' ^'^^ P>'ometer on the breech giving 33«. 
heat; femi- ^ 1 he fpar came out clean, and /ree from any contamination, 
SeourS a" ^^'^^'■'"g to the infide of the porcelain tube : it was very much 
few facettes. , (lirunk 



BY COMPKESSION. 597 

Qirunk, fiill retaining a cylindrical form, though bent by 

partial adhefions. Its furlace bore fcarcely any remains ot 

the impreffion taken by tlie powder, on ran;n)ing it into the 

tube: it had, to the naked eye, the rpughnefs and femitranf- 

parency of the pith of a rufli ftripped of its outer Ikin. By 

the lens, this fame furface was (een to be glazed all over, 

though irregularly, (liewiiig here and there fome air-holes. 

In fradture, it was femitranfparent, more vitreous than cryf- 

talline, though having a few^ facetted : the niafs, was feeraingly 

formed of a congeries of parN, in theaifelves quite tranfparent : 

and, at the thin edges, imal! pieces were vifible of perfeft 

tranfparency. Thefe nnift iiave been produced in the fire; 

for the fparhad been ground with water; and palTed through 

fieves, the fame with the fineft of thofe ufed at Etruria, as 

defcribed by Mr. Wedgwood, in his paper on the conflruClion 

of his pyrometer. 

With the fame barrel I obtained many interefling refults, I" ^^efe experi- 

/, ,. r , n • r • . msaii the efcape 

giving as Itrong proofs of lulion as in any lormer experiments ; ^^ carbonic acii 

with this remarkable difFt-rence, that, in thefe lalf, the fub- appears to have- 
Hance was compadl, with little or no trace of frothing. In 
tlie gun-barrels where fufion had taken place, there had al- 
ways been a If-fs of 4 or 5 per cent. conne6ted, probably, with 
the frothing. In thefe experiments, for a reafon foon to be 
fiated, the circuraftance of weight could not be oblerved ; but 
appearances led me to fuppofe, that here the lols had been 
Imall, if any. 

On the 6th of April, I made another experiment with the '^'radual failure 
fc]uare barrel, vvhofe tiiicknefs was now much reduced by fuc- bored from the 
celTive fcales, produced by oxidation, and in which a fmallfolid. 
rent began to appear externally, wliich did not, however, pe- 
netrate to the bore. The heat rofe high, a pyrometer on the 
breech of the barrel giving 37'^. On removing the metals, 
the cradle was found to be fixed, and was broken in the at- 
tempts made to withdraw it. The rent was much widened 
externally : but it was evident, that the barrel had not been 
laid open, for part of the carbonate was in a (tate of faline 
marble ; another was hard and white, without any (aline grains, 
and fcarcely elfervefced in acid. It was probably quicklime, 
formed by internal calcination, but in a flate that has not oc- 
curred in any other experiment, 

Tlie 



398 ACTIOV OF HEAT MODIFIED 

Remarkable The workman whom I employed to take out the remains of 

faft of cryftals the cradle, had cut off a piece from the breech of the barrel, 

which appear to r ■ , • • i i 

have been form- three or lOur iiiches 111 length. As I was examining the crack 
rd by fublima- whicii was feen in this piece, I was furprifed to fee the infide of 
the barrel lined with a fet of franfparent and well-defined cry- 
ftals, of final! fize, yet vifible by the naked eye. They lay (o- 
getlier in (ome places, foas to cover the furface of the iron with 
a tranfparent coat; in others they were detached, and fcattered 
over the furface. Unfortunately, the quantity of this fubfiance 
was loo fmall to admit of much chemical examination ; but I 
immediately afcertained, that it did not in the leaft efFervefce 
m acid, nor did it feem to dilTolve in it. The cryflals were 
in general tranfparent and colourlefs, though a few of them 
were tinged feemingly with iron. Their form was very well 
defined, being flat, with oblique angles, and bearing a ftrong 
refemblance to the cryfials of the Lamellated Stylbite of 
Hauy. Though made above two years ago, they ftill retain 
their form and tranfparency unchanged. Whatever this fub- 
fiance may be, its appearance, in this experiment, is in the 
higlieft degree interefling, as it feems to afford an example 
of the mode in which Dr. Hutton fuppofes many internal ca- 
vil ies to have been lined, by the fublimation of fubftances in 
a flale of vapour; or, held in folution, by matters in a gafeous 
form. For, as the cryftals adhered to'apartof the barrel, 
which mufl: have been occupied by air during the aftion of 
heat, it feems next to certain that they were produced by fub- 
limation. 
The oid Sable The very powerful effe6ls produced by this laft barrel, the 
Siberian iron is fize of which (reduced, indeed, by repeated oxidation) was not 
hi^h heats. ^ above an inch fquare, made me very anxious to obtain barrels 
of the fame fubftance, which being made of greater fize, ought 
to afford refults of extreme intereft. I found upon inquiry, 
that this barrel was not made of Swedifla iron, as I at firft fup- 
pofed, but of what is known by the name of Old Sable, from 
the figure of a Sable (lamped upon the bars ; that being the 
armorial badge of the place in Siberia where this iron is 
made.* 
All iron is -^ workman explained to me fome of the properties of differ- 

cniflied under ent kinds of irons, moft interefiing in my prefent purfuit; and 

the hammer at 

fome dertnite 

heat. Caft iron * I was favoured with this account by the late ProftfTor Robifon. 

at a low h^atj u^ 



BV COMPRESSION. 399 

he llluftrated ivhal he laid by a6lual trial. All iron, when ex- flee) at i higher» 

pofed to a certain heat^cruilies and crunables under theliammer; ^"^^-^Xr. wh?te^'^ 

but the temperature in which this happens, varies with every hear, a:id old 

different fpecies. Thus, as he Ibewed me, cafi iron cruOies f^'^;^ ^^ ^ ft'" 
' ' , . ,, Jiigher temper- 

in a dull red heat, or perhaps abJut 1.5" ol Wedgwood ; atuie. 

fteel, in a heat perhaps of 30°; Swedilli iron, in a bright 
white heat, perhaps of 50° or 60'^ ; old fable itfe'f, likewife 
yields, but in a much higher heat, perhaps of 100**. 1 merely 
gueffed at thefe temperatures; but I am certain of this, that in a 
heat iimilar to that in which Swediih iron crumbled under the 
hammer, the old fable withflood a ftiong blow, and fecmed to 
polfefs contiderable firmnefs. It is from a knowledge of this 
quality, that the blackfmith, when he firft takes his iron from 
the forge, and lays it on the anvil, begins by very gentle 
blows, till the temperature has funk to the degree in which the 
iron can bear the hammer. I obferved, as the ftrong heat of 
the forge a6led on the Swedidi iron, that it began to boil at the 
furface, clearly indicating the difcharge of fome gafeous mat- 
ter j whereas, the old lable, in the fame circumflances, ac- 
quired the fliining furface of a liquid, and melted away without 
any eflfervefcence, I procured, at this time, a confulerable 
number of bars of that iron, which fully anfwered my expec- 
tations. 

By the experiments laft mentioned, a very important point The complete 
was (j[ainetl in this inveHiealion ; the complete fufibilily of the^"1'"'"y °^ ^^^ 

,. n , , n 1 -A r Carbonate under 

carbonate under preUure bemg thereby eltablimed. But from preflure was af- 
this very circumftance, a necedity arofe of adding fome new *^^"*"'=<^ '" 
devices to thofe already defcnbed: for the carbonate, in fu- ^eis, ' " 
fion, fpreading itfelf on the infide of the tube containing it, 
and the two uniting firmly together, fo as to be quite infepa- 
rable, it was impodible, after the experiment, to afcertaiti 
the weight of the carbonate by any method previoufly ufed. 
I therefore determined in future to adopt the following ar- 
rangement. 

A fmall tube of porcelain (ik, Fig. 23.) was weighed by Arrangemer>t for 
means of a counterpoifeof fand, or granulated tin; then tbe ^J'^'^^',";^/""™^ 
carbonate was firmly rammed into the lube, and the whole which arofe from 
weighed again: thus the weight of the carbonate, previous to ^''^^/"^*°"* ^'^^ 

" . ° ° ' f^ carbonate was 

the experiment was afcertained. After the experiment, the put into a fmall 
tube, with its contents, was again weighed ; and the variation P'^f'^^'ai" tube 
of weight obtained, independently of any mutual adion that had frcure^inT^' ^ 

taken •^''S^f' Thcfe 



400 ACTION CF HEAT MODrFIEB 

were placed in a taken place between the lube and the carbonate. The balance 
ai?the wholT ^^'^^^'^ ^ ^^^^* turned in a conftant and fteady manner, with 
put into the iron One hundredth of a grain. Wlien pounded chalk was rammed 
barrel, &c. [^^q tj^jj, ^^^]^f.^ j generally left part of it free, and in that 
fpace laid a fmall piecf^ of lump-chalk (?), drefled to a cy- 
linder, with the ends cut flat and fmoolh, and I ufually cut a 
letter on each end, the more effedually to obferve the effedts 
produced by heat upon the chalk; the weight of this piece 
pf chalk being always eftimated along with that of the powder 
contained in the tube. Infome experiments, I placed a cover 
of porcelain on the muzzle of the hule tube, (this cover being 
weighed along with it), in order to provide againlt the cafe of 
ebullition : but as that did not often occur, I feldom took the 
trouble of this laft precaution. 
Continuation of It was now of confequence to protedl the tube, thus pre- 
the method of pared, from being touched during the experiment, by any fub- 
/lance, above all, by the carbonate of lime, which might adhere 
to it, and thus confound the appreciation by weight. This was 
provided for as follows: The fmall tube {Fig. 23, i k) with its 
pounded carbonate (/c), and its cylinder of lump-chalk (i), 
was dropt into a large tube of porcelain (pk, fig. 24). Upon 
this a fragment of porcelain (/), of fuch a fize as not to fall in 
between the tubes, was laid. Then a cylinder of chalk (ju) was 
drefTed, fo as nearly to fit and fill up the infide of the large tube, 
©ne end of itbeingrudely cut into the form of a cone. This mafs 
being then introduced, with its cylindrical end downwards, 
was made to prefs upon the fragment of porcelain (/ ). I then 
dropped into the fpace («), between the conical part of this 
mafs and the tube, a fet of fragments of chalk, of a fize be- 
yond what could poffibly fall between the cylindrical part and 
the tube, and preflTed them down with a blunt tool, by which 
the chalk being at the fame time crufiied and rammed into 
the angle, was forced into a mafs of fonie folidity, which ef- 
fedtually prevented any thing from patiing between the large 
mafs of chalk and the tube. In pradice, I have found this 
method always to anfwer, when done with care. I covered 
the chalk, thus rammed, with a llratum of pounded flint (o), 
and that again with pounded chalk {/>) firmly rammed. In 
this manner, I filled the whole of the large tube with alternate 
layers of fiiex and chalk; the muzzle being always occupied 
with chalk, which was eafily prefled into a mafs of tolerable 

firmnefs 



BY COMPRESSION". 



401 



firmnefs, and, lufienng no chanee in very low heats, excluded Continuation of 

irrii X ■ , ^ n n r , • t the method of 

the Tiirible metal m the firft uages or the experiment. experiment. 

The large lube, thas filled, was placed in the cradle, fome- 
times with the muzzle upwards, and foraetimes the reverfe. I 
have frequently altered my views as to that part of the ar- 
rangement, each mode pofleffing peculiar advantages and dii- 
ad vantage?. With the muzzle upwards, (as (hewn in Fig. 24 and 
25), the beft fecurity is afforded againft the intrufion of the fufi- 
ble metal ; becaufe the air, cjuitting the air-tube in the working 
pofition, occupies the upper part of the barrel; and thefufible 
metal ftands as a liquid (at ^, Fig. 25.) below the muzzle of the 
lube, fo that all communication is cut off, between the liquid 
metal and the inlide of the tube. On the other hand, by this 
arrangement, the fmaJI tube, which is the fiducial part of the 
apparatus, is placed at a confiderable diftance from the breech 
of the barrel, fo as either to undergo lefs heat than the upper 
part, or to render if nece(rary that the barrel be thrufi high into 
the muffle. 

With the muzzle of the large tube downwards, the inner 
lube is placed (as fliewn in Fig. 22), fo as ftill to have its 
muzzle upwards, and in contact with the breech of the large 
tube. This has the advantage of placing the fmall lube neair 
to the breech of the barrel : and though there i;; here lefs fe- 
GUfity againft the intrufion of liquid metal, I have found that 
a point of little confequence ; fince, when the experiment is 
a good one, and that tiie carbonic acid has been well con- 
fined, the intrufion feldom lakes place in any pofition. In 
whichever of the two oppofite pofitions the large tube was 
placed, a pyrometer was always introduced, fo as to lie as neat 
as poflible to the fmall tube. Thus, in the firfl-raentioned 
pofition, the pyrometer was placed immediately below the 
large tube, and, in the other pofition above it ; fo that, in both 
cafes, it was feparated from the carbonate by the thicknefs 
only of the two tubes. 

Much room was unavoidably occupied by this method, 
which necefTarily obliged me to ufe fmall quantities of car- 
bonate, the fubje6t of experi;nent feldom weighing more than 
10 or 12grains^ and in others far lefs*. 

On 

* I me-ifured the capacity of the air-tubes by means of granu- 
lated tin, afting as a line and equal fand. By comparing the weight 

Of 



402 ACTION OF HEAT MODIFlfeD 

trperiment Oil the 1 Uh of April, 1 303, with a barrel of oH fable 

made with the i,-on having a bore of 0.75 of an inch, I made an experi- 

toregorng pre- . • i • i u • r • A- 

cautions. The r^e'it in which all Uiele anangemenls were put in practice. 
heat amounted The large tube contained two fmall ones; one filled with 
wood. The* ^P*""' ^"^' the other with chalk. J conceived that the heat had 
carbonates had rifen to 33'*, or fomewhat higher. On melting the metals, 
lort gas and un- jj^^ ^^.^jj^ ^,.^^ (hrown out with confiderable violence. The 
dsrgone rulK-n. 

pyrometer, which, in this experiment, had been placed 

within the barrel, to my aflonilbment, indicated 64-''. Yet 
all was found. The two little tubes came out quile clean and 
uncontaminated. The fpar had loft 17.0 per cent, the chalk 
JO. 7 ptr cent. The fpar was half funk down, and run againft 
the fide of the iillle tube : Its furface was fliining, its texture 
Ipongy, and it was compofed of a tranfparent and jelly-like 
fubftance. The chalk was entirely in a ftale of froth. This 
experiment extends our power of aflion, by fliewing, that 
compreffion, to a confiderable degree, can be carried on in fo 
great a heat as 6^°. Itfeems likevvife to prove, that, ia fome 
of the late experiments with the fquare barrel, the heat had 
been much higher than was fuppofed at the lime, from the in- 
dication of the pyrometer placed on the breech of the barrel; 
and that in fome of them, particularly in the laft, it muft have 
rifen at leaft as high as in the prefent experiment. 
Experiment in O" t'^^ ^'^ of April, 1805, afimilar experiment was made 
which the barrel ^yith a new barrel, bored in a fquare bar of old fable, of about 
conteuti had un- '^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^'^ '"*-^ '" diameter, having its angles merely 
«{ergyne fafion. rounded ; the inner tube being filled with chalk. The heat 
was maintained during feveral hours, and the furnace allowed 
to burn out during the night. The barrel had the appearance 
of foundnefs, but the metals came off quietly, and the carbon- 
ate was entirely calcined, the p}rometer indicating 63", On 
examination, and after beating off the fmooth and even fcaie 
of oxide peculiar to the old fable, the barrel was found to have 
yielded in its peculiar manner; that is, by the opening of the 
longitudinal fibres. This experiment, nolwilhftanding the 
failure of the barrel, was one of the moft interefting 1 had 

of this tin with an equal bulk of water, I found that a cubic inch 
of it weighed 1330. G grains, and that each grain of it conefponded 
to G. 00075 of a cubic inch. From thefe data I was able, with to- 
lerable accuracy, to gage a tube by weighing the tin required to 

fill it. 

made, 



BY COMPRESSIOIT, 403 

made, iince it afforded proof of complete fufiorr. The car- 
bonate had boiled over the lips of the little lube, ftanding, as 
juft defcribed, with its mouth upwards, and had run down to 
within half an inch of its lower end : moft of the fubftance was 
in a frothy ftate, with large round cavities, and a lliining fur- 
face; in other parts, it was interfperfed with angular malfe*, 
wliich have evidently been furrounded by a liquid in which they 
floated. IL was harder, I thought, than marble; giving no 
etTervefcence, and not turning red like quicklime in nitric 
acid, which feemed to have no efFe6l upon it in the lump. It 
was probably a compound of quicklime with the fu'bftance of 
the tube. 

With the fame barrel repaired, and with others like it, 
many (imilar experiments were made at this time with great 
fuccefs ; but to mention them in detail, would amount nearly 
to a repetition of what has been faid. I Ihall take notice of 
only four of them, which, when compared together, throw- 
much light on the theory of thefe operations, and llkevvife 
feem to eftablifh a very important principle in geology. Thefe 
four experiments differ from each other only in the heat em- 
ployed, and in the quantity of air introduced. 

The firft of thefe experiments was made on the 27th of Account of fome 

April 1803, in one of the large barrels of old fable, with all the experiments at 

above-mentioned arrangements. The heat had rifen, contrary l^JJ^^^^ ^he 

to my intention, to 78° and 79*^. The tubes came out un- carbonate moft 

contaminated with fufible metal, and everything bore the ap- cfned-^ha"' 

pearance of foundnefs. The contents of the little tube, con- which had fuf- 

fifting of pounded chalk, and of a fmall piece of •'"^p-chalk, ^^^^^'^^j^^^'^^^^J^^^^ 

came out clean, and quite looi'e, not having adhered to the lime-ftone and 

inCde of the tube in the fnialleft degree. There was a lofs of of'".a''^'e»,w^'<=^ 

, , I • • r 1 I retained their 

41 percent, and the calcmation leemed to be complete; Ihej-ajbonic acid. 

fubftance, when thrown into nitric acid, turning red, without 

etfervefcence at firft, though, after lying a few minutes, fome 

bubbles appeared. According to the method followed in all 

thefe experiments, and lately defcribed at length, (and tbewn in 

Fig. 24 and 25), the large tube was filled over the fmall one, 

with various maffes of chalk, fotne in lump, and fome rammed 

into it in powder; and in the cradle there lay fome pieces of 

chalk, filling up the fpace, fo that in the cradle there was a 

continued chain of carbonate of four or five inches in length. 

The fubftance was found to be lefs and lefs calcined, the more 

it 



404 ACTION OF HEAT W»DIF1ED. 

it was removed from the breech of the barrel, where the heat 
was grealeft. A fmall piece of chalk, placed at the diftance 
of hall an inch from the fmall tube, had fome faline fubftance 
in the iiearf, (urrounded and nitermixed with quicklime, dif- 
tingui(hed by its dull white. In nitric acid, this fubftance be- 
came red, but cfFerveroed pretty btilkiv; the effervefcence 
continuing till the whole was ditfolved. The n«xt portion 
of chalk was in a firm flale of limeftone; and a lump of 
chalk in the cradle, was equal in perfcdlion to any marble I 
have obtained by compreffion : the two laft-mentioned pieces 
of chalk effervefcing with violence in the acid, and fliewing 
no rednefs when thrown into it. Thefe (acts clearly prove, 
that the calcination of the contents of the fmall tube had been 
internal, owing to the violent heat which had feparated its 
acid from the moft lieated part of the carbonate, according 
to (he theory already ftated. The foundnefs of the barrel was 
proved by the complete ftale of thofe carbonates which lay 
in lefs heated parts. The air-tube in this experiment had a 
capacity of 0.29, nearly one.third of a cubic inch. 
Another expe- The fecond of thele experiments was made on the 29th of 

nment in which April, in the fame barrel wi(h the UR, after it had afFordeci 

the banelfajledi r i /■ i -t^, • , ■ • i • i 

lome good relults. The air-tube was reduced to one-third 

of its former bulk, that is, to one-tenth of a cubic inch.—* 
The beat rofe to 60''. The barrel was covered externally 
with a black fpongy fubHance, the conftant indication of fai- 
lure, and a fmall drop of white rnetal made its appearance. 
The cradle was removed without any explofion or hiffing. 
The carbonates were entirely calcined. The barrel had yield- 
ed, but had refitted well at firft; for the contents of the little 
tube were found in a complete flate of froth, and running 
with the porcelain. 
Third experi- The third experiment was made on the 30lh of April, in 
ment, very thin another fimilar barrel. Every circumliance was the fame as 
in the two laft experiments, only that the air-tube was now 
reduced to half its laft bulk, that is, to one-twentieth of a cu- 
bic inch. A pyrometer was placed at each end of the large 
tube. The uppermoCi gave 41*'> the other only 15". The 
contents of the inner tube had loft 16 per cent, and were re- 
duced to a moft beautiful (late of froth, not very much injured 
by the internal calcination and indicating a thinner ftate of 
fufion than bad appeared. 

3 The 



BY COMiPRESSIONo 405 

the fourth experiment was made on the 2d of May, like Fourth experi- 
U.c reft in all refpeas, with a ftill fmaller air-tube, of 0.0318, ^^eater "pteffare, 
being lefs than one thirtieth of a cubic inch. The upper py- fufion at a mu- 
rometer gave 2,)°, and the under one 16* : The loweft malTes fl^gJt^iJ^'oV 
of carbonate were fcarcely affeded by the heat. The contents carbonic acid, 
of the little tube loft 2.9 per cent, bolh the lump and the ^'*^' 
pounded chalk were in a fine faline ftate, and, in feveral places, 
had run and fpread upon the infide of the tube, which I had 
not expected to fee in fuch a low heat. On the upper furface 
of the chalk rammed into the little lube, which, after Its in- 
troduction had been wiped fmooth, were a fet of white cryf- 
tals, with thining facettes, large enough to be diftinguithed by 
the naked eye, and feeming to rife out of the mafs of car- 
bonate. I Ijkewife obferved, that the folid mafs on which 
thefe cryftalyftood, was uncommonly tranfparent. 

In thefe four experiments, the bulk of the included air was Obfervations -. 

fucceffivfly diminlftied, and by that means its elafticity in-- !j^^J"J°^Jg'J''=* 

creafed. Tiie confequence was, that in the firft experiment, beats when the 

where that elafticity was the leaft, the carbonic acid vvas'^!<=^P^.f\ *^^''°' 

. nic acid is pre- 

allowed to feparate from the lime, in an early ftage of the vested. The 

nfing heat, lower than the f'ufing point of the carbonate, and ^<*"^ ^^^ " * 
complete internal calcination was effe6led. In the febond 
experiment, the elaftic force being much greater, calcina- 
tion was prevented, till the heat rofe fo high as to occafion 
the entire fufion of the carbonate, and its a6lion on the tube, 
before the carbonic acid was fet at liberty by the failure of 
the barrel. In the third experiment, with ftill greater elaftic 
force, the carbonate was partly calcined, and its fufion 
accompliftied, in a heat between 41** and \5'^. In the hit 
experiment, where the force was ftrongeft of all, the carbon- 
ate was almoft completely protcfled from decompofition by- 
heat. In confequence of which it cryftallized and adted on the 
tube, in a temperature between 25° and 16*. On the other 
hand, the efficacy of the carbonic acid as a flux on the lime, 
and in enabling the carbonate to aft as a flux on other bodies, 
was clearly evinced; fince the firft experiment proved that 
quicklime by itfelf could neither be melted, nbr ai^t upon porce- 
lain, even in the violent heat of 79* ; whereas, in the laft 
experiment where the tarbonic acid was retained, both of 
Ihefe efife^s took place in a very low temperature, 
(To be continued, J 
Vol. XIII. — SvPi-LKMEFT. Ff IV, Qb/ervatwtt^ 



406 ON THE EFFECT OF MADDER ROOT 



IV. 

Ob/ervations on the EfeSt of Madder Hoot on the Bones of Ani- 
mals. By Mr. B. Gibson.* 

Account of the JL HERE Is, perhaps, no phenomenon, which occurs in an 
1 I covery o animal body more curious, than the tinge communicated to 

the pr'vperty ot ... ° 

madder to tinge the bones of living animals, whofe food has been mixed with 

the bones of madder root. This, like many other fafts, to which no reafon- 
Lving animaiss . , 

mg apr/oncould have direfted us, was difcovered by chance. 

Mr. Belcher, dining with a calico printer on a leg of frefii 
pork, was furprized that the bones, inflead of poffeffing their 
ufual whitenefs, were of a deep red colour; and on enquiring 
the caufe of it, was informed, that the pig had been fed upon 
the refufe of the dyers' vats, and had received fo much of the 
colouring matter of madder into the fyftem, thai Us bones 
were dyed by it. So interefting a faft has attra6ted very much 
the attention of anatomies, and has been ufed in many phyfi- 
_ ological and pathological enquiries; it may not therefore be 
uninterefting to give a fliort hiftory of the phenomena connedled 
with it, and the purpofes to which it has been applied, previ- 
ous to entering upon the more immediate obje(5t of this paper, 
Experiments Many experiments have been made to alcertain how long 

fhewnig that the ^ jj^g is required to produce the tinge, and whether it be 
tinge :s more • '^ ® 

quickly given to permanent or only temporary. Belcher and Morand, about 
the bones of ^^^ ^^^^ i\vne, mixed madder root with the food of chickens 
growing animals. , / _, /• , r i - i r • 

and young pigeons. The relult of their oblervations was, 

that the tinge was more quickly communicated to the bones 
of growing animals, than to the bones of animals which had 
already completed their growth; the bones of young pigeons 
being tinged of a rofe-colour in twenty-four hours, and of a 
deep leaflet in three days; whilft tne bones of adult animals 
Short time and only exiiibited a rofe-colour in fifteen days. They found the 
other fafts. tinge moft intenfe in the folid parts of (hofe bones, which were 
neareft to the centre of circulation ; whilft in bones of equal 
folidity, at a greater diflance from the heart, the tint was 
more faint. The dye was deep in proportion to the length of 
time the madder had been continued, and when it was difcon- 
tinued, the cohmr gradually became more and more faint, till 

* Manchefter Memoirs, 1805. 



ON THE BONES OF ANIMALS. 407 

it enlirely difappeared. According to the experiments of ihefe 
gentlemen, other vegetable dyes, fuch as logwood, turmeric 
and alkanet root, did not communicate their refpedive tints 
to the bones.* 

This effeO. of madder upon the bones, was foon afterwards Du Hamel ufed 
made ufe of by Du Hamel, in his attempt to prove the man- 5hew^Jhr'rowth 
ner in which the bones of animals are encreafed in thicknefs. of bones. 
Obferving in the vegetable kingdom, that the bark, by a fort 
of fecretion, formed the ligneous part of a tree, in fucceffive 
layers ; fohe conceived that the periofteum, or membrane fur- 
rounding bones, being converted into offeous matter, en- 
creafed their diameter by adding to them concentric lamina: 
in fucceffion. In order to prove the jufinefs of his opinion, he 
mixed the food of a cock with madder root for a month, with- 
held it for a month, and then gave it again. He afterwards 
killed the animal, and upon infpe£lion thought he obferved the 
Appearance which he expefied ; viz. two layers of red bone 
inclofing one of white, correfponding to the periods of the 
madder's being given or withheld. 

This experiment, and fome others related by Du Hamel, It is very doubt- 
appear to be conclufive in favour of the theory, which |ie ^"' whether that 

growth could be 
wifhed to eftabliOi; and as they were conduced by a phylio- fo indicated. 

logifi: of high character, the accuracy of the obfervations could 
not have been doubled, had thefe experiments ftood alone. 
But when they are compared with fome of his own previous 
experiments, and thole of other authors, it is difficult to re- 
concile them. In fome of Du Hamel's experiments, for in- 
ftance, the bones of a cock were tinged of a rofe-colour 
through their whole fubftance in fifteen days, and thofe of 
young pigeons of a deep fcarlet in three days. In feveral ex- 

• From fome experiments I made on young pigeons, I found 
that a confiderable quantity of logwood, in the form of extract, 
communicated an evidently purple tint to the bones. With regard 
to turmeric, it appears to be altered in its colour by palling through 
the digeftive organs^ for the fceces of the animals, who took it in 
confiderable quantity, were conrtantly green : whilft either log- 
wood or madder root exhibited their refpeilive hues after paiTing 
through the inteftlnes. Saffron exhibits properties different from 
any of thefe fubftances ; iv though a pigeon took it in confider- 
able quantity, and thereby had its foeces ringed, yet no perceptible 
alteration of colour was produced in its bones. 

F f 2 perimenls 



408 



Late experi- 
ments of Dr. 
M'Dmald oft 
the bones. 



Very cutious 
procefs of a 
bone deflroyed. 



—and the regu. 
far proce/s of 



ON THE EFFECT OF MADDfiR KOOT 

periments I have made on the fubje6t, I have found 'the bones 
ot young pigeons tinged of a uniform rofe-colour, internally 
as well as externally, in twenty-four hours. This communi- 
cation of colour to the whole fubftance of the ofleous fyftem 
in fo (liort a time, makes it highly improbable that the laminated 
appearance, remarked by Du Hamel, was produced by the 
new formation of red and white ofleous layers, correfponding 
(o the times (months) the madder had been given or withheld. 
For, as Mr, John Bell very juftly remarks,* '* If a bone fliould 
increafe by layers thick enough to be vifible and of a difiin^l 
tint, and fuch layers be continually accumulated upon each 
other every week, what kind of bone fliould this grow to?" 
The only way in which we can reconcile with each other the 
phenomena obferved in the different experiments, and account 
for their apparent conlradiflion, is, by fuppofing that Du 
Hamel miftook for an obfcurely laminated appearance, the va- 
riety in the tint, which is more deeply communicated to the 
more folid, and more faintly to the lefs compact parts of a 
bone. 

This property of madder of tinging the bones of animals, 
has lately been employed by Dr. M'Donald,f in his ingenious 
refearches into the formation and death of bones. Amongft 
other objeds, he attempted to afcertain in what manner and 
how foon a cylindrical bone is regenerated to fiipply the place 
of one artificially killed. As the procefs is highly curious, I 
(hall briefly relate the principal points. 

Dr. McDonald's experiments were made by amputating the 
proper leg-bone of young pigeons or chickens immediately 
above the joint. The marrow was then extraded, and the 
cavity which contained it, filled with lint. This procefs cau fed 
the death of the bone, and the formation of a new -bone fur- 
rounding that deflroyed enfued. Immediately after the expe- 
riment, the animal had its food mixed with madder root, and 
the part was infpefted in different animals, at different pe- 
riods. 

On examination three days afterwards, the periofleum cr 
enveloping membrane, was found much thickened ; and un- 
derneath it a gelatinous humour was ef^'ufed, furrounding the 



* Anatomy of the bones, &c. p. 15. 

t Difputatio inaugural is de Necrofi ac Callo. 1T9^. 



dead 



ON THE BONES OF ANIMALS. 



409 



dead bone, and fpotted with red oiTeous nuclei ; proving that 
the regeneration of the bone had commenced at this early pe- 
riod. 

In feven days the new bone was found foft and flexible, not — '" regenera- 
lo be diftinguiflied from cartilage or griftle, except by the red 
tint the madder had communicated to it ; yet the bone deftroyed 
was not at all coloured, although the other bones of the animal 
bad acquired a bright red. From this time the new bone con- 
tinued to encreafe in hardnefs, furrounding the old one like a 
ftieath. The latter in about three weeks was fo loofe as to be 
drawn out, and in about fifteen days from this time, the cavity 
of the regenerated bone was filled with marrow, and in every 
refped performed the office of that for which it was a fubfti- 
tate. This may be confidered as a general outline of the pro- 
gretlive changes which take place during the regeneration of 
a cylindrical bone, in a young animal, fuch as a pigeon, or 
chicken ; and the fame procefs is frequently performed in the 
human body, when, from fome internal caufe, the life of a 
bone is deftroyed. Thefe changes involve many interefting 
particulars; but the circumftance raoft immediately connefted 
with the fubjed of this paper is, that although the fliaflof the Inference, 

bone required three weeks for its renewal, yet in feven days?^'^°'" the very 

. . ipeedy acquifi- 

(he offeous (yflem generally had acquired a bright red. Now tion and fubfe- 

if we explain this change in colour according to the common 1"e"t lofsof the 

r , r ■ I- , , - , , /> • r , i red colour that 

opmion or abiorption or the white, anddepoution or the red the ofTeous fyf- 

■ofleous matter,* we niuft necetlarily draw this conclufion; that tem was natura!- 

theotfeous fyftem of the animal will be renewed three times J^^^^^^J^^^^jJ^'^j 

during the period, which the formation of the fubftitute bone period. 

requires; a conclufion which we (hould be inclined to rejedl 

merely from its improbability. But befides tliis, th.e appcar- 

* The common opinion of phyfiologifts, with regard to this cu^ 
rious faft, is, that when a bone becomes red, during the exhi- 
bition of madder root, the white ofleous particles which compoled 
It, have been entirely removed by abforption and replaced by new 
offeous matter of a red colour: and when a bone affbmes its na- 
tural colour, thefe red particles have been removed and replaced by 
white. If this be the fa£t, it neceflarily follows, that an animal 
has at leaft fifty-two new fets of bones in a year; for the ofleous 
fyftem, according to the experiments of the motf refpeftable phy- 
fiologifts, acquires a deep red tint from madder in one w^ejc, and 
affumes its natural colour in another. 

9ne$ 



410 ON THE EFFECTS OF MADDER ROOT 

ance of the pails firongly militale agauift it — for, if we iri^y 

judge at all of the aaivity of the procefs in the two parts, by 

their comparative degrees of vafcularity, that employed in 

Caufe of doubt, forming the fubftitule bone far exceeds that going on in the 

OiTeous fyflem generally ; one ftriking phenomenon attending 

the regeneration of a bone being, the very high degree of in- 

creafed vafcularity which the parts employed in the procefs 

rapidly alfume. 

The bones are After this efFe61 of madder upon the bones was known, it 

by'lL'dde.t'be- '""^ remained a myftery, why fome other white parts of the 

caufe the phof- body, fuch as nerves, cartilages and periofteum, were not 

phate of lime equally liable to be coloured by it, as the bones. This fad, I 

arts as a mor- i i- " ,., . 

dent on the believe, did not receive any explanation, until Dr. Rutherford 
madder. gave a very ingenious and fatisfaftory one. When fpeaking 

of this property of madder, he fays,* «' We have, in the fa^ 
before us, a beautiful example of a particular cafe of chemical 
attrafiion j fuch as in numberlefs inllauces, is obferved to take 
place between the colouring particles of both animal and ve- 
getable fubflances and various other bodies, efpecially earths 
and earthy falb, and oxides of metals. So ftrong is the affi- 
nity of the colouring matter to thefe bodies, that it is fre- 
quently oblerved to quit the n.enftruum, in which it may 
chance to be duToIved, to unile wiih ihem: they, in confe- 
quence of its union, acquiring a particular tinge, whilft the 
inenft.Lium is proportionably deprived of colour. From this 
principle, this rau'iual attraiSion, is deduced the various ufe of 
thofe bodies as r;iorden(s, as they are called, intermedia, or 
means for fixing the c »!oius in dying or flaining thread or 
cloth, whether it be compofed of animal or vegetable mate- 

The red matter rials. Upon the fame principle depends the preparation of 
IS a kind of .t r- ' , , ' . . , , . , 

lake. '"°'^ pigments known to painters under the name of lakes; 

'■■ thefe are truly precipiiates of the colouring matter, in combi- 

nation v.'ith various mordents, as their bafis. — The colouring 
of the bones of a living animal by means of madder, is, in 
every circumftance, analogous to (he formation of thefe lakes. 
The colouring matter of madder, palling unaltered through 
the digeftive organs of the animal^ enters the general mafs of 
fluids, and is dilfoived in the ferum of the blood, to which, 

* See Dr. Blake's inaugural DifTertation. De dentium forma- 
tione, p. 11 J.— 1798, 

indeed. 



ON THE BONES OF ANIMALS. 42 J 

indeed, if it be in large proportion, it communicates a fenfi- 

bly red tinge. But there is always preftnt in the blood, and in —formed as it 

afiate of lUution in the fhrum, a quantity of the earthy matter of ^^^^^^ before the 

, , , , ^ ,. J 7 J ^ 7 7 • offeous depofi- 

tne bones, pnofpnate of lime, ready to be aepojitea, as the exigen^ tion. 

cies of the anwial may require. Now the phofphate of lime is an 
excellent mordent to madder, and has a ftrong affinity to it, and 
is confequently admirably fiited to afford a hafe for the colouring 
matter oj it : in fuck experiments, therefore, they concrete in the 
fiate of a bright red lake, whence the colour of the bones is derived. 
That this is adually the cafcj may be (hewn by a variety of 
experiments. Thus, if lo an infufion of madder in diftilled 
water, be added a little of the muriate of lime, no change is 
perceived: but if to this mixture be added a folution of the 
phofphate of foda, immediately a double elective altra6tion 
takes place. The muriatic acid combining with the foda, re- 
mains fufpended, or diflblved in. the water ; whilft the phof- 
phoric acid, thus deprived of its foda, combines with the Jime 
which the muriatic acid parted with, and forms phofphate of 
lime or earth of bones. This fubftance, however, being in- 
foluble in water, falls to the bottom ; but having combined at 
the inftant of its formation with the colouring matter of the 
madder, they fall down united into a crimfon lake ; precifely 
of the fame tint with that of the bones of young animals, 
which have been fed with madder. From this fimple reprc- 
fentation of the matter, we have a ready explication of every 
circum (lance which has been remarked as extraordinary re- 
fpeding this fubject." 

Whilft Dr. Rutherford thus gives a raoft fatisfadory expla- Dr. Rutherford 
nation of the colour of madder being communicated to the ^^,^'"^•"^^^3^^" j'g_ 
bones alone, of all the white parts of an animal ; we ^nd that pofuion. 
he embraces the fame opinion as other phyliologifts, that the 
©(Teous materials acquire their colour previous to their depo- 
fition, whilil in a ftate of folution or mixture in the blood j 
from whence they are afterwards depofited, and concrete in 
the form of a bright lake. In no part of his ingenious re- 
marks does he hint at the probability that the bones already 
formed in an animal, may, during the ufe of madder, become 
red, and after its difufe gradually refume their natural colour, 
by the agency of a power entirely independent of their depo- 
fition and abforplion : that this is probable I ftiall now proceed 
^0 prove. 

Before 



412 ON THE EFfECT OF MADDER ROOT 

More particular Before it was difcovered that madder podefled this property 
thfdoaii'ne'(ff ^^ ^'"g'^g bones, phyfiologilis had long been of opinion, that 
the abforption the various parts of the body, being worn out by the perform- 
and regeneration j^j^pg of their anions and fun6lions, were gradually removed, 
ot the parts of , ,,, .,^. .,r ^^ ' 

animals, a"d replaced by new materials. They had leen, as Mr. 

J, Bell obferves, the whole olTeous fyflem by the morbid re- 
moval of its folid part, rendered fo foft and flexible as to bend 
under the common weight of the body and ordinary adion off- 
parts ; the regeneration of many bones which had been de- 
firoyed by difeafe ; the rapid abforption of fat in fome dif- 
eafes, and its fpeedy reproduftion ; and laftly, the gradual 
change which the fluids of the body undergo, as well as fome 
of its infenfible parts, the hair and nails; hence they fuppofed 
that the fame procefs of change and renovation went on in, 
every organ, and that the bodies of animals were not compofed 
of the fame identical particles of which they would confift at 
—fuppofed to be fome future period. This procefs, which was before but con- 
confirmed m the jg^^j^^I, or fupported by analogy, phyfiologifts confidered as 
fully proved by the eflfeds of madder upon the bones. They 
had by this means an opportunity of feeing the bones altered 
in colour, from the flighted tint to thedeepeft red; they could 
cbferve lliis gradually removed, until the bones had regained 
their natural whit&hefs ; and explaining the whole procefs on 
the principle of depofilion and abforption, they confidered it 
as ocular demonltration of a mod rapid change in the confli- 
tuent elements of a part, of which, from its folidity, they 
could fcarcely have believed it fufceptible. 
Probability that I apprehend, however, that it is by giving an erroneous 
tliis explanation explanation of the phenomena ; by fuppofing that a change in 
*' ' * theoITeous particles is denoted by an alteration in their colour, 

that phyfiologifts have confidered this fa6t as conclufive. 

However indubitable and well fupported may be the opinion, 
■which attributes an imperceptible change to the various parts 
of the body, we fliall, I believe difcover upon a more clofe 
evamination, that it is by no means fupported by the appear- 
ances, which the bones difplay on the exhibition of madder 
root. The rapid change in their particles, which fuch ap- 
pearances indicate, when explained in the common way, is com- 
pletely at variance with all the procelTes performed by the 
bones, both in their healtiiy and difeafed ftates. Thus we 
lind the formation of the offific matter, called Callus, for the 
'■"''■': - ■ ■ . union 



ON THE BONES OF ANIMALS, 



41; 



union of fractured bones, or the exfoliation of a part of a bone, For the proceflcs 

*re procefles requiring a coniuierahle length of lime for their gfe^eft^re/i^ 

performance. In Dr. McDonald's experimenl?, the formation flow. 

oi' a regenerated bone required nearly lix weeks; but during 

the fame fpace of time, the bones of the fame animal would 

be renewed fevera! times, if the common explanation of the 

communication and difappearance of the tinge of madder were 

well founded. From thefe circumRances, I am led (o believe 

that the appearances produced by the exhibition of madder, 

require another mode of explanation. That which I have to 

offer is not liable to the fame objeftions, and is ftrongly fup- 

ported by comparative experiments. 

It was obferved by Du Hamel, in his experiments, that the A fimple cxpU- 
bones of animals which had been deeply tinged by madder, "„ e""pefi^ut, 
by long expofure to air loft their colour and became white. — 
It was this fad which fuggefted to me a (ioiple explanation of 
the procefs. It occurred to me, that if any one of the com- 
ponent parts of the blood naturally exerted a ftronger attrac- 
tion for the colouring matter of madder, than the phofphate 
of lime, it might be deprived of the tint by a chemical power. 
In order to prove this, as far as I could by experiment, I took J^^ ferum of 

, ... , ,• , I- ,■ • I • TA 11 1 olood has a 

one dram ot the phofphate of lime tniged, as in Dr. Kuther- ftronger attrac- 

ford's exi»eriment, and expofed it for half an hour to the ac- tion for the 
tion of two ounces of freOi ferum, at the temperature of 98 ^f n^a;]"/^^ than 
degrees. By this operation, the ferum gradually acquired a phofphate of 
red tinge, whilft the phofphate of lime was proportionably '"^^ ^*' 
deprived of colour. In a comparative experiment, a fimilar 
quantity of tinged phofphate of lime was expofed to the a6lion 
of diftilled water under fimilar circumftances; but no change 
took place. The knowledge of this flrong affinily in the fe- 
rum for colouring matter, affords an eafy and fimpie explana- 
tion of the effects of madder on the bones, upon the principle 
of chemical attradion. 

Thus, when an animal has madder mixed with its food, the Hence the bones 
blood becomes highly charged with it, and imparts the fuper- much madder 
abundant colouring matter to the phofphate of lime, contained is in the fyftem, 
in the bones already formed ; as it circulates through them and ^^^ fer^um when 
moiftens them throughout. But as foon as an animal has the quantity be- 
ceafed to receive the madder, and the blood is freed from the *^'''"^^ ^^^** 
colouring matter by the excretions, the ferum then exerts its 
fuperior altra<5tion, and by degrees entirely abftracls it from 
ibe 



41'jfe ON THE EFFECT OF MADDER ROOT, ScC, 

the phofphate of lime, and the bones refume their natural 

wJiitenefs. In thort, the bones are at one time d}'ed by the 

colouring matter, at another time bleached by the ferum. 

Phofphate while WhiJft I have attempted to explain the prob ble manner in 

fufpended does i-l,ii it/. i- •■ 

not ftrongly wtnch the bones, alreadj/ formed m an animal, at one time 

take the CO- receive, and at another are deprived of the colouring matter 
louring matter. ^^ madder, I by no means miend to aliert that the phofphate 
of lime does not acquire a fimilar colour during its folution in 
the ferum, or at the time it is precipitated from it to enter into 
the compofition of the bones; the fad is indifputable. I have, 
however, found from fome experiments lately made upon a 
hen during oviparation, that only a flight tinge can be com- 
municated to the fliell, formed whilft a large quantity of 
Example in colouring matter is circulating with the blood. So flight indeed 
' is the blufli, that it would not be feen by a common obferver, 

unlefs contrafted with a natural egg: which is probably the 
reafon why it has, I believe, been denied by phyfiulogifts, 
that the fliell of an egg is altered by the exhibition of madder. 
If this may be confidered as a teft of the quantity of colouring 
matter, which the phofphate altradls at the time it is feparated 
from the blood,' it forms anolher flrong argument againft the 
theory, which Dr. Rutherford, and all preceding ph)fiologills 
liave adopted ; for, confiftent with this fa6t, the bones fhould 
never exhibit more than a flight blufli. When explained upon 
the principle of chemical attraftion, we lee that the phenomena, 
exhibited by the bones of "an animal, by giving or withholding 
madder root, give no fupport to the opinion that the various 
parts of the body continually undergo an imperceptible change ; 
and I confider it a fortunate circumflance for that dodrine 
The doaiineof that fo iimple an explanation of the efTed of madder can be 
a lapid and con- -^gj^^ jr^j. ^j^jK^ f^ fpecious a favt has been confidered, by 
tinual change is ° , ... . . . 

not fupported thehigheft au:hoiities, as complete proof of the imperceptible 

by the fads of renovation of parts ; the rapid change in the conftituent 

bones tinged by , r . i i-i , ■ • , .t 

the madder. elements or the bones, which the communication and dil- 
appearance of the colour indicates, mufl: have appeared 
afionifliing to every phyfiologift. Of (his I cannot give you 
a ftronger inftance than in the words of Mr. J. Bell.* 
Nothing," fays he, " can be more curious than this continual 
renovation and change of parts even in the hardeft bones. 
We are accuftomed to fay of (he whole body, that it is daily 

* Anatomy of the bones, &c. p. 13. 

changed ; 



^ ON FAIRY RINGS, ScC. 415 

phahged ; that the older particles are removed, and new ones 
fupply llieir place ; that the body is not now tlie fame in- 
dividual body, that it was; but it could not be eafiiy believed 
that we fpeak only by guefs concerning the fofter parts, which 
we know tor certain of the bones.— When madder is given to 
animals, withheld for fome time and then given again, the 
colour appears in their bones, is removed, and appears again 
with fuch a fadden change, as proves a rapidity of depofition 
and abforption exceeding all likelihood or belief; all the bones 
are tinged in twenty-frtur hours; in two or three days their 
colour is very deep, and. if the madder be left off but for a few 
days, the red colour is entirely refnoved." 

Although by this chemical explanation of the effe6l of 
madder upon the bones, the doctrine of the imperceptible 
change in the component parts of animal bodies, lofes the fup- 
port of a fa6l, which has, fince its difcovery, been univerfally 
contidered as its ftrongelt proof; neverthelefs, indifputable 
arguments, derived from ditTerent iburces, flill place that 
dodrine amongft the beft fupported opinions in phyfiology. 



V. 

On Fairy Rings and the Wofte of Fljli in Scotland. By A.T. 

To Mr. NICHOLSON. 
SIR, 

XJ-AVING frequently noticed the fairy-rings your corrc/pond- Obfervatlons 

ent, M. Florian Jolly mentions in your Journal for February, I ^"j~ '"1"'^. 

fliould be glad lo know fiom him whether hares or rabbits rings may not 

abounded in Brcadiands park, as I have generally obferved ^^^f ^^^'^ ™^'^* 

, r ■ -, .•■.■,/•,/-■. • . 1 by hares and 

thele rings molt prevalent, in light (andy toils, particularly rabbits. 

among rabbit burrows. This fpecies of foil from its drynefs 
would be very unfavourable to the idea of thefe things being 
formed from a central heap of horfe dung; betides, were this 
the caufe of them, we thould expe6t them to be always cir- 
cular, or when not circular, that thofe parts moft remote from 
the centre would appear not to have benefited fo ftrongly from 
the manure as thofe which were nearer. I have generally 
obferved that the rings were compofed of a double circle, or 
rather a little circular path, the middle of which appeared to 

be 



416 ON FAIRY RINGS, &C, 

be frodden, and the edges grown up, and more in vigour 
than any of the furrounding grafs. I had occaofin to remark 
one of ihofe fairy-rings laft fummer: it was perfedlly circular, 
and about ten feet in diameter, it was filuated at the edge of 
a copfe wood, and in a vicinity where there are abundance of 
both hares and rabbits; but what appeared to me moft lingular, 
was its being interfedled exadly through the middle, by a well 
frequented foot path. The hare is rather given to gravity, 
the rabbit is more playful; but whether it is given to the 
amufement oi lounging in the ring, fonie oi your more informed 
correfpondents may be enabled to inform you. 



Fi/h Is undoubt- I OBSERVE fome of your correfpondenls have got into 
Scotland. ^ controverfy refpeding the wafte of fiOi in Scotland. No 

doubt can exift upon that head; not however arifing from 
the wafteful difpofition of the natives, their delicacy in ap- 
petite or fuperabundance of provifion, but from the want of 
a market for the confumption of their overplus. To talk of 
Aberdeen fiftiermen bringing freth fifli to Newxaflle, Norwich, 
or Leeds, is as ridiculous as to propofe taking them to Am- 
llerdam, or London; for befides the difficulty of again making 
their own ports, they will conftantly find an over-ftocked 
market, as the fame weather that permits them to fifh will 
permit their neighbours to do the fame. But the grand caule 
The fifhcrles of of all the wafte is the horrible monopoly which their country 
HeftmyeVbJ the ^^^^"""^ ""^^'^ '" ""^^pe^ to their fait laws, where for the fake 
operation of the of a few paltry pans, Englifti fait is excluded under the 
fait laws. fevereft penalties, although it can be delivered in any part of 

Scotland at one half the price that we are forced to pay for 
Scotch fait under the prefent circumftances. Give them fait 
at a cheap rale, if it does not permit them to export the fifli, 
as that requires capital and new eftablifhments, it would at 
lead enable them to fupply the interior; a thing as worthy the 
attention of the public as the fupply of any other market I 
know. 

Your mofl obedient 
A. T, 
March 23, 1803. 



Letter 



SUPPOSED WASTE OF CRAB-FISH. 4flf 

VI. 

Letter from Amicus refpeding the fuppofed Wafie of Crah'FiJh 
in Scotland. 

To Mr. NICHOLSON. 
SIR, 

1 HE very rerpe6lable and difilnguiflied rank which the Phi- Obferratlons 
Jofophical Journal holds among the periodical publications will faa^tha'"the 
at all limes prevent its becoming the vehicle of unnecefTary bodies of crab- 
difputeorcontradiclion : yet as public information and "^i^'^y ft^^oTtlf^'^It 
is fometimes promoted by the corredion of miftakes, when is a bad fpecies 
this is likely to be the cafe, any thing that can elucidate a fa€l y^}^^ '» '-^" 

-.1 T r 1 • .. o , • J 1 .1 r .• je<Sed, til