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JOURNAL 



CF THE 



NEW YORK 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



gjexTjortjed txr ^tttjcrmjcrl00ar in (&zuiiX'sX 



^4/io6 



Voltame XXIV, 1916 



Edited by Charles Schaeffer 



NEW YORK 

Published by the Society 

Quarterly 

1916 



Press of 

The New era PRfNTiNG company 

Lancaster. Pa. 




't^},^ uTi 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXIV. 



Pagb 

AcKERMAN, Arthur J., 

The Carpenter Bees of the United States of the Genus Xylocopa 196 
Alexander, Charles P., 

New Limnophiline Crane-Flies from the United States and 

Canada 118 

Bird, Henry, 

Xanthoecia Buffaloensis Grt., its Larval Habit and Occurrence 

Within Our Fifty-Mile Faunal Zone 86 

Crampton, G. C, 

The Orders and Relationships of Apterygotan Insects 267 

Davis, Wm. T., 

Notes on Cicadas from the United States with Descriptions of 
Several New Species 42 

Two New Cicadas Belonging t'o the Genus Okanagana 233 

Louis H. Joutel 239 

DicKERSON, Edgar L., and Weiss, Harry B., 

The Ash Leaf Bug, Neoborus Amoenus Reut 302 

Felt, E. P., 

New Western Gall Midges I75 

Forbes, Wm. T. M., 

On Certain Caterpillar Homologies I37 

Frost, S. W. 

Biological Notes on Ceutorhynchus Marginatus Payk 243 

GiRAULT, A. A. 

A Remarkable New Genus of Encyrtid2e from the West Indies, 

Bearing Two Ring Joints 232 

Hebard, Morgan, 

A Study of the Species of the Genus Stenopelmatus Found in 

the United States 70 

Leng, Charles W., 

Notes on Cychrini 39 

Notes on Alleculidse 142 

Matausch, Ignaz, 

Notes on a Peculiar Nymph-Variation of Enchenopa Binotata. 151 
Parker, R. R., 

Sarcophagidae of New England 171 

Notes Concerning Gastrophilus Hsemorrhoidalis Linn 253 

iii 



iv Contents of Volume XXIV. 

Pack 
SCHAEFFER, ChARLES, 

New Diptera of the Family Asilidae with Notes on Known 

Species 65 

New Species of the Family Elateridse 256 

SwENK, Myron H., 

Descriptions and Records of North American Hippoboscidae . . . 126 
Weiss, Harry B., 

The Insect Fauna of New Jersey Greenhouses Exclusive of the 

Coccidse 144 

Wheeler, William Morton, 

Notes on Slave-Raids of the Western Amazon Ant (Polyergus 

Breviceps) 107 

Obituary 153, IS7, ^Z^ 

Miscellaneous Notes 90, 153 

Proceedings of the New York Entomological Society 94, 157, 237 



Vol. XXIV. 



No. 4.. 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



NEW YORK 



Entomological Society. 



Devoted to JEntomoloG^ in General. 




MARCH, 1916. 

Publication Committee . 
Charles Schaeffer F. E. Lutz. 

W. P. COMSTOCK. E I.. Dn KFK:,c.S. 

F*\at)listiecl Ou.arterly by the Society. 
LANCASTER, PA. NEW YORK CITY. 

1916. 

[Entered April 21, 1904,3! Lancaster, Pa., as second-class matter, under Act of Congress of July 16, 1894.] 

THE NEW ERA PRINT 



CONTENTS. 

The Phylogenetic Origin and the Nature of the Wings of Insects According to 
the Paranoial Theory. By G. Crami'ton i 

Notes on Cychrini. By Charles \V. Leng . 39 

Notes on Cicadas from the United States with Descriptions of Several New 
Species. By Wm. T. Davis . 42 

New Diptera of the Family Asilidae with Notes on Known Species. By Chas. 

SCHAEFFER .... 65 

A Study of the Species of the Genus Stenopelmatus Found in the United 

States. By Morgan Hebard 70 

Xanthcecia Buffaloensis Grt., its Larval Habit and Occurrence Within our Fifty- 
Mile Faunal Zone. By Henry Bird 86 

Miscellaneous Notes ... 90 

Proceedings of the New York Entomological Society 94 



• JOURNAL 

OF THE 

J}f\a ]9oFh €lnl^QnioIogirflI ^oriFl^g. 

Vol. XXIV. MARCH, 1916. No. 1. 



THE PHYLOGENETIC ORIGIN AND THE NATURE 

OF THE WINGS OF INSECTS ACCORDING 

TO THE PARANOTAL THEORY.^ 

By G. Crampton, 
Amherst, Mass. 

Within the past century, various and conflicting theories concern- 
ing the origin of the wings of insects have been proposed. In order 
to choose one of these as a " working basis " for further investiga- 
tion, it is necessary to subject them all to a critical examination, in 
order to determine which of them is in accord with the greatest 
number of known facts, or is the least open to objection — and is 
therefore the most probable and acceptable. It is with this in view 
that the different theories, together with the available evidence upon 
the subject, have been brought together in the following discussion. 

The theories dealing with the origin of wings in insects, may be 
grouped into two classes, one of them containing those theories in 
which it is maintained that the wings are entirely new structures (or 
organs " stti generis "), while the other group contains those theories 
in which it is maintained that the wings were evolved from preexist- 
ing structures. As an example of the first type, may be mentioned 
the views of Kirby, who compares the wings of insects to the lateral 
expansions of the flanks, strengthened by the ribs and used as gliding 
planes, in the flying lizard Draco. Kirby appears to regard the wings 
1 Contribution from the Entomological Laboratory of the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College, Amherst, Mass. 

1 



2 Journal New York Entomological Society. t^'°'- -^^^v. 

of insects as new structures, although he is not so outspoken in the 
matter as Audouin (1824) and Lacordaire (1834), who regard in- 
sects' wings as organs " sui generis." Lacordaire in particular, seems 
to regard further discussion of the subject as unprofitable, in view of 
the fact that, since the wings are (as he thinks) entirely new organs, 
they can have no relation to any previously existing structures. 

It is possible that Audouin and Lacordaire are correct in their 
contention that the wings are organs "sui generis" although they 
were doubtless influenced in their belief by the then prevalent idea 
of " special creation," whose adherents maintained that each species 
(and hence the organs peculiar to it) was created quite independently 
of other organisms, and consequently the idea of structures arising 
as modifications of preexisting structures, was precluded by the very 
nature of the hypothesis. In accordance with the modern conception 
of the method and factors of evolution, however, it is difficult to con- 
ceive how wings of sufficient size and development to be of any use 
to the organism could have arisen, save through the predominance of 
some new function, or use, in organs which had some prior function 
or significance. 

It is not always necessary, however, to suppose that the preexist- 
ing structures originally served any useful purpose, since an inherent 
tendency toward the greater development of certain structures (pro- 
jections of the body-wall, etc.) might find opportunity for fuller ex- 
pression, so long as such a development did not lead to a condition 
detrimental to the organism — in which case natural selection would 
operate to prohibit further progress along this line, while the per- 
sistence of such structures would be assured, if they reached a stage 
wherein they were capable of furnishing their possessors with a 
means of successfully coping with their competitors or enemies, or 
would be of assistance in maintaining the life of the organism. The 
latter view would seem to be more in accord with our present knowl- 
edge of the method of evolution, and is therefore more acceptable 
than the view that the wings are organs " sui generis." 

The theories contained in the second group (in which it is main- 
tained the wings have developed from preexisting structures) are of 
several types. Thus, the adherents of one theory would derive the 
wings of insects from the " elytron "-like appendages, or the gills, of 
Annelidan ancestors; others regard the wings as modified legs, or 



March, i9i6.] CrAMPTON : OrIGIN OF WiNGS. 3 

other appendages ; while others regard the wings as modified respira- 
tory organs (gills or spiracles) ; and still others think that the wings 
have developed from the lateral expansions of the tergal region (not 
necessarily concerned with respiration) which occur in numerous 
Arthropods. These theories may be briefly reviewed as follows. 

Among those who maintain that the wings of insects arose from 
some preexisting structures, may be cited the views of Rathke (1834) 
who compares the foliaceous appendages which appear in the pos- 
terior region of the cephalic lobes of the embryo of the Crustacean 
Asellus aqiiaticiis, to a first transient indication of the wings of in- 
sects {teste Plateau, 1871); and Cams (1839) likewise accepts this 
view — although he also maintains that the wings have developed 
from respiratory organs. Dohrn (1881) refers both wings and 
tracheal gills to the " elytra" of the Annelidan ancestors of insects, 
apparently influenced by the suggestion of Owen (1848-1855) who 
regards the wings of insects as metamorphosed tergal branchic-e of the 
Annelidan ancestors of insects. 

The theories dealing with the derivation of the wings from the 
branchiae of worms, will be taken up under the discussion of the ori- 
gin of wings from respiratory organs. It may be remarked, how- 
ever, that those theories in which it is sought to derive the wings 
from the gills of worms (or from the parapodial and other structures 
of the Annelids) take a great deal for granted; and until we have a 
wider knowledge of more intermediate forms, and their development, 
any attempts to trace the wings, or any other Insectan structures, to 
organs which are supposed to be their forerunners in the Annelids, 
must be regarded as speculative in the extreme. 

Latreille (1820) compares the wings to legs; MacLeay considers 
the wings as greatly modified limbs; Leukart (1848) thinks that 
wings are repetitions of the legs on the dorsal surface of the body; 
and Carus and Gerstaecker (1863) regard the wings as limbs arising 
from the back. 

Jaworowski (1896-1897) derives the wings and legs from a com- 
mon origin, and states that both arise as a simple hypodermal out- 
growth within a peripodial depression corresponding to the " lung- 
like " structure from which he derives the limbs of all Arthropods; 
the limbs, according to him, being to all intents and purposes, modified 
protruding respiratory lamellae. Jaworowski's theory would thus 



4 Journal New York Entomological Society. I^^^°'- ^^iv, 

come under the discussion of the origin of wings from respiratory 
structures, but has been taken up at this point, since he brings out 
certain features having a bearing upon those theories in which it is 
maintained that the wings are, to all intents and purposes, modified 
legs.^ 

On page 183, Jaworowski, 1897, mentions that legs and wings can 
be substituted for one another, in certain insect montrosities, and 
cites the description by Nelson, 1889, of a Zygccna in which a wing 
had grown in the place 'of a leg, and also cites the case of an East 
Indian fig-insect (described by Simroth, 1891) which has segmented 
appendages instead of wings (see also Fig. 11 of wing of Zophcnis, 
by Brues. 1903). I have also observed that in certain Diptera, the 
halteres may appear to be composed of three segments, but I do not 
think that the apparently segmented condition of such highly modified 
structures can be interpreted as the retention of a primitive condition, 
although I would not utterly deny this possibility; and, since those 
insects in which the wings arise as hypodernial evaginations within 
a peripodial cavity are highly specialized forms, I am rather inclined 
to regard this also as a secondary modification, rather than as a 
retention of a primitive condition. 

Jaworowski (1896) although at first inclined to accept the view 
that the wings are modified tracheal gills, finally repudiated this view, 
upon having his attention called by Heider, to Heymons's investiga- 
tions which demonstrated that in Sialis and Ephemera, the gill ap- 
pendages are not homodynamous with the wings, thus disproving 
Gegenbauer's contention that wings are developed from tracheal gills. 

From the preceding discussions, it is evident that the foregoing 
theories may also imply or expressly include the idea of the derivation 
of the wings from respiratory structures, in addition to the central 
idea of the theory; so that it is impossible to divide these theories into 
sharply defined classes, since they merge into each other through hav- 
ing several ideas in common. The discussion of these theories, there- 
fore, leads up to that of the theories in which it is maintained that 
wings are modified respiratory organs. 

Among those who maintain that the wings are to be derived from 
organs having a previous respiratory function, may be mentioned the 
views of Plateau, 1871. Plateau's theory differs from those in which 
it is maintained that the wings had a respiratory origin, in that he 
regards the wings as highly modified spiracles. 



March, 1916.] CrAMPTON : ORIGIN OF WiNGS. 5 

In support of his contention, Plateau (1871) cites a number of 
observations, which are, unfortunately, incorrect; and, since his prem- 
ises are unsound, his conclusions are naturally false also. Thus, he 
points out that Blanchard (1868), quoting De Blainville, states that 
no respiratory orifice, or spiracle, is ever found in either the meso- 
thorax or metathorax, and concludes that this absence of respiratory 
orifices in the segments which bear, or should bear, the wings, gives 
weight to the hypothesis (long prevalent even in Blanchard's day) 
that the wings are largely composed of outgrowing trachese which 
have become imprisoned between two integumental lamellae — a theory 
accepted by Girard, and many others. 

As a matter of fact, the mesothorax and metathorax (i. e., the 
wing-bearing segments) are usually the only thoracic segments sup- 
plied with spiracles, which were either overlooked by the earlier in- 
vestigators, or were ascribed to the wrong segment, due to the fact 
that it was not then known that the thoracic spiracles might migrate 
(during ontogenetic development) from the segment in which they 
were formed during embryological development, and, taking up a po- 
sition in the intersegmental region, appear to belong to the segment 
in front rather than to the segment behind them. 

Plateau goes on to say that it is a significant fact that the wing is 
always located between the epimeron and the tergum, which he thinks 
is the typical situation of the spiracle. The thoracic spiracles of 
adult insects, however, almost invariably occur in the intersegmental 
membrane, or occupy an intersegmental position so that Palmen's 
premises and conclusions in these matters are wholly incorrect. 

Plateau's conception of the wing as an hypertrophied spiracle 
which has become widened and flattened to form the wing lamellae, 
while the "supporting rods" (tsenidia ?) of the trachea become en- 
larged to form the wing nervures, is entirely fanciful, as is his idea 
that the halteres of the Diptera (which he rightly identifies as modi- 
fied wings) are modified spiracles. Indeed, the only semblance of 
proof offered by him in support of his theory, is in the observations 
of Weismann (1866) which he cites, pointing out that Weismann's 
investigations concerning the development of Corethra would indicate 
that in this insect, the dorsal prothoracic cell-islands, or '' imaginal 
disks," form the pupal spiracles, while those of the mesothorax form 
the wings, and those of the metathorax form the halteres. It is by 



t) Journal New York Entomological Society, [^oi. xxiv, 

no means certain, however, that the prothoracic islands are homo- 
dynamous with the wing disks, and the proof offered by Plateau in 
support of his theory seems rather inadequate. 

The observations of Pratt (1899), Tower (1903) and Verson 
(1890-1894) might, in some measure, be taken as upholding Plateau's 
theory that the wings are modified spiracles. Thus Tower (1903) 
states that when the mesothoracic spiracle migrates forward, " the 
spiracle alone migrates, and the thickened area of the hypodermis 
remains and probably becomes the fundament of the elytron." Powell 
(1905), however, combats the idea that the wings develop from the 
discs of the degenerated spiracles of the meso- and metathorax, and, 
in opposing Tower's statements, asserts that in some Coleoptera the 
spiracles have not migrated forward, and that the wing primordia (or 
fundamentals) arise distinctly above or below the positions occupied 
by the thoracic and abdominal spiracles. He therefore concludes that 
Tower's conclusions in this matter are incorrect, and the fact that 
his investigations were made in the same order of insects (Coleop- 
tera) studied by Tower, should have considerable weight, especially 
since he sought to verify Tower's work in carrying out his own in- 
vestigations. 

Many investigators, even in modern times, have advocated the der- 
ivation of wings from tracheal gills. Owen (1848) supports the idea 
promulgated by Oaken (1831) that the wings are modified gills, such 
as are born on the tergal region of Annelids, and Ganin (1869) as- 
ascribes a respiratory function to the wings. 

Carus (1839) states that in the "immature Agrion pncUa, the 
blood circulates in the forming wings exactly as in gill plates, and it 
would be difficult to find a more perfect demonstration of the fact that 
the wing is a modified gill" {teste Plateau, 1871). 

Enderlein (1902) suggests that since the ancient pterygote insects 
lived in an atmosphere of great humidity, they may have used their 
wings as a sort of "gill" (since the wings are supplied with tracheal 
branches in the early stages of development), but does not enter into 
the controversy as to whether the wings were derived from the 
tracheal gills of Ephemerid nymphs, or not. 

Gegenbauer (1870-1878), who regards the wings of insects as de- 
rived from the dorsal gills of their Annelidan ancestors, has done so 
much to clearly formulate the theory that the wings are modified 



March, 1916.] CraMPTON : OrIGIN OF WiNGS. 7 

tracheal gills (sucK as those found on the abdomen of immature 
Ephemeridie), that his name is usually associated with the theory 
ascribing the origin of the wings to the tracheal gills. Many subse- 
quent investigators have accepted his views, wholly or in part, and 
have endeavored, with varying success, to overcome the objections 
to the theory in question. Among the supporters of the theory of the 
tracheal-gill origin of the wings of insects may be mentioned Landois 
(1871), Lul)bock, (1873), Graber (1877), Palmen (1877), Hofmann 
(1879), Adolph (1879-1881), Brauer (1885), Cholodkovsky (1886), 
Redtenbacher (1886), Lang (1888), Verson (1890), Simroth (1891), 
Pratt (1899), Osborn (1905), Woodworth (1906), J. A. Thomson, 
and many others. Cholodkovsky (1886) also thinks that the wings 
are homologous with the prothoracic patagia^ (not the tegulae) of 
the Lepidoptera, and Walton (1901) even goes so far as to regard 
the tegulae as wings in the process of formation ! 

Some investigators, perceiving the difficulties inherent in the at- 
tempt to derive the wings from tracheal gills, have attempted to 
avoid the difficulty by suggesting that the wings may not have been de- 
rived from gills, but gills may themselves have been derived from 
wings, or both wings and gills may have had a similar origin. Thus, 
Redtenbacher (1886) thinks that wings and tracheal gills are homo- 
dynamous, but " it is questionable whether the wings were derived 
from tracheal gills, since the converse may be true ; and that wings 
may have become metamorphosed into gills, is not beyond the realm of 
possibility." He likewise compares both wings and gills to the pro- 
notal expansion of Mantids, etc. 

Lang (1888) was impressed with the fact that aerial respiration 
is clearly the primitive one in insects, and in order to derive the wings 
from tracheal gills, suggested that insects, at first terrestrial, became 
adapted for aquatic life; respiratory folds of the integument into 
which tracheae penetrate, being modified into gills, and these even- 
tually becoming metamorphosed into wings— which thus are ulti- 
mately derived from integumental folds. 

Grassi concludes that wings and gills may be homodynamous (/. e., 

1 It is perhaps unnecessary to mention, in this connection, that the elytra 
of Coleoptera, etc., are not homologous with the patagia or tegulae, as some 
writers have erroneously stated is the case. Their structure and development 
clearly shows that they are modified fore wings and nothing else. 



8 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Vol. xxiv, 

of the same series), but that wings are not derived from gills. He 
goes on to show that in certain Lepismatidse there occur tergal folds 
(well supplied with tracheae) which serve to protect the sides of the 
thorax and the base of the legs. These lateral tergal expansions he 
compares to the lateral folds of the carapace of Crustacea (teste 
Henneguy, 1904), and suggests that they became transformed into 
gills in those insects which became adapted for aquatic life, while 
they were metamorphosed into wings in the aerial forms. 

Graber (1875) suggests that the wings of insects may have arisen 
in two ways. Thus in the terrestrial forms (e. g.. Termites) they 
may have been derived from tergal outgrowths, while in the aquatic 
forms (c. g., Ephemerids) they arise as metamorphosed tracheal gills. 
He also clearly points out that the lateral expansions of the Locustid 
pronotuni are homodynamous with the wings. 

The foregoing views lead up to the discussion of those theories 
in which it is maintained that the wings arose as lateral expansions 
of, or near, the tergal region, and were not necessarily connected 
with a respiratory function primarily. Since they are always borne 
" alongside " of the nota, or tergal plates, for the sake of convenience, 
in the following discussions, I would refer to these lateral folds as the 
" paranota," regardless of whether they are entirely tergal in origin, 
or entirely pleural, or a combination of both. The theories dealing 
with this origin of the wings may therefore be referred to as the 
paranotal theories. 

Among the earliest of the theories advocating a paranotal origin 
of the wings may be mentioned the views of Mueller, 1875. From 
his studies on the development of the wings of the Termite Calo- 
tcrmcs, Mueller concluded that the wings did not arise from tracheal 
gills, but from lateral tergal expansions (paranota) similar to those 
found in the pronotum of Calotermcs, which greatly resemble the 
wings in their mode of development. Pancritius (1884) also sup- 
ports this view, and likewise lays stress upon the fact that the tracheae 
enter the forming wings at a comparatively late stage in certain im- 
mature insects — as Mueller had pointed out was the case in Calo- 
termcs. Bugnion (1911) has also called attention to the prothoracic 
structures of Coptotcrmcs flavus, " whose larvae bear rudiments of 
prothoracic wings." 

The investigations of Mueller (1875) on the development of the 



March, I9i6.] CraMPTON : OrIGIN OF WiNGS. 9 

Termites' wings, and of Woodward (1876), who pointed out that the 
aHform lateral expansions (paranota) of the pronotum in the fossil 
insect Lithomantis carbonaria are homodynamous with the wings, 
have furnished a firm foundation for the paranotal theory of the 
origin of the wings, and this view has been accepted wholly, or in 
part, by many subsequent investigators, among whom may be men- 
ti&ned Huxley (1877), Haase (1886), Korschelt and Heider (1891), 
Zacharias (1892), Krueger (1898), Packard (1898), Comstock and 
Needham (1899), Powell (1904-1905), Duerken (1907), Lameere 
(1900-1908), Handlirsch (1906-1908), McMurrich, and others. 

From the foregoing discussion, it is evident that the two theories 
which have received the most widespread acceptance, are the tracheal 
gill theory and the paranotal theory of the origin of the wings — and 
opinion seems to be pretty evenly divided between the two. The evi- 
dence brought forward in support of the other theories seems insuf- 
ficient to warrant their acceptance, nor does it appeal as strongly as 
the two mentioned above do, to our ideas of the factors and method 
of evolution; so that it is preferable to suspend judgment upon the 
other theories (until more evidence has been accumulated) and to 
select as a '' working basis " one of the two theories which appear to 
be in accord with the greatest number of known facts — in other 
words, we must (for the time being, at least) choose between the 
tracheal-gill theory and the paranotal theory of the origin of the 
wings of insects. 

Unfortunately, all of the evidence bearing upon the subject is not 
accessible to me at this time; but such of the arguments as were avail- 
able have been brought together in the following comparison of the 
two theories. In addition, such evidence as has suggested itself as 
having a bearing upon the subject under discussion, has been added 
to strengthen either side of the question impartially; and I feel con- 
vinced that sufficient evidence is at hand, to make an unbiased deci- 
sion in favor of one theory or the other. 

It must be admitted that the tracheal gill theory is a fascinatingly 
clever one, and if the premises of its arguments be granted as correct, 
the logic of its appeal is almost irresistible; but if the rival theory is 
fully in accord with the same facts (or even more of the known 
facts) which have been cited as evidence of the tracheal gill theory, 
and is not open to the same objections as might be raised against this 



10 Journal New York Entomological Society, [Voi. xxiv, 

theory, we have no alternative other than to choose the more prob- 
able and acceptable theory. 

Some of the arguments which may be advanced in favor of the 
tracheal gill theory of the origin of the wings of insects may be sum- 
marized as follows : 

1. Wings cannot have suddenly sprung into being (like Minerva 
from the brain of Jove!) fully formed and immediately functional, 
but the process of their development must have been a gradual one; 
and in their early stages they could not have been of use as flying 
organs, but must have served some other purpose while becoming 
wing-like. In other words, the locomotor function must have grad- 
ually become predominant in structures having a prior fiuiction or 
significance. 

2. Wings, in their immature stages, contain tracheae, and this in- 
dicates that their prior purpose was respiratory — either in an in- 
tensely humid atmosphere, or in water. 

3. If the successive segments of an insect's body are mutually 
homologous, we should expect to find structures which are homo- 
dynamous {i. c, of the same developmental series) with the wings, 
on the other segments. Superficially, at least, the tracheal gills on 
the abdominal segments of certain immature Ephemerids appear to 
fulfil this requirement. 

4. The tracheal supply of the tracheal gills appears to be some- 
what similar to that of the immature wings (see Plate I, Fig. 4). 

5. The tracheal gills of some Ephemerid nymphs are remarkably 
similar, in outline, to the wings of certain insects (see Plate I, 
Fig. 2). 

6. The gills may be bordered with hairs similar to those of cer- 
tain wings, and are even stiffened by structures strongly suggestive 
of nervures (Plate I, Fig. 2). 

7. The gill plates of immature Ephemerids are capable of very 
rapid movements for setting up currents to keep the water in contact 
with the respiratory surfaces pure. 

8. Through their movements, the gill plates have become articu- 
lated to the tergum, after a fashion, thus " paving the way " for the 
articulation of the wing-like structures to be developed from them. 

9. The muscles involved in the movements of the gill plates could 
eventually become modified to form muscles of flight. 



March, 1916.] CraMPTON : ORIGIN OF WiNGS. 11 

10. Certain gill plates of immature Ephemerids (c. g., Trico- 
rytJius) , and especially the anterior ones, or those nearest the thorax, 
may become very large, and serve as coverings for the gills, thus in- 
dicating an inherent tendency to increase in size on the part of the 
anterior gill plates, and making it readily conceivable that similar 
structures might increase to the size of wings. 

11. If the gills grew large enough or powerful enough, and be- 
came properly adapted, it is conceivable that such organs, already 
capable of rapid movement, might develop into structures capable 
of propelling the insect through the water, and would eventually en- 
able it to glide over the surface of the water. 

12. As the locomotor function gradually predominated, it did so 
at the expense of the respiratory function-, which became of less 
and less importance until the wings became practically entirely loco- 
motor and those which were situated on the thoracic region, being 
the nearest to the center of gravity, were the ones eventually re- 
tained when aerial locomotion was achieved. 

13. Some insects (c. g., the aquatic Hymenoptera described by 
Lubbock, 1863) even now use their wings for propulsion through the 
water, and thus make it more readily comprehensible that wings 
might have originated from structures formerly adapted for propul- 
sion through the water (such as the modified wing-gills might have 
been). 

14. It is a very significant fact that the Plecoptera. which are in 
some ways the most primitive of winged insects now living, are water 
dwellers in their immature stages. The Ephemerids and Odonata 
which are also very primitive in many respects are likewise water 
dwellers in their immature condition. If ontogeny is a recapitula- 
tion of phylogeny, this might be taken as an indication that winged 
insects at one time passed through a water-dwelling stage. 

15. The Neuroptera, which occupy a position intermediate be- 
tween the very primitive and the very highly specialized winged in- 
sects, and even some of the very highly specialized insects, such as 
the Diptera, Coleoptera, etc.. have aquatic larvae, so that the tendency 
toward an adaptation to aquatic life is still quite widespread, cropping 
out as it does in the most diverse forms, and might have been in- 
herent in the Pterygote stem. 

16. Some members of groups which are very primitive, such as 



12 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Voi. xxiv. 

the Blattidre (Shelford, 1907), Phasmids (Murray, 1866, Wood- 
Mason, 1878, and denied by Gahan, 1912), etc., have retained the 
power of adaptation to aquatic life even in the adult stages. 

17. Certain very ancient fossil Pterygote insects, which must be 
considered as near the ancestors of modern winged forms, have re- 
tained even in the adult condition, what appear to be abdominal gills 
homodynamous with the wings (see Plate II, Figs. 8 and 12). If 
these are really gills, we must consider that the wings are homo- 
dynamous with, and hence homologous with, the tracheal gills. 

18. Even present-day Apterygota, which are considered by many 
as having departed but little from the condition of the forms preced- 
ing winged insects, show a marked tendency to select damp locations 
as their dwelling places (c. g., under stones, places near the coast, 
etc.), and we can thus more readily understand that there was a 
tendency on the part of the precursors of winged insects, to select 
damp locations to live in, and eventually become adapted for aquatic 
life. 

19. Embryology and the ontogenetic development of certain 
Ephemerids would indicate that aerial respiration is the more ancient 
one, but this does not preclude the possibility that although originally 
air-breathing, the ancestors of winged insects became temporarily 
adapted for aquatic life (in accordance with the widespread tendency) 
at one stage of this development {i. c, before wings arose) and after- 
ward became aerial breathers once more. 

20. It is also possible to regard wings and gills as homologous 
structures, without maintaining that wings were developed from gills, 
or gills from wings; but both may have been derived from a common 
origin {e. g., lateral folds of the body wall, into which tracheae later 
penetrated). 

21. As a final point, it has been brought out that it is very difficult 
to see how rigid expansions of the tergal region could have acquired 
an articulation with the tergum (or how they could have become 
capable of the movements of flight) in the air alone. On the other 
hand, since the tracheal gills already have an articulation with the 
tergal region, after a fashion, and are capable of rapid movements, 
the difficulty of acquiring the ability to perform the movements of 
flight would not be as insurmountable. 

It is thus very evident that the arguments in favor of the tracheal- 



March, 1916.] CrAMPTON : OrIGIN OF WiNGS. 13 

gill origin of the wings are apparently very forceful, and it must be 
admitted that they exert a subtly fascinating appeal ; but there are 
certain seemingly insurmountable objections to the acceptance of the 
tracheal-gill hypothesis, as will be pointed out in the following dis- 
cussion of the paranotal theory. The paranotal theory, on the other 
hand, is not open to these objections, and is even more in accord with 
the observed facts, as will be shown later, so that for the present, at 
least, it is the more probable and acceptable theory. 

The principal points in favor of the paranotal origin of the wings, 
and the objections to the tracheal-gill theory may be briefly reviewed 
as follows : j 

1. Since the successive segments of an insect's body are mutually 
homologous, we should expect to find structures homologous with the 
wings, on the other segments. Now in order to derive the wings 
from such structures, it must be shown that they are homologous with 
them, and in order to be homologous with the wings, these structures 
must be homodynamous (?. c, of the same developmental series) with 
the wings — otherwise, it would be impossible to derive the wings 
from them. If then, it can be shown that the wings are not homo- 
dynamous with the tracheal gills, the theory that the wings are modi- 
fied tracheal gills immediately becomes untenable. 

In his embryological studies of Ephemerids, Sialids, etc., Hey- 
mons (1896) has clearly demonstrated that wings do not arise simi- 
larly to tracheal gills, and that the tracheal gills are not homody- 
namous with the wings — and these investigations alone, are sufficient 
to entirely refute the tracheal gill theory of the origin of the wings! 
Furthermore, Heymon's conclusions based upon the embryology of 
the Ephemerid?e, etc., are fully borne out by the work of Duerken 
(1907) who has shown that the structure and musculature of the gills 
of Ephemerids are not comparable to those of the wings, and Boer- 
ner's (1909) studies on the tracheal gills of Ephemerids have shown 
that the gills are not homodynamous with the wings. Indeed, as 
Fernald (1890) and others have pointed out, the gills may occur in 
various localities, and even between the wings, so that under these 
conditions, it is not surprising that embryological and anatomical in- 
vestigations have demonstrated that the gills are not homodynamous 
with the wings. 

2. If it could be shown that, in certain immature Ephemerids 



14 Journal New York Entomological Society, ["^'o'- ^^iv, 

which have both gills and paranotal structures, the paranota are 
homodynamous with the wings, while the tracheal gills are not, this 
would be a heavy blow to the tracheal gill theory, and a correspond- 
ingly weighty argument in favor of the paranotal theory. Fortu- 
nately, we have just such an insect, in the ''larva" of the singular 
New Zealand Ephemerid Oniscigastcr zvakcficldi described by Mac- 
Lachlan (1876). In the immature stages of this insect, the paranota 
are borne along the sides of the tergal region (see Plate II, Fig. 15) 
in the position characteristic of the wing location, while the tracheal 
gills are borne high up on the dorsal region, and are not of the same 
series as the wings. The abdominal paranota and the wings are both 
retained in the adult condition, while the gills are lost when the insect 
becomes mature, showing that they are merely temporary adaptational 
structures, unlike the more lasting paranota. 

3. The paranota are borne along side of the tergal region in the 
location characteristic of the wings, while the tracheal gills are at- 
tached in a very different position, thus indicating that they are not 
homologous with the wings. One has but to glance at Figs, i, 6 and 
7 of Plate I, or at Figs. 8 and 12 of Plate II, to see that the wings 
are always attached along the lateral margin of the principal tergal 
plate, and the paranota (p of Figs. 9, 12, 14, 15, etc.) are attached to 
the tergal region in exactly the same location; while the tracheal 
gills are attached either to the posterior portion of the tergal region 
(as in Fig. 4, Plate I) or to the dorsal region of the tergum (as in 
Fig. 15 of Plate II), or occupy positions unlike that of the wings! 

4. The posterior margin of the principal tergal plate is always 
continued in the posterior margin of the wing as the so-called spring 
vein, ligament or axillary cord (Figs, i, 6, and 7 of Plate I). The 
posterior margin of the tergum is contmued in the posterior margin 
of the paranota (Figs. 9, 14, 15, etc., of Plate II) while the pos- 
terior margin of the tergum is not continued in the tracheal gills 
(Figs. 4 and 15). The inference is obvious! 

5. In Stciwdictya (Plate II, Fig. 8), Corydaloides (Fig. 12) and 
other fossil insects, there occur lateral expanded structures on either 
side of certain of the abdominal terga, which are homodynamous 
with the wings and the prothoracic paranota. Certain palaeontolo- 
gists have erroneously maintained that these abdominal structures 
are gills, and since these structures are homodynamous with the 



March, I9i6.] CrAMPTON : ORIGIN OF WiNGS. 15 

wings, it has been claimed that this would prove that the wings are 
modified gills. 

The structures in question, however, are not gills at all, since, as 
we have seen, the gills are never borne along the lateral width of 
the abdominal terga (as the structures in question are borne), but 
are attached by a narrow constricted region to the tergum, at different 
locations (see Fig. 4, Plate I, and Fig. 15, Plate II). The para- 
nota on the other hand, are always attached along the lateral width 
of the tergal plate (as the wings are also attached) in exactly the 
same manner as these fossil structures ! The adult of Oniscigaster 
would have shown this much better, but Fig. 15 (Plate II) depicting 
the condition of the immature Oniscigaster, if compared with Sfciio- 
dictya (Fig. 8) will very clearly demonstrate that the lateral abdominal 
appendages of the fossil insect are paranota, not gills; and if we com- 
pare the abdominal paranota of the Phasmid (Figs. 11 and 14, 
Plate II) with the abdominal structure of Corydaloidcs ( Plate 
II, Fig. 12), it is at once apparent that the abdominal structures 
of the fossil insect are not gills, but are paranota very like those of 
the Phasmid, and are even bordered by a similar fringe. It is evi- 
dent, therefore, that the lateral abdominal appendages of these fossil 
insects (which are homodynamous with the wings and prothoracic 
paranota) are not gills, but are paranota ! Since they are homo- 
dynamous with the wings, this is a clear proof of the paranotal origin 
of wings of insects. 

6. Comstock & Needham (1898-1899), Packard (1898), Hand- 
lirsch (1906-1908) and others have pointed out that the tracheation 
of the wings differs from that of the tracheal gills, and this, although 
not in itself a strong argument against the origin of the wings from 
gills, is nevertheless a point in favor of those who would derive the 
wings from some other source, especially when taken into considera- 
tion with the other objections to the tracheal gill theory. 

7. In the ontogenetic development of the wings, these arise as 
projections into which the tracheae subsequently penetrate, and in 
many immature insects the developing wings are not penetrated by 
the tracheae until comparatively late in their development, so that if 
the ontogenetic sequence has any meaning, the wings must first have 
arisen as projections (paranota) not having a respiratory function, 
but later the tracheae grew out into them. It is possible to avoid this 



16 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Vol. xxiv, 

objection by saying that both wings and gills may have been derived 
from a common source (e. g., integumental folds) which was not orig- 
inally respiratory ; but this savors too strongly of an attempt to avoid 
the issue, and, as been shown in point ( i ) , the wings and gills are not 
homodynamous — so cannot have originated in a common source ! 

8. Comstock & Needham (1898-1899) have shown that the wing 
nervures of all insects are reducible to one common '' ground-plan,'' 
and a glance at Figs, i, 6, and 7, of Plate I, will show that the 
little plates (ossicles) by means of which the wings are articulated 
to the tergum are practically identical in all. The wings are always 
borne in the same location, alongside the principal tergal plate, and 
the posterior margin of this plate is always continued in the posterior 
margin of the wings as the so-called spring vein, ligament, or axillary 
cord as may be seen from the preceeding figures. From these, and 
other facts, it is logical to suppose that the wings of all insects orig- 
inated in a common source (/. e., did not have separate origins), and 
probably arose in a common group of ancestral insects. It is not pos- 
sible therefore to suppose that the wings of some insects arose from 
paranota, while others arose from tracheal gills and other structures, 
since the great uniformity of structure and location, etc.. would make 
such a supposition extend too far beyond the laws of probability ! 
On this account, we are justified in rejecting the suggestion that the 
wings of aquatic insects arose from tracheal gills, while those of ter- 
restrial forms arose from paranota, or similar structures, as will be 
discussed in the next paragraph. 

9. Since the wings of all insects had a common origin, if all wings 
are to be derived from tracheal gills, all winged insects are all de- 
scended from ancestors which breathed by means of tracheal gills, 
and should show traces of such an ancestry in their individual de- 
velopment. The very opposite is the case, however, for even in those 
insects which are supposed to best illustrate the transition from gills 
to wings {i. e., the Ephemerids), the primordia of the "open re- 
spiratory system" (for aerial respiration) are laid down at an early 
stage of embryological development, long preceding the development 
of the " closed respiratory system," for aquatic respiration. Even 
in the water-dwelling immature Ephemerid, the spiracles of the open 
system may become temporarily open to the exterior, at the time of 
molting, but quickly become closed again, since the insect is not yet 



March, 1916.] CrAMPTON : ORIGIN OF WiNGS. 17 

ready for aerial respiration; and the investigations of Palmen .(1877) 
have clearly shown that the open respiratory system is the more an- 
cient, and therefore the original one, while the closed one for aquatic 
respiration is evidently the product of a process of adaptation to 
aquatic life which was subsequently acquired. 

Since the open respiratory system for aerial respiration is clearly 
the more ancient, and hence the original one even in aquatic forms, 
it is evident that all insects are descended from terrestrial forms, 
which could not have borne tracheal gills; and we can therefore state 
with conviction that the wings of modern insects could not have been 
derived from tracheal gills. The adherents of the tracheal gill 
theory, however, would attempt to avoid this difificulty by suggesting 
that although the ancestors of all insects were originally air breathers, 
the ancestors of the winged forms became temporarily aquatic, and 
thus acquired the gills which were to develop into wings when they 
became air breathers once more ! This argument is clearly an at- 
tempt to again avoid the issue, but is also unavailing! If the ances- 
tors of winged insects were all gill breathers at one time (which must 
have been rather recent), why do no fossil forms show traces of 
such " wing-gills," and why do we have no recent forms which have 
retained structures suggestive of this common origin of the wings? 
The Ephemerids cannot be taken as examples of this, since it has been 
shown (point (i)) that the wings of Ephemerids are not homo- 
logous with the gills, and the ontogenetic development of no other 
winged insect offers any hint of such a common origin for the wings 
in gill-like structures! 

10. Palaeontology shows that the earliest fossil insects had wings, 
yet these have retained no series of abdominal gills homodynamous 
W'ith the wings, the only abdominal structures which are homody- 
namous with the wings being paranota, as has already been pointed 
out (see point .(S) )• 

11. The great mass of lower pterygote insects are not aquatic, but 
are terrestrial, whereas if all pterygote insects passed through an 
aquatic stage, we would expect that the great majority of the lower 
winged forms would still be aquatic, at least in the immature stages. 
On the other hand, numerous lower pterygote insects have retained 
paranota in the prothoracic region, at least, while tracheal gills occu- 
pying the typical wing location are wanting in all of them. 



18 Journal New York Entomological Society. tVoi. xxiv, 

12. None of the apterygote forms, which have departed but little 
from the ancestral condition (and the Lepismids may be taken as 
forms " annectent " between the Apterygota and lower Pterygota), 
show indications of a tendency to develop tracheal gills, while many 
of them bear paranotal expansions of the pronotum and other tergal 
projections (see Fig. i6, Plate II). 

13. Unlike the tracheal gills, the paranota have been retained in 
the most diverse insects, being preserved in the prothorax of certain 
Mantids (Fig. 9, Plate II), Heteroptera (Fig. 10, Plate II), Coleop- 
tera (Fig. 13, Plate II), Lepismids (Fig. 16) etc., as well as in the 
abdominal region in certain Phasmids (Figs. 11 and 14, Plate II), 
etc., and the paranota also occur on many of the segments in numer- 
ous "larval" forms (c. g., in immature Plecoptera and Ephemerids, 
as shown in Figs. 15 and 18 of Plate II) and are specially well de- 
veloped in certain Coleopterous larvae such as those of the Sylphidse, 
of Psephcmis lecontei, and many others. This would indicate an 
inherent tendency in the insect stem, toward the formation of lateral 
integumental expansions, or paranota, and the fossil forms also ex- 
hibit this tendency (see Figs. 8 and 12, of Plate II). 

14. Unlike the tracheal gills, the tendency toward the formation 
of paranotal expansions is apparently inherent in the Arthropod stem 
— at least in those Arthropods whose lines of development parallel 
that of the Insecta — and finds opportunity for expression in the most 
diverse forms. We thus find paranota developing in the Diplopods 
(Fig. 17, Plate II), in the Crustacea (Fig. 19, Plate II), in the Tri- 
lobites (Fig. 20, Plate II) and many other groups, and even in Arth- 
ropods more remotely removed from the Insectan stem, this inherent 
tendency may find opportunity for expression — although in certain 
of these more remote forms, I am not certain that we are dealing 
with structures strictly homologous with the paranota. Thus Berlese 
(1906-1909) has figured a series of Acarina (Oribatidse) in which 
can be traced the gradual development of lateral " pteriform " ex~ 
pansions of the dorsal region, which are small in Oribatiila planth'aga 
and caliptera, but become greatly developed in Oribatcs latipcs, while 
in Oribates alatus these " pteriform " appendages actually become ar- 
ticulated with the tergal region. Furthermore, they do not have to 
pass through a tracheal gill stage in order to develop an articulation 
with the tergite — as Woodworth would claim that integumentary ex- 



March, 1916.] CrAMPTON : OrIGIN OF WiNGS. 19 

pansions which are eventually to become wings, must do, in order to 
develop an articulation with the tergum ! I have not examined these 
''pteriform" expansions of the Acarina, however, and would not at- 
tempt to state whether or no they are homologous with the wings of 
insects. 

15. The fact that paranoial expansions can become large enough 
to act somewhat after the fashion of a parachute, or gliding planes, to 
break the fall of the insect, is shown by the pronotal development of 
the Mantid Chosradodis (Plate II, Fig. 9). The dried specimen will 
" sail '' for a considerable distance, if dropped from a height, and I 
imagine that the living insect could do the same. Tracheal gills of 
such a size are unknown. 

16. In order to function as a gliding plane, the paranoial expan- 
sions should be developed in insects which have a tendency to leap 
into the air, otherwise the expansions would not have much of an 
opportunity of functioning, unless the insect were to drop from a 
height. 

Since the Mantids such as Rhombodcra, Chocradodis (Fig. 9, 
Plate II), etc., have developed such large pronotal paranota, I have 
asked Mr. A. N. Caudell (to whom I am indebted for the determina- 
tion of the Mantid and Phasmid depicted in Figs. 9, 11, and 14, 
Plate 11) whether the Mantids exhibit any tendency to leap, and 
would quote the following from his reply. " I have seen our native 
species leap a couple of inches, and Yersinia, a western species, can 
leap half a foot. Anieles, from Portugal, is reported by Wood- 
Mason as being able to leap nearly a foot straight upwards. In all 
cases it is the nymphs that leap and in some cases the hind femora 
are distinctly enlarged as in the saltatorial groups." 

It is thus evident that forms having large paranota may also ex- 
hibit a tendency to leap, but I have been unable to find an instance 
of nymphal Ephemerids (or forms with flat tracheal gills) exhibit- 
ing a tendency to leap. 

17. It might be further remarked that the leaping tendency " crops 
out" in the most diverse forms, such as the Apterygota (c. g., 
Machilis, etc.), the Psyllids, Flea-beetles, etc., and may possibly indi- 
cate an inherent tendency in the insect stem, which finds opportunity 
for expression in certain forms, and would of course be especially 
useful in those insects which have developed large paranota. 



2(J Journal New York Entomological Society. [^'°'- xxiv, 

18. The leaping- habit appears in the most diverse Arthropods {e. 
g., Arachnids, Talitridse and other Crustacea, etc.) and may indicate 
a stem tendency in a group which also exhibits the tendency to the 
formation of paranotal expansions. 

19. It is possible for certain forms closely allied to the Insecta 
(such as the Crustacea) to develop the power of gliding through the 
air for several rods, thus making it more readily comprehensible 
that insects could have developed the power of a gliding " flight " in 
a somewhat similar fashion. 

Worcester (1914) observed the '"flight" of such a Crustacean, 
while boating near the coast of Palavan, at the edge of the shoal off 
East Island (in the Philippines), and describes the creature as fol- 
lows : " It looked more like a crayfish or shrimp with one or two 
pairs of much flattened legs directed forward and others curving 
backward, the legs and the lobes of the tail making the supporting 
planes ... it was unquestionably a very transparent crustacean from 
fifteen to twenty centimeters in length . . . and there remains no 
doubt of the existence in the Philippines of a marine crustacean from 
fifteen to twenty-five centimeters in length, which has the power of 
rising rapidly from the water and flying after the fashion of a flying 
fish, for several rods." The specimens observed invariably rose 
against the wind. 

We know of no parallel case in which tracheal gills have been 
used as gliding organs ! 

20. If ontogeny in a measure recapitulates phylogeny, the form- 
ing wings of the lower pterygote insects should pass through a para- 
notal stage, if the wings were derived from paranota — and conversely, 
if they were derived from tracheal gills, they should pass through a 
stage comparable to tracheal gills. If we observe the forming wings 
of the most primitive winged insects, such as the Plecoptera (Fig. 18, 
Plate II) or the Blattids and Mantids (Fig. 9, Plate II) it is clearly 
evident that the upper surface, at least, of the wings arise as paranotal 
expansions of the tergum, rather than as tracheal gills ! Further- 
more, since the wings of all insects must have had a common origin 
(as was brought out in the previous discussions) the wings of insects 
with a complete metamorphosis should show traces of a tergal origin, 
and this Heymons, 1896, has shown to be the case in the beetle 
Tenehrio. 



March, 1916.] CrAMPTON : OrIGIN OF WiNGS. 21 

21. As to the argument that the wings could not have acquired an 
articulation with the tergal region, save through first becoming a 
tracheal gill (the tracheal gills have already acquired such an articu- 
lation), I fail to see the logic of such reasoning. 

If an expansion of the integument can acquire an articulation 
with the body when it develops into a tracheal gill in the water, why 
can not a similar expansion acquire an articulation with the tergum 
when it becomes a wing in the air? It is surely no harder to con- 
ceive of a rigid outgrowth becoming an articulated appendage in the 
air, than to conceive of a similar rigid outgrowth becoming an artic- 
ulated appendage in the water ! When the forming wing of a Blattid 
develops from an immovable outgrowth near the tergal region, it 
does not first become a gill before acquiring an articulation with the 
tergum, and if this can take place during the ontogenetic develop- 
ment of the insect, why can it not occur in the phylogenetic develop- 
ment of the race ? 

Furthermore, in the series of Acarina, described in point 14, these 
forms have acquired appendages articulated with the dorsal region, 
without having these appendages pass through a tracheal gill stage 
in either ontogenetic or phylogenetic development, and if such an 
articulation can occur in the air, in such forms, why can it not occur 
in the wings also, without their first passing through a tracheal gill 
stage ? 

On page 242 of his " Cours d'Entomologie," Latreille, 1831, has 
described a Coleopteron Acrocimis lougimanus, whose prothorax 
bears articulated lateral processes (teste Cholodkowsky, 1886). If 
these can become articulated to the prothorax without first passing 
through a tracheal gill stage, why can the wings not do the same? 
To demand that the wings must pass through a tracheal gill stage in 
order to become articulated to the tergum, is asking far more than 
the facts would warrant, and in the light of the foregoing instances, 
this objection to the origin of the wings from paranota, is not valid. 

In a footnote to page 360, Walton, 1901, makes the following 
statement. " The prothoracic appendages of certain fossil insects 
(Homoioptera zvoodzvardi, Stenodicta lobata, Lithomantis golden- 
hergi, carbonaria, etc.) so excellently figured by Brongniard (1894) 
cannot be homologized with the expanded margin of the prothorax 
in exsting Mantid?e, as Woodward, 1879, suggested. Brongniart, 



22 Journal New York Entomological Society, tvoi. xxiv, 

1890, has already pointed this out." Walton gives no reason for this 
statement, and Brongniart's work is not now accessible to me, so that 
I do not know what evidence he has adduced in support of this con- 
tention. If one will compare Fig. 8 (Plate II) of Stcnodictya with 
that of the Mantid, Chocradodis, depicted in Fig. 9, however, it will 
be apparent that the paranota of the Mantid's pronotum occupy 
exactly the same location as the prothoracic paranota of the fossil 
insect (Stcnodictya), and why they are not to be considered homo- 
logous is not apparent. It is not evident that the paranota of the 
fossil insect's prothorax are articulated or movable, and even though 
they were, the case of the beetle Acrocinus cited above, would indi- 
cate that pronotal paranota may be articulated even in existing forms. 

In reply to the argument that the precursors of wings must have 
served some useful purpose while developing, one might state that 
when we are dealing with an inherent stem tendency (as the develop- 
ment of paranotal projections seems to be) it is unnecessary to postu- 
late that the products of such a tendency must serve some useful pur- 
pose — so long as the result is not detrimental to the organism, where- 
upon natural selection would operate to check further development 
along such lines. It is not beyond the realm of possibility, however, 
that the paranota may have served a useful purpose (before becom- 
ing adapted for gliding flight) in that they may have served to shield 
the flanks and basal portions of the legs, as Grassi has pointed out. 

It is evident from the foregoing discussions, that the objections 
which might be raised to the paranotal theory are not insurmountable. 
On the other hand, there are certain insurmountable difficulties in the 
way of accepting the tracheal gill theory, as were shown in points 
(i), etc., although these difficulties do not apply in the case of the 
paranotal theory. Furthermore, the paranotal theory is in full ac- 
cord with all of the known facts — which is more than can be said for 
the tracheal gill theory ! 

In making a choice between two rival theories, our selection 
should not only be free from insurmountable objections (or should 
not be incompatible with any of the known facts), but should also 
have the positive quality of being in full accord with all of the known 
facts. If we apply this criterion in selecting one of these theories, 
the paranotal theory, being the only one which fulfils the conditions, 
must therefore be chosen, and has been here adopted as a provisional 



March. 1916.] CrAMPTON : ORIGIN OF WiNGS. 23 

working hypothesis, in the following discussion of the nature of the 
wings : 

Despite the contentions of Landois, 1874, Ganin, 1876, and Graber, 
1889, practically all embryologists have accepted the view that the 
wings of insects are of hypodermal origin, but whether they are 
tergal, or pleural (or both) in nature, is still an undecided question. 
In the paranota of Arthropods in general, these integumental out- 
growths appear to be of a tergal nature — at least the dorsal lamella 
of the paranota is apparently a continuation of the surface of the 
tergum. So too, the upper surface of the developing wing of the 
BlattidjE and other primitive winged insects appears to be a direct 
continuation of the tergum. The view that the wings are merely 
lateral expansions of the tergum has been strongly combated, how- 
ever, and it is necessary to appeal to the evidence afforded by em- 
Ijryology. The following views have been put forth by those who 
have studied the development of the wings. 

According to Tower, 1903, Rehburg, 1886, and Palmen, 1887, the 
wings are pleural in origin. Mayer, 1876, also states that the wings 
are not purely dorsal, but are lateral outgrowths of the body wall. 

Powell, 1905, states that in the Coleoptera "the wing arises on 
the pleurum at or near the future position of the dorso-lateral suture 
(i. c, the suture between the tergum and pleuron) as a thickening 
of the body wall which in the simplest type begins as a simple pro- 
jecting outward and downward of this thickening." He also states 
that "wings have been derived as lateral outgrowths or folds of the 
hypodermis of the pleurum or tergum or both.'' 

Comstock and Needham, 1898-1899, state that the wings "appear 
at a time when the tergum and pleura are very little chitinized and 
are hardly more identified with one than with the other," and that 
they arise "at the point where the suture between the tergum and 
pleura later develops." Calvert, 1893, thinks that in the Odonata, 
the upper lamina of the wing is tergal, and the lower one pleural. 

Marshall (1913) states that in the Trichoptera, "each wing rudi- 
ment is situated under the dorsal plate (/. c, tergum) a little above 
its lateral margin," and would thus indicate that the wing is tergal in 
origin. Later, however, " it would appear that when the wing be- 
comes external, its position would be between the tergum and 
pleurum." Packard (1898) from his observations on the develop- 



24 Journal New York Entomological Society. t^'°'- ^>^iv. 

meat of the Hymenoptera, and other studies, concludes that the 
wings "are outgrowths of the scutal region of the notum " (or 
tergum). He also states that "in the house fly, the wings are evi- 
dently outgrowths of the meso- and metanotum," as shown by his 
earlier studies of the development of these Diptera (Packard, 1874) ; 
and further remarks that " the wings in all hemimetabolous insects 
are outgrowths from the notum, and not from the flanks or pleurum 
of the thorax." The numerous embryological studies of Heymons, 
1895-1899, have clearly shown that the wings are tergal structures, 
even in Coleoptera {Tenebrio, etc.), and Heymon's observations, 
including as they do such diverse forms, should have considerable 
weight, aside from his acknowledged ability as a keen observer. 
The view that the wings are tergal structures is supported by a great 
number of other investigators, among whom may be mentioned 
Duerken (1907), Voss (1905), Kruger (1898), Haase (1891), Sim- 
roth (1891), Cholodkowsky (1886), Pancritius (i884),Dohrn (1881), 
Hofmann (1879), Mueller (1875), Huxley (1877) and others. 

As pointed out by the writer (Crampton, 1908-1914) and others 
the posterior margin of the principal tergal plate is continued in the 
hind border of the wing, as the so-called spring-vein, axillary cord, or 
ligament (see Figs, i, 6 and 7, of Plate/-;-), and this fact, together 
with the mode of development of the wings in the Blattidje and 
other primitive insects, would indicate that the wing (or at least its 
dorsal lamella) is tergal in nature. The wings, as we have seen, are 
entirely homologous in all insects, so that all have a common origin, 
and what is true of one, holds for all. The foregoing facts would 
therefore indicate that the wings of all insects are, at least in part, of 
a tergal nature, and the studies of Heymons (1895-1899) and others 
cited above would substantiate the view that the wings are tergal in 
origin ; so that for the time being, this view may be accepted as being 
as probable as any; although subsequent investigation may show that 
the lower lamina of the wing, or its basal portion, may be pleural in 
nature. 

The wings, then, are organs of paranotal origin, and are wholly 
or partially tergal in nature. In other words, they arose as paranotal 
expansions of the tergum, although the lower lamella of the integu- 
mentary fold forming them may be in part pleural. 

As to the articulation of the wings with the body, there are three 



March, 191 6.] CrAMPTON : ORIGIN OF WiNGS. 25 

principal fulcra, or pivots, used in the movements of flight. Two of 
these fulcra are dorsal, and one is ventral (with regard to the at- 
tachment of the wing). The anteriormost dorsal wing fulcrum (or 
suralar fulcrum) is formed by the small sclerite sur of Figs, i, 6, 
and 7, of Plate I (compare also Figs. 4 and 6 of Diptera and 
Hymenoptera by Crampton, 1914 c, i. e., the sclerite designated as 
"sur"; and sclerite similarly labeled in Fig. i by Crampton, 1914 
a), which is always situated immediately behind the tegula {tg 
of the above-mentioned figures). The posterior dorsal wing fulcrum 
(or adanal fulcrum) is formed by a projecting region apt of Figs. 
I, 6, and 7 (Plate I) which extends toward the anal veins (hence 
the name adanal), which usually articulate with it. In some forms 
this region may become detached to form a distinct sclerite, or plate. 
Between these dorsal wing fulcra, is a small plate npt which is 
present in practically all winged forms. From its location, and close 
connection with the notum, I think that this articulatory ossicle is a 
detached portion of the notum or tergum, and have therefore desig- 
nated it as the notopterale (the term pteralia having been applied to 
the alar ossicles in general by Groeschel, 191 1). The other dorsal 
ossicles, are, for the most part, detached portions of the basal region 
of the wing veins. The tegula {tg), however, is possibly merely a 
thickening of the membrane. The sclerite m (Figs. 6 and 7) is the 
only other dorsal ossicle of interest, and is mentioned because it dips 
downward and unites with a plate on the lower surface of the wing, 
as will presently be described. The various modifications of the 
dorsal ossicles may be readily seen by comparing Figs, i, 6, and 7, of 
Plate I, with Figs. 4 and 6 of Plate VII by Crampton. 1914 c, 
homologous ossicles being designated by the same lettering in both 
instances. 

The ventral fulcrum of the wing is formed by a dorsal projection 
of the episternum and epimeron extending upward (along the suture 
dividing the two pleural sclerites) as a narrow projecting region 
figured in Fig. 5 of Plate I. This narrow neck-like region may 
become detached to form a distinct plate in certain insects, but is 
usually more or less rigid to form the pleural fulcrum of the wing 
I'pieuro-alar fulcrum). 

Immediately in front of this fulcrum, at the base of the wing are 
two basalar plates (Fig. 5, aha and pba) , which are sometimes in- 



26 Journal New York Entomological Society. [^'°'- ^-^iv, 

correctly called " paraptera." The term paraptera, however, should 
be applied only to the tegulce, as was pointed out by the writer 
(Crampton, 1914 c) ; the argument that Audouin, 1824, intended 
that his designation " paraptere " should be applied to the plates aba 
and pba, being entirely unfounded. In all probability, the basalar 
sclerites aba and pba are detached portions of the episternum. 

Just behind the pleural wing fulcrum, there may occur one or two 
small plates called the subalar sclerites (sa of Fig. 5), from their 
situation immediately below the wing. Whether the subalar plate is 
a detached portion of the epimeron or not, is questionable. In the 
Blattidse, the dorsal sclerite designated as " in " in Fig. 7, is connected 
with a subalar sclerite homologous with " sa" of Fig. 5. 

Just above the pleural alar fulcrum, is a small detached plate 
" ia" (Fig. 5), or intralar sclerite. It is connected with a dorsal 
sclerite homologous with that labeled " m " in Fig. 7. From its loca- 
tion, one might be led to infer that it is a detached portion of the 
pleural fulcrum of the wing, but the fact that it is connected with the 
dorsal sclerite homologous with that labeled " m " in Fig. 7, would 
indicate that this is not the case. The other wing plates are largely 
formed as detached portions of the bases of the wing nervures. 

From the foregoing discussion, it is evident that the alar ossicles 
do not furnish any serviceable clues as to the nature of the wings — 
so far as our present knowledge of them extends, .and the fact that 
in some insects there is a pre-alar bridge (Fig. i, ptil) and a post-alar 
bridge (Fig. i, poa) extending between the tergum and pleural re- 
gion, also throws no further light upon the subject. The fact that the 
pleuro-alar membrane (or membrane between the wing and pleural 
region) extends upward into the wing as a continuation of the sur- 
face of the pleural region, suggests that the basal portion of the 
wing, at least, might be of a pleural nature, but the evidence in the 
matter is insufficient to draw any trustworthy conclusions from this 
alone. Embryology, then furnishes the only reliable evidence at 
present available, and the embryological evidence, such as it is, indi- 
cates that the wings are tergal in nature. 

The conclusions to be drawn from the foregoing discussion may 
be briefly summarized as follows. 

I. The wings of all insects are homologous, and had a common 
origin, so that the same principles apply to the wings of insects with 



March, 1916.] CrAMPTON : OriGIN OF WiNGS. 27 

complete metamorphosis, and those with incomplete metamorphosis, 
alike. 

2. The wings of insects can not be derived from tracheal gills, 
since the two types of structures are not of the same developmental 
series (i. e. are not homodynamous), and are therefore not homo- 
logous. 

3. The paranota, or integumental outgrowths borne alongside the 
tergum, or notum, are homodynamous with the wings, and wings were 
doubtless derived from them, since they occur in the most diverse 
forms (and there is an inherent tendency toward the formation of 
such structures in the Arthropod stem). 

4. The embryological evidence would indicate that wings are of 
a tergal origin. We may therefore conclude that the paranota from 
which the wings were developed were (wholly, or in part) lateral 
expansions of the tergum or notum. 

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Acad. Sci., 1861. 



March, 1916.] CrAMPTON : OrIGIN OF WiNGS. 33 

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1872. 



March, 1916.] CraMPTON : OrIGIN OF WiNGS. 35 

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36 Journal New York Entomological Society, [^oi. xxiv, 

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March, 1916.] CrAMPTON : ORIGIN OF WiNGS. 37 

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Abbreviations. 

aha Anterior sclerite at base of wing (anterior basalare). 

aes Upper region of episternum (anepisternum). 

apt Adanal projection to anal veins (adanale). 

em Epimeron. 

es Episternum. 

/ Pleural fulcrum of wing. 

g Gill plate, or branchial lamella. 

ia Intra-alar sclerite (intralare). 

it Tergite in intersegmental membrane (intertergite). 

m Median pterale (medipterale). 



38 Journal New York Entomological Society. [^'°1- xxiv, 

npt Notal pterale (notopterale). 

p Paranotum, or paranota. 

pba Posterior sclerite at base of wing (posterior basalare). 

poa ...Bridge behind wing (postalare), connecting tergal and pleural 

regions. 

pot Posterior tergal sclerite (postergite). 

pra Bridge in front of wing (prealare), connecting tergal and 

pleural regions. 

prt Anterior tergite (pretergite). 

psc Prescutum. 

psl Postscutellum. 

sa Subalar sclerite (subalare). 

san Sclerite at base of anal veins (basanale). 

si Scutellum. 

sur Suralar sclerite (suralare). 

tg Tegula, or parapteron. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

(All figures are somewhat diagrammatic.) 

Plate I. 

Fig. I. Dorsal view of typical Plecopterous mesonotum, showing articula- 
tion of wing base. 

Fig. 2. Gill plate (lamella) of Rithogena (Ephemerid) nymph, based on 
a figure by Woodworth, 1906. 

Fig. 3. Lateral view of head, prothorax and mesothorax of immature 
Coptotermes, pronotum bearing wing-like organs described by Bugnion, 191 1, 
on whose figures this is based. (Immature Termite.) 

Fig. 4. Gill plate of immature Heptagenia (Ephemerid). 

Fig. 5. Lateral view of upper portion of metathoracic pleuron and wing 
base of a grasshopper (Rhomaleum). 

Fig. 6. Dorsal view of mesonotum of Corydalis, showing articulation of 
wing. 

Fig. 7. Dorsal view of metanotum and wing base of Periplaneta. 

Plate II. 

Fig. 8. Dorsal view of head, thorax and part of abdomen of the fossil 
insect, Stenodictya lobata, based on several drawings by Handlirsch, Brongniart 
and others. The wings are represented as though partly cut off. 

Fig. 9. Dorsal view of an immature Mantid (Chwradodis), showing de- 
veloping wings and prothoracic paranota. 

Fig. 10. Dorsal view of pronotum and basal portion of fore wings of a 
Tingitid {Corythiica). 

Fig. II. Lateral view of segments 6 and 7 of the abdomen of the Phasmid 
Ectatosoina popa. 



Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 



Vol. XXI V. PI. I. 




Origin of Wings. 



Joiirn. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 



Vol. XXI V. PI. 2. 




Origin of Wings. 



March, I9i6.] Leng: NoTES ON CyCHRINI. 39 

Fig. 12. Dorsal view of head, thorax and basal abdominal segments of 
the fossil insect, Corydaloides scudderi. Wings shortened. Figure based upon 
material from various sources. 

Fig. 13. Head and pronotum of the Coleopteron Einbaphion, dorsal view. 

Fig. 14. Dorsal view of the sixth and seventh abdominal segments of the 
Phasmid Ectatosoma, shown from the side in Fig. 11. 

Fig. 15. Dorsal view of two abdominal segments of a nymph of the New 
Zealand Ephemerid, Oniscigaster based on figures by MacLachlan, 1876. 

Fig. 16. Dorsal view of pro-, meso-, and metanotum of Lepisma. 
Fig. 17. Dorsal view 6f five segments of a Diplipod. 

Fig. iS; Dorsal view of thorax and two abdominal segments of a nymphal 
Plecopteron (Pteronarcys). 

Fig. 19. Dorsal view of head and five segments of an Isopod {Porcellio). 

Fig. 20. Dorsal view of anterior portion of a Trilobite (Triartlims), 
based on figures by Beecher and others. 

For the identification of the immature Ephemerid depicted in Fig. 
4, I am indebted to the kindness of Dr. Morgan, of Mt. Holyoke 
College, and for the identification of the immature Plecopteron de- 
picted in Fig. 18, I am indebted to the kindness of Dr. Smith of the 
some institution. 



NOTES ON CYCHRINI. 

By Charles W. Leng, 
West New Brighton, N. Y. 

In a letter from the late Frederick Blanchard on the subject of 
Dr. Hans Roeschke's " Monographic des Carabiden-Tribus Cychrini " 
this sentence occurs : " I was very much impressed with the thorough- 
ness of the treatment and also with the feeling that it was almost 
presumptuous to consider it critically or to comment." All must 
concur in the sentiment thus expressed ; and it is only because the 
subject matter of these notes has been long under consideration and 
discussion with Mr. Schaeffer as well as Mr. Blanchard that they 
are printed. 

The locality cited on page 267, "Washington, D. C. (Charleroi)," 
should probably be Charleroi, Washington Co., Pa. A number of 
specimens of several species have been distributed from that locality 
and there is no connection known between " Charleroi," either as 



40 Journal New York Entomological Society. [^'°'- xxiv, 

the name of a collector or of a locality, and Washington, D. C. By 
thus eliminating Washington, D. C, from the distribution data for 
the species Sphccerodenis nitidicollis, the phrase " vom Atlantischen 
Ozean " loses part of its foundation. 

The treatment of this species as one occurring from the Atlantic 
Ocean to West Virginia and northward to Hudson Bay, with but one 
sub-species in its range of variation is contrary to the descriptions of 
Chevrolat, Chaudoir, and Leconte ; and cannot be satisfactorily ap- 
plied to the specimens at hand. The catalogue on page 274 should 
read: 

1. nitidicollis Chevrolat, 1848. 
Subsp. brevoorti LeConte, 1848. 

granulosus Chaudoir, 1861. 

nitidicollis G. H. Horn, 1878, ex parte. 

2. schaumii Chaudoir, 1861. 

The first was described from Newfoundland and occurs there 
only. In recent years many specimens have been collected by W. S. 
Genung. L. P. Gratacap, P. G. Bolster, G. P. Engelhardt and myself; 
they are uniform in size and color and show no tendency to intergrade 
with the other two. 

The second was described from Maine, and occurs at Lake Su- 
perior, according to Mr. Blanchard's report on the Leconte collection, 
and near the summit of Whiteface Mt., in northern New York, where 
it has been found by the writer. It is highly probable that granu- 
losus of Chaudoir is identical, as stated by Dr. Roeschke, and that 
all the northern localities, Hudson Bay, White Mts. of New Hamp- 
shire, perhaps even Canada, cited by him, are inhabited by this 
species. As to the more southerly localities cited, I have never seen 
any hrcvoorti, correctly determined, from such ; and, being convinced 
that Dr. G. H. Horn confused the more roughly sculptured forms of 
lecontei with hrcvoorti, as indicated by his remark that every inter- 
grade of sculpture could be found, I suspect that the specimens on 
which Dr. Roeschke's citations of Virginia, West Virginia, and Char- 
leroi were based were not hrcvoorti at all, but rough forms of lecontei 
erroneously identified by Horn or his followers. 

The third {schaumii) was described from Ohio, and has been 
found in recent years by R. J. Sims in the northern part of that 
state and distributed by him or by Charles Dury. The citations of 



March, I9i6.] LenG : NOTES ON CyCHRINI. 41 

Canada, West Virginia, Virginia (Roeschke), and Indiana? (Leconte 
coll. fide Blanchard) are plausible; but the "Washington, D. C," 
locality is contrary to probability and to all the information I can 
gather, and is possibly also based on the " Charleroi " confusion men- 
tioned above. 

It is useless to repeat here the minute descriptions of these three 
forms, which have been well written by their respective authors; 
but briefly it may be said that brevoorti is a comparatively small 
(about 12 mm.) dark aeneous insect, while nitidicollis and schaumii 
are both larger (about i8 mm.) and more brilliantly colored, differ- 
ing between themselves in form of thorax and in punctuation. The 
main object of these notes is to point out that brevoorti is not a 
synonym of nitidicollis; and that no one of the three forms under 
discussion is an Atlantic coastal plain insect or ordinarily liable to 
be found at Washington, D. C. 

There are other criticisms on Dr. Roeschke's paper which are, 
however, more matters of opinion than of fact, and may therefore 
be merely mentioned for the guidance of future students of the tribe. 
In the subgenus Irichroa; for instance, germari is more nearly re- 
lated to guyoti than to andrczvsii; in Sphccroderiis, bicarinatus, steiio- 
stomus and Iccontei are valid species; the. former varies indeed in 
the development of the elytral carinre and is in that character ap- 
proached by some examples of Iccontei, but it never loses the peculiar 
parallel sided form, of which no examples of Iccontei present any 
suggestion; the two latter are separable by any number of characters, 
and, since their range is in part the same territory, it is impossible 
to regard them as geographical races one of the other. 

In regard to Sphceroderus canadensis, it may be mentioned that 
Mr. Blanchard in his letters points out that this species is repre- 
sented in the White Mts. of New Hampshire as well as in the locali- 
ties given by Dr. Roeschke, but by a race not identical with the typ- 
ical form; the interstitial erect setce noted in the typical form are 
lacking and the elytral striae are impunctate. This race was called 
blanchardi in our correspondence and may be described as follows: 

Sphaeroderus canadensis subsp. blanchardi n. subsp. 

Similar to canadensis in size, form and color, but with the margins less 
blue, the marginal and epipleural punctures less deep and coarse, the elytral 
margin less strongly reflexed, the elytral striae almost impunctate, the first 



42 Journal New York Entomological Society, ["^'o'- ^^iv, 

and second only showing feeble punctuation, and with the disk of the elytra 
destitute of the setigerous punctures that occur on the fourth and seventh 
intervals in canadensis. In canadenis the fourth interval bears six to eleven 
setje, the seventh interval five to eight setae ; in blanchardi no setse or 
setigerous punctures are found on these intervals. The submarginal interval 
also usually bears fewer setse in blanchardi (about 12) than in canadensis 
(about 16). Length, 11 to 13 mm. 

Occurs in White Mountains of New Hampshire and near the sum- 
mit of Mt. Watatic in Massachusetts, very near the New Hampshire 
Line. Type from Randolph N. H., in my collection ; other specimens 
in Mr. Blanchard's collection. 

In regard to the subgenus Psctidonomarctus, it may also be added 
that the tendency toward a loss of the elytral striae is carried further 
in a specimen in Mr, Blanchard's collection from North Carolina 
(Highlands) than in any of the described species in that only one 
sutural stria remains. It probably represents a new species, though 
additional specimens might show intergrading forms. The rarity 
in collections of most of the species of Nomaretus inhabiting the Alle- 
gheny Mts. makes their study difficult especially in determining the 
limits of individual variation. 



NOTES ON CICADAS FROM THE UNITED STATES 

WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF SEVERAL 

NEW SPECIES. 

By Wm. T. Davis, 
New Brighton, St.^ten Island, N. Y. 

While the writer has a rather large collection of Cicadas from 
the United States, more material may cause the opinions here ex- 
pressed to be considerably modified. Especially is this the case re- 
garding those species originally described without locality, such as 
sii'alei, olympnsa, viridifascia and scx-guttata. More specimens are 
also to be desired from the type locality of what is here considered 
as Say's Cicada vitripennis^ 

1 The author is indebted to Mr. Chris. E. Olsen for making a number of 
drawings of genitalia, and to Mr. Howard H. Cleaves for taking the photo- 
graphs from which the plates have been made. 



March, i9i6.] DaVIS : CiCADAS FROM THE UnITED StATES. 43 

Cicada figurata Walker. 

This species was described in 1858 in List of the Specimens of 
Homopterous Insects in the collection of the British Museum, Sup- 
plement, p. 19. Unfortunately no locality was given. The descrip- 
tion in part is as follows : " Black, mostly tawny beneath. Head with 
a large tawny spot on each side in front between the eyes. . . . Pro- 
thorax reddish, black in front and behind, with a double tawny stripe ; 
border tawny, with a black streak on each side. Mesothorax with 
four oblique tawny stripes; the middle pair recurved inward; the 
lateral pair enclosed at each of their tips by a lateral tawny streak; 
sides and hind ridges tawny. Legs tawny. Wings vitreous. Fore 
wings narrow, much acuminated testaceous at the base, and with a 
testaceous streak along the sixth discoidal areolet ; primitive areolet 
black; veins piceous; costa testaceous to the tip of the front areolet; 
first and second transverse veins slightly curved, clouded with black. 
. . . Length of the body 17 lines; of the wings [expanse] 44 lines." 

As far as the writer is aware the insect has not been recognized 
since it was described and the name has been placed as a synonym of 
Cicada auletes or grossa by Distant and of Cicada marginata by 
Uhler. Lately seven specimens have been examined that are well cov- 
ered by the above description. They are as follows : 

Logansport, DeSoto Co., Louisiana, August 1905, male. (Re- 
ceived from W. Dwight Pierce.) Coll. U. S. National Museum. 

Verda, Grant Co., Louisiana, July, 191 5, male. (Received from 
Prof. R. W. Harned.) Coll. Agri. College, Miss. 

Alabama, female. Coll. Brooklyn Museum of Arts and Sciences. 

Mobile, Alabama, female (H. P. Loding). Davis collection. 

Mississippi, female. (Received from Prof. R. W. Harned.) 
Coll. Agri. College, Miss. 

Meridian, Lauderdale Co., Miss., Sept. 10, 191 5, female. (Rehn 
& Hebard). Davis collection. 

Gainesville, Florida 1915, male. (J. R. Watson.) Davis collec- 
tion. 

All of the above mentioned are dull, tawny colored insects, with 
narrow and much acuminated fore wings with the primitive aerolet 
black. In the considerable number of specimens that we have of 
Cicada resonans and Cicada similaris, the fore wings are not as 
acuminate, and the primitive or basal aerolet is not black. The 



44 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Vol. xxiv, 

membranes or flaps at the base of both the fore and hind wings are 
dark gray in both resonans and similaris, also in lyricen, whereas in 
what we take to be figurata they are yellowish in color, especially 
those of the fore wings, with a pinkish tinge. In similaris the 
uncus when seen in profile is shaped something like the head of a 
snake with expanded jaws; in what we have identified as i-esonans, 
the uncus when viewed in profile is broad at the tip and shaped some- 
what like a horse's hoof, and when viewed from the back the ex- 
tremity is broad and truncated and not notched. In what we con- 
sider figurata the uncus is simple. When it is seen in profile it is 
scoop-shaped, and from behind it is obtusely rounded with the ex- 
tremity not as broad as in Cicada lyricen which it somewhat re- 
sembles. We formerly expressed the opinion (this Journal, March, 
1 91 5, p. 8) that Cicada figurata might be either Cicada lyricen or 
Cicada similaris, but since we have seen the male from Louisiana 
referred to above and which we figure, we think that Walker's species 
has been rediscovered. Mr. Charles Schaeffer, of the Brooklyn Mu- 
seum, has had, for some time, the female belonging to that institution 
set aside as a distinct species. 

Cicada aurifera Say. 

Thomas Say described this species in 1825, but recent authors 
have failed to identify it. Say says in part: "Body covered with 
golden pubescence ; beneath hairy. Inhabits Missouri . . . the two 
particular anastomoses are strongly marked with blackish . . . thorax 
but little varied with black : scutel [mesonotum] black, with the 
usual testaceous lines : tergum black, densely covered with golden 
hair: beneath pruinose. Length one inch and a half nearly to the 
tip of the hemelytra. Found near the Konza village." 

When Smith and Grossbeck wrote their paper " Studies in Certain 
Cicada Species," published in Entomological News, for April, 1907, 
they examined the specimens in the collection of the U. S. National 
Museum at Washington and noted on a label placed below two females 
from Kansas, " New Species." From lack of material they refrained 
from describing the insect which is here identified as Cicada aurifera. 
In 1914 the writer received a male of this species from Mr. J. C. 
Warren of Wakefield, Kansas, and more recently he has had the 
privilege through the courtesy of Prof. S, J. Hunter and Mr. R. H. 
Beamer of examining forty-nine additional specimens from the col- 



March, I9i6.] DaVIS : CiCADAS FROM THE UnITED StATES. 45 

lection of the University of Kansas. We think that the species repre- 
sented by this extensive material is Say's long lost Cicada aurifcra. 
It is of the right size; fresh specimens are pubescent; beneath hairy; 
the first and second cross veins conspicuously blackened, almost spot- 
like ; the pronotum is almost wholly green and " little varied with 
black " ; the mesonotum is black with the '' usual tectaceous lines " ; 
the tergum is black covered with golden hair in fresh specimens; be- 
neath pruinose, and lastly most of the insects came from near the 
type locality, for Franklin Co., Kansas is not far from the site of the 
Konza Indian village visited by Thomas Say. 

Uhler states in his Preliminary Survey of the Cicadidse of the 
United States, Antilles and Mexico, Transactions Maryland Acad- 
emy of Science, 1892, that Cicada aurifcra was known only from 
the original description and adds: " It seems to be a pale variety of C. 
canicnlaris, which inhabits that state, but the size given is smaller 
than that of any specimens thus far brought to our notice." He was 
nearly correct in this, for Cicada aurifera is related to Cicada canicn- 
laris Harris, but still more closely to Cicada davisi Smith and Gross- 
beck. We figure a male Cicada aurifcra from Franklin Co., Kansas, 
a male Cicada canicnlaris from Lake Mahopac, New York, and a male 
Cicada davisi from Manson, N. C. It will be seen that in canicnlaris 
the eyes are not set as obliquely as they are in davisi, and in aurifcra 
they are still less prominent. In examples of the same expanse 
of wing, aurifcra measures less across the head than does davisi. 
The uncus when seen from behind is broader in canicnlaris than 
in davisi and aurifera, but in aurifera the tip is more gradually 
rounded in either of the other two. Beneath the opercula are 
about of the same shape in all three species. The color pattern 
of the three species is similar. The pronotum is all green in 
aurifera with the exception of the triangular black spot contiguous 
to the anterior margin and enclosing a wedge-shaped spot of 
green. In davisi the pronotum is usually more black, but the hind 
margin or collar is green. In canicnlaris the collar is green with its 
front margin often edged with black. The mesonotum is blacker in 
canicnlaris than in either of the other two; the usual W-ma,rk and 
elevated X of a lighter color, is present in all three. The tergum is 
l)lack in the three species, but in aurifcra the hind margins of the 
segments are often edged with testaceous. The wings of canicnlaris 



46 Journal New York Entomological Society, f^'o'- ^>^iv. 

and daz'isi are of the same shape, but in aurifera they are proportion- 
ately shorter and broader. The first and second cross veins of the 
fore wings are but sHghtly infuscated in caniadaris and sometimes 
not at all; in aurifera the infuscation is sharply defined, while in 
davisi it is generally more indefinite and the ends of the fore wings 
are often clouded as well. Beneath, all th.-ee species are pruinose 
when fresh. Caiiicidaris has the central area shining black and ex- 
tending in the form of an irregular band to the end of the abdomen ; 
in daz'isi this band is more green, especially along the sides and still 
less definite, while in aurifera the band is almost obsolete, in rubbed 
specimens there being usually an oblong black spot at the base of each 
segment on the under side. 

The following specimens of Cicada aurifera have been examined : 

Franklin Co., Kans., 895 ft., 23 males, 15 females (R. H. Beanier). 
Collection University of Kansas. 

Anderson Co., Kans., 1047 ft. 1915, 2 males, i female ( R. H. 
Beamer). Collection University of Kansas. 

Allen Co., Kans., 962 ft., 1915, 3 males, i female (R. H. Beamer). 
Collection University of Kansas. 

Riley Co., Kans., Sep., i female (Marlatt). Collection U. S. Na- 
tional Museum. 

Kansas, i female (Marlatt). Coll. U. S. Nat. Museum. 

Wakefield, Clay Co., Kans., Aug. 25, 1914, i male (J. C. Warren). 
Davis collection. 

Seward Co., Kans., 2,600 ft., August 18, 1911, 2 males, 2 females 
(F. X. Williams). Collection University of Kansas. 

Cicada townsendi Uhler. 

In the collection of the United States National Museum there 
is a male cicada marked " Las Cruces " on one label, and " Cicada 
Townsendii, Uhler, New Mex." on the other. This is supposed to 
be one of the specimens from which Uhler drew up his original de- 
scription, for he says that four of them came from the vicinity of Las 
Cruces, New Mexico. Mr. Otto Heidemann, in charge of the cicadas 
in the National Museum, has kindly permitted my having a figure 
made of the specimen, which is here presented. In addition to this 
typical specimen, we figure through the courtesy of Dr. Henry 
Skinner a smaller and more pruinose male from Alamogordo, New 



March, i9i6.] DaVIS : CiCADAS FROM THE UNITED StATES. 47 

Mexico, May lo, 1902. Other material examined has been as 
follows : 

Southern California. A female in the U. S. Nat. Museum bears 
the label "Southern Cal. (not Lower Cal.)." 

" Texas." A rather small male and female. Coll. U. S. Nat. 
Museum. 

Mar fa, Tex. June 5, 1908, male and female (Mitchell and Cush- 
man). Coll. U. S. Nat. Museum. 

Marathon, Tex. June 7, 1908, female (Mitchell and Cushman). 
Coll. U. S. Nat. Museum. 

In Utah, Colorado and Kansas there is another cicada that greatly 
resembles townsendi, but is a little smaller and has a very differently 
shaped uncus. It may be described as follows : 

Cicada bifida new species. 

Type male. Clear Creek, Colorado, July 23, 1914. Davis collection. 

Allotype female, St. George, Washington Co., Utah (Engelhardt 
and Doll). Davis collection. 

A black and yellow green colored species ; fresh specimens conspicuously 
pruinose. 

Head black, with the following yellowish tinged with green : a spot above 
the base of each antenna, a central triangular spot in front of the ocelli, an 
irregular spot of a little lighter color on each side near the eye and con- 
tiguous to the hind border, and a small spot on the front above the transverse 
rugae. Pronotum yellowish green with a large central black spot which is 
broadened near the front margin, and to a very much less extent on the 
hind margin where it extends on to the collar. In some of the paratypes this 
black spot contains one of a yellowish green color. On either side the grooves 
are blackened, and the hind margin or collar is blackened in the center, as 
mentioned above, and has a black spot each side at the humeral angles. Meso- 
notum black with the central W-shaped mark near the front margin yellowish 
green in color; behind this is the elevated x also yellowish green and with 
the anterior marks extending well forward and nearly touching the W-mark. 
The sides near the base of the fore wings are also yellowish green. Tergum 
black with an indication of a dorsal row of pruinose spots faintly defined ; 
sides of the abdomen irregularly bordered with yellowish green, the last seg- 
ment being nearly all of that color except the central area which is darkened. 
The fore wings have the costal margins yellowish green nearly to the extremi- 
ties of the wings and the subcostal veins are blackened ; the first and second 
cross veins are darkened, but not conspicuously so. The basal areola of each 
fore wing contains a short darkened dash of color, otherwise they are nearly 
clear ; the flaps of both the fore and hind wings are grayish white. Beneath 



48 Journal New York Entomological Society. f^'°'- x>^iv, 

lighter and nearly of a uniform yellowish color, with a little black about the 
eyes and on the legs which are more or less streaked, the fore tibije and tarsi 
being nearly all blackened. Opercula slightly lighter colored than the seg- 
ments ; overlapping for more than half of their length ; about half as long as 
the abdomen and symmetrically narrowed from each side to a rounded point. 
Uncus when viewed in profile slender and much curved, and when seen from 




G."tou3nscndi. C.ViWda. 

behind widened and deeply cleft at the extremity. It somewhat resembles in 
form the iron claw often used in pulling tacks. The insect is quite pruinose 
beneath, especially on the fore parts, and above, the pruinose areas often cover 
the lighter markings. 

Measurements (in Millimeters). 

Male Type. Female Allotype. 

Length of body zy 25 

Width of head across eyes 9.5 9.5 

Expanse of fore wings 71 72 

Greatest width of fore wing 12 12 

Greatest width of operculum 6 

Greatest length of operculum 9 

In addition to the type which is figured, and allotype, the follow- 
lowing specimens have been examined : 

St. George, Washington Co., Utah, July, male (Engelhardt and 
Doll.) Davis collection. 

Golden, Colorado, July 18 and 20, 1909. Male and female. Col- 
lection W. J. Gerhard. 

Morton Co., Kans., 3,200 ft., June, 1902, one male and three 
females (F. H. Snow). Collection University of Kansas and Davis 
collection. 

Hamilton Co., Kans., 3,350 ft., June. 1902, three males (F. H. 
.Snow). Collection University of Kansas and Davis collection. 



March, i9i6.] DaVIS : CiCADAS FROM THE UNITED StATES. 49 

Garden City, Finney Co., Kans., June, 1895, male and female (H. 
W. Menke). Collection U. S. Nat. Museum. 

Arizona, male. Uhler collection, U. S. Nat. Museum. 

As has been stated Cicada bifida greatly resembles Cicada tozvii- 
sendi which, however, appears to range somewhat further to the 
south. It may be readily distinguished from that species by being 
smaller, by the less prominent front; by having the basal cell of the 
fore wings less black and the collar or hind margin of the pronotum 
of a nearly uniform color, that is it has not about the frontal half 
blackened as in tozvnscndi. The uncus in Cicada bifida is deeply cleft 
at the tip, and simply rounded in townscndi. Further in townscndi 
the penis is armed with a chitinous pair of thorns dark in color and 
bent inward, which are not present in Cicada bifida. 

Cicada castanea new species. 

Type male, Jerome, Arizona. June (Oslar). Davis collection. 

Allotype female, Prescott, Arizona (Oslar). Davis collection. 

The triangularly shaped opercula of this species are proportion- 
ately much longer than they are in Cicada cinctifcra from the same 
region, and they are also more rounded at the tips. 

Head with the front ochraceous tinged with black and a small, brighter 
spot at apex. A broad, irregular black band connects the eyes, behind which, 
each side, are two ochraceous spots, and an oblong one of the same color is 
above the base of each antenna. Pronotum castaneous with a central longi- 
tudinal dark band dilated both anteriorly and posteriorly (in some of the para- 
types enclosing a castaneous streak) ; the front margin narrowly lined with a 
streak of a lighter color. The posterior margin or collar clouded with black 
near the humeral angles, and yellowish on anterior angles, otherwise of the 
same color as the main portion of the pronotum. Mesonotum shining black 
with a faint castaneous W-shaped line outlining two obconical spots on the 
central part of the fore margin ; the sides and the cruciform elevation custaneous 
with two black depressed dots near the upper extremities of the latter. Tergum 
castaneous with the tympanal areas lighter and each segment faintly clouded at 
base ; last segment with a conspicuous pruinose spot each side. Fore wing 
with the costal margin green to the end of the radial cell, beyond darkened. 
Subcostal vein dark brown. The marginal cells down to the cubital cell 
slightly clouded with brown, but each cross vein heavily clouded, also an 
indication of several small, dark spots along the outer margin. One of the 
female paratypes constitutes a variety having the fore wings suffused entirely 
with brown, as well as about two thirds of the area of the hind wings. At 
base the fore wings are darkened, also a dark spot in each basal cell ; the 



50 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Vol. xxiv, 

membranule orange with a pinkish tinge. Hind wings orange at base, clouded 
beyond, the color spreading out over nearly all of the area of the last two 
anal cells. Beneath yellowish with a black spot contiguous to each eye and a 
few conspicuously black spots near the base of the legs, particularly those of 
the median pair. The triangularly shaped opercula are long and rather blunt 
at the lower extremities and extend about one half the length of the abdomen. 




Cicada castanta 



The uncus when seen in profile has at the extremity a projection like an up- 
turned nose ; when viewed from behind it is seen to be divided longitudinally 
through this nose ; the ends are expanded and truncate. The last ventral 
segment of the female is doubly notched at its extremity, that is, it is broadly 
notched and this notch in turn has a central one. 

Measurements (in Millimeters). 

Male Type. Female Allotype 

Length of body 19.5 20 

Width of head across eyes 8 8 

Expanse of fore wings 63 64 

Greatest width of fore wing 10 10 

Greatest width of operculum 4.5 

Greatest length of operculum 6 

In addition to the type which is figured, and allotype, the following 
specimens have been examined : 

Jerome, Arizona, three males, two females (Oslar). Davis col- 
lection. 

Prescott, Arizona, nine males (Oslar). Davis collection. 

Baboquivari Mts., Arizona, male (F. H. Snow). Collection Univ. 
of Kans. 

Santa Rita Mts., Arizona, female. Collection Brooklyn Museum 
of Arts and Sciences. 



March, 19 16.] DaVIS : CiCADAS FROM THE UnITED StATES. 51 

This species resembles somewhat Rihana virgulata Distant, from 
Mexico, figured in Biol. Centr.-Amer., Rhynch Horn, i, p. 140, but in 
that insect the opercula are short, and the eyes are more prominent. 
It resembles still more closely Rihana swalei Distant, described with- 
out locality but supposed to come from Central America. The figure 
in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), xiv, p. 427 (1904), shows a more robust- 
bodied species than cast an ea with more prominent eyes. There also 
appears to be differences in color pattern in the head, pronotum and 
mesonotum. Castanca from its form and character of genitalia, be- 
longs near to delicata Osb., rcpcrta Uhler and soniidata Uhler, that is 
in the genus Cicada as defined by Distant, and not in his genus 
Rihana. This species in time when more collecting has been done, 
may prove to be a variety of szvalei, but the name castanea can still 
apply, especially to the variety with the fore wings entirely suffused 
with brown, as shown in the female from the Santa Rita Mts., Ari- 
zona, and included in the description. 

Cicada arizona new species. 

Type male, Santa Rita Mts., Arizona, 5,000 to 8,000 ft., June (F. 
H. Snow). Davis collection. 

In form resembling Cicada castanca, but smaller with clear wings 
and short rounded opercula. 

Head black with a greenish yellow spot above the base of each antenna 
and one each side at posterior margin ; median sulcus on front also greenish 
yellow. Pronotum greenish yellow with a central longitudinal dark band 
dilated both anteriorly and posteriorly ; grooves narrowly lined with black ; 
posterior margin or collar greenish yellow but clouded at the extremities. 
Mesonotum shining black with two curved lines in the form of parenthesis 
near the front margin and the cruciform elevation greenish yellow in color. 
There are two black, depressed dots near the upper extremities of the cruci- 
form elevation. Tergum dark chestnut colored with the relatively large and 
protruding tympanal areas slightly lighter in color. Wings clear, with the 
costal margin yellowish to beyond the middle of the wing and then clouded ; 
the subcostal vein is dark brown. First and second transverse veins clouded. 
Membranule of the fore wings pinkish at base; those of the hind wings more 
gray. Beneath yellowish and more or less pruinose ; black about the eyes 
and pink on each side of the transverse rugse ; a few black spots near the base 
of the legs. The opercula are short, do not touch and have the extremities 
obliquely rounded. The uncus viewed in profile has a relatively large pro- 



52 Journal New York Entomological Society. fVoi. xxiv, 

tuberance extending backward from its central portion, below which the ex- 
tremity is bent inward in the form of a claw. Viewed from behind, it is seen 
that the uncus is divided longitudinally and that it ends in two claws separated 
considerably and from between which the penis protrudes. 




^ica(\a a\v7.ox\a 

Measurements (in Millimeters). 

Male Type 

Length of body 17 

Width of head across eyes 7 

Expanse of fore wings 52 

Greatest width of fore wing 7.5 

Greatest width of operculum 4 

Greatest length of operculum 3 

In addition to the type which is figured, five males have been 
examined, all from the Santa Rita Mts., Arizona, collected by Prof. 
F. H. Snow and in the collection of the University of Kansas. 

Cicada eugraphica new species. 

Type male, Albuquerque, Bernalillo Co., New Mexico. Davis 
collection. 

Allotype female, Barstow, Ward Co., Tex., July 20, 1905 (J. C. 
Crawford). Collection U. S. National Museum. 

An orange and black species with clear wings. 

Head black with an orange spot above the base of each antenna and a 
larger one each side nearer the eyes ; also one each side contiguous to the 
hind margin. The transverse rugse are blackened, orange at the sides and an 
orange spot on the front ; no longitudinal impressed line. Pronotum orange 
and black, the central longitudinal stripe conspicuously orange, with a dis- 
sected black band each side which is widened anteriorly and posteriorly ; 
grooves blackened ; collar orange, irregularly blackened along the front margin, 
also at the humeral angles. Mesonotum with four obconical black spots, the 



March, I9i6.] DaVIS : CiCADAS FROM THE UnITED StATES. 



53 



inner pair short, the outer pair longer and extending backward to the elevated 
x; there is also a black stripe extending along each side from the x to the 
base of each fore wing. Between the x and the two central obconical spots 
there is an irregular cross-shaped spot, and the two depressed black points, 
common to many species, and near the anterior extremities of the x, are also 
present. The x and lighter lines on the mesonotum are orange. The tergum 
is a very dark brown ; the segments narrowly edged with orange posteriorly, 
and the lateral grooves extending down the sides from the dorsal line are 
noticeable. The fore wings have their costal margins orange for about half of 
their length, beyond which they are blackened ; the subcostal veins are very 
dark brown. The first and second cross veins of the fore wings are not 
clouded ; both pairs of wings are orange at the base with the flaps grayish 
white. Beneath lighter colored, the legs orange, streaked and spotted with 
testaceous. The abdomen with the segments darkened along each side. Oper- 
cula light orange, a little less than half as long as the abdomen, and rounded 




Cvcada 



till 



a^xa\)\\\ca 



at the extremities, the inner edges touching or nearly so. Uncus when viewed 
in profile showing a considerable protuberance extending backward from its 
central portion, below which it terminates as a curved claw bent inward ; 
when seen from behind of the wish-bone shape, stouter and with the extremi- 
ties more bent toward each other than in the next species. 



Measurements (in Millimeters.) 

Male Type. Female Allotype. 

Length of body 22 23 

Width of head across eyes 8.5 9.5 

Expanse of fore wings 62 70 

Greatest width of fore wing 9.5 1 1 

Greatest width of operculum 5.5 

Greatest length of operculum 5 

In addition to the type, which is figured, and allotype, the follow- 
ing specimens have been examined : 



54 Journal New York Entomological Society. t^'°^- xxiv, 

Marfa, Presidio Co., Tex., June 5, 1908, three males (Mitchell 
and Cushman). Coll. U. S. Nat. Museum. 

Van Horn, Culberson Co., Tex., June 19, 1909, male (F. C. 
Bishopp). Coll. U. S. Nat. Museum. 

Barstow, Ward Co., Tex., July 22, 1905, male (J. C. Crawford). 
Coll. U. S. Nat. Museum. 

Mesilla, Dona Ana Co., New Mex., July i, 1897, male and female. 
Coll. Prof. A. P. Morse. 

Alamogordo, Otero Co., New Mex., seven males (G. v. Krockow). 
Coll. Am. Museum Natural History. 

Graham Mts., Ash Creek, Arizona, alt. 3,200 ft.. May 30, 1914, 
male (E. G. Holt). Coll. U. S. Biological Survey. 

Graham Mts., Arizona, June 29, 1914, male (E. G. Holt). Coll. 
U. S. Biological Survey. 

San Bernardino Ranch, Cochise Co., Arizona, 3,750 ft., Aug., male 
(F. H. Snow). Coll. University of Kans. 

Douglas, Cochise Co., Arizona, Aug., male (F. H. Snow). Coll. 
University of Kans. 

Cicada cugraphica is sometimes labeled in collections Cicada vitri- 
pennis Say which it resembles, but this last is a much lighter colored 
and greener insect with the fore wings narrower, and the uncus, 
when seen in profile, with the curved claw more slender. Cicada 
z'itripennis also occurs more to the eastward. 

This is not the Mexican Cicada crucifera Walker, in which the 
second marginal areolet is very much longer than the first, whereas 
in cugraphica the first is much longer than the second. 

Cicada texana new species. 

Type male, Lyford, Cameron Co., Texas, Aug. 6-y, 191 2 (Rehn 
and Hebard). Davis collection. 

Head with the black band that extends between the eyes in many species 
here broken up into spots as follows : the region about the ocelli is black, there 
is a black spot on each side of this and there is black about the eyes. The 
transverse rugae are streaked with black and there is a green spot centrally on 
the front. The remainder of the head is greenish or yellowish green. Pro- 
notum yellowish green with a central, longitudinal broad stripe of a lighter 
green. On either side of this are two interrupted black stripes with their 
extremities broadened at the anterior margin. Beyond this the furrows are 
blackened. The hind margin or collar is uniformly green in color in the type 
and three of the paratypes ; in the fourth there is a brownish point each side 



March, I9i6.] DaVIS : CiCADAS FROM THE UnITED StATES. 



55 



near the humeral angles. Mesonotum with two short obconical black spots at 
the fore margin, on either side of which there is a much dissected dark band, 
broadest anteriorly and extending backward to the extremities of the elevated 
X ; there is also a dark stripe extending along each side from the x to the 
base of the fore wings. There is an irregular cross-shaped spot between the 
X and the two central obconical spots, and the two depressed black points, 
common to many species, and near the anterior extremities of the x are also 
present. The x and lighter lines on the mesonotum are yellowish in the type, 
but the X is greener in the paratypes. The tergum is testaceous ; the tympanal 
areas lighter, each darkly clouded near its center, and the segments are lighter 
in color along their posterior margins. The dorsal surface is more or less 
covered with a short, silken, light-colored pubescence. The fore wings have 
the costal margins greenish yellow for about half of their length, beyond 
which they are blackened ; the subcostal veins are dark brown. The first and 
second cross veins of the fore wings are clouded, and the flaps at the base of 
both fore and hind wings are whitish or grayish white. Beneath lighter col- 
ored and pruinose, blackened about the eyes, the legs yellowish, streaked and 
spotted with testaceous. The abdomen nearly uniformly colored except the 
darker spot on the last ventral segment and a linear one on the valve; seg- 
ments slightly darkened along the base. Opercula yellowish, a little less than 
half the length of the abdomen and rounded at the extremities, the inner edges 
almost touching. Uncus when viewed in profile with the inner edge not 




Cicada tcxawa 



deeply notched, as in some species, but more rounded with the extremities 
bent inward, and when viewed from behind the hard raised portion resembles 
in shape a widely arched wish-bone. In Cicada sordidata Uhler the uncus, 
when viewed in profile, has the claw-like extremities freer and bent inward to 
a greater extent, and when viewed from behind the wish-bone arch is not 
as wide. 



56 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Vol. xxiv. 

Measurements (in Millimeters). 

Male Type. 
Length of body 22 

Width of head across eyes 8.5 

Expanse of fore wings 58 

Greatest width of fore wing 9 

Greatest width of operculum 4.5 

Greatest length of operculum 5 

In addition to the type, which i.s figured, and which is a rather 
small individual, the following specimens have been examined : 

San Benito, Cameron Co., Tex., fifteen males. Davis collection. 

Brownsville, Cameron Co., Tex., three males (F. H. Snow). 
Coll. University of Kans. 

Cicada tcxana closely resembles Cicada sordidata Uhler from 
Florida and Georgia, but may be separated from that species by the 
differently shaped uncus, by the less prominent grooves extending lat- 
erally down the sides of the abdominal segments and by having a 
somewhat brighter color pattern. There also seems to be, judging 
from the material at hand, some constant differences in color. 

Cicada olympusa Walker. 

Cicada sordidata Uhler, was described in the Transactions of the 
Maryland Academy of Sciences, 1892, p. 175, from two males from 
Southern Florida. We figure a male from Big Pine Key, Fla., Sept. 




Cicada soT(ii(\a\a 

19, 1913, that has been compared with one marked " S. Fla." in 
Uhler's collection in the United States Nat. Museum, and labeled in 
his handwriting " Cicada sordidata." This was no doubt one of his 



March, i9i6.] DaVIS : CiCADAS FROM THE UNITED StATES. 57 

types. His published description is very full and among other things 
he says that the first three apical areoles of the fore wings " includ- 
ing the veins and cross veins smoke-brown." This is subject to 
some variation, though the first and second cross veins are always 
clouded in mature specimens. He says : " Opercula short, pale, but 
little more than one-third the length of the abdomen, narrowing 
toward the tip, and rounded there ; the tips widely separated by a 
wedge-shaped space ; the drums completely covered by an inflated 
segent, with a wide interval between, which is occupied at the outer 
end by a smooth hump. The raised smooth line thus begun is con- 
tinued back upon the succeeding tergal segments, and from each 
prominence a grooved line extends outwards to the border of the 
segments." 

Cicada olympiisa Walker was described in 1850, but no locality 
was given. It has been credited to North America by Distant. The 
description would seem to cover Cicada sordidata which is of the 
same size and we have been unable to find any other species in col- 
lections that fits it so well. Walker says in part : " scutcheon of the 
fore-chest [prothorax] adorned with four black stripes; the middle 
pair long, widened on the fore border and on the hind border ; the 
outer pair short and slightly curved; furrows and sides blackish; 
hind scutcheon [hind margin or collar] green, widened, rounded and 
adorned with a large pitchy mark at the base of each fore-wing, 
nearly straight on each side : scutcheon of the middle chest [meso- 
notum] adorned with four obconical black stripes; inner pair short 
with tawny borders ; outer pair much longer, excavated into eight 
separate parts ; a large black spot with a black dot on each side be- 
tween the inner pair and the cross-ridge . . . fore borders of the 
[abdominal] segments adorned with pitchy interrupted bands; over- 
duct ferruginous : drums pale tawny, very small, far apart ; inner 
sides pitchy," 

If it is meant that the extremities of the opercula are far apart 
then the above description agrees with sordidata, in which, however, 
the upper and inner edges of the opercula touch or nearly so. 

Cicada milvxis was described by Walker in 1858 from a single 
female from the " United States " and has been placed by Distant 
as a synonym of Cicada olympiisa. Walker describes milviis as red- 
dish tawny and says in part : " Prothorax with four black stripes, the 



58 Journal New York Entomological Society. ["^^°'- ^^iv, 

inner pair approximate, connected by a short black band in front, 
the outer pair very near the borders; two black discal dots; hind 
border greenish. Mesothorax with four conical black stripes, the 
inner pair short, the outer pair much intersected. Abdomen with 
an interrupted black band on each segment. Wings vitreous; veins 
pale green, black towards the tips. Fore wings with the first and 
second transverse veins clouded with dark brown." The wings are 
said to expand 27 lines, that is about 57 mm. 

Cicada viridifascia Walker. 

Cicada sordidata has been placed by Distant as a synonym of 
Cicada viridifascia, but this last is a larger insect, about the size of 
Cicada reperta Uhler. Cicada viridifascia was described in 1850 
without locality. Walker says in part: "wings colorless; fore border 
tawny for half the length, black from thence till near the tip ; veins 
tawny; cross-veins and adjoining parts of the longitudinal veins 
tawny; primitive areolet partly brown; fore-flaps whitish, as are also 
the hind-flaps at the base. Length of the body 11-12 lines [24-26 
mm.]; of the wings [expanse] 33-34 lines [70-72 mm.].'' This as 
well as the remainder of the description covers fairly well Cicada 
reperta Uhler, which has been found along the Atlantic coast from 
North Carolina to Southern Florida, but it does not cover Cicada 
sordidata, which has the first and second cross veins in the fore 
wings clouded and expands about 60-65 mm. 

Cicada vitripennis Say. 

What v.'e have identified as this species is an insect with green in 
its coloring as mentioned by its describer; not entirely orange and 
black as in Cicada cugraphica from further west. Say says that the 
insect was presented to him by Mr. Nuttall " from the Arkansaw," 
and we figure a reddish green female collected by Mr. Alanson 
Skinner, July, 1914, at Perkins, Oklahoma, as probably from some- 
where near the type locality. We have three additional specimens, 
all males and a little smaller of what appear to be of the same species, 
collected by Mr. W. J. Gerhard in July at Miller, Indiana, and Clark 
Junction, Indiana. Though a number of collections have been exam- 
ined no species that so well fits Say's description has so far been 
found, but future collecting in the region from which the type came, 
may add to our knowledge in this particular. 



March, I9i6.] DaVIS : CiCADAS FROM THE UNITED StATES. 



59 



A male Cicada erratica from Shreveport, La., kindly loaned by 
Prof. Herbert Osborn, its describer, is also figured. It is one of the 
seven males from which the original description was made and the 
figure here given of the genitalia will further serve in identifying the 
species. The genitalia of this insect is like that of the three much 




Cicada enaticoL 



smaller males from Indiana, mentioned above. We have a number 
of specimens of erratica from Logtown, La., June (E. S. Tucker, 
La. Agri. Exp. Sta.) ; Palmyra Island, about thirty miles below Vicks- 
burg, Miss., June (R. N. Lobdell) ; xA.gri. College, Miss., July (H. E. 
Cox), and Scotts, Ark., August (John M. Moose, Jr.). The last three 
were kindly sent to me by Prof. R. W. Harned, to whom I am in- 
debted for many cicadas. In the collection of the U. S. National 
Museum there is a female from Alexandria, La., June 22, 1910 (E. 
S. Tucker), and Prof. Harned has a specimen collected at Rose- 
bloom, Miss., in August, 191 5. 

From present information we think that these related insects 
should be arranged as follows: 

Species with first and second cross veins infuscated. 
Cicada olympusa Walker, 1850. 
Cicada milvus Walker, 1858. 
Cicada sordidata Uhler, 1892. 
Cicada texana Davis. 
Species with clear wings. 

Cicada eugraphica Davis. 



60 Journal New York Entomological Society. t^'°'- xxiv. 

Cicada viridifascia Walker, 1850. 

Cicada reperfa Uhler, 1892. 
Cicada vitripennis Say, 1830, 
Cicada erratica Osborn, 1906. 

It will be noted that the above arrangement is not in accord with 
that to be found in Genera Insectorum where some of the species 
mentioned are in the genus Rihana and others in Cicada. However, 
all of the species mentioned above have a general likeness, and if 
the uncus is examined it will be found to be of the wish-bone pattern. 
We think that all the species with the uncus simple, as for example 
Unnci, lyriccn, similaris, pniinosa, sayi, canicidaris, davisi, marginata, 
aulctcs, rcsh, figtirata, rcsonaiis, superha and others might well be 
placed in Rihana, or in some genus to separate them from those with 
the wish-bone shaped uncus, which we have here placed in Cicada. 
This would necessitate the removal of Cicada dorsata Say, as it ap- 
pears in Genera Insectorum, to the genus Rihana, for it has a simple 
uncus and we think that this should be done. It is a very easy matter 
to relax a male cicada and pull out the genitalia with a pin so that 
part will dry in a position where it can be examined. In this way 
the genera Rihana or Tibiccn, and Cicada, can be separated more 
satisfactorily than by comparing the relative length of the head with 
the space between the eyes. 

Cicada delicata Osborn. 

We figure one of the five typical males of this distinct species, 
from Cameron, Cameron Co., La., which Prof. Herbert Osborn has 
kindly sent to us for comparison. 

The following records may be added : 

Brownsville, Tex., June, four males, one female (F. H. Snow). 
Coll. University of Kans., and Davis collection. 

Katherine, Willacy Co., Tex., Aug. 8, 1912, female (Rehn and 
Hebard). Davis collection. 

Del Rio, Valverde Co., Tex., goo-i,ioo ft., Aug. 22, 23, 1912, male 
(Rehn and Hebard). Davis collection. 

Cicada hieroglyphica Say. 

This species was described in 1830 by Say, who says that it " In- 
habits Pennsylvania and New Jersey," but is " rather rare." There 
are localities in the Pine Barrens, however, as for example Lake- 



March, I9i6.] DaVIS : CiCADAS FROM THE UNITED StATES. 



61 



hurst, N. J., where in late June and in July it is often very common, 
and on warm days the songs of the numerous individuals constitute 
an almost continuous performance. We figure a male from Lake- 
hurst, which will give a good idea of its size, form and wing pattern. 
The head, pronotum and mesonotum are tawny, tinged with green and 
marked with black as mentioned by Say; the abdomen tawny, nar- 
rowly lined between the tympana with black; a short longitudinal line 
on the dorsum of the second segment, the basal half of the last seg- 
ment and most of the supra-anal plate, are also black. There is a 
conspicuous black spot behind each eye, not mentioned by Say, and 




Ci^acia \\vt\o(^l\^^h\c(x 



the black marks on the head, pronotum and prothorax are well de- 
fined. In the writer's collection there are specimens of this species, 
in form and markings like those from New Jersey, from Southern 
Pines, N. C, Clayton, Ga., Grand Bay, Mobile Co., Ala., and Osyka, 
Pike Co., Miss. 

E. F. Germar in Thon, Entomologisches Archiv, ii, 2, p. 4 [should 
have been p. 40], 1830, gives a description of Cicada characterea, 
which he says inhabits Georgia, America. The description is short 
but it covers Cicada hieroglyphica, and from the locality given there 
seems to be no doubt but what that was the species intended. This 
description has been overlooked of late years and has not been 
brought to the attention of entomologists, the name not appearing in 
Genera Insectorum. The question arises which name has priority 
as both Cicada hieroglyphica and Cicada characterea are recorded as 
having been proposed in 1830. Say's description appeared in the 
Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and 



62 Journal New York Entomological Society. fVoi. xxiv, 

pages 179-244, which include "his paper, were not pubHshed until 
August 1830, or later. 

Cicada johannis Walker. 

This was described in 1850, and St. John's Bluff, Florida, is given 
as the type locality. Johannis has been placed by Distant as a 
synonym of Cicada hicroglyphica and it probably is only a race. 
It, however, presents some differences and the writer for some time 
has regarded specimens from Florida as separable from typical 
hieroglyphica. In specimens otherwise of the same size the distance 
across the head at the eyes is generally greater than in New Jersey 
individuals, and the marks on the head, pronotum and mesonotum 
are more in the nature of black spots and dashes than of continuous 
lines. The black spot behind each eye is reduced to a narrow basal 
line in johannis and below the transverse black band on the front the 
region of the rugae is unicolorous. In hieroglyphica there is usually a 
dark line running down the median groove of the transverse rugae. 
There are a number of other color differences that are quite con- 
stant. We have a male from Carrot Island, near Beaufort, N. C, 
June 23, 1913 (F. Harper), that is marked like the specimens from 
Florida, showing that we may expect johannis along the coast. A 
male of Cicada johannis from La Grange, Brevard Co., Florida, is 
figured. 

A few pages further on in the same publication where Cicada 
johannis was described, namely in the " List of the Specimens of 
Homopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum," Part 
I, Walker describes Cicada scx-guttata without locality. He says 
the wings expand 30 lines instead of 26-28 lines as in johannis and 
that the tympana (he calls them opercula) are small instead of large 
as in johannis. His lengthy description of the color pattern fits the 
Florida species quite as well as any of the others here considered 
and many specimens from Florida are also of the size of his scx- 
guttata. This species has been placed by Distant as a synonym of 
hicroglyphica, but when large collections have been made some local- 
ity may yield specimens to fit the description. 

Cicada chisos new species. 

Type male, Chisos Mts., Brewster Co., Texas, June 10-12, 1908 
(Mitchell and Cushman). Collection U. S. Nat. Museum. 

Allotype female, same locality and date. Davis collection. 



March. 19 16.] DaVIS : CiCADAS FROM THE UNITED StATES. 



63 



Closely resembles Cicada hieroglyphica in markings, but is larger and has 
differently shaped fore wings, opercula and genitalia. 

Head greenish tawny with a black spot each side slightly above the base 
of each antenna and adjoining the upper transverse rugae. Front without any 
median groove at the upper portion of the transverse rugae, its place being 
taken by an oblong greenish orange spot, rounded at the top and pointed at 
the bottom ; each side the ridges of the rugae are greenish orange and the 
grooves blackened. The region about the ocelli is included in a broad, some- 
what U-shaped black mark, each side of which there is a large, curved, black 
spot extending toward the eye. There is a black mark on the inner side of 
each eye which extends backward so that the area behind each eye is wholly 
black. Pronotum greenish tawny, the central area occupied by two parallel 
black irregular marks widened before and behind until they meet, leaving a 
central dart-shaped area of a lighter color, the point of which points back- 
ward and extends to the collar. Each side of the two central marks there is 
a short, parallel irregular black stripe and the grooves are blackened. The 
hind margin or collar has on each side on its anterior edge, but nearer the 
humeral angles, a short black mark and on each humeral angle there is a 
broad curved black band extending to the eye. The mesothorax has extending 
backward from its fore margin seven black marks, the central one a narrow 
stripe extending backward nearly to the x. The next two marks on either 
side of the central one extend backward for nearly one half of the length of 
the pronotum ; next comes a short spot with posterior end pointed and then 
the outer broad, black stripe extending backward nearly to the x and having 
a curved spot adjoining it at almost right angles. The x has a spot at each 
of its anterior extremities, otherwise it is greenish tawny like the rest of the 
mesonotum. The hind border is slightly more excavated at the x than in 
either hieroglyphica or johannis. Abdomen tawny, narrowly lined between the 
tympana with black; the basal half of the last segment and the supra-anal plate 
also black. The region of each spiracle is slightly clouded. The tympana are 
small with their anterior margins rounded and not covering the openings as 




Cvcada cKvsos 



64 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^oi. xxiv, 

completely as in hieroglyphica and johannis. Beneath lighter, nearly unicolor- 
ous ; black about the base of the rostrum ; also at the base of the abdomen and 
each side near its tip. There are a few dark spots on the legs. The opercula 
are small and are more fully rounded out, that is, the outer margin of each 
one forms more nearly a part of a circle than in hieroglyphica. The uncus, 
which is figured, when seen from behind is broadly notched with the upper 
part of the notch rounded, and not narrowly notched as in hieroglyphica. 

Measurements (in Millimeters.) 

Male Type. Female Allotype. 

Length of body 27 22 

Width of head across eyes 8 8 

Expanse of fore wings 68 67 

Greatest width of fore wing 11 10 

Greatest width of operculum 3.5 

Greatest length of operculum 3 

In addition to the types the male of which is figured and will 
show the wing pattern, two paratypic males of the same date and 
locality have been examined. There are also many more specimens 
from the same locality in the collection of the U. S. Nat. Museum. 

From Cicada sex-guttata of unknown locality, Cicada cJiisos dif- 
fers in being larger, and in having a dififerent color pattern on the 
head, pronotum and mesonotum. In Biol. Centr.-Amer., Rhynch. 
Hom. I. Tab. 3, Figs. 2, 2a and 2b, a Mexican specimen is figured 
under the name of Tettigia hieroglyphica Say. With the exception 
of the shape of the opercula, which are fully rounded in Cicada 
chisos, the illustrations represent quite well the species under consid- 
eration. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

Plate III. 

Fig. I. Cicada figurata Walker. 

Fig. 2. Cicada canicularis Harris. 

Fig. 3. Cicada davisi Smith and Grossbeck. 

. Fig. 4. Cicada aurifera Say. 

Plate IV. 

Fig. I. Cicada townsendi Uhler. Type. 

Fig. 2. Cicada townsendi Uhler, 

Fig. 3. Cicada bifida Davis. Type. 

Fig. 4. Cicada bifida Davis, enlarged. 

Fig. s. Cicada castanea Davis, enlarged. 



Joiini. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 



Vol. XXI V. PI. J. 





Cicadidse. 



Jo urn. N. Y. Enf. Soc. 



Vol. XXI V. PL 4. 




Cicadidge. 



Jouni. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 



Vol. XXI V. PL 5. 





Cicadid^e. 



J own. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 



Vol. XXIV. PI. 





March, I9i6.] DaVIS : CiCADAS FROM THE UNITED StATES. 



65 



Plate V. 

Fig. I. Cicada castanea Davis. Type. 

Fig. 2. Cicada arisona Davis. Type. 

Fig. 3. Cicada eugraphica Davis. Type. 

Fig. 4. Cicada texana Davis. Type. 

Fig. 5. Cicada sordidata Uhler. 

Fig. 6. Cicada arisona Davis, enlarged. 

Fig. 7. Cicada eugraphica Davis, enlarged. 

Fig. 8. Cicada texana Davis, enlarged. 

Plate VI. 

Fig. I. Cicada reperta Uhler. 

Fig. 2. Cicada delicata Osborn. 

Fig. 3. Cicada vitripennis Say. 

Fig. 4. Cicada erratica Osborn. 

Fig. 5. Cicada hieroglyphica Say. 

Fig. 6. Cicada johannis Walker. 

Fig. 7. Cicada chisos Davis. Type. 



NEW DIPTERA OF THE FAMILY ASILIDiE WITH 
NOTES ON KNOWN SPECIES. 



By Chas. Schaeffer^ 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

While rearranging the museum material of the dipterous family 
Asilidae, the following species were found among the unidentified 
material which appear to be new. 

Stenopogon tenebrosus Coquillett. 

The type of this species is not in the National Museum as Back^ 
erroneously states, but in the Museum of the Brooklyn Institute. The 
specimen has the type label in Coquillett's handwriting. 

Lasiopogon arizonensis new species. 

Mystax white, pubescence of head anteriorly white, posteriorly yellowish. 
The usual median and lateral stripes of thorax brownish, median stripe very 
feebly divided by a paler line and not extending to the base, elsewhere the 
vestiture is gray; surface with a few short, white hairs, longer hairs poste- 

1 Trans. Am. Ent. See, XXXV, 207. 



66 Journal New York Entomological Society. f^'°'- xxiv, 

riorly white, two laterally brownish. Scutellum covered with a very fine gray 
pubescence, posterior margin with a few white bristles. Pleurae and coxae 
densely covered with white pubescence. Abdomen black, first segment with 
dense gray pubescence, following segments with a blackish-brown dust, pos- 
terior margins gray, the few hairs white, ventral segments grayish-white. 
Wings glossy-hyaline, veins brownish. Legs black, except fron tibije in about 
basal two thirds and middle tibiae narrowly at base yellowish ; hairs not very 
abundant, white, bristles white. Length 8.5 mm. 

Huachuca Mts., Arizona. (Schaeffer). One male in excellent 
condition. 

This neat little species differs principally from those so far known 
by the coloration of the abdomen and legs. 

Eccritosia amphinome Walker. 

Of this handsome species I have taken a female in the Huachuca 
Mts., Arizona. It is reported in the Aldrich catalogue from Lower 
California, Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras. 

Erax subcupreus new species. 

Head grayish-white pollinose, except the facial tubercle, which is almost 
without pollen and shows the brownish-submetallic ground color ; mystax with 
white and black hairs and bristles; occipito-orbital and ocellar hairs and bris- 
tles black ; beard white ; palpi black, with black hairs and bristles. Thorax 
brownish-metallic, with grayish-white and brownish-gray pollen ; median line 
with a rather dense crest of erect, black hairs, which does not extend to the 
scutellum, between the crest and the scutellum are moderately long, white 
hairs, intermixed with some black bristks. Scutellum somewhat densely 
clothed with moderately long white hairs and along the apical margin with 
some black bristles. Pleurae feebly pollinose and with sparse darker and white 
hairs. Abdomen black with very faint brownish-metallic tint, segments one 
to five with long white hairs, parted at middle and directed outwards, those 
on the first segment are only on the thickened apical margin and on the second 
covering about apical third of the segment ; segments six and seven grayish- 
white pollinose and covered with shorter white hairs. Hypopygium black with 
sparse gray and blackish hairs. Venter clothed with long white hairs which 
become shorter on the apical segments. Wings hyaline, slightly smoky towards 
the tip ; costa distinctly thickened and dilated. Femora black with brownish 
submetallic tint, tibiae brownish, at tip black, tarsi black ; femora and tibiae 
clothed with moderately long, white and gray hairs. Length 18 mm. 

A single male from Prescott, Ariz., received from George Franck. 

Apparently related to E. costalis Will, but with abdominal seg- 
ments one to five, with long, white hairs. Williston, in his synoptic 
table of the species of Erax^ gave the name costalis but neglected to 

1 Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. XII, p. 64. 



March, I9i5.] SCHAEFFER : New DiPTERA. 67 

give a description of the species. The species is not given in Aldrich's 
catalogue of North American Diptera, but is sufficiently charac- 
terized in the table to entitle it to recognition. 

Erax subpilosus new species. 

Head grayish-white pollinose, beard and mystax white, occipito-orbital 
bristles white. Thorax black, faintly grayish-brown pollinose, middorsal stripe 
faint ; dorsum sparsely covered with short, black hairs, which are longer 
apically. Scutellum with black hairs and bristles, some of which are white 
apically. Pleurze faintly pollinose, covered not densely with moderately long, 
white hairs. Abdomen black, first to third segments with black hairs, longer 
at sides, fourth segment with long white hairs intermixed with black hairs, 
which are directed outwardly, fifth segment white pollinose and with shorter 
white hairs, sixth and seventh segments densely white pollinose ; apical mar- 
gins of segments two to five grayish pollinose. Venter grayish-white pollinose 
covered with long, white hairs. Hypopygium black, clothed with shorter, white 
hairs. Wings pure hyaline. Legs entirely black, clothed with shorter and 
longer white hairs. Length 22 mm. 

Beaver Creek Hills, Beaver Co.. Utah, two males. (Doll and 
Engelhardt.) 

The first three segments of the abdomen are clothed with black 
hairs, the fourth and fifth with white hairs, the hairs on the fourth 
segment are longer and more numerous than in most of the species 
but not as dense as in stamincus, rapax or pallid us. 

Erax californicus new species. 

Male. — Head grayish-white pollinose, mystax yellowish-white, beard white, 
occipito-orbital bristles black. Thorax black, dark grayish pollinose, dorsal 
stripes faint, dorsum with short, black hairs, which are longer apically. Scu- 
tellum with white hairs, apical bristles black. Pleurae dark gray pollinose as 
the thorax and with moderately long, white hairs. Abdominal segments widely 
pale-grayish pollinose at sides, black and feebly shining along the middle, seg- 
ments one to three with longer white hairs at sides, seginents four to seven 
with sparse, shorter white hairs. Hypopygium black, clothed with sparse, short 
white hairs. Wings with a very slight yellowish-brown tinge. Legs black 
except the tibiae which are at base reddish, densely clothed with rather long, 
white pile. 

Female. — Colored as the male but the white hairs on the legs are shorter. 
The ovipositor is moderately long. Length 25-28 mm. 

Shasta Co., Cal., male and female received from George Franck. 

Another specimen, a smaller male from the same locality, has the 
abdominal segments four to seven almost entirely uniformly greyish- 
pollinose, otherwise it agrees with the larger specimen. 



68 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Vol. xxiv, 

Promachus nigropilosus new species. 

Head grayish-white pollinose, beard and mystax white, the latter with a 
few black hairs intermixed ; occipito-orbital bristles black. Thorax black, 
somewhat shining, very faintly grayish pollinose ; one brownish median and 
on each side a more or less distinct lateral stripe ; dorsum clothed sparsely 
with short, black hairs, bristles black. Pleurae very faintly pollinose and with 
sparse, black hairs ; humeri reddish. Abdomen black, shining, sides of the 
segments rather feebly gray pollinose, apical margins even more faintly grayish 
pollinose ; dorsum and venter with sparse, short, black hairs, at sides of the 
first few segments the hairs are longer. Hypopygium densely covered with 
silky white hairs. Wings pure hyaline. Legs black, except the outer surface 
of the front and middle femora, the upper side of hind femora and the greater 
part of the tibiae which are reddish, covered with short, sparse, black hairs and 
bristles, except the front femora, which has the hairs mostly grayish-white. 
Length 21 mm. 

One male, Shasta, Co., Cal., received from George Franck. 

In Hine's key to the species of Promachus''- this new species would 
go near minusculus from which it differs in being more shining and 
having no white hairs on thorax and abdomen, except on the hypo- 
pygium. The pollinosity of thorax and abdomen is also much more 
feeble than in any other species. 

Asilus hypopygialis new species. 

Head white pollinose, facial gibbosity moderately large, not reaching to 
the antennae, mystax black above, white below, beard white ; ©cellar and 
occipito-orbital bristles black; third joint of antennae a little longer than the 
two preceding joints, arista nearly as long as the third joint. Thorax cov- 
ered with yellowish-gray dust ; brown median stripe prominent and divided 
narrowly ; pleura covered rather densely with a paler gray dust and with very 
few white hairs. Scutellum almost without hairs, two apical bristles black. 
Abdomen covered with grayish-brown pollen, venter, sides and base of the 
second to fourth segments with gray pollen ; hairs on the dorsum blackish, 
bristles and hairs at sides and venter white. Hypopygium thickened, at middle 
distinctly wider than the abdomen, black, at apex reddish, covered sparsely 
with white hairs. Wings hyaline, slightly clouded towards apex. Legs red- 
dish-brown, except the outer side of the femora, tip of tibiae and tarsal joints 
thre to five, which are black; femora and tibiae sparsely hairy. Length 15 mm. 

One male, Beaver Canon, Utah (Doll and Engelhardt). 
This species belongs in the subgenus or group Heligmoneura. 
the male genitalia are nearly two milimeters wide at apex. 

1 Ann. Ent. Soc. Am., Vol. IV, p. 165. 



March, I9i6.] ScHAEFFER : New DiPTERA. 69 

Asilus fulviventris new species. 

Head densely clothed with yellowish-gray pollen ; beard white ; niystax 
yellowish-white with a few black hairs above ; ocellar bristles white ; occipito- 
orbital bristles black ; palpi black with white hairs. Thorax densely covered 
with yellowish-gray pollen ; dark median stripe prominent, divided by a narrow 
line; pleurae densely grayish-white pollinose and with a few white hairs. Scu- 
tellum almost without any hairs, four apical bristles pale. Wings glassy hya- 
line. Abdomen, except the first and second segment, which are grayish-white 
pollinose, densely and uniformly covered with fulvous pollen, apical margins 
paler, hairs and bristles at sides concolorous ; last segment and hypopygium 
shining black, the latter with a few white hairs. Legs uniformly black, cov- 
ered sparsely with white hairs and white bristles. Length ii mm. 

One male, Huachtica Mts., Arizona (Schaeffer). 

The imiformly colored fulvous abdomen, contrasting with the 
greyish-white pleurae and the entirely black legs with white hairs and 
bristles ought to make this neat little species easy recognizable. 

Ommatius parvulus new species. 

Head white pollinose, beard white, mystax yellowish-white with a few 
black hairs above; antennas black; palpi black with white hairs. Thorax dull 
blackish-brown and marked nearly as in inargincllus. Pleurae densely white 
pollinose with a few white hairs. Wings hyaline, apex slightly smoky, ^costa 
not thickened nor dilated. Abdomen black, sides and apical margins of seg- 
ments gray pollinose and very sparsely covered with'short, white hairs. Hypo- 
pygium black, claspers truncate at apex. All the femora black, covered sparsely 
with white hairs, which are a little longer on front and middle than on hind 
femora, the latter beneath with a few white, spine-like bristles ; tibiae yellowish, 
at tip black, tarsi, except the first joint, black. Length 9 mm. 

Huachuca Mts., Arizona (Schaeffer). 

This species differs from O. macuJatus Banks in having the thorax 
dull, not shining and the hypopygium black, and from O. prctiosus 
Banks by the blackish abdomen and the hind femora of the male with 
spine-like bristles beneath. 



70 Journal New York Entomological Society. [VoL xxiv, 



A STUDY OF THE SPECIES OF THE GENUS STENO- 
PELMATUS FOUND IN THE UNITED STATES. 

By Morgan Hebard, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Brief examinations of the constantly increasing series of the genus 
in the Philadelphia collections have shown the futility of attempting 
to apply to these, with any satisfaction, the numerous names which 
have been proposed. Adding to these series the specimens in the 
United States National Museum, Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cornell University and other available collections, there is now be- 
fore us sufficient material to undertake a revisionary study of the 
forms found north of the Mexican boundary. 

Though little revisionary work of such character has been done 
since the erection of the present genus, the number of specific names, 
in the majority of cases based on few or unique specimens, has been 
constantly increasing. Scudder alone appears to have had before 
him series of any size, and his study of " The Stenopelmatins of the 
Pacific Coast "^ is clearly superficial. 

With the undetermined material before us, we have nearly all 
which has been recorded by Scudder, Rehn, Caudell and Bruner. As 
a result, it is now possible to locate the specific units involved, and, 
in the accomplishment of this task, a number of interesting facts 
have become apparent, which should prove of decided value to sub- 
sequent work. 

On the whole, however, the genus presents possibly the greatest 
number of difficulties to be found in any of the North American 
genera of Orthoptera. These may be summarized as follows : 

In the species here considered, differential genitalic characters 
do not exist. In the males, from the nearly adult condition to matur- 
ity, a small stout incurved chitinous hook is found on each side of 
the supra-anal plate just proximad of the cerci (plate VII, fig. i6 ), 
this been represented in earlier instars by a low and rounded chitinous 
ridge- (plate VII, figs. 14 and 15). The supra-anal and subgenital 

1 Can. Ent., XXXI, pp. 113 to 117 (1899). 

2 This ridge is particularly conspicuous in the last of the instars in which 
the subgenital plate does not wholly conceal the inner genitalia. In the sub- 



March, I9i6.] HebARD : GenUS StENOPELMATUS. 71 

plates show no other specialization and are in general similar, while 
the structures within the anal orifice are soft, unmodified and in the 
different species always become greatly shrivelled in drying. In the 
females the supra-anal and subgenital plates show no specialization 
and are likewise in general similar, while the ovipositor is very short, 
simple, without teeth or roughened surface, and curved upward to the 
sharp apex of the dorsal valves. 

Great dissimilarity in the sexes is shown in 5". longispina. With 
little available material, the description of the male and female as 
distinct species can be readily understood. This feature is shown to 
a much less degree in the other species here considered. 

The spination of the caudal tibiae, a feature slight variations in 
which have constituted the basis for descriptions of a number of 
nominal species, shows decided variability in S. fuscus and 6". longi- 
spina, though respectively different averages are found in the number 
of spines and length of the distal spurs. Moreover, particularly in 
longispina, sexual differences are found in the caudal tibiae. 

In all of the species here considered, as in the genotype, the teg- 
mina and wings are absent. It is, partially due to this fact, exceed- 
ingly difficult to separate adults from individuals in the last instars 
preceding maturity. 

A megacephalic condition is developed in certain species, of those 
before us much the strongest in 6^. fuscus, different individuals show- 
ing this feature to varying degrees. In the maximum of this condi- 
tion found in fuscus, more usually encountered in the male sex, the 
head is enlarged out of all proportion to the body, this being particu- 
larly pronounced in the occipital region (plate VII, fig. 2). The eyes 
in such specimens sometimes differ in being decidedly protruding 

sequent stages to the adult condition, in all of which the subgenital plate is 
fully developed, these hooks are likewise fully developed. In consequence, the 
last stages of the immature condition, as is true also for the female sex, can 
only be distinguished through familiarity with the adult condition, which may 
be differentiated only through the more robust build and heavier structure 
particularly of the head, pronotum and limbs. 

Brunner evidently compared an immature male of -S". talpa with an adult 
male of 5. longispina, at the time he described the latter species. (1888. 
Verh. zool.-bot. Gesellsch. Wien, XXXVIII, p. 260.) A male specimen of 
S. talpa before us, from Mexico, shows the fully developed chitinous hook 
exactly as in the species here studied. 



72 Journal New York Entomological Society. tVoi. xxiv, 

and bead-like, while the abnormal development of the head cauues 
them to be unusually widely separated. 

Very decided size variation frequently occurs, this is not geo- 
graphic, though in series from the same general region, those from 
high elevations show shorter and heavier limbs to varying degrees. 
Certain individuals appear to be fully adult, but if so are astonish- 
ingly small. Other immature specimens, with genitalia showing them 
to be in early instars, are surprisingly large. It is evident from the 
series before us, that almost every instar may be found at the same 
time in the same locality. Until careful breeding experiments are 
made it will be impossible to determine exactly the life cycle of these 
singular insects,^ to explain the great disparity in size frequently 
found in apparently the same instar and to distinguish readily the 
adult condition. 

As to the Mexican species, we may state from examination of 
small series, that a number are extremely distinctive ; that probably 
the most widely distributed of the species, ^. talpa, should withouc 
doubt have a number of synonyms, and that, though the majority of 
the more northern species are certainly distributed southward beyond 
the Mexican boundary, none of the more southern species reach 
northward as far as that line.- 

Stenopelmatus Burmeister. 

1838. StenopeUnatiis Burmeister, Handb. der Entom., II, abth. II, pt. I, p. 720. 
The genus was based on five species. Genotype: St^cnopelmatiis'] 
talpa Burmeister, selected by Kirby. 1906.^ 

Key to the Species of the Genus Stenopelmatus Found in the 
United States. 

(Vertex without carinae. Head and pronotum not decidedly punctate. 
Tegmina and wings absent. Caudal limbs with tarsi much shorter than tibia;. 
General coloration never black.*) 

1 The great preponderance of immature material in the collections before 
us suggests the possibility that more than a year is required in the transition 
from the egg to the adult condition. 

2 Records of S. his trio from the United States by Scudder and Fchn are 
all misidentifications, applying rightly to S. fusciis and 5". longispiiia. 

3 Synon. Cat. Orth., II, p. in. 

■t These features variously occur in certain Mexican species : some of 
them probably showing sufficient differentiation to warrant generic separation. 



March, i9i6.] Hebard : Genus Stenopelmatus. 73 

A. Size medium to very large. Occiput normally unicolorous. never heavily 
banded. 

B. Size medium to large. Head less elongate, megacephalism fre- 
quently striking. Caudal limbs proportionately shorter. Caudal 
tibiae broadening regularly without well-defined distal point of 
greatest width ; dorsal margins normally armed with three ex- 
ternal and five internal spines, none being deflexed and the 
more distal being usually longest ; longest distal spur much 
shorten than, to nearly as long as, the metatarsus. 

fuscus Haldeman. 
BB. Size medium large to very large. Head more elongate, megacepha- 
lism not pronounced. Caudal limbs proportionately longer. 
Caudal tibiae not broadening in male, broadening distad with 
well-defined point of greatest width in female ; dorsal margins 
normally armed with two external and five internal spines, the 
broadening of the limb in the female causing the second ex- 
ternal and fourth and fifth internal spines to be deflexed, the 
external and fifth internal spines being usually decidedly the 
smallest in both sexes ; longest distal spur -nearly as long as, 

to much longer than, the metatarsus longispina Brunner. 

AA. Size small. Occiput heavily marked with broad dark longitudinal bands. 
(Pronotum normally narrowing but little caudad. Caudal tibiae show- 
ing a greatly modified development of the condition found in longi- 
spina; dorsal margins normally armed with two external and three 
internal spines ; longest distal spur distinctly shorter than, to nearly 
as long as, the metatarsus) pictus Scudder. 

In tising this key it is necessary to understand ftilly the difficulties 
presented by these species, these are considered both in the introduc- 
tion and further discussed under each species in the present study. 
As we have remarked in other generic studies, no single character 
can be relied on for specific determinations. This is particularly true 
in the present genus, in which an unusual complexity of features is 
encountered. Differences in the number of caudal tibial spines, or 
slight variations in their position and relative length, are certainly 
unworthy of specific distinction; much of the past synonymy being 
mainly due to overestimation of the importance of variations in these 
features. 

In addition to over 50 specimens previously recorded and some 
40 now before us with insufficient data, all of which have been exam- 
ined, we here record 195 specimens of the genus. 



74 Journal New York Entomological Society. f^'°'- ^^iv, 

Stenopelmatus fuscus Haldeman. (Plate VII, Figs, i to 5.) 

1852. Stenopelmatus fuscus Haldeman, Stansbury's Expedition to the 
Great Salt Lake, p. 372. [i juv., Santa Fe, New Mexico; i juv., Chihuahua, 
Mexico.] 

1869. Stenopelmatus cephalotes Walker, Cat. Dermapt. Saltat. and Suppl. 
Blatt. Br. Mus., p. 195. i($, west coast of America.] 

1872. Stenopelmatus fasciatus Thomas, U. S. Geol. Surv. Montana and 
adjacent Terr., 1871, Hayden (5th Ann. Rept. of Progress), p. 434. [({, $: 
Wyoming; Utah; southern Idaho; Texas.] 

1876. Stenopelmatus oculatus Scudder, Bull. U. S. Geol. Geogr. Surv. 
Terr., II, p. 261. i^: Utah.] 

1888. Stenopelmatus hydrocephalus Brunner, Verh. zool.-bot. Gcsellsch. 
Wien, XXXVIII, p. 261. [$, California.] 

1897. Stenopelmatus comanchus Saussure and Pictet, Biol. Cent. Amer., 
Orth., I, p. 290. [(^, 5 '■ Durango, northern Mexico.] 

We here select as type locality of ftiscus, Santa Fe, New Mexico. 
The types have been destroyed, but before us are series from both 
Albuquerque and Jemez Hot Springs, New Mexico, nearby localities 
which safely prove the identity of Haldeman's species. 

Though Walker's description of cephalotes is virtually worthless, 
Kirby has, through study of that type, placed Scudder's oculatus and 
Brunner's hydrocephalus under that name. That these names are 
absolute synonyms of fuscus (Scudder himself stated that his oculatus 
might not be distinct from fasciatus of Thomas, which is unquestion- 
ably synonymous with fuscus) we are convinced from study of the 
type of oculatus, the description of hydrocephalus and the series of 
undoubted fuscus before us. 

Thomas' fasciatus we find, from the remaining specimens of his 
type series which are now before us, to be a synonym of fuscus. 

Saussure and Pictet have described comanchus from specimens 
of the present species showing only minor differences in the spines of 
the caudal tibiae. 

The present insect is the only species of the genus found in the 
United States from the eastern edge of the great plain to the Sierras. 
Adults are normally large, though not averaging as large as 5". longi- 
spina. As we have remarked on page — , material in the instars pre- 
ceding maturity shows the genitalia in both sexes in no way different 
from the adult condition ; such material is here recorded as " nearly 
adult." As we have already stated, some of these examples are re- 
markably small and appear to indicate considerable size variation in 



March, i9i6.] Hebard : Genus Stenopelmatus. 75 

the species, others with genitalia in the unformed stages are some- 
times quite large. At present the general heaviness and solidity of 
the limbs appears the only means of separating adults from some of 
the nearly adult examples. 

In the present species megacephalism is often found in adults, 
particularly of the male sex. This is always accompanied by a pro- 
portionate broadening of the pronotum, which occurs principally in 
the cephalic portion. The unusually globose occiput, occasionally 
protruding bead-like eyes (normally very little protruding) and more 
than usually roughened exposed portion of the jaws, give individuals 
in which this condition has reached its maximum, a very singular ap- 
pearance. 

At high elevations in Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and appar- 
ently generally in southern California, the limbs are found to average 
somewhat stouter and shorter than in other portions of the insect's 
distribution. This feature is, however, decidedly variable. The 
limbs of fnscus average distinctly shorter and stouter than in .S. talpa 
or longispina. 

The caudal tibiae have their dorsal surface very weakly convex to 
weakly concave, the spines vary from minute and delicate to stout and 
heavy, while the distal spurs also vary both in stoutness and in length. 
Normally the spines increase slightly in length distad, the fifth disto- 
internal spine being much smaller than the others only in the abnor- 
mal condition discussed in the next paragraph. 

Some of the females before us from southern California show a 
striking abnormality in the greatly enlarged third spine of the dorso- 
internal margin of the caudal tibiae, in extreme cases this spine being 
longer than any of the distal spurs. This feature is also shown by 
the series before us to exhibit great variability and though possibly 
indicating incipient racial development, has by no means reached a 
condition of sufficient stability to warrant nominal designation. 

The spine count for the dorsal margins of the caudal tibiae in the 
series before us is as follows \^ 

Number of spines, internal 2-5 3-5 4-4 4-5 5-5 5-6 

Number of specimens i 2 8 19 89 5 

Number of spines, external 2-3 2-5 3-3 3-4 4-4 4-5 5-5 

Number of specimens 5 i 74 28 14 i i 

1 One specimen with a malformed limb has two instead of the normal 
three pair of distal spurs, the pair of much smaller disto-ventral spurs are rep- 
resented by three minute spurs. 



76 



Journal New York Entomological Society, tvoi. xxiv, 



Measurements (in Millimeters. )i 



Males: 

Jordan, Montana . . . 

Uva, Wyoming 

Cedar, Colorado. . . . 

Claudell, New Mexico 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Soldiers Home, Cal.. . 

*Prescott, Arizona . . . 
Females: 

Gebo, Montana 

Worland, Wyoming. . 

Ogden, Utah 

Juarez, Mexico 

Reno, Nevada 

Sierra Madre, Cal.. . . 

*Wyoming2 

*Yakima, Washington 

*Claremont, Cal 



Width 

of 
Head. 



II. 8 



12. 5 

11-3 

13-4 

7 

II 

10 

11. 1 

12.3 
10.2 

11. 2 

8.3 
8.6 
8.7 



Width 

Be- 
tween 
Eyes. 



7-7 
7-9 



7.8 
7-6 
7-9 
4.1 

7 

6.6 

7-1 

8 

6.7 

6.7 

5-2 

S-i 

5-2 



Length 

of 

Pro- 



7-7 
7-7 
7-1 
8.3 
7-7 
9.6 
5.2 

7.2 

6.8 

7.6 

8.6 

7-4 

8.7 

6 

6.6 

6.3 



Width Length j Length 
of of of 

Pro- Caudal j Caudal 
notum. Femur. Tibia 



II. 2 
10.3 
10.7 
12.2 
10.7 
12.6 

6.8 

10.2 
9.7 

II. 2 

12. 1 
9.4 

10.7 



14.9 

13.7 
12. S 
13.8 

13-7 
16 
II. 7 

12.8 
12.2 

13.3 

14.7 

12.8 

14.2 

10.9 

12 

11.4 



13. 1 
12.7 
12. 1 
12.5 
12.6 
13-8 
10.7 

12 

II. 4 

12.2 

13.2 

II. 8 

12.7 

10 

10.3 

10 



Longest Length 
Tibial I ( audal 
Spur. Meta- 



3-7 

4.1 

4 

4-3 

4.1 

4.2 

3-1 

3-6 

3.3 

3.2 

3-6 

3.1 

3.2 

3 

3-1 

2.3 



4.4 
4.1 
4.6 
4.7 
4.8 
4.1 

4.2 

4 

4 

4.1 

4.1 

4.2 

3.6 

3-8 

3-2 



The specimens marked with an asterisk in the instars are preced- 
ing maturity. 

Coloration.. — Head, pronotum, underparts and limbs warm buff, in 
many individuals suffused with ochraceous to differing degrees ; the 
head often showing a more brownish-yellow coloring, a few very 
narrow and widely separated darker lines rarely indicated on the 
occiput. Abdomen shining blackish brown above, the caudal margins 
of the segments narrowly of the general warm buff coloration. In 
immature individuals, particularly those of deeper coloration, these 
bands are greatly reduced and are indistinguishable in several speci- 
mens before us which have shrivelled much in drying; on such speci- 
mens the description of fnsciis was based. 

Distribution. — Known northern limits from Jordan, Montana, 
westward to Yakima, Washington, and Drain, Oregon. The known 
limits of eastern distribution are Boxbutte County, and southwestern 
Nebraska; Claudell, New Mexico; El Paso, Texas, and Juarez, Mex- 
ico. In the latter country the extent of the species distribution is yet 
conjectural, though probably covering at least the greater portion of 
the northern plateau. 

1 We omit the body length, as the softness of the abdomen in the present 
genus precludes the possibility of accurate measurement. 

2 This specimen is one of the types of S. fasciatus of Thomas. 



March, i9i6.] HebARD : GenUS StENOPELMATUS. 77 

Specimens Examined. — In addition to a number previously fully 
and correctly recorded: 114; 13 males, 16 females, 31 immature males 
and 54 immature females. 

Jordan, Custer County, Montana, X, 19, 1905 (G. F. Beebe), i J* 
[U. S. N. M.] 

Gebo, Carbon County, Mont., XI, 22, 1899 (J. Johnson) i 5 [He- 
bard Cln.] 

Worland, Wyoming, IV and VIII, 1911 (L. Bruner), 2 juv. 5 
[Hebard Cln.]. 

Owl Creek, Hot Springs County, Wyo., VIII, 31, 1896 (R. P. 
Currie), i juv. $ [U. S. N. M.]. 

Uva, Wyo., IX, 8, 1898 (E. Boothroyd), i ^ [Hebard Cln.] 

Wheatland, Wyo. (Niswander), i 5 [Hebard Cln.] 

Laramie, Wyo. (Nisv^^ander), 15,1 juv. ^ [Hebard Cln.]. 

Wyoming, 2 nearly adult 5> types of S. fasciatns Thomas [U. S. 
N. M.]. 

Boxbutte County, Nebraska (J. G. Smith), i juv. J^ [Hebard 
Cln.]. 

Hat Creek, Sioux County, Nebr., i very small juv. (^ [Hebard 
Cln.]. 

Squaw Canon, Sioux County, Nebr., VII, 1892, i juv. J^ [Hebard 
Cln.]. 

Cedar, Colorado, VIII, 1910 (J. W. Wescott), i J^ [A. N. S. P.]. 

Colorado, 2 J*, 2 5 [Colo. State Dept. Agr. Cln. and U. S. N. M.]. 

Claudell, Roosevelt County, New Mexico, IX, 191 1 (Mrs. P. Per- 
kins), I (^ [Hebard Cln.]. 

Jemez Hot Springs, N. M., Ill, 14, 1912 (J. Woodgate), i nearly 
adult $ [Hebard Cln.]. 

Albuquerque, N. M. (C. F. Wickham), 3 juv. J^, 4 juv. 5. i very 
small juv. 5 [Hebard Cln.]. 

Kelly, Socorro County, N. M. (F. G. Schaupp), 2 juv. J* [U. S. 
N. M.]. 

Dripping Spring, Organ Mountains, N. M.. IX, 1899 (T. D. A. 
Cockerell), i juv. J, i very small juv. ^ [U. S. N. M.]. 

Fort Wingate, N. M., HI, 12 to VI, 26, 1910 (J. Woodgate), 5 
juv. J*, 3 juv. 5, I very small juv. J* [Hebard Cln.] ; X, 15, 1907 (J. 
Woodgate), i juv. $1 [A. N. S. P.]. 

1 Recorded by Rehn as the synonymous .S". oculatus. 



78 Journal New York Entomological Society, t'^o'- ^^iv, 

Black Range, Sierra County, N. M., VIII, 191 5 (H. A. Pilsbry), 
I nearly adult? small ^ [A. N. S. P.]. 

El Paso, Texas, 1908, i 5 [U. S. N. M.]. 

Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, IX, 4, 1908 (D. E. Murray), i J 
[Hebard Cln.]. 

Southern Idaho, i juv. J, type of ,5". fasciatus Thomas [U. S. N. 
M.]. 

Snake River, Idaho, VIII, 21, 1883, i juv. $ [Hebard Cln.] ; X, 
1890, I 2 [U. S. N. M.]. 

Springfield, Idaho, VIII, 23, 1906 (H. Skinner), i juv. 2'> i ji-iv- 
$ [both A. N. S. P.] .2 

Pocatello, Idaho, 5,000 feet, VIII, 6, 1910 (Rehn and Hebard; 
dead on lowest mesa), i juv. J* [Hebard Cln.]. 

Yakima, Washington (C. V. Piper), i nearly adult J [Hebard 
Cln.]. 

Umatilla, Oregon, VI, 24, 1882 (S. Henshaw), i juv. ^ [Hebard 
Cln.]. 

Peterson, Utah, XII, 5, 1878 (L. Hirst), i $ [U. S. N. M.]. 

Odgen, Utah, X, 1909 (M. M. Childs), i 5, i nearly adult J [U. 
S. N. M.]. 

Salt Lake City, Utah, i J^, i juv. J^ [A. N. S. P.]. 

Reno, Nevada, i J [Hebard Cln.]. 

Keani's District, Navajo Indian Reservation, Arizona. IV, 28, 
1901 (A. W. Barber), i juv. $ [Hebard Cln.]. 

Grand Canon, Ariz., VII, 12, 1892, i nearly adult ? small 5 
[Hebard Cln.]. 

Williams, Ariz., VII, 24 (Barber and Schwarz), i nearly adult ? 
small J" [U. S. N. M.]. 

Prescott, Ariz., VI, 14, 1904 (R. E. Kunze), i nearly adult J*,'' 
[Hebard Cln.]. 

Phoenix, Ariz., IX, 16, 1903 (R. E. Kunze), i juv. 5* [Hebard 
Cln.]. 

Carr Cafion, Huachuca Mountains, Ariz., VIII, 1905 (H. Skin- 
ner), I juv. 2"" [A. N. S. P.]. 

2 Recorded by Rehn as the synonymous 5". fasciatus. 
2 Recorded as the synonymous S. ocnlatus by Rehn. 

4 Recorded by Rehn as the synonymous S. oculatus. 

5 Recorded by Rehn as the synonymous S. oculatus. 



March, I9I6.J Hebard : Genus Stenopelmatus. 79 

Madera Canon, Santa Rita Mountains, Ariz., V and VI, 1898 (E. 
A. Schwarz), 2 jnv. ^ [U. S. N. M.]. 

Sycamore Canon, Baboquivari Mountains, Ariz., X, 8, 1910 (Rehn 
and Hebard; in "' tinajas "•'), i juv. ^ [Hebard Cln.]. 

Monument 200, Yuma Desert, Ariz., HI, 1894 (E. A. Mearns), I 
juv. 2 [U. S. N. M.]. 

Chilcoot, California, IV, 25, 191 5 (E. O. Essig), i juv. J* [Hebard 
Chi.]. 

Russian River, Cal., i ^, i nearly adult J [A. N. S. P.]. 

Marin County, Cal., 2 nearly adult J [Cal. Acad. Sci.]. 

Santa Clara Valley, Cal., i juv. 5 [Hebard Cln.]. 

Natoma, Cal, VII, 2, 1885, i juv. $ [U. S. N. M.]. 

Lone Pine, Cal., VI, 14, 1891 (A. K. Fisher), i juv. 5 [U. S. N. 
M.]. 

Ft. Tejon, Cal., 2 ^ [U. S. N. M. and Hebard Cln.]. 

Tehachapi, Cal., 4,100 feet, XII, 12, 1906, i nearly adult 5- i j"v. 
5, 2 very small juv. J [Cornell Univ. Cln.]. 

San Luis Obispo, Cal., VI, 27, 1906 (A. N. Caudell ; under cow 
droppings), i juv. J*, 2 juv. 5^ [U. S. N. M.]. 

Guadaloupe, Cal., VI, 24, 1909 (A. N. Caudell), i juv. ^' [U. S. 
N. M.]. 

Santa Barbara, Cal., I and II, 1876 (Osten-Sacken), i 5 V^^- 
C. Z.]. 

South Santa Monica, Cal. (J. J. Rivers), i nearly adult 5 [Hebard 
Cln.]. 

Soldiers Home, Los Angeles County, Cal., XII, 1909 (J. H. 
Demarest), i ^ [U. S. N. M.]. 

Pasadena, Cal. (H. W. Rust), i 5^- [A. N. S. P.]. 

Sierra Madre, Cal., V, 30, 1906 (A. N. Caudell; dead in field), i 
$* [U. S. N. M.]. 

6 These are the natural water tanks found in the usually dry mountain 
stream beds in the desert regions of the southwestern United States. Several 
specimens in various stages of decay were found at the time in these pools, 
as well as the remains of individuals of a number of other species of Orthoptera. 

1 Correctly recorded by Caudell. 

2 Correctly recorded by Caudell. 

3 Recorded by Rehn as S. californiciis. 

4 Correctly recorded by Caudell. 



80 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Vol. xxiv, 

Claremont, Cal. (C. F. Baker), 2 nearly adult 5- i very small juv. 
J*5 [Hebard and Cln. and U. S. N. M.]. 

Los Angeles County (D. W. Coquillett), i J*, i juv. 5 [U. S. 
N. M.]. 

San Bernardino, Cal. (G. W. Dunn), 3 nearly adult J- i Juv. 5 
[Hebard Cln.]. 

Beaumont, Cal., 2,700 feet, IX, 28, 1910 (Rehn and Hebard; dead 
on adobe plain), i nearly adult 5 [Hebard Cln.]. 

Mojave Desert, Cal., VH, 5, 1893 (Loew), i juv. 5 [U. S. N. M.]. 

San Diego, Cal. (J. L. Lippincott), 2 5, i nearly adult J, i juv. J 
[A. N. S. P.] ; 2 nearly adult 5, 2 juv. 5. i very small juv. ^ [Hebard 
Cln.]; VHI, 1900 (Marlatt), i juv. $ [Hebard Cln.]. 

Scudder's records of fasciatus and oculatus all apply to fitscus, of 
which species these names are synonyms. His records of longispina 
from San Diego, California, and of irregularis from Fort Tejon, 
California, are incorrect, being properly referable to fuscus. 

Stenopelmatus longispina Brunner. (Plate I, Figs. 6 to 9.) 
XXXVIII, p. 260. \_(^, Vancouver, British Columbia.] 

1888. Stenopelmatus calif ornicus Brunner, Verb, zool.-bot. Gesellsch. 
Wien, XXXVIII, p. 261. [$, Vancouver, British Columbia.] 

1888. Stenopelmatus irregularis Brunner, Verh. zool.-bot. Gesellsch. Wien, 
XXXVIII, p. 261. [5, Mazatlan, Mexico; Arizona; California.] 

1902. Stenopelmatus terrenus Rehn, Ent. News, XIII, p. 240. [[Juv.] 5 
(incorrectly), Texas.] 

Typical material of the differently appearing sexes of the present 
species were described by Brunner, the male as longispina, the female 
as irregularis. Furthermore, it is evident that calif ornicus is based 
upon a female in which the third and fourth internal spines of the 
caudal libicX are not more widely separated than the others. This is 
simply a minor variant which occurs in a few specimens of several 
series before us. Rehn's name, terrenus, is based upon a typical im- 
mature female which has, however, been dried after immersion in 
alcohol, with pronotum more decidedly constricted caudad than usual 
as a result. The specimen probably came from California, having 
been obtained from the Cope collection of reptiles, where it had been 
doubtless incorrectly labelled. Another immature male specimen of 

5 Recorded, with a question, by Rehn as 5. californicus. 

1888. Stenopelmatus longispina Brunner, Verh. zool.-bot. Gesellsch. Wien, 



March, i9i6.] HeBARD : GeNUS StENOPELMATUS. 81 

the same size and from the same lot, correctly recorded by Rehn as 
longispina, bears the same labelling. From the series now at hand it 
is evident that the range of longispina does not extend far inland 
from the Pacific coast. Brunner's record of the synonymous irregu- 
laris from Arizona, will probably be found to apply to S. fnscus. 

The present species is decidedly the largest known of the genus. 
In specimens of maximum size, the head is extremely large but no 
indication of an abnormally bulbous occiput or protruding eyes is 
shown, a condition frequent in fuscus. In the immature stages the 
head is not as large proportionately as in the adult and the pronotum 
in consequence does not expand as much cephalad. As discussed 
under fuscus, the later instars preceding maturity might easily be 
mistaken for the adult condition. 

The caudal tibias have their dorsal surface very weakly concave, 
this varying slightly in different individuals. The spines and spurs, 
though varying somewhat both in length and position individually, are 
more constant than in fuscus. The normal form and armament of 
the caudal femora is best understood by reference to the figures 
(plate VII, figs. 8 and 9). The most frequent variation is, in the 
males, the fifth internal spine equal to or longer than the fourth and the 
presence often of small supplementary external spines; in the females, 
absence of the fifth internal spine and presence of small supple- 
mentary external spines. The length of the limbs and of their spurs 
shows considerable variation, the longest spur (dorso-internal) of 
the caudal tibije is, however, very rarely much shorter than the caudal 
metatarsus. 

The spine count for the dorsal margins of the caudal tibice in the 
series before us is as follows: 

Number of spines, internal 2-5 3-4 4-4 4-5 5-5 5-6 5-7 

Number of specimens i i 25 6 51 6 i 

Number of spines, external 1-2 2-2 2-3 3-3 3-4 4-4 4-5 

Number of specimens 2 48 21 8 3 8 2 

The specimens marked with an asterisk are probably in the instar 
preceding maturity. 

Coloration. — Head, pronotum and limbs, antimony yellow. In 
dark individuals (apparently more often encountered in the female 
sex) the head and pronotum are mummy brown, the limbs strongly 



82 Journal New York Entomological Society. t^'^°'- ^xiv, 

Measurements (in Millimeters). 





Width 

of 
Head. 


Width 

Be- 
tween 
Eyes. 


Length Width 
of Pro- of Pro- 
notum. 'notum. 


Length 

of 
Caudal 
Femur. 


Length 

of 
Caudal 
Tibia. 


Longest 
Tibial 
Spur. 


Length 
Caudal 
Meta- 
tarsua. 


Males: 

Berkele3% California. . 

*Drain, Oregon 

*Marin County, Cal.. 
Females: 

Berkeley, California. . 

Berkeley, Cal 

Menlo Park, Cal 

Alameda County, Cal. 

*San Francisco, Cal.. . 


II.4 

7 
8.8 

12.8 
14.1 
12.2 
12.2 
II. I 


7-3 
4.8 
5.6 

7.8 
8.7 
7.2 
7-5 
7 


9.8 
6.2 

7.8 
9.9 

II 

10 
10. 1 

8.7 


10.8 
7.2 
8.3 

II. 7 

14 
12. 1 
12. 1 
10.9 


19.2 
13-8 
17-3 

18.3 
19.7 
17.9 
18.7 
14.9 


18.9 
13-2 
16.5 

16.8 

19 
17.2 
17.6 
14.2 


6.9 

4-3 
5-7 

5-3 

5-7 
4-7 
4.8 
4.4 


5-7 
4-7 
4.9 

5 

5 

5 

5-1 

4-7 



suffused with the same color. A paired transverse marking of tawny 
or russet is usually well indicated on the pronotum (plate VII, fig. y). 
Abdomen shining blackish brown above, the caudal margins of the 
segments narrowly of the general coloration. The underparts are 
generally of the paler color. In dried immature examples, as in 
fiiscus, the pale dorsal abdominal bands are often less apparent. 

Distribution. — The present insect is known on the Pacific coast 
from Vancouver, British Columbia to the Mexican boundary. It has 
not been found but a very short distance inland, except at Drain 
and Roseburg, Oregon, and Sacramento, Lake Tahoe and San Ber- 
nardino, California. In Mexico, the species has been recorded from 
Mazatlan alone. 

Specimens Examined. — In addition to a number previously fully 
and correctly recorded : 73 ; i male, 4 females, 25 immature males, and 
43 immature females. 

Baird's Ranch, Redwood Creek, Humboldt County, California, 
VI, 9. 1903 (H. S. Barber), i juv. ^, i juv. $ [U. S. N. M.]. 

Samoa Beach, Humboldt County, Cal., VI, 18, 1907 (J. C. Brad- 
ley; in sand dunes), i juv. 5 [Hebard Cln.]. 

Ukiah, Cal.. IV, 1885 (J. H. Burke). 2 very small juv ^ [Hebard 
Cln.]. 

Sacramento, Cal. (E. O. Essig), i juv. J [Hebard Cln.]. 

Lake Tahoe, Cal., IX, 7, i juv. J*, i juv. $ [Hebard Cln.]. 

Eldridge, Cal. (J. A. Kusche), i large juv. J*, 2 large juv. 5- 2 
juv. J*. I juv. 5' 4 small juv. ^, i small juv. ^, 2 very small juv. 
J*, 2 very small juv. J [Hebard Cln.]. 



March, i9i6.] Hebard : Genus Stenopelmatus. 83 

Manzanito, Marin County, Cal., X, 27, 1906 (J. C. Bradley), 2 
juv. 2> I very small juv. J*, i very small juv. 5 [Cornell Univ. Cln.]. 

Marin County, Cal., i nearly adult J*, 2 juv. J*, i juv. 5> 3 very 
small J* [Cal. Acad. Sci. and Hebard Cln.]. 

Martinez, Cal., I, 6, 1883 (H. W. Turner), i nearly adult 5 
[Hebard Cln.]. 

Berkeley, Cal. (J. Rivers), 2 J; HI, 1906, i very small juv. 2, X> 
3, 1906, I (^ (both J. C. Bradley) [all Hebard and Cornell Univ. 
Clns.]. 

Haywards, Cal., VI, 16, 1906 (F. E. Beal; in stump), i nearly 
adult $ [U. S. N. M.]. 

Alameda County, Cal., II, 1888 (G. W. Dunn), i 5, 2 nearly adult 
$, 2 juv. 5 [Hebard Cln.]. 

San Francisco, Cal. ( E. Ehrhorn), i nearly adult J- I small juv. 
5 [Hebard Cln.]; (H. Edwards), i nearly adult J [Cornell Univ. 
Cln.]. 

jNIenlo Park, Cal., 1905 (F. Hornung), i $, 4 juv. 2? i small juv. 
5 [U. S. N. M. and Hebard Cln.]. 

Palo Alto, Cal., Ill, 1892, 2 juv. J, i small J*, 2 small juv. 5> i 
very small juv. J [Cornell Univ. Cln.]. 

San Jose, Cal., i nearly adult 5 [M. C. Z.]. 

Felton, Santa Cruz Mountains, Cal., V, 1907 (J. C. Bradley), i 
juv. (^, 2 juv. 5, 5 small juv. 5 [Cornell Univ. Cln.]. 

San Bernardino, Cal. (G. W. Dunn), i nearly adult J* [Hebard 
Cln.]. 

San Diego, Cal. (J. Rivers; Blaisdell), 2 juv. J', i juv. J [Hebard 
Cln.]. 

Scudder's records of longispina, irregularis, calif ornicns and 
histrio, all apply properly to the present species, of which irregularis 
and calif ornicus are synonyms, with the exception of the specimens 
mentioned at the end of the treatment of S. fiiscus in the present 
paper. 

Specimens of the present species, in the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, have been recorded by Rehn as follows : as 
histrio, San Francisco, California, i small juv. J*, i small juv. J; as 
irregularis, Santa Clara County, California, i very large juv. 5> San 
Francisco, California, i very large juv. J; ^.s pictus, San Francisco, 
California, i juv. J*. The material in this series from San Fran- 
cisco is all from the same lot collected by L. E. Ricksecker. 



84 Journal New York Entomological Society. t^'°'- -"^^^v, 

Stenopelmatus pictus Scndder. (Plate VII, Figs. lo to 13.) 

1899. Steiwfeliiiatus pictus Scudder, Can. Ent., XXXI, p. 116. [i^^, $: 
California ; San Francisco, California.] 

We here select a single type the largest female from San Fran- 
cisco, California. 

This species is closely related to 6". loiigispina, though of very de- 
cidedly different general appearance from the normal condition found 
in that species. The most striking features are : the very small size ; 
distinctly and heavily marked occiput and pronotum, and reduced 
armament of the less strongly developed caudal femora, both in size 
of distal spurs in proportion to the metatarsus and average fewer 
number of spines on the dorsal margins. Certain series of longi- 
spina, in the later instars preceding maturity, and in consequence 
with genitalia as in the adult condition, closely resemble material 
of the present species. These agree in size and the more quadrate 
ironotum, but differ in the more slender form, usually more decided 
tawny pronotal marking (plate VII, fig. 7) slightly more elongate 
limbs and the other features which distinguish loiigispina, as discussed 
above. 

The caudal tibiae have the dorsal surface weakly concave distad in 
the females, deplanate in the males. The males have the limbs dis- 
tinctly longer than the females, this most pronounced in the caudal 
femora. 

In the twelve known specimens of the present species, all now 
before us, the spine count for the dorsal margins of the caudal femora 
is the same: internal, 3 and 3; external, 2 and 2. The species is 
known from so few specimens that little can be ascertained as to its 
variability. Though variation doubtless occurs, if, as is indicated by 
the collections of Orthoptera made up to the present time, the present 
insect is decidedly limited in distribution, probably much less varia- 
tion will be encountered than in the other widely distributed forms. 

The measurements given above are all from material which shows 
genitalia of mature form. As such occurs, however, in individuals of 
the genus in the later instars preceding maturity, in the absence of 
larger series of the present species we are unable to state positively 
that these specimens are fully mature. 

Coloration. — Head, pronotum, limbs and underparts, ochraceous 
buff. Dorsum of pronotum and occiput heavily marked with shining 



Joiirn. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 



Vol. XXI V. PL 7. 






10 




12 










14 




15 




16 



Stenopelmates. 



March, 1916.] 



Hebard: Genus Stenopelmatus. 



85 



Measurements (in Millimeters). 



Males: 

California. Paratype 

Palo Alto, Cal 

Palo Alto, Cal 

Females: 

San Francisco, Cal. Type... 

San Francisco, Cal. Paratype 

San Francisco, Cal. Paratype 

San Francisco, Cal 

Palo Alto, Cal 



Width 

of 
Head. 



6 
6.9 

6.7 

7.8 

6.3 

7-4 

6 

6.8 



Width 

Be- 
tween 
Eyes. 



3.9 
4.1 

4 



4.9 
3-" 



I.ength 
of pro- 
notum. 



Width Length 



of 



ot pro-l„ "' , 
notum.; Caudal 
reniur. 



4.8 
5-7 

5-2 

5-9 
4.8 
S-8 
4-3 
4.8 



6 

6.8 

6.4 

7.6 
5-9 
7.2 
5-6 
6.7 



9.1 
10.2 
10 



10 



Length 

of 
Caudal 
Tibia. 



9 
10. 1 

9-7 

8.7 

7 

8.1 

5-9 

6.9 



Long- 
est 
Tibial 
Spur. 



Length 
Caudal 
Meta- 
tarsus. 



3 

3-4 
3-4 

2.7 

2.3 
2.6 

2.3 
2.6 



blackish brown (plate VII, figs. lo and ii). Dorsal surface of ab- 
domen blackish brown, the caudal margins of the segments narrowly 
ochraceous buff. 

Distribution. — The species is known only from the localities here 
given. 

Specimens Examined. — In addition to the type and three para- 
types, we have examined the following series of 8 specimens ; 2 males, 
4 females and i immature individual. 

San Francisco, California (W. Holden ; H. Edwards), 3 5 [M. C. 
Z. and A. N. S. P.]. 

Palo Alto, Cal., III. 1892. 2 J', i §; i $, i juv. $ [Cornell Univ. 
and Hebard Cln.]. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VII. 
Stenopelmatus fuscus Haldeman. 

Fig. I. Head, cephalic aspect. Megacephalism weakly indicated. (Nat- 
ural size.) 5- Gebo, Montana. 

Fig. 2. Head, cephalic aspect. Megacephalism strongly indicated. (Nat- 
ural size.) (^. Ft. Cajon, Cal. 

Fig. 3. Lateral outline of ovipositor, (x 2.) 5- Gebo, Montana. 

Fig. 4. Lateral outline of caudal tibia, internal. ( X 2.) $. Gebo, Montana. 

Fig. 5. Lateral outline of caudal tibia, external. (X2.) 5- Gebo, Montana. 



Stenopelmatus longispina Brunner. 

Fig. 6. Head, cephalic aspect. (Natural size.) $. Berkeley, California. 
Fig. 7. Dorsal view of head and pronotum. (Natural size.) $. Berke- 
ley, California. 



86 Journal New York Entomological Society. tVoi. xxiv, 

Fig. 8. Lateral outline of caudal tibia, internal. (X2.) 5. Berkeley, 
California. 

Fig. 9. Lateral outline of caudal tibia, external. (X 2.) 5- Berkeley, 
California. 

Stenopelmatus pictus Scudder. 

Fig. 10. Head, cephalic aspect. (Natural size.) Type, 5- San Fran- 
cisco, California. 

Fig. II. Dorsal view of head and pronotum. (Natural size.) Type, J. 
San Francisco, California. 

Fig. 12. Lateral outline of caudal tibia, internal. (X 2.) Type, $. San 
Francisco, California. 

Fig. 13. Lateral outline of caudal tibia, external. (X 2.) Type, 5- San 
Francisco, California. 

Figs. 14 to 16. Dorsal outlines of male supra-anal plate in the genus 
Stenopelmatus to show development of the genital hooks. (Much enlarged.) 

Fig. 14. Early instars in which lateral ridges alone are indicated. 

Fig. 15. Later instar in which lateral blunt swellings are developed. 

Fig. 16. Late instars and adult condition in which fully developed lateral 
hooks are found. 



XANTHCECIA BUFFALOENSIS GRT., ITS LARVAL 

HABIT AND OCCURRENCE WITHIN OUR 

FIFTY-MILE FAUNAL ZONE. 

By Henry Bird^ 
Rye, N. Y, 

The keen powers of discernment possessed by the late A. R. Grote 
have been generally impressed on subsequent students of the Noc- 
tuidse, whenever his species are involved. Though he described a 
unique example of Xanthoccia (Ochria) bnffaloensis many years be- 
fore (1877), his recollection of details remained clear to him, and 
after his departure from America to Hildesheim, our correspondence 
frequently referred to this species for he was fond of this and allied 
genera. He was wont to remark that once having studied a species, 
its features were always distinct in his memory, which was born out 
by his recollection of this moth though he had not seen his type for 
a decade. His specimen came from Buffalo, N. Y., as indicated by 
the name. Twenty-two years later one from Chicago, as then only a 
second example apparently, was re-described by Strecker as Hydroccia 
latia, the small tubercle on the frons being overlooked by him. 



March, ipifi.] Bird: Xanthcecia buffaloensis. 87 

This feature of " latia" escaped notice up to 1911^ when but four 
specimens were known to us in collections. Last year an occurrence 
at Elizabeth, N. J. (Mr. O. Buchholz), makes it evident the species 
is a denizen of our fifty-mile faunal zone. A proper acquaintance 
however must rest in a knowledge of the larval habit when a suffi- 
ciency of material will be available, but our search to this end for 
many years had been without result. It easily qualified as one of the 
most elusive Noctuids of our state, so that one exposing the larval 
habit and foodplant would score an important discovery. 

Last season this honor fell to Mr. F. M. Jones at Wilmington, 
Del., when it transpired the nearly full larval history was observed 
and a number of moths reared. Very generously this material has 
been placed at our disposal, and later, at the time of larval maturity, 
an investigation of the foodplant near Elizabeth, N. J., disclosed the 
species working there. The young, second stage, boring larva was 
first met by Mr. Jones and enough difference existed with the 
Papaipemse to at once warrant the assumption the new disclosure 
must be buffaloensis. The apprehension of such astute larvse is due 
usually to a patient perusal of suspected or assumed suitable, food- 
plants, and when in the process of elimination Saiininis ccrnnns L. 
was given over to investigation, after several seasons success pre- 
vails. The choice of such a water-loving plant, growing as it usually 
does in standing water, must surely work disaster to the larva at 
times. This coupled with a severe parasitism which begins at a very 
early stage, earlier than any of the allies suffer, and with fungi work- 
ing havoc at maturity and with the pupa, makes us realize very forc- 
ibly why the imago is a rare moth. As if to meet an extra hazardous 
experience this larva is remarkable in several ways. In the point of 
activity, in changing from one plant to another when the food seems 
to have no bearing, and in the matter of appetite it is a record-break- 
ing gourmand consuming as it does about twice its bulk daily ot the 
roct-stock. When it is recalled some of the Papaipcma species like 
ptcrisii and hiinmli eat scarcely more than this amount during the 
whole larva] period of two months, the contrast in this case is pro- 
nounced. Ihere is further the power of expelling frass to some dis- 
tance so that the operations of this larva are not to be confused with 
any other. How the eggs are placed is unknown, but hibernation 

1 Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, XIX, p. 88. 



88 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^oi. xxiv, 

surely occurs at this period. On June 19 when the larv?e were first 
encountered, they were well on in the second stage and tunnelling 
near the top, sometimes entering where the petiole sheath encircled 
the stem at the second leaf downward. Their presence at this tender 
portion causes the part above to die and furnishes a ready clue to 
their position. The borings finally get down to the base though so 
many changes from one plant to another occur that in no instance 
under observation did this happen with an individual plant. During 
the penultimate and last stage every two or three days sees a change. 
It requires but a few moments for a larva to leave a plant and bore 
its way in out of sight into another, as they move and operate with 
a nervous haste quite out of the ordinary with such borers. Entry is 
a little above the ground level and they work both upward and down 
into the root, though rather avoiding the latter until quite mature. 
Sanrurus has a horizontal rootstock which extends a long way for so 
small a plant and affords a good chance for extended mining. Occa- 
sionally a larva will mine 50 cm. in these roots and yet make the long 
journey back to the ventilating orifice in the stem once in ten to fif- 
teen minutes, for disposing the frass outside. Except for the first 
work at the top, the plant shows no wilting or browning of the foliage. 

Pupation seems normally to occur in the gallery at the root crown 
or in the root according to Mr. Jones, there being no further en- 
largement of the orifice. Our experience had to do with diseased 
larvae only and these left the plant but imperfectly transformed under 
a covering of moss. Parasitism in the early stages (two and three), 
from a small Ichneumon as yet undetermined, was very severe. The 
orifice then made is too small for this wasp to enter and it may 
pierce the stem with the ovipositor to reach the gallery or host, since 
a similar species has been observed puncturing the enfolding leaf- 
roll which sheltered a Pyralid larva, in order to reach its host. Ap- 
parently the parasitic larva attains growth in a few days when it 
spins a white cocoon nearby, and in fifteen days gives up the imago. 
The host is exceedingly small at this time to support this species and 
the larval period must needs be brief. 

A close relationship to Papaipema larva is shown in the species 
under consideration, even the darkened girdle appearing, though it 
is not so pronounced. There is little change up to maturity. 

Stage III. — Head brown, no side line, ocelli prominent; con- 



March, I9i6.] BiRD: XanTIICECIA BUFFALOENSIS. 89 

stricted above the mouth-parts which seem produced; cervical shield 
darker, shaded at sides; tubercles prominent, blackish, I and II on 
twelve but slightly larger than the preceding ones ; anal and leg plates 
blackish; body color pale brownish, livid, with a purplish-gray luster; 
the narrow dorsal and sub-dorsal lines pure white, continuous, or 
nearly so, the latter being broken into a series of dashes as it crosses 
joints four, five and six ; a broader subspiracular line on two and 
three, then broken at the girdle, then continued vaguely on the ab- 
dominal segments. 

Stages IV, V. — Similar. 

Penultimate Stage. — Little change, paler ; head now more rounded, 
clypeal suture prominent ; tubercles generally larger than the spiracles, 
on the abdominal segments V is an elongated oval plate larger than 
the others, VI also being notably defined; on ten IVa has not ap- 
peared. 

Maturity. — Very cylindrical, color and markings lost in a whitish 
translucence ; tubercle now more prominent by contrast, on joint ten 
IVa develops with the examples under observation, the most indi- 
vidual feature being the elongate character of V which is about four 
times the size of the spiracle, on eleven III and IIIo are separate, 
whereas they were formerly confluent ; anal plates blackish ; length 
48 mm. Much disparity exists with individuals attaining maturity, 
early examples finishing the latter days of July, while tardy larvje 
may be feeding all through August. 

The pupa is very cylindrical, light brown, a protuberance at 
clypeus projecting at a right angle as aligned with the ventral surface 
and the frons; the cremaster is a slight thickening of the chitin, flat- 
tened ventrally, supporting two small spines, set well apart and some- 
what convergent; above these another smaller spine in the same 
dorsal alignment; length, 22 mm. The pupal period seems about four 
weeks. 

That an unspotted variation of the moth existed with this species, 
a parallel to what frequently happens with Papaipema, was previ- 
ously known and breeding developments indicate this is quite as prev- 
alent as the type form. In this instance there is less indication of 
generic position, so well suggested by the white spots, nor is there 
the prominent anterior crest which is a character for placing the un- 
spotted allies. Superficially this form might easily lead one astray. 



90 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Voi. xxiv, 

indeed Dr. J. B. Smith would never admit it and buffalocnsis were 
one and the same species. So it seems wisest to call attention to 
the facts at this time and to designate the departure with a varietal 
name. 

Xanthcecia buffaloensis simplicissima new variety. 

The tubercle on the clypeus and the general color same as type 
form. 

The median area of primaries warm brown with reddish irrora- 
tions, the basal and terminal areas washed with purplish ; the ante- 
and postmedial lines are the most prominent marking, double, the 
inner brown, the outer purplish black as bounding the median field; 
the median shade line is vague, the subterminal very dentate and 
sprinkled with a scattering row of reddish golden atoms; the round 
orbicular and the kidney-shaped reniform but indistinctly outlined in 
a shade of the darker ground; claviform wanting. Secondaries much 
paler, of the lighter purple brown and now almost a shade of fawn. 
Expanse 33-37 mm. 

Type locality, Wilmington, Del., F. M. Jones collector; four speci- 
mens Aug. 21 to Sept. 30, 1915. A paratype is with Mr. Jones, a 
male type with the author. 

The genitalia are very distinct from the general type in Papai- 
pema and possess good individual characteristics, agreeing of course 
with the type form whose difference only rests in the white spots of 
the primaries. It has been suggested that Strecker's term " latia " 
be retained for this unspotted form, but such procedure would con- 
flict with the rules, since his type is, and the description personifies 
that form in which the stigmata are white marked, that which had 
already been characterized by Grote. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

A Migratory Flight of Dragonflies. — On the afternoon of October 
13, 1915, a rather compact swarm of dragonflies was observed in 
migration at New London, Conn. The swarm came from the north 
into the Connecticut College grounds and went on southward toward 
the city. They passed along a hillside overlooking the Thames River 
and nearly a half mile from the river. 



March, 1916.] MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 91 

This is not the first time this species has been observed in large 
swarms, but the mass movements of animals are always interesting. 
It is particularly so in this case, since Mr. H. J. Shannon (Harper's 
Magazine, September, 191 5) has suggested and has amassed consid- 
erable evidence to show that this, as well as some other strong-flying 
dragonflies migrate southward before cold weather sets in and that 
there is a northward trend in the spring. 

Unfortunately the writer was absent from home when this flight 
occurred and the following notes are based upon observations made 
by my wife. The specimens she captured proved to be all Anax 
Junius (Drury), the sexes being of equal numbers. 

Mrs. Osburn was standing by the window looking out into the 
back yard — the house is on the college grounds clear at the city limits 
and with open country beyond — when, as she looked, the air seemed 
suddenly to become filled with large dragonflies all coming along the 
hillside from the north. Realizing that something unusual was tak- 
ing place, she seized an insect net and cyanide bottle and ran out 
among them. Six specimens were taken about as fast as they could 
be bottled. As they all seemed to be of one species she took no more 
of them, but stood watching them for about fifteen minutes. 

They flew back and forth across the open lot and fields as far as 
she could see them, apparently feeding as they went, while the swarm 
as a whole moved leisurely southward in a body as above stated. The 
breadth of the swarm could not be judged, nor could the number be 
estimated, but there seemed to be thousands of them in sight at a 
time. 

One thing which occasioned Mrs. Osburn much surprise was the 
fact that, contrary to the usual behavior of the larger dragonflies, 
these seemed not at all shy, but flew so close to her that they would 
almost brush against her before turning out of their course. Those 
taken were captured without the least difficulty and any number might 
have been taken with ease. There was no variation in their behavior 
during the time they were watched. While there is no explanation 
for this loss of fear in migrating animals, it has been observed fre- 
quently, especially among those moving in large numbers. 

After Mrs. Osburn was compelled to return to the house she kept 
watch occasionally from the window. The body of the swarm had 
entirely passed by the end of an hour and after that time, three 



92 Journal New York Entomological Society, t'^'o'- x^iv, 

o'clock, only occasional stragglers were seen during the remainder 
of the afternoon. These, like the ones that preceded them, were 
headed in a southward direction. — Raymond C. Osburn. 

Florida Carabidse. — Mr. H. P. Loding has called attention to the 
failure to mention in my " Carabidae of Florida " the occurrence in 
Alabama of the following Floridian species, viz : Pasimachus suhsul- 
catus, Ardistomis puncticollis, Cymindis elegans, Tachys columbien- 
sis, T. ventricosiis, L'oxandrus celeris and Olisthopus parmatus. He 
also mentions Bradyccllus neglectiis as an Alabama species and there- 
fore somewhat liable to occur in Florida. Since southern Alabama 
and northern Florida are practically a continuous region these omis- 
sions should be corrected by those using the list. — C. W. Leng. 

Florida Beetles. — I found about thirty specimens of Dicaclus quad- 
ratiis, noted as rare in Leng's " List of the Carabidce of Florida," at 
Detroit, the last station this side of Key West, from the i6th to the 
2ist of May,, 1915. I had never taken it before, though I have done 
considerable collecting in Florida. Euphoria limbalis Fall was also 
rather plentiful at Detroit. At Enterprise in 1910 I took a single 
specimen of Chlccniiis maxillosus on May 10, as well as quite a num- 
ber of two other species, floridanus and circiimcinctus, but this year 
the Chlseniini were quite scarce. — D. M. Castle. 

Snout Beetles on Holly Bloom. — While visiting recently with Mr. 
H. W. Wenzel in Philadelphia, he gave me among other rarities two 
small snout beetles, Xanthus pygmccus and Anthonomus latinscuhis, 
taken late in May on the flowers of Holly at Anglesea. This oft- 
quoted locality is rapidly becoming too civilized for good collecting ; 
but those of our readers who have holly trees near them, may secure 
these species by examining the trees when in bloom. — C. W. Leng. 

Additional records of the Deer Bot-fly Cephenomyia abdominalis. — 
This species was described by Prof. Aldrich in the June, 191 5, num- 
ber of this journal from three males collected on White Face Moun- 
tain in the Adirondacks, New York, July 6 and 10, 1914. In looking 
over my Diptera I have found two additional specimens, kindly pre- 
sented to me by their collector, Mr. Frank E. Watson. One is labeled 
" Summit of Mt. Marcey, N. Y., 5,344 ft., July 3, 1913," and the other, 
simply "North Elba, N. Y., July, 1913." This last, however, may have 
been collected on one of the mountains ascended by Mr. Watson. 
These five specimens are so far the only ones reported of this rather 



March, 1916.] MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 93 

large and conspicuous fly, which, however, cannot be rare in the 
higher mountains of the Adirondacks. — Wm. T. Davis. 

Limenitis ursula var. albofasciata. — A specimen of this rare form 
was found on Staten Island, August 22, by Oscar Fulda. — G. C. Hall. 

Eticactophagus graphipterus Champion (Coleop.) in New Jersey — • 
Since my note in the Canadian Entomologist for January, 191 5, under 
"Field Notes and Questions" recording the finding of this rare mem- 
ber of the family Calandridse in a New Jersey greenhouse, other 
specimens have been found in the same place, evidently introduced in 
orchids from the U. S. of Colombia. If left to develop unchecked 
in an orchid house, it is likely to become a serious pest as larv?e have 
been found infesting Lycaste, OdoiitogJossum and various other 
species having large, soft bulbs. The larva excavates a large cavity 
in the bulb, destroying much of the interior and paving the way for 
decay, which of course finally results in the death of the bulb. Pupa- 
tion takes place inside the infested bulb and the adults feed on the 
leaves and other portions of the plant disfiguring them to a certain 
extent. An infested bulb can be detected before the adult emerges 
but only after considerable larval feeding has been done, by pressing 
it slightly with the thumb and fingers. If it contains a cavity, the 
tissue over it gives in and if such a bulb is cut open, the larva is 
readily found. A little practice soon enables one to become ac- 
quainted with how a healthy bulb and one containing a cavity should 
feel. Unfortunately, the opportunity for further study of this un- 
usual pest was spoiled by the owners of the infested orchids being 
unusually active in destroying all of the infested bulbs they could 
find. — Harry B. Weiss. 

Cicindela hirticollis var. rhodensis new var. — In the Ent. News, 
Oct., 1903, Mr. C. Abbott Davis described a new var. of C. hirticollis 
under the name of nigrita. As this name is preoccupied it seems ad- 
visable to re-name this form, and also at the same time to give such 
other information regarding this var. as is now available. 

Cicindela hirticollis var. rhodensis nov. var. 

Size and shape variable as in hirticollis ; color brown to brownish-black; 
elytral markings indistinct and incomplete, often immaculate except a faint 
white spot at the tip of the wing case, sometimes considerably extended along 
the outer edge. Beneath as in hirticollis, but generally less hairy. 

Occurs on sandv beaches along the Atlantic Coast from Point 



9^ 



Journal New York Entomological Society. [^'°'- ^-^iv, 



Judith to Narragansett Pier, R. L, at Horseneck beach, Westport 
Harbor, Mass., at Orgunquit, Maine, at Gardiner Island and along 
the ocean side, Long Island, New York. — Edwin E. Calder. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NEW YORK ENTOMO- 
LOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Meeting of May i8, 1915. 

A regular meeting of the New York Entomological Society was held May 
18, 191 5, at 8: 15 P. M., in the American Museum of Natural History, Presi- 
dent Dr. Raymond C. Osburn in the chair, with sixteen members and three 
visitors present. 

Mr. Barber spoke of " Hemiptera Collected in Northern Florida by 
Messrs. Mutchler and Watson," pointing out that whereas the material used in 
compiling his list of Florida Hemiptera had been collected by various Museum 
expeditions and by Mrs. Slosson and Messrs. Davis, Van Duzee and others, 
mainly on the east coast and in the southern part of the peninsula and had 
proved rich in West Indian forms, the present lot of material had been col- 
lected mainly in the northwestern port of the State, adjoining the mainland of 
Alabama and Georgia, and had proved poor in West Indian forms, and prac- 
tically identical with the fauna of the Gulf Strip. 

The extreme southern character of the fauna was shown not only by the 
species collected but by the poor representation of Capsidas or Miridae. Among 
the more notable captures were Chilianella productiUs, Largns davisi, and 
Matapodius confraternus. 

The paper was discussed by Messrs. Olsen, Davis and Schaeffer, bringing 
out the fact that the Miridae, while deficient in southwestern states and West 
Indies, were comparatively plentiful through Mexico and Central America. 

Mr. Engelhardt exhibited specimens of the Sesiid moth, Memytrus palmi, 
described from Florida from a specimen now in American Museum collection, 
and known from another Floridian specimen in Mr. Palm's collection and 
numerous examples from North Carolina and other localities northward to 
Long Island, commenting upon its preference for white and red oak and, to a 
less degree, scarlet oak, and its resemblance to yellow-jacket wasps. He said 
that its habit of breeding in the larger branches made it usually difficult to 
collect in numbers, but that it had been fortunate in finding a locality near 
east New York, where the cutting down of the trees had compelled it to breed 
in smaller and more accessible branches, so that upwards of fifty infested 
pieces had been cut off. One of these was exhibited to show the work of the 
larva, circling around the branch during its first season and entering the heart 
wood the same fall or second year, and the pupa in its burrow in the very 
center of the branch. 

Mr. Comstock spoke of his experiences with Mr. Watson in 1914 and with 



March, 1916.] PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 95 

Mr. Woodruff this year in collecting Lycflenidae at Greenwood Lake, particu- 
larly in reference to Incisalia henrici, which at the same date and locality 
proved less abundant this year than in 1914, when on May 3 a few were found 
and on May 10 about twenty were taken on the top of a knoll (about 1,200 
feet elevation) two hours' walk from Glen Station. Anthocaris genutia was 
very abundant both years and other Lycaenidae were found, irus, augustus, etc., 
but the absence of henrici this year was remarkable. Mr. Comstock closed 
with a discussion of food plants in which Messrs. Davis and Engelhardt joined. 

Mr. Engelhardt remarked on the abundance of Anthocaris genutia on 
April 24 in Dutchess County, N. Y., near the Connecticut state line, where the 
Arabis, on which it feeds, was also abundant. 

Mr. Wm. T. Davis stated that he had spent the 6th and 7th of May at 
Lakehurst, N. J., and at night had found many moths on the flowers of the 
beach plum. Primus maritima, among them were Graphiphora subterminata 
Smith, Graphiphora culea Gro. and Jodia rufago Hiib. At sugar there were 
five species of Phaeocyma and the bug Largus succinctus Linn. Five indi- 
viduals of this last-mentioned species were present and a pair were in copula- 
tion. This species also occurs at night on flowers. Adults have been found 
at Lakehurst in A'pril, May and June; in July nymphs, and adults again in 
late August and in September. It has also been found in copulation on 
June 4. 

Mr. Davis remarked also that on account of their different dates of bloom- 
ing, one might use skunk cabbage, willow bloom and beach plum in succession 
for night collecting and thus prolong the season. 

Mr. Leng exhibited small branches of dogwood infested by the scolytid 
beetle, Phlceotribus frontalis, showing the characteristic clusters of sawdust at 
the entrances to the numerous burrows, and said they had been collected by 
Mr. H. W. Wenzel on May 10 near Philadelphia. 

Mr. Dow exhibited a cocoon from Panama and several other insects, 
living and dead. 

Dr. Osburn spoke briefly of his new home at No. 358 Mahegan Ave., New- 
London, Conn., and said he hoped to have visits there from members of the 
Society interested in the varied collecting of that locality, where fresh and 
tide water shores, hills and plains would, he felt sure, prove remunerative. 

After refreshments the Society adjourned to the first Tuesday in October. 

Meeting of October 5, 1915. 

A regular meeting of the New York Entomological Society was held October 
5, 1915, at 8: IS P. M., in the American Museum of Natural History, Vice- 
President H. G. Barber in the chair, and twenty members present, with three 
visitors, including Mr. H. H. Knight, of Cornell University. 

Dr. Lutz exhibited two luminous larviform insects received from C. L. 
Holmes, Waterbury, Conn., similar to others collected by himself at North 
Mountain, Pa., and received from Tompkin's Cove, N. Y., and referred to an 
illustrated article by Riley in Am. Ent., 1880, apparently referring to the same 



9G Journal New York Entomological Society. [Vol. xxiv, 

insect, which in the dark looked like a miniature trolley car from the luminous 
spot on the sides of each segment. Mr. Schaeffer said he believed it was the 
female of Phengodes laticollis, but should be referred to H. S. Barber in 
Washington, who had specially studied the subject, and to whom he had sent 
similar specimens from Yaphank, L. I. The discussion that followed brought 
out the error in the suspicion of early authors that these luminous creatures 
were larvae of Melanactes, Asaphes or other Elateridae, the successful work of 
H. S. Barber having shown them to belong to Lampyridae. 

Mr. Mutchler exhibited in advance of a complete report on the expedition 
to Porto Rico : Tetracha sobrina taken at Ensenada, P. R., June 14 ; Cicindela 
hebrcra taken at Anasco, P. R., September; Cicindela boops taken at Ensenada, 
P. R., June 14; Cicindela trifasciata taken at Ensenada, P. R., June 14, and a 
Cicindela, apparently new, taken by Mr. Watson in San Domingo. 

Mr. Watson exhibited Sphingidje donated to the Museum by Mr. B. Pres- 
ton Clark, of Boston, with a collection of American Sphingidse, containing 34 
species, new to the collection, mostly subtropical, and including the new Henio- 
roplanes acuta R. & J., from Bolivia. 

Mr. Shoemaker spoke briefly of his summer collecting at Washington, 
D. C, and at Slide Mt., in the Catskills, the latter resulting in the capture of 
about 1,800 beetles and 500 to 600 Lepidoptera. On the September visit to 
Washington he was accompanied by Mr. Nicolay and their joint efforts yielded 
twenty-two specimens of Cychrus. 

Mr. Nicolay described their joint efforts in greater detail, regretting the 
comparative failure of bait bottles on account of cold nights, but extolling the 
merits of the Virginia shore of the Potomac River, opposite Plummer's Island, 
where their success under small and moderate-sized stones led to search be- 
neath larger ones, until, as he expressed it, they were " moving the landscape 
a little." Pferosticlius purpuratiis was common and P. appro.viniatits and other 
desirable Carabidae were found, while Parnidae were seen crawling like spiders 
on wood pulled out of the water into the sunshine, and Cremastochilus sp. was 
found under a stone with ants, which dragged it down under the soil when 
disturbed. 

Mr. Davis said in his experience Cremastochilus buried itself, but Mr. 
Nicolay repeated that in this instance two ants pulled on the front legs while 
he pulled on the hind legs. 

Mr. Nicolay also spoke of Cicindelidas caught at Mt. Pocono, Pa., and 
promised to show them at the next meeting. 

Mr. Dow mentioned the death on August 24 of J. Turner Brakeley, of 
Lahaway, and his friendship with Smith Grossbcck and the two Wenzels, and 
promised a paper on his personal characteristics and entomological activity for 
next meeting. He exhibited specimens caught at Lahaway this summer and 
at Allaben in the Catskills where he met Pearsall and Crosby commenting espe- 
cially on the abundance of Strategus antccus and Cicindela lepida at Lahaway, 
where the burrows of the latter could be found only two or three feet apart in 
perfectly smooth grassless places of white sand. He donated Arctia caia 



March, 1916.J PROCEEDINGS OF THE SoCIETY. 97 

from Allaben to the local collection and a number of other specimens to the 
members present. 

Mr. Olsen, referring to a European Aphid previously reported by him as 
occurring in this country, added that he had learned from Gillette of its occur- 
rence in other parts of the United States. 

Mr. Sherman spoke of his visit to the White Mountains in September and 
especially of the increased facilities afforded for collecting by the permanent 
camps on the summit, at the Lake of the Clouds, which is in the heart of the 
alpine garden, and of the prospect of additional camps being built at Hermit 
Lake and in the Great Gulf. Many new trails have been added by the Appa- 
lachian Mountain Club. He met Sheriff, of Boston, while in the mountains 
who showed him a Carabus chamissonis found under a stone, still entirely 
white, though it darkened in a few hours. 

Mr. Engelhardt spoke of his visits to Pleasant Valley, in the foothills of 
the Berkshires, where he had good collecting, particularly at night, and was 
pleased to find the postmaster a naturalist. He described particularly a bait 
bottle in which a mouse, accidentally caught, died and served to attract Sil- 
phidae in such numbers that the bottle was entirely filled. 

Mr. Sleight spoke of the material collected abroad by Mr. Holinan and 
sent to him. 

Mr. Davis spoke briefly of his visit at the end of May to Rock City in the 
western part of the state and of several visits to Long Island, exhibiting 
dragon flies caught by shooting charges of fine shot at them with a sling shot. 
He also read a letter from Charles Dury, in reference to the latter's journey 
through Arizona, Nevada and California, and showed a copy of the recent 
work by Bentley B. Fulton, " The Free Crickets of New York : Life History 
and Bionomics," being Tech. Bull. No. 42 issued by N. Y. Agl. Exp. Sta., 
Geneva, N. Y., to which he gave the highest commendation as the first com- 
plete and accurate treatment of the subject, regretting only that a botanical 
error appeared on page 30, where the bur oak (Q. macrocarpa) should be the 
post oak (Q. minor), the bur oak not being found, so far as known, on Long 
Island. The error is repeated on page 27. Dr. Lutz called attention to the 
return of W. S. Genung, known some years ago by his collections in Georgia, 
Florida, Cape Breton and Newfoundland, to entomological activity in his 
seventy-second year, his present address being New Augustine, Fla. 

Mr. Woodruff spoke of finding an unusual dragon fly again at Litchfield, 
Conn., from June 30 to July 15, the species being Leucorhinia frigida, and 
represented by males only. 

Mr. Bird spoke of his continued search for boring lepidopterous larvae 
and said he had now succeeded in finding another species within the fifty-mile 
limit. 

Mr. Hall exhibited a Staten Island specimen of Limenitis Ursula var. 
albofasciata taken by Oscar Fulda, August 22 ; and commented on other local 
records for this rare form. 

Mr. J. W. Angell spoke of collecting at Twin Lakes, Conn., in favorable 



98 Journal New York Entomological Society. IVoi. xxiv, 

terms, and exhibited thirty-five exotic Neolamprima and a series (i4c?c?, 4?$) 
of Liicanus elaphus. 

Mr. Schaeffer spoke of expeditions to West Point with Colonel Robinson 
and of various new Long Islands records of which he will furnish details at a 
later meeting. Mr. Leng exhibited some Coleoptera taken on Staten Island 
by his son, which, as far as new to the local list, will be mentioned in short 
notes. These included also Ochthebius foveicollis and Hydraena pennsyl- 
vanica from Willow Brook, near Bull's Head, where the growth of Anacharis 
in the water and the protruding willow roots on the banks made excellent col- 
lecting for aquatic species, especially Parnidae, which occur in great numbers. 

Mr. Schaeffer mentioned, in connection with the West Indian List, the 
occurrence in Trinidad of two new species of Eucnemidae. 

Mr. Barber spoke of his experiences at Lakehurst in September, where 
the rains had caused an unusually verdant appearance and remarkably poor 
collecting. 

Mr. Knight, commenting on Malachlus crneiis, said it was very common at 
Batavia, N. Y. 

Meeting of October 19, 1915. 

A regular meeting of the New York Entomological Society was held Octo- 
ber 19, 1915, at 8: 15 P. M., in the American Museum of Natural History, 
Vice-President Harry G. Barber in the chair, with fourteen members present. 

On motion the following were elected to active membership in the Society, 
viz.: W. D. Funkhouser, 415 N. Tioga St., Ithaca, N. Y. ; M. D. Leonard, 
Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. ; Lawrence H. 
Dunn, Board of Health Laboratory, Ancon, Canal Zone. 

On motion, Dr. F. E. Lutz was elected a delegate to the Second Pan- 
American Scientific Congress, with C. W, Leng as alternate. 

Mr. Nicolay exhibited a collection of " Local Cicindelidas " in reference 
to which he said in part that since 1910 he had collected personally or obtained 
by exchange twenty-five species and varieties. A series of C. patnicla from 
Pocono, Pa., where this species is plentiful early in September at a place 
locally called the Knob, was illustrated by photographs of the locality ; as was 
a series of C. limbalis from the wagon road approaching the summit of Storm 
King Mountain, near West Point, N. Y. Brownish forms of C. purpurea from 
Pocono and a green specimen collected by Mr. Pearsall in the Catskills Moun- 
tains were subjects of comment. In reference to C. harrisi, Mr. Nicolay said 
that no typical C. sex-guttata were found with it, and while it might be an alti- 
tudinous form of that species, it could scarcely be a senile form, since its 
peculiar color was developed only in the mountains. In regard to local races, 
Mr. Nicolay pointed out that nigrita was not apparently approached in the 
Chesapeake Bay race of hirticollis, as it was at Rockaway Beach, and Mr. 
Davis added that it was only on Long Island that immaculate forms of iiiodesta 
were locally found. Aqueduct being the great center. At Lakehurst, though 
the species were found in numbers, such variations were so far unknown. 
Messrs. Shoemaker and Angell joined in the discussion. 



March, 1916.] PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 99 

Mr. Dow, under the title " A Pilgrimage to Lahaway," described the 
strong character of the late J. Turner Brakeley, dwelling upon the aid he had 
given John B. Smith and others, and the lovable nature that dominated his 
career in spite of his many eccentricities. As this paper will later be pub- 
lished in full, no extract is given. 

Meeting of November 2, 1915. 

A regular meeting of the New York Entomological Society was held No- 
vember 2, 1915, in the American Museum of Natural History, at 8: 15 P. M., 
Vice-President Harry G. Barber in the chair, with eleven members and two 
visitors present. 

Mr. Dickerson spoke on " Insects of Season of 1915," dwelling particu- 
larly on those of economic importance, and pointing out the opportunities for 
collecting on the masses of flowers in commercial nurseries and the liability 
of European insects being found there from the growing practice of importing 
shrubs with balls of earth about the roots. 

The European Mole Cricket, Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa L., found in this way 
at Rutherford, N, J., by Weiss and determined by Rehn, was shown as an 
example; also Exochomus 4-pustnlatus, Rutherford, July 10, and Riverton, 
March 29, from bay trees imported from Belgium in the nurseries ; Plagiodera 
versicolor, found on willows in nurseries at Rutherford, and Carabus nemoralls 
as additional examples among Coleoptera. In some cases the origin of the 
insects was an interesting problem. . The Tingid, Leptobyrsa explanata, for 
instance, is a native insect found on wild azalea, and is also found in nurseries 
on imported rhododendrons perhaps from confusion with a similar European 
insect, perhaps from prior introduction in Europe on rhododendron stock 
brought from America. Leptophya mutica Say is another species found on 
fringetree (Chionanthus virginica) in southern New Jersey. Otiorhynchns 
sulcatus, a beetle common to Europe and America, is also found in nurseries, 
the adults damaging the leaves of rhododendron, but possibly being introduced 
also in the earth about the roots. Its habits are mainly subterranean and it is 
easily trapped under boards. 

Mr. Dickerson also spoke of the varying plenty of certain injurious insects 
in different years. An abundance of plant-lice in the early summer was noted 
combined with a scarcity of lady bugs. The injury to apple foliage was great, 
in which connection Mr. Dickerson spoke of the necessity of spraying just as 
leaf buds begin to swell, as emphasized in Bulletin 402, " Controlling Plant 
Lice in Apple Orchards," by R. J. Parrott, and of the efiiect of combinations 
of nicotine in the spraying mixture. The tanglefoot joint as a remedy for 
peach tree borers was also mentioned. The varying plenty of the catalpa 
sphinx, especially on Catalpa brugei in nurseries, was also alluded to. It was 
not abundant this year but may be next year, since its parasite was also scarce. 

Mr. Dickerson exhibited also Adalia humeralis from Nutley, N. J., June 
16, Blethisa quadricollis Hald, a specimen taken at Arlington, N. J., April 10, 
in a wet situation, thus confirming the single record in the New Jersey List; 



100 Journal New York Entomological Society. [^'°'- xxiv, 

a botfly, Cuterebra buccata Fab., determined by Mr. Davis, found on sidewalk 
in Irvington, N. J., a Psychoda cinerea Banks, found in the bathroom ; and the 
European pine tip moth, Evetria buoliana (to which Bulletin 170, U. S. Dept. 
of Agriculture, is devoted), which fortunately has not spread rapidly here, but 
is so serious a pest in Europe that 150,000 larvae have been gathered and de- 
stroyed in one locality. Mr. Busck has investigated its appearance on Long 
Island and the importation of pines has been stopped. 

Mr. Dickerson spoke also of the attacks of a Chactocnema, similar to C. 
confinis (which is known to attack sweet potato and bindweed), on cultivated 
mallow in a nursery at Rutherford; and of the larvae of Barini working in the 
lower stem of Gaillardia and other cultivated composites. He closed by urging 
greater attention to such nurseries by collectors. 

His remarks were followed by a general discussion of the subjects 
introduced. 

Mr. Leng stated that in addition to Otiorhynchus sulcqtus the European 
species, O. aiiricapillis, was known to have been introduced with imported 
stock at Cromwell, Conn, (fide W. D. Pierce), and O. singularis was reported 
from several localities by New England collectors and by Mr. Shoemaker. 

Mr. Davis said the catalpa sphinx always flew ahead of its parasite and 
was liable for two or three years to defoliate the trees, as at Lakehurst a few - 
years ago, but the parasite soon followed, and thereafter held it in check. 

Mr. Angell spoke of the various localities for Carabtis nemoralis to which 
Mr. Davis added Staten Island. 

Mr. Davis also added Staten Island to the localities for Plagiodera ver- 
sicolor Laich. (armoracics Fab.), his earliest record being August 3, 191 1, in 
the Clove Valley. This year on October 9 numbers were found under willow 
bark at Bull's Head, where it had also been taken in July on the willow leaves 
by C. W. Leng, Jr. 

Mr. Davis spoke of its identification by Mr. Schwarz from specimens he 
had taken to Washington and Mr. Woodruff added that Mr. Schaeffer had sent 
him the same name. Mr. Dickerson added also that specimens from New 
Jersey had been sent him two or three years ago, so that this European enemy 
of willow and poplar might be considered fairly established near New York 
City. 

Mr. Davis exhibited the description of the species under the name arnio- 
racicB in Stephens' Manual of British Beetles, saying that it was not safe to 
leave a generic name out over night and perhaps scarcely a specific name. He 
commented also on the more natural appearance of specimens killed in cyanide ; 
and exhibited specimens of Micromalthus debilis given him by Mr. Herbert S. 
Barber and the latter's interesting work on its varied method of reproduction. 

Mr. Barber exhibited Carthasus rufonotatus, which he could now add to 
the New Jersey List. His remarks will be printed in Short Notes. 

Mr. Davis exhibited his collection of Long Island Cicindelidae, commenting 
especially on the ancient record for C. unipunctata and recent captures of C. 
consentanea by Mr. Schott at Wyandanch, L. I., April 24 ; by Mr. Harris at 



March, 1916.] PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 101 

Quogue and Westhampton in September and by Mr. Wood at Port Jefferson, 
on a gravelly bluff sloping down to the beach. 

He also showed the varied forms of C. rugifrons and C. modesta taken 
in one day's collecting at Aqueduct and said while that locality was destroyed, 
a smaller dune further along the shore was still good. 

Mr, Harris recalled the work of Mr. Johnson and Mr. Joutel at Aqueduct, 
and spoke of his own recent trip to Oak Island, across the Great South Bay, 
where Johnson lost his life, to obtain the dorsalis, hirticollis and repanda that 
the latter had collected there. He spoke also of C. munifica, a large form of 
dorsalis, with broad conspicuous bronze markings, which he had received from 
Professor Calder, of Providence, who had collected it at Narrangansett Pier, 
so far as known, the most northern locality for the species; and of the gradual 
disappearance in dried specimens of rugifrons of the brassy color sometimes 
noted in the field. 

Mr. Davis said the same change in color might be noted in C 6-gnttafa, 
specimens in old collections being often of a more violet shade. 

Mr. Angell recorded finding C. 6-guttata on October 12. Mr. Dow ex- 
hibited plaster cast from Lahaway of a spider burrow and another of Cicindela 
modesta and spoke of the characteristic form of burrow made by each species. 

Mr. Rich spoke of the presentation at Ithaca by Mr. Leach of the U. S. 
Bureau of Entomology of some of the economic matters mentioned by Mr. 
Dickerson, particularly regarding peach tree borers. 

Meeting of November 16, 1915 

A regular meeting of the New York Entomological Society was held No- 
vember 16, 191S, in Heim's Restaurant, at 8: 15 P. M., with Vice-President 
H. G. Barber in the chair and eighteen members and five visitors, viz. : Mr. 
Henry Brown, a member of the Soc. Ent. of France; Mr. H. L. Viereck, of 
the Washington Biologists' Field Club ; Mr. Harry B. Weiss, of the New Jersey 
Agl. Exp. Sta. ; Mr. Herbert Lang and Mr. James C. Chapin, of the American 
Museum Congo Expedition, and Mr. Stephen G. Rich, present. 

The curator reported a donation from Mr. Dickerson to the local collec- 
tion;. and resumption of the study of the Coleoptera thereof on Saturday, 
November 20, at 2 P. M., the subject being the family Cleridae. 

The secretary read letters from several members, including Messrs. Green, 
Bird, Love, Knapp, Groth, Wunder and Joutel, regretting their inability to 
attend the supper which preceded the meeting. 

Mr. Laurence V. Coleman, 150 Maple St., Brooklyn, was elected to active 
membership. 

Mr. Dow reported for the committee on Lahaway that Mr. J. W. Angell 
and he had again visited the Plantation. 

Messrs. Davis and Leng spoke of their recent visit to Washington, of the 
friends with whom they had visited while there, and of their scientific results, 
which will be printed in the Journal. Mr. Davis also exhibited photographs 
of persons and places and a printing press for locality labels obtained from 



102 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^^o'- ^^iv, 

Herbert S. Barber, by which any number of labels may be quickly prepared. 
Mr. Leng showed the recent Report No. 107 by F. C. Craighead on "Larvae 
of the Prioninse." 

Mr. Engelhardt read a paper on the " Mecoptera of N. E. United States,'" 
which will be printed elsewhere. 

Upon invitation by the chairman, several of the visitors spoke briefly ex- 
pressing their gratification. 

Messrs. Lang and Chapin, referring to the entomological results of their 
Congo Expeditions, said that they were novices in entomology and that Mr. 
Davis was largely responsible for their exertions in that direction ; Mr. Chapin 
disclaimed any strong affection for the skin beetles, termites and driver ants that 
in various ways hindered their work. He said that actually they depended 
more or less on native help, such as boys stationed along the road with nets 
or visiting other localities of which they know. One elderly ex-soldier, /Caj^^Ja 
by name, but nicknamed " Peperua " (^butterfly in Medje language), because 
he was often employed to use the butterfly net, had been very serviceable, 
though once his hunger for fresh meat led him to assail with his net a native 
hunter carrying an antelope, and while his stratagem secured the desired deli- 
cacy, there was trouble next day when the scared hunter got over his fright. 

Dr. Lutz, speaking of the entomological collections they had brought back, 
said that scarcely a third had been unpacked and that they were evidently very 
extensive and most important additions to the 'American Museum stock of 
insects. He only regretted that lack of competent workers in the country 
would necessarily retard their study and urged the specialists in the Society 
to aid the Museum in working up this valuable material. 

Mr. Doll and Mr. Benedict spoke briefly of their pleasure in being able to 
attend the meeting. 

Mr. J. W. Angell described the Lahaway Plantation, mentioning the accom- 
modation obtainable at Prospertown, close by, the good condition of the build- 
ings, the attractive features, including the many different environments for 
collecting, and the complete isolation of the great forest which had not been 
cut for forty years. He urged that it be acquired, since in years to come 
increasing cultivation would make such an opportunity unlikely to recur. 

Meeting of December 7, 191 5. 

A regular meeting of the New York Entomological Society was held De- 
cember 7, 1915, at 8: 15 P. M., in the American Museum of Natural History, 
Vice-President Harry G. Barber in the chair, with twenty-one members and 
three visitors, including Mr. Harry B. Weiss and Mr. H. L. Viereck, present. 

The curator reported gift of Pterostichus purpuratus from Mr. Shoemaker ; 
also the completion of the local collection of Cleridse, and announced a special 
meeting of Coleopterists on Saturday, December 18, at 2 P. M., for the study 
of the Malachiidffi. 

The following were elected to active membership : Stephen G. Rich, Harry 
B. Weiss, Henry Brown. 



March, 1916.] PROCEEniNGS OF THE SoCIETY. 103 

Mr. Howard L. Clark, North Farm, Bristol, R. I., was proposed for active 
membership by Mr. Bird. 

Mr. Bird presented a paper on " Xanthcecia buffaloensis Grt., its larval 
history and occurrence within our fifty-mile faunal zone," which will be printed 
in full in the Journal. He exhibited specimens, dilating upon the clypeal 
tubercle and its possible use ; and referring to the occurrence of the species 
within the city limits, said he had found the larvae in New Jersey on their now 
known food plant, Saururns ccrnuits L., and they would probably be found 
also on Staten Island. 

Mr. Bird also added Nonagria laeta to the local list and made known its 
food plant, Sparganium, which has not hitherto been recorded. 

Mr. Leng exhibited a specimen of Otiorhynchus sulcafus in which one of 
the deciduous cusps was present, while the other was lacking, so that its scar 
on the mandible could be seen ; and compared the use of the cusps in breaking 
through the pupal stage with the clypeal tubercle shown by Mr. Bird. 

Dr. Lutz, commenting on Mr. Bird's remarks, said that special horns, 
spines, etc., could not always with safety be ascribed to special uses, since 
such were often the marks of old, specializing stock. 

Mr. Dickerson exhibited pink and green specimens of Amphiscepa hivit- 
tata Say, collected at West Norwood, N. J., August 28, by sweeping, both 
sexes being represented, and referred to the fact that pink insects were usually 
found in the fall. 

Mr. Davis mentioned Professor W. M. Wheeler's resume of facts con- 
cerning pink insects. 

Mr. J. W. Angell spoke of the combats between males of Lucanus cervtis 
in which the mandibles were vised as weapons and quoted Janson's experience 
with them, in which the elytra were found greatly damaged. 

Mr. Dow exhibited a pine snake from Lahaway which had swallowed a 
partridge egg, and a number of curious nests made by wasps from the same 
locality, in which coat hooks, door hasps, etc., had been utilized by the insects. 

Mr. Viereck later, commenting upon them, said that Sceliphron solitarius 
was the architect responsible for most of them. 

Mr. Weiss exhibited Eucactophagus grapliipterus Champ., a Calandrid 
weevil found at Summit, N. J., in greenhouses where orchids with soft bulbs, 
like Odontoglossum, were grown. A more complete account will be printed in 
Miscellaneous Notes. 

Mr. Davis exhibited insects collected in Cuba by Mr. M. R. Harrington 
while engaged in archaeological work. Many came from a cave near Baracoa 
where the walls were in places covered with roaches ; and others included 
Pyrophorus, Elaphidion, Stenodontes and other Coleoptera as well as Penta- 
tomids and Cicadas. 

Mr. Davis also read " Additional Records of the Deer Bot-fly," which will 
be printed in Miscellaneous Notes, and exhibited it and allied species of 
Cuterehra. 

Mr. Leng exhibited the West Indian Lycidas of the American Museum and 



104 Journal New York Entomological Society, f^oi xxiv, 

National Museum combined and commented on the distribution of genus 
Thonahinis, one section of which is apparently confined to Cuba and the Ba- 
hamas, while no species at all occur in Porto Rico. 

Mr. Long also read a letter from F. G. Schaupp, written in 1892, recount- 
ing his first experiences in America in 1866. 

Mr. Barber exhibited two European species of Lygaeidse occurring in N. E. 
America, one, Stygnocorus rusticus, having been already reported by Horvath 
in 19 10, the other, 5". pedestris, having been lately found in Nova Scotia and 
brought to his attention by the Bussey Institution. 

Mr. Nicolay spoke of his visit via Dyckman St. Ferry to Palisades Inter- 
state Park and regretted that the natural scenery and conditions had been 
greatly damaged by ill-advised attempts to improve them. Mr. Davis fully 
endorsed his views, saying that greater destruction had been wrought by order ■ 
of the commissioners than an irresponsible horde of picnickers could possibly 
accomplish if bidden to do their worst for an entire Sunday. He referred also 
to the formal protest filed by the Linnsan Society and furnished extracts from 
the proceedings of that Society. 

Mr. Harris spoke of his visit to Washington and his studies with Mr. 
Schwarz of the U. S. National Museum collection of Cicindelidse, remarking 
particularly on the liability of species supposed to be exclusively Central Amer- 
ican to occur in Arizona, New Mexico or Sonora. A form of C. argentata 
found by Oslar in Sonora, and C. segnis. related to C. debilis, found in Ari- 
zona by Eugene Smythe being examples. 

Meeting of December 18, 1915. 

A regular meeting of the New York Entomological Society was held De- 
cember 18, 1915, at 8: 15 P. M., in the American Museum of Natural History, 
Vice-President Harry G. Barber in the chair, with twenty members and one 
visitor, Mr. Howard Notman, present. 

The curator reported that the local collection of Malachiidae had been 
completed and that the subject for study on January 15 would be the family 
Cistelidse. 

Mr. Schaeffer for the Publication Committee reported progress with the 
Van Duzee List, which had been delayed by the printer and by corrections 
received from the author. 

Mr. Dow, in seconding the nomination of Mr. Howard L. Clark, recalled 
that gentleman's forty-two years of entomological activity and moved that he 
be elected by affirmative ballot cast by the secretary. 

Mr. Clark was thereupon elected an active member. 

Mr. Dow nominated Mr. Howard Notman, of 136 Joralemon St., Brooklyn, 
for active membership. 

Mr. Davis announced the death on December 15 of Ignaz Matausch, a 
member of the Society for many years. 

On motion, Mr. Mutchler was appointed a committee to prepare an obit- 



March, 1916.] PROCEEDINGS OF THE SoCIETY. 105 

uary notice for the Journal ; and the secretary was instructed to express by 
letter to the widow the regret of the members. 

The chairman appointed Messrs. Dickerson, Dow and Sleight a committee 
to prepare nominations for officers for the ensuing year. 

Mr. Nicolay exhibited his collection of " Local Gyrinidse " and other fami- 
lies of aquatic beetles and described methods of capture and local environment. 
He also showed sheets prepared for the N. Y. State List and enlarged photo- 
graphs of the scenes amid which he had collected. 

Mr. Davis, adverting to his remarks on the sunbasking habit of Gyrinidse, 
recalled his printed observations,! and especially his experience at Pine Island, 
N. Y., with Mr. Woodruff when Dineutes discolor and Gyrinus dichrous were 
seen in separate assemblages, though on the same submerged tree, basking in 
the sun, and dropping off, one by one, when disturbed, like turtles. 

Mr. Schaeffer and Mr. Leng spoke of the taxonomic difficulties involved 
in some of these groups, and the latter referred also to the work in progress 
by Mr. H. H. Knight, of Ithaca, on the Parnids. 

Dr. Lutz, in the absence of Mr. Viereck, exhibited and spoke briefly of the 
parasitic Hymenoptera of Porto Rico. 

Mr. Davis exhibited photographs received from Mr. Clarence Shoemaker 
of Messrs. Nicolay and Shoemaker at work along the Potomac, and quoted 
the nickname " Energy Shoemaker " as applied in Washington to the latter. 

Mr. Shoemaker exhibited and donated to the local collection specimens of 
Semiophora gristra, taken at Lakehurst in October and identified as a rare 
moth by Dr. Forbes ; also Catocala amatrix, captured as it flew alarmed from 
the pine trees, and Xylina pexata. He remarked upon the benefit he had 
already derived from the local collection in its incomplete condition and urged 
upon all members the advantage of completing it as rapidly as possible. 

Mr. Weiss exhibited and donated to the local collection specimens of 
Antonina crauii, the cottony bamboo scale, found at Riverton, N. J., in August, 
an introduction from Japan; Rhopalosiphon ligustri Kalt., the privet plant 
louse, found in Jersey City in July, probably European in origin and remark- 
able as being one of the few enemies of privet ; Corthylus punctatissimus. long 
known as attacking the rootstock of huckleberry, but lately developing into a 
pest attacking the rhododendrons and azaleas ; the specimens shown were found 
at Somerville, N. J., October 7, 19 15, and sections showing their work near 
the ground were included; Pinipestris simmermanni Grt., the pine shoot moth, 
from Eatontown, X. J., August 15; Monarthropalpus buxi Lab., the boxwood 
leaf miner, probably introduced from Holland. 

Mr. Weiss exhibited also a Pierid, found alive in French nursery stock at 
Rutherford, N. J., December i, which has been identified as Gonepteryx 
rhamni Linn., J, the brimstone butterfly, common in Europe, Asia and North 
Africa. 

Mr. Leng exhibited a species of Staphylinid beetle of the tribe Omalini, 

1 JouR. N. Y. Ent. Soc, VII, p. 22, 1899, 



106 Journal New York Entomological Society, tvoi. xxiv, 

found at the edge of sphagnum swamp near Roselle Park, N. J., by Mr. H. G. 
Barber while sifting. The species appears to be new to the United States and 
allied to the European Boreaphilus, according to letters from Mr. E. A. Schwarz. 

Mr. Leng also called attention to the articles by Paul Schulze in Ver- 
handlung der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft, 1913, on the composition 
and reaction to alkaline fluids of the tuberculate elytra of beetles, especially 
Cicindelc-e, which may explain some differences observed and hitherto supposed 
to be of taxonomic importance. 

Mr. Rich spoke of the flight of beetles when deprived of one or both 
elytra, citing some of the literature on the subject, and stating that from his 
experiments the elytra appeared to have a function similar to that of the 
planes of a flying machine. 

His remarks were discussed by Dr. Lutz, Messrs. Davis, Schaeffer and 
Leng, the latter describing the use of the abdominal apex by Staphylinidae in 
folding the elytra after a flight. 

Mr. Davis said this was already known and referred to J. G. Wood, " In- 
sects at Home," p. 66 (1872), where the process is described. 

Dr. Lutz said the earwigs also use their forceps for the same purpose.^ 

1 Wood, p. 227, and " Flashlights of Nature," by Allen. 



the: 

NEW YORK ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 

Organized June 29, 1892. — Incorporated June 7, 1893. 



The meetings of the Society are held on the first and third Tuesday of each month 
(except June, July, August and September) at 8 p. M., in the American Museum of 
Natural History, 77th Street and Eighth Ave. 

Annual dues for Active Members, ^3.00. 

Members of the Society will please remit their annual dues, payable in January, to 
the treasurer. 



Officers for the Year 19 16. 

President, H. G. BARBER 12 Clay Ave., Roselle Park, New Jersey. 

Vice-l'residevt, L. B. WOODRUFF 14 East 68th Street, New York. 

Secretary, CHAS. \V. I.EN'G 33 Murray St., New York. 

7>^rt!«vr^r, \VM. T. DAVIS 146 Stuyvesant Place, New Brightor, 

Staten Island, N. Y. 

Lihrai i in, I'RANK E. WATSON American Museum of Natural History, 

New York. 

Cura/or, A J. MUTCHLER. . . American Museum of Natural History, New York. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 
R. C. OsBORN, Chas. E. Sleight, R P. D av, 

Geo. p. Engelhardt, E. Shoemaker. 

tuslication committee 
Chas. Schaeffer, F. E. Lutz, W. P. Comstock, 

E. L. Dickerson. 

A UDITING COMMITTEE. 
C. F. Groth, ' G. W. J. Angell, John D. Sherman, Jr. 

FIELD COMMITTEE 

Chas. Wunder, A. S. Nicolay. 

delegate to the n. v. academy of scieaceh 
William T. Davis. 



aOURN ALv 



OF THE 



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^' 



Vol. XXIV 



No. 2. 



JOU RN AL 



OF THE 



NEW YORK 



X 



Entomological Society. 



BevoteD to ]£ntomoloap in (Bcneral. 




JUNE, 1916. 

Edited by CHARLES SCHAEFFER 

Publication Comtnittfe. 
Charles Schaeffer F, E. Lutz. 

W. P. COMSTOCK. E L. DiCKERbUN. 

Publisheci Quiarterly by the Society. 
LANCASTER, PA. NEW YORK CITY. 

1916 

[Entered April 21, 1904,31 La-caster, Pa., as second-class matter, under Act of Congress of July 16, 1894.] 

'HE NEW ERA PRINT 



CONTENTS 



Notes on Some Slave-Raids of the Western Amazon Ant ( Polyergus Breviceps 
Emery). By William Morton Wheeler ... 107 

New Limnophiline Crane-Flies from the United States and Canada. By 

ChARLE.S p. ALEXA.NDER . . . . . n8 

Descriptions and Records of North American Hippoboscidae. l!y Myro.n H. 

SWENK . . 126 

On Certain Caterpillar Homologies. By Wm. T. M. Forkks . . 137 

Notes on Alleculidee. By Charles W. Leng . . 142 

The Insect Fauna of New Jersey Greenhouses Exclusive of the Coccidae. By 

Harry B. Weiss . . 144 



Notes on a Peculiar Nymph- Variation of Enchenopa Binotata Say. By Ignaz 



Matausch 



J5I 



Miscellaneous Notes 153 

Ignaz Matausch 155 

Julius Meitzen . . 157 

Proceedings of the New York Entomological Society 157 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

jOpfD igoFk Cinlomologirfll jSoriFtg. 

Vol. XXIV. JUNE, 1916. No. 2. 



NOTES ON SOME SLAVE-RAIDS OF THE WESTERN 

AMAZON ANT (POLYERGUS BREVICEPS 

EMERY).! 

By William Morton Wheeler, 
Forest Hills, Mass. 

While camping during the summer of 1*915 at Fallen Leaf Lake 
near Lake Tahoe, in the Sierras of California, I had an opportunity to 
observe several slave-raids of the western amazon ant (Polyergus 
rufescens Latr. subsp. breviceps Emery), a form not hitherto knov\rn 
to occur in California. In my book on the ants- 1 described a few forays 
of this ant in Colorado, but the Californian colonies exhibited some 
peculiarities of behavior not heretofore observed in any of our North 
American amazons. Only five colonies were seen during ten days de- 
voted to the study of the ants of the Lake Tahoe region, so that in 
this locality P. breviceps is evidently much rarer than in certain 
localities {c. g., Florissant) at the same or greater elevations in the 
Rocky jMountains of Colorado. The slave in all the colonies was an 
ill-defined variety of Formica fusca, less pubescent than var. sub- 
sericea Say or argcntea Wheeler and larger and less shining than the 
typical form of the species. 

The notes taken on the following dates refer to as many different 
colonies : 

1 Contributions from the Entomological Laboratory of the Bussey Insti- 
tution, Harvard University, No. 113. 

- Ants, Their Structure, Development and Behavior. Columbia Univ. 
Press, igio, p. 475-477. 

107 



108 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Voi. xxiv, 

July 22. At 4.30 P. M. a large army of breviceps workers was seen 
hastening along the rocky trail, at an altitude of about 6,000 ft., on 
the eastern slope of Mt. Tallac, about 50 feet above the surface of 
Fallen Leaf Lake. The ants were followed to a fusca nest which 
they had just reached. The fusca workers had retired into their 
galleries and could be seen hurriedly closing the small entrance from ■ 
within with pellets of earth, evidently for the purpose of shutting 
the amazons out. The latter, however, at once tore out the barricade 
and poured into the nest. Soon they began to bring up the fusca 
pupae and at once hurried back over the trail. I followed them to 
their own nest which was nearly 60 feet from the plundered colony, 
in the narrow crevices of some large rocks where it could not be 
examined. By 5.15 P. M. all the amazons had entered their nest. 
The supply of fusca brood secured on this raid was not considerable, 
since only about one in ten of the returning workers carried a pupa 
or larva in its jaws. Retracing my steps to the fusca nest, I found its 
inhabitants slowly and apparently with reluctance returning to it. 

July 24. A small colony consisting of a wingless, ergatoid female 
and about a dozen small breviceps workers and nearly two dozen 
fusca workers was found under a log in a warm hollow at an alti- 
tude of nearly 7,000 ft. on the eastern slope of Angora Peak. This 
was evidently a young colony, with the ergatoid female functioning 
as its queen. This insect had the gaster considerably distended with 
eggs. 

July 2j. At 4.20 P. M. I encountered a small colony of breviceps 
returning from a raid on the Mt. Tallac trail near Fallen Leaf Lodge, 
not far from the spot where I observed the foray of July 22. I did 
not stop to locate the nest. 

July 2p. At 3.45 P. M. I came upon a large breviceps army re- 
turning to its nest laden with pupae near Glen Alpine Springs at an 
altitude of about 7,000 ft. The nest was easily found under a large 
flat stone, which I lifted just before the returning army arrived. 
The nest-chembers were full of fusca workers and pupse, but on!y 
two or three amazons had remained among them, and had not, there- 
fore, taken part in the foray. 

The notes taken on the following dates refer to a single breviceps 
colony which was observed on five consecutive days, not only by my- 
self but also by many of my fellow campers and by Mr. Wm. W. 



June, i9i6.] WhEELER : SlAVE-RaiDS OF AMAZON AnT. 109 

Price, the genial ornithologist and proprietor of Fallen Leaf Lodge:- 
July 26. At 4.10 P. M. I discovered the nest of a very large 
breviceps colony under a small flat stone near the mouth of the 
canyon through which the stream runs from Glen Alpine Springs to 
Fallen Leaf Lake. The army of several hundred workers was just 
emerging and congregating around the three nest orifices in prep- 
aration for a foray. The ants very soon hurried off in great ex- 
citement down the canyon to a fusca nest at least 70 feet distant. 
The trail was difficult, as the insects had to cross a very dusty road, 
climb over a pile of rough boulders, creep under a lot of low bushes 
and then traverse many feet of rocky soil. The first individuals, 
however, reached the fusca nest at 4.30 P. M. and at once en- 
tered it through several openings so small and so much obstructed 
with pellets of earth that I should not have found the nest with- 
out the guidance of the amazons. The fusca workers offered no re- 
sistance, but fled in all directions. A few managed, to escape with 
larvae in their jaws. The amazons poured into the nest entrances and 
soon emerged with the first pup?e, nearly all of which were naked 
(/. e., not enclosed in cocoons) at 4.40 P. M. and at once started for 
home. The vanguard of the returning army, nearly every worker 
of which was carrying a pupa, reached the nest at 4.55 P. M. and the 
last stragglers had arrived by 5.10 P. M. The foray was therefore 
completed in an hour. It was accompanied by an unusual perform- 
ance — a partial marriage flight. About 20 winged female amazons 
and a greater number of males left the nest with the army of workers 
and while some of the couples lingered behind and mated on the 
ground or low vegetation and several of the males flew away without 
mating with their sisters, several of the females accompanied the 
workers and even entered the fusca nest. None, however, was seen 
to return with the pupa-laden workers. A few, which had mated, 
tore off their wings and ran about over the ground. They probably 
returned to the nest after I had left the spot. 

July 2y. I visited the amazon nest at 3.35 P. M. and found that 
the army had just departed. It took a more northerly direction than 
on the preceding day, and after covering a distance of about 75 feet, 
stopped and began to hunt about among the stones and sparse vege- 
tation. After several minutes devoted to this search, the greater por- 
tion of the army moved on but the remainder discovered a small 



110 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Vol. xxiv, 

fusca nest, plundered it without opposition and at once returned home 
with all the pupx that could be secured. The main army hurried on 
over a very rough, stony trail. They stopped twice, searched aboui 
diligently but in vain, and each time changed the direction of their 
route. Several completely or partially dealated females accompaniea 
the main army the whole distance and seemed to be quite as keenly 
interested in the proceedings as the workers. The army halted a 
third time at a spot 125 feet distant from the point where the first 
nest was plundered and succeeded in discovering a flourishing fusca 
colony consisting of large workers. These were very aggressive and 
fully prepared to defend their nest, which, like all the fusca nests in 
the vicinity of the amazon colony, was very carefully concealed under 
and between stones. The amazons reached this nest at 4.30 P. M. 
and exhibited great excitement. Some of them attacked the fusca 
fiercely, while others kept digging their way into the earth-barricaded 
entrances. Fusca workers could be seen defending their doorways 
from within, but they were mercilessly dragged out and massacred 
in the usual manner, by having their heads pierced with the sickle- 
shaped mandibles of the amazons. Finally, after a struggle of fully 
30 minutes, at 5 P. M. the first fusca pupae were brought out. Their 
bearers turned at once in the direction of their nest, nearly 200 feet 
away and hurried towards it over a path, which, for fully 40 feet, 
was entirely different from the one over which they had come. A 
stream of pupa-laden amazons issued from each of two nest orifices 
and at once united to form a single file. Even the young callow fiisca 
workers were dragged out by the antennae and then seized by the 
thorax and carried along. Several of the dealated females returned 
with the workers but none was seen to carry a pupa. The army 
reached the home nest at 5.30 P. M., so that this foray, during which 
two fusca colonies had been thoroughly plundered, and fully 400 feet 
of ground had been traversed by most of the individuals, was com- 
pleted in two hours. 

July 28. The amazon army left the nest at 4.15 P. M., plundered 
a large fusca colony after traversing nearly 80 feet of rough, stony 
soil to the southeastward, and returned with many pupae by 5.30 P. 
M. The army was accompanied both to and from the fusca nest by 
several dealated females, but none of them carried pupae. 

July 2(). I arrived late at the amazon nest, but found Mr. Price 



June, i9i6.] Wheeler : Slave-Raids OF Amazon Ant. Ill 

already there with several campers, all intently watching the ants. 
According to their statements, the army left the nest about 3 P. M. 
After going some 60 ft. it hesitated and part of it discovered a small 
fusca colony, plundered it and returned home at once with the booty, 
while about half of the army changed its direction and proceeded 
to a point about 80 feet from the home nest in a more northerly direc- 
tion than any of the previous forays and along the bank of the 
stream. The ants soon succeeded in detecting a fusca colony, which, 
however, offered stubborn resistance. This was overcome and the 
robbers were all returning laden with pupae when I reached the spot 
between 4.50 and 5 P. M. One of the observers saw a few winged 
amazon females in the outward-bound army, but none was seen re- 
turning to the nest. 

July JO. The amazon nest was watched by Mr. Price, about 
twenty campers and myself from 2.30 to 4.30 P. M. but made no foray. 
This was very probably due to the weather, which was cloudy and 
much colder than on the preceding days. Nevertheless quite a num- 
ber of males escaped from the nest, especially between 2.30 and 3.30 
P. M. Some of them flew away, others almost immediately returned 
to the nest and several were violently dragged back into it by the 
fusca slaves. Only two dealated females left the nest. They ran 
about for some time and then returned into the entrances of their 
own accord. The slaves were very active at all three entrances and 
seemed to be constantly keeping the worker amazons from making a 
sortie. On lifting the stone covering the galleries several winged 
females were seen near one of the entrances, but none of them left 
the nest. The following morning I was compelled to leave Fallen 
Leaf Lodge and was therefore unable to continue my observations. 

The following points are particularly interesting in these field ob- 
servations in connection with those recorded in my ant book on the 
same subspecies in Colorado, P. rufcsccns hicolor in Illinois and P. 
lucidus in New York : 

I. Although it is known that both the European and American 
amazons make their raids only during the afternoon, the sorties previ- 
ously recorded for our American forms, though also observed during 
July, occurred at an earlier hour, as follows: hreinccps at 1.55 P. M. 
hicolor before 2 P. M. ; at 1.35 and 1.20 P, M. ; lucidus at 2.20 P. M. 
One foray of lucidus observed by Burrill in Pennsylvania started be- 



112 Journal New York Entomological Society. ['^'°1- >^^^^, 

fore 2.30 P. M.^ The four sorties of hreviccps observed near Fallen 
Leaf Lake occurred at 4.10, 3.35, 4.15 and 3 P. M., and the three 
armies merely seen returning to the nest July 22, 25 and 29, could 
hardly have started out before 3 P. M. In this connection I may 
mention, also, that the two forays of the small shining P. rnfescens 
laviccps Wheeler which I observed July 20, 1914, on the slopes of Mt. 
Tamalpais, near San Francisco, Calif., must have left their nests after 
3 P. AL How are we to account for this difference in time of sortie 
between the Californian amazons and those of Colorado, Illinois, 
Pennsylvania and New York? 

Before attempting to answer this question it will be advisable to 
glance at some of the published accounts of the typical European P. 
rufescens. The most comprehensive observations on this ant have 
been made by Forel in Switzerland.^ During 33 days he saw a single 
rufescens colony make 44 expeditions and estimated that the ants 
secured from the various plundered colonies of F. fiisca and rufibarbis, 
on these and other expeditions, which he did not observe, a total of 
fully 40,000 larvae and pupae. Concerning the time of sortie in gen- 
eral he writes (p. 289) : "As Huber says, P. rufescens nearly always 
leaves its nest in the afternoon between 2 and 5 o'clock. Von Hagens 
saw a sortie at 6 P. M.; I have observed two at 1.30 P. M. These 
are, to my knowledge, the extreme cases. Expeditions have never 
been observed in the morning. Ebrard says that they depart very late 
on their first expedition (during June) and thereafter a little earlier 
each day. I have never observed anything of the kind. I have seen 
amazons from two different formicaries departing at 2.15 P. M. and 
at 4 P. M. respectively. On the other hand I have seen amazons of 
the same colony depart on several successive raids at the same hour. 
The hour of departure depends as a rule on the temperature; the 
warmer it is. the later do the amazons depart and znce versa. The 
amazons of the same formicary departed during one year as follows: 
July I, 3.15 P. M.; July 23, 5 P. M. ; Aug. 10, 3 P. M.; Aug. 12, 1.30 
P. M. ; Aug. 14, 4.45 P. M., etc. The departure of Aug. 10 and 12 
coincided with a pronounced and sudden drop, that of Aug. 14 with a 
pronounced rise of temperature. According to the formicaries, the 

3 " A Slave-making Foray of the Shining Amazon (Polyergiis hicidus 
Mayr)," Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc, 16, 1908. pp. 144-151. 
* Fourmis da la Suisse, 1874. 



June, i9i6.] WhEELER: SlaVE-RaidS OF AMAZON AnT. 113 

expeditions begin from the middle of June to the beginning of July 
(possibly sooner in very warm localities) and end between the middle 
of August and beginning of the September." Eniery,^ who has suc- 
ceeded in solving the interesting problem of the establishment of ama- 
zon colonies, gives the time of two forays of a colony in northern 
Italy during 1908 as July 24, 4.30 P. M. and July 25, 3 P. M. and of 
two forays of this same colony during 1907 as July 16, 4.30 to 5 P. M. 
and July 19, as 5 to 7 P. M. 

Fore! is probably correct in supposing that the time of sortie of 
the amazon army is determined by temperature. We may suppose that 
a certain optimum, probably near 70° to 75° F., is required by the 
ants. This is often attained during the sunny afternoon hours of 
July and August in temperate North America and Eurasia. It would 
certainly be below the usual maximum diurnal temperature and would 
bear a certain relation to it, so that it would be reached earlier in the 
afternoon on hot than on cool days. Thus we could account for the 
differences in the time of sortie between the Californian amazon 
colonies and those of the Rocky Mountains, Middle and Eastern 
States since the average midday temperatures of July at altitudes of 
6,000 to 8,000 ft., on the southern and eastern slopes and in the canyons 
preferred by the ants, is certainly much lower in California than it is 
in the other localities mentioned. It is not improbable, however, that 
atmospheric humidity may also be a factor in determining the time of 
sortie. At any rate, all future descriptions of amazon expeditions, 
both in this country and abroad, should be accompanied by accurate 
temperature, barometric and humidity records, for in time such rec- 
ords might enable us to ascertain the precise external stimuli that call 
forth such periodic behavior as the slave-raids and nuptial flights of 
ants. 

2. The second matter of interest in the observations made at 
Fallen Leaf Lake is the behavior of the males and females of brevi- 
ceps. Emery has been puzzled by the behavior of these forms in the 
European nifesccns. Huber and Forel had witnessed marriage 
flights of this ant and Burrell*' described a feeble marriage flight of 

5 Osservazioni ed Esperimenti sulla Formica Amazzone. Rend. Sess. 
R. Accad. Sci. 1st. Bologna, 1908, 16 pp.; Nuove Osservazioni ed Esperimenti 
sulla Formica Amazzone. ibid., 1909, 8 pp.; Ulteriori Osservazioni ed Esperi- 
enze sulla Formica Amazzone, ibid., 191 1, 18 pp. 

f> Loco citato, p. 150. 



114 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^'o'- -^-"^iv, 

lucidus July 22, 1903. Aug. 20, 1903, I saw a large and very typical 
flight of lucidus subsp. montivagus Wheeler near Colorado Springs. 
Emery observed a colony of rufesccns, which, during 1907, had no 
marriage flight but from which winged and dealated females issued 
and accompanied the workers on their forays. In 1908 the satne 
colony gave off a lot of males which flew away but no females ac- 
companied the raids. The observations on the Calif ornian hreviceps 
show that the males and females may stay long in the maternal nest, 
that some of them may escape from time to time and mate outside 
the nest and that both winged and fecundated, dealated females may 
accompany the workers on their raids while a marriage-flight is taking 
place. A single colony may thus exhibit during the course of a few 
days combinations of the two extreme conditions noticed by Emery 
during two seasons. I called attention to the protracted retention in 
the nest of males and females of lucidus in 1908,^ but before making 
the observations on the Calif ornian hreviceps I had never seen the 
females accompanying the workers on their raids, though both Emery 
and Forel had seen this repeatedly in the typical rufescens. These 
authors have also failed to notice any inclination on the part of the 
females to bring home pupae. My observations leave me skeptical in 
regard to Emery's assumption that the female Polycrgus mates inside 
the nest. 

Emery's observations on colonies kept in artificial nests show con- 
clusively that the fecundated and dealated female of Polycrgus founds 
her colony by entering a fusca formicary, killing its queen by pierc- 
ing her head with the mandibles and securing adoption in her place 
by the fusca workers. Does the female, while accompanying the 
foraging army, gain acquaintance with the situations and personnel 
of the various fusca nests in the area dominated by the Polycrgus 
colony, so that she can at her leisure select and invade a propitious 
colony in which to secure adoption ? Or does she actually secure 
adoption in a colony which has just been plundered and is therefore 
in a depressed and nonresistant state, as seems always to be the 
case with fusca colonies after they have had to submit to this sudden 
and severe calamity? The former method is suggested by the iso- 

' " The Ants of Casco Bay, Maine, with Observations on Two Races of 
Formica san guinea Latreille," Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 24, igo8, p. 
640 nota. 



June, i9i6.] WhEELER: SlaVE-RaidS OF AMAZON AXT. 115 

lated dealated females sometimes found running about on the ground 
at a distance from the maternal nest, as if looking for a host-col- 
ony; the latter method would seem to have many advantages. Per- 
haps both methods are adopted by different females. 

3. The finding on July 24 (p. 108) of a small and evidently incipi- 
ent brcz'iceps colony consisting of an ergatoid or wingless female with 
about a dozen workers and twice as many fusca slaves, is significant, 
because the female was functioning as the mother of the colony and 
must therefore have been fecundated. The ergatoid female of the 
European amazon has been known for more than a century. It was 
first recognized by Pierre Huber* and has been repeatedly taken by 
Forel, Emery and Wasmann. According to Forel (Fourmis de la 
Suisse, p. 137), "this singular creature, which is very constant in 
type, is rather rare. Nevertheless, during certain years some speci- 
mens of it are found in most of the formicaries. Its role, if it has 
one, is unknown. Perhaps it can replace the queens in their func- 
tions. Dissection has proved to me that its ovaries are identical with 
those of the queen, etc." Wasmann^ describes one of these females 
which he kept in an artificial nest with amazon workers and slaves 
from April, 1885, to September, 1886. It was treated by the slaves 
as a true queen, licked, fed and, when disturbed, carried to a place 
of safety. Its eggs, however, produced only males, showing that it 
had not been fecundated. In 1908 I published a similar observation!" 
on a large colonj- of lucidus which I had under observation for five 
years in a field near Bronxville, N. Y. : '" During four years this col- 
ony produced numbers of males and females, both winged and erga- 
toid, and the winged females lingered for weeks in the nest without 
deflation. The first week of the past April [1908] I found the whole 
community with its larvae and mother queen enjoying the spring 
warmth in the superficial galleries just under the large flat stones 
with which I had covered the nest in September, 1903. I captured 
the queen and part of the colony and transferred them to an artificial 
nest. Aug. 9 [1908] I again visited the nest, and to my surprise, 
found it teeming with several hundred mature males clinging to the 

8 Recherches sur les Moeurs des Fourmis Indigenes, 1810, p. 251. 

9 Die zusammengesetzten Xester und gemischten Kolonien der Ameisen, 
Miinster s.W., 1891, p. 84. 

10 Ants of Casco Bay, etc., loc. cit., p. 141, nota. 



116 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^oi. xxiv, 

lower surface of the stone, but with no winged or dealated females. 
Besides the males I found only a single large ergatoid female, several 
dozen workers and slaves [Formica incerta] and half a dozen cocoons 
enclosing nearly mature male pupae. Without doubt, the ergatoid 
had usurped the role of the mother queen, and being unfertilized, 
had produced only male offspring. The comparatively small number 
of slaves had been able to rear an enormous number of these little 
creatures although the absence of incerta pupae in the nest indicated 
that the Polyergus workers had made no forays during the past sum- 
mer." Emeryii cites an unpublished observation of Wasmann concern- 
ing an ergatoid female of rnfescens which produced workers and must 
therefore have been fecundated. This observation supports my inter- 
pretation of the origin of the hreviceps colony taken on Angora Peak. 
Cal., July 24. Emery believes that the ergatoid females may be 
fecundated in the maternal nest, but this might occur quite as easily 
outside the nest and on the ground during a marriage flight of the 
males. 

Considerable interest attaches to the ergatoid female of Polyergus 
because it is so much like the only females known to occur in certain 
tropical ant genera such as Leptogenys, Onychomyrmex and Para- 
nomopone. It suggests that the ants of these genera once possessed, 
like Polyergus, two kinds of females, one winged and one wingless, 
and that the colonies for some reason no longer develop the former. 
In the singular parasitic Hapagoxenus sublccvis the two forms still 
occur but in dififerent geographical regions, the winged form in Sax- 
ony, as Viehmeyer has shown, and the wingless form in Sweden, as 
was first established by the classical observations of Adlerz. 

Postscript. 

After the preceding pages were written I received a fourth inter- 
esting paper from Professor Emery on the amazon colony which he 
had under observation from 1908 to 1914.^- In 1908 and 1909 he suc- 
ceeded in establishing in artificial nests two amazon colonies with 
the aid of two fecundated queens that had secured adoption by fnsca 
workers. In March 191 o, he combined the two formicaries and the 

11 Osservazioni e Esperimenti, etc., 1908, loc. cit., p. 7. 

12 Histoire d'une Societe Experimentale de Polyergus rufescens. Rev. 
Suisse Zool., 23, 1915, pp. 285—400, 2 figs. 



June, 19 16.] WhEELER: SlaVE-RaiDS OF AMAZON AnT. 117 

single colony thus formed flourished and grew to considerable size 
by July i8, 191 1, when he took it into his garden and observed the 
behavior of the amazons when he opened the nest and permitted 
them to make slave-raids on various colonies of Formica fusca var. 
glebaria and F. rufibarbis. Similar experiments were performed during 
the summer of 1912 and 1913. July 14, 1914, when he released the 
colony for the last time in a courtyard of his villa, the ants estab- 
lished themselves in the soil and soon afterwards moved to another 
more permanent nest. The amazons made several sorties till Oc- 
tober 2, but secured no booty, as there were no nests of the slave- 
species in the courtyard. The observations were very suggestive in 
connction with the interesting problem as to how the amazon armies 
are guided to the nests they plunder. Like Forel and myself, Emery 
believes that exploring workers, which leave the nest singly, ascer- 
tain the position of the slave colonies in the environment and are 
thus able to determine at least the initial direction to be taken by the 
army when it leaves the nest. I shall not discuss this difificult ques- 
tion here, but will merely call attention in conclusion to the times of 
sortie of the army as recorded in Emery's paper. These are given 
as follows : 

191 1. Aug. 22 — 4.30 P. 

1912. " 17 — 5.00 P. 
" 21 — 4.20 P. 
" 24—4.30 P. 
" 28—5.40 P. M. 

1913- July 5—4-50 P. M. 
" 30—5-15 P- M. 
1914. " 16 — 6.00 P. M. 
" 17—6.30 P. M. 
" 25—7.00 P. M. 
Aug. 8—5.30 P. M. and 6.15 P. M. 
, Oct. 2—3.30 P. M. 
It will be seen that all but one of the sorties were very late, be- 
tween 4.20 and 7 P. M., the average time being about 5.30 P. M. This 
is much later than the average time of sortie of Swiss colonies of 
rufescens or of the Calif ornian breviccps, and indicates that the tem- 
perature during July and x^ugust in northern Italy (presumably near 
Bologna), in such enclosed spaces as gardens and courtyards, may be 



M. 


and 5.15 P. M. 


M. 


and 6.30 P. M. 


M. 




M. 





118 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^oi. xxiv, 

higher in the late afternoon. On Aug. 22, 1911, Aug. 12, 191 2, and 
Aug. 16, 1914, two sorties occurred on the same day. This has also 
been occasionally observed by Forel in the field. On Aug. 9, 1914, 
there were three sorties, but the time of their occurrence was not 
recorded. 



NEW LIMNOPHILINE CRANE-FLIES FROM THE 

UNITED STATES AND CANADA 

(TIPULID^, DIPTERA). 

By Charles P. Alexander, 

Ithaca, N. Y. 

The tribe Limnophilini of the subfamily Limnobinse, in the Nearc- 
tic fauna, includes a considerable number of species placed in a rela- 
tively small number of genera. During the past few years a number 
of interesting forms have accumulated in the collection of the author 
and these are described herewith ; I am greatly indebted to Mr. C. W. 
Johnson, Mr. Frederick Knab and Mr. W. L. McAtee for the loan 
of this and other material sent me for study. 

Limnophila marchandi, new species. 

Allied to L. alleni ; color of the thorax gray; ground color of the wings 
hyaline ; basal abdominal tergites gray with prominent setigerous punctures. 

Female. — Length, 30 mm.; wing, 20 mm.; Middle leg, femora, 10 mm.; 
tibiae, 8.7 mm. ; tarsi, 8.6 mm. 

Rostrum short, dark brown, palpi dark brown. Antennae with the two basal 
segments dark brown, the flagellum light brown ; first scapal segment elon- 
gated ; segments of the flagellum short, gradually narrowed to the seventh 
segment of the organ beyond which the segments are very slender and atten- 
uated. Head dark brown, the margin of the vertex adjoining the inner 
margin of the eye, paler, more yellowish ; head narrowed behind. 

Pronotum light brownish gray, clearer gray on the sides, with a delicate 
impressed median line ; scutum with numerous long hairs whose bases are 
surrounded by brown spots. Mesonotal praescutum clear light gray with three 
dark brown stripes ; the middle stripe is broad, the median area is paler 
brown and narrowly bisected by a very delicate dark brown median line 
which runs the length of the sclerite ; the middle stripe does not attain the 
transverse suture ; lateral stripes short, crossing the transverse suture onto 
the scutum ; the pale area between the lateral and middle stripes is lined with 
a paler shade of brown ; sides of the sclerite bearing abundant long pale 



June, i9i6.] ALEXANDER : NeW LiMNOPHILINE CRANE-FlIES. 119 

hairs many of which are encircled by a dark brown spot producing a dotted 
appearance which is especially noticeable before the pseudosutural foveae ; 
scutum clear, light gray with five brown lines, the outermost pair very broad, 
dark brown, continuations of the lateral praescutal vittse ; inside these stripes 
a pair of narrow lighter brown stripes; a delicate median brown vitta con- 
tinued backward from the middle praescutal stripe; scutellum gray with 
numerous long pale hairs which are surrounded by indistinct brown spots; 
postnotum gray, the sides dark brown. Pleura clear light gray, indistinctly 
and delicately lined and dotted with pale brown. Halteres short, pale, the 
knob brownish just before the apex. Legs with the coxae gray ; trochanters 
dull yellow ; femora dull yellow, their apices dark brownish black ; tibias dull 
yellow, the apices narrowly black ; tarsal segments one and two brown, nar- 
rowly tipped with black; remainder of the tarsi black; legs hairy. Wings 
hyaline or nearly so, the costal cell dark brown ; a yellowish spot before the 
arculus and before the radial cross-vein ; brown markings as follows : a large 
blotch beyond the arculus; at the origin of Rs ; at the end of the sector con- 
tinuing down to the cell ist Af o ; apex of the wings in cells 2d R^ and R2', 
grayish brown seams on the crossveins and deflections of veins; a grayish 
brown cloud in cell Cu continuing down into the tip of cell ist A; pale gray 
clouds in the middles of the other cells of the wings. Venation as in plate 
I, fig. 2; ^Ci ending just beyond the base of cell i?2 ; crossvein r not far from 
the tip of /?i ; R2+3 shorter than the deflection of i?4+5 ; cell ist M^ hexagonal; 
ilfi+2 beyond ni about equal to the basal deflection of Cui ; basal deflection of 
C«, only a little longer than the prominent downward deflection of M3. 

Abdominal tergites with the first segment dark brown ; remaining tergites 
light gray with a salmon caste ; a broad dorso-median dark brown line ; lateral 
margins indistinctly pale ; a narrow sublateral brown line ; the entire surface 
is densely spotted with prominent brown setigerous punctures ; sternites pale 
grayish brown with an indistinct narrow dark brown median line and impressed 
lines on each segment forming an irregular quadrate figure ; the surface with 
abundant brown setigerous punctures ; caudal margins of the sclerites silvery. 

Habitat. — Eastern United States. 

Holotype, J, Framington, Connectictit ; June 7, 1914; Dr. R. W. 
Marchand. 

The type is in the collection of the Boston Society of Natural 
History. 

This interesting crane-fly is closely allied to L. alleni Johnson, (see 
plate VIII, fig. I ) from which it may be separated by the appended 
key. It is curious that there should be two such striking Limno- 
philas found in the eastern states and overlooked by collectors until 
within the last few years. This fly was handed to me for descrip- 
tion by IMr. Johnson, to whom I am indebted for many other kind- 
nesses and at his suggestion I dedicate the species to the collector, 



120 Journal New York Entomological Society, ["^"o'- ^^^^> 

Dr. R. W. Marchand. The tent-trap observations made at Ithaca, 
N. Y., in 1915 by Miss Ruby B. Hughes indicate that the larv?e of 
LimnophUa allcni live in wet organic mud. 

I. Larger (wing, $, 21.5 mm.) ; thoracic dorsum reddish brown with three 
velvety brown stripes, the middle one narrowly split by a line of the 
ground-color ; wings yellowish and brown ; basal abdominal tergites yel- 
low without prominent setigerous punctures L. alleni Johnson. 

Smaller (wing, 5- ^o mm.); thoracic dorsum gray with three , narrow 
velvety-brown stripes, the middle one split by a broad pale line ; ground- 
color of the wings hyaline; basal abdominal tergites gray with prominent 
setigerous punctures L. marchandi, n. sp. 

Limnophila mundoides new species. 

Black, the thoracic dorsum shiny ; wings hyaline or nearly so ; femora 
yellow, the anterior pair with the apical half black; hypopygium of the male 
enlarged, complex in structure. 

Male. — Length, 5.6 mm. ; wing, 6.2 mm. 

aiostrum black, very short, palpi brownish black. Antennae black, short, 
.ne first segment elongated, the flagellar segments elongate-oval. Head black. 

Thorax shiny black. Halteres white. Legs slender, the coxse dull yel- 
low, the base of the fore coxa suffused with black on the outer face ; tro- 
chanters dull yellow ; femora not conspicuously hairy, fore femora with the 
basal half yellow, the apical half dark brown ; middle femora with the basal 
two thirds yellow, the apical third dark brown; hind femora yellow, the tip 
narrowly browned ; tibiae brown ; tarsi dark brownish black. Wings hyaline 
or nearly so, the stigma indistinct, the veins dark brown. Venation as in 
plate I, fig. 3 : Sc short, ending just before the tip of the sector; Sc^ close to 
the tip of 5"Ci ; Rs long ; ^^+3 very short, subequal to the basal deflection of 
Rm ; -^1+2 beyond m about equal to cell M^ ; basal deflection of Cmj almost 
underneath the middle of cell ist M^. 

Abdomen black, the sternites somewhat paler. Male genitalia remarkably 
developed for this genus of flies, this condition approached by no Nearctic 
species hitherto described but suggesting in some respects the condition ob- 
taining in Phyllolabis O. S. and Oromyia Alex. The ninth tergite arched, 
convex, produced caudally into a prominent median lobe which is slightly 
enlarged apically and truncated to slightly concave across the tip ; sides of the 
tergite with numerous very long, prominent hairs ; the ninth sternite is not 
distinct from the tergite, produced caudad on the mid-line beneath into a 
prominent bifid lobe which bears an abundance of very short pubescence and 
a few long hairs ; ninth pleurite complete ; pleural appendages two. a caudal- 
lying, very slender, slightly curved chitinized lobe that is directed caudad, the 
tip inward ; the anterior lobe is densely hairy on the outer face, the apex 
chitinized. Just dorsad of the bifid sternal appendage, on either side, arises 
a prominent flattened lobe with exceedingly abundant long black hair and 
numerous punctulations ; the ventral apical angle of this lobe is pale and 
produced into a short hook directed inward. 



June, I9i6.] ALEXANDER : NeW LiMNOPHILINE CRANE-FlIES. 121 

Habitat. — Eastern United States. 

Holotype, J*, Plummers Island, Maryland; June 3, 1914; R. C. 
Shannon. 

Paratype, J*, Beltsville, Maryland; June 9, 191 5; W. L. McAtee. 

The type is in the collection of the United States National 
Museum. 

This interesting fly differs from L. w»»rfa Osten Sacken (see plate 
VIII, fig. 4), which it superficially resembles, in the hyaline wings, 
the legs are not conspicuously hairy, the increased amount of black 
on the fore and middle femora and the prominent genitalia of the 
male. 

Limnophila terebrans new species. 

Black, the thorax with a slight gray bloom ; wings slightly suffused with 
brown : /?2+3 very short, less than the deflection of /?4+5. 

Male. — Length about 7.5 mm. ; wing, y.y mm. 

Female. — Length, 8 mm.; wing, 8.1 mm. 

Rostrum very short, dark brown, the palpi similar in color, very short. 
Antennae rather short, the first segment elongated, dark brown, remaining 
segments of the organ submoniliform, the apical segments of the flagellum 
not conspicuously elongated, flagellum light brown, the segments with a dense 
pale pubescence. Head broad, the vertex broad and bearing a very low, 
obtuse tubercle. Head dark gray. 

Thorax black with a yellowish gray bloom over the entire ^urface, the 
usual mesonotal interspaces with prominent long yellow hairs ; postnotum 
more reddish. Halteres short, stout, dull yellow. Legs with the coxse dark 
brown ; trochanters brownish yellow ; legs of the male longer and more 
slender than those of the female which are club-shaped and more conspicu- 
ously hairy ; femora yellow tipped with dark brown, the fore femora with 
the apical half brown, the hind pair with only the apex darkened ; tibiae 
brown ; tarsi dark brown. Wings with a slight brownish tinge, the stigma 
dark brown, cross veins and deflections of veins seamed with brown. Vena- 
tion as in plate i, fig. s : Rs elongate, slightly arcuated at the origin ; i?2+3 
short, a little less than the deflection of R^^r, ; petiole of cell M-^ longer than 
this cell. The right wing of the allotype is abnormal, the cell /?« nearly 
sessile; cell ist M., very small to obliterated, the petiole of cell M^ much 
longer than this cell. 

Abdomen dark brown ; valves of the ovipositor very long and slender, 
the tergal valves slightly upturned at the apex. 

Habitat. — Eastern United States. 

Holotype, J*, Cabin John, Maryland; May 5, 1899. 

Allotype, 5, topotypic, in coitu with the type. 



122 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Vol. xxiv. 

The types are in the collection of the United States National 
Museum. 

The related species of this group may be separated by the key 
that is appended to the following species. 

Limnophila barberi new species. 

Black, the interspaces of the mesonotal prjescutum with a gray bloom ; 
fore femora brown except at the extreme base. 

Male. — Length, 6.4 mm. ; wing, 8.3 mm. 

Female. — Length, 7.6 mm.; wing, 8.1 mm. 

Rostrum very short as in this group of the genus, dark brownish black, 
the palpi dark brown. Antennae short, dark brown, the apex of the first seg- 
ment a little brighter. Head dark brown with a sparse grayish bloom. 

Mesonotal praescutum black with a sparse gray bloom, the usual thoracic 
stripes devoid of bloom, very shiny and very broad ; scutum similar, the 
median area broadly gray pruinose ; scutellum and postnotum dull brown. 
Pleura dark brown with a light gray bloom, the dorsopleural membranes 
indistinctly dull yellow. Halteres pale, the knob very little darker. Legs 
with the coxae dull yellow, a little brownish on the basal half of the outer 
face ; legs slender, the femora yellow with the apices brown, on the fore legs 
including all except the extreme base of the segment, on the hind legs includ- 
ing a little more than the apical half ; tibiae and tarsi dark brown. Wings 
sub-hyaline, crossveins and deflections of veins narrowly seamed with brown, 
the costal cell light brown, the stigma indistinct, the veins dark brown. 
Venation (see plate i, fig. 6), as in the inunda group, the radial sector elon- 
gated, almost straight, R2+3 about equal to the deflection of R^^s ', basal deflec- 
tion of Cui just before tne middle of cell ist Jl/o. 

Abdominal tergites dark brownish black, the sternites more reddish ; 
male hypopygium more reddish ; the valves of the ovipositor of the female 
chestnut. 

Habitat. — Western United States. 

Holotype, J*, Eureka, California; May 24, 1903; H. S. Barber. 

Allotype, 2> topotypic, in coitu with the type. 

The types are in the collection of the United States National 
Museum. 

The species is dedicated to the collector, Mr. H. S. Barber, of 
Washington. 

The species that are allied to, or resemble, Limnophila munda O. S. 
may be separated by the following key: 

I. Mesonotal prtescutum entirely shiny black 2 

Mesonotal praescutum with a gray bloom, at least on the sides of the 
sclerite 3 



June. 1916.] Alexander: New Limnophiline Crane-Flies. 123 

2. At least the basal half of all the femora yellow; legs stout, hairy; wings 

tinged with brown (fig. 4) munda O. S. 

Fore femora with the extreme base only, yellow ; legs slender, not con- 
spicuously hairy; wings almost hyaline (fig. 3) mundoides n. sp. 

3. Entire mesonotal prsescutum with a gray bloom ; fore femora with only the 

apices brown ; venation in fig. 5 terebrans n. sp. 

Interspaces of the mesonotal praescutum with a gray bloom ; fore femora 
brown except at the extreme base; venation as in fig. 6 . . .barberi n. sp. 

Limnophila terrae-novae new species. 

Belongs to the adusta group ; head gray ; thorax dark brown ; wings in- 
fuscated with brown at the tip. 

Female. — Length, 9.5— 11. 3 mm.; wing, 9.2— 11. 4 mm. 

Rostrum and palpi dark brown. Antennae with the first segment elon- 
gated, dark brown with a sparse grayish bloom ; segments two to six yellowish 
brown ; the terminal segments brown. Head gray. 

Mesonotal prsscutum dark brown, shiny, covered with a sparse yellowish 
brown bloom which becomes almost lacking on the median area ; scutum, 
scutellum and postnotum similar to the prsescutum. Pleura brown, sparsely 
grayish yellow pollinose, the dorso-pleural membranes yellow. Halteres yel- 
low with the knob brown; legs with the cocxse and trochanters shiny yellow; 
femora brown, slightly brightened basally ; tibiae and tarsi brownish yellow, 
the latter more brownish apically. Wings with a pale brown tinge, the costal 
cell brown, yellowish at the base of the wings ; stigma elongated, dark brown ; 
apex of the wings infuscated ; brown seams along the cord, crossveins and 
deflections of veins ; Cii and Rs narrowly seamed with brown. Venation (see 
plate VIII, fig. 7) as in the adusta group. 

Abdomen dark brown, the ovipositor reddish. 

Habitat. — Newfoundland. 

Holotype, 5- Sandy Lake, Newfoundland; July 28, 1906; Owen 
Bryant. 

Paratypes, 2 J's, topotypic, July 25-28, 1906. 

The type is in the collection of Mr. Charles W. Johnson ; para- 
types in the collection of the author. 

This fly comes closest to L. similis Alex. (Eastern U. S.), L. 
fulfocostalis Coq. (Bering Is.), and L. insularis Johnson (Bermuda) ; 
L. similis has the legs with the brown apices to the segments narrow, 
the costal cell yellow, etc. ; L. fiihocostalis resembles similis, with 
the costal cell yellowish brown, the wing-apex not infuscated; L. 
insularis has the wings unmarked, the legs yellowish with the tarsi 
browned toward the tips. 

Limnophila oslari new species. 

Belongs to the lenta group; body-coloration gray; wings whitish with a 
distinct oval brown stigma. 



124 Journal New York Entomological Society, t'^'o'- ^^^'•^> 

Male. — Length, 6.2-6.8 mm. ; wing 6.8-7.6 mm. 

Rostrum and palpi dark brownish black, grayish pruinose. Antennae 
moderately elongated, dark brownish black, the segments gray pruinose ; seg- 
ments of the flagellum oval. Head clear light gray, with numerous setigerous 
punctures on the sides. 

Thorax and pleura clear light gray without stripes. Halteres light yellow. 
Legs with the coxae and trochanters reddish yellow ; femora dark brownish 
black, the base more yellowish ; tibiae and tarsi dark brownish black. Wings 
whitish subhyaline, the stigma oval, dark brown ; veins dark brown. Venation 
as in plate i, figs. 8, 9: the venation somewhat variable as in the related 
eastern species, L. lenta O. S. ; Sc ending just before the tip of the sector; 
Rs shorter than or equal to R2+S, usually strongly arcuated to angulated at 
the origin; crossvein r on R2+3, at the fork or on R,; crossvein r-in arcuated; 
basal deflection of Cui at the fork of M to one third the length of cell ist M^. 

Abdominal tergites dark gray, the hypopygium reddish yellow. 

Habitat. — Colorado, New Mexico. 

Holotype, ^, Platte Canon, Colorado; July 30, 1914; E. J. Oslar. 

Paratype, J*, Colorado (ex collection C. V. Riley). 

Paratype, J*, White Mts., New Mexico, South Fork of Eagle 
Creek, alt. 8000 feet, August 18; C. H. T. Townsend. 

This species differs from the related Eastern species, L. lenta 
O. S. in its gray coloration, that of lenia being yellow or yellowish. 

Limnophila osborni Alexander. 

1914 Limnophila osborni Alexander; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1914, 
p. 596, pi. 25, fig. 6. 

This interesting late summer crane-fly seems to be northern in its 
distribution. A male and a female from Price Co., Wisconsin, 
August 29, 1897, ^s part of the W. M. Wheeler collection, is in the 
American Museum of Natural History. The female sex has never 
been characterized and the specimen is made the allotype : 

Sex 5, similar to the male but larger; the abdominal tergites brown, in- 
distinctly trivittate with darker ; ovipositor with the tergal valves upcurved, 
elongated, slender, subacute, the sternal valves split into hair points at the 
tips. Length, 9.2 mm. ; wing, 9 mm. 

The allotype is in the collection of the American Museum of 
Natural History. 

Trichocera (Diazosma) subsinuata new species. 

Differs from the described species of the genus in the subsinuatae course 
of the second anal vein ; wing-veins long-hairy. 

Male. — Length, 7.3 mm.; wing, 9.2-10 mm. 

Female. — Length, 8-9 mm.; wing, 9-1 1.4 mm. 



vim. N. V. Ent. Soc. 



Vol. XXIV. PL VHI. 




Tipulidae. 



June, I9i6.] ALEXANDER : NeW LiMNOPHILINE CrANE-FliES. 125 

Rostrum and palpi dark brown. Antennae of the male not so elongated 
as in typical Trichocera, densely hairy, dark brown, the basal segments some- 
times yellowish but more often uniform in color. Head small, depressed, 
light brown. 

Pronotum prominent, the scutellum conspicuously light yellow, the scutum 
brown, with numerous long black hairs on either side of the median line. 
Mesonotum brown without stripes, scutellum and postnotum more yellowish, 
somewhat pollinose. Pleura brown, the dorsopleural and metapleural regions 
more yellowish. Halteres light brown. Legs with the coxse and trochanters 
dull yellow ; femora brown ; tibiae and tarsi dark brown. Wings very broad, 
infumed with dusky ; veins dark brown, densely long-hairy. Venation (see 
plate I, fig. lo) as in typical Trichocera but the second anal vein not recurved 
into the anal angle of the wing, subsinuate, in this respect differing from the 
described American forms. n 

Abdomen dark brown. 

Habitat. — Northern United States and Canada. 

Holotype, J*, Hall Valley, near Platte Canon, Colorado; August 
II, 1915 ; E. J. Oslar. 

Allotype, 5, topotypic. 

Paratypes, 4 J'J, topotypic ; J, Waubamick, Parry Sound, Ontario, 
June 13, 1915; H. S. Parish; J*, Woodworths Lake, Fulton Co., New 
York, June 15, 1914; C. P. Alexander. 

Types in the collection of the author, a paratype in the collection 
of Dr. W. G. Dietz. 

This generalized form is very interesting in the course of the 
second anal vein of the wings. The range of the species is northern, 
presumably of the Canadian life-zone. 

Explanation of Plate VIII. 

Fig. I. Wing of Limnophila alleni Johnson. 

Fig. 2. Wing of Limnophila marchandi n. sp. 

Fig. 3. Wing of Limnophila miindoides n. sp. 

Fig. 4. Wing of Limnophila niunda Osten Sacken. 

Fig. 5. Wing of Limnophila terebrans n. sp. 

Fig. 6. Wing of Limnophila barberi n. sp. 

Fig. 7. Wing of Limnophila terrcc-novcr n. sp. 

Figs. 8, 9. Wings of Limnophila oslari n. sp. 

Fig. 10. Wing of Trichocera {Diazosma) subsinuata, n. sp. 



126 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^'o'- ■-'^^"^iv, 

DESCRIPTIONS AND RECORDS OF NORTH 
AMERICAN HIPPOBOSCID^. 

By Myron H. Swenk^ 
Lincoln, Nebr. 

I. Olfersia albipennis Say. 

1S23. Olfersia albipennis Say, Journal of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, III, p. 102. 

Length 5 mm., the head and thorax alone measuring 2.75 mm., and the 
distance from the front of the head to the tip of the wing measuring 7 mm., 
the thorax being 2 mm. wide at the widest part. Head and thorax blackish 
brown. Head elliptical, nearly one and one half times as wide as long, the 
face about twice as broad as the eyes and narrowing anteriad, the rather 
broad orbital margins and the semicircular, uniformly convex vertex smooth 
and polished, leaving a subtrapezoidal, opaque median area. Inner edges of 
the polished orbital margins more or less hairy. Clypeus seven tenths as long 
as the front, usually rather shiny, divided into two sections by a deep, 
median, transverse sulcation, the apical section rather broad and anteriorly 
broadly and shallowly emarginatc, so that its visible basal width along the 
dividing sulcation is fully one half of the distance across the emargination 
between the lateral apices. Antennary processes brownish black and bearing 
long ferruginous and black hairs. Palpi blackish, subequal to the clypeus in 
length, copiously clothed with short, pale hairs. Eyes shining blackish. 
Humeral processes short and heavy, their tips obtuse, in color a yellowish 
testaceous distinctly paler than the coloration of the rest of the thorax above, 
bearing several short blackish hairs and one long black bristle. Mesonotum 
with a distinct, impressed, median longitudinal line and straight, deep, trans- 
verse, median sulci which are but slightly if at all interrupted medially, the 
whole having a distinct cruciate form. Mesonotum anteriorly with a very 
few, long, pale ferruginous hairs. Scutellum posteriorly broadly rounded, its 
apical margin finely rimmed and thinly provided with short, pale hairs, a 
deep median longitudinal sulcus giving it a sub-bilobed appearance. Pleura 
opaque and grayish because of a thin pollinosity over the dark brown integu- 
ment. Under side of head brown, the labium whitish. Sternum flat, shining 
dark brown, the anterior angles prominent and extending as short, contrast- 
ingly black lobes between the anterior coxas. Legs dark brown, below finely 
pale-haired, above sparsely black-haired, the claws black. Tergum light 
brown, darkening laterally, the base and apical portion together with a medio- 
apical stain, blackish, venter light brown, the whole abdomen thinly short- 
haired, these varying in color from pale at the base to blackish toward the 
tip of the abdomen, tergum with two latero-apical tufts of long, black hairs. 
Wings whitish, the costal \eins and basal part of the longitudinal veins dark 



June, I9i6.] SwENK : NoRTH AMERICAN HlPPOBOSCID^. 127 

brown, the costi only moderately thickened beyond the end of the first vein 
which joins the 'osta a little before the first crossvein, the costal border of 
the marginal cell one and one third times as long as the costal border of the 
first submarginal cell, the first basal cell over twice as long as the second 
basal cell. 

Say states that the numerous species described in the paper in 
which Olfcrsia albipcnnis and Ormthomyia nebulosa, pallida (=an- 
chincuria) and coiifluciita were described (Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., iii, pp. 9-54 and 73-104), were collected chiefly by himself 
while on the Major Long Expedition. Inasmuch as the party spent 
the period from September 9, 181 9, to June 6, 1820, at Engineer Can- 
tonment, near the present site of the town of Blair in eastern Ne- 
braska, and since he notes " Ardca hcrodias," " Strix nebulosa" and 
" Sylz'ia sialis" (respectively the three species of birds from which 
the first three above-mentioned flies were collected) as present at 
Engineer Cantonment during his stay, it seems highly. probable that 
the types of these species were collected at that place. O. confliiciita, 
taken from " Ardca caudidissuna," was probably taken lower down on 
the Missouri river or further east. With O. nebulosa and O. pallida, 
their hosts become so uncommon outside the Missouri valley that it 
is almost certain they could not have been taken by Say at any point 
further west. 

O. albipennis is here redescribed froin three specimens all collected 
at Lincoln, Nebraska, two April 18, 1892, on a black-crowned night 
heron (Nycticorax nycticorax naevlus) by L. Bruner, and the third 
April 13, 1900, on a green heron (Butorides vircscens z'irescens) by 
J. S. Hunter. Say's specimen was from a great blue heron (Ardca 
hcrodias subsp.). The coincidence of locality and host, together 
with the perfect agreement of my specimens with Say's description, 
especially in such characters as the pale humeral tubercles, whitish 
wings, size, etc., make it as certain as one can reasonably be that the 
above-described species is truly albipcnnis Say. As Say's type is 
lost, I select the above-mentioned specmien from the green heron to 
stand as the neotype of the species. 

A variety of O. albipcnnis, having the scutellum with the median 
longitudinal sulcus very weak, so that the scutellum is not at all sub- 
bilobed in appearance, and the vertex with a large, shallow anterior 
concavity (this is feebly marked in typical albipcnnis) is represented 



128 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^'oi- -^-"^iv, 

in a specimen collected on the laboratory window of the department 
of entomology at the University of Nebraska, May ii, 1901. This 
specimen was not infesting a heron, but either a mourning dove 
{Zcnaidura macroura margincUa) or one of six species of shore 
birds, fresh specimens of all of which were in the room at the time. 
These shore birds were the semipalmated plover {Mgialitis semi pal - 
mata), golden plover {Charadrius dominicus doniinicus) , Hudsonian 
godwit {Liniosa hccniastica) , white-rumped sandpiper (Pisobia fiisci- 
collis), red-backed sandpiper {Pelidna alpina sakhalina) and semi- 
palmated sandpiper {Ereunetcs pusillus). 

The European O. ardccc Macquart has been recorded by Loew 
from " North America," and by J. B. Smith from New Jersey on 
the little blue heron ( Pblack-crowned) night heron and bittern, and 
is the only other North American species recorded from a heron. 
The larger size (6 mm.), dusky wings and shining black coloration 
described for ardccc indicates entire distinctness from albipcnnis. 

2. Olfersia botaurinorum new species. 

Very similar to O. albipennis Say, above redescribed, but distinctly larger, 
the length of the head and thorax measuring 3.25 mm., the width of the 
thorax at its widest part 2.5 mm., and the distance from the front of the head 
to the tip of the wing 8 mm. Color of head and thorax darker, more blackish, 
the color of the humeral processes not distinctly paler than that of the rest 
of the thorax above. Head less broad, one and one fourth times as wide as 
long, the apical section of the clypeus comparatively narrow at base and 
rather deeply eniarginate at apex, so that the visible basal width along the 
dividing sulcation is not more than one third of the distance across the 
emargination between the lateral apices. Antennary processes black and bear- 
ing much black hair. Face without obvious hair along orbital margins and 
mesonotum likewise not hairy. Wings faintly clouded. First vein joining 
the costa considerably before the first crossvein. Otherwise agreeing with the 
preceding description of O. albipennis. 

Type. — Omaha, Nebraska. May 26, 1907, on a least bittern (Ixo- 
hrychiis exilis) by R. H. Wolcott. 

Paratypcs. — Type lot, i specimen; Lincoln, Nebraska, April 21, 
1901, on a bittern (Botaiirus Icntiginosiis) by J. C. Crawford. 

It is possible that this form is conspecific with A. ardccc Macquart, 
but after a careful comparison with the description I have decided 
to let it stand as distinct. Certainly the wings are not as dark as 
described for ardccc. The specific name is from the subfamily to 
which the bitterns belong. 



June, I9i6.] SvVENK : NORTH AMERICAN HiPPOBOSCID-E. 129 

3. Olfersia scutellaris new species. 

Resembling O. albipennis Say, but differing from that species, as above 
described, in the following characters : Somewhat larger, the length about 
S mm., the head and thorax alone measuring 3 mm., the thorax being nearly 
2.5 mm. wide at the widest part, and the distance from the front of the head 
to the tip of the wing measuring 7.5 mm. ; head less broad, subcircular, the 
width only one and one sixth times the length, the face very broad, fully two 
and one half times as broad as the eye ; elevated orbital margins opaque or 
slightly shiny along extreme outer edges only, their inner edges distinctly 
hairy ; clypeus four fifths as long as front, the apical section shaped as in 
O. botaurinorum but with the base slightly wider, so that it is slightly more 
than one third (three eighths) of the distance between the lateral apices ; 
antennary processes blackish and bearing much black hair, the palpi slightly 
shorter than the clypeus ; eyes dull plumbeous ; each side of scutellum with a 
long black bristle ; wings slightly darker, the first vein joining the costa con- 
siderably before the first crossvein ; coloration of head and thorax brownish 
fuscous, the shiny vertex and basal portion of the median longitudinal line 
stained with reddish, the tips of the tubercles and the scutellum reddish yel- 
low, the latter contrasting strongly with the much darker mesonotum. 

Type. — Watkins' Station near Manchester, Michigan, on a least 
bittern (Ixohrychus cxilis). May 30, 1894, by R. H. Wolcott (Coll. 
No. 190). 

This species is even closer to O. hotaurinorum, just described, 
than to O. albipennis, agreeing with the former in size, clypeal struc- 
ture and venation, but easily separated by the more brownish gen- 
eral coloration, yellowish scutellum, hairy face and mesonotum, 
broader front, opaque orbital margins and dull-colored eyes. 

4. Olfersia intertropica Walker. 

1849. Ornithomyia intertropica Walker, List of Dipterous Insects in the 
British Museum, IV, p. 1144. 

1903. Olfersia intertropica Austen, Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History, Series 7, XII, p. 264. 

The type of this species came from the Galapagos Islands, and 
Austen records additional specimens from Bahia, Brazil, Orizaba, 
Mexico and Honolulu, Hawaii. The latter author regards 0. accrta 
Speiser, described from the Hawaiian Islands, as a synonym of inter- 
tropica after comparison of paratypes of the former with the cotypes 
of the latter in the British Museum. A specimen from Orizaba, 
Mexico, collected in January, 1892, by Prof. Bruner is before me. 
O. pallidilabris Rondani, described from Mexico, is very close to 
intertropica, as pointed out by Speiser, but if, as that author indi- 



130 Journal New York Entomological Society, t'^'o'- -"^-"^iv, 

cates, pallidilabris has no fine pale hairs on the orbital margins, the 
specirhen at hand can not belong to that species. 

5. Olfersia angustifrons Van der Wulp. 

1903. Olfersia angustifrons Van der Wulp, Biologia Centrali- Americana, 
Diptera, II, p. 430. 

1903. Olfersia angustifrons Austen, Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History, Series 7, XII, p. 265. 

This species has been recorded from Oaxaca (Oaxaca) and Teapa 
(Tobasco), Mexico, and from Rio Sucio, Costa Rica, one specimen 
from each locality, all in the British Museum. A fourth specimen 
may now be recorded from Motzoronga, in southern Vera Cruz, 
Mexico, taken from a species of trogon, February 18, 1892, by L. 
Bruner. The narrow front (equal to an eye in width) and the rather 
long palpi and proboscis (the former one and one fourth and the 
latter three times as long as the clypeus, which is two thirds as long 
as the front), are good characters of this species which are given in 
the original description. The Motzoronga specimen, however, has 
the auxiliary vein complete, though very weak. 

6. Olfersia americana Leach. 

1818. Feronia americana Leach, Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural His- 
tory Society, Edinburgh, II, pi. XXVII, fig. 1-3. 

1830. Olfersia americana Wiedemann, Aussereuropaische Zweifliigelige 
Inseckten, II, pp. 606—607. 

1835- Olfersia americana Macquart, Histoire Naturelle des Dipteres, II, 
p. 641. 

1872. Hippobosca bubonis Packard, Guide to the Study of Insects, p. 
417. 

1878. Olfersia americana Osten Sacken, Catalogue of the Diptera of 
North America, p. 213. 

1895. Olfersia americana Johnson, Proceedings of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, pp. 303-340. 

1899. Olfersia americana Johnson, Twenty-seventh Annual Report New 
Jersey Board of Agriculture, p. 699. 

1903, Feronia americana Austen, Annals and Magazine of Natural His- 
tory, Series 7, XII, p. 264. 

This species, the type of which is yet extant in the British Mu- 
seum, was originally described by Leach from a specimen from 
Georgia, and has subsequently been recorded by Packard from Mas- 
sachusetts on the great horned owl {Bubo virginianns virgiuianus), 
from Illinois and Texas by Osten Sacken, the latter record being 



June, I9i6.] SwENK: NoRTH AMERICAN HlPPOBOSCID^. 131 

from Dallas on the red-tailed hawk (Buteo borealis), from Florida 
by Johnson on the screech owl (Otiis asio asio), and from Haddon- 
field, New Jersey, November 9, on the red-tailed hawk, also by John- 
son. In Nebraska it has been taken at Brownville on the great 
horned owl (Bubo virginiamis virginiamis) on December 30 by the 
late Ex-Governor R. W. Furnas, and at West Point on the rough- 
legged hawk (Archibittco lagopus saucti-johannis) in October, 1884, 
by L. Bruner, these two specimens being before me. A third speci- 
men at hand is labeled simply " Louisville, Kentucky." Apparently 
the species is widely distributed in the eastern United States on our 
commoner birds of prey. 

The published descriptions of O. aiiicricaiia, while sufficiently ex- 
plicit that I believe I have correctly identified the species, are yet so 
brief and general that a redescription of the species would be proper 
at this time. 

Length 6-7 mm., the head and thorax alone measuring 4.5 mm., and the 
distance from the front of the head to the tip of the wing measuring 10.5- 
11.5 mm., the thorax being 3 mm. wide at the widest part. Head and thorax 
brown. Head slightly elliptical, one and one third times as wide as long, the 
face strongly narrowing anteriad, its width across the middle of the front 
one and one third times as broad as the eyes at the same level, the elevated, 
rather narrow orbital margins and the elevated, plano-convex lenticular vertex 
polished, the depressed, subtrapezoidal median area opaque. A very few short 
scattered bristles on the inner edges of the polished orbital margins. Clypeus 
nearly five sixths as long as the front, dullish, the apical section rather broad 
basally and very broadly and shallowly emarginate anteriorly, this emargina- 
tion being really arcuate in form, so that the visible basal width along the 
dividing sulcation is only a little over one third of the distance across the 
emargination between the lateral apices. Antennary processes black, con- 
spicuously black-haired. Palpi long, fully one and one half times as long as 
the clypeus, yellowish to brownish in color, finely black-haired. Eyes satiny 
black. Humeral processes short, bluntly pointed, about concolorous with 
thorax above or the very tips somewhat paler. Mesonotuni with both the 
longitudinal and the transverse lines rather deeply impressed, especially the 
latter which are scarcely interrupted medially. Mesonotum not distinctly 
hairy anywhere. Scutellum with the posterior margin weakly convex, laterally 
thinly hairy, and with a distinct subapical rim, medio-longitudinally rather 
broadly and shallowly depressed or impressed, giving the sclerite a slightfy 
sub-bilobed appearance. Pleura above yellowish brown, below shading into 
a pale yellowish concolorous with the flat, shining sternum, the latter with the 
anterior angles feeble and concolorous with the rest of the sternum. Head 
beneath pale yellowish, the labium whitish. Legs light brownish above and 



132 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^'o'- ^^^"^'f 

light yellowish beneath, not suffused with dusky except on the tarsi, mostly 
sparsely black-haired but with a few pale hairs beneath toward the bases of 
the legs. Abdomen pale brown, becoming more or less blackish terminally, 
rather strongly and closely black-haired, the apical lateral tufts long, beneath 
yellowish white, thinly short black-haired. Wings iridescent white, the costal 
veins and basal part of the longitudinal veins brownish yellow, the costa con- 
siderably thickened beyond the end of the first vein which joins the costa 
much before the first crossvein, the costal border of the marginal cell from 
one and one fifth to two times as long as the costal border of the first sub- 
marginal cell, the first basal cell distinctly more than twice as long as the 
second basal cell. Auxiliary vein incomplete. 

7. Olfersia wolcotti new species. 

Of the same size and general appearance as O. aniericana Leach, above 
redescribed, but the front much narrower, not wider than the breadth of an 
eye, the orbital margins subparallel or but slightly narrowing anteriad ; clypeus 
only about one half as long as the front, the apical section somewhat narrower 
basally but its apical emargination distinctly deeper and less broad, so that 
the visible width along the dividing sulcation is nearly one half of the distance 
between the lateral apices ; palpi blackish, twice as long as the clypeus ; gen- 
eral coloration of head and thorax darker, dark reddish brown rather than 
yellowish brown as in americana, the legs strongly suffused with blackish ; 
wings faintly dusky, the costal veins and basal part of the longitudinal veins 
blackish. 

Type. — Ann Arbor, Michigan, on a broad-winged hawk (Bntco 
platypterus) shot in the woods west of the town, April 20, 1894, by 
R. H. Wolcott (Coll. No. 129). 

Named in honor of Dr. R. H. Wolcott, in recognition of his valu- 
able work both in entomology and in ornithology. The size of the 
species precludes its confusion with any other except O. amcricana. 

For convenience in separating the above seven species of Olfersia 
the following table is offered: 

Size larger, the length to end of wings 10 mm. or more; palpi longer than 
clypeus. 
Front narrowing anteriad, distinctly broader than an eye; coloration yel- 
lowish americana. 

Front subparallel, not broader than an eye ; coloration dark brownish, 

wolcotti. 
Size smaller, the length to end of wings not over 8 mm. 

Front subparallel, not broader than an eye ; palpi longer than clypeus, 

angustifrons. 
Front distinctly broader than an eye; palpi subequal to or shorter than 
clypeus. 



June, i9i6.] SwENK : NORTH AMERICAN HlPPOBOSCID^. 133 

Clypeus basally one half as broad as the distance across emargina- 
tion ; length to end of wings 7 mm. 

Front distinctly less than twice as broad as an eye ; scutellum 
with a copious, long, apical fringe intertropica. 

Front about twice as broad as an eye ; scutellum with a very 

thin, short, apical fringe albipennis. 

Clypeus basally about one third as broad as the distance across 
emargination ; length to end of wings 7.5—8 mm. 

Mesonotum and scutellum blackish-brown ; orbital margins shin- 
ing, glabrous botaurinorum. 

Mesonotum dark brown, scutellum yellowish ; orbital margins 
opaque, hairy SCUtellaris. 

8. Ornithomyia buteonis new species. 

Length 7—7.5 mm. Head yellowish-brown, the broadly crescentic orbital 
margins and the vertex polished, the median area opaque. Clypeus convex, 
slightly emarginate and rather weakly pitted anteriorly and bearing a small, 
round pit on the posterior margin. Antennary processes distinctly less than, 
twice as long as broad, clothed with bright pale ferruginous hair, broadly 
lanceolate owing to both margins being evenly convex, the tips narrowly 
rounded. Eyes light brown. Thorax above fuscous brown, paling to tes- 
taceous on the humeral angles, the inner margins of the dentiform processes 
and the adjacent spiracle whitish. Mesoscutum with a feeble median impressed 
line and deep, sinuate, lateral median transverse impressed lines. Scutellum 
fuscous brown, strongly tinged with reddish on the anterior margin, discally 
shallowly depressed, and bearing a row of about a half dozen short black 
hairs near each margin. Under side of head and thorax pale testaceous, the 
labium whitish at tip. Legs above reddish-brown, below pale testaceous, the 
tibiae with the edges fuscous, the tarsi fuscous, the claws black. Abdomen 
yellowish, copiously but not densely clothed with short, black hairs. Wings 
clear, the costal veins and bases of the longitudinal veins dark brown, the first 
longitudinal vein ending in the costa at a point nearly above the first cross- 
vein, the costal border of the marginal cell about one fourth longer than the 
costal border of the first submarginal cell and the first basal cell more than 
the length of the second crossvein longer than the second basal cell. 

Type. — Neligh, Nebraska, April 26, 1900, on a broad-winged hawk 
(Bittco platyptenis) by Merritt Gary. 

Paratypc. — Guapiles, Costa Rica, March i, 1903, by J. C. Crawford. 
Belongs to the O. erythroccphala group. Agrees with O. erythro- 
ccphala Leach, of Brazil to Mexico and the West Indies, in size and 
venation, but differs in the reddish-brown rather than ferruginous 
head, the concolorous clypeus, the darker legs and the reddish an- 
terior border of the scutellum. O. ncbnlosa Say, from the western 
United States, is of the same size, but differs in the clypeus being pale 



134 Journal New York Entomological Society, ^'o'- >^>^^'^, 

(concolorous with the rest of the head in buteonis), and the reddish- 
brown mesonotum with three yellowish lines (fuscous brown without 
markings in bittcoiiis). From O. fusciventris Wiedemann, described 
from Kentucky, buteonis differs in larger size {fusciventris is only 
5 mm. long) somewhat less deeply emarginate anterior border of 
clypeus (deeply and angularly emarginate in fusciz'entris) , fllattish 
scutellum (basally inflated in fusciventris) and in the coloration of 
the thorax being much darker than the head (concolorous in fusci~ 
veiitris). 0. pilosnla Van der Wulp, froin Costa Rica, is smaller 
(5.5 mm.) and has the head and thorax rufous. O. haiticnsis Ron- 
dani, from Haiti, is distinct in its dark-haired antennae and different 
venation, the first longitudinal vein ending in the costa before the 
first crossvein. This latter venational character will also separate 
O. avicularia Linnaeus, the common European species, and O. varipcs 
Walker, of Mexico to Colombia and Peru, the latter further differ- 
ing in the shape of the antennary process. O. anchincuria Speiser 
(;=0. pallida Say) may be distinguished at once by the interstitial 
first and second cross veins, making the second basal cell nearly as 
long as the first basal cell (much shorter in buteonis). The colora- 
tion is entirely different from O. butalis Coquillett, described from 
Bering Island. 

9. Ornithomyia costaricensis new species. 

Length 7 mm. Front and vertex wholly glossy bright ferruginous, the 
posteriorly broadening orbital margins and the vertex triangle perfectly 
smooth and polished, the median area microscopically tesselated, giving it 
a satiny luster, and of subuniform width. Clypeus concolorous with front 
and vertex, anteriorly medially emarginate because of a deep rectangular pit, 
posteriorly also with a large, deep, oval pit. Antennary processes twice as 
long as broad, their sides convex and their tips narrowly rounded, of a darker 
ferruginous color than the clypeus and front and provided with long, fer- 
ruginous hairs. Eyes glossy black. Humeral prominences pale, heavily black- 
haired. Mesonotum shining blackish, slightly suffused with reddish along the 
anterior sutures, bearing a faintly impressed median line and deep, slightly 
curved, transverso-median depressions on each side of it. Scutellum rounded 
posteriorly, medially much depressed transversely and this depression bearing 
several long-black hairs, shining black like the mesonotum but with the 
anterior margin reddish testaceous, interrupted medially by a blackish stain. 
Sternum and under side of head greenish testaceous. Legs beneath greenish 
testaceous, above fusco-testaceous, becoming dusky on the tibiae, fuscous on 
the tarsi and with the claws black. Abdominal tegument dark brown, but so 
heavily clothed with black hairs as to appear blackish. Wings slightly clouded, 



June, i9i6.] SwENK : NoRTH AMERICAN HiPPOBOSCID.E. 135 

the costal veins and bases of the longitudinal veins blackish, the first longi- 
tudinal vein ending in the costa slightly before the first crossvein, the costal 
border of the marginal cell fully twice as long as the costal border of the 
first submarginal cell, and the first basal cell twice the length of the second 
crossvein longer than the second basal cell. 

Type. — Juan Viiias, Costa Rica, March, 1902, by L. Bruner. 

The shiny blackish mesonotum seems to distinguish this species 
from all of the described North American congeners except O. hutalis 
Coquillet, which is much smaller (4 mm.), has the front black spotted 
on the orbits and vertex with yellow, and is otherwise very different. 
The species is really close to O. erythrocephala, but apparently differs 
in the deep anterior pit on the clypeus, the red anterior border on 
the scutellum, and, compared with Van der Wulp's description of 
O. robust a which Austen places as a synonym of erythrocephala after 
a comparison of the types of both in the British Museum, it should 
also differ in darker legs and abdomen, although these color dif- 
ferences are not clear from a comparison with Leach's original de- 
scription of crytliroccphahj. From O. haiticnsis it differs at once in 
the ferruginous hairs on the antennary process, the dark legs and 
the different venation (the first longitudinal vein ends considerably 
before the first crossvein and the costal border of the marginal cell 
is less than twice as long as the costal border of the first submarginal 
cell in haitiensis). The venational characters are much like those 
of O. butconis, just described, and separate the species from several 
of its congeners. 

10. Ornithomyia pirang^ new species. 

Length 4.5 mm. Head and thorax above shining brownish testaceous, 
clearing to yellowish testaceous on the lower orbital margins, vertex, anterior 
margin and median line of mesonotum and base of scutellum. Orbital mar- 
gins, broadening posteriorly, and vertex, polished, the median area conspic- 
uously duller and of subuniform width throughout. Clypeus anteriorly medi- 
ally emarginate and bearing a small, shallowly rounded pit, most of its dorsal 
surface involved in a large, oval, deep pit. Antennary processes a little less 
than twice as long as broad, the outer margins strongly convex and the inner 
margins nearly straight, causing the pointed tips to appear divergent, in color 
fusco-testaceous and clothed with dark hairs. Eyes brown. Mesonotum with 
a slight median longitudinal depression and somewhat stronger transverse, 
slightly sinuate, median lateral depressions. Scutellum slightly convex and 
with a slight transverse depressed line near apex which bears four strong 
black bristles. Under side of head and thorax shining pale testaceous, the 



136 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Vol. xxiv, 

long spines on anterior coxje and the labium whitish. Legs greenish testaceous, 
paler beneath, the tarsi infuscated and the claws black. Abdomen yellowish, 
copiously but not densely clothed with short, black hairs. Wings clear, the 
costal veins and bases of the longitudinal veins black, the first longitudinal 
vein ending in the costa above the second crossvein and considerably before 
the first crossvein, the costal border of the marginal cell a little less than 
twice as long as the costal border of the first submarginal cell and the first 
basal cell as much longer than the second basal cell as the length of the 
second crossvein. 

Type. — Juan Viiias, Costa Rica, March 15, 1902, on a stimmer 
tanager (Piraiiga rubra) by L. Bruner. 

This species is apparently closest to O. haiticusis Bigot, with 
which it agrees in the dark hair on the antennary processes and the 
first longitudinal vein ending in the costa before the first crossvein, 
but differs in its smaller size (haitiensis is 7 mm. long), in the form 
of the clypeus (Jiaitioisis has a small dorsal pit but a large and deep 
angular anterior pit) and in the coloration (haiticusis has a large, 
well-defined, cordiform mesonotal area, a black ocellar spot, etc.) 
It differs at once from 0. erythroccphala Leach and O. hellardiana 
Rondani in the dark instead of ferruginous hairs on the antennal 
processes. Its small size separates it at once from the described 
North American forms except O. but alls (which has a very different 
coloration), O. auchiucuria (which has the basal cells of subequal 
length) and O. fuscivcutris (which has the head and mesonotum uni- 
formly colored). 

The three species of OruitJiomyia above described may be sep- 
arated as follows: 

Hair on antennary processes ferruginous. 

Head yellowish brown, the- mesonotum fuscous brown buteonis. 

Head bright ferruginous, the mesonotum blackish costaricensis. 

Hair on antennary processes dark pirangae. 



June, i9i6.] FORBES : CATERPILLAR HOMOLOGIES. 137 

ON CERTAIN CATERPILLAR HOMOLOGIES. 

By Wm. T. M. Forbes, 
Ithaca, N. Y. 

A recent paper by Stanley B. Fracker^ raises some interesting 
questions as to the interpretation of the caterpillar setae. He takes 
the prothorax as a typical segment, having the largest number of 
sets of any simple segment, names its setae, and then, assuming the 
setae of the following segments are strictly homologous, so far as 
they go, applies to them the same names. My belief is that the cor- 
respondence is partial, and so far as the prothorax is concerned con- 
fined to a couple of the mid-ventral, and possibly the mid-dorsal setae. 
In the following discussion the thoracic setae will be referred to by 
the Greek letters applied to them by Fracker, the abdominals, by the 
numerical system now in use, derived, so far as the principal setae 
are concerned, from Wilhelm Miiller. 

The abdominal set^e consist of i, ii, iii and iii a. which lie above 
the spiracle, iv and v, between the spiracle and the subventral fold; 
vi between this fold and fold psi, appearing only after the first moult, 
vii on the outer side of the leg-base, typically of three setae, and 
viii on the inner side, near the mid-ventral line ; besides these ix, sub- 
ventrally, and x subdorsally are minute setae, lying close to the in- 
cisure and touching the posterior curve of the preceding segment ; 
presumably, like our own tendon-organs, they serve to report to the 
caterpillar its own position. 

In the Hepialidae there is a slight modification, the three serae 
nearest the spiracle, behind and below, are in an oblique row, and 
placed high up;^ I have assumed that these are iv, v and vi, moved 
up and back, as they have in Incurvaria."* Fracker assumes that the 
two lower are iv and v (kappa and eta), that the upper is a new sub- 
primary (theta), and that the usual subprimary vi (mu) is absent. 
In the first stage, as figured by Dyar, there are only two setae very 
slightly higher than the two lower of the row in the last stage. The 

1 The Classification of Lepidopterous Larvae ; Illinois Biological Mono- 
graphs : II, I ; 1915, Urbana, 111. 

2 Ann. Ent. Soc. Am., Ill, pi. 12, fig. 33. 

3 L. c, fig. 34. 



138 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Voi. xxiv, 

approximate correspondence in position of the two primaries of the 
first stage (which we agree to be iv and v) with the two lower of 
the later stages, leads Fracker to believe them the same ; from the 
same data however I concluded that iv and v, which are very high 
even in the first stage, had moved considerably farther, and that vi 
had appeared as usual below them. The problem could only be 
settled by a full study of the muscular system, and determination if 
the organs of that part of the body have moved up, or by definitely 
locating the subventral fold, which runs in the Frenatte between v 
and vi. The first is impossible in the complete lack of material, but 
a specimen before me shows most of the dorso-ventral muscles in the 
last stage (see figure). The two folds (the subventral and psi) 
are both formed by intermediate insertions of the retractor muscles 
of the proleg, etc. ; we find in Hcpialus the most dorsal of these in- 
sertions, defining the subventral fold, are immediately below the 
spiracle; and far above, not below, the seta which I interpret as vi. 
A second insertion appears below vi, which I interpret as marking 
the fold psi. I then rest in my former opinion that the three setae 
are iv, v and vi, not a new subprimary, iv and v. 

Next in order is the homology of the meso- and meta-thorax with 
the abdomen. I think we are agreed that i is alpha, ii is beta, x is 
gamma (four set^e on the thorax,* both in Jugatae and Frenatse) ; 
vii a and b are nu and pi, vii c is tau, viii is sigma and ix is omega. 
The difiference then is in Dr. Fracker's assumption that the number- 
ing used was intended to imply homotypy, which was the case only 
with the ventrals and small primaries ; and in the lateral region, com- 
prising iii, iii a, iv, v and vi on the abdomen, and epsilon, rho, kappa, 
theta and eta (delta, rho, kappa, theta, and epsilon in the Jugatae) of 

4 It has been a puzzle to me for some time why the mesothorax has three 
setje in group X, while the metathorax has four. Y. H. Tsou, in the Trans. 
Anicr. Micr. Soc, XXXIII, 223, has recently given a satisfactory explanation, 
namely that one of the normal four setje has moved across the incisure to the 
prothorax, where it has been generally overlooked or treated as a secondary 
prothoracic seta. In other points I am inclined to disagree with Mr. Tsou 
for the same reasons as with Mr, Fracker. And why should two papers froir 
the same laboratory on the same subject worked out at the same time use 
entirely different nomenclatures for the same structures ! One paper must be 
translated before it can be compared with the other, and then we find that in 
other features they are often in agreement. 



June, 1916.] 



Forbes : Caterpillar Homologies. 



139 



the thorax. Again I believe, though this time mainly without evi- 
dence on either side, that the setae of Jugatae and Frenatae are homol- 
ogous, but differ a little in position. So I take the anterior lateral, 
epsilon, of the JugatJe, to be eta of the Frenatse, and delta of the 
Jugatae to be epsilon of the Frenatse. 

As to homologies with the abdomen so far as number of setae 
goes the comparison is close, only that there are two subprimaries on 
the thorax. Unfortunately the presence and location of the wing 
and spiracular rudiments makes the homology impossible. Above the 
spiracle, on the abdomen we have only iii and iiia, while above the 
wing-rudiment, which must be well above the spiracular level, we 
have all except eta of the Frenatse on the thorax, and that is far 
above the actual thoracic spiracular rudiment, which lies on the level 
of vi (pi). Eta is anterior, and free from the wing, but there can 
hardly have been extensive migration of kappa and theta as they are 
closely associated (above) with the wing-base, especially the primary 
kappa. We have then epsilon, rho, kappa, theta and possibly eta (if 
it is epsilon of the Jugatas) to compare with the two setae iii and iii a 
of the abdomen. Under the conditions any comparison is a guess, 
and Fracker's one that iii a is epsilon, and iii is rho, is as likely as 
any. Below the spiracle, we have nothing to represent iv, v and vi, as 

Summary. 



Meso-, and Meta-thorax. 


Abdomen. 


Forbes 
(after Dyar). 


Fracker Jugatse. 


Fracker 
Frenata;. 


Forbes 
(after Dyar). 


Fracker Jugatae. 


Fracker 
Frenatse. 


ia 

ib 

xa, xb, xc, xd 


alpha 

beta 

gamma 


alpha 

beta 

gamma 


i 

ii 
X 


alpha 

beta 

gamma 


alpha 

beta 

gamma 



11a 

iib 



absent 

absent 

absent 

vii (vi Dyar) 

setae on coxa 

viii 

ix 



delta 
rho 
theta 
kappa 
(epsilon ?) 



Level of dorso-ventral muscles 



epsilon 

rho 

theta 

kappa 

eta 



absent 
absent 
absent 



Level of wings and spiracles 



nu, pi 

sigma 
tau 



nu, pi 



Sigma 
omega 



VI 

vii a 
viic 
viii 
ix 



viib 



epsilon 
rho 



kappa 

eta 

mu 

nu, pi 

tau 

sigma 

omega 



140 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^o'- -"^-"^^v, 

eta is so far forward as to be nearly out of the question; in fact if 
the position of the spiracular rudiment means anything, the subven- 
tral region is practically undeveloped in the caterpillar meso- and 
meta-thorax. 

Coming to the prothorax I can only say that I agree with Fracker 
as to the ventral part, and again can see no proof of homologies in 
the lateral and dorsal part. The muscles imply here as large an over- 
development of the lateral region, as it was under-developed in the 
rest of the thorax, but hardly prove it. The spiracle has risen again 
to its abdominal level. 

It seems probable that these differentiations of seta-pattern on 
thorax, prothorax, and abdomen, are much older than the seta-plan 
of either one, itself. For instance in the Trichoptera the seta-plan 
has not fully taken the Lepidopterous pattern, especially on the 
thorax, but the three types of arrangement already exist. 

A few other points may be noted at this point in connection with 
Fracker's paper. 

The bisetose prespiracular wart on prothorax in the Pyralidina, 
combined with the typical micro-seta-pattern on the alxlomen and 
prolegs, is diagnostic, and fills a serious need in the definition of the 
group. I do not think the character has been noted before. 

Many of the Cosmopterygid-CEcophorid series are not leaf-feeders, 
as stated by Fracker in his family table ; they may bore in seeds, 
stems, and even thorns, several are scavengers, and one carnivorous. 
This leaves the Cossidse uncomfortably close to the Gelechiid?e; of 
course our species are much larger when full grown: iii of the ab- 
domen is duplicated in Cossus, but the character may not be general. 

The uniordinal crochets of the Dioptidse are a surprise to me. 
The trifid venation of the imago, and according to Packard the pupal 
characters, associate this family with the Geometridae; they are 
however also close to the Pericopidse and Hyssidse in the rest of their 
venation, almost intergrading with the South American Pericopidas, 
and may be more closely related to them than we have supposed. 
The structures at the base of the abdomen ought to be investigated, 
as they are characteristic, and of one type in the Pericopidse, Lyman- 
triidcC, Arctiidae, some Noctuidae, etc., while in the Bombycid series 
a wholly different structure appears, and in the Geometridae, as noted 
by Prout, a third. The Thyatiridse seem to cling still to the 
Geometridae. 



June, 1916.] 



Forbes : Caterpillar Homologies. 



141 



Apatelodes, and other Eupterotidje, has well marked, though small 
warts, as also I believe have a few primitive exotic Lasiocampidae; 
they differ so far as I know from practically all the following fami- 
lies by their abundant and conspicuous secondary hair. They really 
come very close to the Bombycida;, which also have warts dominated 
by secondary hair, and widespread prolegs, with regular biordinal 
hooks, but in the familiar B. niori at least the hair is much more 
reduced. 

Sthenopis shows the characters of the Hepialidse as given by 
Fracker. 

I believe that the true Heliodinidje (c. g., Lithariaptcryx) are re- 




Fig. I. Lateral and dorsal muscles of larva of Hepialus htimuli. The 
drawing is from a prepared skin and to be trusted only for what it shows. 
The muscles are labelled according to Lyonet's system, the tubercles according 
to what I believe to be their homologies. The drawing is mainly from the 
fourth abdominal segment. Note presence of S and T, migration forward, 
rather than back, of lower dorsal longitudinal fibers, and position of upper 
ends of m and q, intermediate insertion of beta, and lower end of uppermost 
fiber of alpha, subv. f. Subventral fold — marked by the broken line. sp. 
Spiracle, viii is seen by transparency. 



lated more or less closely to the Yponomeutidae, while the Heliozelidae 
(Antispila and Coptodisca) are much more primitive forms on an- 
other line, connecting perhaps with the Elachistidje. Their larval 



142 Journal New York Entomological Society. [^'°1- -^^av, 

characters bear this out, and I suppose " Heliodinidee " on page 49 
will change to HeHozelidse. 

In the Pieridre (at least in Pieris rapcc, brassiccv, and daplidicc) 
certain of the most conspicuous setae are undoubtedly the three upper 
primaries, as I have proved by breeding the first stages.^ The crowd 
of secondary setae which confuse the picture in the full-grown larva 
are much fewer in the second stage, appearing gradually stage by 
stage, and the history of setae i, ii and iii is continuous; as to iv and 
V I feel much less certain, but suspect they are the two largest in the 
subventral region, as they have the same relative position, essentially, 
in stage one. When so traced the primaries of Pieris rapcc may be 
recognized by their light color, and i and ii by their glandular char- 
acter. 

Dr. Fracker's paper has a bibliography citing most of the articles 
mentioned above. The typical arrangement of muscles and skin- 
folds is given in Ann. Ent. Soc. Am., VII, 109, 1914. 



NOTES ON ALLECULID^ (COLEOPTERA). 

By Charles W. Leng, 
West New Brighton, N. Y. 

The name of this family was changed by Dr. G. Seidlitz in 
Erichson's Insekten Deutschlands because the former name was de- 
rived from Cistela, which was originally used by Geoffroy for an 
insect of a different family. Following Seidlitz the family Cistelidae 
of our Check List becomes the family Alleculidae of Junk's Catalogus 
Coleopterorum, constituting part 3, by F. Borchmann. 

It is to be regretted that some errors may be detected in this 
author's work. Mycetochara horni Dury, Journ. Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., 
XX, 1902, is omitted, Tcdinus angustns Casey is cited as angustatus, 
Prostcnus calif ornicus Horn is cited as from California notwith- 
standing the remarks of Champion, Casey and Fall, which make it 
plain that its occurrence in California must have been accidental 
and its real home is Central America. The treatment of the genus 
1 Psyche, 1909, 69. 



June, i9i6.] LenG : NOTES ON AlLECULID^ 143 

Lohopoda, by which two of the species are transferred to AUccula, 
is unwarranted, and they should be restored to Lohopoda. 

The citation by Borchmann of " Mycetocliara rufipcs Lee. Bost. 
Journ., I, 1866, p. 170" is however the most interesting of the errors 
in that its investigation has led to the discovery of others. This 
species was actually described by the elder Leconte in Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., L 1824, p. 170, and was redescribed by the younger 
Leconte in New Spec. Col., 1866, p. 136, as a Hymenorus. Accord- 
ing to Casey, who saw the type, it is however a Mycetochara. Gem- 
minger & Harold cite "Bost. Jour., L P- 170; New Spec. Col., 1866, 
p. 136," thus starting an error, which Casey inadvertently followed 
in Col. Not., HI, in substituting " Bost. Journ." for '' Ann. Lye. N. 
Y." Borchmann apparently combined the Gemminger & Harold ref- 
erences to produce his citation " Bost. Journ., I, 1866, p. 170," in 
which nothing is correct but the page. Henshaw's Bibliography is 
correct ; but his Check List is in error in citing both Mycetochara 
nifipcs (7612) and Hymenorus riifipes (7596) ; the latter should be 
erased. Seidlitz is also in error (Erichson's Insekten Deutschlands) 
in citing a rufipcs in each genus. I am indebted to Col. Casey for 
aid in unraveling this tangle, which makes it appear as if two species 
were involved, instead of one described in 1824. 

All authors appear to agree in treating Ziegler's Pseudocistcla 
erythroptcra as a synonym of hrevis, notwithstanding the striking 
difference in appearance caused by the reddish color of its elytra. 
While its description at this time might not be justifiable, I think it 
would be more in accordance with the facts to retain Ziegler's name, 
since it already stands in the literature, as a varietal name than to 
sink it in synonymy, and thereby possibly provoke a redescription at 
some future time of an insect that will always be noticeable in our 
collections. 



144 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^'oi- ^^^'^, 

THE INSECT FAUNA OF NEW JERSEY GREEN- 
HOUSES EXCLUSIVE OF THE COCCIDiE. 

By Harry B. Weiss, 

New Brunswick, N. J. 

While greenhouse insects are not strictly a part of the New Jersey 
fauna, many of them are to all purposes firmly established in their 
glass homes and constitute a force to be reckoned with by the grower 
of indoor plants. The number of square feet under glass in New 
Jersey is conservatively estimated at several millions and in this 
somewhat tropical atmosphere, certain species breed more or less con- 
tinually. The following list while dealing only with New Jersey 
insects is representative of conditions in most greenhouses in north- 
eastern United States. Forty-nine species are listed exclusively of the 
Coccid?e which have been treated in a separate paper. This family 
numbers thirty-two species all of which belong strictly to the green- 
house fauna, being unable to maintain themselves out of doors in 
New Jersey throughout the year. The list while aiming to be as 
complete as possible does not include accidental visitors remaining 
only for short periods of time or such insects as white grubs and wire- 
worms accidently introduced in the soil and troublesome until they 
have been worked out. 

NEW JERSEY GREENHOUSE INSECTS. 

Order THYSANURA. 

Sub-order Collembola. 

Achoreutes armatum Nicolet. 

Found in greenhouses where mushrooms are grown. 

Isotoma quadri-oculata Tullb. 

A greenhouse species imported from Europe. 

Order THYSANOPTERA. 

Family THRIPIDJE. 

Parthenothrips dracaenae Heeger. 

On Dnichccna, Ficus, sp., palms. 



June. I9i6.] WeISS : InSECT FaUNA OF GREENHOUSES. 145 

Thrips tabaci Lind. 

The onion thrips. On cucumbers under glass. 
Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis Bouche. 

The common greenhouse thrips. Feeds on ferns, croton, dahlias, 
azaleas and others. 

Order HOAIOPTERA. 

Family APHIDID.^. 
Aphis gossypii Glover. 

The melon aphis. On cucumbers under glass. 
Aphis hederae Kalt. 

On English ivy under glass. Not common. 
Aphis nerii Fonsc. 

On oleander. Not common. 
Aphis rufomaculata Wils. 

Green aphis of chrysanthemum. Also occurs outside. 
Rhopalosiphum violae Pergande. 

On violets in greenhouses. 
Macrosiphum lactucse Kalt. 

The lettuce plant louse. On lettuce under glass. 
Macrosiphum rosae Linn. 

The rose aphis, common. Also occurs outside. 
Macrosiphum sanborni Gill. 

The black aphis of chrysanthemum. Also occurs outside. 
Myzus rosarum Kalt. 

On roses. Common. Also occurs outside. 
Myzus persicae Sulz. 

Attacks carnations, asparagus fern. Primula under glass. Occurs 
outside on peach, etc. 

Family ALEYRODID^. 

Aleyrodes vaporarium West. 

The '■ greenhouse white fly," found on tomato, melon, cucumber, 
fuchsia, heliotrope and many others under glass. 

Order HEMIPTERA. 

Family MIRIDJE. 
Halticus citri Ashm. 

An outside feeder, Init has been found in greenhouses on chry- 
santhemum and smilax. 



146 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Voi. xxiv. 

Order DERMAPTERA. 
Family FORFICULIDJE. 
Forficula auricularia Linn. 

The common European " ear-wig." Found occasionally on im- 
ported plants in greenhouses. 

Order ORTHOPTERA. 
Family BLATTIDJE. 
Periplaneta americana Linn. 

Occasionally found in greenhouses. 

Periplaneta australasiae Fabr. 
In greenhouses. Common. 

Pycnoscelus surinamensis Linn. 
In greenhouses. 

Order COLEOPTERA. 

Family COCCINELLIDJE. 
Adalia bipuncta Linn. 

Occasionally found in greenhouses. 

Exochomus 4-pustulata Linn. 

Has been taken in greenhouses on bay tree. An importation from 
Europe. 

Family OTIORHYNCIHIDiE. 
Aramigus fuller! Horn. 

" Fuller's rose beetle." Feeds on roses and gardenia. Larvae 
feed on roots of these plants. Not common. 

Family CALANDRID^. 

Eucactophagus graphipterus Champ. 

Larvje live in bulbs of Lycastc, Odontoglossum and other species 
of orchids having large soft bulbs. Not absolutely common. Intro- 
duced from Central America. 

Order LEPIDOPTERA. 

Family ARCTIID.S:. 

Hyphantria cunea Dru. 

Larvae occasionally occur in greenhouses on various plants during 
the fall. 



June, I9i6.] WeiSS : InSECT FaUNA OF GREENHOUSES. 147 

Diacrisia virginica Fab. 

Larvse occasionally found during fall in greenhouses feeding on 
various plants. 

Isia isabella S. & A. 

Larvre found under same conditions as above two species. 

Family NOCTUIDJE. 
Peridroma margaritosa Haw. 

Larva is known as the variegated cut worm. Attacks carnation 
buds, sweet peas, chrysanthemum, smilax and other plants. Occurs 
outside on various plants and is one of the injurious cut-worms. 

Callopistria floridensis Guen. 

Larva is known as the '' Florida fern caterpillar." Feeds on 
various ferns under glass. Quite a serious pest. ' 

Family PYRALIDiE. 
Hymenia perspectalis Hubn. 

Larva known as the Alternanthera worm. Feeds on alternanthera 
varieties. Probably occurs outside. 

Phlyctaenia ferrugalis Hubn. 

The common greenhouse leaf-tier. Larva injures chrysanthe- 
mum, ageratum, geranium, carnation, violet, rose and others. Com- 
mon out of doors. 

Nymphula obliteralis Wlk. 

In greenhouses, larva living in case on leaf of water lily and other 
aquatic plants. 

Family TORTRICIDiE. 
Archips rosaceana Harr. 

The rose leaf roller. Larva feeds on flower buds of rose, also 
on carnations. Common on orchard trees and small fruits outside. 

Family YPONOMEUTID^. 
Plutella maculipennis Curt. 

The diamond back moth. Larva feeds on sweet alyssum and 
garden stocks. Common outside on cabbage, etc. 

Family TINEIDJE. 
Gracilaria zachrysa Meyrick. 

Larvae feed on azalea leaves. Introduced from Europe. Up to 
present has not been found on hardy azaleas. 



148 Journal New York Entomological Society. ^^'°^- ^^^^, 

Order HYMENOPTERA. 

Family ENCYRTIDJE. 
EncyrtUS flavus Howard. 

Bred from Coccus Jicspcridiim (soft scale). 

Family CHALCIDIDJE. 
Isosoma orchidearum West. 

" The Cattleya fly." Infests Cattlcya orchids, larvae living in the 
inilbs. Quite a pest. 

Family FORMICIDiE, 
Pheidole anastasii Emery. 

Common in greenhouses. 

Tetramorium caespitum Linn. 

The lawn-ant. An importation from Europe. Has been found 
in greenhouses. 

Tetramorium guineense Fabr. 
Common in greenhouses. 

Prenolepis fulva Mayr. subsp. pubens Forel. 
Common in greenhouses. 

Order DIPTERA. 

Family MYCETOPHILIDiE. 
Sciara multiseta Felt. 

Occurs in greenhouses where mushrooms are raised. 

Sciara inconstans Fitch. 

The fickle midge. Occurs in greenhouses where mushrooms are 
grown. 

Family CECIDOMYIIDJE. 

Neocerata rhodophaga Coq. 

The rose midge. Maggots occur in leaf and flower buds of roses 
in greenhouses. 



*fe& 



Phytophaga violicola Coq. 

The violet gall midge. Maggots curl leaves of greenhouse violets. 
Not common. 

Family PHORIDiE. 

Aphiochseta albidihalteris Felt. 

Occurs in greenhouses where mushrooms are grown. One of the 
mushroom flies. 



June, i9i6.] WeISS : InSECT FaUNA OF GREENHOUSES. 149 

Family SYRPHIDJE. 
Eristalis tenax Linn. 

The common drone or chrysanthemum fly. Occasionally found 
in greenhouses during fall. 

Family AGROMYZID^. 

Phytomyza chrysanthemi Kowarz. 

The chrysanthemum leaf-miner or Marguerite fly. Larvae mine 
leaves and do considerable damage. Has not been found breeding 
freely outside. 

Summarizing the above list, the orders are represented as follows : 

Strictly Greenhouse Species Which Occur 

Species. In and Out Doors. Total. 

Thysanura i i 2 

Thysanoptera 2 i 3 

Homoptera 4 7 11 

Hemiptera o i i 

Dermoptera i o i 

Orthoptera 2 i 3 

Coleoptera 2 2 4 

Lepidoptera 3 8 11 

Hymenoptera 5 i 6 

Diptera 3 4 7 

Totals 23 26 49 

Including the 32 species of Coccidx. the Homoptera is by far the 
best represented order, most of the members belonging to the fami- 
lies Aphidid?e and Coccidae. This is no doubt due to the close rela- 
tionship which exists between the members of these families and their 
host plants and also the comparative ease and safety with which they 
can be transported. The Lepidoptera is the next best represented 
group followed by the Diptera and Hymenoptera, the remaining 
orders being poorly represented. The Diptera and Hymenoptera can 
undoubtedly be added to by breeding out the parasites of the species 
listed. It was thought unwise however to list the known parasites 
before they had actually been found in New Jersey under glass. 
The Coleoptera can also be increased by the identification of two 
species recently found feeding on orchids. 

Of the total of 49 species listed, 23 are unable to maintain them- 
selves out of doors, the remaining 26 being equally at home either 
under glass or in the open. Most of the strictly greenhouse species 



150 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Voi. xxiv, 

are of tropical or sub-tropical origin, having been introduced at 
various times from such localities and afterwards flourishing in an 
atmosphere approaching that of their natural homes and containing 
their native food plants. This is especially true of such species as 
Pheidole anastasii Emery, Tetramorium guineense Fabr., Prcnolepis 
fulva Mayr. subsp. piibens Forel and Isosoma orchidcarum Wst. in 
the Hymenoptera, of Phytophaga violicola Coq., in the Diptera, of 
Callopistria floridensis Guen., in the Lepidoptera, of Eiicactophagus 
graphiptcrus Champ., in the Coleoptera and of the greenhouse roaches 
in the Orthoptera. 

The 26 species which occur both in and out of greenhouses, are 
practically all inhabitants of the upper austral zone which have at dif- 
ferent times made their way into the greenhouses where different 
conditions of temperature and moisture prevail and have become ac- 
climated for short and long periods of time. In other words, each 
species has simply followed its one or more food plants into the new 
climate. 

The inability of the strictly greenhouse or tropical species to main- 
tain themselves out of doors is undoubtedly due more to the absence 
of proper food than anything else, this lack of food being as effec- 
tive a check upon the spread of insects as climate, the food of course 
also depending upon climate and soil. 

Thus, the insect fauna of a greenhouse really depends upon the 
kinds of plants growing there. If the flora is tropical, most of the 
insects will be also. If the plants are local growing as well outside 
of as in the greenhouse, then the insects feeding upon them will be 
local species. Out of a total of 81 species (including the Coccidae) 
found in New Jersey under glass, two-thirds are strictly greenhouse 
insects because most greenhouses are devoted to the growing of 
exotic plants. 

It is a noteworthy fact that the majority of greenhouse insects 
have not received the attention that they should from economic ento- 
mologists and as a result most of the work done in combating these 
pests is ineffective and worthless. Thus there is open to the economic 
man, an almost virgin field, in which the factors of temperature and 
moisture will play an important and vital part in successful control. 



Joiini. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 

a. 



V(7/. XXIV. PL IX. 






Membracida^. 



June, 1916.] Matausch : Nymph-Variation of Enchenopa. 151 

NOTES ON A PECULIAR NYMPH-VARIATION OF 
ENCHENOPA BINOTATA SAY. 

By Ignaz Matausch, 
New York. 

Probably none of the native species of the Membracidce varies to 
such an extent in its nymphal colors as Enchenopa binotata. In this 
paper I have given an account of observations made during- 191 2 of 
one of the most striking nymph forms of that species. 

On June 5, at Roselle. N. J., my son Herbert found an insect 
w^hich at first I did not recognize as a Membracid, but on closer 
examination I found to my surprise it was a nymph of that family 
in the fourth stage, but with the porous covering very heavy, fuzzy 
in appearance, silvery white in color and conspicuously marked with 
deep velvety black. 

The specimen was found on a low Viburnum bush two to three 
feet in height, near the place where my observations of the previous 
year were made, and I tried to find more in the same locality, but at 
first did not succeed. Later, however, my son found two more on 
the same bush, and one near by on another Viburnum. Two of these 
were in the fourth nymphal stage, and one in the fifth and were all 
identical with that first collected. PI. IX, fig. a shows the fourth 
stage; figs, b and c the fifth, highly magnified. Subsequently six more 
were found, the last on June 29, and I observed that they always 
occurred singly, and on the young shoot near, or on the petiole of 
the leaf. Two of this lot however varied from those formerly taken, 
in having light green markings in place of the black, except that the 
sternum, mouth parts and upper portions of the legs ranged through 
various shades of light brown. 

The temporary color occurring during the moulting period be- 
tween the fourth and the fifth stages were observed by me in two of 
the insects on June 23 and 24 respectively. These also differed 
greatly from all these I have hitherto noticed in this species. Instead 
of appearing in the characteristic yellow color with lateral red mark- 

1 Observations on the Life History of Enchenopa binotata Say in the 
JouRN. N. Y. Entom. See, Vol. XX, No. i. March, 19 12. 



152 Journal New York Entomological Society, ["^'o'- -"^-"^^v, 

ings, as described in a former article^ they appeared at first blue- 
green with yellow markings gradually fading to a white and black 
color instead of brown, except that the base of the prothorax just 
above the head, continued a bright emerald green for some time be- 
fore turning to white. Where, however, the black markings occur 
in the completed insect at first a grayish color became visible, and 
gradually deepened into black. The entire change was completed 
within twenty-four hours. 

The insects were very restless in captivity, and 6 of the lo col- 
lected died, only 4 becoming adult, i. c, two of the black and white 
insects and the two green and white ones above mentioned. In 
moulting from the fifth to the adult stage all four of these passed 
through the same color phase (1. c, green with yellow markings) as 
between the fourth and fifth stages. 

In all cases the change began early in the morning and was com- 
pleted by night of the same day; the first insect on July i, two more 
on July 2, and the last beginning at 4.30 A.M., on July 8. The adult 
color assumed in each instance was dark purplish brown, charac- 
teristic of the darker color-variation occasionally seen in E. biiiotata. 
No insect of this adult color was found by me in collecting at this 
same color but exclusively on walnut. 

Mr. G. J. Keller, of Newark, N. J., has kindly sent me four speci- 
mens, one male and three females of E. biiiotata which he collected 
on walnut June 9, at Elizabeth, N. J. These were of a similar lighter 
color than I have found on that plant (Newark, N. J., 1909). 

Mr. Halsey J. Bagg sent me, July 19, a number of Membracidse 
nymphs found by him on Butternut at the old Bagg Homestead at 
Stillville, N. Y. All but one of these matured. It is remarkable 
that these nymphs were E. biuotata with the same color variations 
as above mentioned, i. c, some were black and white, while the rest 
were green and white. All however were of the same purplish brown 
color when full grown. The last two of these died July 2"]. 



June, 1916.] Miscellaneous Notes. 153 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

The Occurrence of Archips infumatana Zell. in the Eastern United 
States. — It seems strange that a moth of such comparatively large 
size and conspicuous richness and beauty of coloring, and one so long 
known to science as the Tortricid in question, should so rarely have 
been referred to in print. Yet so far as I have been able to discover 
the literature contains but three or four citations of this species, 
and those are quite meager. Archips infumatana was described by 
Zeller in 1875 in Verb. k. k. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, XXV, p. 216, 
from two pair taken in Missouri. In Fernald's Catalogue of the 
Tortricidse of North America north of Mexico its habitat is given as 
Missouri and Wisconsin, and the same localities are cited in Dyar's 
List. But hitherto there has been no record of the species from 
east of the Mississippi Valley. Such a record I am now able to 
supply. On the 28th of July, 191 5. at Litchfield, Conn., this purple- 
and-brown-shaded Archips was found in considerable numbers cling- 
ing to the leaves of a lusty young hickory, evidently just emerged 
from web-nests spun on its branches. An examination of the ma- 
terial in the American Museum of Natural History brings to light 
two female specimens labelled N. Y., and in Mr. Kearfott's collection 
is a male taken by Mr. Chas. R. Ely, July 14, 1909, at East River, 
Conn. In view of the above it becomes highly probable that the 
moth has a general wide distribution coterminous with the range 
of its food-plant, hickory. — Lewis B. Woodruff. 

Notes on Malachidse. — While going over our collections in this 
family of beetles with Messrs. Leng and Mutchler the writers of this 
note found that certain interesting additions could be made to the 
local records. 

Collops vittatus Say. Staten Island, N. Y., June 25, and Cedar- 
hurst, Long Island, N. Y., June 29, 1904. This species is not men- 
tioned in the last New Jersey list, which included Staten Island 
records. 

Collops sublimbatus Schaeffer. This species was described from 
Clayton, Rabun Co., Ga., from specimens collected near the top of 
Black Rock Mt. It is said to closely resemble C. georgianus Fall, 
(see Can. Entomologist, June, 1912, p. 187). Specimens with "'the 



154 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Voi. xxiv, 

head polished, the disk of prothorax shining and scarcely punctate, 
have been taken at Great Falls, Va., June 16 and 19, 1910, and on 
Plummer's Island, Md., June 15, 191 1, bringing the known distribu- 
tion of the species much further north. Prof. Fall regards sub- 
limhatus as a probable variety of tricolor" (This Journal, Vol. XX, 
pp. 257-258, Dec, 1912). 

Anthocomus erichsoni Lee. Lakehurst, N. J., July 9, and Bronx- 
ville, N. Y., July 4, 191 1, and June i, 1912. This is an addition to 
the New Jersey list of 1910. 

Psetidehceiis bicolor Lee. Yaphank, L. L, N. Y., May, 191 1, male. 
In the 1910 New Jersey list this species is reported from Anglesea 
only. 

Attains mclanopterus Er. Lakehurst, N. J., June 17. This is 
an addition to the New Jersey list of 1910. 

Melyrodes cribrata Lee. Ft. Lee, N. J., May 23, one specimen 
from black-berry blossoms. This species was described from South 
Carolina and Pennsylvania by Le Conte, but is not mentioned in the 
New Jersey list and is therefore an addition. Charles Dury reports 
it under the name of Melyris cribratns in the 1902 list of the Coleop- 
tera observed near Cincinnati, Ohio, and in the List of the Beetles 
of the District of Columbia Ulke states that Alymcris cribrata is 
'■ chiefly found on chestnut blossoms." — Lewis B. Woodruff and Wm. 
T. Davis. 

Notes on Tiger Beetles from North Carolina. — Mr. Franklin Sher- 
man recently presented the writer with some interesting Cicindelas 
collected in North Carolina. He and Mr. C. S. Brimley have made 
several visits to Sunburst in Haywood County, where in May and 
June they have taken Cicindela ancocisconensis Harris. This species 
has been reported from New Hampshire, New York, West Virginia 
and Illinois by Mr. Edward D. Harris, and from Vermont, New 
Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois and Virginia by Mr. 
Charles W. Leng. A series from Sunburst shows the insect to be 
brightly marked, but not more so than many specimens from some 
of the localities above mentioned. On the whole the species appears 
to be quite constantly marked over its known ranges. 

Other Cicindelas taken at Sunburst at about 3,000 feet elevation 
are purpurea, splendida, tranqncbanca and repanda. 



June, 1916.] IgNAZ MatAUSCH. 155 

Mr. Sherman also has Cicindela tortuosa taken at Boardman, 
Cokimbus Co.. N. C, 21 September, 191 5, by Mr. R. W. Leiby. 

The most interesting- species, however, is Cicindela hlanda Dej. 
from White Lake, Bladen Co., N. C, June 5-15, 1914, and early 
June, 1915, collected by Mr. Sherman. In Revision of the Cicindeli- 
dae of Boreal America (1891), Leng states that hlanda has been 
found in Ga. and North Carolina ; that it is " very rare in collections " 
and " not recently found." In North American Cicindelid^e in the 
Harris Collection (1911), it is recorded from several localities in 
Alabama. The finding of the insect at White Lake gives for this 
rare species a definite locality in North Carolina. — Wm. T. Davis. 

Local Records of Lepidoptera. — Hcrsc cingnlaia Fab. One male 
specimen in fresh condition from East Ouogue, L. I., Sept. 28, 191 5, 
was collected by W. F. Downs. 

Atrytonc zahulon Boisd. & Lee. Although generally common at 
Washington Hights, New York, this species was unusually so last 
August. Most of the specimens were taken Aug. 21. — F. E. Watson. 



IGNAZ MATAUSCH. 



Mr. Ignaz Matausch, a member of the New York Entomological 
Society, and well-known as artist and modeler on the staff of the 
American Museum of Natural History, died December 14, 1915, of 
bronchial pneumonia after an illness of seventeen days. 

Mr. Matausch was born September i, 1859, i"' Budweis, Austria. 
Of a naturally artistic temperament he was trained from boyhood as 
a modeler and acquired such skill in his profession that at one time 
he supplied the private museum of Duke Schwarzenburg with models. 
He came to the United States in 1892, and resided in Cleveland, Ohio, 
till the year 1904 when he came to the American Museum of Nat- 
ural History and was assigned to the modeling staff. 

As he had a natural inclination toward entomological studies he 
joined the N. Y. Entomological Society in 1906 and has continued a 
member till the time of his death. As an entomologist his efforts 
were largely devoted to investigations in the life-history of the 
Membracidse. Minute observation was one of his strongest charac- 



156 Journal New York Entomological Society, ["^'o'- ^^^'^, 

teristics and was clearly evidenced in his entomological work, in 
which his artistic talents also stood him in good stead. His fellow 
members will long remember the enthusiasm with which he dis- 
played his well-drawn color-sketches of typical and unusual species 
of Membracidfe, and the excellent series of models constructed by 
him to exemplify the range of form in this group. Especially in- 
teresting are the models illustrating the life-history of Enchcnopa 
binotata Say. 

Mr. Matausch was best known, however, for the remarkable 
series of giant insect models which he constructed for the American 
Museum and which are displayed in the Hall of Public Health, to 
illustrate the insect carriers of disease. These are without doubt 
the most accurate models of the kind ever constructed, and are valu- 
able not merely in connection with the purpose above mentioned, but 
also as unusual demonstrations of external insect anatomy. Every 
part was modeled with minute care from living as well as dead 
specimens, hundreds of which were examined in the course of the 
preliminary studies. The series includes magnified representations 
of eggs' larva, pupa and adult of the common house fly (Musca 
domcstica Linne), eggs of the rat flea (CeratophyUiis fasciatus 
Bosc), carrier of the bubonic plague, and the adult of the common 
louse (Pcdicidits corporis de Geer). Many other invertebrate models 
constructed by Mr. Matausch are exhibited in the Darwin Hall of the 
Museum, the most noteworthy of which are those demonstrating the 
anatomy of the spider (Lycosa carolinensis Walck.), and of the com- 
mon squid (Loligo pcalii Lesueur). 

The dissections for the former were made by Mr. Matausch with 
the collaboration of Dr. Alexander Petrunkevitch, while the latter 
was constructed under the supervision of Dr. L. W. Williams. 

The writer was most closely associated with Mr. Matausch in 
connection with the construction of the Invertebrate Window Groups 
in the Darwin Hall. In this work Mr. Matausch formed one of a 
quartet of skilled museum artists, and the contributions of his hand 
are seen blended with those of others in a series of complex inver- 
tebrate ecological exhibits which have attracted wide attention both 
here and abroad. The success of these groups is largely due to the 
exceptional techniqe of Mr. Matausch and his fellow artists. 

In Mr. Matausch the N. Y. Entomological Society has lost a 



June, 1916.] IgNAZ MaTAUSCH. 157 

faithful worker and the American Museum of Natural History an 
artist gifted with an unusual and possibly unique combination of 
faculties. 

Mr. Matausch's entomological publications are as follows : 

Gynandromorphic Membracidse. Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Vol. XVII, 1909, p. 

165. 
Observations on Membracidae in the Vicinity of Elizabeth and Newark, N. J. 

Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Vol. XVIII, 1910, pp. 164-171. 
Similia Camelus Fabricius and Some of Its Variations. Journ. N. Y. Ent. 

Soc, Vol. XVIII, 1910, pp. 171-172. 
Entylia Germar and Its Different Forms. Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Vol. XVIII, 

1910, pp. 260-263. 

The Effects of Castration in MembracidK. Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Vol. XIX, 

191 1, pp. 194—196. 

Observations on the Life-History of Enchenopa binotata Say. Journ. N. Y. 

Ent. Soc, Vol. XX, pp. 58-67. 
Observations on Some North American Membracidae in Their Last Nymphal 

Stages. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. XXXI, 1912, Art. XXVI, pp. 

331-336. 
Notes on a Peculiar Nymph Variation of Enchnopa Binotata Say. Journ. 

N. Y. Ent. Soc. Vol. XXIII, p. — . 

Roy W. Miner. 

JULIUS MEITZEN 

Mr. Julius Meitzen, a former member of the New York Ento- 
mological Society died of pneumonia on May i, at the age of 80. 

Mr. Meitzen was interested in Coleoptera of the world of which 
he had brought together a fair collection. 



PORCEEDINGS OF THE NEW YORK ENTOMO- 
LOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Meeting of January 4, igi6. 

The annual meeting of the New York Entomological Society was held 
January 4, 1916, at 8:15 P. M., in the American Museum of Natural History, 
Vice-President Harry G. Barber in the chair, with 23 members and six visitors 
present. 

Mr. Dickerson, as chairman of the Nominating Committee, submitted the 
following nominations for officers for 1916: For President, Harry G. Barber; 



158 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^'o'- -^-"^i^ . 

for Vice-President, Lewis B. Woodruff ; for Secretary, Chas. W. Leng ; for 
Treasurer, William T. Davis ; for Librarian, Frank E. Watson ; for Curator, 
Andrew J. Mutchler; for Executive Committee, R. C. Osburn, C. E. Sleight, 
R. P. Dow, E. Shoemaker, G. P. Engelhardt ; for Publication Committee, 
Charles Schaeffer, F. E. Lutz, W. P. Comstock, E. L. Dickerson ; for Delegate 
to New York Academy of Science, Wm. T. Davis. On motions duly made, 
seconded and carried, the nominations were closed and the officers above 
named were elected by affirmative ballot cast by the Secretary. 

The president appointed the Auditing Committee, C. F. Groth, G. W. J. 
Angeli. John D. Sherman, Jr., and the Field Committee, Chas. Wunder and 
Alan Sloan Nicolay. 

Mr. Sherman spoke of the Roberts collection of water beetles and the 
effort being made to secure it for the American Museum ; also of a new Check 
List of Coleoptera which, in conjunction with Mr. Leng, he hoped to publish. 

Mr. Ottolengui spoke of his pleasure in being able to attend the meeting 
after thirteen years' absence, and his sorrow at hearing of Mr. Roberts's illness. 

Mr. Davis spoke of " Some Insects from Western New York," using as 
exhibits a map showing the. 8oo-mile route covered by automobile with Profs. 
Bradley and Crosby, of Cornell University, Mr. Hook, and Dr. Forbes as 
companions, several large boxes of insects and many photographs of the 
region, besides specimens of plants, rocks and oil peculiarly indicative of its 
character. He said in part that the southwestern corner of the State, near 
Olean, was selected a year ago, because it was on the watershed of the Alle- 
gheny River, and that at Rock City an excellent base was located where the 
care necessary to preserve the oil derricks from fire kept the woodland in the 
best condition for entomologists, while the elevation of 2,300 ft. and the con- 
nection with the West through the Allegheny River (evidenced by the pres- 
ence of the cucumber tree) caused the occurrence of many interesting species. 
The preliminary visits to McLean, near Ithaca, remarkable for its cold high- 
land swamp, where Labrador tea, the small cranberry and trillium grow, and 
to various glens near Ithaca, and subsequent visits to Watkins Glen, Lake 
Erie, Potter's Swamp and Letchworth Park, were also interesting. 

Among the insects shown, Phyciodes batesii, which was taken in con- 
siderable numbers, was styled the prize catch, though a mountain form of 
Papilio turnns. Melitcca Iiarrisi and Picris oleracecc were also conspicuous 
among the butterflies. Tachopteryx thoreyi. collected at Portage, Gomphits 
descriptus from West Danby and Ithaca, and Tetragoneuria cants from West 
Danby, were among the fourteen species of dragonflies shown. 

Henicocephalus biceps Say (culicis auct) was observed gathering in 
swarms over piles of sawdust like flies, as described by O. A. Johannsen, in 
Psyche, XVI, 1909, and was another interesting capture. 

Exceptionally large galls made by the fly, Enrosta soUdaginis, on golden 
rod, as described by Chi Ping in Pomona Journal Ent. & Zool., VII, 19^5, 
formed another exhibit. A large number of Atithonomns sp. found on Kalmia 
latifolia. and of Malthodes sp. were among the many interesting coleoptera 



June, 1916.] Proceedings of the Society. 159 

shown, though the larger Cychrus, Centrodera and Anthophilax were more 
showy. An interesting series of Donacia rufa found on Caltha palnstris and 
on buttercup and of Galerxtcella rufosanguinea found in such numbers on 
wild cherry that the trees were in places defoliated, were also included. 

In orthoptera a large box was required to show the captures which in- 
cluded sixteen species all collected before the middle of June. 

Mr. Davis's remarkably successful photography showed well the gigantic 
rocks, sometimes grasped by the great exposed roots of the yellow birches, 
that give Rock City its name, and in one plate the shooting of a completed 
oil well, with the column of oil rising high above it, and added much to the 
interest of his remarks, which were discussed by Messrs. Schaeffer, Dickerson 
and others at their conclusion. 

Mr. H. B. Weiss read a paper on " Insect Fauna of New Jersey Green- 
houses excluding Coccidze " — which will be printed elsewhere. 

In reply to a question, Mr. Weiss said that Aramigus fulleri, the larva 
of which feeds on roots of greenhouse roses was rare in New Jersey, being 
actually known from only three or four places. 

The secretary read a communication from Dr. Osburn on a dragonfly 
migration, observed by Mrs. Osburn, which will be printed in Miscellaneous 
Notes. 

Mr. Engelhardt described a similar occurrence observed near the shore 
of Long Island on Columbus Day, October 12, when thousands of Anax 
Junius were seen zigzagging about and settling in the grass. 

Mr. Dickerson recorded with regret the death of F. M. Webster. 

Mr. Dow exhibited and donated specimens of wood from Lahaway, N. J., 
showing the work of woodpeckers in search of larvae of Prionoxystus rohinia, 
remarking on the length of tongue obviously required to reach them, and the 
number of years elapsed betwen the commission of the crime and its detec- 
tion by the splitting of the wood ; the annual rings serving both to conceal 
the evidence and count the years. He also donated specimens of the work of 
Trypoxylon and other wasps. 

A member contributed anonymously the following lines composed by an 
ancestor, who had ben unjustly reproached by a female afflicted with Pediculus 
capitis : 

" A lady once told me and in her own house 
That I was not worth three skips of a louse. 
Forgive the dear creature, the words that she said, 
For ladies will talk of what runs in their head." 

Meeting of January 18, 1916. 

A regular meeting of the New York Entomological Society was held on 
January 18, 1916, in the American Museum of Natural History, President 
Harry G. Barber in the chair, with 12 members and two visitors present. 

In the absence of the secretary, the president requested Mr. Sherman to 
act as secretary. 



160 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^'o'- xxiv, 

Miss C. Sidney Spencer, of 437 W. sgth St., College P. & S., proposed 
for membership at the last meeting, was duly elected. 

Dr. Lutz, delegate to the Pan-American Congress, reported that he had 
attended its meetings. 

Mr. Davis, delegate to the New York Academy of Sciences, reported the 
contemplated centennial celebration early in 1917, of the anniversary of the 
founding of the New York Lyceum of Natural History, in 1817. 

Mr. Davis presented some notes by Mr. Woodruff and himself on local 
Malachiidas, found on Staten Island and Long Island. 

Prof. Brues spoke of his trip to the West Coast of South America in 1912 
with the Strong Expedition from the Harvard Medical School, and especially 
of the studies by this party of the relations between insects and some of the 
diseases prevalent in the regions visited. On the west coast of South America 
yellow fever is confined to parts of the Colombian coast and the lowlands of 
Ecuador, where there is a dense forest growth, with heavy rainfall and hot 
climate, Guayaquil being a great hot-bed of disease, especially prevalent during 
the rainy season. Among the natives the disease occurs almost entirely with 
young persons, but visitors, even natives from the nearby mountains, are 
susceptible at any age. Owing to the many changes in the government of 
Ecuador, little has been done to stamp out the disease, although it has been 
entirely eliminated at the Isthmus. The boats anchor at Guayaquil, 400 meters 
from shore, and after the four days' journey to Panama, are quarantined two 
days, and this period of six days covers the period of incubation, thus pre- 
venting disease from spreading north. The mosquito carrying yellow fever 
in this territory is Stegomyia pallipes. 

At Buena Ventura, on the west coast of Colombia, the common mosquito, 
Culex fatigans {quinquefasciata?) is a carrier of the elephantiasis and 
phaleriasis prevalent there, and also at Panama. 

In the deep canyons, including the Lima River, near Lima, the two 
diseases known as verruga (meaning await) and arroya fever, are quite com- 
mon, occurring simultaneously in many cases and the latter having a very 
high death rate (about 80 per cent.). 

Townsend believed the two diseases identical and found Phlebotomys 
to be the carrier. 

The bacteriological investigations of the Strong Expedition, however, lead 
to the belief that the two things are separate diseases, — verruga, caused by an 
ultra-microscopic, presumably protozoan organism, and probably carried by a 
species of tick (like the somewhat similar Texas-fever and Rocky mountain 
fever diseases) and arroya-fever, caused by a small bacterian and carried by 
Phlebotomys. 

These diseases are always contracted at night and at an altitude above 
3,000 feet. 

Prof. Brues spoke also of great abundance of insects near Guayaquil at 
electric lights, including a huge Belostoma, large water-beetles and Katydids. 

In canyons further south in arid regions, along the rivers where only 



June, 1916.] Proceedings of the Society. 161 

there is vegetation, occurred many interesting insects, especially a group of 
parasitic Tachinid flies, having many bristles, the species of which, while 
resembling each other superficially very closely, are separated by great struc- 
tural differences in the antennal and mouth parts. 

Very large carpenter bees, of the size of humming birds, visible at great 
distance, were also common. 

Mr. Watson exhibited five paratypes of Protoparce rustica Fabr. var. 
cubana Wood, lately described in Ent. News (December, 191 5), from the 
Museum collection. 

Dr. Lutz mentioned his being present at the annual meeting of the Wash- 
ington Entomological Society, when Pres. Caudell made his address on various 
superstitions associated with the orthoptera, and at which also the new office 
of ' honorary president was created, and Dr. Schwarz elected to same. 

Mr. Dow exhibited photographs of the late Mr. Brakeley and of his 
house at Lahaway. 

Mr. J. W. Angell exhibited some Lucanid monstrosities, including a 
Lucanus with seven legs; also his collection of Lucanids of the exotic genus 
Chiasogtiatlms. 

Mr. Davis called attention to the article by C. W. Beebe in Bull, of 
Zoological Society for January, 1916 (Vol. 19, No. i), describing the many 
insects, shells, etc., sifted from the leaves, sticks, moss, earth and mold of a 
Brazilian jungle, taken from roots of a tree, about which Heliconia grew in 
abundance. 

Meeting of February i, 1916. 

A regular meeting of the New York Entomological Society was held 
February i, 1916, at 8:15 P.M., in the American Museum of Natural History, 
President Harry G. Barber in the chair, with twenty members and several 
visitors present. i 

The curator reported the rearrangement of the Cistelidae or Alleculidae 
of the local collection, following the Saturday afternoon meeting of January 
22, and announced as subject for the Saturday afternoon meeting of February 
19, the families Lagriidas and Melandryidae. 

Mr. Schaeffer for the Publication Committee reported the receipt of the 
first sheets of galley proof of the Van Duzee List. 

Mr. Davis exhibited Occasional Papers of the Boston Society of Natural 
History, VH, 1915, being a review of New England Mollusks by Chas. W. 
Johnson. 

Mr. Leng read " Notes on Cistelidse " which will be published in the 
Journal. 

Mr. Schaeffer commenting thereon said he suspected the humeral red 
spot in some species of Mycetochara might be evanescent and the only differ- 
ence betwen them and some of the totally black species might thus disappear. 

Dr. Lutz and Mr. Davis gave a " Resume of Explorations in Florida and 
the West Indies " illustrated with photographs. Dr. Lutz speaking first said 
that shortly after he became a member of the Society a fairly definite plan 



162 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^oi. xxiv, 

was formed in the Museum to devote exploration, in conjunction as far as 
possible with the affiliated societies, to the study of geographical distribution 
and routes of dispersal between North and South America. The effect of 
isolation as exemplified in the mountainous West Indian islands isolated by 
oceanic waters and in the mountains of Arizona, also isolated but by desert 
regions, and both equally in the path between the two continents, necessarily 
became a part of the problem. The steps thus far taken have included col- 
lections in our local region, in the mountains of North Carolina, in Florida, 
in the West Indies and in the northern part of South America. The local 
region was covered by the wagon journey, in which many of our members 
took a more or less active part, and the work on the local collection, still in 
progress, became a part of the general plan. The mountains of North Caro- 
lina were repeatedly visited by Beutenmuller and a large amount of material 
was accumulated. On account of the peculiar interest it possesses, Florida 
has been studied closely, in 191 1 by Dr. Lutz with Davis and Leng. in 19 12 by 
Davis and Grossbeck, in 191 3 by Davis and Sleight, in 19 14 by Mutchler and 
Watson ; a different part of the State being visited on each occasion. The 
West Indies have' been even more frequently visited, the first journey being 
a reconnaissance of the Lesser Antilles and northern South America by Prof. 
Crampton and Dr. Lutz, followed by the Jamaica trip of Grossbeck and Dow 
in 1912, the Cuban trip of Dr. Lutz and Mr. Leng in 1913, Porto Rican trips 
of Dr. Lutz, Barber, Mutchler and Watson in 1914 and 1915, and of Watson 
to San Domingo in 1915. Cooperation with the New York Academy of 
Sciences and the Porto Rican Government and the financial aid of friends 
of the Museum has materially enlarged the possibilities of West Indian ex- 
ploration. 

The number of specimens accumulated by these journeys is far in e.xcess 
of 100,000 and the publication of the results has necessarily been slow, from 
the great number requiring identification. However, the Florida material has 
already served as a basis for the Diptera of Florida by Johnson, the Hemip- 
tera of Florida by Barber and of the Coleoptera and the Carabidae of Florida 
by Leng, as well as the description of new species of Orthoptera by Davis. A 
paper on the Lepidoptera left unfinished by Grossbeck's untimely death, will 
be finished by Watson. The West Indian material has served in the same 
way for the basis of the List of Greater Antillean Spiders by Dr. Lutz, follow- 
ing identifications by Banks, and for the Prel. List of Coleoptera by Leng and 
Mutchler. 

Dr. Lutz added that a continuation of these explorations by Watson 
in Jamaica and by himself in Arizona was planned for 191 6, and a continua- 
tion of the publication of the results was in prospect. 

Mr. Davis, taking the floor, spoke particularly of the variety of environ- 
ments found in Florida, using a quotation from Dr. Small's " Florida Trees " 
of 19 1 3 as his text and illustrating his remarks by numerous excellent photo- 
graphs of Floridian scenes. He said that Dr. Small's statements that Florida 
possessed a larger tree flora than any other equal area in the United States, 



June, 1916.] Proceedings of the Society. 163 

and nearly half the species of trees in the United States are found in Florida, 
were remarkable in view of the sameness of the pine forests, as seen from tlie 
railroad car ; and in view of the intimate relation between insects and their food 
plants, serve also as an indication of the variety of species of insects found in 
Florida. His own journeys in Florida with different companions had covered 
the central part of the state in 191 1, the west coast in 1912 and the east coast in 
19 1 3, and his photographs showed the vegetation of many very different parts 
of the state from Jacksonville to Key West and from Key Marco and Choko- 
loskee on the gulf coast to Big Pine Key on the Atlantic coast. The human 
interest was never far distant in the remarks that accompanied the exhibition, 
and the members were entertained by bits of family history of the Seminole 
Indians Mr. Davis met, the dangers of navigation among the Ten Thousand 
Islands, the fact that he was out of sight of land on Lake Okeechobee, the 
wild cat that spit at Sleight at LaGrange, the wading through cypress swamps 
required to reach Deep Lake, as well as by the beauty of his pictures of the 
trees and scenery amid which his Florida insects were collected. 

Dr. Lutz then exhibited his collection of West Indian photographs, arranged 
in series and accompanied by maps, marked to show where the photographs 
were taken. Time did not permit of his thoroughly explaining these pictures, 
aggregating over 600 subjects or dwelling upon the collections of Lepidoptera 
arranged by Mr. Watson and of Coleoptera arranged by Mr. Mutchler, to ac- 
company them ; but Porto Rico was especially selected to show the thorough 
manner in which the exploration, after five journeys, had been carried on at 
about twenty-five stations in different parts of the island. 

During the informal examination of the photographs and specimens 
which closed the evening, Mr. Dow exhibited the mummied hand of an 
Egyptian wearing a ring in which a beetle was mounted, and Mr. Schaeffer 
exhibited the species of Coleoptera described and referred to in the Decem- 
ber number of the Journal, calling particular attention also to Elatrinus bicolor, 
found by Manee at Southern Pines, N. C, as the first species of the genus 
found in the East; and to Calosoina sycophanta found by Mr. Schott in 
Prospect Park, Brooklyn. 

Mfeting of February 15, 1916. 

A regular meeting of the New York Entomological Society was held 
February 15, 1916, at 8:15 P.M., in the American Museum of Natural History. 
President Harry G. Barber in the chair, with eighteen members and three 
visitors present. 

Mr. Frank Morton Jones, 2000 Riverview Ave., Wilmington, Del., was 
elected an active member. 

The secretary read an obituary notice of Ignaz Matausch, prepared by 
Mr. Miner, and two communications from Mr. Brehme. 

Dr. Lutz read a paper on " Centers of Dispersal and their bearing on 
the present Distribution of Animals," in which some recent literature was 
discussed, and the idea that results of studies in palaeontology might profitably 
be used in the study of insect dispersal was advanced. 



164 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^o'- -^>i-iv, 

Mr. Shoemaker exhibited " Some Insects taken near Slide Mountain, 
N. Y., in 191S," stating that he spent eight or nine days at a place between 
Big Indian and the base of the mountain, from June 26 to July 5, and, 
although more than half the days were disturbed by thunderstorms, that he 
had been able to obtain many insects by beating and sugaring. Ten specimens 
of Cychrus canadensis, one of Anthophilax malachiticus , and a great many 
Elateridas and Cerambycidae were among the beetles shown. 

Mr. Davis read a paper by Stephen G. Rich on " Some Respiratory Struc- 
tures of Dragon Fly Larvae," illustrated by the author's drawings, figures 
from Packard, and specimens supplied by Mr. Davis. 

Mr. G. W. J. Angell presented several volumes of the Annals of the 
Belgian Entomological Society to the library and exhibited a carabid beetle 
from Lake Tanganyika, Africa, apparently representing a new species and 
genus. 

Mr. Woodruff exhibited specimens of the Tortricid moth Archips infu- 
matana, taken at Litchfield, Conn., on hickory, and read a memorandum re- 
specting same, which will be printed in Miscellaneous Notes. 

Several members commented on the insects seen on the very warm days 
at the end of January. Mr. J. W. Angell caught a freshly emerged Cicindela 
6-guttata in Bronx Park under a log ; Mr. Olsen caught a water-beetle flying ; 
Mr. Dickerson a noctuid moth flying in the window and Mr. Davis was told 
that the mourning cloak butterfly was flying on Staten Island. 

Mr. Davis exhibited Cicada canalicularis from Portage La Prairie, Mani- 
toba, and gave also other northern records known to him in Nova Scotia, 
Quebec and Ontario. 

Meeting of March 7, 1916. 

A regular meeting of the New York Entomological Society was held 
March 7, 1916, at 8:15 P.M., in the American Museum of Natural History; 
President Harry G. Barber in the chair, with fourteen members and six 
visitors present. 

The curator reported donations to local collection from Messrs. Davis, 
Shoemaker and Leng and announced a meeting of coleopterologists on Saturday, 
March 18, to study Mordellidse. 

Mr. Carlos C. Hoffman, 2A San Augustin 56, Mexico D. P., was nomi- 
nated for active membership, and the by-laws being suspended for the pur- 
pose, he was immediately elected. 

Mr, J. W. Angell announced the death of Julius Meitzen, of pneumonia. 

Letters from Henry Brown and Frank Morton Jones were read. 

Mr. Watson exhibited " Recent additions to the Museum Collection of 
Sphingidse " ; speaking particularly of gifts from Mr. B. Preston Clark, of 
Boston, and of the following species : 

Protoparce occulta Rothschild and Jordan. First specimen from Jalapa, 
Mexico, collected by Mr. Schaus. Second specimen from Jalapa, Mexico, 
collection of Hy. Edwards. 

Xylophones daiuocrita Druce, from Brazil, collector unknown. 



June, 1916.] Proceedings of the Society. 165 

Perigonia hisca f. ihis Boisduval, no locality on specimen, collector un- 
known. Rothschild and Jordan give the habitat as Mexico to Matto Grosso. 
Gift of Mr. B. Preston Clark. 

Lencorhampa ornatus Rothschild, from Rio, Brazil, collector unknown. 
Gift of Mr. B. Preston Clark. 

Euryglottis albostigmata basalts Rothschild. Inca Mines, Peru, collector, 
H. H. Keys. The typical form is from Colombia. 

Mr. Watson also spoke of the genus Caiisto, saying in part that this 
small but interesting genus, consisting of six species and two varieties, is 
found only in the Antilles. It seems to illustrate very well the effect of isola- 
tion on a species, as each of the Greater Antilles has its own peculiar forms, 
not found in any of the other islands, as far as is now known. 

All of the forms are in the Museum Collection with the exception of C. 
archebates Menetries. 

C. Zangis Fabricius is common in Jamaica. 

C. nubila Lathy from Porto Rico, is a very common butterfly there. 

C. archebates Menetries is from San Domingo (Haiti). The only speci- 
mens in existence, according to Seitz, are in the collection of Godman and 
Salvin and the St. Petersburg Museum. 

C. pulcliella Lathy is from San Domingo, where it seems to be locally 
common. 

C. pulcliella J-f. tenebrossa Lathy from San Domingo. 

C. herophila Hiibner from Cuba. 

C. hysius Godart is from San Domingo, where it is very common. It is 
close to C. herophila Hiibner, but is distinct. 

C. hysius f. confusa Lathy, also from San Domingo. C. hysius Godart 
has also been reported from Jamaica. 

Mr. Olsen made an " Exhibition of Membracidae from Trinidad and 
British Guiana," including paratypes of a species recently described by W. D. 
Funkhouser. 

Dr. Lutz referred to the complete deception in nature by which one of 
the species shown mimics an aphid attended by ants. 

Mr. Dickerson gave a list of Nitidulidse found on flowers in New Jersey 
nurseries, referring particularly to Carpophilus antiquns having been found 
on cornsilk. 

Mr. J. W. Angell exhibited a number of Silphidje and Scarabaidse, re- 
ferring particularly to a minute specimen. 

Mr. Davis exhibited a paper sign, taken from a tree in Letchworth Park, 
that had been eaten by Vespa maculata, a case as he expressed it of " stealing 
paper to make more paper." 

He also exhibited the species of Galerucella allied to cavicollis, pointing 
out the depth of the pronotal fovea and shining surface of the species he had 
found so abundant at Rock City, N. Y., as to completely defoliate Pruntis 
pennsylvanica and serotina. He stated that this species appeared to be 
cavicollis, and to differ from our local species which is comparatively dull. 



166 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Voi. xxiv, 

without so deep a fovea, and certainly unknown to devastate the foliage so 
completely. 

Mr. Davis also exhibited Coleoptera collected by Alanson Skinner in 
Manitoba, Wisconsin and Oklahoma, commenting particularly on the forms 
of tranqnebarica var. kirbyi, from the northwest, and those of sexguttata var. 
levettei from Oklahoma. 

Mr. Dickerson exhibited Cactopiiius hubbardi Schwarz, identified by 
Charles Dury, calling attention to the remarkable horn. 

Dr. McDunnough, at the invitation of the president, spoke of the Barnes 
collection of lepidoptera and the exquisite care taken to compare the speci- 
mens with the types in this country and abroad ; praising especially Aug. 
Grote, Herman Strecker and A. S. Packard for the pains they had taken to so 
mark their types that such comparisons were facilitated, and closing by ex- 
tending a cordial invitation to our members to visit Decatur to see the results. 

Mr. HofYnian spoke briefly of his pleasure at being able to attend the 
meeting. 

Meeting of March 21, 1916. 

A regular meeting of the New York Entomological Society was held 
March 21, 1916, at 8:15 P.M., in the American Museum of Natural History, 
President Harry G. Barber in the chair, with 18 members present. 

The curator reported donations to the local collection from Messrs. 
Dickerson, Dow, Shoemaker and Leng ; and continuance of study on the 
Mordellidse on Saturday afternoon, April i. 

Mr. Nutman exhibited 79 species of " CerambycidK from the Adirondack 
Movintains " collected by himself during the past nine years, principally be- 
tween May and August and at elevations of about 1,000 feet. Mr. Nutman 
said the habits of the adults varied considerably, some like Leptura being 
found on flowers, others like Callidiini and Lamiini on logs or sides of houses 
in the sunlight, while a few of the Callidinm, Phymatodes, Asemmn and 
Xylotrechus seemed partial to the screen doors. Golden rod, wild cherry, 
spiraea and sumach were the most attractive flowers, the white daisy yielding 
only Acmcrops pratensis and Leptura chrysocoiita. Saperdas and Obereas 
were found on poplar, Pscnocerus supeniotatus on various vines about the 
house. The different species varied in date, Asemuin being one of the earliest, 
dozens at a time coming from a norway pine stump about the beginning of 
May ; Leptura canadensis on the contrary being found in July and August. 
The collecting was most productive at the edges of cultivated land but a few 
species were found in the woods, particularly Anthophilax malachiticns, a 
fine specimen of which excited admiration and envy. The species varied in 
abundance in different seasons, Leptura vagaiis for instance being common in 
1909 and 1910, while Leptura vibex was not noticed until 1910, since when it 
has been common on blackberry. 

Mr. Davis, commenting on the specimens shown, pointed out the narrow 
stripes of Saperda Candida, which he had previously noticed in Adirondack 
specimens. 



June. 1916-] Proceedings of the Society. 167 

Mr. Dow read a paper on " Aristotle as an Entomologist," briefly sketch- 
ing his history and citing many passages to show how often the first mention 
of the scientific names we use is found in his writings, even to the word 
Entomos itself; and how the first rudiments of our present classification can 
be traced, in his differentiations. 

Mr. Weeks after urging the claims of Solomon to be considered also as 
an entomologist, spoke feelingly against a bill to be introduced in the State 
Senate, looking to local control of mosquito extermination and solicited the 
support of the society in opposing it. 

The president ruled that such matters were not within the scope of the 
society's activities. 

Mr, Schaeffer presented the following additions and corrections to Smith's 
List of New Jersey Insects, and spoke also of the doubtful validity of the 
record of Corymbites rotimdicollis. 

Microrhagns audax Horn. Three specimens labelled New York, New 
Jersey and Fort Lee, N. J., July 26. 

Microrhagns imperfectus Lee. One specimen, Fort Lee, N. J. 

Phlegon pectorosns Lee. One specimen of this species taken at Bellport, 
Long Island, by A. Nicolay. This species is known from Indiana, Maryland 
and Pennsylvania and is likely to occur in New Jersey also. 

Cardiophorus erythropus Er. One specimen of this species from Atlantic 
Highlands, N. J. 

Elater carbonicolor Esch. Reported by Green from Clementon. It is 
an Alaskan species and has to be striken from the list. Mr. Green writes thai 
it is a wrong identification and the species in question is E. riibricits Say. 

Elater nigrinus Papk. A strictly northern species. Reported by Davis 
from Staten Island. 

Elater luctiiosiis Lee. Reported by Beutenmuller from Fort Lee. and by 
Leng from Staten Island. Mr. Davis, who has the Staten Island specimen, 
showed it to me and it proved to be E. pedalis, a species not given in the 
New Jersey list, though I have also a specimen from New Jersey. 

Melanotus opacicollis Lee. One specimen from Lakehurst, taken in 
August, new to the list. 

Corymbites atropurpnreus Melsch. One specimen of this species was 
collected by Jacob Doll in Paterson, May 3. 

Corymbites copei Horn. Several specimens of this species from Pine 
Island, N. Y., collected by F. M. Schott and from Lakehurst, N. J. 

Mr. Mutchler announced the acquisition by the museum, with the aid 
of several members of the society, of the Roberts collection of water beetles, 
including 19,000 specimens, practically all the described North American 
species, and many types. He exhibited a portion of the collection to show 
the admirable mounting and unusually long series of specimens. 

Mr. Olsen exhibited a wax model he had made of Acanthia lectularia, in 
connection with which the secretary read a newspaper comment on Mr. Dow's 
title " There were bugs before ours, classic bugs ; and we like to hear about 
them for they cannot bite us now." 



168 Journal New York Entomological Society. tVoi. xxiv, 

Mr. Angell exhibited a rare species of Strategus. 

Mr. Weiss showed a map giving the distribution, mostly in greenhouses, 
of comparatively new insect pests and spoke also of the Cattleya midge, of 
European earwigs becoming established at Newport, R. I., and of a hymen- 
opterous leaf-miner. 

Meeting of April 4, 19 16. 

A regular meeting of the New York Entomological Society was held 
April 4, 1916, at 8:15 P.M., in Heim's Restaurant, President Harry G. Barber 
in the chair, with twenty-one members present. 

The librarian reported the binding of a set of the Journal in Holliston 
Library Buckram No. 50. 

Mr. Howard J. Shannon, 73 Union Ave., Jamaica, L. I., was elected an 
active member. 

Mr. Davis spoke of a number of species of Cicada, illustrating his re- 
marks by maps showing the distribution and by boxes of specimens in which 
were "pinned drawings made by Mr. Olsen, of the diagnostic structures. In 
the course of his remarks he dwelt upon the necessity of specimens from 
type locality for accurate comparison with the original descriptions and re- 
counted the difficulties he had surmounted in obtaining such for some of the 
early described species, which were thereby in some cases rescued from 
undeserved synonymy. In respect of distribution, he said that Leconte's 
districts, divided by meridional lines, and illustrated by the map in his 
Coleoptera of Kansas and Eastern New Mexico, 1859, were, for Cicada, more 
satisfactory than Merriam's zones, though the species with wishbone-shaped 
uncas were perhaps somewhat southern in distribution except that they ex- 
tended northward through the Mississippi Valley. 

Mr. Leng read a paper on " Omophron and its Distribution " in which 
he attempted to show that while the preglacial dispersal of the genus was 
from a northern centre towards the south, where Madagascar and Cape of 
Good Hope in the old world, and Hispaniola and Mexico in the new world 
have been reached, the postglacial dispersal has been in the contrary direc- 
tion, viz. : from south to north, as evidenced by the spread of Gulf Strip 
species like labiatuin and nitidnin northward, the one along the Atlantic 
coastal plain, the other through the Mississippi Valley; and by the occurrence- 
of numerous species now within the areas covered by ice during the glacial 
period. His remarks were illustrated by specimens of the American species 
and a few of those found in Mexico, Europe and Africa. 

Dr. Lutz and Mr. Davis, in discussing the subject, pointed out that the 
idea of the north as the ancestral home of the larger groups was old and well 
supported by geological evidence in mammals and in trees. 

Dr. Lehmann, upon invitation by the president, spoke of his interest in 
certain groups of lepidoptera during the last seven years and his journeys, 
completed and in prospect, devoted mainly to hunting Argynnis and Melitaa. 
Utah, Colorado and California are planned for 1916, and he said he would 
gladly give the lepidoptera caught outside his special desiderata to institutions 
or individuals desiring them. 



June, 1916.] Proceedings of the Society. 169 

Mr. Mutchler exhibited Chauliognathns marginatus, taken at Ramsey, 
N. J., April I, by Dr. Lutz. 

Mr. Dow, in a speech entirely beyond the ability of the secretary to re- 
produce, once more presented in glowing terms the attractiveness of Lahaway, 
and urged the members to join him in an inspection of the place on Sunday, 
April 16, when the arbutus will be in bloom. 

Meeting of April 18, 1916. 

A regular meeting of the New York Entomological Society was held 
April 18, 1916, at 8:15 P.M., in the American Museum of Natural History; 
Vice-President Lewis B. Woodruff in the chair, with fourteen members 
present. 

The curator reported donations to the local collection from Messrs. 
Davis and Leng. 

The librarian reported donation from Mr. J. W. Angell. 

Dr. Lutz read a paper on " The Distribution of Bombns with Notes on 
certain species of Boreal America," illustrated by boxes of specimens and 
diagrams showing the phylogeny and range of certain species. The paper will 
be published in full. 

Mr. Dow spoke of collecting at Lahaway on April 16 with Mr. Bequaert, 
exhibiting a number of the insects found and donating the more desirable to 
the local collection and to his fellow members. Tricrania sanguinipennis Say, 
an addition to Smith's New Jersey List, was found crawling on dune-like 
banks in a situation similar to that in which it was found last year at Central 
Park, Long Island, and Mr. Dow remarked that Tettyx was also abundant at 
both localities. Other interesting captures were Euphoria areata, a Dineutes 
resembling rohertsi, etc. 

Mr. Dickerson exhibited a number of hymenoptera, diptera, neuroptera 
and hemiptera found on willow bloom at Chester, N. J., and commented on 
the absence of beetles. 



NEW YORK ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Organized June 29, 1892. — Incorporated June 7, 1893. 



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Members of the Society will please remit their annual dues, payable in January, to 
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OflScers for the Year 1916. 

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Vice-President, L. B. WOODRUFF 14 East 68th Street, New York. 

Secretary, CHAS. W. LENG 33 Murray St., New York. 

Tr/tfjwr^r, WM. T. DAVIS 146 Stuyvesant Place^ New Brightor, 

Staten Island, N. Y. 

Librariin,YKAl>iK. E. WATSON American Museum of Natural Histor), 

New York. 

Curator, A J. MUTCHLER. . . American Museum of Natural History, New York. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

R. C. OsBORN, Chas. E. Sleight, R P. Dow, 

Geo. p. Engelhardt, E. Shoemaker. 

publication committee 
Chas. Schaeffer, F. E. Lutz, W. P. Comstock, 

E. L. Dickerson. 

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FIELD COMMITTEE. 

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DELEGATE TO THE N. Y. ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

William T. Davis. 



aouTRisr AL 



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Vol. XXIV 



No. 3. 



JOUR N AL 



OF THE 



NEW YORK 




Entomological Society 



Devoted to JEntomoloap in (BenetaL 




SEPTEMBER, 1916. 

Edited by CHARLES SCHAEFFER 

PicblicatioK Committee. 
Charles Schaeffer. F, E; Lutz. 

W. P. COMSTOCK. f, L. DiCKEKSON. 

F'ublisheci Quarterly t>y ttie Society. 
LANCASTER, PA. NEW YORK CITY. 

1916. 

[Entered April 21, 1904,31 Lancaster, Pa., as second-class matter, under Act of Congress of July 16, 1854.] 

THE NEW ER* PRINT 



CONTENTS 



Sarcophagidae of New England. By R. R. Parker 171 

New Western Gall Midges. By E. P. Felx .... 175 

The Carpenter Bees of the United States of the Genus Xylocopa. By .\r thur 

J. ACKERMAN .... 196 

A Remarkable New Genus of EncyrtidaB from the West Indies, Bearing Two 

Ring Joints. By A. A. Girault . . . . 232 

Two New Cicadas Belonging to the Genus Okanagana. By \Vm. T. Davis 233 

Louis H. Joutel 236 

Christopher H. Roberts 236 

Proceedings of the New York Entomological Society 237 



JOURNAL 




JOFfo !|9oFh €inl^omQlogirflI %tiM^. 



Vol. XXIV. September, 1916. No. 3 

SAR .PHAGID^ OF NEW ENGLAND: GENUS 
SARCOPHAGA.i 

By R. R. Parker, 
BozEMAN, Mont. 

Sarcophaga pachyprocta, new species. 

iSSi. Sarcophaga pachyprocta Hagen, Can. Ent., vol. 13, pp. 148-149. 
Occurrence. 

Type : Massachusetts Agricultural College, male and female. 

Paratypes : United States National Museum, one male, one female 
(no. 19168) ; Boston Society of Natural History, one male, three 
females; Gypsy Moth Parasite Laboratory at Melrose Highlands, 
Mass., one male, one female; collection of C. W. Johnson, one male, 
two females ; collection of author, two males, one female. 

Male. — Breadth of front at its narrowest part from five-sevenths to five- 
sixths eye width; arista shortly plumose on basal half; vestiture of back of 
head black except for a narrow hand of yellow hair just above foramen and 
similarly colored hairs on a small portion of the metacephalon just beneath ; 
cheeks clothed with black bristles and bristle-like hairs ; lateral verticals 
present ; greater ocellars nearly as strong or sometimes stronger than upper- 
most pair of frontals ; first and third veins prominently bristly ; costal spine 
short but distinct ; section III of costa practically equal to section V ; vesti- 
ture of legs short except for scattered, long hairs on ventral surfaces of middle 
and hind femora; middle femur without posterior ventral row of bristles; 

1 Contribution from the Entomological Laboratory of the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College. 

171 



172 Journal New York Entomological Society. ["*^'o'- xxiv, 

bristles of thorax stout and prominent, hinder two pairs of anterior dorsocen- 
trals almost as strong as postsuturals ; acrostichals present ; three pairs pos- 
terior dorsocentrals of about equal size; scutellar apicals present; lower sterno- 
pleura with bristles only ; abdomen short, stout, its outline more elliptical than 
oval; nota clothed dorsally and ventrally with short, reclinate bristles; ves- 
titure of third plate erect ; second segment usually with two stouter marginals 
at center ; genital segments completely filling cavity of fourth notum (see 
figure) ; second segment discoidal, rounded, dull orange, first much larger and 
completely pollinose or its posterior part dull orange. 

Female. — Vestiture of back of head black except for a narrow band of 
yellow hair just above foramen and similarly colored hairs on a small portion 
of the metacephalon just beneath ; cheeks clothed with black bristles and 
bristle like hairs ; greater ocellars nearly as strong or sometimes stronger than 
uppermost pair of frontals ; hairs covering anterior spiracles mostly grayish; 
first and third veins prominently bristly ; costal spine short but distinct ; sec- 
tion III of costa practically equal to section V ; bristles of thorax stout and 
prominent; hinder two pairs of anterior dorsocentrals almost as strong as 
postsuturals ; acrostichals present ; three pairs posterior dorsocentrals of about 
equal size ; bristles of lower sternopleura in three distinct rows ; distinctly larger 
and more erect bristles mixed with vestiture of lateral and ventral surfaces 
of fourth notum ; second segment usually with two stouter marginals at center ; 
genital segments dull orange, sixth notum not divided into lateral lips, seventh 
similar in shape and visible just beneath it, but much smaller (almost vestigial). 

Length: s to ii mm., average 8 to lo mm. 

Male, Head. — Viewed from side parafrontals and genae with dark reflec- 
tions. Breadth of front at its narrowest part varies from five-sevenths to 
five-sixths eye width ; cheek height one third or slightly greater than one third 
that of eye. Front prominent, sides of frontal vitta parallel anteriorly but its 
margins effaced below ocellar triangle. Second antennal segment dark, some- 
times brownish especially at tip; third about twice length of second; arista 
shortly plumose on basal half. Back of head somewhat convex, its vestiture 
black except for a narrow band of yellow hair just above foramen and simi- 
larly colored hairs on a small portion of the metacephalon just beneath. 
Cheeks clothed with black bristles and bristle-like hairs. Gena with a row of 
minutes hairs near lower eye orbit and a few others that are scattered. Palpi 
dark. 

Chaetotaxy. — Lateral verticals present; vibrissas inserted just above line of 
oral margin ; greater ocellars nearly as strong, sometimes stronger than upper- 
most pair of frontals. 

Thorax. — Metanotum clothed with short scattered reclinate bristles. Hairs 
covering anterior spiracle dark basally, lighter toward tips ; those of anterior 
margin of posterior spiracle dark brown ; those of spiracular cover only 
brownish basally, mostly yellowish. Epaulets dark. 

Wings. — Bend of fourth vein varies from an acute to a right angle ; an- 
terior cross-vein slightly more basal than end of first longitudinal ; first and 



Sept., i9i6.] Parker: Sarcophagid^ of New England. 173 

third veins prominently bristly ; costal spine distinct ; section III of costa prac- 
tically equal to section V ; alulse fringed with hair ; calypters whitish, their 
margins fringed with white hair. 

Legs. — Dark; tarsi without ventral bands of reflecting hairs; vestiture 
short except for a few scattered, long hairs on ventral surfaces of middle and 
hind femora. Posterior trochanter without " brush " ; femur spindle shaped ; 
anterior face with three rows of bristles, those of intermediate row shortest 
and not developed distally, those of lower row well separated and present on 
distal two thirds or thereabout; posterior face with ventral row of long, 
slender hair like bristles ; tibia straight or slightly curved ; tarsus not shorter 
than tibia; fourth segment at least one half fifth. Middle coxa with a single 
row of bristles, but there may be a few others anterior to it dorsally ; femur 
with a complete anterior ventral row of bristles, posterior ventral row lacking 
or represented by long, well separated hairs ; submesotibial bristle very strong. 
Ventral face of anterior coxa with an irregular row of bristles at each side 
only. 

Chaetotaxy. — Bristles stout and prominent. The hinder two pairs of an- 
terior dorsocentrals almost as strong as postsuturals ; two pairs of acrostichals, 
presutural pair absent ; inner presuturals absent or very weak ; three pairs pos- 
terior dorsocentrals of about equal size ; prescutellar acrostichals present but 
weak as compared to other bristles ; scutellar apicals absent ; three sterno- 
pleurals ; lower sterndpleura with bristles only. 

Abdomen. — Rather short; depth almost equal to width so that it appears 
somewhat cylindrical, outline more elliptical than oval ; nota clothed dorsally 
and ventrally with short reclinate bristles. Ventral plates as a whole with 
their sides converging posteriorly, sides of second and third distinctly rounded; 
vestiture hairy, that of first and second long, that of third shorter but erect. 

Chastotaxy. — Second segment usually with a row of weak, slender, de- 
cumbent marignals, sometimes two at center may be stronger and more erect ; 
third with a complete marginal row dorsally and laterally or dorsally with only 
two marginals at center ; fourth with a complete row ending ventrally at third 
notum. 

Genital Segments. — Prominent ; large, abruptly terminating the abdomen 
and occupying to its fullest extent cavity of fourth notum (see figure). First 
(g. s.i), pollinose to varying extent, sometimes entirely so with reflecting colors 
of abdomen but usually posterior portion dull orange, posteriorly its vestiture 
longer than that of second segment, viewed from behind it presents a very 
large, slightly convex surface abruptly rounded forward dorsally (the segments 
being in their normal position), marginal bristles absent. Second (g. s.2) seg- 
ment (examined in similar position) appears like a slightly raised dull orange 
disk, anal area small. Forceps short, base without upward flap-like extensions, 
its vestiture not longer than that of second segment ; bieyond base prongs be- 
come abruptly slender and very small, thence attenuated to tips, both together 
looking like the end of a large blunt needle, their outline in profile sinuate, 
the anterior edges hairy. The dull orange lamellae of fourth ventral plate 
may show beyond edges of fourth notum. 



174 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Voi. xxiv, 

Genitalia. — Penis and claspers peculiarly modified, head of penis promi- 
nently spiny anteriorly as seen in profile. Accessory plates short but as seg- 
ments are pulled out they show from behind as two erect plates parallel to 
but much shorter than forceps. 

Female. — They differ from the males in the following important characters. 

Head. — Breadth of front at its narrowest part practically equal to eye 
width, inner eye orbits diverging downward. Vestiture of genae may be longer 
and more scattered. 

Thorax. — Hairs covering anterior spiracle more distinctly grayish, en- 
tirely so or dark only basally. 

Legs. — Lower row of bristles on anterior face of third femur more nearly 
complete than in male ; ventral row of posterior face consisting of long, well 
separated bristles (usually four or five) on proximal half or slightly more. 
Anterior and posterior rows of bristles of middle femur complete, very weak 
on distal half, " comb " absent. 

Chastotaxy. — Bristles of lower sternopleura arranged in three distinct 
rows. 

Abdomen. — Depth much less than width, outline oval. Vestiture of short, 
reclinate bristles except that bristles become longer and more erect laterally 
on second and third nota and laterally and ventrally on fourth notum. Ven- 
tral plates concealed in part ; first and second plates, sometimes also third and 
fourth, with one or more pairs of surface bristles besides those of posterior 
margin. 

Genital Segments. — Dull orange, grayish or yellowish pollinose. Sixth 
notum not divided into lateral lips, narrow, visible only from behind, margin 
fringed with bristles; spiracles below center, often concealed by edge of 
fourth notum ; seventh notum much smaller than sixth, but similar and visible 
just beneath it. 

Described from seven male and nine female specimens; several 
others examined. 

Range : New England — Mass., Provincetown, Truro, Horseneck 
Beach, Nantucket, Cambridge, Saxonville, Lunenburg. 

United States: N. Y., N. J., Pa., O. 

Foreign: Canada (Manitoba?), Cuba (?), Hayti (?). 

This species is peculiarly distinct from all others described. The 
-character of the genital segments is distinctive in both sexes. The 
parafrontals and gen?e are silvery gray, and particularly striking in 
the male because of the unusually wide front for that sex. There 
has been considerable doubt in my mind into which niche in the fam- 
ily this species could be sidetracked. Both its genital and external 
characters differ decidedly from those found in the genus Sarco- 
phaga. Some time ago I submitted a specimen to Dr. Bottcher for 



Sept., i9i6.] Felt: New Western Gall Midges. 175 

his opinion. He replied in part that it "' represents a type which I 
do not know from Europe or palearctic countries, but it has much 
the same features characteristic for several South American species," 
and also states that he had thought of making a new subgenus on the 
characters involved. This seems inadvisable for me to attempt on 
the basis of the single species represented among my material, so, for 
the present, it seems best to accept the genus Sarcophaga as a useful 
dumping ground. The more important characters which harmonize 
least with Sarcophaga are the vestiture of the back of the head, the 
broad front in the male, the stout nature of the chsetotaxy through- 
out, the shape and vestiture of the abdomen in the male, and the 
genital segments and genitalia. There are other characters which 
would assume importance if they were duplicated in related forms. 



NEW WESTERN GALL MIDGES. 

By E. p. Felt, 
Albany, N. Y. 

The following accounts of species are based largely on material 
collected and reared by Mr. P. H. Timberlake, of the U. S. Bureau 
of Entomology, while in Colorado and California, the observations 
on habits and life history notes being made by him. It will be noted 
that his work has disclosed the presence of a number of gall midges 
upon various composites, indicating the prevalence of somewhat the 
same conditions as are to be found upon related plants in the eastern 
states. The rearing of several species of Diarthronomyia is par- 
ticularly interesting in connection with the recent discovery of the 
chrysanthemum midge, D. Jiypogcca H. Lw. in this country. There 
are included in this lot of descriptions two accounts of species of 
Lasioptera infesting the leaf sheaths or the lower portion of the stem 
of two grasses, new records due to the investigations of Mr. C. N. 
Ainslie, also of the U. S. Bureau of Entomology. 

ONODIPLOSIS new genus 
This form, on account of the greatly reduced palpi, the somewhat 
produced mesonotum and the modified ovipositor, is allied to the 



176 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Vol. xxiv, 

series referable to Hormomyia and its near associates, and particu- 
larly to Monarthropalpus Rubs. The type is O. sarcohati n. sp. 

Onodiplosis sarcobati new species. 

This remarkable midge was reared May 24, 191 4, by Mr. P. H. 
Timberlake from a bud gall on Sarcohatiis vcrmiciilatiis, collected on 
the west shore of Utah Lake. Only two females were reared. 

Gall. An irregular, oval bud deformation, fleshy, becoming hard and ap- 
parently composed of appressed, thickened bud scales, length 10 mm., diameter 
6 mm. 

Female. — Length 3.5 mm., sparsely haired, brownish yellow; 14 segments, 
the fifth with a stem one-third the length of the subcylindrical basal enlarge- 
ment, the latter distinctly constricted near the middle and with a length two 
and one-half times its diameter; subapically and basally there are sparse whorls 
of short, stout setae and apically and near the middle, low, rather broad cir- 
cumfili ; terminal segment reduced, irregularly suboval, with a length from one 
and one-fourth to nearly twice its diameter. Palpus consisting of an irregu- 
lar, tapering, sparsely setose segment having a length about twice its diam- 
eter. Mesonotum shining dark brown or black. Scutellum a little darker, 
postscutellum reddish brown. Abdominal sclerites dark brown or black, the 
pleurae dark red, the ovipositor reddish, with a tuft of long, silky, yellowish 
white hairs on the distal segment. Wings hyaline, subcosta uniting with the 
margin near the middle, the third vein well beyond the apex, the fifth vein in- 
distinct distally, joining the posterior margin at the distal fourth, its branch 
near the basal half ; halteres pale yellowish, fuscous apically. Coxae black, 
the legs a nearly uniform reddish; claws long, slender, simple, the pulvilli as 
long as the claws. Ovipositor short, stout, with a length about one-half that 
of the abdomen, the basal segment much stouter, with a length about twice 
its diameter, the distal segment a little longer, much more slender, tapering 
to an obtusely rounded apex and thickly clothed with long, sillvy, yellowish 
white hairs, the latter having a length approximately one-half that of the 
segment. 

Exuvium. — Length 3 mm., stout, the thoracic horns moderately stout, bi- 
dentate. Mesonotum, wing cases and base of antennal cases variably infus- 
cate, the antennal cases hardly reaching the base of the abdomen, the wing 
cases extending to the third abdominal segment, and the leg cases to the fifth 
abdominal segment, the dorsum of the abdominal segments with numerous 
uniformly distributed, minute, triangular, chitinous points; posterior extrem- 
ity broadly rounded. Type Cecid. 1642. 

Hormomyia caudata new species. 

The midges described below were reared April 29, 191 5, by Mr. 
George G. Ainslie, of the U. S. Bureau of Entomology, from what 
were evidently modified buds or shoots of a sedge, probably Cypcrns 



Sept., 19 16.] Felt: New Western Gall Midges. 177 

species collected April 15 at Clarksville, Tenn. The galls were found 
at the very base of the plant and at the time contained both larvse and 
pupaj. The species is easily distinguished from other known females 
by the greatly produced fifth antennal segment in connection with its 
moderate size. 

Gall. — Somewhat cylindrical, fleshy-walled, monothalamous, length 4 to 5 
mm., diameter approximately half the length. The walls become thin upon 
maturity and rupture at the upper end, thus aiTording an opening for the 
escape of the pupa. 

Pupa. — Length 3 to 4 mm., moderately stout, whitish, the older ones yellow- 
ish orange with brown eyes, wings and legs ; thoracic horns rather long, nearly 
straight, light brown. Antennae extending to the third abdominal segment, the 
wings to the fourth and the legs to the sixth and seventh. The dorsum of the 
abdominal segments thickly spotted with chitinous points and near the middle 
a broad, transverse band of relatively long, stout, chitinous points. 

Female. — Length 4 mm. Antennae extending to the third abdominal seg- 
ment, sparsely haired, light brown ; 14 segments, the fifth with a short stem 
about one-fifth the length of the cylindrical basal enlargement, which latter 
has a length about four times its diameter and moderately long circumfili at 
the basal fourth, the distal third and subapically ; terminal segment somewhat 
produced, the basal enlargement with a length four times its diameter and 
apically a moderately long, stout, knob-like process. Palpi ; first segment sub- 
quadrate, the second narrowly oval, the third greatly produced, with a length 
five times its diameter. Mesonotum reddish brown. Scutellum and postscutel- 
lum probably lighter. Abdomen yellowish orange. Wings hyaline ; halteres 
yellowish basally, reddish fuscous apically. Coxs and legs mostly pale straw, 
the claws strongly curved, simple, the pulvilli plainly longer than the claws. 
Ovipositor about one-half the length of the abdomen, the terminal lobes almost 
linear, tapering slightly distally and with a length over four times the width. 
Color characters largely conjectural. Type Cecid. a27i8. 

Asphondylia adenostoma new species. 

The small gall midge described below was reared June 4, 191 2, by 
Mr. P. H. Timberlake from apparently unmodified seeds of Adeno- 
stoma fasciculatum collected in Laurel Canyon near Hollywood, Cal., 
May 30, 1912. The seeds or achenes were unmodified externally, the 
midge issuing through a hole in the side, the pupal exuviae being left 
in a partly protruding position. 

Female. — Length 2 mm. Antennae extending to the second abdominal seg- 
ment, rather thickly haired, black; 14 segments, the fifth with a length about 
four times its diameter and with unusually heavy, somewhat flattened circum- 
fili apically and at the basal third. On some of the basal segments there are 
irregular anastomosings of the circumfili, suggesting the condition obtaining in 



178 Journal New York Entomological Society. [VoI. xxiv, 

certain species of Cincticornia. The twelfth antennal segment with a length 
one-fourth greater than its diameter, the thirteenth with a length equal to its 
diameter, and the fourteenth a flattened spheroid. Palpi ; the first segment 
subquadrate, the second with a length over twice its width, the third slender, 
indistinctly segmented near the middle, somewhat expanded distally and with 
a length over twice that of the third. Mesonotum dark brown or black. 
Scutellum fuscous orange, postscutellum fuscous yellowish brown. Abdomen 
brownish black, the pleurae reddish. Halteres pale yellowish, fuscous sub- 
apically. Legs brownish black ; claws stout, strongly curved, the pulvilli as 
long as the claws. Ovipositor nearly as long as the body and presenting the 
usual characteristics of the genus. 

Exuvium. — Length 2 nun. The anterior portion variably infuscate, the 
thoracic horns long, stout, triangular in outline, the external margin finely 
serrate, and the surface minutely and irregularly striate. Wing cases ex- 
tending to the third abdominal segment and the leg cases to the fifth. The 
anterior portion of the dorsum of the abdominal segments with a broad, trans- 
verse, nearly uniform band of stout, triangular, chitinous processes ; posterior 
extremity broadly rounded. Type Cecid. 1632. 

Asphondylia chrysothamni new species. 

The gall described below was reared by Mr. P. H. Timberlake 
May 12-14, 1914, from bud galls on the rayless goldenrod, Bigclowia 
graveolens, collected near Murray, Utah. This species is apparently 
related to A. eupatorii Felt from which it may be easily separated by 
the markedly shorter twelfth antennal segment and also by palpal 
and colorational characters. 

Gall. — Swollen or enlarged leaf buds with a length of 5 to 6 mm. and a 
diameter of 3 mm., the walls being composed of short, ovate, aborted, glume- 
like leaflets without any specialized central cell. 

Exuvium.- — Length 3.75 mm., light brown, the heavier, chitinized portions 
at the anterior extremity somewhat darker ; antennal horns somewhat curved, 
triangular, smooth, acute apically, the antennal cases extending to the base of 
the abdomen, the wing cases to the base of the second abdominal segment, 
and the leg cases to the base of the fourth abdominal segment ; posterior ex~ 
tremity rounded ; the dorsum of the abdominal segments with a transverse row 
of stout, tooth-like spines near the posterior third and irregular, scattering 
spines representing two or three rudimentary, transverse rows on the basal 
half of each segment. 

Female. — Length 3.5 mm. Antennae nearly as long as the body, sparsely 
haired, blackish, the third antennal segment with a length seven times its 
diameter, the twelfth with a length a little greater than its diameter, the thir- 
teenth a little shorter than the twelfth, the fourteenth globose. Palpi ; first 
segment irregularly subquadrate, with a length over twice its diameter, the 
second moderately long, stout, with a length less than twice that of the first. 



Sept., i9i6.] Felt: New Western Gall Midges. 179 

The face, the occipital margin on the top and sides of the head, a triangular 
spot on the propleura, a small spot below the insertion of the wings, and a 
narrow sclerite between the middle and hind coxas, creamy white ; the neck 
yellowish with a narrow, longitudinal, blackish sclerite on each side. Meso- 
notum, scutellum and postscutellum slate-colored. Abdomen sparsely clothed 
with light brown or reddish hairs, black ; pleura brownish yellow. Wings hya~ 
line, the legs blackish, except that the posterior tibiae and tarsi are brownish ; 
claws stout, evenly curved, the pulvilli as long as the claws. Ovipositor about 
as long as the abdomen. 

Male. — Length 3.5 mm. Antennae nearly as long as the body, sparsely 
haired, blackish; 14 segments, the third with a length five times its diameter, 
and the fourteenth with a length over three times its diameter. Palpi; first 
segment i.rregularly quadrate, curved, with a length over twice its diameter, 
the second segment slender, tapering and more than twice the length of the 
first. Color very similar to that of the female but the abdomen is more slate- 
colored like the thorax, the pleurae being reddish, the hind tibia and the first 
tarsal segment blackish, the four distal tarsal segments being paler. Basal 
clasp segment short, very stout; terminal clasp seginent short, greatly swollen, 
bidentate, the teeth very asymmetrical ; dorsal plate moderately long, divided, 
the lobes tapering roundly to a narrowly rounded, thickly setose apex. Color 
characters after Timberlake. Type Cecid. 161 3. 

Asteromyia gutieirezise new species. 

The midges described below were reared by Mr. P. H. Timber- 
lake in May and June, 1914, from a black, blister-like gall on the 
slender flower stems of Giitierrezia sarothrac, collected near Salt 
Lake City, Utah. The species produces a gall very similar to that of 
Asteromyia carbonifera Felt and the adult presents many characters 
in common with this widespread eastern species, from which it is 
most readily separated by the third vein uniting with costa near the 
distal third and the moderately stout, obtuse harpes with a conspicu- 
ous, eccentric, quadrate, chitinous tooth. In the eastern C. carboni- 
fera the third vein unites with costa near the basal half, while the 
harpes taper to a decidedly slendex apex bearing a conspicuous, quad- 
rate tooth. The insect hibernates in the gall and Mr. Timberlake is 
of the opinion that there may be two generations annually, since he 
has reared the insect in numbers during May and June and in Sep- 
tember observed galls on new growth showing pupal exuvi?e, these 
latter being indications of a second brood. 

Gall. — Irregular, dull black thickenings of the slender flower stems, rang- 
ing in length from 6 to 8 mm. and approximately doubling the thickness of 
stems, with a diameter of .5 mm. Except for its location the deformation is 
very similar to that of C. carbonifera. 



180 Journal New York Entomological Society, ^'oi. xxiv. 

Larva. — Length 2 mm., bright orange yellow, the breastbone reddish brown, 
enlarged apically, tridentate, the teeth blunt and the middle one slightly the 
longer. 

Male. — Length 2 mm. Antennae brownish black; 15 segments, the fifth 
with a length three-fourths its diameter, the terminal segment slightly pro- 
duced and obtusely rounded. Palpi ; first segment irregularly oval, moderately 
stout, the second nearly as long and as stout as the first. Occiput densely 
covered with black scales, the eyes margined with white scales and the face 
with a few rather short, white hairs near the middle. Mesonotum probably 
dark brown or black, the margins with groups of moderately long white hairs. 
Abdomen black, the segments margined posteriorly with white scales; the 
venter suffused with white scales ; genitalia black. Coxae black, with a spot 
of white scales at the base ; femora mostly white scaled, black beneath, the 
hind pair almost entirely white ; tibiae black above, white beneath ; tarsi black, 
the segments annulate with white basally ; claws stout, strongly curved. Geni- 
talia ; basal clasp segment moderately stout; terminal clasp segment long, 
swollen basally ; dorsal plate moderately long, triangularly incised, the lobes 
broadly rounded ; ventral plate long, broadly rounded. Harpes broad, tapering 
sightly to a truncate apex bearing a stout, quadrate, chitinous tooth. 

Female. — Length 2 mm. Antennae with 16 segments, the fifth with a length 
three-fourths its diameter; terminal segment apparently compound, composed 
of two closely fused. Palpi ; first segment irregularly quadrate, curved, the 
second a little longer, broadly fusiform. Ovipositor with a length about half 
the abdomen, the terminal lobes broadly orbicular and sparsely setose. Type 
Cecid. 1623. 

Asteromyia grindelise Felt. 

1912. Felt, E. P. N. Y. Ent. Soc. Jour. 20: 149. 

This species was first reared July 27, 1911, by Mr. P. H. Timber- 
lake from blister leaf galls on Grindelia robusta collected near Santa 
Barbara, Cal., and again October 20, 1915, from a greenish or black- 
ish, oval, blister gall on G. cuneifolia collected in a salt marsh at 
Milebrae, Cal. 

Gall. — The gall on G. cuneifolia is a typical greenish or oval, blister leaf 
gall with a diameter of 3 or 4 mm. 

Male.- — The specimen reared in 1915 differs somewhat from that obtained 
in 191 1, in that there are 15 antennal segments, the fifth with a length about 
three-fourths its diameter, the terminal segment somewhat produced, compound 
and with a length about one-half greater than its diameter; the abdomen with 
the first four segments black and submedian whitish spots, those on the first 
segment quadrate and on the others subtriangular and separated by a mod- 
erately broad, black line; the distal segments vary from yellowish to reddish 
brown. 

Female (previously unknown). — Length 2.25 mm. Antennae probably with 



Sept., 19 16.] Felt: New Western Gall Midges. 181 

1 8 segments, the fifth with a length about three-fourths its diameter; dorsum 
of the abdomen black, with white markings as follows ; the basal segment 
with the distal third white, laterally, the white extending to the basal half of 
the segment and interrupted mesially by a moderately broad, black, median 
line, the second to the fifth abdominal segments with lunate, submedian white 
markings and conspicuous triangular ones laterally ; the sixth with the sub- 
median markings extending and confluent with the lateral ones, and the seventh 
white, except for an oval, median, black spot. Ovipositor about one-half the 
length of the abdomen, the terminal lobes broadly oval. Otherwise nearly as 
in the male. Colors after Tiniberlake. Cecid. 1639. 

It is possible that the species infesting G. cuneifolia is distinct, 
though the probabilities are against this, and for the present we have 
tentatively referred it to the above named form. It is desirable to 
rear a goodly series of midges from both host plants in order that 
more careful comparisons can be made. 

Lasioptera echinochloa new species. 

The midges described below were reared in August and Septem- 
ber, 191 5, by Mr. C. N. Ainslie from injured or infested stems of 
crippled plants, Echinochloa crusgalli collected at Elk Point, S. D. 
The larvae are usually found in numbers in fibrous, somewhat decayed 
stubbs in the crown and were also taken from lower normal portions 
of the stem. The species is allied ^o L. lactuccc Felt, from which it 
may be easily distinguished by the almost total lack of scales upon 
the mesonotum. Mr. Ainslie reared a species of Polyniccus from 
this midge. 

Larva. — Length 2.5 mm., moderately stout, pale salmon, the head mod- 
erately large, tapering to a narrowly rounded apex ; antennae biarticulate ; 
breastbone tridentate, the median tooth slightly shorter, the posterior ex- 
tremitj-^ broadly rounded ; skin coarsely shagreened. 

Puparium. — Length 3 mm., a pale brownish straw, somewhat fusiform, 
both extremities rounded. 

Exuvium. — Length 2.5 mm., whitish transparent; antennal cases hardly ex- 
tending to the base of the abdomen, the wing cases to the base of the third 
abdominal segment, and the leg cases of the first, second and third pair of 
legs to the fourth, sixth and seventh abdominal segments, respectively ; the 
basal two-thirds of the dorsum of each abdominal segment thickly set with 
minute, chitinous points. 

Female. Length 1.5 mm. Antennae extending to the base of the abdomen, 
sparsely haired, dark brown; 20 segments, the fifth with a length about equal 
to its diameter ; terminal segment reduced, narrowly oval. Palpi ; first seg- 
ment irregular, subquadrate, the second narrowly oval, the third one-half 



182 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^o'- xxiv, 

longer, more slender, the fourth a little longer and more slender than the 
third. Mesonotum shining black. Scutellum yellowish brown, postscutellum 
a little darker. Abdomen black, with rather inconspicuous silvery white, sub- 
median, lunate spots, the seventh segment mostly whitish ; venter suffused 
with dull silvery scales. Wings with subcosta uniting with the margin at the 
basal half, the discal spot obscure. Halteres, coxae and femora basally, yel- 
lowish, the distal portion of femora, tibiae and tarsi mostly dark brown ; claws 
slender, strongly curved, the pulvilli as long as the claws. Ovipositor about 
two-thirds the length of the abdomen, the terminal lobes slender, lanceolate, 
with a length about four times the width and rather thickly setose. 

Male. — Length 1.5 mm. Antennje hardly extending to the base of the ab- 
domen; 16 segments, the fifth with a length one-fourth greater than its diame- 
ter ; terminal segment broadly oval. Palpi ; first segment subquadrate. irregu- 
lar, the second narrowly oval, the third a little longer, more slender, the 
fourth one-half longer and more slender than the third. Genitalia; basal clasp 
segment rather long, slender; terminal clasp segment long, swollen basally; 
dorsal plate broad, broadly and triangularly emarginate, the lobes tapering to 
a broadly rounded apex ; ventral plate moderately long, broad and tapering 
to a narrowly rounded apex. Halteres moderately broad, tapering slightly to 
an irregular, tuberculate apex. Colors probably much as in the female. Type 
Cecid. a2yig, Webster 11,876. 

Lasioptera inustorum new species. 

This midge was reared in May, 191 5, by Mr. C. N. Ainslie from 
blackened leaf sheaths of Panicum virgatmn collected at Elk Point, 
S. D. This species runs in our key to L. impatient if olia Felt, a spe- 
cies which also produces a carbonaceous discoloration in vegetable 
tissues. A most striking difference between the two is in the much 
produced lobes of the ovipositor of this western midge. 

The leaf sheath of the infested plants shows an irregular, some- 
what diffuse blackening near its base. The blackened area may have 
a length of 3 cm. and extend more than half way around the stem, 
the latter being unaffected. Within the blackened tissues there may 
be found larval cells, the larvae occurring in tubular, silk-lined cavities 
some 5 to 6 mm. long. 

Larva. — Length 2.5 mm., rather long, slender, reddish orange, the head 
rather small, the antennae long, biarticulate ; breastbone long, slender, biden- 
tate, with a minute, median tooth ; skin coarsely shagreened, the posterior ex- 
tremity broadly rounded. 

Exuvium. — Length 2 mm., whitish transparent, the antennal cases hardly 
extending to the base of the abdomen, the wing cases to the third abdominal 
segment, and the first, second and third pairs of legs to the fourth, fifth and 
sixth abdominal segments, respectively. There are numerous minute, chitinous 



Sept., i9i6.] Felt: New Western Gall Midges. 183 

points on the distal three-fourtlis of the dorsum of the abdominal segments. 

Male. — Length 1.5 mm. Antennae hardly reaching to the base of the ab- 
domen, sparsely haired, black; 16 segments, the fifth with a length a little 
greater than its diameter ; terminal segment reduced, narrowly oval. Palpi ; 
first segment short, subquadrate, the second narrowly oval, the third a little 
longer, more slender, the fourth one-half longer and more slender than the 
third. Mesonotum, scutellum and postscutellum probably black. Abdomen 
dark brown, the segments posteriorly sparsely margined with dull silvery scales. 
Genitalia yellowish. Wings hyaline, the third vein uniting with the dark 
brown costa at the basal third, the discal spot obsolete. Halteres and legs 
mostly pale yellowish straw, the distal portion of femora and the basal por- 
tion of tibiae and the distal tarsal segments yellowish white ; claws slender, 
strongly curved, the pulvilli as long as the claws. Genitalia ; basal clasp seg- 
ment rather long, slender ; terminal clasp segment rather short, swollen basally ; 
dorsal plate moderately long, broad, deeply and roundly emarginate, the lobes 
narrowly rounded ; ventral plate moderately long, broad, roundly truncate. 
Harpes broad at base, tapering to a slender, prolonged, chitinous internal tooth. 

Female. — Length 2 mm. Antennae reaching nearly to the base of the ab- 
domen, sparsely haired, black ; 20 segments, the fifth with a length three-fourths 
its diameter ; terminal segment broadly oval. Palpi ; first segment subquadrate, 
the second narrowly oval, the third a little longer and more slender, the fourth 
one-half longer than the third. Ovipositor about one-half the length of the 
abdopien, the terminal lobes slender, with a length five times the width, sparsely 
setose and narrowly rounded apically. Color characters presumably nearly as 
in the male. Type Cecid. 32715, Webster 11,881. 

Rhopalomyia enceliae new species. 

A series of midges were reared April 18 and 20, 1913, by Mr. P. 
H. Timberlake from a greenish or dark gray, conical, globose, thick- 
walled gall sometimes confluent and distorting the stem. This species 
is easily distinguished from all other American Rhopalomyias de- 
scribed as having but fourteen antennal segments. 

Gall. — Conical, thick-walled, lateral bud gall, length 6 mm., diameter 3 
mm., frequently confluent basally, sometimes twisting the stem and producing 
a marked deformation of the plant. The apex of individual galls may be 
evenly rounded or flattened with flaring lips, which latter are sometimes pro- 
duced as small, leafy expansions. There is a more or less distinct orifice as 
in the case of galls produced by Phytophaga rigidcr O. S. 

Female. — Length 2.5 mm. Antennae extending to the second abdominal 
segment, sparsely haired, brown, the basal segments black; 14 subsessile seg- 
ments, the fifth with a stem about one-fifth the length of the subcylindric basal 
enlargement, which latter has a length two and one-half times its diameter; 
terminal segment somewhat produced, evidently composed of two closely fused 
and with a length about three and one-half times its diameter. Palp consist- 



184 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^'o'- X-^iv, 

ing of one small, narrowly oval segment bearing one or more long, stout 
seta. Mesonotum and abdomen black, shining; halteres yellowish basally, red- 
dish apically. Legs a pale straw; claws moderately slender, strongly curved, 
the pulvilli as long as the claws. Ovipositor nearly as long as the abdomen, 
the terminal lobes narrowly oval. Type Cecid. 1627. 

Rhopalomyia salviae new species. 

The midges characterized below were reared by Mr. P. H. Tim- 
berlake in May, 1912, from several collections of leaf galls on Salvia 
(Ramojia) calif oruica and 5". nivca, collected in the Puente Hills near 
Whittier, Cal. This gall was also collected by Professor E. P. Van 
Duzee January 10, 1914, at Alpine, Cal. This species runs in our 
key to near R. antcnnaricc Whir, or R. gnticrrczia Felt, from both of 
which it appears to be quite distinct. 

Gall.- — Leaflets of 5". californica and presumably adjacent leaflets are 
dwarfed by the formation of a conspicuous conical, minutely pubescent, grayish 
brown, thick-walled gall having a length of i cm. and a diameter of .6 cm. 
The structure appears to be a greatly thickened, hypertro'phied leaf, only rudi- 
ments remaining, the walls being spongy and the interior containing an oval 
larval cell with a length of about 3 mm. The midge evidently escapes through 
an apical opening somewhat resembling that in the gall of Phyfophaga rigidce 
O. S. A very different leaf gall, apparently produced by the same midge, 
occurs on the margins of moderately well developed leaves. It is a typical 
thin-walled, tubular gall with a length of about 6 mm., a diameter of 1.5 mm. 
The interior is occupied by an elongate larval chamber. Basally the gall is 
concolorous with the leaf, the distal third being purplish, the slightly curved 
apex a little lighter. A modification of the first type of gall is seen on the 
aborted leaflets of 5. nivea (or leucophylla). These galls are irregularly ob- 
conical, with a length of about 7 mm., a diameter of 3 mm. and are more or 
less confluent, otherwise nearly as described above. 

Exuvium. — Length 2.25 mm., mostly whitish transparent, the anterior 
thickened portions of the head and thoracic structures brownish. Antennal 
horns short, stout, indistinctly bidentate, the lateral process decidedly longer; 
antennal cases extending to the base of the abdomen, wing cases to the third 
abdominal segment, and leg cases to the fifth abdominal segment ; the posterior 
extremity rather broadly rounded, the dorsal surface of the abdominal segments 
thickly spotted with minute, chitinous points. 

Male.-^Length 2.5 mni. Antennae extending to the third abdominal seg- 
ment, sparsely haired, the two basal segments black, the others dark brown ; 
14 to 16 segments, the fifth with a stem three-fourths the length of the cylin- 
dric basal enlargement, which latter has a length one and one-half times its 
diameter; terminal segment reduced, narrowly oval. Palpi; first segment ir- 
regular, with a length about twice its diameter, the second reduced, narrowly 
oval. Mesonotum and scutellum black, naked. Abdomen mostly black, the 



Sept., i9i6.] Felt: New Western Gall Midges. 185 

distal two segments brownish and the basal portion of the genitalia gray. 
Coxae black, legs brownish, the claws moderately stout, strongly curved, the 
pulvilli nearly as long as the claws. Genitalia ; basal clasp segment stout, 
moderately broad, the basal third with scattered, subconical tuberosities ; ter- 
minal clasp segment moderately stout, tapering, strongly curved ; dorsal plate 
deeply and triangularly incised, the lobes broadly rounded ; ventral plate in- 
distinct ; harpes long, broad, the distal margin narrowly rounded and sub- 
apically a chitinous ridge with three or four quadrate teeth ; style long, nar- 
rowly rounded apically. 

Female. — Length 2.25 mm. Antennae extending to the base of the ab- 
domen, sparsely haired; 15 sessile segments, the fifth with a length two and 
one-half times its diameter; terminal segment somewhat produced, with a 
length about three times its diameter, the apex narrowly rounded. Palpi ; 
first segment irregular, quadrate, the second broadly and irregularly oval. 
Ovipositor probably nearly as long as the abdomen, the terminal lobes narrowly 
oval and finely pubescent. Coloration nearly as in the male. Color characters 
after Timberlake. Type Cecid. 1624, C. 1626. 

Rhopalomyia ampuUaria new species. 

A few midges were reared July 6, 1913, by Mr. P. H. Timberlake 
from a flask-shaped leaf gall on sage bush, Artemisia tridentata, 
taken near Salt Lake City, Utah. This species may be distinguished 
from related forms by the uniarticulate palpi and the small number 
of antennal segments. 

Gall.- — -A somewhat flask-shaped or subconical, solitary or confluent white 
pubescent leaf gall, diameter at base 2 mm., height 3 mm. A section shows 
the basal portion of the gall to be thick-walled, with an oval cell having a 
length of about 1.5 mm. and a distal tubular, thin-walled portion separated 
from the larval cell only by a thin, matted layer of filaments, the top being 
lightly filled with a curled, woolly mass. 

Exuvium. — Length 2 mm., moderately stout, the thicker, chitinous por- 
tions slightly colored, the other parts semi-transparent ; antennal horns rudi- 
mentary, represented by rounded processes ; antennal cases extending to the 
second abdominal segment, the wing cases to the third, and the leg cases to 
the fifth ; posterior extremity broadly rounded. 

Female. — Length 2.5 mm. Antennje extending to the base of the ab- 
domen, sparsely haired; 15 sessile segments, the fifth with a length two and 
one-half times its diameter ; terminal segment somewhat reduced, tapering to 
a narrowly rounded apex. Palp consisting of one moderately long, stout, ■ 
fusiform segment with a few stout setae apically. Mesonotum reddish brown. 
Scutellum yellowish, postscutellum a little darker. Abdomen yellowish orange, 
the ovipositor yellowish. Halteres pale yellowish. Legs pale straw ; claws 
moderately stout, strongly curved, the pulvilli as long as the claws. Oviposi- 
tor about one-half the length of the abdomen, the terminal lobes narrowly 



186 Journal New York Entomological Society. t^'°i- xxiv, 

oval, with a length about twice the width and rather thickly setose. Type 
Cecid. 1618. 

Rhopalomyia grindeliae new species. 

This species was reared by Mr. P. H. Timberlake in October, 1915, 
from apparently unmodified flower heads of tar weed, Grindelia ciinei- 
folia, collected on a salt marsh near Millbrae, Cal. 

Gall. — The flower heads from which this species was reared presented no 
external modifications. The larvae apparently inhabit individual florets, ren- 
dering them hollow and infertile. 

Male. — Length 2.5 mm. Antennae extending to the third abdominal seg- 
ment, sparsely haired, yellowish brown; 16 segments, the fifth with a stem 
as long as the cylindric basal enlargement, the latter with a length about one- 
half greater than its diameter ; terminal segment with the basal portion some- 
what reduced, with the apical stem represented by a long, somewhat enlarged, 
fusiform, setose appendage. Palpi probably biarticulate, the distal segment 
long, somewhat expanded distally and with a length four times its diameter. 
Mesonotum shining dark brown, the scutellum and postscutellum a little 
lighter. Abdomen dark brown. Genitalia fuscous yellowish. Halteres yel- 
lowish basally, fuscous apically. Coxae yellowish, legs pale straw ; claws long, 
slender, evenly curved, the pulvilli as long as the claws. Genitalia ; basal clasp 
segment short, broad ; terminal clasp segment rather short, swollen near the 
middle; dorsal plate broad, broadly and triangularly emarginate ; ventral plate 
broad, very broadly and roundly emarginate. Harpes stout, divergent, taper- 
ing to irregular, strongly tuberculate appendages. 

Female. — Length 3.5 mm. Antennae extending to the base of the ab- 
domen, sparsely haired, yellowish brown; 17 cylindrical, sessile segments, the 
fifth with a length about twice its diameter ; terminal segment produced, 
with a length three times its diameter, tapering to an obtuse apex. Palpi ; 
the first segment short, subquadrate, the second with a length four times 
its diameter and tapering slightly to a broadly rounded apex. Mesonotum 
shining dark brown. Scutellum yellowish brown, postscutellum dark brown. 
Abdomen dark red, the ovipositor and apical segments pale brown ; thorax and 
abdomen sparsely clothed with long, black pubescence. Halteres and legs 
yellowish brown. Ovipositor as long as the abdomen, the terminal lobes nar- 
rowly lanceolate, with a length four times the width and sparsely setose. 
Type Cecid. 1638. 

Rhopalomyia utahensis new species. 

A number of midges were reared by Mr. P. H. Timberlake in 
May, 1913, from an ovoid bud gall on rabbit brush, Chrysothamnns 
graveolens, collected in the vicinity of Murray, Utah. The gall, as 
described by Mr. Timberlake, presents characters very similar to those 
of Cecidomyia strobiloidcs Towns. (Psyche, 7: 176, 1894), and it is 



Sept., i9i6.] Felt: New Western Gall Midges. 187 

possible that the galls are produced by the same species. This insect 
runs in our key to R. crassulina Ckll., from which it may be easily 
separated by its distinctly larger size and also by well marked struc- 
tural differences. 

Gall. — Ovoid, hypertrophied leaf buds, length lo to ii mm., diameter 7 
to 8 mm., two or three frequently being confluent, monothalamous, green or 
somewhat purplish and externally with short, recurved, aborted leaflets cov- 
ered with a rather thick, gray arachnose pubescence. Apparently the same 
species was reared from a similar more globose leaf bud gall at once distin- 
guishable by the absence of pubescence. 

Male. — Length 3 mm. Antennae extending to the fourth abdominal seg- 
ment, sparsely haired, grayish yellow, the first two segments black; 18 seg- 
ments, the fifth with a stem three-fourths the length of the cylindric basal en- 
largement, which latter has a length nearly twice its diameter; terminal seg- 
ment with a length three times its diameter and tapering slightly to an ir- 
regularly rounded apex. Palpi presumably biarticulate. Mesonotum shining 
black. Scutellum and postscutellum probably dark reddish brown. Abdomen 
probably dark brown, the pleurae fuscous yellowish. Halteres whitish basally, 
fuscous apically. Legs pale yellowish or grayish, sparsely black-haired ; claws 
moderately slender, evenly curved, the pulvilli as long as the claws. Geni- 
talia ; basal clasp segment stout, broad ; terminal clasp segment rather stout, 
long; dorsal plate broad, deeply and triangularly emarginate, the lobes broadly 
rounded laterally ; ventral plate broad, broadly and roundly truncate. Harpes 
moderatey long, slightly divergent and irregularly rounded apically ; style short, 
stout. 

Female. — Length 3 mm. Antennae extending to the third abdominal seg- 
ment, sparsely haired, dark grayish, the first two segments black; 18 subsessile 
segments, the fifth with a length two and one-half times its diameter; terminal 
segment slightly produced and narrowly oval. Palpi ; first segment somewhat 
produced, subquadrate, the second irregular, tapering distally to an acute apex 
and with a length about three times its diameter. Mesonotum and dorsal 
sclerites of abdomen shining black. Scutellum and postscutellum probably 
dark brown ; pleurae yellowish gray with a slight reddish tinge. Ovipositor 
short, with a length probably less than half that of the abdomen, the terminal 
lobes broadly oval and sparsely setose. Other characters practically as in the 
male. Colors mostly after Timberlake. Type Cecid. 1608. 

Rhopalomyia chrysothamni new species. 

This midge was reared in May, 1913, by Mr, P. H. Timberlake 
from a pubescent, variable, conical, stem gall on rabbit brush, Chryso- 
thamniis gravcolcns, collected in the vicinity of Murray, Utah. The 
species approaches closely R. utahensis, from which it may be most 
easily separated by its decidedly smaller size, the fewer antennal seg- 
ments and particularly by the peculiar type of gall. 



188 Journal New York Entomological Society, tvoi. xxiv, 

Gall. — A variable, conical outgrowth of the stem with a height of about 
4 mm. and a basal diameter of 2 to 3 mm. The gall contains basally, an 
oval, thin-walled cell with a length of 2.75 mm. and a diameter of 1.75 mm., 
the hollow, distal portion being filled with a slender, thread-like growth of 
delicate cells placed end to end and forming a rounded or, in some cases, nearly 
truncate plug. 

Exuvium. — Length 1.5 mm., moderately stout, the anterior thicker por- 
itons brownish, the thinner parts semi-transparent ; antennal horns short, stout, 
feebly and unequally bidentate, the antennal cases extending to the base of the 
abdomen, the wing cases to the third abdominal segment, and the leg cases to 
the fourth and fifth abdominal segments; posterior extremity broadly rounded; 
the dorsum of the abdominal segments with numerous minute, chitinous points. 

Male. — Length 2.5 mm. Antennae nearly as long as the body, sparsely 
haired, the basal antennal segments black, the others yellowish; 17 segments, 
the fifth with a stem three-fourths the length of the cylindric basal enlarge- 
ment, which latter has a length about one and one-fourth times its diameter; 
terminal segment somewhat reduced, tapering to a narrowly rounded apex. 
Palp consisting of one moderately long, stout segment. Head, thorax and the 
abdomen basally black, the distal segments of the abdomen mostly yellowish. 
Legs yellowish white or grayish, the tibije and tarsi paler, the coxse and femora 
darker ; claws slender, strongly curved, the pulvilli as long as the claws. 
Genitalia ; basal clasp segment moderately long, stout ; terminal clasp segment 
long, stout ; dorsal plate broad, deeply and triangularly emarginate ; ventral 
plate moderately long, broad, deeply and roundly emarginate, the lobes rather 
broad and broadly rounded. 

Female. — Length 1.5 mm. Antennae extending to the fourth abdominal 
segment, sparsely haired, yellowish gray; 16 segments, the fifth with a length 
about two and one-half times its diameter ; terminal segment somewhat pro- 
duced and frequently fused with the preceding. Mesonotum black. Abdomen 
cherry red, the distal segments and the ovipositor yellowish gray. Halteres 
yellowish with a white pubescence. Claws strongly curved, the pulvilli longer 
than the claws. Ovipositor short, with a length about one-fourth that of the 
abdomen, the terminal lobes orbicular, sparsely setose. Otherwise nearly as 
in the male. Color characters after Timberlake. Type Cecid. 1614. 

Rhopalomyia glutinosa new species. 

The midges described below were reared May 10, 1913, from a 
shining, glabrous, cortical swelling on the stem of rabbit brush, 
Chrysothamnus graveolcns. The female presents many characters 
in common with that of R. chrysothamni, from which it may be most 
easily separated by the more reduced terminal antennal segments, 
the longer ovipositor and the narrowly oval, more setose terminal 
lobes. 



Sept., i9i6.] Felt: New Western Gall Midges. 189 

Gall. — ^These are green, glabrous, cortical stem swellings which, as they 
age, become brown and present a very close resemblance to a group of 
Lecaniums. The gall has a height of about 2 mm. and a diameter of 3.5 mm., 
the midge escaping through a circular apical orifice. 

Exuvium. — Very similar to that of R. chrysothamni. 

Female. — Length 2.25 mm. Antennae extending to the fourth abdominal 
segment, sparsely haired, brown, the two basal segments blackish; 16 seg- 
ments, the fifth with a length two and one-half times its diameter, the distal 
segment reduced, with a length about twice its diameter. Palp consisting of 
a moderately short, broad segment having a length about twice its diameter. 
Mesonotum grayish black, with the lateral margins and median line black ; 
abdomen dull red with the sclerites, the last two segnVents and the base of the 
ovipositor grayish black. Halte^es pale yellowish. Anterior and mid legs fus- 
cous, the hind legs, except the cox?e, pale yellowish gray ; claws strongly 
curved, the pulvilli decidedly longer than the claws. Ovipositor with a length 
about one-half that of the abdomen, the terminal lobes narrowly oval and 
rather thickly setose. Type Cecid. 1615. 

Rhopalomyia erigerontis new species. 

The one male described below was reared by Mr. P. H. Timber- 
lake in April, 1913, from a gall fouiid on a plant provisionally identi- 
fied as Erigeron fragilis and collected at Whittier, Cal. 

Gall. — This is an oval apical bud deformation with a length of 10 mm. 
and a diameter of 7 mm., the modified leaflets being thickly clothed with a 
short white pubescence. 

Exuvium. — Length 2.75 mm., mostly whitish transparent, the denser por- 
tions of the head and thorax brownish. Antennal horns short, stout, tapering to 
a broadly excavated apex ; antennal cases hardly extending to the base of the 
abdomen, the wing cases to the third abdominal segment and the leg cases to 
the sixth abdominal segment ; posterior extremity broadly rounded the dorsum 
of the abdominal segments dotted with very minute, chitinous points. 

Male. — Length 2.25 mm. Antenna; extending to the third abdominal seg- 
ment, sparsely haired, pale yellowish brown; 18 segments, the fifth with a 
stem as long as the cylindrical basal enlargement, which latter has a length 
about one-fourth greater than its diameter ; terminal segment irregular, oval or 
subcylindrical and tapering to an irregularly rounded apex. Palp consisting 
of one segment composed of a narrow, oval basal portion and a slender, finger- 
like apical part. Mesonotum reddish brown. Scutellum and postscutellum a 
little lighter. Abdomen fuscous yellowish. Genitalia darker. Halteres yel- 
lowish transparent. Coxae yellowish brown, the legs a nearly uniform pale 
straw ; claws slender, evenly curved, the pulvilli as long as the claw^. Geni- 
talia ; basal clasp segment long, stout ; terminal clasp segment very irregular, 
excavated internally and slightly recurved at the slender apex ; both dorsal and 
ventral plates long, broad, broadly and roundly emarginatc, the former broader. 
Harpes stout, tapering to a narrowly rounded apex ; style short, stout. Type 
Cecid. 1629. 



190 Journal New York Entomological Society. [^'°'- xxiv, 

Rhopalomyia ericameriae new species. 

This species was reared by Mr. P. H. Timberlake April 21, 1913, 
from a small, rosette gall on Ericamcria (Chrysoma) palmeri, col- 
lected in the Puente Hills near Whittier, Cal. The adults, aside from 
food preferences and general structures, may be most easily separated 
from related forms by the strongly marked characters of the male 
genitalia and the unusually short ovipositor of the female. 

Gall. — This is a deformed or aborted, usually lateral branchlet forming a 
small rosette, frequently with the tip more or less recurved, length 1.5 cm., 
diameter i cm. 

Exuvium. — Length 2.5 mm., moderately stout, whitish, except for the 
thicker portions of the chitin anteriorly. Antennal horns rudimentary, the 
antennal cases not reaching to the base of the abdomen, the wing, cases to the 
second abdominal segment and the leg cases to the fourth and fifth abdominal 
segments ; the dorsum of the abdominal segments with very minute, chitinous 
points ; posterior extremity broadly rounded. 

Male. — Length 3.25 mm. Antennas extending to the third abdominal seg- 
ment, thickly haired, probably yellowish brown; 18 segments, the fifth with 
a stem three-fourths the length of the cylindric basal enlargement, which 
latter has a length about two and one-half times its diameter; terminal seg- 
ment somewhat reduced, with a length over twice its diameter and tapering 
to a narrowly rounded apex. Palp consisting of one long, somewhat capitate 
segment with a length about three times its greatest diameter. Mesonotum 
dark reddish brown. Scutellum reddish brown, postscutellum a little lighter. 
Abdomen brownish red, the genitalia yellowish. Halteres yellowish basally, 
fuscous apically. Legs mostly a pale straw. Genitalia; basal clasp segment 
long, stout ; terminal clasp segment moderately long, slightly swollen near 
the middle; dorsal plate long, broad, triangularly emarginate, the lobes some- 
what divergent and broadly rounded ; ventral plate long, broad, broadly and 
roundly emarginate. Harpes broad, obliquely truncate apically, the distal 
margin somewhat recurv^ed ; style rather short, stout. 

Female. — Length 2.25 mm. Antennae missing. Palp consisting of one 
moderately stout segment with a length nearly four times its diameter, the 
distal fourth tapering. Mesonotum probably darker and the abdomen pre- 
sumably redder than in the male. Ovipositor with a length about one-half 
that of the abdomen, the terminal lobes broadly oval and sparsely setose. 
Color characters largely conjectural. Type Cecid. 1637. 

Phytophaga wellsi new species. 

The midges were reared by Mr. B. W. Wells INIarch 20, 191 6, from 
a somewhat top-shaped leaf gall on hackberry, Celtis occidcntalis, 
collected presumably in the vicinity of Columbus, O. 



Sept., i9i6.] Felt: New Western Gall Midges. 191 

Gall. — Monothalamous, somewhat top-shaped, the walls moderately thick 
and the surface sparsely clothed with a whitish, appressed pubescence, the 
greatest diameter ranging from 3 to 4 mm. 

Larva. — -Whitish, stout, the posterior extremity rounded, the breastbone 
rather broad, short, with two long, widely separated teeth, the excavation 
broadly rounded ; skin coarsely shagreened. 

Male. — Length 2 mm. Antennae nearly as long as the body, rather sparsely 
long-haired, yellowish brown; 16 segments, the fifth with a stem one-half the 
length of the cylindric basal enlargement, which latter has a length about 
twice its diameter; terminal segment somewhat reduced, tapering slightly 
to a subconical, smooth apex. Palpi ; first segment subquadrate, the second 
narrowly oval, nearly twice the length of the first, the third nearly twice the 
length of the second, more slender, the fourth one-half longer than the third, 
more slender. Mesonotum shining dull reddish brown, the margin sparsely 
brown-haired. Scutellum brownish, postscutellum yellowish orange. Abdomen 
coarsely white-haired, mostly dark brown, the incisures yellowish white. Wings 
hyaline; halteres yellowish transparent. Coxse fuscous yellowish, the legs 
mostly pale straw, the pulvilli nearly as long as the claws. Genitalia; basal 
clasp segment long, stout ; terminal clasp segment short, curved, swollen near 
the middle; dorsal plate long, broadly dilated apically, the rather slender lobes 
with a narrowly rounded, setose apex and diverging strongly ; ventral plate 
moderately short, deeply and narrowly incised, the lobes long, rather broad and 
tapering slightly to a narrowly rounded, sparsely setose apex. Harpes stout, 
obscurely denticulate distally ; style short. 

Female. — Length 2.25 mm. Antennae extending to the third abdominal 
segment, sparsely haired, dark yellowish; 18 sessile segments, the fifth with a 
length one-half greater than its diameter, the terminal segment reduced, roundly 
and broadly conical. Palpi ; the first segment irregularly subquadrate, the 
second about as long as the first, the third one-half longer than the second, 
more slender, and the fourth more slender than the third and about twice as 
long. Mesonotum shining dark brown. Scutellum yellowish brown, postscutel- 
lum fuscous yellowish. Abdomen sparsely dark-haired, dark reddish orange, the 
ovipositor yellowish orange and with a length nearly as long as the abdomen. 
Halteres yellowish transparent basally, fuscous subapically, whitish apically. 
Coxae dark brown ; legs mostly dark brown. The lobes of the ovipositor short, 
roundly triangular and sparsely setose. Type Cecid. a27i3. 

Phytophaga timberlakei new species. 

The midges described below were reared by Mr. P. H. Timberlake 
in March, 191 5, from branches and limbs of willow, Sali.v fendleriana, 
collected by J. P. O'Gara near Salt Lake City, Utah, the preceding 
November. This species resembles P. pcroccuUa Ckll., from which 
it may be separated by the decidedly shorter antennal stems in the 
male and the presumably shorter palpi. There are minor differences 



192 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Voi. xxiv, 

in the male genitalia. The larvae, according to Mr. Timberlake, 
may be found in tubular cells beneath the bark and cause hardly any 
external swelling. 

Exuvium. — Length 4 mm. Whitish transparent, the antenna] cases hardly- 
extending to the base of the abdomen, the wing cases to the third abdominal 
segment, and the leg cases of presumably the fore, middle and posterior legs 
extending to the fourth, fifth and seventh segments, respectively. The dorsum 
of the abdominal segments with transverse rows of minute spines. 

Male. — Length 3 mm. Antennae extending to the third abdominal seg- 
ment, sparsely haired, yellowish brown; 19 segments, the fifth with a stem 
one-half the length of the cylindric basal enlargement, which latter has a 
length one-half greater than its diameter; terminal segment produced, taper- 
ing slightly to a narrowly rounded apex and with a length two and one-half 
times its diameter. Palpi obscure in the preparation. Mesonotum reddish brown. 
Scutellum and postscutellum lighter. Abdomen yellowish orange. Legs pale 
straw ; claws moderately stout, evenly curved, the pulvilli as long as the claws. 
Genitalia ; basal clasp segment stout ; terminal clasp segment moderately long 
tapering strongly distally ; dorsal plate broad, broadly and triangularly emargi- 
nate, the lobes broadly expanded, broadly oval and sparsely setose; ventral plate 
moderately long, broad, deeply and roundly emarginate, the lobes moderately 
short, broad and tapering to a broadly rounded apex. Harpes short, broad, 
obliquely truncate and at the internal angle a stout, quadrate, chitinous tooth ; 
style short, stout. 

Female. — Length 3.3 mm. Antennae extending to the first abdominal seg- 
ment, sparsely haired, yellowish brown ; 20 sessile segments, the fifth with a 
length one-fourth greater than its diameter, the terminal segment slightly 
produced, narrowly oval, with a length over twice its diameter. Palpi ; first 
segment short, quadrate, the second a little longer, broader, the third a little 
longer and more slender than the second, the fourth about twice the length 
of the third, moderately stout. Ovipositor about three-fourths the length of 
the abdomen, terminal lobes short, broadly oval and sparsely setose. Color 
characters in both sexes largely conjectural. Type Cecid. 1646. 

Key to the Species of Di.\rthronomyia. 

a. 17 or 18 antennal segments, the fifth in the male with a stem three-fourths, 
and that of the female with a stem one-third the length of the basal en- 
largement, respectively. 
b. Mesonotum dark reddish brown, the abdomen reddish brown; terminal 
antennal segment of the male greatly produced ; length, male 2 mm., 
female, 3 mm. Reared from a variable monothalamovis or poly- 
thalamous, globose leaf bud or rosette gall or a bladdery leaf gall on 

Artemisia tridentata artemisiae Felt. 

bb. Mesonotum dark brown, the abdomen pale orange ; terminal antennal 
segment of the male usually reduced. Reared from an irregular, oval, 



Sept., i9i6.] Felt: New Western Gall Midges. 193 

concolorous swelling with a length about 2 mm., usually at a distinct 
angle to the surface of the plant tissues, and frequently causing large, 
confluent swellings of the stem, leaf or flower head of Chrysanthe- 
mum hypogaea H. Lw. 

aa. IS or 16 antennal segments. 

b. Antennal segments of the female subsessile, the fifth with a stem one- 
fifth the length of the cylindrical basal enlargement, the fifth of the 
male with a stem three-fourths the length of the basal enlargement. 
Reared from an oval, thin-walled, pubescent cell with a length about 
I mm. and attached at an oblique angle to the vuider side of the leaf 
or from flower buds of Artemisia heterophylla or a vertical, oval leaf 

gall on A. tridentata occidentalis n. sp. 

aaa. 14 antennal segments. 

b. Antennal segments of the female sessile, the fifth with a length twice 
its diameter, the fifth antennal segment of the male with a stem 
three-fourths the length of the basal enlargement ; circumfili not 
greatly produced. Reared from a brownish or reddish subconical, 
thin-walled cell with a length of 1.5 mm., a diameter of .5 mm. and 
protruding at an oblique angle from the tissues of Artemisia cali- 
fornica calif ornica Felt. 

bb. Antennal segments of the female sessile, the fifth with a length four 
times its diameter, the circumfili greatly produced and frequently ex- 
tending to or beyond the base of the next segment. Reared from ir- 
regular, lobulate, woolly masses, apparently lateral bud galls which 
are frequently confluent ; individual galls with a diameter of 4 mm., 
on Artemisia californica floccosa n. sp. 

Diarthronomyia artemisise Felt. 

A series of midges were reared by Mr. P. H. Timberlake in May 
and Jnne, 191 5, from variable, globose, leaf bud and rosette galls on 
Artemisia tridentata, and also from a bladdery leaf gall found upon 
the same plant and collected near Salt Lake City, Utah. The leaf 
bud galls presented a marked variation in pubescence, the smaller 
ones being naturally more pubescent, while the larger ones, presum- 
ably because of the greater expansion of the normal stirface of the 
plant, are decidedly less pubescent. The larger ones, according to 
Mr. Timberlake, are polythalamous, the others monothalamous. The 
bladdery leaf galls are notably softer than the others and less pubes- 
cent, as in the case of the larger leaf bud galls. The interior of these 
deformities is filled with loose, spongy matter composed of finely 
crinkled filaments surrounding one or more larval cells. 

Exuvium. — Length 2 mm. Stout, the head, mesonotum, antennal and 
wing cases a variable reddish brown, the anterior horns small, the antennal 



194 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^'o'- xxiv, 

cases hardly extending to the base of the abdomen, the wing cases to the 
third abdominal segment, the leg cases to the fifth abominal segment ; dorsum 
of the abdomen nearly smooth, the posterior extremity broadly rounded. 

Diarthronomyia occidentalis new species. 

Numerous small midges were reared by Mr. P. H. Timberlake in 
September, 1912, from small, oval, thin-celled galls on the leaves of 
Artemisia hcterophylla, collected at the Sweet Water Dam, San 
Diego County, Cal., and also from flower buds taken in the Puente 
Hills near Whittier. It was also reared from a similar, nearly verti- 
cal solitary or clustered grayish or almost black oval gall on the under 
side of leaves of Artemisia tridcntata collected at Salt Lake City, 
Utah, in May, 1915. The species is a small one, the gall resembling 
very closely that produced by the European chrysanthemum midge, 
D. hypogcca H. Lw., and the adults have a close affinity with this 
species, though they may be easily distinguished therefrom by the 
somewhat smaller size and the smaller number of antennal segments. 

Gall. — An oval, thin-walled, pubescent cell, length about i mm., attached 
to the under side of the leaf and at an oblique or nearly vertical angle to the 
supporting surface. Gall grayish on A. heterophylla or grayish or nearly black 
on A. tridentata. The galls in the flower buds are recorded by Timberlake 
as apparently the same though rather thinner walled. 

Female. — Length 1.25 mm. Antennae extending to the base of the ab- 
domen, sparsely haired, pale flesh-colored; 14 to 15 subsessile segments, the 
fifth with a stem about one-fifth the length of the cylindric basal enlargement, 
which latter has a length two and one-half times its diameter; terminal seg- 
ment slightly reduced, narrowly rounded apically. Palpi ; first segment small, 
globose, second smaller, subglobose. Eyes black; face yellowish. Mesonotum 
yellowish brown. Scutellum and postscutellum pale yellowish ; abdomen pale 
reddish, fuscous yellowish distally. Legs pale yellowish, the claws slender, 
evenly curved, unidentate, the pulvilli a little shorter than the claws. Ovi- 
positor about half the length of the abdomen, the terminal lobes rather long, 
roundly tapering to a narrowly rounded apex, sparsely setose. 

Male. — Length 1.25 mm. Antennae extending to the third abdominal seg- 
ment, sparsely haired, pale yellowish; 15 or 16 segments, the fifth with a stem 
three-fourths the length of the cylindric basal enlargement, which latter has 
a length two and one-fourth times its diameter; terminal segment produced, 
with a length about three times its diameter. Palpi ; first segment short, sub- 
quadrate, second smaller, subquadrate. Coloration similar to the female, ex- 
cept that the abdomen is pale yellowish and the genitalia fuscous and the legs 
paler than in the female. Genitalia ; basal clasp segment short, stout, broadly 
triangular; terminal clasp segment short, stout, with a conspicuous tooth 
apically ; dorsal plate moderately long, triangularly emarginate, the lobes 



Sept., I9I6.J Felt: New Western Gall Midges. 196 

broad, subtruncate apically ; ventral plate long, broad, broadly and roundly 
emarginate. Harpes moderately stout, triangular, with a short, rounded, chit- 
inous lobe at the internal distal angle; style short, stout. Type Cecid. 1633. 

Diarthronomyia floccosa new species. 

The midges characterized below were reared by Mr. P. H. Tim- 
berlake, November 20 and 28, 1912, from large, woolly galls on Arte- 
misia calif ornica collected on the ridge between Mill Valley and the 
Muir Woods in Marin County Cal. Apparently the same gall was 
also found at Santa Barbara, Cal. This species approaches D. cali- 
f ornica Felt, from which it may be easily separated by the relatively 
much longer antennal segments and the greatly produced circumfili. 
The gall is also very different. 

Gall. — Irregular, lobulate, woolly masses apparently arising from lateral 
buds, frequently confluent, individual galls having a diameter of about 4 mm. 

Female. — Length 1.25 mm. Antennae extending to the third abdominal 
segment, sparsely haired, pale yellowish; 14 subsessile, cylindrical segments, 
the fifth with a length four times its diameter, the distal circumfilum high 
and produced, frequently extending to or beyond the base of the next seg- 
ment ; terminal segment reduced, narrowly conical, with a length nearly three 
times its diameter and tapering to a narrowly rounded apex. Palpi probably 
biarticulate. Head black. Thorax mostly pale yellowish brown. Scutellum 
and postscutellum lighter. Abdomen crimson red, shading posteriorly to a 
fuscous yellowish brown. Wings hyaline, narrow, with a length fully twice 
the width ; halteres pale yellowish brown. Legs pale yellowish ; claws strongly 
curved, unidentate, the pulvilli nearly as long as the claws. Ovipositor nearly 
as long as the abdomen, apically slender, the terminal lobes relatively short, 
broad, tapering roundly to a narrowly rounded apex and sparsely setose. 
Color characters from Timberlake. Type Cecid. 1628. 

Monardia foliata new species. 

The male described below was taken on a window and received 
under date of March 21, 1916, from Professor T. D. A. Cockerell, 
Boulder, Colo. It is quite different from the entire series with four- 
teen antennal segments, because of the distinctly longer stem of the 
fifth antennal segment. The genitalia are also peculiar. 

Male. — Length 2 mm. Antenna nearly as long as the body, sparsely haired ; 
14 segments, the fifth with a stem one-fourth longer than the basal enlarge- 
ment, which latter has a length one-fourth greater than its diameter; terminal 
segment slightly produced, broadly conical. Palpi ; first segment subquadrate, 
the second and third each a little longer and more slender, the fourth nearly 
one-half longer than the third. Mesonotum shining black. Scutellum and 
postscutellum dark reddish brown. Abdomen sparsely white-haired, dull black ; 



196 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^'o'- >^-'^tv, 

halteres yellowish transparent basally, yellowish brown apically. Legs mostly 
yellowish gray and sparsely clothed with moderately long, whitish hairs; distal 
tarsal segments somewhat darker ; claws moderately stout, evenly curved, 
finely denticulate and with a minute tooth subapically, the pulvilli a little 
shorter than the claws. Genitalia; basal clasp segment very short, broad; 
terminal clasp segment moderately long, narrowly oval; harpes extended, 
foliate, the basal angles produced laterally as chitinous, tooth-like processes, 
obliquely truncate ; distal angles with the margin strongly chitinized and bear- 
ing three or four short, stout teeth. Type Cecid. 1649. 



THE CARPENTER-BEES OF THE UNITED STATES 
OF THE GENUS XYLOCOPA.^ 

By Arthur J. Ackerman, 
Amherst, Massachusetts. 

Introduction. 

This paper forms the major part of a thesis for the degree of 
master of science at the Massachusetts Agricttltural College, and it 
has been prepared under the supervision of Dr. H. T. Fernald. It 
is an endeavor to make more easy the identification of the bees of 
this genus. 

The collections upon which the work in this paper is based are 
those of the American Entomological Society in Philadelphia, the 
United States National Museum, the Museum of Comparative Zool- 
ogy of Harvard University, the Brooklyn Museum, the Children's 
Museum of Brooklyn, the collection of the Massachusetts Agricul- 
tural College, the private collection of Dr. G. C. Crampton, and other 
smaller collections. The few types existing in this country have been 
examined and descriptions made from them, added to by the exami- 
nation of a large series of specimens; redescriptions of all the species 
and a key for their separation are also included. 

Earlier works and literature found to be 'of great value in the 
preparation of this paper are: Illiger, Magaz. f. Insectenk., 1806; 
Lepeletier, Hist. Nat. Insect. Hymen., II, 1841 ; Smith, Cat. Hymen. 
Brit. Mus., II, 1854; Cresson's descriptions in the Trans. Amer. Ent. 

1 Contribution from the Entomological Laboratory, Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College. 



Sept., 1916.] ACKERMAN : CaRPENTER-BeES OF U. S. • 197 

Soc. and the Proc. Ent. Soc. of Philadelphia; Smith, Monograph of 
the Genus Xylocopa, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1874; Taschenberg, 
Zeitschrift fiir den Gesammten Naturwissenschaften, 1879; Perez, 
Contribution a L'Etude Des Xylocopes, Act. Soc. Bordeaux, LVI, 
1901 ; and Maidl, Die Xylocopen des Wiener Hofmuseums, 1912, An- 
nalen Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums. 

For the loan of material through Dr. H. T. Fernald, for the privi- 
lege of study at the several museums named, and for counsel and sug- 
gestions given at various times, the writer wishes to express his grati- 
tude and appreciation to Dr. H. Skinner and E. T. Cresson, Jr., of 
the American Entomological Society at Philadelphia, to Mr. J. C. 
Crawford, of the U. S. National Museum, to Mr. Samuel Henshaw, 
of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University, to 
Mr. Charles Schaeffer, of the Brooklyn Museum, to Mr. George P. 
Engelhardt, of the Children's Museum of Brooklyn, and to Dr. Henry 
Franklin, of Amherst, Massachusetts. 

At this point I desire to express my sincere thanks to Dr. H. T. 
Fernald for his friendly guidance and encouragement and for his 
many helpful suggestions in this work. To Dr. G. C. Crampton I 
also wish to acknowledge my appreciation of his willing aid at all 
times. 

History. 

The earlier writers included species of Xylocopa under various 
genera. Linne, Fabricius and others described many species which 
belong to Xylocopa under the genus Apis. Fabricius, Illiger and 
Lepeletier placed some species under Bonibiis; Jurine under Brcniis 
and Trachnsa; Westwood under Centris; Lepeletier under Lestis; 
and Klug under Mcgilla. 

The genus Xylocopa was established by Latreille in 1802 and he 
included under it three species, Apis violacca Fabr. ; morio Fabr. ; 
and hrasiUanoriun Fabr. Which one of these three species was the 
type of the genus he failed to designate. 

In 1838 Westwood proposed as a connecting link between Antho- 
phora and Xylocopa a new genus, Mesotrichia, which resembled 
Xylocopa because of its habitat and AiitJwpIiora because of its extra- 
ordinary formation of the intermediate legs, and describes one spe- 
cies, M. torrida. Again in 1840 Westwood split Xylocopa, forming 



198 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Voi. xxiv, 

the new genus Platinopoda, characterized by the anterior tarsi being 
dilated. 

In 1841 Lepeletier proposed two subgenera of Xylocopa, Andi- 
netia and Schbnhcrria, his Andinetia corresponding to Platinopoda 
of Westwood. Schonhcrria was called a subgenus because the scu- 
tellum of the females was inclined and not elevated on its hind margin. 
Smith, in his Monograph of the genus Xylocopa, did not recog- 
nize the subgenera of Lepeletier but divided the genus into geograph- 
ical regions. In 1894 Gribodo tried to form a new subgenus, called 
Koptorthosonia, because of a truncate scutellum. Perez and Maidl, 
in 1901 and 1912 respectively, divided the genus geographically as 
Smith had earlier done. 

Too many species have been recorded as occurring in the United 
States. Of the fifteen species collected or reported from this coun- 
try I feel certain that only nine are distinct, while the remainder are 
synonyms or subspecies. 

Habits. 

Since the writer has had no opportunity of studying the habits of 
these insects, such information will be taken from the best articles 
on the subject available at the present writing. 

Ashmead in Psyche, Vol. VII, pp. 23-25, gives the following on 
the habits of Xylocopa: 

" The genus Xylocopa comprises some of the largest bees known, 
many of which closely resemble the bumble-bees. From their method 
of boring in posts and rafters, in which they construct their nests, 
they are known as carpenter-bees. The most common species in the 
United States is Xylocopa virginica Linne. I have frequently found 
their nests made in the railings of a porch, in posts, rafters, doors, 
palings of fences, door frames, window sills, etc. 

" The species bores a cylindrical hole, about one half inch in 
diameter, until the depth of ten, twelve or more inches is attained. 
At the bottom of this long tunnel or gallery, the female now deposits 
a ball of pollen-paste in which she lays a single tgg. This is then 
carefully covered over with a thin partition formed of sawdust and 
a glutinous substance or secretion, and this constitutes the first cell. 
Upon this another ball of pollen-paste and an tgg is laid and again 
enclosed by a partition, and so on until a series of cells, one above 
another, is formed and the tunnel is filled. The imagos hatch out 



Sept., I9i6.] ACKERMAN : CaRPENTER-BeES OF U. S. 199 

in July and August and hibernate in the middle states during the 
winter months." 

Westwood, in his Classification of Insects, Vol. II, p. 278, says 
that the bees form about a dozen cells, one above another, in one 
tunnel. When the larvse in these cells are full grown they assume 
the pupa state, head downward, so as to allow the lowermost and 
oldest to make its way out of the bottom of the burrow as soon as it 
becomes winged, and which consequently takes place earlier than in 
those which occupy the upper cells. 

Davidson in Entomological News, 1893, p. 151, gives an article 
on observations of Xylocopa orpifex in southern California. In 
opposition to Westwood's statement he notes that the bees, after 
hatching, all make their exit through the original opening; thus the 
bees in the top cells come out first, while those in the lower cells, 
which are the older, make their exit last. He suggests, as the reason 
for this, that the bees in the upper cells are all males, while those 
in the lower cells are all females. 

L. O. Howard, in Proc. of Ent. Soc. of Washington, Vol. II, p. 
331, gives an article on hibernation of the carpenter-bees. He states 
therein that the male as well as the female does hibernate. Pre- 
viously it had been thought that the male does not winter over. 

External Anatomy. 

Head. — The head, which is hypognathous, is relatively large as 
compared with the thorax. It is broad and usually rather thick, and 
viewed from the front its form is subcircular in outline. Its size 
varies somewhat but as a rule is wider and thicker in the female. 
The face is usually slightly convex in profile and here the punctation 
is most dense, while that on the vertex and cheeks is rather sparse. 
The face generally bears but few short hairs, while the pilosity on 
the cheeks, especially the lower half, is long and dense. 

The vertex is bounded posteriorly by the occiput and anteriorly 
by an imaginary transverse line between the antennal pits. The 
vertex in the males is narrowed toward the occiput and is likewise 
narrowed on the front surface because of the marked approximation 
of the eyes. In the lower portion of the vertex there is a pit which 
surrounds the middle ocellus and is continuous with a median groove 
on its lower margin. This median groove passes downward to the 



200 Journal New York Entomological Society. [VoL xxiv, 

frontal carina, which is located between the antennal pits or just a 
little above them. The frontal carina is a protuberance of varying 
form, bluntly ridged in some species, sharply ridged in others, and 
even entirely absent in some cases. 

The frons extends from the vertex to the upper margin of the 
clypeus and with a triangular prolongation on each side extending 
downward between the clypeus and the eye to the base of the mandi- 
ble. The area between the bases of the antennae and the central 
part of the dorsal margin of the clypeus is called the frontal shield. 
The logitudinal grooves extending downward on each side from the 
base of the antennce and ending in a pit halfway down the sides of 
the clypeus are termed frontal grooves in this paper, and the pits are 
termed lateral foveolje. 

The clypeus is a trapezoidal, more or less flattened plate occupy- 
ing the lower front portion of the head. It is marked off from the 
frons by strong sutures, or sometimes by elevated ridges along its 
upper margin. Along its lower margin it bears the labrum. This 
margin is quite straight and transverse, its outer fourth, however, 
turning rather sharply upward and outward toward the eye. The 
sides of the clypeus curve downward toward the base of the eye. In 
the male it is more regularly trapezoidal in form, while in the female 
its inferior half is usually much wider. The smooth impunctate area 
between the base of the mandible and the lower part of the eye is 
probably formed by a posterior extension of the frons and an anterior 
extension of the gena. This area may be called the malar space. 

The labrum is attached to the lower margin of the clypeus but 
slightly behind the outer surface of this margin, and varies in form 
in different species as well as in the sexes of the same species, some- 
times appearing one-lobed, sometimes two-lobed, sometimes three- 
lobed. The general form of the labrum is triangular or trapeziform 
and it extends downward in approximately the same plane as the 
clypeus. 

The gencE or cheeks are the sides of the head behind the eyes. 
There is no line of demarcation between the gense and the occiput, 
or between the genae and the vertex. They are widest along the 
upper half, gradually narrowing toward the mandibles. 

The antennae are situated on the frons opposite the middle of the 
eyes. The distance between their insertions is equal to that between 



Sept., i9i6.] ACKERMAN : CaRPENTER-BeES OF U. S. 201 

the insertions and the margin of the eyes, in the females; in males, 
however, the distance between the insertions is greater than that to 
the eyes. The bulb is quite different in appearance from the re- 
mainder of the scape. The scape or first antennal segment is by 
far the longest segment of the antenna and is slightly widened at 
both ends. The next joint to the scape is the pedicel, which is the 
shortest segment of the antenna. The flagellum or whip of the 
antenna is made up of ten segments in the female and eleven in the 
male. The first joint of the flagellum is always the longest and is 
narrowed toward its base. The form of the antenna is cylindrical 
and it is often finely pubescent. 

The mandibles of the female are large and powerful ; they are 
widest at the base and gradually narrow toward the qpex. In some 
specimens there is a distinct emargination on the upper side ; also 
there is some variation in the number of teeth. In all females they 
are bidentate at the apex but some have one and some two additional 
blunt teeth on the upper margin. The mandibles are more uniform 
in the male, always being two-toothed at the apex and without teeth 
on the upper margin. The front tooth is the smaller and not as 
pointed as the hind one. The mandibles of the male are smaller and 
considerably less powerful than those of the female. In both sexes 
the mandibles bear but few punctures ; there is often a depressed area 
at the base. They are marked by a prominent longitudinal groove 
extending along the upper margin and a faint one along the lower 
margin with a ridge between them. 

The compound eyes are large and oval in form with well rounded 
ends and protrude considerably from the head. In the males they 
are as a rule larger than in the females and often occupy two-thirds 
of the frontal area. They are also approximated on the summit of 
the head, so that the distance between them is less above than below. 
The color of the eyes is lighter than the general color of the body, 
except in fulvous males where it is darker. 

The ocelli, three in number, form a triangle on the vertex. In 
some species the hind ocelli are a very short distance behind the 
median one. The posterior ocelli in many species are carinated in 
front, thus causing them to appear sunken behind; this condition 
occurs more often in the females than in the opposite sex. There is 
also a pit or indentation behind each of the posterior ocelli in many 



202 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Vol. xxiv, 

species, these indentations being called ocellar pits. In males of 
those species in which the compound eyes converge above, the hind 
ocelli touch the inner margin of the eyes. The color of the ocelli is 
darker than that of the eyes; it is sometimes black but more often 
brown. 

Thorax. 

The thorax, as in most Hymenoptera, in addition to the three tho- 
racic segments of other insects, includes the propodeum or first 
abdominal segment. 

Prothorax. — The pronotum is firmly attached to the anterior mar- 
gin of the mesonotum. Laterally it is prolonged in the form of a 
lobe, the pronotal lobe, which extends backward nearly to the meso- 
thoracic epimeron. There is an oblique groove extending from the 
front of the notum to the base of the pronotal lobe, which divides 
the former into an upper and two lower plates, one on either side of 
the body. Between these two plates lies a pair of sclerites on the 
ventral surface approximated along the median ventral line and 
usually called the prosterum, though really constituting the propleu- 
ron. In this paper the usual name, though morphologically inaccu- 
rate, is retained for convenience. 

The lower lateral plate of the pronotum, which is usually termed 
the propleuron, extends downward on each side from the base of the 
pronotum and pronotal lobe and becomes greatly narrowed ventrally. 
The pronotum is slightly concave on each side. The sternum of this 
segment has become reduced almost to nothing, only a trace of it 
remaining close to the fore coxae. 

Mesothorax. — The mesonotum consists of two plates, the scutum 
and the scutellum. The scutum is the very large anterior plate which 
extends from the posterior margin of the pronotum back to a point 
over the middle of the hind wing. It is quite convex, especially in 
front, where its antero-lateral angles extend downward to the pro- 
notal lobes. Running backward from the anterior margin of the 
scutum is a faint median suture which becomes obliterated at about 
halfway to the posterior margin. A short distance from this line 
and extending parallel to it are two short sutures, one on either side, 
the parapsidal furrows. On the middle of the plate is a large, shin- 
ing, impunctate area without pilosity, which in some species extends 
back even to the middle of the scutellum. This is known as the disk 



Sept., i9i6.] AcKERMAN : Carpenter-Bees OF U. S. 203 

or glabellum of some authors. The mesonotum is sHghtly wider 
anteriorly and its surface, except on the disk, is usually densely and 
finely punctate with varying amounts of pilosity. The front margin 
is slightly convex. The lateral margin is emarginate to a point be- 
hind the tegula, then turns outward and downward slightly. Here a 
sharp angle separates the dorsal surface of this plate from a nearly 
vertical portion which extends backward to the anterior margin of 
the side of the scutellum and largely concealed by the fore wing. 
The posterior margin usually is quite straight. 

The scutellum, situated directly behind the scutum, is separated 
from it by a distinct suture. Its surface is somewhat variable, being 
either well rounded or flattened above and turning downward sharply 
behind. Its front margin above is transverse but at the sides extends 
forward, while the hind margin is curved backward more or less. 
Along the lateral forward extensions is a small, somewhat fused 
plate on each side, which occupies the anterior half and terminates 
at the front wing process. The scutellum is densely punctured ex- 
cept on the anterior median surface and its pilosity /:orresponds to 
the number of punctures. 

The mesopleuron is made up of the epimeron and the episternum. 
The former is composed of two plates, the anterior, smaller one being 
situated a little above the posterior, and lying just above and behind 
the pronotal lobe at the base of and partly concealed by the tegula. 
Along the lower margin of the posterior plate is a well marked su- 
ture which separates it from the episternum and which terminates 
just above the middle of the anterior margin of the pleural plate of 
the metanotum. The episternum is the very large lower plate of the 
mesopleuron. It is convex, densely punctured and pilose. Below, it 
is fused with the mesosternum with no suture between to show the 
limits of each. The mesosternal portion is concave with a slight 
longitudinal suture extending along the median line. 

The post-scutellum, as shown by Snodgrass in his excellent work 
on the thorax of Hymenoptera (Proc. of U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 39, p. 
53, 1910) is entirely concealed within the body between the meso- 
thorax and the metathorax. However, since systematists generally 
apply post-scutellum to the true metanotum, I shall use this practice 
in the present paper so as to prevent confusion. 

Metathorax. — This segment is very small and compressed, lying 



204 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^'"'- >^>^iv, 

between the mesothorax and the propodeum or first abdominal seg- 
ment. The true metanotum (here called the post-scutellum) is a 
very narrow transverse plate, slightly wider in the middle than at 
each side where there is a wide lateral plate extending forward to 
the hind wing. The metanotum is rather well punctured and pilose. 
The metapleuron consists of two plates, the upper larger one extend- 
ing from the base of the hind wing to the mesocoxa, being situated 
somewhat anterior to the lower one which is small and bears the 
hind leg. The upper plate is elongate and oblong, the upper portion 
being wider than the lower one. In front it articulates with the lower 
plate of the epimeron and below this with the posterior margin of 
the episternum. Its hinder margin articulates with the propodeum. 
The lower plate is very small and is triangular in form. The ante- 
rior extension of the triangle passes between the propodeum and the 
middle coxa to the lower end of the upper metapleural plate; the 
lower one passes between the middle and hind coxa and fuses with 
the metasternum; the third passes backward for a short distance be- 
tween the hind coxa and the propodeum. The metasternum is a small 
trapezoidal plate whose anterior portion is convex and posterior por- 
tion concave. 

The propodeum is the true first abdominal segment and it bears 
a spiracle on each side. The spiracles are elongate and curved ante- 
riorly. The propodeum consists of a notal plate which has become 
firmly joined to the metathorax while its ventral plate has been en- 
tirely lost. It is divided into a median area and two lateral ones by 
two fine, curved ridges which meet on the lower margin. The median 
area has a median longitudinal ridge extending from its upper to its 
lower margin. The lateral areas are large and a little depressed 
about the spiracles. There are few punctures on the median area 
though there may be considerable pilosity on the sides. 

Abdomen. 

The number of segments of the abdomen is six in the female and 
seven above in the male (not counting the propodeum as an abdomi- 
nal segment). The abdomen is well punctured and pilose, especially 
along the sides. 

The dorsal sclerite of the so-called first segment is much the 
largest. Its large triangular anterior face extends downward and 



Sept., I9i6.] ACKERMAN : CaRPENTER-BeES OF U. S. 205 

overlaps the small ventral sclerite on each side. The anterior face 
presents a large, median, concave area, the excavation being widest 
at its lower end. The punctation of the dorsal surface of this seg- 
ment is finer and denser than on any of those that follow, while the 
pilosity is rather thick and often is present as a tuft on either side. 

On the dorsal surface of segments two to five inclusive the puncta- 
tion is quite well marked and dense, especially along the sides. The 
dorsal surface, however, is naked and shining in many species though 
in others there may be a little pubescence present, which is most 
noticeable along the hind margin of the segments. Each segment 
consists of a dorsal and a ventral sclerite, the former overlapping 
the latter on each side. The last segment of the female is more 
pointed than that of the male and the sides of the dorsal sclerite over- 
lap the ventral sclerite as in the preceding segments. On the dorsal 
surface of the female are two rows of short spines which converge 
toward the apex. These are called the epipygium in this paper. 

In the male the last dorsal sclerite (the seventh) overlaps the 
sixth sternal plate, since in this sex there are only six sternal sclerites 
while there are seven dorsal ones. A pair of styli or cercus-like 
pieces, known as penicilli, occur at the tip of the last visible dorsal 
plate among males of two species, ovpifcx and tabaiiifoniiis. The 
pilosity of the last segment is caused by long and dense hairs, a fact 
frequently made use of in classification. A slight median longitudinal 
carina often occurs in the dorsal and ventral plates of the entire 
abdomen. 

Sting. — This organ is situated in a cavity at the end of the abdo- 
men and is a tapering shaft which is directed backward. It consists 
of three plates, a dorsal one and two ventral ones. The dorsal plate 
is called the sheath and forms the upper and side areas of the sting; 
its greatly swollen basal portion is termed the bulb. Ventrally at the 
base of the bulb are two lateral arms which curve inward and upward 
to form the ventral plates of the shaft. These arms are called the 
lancets or darts which slide along tracklike grooves found on the 
ventral edges of the dorsal plate. 

Between the lancets two poison glands empty into the bulb. 
Within the bulb and running the length of the shaft is the sting canal 
which receives the poisonous secretions. The distal ends of the lan- 
cets are barbed on either side. Surrounding the base of the shaft 



206 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^'o'- xxiv, 

are paired plates which are connected with the base of the lancets 
by a triangular plate. These paired plates overlap the bulb and at 
the distal ends of the inner pair are borne the elongate palpus-like 
appendages which enclose the sting. Minute branched hairs are 
found on the posterior ends of these palpi which are probably tactile. 

Male Genitalia. — The male genitalia are attached to the abdomen 
by the cardo. This sclerite forms the basal portion and is connected 
with the stipes on each side dorso-laterally. The stipe is a large 
lateral plate, the two being usually called the claspers; at the end are 
two lobes, the outer one usually bearing hairs, known as the lacinia 
and squama. These are usually fused together in this genus. The 
stipes extend backward dorsally, laterally and ventrally to form the 
greater bulk of the genitalia. Included within the extremities of the 
stipes are a pair of organs called the sagittce. Their distal portions 
form the greatly recurved head, while the long basal part forms the 
shaft. Between the sagittje is a foliaceous sclerite called the spatha. 

Wings. — The wings of the carpenter-bee are large and powerful. 
They vary from hyaline to fuliginous with dark shades of blue, violet 
and green. A large arched plate, the tegula, slopes over the base 
of the front wing. Cresson's terminology for the venation is adopted 
in the present paper. 

Front Wings. — The vein situated at the anterior margin is the 
costa. About half way along this margin is a weakly pigmented area 
known as the stigma. The vein just behind the costa and ending in 
the stigma is the subcosta. The cell included between the costa and 
subcosta, and terminating at the stigma, is the costal cell. The radial 
or marginal cell extends from the stigma and is rather sharply pointed 
at its outer end. The lower margin of this cell is boimded by the 
radius. Behind the costal cell is the median cell whose lower margin 
is the median and whose outer margin is the basal vein. 

There are three closed and one open cell just behind the radius 
extending from the stigma to the outer margin. These are the first, 
second and third submarginal or cubital cells counting outward 
from the stigma. Their hinder margins are formed by the cubitus, 
while their outer margins are formed by the first, second and third 
transverso-cubital veins. The third submarginal cell is about equal 
in size to one and two together. Behind the submarginal cells one 
and two is the large first discoidal cell. The hinder margin of this 



Sept., I9i6.] ACKERMAN : CaRPENTER-BeES OF U. S. 207 

cell is formed by the discoidal vein, while its outer margin is formed 
by the first recurrent nervure. 

At the base of the wing just behind the median cell is the sub- 
median cell whose hinder margin is the anal vein and whose outer 
margin is the transverso-medial vein. Beyond this cell and just 
behind the first discoidal is the second discoidal cell, the outer mar- 
gin of which is the second recurrent nervure, and the hinder margin 
the subdiscoidal vein. The large, elongated lower basal cell is the 
anal cell. Behind the open fourth submarginal cell are two large 
open cells partially separated by veins and known as the first and 
second apical cells. On the hinder margin of the fore wing at the 
end of the anal cell is a broad notch known as the sinus. 

Hind Wings. — In the hind wings there are only three closed cells ; 
all are basal in position and elongate in form. The anterior one, 
called the costal cell, is very narrow. It is bordered in front by the 
costa and behind by the subcosta. The median cell is bordered in 
front by the subcostal vein, the stigma and the radial ; behind by the 
media, part of the discoidal and the cubital; and distally by the first 
transverso-cubital vein. It is the largest cell, being very elongate 
and tapering at both ends. 

The submedian cell is bordered distally by the transverso-medial 
vein and behind by the anal vein. The radial cell is open and is sepa- 
rated from the median cell by the radius. The first submarginal, the 
first and second discoidal, and the anal cells are all open. On the 
anterior margin of the hind wing, just beyond the stigma, is a row 
of frenal hooks or spinuke which hook into the frenal fold in the 
posterior region of the fore wing, thus holding the two together. A 
slight sinus is present on the hind margin. 

Legs. — The legs are long and moderately stout, the posterior pair 
being slightly longer than the others. The tibiae are the only seg- 
ments of the legs which bear spines; these are located on the distal 
portion of the inner surfaces. There is one spine present on each 
tibia of the male, while in the female there is one on each fore and 
middle and two on each hind tibia. The spines on the fore tibire 
which fit into a semi-circular indentation on the first segment of 
each fore tarsus form the antennal comb or cleaner. On the outer 
surface about half way doM'n on the posterior tibia of the female is 
an excrescence which is called the tibial scale in this paper. It is a 



208 Journal New York Entomological Society. [^'°'- xxiv, 

surface whose irregular surrounding edge is well raised above the 
plane of the segment and bears two teeth at its lower extremity. 
The tibial scale is also present in the male but is very small and barely 
perceptible. The coxae are large, subcylindrical and closely articu- 
lated with the body. The trochanters are small at their base but 
increase in size at their distal ends ; they arise dorso-apically from 
the coxse. All the femora are large and are stoutest at the base, 
tapering toward the outer end. The tibiae are shorter than the 
femora and are rather uniform in size throughout; their inner sur- 
faces are flattened or even concave. The tarsi are composed of five 
segments, the first being much longer than the other four together. 
The last segment bears a pair of curved bi-cleft claws between which 
is a pulvillus. 

All the segments of the legs bear more or less hair, though it is 
longest and densest on the femur, tibia and first joint of the tarsus. 
The hind tibiae and tarsi of the females are especially well adapted 
for collecting pollen because of their very long, dense hairs. 

Secondary Sexual Distinctions. 

There are several sexual distinctions, besides the copulatory arma- 
ture in the males and the sting in the females, as follows : 

1. The antennae of the female have twelve segments, while the 
antennae of the male have thirteen. 

2. The posterior tibia in the female has two spines, while in the 
male there is only one present. 

3. The female has six exposed abdominal segments, while the 
male has seven above. 

4. There is a triangular row of spines on the dorsal side of the 
last abdominal segment in the female, not present in the male. 

5. The mandibles of the male are always two-toothed and more 
narrowed than in the female. 

6. The frons of the male of many species is yellow while that of 
the female is always dark. 

7. The males of some species are entirely yellow while the females 
are dark. 

8. The tibial scale is very large and prominent in the female 
while it is barely perceptible in the male. 



Sept., I9i6.] ACKERMAN : CaRPENTER-BeES OF U. S. 209 

Descriptions. 

The list^ of references for this genus by Dalla Torre in his Cata- 
logue Hymenopterorum, Vol. X, are so full in most cases that it has 
seemed unnecessary to give complete lists. However, all references 
of literature knov^^n to me since Dalla Torre will be given, thereby 
making the list as complete as possible. 

Synonymy. 

Synonyms. Correct Names. 

amblardi Perez calif ornica Cress. 

purpurea Cresson micans Lep. 

binotata Perez ? barbata Fab. 

binotata Maidl micans Lep. 

varipuncta Patt mordax Smith. 

morio Cress. ? mordax Smith. 

traiisitoria Perez brasilianorum Linne. 

ordinaria Smith brasilianorum Linne. 

vircscens Smith brasilianorum Linne. 

cubcccola Lucas brasilianorum Linne. 

mordax Smith brasilianorum Linne. 

ccncipennis DeGeer brasilianorum Linne, 

varipuncta Patt brasilianorum Linne. 

Table of Species. 

Twelve antennal segments, six dorsal abdominal segments; females i 

Thirteen antennal segments, seven dorsal abdominal segments; males... 12 

1. Hairs of the abdomen entirely black 2 

Hairs of the abdomen not entirely black 8 

2. Wings fuliginous or fusco-liyaline 3 

Wings sub-hyaline orpifex Smith 

3. Mandibles with two teeth at the apex and one on middle of inner margin, 

integument black 4 

Mandibles with two teeth at the apex and none on inner margin, integu- 
ment deep blue . ; arizonensis Cress. 

4. Posterior ocelli with a large carina in front fimbria ta Fabr. 

Posterior ocelli without a carina in front 5 

5. Wings fuliginous, scutellum rounded behind 6 

Wings semi-hyaline, scutellum truncate behind 7 

6. Wings with violet color predominant, tints of blue and purple apparent 

brasilianorum brasilianorum Linne. 
Wings brass and copper colored with a strong violet tinge. 

brasilianorum varipuncta (Patt.) 



210 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^'o'- xxiv, 

7. Wings with faint violet and blue mixed throughout, scutellum sharply 

truncate behind brasilianorum cubaecola (Lucas) 

Wings with a faint tint of violet at the apical margin, scutellum almost 
truncate behind brasilianorum aeneipennis (De Geer) 

8. Hairs of abdomen yellowish white or pale ochraceous on first segment 

only 9 

Hairs of abdomen yellowish white or pale ochraceous elsewhere besides 
on first segment 10 

9. Labrum triangular and consisting of one lobe virginica Linne 

Labrum oblong, emarginate in the middle, and apparently consisting of 

two lobes calif ornica Cress, 

10. Frontal carina very large and blunt texana Cress. 

Frontal carina very small and pointed 11 

11. A short furrow midway between the posterior ocelli and ending in the 

median ocellar groove; body-color bluish purple micans Lep. 

No such furrow present ; body-color black tabanifonnis Smith 

12. Mandibles with a large yellow spot at the base 13 

Mandibles without a yellow spot at the base or with but a very small 

one 17 

13. Integument entirely fulvous 14 

Integument entirely black 16 

14. Upper side of flagellum with white pubescence, frontal carina obsolete, 

form robust fimbriata Fabr. 

Upper side of flagellum without white pubescence, frontal carina small, 
form not robust 15 

15. A dark brown area on middle of the clypeus, a black ring surrounding 

each ocellus brasilianonim aeneipennis (De Geer) 

No such markings on clypeus or surrounding the ocelli. 

brasilianorum brasilianorum Linne. 

16. Abdominal hairs entirely black orpifex Smith. 

Abdominal hairs white on the hind margin laterally of all but the last 

segment tabanif ormis Smith 

17. Front of head entirely dark colored 18 

Front of head with yellow on labrum, clypeus, and frontal shield 19 

18. Wings fuliginous, integument brilliant blue, white abdominal hairs on 

first segment only arizonensis Cress. 

Wings fusco-hyaline, integument green, white abdominal hairs on segments 
one and four and a few on the sides . calif ornica Cress. 

19. Antennas entirely dark colored 20 

Antennas with a yellow line on the lower side of the first segment. 

micans Lep. 

20. Head with yellowish white hairs on cheeks, vertex, and a patch between 

antennas texana Cress. 

Head with black hairs on cheeks, vertex, and between insertions of an- 
tennae virginica Linne. 



Sept., I9i6.] ACKERMAN : CaRPENTER-BeES OF U. S. 211 

Xylocopa orpifex Smith. 

Xylocopa orpifex Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, p. 298, n. 118, 5, 3< ^874. 

Xylocopa orpifex Davidson, Ent. News, p. 151, 1893. 

Xylocopa orpifex Ashmead, Psyche, Vol. VII, p. 24, 1894. 

Xylocopa orpifex Fowler, Rept. Cal. Exp. Sta., p. 318, 189S-1901. 

Xylocopa orpifex Perez, Act. Soc. Bordeaux, LVI, p. 122, 1901. 

Xylocopa orpifex Cockerell, South Cal. Acad. Nat. Sc, No. 6, p. 87, June, 1904. 

Xylocopa orpifex Maidl, Ann. Nat. Hist. Hof.-Mus. Wien, p. 309, 191 2. 

A small black insect; length of female, 17-20 mm.; of male, 
15-18 mm. 

Female. — Head and its hairs entirely black ; broad, almost as wide 
as thorax, and thick; the mandibles dark, with three teeth, being bi- 
dentate at the apex and with a small tooth on the inner margin along 
which extends a deep longitudinal groove ; the few hairs present on 
the mandibles are reddish brown, as is the case among most of the 
species ; labrum small and black, consisting of one lobe somewhat 
triangular shaped with the upper margin elongate and a small lobe 
on either side hidden beneath; clypeus flat, with a smooth, shining, 
unpunctured space along the lower margin, the rest with small, close 
punctures, longitudinal carina not present; lateral foveoke not very 
deep ; frontal shield on same plane as clypeus, well punctured ; frontal 
carina small and pointed, having a pit on the upper surface half way 
to the median ocellus, where it forms a heart-shaped groove reaching 
and surrounding the median ocellus; prominent ocellar pits present, 
situated dorso-laterally behind the posterior ocelli ; eyes not large, far 
apart ; antennae piceous on under side of flagellum ; vertex and cheeks 
with fewer punctures than on face, hairs black. 

Thorax black, hairs black; disk black, shining, smooth and with- 
out hairs ; scutellum well rounded, with few punctures, especially in 
its anterior half; post-scutellum very narrow and rather impunctate. 

Color of integument and pile of abdomen everywhere black; punc- 
tation not close except on last segment where it is very fine and 
abundant ; abdomen very short and robust ; epipygium not wide at 
base, its spines very strong. 

Wings subhyaline with a very slight violet tint, and a little dark- 
ened at their apices. Tegulx black. 

Legs black, their pile black except on inner tarsi where it is mixed 
with reddish brown. Anterior tooth of tibial scale very pointed, pos- 
terior tooth greatly rounded. 



212 Journal New York Entomological Society. t^'°'- ^^-^iv, 

■ Male. — Differs from the female as follows : Head with yellow 
color at the base of the mandibles, on labrum, clypeus, frontal shield, 
and more or less of the areas between the clypeus and eyes; yellowish- 
white hairs on cheeks, vertex, and some on the face ; head not as wide 
as in female and face much narrower ; mandibles narrowed with only 
two teeth present ; labrum much larger ; clypeus a little convex, with 
longitudinal carina perceptible and impunctate ; ocellar pits much 
smaller and rather inconspicuous ; eyes much larger, vertex flatter. 
Thorax with a great abundance of dense yellowish-white hair, mixed 
with black, on the back and sides. Sides of abdominal segments more 
closely punctuated. Tibial scale much smaller and of only one lobe. 
A pair of cercus-like pieces (penicilli) are present on the tip of the 
seventh dorsal segment. 

Type. — Probably in the British Museum. 

Distribution.^Ca.\ii.orn{3., Arizona, , Oregon, Nevada. 

This species can easily be distinguished from other species of the 
United States. Dr. L. O. Howard, in The Insect Book, figures Xylo- 
copa orpifex on plate II, fig. 26. 

Xylocopa micans Lep. 
7 Apis nastita Christ, Naturg. d. Insect, p. 130, T. 8, F. 5» 1791. 

Xylocopa micans Lepeletler, Hist. Nat. Insect. Hymen., II, p. 208, n. 58, (^, 1841. 

Xylocopa vidua Lepeletier, ^Ilist. Nat. Insect. Hymen., II, p. 210, n. 61, 2, 1S41. 

Xylocopa purpurea Cresson, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, IV, p. 284, 5, 1872. 
IXylocopa purpurea Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, p. 299, n. 121, J, 1874. 

Xylocopa micans Patton, Can. Ent., XI, p. 60, 1879. 

Xylocopa micans Maidl, Ann. Nat. Hist. Hof.— Mus. Wien, p. 309, 1912. 

Xylocopa binotata Maidl, Ann. Nat. Hist. Hof. -Mus. Wien, p. 310 (nee. 
Perez), 1912. 

Length of female, 15-18 mm.; of male, 20-22 mm. 

Female. — Head almost as wide as thorax, black with deep blue and 
purple reflections, especially on the vertex and cheeks; punctures of 
face small, fine and close ; grayish white hairs intermingled with some 
black occur on clypeus, lateral areas of frons between the clypeus 
and eyes, between the bases of antennre, and on the cheeks; mandibles 
with four teeth, two large ones at the apex and two small ones on 
the upper margin, which are often worn off; color of mandibles black 
with a green spot at the base in many; labrum small and black, con- 
sisting of one triangular lobe whose upper margin is very elongate, 
and a small one on each side but hidden below ; clypeus flat, greenish 



Sept., I9i6.] ACKERMAN : CaRPENTER-BeES OF U. S. 213 

blue, well punctured, with a black, shining, impunctate space along 
the lower margin; longitudinal carina not present; frontal shield on 
same plane as clypeus, sides sloping, of a greenish blue color; frontal 
carina small and pointed, upper margin flat for a distance, then 
changing into a furrow which is concurrent with the groove sur- 
rounding the median ocellus; posterior ocelli slightly carinated in 
front, causing them to appear a little sunken behind, and midway 
between them is a short furrow extending from the median ocellar 
groove ; small circular ocellar pits occur behind the posterior ocelli ; 
under side of flagellum of antennae piceous, otherwise black; eyes 
rather small and far apart; vertex somewhat raised on top just be- 
hind the ocelli and sparsely punctured ; cheeks also sparsely punctured. 

Thorax black on disk, otherwise blue and purple, well punctured; 
hairs black, with some pale ochraceous ones on the scutellum and post- 
scutellum and a small patch on each side just below the tegulse ; scu- 
tellum rounded and well punctured; post-scutellum very narrow. 

Abdomen brilliant bluish purple ; punctures small, fine and close, 
especially on the first and second segments ; a patch of white hairs 
on the sides of segments one, five and six, and a few white ones on 
sides of the intervening segments ; otherwise black ; epipygium very 
narrow at the base, spines rugged. 

Wings fusco-hyaline with a violet tint, darker at the apical mar- 
gins; tegulse blue. 

Legs bluish purple, pilosity black except some brown on the inner 
surface of the fore tarsi. Tibial scale small, the anterior tooth 
being long and pointed, the posterior one very short and rounded. 

Male.- — Differs as follows : Head with yellow color on labrum, 
clypeus, frontal shield and lateral areas of frons between the clypeus 
and eyes as high as the insertion of the antennae, and on the lower 
side of the first segment of the antennae; whitish-yellow hairs on the 
face, vertex and cheeks ; head not as wide as in female, face much 
narrower, especially in its upper half; mandibles narrower, convex 
along the middle, only two teeth present, the lower one being much 
the larger, dark brown with a slight yellow spot appearing at the 
base in some specimens ; labrum larger ; clypeus somewhat convex ; 
an unpunctured longitudinal carina evident ; a shallow furrow behind 
each posterior ocellus extending backw^ard for a short distance and 
ending abruptly on the vertex; eyes much larger and converging 
strongly above, producing a very narrow vertex. 



214 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^'o'- xxiv, 

Thorax everywhere covered with dense whitish-yellow hair; in- 
tegument with some green color, otherwise as in female. Abdomen 
green on first two segments, then changing to a blue color, and to a 
brilliant purple on the apical segments; ventral segments bluish pur- 
ple mixed with more or less orange toward the middle ; pilosity 
whitish-yellow on whole of first segment, a little on sides of all seg- 
ments but the last, and a fringe on the hind margin of all the ventral 
segments except the apical segment ; apical segment with a very thick 
brush of long, black hair. Wings a little lighter than in female ; 
tegulre brown. 

Hair of legs not entirely black as in female, but with some whitish- 
yellow on fore tibix and tarsi, on middle and hind coxa?, trochanters, 
femora, tibiae, and on the outer upper half of the first segment of 
tarsi ; tibial scale much smaller and consisting of but one lobe. 

Type. — Probably lost. 

Distribution. — Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, Texas, Cali- 
fornia, Guatemala. 

I have examined Cresson's type of Xylocopa purpurea at the 
American Entomological Society at Philadelphia and am convinced 
that it is micans Lep. Cresson's description was made from speci- 
mens from Texas, there being a series of four female specimens 
present, three from Texas and one from California, of which one 
from Texas is labeled lecto-type, and another from Texas is labeled 
para-type. Lepeletier's description was made from specimens col- 
lected in Carolina. 

According to Cresson's description of purpurea there might be a 
distinction between it and micans. He described a tuft of white 
pubescence on each side of the apex of the abdomen only, while 
micans has a tuft of white on each side of the first segment in addi- 
tion. Upon examining the type purpurea, however, I found the tuft 
of white hair on each side of the first segment and therefore know of 
no reason why purpurea is not a synonym of micans. 

Male specimens of micans collected in Texas also agree in every 
way with the description of micans made by Lepeletier of the male 
from Carolina. 

Micans has also been confused somewhat with texana Cr., but 
these two species are very different and should be easily distinguished. 

In The Insect Book, plate III, fig. 24, Dr. L. O. Howard figures a 
female of this species. 



Sept., 19 16.] ACKERMAN : CaRPENTER-BeES OF U. S. 215 

Perez probably had reference to some small Central American 
form according to his description of hinotata. Maidl lists three fe- 
males of hinotata Perez from Georgia and one male from Texas, but 
his short description of hinotata does not agree very well with that 
of Perez. I think that the insects which Maidl calls hinotata are 
probably synonymous with niicaus Lep. 

Xylocopa virginica Linne. 

• Drury, 111. Nat. Hist., I, p. 96, c? ; PL 43, f. i, 1770. 

Apis virginica Linne, Mantissa Plantarum, II, p. 540, 1771. 

Apis virginica Drury, 111. Nat. Hist., II. App. 1773. 

Xylocopa virginica lUiger, Mag. f. Insectenk, V, p. 151, n. 19, 1806. 

Xylocopa virginica Perez, Act. Soc. Bordeaux, LVI, p. 112, 1^, J; 1901. 

Xylocopa virginica Maidl, Annals Nat. Hist. Hof.-Mus., Wien, p. 309, 1912. 

Length of female, 22 mm. ; of male, 22-24 "ini- 

Female. — Head almost as wide as thorax, black, though a tinge of 
blue or green occurs in some ; punctures very fine on the face, hairs 
black everywhere ; mandibles having two teeth at their apices and 
none on the inner margin, large with a good-sized punctured de- 
pression at their bases; labrum with one blunt, fairly large triangular 
lobe ; clypeus rather flat, well punctured, an unpunctured concaved 
area along the lower margin, the upper margin slightly incurved in 
the middle, logitudinal carina barely perceptible ; lateral foveolse and 
frontal grooves not very deep ; frontal shield on same plane as clypeus 
but with sides sloping ; frontal carina rounded and very prominent ; 
posterior ocelli slightly carinated in front with a small circular pit 
behind each ; antennae black, eyes not large and widely separated ; 
vertex and cheeks having bluish purple tints, punctures larger and 
fewer than on face. 

Thorax black on disk, changing to blue, green and purple on sides 
and below ; pilosity very dense, whitish yellow on top except the 
disk and on sides, black below ; scutellum olive green ; post-scutellum 
sparsely punctured. 

Abdomen black, showing green on the first segment ; punctures 
small and few except on first segment which is well punctured; 
whitish yellow hairs occur only on the first segment, elsewhere they 
are black; epipygium very large, spines small. 

Wings fusco-hyaline with a violet tint, darker at the apex, tegulse 
brown or black. 



216 Journal New York Entomological Society. [^'°1- xxiv, 

Legs black, blue and purple; hairs black, brown on inner side of 
fore tarsi. Tibial scale with edges well raised so that interior ap- 
pears hollowed out; anterior tooth very sharp, posterior one more 
rounded or even blunt and not as long as anterior one; form longer 
than wide. 

Male. — Differs from the female as follows : Head, labrum, clypeus, 
frontal shield and lateral areas of frons between clypeus and eyes as 
high as the insertion of the antennae, yellow ; yellow hair present only 
on yellow colored areas of head, otherwise black; head not as wide 
as in female, face more narrowed, especially above ; mandibles smaller 
than in female ; labrum larger ; clypeus slightly convex, lower mar- 
ginal area not concaved ; frontal carina smaller ; eyes much larger 
and converging above, thus forming a much narrower vertex ; ocellar 
pits imperceptible. Punctures of abdomen more abundant through- 
out, much finer and closer. Yellowish brown hair present on fore 
and middle tibice; tibial scale greatly reduced. 

Type. — Location unknown to the writer. 

Distribution. — This species is distributed generally throughout the 
United States and is also recorded from Cuba. It is the most com- 
mon species of Xylocopa found in this country. 

Variation. — A male specimen collected at Chapel Hill, Texas, dif- 
fers from the typical male described above as follows : Face entirely 
black except a yellow area along the longitudinal carina of the 
clypeus, and yellow present on the labrum. 

Drury described and figured this species (111. Nat. Hist., I, p. 96, 
PI. 43, f. I, male, 1770) without a name in 1770. During the follow- 
ing year (Mant. Plant. 11) Linnaeus gave the name Apis virginica 
to this insect. Drury (111. Nat. Hist., II, 1773) furnished an appen- 
dix of names covering his descriptions in volumes I and II. In 1806 
Illiger placed this species in the genus Xylocopa for the first time, 
calling it Xylocopa virginica. 

Xylocopa texana Cresson. 

Xylocopa texana Cresson, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, IV, p. 283, 5, J', 1S72. 

Length of male and female, 22-24 "ir"- 

Female. — Head about as wide as thorax, black, showing bluish 
purple in different lights; punctures abundant and fine especially on 
the face; hairs black; a large punctured depression at the base of 



Sept., I9i6.] ACKERMAN : CaRPENTER-BeeS OF U. S. 217 

the mandibles, whose teeth are two in number, located at the apex ; 
labrum consisting of one blunt lobe, rather large and triangular in 
shape; clypeus well punctured, a little convex in its superior half, a 
deeply concaved, shining, impunctate area along its lower margin, 
which is dark red in many specimens, the longitudinal carina barely 
evident ; lateral foveote and frontal grooves very deep and promi- 
nent; frontal shield iridescent, very convex; its sides sloping greatly; 
frontal carina very large and blunt (more prominent than in vir- 
ginica), so that the median ocellus appears sunken, posterior ocelli 
carinated in front, a small circular pit behind each ; antennae black, 
eyes not large, widely separated ; vertex and cheeks with a strong, 
bluish purple color, punctures larger and fewer on face, hairs entirely 
dark. 

Thorax black on disk, changing to blue, green and purple on sides 
and beneath ; pilosity very dense, yellowish white on top, except the 
disk and on sides, black below ; scutellum blue to green, well punc- 
tured; post-scutellum small and little punctate. 

Abdomen elongate, olive green with blue reflections ; punctation 
fine and close on first segment, otherwise sparse ; yellowish white 
hairs on first segment, a patch of them on sides of segments five and 
six, and a few scattered ones on sides of intervening segments, hairs 
elsewhere black ; epipygium very large, spines small. 

Wings fusco-hyaline with a violet tint, darker at the apex, tegulte 
brownish black. 

Legs blue, purple, sometimes a little greenish, hairs black, brown 
on inner side of fore tarsi. Tibial scale with anterior tooth narrow 
and very pointed, posterior one wider and pointed, the two teeth of 
equal length ; form not as elongate as in virginica, being almost as 
wide as it is long. 

Male. — Difl:'ers as follows: Head yellow on labrum, clypeus, frontal 
shield; in some specimens a little on the lateral areas of the frons 
between the clypeus and eyes as high as the insertion of the antennae 
and a small spot at the base of the mandibles ; color otherwise black 
with bluish purple on the vertex and cheeks ; head not as wide as in 
the other sex, face more narrowed; hairs of head yellowish white 
on cheeks and vertex, some scattered patches on frontal shield, be- 
tween insertion of antennse and between the posterior ocelli ; mandi- 
bles smaller, depression at base not so deep ; labrum a little wider ; 



218 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^'o'- >^-^iv. 

clypeus somewhat convex, area along lower margin not concaved ; 
frontal carina much smaller ; eyes much larger and approximated 
more or less above, producing a narrow vertex. Thorax with more 
yellowish white hairs than in the other sex, especially on the ventral 
surface where it is mixed with the black. Punctation of abdomen 
much finer and closer throughout ; yellowish white hairs on the hind 
margin dorsally of segments four and five mixed with some black, 
otherwise pilosity as in female. Wings a little lighter than in other 
sex. Tibial scale very reduced; a variable amount of yellowish hair 
present on legs. 

Types. — Cresson's typical specimen labeled " Lecto-type 2620 " 
" Tex " is in the Acad. Nat. Sc, Philadelphia, along with a male 
labeled " Allo-type 2620 " " Tex " and a male and female paratype. 
In the collection of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard 
is a male and female labeled " Type 556 " " Dallas, Tex., Boll." In 
the U. S. N. M. are two specimens, a male and a female, labeled 
"Type No. 1792, U. S. N. M.," "Collection Belfrage." 

Distribution. — I have examined specimens taken at Dallas, Round 
Mt. and Kerrville, Texas. 

This species seems to occur throughout the northern and central 
part of Texas but I find no record of it in any other state. It is very 
closely allied to Xylocopa virginica, which is also found in some 
parts of Texas, though I find no record of it {virginica) occurring 
in the same localities with texana. The females of tcxana and vir- 
ginica resemble each other very much. Generally speaking, how- 
ever, the predominant color of virginica is black, while that of tcxana 
is green, with some blue present. This is a rather variable character, 
though, for many specimens of the one species will approach those 
of the other very closely in color. The frontal carina of tcxana is 
larger and more prominent than that of any other species found in 
the United States. The frontal carina of virginica is of medium size 
in the specimens collected from the eastern states, but it seems to 
increase in size on specimens taken from Texas, although it does not 
attain the size and prominence that it does in tcxana. The white 
pile present on the sides of segments five and six, and the few scat- 
tered ones along the sides of the other segments found in tcxana do 
not occur in virginica; this seems to be a rather constant character 
for separating the species. 



Sept., i9i6.] Ackerman: Carpenter-Bees of U. S. 219 

The males of texana and virginica resemble each almost as closely 
as do the females. The following differences, however, serve to 
separate the two species. The predominant color of texana is green, 
while that of virginica is black; texana has but little or no yellow 
coloring on the lateral downward projections of the frons between 
the clypeus and eyes, while in virginica these areas are entirely yel- 
low; the pilosity in texana is yellowish white on the cheeks, vertex, 
face, and on the hind margins of the fourth and fifth abdominal seg- 
ments, while the corresponding pilosity of virginica is black. I have 
studied the genitalia of texana and virginica and th^re is no doubt 
in my mind that they are different species. 

In his Insect Book Dr. L. O. HcTward gives a photograph of 
texana, male, on plate II, fig. 2y. This was taken of a specimen 
present in the collection of the U. S. N. M., which is labeled " Type 
No. 1792," " From Dept. Agri." 

Xylocopa tabaniformis Smith. 

Xylocopa tabaniformis Smith, Cat. Hymen. Brit. Mus., II, p. 362, n. 95 J, 1854. 

Xylocopa tabaniformis var. chiriquiensis, Perez, Act. Soc. Bordeaux, LVI, p. 

120, 5> (j*. ii- ■\'-. 1901. 
Xylocopa tabaniformis Maidl, Ann. Nat. Hist. Hof.-Mus. Wien, p. 317, 5. <^< 

igi2. 

Length of female and male 17-18 mm. 

Female. — Head black, hairs black, mixed with grayish-white on 
cheeks, hind part of vertex and face ; punctation rather close and 
fine ; mandibles with three teeth, two large ones at the apex, and one 
rounded small tooth on the upper margin, no depression at the base, 
upper longitudinal groove deep; labrum apparently of one small sub- 
triangular lobe, but in addition one small lobe on either side hidden 
beneath ; clypeus flat, punctures close and circular, longitudinal carina 
or ridge obsolete, impunctate area along lower margin not concave, 
upper margin straight ; lateral foveolse and frontal grooves deep and 
prominent; frontal shield flat in the middle, sides sloping gently; 
frontal carina small and pointed, the upper margin interrupted in the 
middle by a small pit ; ocelli triangularly placed, the posterior ones 
with a circular pit behind each and not carinated in front ; antennae 
black ; eyes small and rather far apart ; vertex and cheeks well punc- 
tured, the whitish hairs short. 

Thorax black, disk shining; hairs everywhere black, mixed with 



220 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Voi. xxiv, 

grayish-white on the back and sides, producing a sooty aspect ; scu- 
tellum wide, with few punctures, especially in its anterior half, post- 
scutellum very narrow. 

Abdomen black and not elongate, well punctured except along the 
middle of the segments, finely so on the sides; pilosity dense and white 
on the first segment and on the hind margin of segments two, three, 
four and five, except in the middle, black everywhere else ; epipygium 
narrow at the base, spines large. 

Wings subhyaline, of a brassy tint, tegulee brownish black. 

Legs black; hairs yellowish white on the intermediate and poste- 
rior tibiai and tarsi exteriorly, brown on the inner side of the fore 
tarsi, otherwise black; tibial scale small, anterior tooth very pointed 
and long, posterior tooth A^ery rounded and short. 

Male. — This sex differs from the female as follows : Head yellow 
on labrum, clypeus, frontal shield, a large spot at the base of the 
mandibles, and some mixed with the black on the lateral downward 
projections of the frons between the clypeus and the eyes; head and 
face narrower; mandibles smaller, with only two teeth present (at 
the apex) ; labrum with only one tooth or lobe; clypeus with fewer 
punctures ; ocellar pits very small or even obsolete ; vertex more nar- 
rowed and flattened. Thorax as in the female. Abdomen differs in 
having a patch of long, white hairs on the sides of segment six. A 
pair of cercus-like pieces (penicilli) present on the top of the seventh 
dorsal segment. Tibial scale not much smaller than that of the 
female, but with only one lobe. 

Type. — Probably in the British Museum, 

Distribution.- — Mexico; Brownsville, Texas; Utah. 

Variations. — A male from Washington Co., Utah, differs from the 
typical male described above by having the hairs of the head and 
thorax entirely white and much denser, while the white hairs of the 
abdomen occur only along the sides. 

Xylocopa aztcca Cresson is a form very similar to tabaniformis, 
and there seems to be no reliable structural character upon which the 
two forms can be separated. Azteca female differs from the female 
of tabaniformis by the presence of white pilosity on segments one, 
two and three of the abdomen only, but this variation between the 
two forms seems to be constant. The males of these two forms show 
even less variation ; they differ as follows : the white hairs of the 



Sept., 1916.] AcKERMAN : Carpenter-Bees OF U. S. 221 

abdomen in tabaniformis are tawny and less interrupted medially by 
the black hairs in astcca. A::teca could therefore be reduced to a sub- 
species of tahanifonnis, but since there is no record of this form 
occurring in the United States I shall not include it in this paper. 

Tabaniformis is primarily a neotropical species, but it also occurs 
in the southwestern United States. It is closely related to orpifex, 
these two species being the only Xylocopas of the United States which 
have penicilli present on the last dorsal abdominal segment. Tabani- 
formis, however, is easily distinguished from orpifex by the white 
pilosity of the abdomen present in the former. 

Xylocopa fimbriata Fabr. 

Xylocopa finbriata Fabr., Sys. Piez., p. 340, n. 7, 5. 1S04. 

Xylocof^a finbriata Fowler, Rept. Cal. Exp. Sta., part II, p. 318, 1898-1901. 

Xylocopa finbriata Perez, Act. Soc. Bordeaux, LVI, p. 81, iii, 5. c^. iQoi. 

Xylocopa finbriata Cockerell, Southern Cal. Acad. Nat. Sciences, No. 6, p. 87. 

June, 1904. 
Xylocopa finbriata Maidl, Ann. Nat. Hist. Hof.-Mus. Wien, p. 311, 5. c?. 1912. 

Length of female, 30-32 mm. ; of male, 28-30 mm. 

Female. — Head black, very large, as wide as thorax, face con- 
caved in the middle, hairs everywhere black, long on the cheeks and 
face ; mandibles with two large teeth at the apex, and one small, 
rounded tooth on the middle of the inner margin, no depression at 
the base and very few punctures present, the upper longitudinal 
groove very deep ; labrum with three lobes ; clypeus with large but 
few punctures, the lower marginal area irregular, having a small 
convex area in the middle with a large pit on each side of it, the 
upper margin with a well rounded elevation curved upward like a 
bow, the shining impunctate sides more sharply ridged and the lower 
extremities very prominently raised ; longitudinal carina obsolete ; 
frontal shield from the clypeus to the insertion of the antennae flat, 
the superior half concaved, there being no frontal carina present ; 
the lateral areas of the frons between the clypeus and eyes irregu- 
larly concaved and situated on a lower plane than the clypeus, so 
that the presence of lateral foveolse and frontal grooves are merely 
marked by a suture on each side ; median ocellus set in a very con- 
caved, impunctate surface, with a short groove extending back for a 
little distance midway between the hind ocelli ; the sides of the median 
ocellar area well ridged ; a small concaved area behind the median 



222 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^'o'- xxiv, 

ocellus and between the posterior ones which appear sunken behind 
the large, prominent carina; these carina; start in front of the poste- 
rior ocelli and extend transversely toward the eyes, becoming grad- 
ually elevated and ending in the form of a pair of horns; ocellar 
grooves situated dorso-laterally to the posterior-ocelli ; above, the 
vertex is sparsely punctured and narrow ; cheeks well punctured. 

Thorax black, disk very large, shining and hairy; hairs black, 
short and sparse on the back and sides, longer beneath ; scutellum 
large and little rounded, the greater part impunctate, without pile, 
forming the hind part of the disk, only the posterior margin pilose; 
post-scutellum with hair everywhere. 

Abdomen black, rather long but robust, punctation sparse except 
on the apical segments, hairs black, a faint carina along the middle 
extending the length of the tergum, and a very sharp and prominent 
one on the venter ; epipygium not wide at the base, spines very large. 

Wing opaque, the dominant color blue with tints of violet and a 
slightly greenish luster at the apex; tegulae black. 

Legs black, the hairs black ; tibial scale well elevated, the two teeth 
at the apex of equal size, rather short, the anterior one a little more 
pointed, the posterior one striated on its posterior aspect. 

Male. — Differs from the female in that it is entirely fulvous and 
also in the following points : Head narrow, punctation very fine ; 
mandibles brown with a yellow spot at their base, black toward the 
apex, smaller, greatly constricted along the middle, no tooth on the 
upper margin ; labrum with only one lobe, triangular in form ; clypeus 
flatter, the upper margin and sides not elevated ; frontal shield some- 
what convex, the frontal carina replaced by a short groove concur- 
rent with the median ocellar groove ; ocelli not sunken, the median 
one situated but little lower than the posterior ones, a very shallow 
circular pit behind each posterior ocellus which has no carina in 
front of it; antennae fulvous on the under side throughout, reddish- 
brown on the upper surface which has a fine white pubescence on 
its flagellum; vertex and cheeks with long dense fulvous hairs. 

Thorax fulvous, the scutellum much flatter, the post-scutellum 
very wide and more densely pilose. 

Abdomen with more brown color than on the other parts of the 
body, the hair yellow except at the apex, where it is long and red- 
dish. Wings semihyaline, teguhe fulvous, covered with hairs except 
on the middle. 



Sept., 1916.] ACKERMAN : CaRPENTER-BeES OF U. S. 223 

The four intermediate legs and posterior coxae, trochanters and 
femora, and the two anterior coxae, trochanters and the external sur- 
faces of the femora are reddish black; legs otherwise yellow; the 
anterior and intermediate tibiae deeply hollowed ; hairs fulvous ; tibial 
scale small and black. 

Tvpc. — Location unknown. 

Distribution. — Mexico, Central America, Brazil, Peru and re- 
ported from Yosemite Valley, California. 

Fimbriata is a neotropical species and the report of its occurrence 
in California does not seem to be authentic. It has been collected in 
Mexico and may possibly occur in some of the semitropical regions 
of the southwestern United States, and therefore I include it in this 
paper. 

This species is one of the largest forms of Xylocopa. The sexes 
differ greatly in color. The male is entirely fulvous while the female 
is entirely black. This wide contrast in color of the sexes seems to 
be characteristic of many other neotropical species of Xylocopa, espe- 
cially among the larger forms. The female of fimbriata can be easily 
distinguished from its closest ally frontalis (01.) by the form of the 
carinas in front of the posterior ocelli. The males of these two spe- 
cies, however, resemble each other very closely and are not so easily 
separated. Fimbriata has been confused with varipuncta (Patt.) 
from California (which I reduce to a variety of brasilianornm Vdihv. ) , 
but can easily be distinguished from it. 

Xylocopa Brasilianorum Brasilianorum Linne. 

Apis brasilianorum Linne, Sys. Nat., Ed. 12a i, 2, p. 961, n. 449, J', 1767. 

Apis cpneipennis De Greer, Mem. hist. Insect., Ill, p. 573, n. s, 5; pi. 28, f. 8. 

1773- 
Xylocopa cubcccola Lucas, Sagra., Hist. fis. Cuba, VII, p. 776, J, pi. 19, f. 8, 

1850. 
Xylocopa morda.v Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, p. 294, n. iii, $, 1874. 
Xylocopa varipunctata Patton, Can. Ent., XI, p. 60, $,1879. 
Xylocopa varipuncta Cockerell, Ent. News, 13, p. 318, 1902. 
Xylocopa varipuncta Fowler, Rept. Cal. Exp. Sta., p. 318, 1890-1901. 
Xylocopa varipuncta Cockerell, South. Cal. Acad. Sc, No. 6, p. 87, June, 1904. 
Xylocopa brasilianoniin Perez, Act. Soc. Bordeaux LVI, p. 88, 100, 5, 1^. 1901. 
Xylocopa brasilianorum Maidl, Ann. Nat. Hist. Hof.-Mus. Wicn, p. 312, 5, (^, 

1912. 



224 Journal New York Entomological Society. C^oi. xxiv, 

Xylocopa hrasilianorum brasilianornm Linne. 

Length of male, 22-24 ™^'^- ', of female, 24-26 mm. 

Female. — Head black, almost as wide as thorax, well punctured, 
hairs black; mandibles with two large teeth at the apex and a small, 
rounded one on the middle of the upper margin, no depressed area 
at the base and with but few punctures, the upper longitudinal groove 
very deep with a depressed spot in the middle; labrum with three 
lobes, the lateral ones blunter and a little hidden beneath the hairs; 
clypeus flat, punctures large but few, longitudinal carina not present, 
the upper and lateral margins shining, impunctate, the upper margin 
a little elevated, the lateral ones more raised and more sharply ridged 
toward their lower extremities; frontal shield on a slightly higher 
plane than the clypeus; the frontal grooves marked by a shallow su- 
ture, the lateral foveol?e very small; frontal carina rather prominent, 
not sharply pointed, the upper side verging into a furrow concurrent 
with the heart-shaped groove of the median ocellus; ocelli small, the 
posterior ones not carinated in front but with large circular pits 
behind, a short, fine furrow midway between; eyes rather small and 
widely separated; vertex well punctured, the cheeks finely and 
sparsely so. 

Thorax black, hairs black, short and not very dense on back ; disk 
very large, including the anterior half of the scutellum, without hair 
or punctures and shining ; scutellum behind the flat, unpunctured area 
rounded and sloping downward, and pilose ; post-scutellum with few 
punctures, small and hairy. 

Abdomen entirely black, hairs black, rather elongate, punctures 
close and fine on the anterior half, coarser on the posterior half; a 
longitudinal carina along the middle of the tergum, and a correspond- 
ing carina along the venter but much sharper and more prominent; 
epipygium not wide at the base. 

Wings fuliginous, violet color predominating with tints of blue 
and purple; tegulse black; length of wings 20 mm. 

Legs black, hairs black; tibial scale with the anterior tooth longer, 
narrower and more pointed than the posterior one. 

Male. — The male, besides being entirely fulvous, differs as fol- 
lows : Head narrower, punctation fine ; mandibles brownish black, 
with a yellow spot at base, constricted along the middle, smaller and 
no tooth present on the inner margin; labrum with only one lobe; 



Sept., 19 16.] ACKERMAN : CaRPENTER-BeES OF U. S. 225 

clypens more convex, the upper margin and sides not elevated, longi- 
tudinal carina rounded; frontal carina very small and pointed, the 
upper margin faintly grooved with a pit in its middle; ocelli not 
sunken, close together, ocellar pits minute or obsolete, a shallow 
groove midway between the posterior ocelli ; eyes not large and wide 
apart; lower side of antenna yellowish on first segment, otherwise 
yellowish brown, its upper side brownish black throughout and with 
no pubescence ; vertex and cheeks with long, dense yellow hair and 
very fine punctures. 

Thorax yellow with more or less brown, especially on the post- 
scutellum, propodeum and sides ; hairs yellow ; scutellum flat, shining, 
with but little hair and few punctures ; post-scutellum also rather flat. 

Abdomen yellow, with a brown band along the hinder margin of 
each segment, but this is variable as the color may become tawny in 
old specimens; pilosity yellow, rufous and long at the apex; finely 
and densely punctured throughout. Wings semihyaline; tegulae 
fulvous. 

The fore legs from their bases to and including the basal part of 
the femora, and the intermediate and hind legs as far as the tibiae 
brownish black, otherwise yellow or fulvous; hairs everywhere yellow 
with a slight red tinge on the tibiae and tarsi ; tibial scale very small 
and black. 

Type. — Location unknown. 

Distribution. — Texas, Arizona, Southern California, Mexico, Cen- 
tral and South America, West Indies. 
Xylocopa brasiliaiionim ccncipennis (DeGeer). 

This form differs from the typical brasiliaiionim as follows : Fe- 
male — scutellum more truncate behind; abdomen with the ventral 
longitudinal carina even sharper and more prominent; wings semi- 
hyaline, with a brassy luster and a violet tint on the apical margin 
of the anterior wings ; length 22-24 ii^"i- Male — with a dark brown- 
ish area on the middle of the clypeus ; a black ring surrounding each 
ocellus; bands along the hind margin of the abdominal segments 
wider and darker colored. 

Habitat. — xA-rizona. 
Xylocopa brasiliaiionim cubcrcola (Lucas). 

This form differs from ccneipcnnis as follows: Female with the 
scutellum sharply truncate behind; ventral abdominal carina the 



226 Journal New York Entomological Society, [^'oi. xxiv, 

same ; wings a little darker, a faint violet and blue color occurring 
throughout both anterior and posterior wings, the violet predominat- 
ing. Male unknown. Length 20-22 mm. 

Habitat. — California. 
Xylocopa brasilianorum varipuncta (Patt,). 

This subspecies is more closely related to the typical brasilianorum 
than to either of the other two described above. It differs from the 
other three forms as follows : Female with scutellum not truncate but 
rounded as in the typical brasilianorum; ventral abdominal carina not 
exceedingly prominent but as in brasilianorum; wings fuliginous, not 
as dark as in brasilianorum, brassy and copper colored with violet 
reflections. Male not known. Length 26-28 mm. 

Distribution. — Arizona, Southern California. 

Xylocopa brasilianorum is a species of very wide range extending 
from South America north into the southern United States. It is 
also a very variable species, as Maidl first noted in his work on the 
Xylocopa collection of the museum of Vienna in 1912. I agree with 
Maidl in all his conclusions in regard to variation within this species. 
There is no doubt that many forms have been described as new spe- 
cies which are merely varieties or even synonyms of brasilianorum. 
The variable characters of these forms upon which various authors 
have established different species are color of wings mainly, forma- 
tion of the scutellum, and size. The above variable characters occur 
in the female, while in the male there seems to be but little variation, 
if any. I have studied the genitalia of a large series of insects which 
have been described as different species and, like Maidl, have found 
very little difference among them. 

In this paper I include only those forms which are found in or 
reported from the United States; that is, the subspecies &rfl^?7/a»o;'i<m, 
varipuncta, ccncipcnnis, and cubcccola. Varipuncta (Patt.) is without 
a doubt the same as mordax (Smith). In the U. S. Nat. Mus. at 
Washington is one of the two original female specimens of varipuncta 
with Riley's labels on it. One of the two specimens was sent to 
Patton and he described it as a new species, Xylocopa varipuncta. 
It is likely that Patton did not see the specimen in the U. S. Nat, 
Mus., and it is probable that the one from which he made his descrip- 
tion is lost. 

A representative form of the species brasilianorum may be found 



Sept., 19 16.] ACKERMAN : CaRPENTER-BeES OF U. S. 227 

in The Insect Book, where Howard figures ccncipciiuis on plate II, 
fi?- 25. 

Among other described forms occurring within the range of bra- 
silianoriim which will without a doubt ultimately be recognized as 
subspecies of this species are ordinaria Smith, niorio Cresson, vires- 
ecus Smith, frausitoria Perez, and rnordax Smith. 

Xylocopa californica Cresson. 

Xylocopa californica Cresson, Proc. Ent. Soc. Philadelphia, III, p. 40. n. 3, 

?, 1864. 
Xylocopa californica Fowler, Rept. Cal. Exp. Sta., p. 318, $, (j", 1898-1901. 
Xylocopa amblardi Perez, Act. Soc. Bordeaux, LVI, p. 115, (^, 1901. 
Xylocopa californica Cockerell, South. Cal. Acad. Sc, No. 6, p. 87, June, 1904. 
Xylocopa californica Cockerell, Ent. News, p. 395, var. a. ^. 1907. 
Xylocopa californica Maidl, Ann. Nat. Hist. Hof.— Mus., Wien, p. 309, ,^, \gi2. 

Length of female, 22-24 vcim. ; of male, 20-22 mm. 

Female. — Head thick, almost as wide as thorax, black with blue, 
green and purple tints, the green color predominating ; hairs black, 
well punctured, especially on the face ; mandibles black with two 
teeth at the apex, base flat and having very few punctures, inner 
longitudinal groove not very deep, outer one very faint ; labrum semi- 
oblong in form, emarginate in the middle, giving the appearance of 
two lobes, small and black ; clypeus flat, very closely punctured, iri- 
descent, longitudinal carina small and faint; lateral foveolos of me- 
dian depth, frontal groove shallow ; frontal shield flat, a little con- 
caved above, closely punctured, iridescent ; frontal carina short, blunt, 
upper side convex ; median ocellus very sunken, posterior ones well 
carinated in front, no ocellar pits present ; eyes small, very far apart, 
so that the face is extremely wide ; antennae of the usual female form; 
vertex just behind the posterior ocelli prominently raised, green and 
blue colored, punctation large, coarse and abundant ; cheeks blue, 
purple and green mixed, large but sparse punctures. 

Thorax with disk large and black, color otherwise blue and green, 
also on sides and below ; pilosity short and sparse above, black with 
gray mixed, entirely black and longer on sides and beneath ; scu- 
tellum green, well punctured, post-scutellum narrow and well punc- 
tured. 

Abdomen above olive green with some blue at the apex, venter 
blue with tints of green ; punctation fine and sparse above, very abun- 



228 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^'o'- xxiv, 

dant below ; a patch of grayish white hairs at the sides of segment 
one, everywhere else black ; epipygium large, wide at the base, spines 
stout. 

Wings fusco-hyaline with a strong violet tint, darkened at the 
apex; tegulje bluish green. Legs greenish blue, hairs black; tibial 
scale very prominent, both lower teeth sharp, the anterior one more 
narrowed, irregular above. 

Male. — Differs from the female as follows : Head smaller, not 
thick, face narrower, entirely dark with more green and purple ; man- 
dibles smaller, upper longitudinal groove deep, lower one more pro- 
nounced than in female, lower tooth at apex much the larger of the 
two ; labrum with one triangular lobe, sometimes apparently trape- 
zoidal ; clypeus convex, longitudinal carina more prominent ; frontal 
carina smaller and more pointed, upper margin flat ; median ocellus 
less sunken, posterior ones less carinated in front ; eyes much larger 
and converging slightly above ; vertex behind posterior ocelli flat, 
cheeks not so thick. Thorax with the gray hairs more evident above, 
and present on each side below the wings, being entirely black below, 
only. Abdomen shorter and more robust, punctation above much 
finer and closer on the first four segments, coarse but abundant on 
the remaining segments ; pilosity grayish-white on the whole of first 
segment, and laterally on the hind margin of the fourth and some- 
times on the third segments, otherwise black; wings a little lighter, 
tegulje brown, legs with tibial scale reduced to a point, inner surface 
of posterior tibiae with short brown hair. 

Type. — In the Acad, of Nat. Sc. at Philadelphia a female labeled 
" Lecto-type, No. 2619 " " Cala." 

Distribution. — California, Nevada, Colorado and South Dakota. 

This species is of a distinct olive green color in both sexes; wings 
fusco-fuliginous with a violet tint. It is very similar to arisonensis 
(Cress.). Cresson described only the female of this species, while 
the first record that I find of a description to fit the male is by Perez 
ini90i,who names his specimens fl?n&/art/i. Perez says that am^/ardi 
is very similar to virginica but, according to his description, there is 
no doubt that his species is the male of calif ornica (Cresson). In 
1912 Maidl recognized and described it under its right name. 

Xylocopa arizonensis Cresson. 

Xylocopa arizonensis Cresson, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, VII, p. 212, 5> c?. 1879. 



Sept., i9i6.] AcKERMAN : Carpenter-Bees OF U. S. 229 

Xylocopa calif ornica arizonensis Cockerell, South. Cal. Acad. Sc, No. 6, p. 87, 

June, 1904. 
Xylocopa arizonensis Maidl, Ann. Nat. Hist. Hof.-Mus Wien, p. 310, 191 2. 

Length of female, 25-27 mm. ; of male, 22-24 iTiiii- 

Female. — Head thick, almost as wide as thorax, black, blue and 
purple mixed; well punctured, especially on the face; hairs entirely 
black; mandibles black, very wide, with two teeth, base not depressed 
and with few punctures, inner longitudinal groove not very deep, 
outer one faint ; labrum semioblong, emarginate in the middle so as to 
form two lobes, small and black ; clypeus flat, closely punctured, black 
and blue, longitudinal carina very faint ; lateral foveolse and frontal 
grooves of median depth; frontal shield iridescent, wide, flat in its 
lower half, deeply concaved above just beneath the point of the frontal 
carina, which is short, blunt, with the upper margin convex ; ocelli 
large, median one deeply sunken, posterior ones very carinated in 
front, no ocellar pits present ; eyes small and wide apart ; antenucC of 
usual female type ; vertex prominently raised behind the posterior 
ocelli, brilliantly blue colored, large and close punctures ; cheeks well 
punctured, deep purple. 

Thorax black, blue and purple, disk large and unpunctured ; hair 
black everywhere, short and sparse above ; scutellum well punctate 
except on anterior margin, blue colored and wide, post-scutellum nar- 
row and well punctured. 

Abdomen brilliant blue with purple reflections, punctation fine and 
sparse above, very abundant below, hairs everywhere black ; epi- 
pygium large, wide at the base, spines stout. 

Wings fuliginous, violaceous blue with purple tints, tegulse blue. 
Legs bluish purple with black hairs ; tibial scale large and prominent, 
both lower teeth sharp, the anterior one more narrowed throughout, 
irregularly notched above. 

Male. — Differs from the other sex as follows: Head smaller, not 
so thick, face narrower, blue and purple ; mandibles much smaller, 
lower tooth at apex much larger; labrum of one triangular lobe, ap- 
pearing trapezoidal in some specimens ; clypeus convex, more sparsely 
punctate, longitudinal carina more prominent ; frontal shield convex 
and not concaved above, lateral foveolse and frontal grooves deeper ; 
frontal carina pointed, upper margin flat ; median ocellus not deeply 
sunken, less carinated in front; eyes much larger, slightly converging 



230 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^'o'- xxiv, 

above, so that the face is quite reduced; vertex above flat, punctures 
smaller, cheeks less thickened. 

Thorax having pale ochraceous hairs mixed with the black above 
and on the sides, black hairs below. Abdomen somewhat shorter, 
pale ochraceous hairs on the whole of the first segment, otherwise 
black; punctation above much finer and closer on the first four seg- 
ments, coarse but abundant on the remaining segments. Wings about 
as in female ; legs with tibial scale reduced. 

Variations. — I have a male from Alamogordo, N. M., which has 
been described by Cockerell as a variety (an::oncusis) of the species 
califoniica. I include this individual as a variation of the species 
ari::oncnsis (Cress.). It differs from the typical male ariaoncnsis 
described above, only as follows : Clypeus yellow except along the 
lower margin where it is black ; two brown longitudinal bands on the 
yellow area. 

Types. — A female lecto-type No. 2621, from Tucson, Arizona, and 
a male allo-type from Prescott, Arizona, in the Acad. Nat. Sc. at 
Philadelphia. 

Distribution. — Arizona, New Mexico, Lower California, Texas 
and Mexico. 

This species can be recognized by its brilliant blue color and by 
the fuliginous, almost opaque wings. It resembles calif ornica very 
closely and has even been called a subspecies of it. The wings of 
ariaoucnsis are much darker and more deeply colored than those "^f 
calif ornica and the color of the integument of the two species also is 
specifically different. Having studied the types of arizoncnsis and 
calif ornica as well as having found a dift'erence in the genitalia, there 
is no doubt in my mind that they are distinct species. The female of 
arizoncnsis has the hairs of the abdomen black everywhere, while the 
calif ornica female has pale ochraceous hairs on the first abdominal 
segment. The male of ariconensis has pale ochraceous pilosity on 
the sides of the first abdominal segment only, while calif ornica has 
these pale hairs on the whole first segment as well as on the hind 
margin laterally of segments three and four and a few along the sides 
of the intervening segments. From the above I see no reason why 
these two species should be regarded as one, even though both have 
many structural characters in common. 

On plate III, fig. 27, of The Insect Book Howard figures Xylocopa 
arizoncnsis. 



Journ. N. Y. Ent. Sac. 



Vol. XXIV. PI lo. 








Xylocopa. 



Sept., 1916.] 



AcKERMAN : Carpenter-Bees of U. S. 



231 



Explanation of Plate id. 



Fig. 


I. 


Fig-. 


2. 


Fig. 


3- 


Fig. 


4- 


Fig. 


5- 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7- 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


II. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15- 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


I/- 


Fig. 


18. 


Fig. 


19. 


Fig. 


20. 


Fig. 


21. 



Dorsal view of genitalia of Xylocopa arizonensis. 

Genitalia of Xylocopa californica. 

Genitalia of Xylocopa brasilianontm ccneipennis. 

Genitalia of Xylocopa brasilianornin brasilianorum. 

Genitalia of Xylocopa texana. 

Genitalia of Xylocopa virginica. 

Genitalia of Xylocopa tabaniformis. 

Genitalia of Xylocopa orpifex. 

Genitalia of Xylocopa micans. 

Side view of thorax of Xylocopa virginica. 

Anterior wing of female of Xylocopa virginica. 

Hind wing of female of Xylocopa virginica. 

Genitalia of Xylocopa fimbriata. 

Ventral view of sting of Xylocopa virginica. 

Front view of head of female Xylocopa ariaouensis. 

Front view of head of male Xylocopa virginica. 

Antenna of male Xylocopa californica. 

Mandible of female of Xylocopa finbriata. 

Mandible of female of Xylocopa virginica. 

Mandible of male of Xylocopa virginica. 

Tibia of female of Xylocopa virginica, with tibial scale. 



Index to Lettering of Plate 10. 



a 


anal vein. 





ocelli. 


ag 


antennal grooves. 


olg 


outer longitudinal groove. 


at 


apical teeth. 


P 


propodeum. 


b 


bulb. 


Pc 


punctures. 


ba 


barbs. 


pg 


poison gland. 


bs 


basal vein. 


pi 


pedicel. 


c 


cardo. 


pn 


pronotum. 


cs 


clypeus. 


pnl 


pronotal lobe. 


ct 


costal vein. 


ps 


palpi of sting. 


ex 


cubital vein. 


PPs 


palpi-plates of sting. 


d 


discoidal vein. 


psc 


postscutellum. 


da 


depressed area. 


r 


radial vein. 


di 


disk. 


re^ 


first recurrent vein. 


e 


epimeron. 


re^ 


second recurrent vein. 


ep 


episternum. 


s 


stigma. 


f 


filagellum. 


sa 


sagitta. 


fo 


frontal carina. 


sc 


scutellum. 


fg 


frontal grooves 


set 


subcostal vein. 


fs 


frontal shield. 


sd 


sub-discoidal vein. 


fx 


front coxa. 


sh 


sheath. 


9 


fused plate of scutellum. 


si 


sinus. 



232 Journal New York Entomological Society, t"^'^'- >^>^IV; 



h.v 


hind coxa. 


si 


sting canal. 


iig 


inner longitudinal groove. 


sp 


spiracle. 


it 


inner tooth. 


St 


stipes. 


k 


quadrate plate. 


t 


tegula. 


I 


labrum. 


tc 


tibial scale. 


If 


lateral foveolae. 


tcx, 


first transverso cubital vein. 


In 


lancet. 


fcx.. 


second transverso cubital vein, 


h 


anterior lobe. 


tcx. 


third transverso cubital vein. 


1-2 


posterior lobe. 


tin 


transverso medial vein. 


m 


median vein. 


tpln 


triangular plate of lancet. 


md 


mandible. 


V 


spatha. 


mp 


malar space. 


TV 


wing process. 


ms 


mesoscutum. 


X 


plate of metanotum. 


III.V 


median coxa. 


y 


pleural plate of metanotum. 


n 


scape. 


y-i 


pleural plate of metanotum. 



A REMARKABLE NEW GENUS OF ENCYRTID^ 

FROM THE WEST INDIES, BEARING TWO 

RING-JOINTS. 

By a. a. Girault, 
Washington, D. C. 

The following Aphelinine-like genus is unique (save for Mcro- 
myaobia Ashmead) in bearing two large, distinct ring-joints in the 
antennas. It differs from Meromyzohia in form, the funicle is but 
3-jointed and the club is not long and solid but also 3-jointed. 

AMEROMYZOBIA new genus. 

Female. — Shaped like ApJicliiuis but the ovipositor distinctly ex- 
truded. In my table to the earth's encyrtine genera runs to Cocco- 
biiis, a genus based on composite specimens (an Aphclinns and an 
Arrhcnophagus). Head nearly round, thin, the face inflexed, the 
frons not prominent, of moderate width, the cheeks distinct but not so 
long as the eyes. Mandibles with three subequal, subacute teeth. 
Antenn?e lo-jointed, with two distinct ring-joints (as in most Ptero- 
malid?e), excluding the latter, as in Coccophagus. Fore wing broader 
than with Aphcliuiis, the hairless line present, the marginal vein 
nearly twice longer than wide, the stigmal somewhat over twice its 



Sept., i9i6.] Girault: New Encyrtid.e from West Indies. 233 

length, long, the postmarginal obsolete or nearly. Marginal fringes 
of fore wings a little longer than normal (that is, not extremely 
short). Fore wing densely ciliate. Ovipositor extruded for a length 
equal to three fourths that of the ovate abdomen. Axilte united 
acutely. Propodeum cross-linear mesad, much longer laterad. 
Ameromyzobia aphelinoides new species. Genotype. 

Female. — Length o.go mm., excluding the ovipositor. 

Golden yellow, the wings slightly infuscated throughout, the distal half 
of the abdomen, the funicle, the propodeum except mesad and the extruded 
valves of the ovipositor, dusky or black. Scutum and scutellum with sparse, 
rather long, black setae. Funicles one to two subequal, each not quite twice 
longer than wide, a little shorter than the pedicel, three a little shorter than 
two. Club definite, slightly wider than the funicle and nearly as long. Second 
ring-joint a little larger than the first, both wider than long. 

The male appears to be similar but no perfect specimen at hand. 

From one pair in the U. S. National Museum from St. Vincent, 
West Indies (H. H. Smith). 

Type. — Catalogue No. 20294, U. S. National Museum, the female 
on a slide. 



TWO NEW CICADAS BELONGING TO THE GENUS 
OKANAGANA. 

By Wm. T. Davis, 
New Brighton,- Staten Island, N. Y. 

Through the courtesy of Mr. Edward P. Van Duzee I am enabled 
to describe a new species of Okanagana from Oregon. The fifteen 
specimens examined came originally from the Oregon Agricultural 
College and Experiment Station, Corvallis, Oregon. 

Okanagana oregona new species. 

Type male, Mary's Peak, Oregon, July 18, 1903. Davis collection. 
Allotype female, Corvallis, Oregon, June 4. Collection Edw. P. Van Duzee, 
Head as broad as the front margin of the pronotum ; front not much pro- 
duced. Median sulcus of the front deep and well defined. Pronotum with 
the humeral angles rounded and the anterior angles rather prominent. Oper- 
cula oblique with the extremities not as rounded as in some species of the 
genus. Last ventral segment with the base about as long as the sides which 
gradually converge to the rounded extremity. Uncus when viewed in profile 



234 Journal New York Entomological Society, f^'o'- xxiv, 

sinuated but not hooked at the end ; when viewed from above broadened out 




and then constricted before the extremity which is notched. Basal areole of 
the fore wings clear or very little clouded, oblong, square at apex. Costa of 
the fore wings yellowish to beyond the middle, then fuscous ; flaps at base of 
wings bright red ; the dark clouded spot at base of cubital cell, common to 
many species, is not present, there is, however, the usual black spot at the 
extreme base of the wing. Hind wings entirely bright red at base, the red 
edged outwardly with irregular clouded spots. The dorsum partly covered 
with short golden hairs, especially on the abdomen, while the underside is 
clothed with rather long silky hairs. Head black with the supra-antennal 
plates, a band, expanded at the extremities extending transversely before the 
front ocellus, and the median groove leading from the ocellus to the hind margin, 
yellowish. Beneath, the head is black in the region of the transverse rugje, 
margined with yellowish. Pronotum black, margined all around, but very nar- 
rowly in front, with yellowish. Metanotum black, posteriorly margined with 
yellowish. Dorsum of the abdomen black, the segments edged posteriorly with 
reddish. Uncus black. Beneath, pale, including the valve, with black spots 
and stripes about the legs. There are some conspicuous black markings at the 
base of the abdomen, and more than the terminal half of the rostrum is shining 
black. 

Me.\surements (in Millimeters). 

ISIale type. Female allotype 

Length of body 20 19 

Width of head across eyes 6 6 

Expanse of fore wings 48 50 

Greatest width of fore wing 8 8.5 

Greatest width of operculum 2.5 

Length of valve 4 

In addition to the type which is figured and allotype, the follow- 
ing specimens have been examined: Corvallis, Oregon, June 29, 1896, 
female; June, 1906, male (Buchanan); May 2y, female (Currin) ; 
July 9, male; August, female. Mary's Peak, Oregon, July 18, 1903, 
three males (Gellatly). Eugene, Oregon, June 10, 1905, male (Fos- 
ter). Crooked River, Oregon, June 23, 1906, male and female in 
copulation ; also female marked 1906. Philomath, Oregon, Septem- 
ber 14, 1906, male. 



Sept., 19 16.] Davis: Two New Cicadas. 235 

Accompanying these specimens there is a pupa 20 mm. in length 
and 6 mm. across the eyes. It is an Okanagana pupa and probably 
belongs to this species. The long series of specimens shows this to 
be a distinct species. It is not the Cicada occidcntalis described by 
Francis Walker in The Naturalist in Vancouver Island and British 
Columbia by John Keast Lord, London, 1866, which is a much larger 
insect with different markings. 

From the collection of the University of Kansas I have received 
for study through the kindness of Prof. S. J. Hunter and Mr. R. H. 
Beamer, a female Okanagana that differs considerably from other 
members of the genus known to me. 

Okanagana rotundifrons new species. 

Type, female, Congress Junction, Yavapai Co., Arizona, July (F. H. Snow). 

A shining black and yellowish species with a conspicuously blunt and 
rounded front. 

Head as broad as the front margin of the prothorax ; the front blunt and 
rounded ; the median sulcus broad and shallow. Pronotum with the humeral 
angles rounded, and the anterior angles both rounded and deflexed. The last 
ventral segment is broadly and deeply notched. Fore wings with the basal 
areole oblong, square at apex, and very clear; venation, including the costal 
and subcostal veins, shining black, except along the inner margins of the costal 
and subcostal veins and at the base of the wings, which is straw colored. 
Flaps of the fore wings pinkish in color ; of the hind wings also pinkish but 
including a fuscous dash. Head above shining black, the supra-antennal plates 
yellowish except close to the eyes and the transverse groove above the front 
also yellowish. The front is shining black except a well defined line bordering 
the sides at the edge of the transverse rugse. Pronotum shining black, the 
hind margin and median sulcus yellowish, the remainder of the surface in- 
tricately mottled with yellowish and black. Mesonotum shining black, with the 
hind margin narrowly yellowish, also a yellowish spot near the base of each 
fore wing. The W-mark is nearly obliterated, only the outer lines showing 
faintly. Metanotum black with the posterior margin yellowish. Dorsum of 
the abdomen shining black with the hind margins of all the segments edged 
with yellowish. Beneath, the legs are black, touched, particularly at the joints 
and narrowly along the sides, with yellowish ; each abdominal segment is 
shining black at the base and yellowish on the posterior margin. The yellowish 
areas, both above arid below, are also shining. 

Measurements (in Millimeters). 

Female type. 

Length of body 25 

Width of head across eyes 8 

Expanse of fore wings 71 

Greatest width of fore wing 11.5 



236 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Vol. xxiv. 

While the type is so far the only known specimen, this species may 
be easily separated from all the other described members of the genus 
by the peculiarly blunt and rounded front and shining black and yel- 
lowish surface. 

Explanation of Plate ii. 

Fig. I. Okanagana oregona Davis. Type. 

Fig. 2. Okanagana rotundifrons Davis. Type. 

Fig. 3. Okanagana rotundifrons greatly enlarged to show rounded front. 



LOUIS H. JOUTEL. 

Entomologists will learn with regret of the death of Mr. Joutel at 
his home in New York City on September 6, 1916. He was well 
known as a natural history artist whose work was remarkable for its 
accuracy, and as a careful student of insects. He faithfully served 
the New York Entomological Society in many ways and for some 
years was its treasurer, until failing health prevented further ac- 
tivities. A more extended account of his work will be published in 
a future number of the Journal. 



CHRISTOPHER H. ROBERTS. 

As we go to press we learn of the death, on September 29, at 
Pawling, N. Y., of Christopher H. Roberts, a former president of the 
New York Entomological Society, and one of our best known mem- 
bers. A more detailed notice will appear in a later issue. 



Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 



Vol. XXIV. PL II. 






Cicadidse. 



Sept., 19 16.] Proceedings of the Society, 237 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE NEW YORK ENTOMO- 
LOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Meeting of May 2, 1916. 

A regular meeting of the New York Entomological Society was held on 
May 2, 1916, at 8:15 P.M., in the American Museum of Natural History, Presi- 
dent Harry G. Barber in the chair, with seventeen members and three visitors 
present. 

The Curator reported gift of insects from Natal from Mr. S. G. Rich. 

Mr. Wunder for the Outing Committee, brought up a Decoration Day 
meeting at Lahaway for discussion. The Secretary was instructed to put a 
notice in the Bulletin and further action was deferred to the next meeting. 

Mr. Schaeffer for the Publication Committee, reported progress and in- 
terest shown in the Van Duzee List. 

Dr. J. Bequaert read " Remarks on North American Nycteribiids," illus- 
trated by specimens of these bat parasites and the related Streblidae of similar 
habits, pointing out the comparative scarcity of Nycteribiidje in the new world, 
three species only being known out of fifty-four described in the family. The 
taxonomy of the family was discussed and will be published later. 

The paper was discussed by the President and Dr. Lutz. 

Mr. Watson exhibited A try tone sabulon, contributing a note in reference 
thereto, which will be printed in Miscellaneous Notes; also a small collection 
of Lepidoptera from the River Amazon, between Para and Manaos, collected 
by Dr. J. P. Thornley, on board a steamer during February ; and several boxes 
of Florida Rhopalocera, collected by the Museum Expedition of 1914. covering 
northern Florida, from Jacksonville to Pensacola, September 25 to October 21. 
Mr. Watson said that the total number of species and varieties was 73, of 
which 60 were found at Gainesville. The best single day's collection was on 
September 28 at Gainesville, when 35 species and varieties were taken ; but at 
Pensacola four males of Thanaos funeralis Scudder & Burgess, a species not 
heretofore recorded from Florida, were found. The complete record will be 
included in a forthcoming List of Florida Lepidoptera. 

Mr. Davis, after commenting on the skilful preparation of Mr. Watson's 
butterflies, spoke of the abundance of the dogshead butterfly at Wilmington 
and Southern Pines, N. C, he had noted during the past fortnight and of the 
excellent wild country near Southport, N. C, where he and Mr. Barber had 
also collected and where he had been able to personally experience the effects 
of rattlesnake bite without serious results. 

The snake, a small ground rattler, about nine or ten inches long was found 
disappearing in a pile of bricks, and its identity being unsuspected from the 
usual rattles being replaced by a small button, was_ seized by the middle, per- 
mitting it to turn and inflict a wound on one finger, followed by great swelling 
and, by the next morning, some giddiness and much discoloration of the af- 



238 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Vol. xxiv, 

fected parts. The specimen, fortunately young, was shown by Mr. Davis and 
the inconvenient but interesting experience served to corroborate Cope's men- 
tion of its occurrence in North Carolina, for Mr. Brimley's List, without in- 
terfering with his insect collecting. 

Mr. Barber added some further details of the interest locally excited by 
Mr. Davis's experience and spoke of the case with which Southport is reached 
by Atlantic Coast Line in about eighteen hours, and the excellent prospects 
for collecting there later in the season. There was no sweeping to speak of in 
the latter part of April and little sweeping, the collecting being mainly in 
beating pine and cedar. 

Mr. Davis spoke again of some of the friends he had visited, particularly 
of Mr. and Mrs. Manee, the latter being an able assistant to her husband, ob- 
taining interesting results from trowel investigations of suspicious holes in the 
ground, and of Mr. Schwarz and H. S. Barber, with his filial devotion to his 
senior. 

Mr. Dow exhibited beetles from Lahaway, offering any desirable specimens 
to his fellow members, and of the photograph of Mr. Shoemaker, taken to 
commemorate his fiftieth birthday. 



the; 

NEW YORK ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Organized June 29, 1892. — Incorporated June 7, 1893. 



The meetings of the Society are held on the first and third Tuesday of each month 
(except June, July, August and September) at 8 p. M., in the American Museum av 
Natural History, 77th Street and Eighth Ave. 

Annual dues for Active Members, ^3.00. 

Members of the Society will please remit their annual dues, payable in January, to 
the treasurer. 



OflScers for the Year 1916. 

Presidettt,\i. G. BARBER .... 12 Clay Ave., Rosalie Park, New Jersey. 

Vice-President, L. B. WOODRUFF 14 East 68th Street, New York. 

Secretory, CHAS. W. LENG 33 Murray St., New York. 

7reasurer,\\M.T. l)kV\'?> 146 Stuyvesant Places New Brighter. 

.Staten Island, N. \ . 

Librarian, YRA.1^K E. WATSON American Museum of Natural Historj 

New York. 

Curator, A J. MUTCHLER. . . American Museum of Natural History, New York, 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 
R C. OsBORN, Chas. E. Si.eight, R p. DnW 

Geo. p. Engelhardt, E. Shoemaker. - 

publication committee 
Chas. .Schaeefer, F. E. Lutz, W. P. Comstock, 

E. L. DlCKERSON. 

AUDITING COMMITTEE. 
C. F. Groth, G. W. J. Angell, John D. Sherman, Jr. 

EI ELD COMMITTEE. 

Chas. Wunder, A. S. Nkoiay 

DELEGATE TO THE N. V. ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 
WiLi.iAM T. Davis. 



vJOURK AI^ 



OF 1 HE 



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Vol. XXIV. 



No. 4. 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



NEW YORK 



Entomological Society, 



H)evote^ to JEutomoloa^ in (BeneraL 




DECEMBER, 1916. 

Edited by CHARLES SCHAEFFER 

Publication Committee. 
Charles Schaeffer. F. E. Lutz 

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Published. Quarterly t>y tine Socltity. 
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[Entered April 21, 1904,31 Lancaster, Pa., as second-class matter -"der Act of Congress of July 16, 1894.] 



'THE NEW ERA PRINT 



CONTENTS 



Louis H. Joutel. By Wm. T. Davis ... 239 

Biological Notes on Ceutorhynchus Marginatus Payk. By S. W. Frost . 243 

Notes Concerning Gastrophilus Haemorrhoidalis Linn. By R. R. Parker . . 253 

New Species of the Family Elateridae. By Chas. Schaefffr ... 256 

The Orders and Relationships of Apterygotan Insects. By G. C. Crampton 267 
The Ash Leaf Bug, Neoborus Amoenus Reut. By Edg. L. Dickerson and 

Harry B. Weiss ... 302 

Miscellaneous Notes 306 

Proceedings of the New York Entomological Society . . . 307 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

Vol. XXIV. DECEMBER, 1916. No. 4. 

LOUIS H. JOUTEL. 

By Wm. T. Davis, 

New Brighton, Staten Island, N. Y. 

More than half a century ago a number of families from France 
settled a short distance north of the Delaware River, in Delaware 
County, New York, at what was subsequently called French Woods, 
and there, on August 19, 1858, Louis Hippolyte Joutel was born. A 
little later his family removed to New York City, where he attended 
public school ; then the art school in Cooper Union, and being an 
exceptionally good observer he picked up considerable knowledge 
about a number of subjects. For about thirty-five years he lived in 
the house at 164 East 117th St. In early days the surroundings were 
much more rural, but the great city gradually became densely built 
over and the population about his home more and more crowded. 
The garden, however, in which he and his sister took such a keen in- 
terest, remained the same, or there were only those small changes 
brought about by the planting of more trees, the foliage of which was 
to serve as food for many broods of caterpillars. This garden was 
small, for the house stood on but a city lot, yet it contained a green- 
house, where cacti in particular were grown, also beds of flowers and 
about twenty §mall forest trees that with characteristic ingenuity 
had been strapped to the fence and were from time to time skillfully 
pruned to keep them within bounds. Here in this garden he and 
his sister carried on many experiments; numerous species of moths 
were reared and even crossed, some of the hybrids being remarkable 

239 



240 Journal New York Entomological Society. fVoi. xxiv. 

for their intermediate characters. In summer there were a number 
of aquaria in the garden and no pains were spared to rear gold fish 
of fantastic forms, and as many other species as would survive in 
so confined an area as a big glass jar or a tank. 

From this interesting home many excursions were made to Bronx 
Park, Fort Lee and other nearby places in New Jersey, to Staten 
Island and to Long Island, in search of specimens. Sometimes it 
was for insects, but often for plants and fish for the aquaria, in fact 
for anything in nature that appeared interesting and unusual. 

Many excursions were made to collect material in aid of his 
work, for Mr. Joutel was one of the most skillful natural history 
artists in America, and his knowledge of insects and their habits was 
a great asset in connection with his artistic work. His illustrations 
are well known. They will be found in some of Dr. Alpheus S. 
Packard's works, such as his Monograph of the Bombycine Moths of 
North America, in the reports of Dr. Ephraim P. Felt, state ento- 
mologist of New York; in some of the reports of the New Jersey 
state entomologist, in the Bulletins of the American Museum of 
Natural History and in many other publications devoted to entomol- 
ogy. Mr. Joutel was an illustrator for Harper and Brothers for a 
number of years, but when able, relinquished his work as a general 
illustrator and devoted himself to natural history subjects. This 
gave him a chance to investigate ; to go afield in connection with his 
work, and before ill health prevented, he was active in rearing many 
kinds of insects, as well as fish, frogs, etc. He even raised some 
land or box turtles in his little garden. Facts of interest in con- 
nection with his entomological investigations were often presented at 
the meetings of the New York Entomological Society up to the year 
1910. At the meeting of April 20, 1897, he exhibited about fifty 
species of beetles, mostly Longicorns that had been bred by him, and 
throughout the early published proceedings of the Society there is 
much information contributed by Mr. Joutel. 

In the summer of 1903 Mr. Joutel was ill and later had pneu- 
monia. Though he seemed at the time to recover from this attack, 
his illness gradually developed into consumption, but at his age the 
progress of the disease was not very rapid. No one was a better 
judge of his condition than he, not even the several doctors that 
examined him, and his shrewd observations on the matter, as indeed 



Dec, 1916.] Louis H. Joutel. 241 

on many other things, was what often made a call on Mr. Joutel 
so interesting. He would point out some nice little differences in the 
insects he had lately examined, show you a cactus that had been skill- 
fully grafted, or make some comical comments about himself. He 
certainly was most ingenious and had the ability to look at things, 
himself included, from several points of view. As to his skill in 
mechanical accomplishment, it may be stated that he decided to 
change the heating plant in his home, so he bought the materials 
and installed a hot water system, doing all the work himself. He 
said it was good exercise, for part of the day he would be sitting all 
too quietly drawing insects for Prof. Packard or Dr. Felt. 

It is to be regretted that Mr. Joutel did not publish more of his 
observations, especially on white ants, of which he gave several 
interesting accounts to the New York Entomological Society. In 
July, 1903, he wrote in a letter: " I had a sad accident happen to my 
white ants. The cats had a fight among the jars and the whole 
thing was destroyed. I spent the morning looking over the debris 
for a few pairs and found two, so I will have to start fresh. I cut 
up the logs I brought home and was fortunate to find an old queen 
in one and she is now laying lots of eggs. She is about so long 

, and does not seem able to walk alone, but with the help 

of the workers she moves about from one place to another," 

It has often been said that the Monograph of the Genus Saperda 
by Dr. Felt and Mr. Joutel was a model of its kind and in the preface 
to that work it is stated that "the junior author has undertaken the 
illustrations and systematic study of the species." His part in this 
work was probably his chief contribution to entomology, but his many 
fine plates drawn for Dr. Packard's monographs must not be forgotten 
in this connection. 

Mr. Joutel was recording secretary of the New York Entomo- 
logical Society from 1894 to 1897; treasurer from 1898 to 1903, and 
also served on many of the standing committees. The Society never 
had a better member ; one who was more willing to do his best for its 
welfare. He passed away September 6, 1916, and is buried in Green- 
wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York. 

Bibliography. 

1893. Some Notes on the Ravages of the White Ant (Termes flavipes). 
< JouRXAL N. Y. Ento. Soc, I : 89-90. 



242 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Voi. xxiv. 

1901. Note on Sesia Sigmoidea. < Journal N. Y, Ento. Soc, IX: 190. 
1901. Larva of Isochaetes Beutenmulleri on Staten Island, N. Y. < Journal 
N. Y. Ento. Soc, IX: 190. 

1901. A Self-Decorating Geometrid Larva. < Journal N. Y. Ento. Soc, 

IX: 191. 

1902. A New Species of Saperda. < Entomological News, 13: 33-34- 
1904. Monograph of the Genus Saperda (in conjunction with Ephraim 

Porter Felt). N. Y.' State Museum Bulletin 74, Entomology 20, 
Albany, N. Y. June, 1904. 

1906. Observations on Cicada tibicen L. and Allied Forms. (In conjunc- 

tion with Wm. T. Davis.) < Entomological News, 17: 237-239. 

1907. Philosamia Cynthia and Callosamia Promethea Crosses. < Journal 

N. Y. Ento. Soc, XV: 101-103. 
191 1. Phymatodes lengi, Joutel. < Journal N, Y. Ento. Soc, XIX: 198. 

In the published Proceedings of the New York Entomological Society are 
to be found many contributions by Mr. Joutel, the most important of which 
are as follows : 

Exhibition of Leptitra emarglnata found ovipositing in the branch of a 
white oak; meeting, October i, 1895. 

Notes on the life history of species of Saperda and Goes; meeting, Nov. 
19, 1895. 

Exhibition of Cyllene pictus and its borings in hickory ; meeting, March 

3, 1896. 

Exhibition of the cruel plant, Physianthns albens, with insects hanging 
from the flowers; meetings, October 6 and 20, 1896. 

On the breeding habits of beetles and exhibition of specimens ; meeting, 
April 20, 1897. 

On the protective habit of Cotalpa lanigera in drawing the edges of the 
leaves together; meeting, January 4, 1898. 

Ceruchus picens in decayed white birch ; meeting, February 15, 1898. 

Variety of Spilosoma latipennis with yellow forelegs; meeting, October 

4, 1898. 

Crioceris 13-punctata on Long Island, N. Y., and Callida punctata in 
Bronx Park; meeting, October 3, 1899. 

Exhibition of all of the described species of Saperda; meeting, February 
4, 1902. 

The ear-wig, Anisolabia maritima, common along the East River under 
rubbish ; meeting. March 4, 1902. 

Exhibition of reared specimens of Hydroecia appassionata, a rare moth ; 
meeting, October 21, 1902. 

Exhibition of Yania-mai moths showing variations in color; meeting, 
January 20, 1903. 

Food habits of Goes pulveriilenta ; meeting, April 7, 1903. 

On the stridulation of Cychrns viduns, meeting, October 6, 1903. 

Exhibition of species of Saperda from North America, Europe and Asia ; 
meeting, December 4, 1904. 



Joiini. N. Y. Eni. Soc. 



Vol. XXIV. PI. 12. 




Louis H. Joutel. 



Dec, 1916.] Notes on Ceutorhynchus marginatus. 243 

Observations on white ants; meeting, December 19, 1905. 

North American forms of the genus Strategits ; meeting, December 18, 
1906. 

Exhibition of pamphlet by Spinola, 1839, wherein are described and 
figured a few species of peculiar Coleoptera; meeting, January 15, 1907. 

The Ptinid beetle, Gibbium scotias, collected by Wm. T. Davis in the 
New York Produce Exchange; meeting, April 2, 1907. 

Exhibition of Cynthia and Promethea moth hybrids with remarks on the 
same; meeting. May 21, 1907. 

Some curious results of the crossing of Cynthia and Promethea moths 
and some interesting variations of Cynthia; meeting, November 19, 1907. 

Differences in the color of adult moths affected by feeding the cater- 
pillars in the dark; meeting, March 3, 1908. 

On the habits of the white ant. Vermes flavipes ; meeting, October 19, 1909. 

A Scarabaeid new to Long Island, Trichius texanus Horn, collected by 
Mr. Engelhardt ; meeting, March 15, 1910. 

Thelydrias contractus difficult to kill with bisulphide of carbon; meeting, 
May 3, 1910. 



BIOLOGICAL NOTES ON CEUTORHYNCHUS 
MARGINATUS PAYKULL (COL.).^ 

Bv S. W. "Frost. 

Ithaca, N. Y. 

During the past season the writer found the larvae of a small 
beetle feeding on the ovules and seeds of the dandelion. This insect 
attracted much attention, for little seemed to be knov^n about it. 
Specimens were sent to C. W. Leng, who identified them as Ceutor- 
hynchus marginatus Payk., a European species heretofore unknown 
to America. The abundance of the insect, its interesting habits, and 
undoubted economic importance induced the writer to make a study 
of its life history. 

At this point the writer wishes to express his thanks to Dr. Robert 
Matheson who has assisted greatly in correcting and arranging this 
paper. 

Historical. 

From an examination of the European literature it appeared that 

very little was known of the life history and habits of this beetle. It 

1 Contribution from the Entomological Laboratory of Cornell University. 



244 Journal New York Entomological Society. t^oL xxiv. 

was originally described by PaykuU (1792). Since that time several 
systematic papers dealing with this group have been published by 
various authors among which Gyllenhal, Schultz, Weiss, Bedel, Rye, 
Perris, and Edwards are the most important. Practically nothing 
has been published on its life history. Kawall (1867) gives a few 
notes on the larva of Caiiodes punctigcr Schh. {^= Ceutorhynchus 
margiiiatiis var. piinctiger Gyll.) occurring in the heads of dandelions. 
Perris (1876) verifies Kawall's observations and states further that 
C. marginatus Payk. occurs in the heads of Hypochccris maciilata, a 
plant belonging to the same group as the dandelion, Taraxacum 
officinale. 

Distribution. 

This species is common throughout Europe. It has been recorded 
from England, Germany, France, Italy, Turkey and from several 
places in northern Africa. In this country, as far as known, it is not 
widely distributed. It has been taken in New York, Massachusetts 
and Ohio. The writer has found the species abundant at Ithaca. 
Dryden and Freeville, N. Y. Other collectors have taken it at Padles- 
ford, Syracuse, Portage, Batavia, Sonyea, Holcomb, Nunda, and 
West Point, N. Y. 

Food Plants. 

The larva of C. marginatus feeds on the ovules and seeds of 
our common dandelion Taraxacum officinale. Kawall (1867) men- 
tions the same food plant. Bargagli (1883) states that he found 
the larvae working on a species of Trifolium. He also found the 
variety C. marginatus punctiger Gyll. feeding in the heads of Tar- 
axacum vulgare. Perris (1876) and Bedel (1888) give Hypochceris 
maculata, a plant belonging to the dandelion group, as a food plant. 
Heretofore there has been no records of the feeding habits of the 
adults. An observer at Syracuse, N. Y., reported that the adults 
were found on lettuce and were causing serious injury. The writer 
has seen the adults feeding on the leaves and stems of the dandelion 
making large scars on the stems and eating out irregular patches on 
the under surface of the leaves (Plate III, fig. 4). They have not 
been observed feeding on lettuce though close search has been made 
about Ithaca. 

It is interesting to note that most of the North American species 



Dec, 1916.] 



Notes on Ceutorhynchus marginatus. 



245 



of Ceutorhynchus, north of Mexico, which have been studied, forty- 
seven according to Chittenden, have been found on cruciferous 
plants. Blatchley and Leng (1916) state that C. ncgJcctns probably 
feeds on Polygonum sp. The species of Ceutorhynchus occurring in 
Europe have been found on many plants other than the cruciferse; 
Polygonum is mentioned by Blatchley and Leng, and Bargagli (1883) 
gives a long list of plants on which they occur. 

This beetle is evidently capable of playing an important part in 
checking the spread of the dandelion. The writer has observed that 
an enormous amount of seed is destroyed by the larvae of this beetle. 
When four or five larva; are present a large percentage of the seeds 
are destroyed. During the egg-laying period one thousand four 
hundred dandelion heads were examined to determine the percentage 
of infestation. These were gathered from five different localities 
about Ithaca, N. Y., and are representative. Sixty-five per cent, of 
the dandelions were found to be infested. The preceding summer no 
counts were made but the writer is of the opinion that the infestation 
was even greater. The following table gives the counts made in 1916. 



Number of Heads 
Examined. 


Number of Heads 
Infested. 


Number qf Heads 
Free. 


Percentage Infesta- 
tion. 


300 
300 
300 
300 
200 


220 
158 
141 
261 
128 


80 
142 
159 

39 

72 


73% 
52% 
47% 
87% 
64% 


1,400 


908 


492 


65% 



A number of counts was also made to determine the percentage 
of seeds eaten in a single flower head. 



Number of Larvae 


Total Number of 


Number of Seeds 


Percentage of Seeds 


Present. 


Seeds. 


Eaten. 


Eaten. 


2 


198 


38 


24% 


2 


186 


20 


11% 


4 


162 


84 


51% 


? 


169 


51 


31% 


2 


166 


86 


51% 


I 


137 


70 


51% 


? 


169 


63 


35% 


3 


186 


68 


36% 



246 Journal New York Entomological Society, [Vol. xxiv. 

Life History. 

On April twenty-six the beetles were first observed coming out 
of their hibernating quarters. A few days later egg laying com- 
menced. April thirtieth eggs were found abundant out of doors 
although pairs of beetles which were kept indoors did not commence 
laying until May 2. The writer had no difficulty in inducing the 
beetles to lay in captivity. 

Copulation lasts for five or six minutes. The male grasps the 
female about the abdomen with his middle and hind legs. His front 
legs are stretched forwards and the claws are hooked over the front 
edge of the prothorax of the female. A few minutes after copulation 
the female becomes nervous and wanders over the dandelion bud and 
finally comes to rest at the base of the bud with her head downward. 
She here proceeds to bore a hole into the bud with her proboscis. At 
first she eats her way through the involucre, then works her beak 
between the ovules until she forces it down its entire length into 
the bud. This takes her about nineteen or twenty minutes, after 
which she turns about quickly and lays her eggs through the hole 
she has made. The number of eggs laid in a single puncture varies 
from one to five. From an examination of over two hundred dande- 
lion heads two eggs were found to be the average number. It is not 
uncommon to find as many as three or four egg punctures in a single 
bud, so that a bud may contain as many as ten eggs. Infested buds 
are very conspicuous because of the black masses at their base formed 
by the milky fluid of the dandelion which oozes through the egg 
punctures and hardens on the outside. 

The eggs are laid throughout a considerable period of time. A 
number of experiments were carried on to determine the oviposition 
period. All the beetles used in these experiments were collected 
before egg laying was observed out of doors. The first eggs laid in 
captivity were on the second of May. During May eggs were very 
abundant but in June egg laying was greatly reduced and in July 
only a few eggs were laid. Thus the oviposition period lasts a little 
over two months. 



Dec, 1916.] 



Notes on Ceutorhynchus marginatus. 



247 



Table of Number of Eggs Laid by Ceutorhynchus marginatus Payk. 



Exp. 


April. 


May. 


No. 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


I 


2 


3 


4 


s 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


II 


12 


13 


14 


IS 


B 19 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


X 

X 






"&9i^^ 


X 
X 


2 
2 


4 

5 
5 


2 

3 

I 

5 
2 


4 

6 

9D. 

2 

5 
2 

2 
9L. 
2 
2 
X 


4 
2 

3 

2 

d"L.R. 


s 

3 

2 
2 

3 
3 

4 
I 


2 

2 

2 

I 
I 

I 
2 
2 

I 

X 


5 

I 

3 

3 
2 

C.8 
2 
6 
I 


6 

I 

7 

5 
I 

4 
I 


3 

I 
2 

3 

2 
I 


2 


3 

2 

I 
I 

2 

4 
3 
4 






B 20 
B21 
B 22 
R ''3 






B 24 

B ''5 


I 


9D. 


B rsf, 




B 27 
B 28 
B 29 
B31 
B 3'' 


2 

3 

7 


4 

4 
2 




B45 
B50 
B64 


6 
X 


4 


Exp. 


May. 


June. 


nJ. 


16 


17 


18 19 

1 ^ 


20 


21 


22 


2; 


24 


25 


26 


2/ 


28 


29 30 


I 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


B I 

B2 
B2 
B2 
B2 
B2 
B2 

B 2 

B2 
B2 
B2 

B3 
B3 
B4 
BS 
B6 


? 



I 

2 

3 

4 
5 
5 
7 
8 

I 
2 
5 


4 


4 

c. 

4 

2 
2 
6 


I 
3 

5 


2 


2 
2 

c. 


3 




3 

2 
2 

2 
2 

I 


2 


5 


c 


3 

K9 


L. 




2 

■ c.V ■ ■ 

cfD.R. 

4 
4 
C. 








c: 




2 


4 


5 


7 




3 


I 
2 





Exp. 


June. 


No. 


8 


9 


ID 


II 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


B 19 

B 20 
B 21 


' 
















I 

3 

C. 
2 










2 

• • 




d'L.R. 














B 22 
B23 
B 24 
B25 
B26 
B 27 
B 28 
B 29 
B31 
B 3? 


4 


2 














. . 


3 




2 

9L. 




3 






2 


2 






d^L. 


5 






B45 
B SO 
B64 












9D. 







248 



Journal New York Entomological Society. [Vol. xxiv. 





June. 


July. 




30 


I 


2 


3 


4 5 


6 


7 1 8 1 9 


B 19 
B 20 
B21 












d^9D. 


























2 












I 








B 22 




















B23 






















B 24 






















B25 






















B 26 






3 




9D.c^L. 












B 27 






c^9D. 












B 28 






















B 29 






















B31 




cfD. 
















9D. 


B32 










2 








B 45 




















B 50 






















B64 
























July. 


Total 

No. Eggs 

Laid. 


Exp. No. 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


B 19 


















35 


B 20 


















B21 


cTQD. 
















36 

I 


B 22 


















B23 
















cf 9D. 




g 


B 24 














c^D. 




2 


B25 


















25 
43 
13 
38 



B 26 
















I 


B27 




















B 28 


9D. 


















B 29 


















B31 




















38 

47 

73 

8 


B32 






d'D. 










9D. 




B 45 
















B 50 




















B64 


















9D. 


I 



X = Experiment started. C. = Copulation observed. D. =Dead. L. 

R. = Replaced. 



= Lost. 



Many of the flowers are deformed by the egg punctures of the 
female. Punctures at the base of the bud in their normal position 
do not interfere with the development of the flower but frequently 
the female makes a puncture near the top of the bud. In this case 
the individual flowers of the head become distorted about the puncture 
and the dandelion does not develop symmetrically. There may be 
other reasons for deformed flowers but a puncture near the top of the 
bud is certain to interfere with the normal development of the flower. 



Dec, 1916.] Notes on Ceutorhynchus marginatus. 



249 



The Egg. — The egg when laid is pale yellow or nearly transparent 
and looks like a minute drop of jelly. It is smooth, shining, and 
without any sculpturing. About a day before hatching the chitinized 
mandibles of the larva can be seen working beneath the egg shell. 
The shape of the egg varies somewhat. They are usually elliptical 
though frequently they tend towards ovoid. Length .6y mm., width 
.42 mm. 

Larva. — The larva is perhaps the most conspicuous stage of this 
insect. The adults while abundant are only seen in early spring and 
even then they are shy and like to hide away at the base of the plant. 
During May and June one can pick up a dandelion bud most any- 
where and be quite certain to find two or three fat grubs feeding on 
the seeds. 

Incubation Period of Ceutorhynchus marginatus. 



Exp. No. 


Eggs Laid. 


Eggs Hatched. 


No. of Days. 


B 30 

B ^i? 


April 30 

May 2 

6 

8 

22 

" 24 

" 24 

" 24 

June 23 


May 5 

5 
II 

" 13 

" 28 

June I 

I 

May 30 

June 29 


5 
3 


BS3 

B 63 


5 
5 


B 69 


6 


B3 

B 6 


8 
8 


B7 

B 78 


6 
6 











The eggs hatch in three to eight days. Although the young larvx 
take their first meal on the ovules they do not feed very much until 
the flowers have been fertilized and the seeds have commenced to 
develop. At this time the larvae feed ravenously, seeming to be aware 
that they must hasten their growth before the seeds become hard and 
dried. They burrow into the seeds, eating out the contents and 
leaving nothing but the seed coats. A single larva requires from 
fifteen to twenty seeds for its development and when several larvae 
are present nearly all the seeds of the flower head are eaten. If a 
dandelion head is opened at this time the presence of the larvae is 
very evident for great masses of excrement and excavated seeds fill 
the head (Plate II, fig. 4). 

The mature larva (Plate I, fig. 2) is a footless grub 5^ to 6 mm. 
long and i>4 mm. wide. It tapers gradually towards both ends and 



250 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Vol. xxiv. 

is widest about one third the distance from the caudal end. The 
divisions of the segments are distinct on the ventral side. On the 
dorsal side the segment are subdivided into smaller lobes, usually two. 
The last abdominal segment bears a fleshy proleg. The head is 
rather small and moderately chitinized. The eyes are missing and 
the antennae are represented by a minute protuberance near the lower 
end of the frontal sutures. 

The mandibles are not more heavily chitinized than the head 
except at the tips. These have two blunt teeth and a single seta on 
the outer margin. The epicranial suture is distinct ; the main arm 
extends to about the middle of the head, and the two branches extend 
nearly to the inner angle of the mandibles where they curve inwards. 
The front is rather small, and bears a pair of setae at its cephalic 
margin. The epicranium is not separated from the genae by sutures. 
It bears on each side four setae, one near the main arm of the epi- 
cranial suture and about the same distance from the point where the 
suture divides. A second seta laterad and slightly above the first. 
A third laterad of the branches of the epicranial suture, very close 
to it and about the middle of the suture. A fourth at the lower 
angle of the epicranium near the end of the epicranial suture. There 
are two setae oh the genae, the first is at the side of the head and 
about half way between the first and third seta of the epicranium. 
The second is lateral and below the fourth seta of the epicranium. 
The clypeus is distinctly set off by sutures and is about three times as 
broad as long. The labrum is distinct and bears a pair of large 
median setae and a small seta laterad of these. The under side of 
the labrum is complex. There are five pairs of sense cones and a 
pair on each of the outer margins. 

Cocoon. — The cocoons (Plate III, fig. 5) are formed very 
shortly after the larvae enter the ground. Several times I have 
noticed that larvae, which had fallen from the flower heads, had, on 
the following morning, formed their cocoons. The cocoons are 
rather regular and oval and formed of particles of earth joined 
together by a viscous substance which also lines the cocoon on the 
inside. They are very hard and retain their shape after the beetles 
have emerged, which is from 26 to 33 days after the cocoon is formed. 

Pupa. — About eleven days after the larva has formed its cocoon 
transformation takes place and a creamy white pupa is formed 



Dec, 1916.] Notes on Ceutorhynchus marginatus. 251 

(Plate I, fig. 3). There are thirty-four strong setae which support 
the pupa within its cocoon. Fourteen of these are on the dorsal side, 
three pairs along the middle, three setae on each of the posterior 
angles, and one seta on each of the anterior angles of the prothorax. 
On the head there are two pairs of setae; one pair on the middle of 
the head directly forward and a single smaller seta on each side of 
the head. The beak has two pairs of setae; one pair near the middle 
and a pair near the base. In addition to these there are a pair of 
setae on the outer angles of each pair of legs. The antennas appear 
to be joined near the base of the beak but as a matter of fact 
are joined near the tip, as in the adult, the long basal segment in 
the pupa being inclosed in the pupal skin. The last ventral abdominal 
segment bears a pair of chitinized hooks. Length 2.89 mm. Width, 
1.97 mm. 

Adult. — The adult (technically described by Blatchley and Leng, 
1916, p. 444) is a small beetle about three millimeters long, broadly 
ovate with a distinct white patch at the base of the elytra. The 
head, upper parts of the thorax, elytra and legs are dark, almost 
black, and coarsely punctured, while the under side of the thorax 
and abdomen are covered with whitish scales. The beak is long and 
has a pair of elbowed antennas inserted on the lower half (Plate I, 

fig- 4)- 

The adults are not very active and are rarely seen. They are 
shy and like to hide at the base of the plant. When the plant is 
jarred they drop to the ground, feigning death, the beak and legs 
drawn close to the body. They often remain on their backs for 
several minutes without moving. 

There is but one generation a year and the species hibernate as 
adults. All the larvae, under observation, formed their pupal cases 
immediately on entering the ground and emerged in 26 to 33 days. 
After the first two weeks of July no eggs or larvae could be found 
out of doors. The beetles seem to have disappeared. All the beetles 
which had been laying in captivity died off during the early part of 
July. In the fall the beetles were found very abundant among the 
pine needles at the base of pine trees. On November a large num- 
ber were separated from the needles. Again on February i the 
beetles were obtained by sifting the same kind of material. Trash 
from the fields where the beetles were abundant during the summer 



252 Journal New York Entomological Society. fVoi. xxiv. 

was examined without results. The beetles therefore leave the fields 
in fall and migrate to some sheltered place to pass the winter. The 
pine needles form a thick mat under the trees where C. marginatus 
was found very abundantly. 

One cannot help but admire the way in which the transformations 
of this beetle have been so fitly adjusted to the development of the 
florescence of the dandelion. The early stages of the beetle and the 
formation of the flower are synchronous. In order to appreciate this 
it is necessary to recall the formation of the dandelion bud. It first 
appears as a minute shapeless bud hidden in a rosette of leaves below 
the surface of the ground. This bud soon pushes to the surface of 
the groimd (Plate II, fig. i) and becomes inviting to the beetles, 
for it is at this time that the adults lay their eggs in the buds. 
There is a comparatively short period of time in which the female 
must seek the bud and deposit her eggs. The eggs must be laid in 
the bud while it is still young. If they are not laid at this early 
stage the larvae are unable to attain their full growth before the 
seeds ripen and become dried. Providing the eggs are laid at the 
proper time the larvae attain their full growth by the time the seeds 
ripen and the characteristic white floats of the dandelion are formed. 
As the ripened seeds separate the larvae crawl out and drop to the 
ground where they burrow into the soil for about an inch and form 
their cocoons. 

Literature Cited. 

Bargagli, p. Bassegna Biologica Rhincofori Europei, 1883-87. 

Bargagli, p. Bassegna Biologica Rhincofori Europei, Italian Ent. Soc, 
XVIII, pp. 3-27, 259-307, 1886. 

Bedel, L. Fauna des coleoptera du bassin de la Seine. Ann. Ent. Soc. Fr., 
VI, pp. 159, 170, 331, 427. 1888. 

Chittenden, F. H. Remarks on the Food Habits of Species of Ceuto- 
rhynchus. Bui. 23, n. s., p. 50. U. S. D. A. Div. Ent. 1900. 

Kawall, J. H. Coeliodes punctiger Schh. und Olibrus bicolor Fb. Stettin. 
Ent. Zeit., XXVIII, p. 117-118. 1867. 

Perris, E. Notiz bei Perris. Ann. Ent. Soc. Fr., p. 188. 1876. 

Von Paykull, G. Monographia Curculionum, p. 27. Fn. Sueciae, III, p. 211. 
1792. 

Blatchley, W. S. and Lend, C. W. Rhynchophora or Weevils of North- 
eastern America, p. 444. 19 16. 



Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 



Vol. XXIV. PI. 13. 







Ceutorhynchus marginatus Payk. 



Jo urn. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 



Vol. XXIV. PI. 14. 







Ceutorhynchus marginatus Payk. 



Joiirn. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 



Vol. XXIV. PL 15. 




Ceutorhynchus marginatus Payk. 



Dec, 1916.] Gastrophilus h^morrhoidalis Linn^us. 253 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

Plate 13. 



Fig. I. 


Eggs. 


Fig. 2. 


Larva. 


Fig- 3- 


Pupa. 


Fig. 4- 


Adult. 


Fig. 5- 


Pygidium of male. 


Fig. 6. 


Mandible of larva. 


Fig. 7- 


Head of larva. 


Fig. 8. 


Labrum and maxillae of larva 




Pl.^te 14. 



Fig. I. Dandelion rosette showing young buds at the time when the 
egg punctures are made. 

Fig. 2. Dandelion bud showing egg puncture through the involucre ; 
also blackened spots formed by the milky fluid of the dandelion which oozes 
through the egg punctures and hardens on the outside. 

Fig. 3. Eggs in situ. 

Fig. 4. Interior of flower head showing the work of the larva. 

Plate 15. 

Fig. I. Deformed dandelion flower (side view). 

Fig. 2. Deformed dandelion flower (looking into the head). 

Fig. 3. Adult. 

Fig. 4. Work of adults on a dandelion leaf. 

Fig. 5. Cocoons. 



NOTES CONCERNING GASTROPHILUS H^MOR- 
ROIDALIS LINN^US (DIPT.)' 

By R. R. Parker, 

Bozeman, Mont. 

While studying the bionomics of the Rocky Mountain spotted 
fever tick in the Powder River Valley in eastern Montana, during 
the season of 1916, the vi^riter was able to make several incidental 
observations on certain pests of cattle and horses. The most in- 
teresting of these concerned the nose fly, or redtailed bot, Gastrophilus 

1 Contribution from the Laboratory of the Montana State Board of Ento- 
mology, Bozeman, Montana. 



264 



Journal New York Entomological Society. [Voi. xxiv. 



hcemorrhoidaUs Linnaeus, and, to some extent, clear up the uncer- 
tainty concerning the reason why this fly is so obnoxious to horses. 

On July 7, Mr. R. W. Wells, the writer's assistant, brought in a 
specimen of the nose fly captured just as it was about to "strike." 
At the end of the ovipositor was a minute black object, apparently 
an tgg. Dissection of the abdomen proved this to be true and the 
peculiar shape of the egg at once suggested the cause of irritation 
to horses. Fig. i shows that it consists of two parts, an enlarged, 
laterally flattened portion and a slender, stalked portion. It seemed 
likely that if the latter should be thrust into the nose or lips of a 
horse, its penetration would undoubtedly cause a sharp pain sufficient 
to account for the nervous and sometimes uncontrollable fear shown 
by horses when the fly is " striking." The examination of several 
horses fully substantiated the supposition. Some eggs were found 
thrust in but a short distance, but most of them to the full length of 
the stalk. Due to their minute size they were somewhat difficult to 
discern, especially when the skin around the mouth was dark. They 
were found principally in the upper lip, but also in the lower lip and 
nostrils and doubtless may be inserted at other points near the mouth. 




Fig. I. Side and edge views of egg of Gastrophilns hamorrhoidalis. 
Fig. 2. Outline sketch of egg of Gastrophilns hccmorrroidalis : (i) 
Micropyle, (2) Cap in place and removed, (3) Developing embryo. 



Eggs dissected from the abdomen averaged 1.35 millimeters in 
length, the stalked portion slightly more than .50 millimeter. Except 
near the extremity of the enlarged portion, the chorion seems to 



Dec, 1916.] Gastrophilus h^morrhoidalis Linn^us. 255 

consist of chitinous bands. On the stalked portion these "bands" are 
widest and appear like a spiral, the margin farthest from the tip 
having the greater circumference. This gives the stalk the general 
appearance of a screw and the structure is patently adapted to hold 
the egg in the skin after insertion. Fig. 2 is an outline sketch to 
show the micropyle and the cap, the latter probably permitting the 
escape of the larva. Horses, immediately upon being " struck," 
often rub their noses and lips violently on the ground, posts, or other 
handy object. This action may loosen the cap, but apparently is not 
effective in dislodging the eggs. 

Both males and females were seen in the vicinity of horses, the 
latter greatly predominating. There is some reason to believe that 
copulation takes place on the wing in the vicinity of horses, but 
sufficient observations were not made to feel certain on this point. 

As noted at Powderville, Montana, the nose fly first appears 
about the middle of Tune and stays until the middle of July. This 
same period was that of greatest abundance for G. eqiii Fabricius 
and G. nasalis Linnaeus. The latter two species were afterwards 
seen occasionally until shortly after the first of September, when the 
field work was brought to a close. During the time when the nose 
fly is abundant horses are often irritated even by the buzzing of 
blow flies and others that make a similar noise. 

The above observations are interesting in view of the fact that it 
has been previously supposed that the eggs were fastened to hairs 
about the mouth, or according to one writer, in the vicinity of the 
anus. The fact that larvae may be found attached to the rectum may 
have been responsible for the latter idea. Several lots of larvae 
detached from the rectum and reared to the adult, proved to be 
Gastrophilus hccniorrhoidalis. 

The writer acknowledges his indebtedness to Mr. R. W. Wells, 
who assisted him in most of the observations made. 



256 Journal New York Entomological Society. fVoi. xxiv. 



NEW SPECIES OF THE FAMILY ELATERID^ 

(COL.). 

By Chas. Schaeffer, 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Alaus zunianus Casey. 

This species is placed as synonym under lusciosiis in our list. 
However, two specimens from Arizona received from Mr. G. Francl^* 
and others which I have seen show sufficient differences from lusci- 
osiis to entitle it to be restored. 

The thorax is more strongly sinuate before the basal angles, the 
outer antennal joints are slightly more transverse, the underside is 
covered with black scale-like hairs, with a large patch of white scale- 
like hairs on each side of prothorax and at sides of each abdominal ' 
segment a smaller white patch. The legs are covered with black 
hairs only and the last ventral segment is much more densely punctate 
with very few small punctures intermixed at middle. 

Aptopus subcarinatus new species. 

Elongate, piceous ; antennae, palpi, mandibles and legs testaceous ; pubes- 
cence short, greyish. Head moderately closely punctate ; antennae reaching 
far beyond the hind angles of prothorax, third joint very distinctly shorter 
than fifth. Prothorax as long as wide at base ; sides without acute margin, 
slightly arcuate to a little before basal angles; the latter divergent ; surface 
unequally punctate, a few larger punctures intermixed with the smaller punc- 
tures ; punctures well separated on the disk, a little more close near apex and 
sides ; hind angles rather feebly carinate, the carina not acute and almost 
obliterated. Elytra about two and one half times as long as the prothorax; 
sides feebly arcuatcly narrowing to apex ; striae feebly impressed and with 
moderate punctures. Prosternum finely and sparsely punctate ; propleurae 
densely punctate with small punctures ; metasternum moderately closely punc- 
tate and with larger punctures intermixed; abdomen finely and rather closely 
punctate. Length 8 mm. 

Huachuca Mts., Arizona (Schaeffer). 

Some specimens have the punctuation of prothorax a little stronger 
and closer, in these the dual punctuation is not so pronounced. 



Dec, 1 916.] New Species of Elaterid^. 257 

This species differs from peregriniis in more elongate form, 
shorter second and third antennal joints, finer and sparser punctua- 
tion and hind angles of prothorax distinctly divergent. 

Aptopus rugiceps new species. 

Elongate reddish brown ; antennae and legs slightly paler ; pubescence 
short, yellowish grey. Head very densely and rather coarsely punctate, punc- 
tures partly confluent ; antennae reaching far beyond the basal angles of pro- 
thorax ; third joint equal, or very nearly so, to the fifth joint. Prothorax 
subquadrate ; sides without acute margin, slightly arcuate to a little before 
basal angles, the latter not, or extremely feebly, divergent ; basal angles 
ebly carinate, the carina not acute ; surface densely punctate, with vmiform 
and moderately large punctures. Elytra about two and one half times as long 
as the prothorax at base ; sides feebly arcuately narrowing to apex ; striae 
moderately coarsely punctate ; intervals convex and sparsely and finely punc- 
tate. Prosternum closely punctate ; propleura very densely subconfluently 
punctate ; metasternum densely punctate ; abdomen more finely punctate. 
Length 8 mm. 

Huachuca Mts., Arizona (Schaeffer). 

Ther differences between this species and peregrinus are slight 
consisting only in generally larger size and coarser, denser punctua- 
tion of head, prothorax and propleur?e. 

Elater sanguinicollis new species. 

Red ; head, scutellum, elytra, prosternal spine, meso- and meta-sternum 
and coxal plates black. Head rather densely and moderately coarsely punc- 
tate. Antennae reaching not quite to the hind angles of prothorax; not 
strongly serrate, joints slightly longer than wide; third joint not triangular 
and as long or nearly as long as the fourth joint. Prothorax not coarsely 
nor densely punctate, punctures as usual stronger at apex and sides ; hind 
angles not bicarinate ; pubescence red. Elytra with scarcely impressed striae, 
the punctures moderate; intervals nearly flat and subrugosely punctate; 
pubescens short, black. Length 7.25 mm. 

Beaver Valley, Utah (Doll & Engelhardt). 

This species is best placed with coUaris and allies, though the an- 
tennal joints, especially the outer are slightly longer, than in that 
species. In Lecorite's table^ it would go near ncvadensis from which 
it differs in having a red abdomen, black pubescence of elytra and 
pale antennae. 

1 Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XH, 10. 



258 Journal New York Entomological Society, f^'o'- xxiv. 

In Dr. Leconte's table the majority of our species having the hind 
angles unicarinate are said to have the antennje strongly serrate and the 
joints not longer than wide. However, rithricoUis, apicatus and others 
have the joints rather longer than wide, especially the outer, and not 
strongly serrate. E. xanthomiis is also out of place in the table as 
the third antennal joint is triangular in both sexes and ought to go 
therefore with nigricollis, lintcus, discoidcus, etc. In "Revision of 
the Elateridae" Leconte describes the third joint correctly as tri- 
angular. These errors will cause a little trouble as also the omission 
of the number 13 in front of line 27 from the top in the table. 

Elater oregonus new species. 

Black ; legs, prothorax above and below, except prosternum, red, antennse 
brownish. Head somewhat coarsely, evenly punctate ; antennae feebly serrate ; 
joints longer than wide, third joint a little longer than second, not triangular, 
both together a little longer than fourth. Prothorax rather feebly arcuate 
at sides ; hind angles slightly divergent, unicarinate ; disk rather sparsely 
punctate. Elytra nearly parallel to about middle, then feebly narrowing to 
apex ; striae moderately coarsely punctate, punctures finer towards apexi ; 
intervals flat, very sparsely and generally uniseriately punctured. Meta- 
sternum rather coarsely punctate, abdomen more finely. Length 7.5 mm. 

Dilley, Oregon (coll. O. Dietz). 

The elongate antennal joints and bicolored upper surface would 
place this species with mixtns and pullus in Dr. Leconte's table, from 
both it differs in its red prothorax and unicolored black elytra. The 
antennal joints are slightly more elongate than in any of these two 
species. 

The prothorax is not entirely clear red, having on each side of 
middle near apex a faint, dark cloud, the posternum is reddish near 
apex and between the coxae, the last two ventral segments are brown. 

Megapenthes longicornis new species. 

Narrow elongate, ferruginous, head piceous, underside, antennae and legs 
paler. Head coarsely, densely punctate; antennae very elongate in the male, 
shorter in the female, second and third joints small, third a little longer than 
second, both together shorter than the fourth in the male, but about as long 
as the fourth in the female. Prothorax gradually narrowing to apex ; sides 
nearly straight in the male, feebly rounded in the female, hind angles not 
divergent ; surface moderately coarsely punctate. Elytra nearly parallel to a 
little behind middle, then arcuately narrowing to apex ; striae moderately 



Dec, 1916.] New Species of Elaterid^. 259 

deeply impressed ; intervals flat, not densely punctate, near base granulate- 
rugose. Prosternum and metasternum somewhat coarsely and sparsely punc- 
tate, abdomen more finely punctate. Length 8.75 mm. 

Huachuca Mts., Arizona (Schaeffer). 

A fairly common species. The antennal joints four to eleven of 
the male are very long, equal in length and not serrate ; in the female 
the joints are shorter and gradually decreasing in length and the 
form, as usual, is more robust. 

Megapenthes nigriceps new species. 

Form of rufilabris, color ferruginous, head piceous near apex paler. 
Head coarsely and rather densely punctate ; antennas in the male as long as 
head and prothorax together, second and third joints, small, fourth joint 
longer than second and third joint together, joints elongate and feebly ser- 
rate. Prothorax gradually narrowing to apex, sides scarcely arcuate, hind 
angles bicarinate, the inner carina fine and very close to the lateral margin ; 
surface punctate and moderately large, ocellate punctures. Elytra gradually 
narrowing from base to apex, striae moderately deeply impressed and punctate ; 
intervals flat, towards base granulate rugose, towards apex moderately not 
densely punctate. Prosternal side pieces more coarsely punctate than the 
prosternum ; metasternum, densely and rather coarsely punctate, punctures 
coarser at sides than at middle ; abdomen closely punctate. Length 8 mm. 

Brownsville, Texas (Schaeffer). 

The specimen described is a male and closely related to rufilabris 
from which it differs in color, longer antennal joints, coarser punc- 
tation of prothorax, relatively longer hind tarsal joints and rather 
deeply emarginate hind coxal plates. Both species, rufilabris and 
nigriceps have the hind angles of prothorax bicarinate and should be 
placed in section B of Dr. Leconte's table^ with angularis which dif- 
fers from both of these species in having the hind coxal plates trun- 
cate and a shorter third antennal joint. 

Megapenthes tarsalis new species. 

Form of rufilabris, black, front of head and prothorax yellowish-red, the 
latter above and below with a large, black spot, which extends narrowly to 
the anterior margin but not to the lateral nor basal margin ; basal margin of 
elytra also narrowly reddish. Head densely punctate; antennae with second 
joint very small, third nearly as large as the fourth, triangular. Prothorax as 
in rufilabris but hind angles not bicarinate ; surface moderately densely punc- 

1 Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XH, 6. 



260 Journal New York Entomological Society, [^oi. xxiv. 

tate. Elytra gradualy narrowing from base to apex ; strise deeply impressed ; 
intervals nearly flat, granulate-rugose. Metsternum rather coarsely and 
densely punctate. Abdomen more sparsely and finely punctate; first joint of 
hind tarsi very nearly as long as the following together. Length 6 mm. 

Southern Pines, N. C. (A. H. Manee). 

A neat little species, which was sent me several years ago, col- 
lected June 15, 1908. It resembles somewhat fully colored specimens 
of riifilabris in form and coloration but has a differently formed third 
antennal joint, a much longer first joint of hind tarsi and hind angles 
of prothorax unicarinate. 

Diplostethus (Ludius) opacicollis new species. 

Dark castaneous, underside, legs, antenna and palpi paler, above and 
below rather sparsely clothed with short fulvo-cinereous pubescence. Head 
coarsely and closely punctate ; antennae extending to a little below the elytral 
humeri, strongly serrate, joints three a little longer than second, the two 
together nearly as long as the fourth joint, eleventh joint slightly longer than 
the tenth and feebly appendiculate. Prothorax convex, slightly broader at 
base than long, sides feebly converging to about one third from apex and then 
arcuately converging to apex ; surface alutaceous, coarsely and closely punc- 
tate ; hind angles strongly, obliquely carinate. Elytra about two and one half 
times as long as the prothorax and rather strongly narrowing to apex, sutural 
angles feebly rounded ; surface punctate-striate ; intervals flat, moderately 
coarsely punctate, the punctures not very closely placed and not smaller than 
those of the striae, surface at base somewhat rugose. Prosternum shining 
and coarsely and moderately closely punctate ; side pieces dull with smaller 
punctures, intercoxal process a little behind the coxae suddenly and per- 
pendicularly declivous, intercoxal portion of mesosternum as in te.vaiius. 
Metasternum coarsely and not closely punctate. Abdomen more finely and 
sparsely punctate than the metasternum. Length 20 mm. 

Nogales (type) (Nunnenmacher) and Huachuca Mts., Ariz. 
(Schaeffer). 

This species is related to tcxamis and peninsnlaris. From the 
former it differs in the form of intercoxal process of prosternum and 
from peninsnlaris in having a dull, more densely punctate prothorax 
and the declivous portion of the intercoxal process of prosternum 
rounded in front above, which part forms in peninsuaris a small and 
rather sharp tooth. It seems to be also very close to the Mexican 
sctosus but that species has apparently a longer fourth antennal joint 
and denser pubescence on upper and under surface. 



Dec, 1916.] New Species of Elaterid^. 261 

Otto Schwarz in Genera Insectorum erects for our species of 
Ludius which have the intercoxal process of prosternum not suddenly 
and perpendicularly declivous a little behind the coxae, the genus 
Trichophorus using Liidius Eschsch. for Corymbites Latr. Following 
strictly the law of priority he may have been correct, but I do not 
agree with him in placing our Megapcnthes tartarens, aterrinius, 
Umhalis and Elater sturmii also in the genus Trichophorus. 

For those species having the intercoxal process of prosternum a 
little behind the coxae suddenly and perpendicularly declivous he 
erected the genus Diplostethiis and for the species having a parallel 
sided mesosternal fossa the genus Parallclostcthus. Our Liidius at- 
tenuatus and five Asiatic species are referred to this latter genus. 

Trichophorus carolinensis new species. 

Very close to texanus from which it differs in narrower, more elongate 
form, slightly longer antennae, prothorax more gradually narrowing to apex, 
generally more opaque surface and pubescence slightly erect. Length iS mm. 
Width 5 mm. 

Southern Pines, N. Carolina (A. H. Mance). 

This species is apparently what Leconte, Horn and Candeze con- 
sidered to be hepaticiis a species which, according to Champion, dif- 
fers generically from the North American species identified by Le- 
conte, etc., as that species. The true hepaticus is placed by O. 
Schwartz in Genera Insectorum in the genus OrthostctJius and only 
recorded from Brazil. 

Besides the locality given above I have some specimens from 
Roanoke Isld. and Wilmington, N. C. (Engelhardt & Pollard), from 
S. Carolina and two smaller specimens from Florida. 

Trichophorus substriatus new species. 

Elongate, rufo-castaneous ; underside antennae and legs scarcely paler. 
Head moderately coarsely and densely punctate ; antennaeae reaching to the 
hind angles of prothorax, third joint a little longer than second, both together 
slightly shorter than fourth. Prothorax about as long as wide at base; hind 
angles acutely carinate ; sides rather feebly converging to about apical fifth, 
thence feebly arcuate ; surface moderately closely punctate. Elytra a little 
longer than twice as long as the prothorax at base, rather strongly narrowing 
to apex; punctate striate, the fiist two or three near sutural striae obliterated, 
intervals flat and very closely punctate. Under side clothed sparsely with 
short, yellowish recumbent pubescence ; prothorax beneath rather coarsely 



262 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Vol. xxiv. 

and closely punctate ; metasternum rather finely punctate at middle, coarsely 
at sides ; abdomen finely and rather sparsely punctate at middle, punctures 
much larger at sides. Length 13.5 mm. Width 3.75 mm. 

Arizona, one male (coll. Dietz). 

This species is readily distinguished from similar species by the 
feebly impressed and partly obliterated elytral striae and shorter 
antennae. 

Trichophorus arizonensis new species. 

Elongate, rufo-castaneous ; underside, antennae and legs scarcely paler. 
Head moderately coarsely and closely punctate ; antennae reaching a little 
beyond the basal angles of prothorax; third joint a little longer than second, 
both together slightly shorter than the fourth joint. Prothorax slightly 
longer than wide at base ; sides slightly converging towards apex and near 
apex feebly arcuate ; hind angles acutely carinate ; surface with moderately 
coarse punctures. Elytra not quite two and one half times as long as the 
prothorax at base, punctate-striate, intervals rather flat and somewhat closely 
punctate, rugose near base. Prothorax beneath coarsely punctate ; meta- 
sternum coarsely punctate, finely at middle ; abdomen coarsely punctate on 
the first three segments at sides, finely at middle. Length 15 mm. Width 
3.5 mm. 

S. Rita Mts., Arizona, one male (Marsden). * ' 

This species resembles siihstriatus, described above, very much, 

but is a narrower and more elongate insect with longer antennae and 

distinct elytral striae. 

Trichophorus variatus new species. 

Elongate, dark castaneous to rufo-castaneous, underside, antennae and 
legs slightly paler. Head coarsely and moderately closely punctate ; antennae 
reaching a little distance below the hind angles of prothorax, third joint a 
little longer than second and both together a little shorter than fourth. 
Prothorax as long as wide at base; sides rather feebly converging to apex; 
hind angles acutely carinate ; surface not densely nor coarsely punctate. 
Elytra about two and one half times as long as prothorax; punctate-striate; 
intervals feebly convex, not very closely punctate and scarcely rugose near 
base. Prothorax beneath coarsely punctate, punctures generally rather widely 
separated ; metasternum and abdomen more finely punctate than prosternum. 
Length 1 5 mm. Width 4.2 nini. 

Brownsville, Texas (Schaefifer). 

This is rather a common insect near Brownsville from May to 
August and a variable species regarding size and color. The smaller 



Dec, 1916.] New Species of Elaterid^. 263 

more reddish colored specimens resemble the two previously de- 
scribed species, substriatits and arizonensis, very much. From suh- 
striatus it differs in having ditinct elytral striae and longer antennae. 
Arizonensis is a narrower and more elongate insect having the side 
pieces of prosternum much more closely punctate than variatits and 
ventral segments one to four of abdomen with rather numerous large 
and somewhat perforate punctures at sides of which there are only a 
few in variatus and much smaller. The metasternum is also much 
more coarsely punctate than in variatus. 

Orthostethus caviceps new species. 

Very elongate, shining, black ; rather sparsely clothed with short, yel- 
lowish-cinereous pubescence. Head coarsely and closely punctate, broadly 
excavate in front ; antennae of male extending to far beyond the hind angles 
of prothorax; joints two and three small, three a little longer than second, 
four to ten strongly pectinate, eleventh appendiculate, in the female shorter 
and strongly serrate. Prothorax slightly wider at base than long, obliquely 
narrowing to apex, hind angles long and acutely carinate and not incurved at 
tip, surface closely and coarsely punctate, punctures less closely on the disk, 
on the median line a more or less distinct smooth space ; thorax in the female 
a little shorter and broader than in the male with sides near apex arcuate. 
Elytra a little more than three times the length of prothorax; gradually nar- 
rowing to a little beyond middle then a little more strongly narrowing to 
apex ; sutural angles acute ; surface moderately closely and coarsely punctate 
without striae. Prosternum at apex and sides coarsely and closely punctate, 
smooth at middle; metasternum coarsely and closely punctate; abdomen 
moderately coarsely not closely punctate ; last ventral segment at apex feebly 
emarginate in male, entire in female ; mesosternum moderately raised, subhori- 
zontal. Length, male, 23.5 mm., width 6 mm. ; female, length 28 mm., width 
7 mm. 

Huachuca Mts., Arizona (Schaeffer). 

Males of this species were taken frequently by beating oak while 
females were very scarce. 

This species is very close to the Mexican pectinicornis and may 
prove on comparison to be the same. The Mexican pectinicornis 
was described from a single worn example, which may account for 
the color difference of elytra and underside. The Mexican species, 
however, is said to be somewhat thickly clothed with short, fine pubes- 
cence, the hind angles of prothorax incurved at tip and the proster- 
num coarsely and sparsely punctured, which all does not agree very 
well with the Arizona specimens. 



264 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Voi. xxiv. 

The mesosternum in caviceps and apparently pectinicornis also is 
somewhat intermediate between the species of Trichophoriis and 
OrtJwstcthiis. 

Agriotes brunneus new species. 

Form of pubescens, dark brown, antennae and legs slightly paler, pubes- 
cens yellowish-cinereous, short and sparse. Head coarsely and closely punc- 
tate ; antennae with second and third joints nearly equal and each slightly 
smaller than fourth joint. Prothorax as long as wide at base; sides from the 
basal angles to apex feebly converging, near apex slightly arcuate, surface 
opaque and coarsely and closely punctate with large ocellate punctures, deeply 
impressed medially near base, hind angles feebly divergent and feebly cari- 
nate. Elytra a little less than two and one half times as long as the pro- 
thorax, sides very feebly arcuate ; surface striate punctate, punctures elongate 
and close ; intervals nearly flat, closely and rather finely punctate, near base 
rugose. Prosternum shining, coarsely and closely punctate, side pieces dull 
and slightly less coarsely punctate than prosternum. Metasternum and ab- 
domen closely punctate, the latter more finely than the former. Length 1 1 mm. 

Beaver Canon, Utah (Doll and Engelhardt). 

This species is to be placed near fiicosus. It is slightly more ro- 
bust than that species and has an opaque and more densely punctate 
prothorax. 

Glyphonyx bimarginatus new species. 

Elongate, rufo-testaceous, prothorax and suture darker, legs and antennae 
yellowish. Head coarsely and rather closely punctate ; a small, longitudinal 
impression on the median line ; anterior margin feebly angulate ; antennae 
reaching beyond the hind angles of prothorax, second and third joints equal. 
Prothorax nearly parallel-sided to a little before apex ; hind angles feebly 
divergent ; lateral carina long, extending nearly to the apical margin ; inferior 
marginal carina strong and rather widely separated at apex from the lateral 
carina ; surface closely punctate at sides with moderate punctures, which are 
sparser at middle, from the middle to nearly to base a smooth median line. 
Elytra gradually narrowing to apex ; striae rather coarsely and closely punc- 
tate ; intervals feebly convex, sparsely and finely punctate. Prosternum 
sparsely punctate at middle, punctures a little larger at sides and apex ; pro- 
pleurae a little more coarsely punctate than prosternum at sides ; prosternal 
process acuminate, V-shaped and strongly margined. Metasternum coarsely 
and closely punctate ; abdomen moderately closely and more finely punctate at 
middle. Length 5 mm. 



Dec, 1916.] New Species of Elaterid^. 265 

Enterprise, Fla. (O. Dietz). 

The long, nearly entire lateral carina and the rather feebly angu- 
lated anterior margin of head will principally distinguish this species 
from its nearest allies. 

Glyphonyx quadraticoUis Champion. Biol. Cent. Am. Col., Ill, i, 536. 

A species which I have taken commonly in the Huachuca Mts., 
Ariz., agrees very well with the description of this Mexican species, 
which is said to be also common and widely distributed in Mexico. 

The color is piceous or reddish brown. Head coarsely and closely punc- 
tate. Prothorax subquadrate with sides parallel ; lateral carina extending 
nearly to apex, the inferior marginal carina distinct and sinuate behind, sur- 
face coarsely and rather closely punctate. Elytra punctate-striate, strize 
coarsely punctured ; intervals feebly convex, somewhat rugosely punctate. 
Presternum and propleurae with somewhat coarse, not closely placed punc- 
tures, prosternal process acuminate. Length about 6 mm. 

Huachuca Mts., Ariz. (Schaeffer). 

The above described bimargmatus, which has also a long, nearly 
entire, lateral carina, differs from pale colored specimens of this 
species in having a longer and less coarsely punctured prothorax and 
a more finely punctate prosternum and elytral intervals. 

Glyphonyx dubius new species. 

Elongate, piceous, antennae and legs paler. Head moderately coarsely, 
not closely, punctate; antennae reaching slightly a little beyond the basal 
angles of prothorax, second and third joints subequal. Prothorax subquadrate; 
sides nearly parallel ; hind angles feebly divergent, lateral carina long, nearly 
reaching to the apical margin ; inferior marginal carina entirely obliterated 
behind ; surface sparsely and rather finely punctate behind middle of disk, 
more coarsely and closely punctate at sides and apex. Elytra nearly two and 
one half times as long as prothorax at base ; striae punctate with moderately 
large punctures ; intervals feebly convex, rather sparsely and finely and not 
rugosely punctate. Prosternum and propleurae rather sparsely punctate ; pro- 
sternal process acuminate V-shaped ; metasternum at sides more closely punc- 
tate than prosternum ; abdomen finely punctate at middle, more coarsely at 
sides. Length 6 mm. 

Huachuca Mts., Arizona (Schaeffer). 

This species looks very much like quadraticoUis, mentioned above, 
but has a more finely punctate prothorax and elytra and the inferior 
marginal carina obliterated behind. It seems to agree with the de- 



266 Journal New York Entomological Society. [VoL xxiv. 

scription of the Mexican brcvicolUs, which has also the internal mar- 
ginal carina obliterated behind, but the prothorax is not " consider- 
ably broader than long " in the Arizona specimen. 

Glyphonyx ferruginosus new species. 

Elongate, ferruginosus, antennae and legs paler. Head moderately closely 
punctate ; antennae reaching to about the hind angles of prothorax. Prothorax 
subquadrate ; sides parallel, near apex slightly arcuate, hind angles feebly di- 
vergent ; lateral carina not extending to the middle, inferior marginal carina 
entire and slightly sinuate near base ; surface with moderate, well separated 
punctures. Elytra not quite three times as long as prothorax ; striae with 
coarse punctures at base, finer towards apex ; intervals feebly elevated and 
finely and sparsely punctured. Prosternum and propleurae with well separated 
moderate punctures ; prosternal process Y-shaped, metasternum more coarsely 
punctate at sides than prosternum, abdomen rather finely punctate. Length 
4.75 mm. 

Huachuca Mts., Arizona (Schaeffer). 

This species resembles closely tcstacciis, but has a differently 
formed prosternal process, which is in that species V-shaped. It 
seems to agree also with the description of the Mexican prcccox but 
the punctuation of the prothorax in the Arizona specimens cannot be 
called sparse and fine, the lateral carina does not extend quite to the 
middle, and the inferior carina is scarcely sinuate behind. All our 
species have a V-shaped prosternal process with the exception of in- 
quinatiis, if I have correctly identified that species, and ferruginosus, 
which have a Y-shaped prostgrnal process. 

Plastocerus granti new species. 

Elongate, very narrow ; sparsely pubescent ; dark castaneous, underside 
paler, legs, antennae and palpi testaceous. Head very coarsely and densely 
punctate ; eyes moderately prominent, width, as seen from the front, less than 
one half the interocular space ; antennae with third and fourth joints equal 
in size, fourth and following joints each with a moderately long ranius, the 
rami not as long as the interocular spase. Prothorax subquadrate, lateral 
margin acute, arcuate at about apical third and then feebly converging 
towards basal angles, which are rather strongly divergent and not carinate ; 
surface coarsely and densely punctate, the punctures acellate and more 
crowded at sides than on the disk. Elytra a little wider than the prothorax in 
its widest part, sides feebly converging towards apex; surface punctate- 
striate, punctures moderate ; intervals flat and rather sparsely punctate. 
Prosternum at about middle obliquely elevated into a moderately strong 



Dec, 1916.] Relationships of Apterygotan Insects. 267 

carina, rather sparsely punctate, sides pieces more coarsely and densely punc- 
tate ; abdomen moderately punctate. Length 9 mm. 

Southwestern Texas (Chapman Grant). 

A narrower and smaller insect than our other species of Plas- 
toccnis from all of which it differs in the carinate prosternum. The 
antennal rami are shorter, less densely ciliate and with shorter hairs 
than in schanmii or mcgalops and are nearly as in fratcr. 



THE ORDERS AND RELATIONSHIPS OF APTERY- 
GOTAN INSECTS.^ 

By G. C. Crampton, 
Amherst, Mass. 

The ancestors of the Arthropoda were, in all probability, very 
similar to Annelidan worms, and, although the Annelida, like all 
recent forms, have developed many characters peculiar to themselves, 
certain members of the group have preserved some exceedingly 
primitive features, which enable us to infer what the ancestors of 
Arthropods must have been like. 

Although the discussion of the probable lines of descent leading 
up to the development of the Insectan type of Arthropod is beyond 
the province of the present paper, it may be remarked that the 
" Apodidse " have departed but little from the condition which was 
doubtless characteristic of the ancestral Crustacea, and such Crusta- 
ceans as Apus and Branchippiis (which are not far removed from 
such Trilobites as Triarthrus, Neolcnus and Nathorstia) have de- 
parted but little from the probable ancestral condition of Arthropods 
in general. These Crustacea and Trilobita, then, present as nearly 
as any Arthropods now known, the characters present in the earlier 
forms, and enable us to gain some idea of what the common ancestors 
of the Arachnida, Merostoma, Trilobita, Crustacea, '' Myriapoda " 
{sensti lato), Hexapoda, etc., were like. 

1 Contribution from the Entomological Laboratory of the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College, Amherst, Mass. 



268 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^'oi- xxiv. 

In the development of recent Arthropoda, the lines of descent 
which have the most closely paralleled the line of descent of the 
Insecta, are those of the Crustacea, Diplopoda, Chilopoda and Sym- 
phyla (see fig. 2). Indeed, the Crustacea, " Myriopoda " ( i. e., Chi- 
lopoda, Diplopoda, and Symphyla) and Insecta, may be regarded as 
forming the three apices of a triangle, each of whose apices is con- 
nected with the other two by mutual bonds of relationship. Among 
the Crustacea, the Arthrostraca {c. g., Anaspides, Koonnnga, Bathy- 
nella, etc.) and have retained certain characters suggestive of the 
ancestral condition of insects, but, on the whole, the " Myriopoda " 
{sensu lata) and Scolopcndrella in particular, are more closely related 
to the Insecta than any other Arthropods. 

The parts of the head, legs, and abdominal appendages of the 
Apterygotan insects are strikingly like the corresponding parts of the 
" Myriopoda," and even with regard to their embryological details, 
the Apterygota are very like " Myriopods," as has been pointed out 
by Philiptschenko, 1912, Lignau, 1911, Heymons, and others. 
Furthermore, the points wherein the Apterygota differ most from 
higher insects, are those wherein they approach more closely to the 
" Myriopoda " and Crustacea, and from the standpoint of compara- 
tive anatomy and embryology, there can be no doubt that the Aptery- 
gotan insects are the most primitive — and have therefore departed 
the least from the probable ancestral condition of insects in general. 

Despite the fact that the paleontological record is confessedly in- 
complete, and notwithstanding the fact that such extremely fragile 
and rare insects (for they have apparently never been very numer- 
ous) could not be expected to leave many traces in the lower strata, 
which have been subjected to great pressure and upheaval, Hand- 
lirsch and his followers would use the lack of Apterygotan remains in 
the earlier strata as an argument against the view that the Aptery- 
gota should be regarded as the nearest living representatives of the 
ancestors of the Pterygotan forms. In their efforts to widen the 
gap between the Apterygota and Pteryigota, these authors would even 
go so far as to remove the Apterygota from the class Insecta (or 
Hexapoda) and would place them in a distinct class, or classes by 
themselves ! The fact remains, however, that from a morphological 
point of view (and aside from the presence or absence of wings) 
there is an infinitely wider gap between the Blattid?e and Chalcididse — 



Dec, 1916.] Relationships of Apterygotan Insects. 269 

which Handlirsch and his followers unhesitatingly group in the same 
class — than there is between the Blattidse and Lepismatidse — which 
they would not group in the same class. In the same way, an imma- 
ture Plecopteron such as a nymph of Peltoperla, is structually far 
closer to Lepisma than it is to Pulex, or any of the higher Ptery- 
gotan insects — and in the last analysis, comparative anatomy 
(whether it be the comparative anatomy of embryos, or of living or 
fossil adults) furnishes us with the only reliable material for de- 
termining relationships ! 

Since the Apterygotan forms, such as Lepisma, etc., are so closely 
related to the lowest Pterygota (such as the Blattidse, nymphs of 
Peltoperla, etc.) and since the various Apterygotan groups are 
intimately bound together by intermediate forms — as is also the case 
with the Pterygotan groups — the attempt to place the Apterygota in a 
class, or classes, not included in the class Insecta, is wholly unwar- 
ranted, and fails to take into consideration the fundamental struc- 
tural similarities which underlie all groupings based upon relation- 
ship ! The Apterygota are as much " Insecta " as the Pterygota are, 
and if the Apterygota are to be split up into several " classes," then 
the Pterygota also must be split up into several " classes " in order 
to be consistent. This, however, is neither necessary nor desirable, 
since the grouping of the class Insecta into two sub-classes, the 
Apterygota (or Apterygogenea) and Pterygota (or Pterygogenea) 
is based upon structural similarities, and expresses the actual rela- 
tionships with sufficient accuracy. 

Prell's division of the Insecta into two subclasses, the Anamercn- 
toma (Protura) which exhibit a postembryonic increase in the 
number of abdominal segments, and the Holomerentoma (all other 
insects), which exhibit no postembryonic increase in the number of 
abdominal segments, fails to take into consideration the close anato- 
mical relationship of the Protura to such forms as Tomocerns, etc., 
which exhibit no such postembryonic increase in the number of 
abdominal segments; and while Prell's subdivision is very useful from 
the standpoint of the study of the different types of "metamorphosis," 
the old subdivisions Apterygota and Pterygota (proposed by Brauer, 
and modified by Lang) are more useful from the standpoint of the 
study of relationships. In this connection, it may be further re- 
marked, that in such Dipterous larvae as Scenopinns, Thereva, Bibio, 



270 Journal New York Entomological Society, [^'"i- xxiv. 

Ceroplatus, etc., there is a sort of increase in the number of the 
abdominal segments, by the interpolation of " intercalary " segments, 
formed by the lengthening and demarcation of the intersegmental 
region — although this is not strictly comparable to the type of true 
segmental increase exhibited by the Protura. 

Although the Apterygota form a well-defined group, quite distinct 
from the Pterygota, I do not know of any key which will enable one 
who has no preconceived idea of the true nature of an insect (espe- 
cially with regard to the larval and wingless forms) to place it cor- 
rectly in every case. I would therefore offer the following key as a 
purely tentative effort to supply this lack. 

1. Mouthparts either retracted in cavity of head, or practically wanting, or 

not mandibulate 2 

Mouthparts not retracted in cavity of head, but mandibulate 3 

2. Ventral region of the abdomen bearing either styli, vestigeal legs or ven- 

tral tube Apterygota. 

Abdomen without styli, vestigeal legs, or ventral tube Pterygota. 

3. Abdomen with more than one pair of styli Apterygota. 

Abdomen with at most one pair of styli, usually none Pterygota. 

The styli referred to in the preceding key, are paired, movable, 
spine-like appendages, borne at the posterior margin of certain of 
the abdominal sternites, and are not homologous wtih the entire 
vestigeal legs, but are appendages of the basal segment of the legs, 
and occur on the meso- and metathoracic coxae in such insects as 
Machilis, and on the basal segment of the leg in certain "Myriopoda." 
The vestigeal legs mentioned in the key are true leg-vestiges — whether 
they are homologous with the so-called false legs (pseudopodia) of 
larval Lepidoptera, etc., has been questioned. The ventral tube 
(which represents the united vestigial legs of the first abdominal 
segment) is an adhesive organ situated in the mid-ventral line of the 
first abdominal segment, and may be large and columnar, or it may 
be reduced to the merest vestige, requiring close scrutiny to detect it. 

The Apterygota may be divided into two supersections, the Eusty- 
ligera, or styli-bearing Apterygota, and the Astyligera, or non-styli- 
bearing Apterygota, according to the presence or absence of styli in 
the two groups. 

The styli-bearing Apterygota (Eustyligera) are also cerci-bearing 
in all cases thus far observed, the non-cerci-bearing form " Aniso- 



Dec, 1916.] Relationships of Apterygotan Insects. 271 

sphccra" described by Tomosvary as related to the Lepismatidse, 
having subsequently been proved to be a larva of the beetle Cephen- 
niiim. The antennae are usually well developed and consist of more 
than six segments. No postantennal organ has been observed in 
members of this group. 

The second super-section, or non-styli-bearing group (Astyligera) 
usually lacks segmented cerci and forceps-like terminal abdominal 
structures, in addition to the styli. The " cerci " of Tomocerus and 
others of the group (to which Willem, Folsom, and others have called 
attention) are not segmented, and there is some question as to 
whether they are to be considered as strictly homologous with the 
true cerci of the other forms, although this point has not been suffi- 
ciently investigated to be definitely decided. The antennse may be 
lacking in this group, but if present, are usually composed of not 
more than six segments — although an " annulation," or " ringing " of 
the terminal segments, sometimes occurs. The postantennal organ, 
or its homologue, is frequently present; but may be wanting. 

All of the members of the non-styli-bearing group have mouth- 
parts of the concealed type (i. e., entognathous or cryptognathous) 
the mouthparts being retracted into the cavity of the head, as in 
Eosentomon, Tomocerus, Entomohrya, etc. On the other hand, some 
of the styli-bearing group have mouthparts of the concealed type (the 
mouthparts being retracted into the cavity of the head, as in Cam- 
podea, Japyx, etc.) while others of the group have mouthparts of the 
exposed type (ectognathous or gymnognathous) as in Lepisma, 
Machilis, etc. 

There are apparently three main lines of evolution represented in 
the Apterygota. In other words, the Apterygotan insects group 
themselves about three principal centers. These are represented by 
the Protura {e. g., Eosentomon, etc.) the Rhabdura {e. g., Campodea, 
etc.) and the Thysanura {Lepisma, etc.) and the insects forming 
these groups may be regarded as representing the three principal sec- 
tions of the sub-class Apterygota. 

The lowest or most primitive section of the Apterygota com- 
prises those insects which group themselves about the Protura (such 
as Eosentomon, Acerentomon, etc.) which have departed as little as 
any from the probable ancestral condition of the group as a whole. 
These insects form the section Proturadelphia or " Proturan-brother- 



272 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Voi. xxiv. 

hood " and are characterized as follows. Styli absent, and segmented 
cerci wanting, although unsegmented appendages termed " cerci " 
may be present in such forms as Tomoceriis, etc. Mouthparts of the 
concealed type in all of the members of the group. Uropods, or 
true abdominal legs usually present, either in the form of the vestigeal 
abdominal legs of the Protura, or the modified abdominal legs which 
form the ventral tube (columella), tenaculum, and springing appa- 
ratus (or furcula) of the other members of the section. Antennae 
may be absent as in the Protura, although Schepotieff, 1909, has 
figured and described them for " Protapteron " — but this is stated to 
be a "lapsus calami'' by Prell, and others. In other forms the 
antennae are usually short and composed of only six segments — al- 
though an "annulation" of the terminal antennal segments occurs 
in certain members of the group. The so-called " pseudoculus " of 
the Protura, and the postantennal organ of the other forms, are 
doubtless the homologues of Tomosvary's organ in the " Myrio- 
poda." In addition to this, the general character of the alimentary 
tract, the reproductive organs, the segmentation of the Q.g%, and the 
embryological development, etc., of the members of this group, 
clearly suggest " Myriopodan " affinities. Some of the families con- 
tained in this section (which is the only non-styli-bearing one) are 
the Eosentomidse, Acerentomidae, Neelidae, Sminthuridse, Achorutidae, 
Entomobryidae, etc. 

The second section (which is a division of the styli-bearing 
Apterygota) comprises those insects which group themselves about 
the Rhabdura (Campodea, etc.) forming the section Rhahduradelphia, 
or " Rhabduran-brotherhood." In some respects, such forms as 
Anajapyx are more primitive than the true Rhabdura (such as 
Campod.-'a), but the term Rhabdura, being better known, has, on this 
account, been chosen to illustrate the group as a whole. In the insects 
belonging to this section, styli are usually borne on the first seven 
abdominal sterna, but may be lacking on the first (Campodea). 
Cerci, in the form of paired segmented caudal filaments, or modified 
to form the forceps-like terminal abdominal appendages of Japyx, 
etc., occur in all of the members of the group thus far observed; but 
a median unpaired terminal caudal filament (characteristic of the 
next group to be considered) is always wanting. All of the mem- 
bers of this section have mouthparts partially or wholly of the con- 



Dec, 1916.] Relationships of Apterygotan Insects. 273 

cealed type (entognathous or cryptognathous), but a postantennal 
organ is usually wanting. Eyes are absent in most of the members 
of the group. The antennae are usually well developed and are 
usually composed of many segments. Segmented uropods may occur 
on the basal abdominal segment (as in Canipodea) although they are 
usually greatly reduced or lacking. Eversible sacs, etc., are found 
on certain of the abdominal sterna in some members of the group. 
There is usually a " Y "-shaped suture in the meso- and metasternum 
(of the thorax), and a longitudinal cranial suture, together with a 
transverse occipital suture, usually occurs in the insects of this sec- 
tion. The tarsi are usually apparently one-segmented, and the 
abdomen is composed of ten or eleven segments. Maxillary palpi 
apparently one- or two-segmented. Abdominal ganglia seven or eight 
in number. The principal families of this section are the Cam- 
podeidse, Projapygidse and Japygidae. The insects composing this 
group might in some ways be regarded as occupying a position some- 
what intermediate between the insects of the first section (Protura- 
delphia) and the one next to be considered. 

The third section (which is also a division of the styli-bearing 
Apterygota) comprises those insects which group themselves about 
the Thysanura {Lepisma, etc.) forming the section Thysamiradelphia, 
or " Thysanuran-brotherhood.'' Such forms as Machilis, or Prccma- 
chilis, are more primitive, or have departed less from the ancestral 
condition of the group, than the true Thysanura (such as Lepisma) 
have, but the designation Thysanura, being the best known of the 
terms applied to the members of the group, has been chosen to typify 
the section as a whole. Styli are found at least on the terminal ab- 
dominal segments of practically all members of the group, and in 
certain forms, such as Machilis, Pramachilis, etc., styli are borne on 
the coxae of the meso- and metathorax as well. Unlike the insects 
of the preceding section, the members of this group usually possess 
a median unpaired caudal filament, in addition to the paired caudal 
filaments or cerci, although the cerci may be absent in rare in- 
stances (Dasyleptus). All of the insects belonging to this section 
have mouthparts of the exposed type (ectognathous or gymnog- 
nathous). Segmented uropods are usually absent, and postantennal 
organs are wanting in the members of the group. The eyes are 
usually well developed, although absent in some cases, and the 



274 Journal New York Entomological Society, [^oi. xxiv. 

antennae are usually well developed and are composed of many seg- 
ments in most insects belonging to this section. When the caudal 
filaments are short, the antennae are usually correspondingly reduced. 
Protrusile sacs occur on certain of the abdominal sterna in some 
cases. Tarsi two or three-segmented, and abdomen with traces of 
eleven segments. Maxillary palpi four or five-segmented. Ab- 
dominal ganglia eight in number. Some of the families belonging to 
this section are the Machilidse, Lepismatidae, Gastrotheidce, etc. 

The relationships of these three lines of descent to the higher 
insects, and to the other Arthropods are rather puzzling. It may be 
remarked, however, that the Proturon type exhibits indications of 
affinities with such Plecoptera as Capnia, Leuctra, etc., on the one 
hand, and with such Crustacea as Bathynella and other Anomostraca 
on the other. The Rhabduron type offers suggestions of affinities 
with the Plecoptera (and the closely related Dermaptera) and with 
the Symphyla such as Scolopendrella. The Thysanuran type ex- 
hibits indications of a relationship with such Plecoptera as nymphs 
of Peltroperla on the one hand, and with certain Crustacea, such as 
Ligia, on the other. Since the Crustacea, " Myriopoda " and Insecta 
are so closely related, hov^^ever, it is merely to be expected some of 
the Apterygota would retain characters suggestive of a relationship 
to the Crustacea while others show a marked relationship to the 
" Myriopoda," since all are connected by mutual bonds of relation- 
ship, and members of the Apterygota would naturally retain char- 
acters suggestive of both Crustacea and " Myriopods." 

The Rhabduran section is, on the whole, more closely related to 
the Thysanuran section than to the Proturan section, but all three 
lines are rather sharply demarked and apparently represent three 
distinct lines of development, just as there are similar distinct lines 
of development in the Pterygotan insects. These three sections, too, 
exhibit differences of a greater value than that of distinct orders. 
Indeed, there is a far greater difference between Machilis and Cam- 
podea, than there is between Perla and Phasnia, and the difference 
between Machilis and Lepisma (or Nicoletia) is as great, or greater, 
than that between Mcropc and Sialis. Furthermore, if the latter 
examples represent distinct orders, then Machilis and Lepisma should 
be placed in distinct orders, to be consistent. The value which one 
will attribute to these differences depends upon the individual him- 



Dec, 1916.] Relationships of Apterygotan Insects. 275 

self, and as long as human nature remains as it is, we will have some 
who are "lumpers," and some who are "splitters." Of recent ento- 
mologists, however, those who are so " ultra-conservative " as to be 
unwilling to admit of more than one Apterygotan order, the " Aptera," 
are in a decided minorit}^ and one is led to suspect that they have 
either not made a detailed study of the insects in question, or an 
overweening desire for " unity and simplicity " has caused them to 
cling to a system of classification but little removed from the ancient 
Linnean one ! 

As time goes on, and as the structural details of the Apterygotan 
insects have been more carefully worked out, it becomes more and 
more evident that the general superficial resemblances between many 
of the insects classed together in the older -groupings, are far out- 
weighed by the differences in their morphological details. I would 
therefore fully agree with Handlirsch and his followers (such as 
Brues and Melander, Escherich, etc.) in their contention that the 
heterogeneous collections of insects comprising the old " orders " 
should be re-grouped into several distinct orders whose members are 
more closely related. 

In the following key, the greater part of the insects referred to 
belong to distinct orders although I would not maintain that this is 
true of all of them, as will be discussed later. In accordance with 
the quite widely accepted custom, I have designated the Apterygotan 
orders by terms ending in " -ura " (e. g., Protura, Rhabdura, Thy- 
sanura, etc.), rather than by Handlirsch's terms ending in " -oidea," 
since the latter termination is preempted by groups of superfamily 
rank (e. g., Muscoidea, Ichneumonoidea, etc.)- Handlirsch's method 
of using a well-known family name to typify the group as a whole, 
however, has much to recommend it, since it is self-explanatory, I 
have therefore made use of a modification of this method in the 
following key, merely for the sake of convenience, using the termina- 
tion "oides" (rather than the preempted termination "oidea") in 
connection with the name of a well-known family, thereby immediately 
calling to mind the representatives of the group as a whole. 

1. Styli and segmented caudal filaments or terminal forceps present 2 

Styli and segmented caudal filaments or terminal forceps wanting 7 

2. Mouthparts not retracted into cavity of head 3 

Mouthparts retracted or concealed in cavity of head 5 



276 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Vol. xxiv. 

3. With but one (the median) terminal caudal filament. 

Dasyleptoides (Mononemura). 
With three caudal filaments 4 

4. Head in frontal view deeper than broad. Styliform appendage usually 

found on coxa of meso- and metathorax. Tarsi usually three-segmented. 

Machioides (Trinemura). 
Head in frontal view broader than deep. No styliform appendage on coxa 
of meso- and 'metathorax. Tarsi usually two-segmented. 

Lepismatoides (Thysanura). 

5. Styli present on first abdominal sternum. Abdomen with terminal forceps, 

or with segmented cerci 6 

Styli wanting on first abdominal sternum. Abdomen with segmented cerci, 
whose terminal segment is imperforate .... Campodeoides (Rhabdura). 

6. Abdomen with segmented cerci whose terminal segment is provided with an 

apical aperture Projapygoides (Prodicellura). 

Abdomen with forceps Japygoides (Dicellura). 

7. Vestigeal legs of first abdominal segment united and modified to form a 

ventral tube (in some cases reduced to a mere vestige). Antennae usually 
present. Abdominal segments usually not exceeding six in number.... 8 
Vestigeal legs of first abdominal segment not united to form a ventral tube. 
Antennae usually absent. Abdominal segments usually nine to twelve in 
number Eosentomoides (Protura). 

8. Abdomen sub-cylindrical : segments usually distinct. 

Entomobryoides (Euarthrura). 
Abdomen sub-globular : segments wholly or in part grown together. 

Smithuroides (Synarthrura). 

There is some doubt as to whether the fossil Dasyleptidse con- 
stitute a distinct order, or are merely to be regarded as a suborder 
of the forms with three caudal filaments. The Projapygidae also 
might better be regarded as a suborder of the Dicellura (Japygidse), 
than as a distinct order. Brues and Melander group them with the 
Rhabdura (Campodeidse) in an order in which the Japyigidae are not 
included; but if the Projapygidae are not to be considered as forming 
a distinct order, they should be grouped with the Dicellura (Japy- 
gidae), since their afifinities are with the Dicellura, rather than with 
the Rhabdura (Campodeidae). Handlirsch and his followers regard 
the Entomobryidae and Sminthuridae as representing distinct orders, 
while Boerner (who gave them the names Arthropleona and Symphy- 
pleona) regards them as representing suborders rather than as dis- 
tinct orders. 

It is possible that such insects as Troglopedetes (family Troglo- 



Dec, 1916.] Relationships of Apterygotan Insects. 277 

pedetidoe), described by Joseph, may constitute an order or suborder; 
but, aside from the fact that they are strongly aberrant, blind forms, 
with four-segmented maxillary palpi, the known details of their 
anatomy are too meager to determine this point. 

The relationships of the different groups are brought out in the 
following descriptions, in which are discussed the more important 
characters of the different groups, which could not be treated in 
detail in the preceding key. 

Non-Styli-Bearing Apterygota (Astyligera). 

I. Section Proturadelphia. 

This section might be divided into two subsections, on the basis of 
the presence or absence of the ventral tube (or its homologue), but 
a further division is apparently unnecessary. 

1. Eosentomoides (Protura). — Styli absent. Cerci, or forceps- 
like terminal abdominal appendages, ventral tube, and springing 
apparatus wanting. Mouthparts retracted in cavity of head. Labial 
palpi present. Mandibles and labium somewhat similar to those of 
Tomoceriis, as is true of the ventral groove of the head region. 
Postantennal organ (the " pseudoculus ") usually present. Eyes 
wanting. The antennee described and figured for " Protapteron" 
(Eosentomon) by Schopotieff probably belong to some other insect, 
so that all members of the group thus far studied lack antennae, the 
forelegs being modified to serve as tactile organs in the place of the 
lost antennae. Abdominal segments of the adult insect usually twelve 
in number, although at first only nine — a postembryonic increase in 
the number of abdominal segments being peculiar to these insects. 
The basal two or three abdominal segments usually bear vestigeal 
legs. Abdominal ganglia usually six in number (Acerentulus). The 
principal families contained in the group are the Acerentomidse and 
Eosentomidse. 

2. Entomobryoides (Euarthrura). — Styli absent. Segmented 
cerci, or forceps-like terminal abdominal appendages wanting. The 
uropods (or abdominal legs) of the first abdominal segment are more 
or less grown together and modified to form the ventral tube 
(columella) whose vesicles are usually short and sac-like. The 



278 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^'o'- xxiv. 

uropods of the third abdominal segment form the tenacukim, when 
present, and those of the fourth or fifth abdominal segment form the 
springing apparatus (furcula) when present. Mouthparts retracted 
in cavity of head. Labial palpi wanting. Postantennal organ usually 
present. Eyes present or absent. Antennae usually four- to six- 
segmented. Head rounded and directed straight forward (prog- 
nathous) or obliquely downward. Body comparatively long, and the 
abdomen sub-cylindrical. Abdominal segments, which do not exceed 
six in number, usually free or distinct (whence the name Euarthrura). 
There is no postembryonic increase in the number of abdominal 
segments. Abdominal ganglia wanting, or united with the last 
thoracic ganglion. Heart with six pairs of ostia. The principal 
families of the group are the Achorutidse and Entomobryid?e. 

If the preceding group be regarded as of the value of an order, 
it might be divided into two suborders as follows: (a) The " Eupo- 
dura," including those forms in which the springing apparatus is 
usually well developed, and is generally attached to the penultimate 
segment (although in some Isotomas it is attached to the antepen- 
ultimate segment). The head is directed obliquely downward, and 
scales usually occur on members of this subdivision. Examples are 
Isotoma, Orchesella, etc. (&) The " Patiropodura," including those 
forms in which the springing apparatus is reduced or wanting, and 
when present is attached to the antepenultimate instead of to the 
penultimate segment. The head is directed straight forward, the 
body is usually granular, and scales are absent. Examples are 
Podura, Achorntes, Amirida, Ncanura, etc. 

3. Sminthuroides (Synarthrura). — Styli absent. Segmented 
cerci, or forceps-like terminal abdominal appendages wanting. Uro- 
pods of first abdominal segment more or less grown together and 
modified to form the ventral tube, whose vesicles may be long and 
tubular, or short and sac-like. Springing apparatus usually present. 
Mouthparts retracted in cavity of head; Labial palpi wanting. 
Postantennal organ usually absent. AntemicC, with few exceptions, 
elbowed and four-segmented. Head rounded and usually vertical in 
position (z. e., directed downward). Body short and abdomen sub- 
globular. Thoracic and abdominal segments more or less closely 
united (whence the name "Synarthrura"). No postembryonic in- 
crease in the number of abdominal segments. Abdominal ganglia 



Dec, 1916.] Relationships of Apterygotan Insects. 279 

wanting (or united with the last thoracic ganglion). Heart extend- 
ing backward only about one third the length of the abdomen, and 
with only two pairs of ostia. Tracheal system usually wanting, but 
when present is best developed in Sminthurus and Sminthurides. 
There is no anastamosing between tracheae of opposite sides of body 
as in higher insects. The principal families of the group are the 
Neelidse and Sminthuridse. 

Of the three groups mentioned above, the Protura are by far the 
most primitive, and have preserved many characters which were 
doubtless present in the ancestral insects. The Euarthrura (or 
Entomobryid group) are rather closely related to the Protura, but 
represent a somewhat degenerate and specialized offshoot which 
branched off from the Proturan line at a comparatively early period 
of development, and has become specialized in a different direction. 
The Synarthrura (or Sminthurid group) are very closely related to 
the Entomobryid group ; but on the whole are more highly specialized 
than the latter. 

Styli-Bearing Apterygota (Eustyligera). 

II. Section Rhabduradclphia. 

4. Campodeoides (Rhabdura). — Styli and paired segmented 
cerci present, but median caudal filament wanting. Mouthparts re- 
tracted into cavity of head. Apex of mandible dentate, with a 
dentate plate attached below it. Maxillary palpi one-segmented. 
Antennae slender, many jointed. Eyes and postantennal organ 
usually wanting. Transverse occipital suture distinct, and occipital 
region comparatively large. 'Body not scaled. Abdomen composed 
of eleven distinct segments (the eleventh being very small and 
reduced). First abdominal segment with a pair of uropods, or 
vestigeal abdominal legs, but no styli occur on the first segment. 
Styli and protrusile sacs usually occur on abdominal segments two to 
seven, inclusive. The long slender segmented cerci have no opening 
at the tip of the terminal segment for the discharge of glands (as 
in the Projapygidae). Anal laminae distinct. Abdominal ganglia 
seven in number. Spiracles confined to the thoracic region (three in 
number). Malpighian tubes represented by papillae. Ovaries simple, 
without ovarioles. Heart with nine pairs of ostia. This order con- 
tains the family Campodeidae. 



280 Journal New York Entomological Society. C'^^o'- xxiv. 

5. Projapygoides (Prodicellura). — Styli and segmented cerci 
present, but median unpaired caudal filament wanting. Mouthparts 
retracted, and mandibles similar to those of the preceding group. 
Maxillary palpi two-segmented (?). Antennas rather robust, or less 
slender than in preceding group. Eyes and postantennal organ 
usually wanting. Transverse occipital suture not distinct, and occi- 
pital region reduced. Body not scaled. Body composed of eleven 
distinct segments, the eleventh being reduced and covered by the 
tergum of the tenth. First abdominal segment with a pair of some- 
what cylindrical or conical processes, one on each side of the mid- 
ventral line : the first abdominal segment is also provided with a pair 
of styli (absent in the preceding group) which are somewhat long 
and cylindrical. Styli occur on abdominal segments one to seven 
inclusive. Two rather short, robust cerci composed of fewer seg- 
ments (about six in all) than in the preceding group, occur in these 
insects, and the terminal segment of each cercus bears an opening at 
the tip for the discharge of glands. Anal laminae distinct in adults. 
Seven abdominal ganglia. Seven pairs of spiracles in abdominal 
region. Malpighian tubules represented by five or six small short 
tubes or papillae. Ovarioles present. Heart with nine pairs of ostia. 
Foregut extends posteriorly to the fifth abdominal segment. This 
group contains the family Projapygiidse. Its position is intermediate 
between the Campodeidse and Japygidae, the type of mandibles, the 
segmented cerci, the presence of vestigeal malpighian tubules, etc., 
being Campodeidan characters; but the general character of the body 
(and its appendages, other than the cerci) is much more like that 
of the Japygidae than the Campodeidae, and if the group is to be 
regarded as a suborder rather than as an order, it should be placed 
with the Japygidae in the order Dicellura, instead of with the Cam- 
podeidae in the order Rhabdura — as Brues and Melander have done ! 

6. Japygoides (Dicellura). — Styli present, ' but the cerci have 
become modified to form a pair of unsegmented terminal forceps- 
like structures. Median terminal caudal filament wanting. Mouth- 
parts retracted. Mandibles with dentate apex, but the dentate plate 
found in the Projapygidce and Campodeidae is absent. Maxillary 
palpi two-segmented. Antennae rather robust or less slender than in 
Campodeidae. Eyes and postantennal organ usually absent. Occi- 
pital suture not distinct, and occipital region reduced. Body not 



Dec, i9i6.] Relationships of Apterygotan Insects. 28L 

scaled. Abdomen apparently composed of ten segments, the tenth 
and eleventh being more or less closely united. First abdominal 
segment with two submedian hairy papillae, and also bearing a pair 
of short stout spine-like styli (unlike the rather long slender styli 
of the Projapygidse) which likewise occur on segments two to seven 
inclusive. The cerci are represented by imperforate forceps-like 
terminal appendages. Anal laminae not distinct in adults. Eight 
abdominal ganglia. Seven pairs of spiracles in abdominal region. 
Malpighian tubules wanting. Seven ovarioles present. Foregut ex- 
tending posteriorly only to metathorax (not to fifth abdominal seg- 
ment as in Projapygidse). This order contains the family Japygidse 
(to which may be added the Projapygidse, if the latter are not to be 
regarded as representing a distinct group). 

The Campodeidse are more primitive than the Japygidae, although 
they are apparently not much (if any) more primitive than the Pro- 
japygidse. The Projapygidse, as was mentioned above, occupy a posi- 
tion intermediate between the Japygidas and Campodeidae. They are 
regarded by some investigators as the lowest of living insects but the 
Protura are more primitive in many respects (although they have 
become strongly modified in certain structural details). The Cam- 
podeidae and Projapygidse may possibly be regarded as occupying a 
position somewhat intermediate between the Protura and the next 
group to be considered. 

III. Section Thysanuradelphia. 

7. Dasyleptoides (Mononemura). — This group comprises the 
family Dasyleptidse founded on the fossil insect Dasyleptus lucasi, 
described by Brongniart as follows. Body cylindrical, tapering 
posteriorly, and terminated by a single multiarticulate filament, which 
is as long as the body. Antennse and legs robust. Head quite large. 
Prothorax very short, and meso- and metathorax, which are of equal 
size, much longer than the prothorax. Abdominal segments ten in 
number, and equal in size; the last, which bears a multi-articulate 
filament, a little longer than the others. Some specimens appear to 
have abdominal plates similar to those found in Machilis. The en- 
tire body (antennae, legs, thorax and abdomen) covered with numer- 
ous very short hairs. The body, including the terminal abdominal 



282 Journal New York Entomological Society, t'^'o'- xxiv. 

filament, varies from fifteen to twenty-two millimeters in length. 
This insect resembles Lepisma and Machilis morphologically, but 
differs from them in many respects chief among which is the occur- 
rence of but a single caudal filament. This group contains the family 
Dasyleptidse. Although here ranked as an order, the group (which 
is related to the Machilidas) may possibly be of the value of suborder 
only; but this point can be determined only upon a more detailed 
study than has been given the subject by Brongniart. 

8. Machiloides (Trinemura). — Three caudal filaments (a 
median unpaired terminal filament, and a pair of lateral filaments 
homologous with the cerci) occur in this group. Head usually 
directed downward (hypognathous), not flattened dorso-ventrally, 
but laterally compressed, in frontal view deeper than broad. Eyes 
usually large, and extending forward above the antennae are ap- 
proximate or almost contiguous above. They are composed of rela- 
tively numerous small ommatidia. Mouthparts of the exposed type: 
maxillary palpi usually seven-segmented. Pronotum usually shorter 
than mesonotum. Thoracic sterna not in the form of broad plates 
overlapping the coxee somewhat laterally (as in the next group to be 
considered). Coxae subcylihdrical : those of the meso- and meta- 
thorax usually provided with styliform appendages. Tarsi usually 
three-segmented. Abdomen composed of eleven segments, the ter- 
gum of the tenth not partially covering the eleventh. Body sub- 
cylindrical, tapering posteriorly, and is usually clothed with scales. 
Insects usually capable of springing. Abdominal ganglia eight in 
number. Seven pairs of spiracles in the abdominal region. The 
tracheae of one side of the body do not anastomose with those of the 
other side nor are those of the same side connected by longitudinal 
trunks, the tracheae being arranged segmentally. There are twelve 
malpighian tubules. Ovaries wtih seven ovarioles. Heart with nine 
pairs of ostia. This group contains the family Machilidae. 

9. Lepismatoides (Thysanura). — Two segmented cerci, in addi- 
tion to the median unpaired terminal caudal filament, occur in this 
group. The unpaired median filament according to Heymons, is 
merely a prolongation of the body which has become annulated, and 
is therefore not strictly comparable to the paired filaments, which 
are homologous with cerci. In this group, the head is usually directed 
forward (prognathous) and is flattened dorso-ventrally, in frontal 



Dec, 1916.] Relationships of Apterygotan Insects. 283 

view broader than deep. Eyes, when present, always small and 
situated on the side of the head, never extending above the antenna; 
or approximate above. They are composed of relatively few, large, 
separate ommatidia. Mouthparts of the exposed type. Maxillary 
palpi usually five-segmented (six-segmented in Thermophila) . Pro- 
notum usually longer than, or as long as the mesonotum. The 
thoracic sterna usually in the form of broad plates projecting some- 
what over the coxse laterally. Coxje usually broad and flattened; 
those of the meso- and metathorax devoid of styliform appendages. 
Tarsi usually two-segmented. Abdomen composed of eleven seg- 
ments, the tergum of the tenth usually partially covering the eleventh. 
Body usually depressed, or flattened dorso-ventrally, thus differing 
from the more cylindrical Machilidae, although Ridley describes a 
specimen of " Lepisma" corticula of which he states that "the chief 
peculiarity of this Lepisma is its very rounded back, resembling that 
of a Machilis rather than that of a typical Lepisma." The body is 
usually scaled, although in such forms as Nicoletia and the Main- 
droniidae, the scales are absent. Brues and Melander are thus not 
strictly correct in stating that in the members of this group " the 
body is always clothed with scales." The number of abdominal 
ganglia is eight, and there are eight pairs of spiracles in the ab- 
dominal region. The tracheae anastamose ventrally with those of the 
opposite side of the body, and those of the same side are connected 
dorsally by longitudinal trunks. Malpighian tubules six in number. 
Ovaries with five ovarioles. Heart with nine pairs of ostia. The 
principal families of this order are the Lepismatidae, Nicoletidae, 
Maindroniidse, and Gastrotheidse. With regard to the Gastrotheidse, 
it may be remarked that Silvestri, 19120, has shown that these insects 
belong to the Lepismid group, and that the supposed springing organ 
described by Casey is the ovipositor, which is somewhat similar to 
that of Atelura and related genera. Cook, 1901 (Proc. Ent. Soc. 
Washington, IV, p. 53) considered it so different from other insects 
that " he thought it necessary in consequence, to admit at least a new 
sub-order, which he would call Gastrotheoidea," and Handlirsch, 
1906, raised it to an order, although he thought this a matter of some 
doubt. Silvestri, however, has shown that the insect in question is 
one of the Lepismid group. 



284 Journal New York Entomological Society. [VoLXXIv. 

Summary. 

The principal points brought out in the preceding discussion may- 
be briefly summarized as follows. Crustacea (c. g., Bathynella, 
Anaspides, Ligia, etc.) " Myriopoda " {Scolopendrella, Scutigera, 
etc.) and the lower insects {e. g., Eosentomon, Anajapyx, Machilis) 
form the three apices of a triangle, each apex of which is connected 
with the other two by mutual bonds of relationship. These three 
groups are related to the Trilobita (such as Triarthrus, etc.), and 
through the Trilobites they are rather distantly related to Limulus 
and the Arachnids, but the Arachnid line of development diverges 
markedly from that of the three groups mentioned above as shown 
in fig. 2. The ancestors of Arthropods in general, were doubtless 
related to Annelidan worms and to Peripatus. 

The Apterygota have retained characters suggestive of both 
Crustacean and Myriopodan affinities, and some of the Apterygotan 
lines of development are nearer to the Crustacea than to the 
" Myriopoda " in certain respects, while others are clearly much 
nearer to the " Myriopoda." The Apterygota as a whole doubtless 
arose from ancestors occupying a position intermediate between the 
Crustacean and " Myriopodan " lines of descent, as shown in the 
diagram, fig. 2). The Apterygota are much more primitive than their 
nearest Pterygotan relatives (the Blattids, Plecoptera and Epheme- 
rids) and have departed the least from the probable ancestral condi- 
tion of the Hexapoda, despite Handlirsch's contention to the contrary. 

There are three main lines of development (possibly only two) in 
the Apterygota. These consist of the insects grouping themselves 
about the Protura, Rhabdura, and Thysanura, and they are divided 
into three sections termed the Proturadelphia, Rhabduradelphia, and 
Thysanuradelphia. The first group constitutes the non-styli-bearing 
Apterygota (Astyligera), while the last two constitute the styli-bear- 
ing Apterygota (Eustyligera). These may be further divided into 
seven or more orders represented by the Dasyleptidse ( ?), Machilidae, 
Lepismatidse, Campodeidse, Japygidse, Eosentomidse, and Entomo- 
bryidse (with the Sminthuridse ?). 

As a whole, the Eosentomid group is the most primitive. The 
Entomobryids, Sminthurids, etc., are rather closely related to the 
Protura, but represent more or less degenerate offshoots which 



Dec, 1916.] Relationships of Apterygotan Insects. 



285 



branched off at a comparatively early stage of development (see 
fig. I). 

The " Rhabdiiran " insects with their concealed mouthparts, vesti- 
geal first abdominal legs, etc., appear to approach the Proturan forms 
on the one hand, and also lead up to the Machilis-Vike forms w^ith 
well-developed cerci, styli, etc., on the other : so that they might be 
regarded as somewhat intermediate between the two groups, although 
their closest affinities are with the Thysanuran group (i. e., Machilis, 
Lcpisma, etc.). Such forms as Anajapyx serve to connect the 
Campodeidse with the Japygidse. 

The Thysanuran group {Machilis, Lepisma, Nicoletia, etc.) ap- 
proaches quite closely to the lower Pterygotan forms, the Plecoptera, 
Blattidae, and Ephemeridae being as nearly related to them as any of 
the Pterygota. 



LEPISM4T0II1E3 
UACHILOIDES 



CAUPODEOIDBS 
JAPYGOIDES 



PTEBYGOTA 



CRUSTACEA 



APTERYGOTA 
IJYBIOPODA 



EOSENTQUOIHES 

/EOTOMOBRYOIDES 
SMINTHUROIDES ONYCHOPHORA 
UMELIDA 



Fig. I 




ARACHNIDA 
MEROSTOMATA 

TRILOBITA 



The relationships of the principal Apterygotan groups are repre- 
sented in fig. I, while in fig. 2 the lines of descent of the more im- 
portant groups related to the Insecta have been shown. It is im- 
possible to represent the rather complicated interrelationships of the 
different groups in a figure drawn in one plane, since the various 
lines of descent approach one another from different angles, and it 
is practically impossible to represent this correctly without making 
such an intricate crossing of lines as to render the diagram almost 
unintelligible, and therefore useless. On this account, the discussion 
given above rather than the diagram, should be taken as setting forth 
the true relationships of the forms here described. 



286 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Vol. xxiv. 



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106, Heft I, pp. 1-227, 71 figs. 
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Gen. Exper., 4, p. xxix ; 5, p. xvii. 
1890. Uzel. Thysanura Bohemiae, in: Sitzb. K. Boehm. Gesell. Wiss., pp. 

1-82, Pis. 1-2. 



300 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Vol. xxiv. 

1895. UzEL. Studien ii, d, Entwicklung der Apterygoten Insekten, Berlin, 

1895. 
1897. UzEL. Beitr. z. Entwicklungsgeschichte von Campodea, in: Zool. Anz., 

20. 

1897. UzEL. Vorlauf. Mitteil. ii. d. Entwicklung der Thysanuren, in : Zool. 

Anz., 20. 

1898. UzEL. Studien ii. d, Entwicklung der Apterygoten Insekten, Kownigs- 

graetz, 1898. 
1802. Valckenaer. Hist. nat. d. Insectes Apteres. 

1895. Verhoeff. Cerci u. Styli der Tracheaten, in: Ent. Nachr., Jg. 21, pp. 

166-168. 

1896. Verhoeff. Z. Morphologic der Segment-Anhaenge bei Insekten u. 

Myriopoden, in: Zool. Anz., 19, pp. 378-383, 385-386. 

1897. Verhoeff. Bemerk, u. Abdominale-Koerperanhaenge bei Insekten u. 

Myriopoden, in: Zool. Anz., 20, pp. 293—300. 

1902. Verhoeff. Vergl. Morph. d. Laufbeine d. Opisthogoneata, in : Nova 

Acta. K. L. Acad., 81. 

1903. Verhoeff. Z. Vergl. Morphol. der Coxalorgane u. Genitalanhaenge 

der Tracheaten, in : Zool. Anz., zd, Nr. 687, pp. 60-77. 

1903- Verhoeff. U. d. Interkalarsegmente der Chilopoden mit Berueck- 
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1903, Bd. I, Heft 3, pp. 427- 

1903- Verhoeff. U. d. Endsegmente des Koerpers der Chilopoden, Dermap- 
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Halle, LXXXI, Nr. 5, pp. 259-297, Pis. 18-19. 

1903- Verhoeff. U. Tracheaten-Beine, 2 Aufsatz, in: Zool. Anz., 26, pp. 
205-214, 3 Aufsatz, in: Sitzb, Ges. Nat. Fr. Berlin, Nr, 2, 4-5 Auf- 
satz, in: Nova Acta Leop. Carol., Halle, 81, Nr. 4. 

1904. Verhoeff. Z. Vergl. Morphol. u. Systematik der Japygiden, in: Arch. 

Naturg., Jg. LXX, Bd. i. Heft i, pp. 63-114, 3 Pis. 

1904. Verhoeff. U. Vergl. Morphol. des Kopfes niederer Insekten, in: 
Nova Acat. Leop. Carol., LXXXIV, Nr. i, pp. 1-126, Pis. 1-8. 

1910. Verhoeff. U. Felsenspringer, Machiloidea, in: Zool. Anz. (3-4 Auf- 
satz), Bd. 36, pp. 385-399, 425-438. 5 Aufsatz, Bd. 38, 191 1, pp. 
524-563. 

1896. Vogler. Beitr. z. K. d. Springschwaenze, in: Illust. Ent. Wochensch., 
1896. 

1902. VoiGTS. Verzeichnis der i. Jahr 1901 um Goettingen gesammelten Col- 
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1899. Wahlgren. U. d. von der Schwedischen Polarexpedition gesemmelten 

Collembolen, in: Ofv. K. Vet. Foerh. Arg. 56, Nr. 4, pp. 335-340. 

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in: Ent. Tidsk. Arg. 20, Heft. 2-3, pp. 183-193. 

1900. Wahlgren. Collembola wahrend d. Schwed. Groenlands-Expedit. auf 

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1900, pp. 353- 



Dec, 1916-] Relationships of Apterygotan Insects. 301 

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Seanc. Soc. Roy, Malacol. Belgique, XXVIII, 1892. 
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Sminthures, in: Ann. Soc. Ent. Belgique, 41, pp. 130-132. 
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in: Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 41, pp. 225-226. 

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(Couronne) Sav. Etr. Acad. Roy. Belgique, Gent, 1899, 58, pp. 1-144, 
17 Pis. 

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in: Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1879, pp. 145-167, 2 figs. 



302 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Voi. xxiv. 



THE ASH LEAF BUG, NEOBORUS AMOENUS 
REUT. (HEM.)' 

By Edgar L. Dickerson and Harry B. Weiss,^ 

New Brunswick, N. J. 

This species was described by Reuter, who adopted the manuscript 
name of Professor Uhler. In his paper, " Bemerkungen iiber Nearc- 
tische Capsiden nebst Beschreibung neuer Arten," in which the de- 
scription appears under the name Tropidosteptes amoenus, he states 
that the above mentioned species is usually placed in American col- 
lections under the name Neohorus saxeus Dist., the light varieties 
under the name Neohorus amoenus Uhl., and that it cannot possibly 
be identical with Distant's species. He further states that in Neo- 
horus saxeus Dist. (Biol. Centr. Amer. Rhyn. Heter., I, 1884), p. 276, 
T. XXVI, f. 5) the first antennal joint is pointed out as being longer 
and dark, the ground color of the beak pitch brown, the femoral joint 
chestnut brown, etc., and that the North American species must there- 
fore be known as Neohorus amoenus Uhl., which is very variable in 
color, extending from the lightest varieties through all the variations 
to the darkest (see Uhler, Neohorus saxeus, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sc. (2), 
IV, 1894, p. 264), also that this species is distinguished from the re- 
maining species of the genus by the light antennae and by the colored 
tips of the sides of the pronotum, otherwise it conforms with them in 
all generic characteristics. 

In Van Duzee's check list of the Hemiptera of America, North 
of Mexico, it appears as Neohorus amanus Reut., with saxeus Uhl., 
as a name cited in error and the following varieties, palmcri Reut., 
plagiata Reut., signata Rent., and scutellaris Reut. 

In the same list its distribution is roughly given as Canada, Eastern 
states to the Mississippi Valley and eastern Canada. Smith in " In- 
sects of New Jersey " records it from New Brunswick on ash.^ It has 

1 Identified by Mr. H. G. Barber. 

2 The arrangement of the authors' names is alphabetical only and indicates 
neither seniority nor precedence. 

3 It has been found by the authors on the white ash (Fraxinus americana), 
green ash (F. lanceolata), red ash (F. pemisylvanica ipubescens)), and the 
English ash (F. excelsior var. pendula). 



Dec, 1916.] The Ash Leaf Bug. 303 

however a much wider distribution in New Jersey, having been found 
by the authors at Somerville, Milburn, South Orange, Kingston, 
Springfield, Irvington, Rutherford, Morris Plains and Elizabeth, and 
is undoubtedly a well-distributed species. 

When present in large numbers, the foliage of ash trees is damaged 
considerably by the adults and nymphs feeding on the undersides of 
the leaves, causing numerous white spots to appear on the upper sur- 
faces. The nymphs and adults are quite active, move about rapidly 
and feed singly. In severe infestations, the leaves become dry and 
somewhat curled. This is especially true of young tender leaves 
which have been additionally injured by egg deposition. In the lati- 
tude of New Brunswick, N. J., there are two generations, the first 
adults appearing the latter part of May or the first of June. Eggs are 
deposited in the midribs of the younger leaves and hatch in from ten 
days to two weeks. Each nymphal stage requires from four to eight 
days depending on the temperature, the average length of time con- 
sumed from egg to adult being about five weeks. Adults of the first 
brood are usually plentiful about the middle of July at New Bruns- 
wick, those of the second brood appearing the latter part of August. 
In the more northern parts of New Jersey they appear from one to 
two weeks later. On account of the somewhat extended oviposition 
period, it is quite possible to find later stage nymphs and adults present 
at the same time. 

Egg. — Length 0.4 mm., width 0.14 mm. The eggs which are 
translucent, flask-shaped, broad and rounded at the posterior ends are 
deposited in the midribs on the undersides of young, tender leaves. 
The whitish circular rim of the egg cap projects out a slight distance, 
but is effectively hidden by the pubescence on the midrib. In fact, on 
account of its hairy condition, the eggs as a rule are somewhat diffi- 
cult to find especially if they are deposited close to the leaf surface. 
Where many eggs are deposited in a rib, the leaf becomes somewhat 
curled. 

First Stage Nymph. — Length 0.6 mm. Body oblong, broadening 
posteriorly (in newly hatched specimens, narrowing posteriorly), ob- 
tusely pointed at both ends. Head triangular, eyes lateral, prominent, 
granular. Thoracic segments distinct, pro- and mesothorax of equal 
length, metathorax shorter. Abdominal segments distinct in newly 
hatched specimens, later becoming indistinct. Rostrum extending 
posteriorly beyond thorax. 



304 Journal New York Entomological Society, t^oi xxiv. 

Color. — Reddish brown, lighter posteriorly, light longitudinal me- 
dian line on thorax, curved transverse line on vertex of head. Legs 
and antennae white and somewhat hairy, more so on distal antennal 
segment. 

Second Stage Nymph. — Length 0.9 mm. Body ovate, head tri- 
angular, eyes prominent, lateral granular. Thoracic segments dis- 
tinct, broadest posteriorly. Prothorax longest, mesothorax slightly 
shorter, metathorax shortest. Abdomen rounded, broadest at middle, 
segments somewhat indistinct. 

Color. — Head and thorax dark reddish brown, light median line on 
thorax, curved transverse line on vertex of head. Abdomen light 
reddish brown. Legs and antennae yellowish white. Hairs of ap- 
pendages similar to those of first nymphal stage. Ventral surface 
reddish brown, sides and apex of abdomen lighter. Abdominal seg- 
ments distinct, margins laterally. Rostrum extending to third pair 
of legs with apical two thirds yellowish white. 

Third Nymphal Stage. — Length 1.3 mm. Body ovate, head tri- 
angular, eyes lateral, prominent, granular. Mesothorax longest, 
metathorax shortest of thoracic segments. Sides of thorax rounded, 
broadening posteriorly. Mesothorax broadest. Abdomen rounded, 
broadest anteriorly, segments distinct. 

Color. — Head and thorax dark brown, with median, longitudinal, 
light line. Curved transverse line on head. Abdomen light reddish 
brown, darker transverse, broken lines on several segments. Legs 
and antennae yellowish white, darker than in preceding stages. Ven- 
tural surface reddish brown, sides and apex of abdomen lighter. 
Abdomen and thorax with distinct margin. Rostrum extending to 
third pair of legs, apical two thirds yellowish white. 

Fourth Nymphal Stage. — Length 1.6 mm. Body oval, head tri- 
angular, eyes lateral, prominent, granular. Pro- and mesothorax of 
equal length, metathorax half as long. Thorax broadening posteri- 
orly, at sides meso- and metathorax extending posteriorly. Meso- 
thorax covering metathorax forming wing pads. Abdomen broadly 
rounded. 

Color. — Head and thorax dark brown, almost black. Light median 
longitudinal line on thorax meeting curved, transverse line on head, 
which extends to lateral margins in front of eyes. Eyes slightly 
lighter in color than head. Abdomen light, reddish brown, with 



Dec, 1916.] The Ash Leaf Bug. 305 

median, broad, transverse bands anteriorly. Legs and antennae light 
yellowish brown. Some nymphs of this stage have head light brown, 
thorax light, yellowish brown medially, dark, transverse, more or less 
broken bands extending across most of abdominal segments. Ven- 
tral surface yellowish brown except at margins of thorax. Rostrum 
extending to third pair of legs. 

Fifth Nymphal Stage. — Length 2.3 mm. Body oval, narrowing 
anteriorly, broadest at apical third of wing pads. Head triangular, 
eyes lateral, granular, more pronounced than in preceding stage. Tip 
of each granule is black giving a mottled appearance. Prothorax 
broadest at posterior end, sides margined, straight. Mesothorax 
slightly longer than prothorax and covering metathorax save at 
center. Wing pads extending posteriorly half the length of the 
abdomen. 

Color. — Head yellowish brown, with a median and lateral, longi- 
tudinal dark lines. Median line broadening transversely at base. 
Prothorax marked with dark bands at lateral and anterior margins 
and bands parallel to them. Wing pads mottled with darker markings 
at center and anteriorly. Abdominal segments darkened transversely. 
Entire dorsal surface light yellowish brown. Legs and antennae yel- 
lowish. Ventral surface yellowish white except at sides of thorax, 
which are reddish. Rostrum extending to between first and second 
pair of legs, apical two thirds whitish, tip black. 

Adult. — In O. M. Reuter's paper, " Bemerkungen iiber Nearctische 
Capsiden nebst Beschreibung neuer Arten," published in Acta So- 
cietas Scientiarum Fennicae, Tom. XXXVI, No. 2, p. 48, there ap- 
pears the following description of Tropidosteptes amoenus Rent. : 
" Oblongo-ovalis, colore variabilis, glaber, sat nitidus, superne, capite 
excepto, sat crebre et sat f ortiter punctatus ; rostro pedibusque lividis, 
extremo apice rostri articulique tertii tarsorum nigro, capite basi pro- 
noti 3/7 angustiore, ab antico viso distincte transverso (J*) vel lati- 
tudine postica parum vel paullulum breviore, genis oculo paullo magis 
quam dimidio {^) vel paullo (J) humilioribus, vertice postice tenuis- 
sime (J*) vel tenuiter (J) marginato, oculo ?eque lato (J*) vel hoc 
circiter 2/3 duplo latiore (5), medio plerumque impressione longi- 
tudinali instructo; rostro medium vel fere apicem coxarum inter- 
mediarum attingente; antennis gracilibus, articulo primo capite ab 
antico viso paullo minus quam 1/3 breviore, secundo primo magis 



306 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Vol. xxiv. 

quam duple et dimidio (J*) vel solum circiter duple ($) longiere et 
margini basali pronoti aequelengo ((^) vel hoc saltern 1/4-1/3 breviore 
(5) ; pronoti latitudine basali circiter 1/3-2/5 breviore, sat crebre, 
fortiter punctato, strictura apicali versus latera gracilescente callis 
tertiam apicalem partem baud superantibus, lateribus apicem versus 
distincte calloso-marginatis, intra marginem longitudinaliter impres- 
sis; scutello paullo subtilius punctato; hemielytris abdomen longe 
superantibus, marginale costali modice rotundatis, crebre punctatis. 
Long. 5, lat. 2 i/io (^)-2 1/2 ($) mm." 

In the same article, there also appears brief discriptions of the 
varieties palmeri, plagiata, signata, scutellaris. 







Explanation of Plate 16. 


Fig. 


1. 


Egg. 


Fig. 


2. 


First stage nymph. 


Fig. 


3. 


Second stage nymph. 


Fig. 


4. 


Third stage nymph. 


Fig. 


s. 


Fourth stage nymph. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fifth stage nymph. 


Fig. 


7. 


Adult (female). 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

Some Respiratory Structures of Dragonfly Larvae. — In the little 
Zygoptera or damsel flies, the respiratory arrangement is vastly dif- 
ferent from that of other dragonflies. These nymphs all have three 
big flat external gills, forming a sort of triple tail at the end of the 
abdomen. But what is most strange is that these nymphs will live 
if the external gills are all broken off. I could find nothing in the 
way of discovered fact about these insects except the old statement 
that the blackwing, Calopteryx, had as a nymph three gills in his 
rectum. I dissected four of the common small Agrionidse, includ- 
ing the common brown Lestes, blue Enallagma and others. Their 
rectum was the same as that of any insect, with just three glands in 
it; but in Argia putrida, I happened to work further forward, and 
in this creature I found that the intestine, just caudad of the Mal- 
pighian tubules, is expanded into a globular ampulla. On the sur- 
face of this ampulla are three fatty bags, well tracheated, one of 



Jo urn. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 



Vol. XXIV. PI. i6. 




Neoborus amoenus Reut. 



Dec, 1916.] Proceedings of the Society. 307 

them midventral, the others laterodorsal. I do not know that this 
is respiratory in structure, but it suggests the folds of the ^schnine 
forms. I did not see any of these nymphs draw water into the anus, 
but I did notice that one lived nine days without external gills. In 
the nymph of Calopteryx, I found a similar ampulla, and stranger 
still, another one just like it, also in the rectum. The fatty bags 
seem to be projections into the lumen of the rectum, but do not 
hang free into it. They are covered by a tough chitinous epithelium. 
— Stephen G. Rich, 

Rhynchophora in Maine. — While collecting in Cumberland Co., 
Maine, last summer, in the vicinity of Sebago Lake, I took the fol- 
lowing weevils, which are not reported from that state in Blatchley 
and Leng's Rhyncophora of Northeastern America, viz. : Apion puri' 
tanum Fall, Anthonomiis hamanielidis Pierce, Balaninus ohtusus 
Blanchard. — Alan S. Nicolay. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NEW YORK ENTOMO- 
LOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Meeting of May 16, 1916. 

A regular meeting of the New York Entomological Society was held May 
i6th, 1916, at 8:15 P. M., in the American Museum of Natural History, Presi- 
dent Harry G. Barber in the chair, with 14 members and one visitor present. 

The curator reported a revision of the Membracidae of the Local Collection 
by Mr. Olsen. 

Mr. Dow reported arrangements for Lahaway field trip, and the names 
of members who had indicated their intention of joining it for one or more 
days. 

Mr. Davis called attention to the forest fires at Wading River, Long 
Island, often visited by our members, and spoke earnestly of the useless dam- 
age done to Long Island through such fires. 

Mr. Leng exhibited a collection of the genus Tetracha, of which a great 
part was loaned by Mr. Harris, and called special attention to the recent 
increase in our knowledge thereof through the activity of Mr. Harris, Mr. 
Davis and the Museum expeditions of Dr. Lutz and Mr. Mutchler. 

Mr. Davis commenting thereon spoke of the differences between Tetracha 
Carolina var. floridana Mss. and allied forms and of comparisons he had made 
in Washington while visiting Dr. Schwarz. 



308 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Vol. xxiv. 

Mr. Barber read a paper on Nabidae, in which he reviewed the five genera 
and 22 species known from the United States, giving their distribution as 
follows : 

*Carthasis rufo-notatiis Champ., Panama, D. C, Md., N. J. (decorata 
Uhler and contrarius Reuter being synonyms). 

Metatropiphorus belfragei Reuter, Texas, Fla., N. C, D. C, N, Y., New 
Eng. 

Phorticus collaris Stal, Texas, Mexico. 

*Pagasa fusca Stein (including nitida Stal as synonym). Eastern U. S., 
N. Y., N, J., Neb., Mo., Tex., Ariz. 

P. pallipes Stal, western U. S. 

*Nabis (formerly known as Reduviohis Kirby) subcoleopfratits Kirby, 
N. E. U. S. (extremely common in Adirondack Mts.). 

*N. ferus Linn., common to U. S. and Europe. 

A'', capsiformis Germar, common to So. U. S. and Europe and almost 
cosmopolitan in tropical and sub-trop. regions. 

*A''. inscriptiis Kirby, common to No. U. S. and Europe. 

N. limbatus Dahlb., common to No. U. S. and Europe, also Colo. 

N. flavomarginatus Scholtz, No. U. S. and Europe, also Colo. 

*N. annulatus Reuter, E. U. S. 

*N. propinqtins Reuter, E. U. S. (vicarius Reut.). 

*N. roseipennis Reuter, E. U. S. 

*A''. rufuscuhts Reuter, E. U. S, (assimilis Uhl.). 
• *N. sordidus Reuter, E. U. S. (pallescens Reut.). 

N. heidemanni Reut., Cal. 

N. kalmice Reuter, Wis. 

N. constrictus Champ. (A Mexican species, specimens from near Wash- 
ington, D. C, have been determined as such by Mr. Reuter.) 

N. nigriventris Stal, S. W. U. S. and Mexico (sericans Reut.). 

N. crassipes Reut., S. W. U. S. and Mexico. 

N. chenkeanus Kirkaldy, So. U. S. 

The species marked with asterisk have been found within 50 miles of 
N. Y. City, though in single instances in some cases. The New Jersey List 
cites most of them, though some are under synonymous names. It also cites 
sericans Reut. (a synonym of nigriventris) and kalmice Reut., neither of which 
are likely to occur so far east ; kalmice being very close to ferus, the New 
Jersey record may be based on that species. 

Mr. Barber spoke also of the predaceous habits of the species, of their 
occurring in both brachypterous and macropterous forms, and of their taxo- 
nomic characters, praising in this connection the work of the late O. M. 
Reuter of Finland. 

In the discussion that followed, Mr. Barber was urged to prepare a syn- 
optic key for the Journal. 

Mr. Mutchler exhibited the enormous larva of an African Goliath beetle, 
Dr. Bequaert spoke of their being found in decayed wood and of their being 



Dec, 1916.] Proceedings of the Society. 309 

eaten by the natives, commenting on which Mr. Dow remarked that he had 
found the astringent taste of similar larvae unpleasant. 

Mr. Weiss exhibited the stages and work of the introduced boxwood leaf 
miner {Monarthropalpus bu.vi Lab.), now established at Rutherford, Eaton- 
town, Far Hills, Gladstone and Peapack, in New Jersey. 

Mr. Schaeffer recorded Dermestes pulcher, found at South Amboy, N. J., 
by Mr. Schott. 

Mr. Davis exhibited Cicindelidae obtained from Franklin Sherman, Jr., 
which will be recorded in Miscellaneous Notes, and a species of Lyctus found 
injuring shelves in the pantry of a house on Long Island. 

Meeting of October 3, 1916. 

A regular meeting of the New York Entomological Society was held Oct. 
3, 1916, at 8:15 P. M., in the American Museum of Natural History; President 
Harry G. Barber in the chair, with 17 members and six visitors present. 

The Curator announced the date for the first Saturday afternoon meeting, 
Oct. 28, and the subject, Bruchidae. 

Mr. Dow reported for the Lahaway Committee that the plantation formerly 
owned by the late J. Turner Brakeley had been bought by his onetime super- 
intendent, Wm. H. Horner, and that visitors would be entertained by him at a 
rate of $7.00 per week. The Decoration Day outing had been attended for 
from one to four days by Mr. and Mrs. Dow, Mr. and Mrs. Leng, Dr. Bequaert 
and Messrs. Davis, Schaeffer, Olsen and Engelhardt. The collecting had 
proven far ahead of that found at Lakehurst, and the Weekly Messenger had 
been printing an account of the place and its visitors ever since. 

Mr. Leng added an appreciation of Mr. Dow's hard work in making the 
excursion successful. 

The Secretary read a letter from Mr. Joutel, dated May 16, announcing 
the death on May i of Julius Meitzen, aged 80 years, a former member of the 
Society, and on motion a minute is hereby entered expressive of the sorrow 
of the Society. 

Mr, Davis announced the death, on Sept. 6, of Louis H. Joutel, aged 58, 
an active member and former Treasurer and Secretary of the Society, reading 
an account of his life and entomological achievements, which will be printed 
in the Journal. On motion, the Secretary was instructed to write Mr. Joutel's 
sister, conveying the sorrow and sympathy of the Society. 

Mr. Sherman announced the death, on Sept. 29, of Christopher H. Roberts, 
aged 64, a former President of the Society, and briefly reviewed his long con- 
nection with this and the Brooklyn Entomological Society and his work with 
aquatic coleoptera. Mr. Sherman engaged to write an obituary notice for the 
Journal and the Secretary was instructed to write Mrs. Roberts. 

The President then called for brief outlines of the Summer collecting 
accomplished by the members. 

Mr. Sherman said he had spent ten days tramping and collecting Cole- 



310 Journal New York Entomological Society, tvoi. xxiv. 

optera in the White Mountains with Mrs. Sherman and Messrs. Dodge and 
Sheriff. He found the ponds too full for the best water beetle collecting but 
took an extraordinary number of Carabus chamissonis at Lake of the Clouds; 
and a specimen of Cicindela longilabris under a stone at over 5,000 ft. eleva- 
tion. Mr. Sherman also exhibited the first description of Coleoptera in an 
American work, being the description of Anisandrus pyri by W. D. Peck, in an 
article entitled " On the Insects which Destroy the Young Branches of the 
Pear-tree and the Leading Shoots of the Weymouth Pine " in the Mass. Agl. 
Rep. and Journ. for Jan., 181 7. 

Mr. Olsen spoke briefly of his collections of Hemiptera in Massachusetts, 
Pennsylvania and Long Island, saying that he had not found insects numerous 
this year. 

Mr. Dow said he had been on the go all summer, having made two trips 
to Claremont, N. H., two to Williamstown, Mass., and several to Lahaway ; 
the specimens taken, of which he exhibited the first box, he placed entirely at 
the service of his friends, reserving only certain special desiderata for Messrs. 
Davis, Olsen and Bequaert. 

Dr. Ottolengui, one of the charter members of the society, described his 
journey through Alberta, Vancouver, California and the Grand Canyon, his 
pleasant visits with Mr. Sanson at Banff' and Van Duzee at San Francisco, 
and told of some of the rare Plusia, etc., he had secured, in part from Mr. 
Sanson. He dwelt especially on the abundance of Pamphila on a flowering 
hedge in Vancouver and again on blue aster-like flowers at Grand Canyon and 
on the number of Longhorn beetles found at dusk on the hotel wall in the 
Canadian Rockies. 

Mr. Shoemaker spoke of his collecting experiences at Washington, D. C, 
in the Catskill Mts., and on Long Island, recording especially the capture of 
two butterflies, Colias eurytheme near east New York and Apatura clyton, 
found on silver poplar where beetles had caused the sap to flow, butterflies of 
southern distribution and rare on Long Island. 

Dr. Lutz spoke of his journey with Mr. Rehn to Tucson and several of the 
mountain ranges of southern Arizona, leaving New York the latter part of 
June, and ending with a visit to Los Angeles and San Francisco, where he met 
Nunenmacher, Van Dyke, Van Duzee and other California entomologists at a 
meeting of the Pacific Entomological Society. He spoke especially of the 
excellent results of using a cheesecloth tent with lanterns inside for light 
collecting and of the insects collected at light in Texas while the train was 
detained in a swamp. 

Mr. Engelhardt said his principal journey through southern California to 
Puget Sound was devoted mainly to marine invertebrates but with some 
entomological work included. Dr. Fenyes was visited in Pasadena, also 
Fordyce Grinnell, with whom he had a 30 mile walk through the Sierra Madre, 
and Dr. Van Dyke in San Francisco. 

The ascent of Mt. Hood with blizzard weather alternating with a sun- 



Dec, 1916.] Proceedings of the Society. 311 

shine that brought out plenty of insects and a visit to Yosemite National Park 
were also features of his journey. 

Mr. Harris described, as the principal result of several weeks in the 
White Mts., the location of Cicindela ancocisconensis on the watershed of the 
Israel River, a tributary of the Connecticut River, it having previously been 
known to occur in the White Mts. only in the Saco River valley, along the 
Glen Road near Ellis River, where his father found it in 1850. Mr. Harris 
exhibited also a box of Cicindela limbalis received from Col. Wirt Robinson, 
who had taken them at West Point, N. Y., and read a card from Dr. Walther 
Horn dated July 29, sending greetings to his American friends from the 
German field hospital on the Russian border. 

Mr. Nicolay said his summer had been spent in Cumberland County, 
Maine, five miles from Sebago Lake ; at Sudbury, Vermont, and at Lake 
Minnewaska, N. Y. In Maine the conditions proved similar to those found 
in northern New York, though the elevation was only 1,200 ft. Many good 
beetles were found, including Anthophilax malachiticus and Pachyta rugipennis, 
but black flies and mosquitoes were unpleasantly abundant. 

Mr. Woodruff spoke of many short trips made to Litchfield, Conn., 
Yaphank, Rockaway, Lakehurst, sometimes with other collectors and particu- 
larly of the dragonfly results. 

Mr. Davis in consideration of the late hour, spoke very briefly of his 
summer activity in North Carolina, Virginia, New Jersey and New York, but 
took pains to call attention to a specimen of Papilio palamedes found by 
Edward Burns, June 18, 19 14, at Fort Wadsworth, Staten Island. 

Mr. Dickerson said he had been in the field practically every day, engaged 
in nursery inspection work with Mr. Weiss, and would report later the more 
important results. 

Mr. Leng exhibited European Rhynchophora found near Batavia, N. Y., 
wihle with Mr. Knight, Mr. Davis and Dr. Bradley in June; also an ap- 
parently new species of Syncalypta found at the same time. 

Mr. Barber spoke enthusiastically of the collecting near Washington, 
D. C, and especially about the Great Falls. 

Mr. Herbert Barber, upon the President's invitation, spoke also of the 
collecting about Washington and the species apparently brought there from 
considerable distances by the Potomac River; but said he was unable to devote 
much attention to it on account of the time required to find enough myriapods 
to feed the long-lived Lampyrid larvae that were the special subject of his 
biological work, though rare species were occasionally thus found at night, as 
shown by a fine pair of Cychriis ridingsii. He said he now had the complete 
life history of one species of Phengodes, and partial histories of others. 

Mr. Engelhardt proposed a trip to Yaphank for Sunday, Oct. 8, to show 
Mr. Barber that locality for Phengodes. 



312 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Vol. xxiv. 

Meeting of October 17, 1916. 

A regular meeting of the New York Entomological Society was held Oct. 
17, 1916, at 8:15 P. M., in the American Museum of Natural History, Presi- 
dent Harry G. Barber in the chair, with 20 members and five visitors, includ- 
ing Mr. W. S. Wright of San Diego, Cal., Dr. J. Bequaert and Mr. Edw. Burns, 
present. 

Mr. Wunder exhibited the Society's album of photographs and Mr. Davis 
commented on the skill with which they had been mounted and labeled. 

Mr. Dow spoke of the " Insects of Lahaway," reading extracts from the 
Allentown Messenger and exhibiting a box of specimens which he placed at 
the service of the members. In part he said that the collecting at Lahaway 
had been scarcely sampled, the more careful methods like sifting and sugaring 
having been greatly neglected ; and in view of the great area of uncultivated 
land in that part of New Jersey, he felt that many interesting captures re- 
mained to be made. 

Mr. Olsen exhibited the Hemiptera he had taken at Lahaway, representing 
76 species and 53 genera, saying that they represented the usual run for the 
vicinity. He pointed out EuschisHts servus and Notonecta uhleri as especially 
interesting captures. 

Mr. Davis read an extract from his journal written after his return from 
the Decoration Day trip to Lahaway, in which the intermediate position of 
Lahaway between pure pine barren and better land to the west was indicated 
and its cranberry bogs and sandy patches were described, while its natural 
condition was reflected in the mention of deer, fox, coon, opossum, snakes and 
birds. The abundance of red cedar was stated to emphasize the difference 
between it and the white cedar swamps of Lakehurst ; and the patches of 
lupine and Cypripedium acaule were recalled in connection with the sports 
their long undisturbed growth had developed. Mr, Davis exhibited the rare 
Hyla andersoni, which was quite common, a chain snake 39 inches long, a worm 
snake 12^2 inches long (and exceeding the length stated in the books) as 
additional evidence of the almost virgin character of the great forests of 
Lahaway. He also showed many photographs taken during his visit, two 
maps of the region and a small part of the insects he had taken, pointing out 
especially an unusually dark specimen of Cicindela rugifrons, specimens of 
Attelabus bipustulatus, with oak leaf showing the half-moon shaped cut with 
which it commences to roll the leaf, Manfispa interrupta, collected by Mr. 
Dow in September and the following Orthoptera : 

Gryllus assimilis Fabr. 

Nomotettix cristatus cristattis Scudd. 

Eutettix carinatus Scudd. Previously reported by Dr. Fox from Camden 
and Cape May Counties, N. J., but not recorded from the State in the N. J. 
List of 1910. 

Arpliia sulphnrea Fabr. 

Chortophaga viridifasciata DeGeer. 

Hippisctis phoenicopterus Germ. Nymphs. 



Dec, 1916.] Proceedings of the Society. 313 

Atlanticits sp. Nymph. 

Mr. Leng showed some of the beetles he had caught, calling attention 
especially to the Rhynchophora found on the pines, beach plums and huckle- 
berries, among which were Anisandrus pyri, one of the first beetles described 
by an American author, and Rhinomacer pallipennis, one of the new species 
recently described by W. S. Blatchley. 

Dr. Bequaert said he had taken a great quantity of Hymenoptera and 
Diptera, but unfortunately his unfamiliarity with the American species pre- 
vented a complete report. However, he could say that Methoca bicolor, of 
which the life history appeared in the August number of Psyche, was one 
interesting capture because as a parasite on Cicindela larvae, it was always 
found in sandy places. Melitara prodenialis, raised by Mr. Olsen from larvae 
found in Opuntia leaves was especially interesting among the Diptera. 

Dr. Forbes said that in looking over the Geometers found by Mr. Davis 
he noticed an aberration of Apcccasia dedjtctaria Walker that was remarkable 
for its suffused color. 

Mr. Weiss exhibited the following insects of tropical American origin 
found in greenhouses in New Jersey : 

Cholus cattleya: Champion, and Dioryniellus lavimargo Champion, new 
weevils recently described. 

Diprion simile Hartig, a European sawfly found at Rutherford, South 
Orange and Elizabeth, N. J. 

Tenthecoris bicolor Scott, found in Bergen Co., N. J. 

Mr. Nicolay exhibited the green species of Anthophilax including the 
types of hoffmani, loaned by American Museum of Natural History ; viridis, 
loaned by Mr. Shoemaker, and malachiticns, taken by himself in Cumberland 
Co., Maine, commenting on the constant difference between the two latter in 
the color of the legs. 

Mr. W. S. Wright, upon invitation from the chair, spoke of the unusual 
character of California collecting, where four faunal zones could be found by 
going 60 miles from the coast, and where at times extraordinary numbers of 
specimens could be obtained. As instances he mentioned the late L. E. Rick- 
secker taking 1,700 moths in one night in September, 191 1, in a trap, and his 
own experience in taking 500 day fliers in a three-days' trip in the mountains. 
Mr. Wright spoke also of the excellent collecting about San Diego and said he 
would always be glad to show visitors where the good places were. 

Dr. Forbes spoke of Pieris oleracea as abundant in certain places in Mc- 
Lean bogs near Ithaca, N. Y., where it was evidently able to hold its own 
against P. rapce. 

Mr. Angell spoke of Gymnetis sallei and said the form occurring north of 
Mexico differed sufficiently to require a new name. 

Mr. Davis showed a proof of photograph of the late Louis H. Joutel, pre- 
pared under Mr. Comstock's direction, and to appear in the Journal. He 
spoke also of Mr. Sleight's illness and urged his friends to call on him at his 
residence, 95 Hamilton Ave., Paterson, N. J. 



314 Journal New York Entomological Society. [Vol. xxiv. 

Mr. DeVyver spoke of the excellent conditions for collecting in the Inter- 
state Park, describing the 28 days he spent there, during the early summer, 
about 3% miles back in the woods from Tompkin's Cove, N. Y., of which most 
were rainy. 

Mr. Beyer, upon special invitation by the President, regretted that his 
years prevented activity in the field ; but in allusion to Mr. DeVyver's com- 
ments on the extreme rains of the early summer, recalled his contrary experi- 
ences in Lower California, when for six months no rain whatever fell. 

Mr. Dow said that Mr. Grossbeck and he found no scarcity of rain in the 
Blue Mountains of Jamaica, where it actually rained every day, and the choice 
lay between roasting in a rain coat or getting a daily wetting. The reports of 
the local weather bureau show that such daily rains have continued for at 
least IS years. 



Index to Names of Insects and 
Plants in Volume XXIV. 



Generic names begin with a capital, specific names with a small letter. 
New genera, subgenera, species, subspecies, varieties and nomina nova are 
printed in italics. 



Acerentomon, 271 
Achoreutes, 278 

armatum, 144 
Acmaeops pratensis, 166 
Acrocinus longimanus, 21 
Adalia bipunctata, 146 

humeralis, 99 
Adnostema fasciculatum, 177 
Agrion puella, 6 
Agriotes brunneiis, 264 
Alaus lusciosus, 256 

zunianus, 256 
Aleyrodes vaporarium, 145 
Allecula, 143 
Ameles, 19 

Ameromysobia aphelinoides, 22,2, 233 
Amphiscepa bivittata, 103 
Anax Junius, 91 
Andinetia, 198 
Anisandrus pyris, 310, 313 
Anisolabia maritima, 242 
Anthocaris genutia, 95 
Anthocomus erichsoni, 154 
Anthonomus hamamelidis, 307 

latiusculus, 92 
Anthophilax hoffmanni, 313 

malachiticus, 164, 311, 313 

viridis, 313 
Anthophora, 197 
Antispila, 141 
Anurida, 278 
Apsecasia deductaria, 313 
Apatelodes, 
Apatura clyton, 310 
Aphelinus, 232 

Aphiochseta albidihalteris, 148 
Aphis gossypi, 145 

hederae, 145 

nerii, 145 



Apion puritanum, 307 
Apis, 197 

brasilianorum, 197 

moris, 197 

violacea, 197 
Aptopus pereginus, 257 

rugiceps, 2e,j 

subcarinatus, 256 
Aramigus fulleri, 146, 159 
Archips infumatana, 164, 153 

rosaceana, 147 
Arctia caia, 96 
Ardihtomis puncticollis, 92 
Argia putrida, 306 
Arphia sulphurea, 312 
Arrhenophagus, 232 
Asaphes, 96 
Asilus fidviventris, 69 

hypopygialis, 68 
Asphondylia adenostoma, lyj 

chrystothamni, 178 

eupatorii, 178 
Asteromyia carbonifera, 179 

cuneifolia, 180, 181 

grindelicp, 180 

gutierrezia:, 179 

sarothrae, 179 
Atrytone zabulon, 155, 237 
Attalus melanopterus, 154 
Attelabus bipustulatus, 312 

Balaminus obtusus, 307 
Bibio, 269 

Bigelovia graveolens, 178 
Blethisa quadricullis, 99 
Boreaphilus, 106 
Bradycellus neglectus, 92 
Bremis, 197 



315 



316 Journal of the New York Entomological Society. 



Calisto archelates, 165 
confusa, 165 
heraphila, 165 
hysius, 165 
nubila, 165 
pulchella, 165 
tenebrosa, 165 
zangis, 165 
Callida punctata, 242 
Callopistria floridensis, 147 
Calopteryx, 306 
Calosoma sycophanta, 163 
Calotermes, 8 
Caltha palustris, 159 
Campodea, 271 
Capnia, 274 
Captodisca, 141 
Carabus chamissonis, 97, 310 

nemoralis, 99, 100 
Cardiophorus erythropus, 167 
Carpophilus antiquus, 165 
Carthasis decorata, 308 

contrariiis, 308 

rufo-notatus, 100, 308 
Catocala amatrix, 105 
Centris, 197 
Cephennium, 271 
Cephenomyia abdominalis, 92 
Ceroplatus, 270 
Ceruchus piceus, 242 
Ceutorhynchus niarginatus, 243 

neglectus, 245 

punctiger, 244 
Chsetocnema confinis, 100 
Chauliognathus marginatus, 169 
Chilianella productilis, 94 
Chlsenius circumcinctus, 92 

floridanus, 92 

maxillosus, 92 
Choeradodis, 19 
Cholus cattleyse, 313 
Chortophaga viridifasciata, 312 
Cicada arisona, 5 1 

auletes, 43, 60 

aurifera, 44, 46, 64 

bifida, 47, 64 

canalicularis, 45, 60, 64, 164 

castanea. 49, 64 

charactera, 61 

chisas. 62, 64 

cinctifera, 49 

crucifera, 54 

davisi, 45, 46, 60, 64 

delicata, 51, 60 

dorsata, 60 

erratica, 59, 60 



Cicada eugraphica, 52, 54, 58, 59 

figurata, 43, 44, 60, 64 

grossa, 43 

hieroglyphica, 60, 61, 62, 64 

johannis, 62, 64 

linnei, 60 

lyricen, 44, 60 

marginata, 43, 60 

milvus, 57, 59 

olympusa, 56, 57, 59 

orientalis, 235 

pruinosa, 60 

reperta, 51, 58, 60 

resh, 60 

resonans, 43, 44, 60 

sayi, 60 

sex-gutlata, 42, 62, 64 

similaris, 43, 44, 60 

sordidata, 51, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59 

superba, 60 

swalei, 42 

texana, 54, 56, 59 

tibicen, 242 

townsendi, 46, 64 

viridifascia, 42, 58, 60 

vitripennis, 42, 58, 60 
Cicindela ancocisconensis, 154, 311 

argentata, 104 

blanda, 155 

boops, 96 

consentanea, 100 

debilis, 104 

harrisi, 98 

hirticollis, 98, 311 

lepida, 96 

limbalis, 98, 311 

longilabris, 310 

modesta, 98, loi 

munifica, loi 

nigrita, 98 
patruela, 98 
purpurea, 98, 154 

repanda, 154 
rhodensis, 93 

rugifrons, loi 
segnis, 104 

sex-guttata, 98, loi, 166 
splendida, 154 
tortuosa, 155 
trauquebarica, 154, 166 
trifasciata, 96 
unipunctata, 100 
Cociobius, 232 
Coccophagus, 232 
Cceliodes punctiger, 244 
Colias eurytheme, 310 



Index. 



317 



Collops georgianus, 153 

sublimbatus, 153 

tricolor, 154 

vittatus, 153 
Coptotermes, 38 

flavus, 8 
Corythuca, 38 
Corethra, 5 

Corthylus punctatissimus, 105 
Corydalis, 38 
Corydaloides, 14, 15 

scudderi, 39 
Corymbites atropurpureus, 167 

copei, 167 

rotundicollis, 167 
Cotalpa brugei, 99 

lanigera, 242 
Cremastachilus, 96 
Crioceris 13-punctata, 242 
Culex fatigans, 160 

quinquefasciata, 160 
Cuterebra buccata, 100 
Cychrus canadensis, 164 

ridingsi, 311 
Cyllene pictus, 242 
Cymindis elegans, 92 
Cypripedium acaule, 312 

Dasyleptus lucasi, 281 
Dermestes pulcher, 309 
Diacrisia virginica, 147 
Diarthronomyia artemisiae, 192 

californica, 193, 195 

floccosa, 193, 19s 

hypogjea, 193, i94 

occidentalis, 193, 194 
Diazosma, 125 
Dicaelus quadratus, 92 
Dineutes discolor, 105 
Diorymellus Isevimargo, 313 
Diplostethus opacicollis, 260 

peninsularis, 260 

setosus, 260 
Diprion simile, 313 
Donacia nifa, 159 

Eccritosia amphinome, 66 
Ectatosoma papa, 38 
Elater apicatus, 257 

carbonicolor, 167 

collaris, 257 

discoideus, 258 

linteus, 258 

luctuosus, 167 

mixtus, 248 

nigricolHs, 258 



Elater nigrinus, 167, 258 

ore go mis, 258 

pullus, 258 

rubricollis, 258 

sanguinicollis, 258 
Emhaphion, 39 
Enchenopa binotata, 151, 152 
Encyrtus flavus, 148 
Eosentomon, 271 
Ephemera, 4 
Erax calif ornicus, 67 

costalis, 66 

pallidus, 67 

rapax, 67 

stamineus, 6y 

subcupreus, 66 

subpilosus, 67 
Eristalis tenax, 149 
Eucactophagus graphipterus, 93, 146, 

150 
Euphoria limbalis, 92 
Eurosta solidaginis, 158 
Euryglottis albostigmata, 165 

besalis, 165 
Euschistus servus, 312 
Eutettix carinatus, 312 
Evetriabuoliana, 100 
Exochomus 4-pustulatus, 99, 146 

Forficula auricularia, 146 
Formica fusca, 107, 108, 109, no, 112, 
114, 117 

subsericea, 107 

argentea, 107 

sanguinea, 114 

incerta, 116 

glebaria, 117 

rufibarbis, 112, 117 

Galerucella cavicollis, 165 

rufosanguinea, 159 
Gastrophilus equi, 255 

haemorrhoidalis, 253, 254, 255 

nasalis, 255 
Gibbium scotias, 243 
Glyphonyx bimarginattis, 264 

brevicollis, 266 

dubius, 265 

ferruginosus, 266 

inquinatus, 266 

prsecox, 266 

testaceus, 266 
Goes pulverulentus, 242 
Gomphus descriptus, 158 
Gonepteryx rhamni, 105 



318 Journal of the New York Entomological Society. 



Gracilaria zachrysa, 147 

culea, 95 
Graphiphora subterminata, 95 
Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa, 99 
Gryllus assimilis, 312 
Gymnetes sallei, 313 
Gyrinus dichrous, 105 

Halticus citri, 145 
Hapagoxenus subloevis, 116 
Heligmoneura, 68 
Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis, 145 
Hemoroplanus acuta, 96 
Henicocephalus biceps, 158 

culicis, 158 
Hepialus, 138 

humuli, 141 
Heptagenia, 38 
Herse cingulata, 155 
Hippiscus phoenicopterus, 312 
Homoiptera woodwardi, 21 
Hormomyia caudata, 176 
Hydrasna pennsylvanica, 98 
Hydroecia appassionata, 242 
Hymenia perspectalis, 147 
Hymenorus rufipes, 143 
Hyphantria cunea, 146 
Hypochaeris maculata, 244 

Incisalia henrici, 95 
Isochroa, 41 

andrewsi, 41 

germani, 41 

guyoti, 41 
Isia Isabella, 147 
Isochaetes beutenmiilleri, 242 
Isosoma orchidearum, 148, 150 
Isotoma, 278 

quadrioculata, 144 

Japyx, 271 
Jodia rufago, 95 

Kalmia latifolia, 158 
Kaptorthosoma, 198 

Largus davisi, 94 

succinctus, 95 
Lasiopogon arizonensis, 65 
Lasioptera echinochloa, 181 

impatientifolia, 182 

inustonim, 182 

lactucse, 181 
Lepisma, 39, 269, 271, 285 

corticula, 283 
Leptobyrsa explanata, 99 



Leptogenys, 116 
Leptophya mutica, 99 
Leptura chrysocoma, 166 

emarginata, 242 

vibex, 166 
Lestis, 197 

Leucorhampa ornatus, 165 
Leucorhinia frigida, 97 
Leuctra, 274 
Limenitis ursula, 93 

albofasciata, 93 
Limnophila alleni, 118, 119, 120, 125 

marchandi, 118, 120, 125 

vmndoides, 120, 123, 125 

munda, 121, 122, 123, 125 

terebrans, 121, 123, 125 

barberi, 122, 123, 125 

terrcc-novce, 123, 125 

similis, 123 

fulvocostalis, 123 

insularis, 123 

oslari, 123, 125 

lenta, 123, 124 

osborni, 124, 125 

subsinuata, 124, 125 
Lithariapteryx, 141 
Lithomantis carbonaria, 9, 21 

goldenbergi, 21 
Lobopoda, 143 
Loxandrus celeris, 92 
Lucanus, 161 

cervus, 103 

elephus, 98 
Ludius, 260, 261 

Machilis, 19, 271, 285 
Macrosiphum lactucae, 145 

rosje, 14s 

sanborni, 145 
Malachius seeneus, 98 
Malthodes, 158 
Mantispa interrvipta, 312 
Megapenthes angularis, 259 

lougicornis, 259 

nigriceps, 259 

rufilabris, 259, 260 

tarsalis, 259 
Megilla, 197 
Melanactes, 96 
Melanotus opacicollis, 167 
Melitsea harrisi, 158 

prodenialis, 313 
Melyrodescribrata, 154 
Memytrus palmi, 94 
Meromyzobia, 232 
Merope, 274 



Index. 



319 



Mesotrichia, 197 

torrida, 197 
Metapodius confraternus, 94 
Metatropiphorus belfragei, 308 
Methoca bicolor, 313 
Micromalthus debilis, 100 
Microrhagus andax, 167 

imperfectus, 167 
Monardia. fo Hat a, 195 
Monarthropalpus buxi, 105, 309 
Mycetochara, 161 

horni, 142 

rufipes, 143 
Myzus persicae, 145 

rosarum, 145 

Nabis assimilis, 308 

annulatus, 308 

capsiformis, 308 

chenkeanus, 308 

constrictus, 308 

crassipes, 308 

ferus, 308 

flavomarginatus, 308 

heidemanni, 308 

inscriptus, 308 

kalmise, 308 

limbatus, 308 

nigriventris, 308 

pallescens, 308 

propinquus, 308 

roseipennis, 308 

rufusculus, 308 

sericans, 308 

sordidus, 308 

subcoleoptratus, 308 

vicarius, 308 
Neanura, 278 
Neoborus amoenus, 302 

palmeri, 302 

plagiata, 302 

saxeus, 302 

signata, 302 
Neocerata rhodophaga, 148 
Nomaretus, 42 
ISi omotettix cristatus, 312 
Nonagria laeta, 103 
N.tonecta uhleri, 312 
Nicoletia, 283, 285 
Nymphula obliteralis, 147 

Ochthebius foveicollis, 98 

Ochria, 86 

Okanagana oregona, 233, 236 

rotundifrons, 235, 236 
Olfersia acerta, 129 



Olfersia albipennis, 126, 127, 129, 133 

americana, 130, 131, 132 

angustifrons, 130 

ardeas, 128 

hotaurinoruin, 128, 129, 133 

bubonis, 130 

intertropica, 129, 133 

pallidilabris, 129 

scutellaris, 129, 133 

wolcotti, 132 
Olisthopus parmatus, 92 
Ommatius maculatus, 69 

parvuhis, 69 

pretiosus, 69 
Omophron, 168 
Oniscigaster, 39 

wakefieldi, 14 
Onychomyrmex, 116 
Onodiplosis sarcobati, 176 
Orchesella, 278 
Oribates alatus, 18 

latipes, 18 
Oribatula caliptera, 18 

plantivaga, 18 
Ornithomyia anchineuria, 127, 134, 136 

avicularia, 134 

bellardiana, 136 

butalis, 134 

buteonis, 133, 135, 136 

confluenta, 127 

costaricensis, 134, 135 

erythrocephala, 133, 135, 136 

fusciventris, 134 

haitiensis, 134, I3S. 136 

nebulosa, 127, 133 

pallida, 127 

varipes, 134 

pirangcB, 135 
Oromyia, 120 
Orthostethus caviceps, 263, 264 

pectinicornis, 263, 264 
Otiorhynchus auricapillis, 100 

singularis, 100 

sulcatus, 99, 103 

Pachyta rugipennis, 311 
Pagasa fusca, 308 

nitida, 308 

pallipes, 308 
Papaipema humuli, 87 

pterisii, 87 
Papilio palamedes, 311 

turnus, 158 
Parallelostethus, 261 

attenuatus, 261 
Paranomopone, 116 



320 Journal of the Nei^ York Entomological Society, 



Parthenothrips dracsenae, 144 
Pasimachus subsulcatus, 92 
Peltoperla, 274, 269 
Peridroma margaritosa, 147 
Perigonia ilus, 165 

lusca, 165 
Periplaneta, 38 

americana, 146 

australasiae, 146 
Pheidole anastasii, 148, 150 
Phengodes laticollis, 96 
Phlebotomy s, 160 
Phlegon pectorosus, 167 
Phloeotribus frontalis, 95 
Phlyctaenia ferrugalis, 147 
Phyciodes batcsii, 158 
Phyllolobis, 120 
Phymatodes lengi, 242 
Physianthus albens, 242 
Phytoniyza chrysanthemi, 149 
Phytophaga perocculta, 191 

timberlakei, 191 

vislicola, 148, 150 

wellsi, 190 
Pieris brassicas, 142 

daplidice, 142 

oleracea, 158, 313 

rapse, 142 
Pinipestris zimmermanni, 105 
Plagiodera versicolor, 99, 100 
Plastocerus frater, 267 

granti, 266 

megalops, 267 

schaumi, 267 
Platinopoda, 198 
Plutella maculipennis, 147 
Podura, 278 
Polyergus rufescens, 107, iii, 112, 

113, 114, 116, 117 
breviceps, 107, 108, iii, 112, 113, 

114, IIS, 116, 117 
bicolor, III 

lucidus. III, 112, 113, 114 

laeviceps, 112 

montivagus, 114 
Porcellio, 39 
Prenelopis fulva, 148, 150 

pubens, 148, 150 
Prionoxystus robinise, 159 
Promachus minusculus, 68 

nigropilosits, 68 
Protoparce cubana, 161 

occulta, 164 

rustica, 161 
Prostenus californicus, 142 



Prunus pennsylvanica, 165 

serotina, 165 
Psenocerus supernotatus, 166 
Pseudebffius bicolor, 154 
Pseudocistela erythroptera, 143 
Pseudonomaretus, 42 
Psychoda cinerea, loo 
Pteronarcys, 39 
Pterostichus approximatus, 96 

purpuratus, 96, 102 
Pulex, 269 
Pycnoscelus surinaniensis, 146 

Rhomaleum, 38 
Rhombodera, 19 
Rhinomacer pallipennis, 313 
Rhopalomyia ampullaria, 185 

antennarias, 184 

chrysothanini, 187, 188 

crassulina, 187 

encelice, 183 

ericamericc, 190 

erigerortis, 189 

glutinosa, 188 

grindelicc, 186 

gutierrezise, 184 

sal vice, 184 

ittaliensis, 186, 187 
Rhopalosiphon ligustri, 105 

violse, 145 
Rihana swalei, 51 

virgulata, 51 
Rithogena, 38 

Saperda Candida, 166 
Sarcobates vermiculatus, 176 
Sarcophaga /'(7c/o'/'''£'c/(7, 171 
Saururus cernuus, 87 
Sceliphron chitarius, 103 
Scenopinus, 269 
Schonherria, 198 
Sciara inconstans, 148 

multiseta, 148 
Scolopendrella, 274 
Semiophora gistra, 105 
Sesia signioides, 242 
Sialis, 4, 274 
Sphreroderus blanchardi, 41 

bicarinatus, 41 

brevoorti, 40, 41 

canadensis, 41 

granulosus, 40 

lecontei, 41 

nitidicollis, 40, 41 

schaumii, 40, 41 

stenostomus, 41 



Index. 



321 



Spilosoma latipenne, 242 
Stegomyia pallipes, 160 
Sthenopis, 141 
Stenodictya, 14, 15 

lobata, 21, 28 
Stenopelmatus calif oniicus, 79, 80, 83 

cephalotes, 74 

comanchus, 74 

fasciatus, 74, 76, 77, 78, 80 

fuscus, 71, 72, 71, 74, 75, 76, 80, 
81, 8s 

histrio, 83 

hydrocephalus, 74 

irregularis, 80, 83 

longispina, 71, 72, 73, 75, 80, 81, 
83, 84, 85 

oculatus, 74, 77, 78, 80 

pictus, 73, 84, 86 

talpa, 71 

terrenus, 80 
Stenopogon tenebrosuS, 65 
Strategus antaeus, 96 
Stygnocorius pedestris, 104 

rusticus, 104 

Tachoptcryx thoreyi, 158 
Tachys columbiensis, 92 

ventricosus, 92 
Taraxacum officinale, 244 
Tedinus angustus, 142 
Tenebrio, 20 
Tenthecoris bicolor, 313 
Termes flavipes, 243 
Tetracha Carolina, 307 

floridana, 307 

sobrina, 96 
Tetragoneuria caius, 158 
Tetromorium caespitum, 148 

guineense, 14S, 150 
Thanaos funeralis, 237 
Thelydrias contractus, 243 
Thereva, 269 
Thrips tabaci, 145 
Trachusa, 197 
Trichius texanus, 243 
Trichocera J!i6jn!Hfl^a, 124, 125 
Trichophorus arizonensis , 262, 263 

carolinensis, 261 



Trichophorus hepaticus, 261 

texanus, 260 

subsiriatus, 261, 262, 263 

variatus, 262, 263 
Tricorythus, 11 
Tricrania sanguinipennis, 169 
Tropodosteptes amoenus, 305 

Vespamaculata, 165 

Xanthoecia bufl'aloensis, 86, 90 

latia, 86 

simplicissiina, 90 
Xanthus pygmaius, 92 
Xylina pexata, 105 
Xylocopa, 197 

asneipennis, 209, 210, 223, 225, 231 

amblardi, 209, 227, 228 

arizonensis, 209, 210, 228, 229, 230 

barbata, 209 

binotata, 209, 212, 215 

brasilianorum, 209, 223, 231 

californica, 209, 210, 227, 228, 231 

chiriguensis, 219 

cubnscola, 209, 210, 223 

fimbriata, 209, 210, 221, 223, 231 

frontalis. 223 

micans, 209, 210, 212, 231 

mordax, 209, 223 

morio, 209 

nasuta, 212 

ordinaria, 209 

orpifex, 209, 210, 211, 212, 231 

purpurea, 209, 212, 214 

tabaniformis, 210, 219, 231 

texana, 210, 214, 216, 231 

transitoria, 209 

varipunctata, 209, 223, 226 

vidua, 212 

virescens, 209 

virginica, 210, 215, 218, 219, 231 
Xj'lophanes democrita, 164 

Yersinia, 19 

Zopherus, 4 
Zygaena, 4 



BACK VOLUMES AND NUMBERS. 

Back volumes and numbers of the Journal of the New York Entomo- 
logical Society can be supplied at $2.00 per volume and $0.60 per number. 
Neumoegen and Dyar's Preliminary Revision of the Bombyces of America 
north of Mexico (150 pp.) sold separately at $1.50. 

TITLES OF A FEW OF THE PAPERS IN THE JOURNAL. 

Coleoptera. 

Pages 

Casey. Studies in the Ptinidae, Cioidae and Sphindidae of America 33 

A revision of the American Coccinellidae 99 

Review of the American Corylophidae, Crytophagidae, Tritomidae and 

Dermestidae, with other studies. (Cuts.) 121 

Chittenden. The North American species of the genus Notaris 3 

Fall. On the affinities of the genus Tachycellus, with descriptions, etc. ... 10 

Synopsis of the species of Acmseodera of America, north of Mexico. . 36 

A short synopsis of the species of Ochodaeus inhabiting the U. S 9 

A review of the North American species of Collops 25 

Leng. Notes on Coccinellidse, I, II, III and IV. (In different numbers.) 
9 pp., I pi.; 21 pp., 2 pi. ; 12 pp., I pi. ; s pp. 

Linell. A short review of the Chrysomelas of North America S 

Matheson. The Haliplidae of North America, north of Mexico. (6 pi.) . . 36 

Schaeffer. New genera and species of Coleoptera 39 

New Scarabaeidae 15 

New Clavicorn Coleoptera 6 

New Coleoptera and miscellaneous notes 13 

Sherman. A list of Labrador Coleoptera 2$ 

Wheeler. Notes in Myrmecophilous beetles of the genus Xenodusa, etc.. 6 

Studies in Myrmecophiles. I, Cremastochilus. (Cuts.) 11 

Studies in Myrmecophiles. II. Hetaerius. (Cut.) 8 

Lepidoptera. 

Barnes and McDunnough. New species and varieties of N. A. Lepidoptera 14 

New species and genera of N. A. Lepidoptera 11 

Busck. A review of the Tortricid subfamily Phaloniinae, etc 18 

New American Tineidae. ( i pi.) 14 

Dyar. Review of the genus Ethmia, with descriptions of new species.... 7 

A review of the N. A. species of Prodoxus and Pronuba 2 

A review of the Hesperiidae of the United States 32 

Grinnell and Grinnell. The butterflies of the San Bernardino Mt., Cal... 13 

The North American Nymphulinae and Scopariinae 31 

Grossbeck. New moths of the family Geometridae 13 

Miscellaneous notes and descriptions of N. A. Geometridae. (Cuts, i pi.) 10 



Pages 

New species and one new genus of Geometrldae. (i pi.) 9 

Hulst. New species of Lepidoptera 10 

Kearfott. A revision of the N. A. species of the genus Choreutes 19 

Descriptions of new Tineoidea. (i pi.) 21 

New North American Tortricidae and Tineina. (i pi.) 21 

Neumoegen and Dyar. New species and varieties of Bombyces 7 

Ottolengui. Plusia and allied genera, with descriptions of new species. (4 pi.) 20 

Packard. Notes on the life histories of some Notodontidse 20 

Schaus. New species of Heterocera from tropical America. Seven sepa- 
rate papers with from 5 to 15 pages. 
Smith. Notes on the species of Noctua, with descriptions of new forms. 

(I Pl.) 6 

Notes on Scotogramma and Oncocnemis, etc 8 

New species of Noctuidae. Six separate papers with from 13 to 23 pages. 
New Noctuids for 1903, No. 2, with notes on Mamestra and Scoto- 
gramma. ( I pl.) 22 

New species of Noctuidse for 1908, I, with notes on Charadra, Raphia 

and Pseudanarta 19 

Notes on the N. A. species of Agroperina Hampson. (2 pl.) 12 

Stretch. Heterocera Americana. 11 plates with explanations. 

Hemiptera. 

Barber. Descriptions of some new Hemiptera-Heteroptera 8 

Bueno. The genus Notonecta in America, north of Mexico, (i pl.) . . . . 25 

Hemiptera-Heteroptera of Westchester Co., N. Y 15 

Caudell. The genus Sinea of Amyot & Serville. (2 pl.) 11 

Coleman. Coccidae of the coniferae, with descriptions, etc. (3 pl.) 25 

Olsen. Contribution to an annotated list of Long Island insects 10 

DiPTERA. 

Alexander. A revision of the genus Brachypremna Osten Sacken. (i pl.) 11 

Coquillett. Synopsis of the dipterous gentis Symphoromyia 4 

Revision of the dipterous family Therevidae 5 

Notes and descriptions of Tachinidae 10 

New genera and species of Tachinidae 10 

New Nematocerous Diptera from North America 14 

Dyar. A synoptic table of North American mosquito larvae 4 

Dyar and Knab. The larvae of Culicidae classified as independent organ- 
isms. (13 pl.) 61 

Felt. Studies in Itonididae 13 

New gall midges or Itonididae 10 

Jones. A preliminary list of Nebraska Syrphidae, with descriptions, etc... 13 

Osburn. Studies in Syrphidae, I, II and III. (In one number.) (3 pl.) . . 14 

Swenk. The North American species of Cuterebra 4 

Wheeler. Studies in Myrmecophiles. III. Microdon. (Cut.) 12 



Hymenoptera. 

Pages 
Ashmead. Superfamilies in the Hymenoptera and generic synopses of the 

families Thynnidse, Myrmosidae and Mutillidse i6 

Classification of the pointed-tailed wasps or the superfamily Procto- 
trupidse, I, II and III. (In different numbers.) 8, 7 and 14 pp. 

Banks. New species of Psammocharidae 12 

Psammocharidae : classification and descriptions 18 

Fox. Synopsis of the species of Nysson inhabiting America north of Mexico 7 

Rohwer. New western Tenthredinidae 10 

Wheeler. The N. A. forms of Camponotus fallax Nylander 17 

Orthoptera. 

Bruner. Report on the Orthoptera of Trinidad, West Indies 31 

Caudell. The genus Cyphoderris. (Cuts.) 6 

The Cyrtophylli of the United States. ( i pi.) 13 

Davis. Three new species of Belocephalus from Florida. (With table of 

species.) 3 

Scudder. The North American species of Nemobius 8 

Arachnida. 

Banks. The Phalangida of New York a 

A list of spiders of Long Island, N. Y., with descriptions, etc 16 

New California spiders 3 

New genera and species of nearctic spiders. (2 pi.) 10 

New tropical pseudoscorpions S 

Ewing. Notes on pseudoscorpions ; a study on the variations of our com- 
mon species, Chelifer cancroides, etc. (5 pi.) 16 

The pages of the Journal also teem with short articles on life histories 

and habits of insects, and some longer ones on structure and distribution — 

information concerning which will be supplied on request. 

All orders should be addressed to Frank E. Watson, American Museum of 

Natural History, New York. 



FOR SALE 

CHECK LIST OF THE HEMIPTERA 

(excepting the Aphidae, Aleurodidae and 
Coccidae) of America, north of Mexico, 
by E. P. Van Duzee, Instructor in Ento- 
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2945 species are enumerated, also the 

more important synonyms, and the year 

when the description was published is 

given in each instance. The species ■ 

are also numbered after the plan of the 

well known Henshaw check list of 

Coleoptera. 

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